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Sample records for breaks prevents loss

  1. Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Follow us on Twitter Noise Manufacturing Construction SafeInSound Noise and Hearing Loss on the NIOSH Science Blog ... Topics Publications and Products Programs Contact NIOSH NIOSH NOISE AND HEARING LOSS PREVENTION Recommend on Facebook Tweet ...

  2. Responses to Small Break Loss of Coolant Accidents for SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The SMART NSSS adopts the design characteristics of containing most of the primary circuit components, such as the reactor core, main coolant pumps (MCPs), steam generators (SGs), and N2 gas pressurizer (PZR) in a single leak-tight Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) with a relatively large ratio of the primary coolant inventory to the core power compared to the conventional loop-type PWR. Due to these design characteristics, the SMART can fundamentally eliminate the possibility of Large Break Loss of Coolant Accidents (LBLOCAs), improve the natural circulation capability, and assure a sufficient time to mitigate the possibility of core uncover. Also, SMART adopts inherent safety improving features and passive engineered safety systems such as the substantially large negative moderator temperature coefficients, passive residual heat removal system, emergency core cooling system, and a steel-made leak-tight Safeguard Vessel (SV) housing the RPV. This paper presents the results of the safety analyses using a MARS/SMR code for the instantaneous guillotine ruptures of the major pipelines penetrating the RPV. The analysis results, employing conservative initial/boundary conditions and assumptions, show that the safety systems of the SMART basic design adequately remove the core decay heat without causing core uncover for all the cases of the Small Break Loss of Coolant Accidents (SBLOCAs). The sensitivity study results with variable SV conditions show that the reduced SV net free volume can shorten the time for reaching the thermal and mechanical equilibrium condition between the RPV and SV. Under these boundary conditions, the primary system inventory loss can be minimized and the core remains covered for a longer period of time without any makeup of the coolant. (authors)

  3. Feedwater transient and small break loss of coolant accident analyses for the Bellefonte Nuclear Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Specific sequences that may lead to core damage were analyzed for the Bellefonte nuclear plant as part of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Severe Accident Sequence Analysis Program. The RELAP5, SCDAP, and SCDAP/RELAP5 computer codes were used in the analyses. The two main initiating events investigated were a loss of all feedwater to the steam generators and a small cold leg break loss of coolant accident. The transients of primary interest within these categories were the TMLB' and S2D sequences. Variations on systems availability were also investigated. Possible operator actions that could prevent or delay core damage were identified, and two were investigated for a small break transient. All of the transients were analyzed until either core damage began or long-term decay heat removal was established. The analyses showed that for the sequences considered the injection flow from one high-pressure injection pump was necessary and sufficient to prevent core damage in the absence of operator actions. Operator actions were able to prevent core damage in the S2D sequence; no operator actions were available to prevent core damage in the TMLB' sequence

  4. Preventing Vision Loss in Diabetes - Summary

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-24

    This podcast is for a professional audience and briefly discusses how to prevent vision loss in people with diabetes.  Created: 4/24/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Diabetes Translation (DDT), National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP).   Date Released: 6/4/2008.

  5. Infertility and Perinatal Loss: When the Bough Breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhat, Amritha; Byatt, Nancy

    2016-03-01

    Infertility and perinatal loss are common, and associated with lower quality of life, marital discord, complicated grief, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Young women, who lack social supports, have experienced recurrent pregnancy loss or a history of trauma and / or preexisting psychiatric illness are at a higher risk of experiencing psychiatric illnesses or symptoms after a perinatal loss or during infertility. It is especially important to detect, assess, and treat depression, anxiety, or other psychiatric symptoms because infertility or perinatal loss may be caused or perpetuated by such symptoms. Screening, psychoeducation, provision of resources and referrals, and an opportunity to discuss their loss and plan for future pregnancies can facilitate addressing mental health concerns that arise. Women at risk of or who are currently experiencing psychiatric symptoms should receive a comprehensive treatment plan that includes the following: (1) proactive clinical monitoring, (2) evidence-based approaches to psychotherapy, and (3) discussion of risks, benefits, and alternatives of medication treatment during preconception and pregnancy. PMID:26847216

  6. a Simplified Methodology for the Prediction of the Small Break Loss-Of Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Leonard William

    1988-12-01

    This thesis describes a complete methodology which has allowed for the development of a faster than real time computer program designed to simulate a small break loss -of-coolant accident in the primary system of a pressurized water reactor. By developing an understanding of the major phenomenon governing the small break LOCA fluid response, the system model representation can be greatly simplified leading to a very fast executing transient system blowdown code. Because of the fast execution times, the CULSETS code, or Columbia University Loss-of-Coolant Accident and System Excursion Transient Simulator code, is ideal for performing parametric studies of Emergency Core Cooling system or assessing the consequences of the many operator actions performed to place the system in a long term cooling mode following a small break LOCA. While the methodology was designed with specific application to the small break loss-of-coolant accident, it can also be used to simulate loss-of-feedwater, steam line breaks, and steam generator tube rupture events. The code is easily adaptable to a personal computer and could also be modified to provide the primary and secondary system responses to supply the required inputs to a simulator for a pressurized water reactor.

  7. Sensitivity of Savannah River Plant loss of coolant accident power limit to break size and location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savannah River Plant reactors are low-pressure, heavy-water reactors with six external process water loops that drive the coolant into an upper plenum and then downward through the assemblies. Assembly loss-of-coolant accident power limits are currently set in these reactors to prevent Ledinegg flow instability (FI) in any assembly flow channel. This might occur due to the power-flow mismatch during the first 2 s of the transient, i.e., the flow drops faster than the power. This study determined the sensitivity of the power limit to the postulated break area and location. The transient reactor analysis code (TRAC) was used to compute steady-state and transient system flows and pressures. The FLOWTRAN code, which employs one-dimensional hydraulics and two- or three-dimensional heat transfer, used the driving pressures generated by TRAC to compute assembly thermal-hydraulic conditions. The FLOWTRAN also iterates on assembly power to determine the minimum assembly power for which the onset of nucleate boiling (ONB) is predicted. Experimental data were then used to convert from ONB to FI. The ONB criterion was recently replaced with an onset-of-significant-voiding criterion since it is a more accurate predictor of flow instability

  8. Analysis of the small break loss of coolant accident in the VVER-1000/V446 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altaha, S. Mahmoud; Mansouri, Masoud; Jahanfarnia, Gholamreza [Islamic Azad Univ., Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2015-12-15

    In this paper, the analysis of a Small Break Loss of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) in the VVER-1000/V446 nuclear power plant is presented. For a conservative analysis of the accident, the loss of power to the NPP and failure of one accumulator, and also of two emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) in loops 2 and 3 of the primary and secondary circuits are considered when SBLOCA has occurred. The RELAP5/MOD3.2 computer code has been used in performing the analyses. Two cases of accident scenarios as 25 mm and 100 mm breaks are analyzed. The results are in good agreement with those reported in the plant's FSAR. The results of liquid velocity show that in both cases, the flow of hot legs after the break is reversed, which provides the potential for reflux condensation phenomena. Furthermore, in the 25 mm break, the flow rate in the broken and intact side downcomer remains in the downward motion while in the 100 mm break, the broken and intact side flow rate changes to the reversed state alternatively.

  9. Analysis of the small break loss of coolant accident in the VVER-1000/V446 reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the analysis of a Small Break Loss of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) in the VVER-1000/V446 nuclear power plant is presented. For a conservative analysis of the accident, the loss of power to the NPP and failure of one accumulator, and also of two emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) in loops 2 and 3 of the primary and secondary circuits are considered when SBLOCA has occurred. The RELAP5/MOD3.2 computer code has been used in performing the analyses. Two cases of accident scenarios as 25 mm and 100 mm breaks are analyzed. The results are in good agreement with those reported in the plant's FSAR. The results of liquid velocity show that in both cases, the flow of hot legs after the break is reversed, which provides the potential for reflux condensation phenomena. Furthermore, in the 25 mm break, the flow rate in the broken and intact side downcomer remains in the downward motion while in the 100 mm break, the broken and intact side flow rate changes to the reversed state alternatively.

  10. Loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture and steam line break thermohydraulic experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendler, O J; Takeuchi, K; Young, M Y

    1986-10-01

    The Westinghouse Model Boiler No. 2 (MB-2) steam generator test model at the Engineering Test Facility in Tampa, Florida, was reinstrumented and modified for performing a series of tests simulating steam generator accident transients. The transients simulated were: loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture, and steam line break events. This document presents a description of (1) the model boiler and the associated test facility, (2) the tests performed, and (3) the analyses of the test results.

  11. Loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture and steam line break thermohydraulic experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Westinghouse Model Boiler No. 2 (MB-2) steam generator test model at the Engineering Test Facility in Tampa, Florida, was reinstrumented and modified for performing a series of tests simulating steam generator accident transients. The transients simulated were: loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture, and steam line break events. This document presents a description of (1) the model boiler and the associated test facility, (2) the tests performed, and (3) the analyses of the test results

  12. Noise Induced Hearing Loss in Children: Preventing the Silent Epidemic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    William Hal Martin; Judith Sobel; Susan E. Griest; Linda Howarth; SHI Yongbing

    2006-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss and related tinnitus are often unrecognized problems, especially in non-occupational settings. Research indicates that increasing numbers of children and adolescents have or are acquiring noise induced hearing losses. Noise induced hearing loss can almost completely be prevented with simple precautionary measures. Educational programs rarely exist outside of those mandated in occupational settings.Health Communication theory can be applied to hearing health for developing effective loss prevention programs.Dangerous Decibels(R) is one example of an effective multi-disciplinary effort to develop and disseminated prevention strategies.

  13. Analysis of a small break loss-of-coolant accident of pressurized water reactor by APROS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Falahi, A. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Haennine, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Porkholm, K. [IVO International, Ltd., Vantaa (Finland)

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the capability of APROS (Advanced PROcess Simulator) code to simulate the real plant thermal-hydraulic transient of a Small Break Loss-Of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) of Loss-Of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility. The LOFT is a scaled model of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). This work is a part of a larger validation of the APROS thermal-hydraulic models. The results of SBLOCA transient calculated by APROS showed a reasonable agreement with the measured data.

  14. Theory and Application of Loss of Life Risk Analysis for Dam Break

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙月峰; 钟登华; 李明超; 李颖

    2010-01-01

    The loss of life risk evaluation model for dam break is built in this paper.By using an improved Monte Carlo method,the overtopping probability induced by concurrent flood and wind is calculated,and the Latin Hypercube Sampling is used to generate random numbers.The Graham method is used to calculate the loss of life resulting from dam failure.With Dongwushi reservoir located at Hebei Province taken as an example,the overtopping probability induced by concurrent flood and wind is calculated as 4.77×10-6.Los...

  15. Whey Protein Concentrate Hydrolysate Prevents Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jonggun; Kim, Hyung Kwan; Kim, Saehun; Imm, Ji-Young; Whang, Kwang-Youn

    2015-12-01

    Milk is known as a safe food and contains easily absorbable minerals and proteins, including whey protein, which has demonstrated antiosteoporotic effects on ovariectomized rats. This study evaluated the antiosteoporotic effect of whey protein concentrate hydrolysate (WPCH) digested with fungal protease and whey protein concentrate (WPC). Two experiments were conducted to determine (1) efficacy of WPCH and WPC and (2) dose-dependent impact of WPCH in ovariectomized rats (10 weeks old). In Experiment I, ovariectomized rats (n=45) were allotted into three dietary treatments of 10 g/kg diet of WPC, 10 g/kg diet of WPCH, and a control diet. In Experiment II, ovariectomized rats (n=60) were fed four different diets (0, 10, 20, and 40 g/kg of WPCH). In both experiments, sham-operated rats (n=15) were also fed a control diet containing the same amount of amino acids and minerals as dietary treatments. After 6 weeks, dietary WPCH prevented loss of bone, physical properties, mineral density, and mineral content, and improved breaking strength of femurs, with similar effect to WPC. The bone resorption enzyme activity (tartrate resistance acid phosphatase) in tibia epiphysis decreased in response to WPCH supplementation, while bone formation enzyme activity (alkaline phosphatase) was unaffected by ovariectomy and dietary treatment. Bone properties and strength increased as the dietary WPCH level increased (10 and 20 g/kg), but there was no difference between the 20 and 40 g/kg treatment. WPCH and WPC supplementation ameliorated bone loss induced by ovariectomy in rats. PMID:26367331

  16. Preventing Strength Loss of Unbleached Kraft Pulp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin Hubbe; Richard Venditti; John Heitmann

    2003-04-16

    Kraft pulp fibers lose inter-fiber bonding ability when they are dried during the manufacture of paper. Adverse environmental consequences of this loss include (a) limitations on the number of times that kraft fibers can be recycled, (b) reduced paper strength, sometimes making it necessary to use heavier paper or paperboard to meet product strength requirements, increasing the usage of raw materials, (c) decreased rates of paper production in cases where the fiber furnish has been over-refined in an attempt to regain inter-fiber bonding ability. The present study is the first of its type to focus on unbleached kraft fibers, which are a main ingredient of linerboard for corrugated containers. About 90 million tons of unbleached kraft fiber are used worldwide every year for this purpose.

  17. Study on the Prevention of Rabbit Hair from Loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘世春; 张华鹏; 姚穆

    2001-01-01

    A new method is presented to solve the problem of loss of rabbit hair by using ES fiber blending with rabbit hair. ES fiber is used to bond the rabbit hair to prevent the rabbit hair from losing after heat setting. The factors affecting hair loss are heat setting temperature, rabbit hair/ES fiber blend ratio, fabric heating setting, twistsof yarn, etc. Temperature of heat setting and ES fiber content are the two key factors This method has almost no detrimental effect on the coziness of the fabric, which is better than other hair loss prevention methods.

  18. Theory and Application of Loss of Life Risk Analysis for Dam Break

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yuefeng; ZHONG Denghua; LI Mingchao; LI Ying

    2010-01-01

    The loss of life risk evaluation model for dam break is built in this paper.By using an improved Monte Carlo method,the overtopping probability induced by concurrent flood and wind is calculated,and the Latin Hypercube Sampling is used to generate random numbers.The Graham method is used to calculate the loss of life resulting from dam failure.With Dongwushi reservoir located at Hebei Province taken as an example,the overtopping probability induced by concurrent flood and wind is calculated as 4.77×10 6.Loss of life is 24 220 when the warning time is0.25-1 h and flood severity understanding is vague,which indicates that the risk is intolerable.The losses of life under three other conditions are tolerable: warning time 0.25-1 h,and precise flood severity understanding; warning time more than 1 h,and vague flood severity understanding; warning time more than 1 h,and precise flood severity understanding.

  19. Thermal hydraulic analysis of aggressive secondary cooldown in a small break loss of coolant accident with a total loss of high pressure safety injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) has being applied to various fields as a basic technique of Risk-Informed Applications (RIA). The present study focuses on detailed thermal hydraulic analyses for major accident sequences and success criteria to support a development of PSA model using RIA for Korea Standard Nuclear Power plant (KSNP). The primary purpose of the present study in this year is to evaluate the success cri-teria of Aggressive Secondary Cooldown (ASC) in a Small Size Loss Of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) without HPSI and to enhance the understanding of related thermal hydraulic behavior and phenomena. An effort was made to evaluate the system success criteria and a mission time for the recovery action by an operator to prevent the core damage for that accident scenario. The accident scenario for KSNP was a 2 inch coldleg break LOCA with a total loss of High Pressure Safety Injection (HPSI) and 1/2 Low Pressure Safety Injection (LPSI) available and perform-ing ASC limited by 55.6 .deg. C/hr (100 .deg. F/hr) cooldown rate at 15 minute after reactor trip. It successively reached the LPSI condition for about 1.5hr after starting the ASC operation with the Peak Cladding Temperature (PCT) of the hottest rod below the core damage criteria of 1204.4 .deg. C (2200 .deg. F). Sensitivity studies were performed for (1) cool-ant average temperature parameters, (2) ASC operation control method, (3) operation start time, (4) 1 inch break size. The present analysis identified thermal hydraulic phenomena and parameters affecting on the behavior, which consist of coolant break flow and inventory, parameters governing secondary heat removal, ASC operation control method, and its reference temperature parameters. In the present study, more relaxed success criteria than the previous PSA for KSNP could be generated under an assumption that an operator should maintain the ade-quate ASC operation. However, it is necessary to evaluate the uncertainties arisen from the

  20. Loss-of-coolant accident for large pipe breaks in light water reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The importance of loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCA) and their control for nuclear reactor safety is explained. Showing the cooling circuits and emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) of both, PWR and BWR, the possible break spectrum and the general sequence of events is discussed. The governing physical phenomena for the different LOCA phases are pointed out in more detail. Special emphasis is taken on rules, regulations and failure criteria for licensing purposes. Analysis methods and codes for both, evaluation and best-estimate model are compared under deterministic and probabilistic approach, respectively. Some insight in present integral and separate effect tests demonstrates the interdependency of analysis and experiment. Results of LOCA analysis and experiments show the present state of the art. (orig.)

  1. Large-break loss-of-coolant accidents in the updated PIUS 600 advanced reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PIUS advanced reactor is a 640-MWe pressurized water reactor concept developed by Asea Brown Boveri. A unique feature of PIUS is the absence of mechanical control and shutdown rods. Reactivity is controlled by coolant boron concentration and the temperature of the moderator coolant. Los Alamos is supporting the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission's preapplication review of the PIUS reactor. Baseline calculations of the PIUS Supplement design were performed for a large-break loss-of-coolant (LBLOCA) initiator using TRAC-PF1/MOD2. Additional sensitivity studies examined flow blockage and boron dilution events to explore the robustness of the PIUS concept for low-probability combination events following an LBLOCA

  2. 76 FR 62093 - Preventing Occupational Hearing Loss: Stakeholder Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... of Labor's Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) published in the Federal Register (FR... engineering controls'' as used in OSHA's noise standard. This FR notice requested comments on the proposal to... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Preventing Occupational Hearing Loss: Stakeholder Meeting...

  3. The Prevention of Noise Induced Hearing Loss in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert V. Harrison

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasingly, our acoustic environment is filled with amplified sound sources (e.g., MP3 players, video game stations, and sports/entertainment venues. There is serious concern and also some controversy about the risks of acoustic trauma in children. This overview provides some basic information on the physiological mechanisms that lead to noise induced hearing loss, a survey of various studies that, on balance, indicates that there is cause for concern, and finally a discussion on measures that can help to prevent noise induced hearing loss in children. This paper is designed for public health and other healthcare professions (ENT, audiologists, family doctors, and pediatricians who should understand the risks of noise induced hearing loss and its prevention.

  4. Phenomena identification and ranking tables for Westinghouse AP600 small break loss-of-coolant accident, main steam line break, and steam generator tube rupture scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, G.E.; Fletcher, C.D.; Davis, C.B. [and others

    1997-06-01

    This report revision incorporates new experimental evidence regarding AP600 behavior during small break loss-of-coolant accidents. This report documents the results of Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) efforts for the Westinghouse AP600 reactor. The purpose of this PIRT is to identify important phenomena so that they may be addressed in both the experimental programs and the RELAP5/MOD3 systems analysis computer code. In Revision of this report, the responses of AP600 during small break loss-of-coolant accident, main steam line break, and steam generator tube rupture accident scenarios were evaluated by a committee of thermal-hydraulic experts. Committee membership included Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory staff and recognized thermal-hydraulic experts from outside of the laboratory. Each of the accident scenarios was subdivided into separate, sequential periods or phases. Within each phase, the plant behavior is controlled by, at most, a few thermal-hydraulic processes. The committee identified the phenomena influencing those processes, and ranked & influences as being of high, medium, low, or insignificant importance. The primary product of this effort is a series of tables, one for each phase of each accident scenario, describing the thermal-hydraulic phenomena judged by the committee to be important, and the relative ranking of that importance. The rationales for the phenomena selected and their rankings are provided. This document issue incorporates an update of the small break loss-of-coolant accident portion of the report. This revision is the result of the release of experimental evidence from AP600-related integral test facilities (ROSA/AP600, OSU, and SPES) and thermal-hydraulic expert review. The activities associated with this update were performed during the period from June 1995 through November 1996. 8 refs., 26 figs., 42 tabs.

  5. Phenomena identification and ranking tables for Westinghouse AP600 small break loss-of-coolant accident, main steam line break, and steam generator tube rupture scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report revision incorporates new experimental evidence regarding AP600 behavior during small break loss-of-coolant accidents. This report documents the results of Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) efforts for the Westinghouse AP600 reactor. The purpose of this PIRT is to identify important phenomena so that they may be addressed in both the experimental programs and the RELAP5/MOD3 systems analysis computer code. In Revision of this report, the responses of AP600 during small break loss-of-coolant accident, main steam line break, and steam generator tube rupture accident scenarios were evaluated by a committee of thermal-hydraulic experts. Committee membership included Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory staff and recognized thermal-hydraulic experts from outside of the laboratory. Each of the accident scenarios was subdivided into separate, sequential periods or phases. Within each phase, the plant behavior is controlled by, at most, a few thermal-hydraulic processes. The committee identified the phenomena influencing those processes, and ranked ampersand influences as being of high, medium, low, or insignificant importance. The primary product of this effort is a series of tables, one for each phase of each accident scenario, describing the thermal-hydraulic phenomena judged by the committee to be important, and the relative ranking of that importance. The rationales for the phenomena selected and their rankings are provided. This document issue incorporates an update of the small break loss-of-coolant accident portion of the report. This revision is the result of the release of experimental evidence from AP600-related integral test facilities (ROSA/AP600, OSU, and SPES) and thermal-hydraulic expert review. The activities associated with this update were performed during the period from June 1995 through November 1996. 8 refs., 26 figs., 42 tabs

  6. Preventing the loss of knowledge in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preventing the loss of nuclear knowledge has become an important concern for the atomic energy industry. A great number of nuclear workers are getting close to the retirement age and there are not enough young qualified people to replace them. It is necessary to identify the key skills to replace senior engineers, managers and experienced workers. This paper proposes a matrix for capturing the strategic nuclear knowledge obtained from plants operation in the past decades. (author)

  7. Invited Commentary: Preventable Pregnancy Loss Is a Public Health Problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Carol J

    2016-04-15

    Pregnancy loss is common and can lead to long-standing parental depression and related problems. In this issue, a study of Danish registries by Bruckner et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2016;183(8):701-708) correlates monthly trends in unemployment with monthly trends in reported spontaneous abortion, lagged by 1 month. The observed association might be caused by a general population phenomenon, as suggested by the authors, or might represent an increased miscarriage risk only within the subset of the population that is directly affected by lost income. Preventive interventions will vary depending on which interpretation is more likely. Research into the preventability of miscarriages and stillbirths is hampered in the United States by poor-quality vital registration of these events. Investment in improved surveillance systems is needed and would be worthwhile, as illustrated by the knowledge gained about the black/white gap in infant mortality when national birth and infant death records began to be linked. In addition, institution of the Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System in 1987 shed light on the association of stressful life events with poor birth outcomes. That system can be improved by sampling women who have experienced stillbirths. Better data would facilitate not only surveillance but also hypothesis-generating epidemiologic studies for identifying preventable pregnancy loss. PMID:27009345

  8. Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) prevents age associated skeletal muscle loss

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Md M.; Ganesh V. Halade; Jamali, Amina El; Fernandes, Gabriel

    2009-01-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of CLA isomers in preventing age-associated muscle loss and the mechanisms underlying this effect, using 12 months old C57BL/6 mice fed 10% corn oil (CO) or a diet supplemented with 0.5% c9t11-CLA, t10c12-CLA or c9t11-CLA+t10c12-CLA (CLA-mix) for 6 months. Both t10c12-CLA and CLA-mix groups showed significantly higher muscle mass, as compared to CO and c9t11-CLA groups, measured by dual-energy-Xray-absorptiometry and muscle wet weight. Enhanced mitochondr...

  9. The reactor core behaviour in case of small break loss of coolant accident combined with total blackout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After the Fukushima accident an extreme event beyond design basis is shown to be possible. The detailed analyses of an extended station blackout, where all the onsite and offsite power is failed, became very important. A large number of analyses were done in all countries operating nuclear reactors. An analysis of small break loss of coolant accident combined with total blackout is presented in this work. The operator actions in this case are very important in order to extend the time before irreversible damage to the core is done. The analysis is performed using RELAP5/Mod 3.3 for VVER‑1000 type reactor. The main conclusions are that the current emergency operating procedures are adequate to manage station blackout with small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA) sequence. Key words: LOCA, Safety Analyses Report, Blackout, Severe Accident

  10. Women and reproductive loss: client-worker dialogues designed to break the silence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Sarah Kye

    2008-10-01

    An estimated one in four women experiences a pregnancy loss during her lifetime. Despite the pervasiveness of fetal mortality reflected by these numbers, social workers rarely initiate dialogues regarding reproductive loss history. Reproductive loss experiences are interwoven with typical themes emerging in everyday social work practice, including mental health, self-conceptualization, social roles, and future parenting. To advance the knowledge of professional social workers regarding reproductive loss in women's lives, this article begins by synthesizing theory and empirical research related to reproductive loss and subsequent parenting. Then, four worker-initiated dialogues emerge as recommendations for integration into routine social work practice, expanding discussion of reproductive loss beyond a subset of specialized providers and into the multitude of practice settings. PMID:18853673

  11. International Standard Problems and Small Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Aksan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Best-estimate thermal-hydraulic system codes are widely used to perform safety and licensing analyses of nuclear power plants and also used in the design of advance reactors. Evaluation of the capabilities and the performance of these codes can be accomplished by comparing the code predictions with measured experimental data obtained on different test facilities. OECD/NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI has promoted, over the last twenty-nine years, some forty-eight international standard problems (ISPs. These ISPs were performed in different fields as in-vessel thermal-hydraulic behaviour, fuel behaviour under accident conditions, fission product release and transport, core/concrete interactions, hydrogen distribution and mixing, containment thermal-hydraulic behaviour. 80% of these ISPs were related to the working domain of principal working group no.2 on coolant system behaviour (PWG2 and were one of the major PWG2 activities for many years. A global review and synthesis on the contribution that ISPs have made to address nuclear reactor safety issues was initiated by CSNI-PWG2 and an overview on the subject of small break LOCA ISPs is given in this paper based on a report prepared by a writing group. In addition, the relevance of small break LOCA in a PWR with relation to nuclear reactor safety and the reorientation of the reactor safety program after TMI-2 accident are shortly summarized. The experiments in four integral test facilities, LOBI, SPES, BETHSY, ROSA IV/LSTF and the recorded data during a steam generator tube rupture transient in the DOEL-2 PWR (Belgium were the basis of the five small break LOCA related ISP exercises, which deal with the phenomenon typical of small break LOCAs in Western design PWRs. Some lessons learned from these small break LOCA ISPs are identified in relation to code deficiencies and capabilities, progress in the code capabilities, possibility of scaling, and various additional aspects

  12. SIRT6 recruits SNF2H to DNA break sites, preventing genomic instability through chromatin remodeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toiber, Debra; Erdel, Fabian; Bouazoune, Karim; Silberman, Dafne M; Zhong, Lei; Mulligan, Peter; Sebastian, Carlos; Cosentino, Claudia; Martinez-Pastor, Barbara; Giacosa, Sofia; D'Urso, Agustina; Näär, Anders M; Kingston, Robert; Rippe, Karsten; Mostoslavsky, Raul

    2013-08-22

    DNA damage is linked to multiple human diseases, such as cancer, neurodegeneration, and aging. Little is known about the role of chromatin accessibility in DNA repair. Here, we find that the deacetylase sirtuin 6 (SIRT6) is one of the earliest factors recruited to double-strand breaks (DSBs). SIRT6 recruits the chromatin remodeler SNF2H to DSBs and focally deacetylates histone H3K56. Lack of SIRT6 and SNF2H impairs chromatin remodeling, increasing sensitivity to genotoxic damage and recruitment of downstream factors such as 53BP1 and breast cancer 1 (BRCA1). Remarkably, SIRT6-deficient mice exhibit lower levels of chromatin-associated SNF2H in specific tissues, a phenotype accompanied by DNA damage. We demonstrate that SIRT6 is critical for recruitment of a chromatin remodeler as an early step in the DNA damage response, indicating that proper unfolding of chromatin plays a rate-limiting role. We present a unique crosstalk between a histone modifier and a chromatin remodeler, regulating a coordinated response to prevent DNA damage.

  13. Best estimate and uncertainty analysis of a critical large break loss of coolant accident at Darlington NGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper briefly describes the development and application of a Best Estimate Analysis with Uncertainty (BEAU) methodology to a critical large break loss of coolant accident at Darlington NGS. Best estimate and uncertainty predictions are obtained for maximum fuel centreline temperature, maximum fuel sheath temperature, maximum fuel string relative axial expansion, and peak pressure tube strain. The results are compared against similar results obtained using the Limit of Operating Envelope (LOE) approach reported in the most recent licensing submission. The comparison shows significant improvements in predicted safety margins can be achieved. (author)

  14. The impact of restorative treatment on tooth loss prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caldas Junior Arnaldo de França

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was carried out to analyze tooth loss resulting from caries in relation to the number of times the extracted tooth had been restored, the type of caries diagnosed (primary or secondary, and socioeconomic indicators of patients from the city of Recife, Brazil. Ten public health centres and ten centres associated with health insurance companies were randomly selected. The size of the sample was calculated using a standard error of 2.5%. A confidence interval of 95% and a 50% prevalence of reasons for extractions were used for calculating the sample. The minimum size of the sample for meeting these requirements was 381 patients. Patients were randomly selected from the list of adults registered at each centre. A total of 410 patients were invited to take part in the study. The response rate was 100%, but 6 patients were excluded due to incompleteness of data in the questionnaire applied. An assessment was made to obtain the number of decayed, missing or filled teeth (DMFT index and the reasons for extraction. The results showed a highly significant (p < 0.001 relationship between the number of times the tooth indicated for extraction had been restored and the reason for extraction being caries. Furthermore, the majority of teeth extracted due to caries had been restored two or more times. A highly statistically significant association was also observed between one indicator of use of dental services (F/DMFT and extraction due to caries (p < 0.001. The findings questioned the belief that tooth loss can be prevented in the general population by merely providing restorative treatment.

  15. Modeling operator actions during a small break loss-of-coolant accident in a Babcock and Wilcox nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A small break loss-of-accident (SBLOCA) in a typical Babcock and Wilcox (B ampersand W) nuclear power plant was modeled using RELAP5/MOD3. This work was performed as part of the United States Regulatory Commission's (USNRC) Code, Scaling, Applicability and Uncertainty (CSAU) study. The break was initiated by severing one high pressure injection (HPI) line at the cold leg. Thus, the small break was further aggravated by reduced HPI flow. Comparisons between scoping runs with minimal operator action, and full operator action, clearly showed that the operator plays a key role in recovering the plant. Operator actions were modeled based on the emergency operating procedures (EOPs) and the Technical Bases Document for the EOPs. The sequence of operator actions modeled here is only one of several possibilities. Different sequences of operator actions are possible for a given accident because of the subjective decisions the operator must make when determining the status of the plant, hence, which branch of the EOP to follow. To assess the credibility of the modeled operator actions, these actions and results of the simulated accident scenario were presented to operator examiners who are familiar with B ampersand W nuclear power plants. They agreed that, in general, the modeled operator actions conform to the requirements set forth in the EOPs and are therefore plausible. This paper presents the method for modeling the operator actions and discusses the simulated accident scenario from the viewpoint of operator actions

  16. Nicotinamide prevents ultraviolet radiation-induced cellular energy loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Joohong; Halliday, Gary M; Surjana, Devita; Damian, Diona L

    2010-01-01

    UV radiation is carcinogenic by causing mutations in the skin and also by suppressing cutaneous antitumor immunity. We previously found nicotinamide (vitamin B3) to be highly effective at reducing UV-induced immunosuppression in human volunteers, with microarray studies on in vivo irradiated human skin suggesting that nicotinamide normalizes subsets of apoptosis, immune function and energy metabolism-related genes that are downregulated by UV exposure. Using human adult low calcium temperature keratinocytes, we further investigated nicotinamide's effects on cellular energy metabolism. We found that nicotinamide prevented UV-induced cellular ATP loss and protected against UV-induced glycolytic blockade. To determine whether nicotinamide alters the effects of UV-induced oxidative stress posttranslationally, we also measured UV-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS). Nicotinamide had no effect on ROS formation, and at the low UV doses used in these studies, equivalent to ambient daily sun exposure, there was no evidence of apoptosis. Hence, nicotinamide appears to exert its UV protective effects on the skin via its role in cellular energy pathways.

  17. Childhood hearing health: educating for prevention of hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacerda, Adriana Bender Moreira; Gonçalves, Claudia Giglio de Oliveira; Lacerda, Giselle; Lobato, Diolén Conceição Barros; Santos, Luciana; Moreira, Aline Carlezzo; Ribas, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The presence of noise in our society has attracted the attention of health professionals, including speech-language pathologists, who have been charged along with educators with developing hearing conservation programs in schools. Objective To describe the results of three strategies for awareness and hearing preservation in first to fourth grades in public elementary schools. Methods The level of environmental noise in classrooms was assessed, and 638 elementary school students from first to fourth grades, 5 to 10 years of age, were audiologically evaluated. After the evaluations, educational activities were presented to children and educators. Results The noise level in the classroom ranged from 71.8 to 94.8 A-weighted decibels. The environment of the classroom was found to promote sound reverberation, which hinders communication. Thirty-two students (5.1%) presented hearing alterations. Conclusion The application of strategies for a hearing conservation program at the school showed that noise is present in the room, and hearing loss, sometimes silent, affects schoolchildren. Students and teachers were aware that hearing problems can be prevented. Avoiding exposure to noise and improving the acoustics in classrooms are essential. PMID:25992146

  18. Small-break loss-of-coolant accidents in the updated PIUS 600 advanced reactor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyack, B.E.; Steiner, J.L.; Harmony, S.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The PIUS advanced reactor is a 640-MWe pressurized water reactor developed by Asea Brown Boveri (ABB). A unique feature of the PIUS concept is the absence of mechanical control and shutdown rods. Reactivity is normally controlled by coolant boron concentration and the temperature of the moderator coolant. ABB submitted the PIUS design to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for preapplication review, and Los Alamos supported the NRC`s review effort. Baseline analyses of small-break initiators at two locations were performed with the system neutronic and thermal-hydraulic analysis code TRAC-PF1/MOD2. In addition, sensitivity studies were performed to explore the robustness of the PIUS concept to severe off-normal conditions having a very low probability of occurrence.

  19. Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention: Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the recommended amount of exposure time. Facts and Statistics Four million workers go to work each day ... Hearing Loss DHHS (NIOSH) Publication No. 2010-136 Statistics on hearing loss in the manufacturing industry. Surveys ...

  20. Breaking through the loss cycle of burnout: the role of motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.L. ten Brummelhuis; C.L. ter Hoeven; A.B. Bakker; B. Peper

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to study burnout as a process that develops over time. On the basis of the Conservation of Resources theory (Hobfoll, 2002), we tested whether burnout induces a loss cycle, depleting resources, and enhancing demands. In addition, we investigated whether intrinsic job motivation and external

  1. Novel apparatus to measure hyperthermal heavy ion damage to DNA: Strand breaks, base loss, and fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed a novel apparatus that allows us to irradiate nonvolatile organic films of high mass (1-100 μg range) spread out over a large surface area (42 cm2) with low energy (kT-100 eV) heavy ions and to quantitatively analyze the film substance via standard biochemical techniques afterwards. Here we discuss the details of the apparatus and method and show that it allows us to measure substantial damage to double stranded DNA molecules (plasmids) and its fundamental subunits induced by heavy ions with unprecedented low energies, i.e., 2.5 eV/amu; these energies correspond to track end energies of stopping ions or secondary ions created along primary ion tracks. We find that hyperthermal Ar+ ions interacting with plasmid DNA will lead to the formation of single and double strand breaks, as well as fragmentation of nucleosides, which also involve chemical modifications and site specific rupture along the N1-C1 glycosidic bond, resulting in base release. In cells, such localized clustered damage will enhance the severity of DNA strand lesions, thus making them harder to repair

  2. Breaking the Loss Limitation of On-chip High-confinement Resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Ji, Xingchen; Roberts, Samantha P; Dutt, Avik; Cardenas, Jaime; Okawachi, Yoshitomo; Bryant, Alex; Gaeta, Alexander L; Lipson, Michal

    2016-01-01

    On-chip optical resonators have the promise of revolutionizing numerous fields including metrology and sensing; however, their optical losses have always lagged behind their larger discrete resonator counterparts based on crystalline materials and flowable glass. Silicon nitride (Si3N4) ring resonators open up capabilities for optical routing, frequency comb generation, optical clocks and high precision sensing on an integrated platform. However, simultaneously achieving high quality factor and high confinement in Si3N4 (critical for nonlinear processes for example) remains a challenge. Here, we show that addressing surface roughness enables us to overcome the loss limitations and achieve high-confinement, on-chip ring resonators with a quality factor (Q) of 37 million for a ring with 2.5 {\\mu}m width and 67 million for a ring with 10 {\\mu}m width. We show a clear systematic path for achieving these high quality factors. Furthermore, we extract the loss limited by the material absorption in our films to be 0....

  3. Nonlocal response in thin-film waveguides: Loss versus nonlocality and breaking of complementarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Christensen, Thomas; Wubs, Martijn;

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the effects of nonlocal response on the surface-plasmon polariton guiding properties of the metal-insulator (MI), metal-insulator-metal (MIM), and insulator-metal-insulator (IMI) waveguides. The nonlocal effects are described by a linearized hydrodynamic model, which includes...... the Thomas-Fermi internal kinetic energy of the free electrons in the metal. We derive the nonlocal dispersion relations of the three waveguide structures taking into account also retardation and interband effects, and examine the delicate interplay between nonlocal response and absorption losses...

  4. Using Aerogel-Based Insulation Material To Prevent Foam Loss on the Liquid-Hydrogen Intertank

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Uninsulated areas on cryogenic propellant tanks and feedlines cause moisture in the air to condense or ice to form. Flange joints, bracket supports, expansion bellows, and other cavities are uninsulated by design. These areas cannot be sealed because conventional thermal insulation materials would restrict mechanical articulations. Aerogel-based thermal insulation systems are able to seal critical locations such as the liquid-oxygen (LO2) feedline bellows. A new thermal insulation system was also necessary between the intertank wall, flange, and the liquid-hydrogen (LH2) tank dome, where there is a cavity (or crevice) with an exposed 20-K surface. When nitrogen gas is used for purging within the intertank volume, it condenses on this cold surface. Some solid nitrogen may also form on the colder side of the crevice. Voids or discontinuities within the foam can pressurize and cause areas of foam to weaken and break off, reducing thermal efficiency and creating potentially dangerous debris. To prevent this foam loss, we developed a thermal insulation system using bulk-fill aerogel material and demonstrated it with a one-tenth-scale model of the LH2 intertank flange area

  5. Aircraft Accident Prevention: Loss-of-Control Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwatny, Harry G.; Dongmo, Jean-Etienne T.; Chang, Bor-Chin; Bajpai, Guarav; Yasar, Murat; Belcastro, Christine M.

    2009-01-01

    The majority of fatal aircraft accidents are associated with loss-of-control . Yet the notion of loss-of-control is not well-defined in terms suitable for rigorous control systems analysis. Loss-of-control is generally associated with flight outside of the normal flight envelope, with nonlinear influences, and with an inability of the pilot to control the aircraft. The two primary sources of nonlinearity are the intrinsic nonlinear dynamics of the aircraft and the state and control constraints within which the aircraft must operate. In this paper we examine how these nonlinearities affect the ability to control the aircraft and how they may contribute to loss-of-control. Examples are provided using NASA s Generic Transport Model.

  6. [Prevention and management of appetite loss during cancer chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimura, Hideki; Yamada, Mitsugi; Asako, Eri; Kodama, Yukako; Sato, Tsuneo; Nabeya, Yoshihiro

    2014-10-01

    Appetite loss during cancer chemotherapy may lead to malnutrition and a decreased quality of life. To overcome this problem, evidence-based guidelines have been established for chemotherapy-induced emesis and mucositis. However, unsolved issues such as taste alimentation remain. Since the clinical picture of appetite loss is complex, individual management strategies depending on the type of the disease and treatment are required. PMID:25335699

  7. Development of the PIRT for the small break loss-of-coolant accident with high pressure injection failure and sensitivity analyses for important phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By applying this statistical evaluation method, the uncertainties of evaluation results can be estimated quantitatively, and as a consequence, excessive conservatism can be reasonably removed to obtain evaluation results with enhanced reliability. The application of a statistical safety evaluation method to analysis of the 'low pressure injection by intentional depressurization of the steam generator secondary side' which is an accident management approach in the SBLOCA (Small Break Loss-Of-Coolant Accident) with HPI (High Pressure Injection) failure is being made. RELAP5/MOD3.2 is used as the analysis code. In the present study, the PIRT (Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table) was made to extract the important phenomena, and the treatments with RELAP5 of these important phenomena were investigated. Moreover, sensitivity analyses were made for the actual plant in which the parameters of the analytical model, related to the important phenomena, were changed in order to understand the influence of these phenomena on the PCT (Peak Cladding Temperature) which is evaluation parameter quantitatively. Twenty-four important phenomena were extracted in PIRT, and it was confirmed that analytical models and correlations which are able to simulate them were built into RELAP5. In the results of sensitivity analyses for the actual plant, it was understood that the influence of three times 'CCFL at the inlet of the U-tube', 'Break flow (critical flow)', and the 'Heat transfer (at exposed core)' on the PCT was especially large. Regarding these important phenomena, it is necessary to prevent the model's uncertainty distributions from being extended excessively by carrying out experiments and examining the existing experiment data closely when the distributions are made. (author)

  8. Breaking the rhythm of depression : Cognitive Behavior Therapy and relapse prevention for depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bockting, Claudi L.H.

    2010-01-01

    A crucial part of the treatment of depression is the prevention of relapse and recurrence. Psychological interventions, especially cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) are helpful in preventing relapse and recurrence in depression. The effectivity of four types of relapse prevention cognitive behavior t

  9. Energy-Efficiency Options for Insurance Loss Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, E. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.; Knoepfel, I. [Swiss Reinsurance Co., Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-06-09

    Energy-efficiency improvements offer the insurance industry two areas of opportunity: reducing ordinary claims and avoiding greenhouse gas emissions that could precipitate natural disaster losses resulting from global climate change. We present three vehicles for taking advantage of this opportunity, including research and development, in- house energy management, and provision of key information to insurance customers and risk managers. The complementary role for renewable energy systems is also introduced.

  10. Metastasis and bone loss: Advancing treatment and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Coleman, Robert E.; Lipton, Allan; Roodman, G. David; Guise, Theresa A.; Boyce, Brendon F.; Brufsky, Adam M.; Clézardin, Philippe; Peter I Croucher; Gralow, Julie R.; Hadji, Peyman; Holen, Ingunn; Mundy, Gregory R.; Smith, Matthew R.; Suva, Larry J.

    2010-01-01

    Tumor metastasis to the skeleton affects over 400,000 individuals in the United States annually, more than any other site of metastasis, including significant proportions of patients with breast, prostate, lung and other solid tumors. Research on the bone microenvironment and its role in metastasis suggests a complex role in tumor growth. Parallel preclinical and clinical investigations into the role of adjuvant bone-targeted agents in preventing metastasis and avoiding cancer therapy-induced...

  11. Metformin therapy prevents early pregnancy loss in polycystic ovarian syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: The study was done to compare the early pregnancy loss rate in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome who received or did not receive metformin in pregnancy. Study type, settings and duration: A case control interventional study carried out at Civil Hospital Karachi, Hamdard University Hospital and Private Gynaecology clinics from January 2005 to July 2008. Subjects and Methods Eighty two non diabetic patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome who became pregnant were included in the study. A questionnaire was filled for all patients that included information on basic demography and mean age, parity, weight. Fasting blood sugar and serum insulin levels were done for all these women. Only patients with raised insulin levels (more than 10 mu/l) were included in the study and all were offered to use oral metformin throughout pregnancy as 500 mg three times a day with folic acid supplements 5 mg once daily. Those who agreed to take the drug throughout pregnancy and to comply with the therapy were taken as cases, while those who did not agree to take the medicine acted as controls. Patients with other causes of recurrent pregnancy loss were excluded from the study. All pregnancies were followed using serial ultrasound examination to see any pregnancy loss in the two groups. Eighty two cases of polycystic ovaries with pregnancy were seen during the study period. All cases had raised serum insulin levels. Fifty patients agreed to take metformin through out pregnancy while, 32 cases did not agree to take metformin during pregnancy and thus acted as controls. The two groups did not differ in mean age, parity, weight and mean fasting blood sugar levels. Fasting insulin levels were high in metformin group (18.40 mu/l ) than in controls (12.53 mu/l). Missed abortion rate was significantly lower (12%) in metformin group than in controls (28%) (p<0.028). No congenital anomalies were found in both the groups on ultrasound at 16-19 weeks. Metformin treatment during

  12. Radiological consequence analyses of loss of coolant accidents of various break sizes of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For any advanced technology, it is essential to ensure that the consequences associated with the accident sequences arising, if any, from the operation of the plant are as low as possible and certainly below the guidelines/limits set by the regulatory bodies. Nuclear power is no exception to this. In this paper consequences of the events arising from Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) sequences in Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR), are analysed. The sequences correspond to different break sizes of LOCA followed by the operation or otherwise of Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS). Operation or otherwise of the containment safety systems has also been considered. It has been found that there are no releases to the environment when ECCS is available. The releases, when ECCS is not available, arise from the slack and the ground. The radionuclides considered include noble gases, iodine, and cesium. The hourly meteorological parameters (wind speed, wind direction, precipitation and stability category), considered for this study, correspond to those of Kakrapar site. The consequences evaluated are the thyroid dose and the bone marrow dose received by a person located at various distances from the release point. Isodose curves are generated. From these evaluations, it has been found that the doses are very low. The complementary cumulative frequency distributions (CCFD) for thyroid and bone marrow doses have also been presented for the cases analysed. (author)

  13. Uncertainty analysis for containment response of U.S. EPR TM reactor to large break loss-of-coolant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an uncertainty analysis applying the GOTHIC containment analysis code to simulate the first 24-hours following a large-break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA) in AREVA's U.S. EPR TM plant. The uncertainty method is modeled after a study performed by the Gesellschaft fur Anlagen und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) using data from the Heifidampf-Reaktor (HDR) Test T31.5. The analysis method incorporates an assessment of phenomenological importance, identifying the dominant contributors that influence the principle analysis metric, containment pressure. As with the GRS approach, this study employs non-parametric statistics. This analysis illustrates U.S. EPR containment response sensitivity to realistic variation in a set of important model parameters influencing containment conditions during LBLOCA. In considering a set of model uncertainty parameters, a number of GOTHIC variation calculations were performed (59 calculations) to effect a best estimate plus uncertainty result at 95/95 coverage/confidence level for the key metric, containment pressure. The results of the importance analysis showed condensation phenomena on the surface of the containment structures to be important during the passive cooling period, which occurred prior to the start of HL (hot leg) injection of SI (safety injection). In this study, hot leg injection was assumed to initiate at 1.5 hours. Condensation phenomena faded in importance after 1.5 hours due to the hot leg injection of SI suppressing steaming. Structure conduction, especially, the physical properties of concrete, retained importance throughout the transient. (authors)

  14. Schools of music and conservatories and hearing loss prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chesky, Kris

    2011-03-01

    Music students are not being taught that music is a sound source capable of harming hearing. Ensemble directors of public school and college bands, orchestras, and choirs, are unaware and unprepared to recognize and manage risk from excessive sound exposures. Schools of music and conservatories around the world, and the organizations that accredit them, need to embrace the idea that schools of music are best suited to facilitate change, conduct research, create and impart knowledge, institute competency, and most importantly, cultivate a culture of responsibility and accountability throughout the music discipline. By drawing attention to actions pursued at and through the College of Music at the University of North Texas, the purpose of this paper is to encourage change and to assist others in efforts to reach the best conditions for preventing irreversible hearing disorders associated with music. PMID:21288066

  15. Breaking the Rhythm of Depression: Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Relapse Prevention for Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudi L.H. Bockting

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A crucial part of the treatment of depression is the prevention of relapse and recurrence. Psychological interventions, especially cognitive behavior therapy (CBT are helpful in preventing relapse and recurrence in depression. The effectivity of four types of relapse prevention cognitive behavior therapy strategies will be addressed, i.e. acute prophylactic cognitive behavior therapy, continuation cognitive behavior therapy, sequential cognitive behavior therapy and cognitive behavior therapy in partial remission.Specific ingredients of three sequential cognitive behavior therapy programs (well-being cognitive therapy, preventive cognitive therapy, and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy will be discussed as applied after remission in patients that experienced previous depressive episodes. Sequential preventive cognitive behavior therapy after acute treatment may be an attractive alternative treatment for many patients who currently use antidepressants for years and years to prevent relapse and recurrence. This is an extremely challenging issue to research thoroughly. Future studies must rule out what intervention for whom is the best protection against relapse and recurrence in depression.

  16. Vitamin K supplementation does not prevent bone loss in ovariectomized Norway rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite plausible biological mechanisms, the differential abilities of phylloquinone (PK) and menaquinones (MKn) to prevent bone loss remain controversial. The objective of the current study was to compare the effects of PK, menaquinone-4 (MK-4) and menaquinone-7(MK-7) on the rate of bone loss in o...

  17. 7 CFR 760.814 - Calculation of acreage for crop losses other than prevented planted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Calculation of acreage for crop losses other than prevented planted. 760.814 Section 760.814 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture...-2007 Crop Disaster Program § 760.814 Calculation of acreage for crop losses other than...

  18. Intratympanic steroid prevents long-term spiral ganglion neuron loss in experimental meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe, Lise Lotte; Brandt, C.T.; Lund, S.P.;

    2010-01-01

    Hypothesis: Intratympanic steroid treatment prevents hearing loss and cochlear damage in a rat model of pneumococcal meningitis. Background: Sensorineural hearing loss is a long-term complication of meningitis affecting up to a third of survivors. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the bacterial species...... treatment prevents long-term spiral ganglion neuron loss in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. This finding is clinically relevant in relation to postmeningitic hearing rehabilitation by cochlear implantation. However, the drug instillation in the middle ear induced local fibrosis and a concurrent low...

  19. Replication independent DNA double-strand break retention may prevent genomic instability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pornthanakasem Wichai

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Global hypomethylation and genomic instability are cardinal features of cancers. Recently, we established a method for the detection of DNA methylation levels at sites close to endogenous DNA double strand breaks (EDSBs, and found that those sites have a higher level of methylation than the rest of the genome. Interestingly, the most significant differences between EDSBs and genomes were observed when cells were cultured in the absence of serum. DNA methylation levels on each genomic location are different. Therefore, there are more replication-independent EDSBs (RIND-EDSBs located in methylated genomic regions. Moreover, methylated and unmethylated RIND-EDSBs are differentially processed. Euchromatins respond rapidly to DSBs induced by irradiation with the phosphorylation of H2AX, γ-H2AX, and these initiate the DSB repair process. During G0, most DSBs are repaired by non-homologous end-joining repair (NHEJ, mediated by at least two distinct pathways; the Ku-mediated and the ataxia telangiectasia-mutated (ATM-mediated. The ATM-mediated pathway is more precise. Here we explored how cells process methylated RIND-EDSBs and if RIND-EDSBs play a role in global hypomethylation-induced genomic instability. Results We observed a significant number of methylated RIND-EDSBs that are retained within deacetylated chromatin and free from an immediate cellular response to DSBs, the γ-H2AX. When cells were treated with tricostatin A (TSA and the histones became hyperacetylated, the amount of γ-H2AX-bound DNA increased and the retained RIND-EDSBs were rapidly repaired. When NHEJ was simultaneously inhibited in TSA-treated cells, more EDSBs were detected. Without TSA, a sporadic increase in unmethylated RIND-EDSBs could be observed when Ku-mediated NHEJ was inhibited. Finally, a remarkable increase in RIND-EDSB methylation levels was observed when cells were depleted of ATM, but not of Ku86 and RAD51. Conclusions Methylated RIND-EDSBs are

  20. Thermal-Hydraulic Integral Effect Test with ATLAS for an Intermediate Break Loss of Coolant Accident at a Pressurizer Surge Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kyoung Ho; Seok Cho; Park, Hyun Sik; Choi, Nam Hyun; Park, Yu Sun; Kim, Jong Rok; Bae, Byoung Uhn; Kim, Yeon Sik; Kim, Kyung Doo; Choi, Ki Yong; Song, Chul Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The main objectives of this test were not only to provide physical insight into the system response of the APR1400 during the pressurizer surge line break accident but also to produce an integral effect test data to validate the SPACE code. In order to simulate a double-ended guillotine break of a pressurizer surge line in the APR1400, the IB-SUR-01R test was performed with ATLAS. The major thermal-hydraulic phenomena such as the system pressures, the collapsed water levels, and the break flow rate were presented and discussed. Despite the core was uncovered, no excursion in the cladding temperature was observed. The pressurizer surge line break can be classified as a hot leg break from a break location point of view. Compared with a cold leg break, coolability in the core may be better in case of a hot leg break due to the enhanced flow in the core region. This integral effect test data will be used to evaluate the prediction capability of existing safety analysis codes of the MARS and the RELAP5 as well as the SPACE code. Furthermore, this data can be utilized to identify any code deficiency for an IBLOCA simulation, especially for DVI-adapted plants. Redefinition of break size for design basis accident (DBA) based on risk information is being extensively investigated due to the potential for safety benefits and unnecessary burden reduction from current LBLOCA (large break loss of coolant accident)-based ECC (Emergency Core Cooling) Acceptance Criteria. As a transition break size (TBS), the rupture of medium-size pipe is considered to be more important than ever in risk-informed regulation (RIR)-relevant safety analysis. As plants age, are up-rated, and continue to seek improved operating efficiencies, the small break and intermediate break LOCA (IBLOCA) can become a concern. In particular, IBLOCA with DVI (Direct Vessel Injection) features will be addressed to support redefinition of a design-basis LOCA. With an aim of expanding code validation to address small

  1. [FEDERAL CLINICAL RECOMMENDATIONS IN DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF HEARING LOSS DUE TO NOISE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeninskaya, E E; Bukhtiarov, I V; Bushmanov, A Iu; Dayhes, N A; Denisov, E I; Izmerov, N F; Mazitova, N N; Pankova, V B; Preobrazhenskaya, E A; Prokopenko, L V; Simonova, N I; Tavartkiladze, G A; Fedina, I N

    2016-01-01

    Noise induced hearing loss is a slowly developing hearing impairment, caused by occupational exposure to excessive noise levels, constitutes a lesion of the auditory analyzer and clinically manifested as chronic bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Currently, there is not a treatment that provide a cure of sensorineural hearing loss. Regular, individually tailored treatment should be directed to the pathogenic mechanisms and specific clinical symptoms of hearing loss, as well as the prevention of complications. We recommend using non-drug therapies that can improve blood flow in labyrinth, tissue and cellular metabolism.

  2. The Design and Screening of Drugs to Prevent Acquired Sensorineural Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjea, Debashree; Rybak, Leonard P.; Sheehan, Kelly E; Kaur, Tejbeer; Ramkumar, Vickram; Jajoo, Sarvesh; Sheth, Sandeep

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Sensorineural hearing loss affects a high percentage of the population. Ototoxicity is a serious and pervasive problem in patients treated with cisplatin. Strategies to ameliorate ototoxicity without compromising on antitumor activity of treatments are urgently needed. Similar problems occur with aminoglycoside antibiotic therapy for infections. Noise-induced hearing loss affects a large number of people. The use of ear protection is not always possible or effective. The prevention of hearing loss with drug therapy would have a huge impact in reducing the number of persons with hearing loss from these major causes. Areas covered This review discusses significant research findings dealing with the use of protective agents against hearing loss caused by cisplatin, aminoglycoside antibiotics and noise trauma. The efficacy in animal studies and the application of these protective agents in clinical trials that are ongoing are presented. Expert opinion The reader will gain new insights into current and projected future strategies to prevent sensorineural hearing loss from cisplatin chemotherapy, aminoglycoside antibiotic therapy and noise exposure. The future appears to offer numerous agents to prevent hearing loss caused by cisplatin, aminoglycoside antibiotics and noise. Novel delivery systems will provide ways to guide these protective agents to the desired target areas in the inner ear and will circumvent problems with therapeutic interference of anti-tumor and antibiotics agents and will minimize undesired side effects. PMID:22646075

  3. Determination of the in-containment source term for a Large-Break Loss of Coolant Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is the report of a project that focused on one of the most important design basis accidents: the Large Break Loss Of Coolant Accident (LBLOCA) (for pressurised water reactors). The first step in the calculation of the radiological consequences of this accident is the determination of the source term inside the containment. This work deals with this part of the calculation of the LBLOCA radiological consequences for which a previous benchmark (1988) has shown wide variations in the licensing practices adopted by European countries. The calculation of this source term may naturally be split in several steps (see chapter II), corresponding to several physical stages in the release of fission products: fraction of core failure, release from the damaged fuel, airborne part of the release and the release into the reactor coolant system and the sumps, chemical behaviour of iodine in the aqueous and gas phases, natural and spray removal in the containment atmosphere. A chapter is devoted to each of these topics. In addition, two other chapters deal with the basic assumptions to define the accidental sequence and the nuclides to be considered when computing doses associated with the LBLOCA. The report describes where there is agreement between the partner organisations and where there are still differences in approach. For example, there is agreement concerning the percentage of failed fuel which could be used in future licensing assessments (however this subject is still under discussion in France, a lower value is thinkable). For existing plants, AVN (Belgium) wishes to keep the initial licensing assumptions. For the release from damaged fuel, there is not complete agreement: AVN (Belgium) wishes to maintain its present approach. IPSN (France), GRS (Germany) and NNC (UK) prefer to use their own methodologies that result in slightly different values to the proposed values for a common position. There are presently no recommendations of the release of fuel particulates

  4. Weight loss efficacy of a novel mobile Diabetes Prevention Program delivery platform with human coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelides, Andreas; Raby, Christine; Wood, Meghan; Farr, Kit

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the weight loss efficacy of a novel mobile platform delivering the Diabetes Prevention Program. Research Design and Methods 43 overweight or obese adult participants with a diagnosis of prediabetes signed-up to receive a 24-week virtual Diabetes Prevention Program with human coaching, through a mobile platform. Weight loss and engagement were the main outcomes, evaluated by repeated measures analysis of variance, backward regression, and mediation regression. Results Weight loss at 16 and 24 weeks was significant, with 56% of starters and 64% of completers losing over 5% body weight. Mean weight loss at 24 weeks was 6.58% in starters and 7.5% in completers. Participants were highly engaged, with 84% of the sample completing 9 lessons or more. In-app actions related to self-monitoring significantly predicted weight loss. Conclusions Our findings support the effectiveness of a uniquely mobile prediabetes intervention, producing weight loss comparable to studies with high engagement, with potential for scalable population health management. PMID:27651911

  5. Strategies for the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents : Expert opinions from a Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, I.; Brug, J.; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Raat, H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To identify parties involved in the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents and potentially effective prevention strategies and interventions. METHODS. Thirty experts in fields such as scientific research, medical practice, community health professions, education, youth w

  6. The ANF [Advanced Nuclear Fuels Corporation]-RELAP small-break LOCA [loss-of-coolant accident] analysis for the Comanche Peak steam electric station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The system response code RELAP/MOD2 Idaho National Engineering Laboratory cycle 36.02, with modifications developed by Advanced Nuclear Fuels Corporation (ANF), was used to perform small-break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) calculations for the Comanche Peak steam electric station (CPSES) unit 1. The ability of the ANF-RELAP code to calculate the SBLOCA system response for the four-loop pressurized water reactor is presented by discussing the overall system response, the system mass distribution, and the core response

  7. Generic evaluation of feedwater transients and small break loss-of-coolant accidents in GE-designed operating plants and near-term operating license applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results are presented of a generic evaluation of feedwater transients, small-break loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs), and other TMI-2-related events for General Electric Company (GE)-designed operating plants and near-term operating license applications to confirm or establish the bases for the continued safe operation of the operating plants. The results of this evaluation are presented in this report in the form of a set of findings and recommendations in each of the principal review areas. Additional review of the accident is continuing and further information is being obtained and evaluated. Any new information will be reviewed and modifications will be made as appropriate

  8. Alendronate and estrogen-progestin in the long-term prevention of bone loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Pernille; Bidstrup, M; Wasnich, R D;

    1999-01-01

    alendronate to placebo than in those who continuously received placebo. In years 3 and 4, bone loss in participants who switched from alendronate to placebo was similar to that seen during years 1 and 2 in those who continuously received placebo. Compared with 5 mg of alendronate per day, estrogen-medroxyprogesterone...... acetate produced similar increases in bone mineral density and estradiol-norethisterone acetate produced increases that were substantially greater. CONCLUSIONS: Four years of treatment with alendronate or estrogen-progestin prevented postmenopausal bone loss. A residual effect was seen 2 years after...

  9. Effect of galactooligosaccharides on calcium absorption and preventing bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chonan, O; Matsumoto, K; Watanuki, M

    1995-02-01

    The effects of galactooligosaccharides (GOS), a mixture of galactosyl oligosaccharides formed from lactose by the transgalactosyl reaction of beta-D-galactosidase derived from Bacillus circulans, on calcium absorption and prevention of bone loss were examined in ovariectomized (OVX) Wistar rats. Rats fed on a diet containing GOS absorbed calcium more efficiently than those on the control diet after 8-10 days and 18-20 days, and the bone (femur and tibia) ash weight and tibia calcium content of OVX rats fed on the GOS diet were significantly higher than those of the control animals. Although the serum total cholesterol of the ovariectomized rats was significantly elevated, GOS produced a significant hypocholesterolemic effect in the OVX rats. GOS, which is fermented by bacteria in the lower part of the intestine, enhanced volatile fatty acid production, and thus prevented bone loss and lower serum total cholesterol concentration in the ovariectomized rats.

  10. Preventing Loss of Independence through Exercise (PLIÉ): A Pilot Clinical Trial in Older Adults with Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Barnes, Deborah E.; Wolf Mehling; Eveline Wu; Matthew Beristianos; Kristine Yaffe; Karyn Skultety; Chesney, Margaret A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Current dementia medications have small effect sizes, many adverse effects and do not change the disease course. Therefore, it is critically important to study alternative treatment strategies. The goal of this study was to pilot-test a novel, integrative group exercise program for individuals with mild-to-moderate dementia called Preventing Loss of Independence through Exercise (PLIÉ), which focuses on training procedural memory for basic functional movements (e.g., sit-to-stand) ...

  11. Evaluation of pool swell velocity during large break loss of coolant accident in boiling water reactor Mark III containment design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Jin, E-mail: jinyan10@gmail.co [GE-Hitachi Nuclear Energy, 3901 Castle Hayne Road, Wilmington, M/L-30, NC 28402 (United States); Bolger, Francis [GE-Hitachi Nuclear Energy, 3901 Castle Hayne Road, Wilmington, M/L-30, NC 28402 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    In boiling water reactor (BWR) design, safety scenarios such as main steam line break need to be evaluated. After the main steam line break, the steam will fill the upper dry well of the containment. It will then enter the vertical vent and eventually flow into the suppression pool via horizontal vents. The steam will create large bubbles in the suppression pool and cause the pool to swell. The impact of the pool swell on the equipment inside the pool and containment structure needed to be evaluated for licensing. GE has conducted a series of one-third scale three-vent air tests in supporting the horizontal vent pressure suppression system used in Mark III containment design for General Electric BWR plants. During the test, the air-water interface locations were tracked by conductivity probes. The pressure was measured at many locations inside the test rig as well. The purpose of the test was to provide a basis for the pool swell load definition for the Mark III containment. In this paper, a transient three-dimensional CFD model to simulate the one-third scale Mark III suppression pool swell process is illustrated. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) multiphase model is used to explicitly track the interface between the water liquid and the air. The CFD results such as flow velocity, pressure, interface locations are compared to the data from the test. Through comparisons, a technical approach to numerically model the pool swell phenomenon is established and benchmarked.

  12. Evaluation of pool swell velocity during large break loss of coolant accident in boiling water reactor Mark III containment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In boiling water reactor (BWR) design, safety scenarios such as main steam line break need to be evaluated. After the main steam line break, the steam will fill the upper dry well of the containment. It will then enter the vertical vent and eventually flow into the suppression pool via horizontal vents. The steam will create large bubbles in the suppression pool and cause the pool to swell. The impact of the pool swell on the equipment inside the pool and containment structure needed to be evaluated for licensing. GE has conducted a series of one-third scale three-vent air tests in supporting the horizontal vent pressure suppression system used in Mark III containment design for General Electric BWR plants. During the test, the air-water interface locations were tracked by conductivity probes. The pressure was measured at many locations inside the test rig as well. The purpose of the test was to provide a basis for the pool swell load definition for the Mark III containment. In this paper, a transient three-dimensional CFD model to simulate the one-third scale Mark III suppression pool swell process is illustrated. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) multiphase model is used to explicitly track the interface between the water liquid and the air. The CFD results such as flow velocity, pressure, interface locations are compared to the data from the test. Through comparisons, a technical approach to numerically model the pool swell phenomenon is established and benchmarked.

  13. Intratympanic steroid prevents long-term spiral ganglion neuron loss in experimental meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe, Lise Lotte; Brandt, C.T.; Lund, S.P.;

    2010-01-01

    for 3 days. Hearing loss and cochlear damage were assessed by distortion product otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem response at 16 kHz, and spiral ganglion neuron density. Results: Fifty-six days after infection, auditory brainstem response showed no significant differences between groups......, and distortion product otoacoustic emissions showed significant hearing loss at the low frequencies in animals treated with intratympanic steroid compared with animals treated with systemic saline (p neurons...... treatment prevents long-term spiral ganglion neuron loss in experimental pneumococcal meningitis. This finding is clinically relevant in relation to postmeningitic hearing rehabilitation by cochlear implantation. However, the drug instillation in the middle ear induced local fibrosis and a concurrent low...

  14. Human activity response and prevention strategies on soil and water loss in Sichuan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Yiping; CHEN Guojie

    2003-01-01

    Ten major factors have been selected to judge the degree of disturbance from human activity and the corresponding relationship of the impact on soil and water loss in Sichuan Province. Correlation analysis has demonstrated that stock-carrying capacity, percentage of land reclamation, population density, GDP per capita, mineral modulus and percentage of forest coverage are the 6 most relevant human activity factors. The analysis on the degree of disturbance has shown that population pressure, excessive or unreasonable activities in development of resources and destructive behavior of humans are the main causes of soil and water loss. Consequently, solving the various problems in the negative activity of humans and regulating human behavior are the first tasks that should be tackled in the conservation of water and soil. In the new era, the prevention and rectification of soil and water loss are measures based on the foundation of the ecosystem, which is a kind of management strategy for sustainable development. The foundation of this method is made up of the system innovations and breakthroughs in terms of aims, philosophy, measures, and aspects of the prevention and rectification of soil and water loss, simultaneous advance from the conceptual, policy, spatial, technical and mode levels and system integration on the treatment strategies.

  15. Loss of Control Prevention and Recovery: Onboard Guidance, Control, and Systems Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Loss of control (LOC) is one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. LOC accidents are complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. These LOC hazards include vehicle impairment conditions, external disturbances; vehicle upset conditions, and inappropriate crew actions or responses. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. NASA previously defined a comprehensive research and technology development approach for reducing LOC accidents and an associated integrated system concept. Onboard technologies for improved situation awareness, guidance, and control for LOC prevention and recovery are needed as part of this approach. Such systems should include: LOC hazards effects detection and mitigation; upset detection, prevention and recovery; and mitigation of combined hazards. NASA is conducting research in each of these areas. This paper provides an overview of this research, including the near-term LOC focus and associated analysis, as well as preliminary flight system architecture.

  16. A study on effective system depressurization during a PWR vessel bottom break LOCA with HPI failure and gas inflow prevention. ROSA-V/LSTF test SB-PV-05

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A small break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) experiment was conducted at the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) of ROSA-V program to study effects of accident management (AM) measures on core cooling, which are important in case of total failure of high pressure injection (HPI) system during an SBLOCA at a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The LSTF is a full-height and 1/48 volume-scaled facility simulating a 4-loop Westinghouse-type PWR (3423 MWt). The experiment, SB-PV-05, simulated a PWR vessel bottom SBLOCA with a rupture of nine instrument tubes, which is equivalent to 0.18% cold leg break. It is clarified that AM actions with steam generator (SG) depressurization to achieve a primary loop cooling rate at -55 K/h and auxiliary feedwater supply for 30 minutes are effective to avoid core uncovery by actuating the low pressure injection (LPI) system. It is also shown through the comparison with the previous experiment of SB-PV-03 that prevention of non-condensable gas inflow from the accumulator injection system (AIS) is very important to actuate the LPI to achieve adequate core cooling. This report presents experiment results of SB-PV-05 in detail and shows the effects of gas inflow prevention on core cooling through the estimation of primary coolant mass and energy balance in the primary system. (author)

  17. TRAC-PF1/MOD1 calculations and data comparisons for MIST [Multi-Loop Integral System Test] small-break loss-of-coolant accidents with scaled 10 cm2 and 50 cm2 breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is a participant in the Integral System Test (IST) program initiated in June 1983 for the purpose of providing integral system test data on specific issues/phenomena relevant to post-small-break loss-of-coolant accidents (SBLOCAs), loss of feedwater and other transients in Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) plant designs. The Multi-Loop Integral System Test (MIST) facility is the largest single component in the IST program. MIST is a 2 x 4 (2 hot legs and steam generators, 4 cold legs and reactor-coolant pumps) representation of lowered-loop reactor systems of the B and W design. It is a full-height, full-pressure facility with 1/817 power and volume scaling. Two other experimental facilities are included in the IST program: test loops at the University of Maryland, College Park, and at Stanford Research Institute. The objective of the IST tests is to generate high-quality experimental data to be used for assessing thermal-hydraulic safety computer codes. Efforts are underway at Los Alamos to assess TRAC-PF1/MOD1 against data from each of the IST facilities. Calculations and data comparisons for TRAC-PF1/MOD1 assessment have been completed for two transients run in the MIST facility. These are the MIST nominal test. Test 3109AA, a scaled 10 cm2 SBLOCA and Test 320201, a scaled 50 cm2 SBLOCA. Only MIST assessment results are presented in this paper

  18. Testing the effects of a message framing intervention on intentions towards hearing loss prevention in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Spaans, Pieter; Jansen, Bastiaan; van't Riet, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Adolescent hearing loss is a public health problem that has eluded effective intervention. A persuasive message strategy was tested for its effectiveness on adolescents' intention to listen to music at a reduced volume. The messages manipulated both type of message frame [positive consequences of listening to music at a reduced volume (gain-framed) versus negative consequences of not listening to music at a reduced volume (loss-framed)] and type of temporal context (short-term versus long-term consequences). Participants were recruited from four vocational and secondary education schools in the Netherlands and message exposure took place online during class hours. Two weeks prior to message exposure, adolescents provided data on intention and risk perception towards hearing loss and use of (digital) music players. After message exposure, 194 adolescents (mean age = 14.71 years, SD = 1.00, 37.8% males) provided immediate follow-up data on intention. Results revealed that intention to listen to music at a reduced volume increased in those exposed to a loss-framed message with short-term consequences. No changes were found in the other conditions. Messages that emphasize negative short-term consequences of not listening to music at a moderate volume have the ability to influence adolescents' intention towards hearing loss prevention. PMID:26956040

  19. Age-related hearing loss: prevention of threshold declines, cell loss and apoptosis in spiral ganglion neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoxia; Walton, Joseph P.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) -presbycusis - is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease and number one communication disorder of our aged population; and affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Its prevalence is close to that of cardiovascular disease and arthritis, and can be a precursor to dementia. The auditory perceptual dysfunction is well understood, but knowledge of the biological bases of ARHL is still somewhat lacking. Surprisingly, there are no FDA-approved drugs for treatment. Based on our previous studies of human subjects, where we discovered relations between serum aldosterone levels and the severity of ARHL, we treated middle age mice with aldosterone, which normally declines with age in all mammals. We found that hearing thresholds and suprathreshold responses significantly improved in the aldosterone-treated mice compared to the non-treatment group. In terms of cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this therapeutic effect, additional experiments revealed that spiral ganglion cell survival was significantly improved, mineralocorticoid receptors were upregulated via post-translational protein modifications, and age-related intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways were blocked by the aldosterone therapy. Taken together, these novel findings pave the way for translational drug development towards the first medication to prevent the progression of ARHL. PMID:27667674

  20. Accelerated remyelination during inflammatory demyelination prevents axonal loss and improves functional recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Feng; Lehmann-Horn, Klaus; Shen, Yun-An A; Rankin, Kelsey A; Stebbins, Karin J; Lorrain, Daniel S; Pekarek, Kara; A Sagan, Sharon; Xiao, Lan; Teuscher, Cory; von Büdingen, H-Christian; Wess, Jürgen; Lawrence, J Josh; Green, Ari J; Fancy, Stephen PJ; Zamvil, Scott S; Chan, Jonah R

    2016-01-01

    Demyelination in MS disrupts nerve signals and contributes to axon degeneration. While remyelination promises to restore lost function, it remains unclear whether remyelination will prevent axonal loss. Inflammatory demyelination is accompanied by significant neuronal loss in the experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) mouse model and evidence for remyelination in this model is complicated by ongoing inflammation, degeneration and possible remyelination. Demonstrating the functional significance of remyelination necessitates selectively altering the timing of remyelination relative to inflammation and degeneration. We demonstrate accelerated remyelination after EAE induction by direct lineage analysis and hypothesize that newly formed myelin remains stable at the height of inflammation due in part to the absence of MOG expression in immature myelin. Oligodendroglial-specific genetic ablation of the M1 muscarinic receptor, a potent negative regulator of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination, results in accelerated remyelination, preventing axonal loss and improving functional recovery. Together our findings demonstrate that accelerated remyelination supports axonal integrity and neuronal function after inflammatory demyelination. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18246.001 PMID:27671734

  1. THYDE-B1/MOD1: a computer code for analysis of small-break loss-of-coolant accident of boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    THYDE-B1/MOD1 is a computer code to analyze thermo-hydraulic transients of the reactor cooling system of a BWR, mainly during a small-break loss-of-coolant accidnet (SB-LOCA) with a special emphasis on the behavior of pressure and mixture level in the pressure vessel. The coolant behavior is simulated with a volume-and-junction method based on assumptions of thermal equilibrium and homogeneous conditions for two-phase flow. A characteristic feature of this code is a three-region representation of the state of the coolant in a control volume, in which three regions, i.e., subcooled liquid, saturated mixture and saturated steam regions are allowed to exist. The regions are separated by moving boundaries, tracked by mass and energy balances for each region. The interior of the pressure vessel is represented by two volumes with three regions: one for inside of the shroud and the other for outside, while other portions of the system are treated with homogeneous model. This method, although it seems to be very simple, has been verified to be adequate for cases of BWR SB-LOCAs in which the hydraulic transient is relatively slow and the cooling of the core strongly depends on the mixture level behavior in the vessel. In order to simulate the system behavior, THYDE-B1 is provided with analytical models for reactor kinetics, heat generation and conduction in fuel rods and structures, heat transfer between coolant and solid surfaces, coolant injection systems, breaks and discharge systems, jet pumps, recirculation pumps, and so on. The verification of the code has been conducted. A good predictability of the code has been indicated through the comparison of calculated results with experimental data provided by ROSA-III small-break tests. This report presents the analytical models, solution method, and input data requirements of the THYDE-B1/MOD1 code. (author)

  2. Isokinetic eccentric resistance training prevents loss in mechanical muscle function after running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Anderson S. C.; Caputo, Fabrizio; Aagaard, Per;

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to verify whether 8 weeks of resistance training employing maximal isokinetic eccentric (IERT) knee extensor actions would reduce the acute force loss observed after high-intensity treadmill running exercise. It was hypothesized that specific IERT would induce protective...... effects against muscle fatigue and ultrastructural damages, preventing or reducing the loss in mechanical muscle function after running. Subjects were tested before and after IERT protocol for maximal isometric, concentric and eccentric isokinetic knee extensor strength (60° and 180° s(-1)). In a second...... session, subjects performed treadmill running (~35 min) and the previously mentioned measurements were repeated immediately after running. Subsequently, subjects were randomized to training (n = 12) consisting of 24 sessions of maximal IERT knee extensors actions at 180° s(-1), or served as controls (n...

  3. TRAC analysis of an 80% pump-side, cold-leg, large-break loss-of-coolant accident for the Westinghouse AP600 advanced reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An updated TRAC 80% pump-side, cold-leg, large-break (LB) loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) has been calculated for the Westinghouse AP600 advanced reactor design. The updated calculation incorporates major code error corrections, model corrections, and plant design changes. The break size and location were calculated by Westinghouse to be the most severe LBLOCA for the AP600 design. The LBLOCA transient was calculated to 280 s, which is the time of in-containment refueling water-storage-tank injection. All fuel rods were quenched completely by 240 s. Peak cladding temperatures (PCTs) were well below the licensing limit of 1,478 K (2,200 F) but were very near the cladding oxidation temperature of 1,200 K (1,700 F). Transient event times and PCTs for the TRAC calculation were in reasonable agreement with those calculated by Westinghouse using their WCOBRA/TRAC code. However, there were significant differences in the detailed phenomena calculated by the two codes, particularly during the blowdown and refill periods. The reasons for these differences are still being investigated

  4. Post test calculation of the experiment `small break loss-of- coolant test` SBL-22 at the Finnish integral test facility PACTEL with the thermohydraulic code ATHLET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lischke, W.; Vandreier, B. [Univ. for Applied Sciences, Zittau/Goerlitz (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Technology

    1997-12-31

    At the University for Applied Sciences Zittau/Goerlitz (FH) calculations for the verification of the ATHLET-code for reactors of type VVER are carried out since 1991, sponsored by the German Ministry for Education, Science and Technology (BMBF). The special features of these reactors in comparison to reactors of western countries are characterized by the duct route of reactor coolant pipes and the horizontal steam generators. Because of these special features, a check of validity of the ATHLET-models is necessary. For further verification of the ATHLET-code the post test calculation of the experiment SBL-22 (Small break loss-of-coolant test) realized at the finnish facility PACTEL was carried out. The experiment served for the examination of the natural circulation behaviour of the loop over a continuous range of primary side water inventory. 5 refs.

  5. Source term analysis in severe accident induced by large break loss of coolant accident coincident with ship blackout for ship reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using MELCOR code, the accident analysis model was established for a ship reactor. The behaviors of radioactive fission products were analyzed in the case of severe accident induced by large break loss of coolant accident coincident with ship blackout. The research mainly focused on the behaviors of release, transport, retention and the final distribution of inert gas and CsI. The results show that 83.12% of inert gas releases from the core, and the most of inert gas exists in the containment. About 83.08% of CsI release from the core, 72.66% of which is detained in the debris and the primary system, and 27.34% releases into the containment. The results can give a reference for the evaluation of cabin dose and nuclear emergency management. (authors)

  6. A Multi-Layer Intelligent Loss-of-Control Prevention System (LPS) for Flight Control Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The main objective of the proposed work is to design and develop a multi-layer intelligent Loss-of-control Prevention System (LPS) for flight control applications....

  7. Effect of anti-osteoporotic agents on the prevention of bone loss in unloaded bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siu, Wing Sum; Ko, Chun Hay; Hung, Leung Kim; Lau, Ching Po; Lau, Clara Bik San; Fung, Kwok Pui; Leung, Ping Chung

    2013-10-01

    Pharmaceutical countermeasures to treat disuse osteoporosis are rarely studied. Pharmaceutical studies for the treatment and prevention of osteoporosis depend on the ovariectomized rat model, which is a suitable model for the disease in women. Disuse osteoporosis affects men and women, but there is lack of awareness and relevant pharmaceutical studies for this condition. The objectives of this study were to verify the validity of an unusual tail-suspension rat model in the induction of disuse osteoporosis and subsequent pharmaceutical treatments. This model was created by unloading the hind limbs of the rats in order to create a state of weightlessness in their hindlimb bones. Validation of the model was performed with non-suspended rats. This study included five groups of suspended rats fed with different agents, such as distilled water (control), high-, medium- and low-dose raloxifene and a bisphosphonate (alendronate). The experiment lasted for 28 days. Comparisons were made between the suspended control and treatment groups. Ovariectomized and sham‑operated rats were also included as a reference for bone changes during osteoporosis. Changes in bone mineral density (BMD) at the distal femur and proximal tibia, microarchitecture at the distal femur and biomechanical strength at the diaphyseal femur were studied. Reduction of BMD and deterioration of trabeculae were similar between the suspended control and ovariectomized rats. Loss of BMD induced by tail suspension was reduced most effectively by medium-dose raloxifene. Deterioration of trabecular microarchitecture was also prevented by raloxifene. The tail-suspension rat model is suitable for the study of disuse osteoporosis under the effects of various therapeutic agents. The preventive effects of raloxifene against bone loss under disuse conditions have been demonstrated using this model.

  8. Blueberry consumption prevents loss of collagen in bone matrix and inhibits senescence pathways in osteoblastic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jian; Lazarenko, Oxana P; Blackburn, Michael L; Badger, Thomas M; Ronis, Martin J J; Chen, Jin-Ran

    2013-06-01

    Ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss has been linked to increased bone turnover and higher bone matrix collagen degradation as the result of osteoclast activation. However, the role of degraded collagen matrix in the fate of resident bone-forming cells is unclear. In this report, we show that OVX-induced bone loss is associated with profound decreases in collagen 1 and Sirt1. This was accompanied by increases in expression and activity of the senescence marker collagenase and expression of p16/p21 in bone. Feeding a diet supplemented with blueberries (BB) to pre-pubertal rats throughout development or only prior to puberty [postnatal day 21 (PND21) to PND34] prevents OVX-induced effects on expression of these molecules at PND68. In order to provide more evidence and gain a better understanding on the association between bone collagen matrix and resident bone cell fate, in vitro studies on the cellular senescence pathway using primary calvarial cells and three cell lines (ST2 cells, OB6, and MLO-Y4) were conducted. We found that senescence was inhibited by collagen in a dose-response manner. Treatment of cells with serum from OVX rats accelerated osteoblastic cell senescence pathways, but serum from BB-fed OVX rats had no effect. In the presence of low collagen or treatment with OVX rat serum, ST2 cells exhibited higher potential to differentiate into adipocytes. Finally, we demonstrated that bone cell senescence is associated with decreased Sirt1 expression and activated p53, p16, and p21. These results suggest that (1) a significant prevention of OVX-induced bone cell senescence from adult rats can occur after only 14 days consumption of a BB-containing diet immediately prior to puberty, and (2) the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect involves, at least in part, prevention of collagen degradation. PMID:22555620

  9. Eliminating microglia in Alzheimer's mice prevents neuronal loss without modulating amyloid-β pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spangenberg, Elizabeth E; Lee, Rafael J; Najafi, Allison R; Rice, Rachel A; Elmore, Monica R P; Blurton-Jones, Mathew; West, Brian L; Green, Kim N

    2016-04-01

    In addition to amyloid-β plaque and tau neurofibrillary tangle deposition, neuroinflammation is considered a key feature of Alzheimer's disease pathology. Inflammation in Alzheimer's disease is characterized by the presence of reactive astrocytes and activated microglia surrounding amyloid plaques, implicating their role in disease pathogenesis. Microglia in the healthy adult mouse depend on colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) signalling for survival, and pharmacological inhibition of this receptor results in rapid elimination of nearly all of the microglia in the central nervous system. In this study, we set out to determine if chronically activated microglia in the Alzheimer's disease brain are also dependent on CSF1R signalling, and if so, how these cells contribute to disease pathogenesis. Ten-month-old 5xfAD mice were treated with a selective CSF1R inhibitor for 1 month, resulting in the elimination of ∼80% of microglia. Chronic microglial elimination does not alter amyloid-β levels or plaque load; however, it does rescue dendritic spine loss and prevent neuronal loss in 5xfAD mice, as well as reduce overall neuroinflammation. Importantly, behavioural testing revealed improvements in contextual memory. Collectively, these results demonstrate that microglia contribute to neuronal loss, as well as memory impairments in 5xfAD mice, but do not mediate or protect from amyloid pathology.

  10. Tauroursodeoxycholic acid prevents hearing loss and hair cell death in Cdh23(erl/erl) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, J; Xu, M; Yuan, J; Li, B; Entenman, S; Yu, H; Zheng, Q Y

    2016-03-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss has long been the subject of experimental and clinical research for many years. The recently identified novel mutation of the Cadherin23 (Cdh23) gene, Cdh23(erl/erl), was proven to be a mouse model of human autosomal recessive nonsyndromic deafness (DFNB12). Tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), a taurine-conjugated bile acid, has been used in experimental research and clinical applications related to liver disease, diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases, and other diseases associated with apoptosis. Because hair cell apoptosis was implied to be the cellular mechanism leading to hearing loss in Cdh23(erl/erl) mice (erl mice), this study investigated TUDCA's otoprotective effects in erl mice: preventing hearing impairment and protecting against hair cell death. Our results showed that systemic treatment with TUDCA significantly alleviated hearing loss and suppressed hair cell death in erl mice. Additionally, TUDCA inhibited apoptotic genes and caspase-3 activation in erl mouse cochleae. The data suggest that TUDCA could be a potential therapeutic agent for human DFNB12.

  11. Implications of Postharvest Food Loss/Waste Prevention to Energy and Resources Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X.; Shafiee-Jood, M.

    2015-12-01

    World's growing demand for food is driven by population and income growth, dietary changes, and the ever-increasing competition between food, feed and bioenergy challenges food security; meanwhile agricultural expansion and intensification threats the environment by the various detrimental impacts. Researchers have attempted to explore strategies to overcome this grand challenge. One of the promising solutions that have attracted considerable attention recently is to increase the efficiency of food supply chain by reducing food loss and waste (FLW). According to recent studies conducted by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nation, almost one third of the food produced for human consumption globally is lost or wasted along the food supply chain. This amount of food discarded manifests a missing, yet potential, opportunity to sustainably enhance both food security and environmental sustainability. However, implementing the strategies and technologies for tackling FLW does not come up as an easy solution since it requires economic incentives, benefit and cost analysis, infrastructure development, and appropriate market mechanism. In this presentation I will provide a synthesis of knowledge on the implications of postharvest food loss/waste prevention to energy and resource conservation, environmental protection, as well as food security. I will also discuss how traditional civil and environmental engineering can contribute to the reduction of postharvest food loss, an important issue of sustainable agriculture.

  12. Effective dissipation: breaking time-reversal symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Aidan I

    2016-01-01

    At molecular scales, fluctuations play a significant role and prevent biomolecular processes from always proceeding in a preferred direction, raising the question of how limited amounts of free energy can be dissipated to obtain directed progress. We examine the system and process characteristics that efficiently break time-reversal symmetry at fixed energy loss; in particular for a simple model of a molecular machine, an intermediate energy barrier produces unusually high asymmetry for a given dissipation. Such insight into symmetry-breaking factors that produce particularly high time asymmetry suggests generalizations to a broader class of systems.

  13. Tranexamic Acid in a Multimodal Blood Loss Prevention Protocol to Decrease Blood Loss in Revision Total Knee Arthroplasty: A Cohort Study#

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Andreu, Miguel; Talavera, Gloria; Padilla-Eguiluz, Norma G.; Perez-Chrzanowska, Hanna; Figueredo-Galve, Reyes; Rodriguez-Merchán, Carlos E.; Gómez-Barrena, Enrique

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To clarify if blood loss and transfusion requirements can be decreased in revision knee surgery through a multimodal blood loss approach with tranexamic acid (TXA) Patients and Methods: A retrospective study was designed in 87 knees (79 patients) that received a knee revision between 2007 and 2013. To avoid heterogeneity in the surgical technique, only revisions with one single implant system were included. A treatment series of 44 knees that received TXA and other techniques in a multimodal blood loss protocol was compared to a control series of 43 knees that received neither TXA nor the rest of the multimodal blood loss protocol. No differences in the complexity of surgeries or case severity were detected. Results: A significant decrease was observed from 58% transfusion rate in the control group to 5% in the treated group. The postoperative haemoglobin drop was also significantly different. Although the use of a blood loss prevention approach including TXA was the most relevant factor in the transfusion risk (OR=15), longer surgical time also associated an increased risk of transfusion (OR=1.15). Conclusion: This study supports the use of a two-dose intravenous TXA under a multimodal blood loss prevention approach in revision knee replacement with significant reduction in the transfusion rate, postoperative blood loss and haemoglobin drop.

  14. Simulation of a large break loss of coolant (LBLOCA), without actuation of the emergency injection systems (ECCS) for a BWR-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the analysis of scenario for the loss of coolant case was realized with break at the bottom of a recirculation loop of a BWR-5 with containment type Mark II and a thermal power of 2317 MWt considering that not have coolant injection. This in order to observe the speed of progression of the accident, the phenomenology of the scenario, the time to reach the limit pressure of containment venting and the amount of radionuclides released into the environment. This simulation was performed using the MELCOR code version 2.1. The scenario posits a break in one of the shear recirculation loops. The emergency core cooling system (ECCS) and the reactor core isolation cooling (Rcic) have not credit throughout the event, which allowed achieve greater severity on scenario. The venting of the primary containment was conducted via valve of 30 inches instead of the line of 24 inches of wet well, this in order to have a larger area of exhaust of fission products directly to the reactor building. The venting took place when the pressure in the primary containment reached the 4.5 kg/cm2 and remained open for the rest of the scenario to maximize the amount released of radionuclides to the atmosphere. The safety relief valves were considered functional they do not present mechanical failure or limit their ability to release pressure due to the large number of performances in safety mode. The results of the analysis covers about 48 hours, time at which the accident evolution was observed; behavior of level, pressure in the vessel and the fuel temperature profile was analyzed. For progression of the scenario outside the vessel, the pressure and temperature of the primary containment, level and temperature of the suppression pool, the hydrogen accumulation in the container and the radionuclides mass released into the atmosphere were analyzed. (Author)

  15. Prevention of the Evolution of Workers' Hearing Loss from Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Noisy Environments through a Hearing Conservation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Vinicius Ribas; Marques, Jair; Panegalli, Flavio; Gonçalves, Claudia Giglio de Oliveira; Souza, Wesley

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a serious problem for workers and therefore for businesses. The hearing conservation program (HCP) is a set of coordinated measures to prevent the development or evolution of occupational hearing loss, which involves a continuous and dynamic process of implementation of hearing conservation routines through anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and subsequent control of the occurrence of existing environmental risks or of those that may exist in the workplace and lead to workers' hearing damage. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the HCP in preventing further hearing loss in workers with audiograms suggestive of NIHL. The audiometric tests and medical records of 28 furniture company workers exposed to noise were reviewed and monitored for 2 years. Methods This retrospective, cross-sectional study examined five audiometric tests in the medical records (on admission and every semester) of 28 workers in a furniture company (totaling 140 audiometric exams) following the introduction of the HCP. Results Data analysis showed no differences between the audiometric tests conducted on admission and those performed every semester. Conclusions The HCP implemented was effective in preventing the worsening of hearing loss in workers already with NIHL when exposed to occupational noise. Therefore, such a measure could be useful for the employment of workers with hearing loss in job sectors that have noise exposure. PMID:26722345

  16. Preventing mitochondrial fission impairs mitochondrial function and leads to loss of mitochondrial DNA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe A Parone

    Full Text Available Mitochondria form a highly dynamic tubular network, the morphology of which is regulated by frequent fission and fusion events. However, the role of mitochondrial fission in homeostasis of the organelle is still unknown. Here we report that preventing mitochondrial fission, by down-regulating expression of Drp1 in mammalian cells leads to a loss of mitochondrial DNA and a decrease of mitochondrial respiration coupled to an increase in the levels of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS. At the cellular level, mitochondrial dysfunction resulting from the lack of fission leads to a drop in the levels of cellular ATP, an inhibition of cell proliferation and an increase in autophagy. In conclusion, we propose that mitochondrial fission is required for preservation of mitochondrial function and thereby for maintenance of cellular homeostasis.

  17. Prevention and Control of Losses of Gaseous Nitrogen Compounds in Livestock Operations: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.A. Jongebreur

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N losses from livestock houses and manure storage facilities contribute greatly to the total loss of N from livestock farms. Volatilisation of ammonia (NH3 is the major process responsible for the loss of N in husbandry systems with slurry (where average dry matter content varies between 3 and 13%. Concerning this volatilisation of NH3, the process parameters of pH and air temperature are crucial. During a period of approximately 10 years, systematic measurements of NH3 losses originating from a large variety of different livestock houses were made. One of the problems with NH3 emissions is the large variation in the measured data due to the season, the production of the animals, the manure treatment, type of livestock house, and the manure storage. Generally speaking, prevention and control of NH3 emission can be done by control of N content in the manure, moisture content, pH, and temperature[1]. In houses for growing pigs, a combination of simple housing measures can be taken to greatly reduce NH33 emissions[2]. In houses for laying hens, the control of the manure drying process determines the emission of NH3[1]. Monteny[3] has built an NH3 production model with separate modules for the emission of the manure storage under the dairy house and the floor in the house. Manure spreading is also a major source of NH3 emission and is dependent on slurry composition, environmental conditions, and farm management. The effects of these factors have been employed in a model[4]. Losses via NO, N2O, and N2 are important in husbandry systems with solid manure and straw. The number of experimental data is, however, very limited. As N2O is an intermediate product of complex biochemical processes of nitrification and denitrification, optimal conditions are the key issues in N2O reduction strategies. We may expect that in the near future the emission of greenhouse gases will get the same attention from policy makers as NH3. Sustainable livestock

  18. Diagnosis System for Diabetic Retinopathy and Glaucoma Screening to Prevent Vision Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Sundhara Raja DHANUSHKODI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Diabetic retinopathy (DR and glaucoma are two most common retinal disorders that are major causes of blindness in diabetic patients. DR caused in retinal images due to the damage in retinal blood vessels, which leads to the formation of hemorrhages spread over the entire region of retina. Glaucoma is caused due to hypertension in diabetic patients. Both DR and glaucoma affects the vision loss in diabetic patients. Hence, a computer aided development of diagnosis system for Diabetic retinopathy and Glaucoma screening is proposed in this paper to prevent vision loss. Method: The diagnosis system of DR consists of two stages namely detection and segmentation of fovea and hemorrhages. The diagnosis system of glaucoma screening consists of three stages namely blood vessel segmentation, Extraction of optic disc (OD and optic cup (OC region and determination of rim area between OD and OC. Results: The specificity and accuracy for hemorrhages detection is found to be 98.47% and 98.09% respectively. The accuracy for OD detection is found to be 99.3%. This outperforms state-of-the-art methods. Conclusion: In this paper, the diagnosis system is developed to classify the DR and glaucoma screening in to mild, moderate and severe respectively.

  19. Preventive Effects of Collagen Peptide from Deer Sinew on Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Deer sinew (DS has been used traditionally for various illnesses, and the major active constituent is collagen. In this study, we assessed the effects of collagen peptide from DS on bone loss in the ovariectomized rats. Wister female rats were randomly divided into six groups as follows: sham-operated (SHAM, ovariectomized control (OVX, OVX given 1.0 mg/kg/week nylestriol (OVX + N, OVX given 0.4 g/kg/day collagen peptide (OVX + H, OVX given 0.2 g/kg/day collagen peptide (OXV + M, and OVX given 0.1 g/kg/day collagen peptide (OXV + L, respectively. After 13 weeks of treatment, the rats were euthanized, and the effects of collagen peptide on body weight, uterine weight, bone mineral density (BMD, serum biochemical indicators, bone histomorphometry, and bone mechanics were observed. The data showed that BMD and concentration of serum hydroxyproline were significantly increased and the levels of serum calcium, phosphorus, and alkaline phosphatase were decreased. Besides, histomorphometric parameters and mechanical indicators were improved. However, collagen peptide of DS has no effect on estradiol level, body weight, and uterine weight. Therefore, these results suggest that the collagen peptide supplementation may also prevent and treat bone loss.

  20. Cotinine prevents memory loss and diminishes Alzheimer's disease-like pathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Catalina Charry

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Alzheimer's disease (AD affects millions of people around the world and currently there are no effective therapies. Cotinine, a metabolite of nicotine, has been shown to be neuroprotective, prevent memory loss and reduce amyloid-β (Aβ plaque pathology in transgenic AD mice. The beneficial effect that cotinine has on memory is associated with the inhibition of Aβ aggregation, the stimulation of pro-survival factors such as Akt, and the inhibition of pro-apoptotic factors such as glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta (GSK3β. These pro-apoptotic factors promote neuronal survival and the synaptic plasticity processes underlying learning and memory in the hippocampus and cortex of wild type and AD mice. Cotinine has also shown to diminish depressive-like behavior in normal and chronically stressed mice. Additionally, the use of this compound in studies has resulted in an increase in the expression of the active form of protein kinase B and the postsynaptic density protein 95 in the hippocampi and frontal cortices. It can be observed in multiple studies, that daily treatment of mice with cotinine reduced Aβ levels and plaque formation compared with vehicle treated mice, which had higher memory loss and depressive behavior. The beneficial effects of cotinine on brain function and good safety profile, suggest that it may be a potential new therapeutic agent against Alzheimer's disease.

  1. Evolutionary loss of light-harvesting proteins Lhcb6 and Lhcb3 in major land plant groups--break-up of current dogma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouřil, Roman; Nosek, Lukáš; Bartoš, Jan; Boekema, Egbert J; Ilík, Petr

    2016-05-01

    Photosynthesis in plants and algae relies on the coordinated function of photosystems (PS) I and II. Their efficiency is augmented by finely-tuned light-harvesting proteins (Lhcs) connected to them. The most recent Lhcs (in evolutionary terms), Lhcb6 and Lhcb3, evolved during the transition of plants from water to land and have so far been considered to be an essential characteristic of land plants. We used single particle electron microscopy and sequence analysis to study architecture and composition of PSII supercomplex from Norway spruce and related species. We have found that there are major land plant families that lack functional lhcb6 and lhcb3 genes, which notably changes the organization of PSII supercomplexes. The Lhcb6 and Lhcb3 proteins have been lost in the gymnosperm genera Picea and Pinus (family Pinaceae) and Gnetum (Gnetales). We also revealed that the absence of these proteins in Norway spruce modifies the PSII supercomplex in such a way that it resembles its counterpart in the alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, an evolutionarily older organism. Our results break a deep-rooted concept of Lhcb6 and Lhcb3 proteins being the essential characteristic of land plants, and beg the question of what the evolutionary benefit of their loss could be. PMID:27001142

  2. The effects of different exercise modes for preventing endothelial dysfunction of arteries and bone loss in ovariectomized rats

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Jonghoon; Omi, Naomi

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Several epidemiological studies have demonstrated that there are positive correlations between vascular disorders and bone loss in postmenopausal women. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of different types of exercise (e.g., climbing and swimming) for preventing endothelial dysfunction of arteries and bone loss in ovariectomized rats. [Methods] Twenty Sprague-Dawley female rats were randomly divided into three groups: ovariectomy (OVX) plus treatment with vitami...

  3. Breaking Bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Isaac-Cesar; Kagan, David

    2013-01-01

    The sight of a broken bat in Major League Baseball can produce anything from a humorous dribbler in the infield to a frightening pointed projectile headed for the stands. Bats usually break at the weakest point, typically in the handle. Breaking happens because the wood gets bent beyond the breaking point due to the wave sent down the bat created…

  4. High-impact exercise in rats prior to and during suspension can prevent bone loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagihara, G R; Paiva, A G; Gasparini, G A; Macedo, A P; Frighetto, P D; Volpon, J B; Shimano, A C

    2016-03-01

    High-impact exercise has been considered an important method for treating bone loss in osteopenic experimental models. In this study, we investigated the effects of osteopenia caused by inactivity in femora and tibiae of rats subjected to jump training using the rat tail suspension model. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each group): jump training for 2 weeks before suspension and training during 3 weeks of suspension; jump training for 2 weeks before suspension; jump training only during suspension; suspension without any training; and a control group. The exercise protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week, with a jump height of 40 cm. The bone mineral density of the femora and tibiae was measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry and the same bones were evaluated by mechanical tests. Bone microarchitecture was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Significance was determined as Pbone mineral density, mechanical properties and bone microarchitecture, the beneficial effects were greater in the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training and subsequently to training during suspension, compared with the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training or to training during suspension. Our results indicate that a period of high impact exercise prior to tail suspension in rats can prevent the installation of osteopenia if there is also training during the tail suspension.

  5. Harpagophytum procumbens prevents oxidative stress and loss of cell viability in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaffer, Larissa Finger; Peroza, Luis Ricardo; Boligon, Aline Augusti; Athayde, Margareth Linde; Alves, Sydney Hartz; Fachinetto, Roselei; Wagner, Caroline

    2013-11-01

    Harpagophytum procumbens, popularly known as devil's claw, is a plant commonly used in the treatment of diseases of inflammatory origin. The anti-inflammatory effects of H. procumbens have been studied; however, the mechanism of action is not elucidated. It is known that excess of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species may contribute to increasing tissue damage due to inflammation. In the present study, we examined the effects of H. procumbens infusion, crude extract and fractions on lipid peroxidation (brain homogenates) induced by different pro-oxidants (Fe(2+) or sodium nitroprusside) and the effects of ethyl acetate fraction (rich in phenolic compounds) on antioxidant defenses (catalase activity and thiol levels) and cell damage (brain cortical slices) induced by different pro-oxidants. All tested extracts of H. procumbens inhibited lipid peroxidation in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, the ethyl acetate fraction had the highest antioxidant effects either by decreasing lipid peroxidation and cellular damage or restoring thiols levels and catalase activity. Taken together, our results showed that H. procumbens acts either by preventing oxidative stress or loss of cell viability. Thus, the previously reported anti-inflammatory effect of H. procumbens could also be attributed to its antioxidant activity. PMID:23982320

  6. Ghrelin Prevents Cisplatin-Induced Testicular Damage by Facilitating Repair of DNA Double Strand Breaks Through Activation of p53 in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jose M; Chen, Ji-an; Guillory, Bobby; Donehower, Lawrence A; Smith, Roy G; Lamb, Dolores J

    2015-07-01

    Cisplatin administration induces DNA damage resulting in germ cell apoptosis and subsequent testicular atrophy. Although 50 percent of male cancer patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy develop long-term secondary infertility, medical treatment to prevent spermatogenic failure after chemotherapy is not available. Under normal conditions, testicular p53 promotes cell cycle arrest, which allows time for DNA repair and reshuffling during meiosis. However, its role in the setting of cisplatin-induced infertility has not been studied. Ghrelin administration ameliorates the spermatogenic failure that follows cisplatin administration in mice, but the mechanisms mediating these effects have not been well established. The aim of the current study was to characterize the mechanisms of ghrelin and p53 action in the testis after cisplatin-induced testicular damage. Here we show that cisplatin induces germ cell damage through inhibition of p53-dependent DNA repair mechanisms involving gamma-H2AX and ataxia telangiectasia mutated protein kinase. As a result, testicular weight and sperm count and motility were decreased with an associated increase in sperm DNA damage. Ghrelin administration prevented these sequelae by restoring the normal expression of gamma-H2AX, ataxia telangiectasia mutated, and p53, which in turn allows repair of DNA double stranded breaks. In conclusion, these findings indicate that ghrelin has the potential to prevent or diminish infertility caused by cisplatin and other chemotherapeutic agents by restoring p53-dependent DNA repair mechanisms. PMID:26019260

  7. Loss-of-feedwater, steam generator tube rupture, and steam line break experiments: Steam generator transient response test program: Interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Westinghouse Model Boiler No. 2 (MB-2) steam generator test model at the Engineering Test Facility in Tampa, Florida, was reinstrumented and modified for performing a series of tests simulating steam generator accident transients. The transients simulated were: loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture, and steam line break events. This document presents a description of (1) the model boiler and the associated test facility, (2) the tests performed, and (3) the analyses of the test results. Two LOF tests were analyzed in detail. Both tests were initiated from 100% power condition by shutting off the main feedwater flow. In LOF Test No. 1, the remaining boundary conditions were kept constant while in LOF Test No. 2, the power was rapidly reduced to 3%. The results show that the primary to secondary heat transfer becomes degraded when the collapsed water liquid level in the bundle region falls below approximately 50 inches. The SGTR test analyzed in detail - SGTR Test No. 2 - simulated the post-reactor-trip portion of the SGTR transient (T/sub prim/ = 5600F). The transient was initiated by starting the SGTR flow injection and simultaneously shutting off the auxiliary feedwater. The water level rose and flooded the dryer to its mid-elevation by the end of the test. The primary carry-over was shown to be less than 0.4% of the tracer mass injected into the secondary side by the SGTR flow. SGTR Test No. 3 investigated the response of the intact steam generator. Reverse heat transfer and low heat flow conditions were simulated. The results have demonstrated the occurrence of temperature stratification in the secondary water which lasted for about 800 seconds

  8. DNA double strand breaks but not interstrand crosslinks prevent progress through meiosis in fully grown mouse oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Shan Yuen

    Full Text Available There is some interest in how mammalian oocytes respond to different types of DNA damage because of the increasing expectation of fertility preservation in women undergoing chemotherapy. Double strand breaks (DSBs induced by ionizing radiation and agents such as neocarzinostatin (NCS, and interstrand crosslinks (ICLs induced by alkylating agents such as mitomycin C (MMC, are toxic DNA lesions that need to be repaired for cell survival. Here we examined the effects of NCS and MMC treatment on oocytes collected from antral follicles in mice, because potentially such oocytes are readily collected from ovaries and do not need to be in vitro grown to achieve meiotic competency. We found that oocytes were sensitive to NCS, such that this ionizing radiation mimetic blocked meiosis I and caused fragmented DNA. In contrast, MMC had no impact on the completion of either meiosis I or II, even at extremely high doses. However, oocytes treated with MMC did show γ-H2AX foci and following their in vitro maturation and parthenogenetic activation the development of the subsequent embryos was severely compromised. Addition of MMC to 1-cell embryos caused a similarly poor level of development, demonstrating oocytes have eventual sensitivity to this ICL-inducing agent but this does not occur during their meiotic division. In oocytes, the association of Fanconi Anemia protein, FANCD2, with sites of ICL lesions was not apparent until entry into the embryonic cell cycle. In conclusion, meiotic maturation of oocytes is sensitive to DSBs but not ICLs. The ability of oocytes to tolerate severe ICL damage and yet complete meiosis, means that this type of DNA lesion goes unrepaired in oocytes but impacts on subsequent embryo quality.

  9. CHEMICAL PLANT SAFETY AND LOSS PREVENTION (Papers Presented at the International Symposium on Safety Control and Risk Management, SCRM)

    OpenAIRE

    Smith, Robert A.; Michigan, Midland

    1989-01-01

    Increased emphasis on safety and loss prevention over the last 50 years has engrained safety as one of the core values of The Dow Chemical Company. The safety emphasis starts at the very top, with the Environment, Health and Safety Committee of the Board

  10. Importance of weight loss maintenance and risk prediction in the prevention of type 2 diabetes: analysis of European Diabetes Prevention Study RCT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Penn

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D is increasing worldwide. T2D prevention by lifestyle intervention is effective. Pragmatic scalable interventions are needed, with evidence to efficiently target and monitor such interventions. We report pooled analyses of data from three European trial cohorts: to analyse T2D incidence, sustained weight loss and utility of risk predictors. METHODS: We analysed data on 749 adults with impaired glucose tolerance (278 men and 471 women, mean age 56 years, mean BMI 31 kgm(-2 recruited between 1993 and 2003, and randomised to intensive lifestyle intervention (I or lifestyle advice control (C. The intervention aimed to increase physical activity, modify diet, and promote weight loss≥5%. Using Cox-regression survival analysis, we assessed T2D incidence and the impact on T2D incidence of sustained weight loss, and of baseline cut-point values of FINDRISC score, fasting plasma glucose (FPG, and HbA1c. RESULTS: Mean follow-up duration was 3.1 years. T2D was diagnosed in 139 participants (I = 45/379, C = 94/370. Cumulative T2D incidence was 57% lower in the intervention compared with the control group (HR 0.42 (95% CI 0.29 to 0.60 P<0.001. Participants with ≥5% weight loss at one year had 65% lower T2D incidence (HR 0.35 (95% CI 0.22 to 0.56 P<0.001; maintaining ≥5% weight loss for two and three years further reduced T2D incidence. Recommended cut-points to identify those at high risk for T2D would have identified different proportions of European Diabetes Prevention Study (EDIPS participants with similar hazard-ratios for intervention effect. CONCLUSIONS: Pooled analysis of EDIPS trial data reinforces evidence for T2D prevention by lifestyle intervention. Analysis showed the preventive effect of ≥5% weight loss, especially if maintained long term, which has utility for intervention monitoring. Analysis of proposed cut-points demonstrates difficulties in balancing risk and benefit, to

  11. Prevention and Control of Losses of Gaseous Nitrogen Compounds in Livestock Operations: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Jongebreur, A.A.; Monteny, G.J.

    2001-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) losses from livestock houses and manure storage facilities contribute greatly to the total loss of N from livestock farms. Volatilisation of ammonia (NH3) is the major process responsible for the loss of N in husbandry systems with slurry (where average dry matter content varies between 3 and 13%). Concerning this volatilisation of NH3, the process parameters of pH and air temperature are crucial. During a period of approximately 10 years, systematic measurements of NH3 losses or...

  12. Myricetin Prevents Alveolar Bone Loss in an Experimental Ovariectomized Mouse Model of Periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jialiang; Wu, Chuanlong; Tian, Bo; Zhou, Xiao; Ma, Nian; Qian, Yufen

    2016-03-22

    Periodontitis is a common chronic inflammatory disease, which leads to alveolar bone resorption. Healthy and functional alveolar bone, which can support the teeth and enable their movement, is very important for orthodontic treatment. Myricetin inhibited osteoclastogenesis by suppressing the expression of some genes, signaling pathways, and cytokines. This study aimed to investigate the effects of myricetin on alveolar bone loss in an ovariectomized (OVX) mouse model of periodontitis as well as in vitro osteoclast formation and bone resorption. Twenty-four healthy eight-week-old C57BL/J6 female mice were assigned randomly to four groups: phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) control (sham) OVX + ligature + PBS (vehicle), and OVX + ligature + low or high (2 or 5 mg∙kg(-1)∙day(-1), respectively) doses of myricetin. Myricetin or PBS was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) every other day for 30 days. The maxillae were collected and subjected to further examination, including micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining, and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining; a resorption pit assay was also performed in vitro to evaluate the effects of myricetin on receptor activator of nuclear factor κ-B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis. Myricetin, at both high and low doses, prevented alveolar bone resorption and increased alveolar crest height in the mouse model and inhibited osteoclast formation and bone resorption in vitro. However, myricetin was more effective at high dose than at low dose. Our study demonstrated that myricetin had a positive effect on alveolar bone resorption in an OVX mouse model of periodontitis and, therefore, may be a potential agent for the treatment of periodontitis and osteoporosis.

  13. Nbn and atm cooperate in a tissue and developmental stage-specific manner to prevent double strand breaks and apoptosis in developing brain and eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo M G Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Nibrin (NBN or NBS1 and ATM are key factors for DNA Double Strand Break (DSB signaling and repair. Mutations in NBN or ATM result in Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome and Ataxia telangiectasia. These syndromes share common features such as radiosensitivity, neurological developmental defects and cancer predisposition. However, the functional synergy of Nbn and Atm in different tissues and developmental stages is not yet understood. Here, we show in vivo consequences of conditional inactivation of both genes in neural stem/progenitor cells using Nestin-Cre mice. Genetic inactivation of Atm in the central nervous system of Nbn-deficient mice led to reduced life span and increased DSBs, resulting in increased apoptosis during neural development. Surprisingly, the increase of DSBs and apoptosis was found only in few tissues including cerebellum, ganglionic eminences and lens. In sharp contrast, we showed that apoptosis associated with Nbn deletion was prevented by simultaneous inactivation of Atm in developing retina. Therefore, we propose that Nbn and Atm collaborate to prevent DSB accumulation and apoptosis during development in a tissue- and developmental stage-specific manner.

  14. Hearing loss prevention for carpenters: Part 1 - Using health communication and health promotion models to develop training that works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Merry Stephenson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In phase 1 of a large multiyear effort, health communication and health promotion models were used to develop a comprehensive hearing loss prevention training program for carpenters. Additionally, a survey was designed to be used as an evaluation instrument. The models informed an iterative research process in which the authors used key informant interviews, focus groups, and early versions of the survey tool to identify critical issues expected to be relevant to the success of the hearing loss prevention training. Commonly held attitudes and beliefs associated with occupational noise exposure and hearing losses, as well as issues associated with the use or non-use of hearing protectors, were identified. The training program was then specifically constructed to positively shape attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions associated with healthy hearing behaviors - especially those associated with appropriate hearing protector use. The goal was to directly address the key issues and overcome the barriers identified during the formative research phase. The survey was finalized using factor analysis methods and repeated pilot testing. It was designed to be used with the training as an evaluation tool and thus could indicate changes over time in attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions regarding hearing loss prevention. Finally, the training program was fine tuned with industry participation so that its delivery would integrate seamlessly into the existing health and safety training provided to apprentice carpenters. In phase 2, reported elsewhere in this volume, the training program and the survey were tested through a demonstration project at two sites.

  15. Feeding blueberry diets in early life prevent senescence of osteoblasts and bone loss in ovariectomized adult female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Appropriate nutrition during early development is essential for maximal bone mass accretion; however, linkage between early nutrition, childhood bone mass, peak bone mass in adulthood, and prevention of bone loss later in life has not been studied. METHODOLOGY AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this report, we show that feeding a high quality diet supplemented with blueberries (BB to pre-pubertal rats throughout development or only between postnatal day 20 (PND20 and PND34 prevented ovariectomy (OVX-induced bone loss in adult life. This protective effect of BB is due to suppression of osteoblastic cell senescence associated with acute loss of myosin expression after OVX. Early exposure of pre-osteoblasts to serum from BB-fed rats was found to consistently increase myosin expression. This led to maintenance osteoblastic cell development and differentiation and delay of cellular entrance into senescence through regulation of the Runx2 gene. High bone turnover after OVX results in insufficient collagenous matrix support for new osteoblasts and their precursors to express myosin and other cytoskeletal elements required for osteoblast activity and differentiation. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results indicate: 1 a significant prevention of OVX-induced bone loss from adult rats can occur with only 14 days consumption of a BB-containing diet immediately prior to puberty; and 2 the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects involves increased myosin production which stimulates osteoblast differentiation and reduces mesenchymal stromal cell senescence.

  16. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) prevent trabecular bone loss during disuse (hibernation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Wojda, Samantha J; Barlow, Lindsay N; Drummer, Thomas D; Castillo, Alesha B; Kennedy, Oran; Condon, Keith W; Auger, Janene; Black, Hal L; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2009-12-01

    Disuse typically causes an imbalance in bone formation and bone resorption, leading to losses of cortical and trabecular bone. In contrast, bears maintain balanced intracortical remodeling and prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation). Trabecular bone, however, is more detrimentally affected than cortical bone in other animal models of disuse. Here we investigated the effects of hibernation on bone remodeling, architectural properties, and mineral density of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bear (Ursus americanus) trabecular bone in several skeletal locations. There were no differences in bone volume fraction or tissue mineral density between hibernating and active bears or between pre- and post-hibernation bears in the ilium, distal femur, or calcaneus. Though indices of cellular activity level (mineral apposition rate, osteoid thickness) decreased, trabecular bone resorption and formation indices remained balanced in hibernating grizzly bears. These data suggest that bears prevent bone loss during disuse by maintaining a balance between bone formation and bone resorption, which consequently preserves bone structure and strength. Further investigation of bone metabolism in hibernating bears may lead to the translation of mechanisms preventing disuse-induced bone loss in bears into novel treatments for osteoporosis.

  17. Application of realistic (best- estimate) methodologies for large break loss of coolant (LOCA) safety analysis: licensing of Westinghouse ASTRUM evaluation model in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When the LOCA Final Acceptance Criteria for Light Water Reactors was issued in Appendix K of 10CFR50 both the USNRC and the industry recognized that the rule was highly conservative. At that time, however, the degree of conservatism in the analysis could not be quantified. As a result, the USNRC began a research program to identify the degree of conservatism in those models permitted in the Appendix K rule and to develop improved thermal-hydraulic computer codes so that realistic accident analysis calculations could be performed. The overall results of this research program quantified the conservatism in the Appendix K rule and confirmed that some relaxation of the rule can be made without a loss in safety to the public. Also, from a risk-informed perspective it is recognized that conservatism is not always a complete defense for lack of sophistication in models. In 1988, as a result of the improved understanding of LOCA phenomena, the USNRC staff amended the requirements of 10 CFR 50.46 and Appendix K, 'ECCS Evaluation Models', so that a realistic evaluation model may be used to analyze the performance of the ECCS during a hypothetical LOCA. Under the amended rules, best-estimate plus uncertainty (BEPU) thermal-hydraulic analysis may be used in place of the overly prescriptive set of models mandated by Appendix K rule. Further guidance for the use of best-estimate codes was provided in Regulatory Guide 1.157 To demonstrate use of the revised ECCS rule, the USNRC and its consultants developed a method called the Code Scaling, Applicability, and Uncertainty (CSAU) evaluation methodology as an approach for defining and qualifying a best-estimate thermal-hydraulic code and quantifying the uncertainties in a LOCA analysis. More recently the CSAU principles have been generalized in the Evaluation Model Development and Assessment Process (EMDAP) of Regulatory Guide 1.203. ASTRUM is the Westinghouse Best Estimate Large Break LOCA evaluation model applicable to two-, three

  18. Psychosocial Predictors of Weight Loss among American Indian and Alaska Native Participants in a Diabetes Prevention Translational Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Dill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of psychosocial factors (psychological distress, coping skills, family support, trauma exposure, and spirituality with initial weight and weight loss among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs in a diabetes prevention translational project was investigated. Participants (n=3,135 were confirmed as prediabetic and subsequently enrolled in the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention (SDPI-DP demonstration project implemented at 36 Indian health care programs. Measures were obtained at baseline and after completing a 16-session educational curriculum focusing on weight loss through behavioral changes. At baseline, psychological distress and negative family support were linked to greater weight, whereas cultural spirituality was correlated with lower weight. Furthermore, psychological distress and negative family support predicted less weight loss, and positive family support predicted greater weight loss, over the course of the intervention. These bivariate relationships between psychosocial factors and weight remained statistically significant within a multivariate model, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Conversely, coping skills and trauma exposure were not significantly associated with baseline weight or change in weight. These findings demonstrate the influence of psychosocial factors on weight loss in AI/AN communities and have substantial implications for incorporating adjunctive intervention components.

  19. Psychosocial Predictors of Weight Loss among American Indian and Alaska Native Participants in a Diabetes Prevention Translational Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dill, Edward J; Manson, Spero M; Jiang, Luohua; Pratte, Katherine A; Gutilla, Margaret J; Knepper, Stephanie L; Beals, Janette; Roubideaux, Yvette; Special Diabetes Program For Indians Diabetes Prevention Demonstration Project

    2016-01-01

    The association of psychosocial factors (psychological distress, coping skills, family support, trauma exposure, and spirituality) with initial weight and weight loss among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) in a diabetes prevention translational project was investigated. Participants (n = 3,135) were confirmed as prediabetic and subsequently enrolled in the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention (SDPI-DP) demonstration project implemented at 36 Indian health care programs. Measures were obtained at baseline and after completing a 16-session educational curriculum focusing on weight loss through behavioral changes. At baseline, psychological distress and negative family support were linked to greater weight, whereas cultural spirituality was correlated with lower weight. Furthermore, psychological distress and negative family support predicted less weight loss, and positive family support predicted greater weight loss, over the course of the intervention. These bivariate relationships between psychosocial factors and weight remained statistically significant within a multivariate model, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Conversely, coping skills and trauma exposure were not significantly associated with baseline weight or change in weight. These findings demonstrate the influence of psychosocial factors on weight loss in AI/AN communities and have substantial implications for incorporating adjunctive intervention components. PMID:26649314

  20. Preventing loss of independence through exercise (PLIE: a pilot clinical trial in older adults with dementia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah E Barnes

    Full Text Available Current dementia medications have small effect sizes, many adverse effects and do not change the disease course. Therefore, it is critically important to study alternative treatment strategies. The goal of this study was to pilot-test a novel, integrative group exercise program for individuals with mild-to-moderate dementia called Preventing Loss of Independence through Exercise (PLIÉ, which focuses on training procedural memory for basic functional movements (e.g., sit-to-stand while increasing mindful body awareness and facilitating social connection.We performed a 36-week cross-over pilot clinical trial to compare PLIÉ with usual care (UC at an adult day program for individuals with dementia in San Francisco, CA. Assessments of physical performance, cognitive function, physical function, dementia-related behaviors, quality of life and caregiver burden were performed by blinded assessors at baseline, 18 weeks (cross-over and 36 weeks. Our primary outcomes were effect sizes based on between-group comparisons of change from baseline to 18 weeks; secondary outcomes were within-group comparisons of change before and after cross-over.Twelve individuals enrolled (7 PLIÉ, 5 UC and 2 withdrew (1 PLIÉ, 18 weeks; 1 UC, 36 weeks. Participants were 82% women (mean age, 84 ± 4 years; caregivers were 82% daughters (mean age, 56 ± 13 years. Effect sizes were not statistically significant but suggested potentially clinically meaningful (≥ 0.25 SDs improvement with PLIÉ versus UC for physical performance (Cohen's D: 0.34 SDs, cognitive function (0.76 SDs and quality of life (0.83 SDs as well as for caregiver measures of participant's quality of life (0.33 SDs and caregiver burden (0.49 SDs. Results were similar when within-group comparisons were made before and after cross-over.PLIÉ is a novel, integrative exercise program that shows promise for improving physical function, cognitive function, quality of life and caregiver burden in individuals with

  1. Diabetes and Healthy Eyes Toolkit: a community health worker program to prevent vision loss and blindness among people with diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammary-Risch, Neyal J; Aguilar, Marcela; Goodman, Laura Saunders; Quiroz, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    Diabetic eye disease is a leading cause of vision loss and blindness in the United States and disproportionately affects Hispanics/Latinos. This article provides an overview of the Diabetes and Healthy Eyes Toolkit, a culturally and linguistically appropriate resource designed for community health workers to educate people with diabetes about eye health complications. The toolkit provides science-based, easy-to-understand information that can be used to conduct interactive, educational sessions about diabetes and eye health, the importance of comprehensive dilated eye examinations at least once a year for people with diabetes, and other ways to prevent vision loss and blindness.

  2. Theories and Practice in Prevention and Treatment Principles in Relation to Chinese Herbal Medicine and Bone Loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Xu 徐红; David LAWSON

    2004-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a world wide problem that is increasing in significance as the global population both increases and ages. While osteoporosis has been extensively studied in recent years, the utilization of Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine for the prevention and treatment of this condition have seldom been examined in the Western world. This paper reviews the theories and the literature that relate to prevention and treatment of bone loss at the time of menopause according to the principles of Traditional Chinese Herbal Medicine. Practical developments in these areas are also illustrated in this paper based on the authors' research findings in recent studies.

  3. Charts for Weight Loss to Detect Hypernatremic Dehydration and Prevent Formula Supplementing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dommelen, P. van; Boer, S.; Unal, S.; Wouwe, J.P. van

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most breast-fed newborns get the milk they need. However, very rarely milk intake is insufficient mostly as a result of poor breastfeeding techniques. Dramatic weight loss and hypernatremic dehydration may occur. Our aim was to construct charts for weight loss. METHODS: A case-control st

  4. Hearing loss prevention for carpenters: Part 1 - Using health communication and health promotion models to develop training that works

    OpenAIRE

    Carol Merry Stephenson; Stephenson, Mark R.

    2011-01-01

    In phase 1 of a large multiyear effort, health communication and health promotion models were used to develop a comprehensive hearing loss prevention training program for carpenters. Additionally, a survey was designed to be used as an evaluation instrument. The models informed an iterative research process in which the authors used key informant interviews, focus groups, and early versions of the survey tool to identify critical issues expected to be relevant to the success of the hearing lo...

  5. GLP-1 receptor agonist treatment increases bone formation and prevents bone loss in weight-reduced obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Eva Pers Winning; Lundgren, Julie Rehné; Hartmann, Bolette;

    2015-01-01

    markers (CTX-1 and P1NP) were investigated before, after weight loss and after 52 weeks weight maintenance. Primary end points: Change in BMC and bone markers after 52 weeks weight maintenance with or without GLP-1 RA treatment. RESULTS: Total, pelvic and arm-leg BMC decreased during weight maintenance....... In the liraglutide group, the bone formation marker P1NP increased by 16% (7±3 μg/L) vs a 2% (-1±4 μg/L) decrease in the control group (pmaintenance phase. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment with a long-acting GLP-1 RA increased bone formation by 16......% and prevented bone loss after weight loss obtained through a low calorie-diet, supporting its role as a safe weight-lowering agent....

  6. Alpha-1 antitrypsin gene therapy prevented bone loss in ovariectomy induced osteoporosis mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis is a major healthcare burden affecting mostly postmenopausal women characterized by compromised bone strength and increased risk of fragility fracture. Although pathogenesis of this disease is complex, elevated proinflammatory cytokine production is clearly involved in bone loss at meno...

  7. Prevention of fetal loss in experimental antiphospholipid syndrome by in vivo administration of recombinant interleukin-3.

    OpenAIRE

    Fishman, P; Falach-Vaknine, E; Zigelman, R; Bakimer, R; Sredni, B.; Djaldetti, M; Shoenfeld, Y

    1993-01-01

    Antiphospholipid antibodies are strongly associated with arterial and venous thrombosis and with fetal loss. Recently an experimental model for antiphospholipid syndrome (APLS) was established in our laboratory. In this model, mice are immunized passively or actively with anticardiolipin antibodies and acquire the syndrome, which is characterized by prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombocytopenia, low fecundity rate, and fetal loss. In a normal process of pregnancy, l...

  8. Break It

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MATTHEW PLOWRIGHT; GWYNN GUILFORD

    2008-01-01

    @@ Resolutions are not natural - otherwise you wouldn't have to "resolve" to execute them. This year, instead of planning how to commit to a slew of unattainable goals, why not prepare for breaking your resolutions the right way?

  9. Winter-catastrophies in the reindeer husbandry of Finland: Losses and their prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Helle

    1982-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the occurreance of disastrous winters to the reindeer industry in Finland with special attention on the winter catastrophies and tje condition of the pastures, the influence of the disasters upon the population dynamic of the reindeer and the methods used to prevent catastrophies. A reindeer catastrophy has been defined as a situation where the number of reindeer stays 20% below the mean of the reindeer numbers during the two preceeding years. During the winter-catastrophies from 1970/71 to 1980/81 4.5% of the total reindeer number was lost. The highest losses were found in the northwesternmost part of Lappland, where there is no alternative to the reindeer lichen as it is in the middle and southern part of the reindeer industry area (arboreal lichens and supplemental feeding. In Kaldoaivi reindeer association (district, which has been studied in detail, the calf percentage is depending upon how the reindeer is able to manage the winter (r=0.62, n=ll, p«0.05. There is also a positive correlation between the slaughterweight of the calves in the early winter and the calf rate (r=0.79, n=7, p«0.05.During severe winters the mortality rate of males exceeds that of the females. Winter-catastrophies may be prevented by deminishing the numer of reindeer and by guiding the harvest to the most risky cohorts of the population. It has been proved that supplementary and emergency feeding are the most effective methods. In a normal year during the 1970s the total use of dry hay was 0.5—1.5 mill, kg., being up to 5.9—12.5 kg. per reindeer/year. In normal winters 10—16% of the total reindeer stock was intensively fed in enclosures. Supplementary feeding in enclosures is most common in the middle and southern parts of the reindeer industry area, where the essential feed is grown on own land.Katotalvet suomen poronhoidossa: menetykset ja Niiden Torjunta.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Artikkeli käsittelee katastrofitalvien

  10. Probiotic L. reuteri treatment prevents bone loss in a menopausal ovariectomized mouse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britton, Robert A; Irwin, Regina; Quach, Darin; Schaefer, Laura; Zhang, Jing; Lee, Taehyung; Parameswaran, Narayanan; McCabe, Laura R

    2014-11-01

    Estrogen deficiency is a major risk factor for osteoporosis that is associated with bone inflammation and resorption. Half of women over the age of 50 will experience an osteoporosis related fracture in their lifetime, thus novel therapies are needed to combat post-menopausal bone loss. Recent studies suggest an important role for gut-bone signaling pathways and the microbiota in regulating bone health. Given that the bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 (L. reuteri) secretes beneficial immunomodulatory factors, we examined if this candidate probiotic could reduce bone loss associated with estrogen deficiency in an ovariectomized (Ovx) mouse menopausal model. Strikingly, L. reuteri treatment significantly protected Ovx mice from bone loss. Osteoclast bone resorption markers and activators (Trap5 and RANKL) as well as osteoclastogenesis are significantly decreased in L. reuteri-treated mice. Consistent with this, L. reuteri suppressed Ovx-induced increases in bone marrow CD4+ T-lymphocytes (which promote osteoclastogenesis) and directly suppressed osteoclastogenesis in vitro. We also identified that L. reuteri treatment modifies microbial communities in the Ovx mouse gut. Together, our studies demonstrate that L. reuteri treatment suppresses bone resorption and loss associated with estrogen deficiency. Thus, L. reuteri treatment may be a straightforward and cost-effective approach to reduce post-menopausal bone loss. PMID:24677054

  11. Detecting cell lysis using viscosity monitoring in E. coli fermentation to prevent product loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Joseph M; Schofield, Desmond; Vlahopoulou, Joanna; Zhou, Yuhong

    2016-07-01

    Monitoring the physical or chemical properties of cell broths to infer cell status is often challenging due to the complex nature of the broth. Key factors indicative of cell status include cell density, cell viability, product leakage, and DNA release to the fermentation broth. The rapid and accurate prediction of cell status for hosts with intracellular protein products can minimise product loss due to leakage at the onset of cell lysis in fermentation. This article reports the rheological examination of an industrially relevant E. coli fermentation producing antibody fragments (Fab'). Viscosity monitoring showed an increase in viscosity during the exponential phase in relation to the cell density increase, a relatively flat profile in the stationary phase, followed by a rapid increase which correlated well with product loss, DNA release and loss of cell viability. This phenomenon was observed over several fermentations that a 25% increase in broth viscosity (using induction-point viscosity as a reference) indicated 10% product loss. Our results suggest that viscosity can accurately detect cell lysis and product leakage in postinduction cell cultures, and can identify cell lysis earlier than several other common fermentation monitoring techniques. This work demonstrates the utility of rapidly monitoring the physical properties of fermentation broths, and that viscosity monitoring has the potential to be a tool for process development to determine the optimal harvest time and minimise product loss. © 2016 The Authors. Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 32:1069-1076, 2016. PMID:27111912

  12. Sex steroid deficiency-associated bone loss is microbiota dependent and prevented by probiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jau-Yi; Chassaing, Benoit; Tyagi, Abdul Malik; Vaccaro, Chiara; Luo, Tao; Adams, Jonathan; Darby, Trevor M; Weitzmann, M Neale; Mulle, Jennifer G; Gewirtz, Andrew T; Jones, Rheinallt M; Pacifici, Roberto

    2016-06-01

    A eubiotic microbiota influences many physiological processes in the metazoan host, including development and intestinal homeostasis. Here, we have shown that the intestinal microbiota modulates inflammatory responses caused by sex steroid deficiency, leading to trabecular bone loss. In murine models, sex steroid deficiency increased gut permeability, expanded Th17 cells, and upregulated the osteoclastogenic cytokines TNFα (TNF), RANKL, and IL-17 in the small intestine and the BM. In germ-free (GF) mice, sex steroid deficiency failed to increase osteoclastogenic cytokine production, stimulate bone resorption, and cause trabecular bone loss, demonstrating that the gut microbiota is central in sex steroid deficiency-induced trabecular bone loss. Furthermore, we demonstrated that twice-weekly treatment of sex steroid-deficient mice with the probiotics Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) or the commercially available probiotic supplement VSL#3 reduces gut permeability, dampens intestinal and BM inflammation, and completely protects against bone loss. In contrast, supplementation with a nonprobiotic strain of E. coli or a mutant LGG was not protective. Together, these data highlight the role that the gut luminal microbiota and increased gut permeability play in triggering inflammatory pathways that are critical for inducing bone loss in sex steroid-deficient mice. Our data further suggest that probiotics that decrease gut permeability have potential as a therapeutic strategy for postmenopausal osteoporosis. PMID:27111232

  13. Detecting cell lysis using viscosity monitoring in E. coli fermentation to prevent product loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Joseph M; Schofield, Desmond; Vlahopoulou, Joanna; Zhou, Yuhong

    2016-07-01

    Monitoring the physical or chemical properties of cell broths to infer cell status is often challenging due to the complex nature of the broth. Key factors indicative of cell status include cell density, cell viability, product leakage, and DNA release to the fermentation broth. The rapid and accurate prediction of cell status for hosts with intracellular protein products can minimise product loss due to leakage at the onset of cell lysis in fermentation. This article reports the rheological examination of an industrially relevant E. coli fermentation producing antibody fragments (Fab'). Viscosity monitoring showed an increase in viscosity during the exponential phase in relation to the cell density increase, a relatively flat profile in the stationary phase, followed by a rapid increase which correlated well with product loss, DNA release and loss of cell viability. This phenomenon was observed over several fermentations that a 25% increase in broth viscosity (using induction-point viscosity as a reference) indicated 10% product loss. Our results suggest that viscosity can accurately detect cell lysis and product leakage in postinduction cell cultures, and can identify cell lysis earlier than several other common fermentation monitoring techniques. This work demonstrates the utility of rapidly monitoring the physical properties of fermentation broths, and that viscosity monitoring has the potential to be a tool for process development to determine the optimal harvest time and minimise product loss. © 2016 The Authors. Biotechnology Progress published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Institute of Chemical Engineers, 32:1069-1076, 2016.

  14. Blueberry consumption prevents loss of collagen in bone matrix and inhibits senescence pathways in osteoblastic cells

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Jian; Lazarenko, Oxana P.; Blackburn, Michael L.; Badger, Thomas M.; Ronis, Martin J. J.; Chen, Jin-Ran

    2012-01-01

    Ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss has been linked to increased bone turnover and higher bone matrix collagen degradation as the result of osteoclast activation. However, the role of degraded collagen matrix in the fate of resident bone-forming cells is unclear. In this report, we show that OVX-induced bone loss is associated with profound decreases in collagen 1 and Sirt1. This was accompanied by increases in expression and activity of the senescence marker collagenase and expression of p16...

  15. Testing the Effects of a Message Framing Intervention on Intentions towards Hearing Loss Prevention in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Spaans, Pieter; Jansen, Bastiaan; van't Riet, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent hearing loss is a public health problem that has eluded effective intervention. A persuasive message strategy was tested for its effectiveness on adolescents' intention to listen to music at a reduced volume. The messages manipulated both type of message frame [positive consequences of listening to music at a reduced volume…

  16. Testing the effects of a message framing intervention on intentions towards hearing loss prevention in adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijn, G.J. de; Spaans, P.; Jansen, B.; Riet, J.P. van 't

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent hearing loss is a public health problem that has eluded effective intervention. A persuasive message strategy was tested for its effectiveness on adolescents’ intention to listen to music at a reduced volume. The messages manipulated both type of message frame [positive consequence

  17. Blueberry consumption prevents loss of collagen in bone matrix and inhibits senescence pathways in osteoblastic cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss has been linked to increased bone turnover and higher bone matrix collagen degradation as the result of osteoclast activation. However, the role of degraded collagen matrix in the fate of resident bone-forming cells is unclear. In this report, we show that OVX-i...

  18. Risky Business: Risk Management, Loss Prevention and Insurance Procurement for Colleges and Universities. NACUA Publication Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Barbara

    No matter what type of insurance or how much actual coverage an individual college or university obtains, it will always pay for its own losses one way or another. This pamphlet is intended to assist colleges and universities to meet that challenge by providing administrators with a structure for analyzing and managing risks and determining the…

  19. [Position-holders in the prevention of consequences of premature loss of primary teeth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceranić, I

    1990-01-01

    Two cases of secondary crowding in the mandible consequential to premature loss of primary teeth in the region canine-first molar are described. Therapy aimed at providing the space lost was performed by fixed orthodontic treatment and lasted for about a year.

  20. Effect of heparin on prevention of flap loss in microsurgical free flap transfer: a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan-Liang Pan

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of heparin for thromboprophylaxis during microvascular free flap transfer is uncertain. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to determine the effect of heparin on the prevention of flap loss in microsurgical free flap transfer.A search of PubMed, Cochrane databases, and Google Scholar using combinations of the search terms heparin, free flap, flap loss, free tissue transfer was conducted on March 15, 2013. Inclusion criteria were: 1 Prospective randomized trials. 2 Retrospective, non-randomized studies. 3 Patients received free tissue transfer. Flap loss rate was used to evaluate treatment efficacy. Odds ratios (ORs with 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated and compared between therapies. Four studies meet the criteria for analysis and were included. Two studiescompared aspirin and heparin, and the ORs of the 2 studies were 1.688 and 2.087. The combined OR of 2.003 (95% CI 0.976-4.109, p = 0.058 did not indicate any significant difference between heparin and aspirin therapies. Two studiescompared high and low doses of dalteparin/heparin therapies, and the ORs of the 2 studies were 4.691 and 11.00. The combined OR of 7.810 (95% CI 1.859-32.808, p = 0.005 revealed a significant difference indicating that high dose dalteparin or heparin therapy is associated with a greater flap loss rate than low dose therapy. Heparin and aspirin prophylaxis are associated with similar flap loss rates after free flap transfer, and high dose dalteparin or heparin therapy is associated with a greater flap loss rate than low dose therapy.

  1. The Break

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Anete Mikkala Camille

    2016-01-01

    storytelling to enact fruitful breakings of patterns unbecoming. The claim being, that the hamster wheel of Work-life anno 2016 needs reconfiguration and the simple yet fruitful manner by which this is done is through acknowledging the benefits of bodies, spaces and artifacts – and the benefits of actually...... taking a break, discontinuing for a moment in order to continue better, wiser and more at ease. Both within and as part of the daily routines, and – now and then – outside these routines in the majesty of nature with time to explore and redirect the course of life in companionships with fellow man...

  2. String breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Bali, G S; Lippert, T; Neff, H; Prkacin, Z; Schilling, K; Bali, Gunnar S; Dussel, Thomas; Lippert, Thomas; Neff, Hartmut; Prkacin, Zdravko; Schilling, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    We numerically investigate the transition of the static quark-antiquark string into a static-light meson-antimeson system. Improving noise reduction techniques, we are able to resolve the signature of string breaking dynamics for Nf=2 lattice QCD at zero temperature. We discuss the lattice techniques used and present results on energy levels and mixing angle of the static two-state system. We visualize the action density distribution in the region of string breaking as a function of the static colour source-antisource separation. The results can be related to properties of quarkonium systems.

  3. Probiotic L. reuteri treatment prevents bone loss in a menopausal ovariectomized mouse model

    OpenAIRE

    Britton, Robert A.; Irwin, Regina; Quach, Darin; Schaefer, Laura; Zhang, Jing; Lee, Taehyung; Parameswaran, Narayanan; McCabe, Laura R.

    2014-01-01

    Estrogen deficiency is a major risk factor for osteoporosis that is associated with bone inflammation and resorption. Half of women over the age of 50 will experience an osteoporosis related fracture in their lifetime, thus novel therapies are needed to combat post-menopausal bone loss. Recent studies suggest an important role for gut-bone signaling pathways and the microbiota in regulating bone health. Given that the bacterium Lactobacillus reuteri ATCC PTA 6475 (L. reuteri) secretes benefic...

  4. Genetic and pharmacological intervention for treatment/prevention of hearing loss

    OpenAIRE

    Cotanche, Douglas A.

    2008-01-01

    Twenty years ago it was first demonstrated that birds could regenerate their cochlear hair cells following noise damage or aminoglycoside treatment. An understanding of how this structural and functional regeneration occurred might lead to the development of therapies for treatment of sensorineural hearing loss in humans. Recent experiments have demonstrated that noise exposure and aminoglycoside treatment lead to apoptosis of the hair cells. In birds, this programmed cell death induces the a...

  5. Detecting cell lysis using viscosity monitoring in E. coli fermentation to prevent product loss

    OpenAIRE

    Newton, J. M.; Schofield, D.; Vlahopoulou, J.; Zhou, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring the physical or chemical properties of cell broths to infer cell status is often challenging due to the complex nature of the broth. Key factors indicative of cell status include cell density, cell viability, product leakage and DNA release to the fermentation broth. The rapid and accurate prediction of cell status for hosts with intracellular protein products can minimise product loss due to leakage at the onset of cell lysis in fermentation. This paper reports the rheological exa...

  6. Erythropoietin administration partially prevents adipose tissue loss in experimental cancer cachexia models

    OpenAIRE

    Penna, Fabio; Busquets, Silvia; Toledo, Miriam; Pin, Fabrizio; Massa, David; López-Soriano, Francisco J.; Costelli, Paola; Argilés, Josep M.

    2013-01-01

    Cancer-associated cachexia is characterized, among other symptoms, by a dramatic loss of both muscle and fat. In addition, the cachectic syndrome is often associated with anemia. The object of the present investigation was to assess the effects of erythropoietin (EPO) treatment on experimental cancer cachexia models. The results clearly show that, in addition to the improvement of the hematocrit, EPO treatment promoted a partial preservation of adipose tissue while exerting negligible effects...

  7. Supersymmetry breaking

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Emilian Dudas

    2009-01-01

    We review the various mechanisms of supersymmetry breaking and its trans-mission to the observable sector. We argue that hybrid models where gauge dominates over gravity mediation, but gravity provides the main contributions to the Higgs sector masses and the neutralino mass, are able to combine the advantages and reduce the disadvantages of the two transmission mechanisms.

  8. Caffeine Treatment Prevented from Weight Regain after Calorie Shifting Diet Induced Weight Loss

    OpenAIRE

    Davoodi, Sayed Hossein; Hajimiresmaiel, Seyed Javad; Ajami, Marjan; Mohseni-Bandpei, Anoushiravan; Ayatollahi, Seyyed Abdulmajid; Dowlatshahi, Kamran; Javedan, Gholamali; Pazoki-Toroudi, Hamidreza

    2014-01-01

    Low calorie diets are always difficult for obese subjects to follow and lead to metabolic and behavioral adaptation. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of caffeine treatment with calorie shifting diet (CSD) on weight loss. Female subjects (n=60; BMI≥25) completed 4-weeks control diet, 6-weeks CSD (3 repeated phases; each 2-weeks) and 4-weeks follow-up diet, with or without caffeine treatment (5 mg/Kg/day). The first 11 days of each phase included calorie restriction with four meals every day ...

  9. ITI implants with overdentures: a prevention of bone loss in edentulous mandibles?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wowern, N; Harder, F; Hjørting-Hansen, E;

    1990-01-01

    Changes in the bone mineral content (BMC) of edentulous mandibles with osseointegrated ITI implants supporting overdentures were measured in vivo by dual-photon absorptiometry. The BMC measurements were performed 3 weeks postoperatively and at the 2-year follow-up visit. Measurements were made...... in the ITI site (anteriorly), the premolar region just behind the fixtures, and the standard site of the mandible for obtaining reference values of the age-related MBC loss. The increased function of the mandible after this treatment seems to cause a load-related bone formation that minimizes, or in some...

  10. Pomegranate Peel Extract Prevents Bone Loss in a Preclinical Model of Osteoporosis and Stimulates Osteoblastic Differentiation in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Spilmont

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional benefits of pomegranate have attracted great scientific interest. The pomegranate, including the pomegranate peel, has been used worldwide for many years as a fruit with medicinal activity, mostly antioxidant properties. Among chronic diseases, osteoporosis, which is associated with bone remodelling impairment leading to progressive bone loss, could eventually benefit from antioxidant compounds because of the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of osteopenia. In this study, with in vivo and ex vivo experiments, we investigated whether the consumption of pomegranate peel extract (PGPE could limit the process of osteopenia. We demonstrated that in ovariectomized (OVX C57BL/6J mice, PGPE consumption was able to significantly prevent the decrease in bone mineral density (−31.9%; p < 0.001 vs. OVX mice and bone microarchitecture impairment. Moreover, the exposure of RAW264.7 cells to serum harvested from mice that had been given a PGPE-enriched diet elicited reduced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption, as shown by the inhibition of the major osteoclast markers. In addition, PGPE appeared to substantially stimulate osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity at day 7, mineralization at day 21 and the transcription level of osteogenic markers. PGPE may be effective in preventing the bone loss associated with ovariectomy in mice, and offers a promising alternative for the nutritional management of this disease.

  11. TCF7L2 polymorphism, weight loss and proinsulin:insulin ratio in the diabetes prevention program.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeanne M McCaffery

    Full Text Available TCF7L2 variants have been associated with type 2 diabetes, body mass index (BMI, and deficits in proinsulin processing and insulin secretion. Here we sought to test whether these effects were apparent in high-risk individuals and modify treatment responses.We examined the potential role of the TCF7L2 rs7903146 variant in predicting resistance to weight loss or a lack of improvement of proinsulin processing during 2.5-years of follow-up participants (N = 2,994 from the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP, a randomized controlled trial designed to prevent or delay diabetes in high-risk adults.We observed no difference in the degree of weight loss by rs7903146 genotypes. However, the T allele (conferring higher risk of diabetes at rs7903146 was associated with higher fasting proinsulin at baseline (P<0.001, higher baseline proinsulin:insulin ratio (p<0.0001 and increased proinsulin:insulin ratio over a median of 2.5 years of follow-up (P = 0.003. Effects were comparable across treatment arms.The combination of a lack of impact of the TCF7L2 genotypes on the ability to lose weight, but the presence of a consistent effect on the proinsulin:insulin ratio over the course of DPP, suggests that high-risk genotype carriers at this locus can successfully lose weight to counter diabetes risk despite persistent deficits in insulin production.

  12. Pomegranate Peel Extract Prevents Bone Loss in a Preclinical Model of Osteoporosis and Stimulates Osteoblastic Differentiation in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilmont, Mélanie; Léotoing, Laurent; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Lebecque, Patrice; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Pilet, Paul; Rios, Laurent; Wittrant, Yohann; Coxam, Véronique

    2015-11-01

    The nutritional benefits of pomegranate have attracted great scientific interest. The pomegranate, including the pomegranate peel, has been used worldwide for many years as a fruit with medicinal activity, mostly antioxidant properties. Among chronic diseases, osteoporosis, which is associated with bone remodelling impairment leading to progressive bone loss, could eventually benefit from antioxidant compounds because of the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of osteopenia. In this study, with in vivo and ex vivo experiments, we investigated whether the consumption of pomegranate peel extract (PGPE) could limit the process of osteopenia. We demonstrated that in ovariectomized (OVX) C57BL/6J mice, PGPE consumption was able to significantly prevent the decrease in bone mineral density (-31.9%; p diet elicited reduced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption, as shown by the inhibition of the major osteoclast markers. In addition, PGPE appeared to substantially stimulate osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity at day 7, mineralization at day 21 and the transcription level of osteogenic markers. PGPE may be effective in preventing the bone loss associated with ovariectomy in mice, and offers a promising alternative for the nutritional management of this disease. PMID:26569295

  13. Receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand and osteoprotegerin: maintaining the balance to prevent bone loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne-Priscille Trouvin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Anne-Priscille Trouvin, Vincent GoëbDepartment of Rheumatology, Rouen University Hospital, Rouen, FranceAbstract: Bone remodeling requires a precise balance between resorption and formation. It is a complex process that involves numerous factors: hormones, growth factors, vitamins, and cytokines, and notably osteoprotegerin (OPG and receptor activator for nuclear factor-κB (RANK ligand. The signaling pathway OPG/RANK/RANKL is key to regulation for maintaining the balance between the activity of osteoblasts and osteoclasts in order to prevent bone loss and ensure a normal bone turnover. In this review, the RANK/RANKL/OPG pathway is described. The multiple interactions of various factors (hormones, cytokines, growth factors, and vitamins with the OPG/RANK/RANKL pathway are also commented on. Finally, the effects of denosumab, a human monoclonal antibody that binds to RANKL and thereby inhibits the activation of osteoclasts, and of strontium ranelate are also described. Indeed, these two new drugs afford appreciable assistance in daily care practice, helping to prevent bone loss in patients with osteoporosis.Keywords: osteoprotegerin, OPG, RANK, RANKL, denosumab, strontium ranelate, osteoporosis

  14. Immunization with FSHβ fusion protein antigen prevents bone loss in a rat ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •A GST-FSH fusion protein was successfully expressed in E. coli. •Immunization with GST-FSH antigen can raise high-titer anti-FSH polyclonal sera. •Anti-FSH polyclonal sera can neutralize osteoclastogenic effect of FSH in vitro. •FSH immunization can prevent bone loss in a rat osteoporosis model. -- Abstract: Osteoporosis, a metabolic bone disease, threatens postmenopausal women globally. Hormone replacement therapy (HTR), especially estrogen replacement therapy (ERT), is used widely in the clinic because it has been generally accepted that postmenopausal osteoporosis is caused by estrogen deficiency. However, hypogonadal α and β estrogen receptor null mice were only mildly osteopenic, and mice with either receptor deleted had normal bone mass, indicating that estrogen may not be the only mediator that induces osteoporosis. Recently, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), the serum concentration of which increases from the very beginning of menopause, has been found to play a key role in postmenopausal osteoporosis by promoting osteoclastogenesis. In this article, we confirmed that exogenous FSH can enhance osteoclast differentiation in vitro and that this effect can be neutralized by either an anti-FSH monoclonal antibody or anti-FSH polyclonal sera raised by immunizing animals with a recombinant GST-FSHβ fusion protein antigen. Moreover, immunizing ovariectomized rats with the GST-FSHβ antigen does significantly prevent trabecular bone loss and thereby enhance the bone strength, indicating that a FSH-based vaccine may be a promising therapeutic strategy to slow down bone loss in postmenopausal women

  15. Immunization with FSHβ fusion protein antigen prevents bone loss in a rat ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Wenxin; Yan, Xingrong; Du, Huicong; Cui, Jihong; Li, Liwen, E-mail: liven@nwu.edu.cn; Chen, Fulin, E-mail: chenfl@nwu.edu.cn

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: •A GST-FSH fusion protein was successfully expressed in E. coli. •Immunization with GST-FSH antigen can raise high-titer anti-FSH polyclonal sera. •Anti-FSH polyclonal sera can neutralize osteoclastogenic effect of FSH in vitro. •FSH immunization can prevent bone loss in a rat osteoporosis model. -- Abstract: Osteoporosis, a metabolic bone disease, threatens postmenopausal women globally. Hormone replacement therapy (HTR), especially estrogen replacement therapy (ERT), is used widely in the clinic because it has been generally accepted that postmenopausal osteoporosis is caused by estrogen deficiency. However, hypogonadal α and β estrogen receptor null mice were only mildly osteopenic, and mice with either receptor deleted had normal bone mass, indicating that estrogen may not be the only mediator that induces osteoporosis. Recently, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), the serum concentration of which increases from the very beginning of menopause, has been found to play a key role in postmenopausal osteoporosis by promoting osteoclastogenesis. In this article, we confirmed that exogenous FSH can enhance osteoclast differentiation in vitro and that this effect can be neutralized by either an anti-FSH monoclonal antibody or anti-FSH polyclonal sera raised by immunizing animals with a recombinant GST-FSHβ fusion protein antigen. Moreover, immunizing ovariectomized rats with the GST-FSHβ antigen does significantly prevent trabecular bone loss and thereby enhance the bone strength, indicating that a FSH-based vaccine may be a promising therapeutic strategy to slow down bone loss in postmenopausal women.

  16. Caffeine administration prevents retinal neuroinflammation and loss of retinal ganglion cells in an animal model of glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeira, Maria H.; Ortin-Martinez, Arturo; Nadal-Nícolas, Francisco; Ambrósio, António F.; Vidal-Sanz, Manuel; Agudo-Barriuso, Marta; Santiago, Ana Raquel

    2016-01-01

    Glaucoma is the second leading cause of blindness worldwide, being characterized by progressive optic nerve damage and loss of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs), accompanied by increased inflammatory response involving retinal microglial cells. The etiology of glaucoma is still unknown, and despite elevated intraocular pressure (IOP) being a major risk factor, the exact mechanisms responsible for RGC degeneration remain unknown. Caffeine, which is an antagonist of adenosine receptors, is the most widely consumed psychoactive drug in the world. Several evidences suggest that caffeine can attenuate the neuroinflammatory responses and afford protection upon central nervous system (CNS) injury. We took advantage of a well characterized animal model of glaucoma to investigate whether caffeine administration controls neuroinflammation and elicits neuroprotection. Caffeine or water were administered ad libitum and ocular hypertension (OHT) was induced by laser photocoagulation of the limbal veins in Sprague Dawley rats. Herein, we show that caffeine is able to partially decrease the IOP in ocular hypertensive animals. More importantly, we found that drinking caffeine prevented retinal microglia-mediated neuroinflammatory response and attenuated the loss of RGCs in animals with ocular hypertension (OHT). This study opens the possibility that caffeine or adenosine receptor antagonists might be a therapeutic option to manage RGC loss in glaucoma. PMID:27270337

  17. Cost-effectiveness of preventing loss to follow-up in HIV treatment programs: a Cote d'Ivoire appraisal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Losina

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Data from HIV treatment programs in resource-limited settings show extensive rates of loss to follow-up (LTFU ranging from 5% to 40% within 6 mo of antiretroviral therapy (ART initiation. Our objective was to project the clinical impact and cost-effectiveness of interventions to prevent LTFU from HIV care in West Africa. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We used the Cost-Effectiveness of Preventing AIDS Complications (CEPAC International model to project the clinical benefits and cost-effectiveness of LTFU-prevention programs from a payer perspective. These programs include components such as eliminating ART co-payments, eliminating charges to patients for opportunistic infection-related drugs, improving personnel training, and providing meals and reimbursing for transportation for participants. The efficacies and costs of these interventions were extensively varied in sensitivity analyses. We used World Health Organization criteria of <3x gross domestic product per capita (3x GDP per capita = US$2,823 for Côte d'Ivoire as a plausible threshold for "cost-effectiveness." The main results are based on a reported 18% 1-y LTFU rate. With full retention in care, projected per-person discounted life expectancy starting from age 37 y was 144.7 mo (12.1 y. Survival losses from LTFU within 1 y of ART initiation ranged from 73.9 to 80.7 mo. The intervention costing US$22/person/year (e.g., eliminating ART co-payment would be cost-effective with an efficacy of at least 12%. An intervention costing US$77/person/year (inclusive of all the components described above would be cost-effective with an efficacy of at least 41%. CONCLUSIONS: Interventions that prevent LTFU in resource-limited settings would substantially improve survival and would be cost-effective by international criteria with efficacy of at least 12%-41%, depending on the cost of intervention, based on a reported 18% cumulative incidence of LTFU at 1 y after ART initiation. The commitment to

  18. Preventive measures to prevent loss to follow-up in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): implementing a strategy in Ziguinchor (Casamance, Senegal) in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randé, H; Rouffy, D

    2016-05-01

    Since 2010, the Pharmacie et Aide Humanitaire (PAH) in Casamance (Senegal) has been maintaining a software package (Tacojo) that allows monthly monitoring of the distribution of treatment to every patient with HIV infection receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We used this program to set up measures to prevent the loss to follow-up of patients receiving HAART. Our involvement focused on two main areas. First, each patient is routinely contacted after inclusion, to help us to understand the patient's experience of the disease and the treatment. This process aims to improve adherence to the treatment. Then, all patients who miss an appointment are routinely contacted by telephone within seven days of that appointment. The goal is to understand the reasons for the absence and to encourage patients to continue their treatment. Despite the lack of distance due to the relative newness of this program, these preventive measures have shown hopeful results (80% of the patients came back after a call). It would be interesting to apply it in a sustainable manner and in more medical facilities. PMID:27412981

  19. Deletion of genes implicated in protecting the integrity of male germ cells has differential effects on the incidence of DNA breaks and germ cell loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catriona Paul

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Infertility affects approximately 20% of couples in Europe and in 50% of cases the problem lies with the male partner. The impact of damaged DNA originating in the male germ line on infertility is poorly understood but may increase miscarriage. Mouse models allow us to investigate how deficiencies in DNA repair/damage response pathways impact on formation and function of male germ cells. We have investigated mice with deletions of ERCC1 (excision repair cross-complementing gene 1, MSH2 (MutS homolog 2, involved in mismatch repair pathway, and p53 (tumour suppressor gene implicated in elimination of germ cells with DNA damage. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We demonstrate for the first time that depletion of ERCC1 or p53 from germ cells results in an increased incidence of unrepaired DNA breaks in pachytene spermatocytes and increased numbers of caspase-3 positive (apoptotic germ cells. Sertoli cell-only tubules were detected in testes from mice lacking expression of ERCC1 or MSH2 but not p53. The number of sperm recovered from epididymes was significantly reduced in mice lacking testicular ERCC1 and 40% of sperm contained DNA breaks whereas the numbers of sperm were not different to controls in adult Msh2 -/- or p53 -/- mice nor did they have significantly compromised DNA. CONCLUSIONS: These data have demonstrated that deletion of Ercc1, Msh2 and p53 can have differential but overlapping affects on germ cell function and sperm production. These findings increase our understanding of the ways in which gene mutations can have an impact on male fertility.

  20. Internal hydraulic redistribution prevents the loss of root conductivity during drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto, Iván; Ryel, Ronald J

    2014-01-01

    Shrubs of the Great Basin desert in Utah are subjected to a prolonged summer drought with the potential consequence of reduced water transport capability of the xylem due to drought-induced cavitation. Hydraulic redistribution (HR) is the passive movement of water from deep to shallow soil through plant roots. Hydraulic redistribution can increase water availability in shallow soil and ameliorate drought stress, providing better soil and root water status, which could affect shallow root conductivity (Ks) and native root embolism. We tested this hypothesis in an Artemisia tridentata Nutt. mono-specific stand grown in a common garden in Utah. We enhanced HR artificially by applying a once a week deep-irrigation treatment increasing the water potential gradient between deep and shallow soil layers. Plants that were deep-watered had less negative water potentials and greater stomatal conductance and transpiration rates than non-watered control plants. After irrigation with labeled water (δD), xylem water in stems and shallow roots of watered shrubs was enriched with respect to control shrubs, a clear indication of deep water uptake and HR. Shallow root conductivity was threefold greater and shrubs experienced lower native embolism when deep-watered. We found clear evidence of water transfer between deep and shallow roots through internal HR that delayed depletion of shallow soil water content, maintained Ks and prevented root embolism. Overall, our results show a positive effect of HR on root water transport capacity in otherwise dry soil, with important implications for plant water status. PMID:24436338

  1. Olive oil and vitamin D synergistically prevent bone loss in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Tagliaferri

    Full Text Available As the Mediterranean diet (and particularly olive oil has been associated with bone health, we investigated the impact of extra virgin oil as a source of polyphenols on bone metabolism. In that purpose sham-operated (SH or ovariectomized (OVX mice were subjected to refined or virgin olive oil. Two supplementary OVX groups were given either refined or virgin olive oil fortified with vitamin D3, to assess the possible synergistic effects with another liposoluble nutrient. After 30 days of exposure, bone mineral density and gene expression were evaluated. Consistent with previous data, ovariectomy was associated with increased bone turnover and led to impaired bone mass and micro-architecture. The expression of oxidative stress markers were enhanced as well. Virgin olive oil fortified with vitamin D3 prevented such changes in terms of both bone remodeling and bone mineral density. The expression of inflammation and oxidative stress mRNA was also lower in this group. Overall, our data suggest a protective impact of virgin olive oil as a source of polyphenols in addition to vitamin D3 on bone metabolism through improvement of oxidative stress and inflammation.

  2. Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Prevention: Switching Control of the GTM Aircraft with Elevator Jam Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bor-Chin; Kwatny, Harry G.; Belcastro, Christine; Belcastro, Celeste

    2008-01-01

    Switching control, servomechanism, and H2 control theory are used to provide a practical and easy-to-implement solution for the actuator jam problem. A jammed actuator not only causes a reduction of control authority, but also creates a persistent disturbance with uncertain amplitude. The longitudinal dynamics model of the NASA GTM UAV is employed to demonstrate that a single fixed reconfigured controller design based on the proposed approach is capable of accommodating an elevator jam failure with arbitrary jam position as long as the thrust control has enough control authority. This paper is a first step towards solving a more comprehensive in-flight loss-of-control accident prevention problem that involves multiple actuator failures, structure damages, unanticipated faults, and nonlinear upset regime recovery, etc.

  3. Combat, prevention and optimization of commercial losses of power energy; Combate, prevencao e otimizacao das perdas comerciais da energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penin, Carlos Alexandre de Sousa

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this work is to study the problem of NTL using a wide approach, analyze the experience of dealerships in Brazil and abroad, discuss the best practices for mitigation of those losses and propose improvements in the combat and prevention processes, and the legal procedures for recovery of incomes, leaning on a careful regulatory context. This study draws attention to Brazil's socioeconomic diversity, comparing it to various international examples, and intends to identify the most relevant aspects that must be considered on the theme, discussing procedures and methodologies for the equation of the amount of resources to be applied by distributing companies to achieve the appropriate reduction of NTL. (author)

  4. Investigation of a possible emergency procedure for the VVER-1000 NPP in case of total loss of feedwater and a main steam line break

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muellner, N. [Institute for Risk Research, University of Vienna, Wien (Austria); Giannotti, W.; D' Auria, F. [DIMNP, University of Pisa, Pisa (Italy)

    2004-07-01

    Accident management procedures associated with nuclear power plant beyond design basis accidents should be developed with the aid of the more recent versions of advanced computational tools (best estimate codes) in order to verify the effectiveness of normal operation systems of the plant to avoid or minimize core damage. A. Madeira showed in her paper 'A PWR Recovery Option for a Total Loss of Feedwater Beyond Design Basis Scenario' that it is possible to safely control a total loss of feedwater scenario in the Angra-2 nuclear power plant, using two emergency procedures, namely the opening of the steam generator (SG) relief valves, and on the primary side the complete manual opening of all pressurizer relief and safety valves. This paper investigates the effectiveness of the procedure opening of the SG relief valves, followed by primary side feed and bleed for a generic VVER-1000 NPP in case of a total loss of feed water. The results indicate that the procedure is successful in reducing the primary side pressure and temperature to safe conditions, it means that long term core cooling is achievable. (authors)

  5. Break location effects on PWR small break LOCA phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents experimental results of a small lower plenum break test of SB-PV-01 conducted at the large-Scale Test Facility (LSTF) of the Rig-of-Safety Assessment (ROSA)-IV program. This test simulates a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) caused by instrument tubes break (break area corresponds to 0.5% of the cold leg flow area) in a Westinghouse-type pressurized water reactor (PWR) assuming both manual actuation for all of the high pressure injection (HPI) systems and failure of the auxiliary feedwater systems. The report clarifies long-term system responses, especially the core cooling conditions related to the primary mass inventory. Also it clarifies break location effects on small break LOCA phenomena by comparing other five similar LOCA tests with break locations at cold leg, hot leg, upper head, pressurizer top (TMI-type) and SG U-tubes. It is coucluded that the lower plenum break is the severest on core heatup due to the highest break flow rate and the least primary mass recovery after the ECCS among the six tests. (author)

  6. Breaking Routines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Peter; Jørgensen, Frances

    On some level, innovation begins when the current way of doing things is questioned and alternatives are sought. In cognitive terms, this can be conceptualized as the point at which an agent breaks with existing routine and returns to planning and decision-making. Thus far, however, very little...... is known about this cognitive structure or the factors that trigger the search for alternatives. In cooperation with the Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, we are in the process of designing an experimental study designed to gain insights into the triggers...

  7. Sealed Radioactive Sources. Information, Resources, and Advice for Key Groups about Preventing the Loss of Control over Sealed Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among its many activities to improve the safety and security of sealed sources, the IAEA has been investigating the root causes of major accidents and incidents since the 1980's and publishes findings so that others can learn from them. There are growing concerns today about the possibility that an improperly stored source could be stolen and used for malicious purposes. To improve both safety and security, information needs to be in the hands of those whose actions and decisions can prevent a source from being lost or stolen in the first place. The IAEA developed this booklet to help improve communication with key groups about hazards that may result from the loss of control over sealed radioactive sources and measures that should be implemented to prevent such loss of control. Many people may benefit from the information contained in this booklet, particularly those working with sources and those likely to be involved if control over a source is lost; especially: officials in government agencies, first responders, medical users, industrial users and the metal recycling industry. The general public may also benefit from an understanding of the fundamentals of radiation safety. This booklet is comprised of several stand-alone chapters intended to communicate with these key groups. Various accidents that are described and information that is provided are relevant to more than one key group and therefore, some information is repeated throughout the booklet. This booklet seeks to raise awareness of the importance of the safety and security of sealed radioactive sources. However, it is not intended to be a comprehensive 'how to' guide for implementing safety and security measures for sealed radioactive sources. For more information on these measures, readers are encouraged to consult the key IAEA safety and security-related publications identified in this booklet

  8. Dosing study on the effectiveness of salicylate/N-acetylcysteine for prevention of noise-induced hearing loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Coleman

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of three different doses of sodium salicylate (SAL in combination with one dose of N-acetylcysteine (NAC to prevent noise-induced hearing loss was studied in chinchillas. After obtaining baseline-hearing thresholds, the chinchillas were randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups: three sets were injected intraperitoneally with 325 mg/kg NAC combined with 25, 50, or 75 mg/kg SAL, and a separate control group was injected with an equal volume of saline. Animals were injected twice daily for 2 days prior to and 1 hour before the noise exposure (6 hours to a 105-dB Standard Pressure Level octave band noise centered at 4 kHz. Immediate post-noise hearing thresholds were obtained followed by post-noise treatments at 1 hour then twice-daily for 2 days. Hearing tests continued at 1, 2, and 3 weeks post-noise, and immediately after the last hearing test, animals′ cochleae were stained for hair cell counts. All the groups showed hearing improvement until week 2. However, at week 3, saline treated animals demonstrated a 17-33 dB SPL permanent threshold shift (PTS across the test frequencies. Hearing loss was lowest in the 50 SAL/325 NAC mg/kg group (all frequencies, P < 0.001, and although PTS was reduced in the 25 and 75 mg/kg SAL dosage groups compared to the saline group, only the 75 mg/kg SAL group was significantly different at all but 2 kHz frequency. Coupled with the hearing loss, outer hair cell (OHC loss was maximal in the 4-8 kHz cochlear region of saline treated animals. However, there was a substantial reduction in the mean OHC loss of the NAC plus 50 or 75 mg/kg (but not the 25 mg/kg SAL groups. These findings suggest that SAL in combination with NAC is effective in reducing noise damage to the cochlea, but SAL has a relatively narrow therapeutic dosing window.

  9. Oral Triphenylmethane Food Dye Analog, Brilliant Blue G, Prevents Neuronal Loss in APPSwDI/NOS2-/- Mouse Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irwin, Jacob A; Erisir, Alev; Kwon, Inchan

    2016-01-01

    Reducing amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation is a promising strategy for developing Alzheimer's Disease (AD) therapeutics. We recently reported that a triphenylmethane food dye analog, Brilliant Blue G (BBG), is a dose-dependent modulator of in vitro amyloid-β aggregation and cytotoxicity in cell-based assays. Following up on this recent work, we sought to further evaluate this novel modulator in a therapeutically-relevant AD transgenic mouse model. BBG was orally administered to APPSwDI/NOS2-/- mice for three months in order to assess its biocompatibility, its permeability across the blood-brain barrier, and its efficacy at rescuing AD pathology. The results showed that BBG was well-tolerated, caused no significant weight change/unusual behavior, and was able to significantly cross the AD blood-brain barrier in APPSwDI/NOS2-/- mice. Immunohistochemical and electron microscopic analysis of the brain sections revealed that BBG was able to significantly prevent neuronal loss and reduce intracellular APP/Aβ in hippocampal neurons. This is the first report of 1) the effect of Brilliant Blue G on neuronal loss in a transgenic animal model of AD, 2) oral administration of BBG to affect a protein conformation/aggregation disease, and 3) electron microscopic ultrastructural analysis of AD pathology in APPSwDI/NOS2-/- mice. PMID:26852943

  10. Noise-induced hearing loss in agriculture: Creating partnerships to overcome barriers and educate the community on prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet J Ehlers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL is a common and preventable injury for farmers. Farmers are frequently exposed to excessive noise, ranking among the top three occupations and industries with the highest risk for hearing loss. Use of hearing protection among farmers is not common. Although the age when NIHL begins among farmers is unknown, its prevalence is higher among male adolescents who live and work on farms. The purpose of this paper is to describe how NIOSH created partnerships to promote hearing conservation for this hard-to-reach population. Partnerships included organizations and individuals who were trusted sources of information for the target population, young farmers 14-35 years of age and their families, and those who had linkages in rural communities. NIOSH engaged partners through exhibits and train-the-trainer workshops at state or national conventions. NIOSH workshops included basic information on NIHL as well as information on free or low-lost resources that participants could use in training others at schools and community events. People with hearing conservation expertise have an important role and many opportunities to improve the knowledge and implementation of hearing conservation among those in agriculture.

  11. Chronic Microdose Lithium Treatment Prevented Memory Loss and Neurohistopathological Changes in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marielza Andrade Nunes

    Full Text Available The use of lithium is well established in bipolar disorders and the benefits are being demonstrated in neurodegenerative disorders. Recently, our group showed that treatment with microdose lithium stabilized the cognitive deficits observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD patients. In order to verify the lithium microdose potential in preventing the disease development, the aim of this work was to verify the effects of chronic treatment with microdose lithium given before and after the appearance of symptoms in a mouse model of a disease similar to AD. Transgenic mice (Cg-Tg(PDGFB-APPSwInd20Lms/2J and their non-transgenic litter mate genetic controls were treated with lithium carbonate (0.25mg/Kg/day in drinking water for 16 or 8 months starting at two and ten months of age, respectively [corrected]. Similar groups were treated with water. At the end of treatments, both lithium treated transgenic groups and non-transgenic mice showed no memory disruption, different from what was observed in the water treated transgenic group. Transgenic mice treated with lithium since two months of age showed decreased number of senile plaques, no neuronal loss in cortex and hippocampus and increased BDNF density in cortex, when compared to non-treated transgenic mice. It is suitable to conclude that these data support the use of microdose lithium in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease, once the neurohistopathological characteristics of the disease were modified and the memory of transgenic animals was maintained.

  12. Chronic Microdose Lithium Treatment Prevented Memory Loss and Neurohistopathological Changes in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Marielza Andrade; Schöwe, Natalia Mendes; Monteiro-Silva, Karla Cristina; Baraldi-Tornisielo, Ticiana; Souza, Suzzanna Ingryd Gonçalves; Balthazar, Janaina; Albuquerque, Marilia Silva; Caetano, Ariadiny Lima; Viel, Tania Araujo; Buck, Hudson Sousa

    2015-01-01

    The use of lithium is well established in bipolar disorders and the benefits are being demonstrated in neurodegenerative disorders. Recently, our group showed that treatment with microdose lithium stabilized the cognitive deficits observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. In order to verify the lithium microdose potential in preventing the disease development, the aim of this work was to verify the effects of chronic treatment with microdose lithium given before and after the appearance of symptoms in a mouse model of a disease similar to AD. Transgenic mice (Cg-Tg(PDGFB-APPSwInd)20Lms/2J) and their non-transgenic litter mate genetic controls were treated with lithium carbonate (0.25mg/Kg/day in drinking water) for 16 or 8 months starting at two and ten months of age, respectively [corrected]. Similar groups were treated with water. At the end of treatments, both lithium treated transgenic groups and non-transgenic mice showed no memory disruption, different from what was observed in the water treated transgenic group. Transgenic mice treated with lithium since two months of age showed decreased number of senile plaques, no neuronal loss in cortex and hippocampus and increased BDNF density in cortex, when compared to non-treated transgenic mice. It is suitable to conclude that these data support the use of microdose lithium in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease, once the neurohistopathological characteristics of the disease were modified and the memory of transgenic animals was maintained. PMID:26605788

  13. Breaking Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Kirstin

    2010-01-01

    A well-known result by Palamidessi tells us that {\\pi}mix (the {\\pi}-calculus with mixed choice) is more expressive than {\\pi}sep (its subset with only separate choice). The proof of this result argues with their different expressive power concerning leader election in symmetric networks. Later on, Gorla of- fered an arguably simpler proof that, instead of leader election in symmetric networks, employed the reducibility of "incestual" processes (mixed choices that include both enabled senders and receivers for the same channel) when running two copies in parallel. In both proofs, the role of breaking (ini- tial) symmetries is more or less apparent. In this paper, we shed more light on this role by re-proving the above result-based on a proper formalization of what it means to break symmetries-without referring to another layer of the distinguishing problem domain of leader election. Both Palamidessi and Gorla rephrased their results by stating that there is no uniform and reason- able encoding from {\\pi}mix i...

  14. Radiation-Induced Loss of Salivary Gland Function Is Driven by Cellular Senescence and Prevented by IL6 Modulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmary, Yitzhak; Adar, Revital; Gaska, Svetlana; Wygoda, Annette; Maly, Alexander; Cohen, Jonathan; Eliashar, Ron; Mizrachi, Lina; Orfaig-Geva, Carmit; Baum, Bruce J; Rose-John, Stefan; Galun, Eithan; Axelrod, Jonathan H

    2016-03-01

    Head and neck cancer patients treated by radiation commonly suffer from a devastating side effect known as dry-mouth syndrome, which results from the irreversible loss of salivary gland function via mechanisms that are not completely understood. In this study, we used a mouse model of radiation-induced salivary hypofunction to investigate the outcomes of DNA damage in the head and neck region. We demonstrate that the loss of salivary function was closely accompanied by cellular senescence, as evidenced by a persistent DNA damage response (γH2AX and 53BP1) and the expression of senescence-associated markers (SA-βgal, p19ARF, and DcR2) and secretory phenotype (SASP) factors (PAI-1 and IL6). Notably, profound apoptosis or necrosis was not observed in irradiated regions. Signs of cellular senescence were also apparent in irradiated salivary glands surgically resected from human patients who underwent radiotherapy. Importantly, using IL6 knockout mice, we found that sustained expression of IL6 in the salivary gland long after initiation of radiation-induced DNA damage was required for both senescence and hypofunction. Additionally, we demonstrate that IL6 pretreatment prevented both senescence and salivary gland hypofunction via a mechanism involving enhanced DNA damage repair. Collectively, these results indicate that cellular senescence is a fundamental mechanism driving radiation-induced damage in the salivary gland and suggest that IL6 pretreatment may represent a promising therapeutic strategy to preserve salivary gland function in head and neck cancer patients undergoing radiotherapy. PMID:26759233

  15. Anti-transforming growth factor ß antibody treatment rescues bone loss and prevents breast cancer metastasis to bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Swati; Nyman, Jeffry S; Alvarez, JoAnn; Chakrabarti, Anwesa; Ayres, Austin; Sterling, Julie; Edwards, James; Rana, Tapasi; Johnson, Rachelle; Perrien, Daniel S; Lonning, Scott; Shyr, Yu; Matrisian, Lynn M; Mundy, Gregory R

    2011-01-01

    Breast cancer often metastasizes to bone causing osteolytic bone resorption which releases active TGFβ. Because TGFβ favors progression of breast cancer metastasis to bone, we hypothesized that treatment using anti-TGFβ antibody may reduce tumor burden and rescue tumor-associated bone loss in metastatic breast cancer. In this study we have tested the efficacy of an anti-TGFβ antibody 1D11 preventing breast cancer bone metastasis. We have used two preclinical breast cancer bone metastasis models, in which either human breast cancer cells or murine mammary tumor cells were injected in host mice via left cardiac ventricle. Using several in vivo, in vitro and ex vivo assays, we have demonstrated that anti-TGFβ antibody treatment have significantly reduced tumor burden in the bone along with a statistically significant threefold reduction in osteolytic lesion number and tenfold reduction in osteolytic lesion area. A decrease in osteoclast numbers (p = 0.027) in vivo and osteoclastogenesis ex vivo were also observed. Most importantly, in tumor-bearing mice, anti-TGFβ treatment resulted in a twofold increase in bone volume (ptreatment with anti-TGFβ antibody increased the mineral-to-collagen ratio in vivo, a reflection of improved tissue level properties. Moreover, anti-TGFβ antibody directly increased mineralized matrix formation in calverial osteoblast (p = 0.005), suggesting a direct beneficial role of anti-TGFβ antibody treatment on osteoblasts. Data presented here demonstrate that anti-TGFβ treatment may offer a novel therapeutic option for tumor-induced bone disease and has the dual potential for simultaneously decreasing tumor burden and rescue bone loss in breast cancer to bone metastases. This approach of intervention has the potential to reduce skeletal related events (SREs) in breast cancer survivors.

  16. Quantifying reactor safety margins: Application of code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty evaluation methodology to a large-break, loss-of-coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued a revised rule for loss-of-coolant accident/emergency core cooling system (ECCS) analysis of light water reactors to allow the use of best-estimate computer codes in safety analysis as an option. A key feature of this option requires the licensee to quantify the uncertainty of the calculations and include that uncertainty when comparing the calculated results with acceptance limits provided in 10 CFR Part 50. To support the revised ECCS rule and illustrate its application, the NRC and its contractors and consultants have developed and demonstrated an uncertainty evaluation methodology called code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty (CSAU). The CSAU methodology and an example application described in this report demonstrate that uncertainties in complex phenomena can be quantified. The methodology is structured, traceable, and practical, as is needed in the regulatory arena. The methodology is systematic and comprehensive as it addresses and integrates the scenario, experiments, code, and plant to resolve questions concerned with: (a) code capability to scale-up processes from test facility to full-scale nuclear power plants; (b) code applicability to safety studies of a postulated accident scenario in a specified nuclear power plant; and (c) quantifying uncertainties of calculated results. 127 refs., 55 figs., 40 tabs

  17. TEI-3313, a novel prostaglandin A1 derivative, prevents bone loss and enhances bone formation in immobilized male rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohta, T; Azuma, Y; Kanatani, H; Kiyoki, M; Koshihara, Y

    1995-10-01

    The effect of a novel prostaglandin A1 derivative, TEI-3313, with the chemical structure 5-[(Z,2E)-4,7-dihydroxy-2-heptenyridene]-4-hydroxy- 2-methylthio-4-(4-phenoxybutyl)-2-cyclopentenone, on bone mineral content was investigated. Seven-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats in which the right hindlimbs were immobilized by sciatic nerve dissection received 1, 10, 100 or 500 micrograms of TEI-3313/kg/day, i.p., for 6 weeks. Control animals were operated on but received vehicle only. Bone mineral content of the femur was measured by single-photon absorptiometry, and biochemical parameters were analyzed. Histomorphometric observations were performed on the proximal metaphysial sections of the tibiae. The administration of up to 500 micrograms/kg of TEI-3313 to rats had no effect on body weight or on serum calcium, inorganic phosphorus and 1 alpha,25 dihydroxy vitamin D3 levels. Immobilization decreased the ash content, calcium content and total bone mineral content of the femur compared with nonimmobilization (unoperated femur). With TEI-3313 administration, changes in these parameters in the immobilized femur were prevented almost to the levels of the nonimmobilized femur, in a dose-dependent manner. The enhancement of bone mineral content was remarkable in the midshaft of the femur. TEI-3313 enhanced ash and calcium content and total bone mineral content in nonimmobilized femurs. Microradiograms showed that TEI-3313, unlike pamidronate and 17 beta-estradiol, had little inhibitory effect on trabecular bone resorption in the proximal portion of the tibia. TEI-3313 not only prevented the bone loss induced by immobilization but also increased bone mass in the nonimmobilized femurs without affecting the levels of 1 alpha,25 dihydroxy vitamin D3.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7562584

  18. Human albumin prevents 6-hydroxydopamine-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase in in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Juan Zhang

    Full Text Available Human albumin has recently been demonstrated to protect brain neurons from injury in rat ischemic brain. However, there is no information available about whether human albumin can prevent loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH expression of dopaminergic (DA neurons induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA toxicity that is most commonly used to create a rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD. In the present study, two microliters of 1.25% human albumin were stereotaxically injected into the right striatum of rats one day before or 7 days after the 6-OHDA lesion in the same side. D-Amphetamine-induced rotational asymmetry was measured 7 days, 3 and 10 weeks after 6-OHDA lesion. We observed that intrastriatal administration of human albumin significantly reduced the degree of rotational asymmetry. The number of TH-immunoreactive neurons present in the substantia nigra was greater in 6-OHDA lesioned rats following human albumin-treatment than non-human albumin treatment. TH-immunoreactivity in the 6-OHDA-lesioned striatum was also significantly increased in the human albumin-treated rats. To examine the mechanisms underlying the effects of human albumin, we challenged PC12 cells with 6-OHDA as an in vitro model of PD. Incubation with human albumin prevented 6-OHDA-induced reduction of cell viability in PC12 cell cultures, as measured by MTT assay. Furthermore, human albumin reduced 6-OHDA-induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and apoptosis in cultured PC12 cells, as assessed by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis showed that human albumin inhibited 6-OHDA-induced activation of JNK, c-Jun, ERK, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK signaling in PC12 cultures challenged with 6-OHDA. Human albumin may protect against 6-OHDA toxicity by influencing MAPK pathway followed by anti-ROS formation and anti-apoptosis.

  19. Efficacy and safety of N-acetylcysteine in prevention of noise induced hearing loss: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopke, Richard; Slade, Martin D; Jackson, Ronald; Hammill, Tanisha; Fausti, Stephen; Lonsbury-Martin, Brenda; Sanderson, Alicia; Dreisbach, Laura; Rabinowitz, Peter; Torre, Peter; Balough, Ben

    2015-05-01

    Despite a robust hearing conservation program, military personnel continue to be at high risk for noise induced hearing loss (NIHL). For more than a decade, a number of laboratories have investigated the use of antioxidants as a safe and effective adjunct to hearing conservation programs. Of the antioxidants that have been investigated, N-acetylcysteine (NAC) has consistently reduced permanent NIHL in the laboratory, but its clinical efficacy is still controversial. This study provides a prospective, randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial investigating the safety profile and the efficacy of NAC to prevent hearing loss in a military population after weapons training. Of the 566 total study subjects, 277 received NAC while 289 were given placebo. The null hypothesis for the rate of STS was not rejected based on the measured results. While no significant differences were found for the primary outcome, rate of threshold shifts, the right ear threshold shift rate difference did approach significance (p = 0.0562). No significant difference was found in the second primary outcome, percentage of subjects experiencing an adverse event between placebo and NAC groups (26.7% and 27.4%, respectively, p = 0.4465). Results for the secondary outcome, STS rate in the trigger hand ear, did show a significant difference (34.98% for placebo-treated, 27.14% for NAC-treated, p-value = 0.0288). Additionally, post-hoc analysis showed significant differences in threshold shift rates when handedness was taken into account. While the secondary outcomes and post-hoc analysis suggest that NAC treatment is superior to the placebo, the present study design failed to confirm this. The lack of significant differences in overall hearing loss between the treatment and placebo groups may be due to a number of factors, including suboptimal dosing, premature post-exposure audiograms, or differences in risk between ears or subjects. Based on secondary outcomes and post hoc

  20. Prevention of postmenopausal bone loss - effects of alternative administration forms of estrogens, alternative gestagens and calcium addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riis, B.J.; Christiansen, C.

    1987-02-01

    Calcium metabolism was examined in 133 healthy postmenopausal women every three months during two years of treatment with oral or percutaneous 17..beta..-estradiol combined with different doses of calcium supplementation and/or different gestagens. Bone mineral content measured in the forearm (single photon absorptiometry), in the spine and in the total skeleton (dual photon absorptiometry) was unchanged in all estrogen-treated groups during the two years of treatment, and the responses in the groups with and without calcium supplementation and with different gestagens were not significantly different. Furthermore, the responses were independent of route of administration of the estrogen. Biochemical indices of bone turnover (serum alkaline phosphatase and fasting urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine) decreased highly significantly during estrogen treatment (p<0.001) independent of route of administration of the estrogen, of calcium supplementation, and of gestagen agent. We conclude that estrogen treatment independently of route of administration, prevents postmenopausal bone loss. The gestagen agents used here do not affect calcium metabolism, and calcium supplementation has no additive effect to estrogen therapy.

  1. The strength of the biotic compartment to retain nitrogen additions prevents nitrogen losses from a Mediterranean maquis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Dias

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N is one of the nutrients most limiting to ecosystem productivity. However, N availability is increasing globally, which may affect ecosystem functions and stability. To understand the role of each ecosystem compartment in the cycling of increased N, we studied the initial response of a nutrient-poor ecosystem, a Mediterranean maquis, to increased N. N availability (dose and forms was modified by three N additions along the year (spring, summer and middle autumn/winter. Soil inorganic N pools (nitrate in particular strongly reflected the N additions in autumn, almost matching the total N added along the three additions. Cistus ladanifer, the dominant plant species, responded to the increased N (cover and N concentration in leaves and litter, and given that leaf shedding occurs in the summer, the importance of this N pool returning to the soil through litter decomposition on the total soil inorganic N in autumn was investigated. Data suggest that living plants and litter have a crucial role in preventing N losses from Mediterranean maquis. This is the first integrated field study on how European Mediterranean ecosystems retain increased N of different forms and doses, however longer-term studies are needed to explore the generality of this study's observations.

  2. Prevention of postmenopausal bone loss - effects of alternative administration forms of estrogens, alternative gestagens and calcium addition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcium metabolism was examined in 133 healthy postmenopausal women every three months during two years of treatment with oral or percutaneous 17β-estradiol combined with different doses of calcium supplementation and/or different gestagens. Bone mineral content measured in the forearm (single photon absorptiometry), in the spine and in the total skeleton (dual photon absorptiometry) was unchanged in all estrogen-treated groups during the two years of treatment, and the responses in the groups with and without calcium supplementation and with different gestagens were not significantly different. Furthermore, the responses were independent of route of administration of the estrogen. Biochemical indices of bone turnover (serum alkaline phosphatase and fasting urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine) decreased highly significantly during estrogen treatment (p<0.001) independent of route of administration of the estrogen, of calcium supplementation, and of gestagen agent. We conclude that estrogen treatment independently of route of administration, prevents postmenopausal bone loss. The gestagen agents used here do not affect calcium metabolism, and calcium supplementation has no additive effect to estrogen therapy. (orig.)

  3. On the failure of the `Similar Piezoelectric Control' in preventing loss of stability by nonconservative positional forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Annibale, Francesco; Rosi, Giuseppe; Luongo, Angelo

    2015-08-01

    A control strategy for continuous, autonomous, linear mechanical systems, controlled via piezoelectric devices, and suffering Hopf bifurcations, triggered by positional nonconservative forces, is discussed. The strategy is based on the `principle of similarity', proved in the literature to be successful in controlling externally excited systems. A continuous metamodel of Piezo-Electro-Mechanical system, loaded by position-dependent forces, is derived via the Extended Hamilton Principle. The similarity principle is introduced in the model, demanding for certain relations among mechanical and piezoelectric properties to be satisfied. A stability analysis is carried out via perturbation methods, also accounting for small deviations from similarity. It is shown that the similar control has always a detrimental effect in preventing the loss of stability of the mechanical systems and that this effect is robust under slight imperfections. As an example, a Generalized Beck beam is studied, internally and externally damped, under the simultaneous action of a follower and a dead load, for which the previous asymptotic results are corroborated by an exact analysis.

  4. Effects of a new mild shampoo for preventing hair loss in Asian by a simple hand-held phototrichogram technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, J H; Lee, S Y; Yoo, M; Park, W-S; Lee, S J; Boo, Y C; Koh, J-S

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a commercially available shampoo in Korean subjects with alopecia using a simple hand-held phototrichogram technique. Forty-four subjects with alopecia were enrolled and forty subjects continued for 16 weeks. In the test group, total hair counts increased significantly at weeks 8 and 16, and the number of shedding hair significantly decreased at week 16. Terminal hair counts significantly increased at week 8. In the control group, hair thickness and the number of vellus hairs significantly decreased at week 16. The number of total hairs significantly increased in the test group than in the control group at weeks 8 and 16. The number of shedding hairs significantly decreased in the test group than in the control group at week 16. Visual assessment using clinical digital images showed that the number of total hairs appeared to increase although there was no statistical significance. In this study, it was found that the test shampoo could prevent hair loss.

  5. The bisphosphonate zoledronate prevents vertebral bone loss in mature estrogen-deficient rats as assessed by micro-computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glatt M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of long-term treatment with the bisphosphonate zoledronate on vertebral bone architecture was investigated in estrogen-deficient mature rats. 4-month-old rats were ovariectomized and development of cancellous osteopenia was assessed after 1 year. The change of bone architectural parameters was determined with a microtomographic instrument of high resolution. After 1 year of estrogen-deficiency, animals lost 55% of vertebral trabecular bone in comparison to sham operated control animals. Trabecular number (Tb.N and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th were significantly reduced in ovariectomized animals, whereas trabecular separation (Tb.Sp, bone surface to volume fraction (BS/BV and trabecular bone pattern factor (TBPf were significantly increased, indicating a loss of architectural integrity throughout the vertebral body. 3 groups of animals were treated subcutaneously with zoledronate for 1 year with 0.3, 1.5 and 7.5 microgram/kg/week to inhibit osteoclastic bone degradation. Administration started immediately after ovariectomy and treatment dose-dependently prevented the architectural bone deterioration and completely suppressed the effects of estrogen deficiency at the higher doses. The results show that microtomographic determination of static morphometric parameters can be used to quantitate the effects of drugs on vertebral bone architecture in small laboratory animals and that zoledronate is highly effective in this rat model.

  6. Prevention of motion-induced signal loss in diffusion-weighted echo-planar imaging by dynamic restoration of gradient moments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gumus, Kazim; Keating, Brian; Poser, Benedikt A; Armstrong, Brian; Chang, Linda; Maclaren, Julian; Prieto, Thomas; Speck, Oliver; Zaitsev, Maxim; Ernst, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE: Head motion is a significant problem in diffusion-weighted imaging as it may cause signal attenuation due to residual dephasing during strong diffusion encoding gradients even in single-shot acquisitions. Here, we present a new real-time method to prevent motion-induced signal loss in DWI o

  7. Prevention of bone loss by injection of insulin-like growth factor-1 after sciatic neurectomy in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Hai-biao; CHEN Jun-chang

    2013-01-01

    Injection of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) can prevent bone loss in sciatic nerve transaction rats.We try to investigate the action mechanism of IGF-1 on bone formation.Methods:A total of 40 adult male Spragne-Dawley rats were divided into two groups (experimental group and control group) with 20 animals in each.Sciatic neurectomy was performed to model disuse osteoporosis in all rats.IGF-1was administered in experimental group with the dose of 100 μg/kg per day for 3 days.Meanwhile,the rats in control group were treated with saline.Bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry 4 and 6 weeks after neurectomy respectively.Expression of Osterix and Runx2 was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay.Results:There was a significant increase in the bone mineral density of experimental group compared with control group.There was a significant decrease in the level of receptor activator of nuclear factor-κ B-ligand but an increase in the level of osteoprotegerin 4 and 6 weeks after neurectomy in the experimental group compared with control one.The expression of Osterix and Runx2 was up-regulated in the bone marrow of experimental group compared with control group.Conclusion:IGF-1 can increase bone formation by stimulation of osteoblast number and activity,and reduce bone resorption by restriction of differentiation of osteoclast,suggesting that IGF-1 may improve the therapeutic efficacy for disuse osteoporosis.

  8. Loss of ascl1a prevents secretory cell differentiation within the zebrafish intestinal epithelium resulting in a loss of distal intestinal motility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roach, Gillian; Heath Wallace, Rachel; Cameron, Amy; Emrah Ozel, Rifat; Hongay, Cintia F; Baral, Reshica; Andreescu, Silvana; Wallace, Kenneth N

    2013-04-15

    The vertebrate intestinal epithelium is renewed continuously from stem cells at the base of the crypt in mammals or base of the fold in fish over the life of the organism. As stem cells divide, newly formed epithelial cells make an initial choice between a secretory or enterocyte fate. This choice has previously been demonstrated to involve Notch signaling as well as Atonal and Her transcription factors in both embryogenesis and adults. Here, we demonstrate that in contrast to the atoh1 in mammals, ascl1a is responsible for formation of secretory cells in zebrafish. ascl1a-/- embryos lack all intestinal epithelial secretory cells and instead differentiate into enterocytes. ascl1a-/- embryos also fail to induce intestinal epithelial expression of deltaD suggesting that ascl1a plays a role in initiation of Notch signaling. Inhibition of Notch signaling increases the number of ascl1a and deltaD expressing intestinal epithelial cells as well as the number of developing secretory cells during two specific time periods: between 30 and 34hpf and again between 64 and 74hpf. Loss of enteroendocrine products results in loss of anterograde motility in ascl1a-/- embryos. 5HT produced by enterochromaffin cells is critical in motility and secretion within the intestine. We find that addition of exogenous 5HT to ascl1a-/- embryos at near physiological levels (measured by differential pulse voltammetry) induce anterograde motility at similar levels to wild type velocity, distance, and frequency. Removal or doubling the concentration of 5HT in WT embryos does not significantly affect anterograde motility, suggesting that the loss of additional enteroendocrine products in ascl1a-/- embryos also contributes to intestinal motility. Thus, zebrafish intestinal epithelial cells appear to have a common secretory progenitor from which all subtypes form. Loss of enteroendocrine cells reveals the critical need for enteroendocrine products in maintenance of normal intestinal motility.

  9. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants......, breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...

  10. Case study: Atlantis Systems International - Using KM principles to drive productivity and performance, prevent critical knowledge loss and encourage innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    necessarily produce innovation in the form of new products and services or in the continual improvement of work flows. Innovation at this level requires the creation of a knowledge building culture where the explicit goal for everyone in the organization is to continuously build and contribute new knowledge to the benefit of both the individual and the organization. By 2007, Atlantis revenues had grown by over 200%; the workforce increased from 102 employees to approx 210 employees; retention rates have remained consistent at 3% over a three year period, and the business has expanded its operations into the United States. In addition the company successfully leveraged its knowledge and expertise in training from the aerospace sector to enter the nuclear energy sector. The paper will present a conceptual framework for understanding Knowledge Management as it relates to organizational development, change management and innovation. Using concrete examples over a 3 three period, it will describe how knowledge management strategies applied by Atlantis to increase performance and profitability, encourage growth, accelerate innovation, attract and retain key talent, prevent knowledge loss, can be applied to the address the looming 'Grey Out' of the nuclear energy sector. (author)

  11. A Role for BLM in Double-Strand Break Repair Pathway Choice: Prevention of CtIP/Mre11-Mediated Alternative Nonhomologous End-Joining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastazja Grabarz

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The choice of the appropriate double-strand break (DSB repair pathway is essential for the maintenance of genomic stability. Here, we show that the Bloom syndrome gene product, BLM, counteracts CtIP/MRE11-dependent long-range deletions (>200 bp generated by alternative end-joining (A-EJ. BLM represses A-EJ in an epistatic manner with 53BP1 and RIF1 and is required for ionizing-radiation-induced 53BP1 focus assembly. Conversely, in the absence of 53BP1 or RIF1, BLM promotes formation of A-EJ long deletions, consistent with a role for BLM in DSB end resection. These data highlight a dual role for BLM that influences the DSB repair pathway choice: (1 protection against CtIP/MRE11 long-range deletions associated with A-EJ and (2 promotion of DNA resection. These antagonist roles can be regulated, according to cell-cycle stage, by interacting partners such as 53BP1 and TopIII, to avoid unscheduled resection that might jeopardize genome integrity.

  12. Genistein supplementation increases bone turnover but does not prevent alcohol-induced bone loss in male mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic alcohol consumption results in bone loss through increased bone resorption and decreased bone formation. These effects can be reversed by estradiol (E2) supplementation. Soy diets are suggested to have protective effects on bone loss in men and women, as a result of the presence of soy prote...

  13. Short-term, daily exposure to cold temperature may be an efficient way to prevent muscle atrophy and bone loss in a microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Claudia; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ya

    2015-04-01

    Microgravity induces less pressure on muscle/bone, which is a major reason for muscle atrophy as well as bone loss. Currently, physical exercise is the only countermeasure used consistently in the U.S. human space program to counteract the microgravity-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and bone loss. However, the routinely almost daily time commitment is significant and represents a potential risk to the accomplishment of other mission operational tasks. Therefore, development of more efficient exercise programs (with less time) to prevent astronauts from muscle atrophy and bone loss are needed. Consider the two types of muscle contraction: exercising forces muscle contraction and prevents microgravity-induced muscle atrophy/bone loss, which is a voluntary response through the motor nervous system; and cold temperature exposure-induced muscle contraction is an involuntary response through the vegetative nervous system, we formed a new hypothesis. The main purpose of this pilot study was to test our hypothesis that exercise at 4 °C is more efficient than at room temperature to prevent microgravity-induced muscle atrophy/bone loss and, consequently reduces physical exercise time. Twenty mice were divided into two groups with or without daily short-term (10 min × 2, at 12 h interval) cold temperature (4 °C) exposure for 30 days. The whole bodyweight, muscle strength and bone density were measured after terminating the experiments. The results from the one-month pilot study support our hypothesis and suggest that it would be reasonable to use more mice, in a microgravity environment and observe for a longer period to obtain a conclusion. We believe that the results from such a study will help to develop efficient exercise, which will finally benefit astronauts' heath and NASA's missions.

  14. 防止兔毛掉毛方法及机理研究%METHORD AND RESEARCH ON THE MECHANISM TO PREVENT RABBIT HAIR LOSS FORM FABRIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马建伟; 李天恒; 张丽霞

    2000-01-01

    解决兔毛织物掉毛是目前世界性难题.本研究在保证兔毛风格前题下,找到了解决掉毛问题的关键,并分析了兔毛掉落的机理和防止掉毛的重要因素.从而提出一种新的防掉毛方法,即热熔粘合法,为兔毛生产打通了一条新的途径.%At present, the solution of rabbit hair loss form fabric is a difficult problem in the world[1]. On the basis of keeping rabbit hair style, a new method of thermo-bonding process to prevent rabbit hair loss was presented. and the rabbit hair loss can be reduced greatly by over 50%.

  15. Intravenous 1 gram tranexamic acid for prevention of blood loss and blood transfusion during caesarean section: a randomized case control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babita Ramani

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Aim of current study was to determine the effect of tranexamic acid in reducing blood loss during and after C-section. Methods: All women undergoing LSCS were divided in two groups viz study and control group. All were requested for pre-op and post-op Hb%, PCV and TRBC. Intravenous tranexamic acid one gm was given to study group (not to control group 10 min prior to skin incision and blood loss in both groups was calculated by weighing prewieghed pads soaked in blood. Results: Post-op blood loss was significantly lower in study group (P = 0.020. Hb% changes in post-op period is significant in control group (P = 0.037. Conclusions: Tranexamic acid is safe and effective in preventing post-partum hemorrhage after caesarean section. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(2.000: 366-369

  16. Memory enhancing drugs and Alzheimer’s Disease: Enhancing the self or preventing the loss of it?

    OpenAIRE

    Dekkers, Wim; Rikkert, Marcel Olde

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we analyse some ethical and philosophical questions related to the development of memory enhancing drugs (MEDs) and anti-dementia drugs. The world of memory enhancement is coloured by utopian thinking and by the desire for quicker, sharper, and more reliable memories. Dementia is characterized by decline, fragility, vulnerability, a loss of the most important cognitive functions and even a loss of self. While MEDs are being developed for self-improvement, in Alzheimer’s Disease ...

  17. Pioglitazone Treatment Increases Survival and Prevents Body Weight Loss in Tumor–Bearing Animals: Possible Anti-Cachectic Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Beluzi, Mércia; Peres, Sidney B.; Henriques, Felipe S.; Rogério A L Sertié; Franco, Felipe O.; Kaltinaitis B Santos; Knobl, Pâmela; Andreotti, Sandra; Shida, Cláudio S.; Neves, Rodrigo X.; Farmer, Stephen R.; Seelaender, Marília; Fábio B Lima; Batista Jr., Miguel L.

    2015-01-01

    Cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by profound involuntary weight loss, fat depletion, skeletal muscle wasting, and asthenia; all symptoms are not entirely attributable to inadequate nutritional intake. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle loss during cancer cachexia development has been described systematically. The former was proposed to precede and be more rapid than the latter, which presents a means for the early detection of cachexia in cancer patients. Recently, pioglita...

  18. Treadmill exercise prevents GABAergic neuronal loss with suppression of neuronal activation in the pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats

    OpenAIRE

    Lim, Baek-Vin; Shin, Mal-Soon; Lee, Jae-Min; Seo, Jin-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by seizure and loss of neuronal cells by abnormal rhythmic firing of neurons in the brain. In the present study, we investigated the effect of treadmill exercise on gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)ergic neuronal loss in relation with neuronal activation using pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats. The rats were divided into four groups: control group, control and treadmill exercise group, pilocarpine-induced epilepsy group, and pilocarpine-i...

  19. Availability and Accessibility of Student-Specific Weight Loss Programs and Other Risk Prevention Health Services on College Campuses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, Sharon; Napolitano, Melissa; Hufnagel, Katrina

    2016-01-01

    Background More than one third of college students who are overweight or obese are in need of weight loss programs tailored to college students. However, the availability and accessibility of these programs is unknown. Objective The aim of this study is to examine the availability and ease of access to weight loss programs for students at 10 universities with the largest undergraduate enrollment. Methods The 10 public universities with the largest student bodies with a mean (SD) undergraduate enrollment of 41,122 (7657) students were examined. The websites of the universities were assessed to determine the availability of weight loss programs. Services for high-risk health needs common to university campuses (ie, alcohol and other drugs, victim services, sexual health, and eating disorders) were searched. Results Of the universities searched, 3 (30%, 3/10) offered weight loss programming, however, none met the predetermined criteria. Comparatively, all schools (100%, 10/10) offered no-cost and continual enrollment programming for the other high-risk health needs. Conclusions There are limited weight loss services available to undergraduate students compared with other university services. Collaboration between existing college health service providers is suggested for the delivery of appropriate programming for overweight and obese undergraduates wanting to lose weight. PMID:27278261

  20. Using the extended parallel process model to prevent noise-induced hearing loss among coal miners in Appalachia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray-Johnson, L.; Witte, K.; Patel, D.; Orrego, V.; Zuckerman, C.; Maxfield, A.M.; Thimons, E.D. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (US)

    2004-12-15

    Occupational noise-induced hearing loss is the second most self-reported occupational illness or injury in the United States. Among coal miners, more than 90% of the population reports a hearing deficit by age 55. In this formative evaluation, focus groups were conducted with coal miners in Appalachia to ascertain whether miners perceive hearing loss as a major health risk and if so, what would motivate the consistent wearing of hearing protection devices (HPDs). The theoretical framework of the Extended Parallel Process Model was used to identify the miners' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and current behaviors regarding hearing protection. Focus group participants had strong perceived severity and varying levels of perceived susceptibility to hearing loss. Various barriers significantly reduced the self-efficacy and the response efficacy of using hearing protection.

  1. Prevention of Paclitaxel-induced allodynia by Minocycline: Effect on loss of peripheral nerve fibers and infiltration of macrophages in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wen-Jun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although paclitaxel is a frontline antineoplastic agent for treatment of solid tumors, the paclitaxel-evoked pain syndrome is a serious problem for patients. There is currently no valid drug to prevent or treat the paclitaxel-induced allodynia, partly due to lack of understanding regarding the cellular mechanism. Studies have shown that minocycline, an inhibitor of microglia/macrophage, prevented neuropathic pain and promoted neuronal survival in animal models of neurodegenerative disease. Recently, Cata et al also reported that minocycline inhibited allodynia induced by low-dose paclitaxel (2 mg/kg in rats, but the mechanism is still unclear. Results Here, we investigate by immunohistochemistry the change of intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF in the hind paw glabrous skin, expression of macrophage and activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3 in DRG at different time points after moderate-dose paclitaxel treatment (cumulative dose 24 mg/kg; 3 × 8 mg/kg in rats. Moreover, we observe the effect of minocycline on the IENF, macrophages and ATF3. The results showed that moderate-dose paclitaxel induced a persisted, gradual mechanical allodynia, which was accompanied by the loss of IENF in the hind paw glabrous skin and up-regulation of macrophages and ATF3 in DRG in rats. The expressions of ATF3 mainly focus on the NF200-positive cells. More importantly, we observed that pretreatment of minocycline at dose of 30 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg, but not 5 mg/kg, prevented paclitaxel-evoked allodynia. The evidence from immunohistochemistry showed that 30 mg/kg minocycline rescued the degeneration of IENF, attenuated infiltration of macrophages and up-regulation of ATF3 induced by paclitaxel treatment in rats. Conclusions Minocycline prevents paclitaxel-evoked allodynia, likely due to its inhibition on loss of IENF, infiltration of macrophages and up-regulation of ATF3 in rats. The finding might provide potential target for preventing paclitaxel

  2. Alendronate prevents postmenopausal bone loss in women without osteoporosis. A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial. Alendronate Osteoporosis Prevention Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McClung, M; Clemmesen, B; Daifotis, A;

    1998-01-01

    to one of five regimens: oral placebo; oral alendronate, 1, 5, or 10 mg/d; or oral alendronate, 20 mg/d for 2 years followed by placebo during the third year (20/0 mg/d). MEASUREMENTS: Bone mineral density was measured by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry. Bone turnover and bone quality were assessed...... with biochemical markers and bone histomorphometry. RESULTS: Alendronate at 5, 10, and 20/0 mg/d increased bone mineral density from baseline at the lumbar spine, femoral neck, and trochanter by 1% to 4% and in the total body by 0.3% to 1.0%; placebo led to losses of 2% to 4% at these sites....... Alendronate, 1 mg/d, attenuated losses relative to those seen with placebo. Alendronate decreased markers of bone resorption to a new steady state by 3 months and decreased markers of bone formation by 6 to 12 months. Bone quality remained normal. At all dosages studied, alendronate had a safety and...

  3. Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Meghan E; Maki, Aaron J; Johnson, Steven E; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2008-02-01

    Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and subsequently recover it at a faster rate than other animals. Here we show decreased cortical bone turnover during hibernation with balanced formation and resorption in grizzly bear femurs. Hibernating grizzly bear femurs were less porous and more mineralized, and did not demonstrate any changes in cortical bone geometry or whole bone mechanical properties compared to active grizzly bear femurs. The activation frequency of intracortical remodeling was 75% lower during hibernation than during periods of physical activity, but the normalized mineral apposition rate was unchanged. These data indicate that bone turnover decreases during hibernation, but osteons continue to refill at normal rates. There were no changes in regional variation of porosity, geometry, or remodeling indices in femurs from hibernating bears, indicating that hibernation did not preferentially affect one region of the cortex. Thus, grizzly bears prevent bone loss during disuse by decreasing bone turnover and maintaining balanced formation and resorption, which preserves bone structure and strength. These results support the idea that bears possess a biological mechanism to prevent disuse osteoporosis.

  4. Trimegestone in a low-dose, continuous-combined hormone therapy regimen prevents bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warming, Lise; Ravn, Pernille; Spielman, Danièle;

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of estrogen + progestogen therapy with 1 mg 17beta-estradiol and 0.125 mg trimegestone in the prevention of postmenopausal osteoporosis. DESIGN: For this study, 360 healthy, postmenopausal women with osteopenia [lumbar spine bone mineral density (BMD) between ...

  5. A Stylistic Analysis of Break,Break,Break

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑶

    2015-01-01

    Break, Break, Break is a poem by Alfred Lord Tennyson, the Poet Laureate during the Queen Victoria's reign. This exquisite little poem is wel known for the poet's grief-stricken feelings and heart-broken emotions over the premature death of his best friend, Arthur Henry Halam. Most of the previous studies on this poem focus on the emotional level to consider it as an elegy, expressing sorrow and lamentation for the death of a particular person. However, in order to have a deep understanding in general, this paper analyzes the poem based on the stylistic theory, concerning on the lexical level and the semantic level. It aims at helping the readers to cultivate a sense of appropriateness, to sharpen the understanding and appreciation of literary works and to achieve adaptation in translation.

  6. Implant-supported overdentures, a prevention of bone loss in edentulous mandibles? A 5-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wowern, N; Gotfredsen, K

    2001-01-01

    the implants and 3) whether the presence of mandibular osteoporosis affects the loss of bone height around the implants. The material consisted of 22 long-term edentulous healthy persons, 18 women and 4 men from 54 to 78 years of age with 1 Astra Tech Dental Implant in both canine regions, connected by a bar......The purpose of this study were to analyse 1) the changes in the bone mineral content (BMC) in mandibles with implant-supported overdentures when compared with the physiologic age-related mandibular BMC loss, 2) whether the BMC changes were different in groups without or with a bar connecting...... of bone height around implants was measured on periodically identical intraoral radiographs. The fixed parts of the implant-system were stable during the trial in all patients. In conclusion: 1) the increased function after this treatment seems to cause a load-related bone formation which minimizes...

  7. High-frequency, low-magnitude vibration does not prevent bone loss resulting from muscle disuse in mice following botulinum toxin injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manske, Sarah L; Good, Craig A; Zernicke, Ronald F; Boyd, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    High-frequency, low-magnitude vibration enhances bone formation ostensibly by mimicking normal postural muscle activity. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether daily exposure to low-magnitude vibration (VIB) would maintain bone in a muscle disuse model with botulinum toxin type A (BTX). Female 16-18 wk old BALB/c mice (N = 36) were assigned to BTX-VIB, BTX-SHAM, VIB, or SHAM. BTX mice were injected with BTX (20 µL; 1 U/100 g body mass) into the left hindlimb posterior musculature. All mice were anaesthetized for 20 min/d, 5 d/wk, for 3 wk, and the left leg mounted to a holder. Through the holder, VIB mice received 45 Hz, ± 0.6 g sinusoidal acceleration without weight bearing. SHAM mice received no vibration. At baseline and 3 wk, muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA) and tibial bone properties (epiphysis, metaphysis and diaphysis) were assessed by in vivo micro-CT. Bone volume fraction in the metaphysis decreased 12 ± 9% and 7 ± 6% in BTX-VIB and BTX-SHAM, but increased in the VIB and SHAM. There were no differences in dynamic histomorphometry outcomes between BTX-VIB and BTX nor between VIB and SHAM. Thus, vibration did not prevent bone loss induced by a rapid decline in muscle activity nor produce an anabolic effect in normal mice. The daily loading duration was shorter than would be expected from postural muscle activity, and may have been insufficient to prevent bone loss. Based on the approach used in this study, vibration does not prevent bone loss in the absence of muscle activity induced by BTX. PMID:22590551

  8. High-frequency, low-magnitude vibration does not prevent bone loss resulting from muscle disuse in mice following botulinum toxin injection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Manske

    Full Text Available High-frequency, low-magnitude vibration enhances bone formation ostensibly by mimicking normal postural muscle activity. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether daily exposure to low-magnitude vibration (VIB would maintain bone in a muscle disuse model with botulinum toxin type A (BTX. Female 16-18 wk old BALB/c mice (N = 36 were assigned to BTX-VIB, BTX-SHAM, VIB, or SHAM. BTX mice were injected with BTX (20 µL; 1 U/100 g body mass into the left hindlimb posterior musculature. All mice were anaesthetized for 20 min/d, 5 d/wk, for 3 wk, and the left leg mounted to a holder. Through the holder, VIB mice received 45 Hz, ± 0.6 g sinusoidal acceleration without weight bearing. SHAM mice received no vibration. At baseline and 3 wk, muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA and tibial bone properties (epiphysis, metaphysis and diaphysis were assessed by in vivo micro-CT. Bone volume fraction in the metaphysis decreased 12 ± 9% and 7 ± 6% in BTX-VIB and BTX-SHAM, but increased in the VIB and SHAM. There were no differences in dynamic histomorphometry outcomes between BTX-VIB and BTX nor between VIB and SHAM. Thus, vibration did not prevent bone loss induced by a rapid decline in muscle activity nor produce an anabolic effect in normal mice. The daily loading duration was shorter than would be expected from postural muscle activity, and may have been insufficient to prevent bone loss. Based on the approach used in this study, vibration does not prevent bone loss in the absence of muscle activity induced by BTX.

  9. Conjugated linoleic acid prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice by modulating both osteoclastogenesis and osteoblastogenesis

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Md Mizanur; Fernandes, Gabriel; Williams, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Postmenopausal osteoporosis due to estrogen deficiency is associated with severe morbidity and mortality. Beneficial effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on bone mineral density (BMD) have been reported in mice, rats and humans, but the effect of long term CLA supplementation against ovariectomy-induced bone loss in mice and the mechanisms underlying this effect have not been studied yet. Eight weeks old ovariectomized (Ovx) and sham operated C57BL/6 mice were fed either a diet containin...

  10. The perilipin homologue, lipid storage droplet 2, regulates sleep homeostasis and prevents learning impairments following sleep loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Thimgan

    Full Text Available Extended periods of waking result in physiological impairments in humans, rats, and flies. Sleep homeostasis, the increase in sleep observed following sleep loss, is believed to counter the negative effects of prolonged waking by restoring vital biological processes that are degraded during sleep deprivation. Sleep homeostasis, as with other behaviors, is influenced by both genes and environment. We report here that during periods of starvation, flies remain spontaneously awake but, in contrast to sleep deprivation, do not accrue any of the negative consequences of prolonged waking. Specifically, the homeostatic response and learning impairments that are a characteristic of sleep loss are not observed following prolonged waking induced by starvation. Recently, two genes, brummer (bmm and Lipid storage droplet 2 (Lsd2, have been shown to modulate the response to starvation. bmm mutants have excess fat and are resistant to starvation, whereas Lsd2 mutants are lean and sensitive to starvation. Thus, we hypothesized that bmm and Lsd2 may play a role in sleep regulation. Indeed, bmm mutant flies display a large homeostatic response following sleep deprivation. In contrast, Lsd2 mutant flies, which phenocopy aspects of starvation as measured by low triglyceride stores, do not exhibit a homeostatic response following sleep loss. Importantly, Lsd2 mutant flies are not learning impaired after sleep deprivation. These results provide the first genetic evidence, to our knowledge, that lipid metabolism plays an important role in regulating the homeostatic response and can protect against neuronal impairments induced by prolonged waking.

  11. Design a Close Loop Cooling System for EA-P1 and Its Auxiliaries to Prevent Loss of Domestic Water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Any one of four machines i.e. EA-P1, EA-J4, EA-J5 and EA-J6 may be used to develop vacuum in water box side of main condenser in KANUPP. As per design and operating experience, most efficient one is EA-P1. But since it consumes ample quantity of domestic water which is already very short at KANUPP (even tankers are purchased), its use is avoided. If water used for its cooling is prevented from going to waste and is recycled. EA-P1 operation may be resumed thereby improving efficiency of condenser. We made a close loop for EA-P1 in order to prevent water from going to waste. For this purpose we suggested two close loop schemes and discuss their advantages and drawbacks. Feasibility of both schemes is present in this report and efficient one is proposed for installation at KANUPP. (author)

  12. Involvement of periostin-sclerostin-Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway in the prevention of neurectomy-induced bone loss by naringin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Jianwei; Sun, Xiaolei; Ma, Jianxiong; Ma, Xinlong; Xing, Guosheng; Wang, Ying; Sun, Lei; Wang, Jianbao; Li, Fengbo; Li, Yanjun

    2015-12-25

    Periostin has an essential role in mechanotransduction in bone. Naringin, a natural flavonoid, has been evidenced for its osteoprotective role in osteoporosis, while its mechanism is far from clear. Here we show that down-regulation of periostin, and up-regulation of its downstream sclerostin and inactivation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling were implicated in neurectomy-induced bone loss. Naringin could up-regulate periostin and prevent neurectomy-induced deterioration of BMD, trabecular microstructure and bone mechanical characteristics. In conclusion, naringin could prevent progress of disuse osteoporosis in rats, which may be mediated by increased periostin expression and subsequently inhibition of sclerostin and activation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathways. PMID:26541456

  13. Cocoa-rich diet attenuates beta cell mass loss and function in young Zucker diabetic fatty rats by preventing oxidative stress and beta cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Millán, Elisa; Cordero-Herrera, Isabel; Ramos, Sonia; Escrivá, Fernando; Alvarez, Carmen; Goya, Luis; Martín, María Angeles

    2015-04-01

    We have recently shown that cocoa flavanols may have anti-diabetic potential by promoting survival and function of pancreatic beta-cells in vitro. In this work, we investigated if a cocoa-rich diet is able to preserve beta-cell mass and function in an animal model of type 2 diabetes and the mechanisms involved. Our results showed that cocoa feeding during the prediabetic state attenuates hyperglycaemia, reduces insulin resistant, and increases beta cell mass and function in obese Zucker diabetic rats. At the molecular level, cocoa-rich diet prevented beta-cell apoptosis by increasing the levels of Bcl-xL and decreasing Bax levels and caspase-3 activity. Cocoa diet enhanced the activity of endogenous antioxidant defenses, mainly glutathione peroxidase, preventing thus oxidative injury induced by the pre-diabetic condition and leading to apoptosis prevention. These findings provide the first in vivo evidence that a cocoa-rich diet may delay the loss of functional beta-cell mass and delay the progression of diabetes by preventing oxidative stress and beta-cell apoptosis.

  14. Cocoa-rich diet attenuates beta cell mass loss and function in young Zucker diabetic fatty rats by preventing oxidative stress and beta cell apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Millán, Elisa; Cordero-Herrera, Isabel; Ramos, Sonia; Escrivá, Fernando; Alvarez, Carmen; Goya, Luis; Martín, María Angeles

    2015-04-01

    We have recently shown that cocoa flavanols may have anti-diabetic potential by promoting survival and function of pancreatic beta-cells in vitro. In this work, we investigated if a cocoa-rich diet is able to preserve beta-cell mass and function in an animal model of type 2 diabetes and the mechanisms involved. Our results showed that cocoa feeding during the prediabetic state attenuates hyperglycaemia, reduces insulin resistant, and increases beta cell mass and function in obese Zucker diabetic rats. At the molecular level, cocoa-rich diet prevented beta-cell apoptosis by increasing the levels of Bcl-xL and decreasing Bax levels and caspase-3 activity. Cocoa diet enhanced the activity of endogenous antioxidant defenses, mainly glutathione peroxidase, preventing thus oxidative injury induced by the pre-diabetic condition and leading to apoptosis prevention. These findings provide the first in vivo evidence that a cocoa-rich diet may delay the loss of functional beta-cell mass and delay the progression of diabetes by preventing oxidative stress and beta-cell apoptosis. PMID:25559866

  15. Preventing and reversing vacuum-induced optical losses in high-finesse tantalum (V) oxide mirror coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Gangloff, Dorian; Shi, Molu; Wu, Tailin; Bylinskii, Alexei; Braverman, Boris; Nichols, Rosanna; Li, Junru; Aichholz, Kai; Cetina, Marko; Karpa, Leon; Chuang, Isaac; Gutierrez, Michael Steven; Jelenkovic, Branislav; Vuletic, Vladan

    2015-01-01

    High-finesse optical cavities placed under vacuum are foundational platforms in quantum information science with photons and atoms. We study the vacuum-induced degradation of high-finesse optical cavities with mirror coatings composed of SiO[subscript 2]-Ta[subscript 2]O[subscript 5] dielectric stacks, and present methods to protect these coatings and to recover their initial low loss levels. For separate coatings with reflectivities centered at 370 nm and 422 nm, a vacuum-induced continuous ...

  16. Preventing and Reversing Vacuum-Induced Optical Losses in High-Finesse Tantalum (V) Oxide Mirror Coatings

    OpenAIRE

    Gangloff, Dorian; Shi, Molu; Wu, Tailin; Bylinskii, Alexei; Braverman, Boris; Gutierrez, Michael; Nichols, Rosanna; Li, Junru; Aichholz, Kai; Cetina, Marko; Karpa, Leon; Jelenković, Branislav; Chuang, Isaac; Vuletić, Vladan

    2015-01-01

    We study the vacuum-induced degradation of high-finesse optical cavities with mirror coatings composed of SiO$_2$-Ta$_{2}$O$_{5}$ dielectric stacks, and present methods to protect these coatings and to recover their initial quality factor. For separate coatings with reflectivities centered at 370 nm and 422 nm, a vacuum-induced continuous increase in optical loss occurs if the surface-layer coating is made of Ta$_{2}$O$_{5}$, while it does not occur if it is made of SiO$_2$. The incurred opti...

  17. Selective inhibition of NF-κB activation prevents dopaminergic neuronal loss in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease

    OpenAIRE

    Ghosh, Anamitra; Roy, Avik; Liu, Xiaojuan; Kordower, Jeffrey H.; Mufson, Elliott J.; Hartley, Dean M.; Ghosh, Sankar; Mosley, R. Lee; Gendelman, Howard E; Pahan, Kalipada

    2007-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder. Despite intense investigations, no effective therapy is available to stop its onset or halt its progression. The present study evaluates the ability of peptide corresponding to the NF-κB essential modifier-binding domain (NBD) of IκB kinase α (IKKα) or IKKβ to prevent nigrostriatal degeneration in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD and establish a role for NF-κB in human parki...

  18. Preventing and reversing vacuum-induced optical losses in high-finesse tantalum (V) oxide mirror coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangloff, Dorian; Shi, Molu; Wu, Tailin; Bylinskii, Alexei; Braverman, Boris; Gutierrez, Michael; Nichols, Rosanna; Li, Junru; Aichholz, Kai; Cetina, Marko; Karpa, Leon; Jelenković, Branislav; Chuang, Isaac; Vuletić, Vladan

    2015-07-01

    We study the vacuum-induced degradation of high-finesse optical cavities with mirror coatings composed of SiO$_2$-Ta$_{2}$O$_{5}$ dielectric stacks, and present methods to protect these coatings and to recover their initial quality factor. For separate coatings with reflectivities centered at 370 nm and 422 nm, a vacuum-induced continuous increase in optical loss occurs if the surface-layer coating is made of Ta$_{2}$O$_{5}$, while it does not occur if it is made of SiO$_2$. The incurred optical loss can be reversed by filling the vacuum chamber with oxygen at atmospheric pressure, and the recovery rate can be strongly accelerated by continuous laser illumination at 422 nm. Both the degradation and the recovery processes depend strongly on temperature. We find that a 1 nm-thick layer of SiO$_2$ passivating the Ta$_{2}$O$_{5}$ surface layer is sufficient to reduce the degradation rate by more than a factor of 10, strongly supporting surface oxygen depletion as the primary degradation mechanism.

  19. Preventing and Reversing Vacuum-Induced Optical Losses in High-Finesse Tantalum (V) Oxide Mirror Coatings

    CERN Document Server

    Gangloff, Dorian; Wu, Tailin; Bylinskii, Alexei; Braverman, Boris; Gutierrez, Michael; Nichols, Rosanna; Li, Junru; Aichholz, Kai; Cetina, Marko; Karpa, Leon; Jelenković, Branislav; Chuang, Isaac; Vuletić, Vladan

    2015-01-01

    We study the vacuum-induced degradation of high-finesse optical cavities with mirror coatings composed of SiO$_2$-Ta$_{2}$O$_{5}$ dielectric stacks, and present methods to protect these coatings and to recover their initial quality factor. For separate coatings with reflectivities centered at 370 nm and 422 nm, a vacuum-induced continuous increase in optical loss occurs if the surface-layer coating is made of Ta$_{2}$O$_{5}$, while it does not occur if it is made of SiO$_2$. The incurred optical loss can be reversed by filling the vacuum chamber with oxygen at atmospheric pressure, and the recovery rate can be strongly accelerated by continuous laser illumination at 422 nm. Both the degradation and the recovery processes depend strongly on temperature. We find that a 1 nm-thick layer of SiO$_2$ passivating the Ta$_{2}$O$_{5}$ surface layer is sufficient to reduce the degradation rate by more than a factor of 10, strongly supporting surface oxygen depletion as the primary degradation mechanism.

  20. Etanercept, a widely used inhibitor of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α, prevents retinal ganglion cell loss in a rat model of glaucoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miin Roh

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Visual loss in glaucoma is associated with pathological changes in retinal ganglion cell (RGC axons and a slow decline in the RGC population. Age and elevated intraocular pressure (IOP are the main risk factors for glaucomatous loss of vision. Several studies have implicated the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α as a link between elevated IOP and RGC death, but the cellular source of TNF-α and its causative role in RGC death remain uncertain. Here, using a rat model of glaucoma, we investigated the source of elevated TNF-α and examined whether Etanercept, a TNF-α blocker that is in common clinical use for other indications, is protective against RGC death. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Episcleral vein cauterization (EVC caused intraocular pressure (IOP to be elevated for at least 28 days. IOP elevation resulted in a dramatic increase in TNF-α levels within a few days, axonal degeneration, and a 38% loss of RGCs by 4 weeks. Immunostaining coupled with confocal microscopy showed that OHT induced robust induction of TNF-α in Iba-1-positive microglia around the optic nerve head (ONH. Despite persistent elevation of IOP, Etanercept reduced microglial activation, TNF-α levels, axon degeneration in the optic nerve, and the loss of RGCs. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Ocular hypertension (OHT triggers an inflammatory response characterized by the appearance of activated microglia around the ONH that express TNF-α. Blocking TNF-α activity with a clinically approved agent inhibits this microglial response and prevents axonal degeneration and loss of RGCs. These findings suggest a new treatment strategy for glaucoma using TNF-α antagonists or suppressors of inflammation.

  1. Pioglitazone treatment increases survival and prevents body weight loss in tumor-bearing animals: possible anti-cachectic effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beluzi, Mércia; Peres, Sidney B; Henriques, Felipe S; Sertié, Rogério A L; Franco, Felipe O; Santos, Kaltinaitis B; Knobl, Pâmela; Andreotti, Sandra; Shida, Cláudio S; Neves, Rodrigo X; Farmer, Stephen R; Seelaender, Marília; Lima, Fábio B; Batista, Miguel L

    2015-01-01

    Cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by profound involuntary weight loss, fat depletion, skeletal muscle wasting, and asthenia; all symptoms are not entirely attributable to inadequate nutritional intake. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle loss during cancer cachexia development has been described systematically. The former was proposed to precede and be more rapid than the latter, which presents a means for the early detection of cachexia in cancer patients. Recently, pioglitazone (PGZ) was proposed to exhibit anti-cancer properties, including a reduction in insulin resistance and adipose tissue loss; nevertheless, few studies have evaluated its effect on survival. For greater insight into a potential anti-cachectic effect due to PGZ, 8-week-old male Wistar rats were subcutaneously inoculated with 1 mL (2×107) of Walker 256 tumor cells. The animals were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: TC (tumor + saline-control) and TP5 (tumor + PGZ/5 mg). Body weight, food ingestion and tumor growth were measured at baseline and after removal of tumor on days 7, 14 and 26. Samples from different visceral adipose tissue (AT) depots were collected on days 7 and 14 and stored at -80o C (5 to 7 animals per day/group). The PGZ treatment showed an increase in the survival average of 27.3% (P< 0.01) when compared to TC. It was also associated with enhanced body mass preservation (40.7 and 56.3%, p< 0.01) on day 14 and 26 compared with the TC group. The treatment also reduced the final tumor mass (53.4%, p<0.05) and anorexia compared with the TC group during late-stage cachexia. The retroperitoneal AT (RPAT) mass was preserved on day 7 compared with the TC group during the same experimental period. Such effect also demonstrates inverse relationship with tumor growth, on day 14. Gene expression of PPAR-γ, adiponectin, LPL and C/EBP-α from cachectic rats was upregulated after PGZ. Glucose uptake from adipocyte cells (RPAT) was entirely re-established due to

  2. Pioglitazone treatment increases survival and prevents body weight loss in tumor-bearing animals: possible anti-cachectic effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mércia Beluzi

    Full Text Available Cachexia is a multifactorial syndrome characterized by profound involuntary weight loss, fat depletion, skeletal muscle wasting, and asthenia; all symptoms are not entirely attributable to inadequate nutritional intake. Adipose tissue and skeletal muscle loss during cancer cachexia development has been described systematically. The former was proposed to precede and be more rapid than the latter, which presents a means for the early detection of cachexia in cancer patients. Recently, pioglitazone (PGZ was proposed to exhibit anti-cancer properties, including a reduction in insulin resistance and adipose tissue loss; nevertheless, few studies have evaluated its effect on survival. For greater insight into a potential anti-cachectic effect due to PGZ, 8-week-old male Wistar rats were subcutaneously inoculated with 1 mL (2×107 of Walker 256 tumor cells. The animals were randomly assigned to two experimental groups: TC (tumor + saline-control and TP5 (tumor + PGZ/5 mg. Body weight, food ingestion and tumor growth were measured at baseline and after removal of tumor on days 7, 14 and 26. Samples from different visceral adipose tissue (AT depots were collected on days 7 and 14 and stored at -80o C (5 to 7 animals per day/group. The PGZ treatment showed an increase in the survival average of 27.3% (P< 0.01 when compared to TC. It was also associated with enhanced body mass preservation (40.7 and 56.3%, p< 0.01 on day 14 and 26 compared with the TC group. The treatment also reduced the final tumor mass (53.4%, p<0.05 and anorexia compared with the TC group during late-stage cachexia. The retroperitoneal AT (RPAT mass was preserved on day 7 compared with the TC group during the same experimental period. Such effect also demonstrates inverse relationship with tumor growth, on day 14. Gene expression of PPAR-γ, adiponectin, LPL and C/EBP-α from cachectic rats was upregulated after PGZ. Glucose uptake from adipocyte cells (RPAT was entirely re

  3. Azithromycin Prevents Pregnancy Loss: Reducing the Level of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha and Raising the Level of Interleukin-10 in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Er

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effect of azithromycin on LPS-induced pregnancy loss. Thirty-six pregnant female Wistar rats were divided into 4 equal groups as follows: control group, where 0.3 mL of normal saline solution was administered intravenously on day 10 of pregnancy; azithromycin group, where azithromycin was administered orally at 350 mg kg−1 day on days 9, 10, and 11 of pregnancy; lipopolysaccharide group, where LPS was administered intravenously via the tail vein at 160 μg kg−1 on day 10 of pregnancy; and the azithromycin + LPS group, where azithromycin was administered orally at 350 mg kg−1 day on days 9, 10, and 11 of pregnancy and LPS was administered intravenously at 160 μg kg−1 on day 10 of pregnancy. Blood samples were obtained from the tail vein on day 10 of the experiment. Pregnancy rates were determined. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and interleukin (IL-10 levels were measured by ELISA. Azithromycin prevented ( LPS-induced pregnancy loss. Higher TNF-α and IL-10 levels were measured ( in the LPS and azithromycin + LPS groups, respectively. In conclusion, azithromycin may be useful in infection- or endotoxemia-dependent pregnancy loss.

  4. A lifestyle program of exercise and weight loss is effective in preventing and treating type 2 diabetes mellitus: Why are programs not more available?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ades, Philip A

    2015-11-01

    There is substantial evidence that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can be prevented in high-risk individuals by a lifestyle program of regular exercise and weight reduction. Additionally, there is emerging evidence that new onset T2DM (exercise in a majority of motivated individuals, obviating a need for glucose lowering medications. Yet, lifestyle programs to support such behavior change are not widely available. Moreover, health care insurance companies generally do not provide coverage for behavioral weight loss programs to prevent or treat T2DM. Consequently, physicians caring for individuals with T2DM may find it much easier to start a chronic glucose lowering medication rather than attempting to motivate and support patients through long-term behavior change. The cardiac rehabilitation model of disease management, with a network of over 2000 programs in the U.S., is well suited to deliver medically-supervised lifestyle programs. National organizations such as the American Diabetes Association and the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation should support greater availability and use of lifestyle programs for T2DM treatment and prevention. PMID:25818810

  5. Cyclosporine Does Not Prevent Microvascular Loss in Transplantation but Can Synergize With a Neutrophil Elastase Inhibitor, Elafin, to Maintain Graft Perfusion During Acute Rejection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, X; Nguyen, T T; Tian, W; Sung, Y K; Yuan, K; Qian, J; Rajadas, J; Sallenave, J-M; Nickel, N P; de Jesus Perez, V; Rabinovitch, M; Nicolls, M R

    2015-07-01

    The loss of a functional microvascular bed in rejecting solid organ transplants is correlated with fibrotic remodeling and chronic rejection; in lung allografts, this pathology is predicted by bronchoalveolar fluid neutrophilia which suggests a role for polymorphonuclear cells in microcirculatory injury. In a mouse orthotopic tracheal transplant model, cyclosporine, which primarily inhibits T cells, failed as a monotherapy for preventing microvessel rejection and graft ischemia. To target neutrophil action that may be contributing to vascular injury, we examined the effect of a neutrophil elastase inhibitor, elafin, on the microvascular health of transplant tissue. We showed that elafin monotherapy prolonged microvascular perfusion and enhanced tissue oxygenation while diminishing the infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages and decreasing tissue deposition of complement C3 and the membrane attack complex, C5b-9. Elafin was also found to promote angiogenesis through activation of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathway but was insufficient as a single agent to completely prevent tissue ischemia during acute rejection episodes. However, when combined with cyclosporine, elafin effectively preserved airway microvascular perfusion and oxygenation. The therapeutic strategy of targeting neutrophil elastase activity alongside standard immunosuppression during acute rejection episodes may be an effective approach for preventing the development of irreversible fibrotic remodeling. PMID:25727073

  6. Loss of integrin α3 prevents skin tumor formation by promoting epidermal turnover and depletion of slow-cycling cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachs, Norman; Secades, Pablo; van Hulst, Laura; Kreft, Maaike; Song, Ji-Ying; Sonnenberg, Arnoud

    2012-12-26

    Progression through the various stages of skin tumorigenesis is correlated with an altered expression of the integrin α3β1, suggesting that it plays an important role in the tumorigenic process. Using epidermis-specific Itga3 KO mice subjected to the 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA)/12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate two-stage skin carcinogenesis protocol, we demonstrate that efficient tumor development is critically dependent on the presence of α3β1. In the absence of α3β1, tumor initiation is dramatically decreased because of increased epidermal turnover, leading to a loss of DMBA-initiated label-retaining keratinocytes. Lineage tracing revealed emigration of α3-deficient keratinocytes residing in the bulge of the hair follicle toward the interfollicular epidermis. Furthermore, tumor growth and cell proliferation were strongly reduced in mice with an epidermis-specific deletion of Itga3. However, the rate of progression of α3β1-null squamous cell carcinomas to undifferentiated, invasive carcinomas was increased. Therefore, α3β1 critically affects skin carcinogenesis with opposing effects early and late in tumorigenesis. PMID:23236172

  7. Fish oil combined with SCFA synergistically prevent tissue accumulation of NEFA during weight loss in obese mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Maiken Højgaard; Lauritzen, Lotte; Hellgren, Lars

    2011-01-01

    (2·5w%) for 4 weeks, the source of fat being either FO, a lard–safflower oil mix (control), or both types combined with SCFA. Weight, fasting insulin, tissue and serum lipid concentrations, as well as mRNA amount of genes related to adipose inflammation and hepatic fat oxidation were determined. All...... than the no-SCFA diets. It furthermore significantly increased the amount of mRNA for PPAR-α, and decreased the mRNA amount for NF-κB in the liver and white adipose tissue. The FO diets enhanced improvement of tissue lipid levels. Thus, FO improved liver TAG and NEFA levels compared with weight loss...... on the control diet. Combining FO and SCFA further reduced tissue NEFA accumulation. In conclusion, we found that dietary SCFA had a significant impact on gene expression in the liver and adipose tissue, and that the effect of FO on tissue NEFA content was modified by SCFA. Thus, interactions between fatty acids...

  8. Directional excitation without breaking reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Hamidreza; Dubois, Marc; Wang, Yuan; Shen, Y. Ron; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-09-01

    We propose a mechanism for directional excitation without breaking reciprocity. This is achieved by embedding an impedance matched parity-time symmetric potential in a three-port system. The amplitude distribution within the gain and loss regions is strongly influenced by the direction of the incoming field. Consequently, the excitation of the third port is contingent on the direction of incidence while transmission in the main channel is immune. Our design improves the four-port directional coupler scheme, as there is no need to implement an anechoic termination to one of the ports.

  9. Auditoria dos programas de prevenção de perdas auditivas em Curitiba (PPPA Hearing loss prevention programs control of Curitiba (HLPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina C.M. Cavalli

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo examinar se medidas práticas de prevenção de perdas auditivas, adotadas por indústrias de Curitiba e região metropolitana, atendem às exigências da legislação trabalhista vigente e recomendações científicas que abordam este tema. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Coorte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Um questionário elaborado pelo instituto americano National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH em 1996, para auditoria de programas de prevenção de perdas auditivas (PPPA, nos serviu de instrumento para a coleta de dados. O instrumento original possui 89 questões divididas em oito temas relacionados à prática dos programas: treinamento e educação, envolvimento do supervisor, medição do ruído, controle de Engenharia e Administrativo, monitoração audiométrica e manutenção dos registros, encaminhamentos, equipamento de proteção individual e questões administrativas. A coleta de dados foi realizada com Médicos do Trabalho, Engenheiros e/ou Técnicos de Segurança das indústrias. As empresas foram divididas em dois grupos: o das empresas que possuem um PPPA e o das que não possuem. CONCLUSÃO: Com base nos dados obtidos concluímos que não houve diferença significativa de conduta entre os grupos e que ambos cumprem parcialmente a legislação trabalhista relacionada à prevenção dos efeitos do ruído. Quanto às questões que abordam aspectos que se excedem às exigências legais, concluímos que as empresas que possuem PPPA dedicam maiores esforços à prevenção de perdas auditivas. Com estes dados identificamos pontos fortes e fracos das medidas que vêm sendo adotadas pelas indústrias da região, os quais poderão nos direcionar à elaboração de medidas preventivas mais efetivas e de propostas para revisão da legislação vigente.AIM: The objective of this study is to examine if the hearing loss prevention practices in industries located in the greater

  10. Strength Training Prevents Hyperinsulinemia, Insulin Resistance, and Inflammation Independent of Weight Loss in Fructose-Fed Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botezelli, José D.; Coope, Andressa; Ghezzi, Ana C.; Cambri, Lucieli T.; Moura, Leandro P.; Scariot, Pedro P. M.; Gaspar, Rodrigo Stellzer; Mekary, Rania A.; Ropelle, Eduardo Rochete; Pauli, José Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of aerobic, strength, and combined training on metabolic disorders induced by a fructose-rich diet. Wistar rats (120 days old) were randomized into five groups (n = 8–14): C (control diet and sedentary), F (fed the fructose-rich diet and sedentary), FA (fed the fructose-rich diet and subject to aerobic exercise), FS (fed the fructose-rich diet and subject to strength exercise), and FAS (fed the fructose-rich diet and subject to combined aerobic and strength exercises). After the 8-week experiment, glucose homeostasis, blood biochemistry, tissue triglycerides, and inflammation were evaluated and analyzed. The strength protocol exerted greater effects on glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and liver lipid contents than other protocols (all P < 0.05). All three exercise protocols induced a remarkable reduction in inflammation, tissue triglyceride content, and inflammatory pathways, which was achieved through c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation and factor nuclear kappa B (NFkB) activation in both the liver and the muscle. Our data suggest that strength training reduced the severity of most of the metabolic disorders induced by a fructose-rich diet and could be the most effective strategy to prevent or treat fructose-induced metabolic diseases. PMID:27487746

  11. Strength Training Prevents Hyperinsulinemia, Insulin Resistance, and Inflammation Independent of Weight Loss in Fructose-Fed Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botezelli, José D; Coope, Andressa; Ghezzi, Ana C; Cambri, Lucieli T; Moura, Leandro P; Scariot, Pedro P M; Gaspar, Rodrigo Stellzer; Mekary, Rania A; Ropelle, Eduardo Rochete; Pauli, José Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effects of aerobic, strength, and combined training on metabolic disorders induced by a fructose-rich diet. Wistar rats (120 days old) were randomized into five groups (n = 8-14): C (control diet and sedentary), F (fed the fructose-rich diet and sedentary), FA (fed the fructose-rich diet and subject to aerobic exercise), FS (fed the fructose-rich diet and subject to strength exercise), and FAS (fed the fructose-rich diet and subject to combined aerobic and strength exercises). After the 8-week experiment, glucose homeostasis, blood biochemistry, tissue triglycerides, and inflammation were evaluated and analyzed. The strength protocol exerted greater effects on glucose homeostasis, insulin sensitivity, and liver lipid contents than other protocols (all P liver and the muscle. Our data suggest that strength training reduced the severity of most of the metabolic disorders induced by a fructose-rich diet and could be the most effective strategy to prevent or treat fructose-induced metabolic diseases. PMID:27487746

  12. Protocatechuic Acid Attenuates Osteoclastogenesis by Downregulating JNK/c-Fos/NFATc1 Signaling and Prevents Inflammatory Bone Loss in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun-Hyang; Kim, Ju-Young; Cheon, Yoon-Hee; Baek, Jong Min; Ahn, Sung-Jun; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Lee, Myeung Su; Oh, Jaemin

    2016-04-01

    Protocatechuic acid (PCA) plays a critical role in nutritional metabolism; it is a major metabolite of anthocyanins, which are flavonoids with a range of health benefits. PCA has a variety of biological activities including anti-oxidant, antiinflammatory, anti-apoptosis, and anti-microbial activities. However, the pharmacological effect of PCA, especially on osteoclastogenesis, remains unknown. We examined the effect of PCA on receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption. PCA dose-dependently inhibited RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation in mouse bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) and suppressed the bone-resorbing activity of mature osteoclasts. At the molecular level, PCA suppressed RANKL-induced phosphorylation of JNK among MAPKs only, without significantly affecting the early signaling pathway. PCA also suppressed RANKL-stimulated expression of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) at the mRNA and protein levels, without altering c-Fos mRNA expression. Additionally, PCA down-regulated the expression of downstream osteoclastogenesis-related genes including β3-integrin, DC-STAMP, OC-STAMP, Atp6v0d2, CTR, and CtsK. Mice treated with PCA efficiently recovered from lipopolysaccharide-induced bone loss in vivo. Thus, PCA inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and function by suppressing JNK signaling, c-Fos stability, and expression of osteoclastic marker genes. These results suggest that PCA could be useful in treatment of inflammatory bone disorders. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26792397

  13. Loss of glucocorticoid receptor expression by DNA methylation prevents glucocorticoid induced apoptosis in human small cell lung cancer cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Kay

    Full Text Available Human small cell lung cancer (SCLC is highly aggressive, and quickly develops resistance to therapy. SCLC cells are typically insensitive to glucocorticoids due to impaired glucocorticoid receptor (GR expression. This is important as we have previously shown that expression of a GR transgene induces cell death in-vitro, and inhibits tumor growth in-vivo. However, the underlying mechanism for loss of GR expression is unknown. The SCLC cell line, DMS79, has low GR expression, compared to non-SCLC cell lines and normal bronchial epithelial cells. Retroviral GR expression in DMS79 cells caused activation of the apoptotic pathway as evidenced by marked induction of caspase-3 activity. Methylation analysis of the GR promoter revealed some methylation in the 1D, and 1E promoters of the GR gene, however the ubiquitous constitutively active 1C promoter was heavily methylated. In the 1C promoter there was a highly significant increase in DNA methylation in a panel of 14 human SCLC cell lines compared to a mixed panel of GR expressing, and non-expressing cell lines, and to peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Furthermore, within the panel of SCLC cell lines there was a significant negative correlation seen between methylation of the 1C promoter, and GR protein expression. Reversal of GR gene methylation with DNA methyltransferase inhibition caused increased GR mRNA and protein expression in SCLC but not non-SCLC cells. This resulted in increased Gc sensitivity, decreased Bcl-2 expression and increased caspase-3 activity in SCLC cells. These data suggest that DNA methylation decreases GR gene expression in human SCLC cells, in a similar manner to that for conventional tumor suppressor genes.

  14. Mitochondrial DNA A1555G mutation screening using a testing kit method and its significance in preventing aminoglycoside-related hearing loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xin; YANG Weiyan; HAN Dongyi; JIN Zhengce; GUAN Minxin; DAI Pu; HUANG Deliang; YUAN Huijun; LI Weiming; YU Fei; ZHANG Xin; KANG Dongyang; CAO Juyang

    2006-01-01

    To report a new screening method for mitochondrial DNA 1555A→G mutation and the results of genotype analysis in 19 maternal inherited deafness pedigrees. Method Five hundred and forty-six non-syndromic neuro-sensory hearing loss patients were tested for 1555A→G mutation using a new compact testing kit, which allows clear distinction between wild type and 1555 A→G mutated mtDNAs. Results Nineteen subjects among the 546 patients (3.48%) were found to carry mtDNA A1555G mutation. The results were confirmed by sequencing in an ABI 3100 Avant sequencer. Conclusions Maternal inherited deafness families are a frequently seen in outpatient group. The detection ofmtDNA 1555 A→G mutation with a low cost, ready to use detection kit is needed and suitable in China for large scale screening and preventive testing before usage of aminoglycoside antibiotics.

  15. Reasons for loss to follow-up among mothers registered in a prevention-of-mother-to-child transmission program in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwirire, L D; Fitzgerald, M; Zachariah, R; Chikafa, V; Massaquoi, M; Moens, M; Kamoto, K; Schouten, E J

    2008-12-01

    This study was conducted to identify reasons for a high and progressive loss to follow-up among HIV-positive mothers within a prevention-of-mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) program in a rural district hospital in Malawi. Three focus group discussions were conducted among a total of 25 antenatal and post-natal mothers as well as nurse midwives (median age 39 years, range 22-55 years). The main reasons for loss to follow-up included: (1) not being prepared for HIV testing and its implications before the antenatal clinic (ANC) visit; (2) fear of stigma, discrimination, household conflict and even divorce on disclosure of HIV status; (3) lack of support from husbands who do not want to undergo HIV testing; (4) the feeling that one is obliged to rely on artificial feeding, which is associated with social and cultural taboos; (5) long waiting times at the ANC; and (6) inability to afford transport costs related to the long distances to the hospital. This study reveals a number of community- and provider-related operational and cultural barriers hindering the overall acceptability of PMTCT that need to be addressed urgently. Mothers attending antenatal services need to be better informed and supported, at both community and health-provider level.

  16. Study of the impact of food irradiation on preventing losses: Experience in Africa. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There have been positive developments on food irradiation in different regions of the world, especially in the United States of America and several Asian and Latin American countries. In some countries in Africa, this technology has been studied in the past few decades with encouraging results. To assist these countries in conducting pilot scale research and development on irradiation of specific commodities of interest to them including market testing and feasibility to establish commercial irradiators for multi-purpose application, a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Impact of Irradiation to Prevent Food Losses in Africa was carried out between 1995 and 1999. This CRP demonstrated that food irradiation has a potential to reduce losses of basic staple food crops including yams, dried and smoked fish, potatoes and onions through pilot scale experiments carried out in some African countries. Small scale market testing of such irradiated food such as spices, potatoes and onions showed encouraging results. In some countries (Cote d'Ivoire, Egypt, Ghana, Senegal and South Africa), it is feasible to establish commercial irradiation facilities for treating food. In Morocco, irradiation shows a potential to meet quarantine requirements in international food trade. It should be noted that commercial scale application of irradiation of some food products has been carried out in South Africa since the 1980s

  17. Harpagoside Inhibits RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis via Syk-Btk-PLCγ2-Ca(2+) Signaling Pathway and Prevents Inflammation-Mediated Bone Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Young; Park, Sun-Hyang; Baek, Jong Min; Erkhembaatar, Munkhsoyol; Kim, Min Seuk; Yoon, Kwon-Ha; Oh, Jaemin; Lee, Myeung Su

    2015-09-25

    Harpagoside (HAR) is a natural compound isolated from Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw) that is reported to have anti-inflammatory effects; however, these effects have not been investigated in the context of bone development. The current study describes for the first time that HAR inhibits receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and suppresses inflammation-induced bone loss in a mouse model. HAR also inhibited the formation of osteoclasts from mouse bone marrow macrophages (BMMs) in a dose-dependent manner as well as the activity of mature osteoclasts, including filamentous actin (F-actin) ring formation and bone matrix breakdown. This involved a HAR-induced decrease in extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation, leading to the inhibition of Syk-Btk-PLCγ2-Ca(2+) in RANKL-dependent early signaling, as well as the activation of c-Fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1), which resulted in the down-regulation of various target genes. Consistent with these in vitro results, HAR blocked lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone loss in an inflammatory osteoporosis model. However, HAR did not prevent ovariectomy-mediated bone erosion in a postmenopausal osteoporosis model. These results suggest that HAR is a valuable agent against inflammation-related bone disorders but not osteoporosis induced by hormonal abnormalities. PMID:26308264

  18. Menopause and Bone Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fact Sheet & Menopause Bone Loss How are bone loss and menopause related? Throughout life your body keeps a balance between the loss ... The sooner you take steps to prevent bone loss, the lower your risk of osteoporosis later in life. If you are skipping menstrual periods, have had ...

  19. Genetic rescue of CB1 receptors on medium spiny neurons prevents loss of excitatory striatal synapses but not motor impairment in HD mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naydenov, Alipi V; Sepers, Marja D; Swinney, Katie; Raymond, Lynn A; Palmiter, Richard D; Stella, Nephi

    2014-11-01

    Huntington's disease (HD) is caused by an expanded polyglutamine repeat in huntingtin protein that disrupts synaptic function in specific neuronal populations and results in characteristic motor, cognitive and affective deficits. Histopathological hallmarks observed in both HD patients and genetic mouse models include the reduced expression of synaptic proteins, reduced medium spiny neuron (MSN) dendritic spine density and decreased frequency of spontaneous excitatory post-synaptic currents (sEPSCs). Early down-regulation of cannabinoid CB1 receptor expression on MSN (CB1(MSN)) is thought to participate in HD pathogenesis. Here we present a cell-specific genetic rescue of CB1(MSN) in R6/2 mice and report that treatment prevents the reduction of excitatory synaptic markers in the striatum (synaptophysin, vGLUT1 and vGLUT2), of dendritic spine density on MSNs and of MSN sEPSCs, but does not prevent motor impairment. We conclude that loss of excitatory striatal synapses in HD mice is controlled by CB1(MSN) and can be uncoupled from the motor phenotype.

  20. Break the ice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Jacky:My sister is mad at me.She refuses(拒绝)to talk to me.What can I do to break the ice?Ella:You can buy her a little gift.Break的意思是"打破",ice是指"冰块"。冰是又冷又硬的东西,作为俗语break the ice是指"打破沉默(僵局)"。Jacky惹妹妹生气,妹妹不理他了,他能通过送小礼物break the ice吗?

  1. Testing cosmological supersymmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Kabat, D; Kabat, Daniel; Rajaraman, Arvind

    2001-01-01

    Banks has proposed a relation between the scale of supersymmetry breaking and the cosmological constant in de Sitter space. His proposal has a natural extension to a general FRW cosmology, in which the supersymmetry breaking scale is related to the Hubble parameter. We study one consequence of such a relation, namely that coupling constants change as the universe evolves. We find that the most straightforward extension of Banks' proposal is disfavored by experimental bounds on variation of the fine structure constant.

  2. Self-Breaking Technicolor

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, S P

    1993-01-01

    We propose a scenario in which the electroweak symmetry is spontaneously broken by an $SU(4)$ technicolor gauge interaction which also manages to break itself completely. The technicolor gauge bosons and technifermions are not confined by the technicolor force, but get large masses. Starting with a single technidoublet, one emerges with a complete standard model family of technifermions after the symmetry breaking is complete. This suggests a broad new avenue for model building. A few variations on the theme are mentioned.

  3. Transplantation of human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells or their conditioned medium prevents bone loss in ovariectomized nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Jee Hyun; Park, Hyojung; Song, Jung Ah; Ki, Kyung Ho; Yang, Jae-Yeon; Choi, Hyung Jin; Cho, Sun Wook; Kim, Sang Wan; Kim, Seong Yeon; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Baek, Wook-Young; Kim, Jung-Eun; Choi, Soo Jin; Oh, Wonil; Shin, Chan Soo

    2013-03-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has recently been recognized as a new source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for use in stem cell therapy. We studied the effects of systemic injection of human UCB-MSCs and their conditioned medium (CM) on ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss in nude mice. Ten-week-old female nude mice were divided into six groups: Sham-operated mice treated with vehicle (Sham-Vehicle), OVX mice subjected to UCB-MSCs (OVX-MSC), or human dermal fibroblast (OVX-DFB) transplantation, OVX mice treated with UCB-MSC CM (OVX-CM), zoledronate (OVX-Zol), or vehicle (OVX-Vehicle). Although the OVX-Vehicle group exhibited significantly less bone mineral density (BMD) gain compared with the Sham-Vehicle group, transplantation of hUCB-MSCs (OVX-MSC group) has effectively prevented OVX-induced bone mass attenuation. Notably, the OVX-CM group also showed BMD preservation comparable to the OVX-MSC group. In addition, microcomputed tomography analysis demonstrated improved trabecular parameters in both the OVX-MSC and OVX-CM groups compared to the OVX-Vehicle or OVX-DFB group. Histomorphometric analysis showed increased bone formation parameters, accompanied by increased serum procollagen type-I N-telopeptide levels in OVX-MSC and OVX-CM mice. However, cell-trafficking analysis failed to demonstrate engraftment of MSCs in bone tissue 48 h after cell infusion. In vitro, hUCB-MSC CM increased alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in human bone marrow-derived MSCs and mRNA expression of collagen type 1, Runx2, osterix, and ALP in C3H10T1/2 cells. Furthermore, hUCB-MSC CM significantly increased survival of osteocyte-like MLO-Y4 cells, while it inhibited osteoclastic differentiation. To summarize, transplantation of hUCB-MSCs could effectively prevent OVX-mediated bone loss in nude mice, which appears to be mediated by a paracrine mechanism rather than direct engraftment of the MSCs. PMID:23215868

  4. Loss of bifurcation patency after cross-over stenting of ostial lesions in superficial femoral artery: possible causes, prevention and reintervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Junhao; Chen Bin; Dong Zhihui; Shi Yun; Li Weimiao; Yue Jianing

    2014-01-01

    Background Crossover stenting across the origin of the profunda femoral artery (PFA) and occasionally into the common femoral artery (CFA) is commonly used after suboptimal balloon angioplasty of ostial occlusive lesions of the superficial femoral artery (SFA) involving the bifurcation.Late stent occlusion at the bifurcation is not rare and results in severe lower extremity ischemia.Therefore,we tried to assess its possible causes,prevention and reintervention.Methods Using a prospectively maintained single-center database,12-month femoral bifurcation patency was retrospectively compared and lesion and procedural predictors of stent occlusion were determined among 63 patients (64 lesions) who between July 2011 and February 2013 underwent crossover (36 non-jailed and 15 jailed SFA,and 12 distal and 1 complete CFA) stenting of de novo ostial SFA lesions.Results Twelve-month overall patency rate at the femoral bifurcation was 88%,with no significant difference between jailed-ostial SFA (80%) and distal CFA (67%) stenting (P=0.731),and significant differences between either and non-jailed ostial stenting (100%,P=0.035 and 0.002).When PFA ostium was jailed by the stent,patients with preexisting CFA or PFA lesions had a 12-month bifurcation patency rate of 20%,significantly lower than those with simple ostial SFA lesions (83%,P=0.015).Stent induced intimal hyperplasia caused bifurcation occlusion in 6 surgical reintervention cases.Conclusions In crossover stenting of ostial lesions in SFA,bifurcation patency loss was significantly higher in distal CFA and jailed ostial SFA stenting than non-jailed ostial SFA stenting.Preexisting CFA or PFA lesion is a significant risk factor for bifurcation patency loss when PFA ostium is jailed by crossover stenting.

  5. Curcumin inhibition of JNKs prevents dopaminergic neuronal loss in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease through suppressing mitochondria dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Jing

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Curcumin,a natural polyphenol obtained from turmeric,has been implicated to be neuroprotective in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders although the mechanism remains poorly understood. The results of our recent experiments indicated that curcumin could protect dopaminergic neurons from apoptosis in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP mouse model of Parkinson’s disease (PD. The death of dopaminergic neurons and the loss of dopaminergic axon in the striatum were significantly suppressed by curcumin in MPTP mouse model. Further studies showed that curcumin inhibited JNKs hyperphosphorylation induced by MPTP treatment. JNKs phosphorylation can cause translocation of Bax to mitochondria and the release of cytochrome c which both ultimately contribute to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. These pro-apoptosis effect can be diminished by curcumin. Our experiments demonstrated that curcumin can prevent nigrostriatal degeneration by inhibiting the dysfunction of mitochondrial through suppressing hyperphosphorylation of JNKs induced by MPTP. Our results suggested that JNKs/mitochondria pathway may be a novel target in the treatment of PD patients.

  6. The Efficacy of Bisphosphonates in Preventing Aromatase Inhibitor Induced Bone Loss for Postmenopausal Women with Early Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooleriveetil Padikkal Anagha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We aim to determine the efficacy of bisphosphonates in preventing aromatase inhibitor induced bone loss (AIBL in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer. The secondary objective was to determine the safety of bisphosphonates. Materials and Methods. We searched electronic databases in a time period of 1995 January to 2013 June. Random effects meta-analytical models were used; between study heterogeneity and publication bias was assessed. Results. A total of six eligible studies reported the BMD T score of LS at 12 months and from that 3 trials of Zoledronic acid compared the change in BMD in immediate ZOL versus delayed ZOL done with subgroups like patients with normal BMD at baseline (OR = 5.402, 95% CI = 1.329–21.959, P value = 0.018 and osteopenic BMD at baseline (OR = 4.008, 95% CI = 2.249–7.143, P value = 0.0002. Both had a significant decrease in BMD that favoured the delayed ZOL; 3 trials of risedronate and ibandronate also had a significant decrease in BMD in AIs alone group. Immediate ZOL versus delayed ZOL also showed increased risk of getting an ADR in immediate group. Conclusion. Third generation bisphosphonates has an effect on BMD of patients who are on treatment of AIs in breast cancer. Furthermore, the patients treated with immediate ZOL had a significantly high risk of musculoskeletal ADR’s than patients with delayed ZOL.

  7. Diapocynin, a dimer of the NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin, reduces ROS production and prevents force loss in eccentrically contracting dystrophic muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hesham M Ismail

    Full Text Available Elevation of intracellular Ca2+, excessive ROS production and increased phospholipase A2 activity contribute to the pathology in dystrophin-deficient muscle. Moreover, Ca2+, ROS and phospholipase A2, in particular iPLA2, are thought to potentiate each other in positive feedback loops. NADPH oxidases (NOX have been considered as a major source of ROS in muscle and have been reported to be overexpressed in muscles of mdx mice. We report here on our investigations regarding the effect of diapocynin, a dimer of the commonly used NOX inhibitor apocynin, on the activity of iPLA2, Ca2+ handling and ROS generation in dystrophic myotubes. We also examined the effects of diapocynin on force production and recovery ability of isolated EDL muscles exposed to eccentric contractions in vitro, a damaging procedure to which dystrophic muscle is extremely sensitive. In dystrophic myotubes, diapocynin inhibited ROS production, abolished iPLA2 activity and reduced Ca2+ influx through stretch-activated and store-operated channels, two major pathways responsible for excessive Ca2+ entry in dystrophic muscle. Diapocynin also prevented force loss induced by eccentric contractions of mdx muscle close to the value of wild-type muscle and reduced membrane damage as seen by Procion orange dye uptake. These findings support the central role played by NOX-ROS in the pathogenic cascade leading to muscular dystrophy and suggest diapocynin as an effective NOX inhibitor that might be helpful for future therapeutic approaches.

  8. Intense emotional experiences and enhanced training prevent memory loss induced by post-training amnesic treatments administered to the striatum, amygdala, hippocampus or substantia nigra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prada-Alcala, Roberto A; Medina, Andrea C; Lopez, Norma Serafin; Quirarte, Gina L

    2012-01-01

    Most of the work related to the neurobiological basis of memory has been guided by the memory consolidation theory, which was derived from the seminal work of Miiller and Pilzecker that was published over a century ago. This theory proposes that the transfer from short- to long-term memory is mediated by a process called consolidation,and while consolidation is taking place, the information to be stored is in a labile state. A great deal of experimentation has given strong support to this proposal,as it has been found repeatedly that interference with neural activity shortly after a learning experience impedes durable retention of that experience. A growing body of evidence, however, indicates that intense emotional experiences prevent memory loss induced by amnesic treatments,even when these treatments are administered intracerebrally shortly after the learning experience. This evidence implies that the memory consolidation theory cannot account for long-term memory formation when neural activity is disrupted while consolidation should be taking place, and it calls for new hypotheses to account for these findings. PMID:23023883

  9. Electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1990-09-01

    The Higgs mechanism is reviewed in its most general form, requiring the existence of a new symmetry-breaking force and associated particles, which need not however be Higgs bosons. The first lecture reviews the essential elements of the Higgs mechanism, which suffice to establish low energy theorems for the scattering of longitudinally polarized W and Z gauge bosons. An upper bound on the scale of the symmetry-breaking physics then follows from the low energy theorems and partial wave unitarity. The second lecture reviews particular models, with and without Higgs bosons, paying special attention to how the general features discussed in lecture 1 are realized in each model. The third lecture focuses on the experimental signals of strong WW scattering that can be observed at the SSC above 1 TeV in the WW subenergy, which will allow direct measurement of the strength of the symmetry-breaking force. 52 refs., 10 figs.

  10. Breaking the Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul Rind; Kirketerp, Anne

    2006-01-01

    The paper shortly reveals the history of a small school - the KaosPilots - dedicated to educate young people to carriers as entrepreneurs. In this contribution we want to explore how the KaosPilots managed to break the waves of institutionalised concepts and practices of teaching entrepreneurship...

  11. Model Breaking Points Conceptualized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vig, Rozy; Murray, Eileen; Star, Jon R.

    2014-01-01

    Current curriculum initiatives (e.g., National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers 2010) advocate that models be used in the mathematics classroom. However, despite their apparent promise, there comes a point when models break, a point in the mathematical problem space where the model cannot,…

  12. Elcatonin prevents bone loss caused by skeletal unloading by inhibiting preosteoclast fusion through the unloading-induced high expression of calcitonin receptors in bone marrow cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, Manabu; Menuki, Kunitaka; Murai, Teppei; Hatakeyama, Akihisa; Takada, Shinichiro; Furukawa, Kayoko; Sakai, Akinori

    2016-04-01

    This study aimed to clarify whether elcatonin (EL) has a preventive action on bone dynamics in skeletal unloading. Seven-week-old male C57BL/6J mice with either ground control (GC) or tail suspension (TS) were administered EL 20U/kg or a vehicle (veh) three times per week and assigned to one of the following four groups: GCEL, GCveh, TSEL, and TSveh. Blood samples and bilateral femurs and tibias of the mice were obtained for analysis. After 7days of unloading, the trabecular bone mineral density in the distal femur obtained via peripheral quantitative computed tomography and the trabecular bone volume were significantly higher in the TSEL group than in the TSveh group. The bone resorption histomorphometric parameters, such as the osteoclast surface and osteoclast number, were significantly suppressed in the TSEL mice, whereas the number of preosteoclasts was significantly increased. The plasma level of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-5b (TRACP-5b) was significantly lower in the TSEL group than in all other groups. In the bone marrow cell culture, the number of TRACP-positive (TRACP(+)) multinucleated cells was significantly lower in the TSEL mice than in the TSveh mice, whereas the number of TRACP(+) mononucleated cells was higher in the TSEL mice. On day 4, the expression of nuclear factor of activated T-cells, cytoplasmic, calcineurin-dependent 1 (NFATc1), cathepsin K and d2 isoform of vacuolar ATPase V0 domain (ATP6V0D2) mRNA in the bone marrow cells in the TSEL mice was suppressed, and the expression of calcitonin receptor (Calcr) mRNA on day 1 and Calcr antigen on day 4 were significantly higher in the TSveh mice than in the GCveh mice. EL prevented the unloading-induced bone loss associated with the high expression of Calcr in the bone marrow cells of mouse hindlimbs after tail suspension, and it suppressed osteoclast development from preosteoclasts to mature osteoclasts through bone-resorbing activity. This study of EL-treated unloaded mice provides the

  13. Experimental Research on the Dam-Break Mechanisms of the Jiadanwan Landslide Dam Triggered by the Wenchuan Earthquake in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu-gang Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Dam breaks of landslide dams are always accompanied by large numbers of casualties, a large loss of property, and negative influences on the downstream ecology and environment. This study uses the Jiadanwan landslide dam, created by the Wenchuan earthquake, as a case study example. Several laboratory experiments are carried out to analyse the dam-break mechanism of the landslide dam. The different factors that impact the dam-break process include upstream flow, the boulder effect, dam size, and channel discharge. The development of the discharge channel and the failure of the landslide dam are monitored by digital video and still cameras. Experimental results show that the upstream inflow and the dam size are the main factors that impact the dam-break process. An excavated discharge channel, especially a trapezoidal discharge channel, has a positive effect on reducing peak flow. The depth of the discharge channel also has a significant impact on the dam-break process. The experimental results are significant for landslide dam management and flood disaster prevention and mitigation.

  14. A randomised controlled trial to prevent hospital readmissions and loss of functional ability in high risk older adults: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Anne M

    2011-08-01

    collection is undertaken at baseline within 72 hours of hospital admission, 4 weeks following hospital discharge, 12 weeks following hospital discharge, and 24 weeks following hospital discharge. Outcome assessors are blinded to group allocation. Primary outcomes are emergency hospital readmissions and health service use, functional status, psychosocial well-being and cost effectiveness. Discussion The acute hospital sector comprises the largest component of health care system expenditure in developed countries, and older adults are the most frequent consumers. There are few trials to demonstrate effective models of transitional care to prevent emergency readmissions, loss of functional ability and independence in this population following an acute hospital admission. This study aims to address that gap and provide information for future health service planning which meets client needs and lowers the use of acute care services. Trial Registration No Australian & New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12608000202369

  15. Design of High Power DC Break For ICRH Of EAST

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Guochao; Zhao Yanping; Mao Yuzhou; Ding Jiayi; Xue Diye; Qin Chengming; T. Watari; R. Kumazawa

    2005-01-01

    1.5MW Ion Cyclotron Wave Heating system was developed, the transmitter and the antenna both have their ground loops, which will severely perturb the system's normal operation. To avoid perturbation, a DC break was designed. The S parameter and the VSWR (voltage standing wave ratio) of incident port were calculated; the thermal effect caused by conductor loss and dielectric loss was analyzed.

  16. Breaking News as Radicalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartley, Jannie Møller

    The aim of the paper is to make explicit how the different categories are applied in the online newsroom and thus how new categories can be seen as positioning strategies in the form of radicalisations of already existing categories. Thus field theory provides us with tools to analyse how online...... journalists are using the categorisations to create hierarchies within the journalistic field in order to position themselves as specialists in what Tuchman has called developing news, aiming and striving for what today is know as breaking news and the “exclusive scoop,” as the trademark of online journalism...... provides us with the following two research questions: How does the category of breaking news fit into Tuchmans typology related to time, planning and technology? What types of stories are providing journalistic capital and how are online news stories categorised relatively within the journalistic field?...

  17. Single sector supersymmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luty, Markus A.; Terning, John

    1999-03-18

    We review recent work on realistic models that break supersymmetry dynamically and give rise to composite quarks and leptons, all in a single sector. These models have a completely natural suppression of flavor-changing neutral currents, and the hierarchy of Yukawa couplings is explained by the dimensionality of composite states. The generic signatures are unification of scalar masses with different quantum numbers at the compositeness scale, and lighter gaugino, Higgsino, and third-generation sfermion masses.

  18. Routinizing Breaking News

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartley, Jannie Møller

    2011-01-01

    This chapter revisits seminal theoretical categorizations of news proposed three decades earlier by US sociologist Gaye Tuchman. By exploring the definition of ”breaking news” in the contemporary online newsrooms of three Danish news organisations, the author offers us a long overdue re......-theorization of journalistic practice in the online context and helpfully explores well-evidenced limitations to online news production, such as the relationship between original reporting and the use of ”shovelware.”...

  19. Predicting appointment breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, A G; Talaga, J

    1995-01-01

    The goal of physician referral services is to schedule appointments, but if too many patients fail to show up, the value of the service will be compromised. The authors found that appointment breaking can be predicted by the number of days to the scheduled appointment, the doctor's specialty, and the patient's age and gender. They also offer specific suggestions for modifying the marketing mix to reduce the incidence of no-shows. PMID:10142384

  20. Bayesian Belief Networks for predicting drinking water distribution system pipe breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we use Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) to construct a knowledge model for pipe breaks in a water zone. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first attempt to model drinking water distribution system pipe breaks using BBNs. Development of expert systems such as BBNs for analyzing drinking water distribution system data is not only important for pipe break prediction, but is also a first step in preventing water loss and water quality deterioration through the application of machine learning techniques to facilitate data-based distribution system monitoring and asset management. Due to the difficulties in collecting, preparing, and managing drinking water distribution system data, most pipe break models can be classified as “statistical–physical” or “hypothesis-generating.” We develop the BBN with the hope of contributing to the “hypothesis-generating” class of models, while demonstrating the possibility that BBNs might also be used as “statistical–physical” models. Our model is learned from pipe breaks and covariate data from a mid-Atlantic United States (U.S.) drinking water distribution system network. BBN models are learned using a constraint-based method, a score-based method, and a hybrid method. Model evaluation is based on log-likelihood scoring. Sensitivity analysis using mutual information criterion is also reported. While our results indicate general agreement with prior results reported in pipe break modeling studies, they also suggest that it may be difficult to select among model alternatives. This model uncertainty may mean that more research is needed for understanding whether additional pipe break risk factors beyond age, break history, pipe material, and pipe diameter might be important for asset management planning. - Highlights: • We show Bayesian Networks for predictive and diagnostic management of water distribution systems. • Our model may enable system operators and managers to prioritize system

  1. A synopsis of experimental activities on small-break LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through reactor safety studies like WASH 1400 or the ''Deutsche Risiko-Studie'' the attention has turned from large break loss of coolant accidents to small breaks because of the high contribution of this type of accidents to core meltdown. But only after the TMI-2 accident were also the main activities in the experimental fields shifted world-wide to the small break LOCAs. Since TMI numerous research programs have either been finished or are underway. This review paper presents: a classification of the various types of transients according to break size; a discussion of major physical phenomena associated with a small break LOCA, and a description of a few selected research programs and the most important results achieved. (author)

  2. Role of Double-Strand Break End-Tethering during Gene Conversion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Jain

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Correct repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs is critical for maintaining genome stability. Whereas gene conversion (GC-mediated repair is mostly error-free, repair by break-induced replication (BIR is associated with non-reciprocal translocations and loss of heterozygosity. We have previously shown that a Recombination Execution Checkpoint (REC mediates this competition by preventing the BIR pathway from acting on DSBs that can be repaired by GC. Here, we asked if the REC can also determine whether the ends that are engaged in a GC-compatible configuration belong to the same break, since repair involving ends from different breaks will produce potentially deleterious translocations. We report that the kinetics of repair are markedly delayed when the two DSB ends that participate in GC belong to different DSBs (termed Trans compared to the case when both DSB ends come from the same break (Cis. However, repair in Trans still occurs by GC rather than BIR, and the overall efficiency of repair is comparable. Hence, the REC is not sensitive to the "origin" of the DSB ends. When the homologous ends for GC are in Trans, the delay in repair appears to reflect their tethering to sequences on the other side of the DSB that themselves recombine with other genomic locations with which they share sequence homology. These data support previous observations that the two ends of a DSB are usually tethered to each other and that this tethering facilitates both ends encountering the same donor sequence. We also found that the presence of homeologous/repetitive sequences in the vicinity of a DSB can distract the DSB end from finding its bona fide homologous donor, and that inhibition of GC by such homeologous sequences is markedly increased upon deleting Sgs1 but not Msh6.

  3. "PARAMETERS AFFECTING NOISE INDUCED HEARING LOSS IN INDUSTRY"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Parvizpour

    1977-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is based on a study conducted in three different industries on 84.4 on their employees to determine the effect of over all noise intensity, length of employment and rest periods among them. It was found that the mentioned factors have direct effect on the induced hearing loss among the exposed workers. High noise level and long period of employment adversely affect the hearing ability while the breaks taken during daily working hours have prevented the expected defect.

  4. A randomized phase III prospective trial of bethanechol to prevent mucositis, candidiasis, and taste loss in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy. A secondary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of bethanechol administration concomitant to radiotherapy (RT) on oral mucositis, candidiasis and taste loss. We performed a secondary analysis of a previously conducted prospective randomized trial which evaluated the effect of bethanechol on salivary gland dysfunction before, during, and after RT for head and neck cancer (HNC), in comparison to artificial saliva. Mucositis, candidiasis and taste loss were analyzed in 36 patients. Mucositis was scored using the World Health Organization (WHO) method; candidiasis was diagnosed by means of clinical examination, whereas taste loss was assessed by the patients' subjective report of absence of taste. No significant differences were observed between groups in relation to frequency and severity of mucositis or frequency of candidiasis and taste loss. In conclusion, bethanechol does not appear to reduce the incidence of mucositis, candidiasis, and taste loss when administered during RT. (author)

  5. Breaking the Silence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Many women who suffer from vaginitis have kept silent about their illness because they think it is shameful to have such a disease. The International Women’s Health Coalition (IWHC) has publicized the problem, referring to it as a "culture of silence"inherited from traditional thinking. The coalition has made attempts to improve women’s health conditions by changing people’s misconceptions about the disease. In 1997, under a grant from the American Ford Foundation, the Sichuan Provincial Women’s Federation carried out a study on women’s repro-ductive health, aimed at "breaking the silence."

  6. Symmetries and Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Van Oers, W T H

    2003-01-01

    In understanding the world of matter, the introduction of symmetry principles following experimentation or using the predictive power of symmetry principles to guide experimentation is most profound. The conservation of energy, linear momentum, angular momentum, charge, and CPT involve fundamental symmetries. All other conservation laws are valid within a restricted subspace of the four interactions: the strong, the electromagnetic, the weak, and the gravitational interaction. In this paper comments are made regarding parity violation in hadronic systems, charge symmetry breaking in two nucleon and few nucleon systems, and time-reversal-invariance in hadronic systems.

  7. Breaking the silence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Hanne; Kirkevold, Marit; McCallin, Antoinette;

    2012-01-01

    and individual interviews were analyzed using the grounded theory method. The findings revealed that the main concern of the patients was feeling isolated, which was resolved using a process of interactional integration. Interactional integration begins by breaking the silence to enable the progression from......Little is known about the psychosocial effects of facial disfigurement. We present the results of a qualitative study following 15 patients who had been surgically treated for head, neck, or eye cancer over the course of their first postoperative year. Taped nurse-patient conversations...

  8. Spontaneous symmetry breaking, self-trapping, and Josephson oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This volume collects a a number of contributions on spontaneous symmetry breaking. Current studies in this general field are going ahead at a full speed. The book present review chapters which give an overview on the major break throughs of recent years. It covers a number of different physical settings which are introduced when a nonlinearity is added to the underlying symmetric problems and its strength exceeds a certain critical value. The corresponding loss of symmetry, called spontaneous symmetry breaking, alias self-trapping into asymmetric states is extensively discussed in this book.

  9. High acceptability of voluntary counselling and HIV-testing but unacceptable loss to follow up in a prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programme in rural Malawi: scaling-up requires a different way of acting.

    OpenAIRE

    Manzi, M; Zachariah, R.; Teck, R; Buhendwa, L.; Kazima, J.; Bakali, E; Firmenich, Peter; Humblet, P

    2005-01-01

    SETTING: Thyolo District Hospital, rural Malawi. OBJECTIVES: In a prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) programme, to determine: the acceptability of offering 'opt-out' voluntary counselling and HIV-testing (VCT); the progressive loss to follow up of HIV-positive mothers during the antenatal period, at delivery and to the 6-month postnatal visit; and the proportion of missed deliveries in the district. DESIGN: Cohort study. METHODS: Review of routine antenatal, VCT and PMTCT ...

  10. Bootstrap Dynamical Symmetry Breaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Shu Hou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the emergence of a 125 GeV Higgs-like particle at the LHC, we explore the possibility of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking by strong Yukawa coupling of very heavy new chiral quarks Q . Taking the 125 GeV object to be a dilaton with suppressed couplings, we note that the Goldstone bosons G exist as longitudinal modes V L of the weak bosons and would couple to Q with Yukawa coupling λ Q . With m Q ≳ 700  GeV from LHC, the strong λ Q ≳ 4 could lead to deeply bound Q Q ¯ states. We postulate that the leading “collapsed state,” the color-singlet (heavy isotriplet, pseudoscalar Q Q ¯ meson π 1 , is G itself, and a gap equation without Higgs is constructed. Dynamical symmetry breaking is affected via strong λ Q , generating m Q while self-consistently justifying treating G as massless in the loop, hence, “bootstrap,” Solving such a gap equation, we find that m Q should be several TeV, or λ Q ≳ 4 π , and would become much heavier if there is a light Higgs boson. For such heavy chiral quarks, we find analogy with the π − N system, by which we conjecture the possible annihilation phenomena of Q Q ¯ → n V L with high multiplicity, the search of which might be aided by Yukawa-bound Q Q ¯ resonances.

  11. Simulation of a large break loss of coolant (LBLOCA), without actuation of the emergency injection systems (ECCS) for a BWR-5; Simulacion de un escenario de perdida de refrigerante grande (LBLOCA), sin actuacion de los sistemas de inyeccion de emergencia (ECCS) para un reactor BWR-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas V, J.; Mugica R, C. A.; Lopez M, R., E-mail: jaime.cardenas@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    In this paper the analysis of scenario for the loss of coolant case was realized with break at the bottom of a recirculation loop of a BWR-5 with containment type Mark II and a thermal power of 2317 MWt considering that not have coolant injection. This in order to observe the speed of progression of the accident, the phenomenology of the scenario, the time to reach the limit pressure of containment venting and the amount of radionuclides released into the environment. This simulation was performed using the MELCOR code version 2.1. The scenario posits a break in one of the shear recirculation loops. The emergency core cooling system (ECCS) and the reactor core isolation cooling (Rcic) have not credit throughout the event, which allowed achieve greater severity on scenario. The venting of the primary containment was conducted via valve of 30 inches instead of the line of 24 inches of wet well, this in order to have a larger area of exhaust of fission products directly to the reactor building. The venting took place when the pressure in the primary containment reached the 4.5 kg/cm{sup 2} and remained open for the rest of the scenario to maximize the amount released of radionuclides to the atmosphere. The safety relief valves were considered functional they do not present mechanical failure or limit their ability to release pressure due to the large number of performances in safety mode. The results of the analysis covers about 48 hours, time at which the accident evolution was observed; behavior of level, pressure in the vessel and the fuel temperature profile was analyzed. For progression of the scenario outside the vessel, the pressure and temperature of the primary containment, level and temperature of the suppression pool, the hydrogen accumulation in the container and the radionuclides mass released into the atmosphere were analyzed. (Author)

  12. Short-term, daily exposure to cold temperature may be an efficient way to prevent muscle atrophy and bone loss in a microgravity environment

    OpenAIRE

    Deng, Claudia; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ya

    2015-01-01

    Microgravity induces less pressure on muscle/bone, which is a major reason for muscle atrophy as well as bone loss. Currently, physical exercise is the only countermeasure used consistently in the U.S. human space program to counteract the microgravity-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and bone loss. However, the routinely almost daily time commitment is significant and represents a potential risk to the accomplishment of other mission operational tasks. Therefore, development of more efficient...

  13. RELAP5/MOD3.3程序对非能动核电厂小破口失水事故的适用性研究%Applicability Research of RELAP5/MOD3.3 for Small Break Loss of Coolant Accident of NPP With Passive Safety System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐财红; 史国宝

    2014-01-01

    AP1000核电厂采用非能动堆芯冷却系统来缓解小破口失水事故(SBLOCA),缓解事故的理念是流动冷却。RELAP5/MOD3.3程序适用于传统核电厂SBLOCA 研究,对于非能动电厂SBLOCA研究的适用性需重新研究与评估。本工作基于非能动电厂小破口失水事故的分析,结合RELAP5/MOD3.3的结构与模型,对其进行评估和改进。为验证改进后的REL A P5/M OD3.3的适用性,以A P1000小破口失水事故的验证试验台架APEX-1000为模拟对象,分析模拟DBA-02、NRC-05事故工况。分析结果表明,改进后的REL A P5/M OD3.3的计算结果与试验数据符合较好。%The passive core cooling system is used in AP 1000 to mitigate the small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA) .The RELAP5/MOD3.3 code is generally applicable to the traditional NPP SBLOCA research , but for the passive NPP SBLOCA , its applicability will need further study and evaluation . Based on the analysis of the important phenomenon of the SBLOCA of the passive NPP , the RELAP5/MOD3.3 code was assessed and modified . In order to verify the applicability of the modified RELAP5/MOD3.3 code ,the DBA-02 and NRC-05 cases of APEX-1000 which was the test facility for verifying AP1000 small break loss of coolant accident ,were simulated . It shows good agreement between the results of the modified RELAP5/MOD3.3 code and experiment data .

  14. Break the Pattern!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Cathrine; Trentemøller, Stine

    Break the Pattern! A critical enquiry into three scientific workplace cultures: Hercules, Caretakers and Worker Bees is the third publication of the international three year long project "Understanding Puzzles in the Gendered European Map" (UPGEM). By contrasting empirical findings from academic...... workplaces in the five UPGEM-countries (Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Italy and Poland) we identify three clusters of cultural patterns in physics as culture. We call these Hercules, Caretakers and Worker Bees. We also consider the influence of national cultural historical processes on the scientific culture...... (physics in culture) and discuss how physics as and in culture influence the perception of science, of work and family life, of the interplay between religion and science as well as how physics as culture can either hinder or promote the career of female scientists....

  15. Violent breaking wave impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredmose, Henrik; Peregrine, D.H.; Bullock, G.N.

    2009-01-01

    When an ocean wave breaks against a steep-fronted breakwater, sea wall or a similar marine structure, its impact on the structure can be very violent. This paper describes the theoretical studies that, together with field and laboratory investigations, have been carried out in order to gain...... a better understanding of the processes involved. The wave's approach towards a structure is modelled with classical irrotational flow to obtain the different types of impact profiles that may or may not lead to air entrapment. The subsequent impact is modelled with a novel compressible-flow model...... for a homogeneous mixture of incompressible liquid and ideal gas. This enables a numerical description of both trapped air pockets and the propagation of pressure shock waves through the aerated water. An exact Riemann solver is developed to permit a finite-volume solution to the flow model with smallest possible...

  16. Relationship between Age and the Ability to Break Scored Tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notenboom, Kim; Vromans, Herman; Schipper, Maarten; Leufkens, Hubert G. M.; Bouvy, Marcel L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Practical problems with the use of medicines, such as difficulties with breaking tablets, are an often overlooked cause for non-adherence. Tablets frequently break in uneven parts and loss of product can occur due to crumbling and powdering. Health characteristics, such as the presence of peripheral neuropathy, decreased grip strength and manual dexterity, can affect a patient's ability to break tablets. As these impairments are associated with aging and age-related diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and arthritis, difficulties with breaking tablets could be more prevalent among older adults. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between age and the ability to break scored tablets. Methods: A comparative study design was chosen. Thirty-six older adults and 36 young adults were systematically observed with breaking scored tablets. Twelve different tablets were included. All participants were asked to break each tablet by three techniques: in between the fingers with the use of nails, in between the fingers without the use of nails and pushing the tablet downward with one finger on a solid surface. It was established whether a tablet was broken or not, and if broken, whether the tablet was broken accurately or not. Results: The older adults experienced more difficulties to break tablets compared to the young adults. On average, the older persons broke 38.1% of the tablets, of which 71.0% was broken accurately. The young adults broke 78.2% of the tablets, of which 77.4% was broken accurately. Further analysis by mixed effects logistic regression revealed that age was associated with the ability to break tablets, but not with the accuracy of breaking. Conclusions: Breaking scored tablets by hand is less successful in an elderly population compared to a group of young adults. Health care providers should be aware that tablet breaking is not appropriate for all patients and for all drugs. In case tablet breaking is unavoidable, a

  17. A prospective, randomized, double-blinded single-site control study comparing blood loss prevention of tranexamic acid (TXA to epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA for corrective spinal surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaz Kenneth M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Multilevel spinal fusion surgery has typically been associated with significant blood loss. To limit both the need for transfusions and co-morbidities associated with blood loss, the use of anti-fibrinolytic agents has been proposed. While there is some literature comparing the effectiveness of tranexamic acid (TXA to epsilon aminocaproic acid (EACA in cardiac procedures, there is currently no literature directly comparing TXA to EACA in orthopedic surgery. Methods/Design Here we propose a prospective, randomized, double-blinded control study evaluating the effects of TXA, EACA, and placebo for treatment of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS, neuromuscular scoliosis (NMS, and adult deformity (AD via corrective spinal surgery. Efficacy will be determined by intraoperative and postoperative blood loss. Other clinical outcomes that will be compared include transfusion rates, preoperative and postoperative hemodynamic values, and length of hospital stay after the procedure. Discussion The primary goal of the study is to determine perioperative blood loss as a measure of the efficacy of TXA, EACA, and placebo. Based on current literature and the mechanism by which the medications act, we hypothesize that TXA will be more effective at reducing blood loss than EACA or placebo and result in improved patient outcomes. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT00958581

  18. Electroweak breaking in supersymmetric models

    CERN Document Server

    Ibáñez, L E

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the mechanism for electroweak symmetry breaking in supersymmetric versions of the standard model. After briefly reviewing the possible sources of supersymmetry breaking, we show how the required pattern of symmetry breaking can automatically result from the structure of quantum corrections in the theory. We demonstrate that this radiative breaking mechanism works well for a heavy top quark and can be combined in unified versions of the theory with excellent predictions for the running couplings of the model. (To be published in ``Perspectives in Higgs Physics'', G. Kane editor.)

  19. Weight Loss and the Prevention of Weight Regain: Evaluation of a Treatment Model of Exercise Self-Regulation Generalizing to Controlled Eating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Johnson, Ping H; Tennant, Gisèle A; Porter, Kandice J; McEwen, Kristin L

    2016-01-01

    Context: For decades, behavioral weight-loss treatments have been unsuccessful beyond the short term. Development and testing of innovative, theoretically based methods that depart from current failed practices is a priority for behavioral medicine. Objective: To evaluate a new, theory-based protocol in which exercise support methods are employed to facilitate improvements in psychosocial predictors of controlled eating and sustained weight loss. Methods: Women with obesity were randomized into either a comparison treatment that incorporated a print manual plus telephone follow-ups (n = 55) or an experimental treatment of The Coach Approach exercise-support protocol followed after 2 months by group nutrition sessions focused on generalizing self-regulatory skills from an exercise support to a controlled eating context (n = 55). Repeated-measures analysis of variance contrasted group changes in weight, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, mood, and exercise- and eating-related self-regulation and self-efficacy over 24 months. Regression analyses determined salient interrelations of change scores over both the weight-loss phase (baseline-month 6) and weight-loss maintenance phase (month 6-month 24). Results: Improvements in all psychological measures, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable intake were significantly greater in the experimental group where a mean weight loss of 5.7 kg (6.1% of initial body weight) occurred at month 6, and was largely maintained at a loss of 5.1 kg (5.4%) through the full 24 months of the study. After establishing temporal intervals for changes in self-regulation, self-efficacy, and mood that best predicted improvements in physical activity and eating, a consolidated multiple mediation model suggested that change in self-regulation best predicted weight loss, whereas change in self-efficacy best predicted maintenance of lost weight. Conclusions: Because for most participants loss of weight remained greater than that

  20. Rotation Breaking Induced by ELMs on EAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, H.; Xu, G.; Sun, Y.;

    Spontaneous rotation has been observed in LHCD H-mode plasmas with type III ELMs (edge localized modes) on EAST, and it revealed that type III ELMs can induce the loss of both core and edge toroidal rotation. Here we work on the breaking mechanism during the ELMs. Several large tokamaks have...... of magnetic surface, thus generate NTV (neoclassical toroidal viscosity) torque that affects toroidal rotation. We adopt 1cm maximum edge magnetic surface displacement from experimental observation, and our calculation shows that the edge torque is about 0.35 N/m2, and the core very small. The expected...

  1. Breaking Barriers in Polymer Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, Lonnie J [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Post, Brian K [ORNL; Lind, Randall F [ORNL; Lloyd, Peter D [ORNL; Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL; Blue, Craig A [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) enables the creation of complex structures directly from a computer-aided design (CAD). There are limitations that prevent the technology from realizing its full potential. AM has been criticized for being slow and expensive with limited build size. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a large scale AM system that improves upon each of these areas by more than an order of magnitude. The Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system directly converts low cost pellets into a large, three-dimensional part at a rate exceeding 25 kg/h. By breaking these traditional barriers, it is possible for polymer AM to penetrate new manufacturing markets.

  2. Break down of losses in thin electrolyte SOFCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Rasmus; Hagen, Anke; Ramousse, S.;

    2006-01-01

    The contributions of the individual components of the cell (anode, cathode, and electrolyte) to the cell resistance were determined experimentally, directly from impedance spectra obtained from a full cell. It was an anode supported thin electrolyte cell, consisting of a YSZ electrolyte, a Ni/YSZ...

  3. Thinking of change in terms of gains or losses Promotion versus prevention focus as a moderator in the job demands-resources model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paraskevas Petrou

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Orientation: Promotion and prevention regulatory foci have been established as self-regulation systems with implications for the study of change.Research purpose: The study aimed to test moderating effects of promotion and prevention focus within the job demands-resources model in a context of organisational change. Predictors included job demands and resources whilst outcomes included emotional exhaustion, disengagement and openness to change.Motivation for the study: The study intended to understand whether individual differences in promotion and prevention focus play an important role during the experience of organisational change.Research design, approach and method: A sample of 164 teachers from the Netherlands participated in a quantitative survey design before a new governmental policy was implemented in their schools and 189 different teachers working in the same schools participated in the survey after the implementation of the policy. Cross-sectional moderated regression analyses were used to analyse the data.Main findings: Promotion focus moderated the relationship between job demands and openness to change, whilst both promotion and prevention focus moderated many of the relationships between job resources on the one hand and emotional exhaustion, disengagement and openness to change on the other hand.Practical/managerial implications: Knowing that organisational change can have different meanings for promotion and prevention focused employees, managers can facilitate employee adaptation to change.Contribution/value-add: This research provides a theoretical framework that incorporates self-regulation as a moderator in the job demands-resources model. At the same time, implications for organisational change were co-examined.

  4. Modeling of the eddy viscosity by breaking waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Breaking wave induced nearsurface turbulence has important consequences for many physical and biochemical processes including water column and nutrients mixing, heat and gases exchange across air-sea interface. The energy loss from wave breaking and the bubble plume penetration depth are estimated. As a consequence, the vertical distribution of the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), the TKE dissipation rate and the eddy viscosity induced by wave breaking are also provided. It is indicated that model results are found to be consistent with the observational evidence that most TKE generated by wave breaking is lost within a depth of a few meters near the sea surface. High turbulence level with intensities of eddy viscosity induced by breaking is nearly four orders larger than υwl(=κu *wz), the value predicted for the wall layer scaling close to the surface, where u *w is the friction velocity in water, κ with 0.4 is the von Kármán constant, and z is the water depth, and the strength of the eddy viscosity depends both on wind speed and sea state, and decays rapidly through the depth. This leads to the conclusion that the breaking wave induced vertical mixing is mainly limited to the near surface layer, well above the classical values expected from the similarity theory. Deeper down, however, the effects of wave breaking on the vertical mixing become less important.

  5. Entanglement–breaking indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lami, L. [Scuola Normale Superiore, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Giovannetti, V. [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    We study a set of new functionals (called entanglement–breaking indices) which characterize how many local iterations of a given (local) quantum channel are needed in order to completely destroy the entanglement between the system of interest over which the transformation is defined and an external ancilla. The possibility of contrasting the noisy effects introduced by the channel iterations via the action of intermediate (filtering) transformations is analyzed. We provide some examples in which our functionals can be exactly calculated. The differences between unitary and non-unitary filtering operations are analyzed showing that, at least for systems of dimension d larger than or equal to 3, the non-unitary choice is preferable (the gap between the performances of the two cases being divergent in some cases). For d = 2 (qubit case), on the contrary, no evidences of the presence of such gap is revealed: we conjecture that for this special case unitary filtering transformations are optimal. The scenario in which more general filtering protocols are allowed is also discussed in some detail. The case of a depolarizing noise acting on a two–qubit system is exactly solved in a general case.

  6. Thefts, break-ins, etc.

    CERN Multimedia

    Property Protection Group

    2004-01-01

    TAKING PRECAUTIONS IS THE BEST MEANS OF PROTECTION On the eve of CERN's annual end of year closure, it is in your own interest, that of your colleagues and that of the Organization, that the following recommendations be followed: 1. MONEY, VALUABLES & KEYS: Do not leave money or valuables in your office or your lockers. Keys and their copies should be removed or kept in a safe place. 2. DOORS & WINDOWS: Lock office, workshop, meeting-room doors etc. when you leave. Also close the windows if they are easily accessible from outside. 3. REPORTING INCIDENTS: Each crime solved could prevent another from being perpetrated. Please report any thefts, losses, objects gone missing and other incidents to the CERN Fire Brigade (tel. 74848) and keep them informed of any important developments (objects found, new clues, suspicious people or vehicles etc.). The Property Protection Group would like to wish you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year! Property Protection Group Tel. 72848

  7. Breaking the silence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougherty, S

    1997-11-01

    Venezuela's Accion Solidaria and other non-governmental organizations are set to launch the country's first HIV prevention and education effort. In addition to the $7 million campaign, activists in the country have seen a number of recent successes. Accion Solidaria has been successfully incorporated into a nonprofit group in the United States, called Action of Solidarity. Other successes include the First National Venezuelan Meeting of People Living with HIV and AIDS to be held in mid-October, and the upcoming launch of Venezuela's first AIDS hotline. The hotline, part of the education and prevention campaign, will be launched by Red MetSIDA, an umbrella organization for AIDS groups in Venezuela. The effort will also feature a high-profile media campaign to bring prevention information to the public and dispel AIDS-related myths. Accion Cuidadana Contra el SIDA, Venezuela's first AIDS organization, has successfully represented 37 HIV-infected individuals who were either irregularly receiving AZT and 3TC or whose physicians were not prescribing triple-drug therapies. The lawsuit, filed against the Venezuelan social security system, argued that the patients' rights were being violated. PMID:11364815

  8. Would Border Carbon Adjustments prevent carbon leakage and heavy industry competitiveness losses? Insights from a meta-analysis of recent economic studies

    OpenAIRE

    Branger, Frédéric; Quirion, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The efficiency of unilateral climate policies may be hampered by carbon leakage and competitiveness losses. A widely discussed policy option to reduce leakage and protect competitiveness of heavy industries is to impose Border Carbon Adjustments (BCA) to non regulated countries, which remains contentious for juridical and political reasons. The estimation of carbon leakage as well as the assessment of different policy options led to a substantial body of litterature in energy-economic modelin...

  9. Azithromycin Prevents Pregnancy Loss: Reducing the Level of Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha and Raising the Level of Interleukin-10 in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Ayse Er

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of azithromycin on LPS-induced pregnancy loss. Thirty-six pregnant female Wistar rats were divided into 4 equal groups as follows: control group, where 0.3 mL of normal saline solution was administered intravenously on day 10 of pregnancy; azithromycin group, where azithromycin was administered orally at 350 mg kg−1 day on days 9, 10, and 11 of pregnancy; lipopolysaccharide group, where LPS was administered intravenously via the tail vein at 1...

  10. Transplantation of Human Umbilical Cord Blood-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells or Their Conditioned Medium Prevents Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Nude Mice

    OpenAIRE

    An, Jee Hyun; Park, Hyojung; Song, Jung Ah; Ki, Kyung Ho; Yang, Jae-Yeon; Choi, Hyung Jin; Cho, Sun Wook; Kim, Sang Wan; Kim, Seong Yeon; Yoo, Jeong Joon; Baek, Wook-Young; Kim, Jung-Eun; Choi, Soo Jin; Oh, Wonil; Shin, Chan Soo

    2013-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) has recently been recognized as a new source of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) for use in stem cell therapy. We studied the effects of systemic injection of human UCB-MSCs and their conditioned medium (CM) on ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss in nude mice. Ten-week-old female nude mice were divided into six groups: Sham-operated mice treated with vehicle (Sham-Vehicle), OVX mice subjected to UCB-MSCs (OVX-MSC), or human dermal fibroblast (OVX-DFB) transplantation, ...

  11. Supersymmetry Breaking in Warped Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kiwoon; Kim, Do Young; Kim, Ian-Woo; Kobayashi, Tatsuo

    2003-01-01

    We examine the soft supersymmetry breaking parameters in supersymmetric theories on a slice of AdS_5 which generate the hierarchical Yukawa couplings by dynamically localizing the bulk matter fields in extra dimension. Such models can be regarded as the AdS dual of the recently studied 4-dimensional models which contain a supersymmetric CFT to generate the hierarchical Yukawa couplings. In such models, if supersymmetry breaking is mediated by the bulk radion superfield and/or some brane chira...

  12. Efficacy of Cistanche Tubulosa and Laminaria Japonica Extracts (MK-R7) Supplement in Preventing Patterned Hair Loss and Promoting Scalp Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seok, Joon; Kim, Tae Su; Kwon, Hyun Jung; Lee, Sung Pyo; Kang, Myung Hwa; Kim, Beom Joon; Kim, Myeung Nam

    2015-04-01

    Cistanche tubulosa and Laminaria japonica have been reported to have anti-oxidative, anticoagulant, anti-cancer and anti-inflammatory properties. They are expected to be a promising candidates for promoting hair growth and treating dandruff and scalp inflammation as a consequence. In this double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial, we investigated the efficacy of Cistanche tubulosa extract and Laminaria japonica extract complex (MK-R7) in promoting hair health in patients with mild to moderate patterned hair loss. Using phototrichogram (Folliscope 4.0, LeadM, Seoul, Korea), we compared the density and diameter of hairs in patients receiving a placebo or Cistanche tubulosa extract and Laminaria japonica extract complex (MK-R7) at baseline, 8 and 16 weeks of the study. In order to determine the efficacy of treatment on dandruff and scalp inflammation, investigator's assessment score and patient's subjective score were also performed. We found a statistically significant increase in the hair density of the test group (n = 45, MK-R7 400 mg) after 16 weeks of consuming the MK-R7 (test group: 23.29 n/cm(2) ± 24.26, control: 10.35 n/cm(2) ± 20.08, p hair diameter in the test group compared to control group at week 16 (test group: 0.018 mm ± 0.015, control: 0.003 mm ± 0.013, p hair.

  13. Endogenous hydrogen sulfide enhances salt tolerance by coupling the reestablishment of redox homeostasis and preventing salt-induced K⁺ loss in seedlings of Medicago sativa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Diwen; Mao, Yu; Zhou, Heng; Li, Feng; Wu, Mingzhu; Zhang, Jing; He, Ziyi; Cui, Weiti; Xie, Yanjie

    2014-08-01

    Despite the external application of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) conferring plant tolerance against various environmental cues, the physiological significance of l-cysteine desulfhydrase (L-DES)-associated endogenous H2S production involved in salt-stress signaling was poorly understood. To address this gap, the participation of in planta changes of H2S homeostasis involved in alfalfa salt tolerance was investigated. The increasing concentration of NaCl (from 50 to 300 mM) progressively caused the induction of total l-DES activity and the increase of endogenous H2S production. NaCl-triggered toxicity symptoms (175 mM), including seedling growth inhibition and lipid peroxidation, were alleviated by sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS; 100 μM), a H2S donor, whereas aggravated by an inhibitor of l-DES or a H2S scavenger. A weaker or negative response was observed in lower or higher dose of NaHS. Further results showed that endogenous l-DES-related H2S modulated several genes/activities of antioxidant defence enzymes, and also regulated the contents of antioxidant compounds, thus counterbalancing the NaCl-induced lipid peroxidation. Moreover, H2S maintained K(+)/Na(+) homeostasis by preventing the NaCl-triggered K(+) efflux, which might be result form the impairment of SKOR expression. Together, our findings indicated that endogenous H2S homeostasis enhance salt tolerance by coupling the reestablishment of redox balance and restraining K(+) efflux in alfalfa seedlings.

  14. On the efficacy and safety of vaccination with live tachyzoites of Neospora caninum for prevention of neospora-associated fetal loss in cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Fred H; Jackson, James A; Sobecki, Brian; Choromanski, Les; Olsen, Mary; Meinert, Todd; Frank, Rodney; Reichel, Michael P; Ellis, John T

    2013-01-01

    Infection of cattle with Neospora caninum may result in abortion or the birth of a congenitally infected calf. Vaccination with live N. caninum protects against experimental infection of cattle and mice, and the naturally attenuated Nc-Nowra strain of N. caninum is of particular interest as a potential vaccine candidate. Vaccination of heifers prior to breeding with live Nc-Nowra tachyzoites by either the subcutaneous or the intravenous route reduced the rate of abortion and the presence of the parasite in calves as determined by PCR and serology after infection of cows with a virulent isolate. Protected fractions were 55.6% to 85.2% depending on the route of vaccination and growth conditions of the vaccine strain, with cryopreserved Nc-Nowra tachyzoites being less effective, with a 25.9% protected fraction. Vaccination appeared to reduce the rate of pregnancy after artificial insemination in some groups compared to nonvaccinated, nonchallenged controls. One animal that was vaccinated but not challenged experienced an abortion, but Nc-Nowra could not be detected in any of the cows in this group or their progeny. This study confirms that live vaccination can be an effective method of preventing neosporosis in cattle and yet highlights the technical hurdle of preservation of live parasites that must be overcome for a vaccine to be commercially successful.

  15. Hearing Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Tools & ... labor & premature birth The newborn intensive care unit (NICU) Birth defects & other health conditions Loss & grief Ask ...

  16. Stroma-contact prevents loss of hematopoietic stem cell quality during ex vivo expansion of CD34+ mobilized peripheral blood stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breems, D A; Blokland, E A; Siebel, K E; Mayen, A E; Engels, L J; Ploemacher, R E

    1998-01-01

    Stroma-supported long-term cultures (LTC) allow estimation of stem cell quality by simultaneous enumeration of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) frequencies in a graft using the cobblestone area forming cell (CAFC) assay, and the ability of the graft to generate progenitors in flask LTC (LTC-CFC). We have recently observed that the number and quality of mobilized peripheral blood stem cells (PBSC) was low in patients having received multiple rounds of chemotherapy. Moreover, grafts with low numbers of HSC and poor HSC quality had a high probability to cause graft failure upon their autologous infusion. Because ex vivo culture of stem cells has been suggested to present an attractive tool to improve hematological recovery or reduce graft size, we have studied the possibility that such propagation may affect stem cell quality. In order to do so, we have assessed the recovery of different stem cell subsets in CD34+ PBSC after a 7-day serum-free liquid culture using CAFC and LTC-CFC assays. A numerical expansion of stem cell subsets was observed in the presence of interleukin-3 (IL-3), stem cell factor, and IL-6, while stroma-contact, stromal soluble factors, or combined addition of FLT3-ligand and thrombopoietin improved this parameter. In contrast, ex vivo culture severely reduced the ability of the graft to produce progenitors in LTC while stromal soluble factors partly abrogated this quality loss. The best conservation of graft quality was observed when the PBSC were cultured in stroma-contact. These data suggest that ex vivo propagation of PBSC may allow numerical expansion of various stem cell subsets, however, at the expense of their quality. In addition, cytokine-driven PBSC cultures require stroma for optimal maintenance of graft quality. PMID:9414274

  17. Thefts, break-ins, etc.

    CERN Document Server

    Host States Relations Secretariat

    2005-01-01

    TAKING PRECAUTIONS IS THE BEST MEANS OF PROTECTION On the eve of CERN's annual end-of-year closure, it is in your own interest, that of your colleagues and that of the Organization, that the following recommendations be followed: 1. MONEY, VALUABLES & KEYS: Do not leave money or valuables in your office or your lockers. Keys and their copies should be removed or kept in a safe place. 2. DOORS & WINDOWS: Lock office, workshop, meeting-room doors etc. when you leave. Also close the windows if they are easily accessible from outside. 3. REPORTING INCIDENTS: Each crime solved could prevent another from being perpetrated. Please report any thefts, losses, objects gone missing and other incidents to the CERN Fire Brigade (tel. 74848) and keep them informed of any important developments (objects found, new clues, suspicious people or vehicles, etc.). The Host States Relations Service would like to wish you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year! Host States Relations Secretariat Tel. 72848

  18. Moderator Circulation Simulation for 35% Reactor Inlet Header Break in the Wolsong Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyoung Tae; Park, Joo Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    The objective of this study is present the results of moderator circulation simulations by the CFD code MODTURC{sub C}LAS V2.9-IST for the refurbished Wolsong unit 1. The present simulations were performed for a loss of Class IV power during a Large Break Loss Of Coolant Accident (35% inlet header break) without ECC injection and steam generator crash cool-down (LOCA/LOECC/LOCC). The analysis was performed to facilitate the assessment of fuel channel integrity following pressure tube (PT) and calandria tube (CT) contact by estimating the subcooling available for the inlet header break scenario

  19. Strontium fructose 1,6-diphosphate prevents bone loss in a rat model of postmenopausal osteoporosis via the OPG/RANKL/RANK pathway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo MA; Qi ZHANG; Di WU; Yong-lu WANG; Ying-ying HU; Yan-ping CHENG; Zhen-dong YANG; Ya-ya ZHENG; Han-jie YING

    2012-01-01

    Aim:To evaluate the protective effects of strontium fructose 1,6-diphosphate (FDP-Sr),a novel strontium salt that combined fructose 1,6-diphosphate (FDP)with strontium,on bone in an ovariectomy-induced model of bone loss.Methods:Eighty female Sprague-Dawley rats were ovariectomized (OVX)or sham-operated.Three months later,the rats were assigned to six groups (10 for each):sham-operated,OVX control,OVX+FDP-Sr (110,220,or 440 mg/kg),or OVX+strontium ranelate (SR,180 mg/kg).Drugs were administered orally for 3 months.When the treatment was terminated,the following parameters were assessed:bone mineral density (BMD),the biomechanical properties of the femur and lumbar vertebrae,trabecular histomorphology,serum phosphorus,calcium,bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP),tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b (TRACP5b),N-telopeptide of type I collagen (NTx)and a series of markers for oxidative stress.Receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL)and osteoprotegerin (OPG)levels in serum were measured using ELISA and their gene expression levels in the bone were measured using R-T PCR.Results:Treatment with FDP-Sr (220 or 440 mg/kg)or SR (180 mg/kg)significantly increased the BMD and improved the bone microarchitecture and bone strength in OVX rats.The treatments also decreased in the levels of H202 and MDA,restored the CAT level in serum and bone marrow,increased the serum B-ALP and decreased NTx and TRACP 5b in OVX rats.Treatment with FDP-Sr decreased the RANKL level,and increased the OPG level in serum in a dose-dependent manner.It also significantly down-regulated the RANKL expression and ul-regulated OPG expression in bone marrow.Conclusion:FDP-Sr may be an effectve treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis that acts,in part,via a decrease in osteoclastogenesis through the OPG\\RANKL\\RANK pathway.

  20. Symmetry breaking in molecular ferroelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ping-Ping; Tang, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Peng-Fei; Liao, Wei-Qiang; Wang, Zhong-Xia; Ye, Qiong; Xiong, Ren-Gen

    2016-07-11

    Ferroelectrics are inseparable from symmetry breaking. Accompanying the paraelectric-to-ferroelectric phase transition, the paraelectric phase adopting one of the 32 crystallographic point groups is broken into subgroups belonging to one of the 10 ferroelectric point groups, i.e. C1, C2, C1h, C2v, C4, C4v, C3, C3v, C6 and C6v. The symmetry breaking is captured by the order parameter known as spontaneous polarization, whose switching under an external electric field results in a typical ferroelectric hysteresis loop. In addition, the responses of spontaneous polarization to other external excitations are related to a number of physical effects such as second-harmonic generation, piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity and dielectric properties. Based on these, this review summarizes recent developments in molecular ferroelectrics since 2011 and focuses on the relationship between symmetry breaking and ferroelectricity, offering ideas for exploring high-performance molecular ferroelectrics. PMID:27051889

  1. Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Trial of Risedronate for the Prevention of Bone Mineral Density Loss in Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy Plus Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Lukka, Himu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juravinski Cancer Center, McMaster University, Hamilton (Canada); Cheung, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Corbett, Tom [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juravinski Cancer Center, McMaster University, Hamilton (Canada); Briones-Urbina, Rosario [Department of Medicine, Women' s College Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Vieth, Reinhold [Departments of Nutritional Sciences and Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Ehrlich, Lisa [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto (Canada); Kiss, Alex [Department of Health Policy, Management, and Evaluation, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Danjoux, Cyril, E-mail: Cyril.danjoux@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment to radiation therapy (RT) for the management of locally advanced prostate carcinoma. Long-term ADT decreases bone mineral density (BMD) and increases the risk of osteoporosis. The objective of this clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of risedronate for the prevention of BMD loss in nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients undergoing RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT. Methods and Materials: A double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted for nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients receiving RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT. All had T scores > −2.5 on dual energy x-ray absorptiometry at baseline. Patients were randomized 1:1 between risedronate and placebo for 2 years. The primary endpoints were the percent changes in the BMD of the lumbar spine at 1 and 2 years from baseline, measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Analyses of the changes in BMD and bone turnover biomarkers were carried out by comparing mean values of the intrapatient changes between the 2 arms, using standard t tests. Results: One hundred four patients were accrued between 2004 and 2007, with 52 in each arm. Mean age was 66.8 and 67.5 years for the placebo and risedronate, respectively. At 1 and 2 years, mean (±SE) BMD of the lumbar spine decreased by 5.77% ± 4.66% and 13.55% ± 6.33%, respectively, in the placebo, compared with 0.12% ± 1.29% at 1 year (P=.2485) and 0.85% ± 1.56% (P=.0583) at 2 years in the risedronate. The placebo had a significant increase in serum bone turnover biomarkers compared with the risedronate. Conclusions: Weekly oral risedronate prevented BMD loss at 2 years and resulted in significant suppression of bone turnover biomarkers for 24 months for patients receiving RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT.

  2. Source Term Analysis in Severe Accident Induced by Large Break Loss of Coolant Accident Coincident With Ship Blackout for Ship Reactor%船用堆大破口失水叠加全船断电严重事故源项分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彦招; 张帆; 赵新文; 郑映峰

    2013-01-01

    以某船用压水堆为研究对象,采用M ELCOR程序建立事故分析模型,研究大破口失水事故叠加全船断电严重事故下放射性裂变产物的行为,着重分析了惰性气体和CsI的释放、迁移、滞留特点及在堆舱内的分布。结果表明,83.12%惰性气体从堆芯释放出来,并主要存在于堆舱的气空间;83.08%的CsI从堆芯释放出来,其中,72.66%滞留在堆坑熔融物与一回路内,27.34%释放到堆舱内,并主要溶解于舱底水池中。本文分析结果可为舱室剂量评估、核应急管理提供依据。%Using MELCOR code ,the accident analysis model was established for a ship reactor .The behaviors of radioactive fission products were analyzed in the case of severe accident induced by large break loss of coolant accident coincident with ship blackout . The research mainly focused on the behaviors of release ,transport ,retention and the final distribution of inert gas and CsI . T he results show that 83.12% of inert gas releases from the core , and the most of inert gas exists in the containment . About 83.08% of CsI release from the core ,72.66% of w hich is detained in the debris and the primary system ,and 27.34% releases into the containment . The results can give a reference for the evaluation of cabin dose and nuclear emergency management .

  3. Give me a better break: Choosing workday break activities to maximize resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Emily M; Wu, Cindy

    2016-02-01

    Surprisingly little research investigates employee breaks at work, and even less research provides prescriptive suggestions for better workday breaks in terms of when, where, and how break activities are most beneficial. Based on the effort-recovery model and using experience sampling methodology, we examined the characteristics of employee workday breaks with 95 employees across 5 workdays. In addition, we examined resources as a mediator between break characteristics and well-being. Multilevel analysis results indicated that activities that were preferred and earlier in the work shift related to more resource recovery following the break. We also found that resources mediated the influence of preferred break activities and time of break on health symptoms and that resource recovery benefited person-level outcomes of emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behavior. Finally, break length interacted with the number of breaks per day such that longer breaks and frequent short breaks were associated with more resources than infrequent short breaks. PMID:26375961

  4. Sandwich-type gated mechanical break junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a new device architecture for the independent mechanical and electrostatic tuning of nanoscale charge transport. In contrast to previous gated mechanical break junctions with suspended source-drain electrodes, the devices presented here prevent an electromechanical tuning of the electrode gap by the gate. This significant improvement originates from a direct deposition of the source and the drain electrodes on the gate dielectric. The plasma-enhanced native oxide on the aluminum gate electrode enables measurements at gate voltages up to 1.8 V at cryogenic temperatures. Throughout the bending-controlled tuning of the source-drain distance, the electrical continuity of the gate electrode is maintained. A nanoscale island in the Coulomb blockade regime serves as a first experimental test system for the devices, in which the mechanical and electrical control of charge transport is demonstrated.

  5. Subcutaneous administration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II/IGF binding protein-2 complex stimulates bone formation and prevents loss of bone mineral density in a rat model of disuse osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Cheryl A.; Johnstone, Edward W.; Turner, Russell T.; Evans, Glenda L.; John Ballard, F. John; Doran, Patrick M.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2002-01-01

    Elevated serum levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) and a precursor form of IGF-II are associated with marked increases in bone formation and skeletal mass in patients with hepatitis C-associated osteosclerosis. In vitro studies indicate that IGF-II in complex with IGFBP-2 has high affinity for bone matrix and is able to stimulate osteoblast proliferation. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of the IGF-II/IGFBP-2 complex to increase bone mass in vivo. Osteopenia of the femur was induced by unilateral sciatic neurectomy in rats. At the time of surgery, 14-day osmotic minipumps containing vehicle or 2 microg IGF-II+9 microg IGFBP-2/100g body weight/day were implanted subcutaneously in the neck. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were taken the day of surgery and 14 days later using a PIXImus small animal densitometer. Neurectomy of the right hindlimb resulted in a 9% decrease in right femur BMD (PIGFBP-2. On the control limb, there was no loss of BMD over the 14 days and IGF-II/IGFBP-2 treatment resulted in a 9% increase in left femur BMD (PIGFBP-2 complex can prevent loss of BMD associated with disuse osteoporosis and stimulate bone formation in adult rats. Furthermore, they provide proof of concept for a novel anabolic approach to increasing bone mass in humans with osteoporosis.

  6. Prophylactic Subacute Administration of Zinc Increases CCL2, CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 Expression and Prevents the Long-Term Memory Loss in a Rat Model of Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Manuel Blanco-Alvarez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prophylactic subacute administration of zinc decreases lipoperoxidation and cell death following a transient cerebral hypoxia-ischemia, thus suggesting neuroprotective and preconditioning effects. Chemokines and growth factors are also involved in the neuroprotective effect in hypoxia-ischemia. We explored whether zinc prevents the cerebral cortex-hippocampus injury through regulation of CCL2, CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 expression following a 10 min of common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO. Male rats were grouped as follows: (1 Zn96h, rats injected with ZnCl2 (one dose every 24 h during four days; (2 Zn96h + CCAO, rats treated with ZnCl2 before CCAO; (3 CCAO, rats with CCAO only; (4 Sham group, rats with mock CCAO; and (5 untreated rats. The cerebral cortex-hippocampus was dissected at different times before and after CCAO. CCL2/CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 expression was assessed by RT-PCR and ELISA. Learning in Morris Water Maze was achieved by daily training during 5 days. Long-term memory was evaluated on day 7 after learning. Subacute administration of zinc increased expression of CCL2, CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 in the early and late phases of postreperfusion and prevented the CCAO-induced memory loss in the rat. These results might be explained by the induction of neural plasticity because of the expression of CCL2 and growth factors.

  7. A Case Analysis on the Risk Prevention of the Business of Reporting the Loss of Bank Cards%银行卡挂失业务风险防范的案例分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东

    2012-01-01

    目前,由于银行卡挂失业务中责任界定不统一,办理流程不规范,风险防范不到位,因此形成了较大的法律风险、操作风险和道德分析,这也给不法分子造成了可乘之机。本文通过案例分析,提出完善法律规范和业务流程,提高银行风险防控能力的建议。%At present because there is no a uniform definition on the responsibility of the business of reporting the loss of bank cards among financial institutions, the operational process is not regulated and risks are not effectively prevented, legal risks, operational risks and moral hazard have come into being, which provides opportunity for criminals. With analyzing the case, the paper puts forward suggestions such as perfecting the relevant laws and operational processes to improve the capacity of risk prevention and control of banks.

  8. An Analysis of Break,Break,Break Based on the Stylistic Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑶

    2014-01-01

    Break,Break,Break is a poem by Alfred Lord Tennyson, the Poet Laureate during the Queen Victoria's reign. This exquisite little poem is wel known for the poet’s grief-stricken feelings and heart-broken emotions over the premature death of his best friend, Arthur Henry Hal am. Most of the previous studies on this poem focus on the emotional level to consider it as an elegy, expressing sorrow and lamentation for the death of a particular person. However, in order to have a deep understanding in general, this paper analyzes the poem based on the stylistic theory, concerning on the phonological level and the grammatical level. It aims at helping the readers to cultivate a sense of appropriateness, to sharpen the understanding and appreciation of literary works and to achieve adaptation in translation.

  9. KMUP-1 suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss: roles of MAPKs, Akt, NF-κB and calcium/calcineurin/NFATc1 pathways.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Fen Liou

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: KMUP-1 is a xanthine derivative with inhibitory activities on the phosphodiesterase (PDE 3,4 and 5 isoenzymes to suppress the degradation of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP. However, the effects of KMUP-1 on osteoclast differentiation are still unclear. In this study, we investigated whether KMUP-1 inhibits osteoclastogenesis induced by RANKL in RAW 264.7 cells and bone loss induced by ovariectomy in mice, and the underlying mechanisms. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In vitro, KMUP-1 inhibited RANKL-induced TRAP activity, the formation of multinucleated osteoclasts and resorption-pit formation. It also inhibited key mediators of osteoclastogenesis including IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and HMGB1. In addition, KMUP-1 inhibited RANKL-induced activation of signaling molecules (Akt, MAPKs, calcium and NF-κB, mRNA expression of osteoclastogensis-associated genes (TRAP, MMP-9, Fra-1, and cathepsin K and transcription factors (c-Fos and NFATc1. Furthermore, most inhibitory effects of KMUP-1 on RANKL-mediated signal activations were reversed by a protein kinase A inhibitor (H89 and a protein kinase G inhibitor (KT5823. In vivo, KMUP-1 prevented loss of bone mineral content, preserved serum alkaline phosphate and reduced serum osteocalcin in ovariectomized mice. CONCLUSIONS: KMUP-1 inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis in vitro and protects against ovariectomy-induced bone loss in vivo. These effects are mediated, at least in part, by cAMP and cGMP pathways. Therefore, KMUP-1 may have a role in pharmacologic therapy of osteoporosis.

  10. Liquid-Bridge Breaking Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macner, Ashley; Steen, Paul

    2011-11-01

    Wet adhesion by liquid bridges in large arrays shows promise for use in lightweight, controllable on-demand devices. Applications include grab/release of wafer substrates, transport of micron-sized tiles for use in 3D printing and micro-dosing of personalized pharmaceutical drugs. By wetting and spreading, a drop can form a bridge and thereby ``grab'' a nearby solid substrate. By volume decrease or extension, the bridge can break. The breaking limit corresponds to bridge instability which can be predicted, knowing the static mechanical response of the bridge. Mechanical behaviors include force-volume (FV), pressure-volume (pV) and force-length (FL) responses. Instability crucially depends on the mode of failure - failure under constant-force or constant length are typical cases. We study single bridge equilibria for their breaking limits. FV diagrams for the pin-pin equal and pin-pin unequal radii boundary conditions for different bridge heights are measured in the laboratory. The FL response in the case of pin-pin equal radii is also measured. Results are compared to predictions of static theory. Static results are then used to compare to dynamical sequences where volume is driven quasistatically by syringe or an electro-osmotic pump. As the breaking limit is approached, the shape deformation accelerates leading to non-equilibrium shapes not captured by the static analysis.

  11. Inflationary implications of supersymmetry breaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghese, Andrea; Roest, Diederik; Zavala, Ivonne

    2013-01-01

    We discuss a general bound on the possibility to realise inflation in any minimal supergravity with F-terms. The derivation crucially depends on the sGoldstini, the scalar field directions that are singled out by spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. The resulting bound involves both slow-roll paramet

  12. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barklow, T.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burdman, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Chivukula, R.S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.

  13. How do accretion discs break?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Suzan

    2016-07-01

    Accretion discs are common in binary systems, and they are often found to be misaligned with respect to the binary orbit. The gravitational torque from a companion induces nodal precession in misaligned disc orbits. In this study, we first calculate whether this precession is strong enough to overcome the internal disc torques communicating angular momentum. We compare the disc precession torque with the disc viscous torque to determine whether the disc should warp or break. For typical parameters precession wins: the disc breaks into distinct planes that precess effectively independently. To check our analytical findings, we perform 3D hydrodynamical numerical simulations using the PHANTOM smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, and confirm that disc breaking is widespread and enhances accretion on to the central object. For some inclinations, the disc goes through strong Kozai cycles. Disc breaking promotes markedly enhanced and variable accretion and potentially produces high-energy particles or radiation through shocks. This would have significant implications for all binary systems: e.g. accretion outbursts in X-ray binaries and fuelling supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. The behaviour we have discussed in this work is relevant to a variety of astrophysical systems, for example X-ray binaries, where the disc plane may be tilted by radiation warping, SMBH binaries, where accretion of misaligned gas can create effectively random inclinations and protostellar binaries, where a disc may be misaligned by a variety of effects such as binary capture/exchange, accretion after binary formation.

  14. Sediment transport under breaking waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob; Mayer, Stefan

    2000-01-01

    generated at the surface where the wave breaks as well as the turbulence generated near the bed due to the wave-motion and the undertow. In general, the levels of turbulent kinetic energy are found to be higher than experiments show. This results in an over prediction of the sediment transport. Nevertheless...

  15. Small Break Air Ingress Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Oh; Eung Soo Kim

    2011-09-01

    The small break air-ingress experiment, described in this report, is designed to investigate air-ingress phenomena postulated to occur in pipes in a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTRs). During this experiment, air-ingress rates were measured for various flow and break conditions through small holes drilled into a pipe of the experimental apparatus. The holes were drilled at right angles to the pipe wall such that a direction vector drawn from the pipe centerline to the center of each hole was at right angles with respect to the pipe centerline. Thus the orientation of each hole was obtained by measuring the included angle between the direction vector of each hole with respect to a reference line anchored on the pipe centerline and pointing in the direction of the gravitational force. Using this reference system, the influence of several important parameters on the air ingress flow rate were measured including break orientation, break size, and flow velocity . The approach used to study the influence of these parameters on air ingress is based on measuring the changes in oxygen concentrations at various locations in the helium flow circulation system as a function of time using oxygen sensors (or detectors) to estimate the air-ingress rates through the holes. The test-section is constructed of a stainless steel pipe which had small holes drilled at the desired locations.

  16. Code breaking in the pacific

    CERN Document Server

    Donovan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Covers the historical context and the evolution of the technically complex Allied Signals Intelligence (Sigint) activity against Japan from 1920 to 1945 Describes, explains and analyzes the code breaking techniques developed during the war in the Pacific Exposes the blunders (in code construction and use) made by the Japanese Navy that led to significant US Naval victories

  17. Breaking Carbon Lock-in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Driscoll, Patrick Arthur

    2014-01-01

    This central focus of this paper is to highlight the ways in which path dependencies and increasing returns (network effects) serve to reinforce carbon lock-in in large-scale road transportation infrastructure projects. Breaking carbon lock-in requires drastic changes in the way we plan future...

  18. Propagation Mechanism Analysis Before the Break Point Inside Tunnels

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Ke; Zhong, Zhangdui; Bo, Ai; Briso Rodriguez, Cesar

    2011-01-01

    There is no unanimous consensus yet on the propagation mechanism before the break point inside tunnels. Some deem that the propagation mechanism follows the free space model, others argue that it should be described by the multimode waveguide model. Firstly, this paper analyzes the propagation loss in two mechanisms. Then, by conjunctively using the propagation theory and the three-dimensional solid geometry, a generic analytical model for the boundary between the free space mechanism and the...

  19. A model of intrinsic symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Li [Research Center for Quantum Manipulation, Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, Sheng [Department of Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Zhejiang 310004 (China); George, Thomas F., E-mail: tfgeorge@umsl.edu [Office of the Chancellor and Center for Nanoscience, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Sun, Xin, E-mail: xin_sun@fudan.edu.cn [Research Center for Quantum Manipulation, Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Different from the symmetry breaking associated with a phase transition, which occurs when the controlling parameter is manipulated across a critical point, the symmetry breaking presented in this Letter does not need parameter manipulation. Instead, the system itself suddenly undergoes symmetry breaking at a certain time during its evolution, which is intrinsic symmetry breaking. Through a polymer model, it is revealed that the origin of the intrinsic symmetry breaking is nonlinearity, which produces instability at the instance when the evolution crosses an inflexion point, where this instability breaks the original symmetry.

  20. Traditional preventive treatment options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Longbottom, C; Ekstrand, K; Zero, D

    2009-01-01

    Preventive treatment options can be divided into primary, secondary and tertiary prevention techniques, which can involve patient- or professionally applied methods. These include: oral hygiene (instruction), pit and fissure sealants ('temporary' or 'permanent'), fluoride applications (patient...... prevention of caries in children, e.g. pit and fissure sealants and topically applied fluorides (including patient-applied fluoride toothpastes and professionally applied fluoride varnishes), but limited strong evidence for these techniques for secondary prevention--i.e. where early to established lesions...... conventional operative care, and since controlling the caries process prior to first restoration is the key to breaking the repair cycle and improving care for patients, future research should address the shortcomings in the current level of supporting evidence for the various traditional preventive treatment...

  1. Symmetries, Symmetry Breaking, Gauge Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Strocchi, Franco

    2015-01-01

    The concepts of symmetry, symmetry breaking and gauge symmetries are discussed, their operational meaning being displayed by the observables {\\em and} the (physical) states. For infinitely extended systems the states fall into physically disjoint {\\em phases} characterized by their behavior at infinity or boundary conditions, encoded in the ground state, which provide the cause of symmetry breaking without contradicting Curie Principle. Global gauge symmetries, not seen by the observables, are nevertheless displayed by detectable properties of the states (superselected quantum numbers and parastatistics). Local gauge symmetries are not seen also by the physical states; they appear only in non-positive representations of field algebras. Their role at the Lagrangian level is merely to ensure the validity on the physical states of local Gauss laws, obeyed by the currents which generate the corresponding global gauge symmetries; they are responsible for most distinctive physical properties of gauge quantum field ...

  2. Renormalizable theories with symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Becchi, Carlo M

    2016-01-01

    The description of symmetry breaking proposed by K. Symanzik within the framework of renormalizable theories is generalized from the geometrical point of view. For an arbitrary compact Lie group, a soft breaking of arbitrary covariance, and an arbitrary field multiplet, the expected integrated Ward identities are shown to hold to all orders of renormalized perturbation theory provided the Lagrangian is suitably chosen. The corresponding local Ward identity which provides the Lagrangian version of current algebra through the coupling to an external, classical, Yang-Mills field, is then proved to hold up to the classical Adler-Bardeen anomaly whose general form is written down. The BPHZ renormalization scheme is used throughout in such a way that the algebraic structure analyzed in the present context may serve as an introduction to the study of fully quantized gauge theories.

  3. Breaking GSM with rainbow Tables

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Since 1998 the GSM security has been academically broken but no real attack has ever been done until in 2008 when two engineers of Pico Computing (FPGA manufacture) revealed that they could break the GSM encryption in 30 seconds with 200'000$ hardware and precomputed rainbow tables. Since then the hardware was either available for rich people only or was confiscated by government agencies. So Chris Paget and Karsten Nohl decided to react and do the same thing but in a distributed open source form (on torrent). This way everybody could "enjoy" breaking GSM security and operators will be forced to upgrade the GSM protocol that is being used by more than 4 billion users and that is more than 20 years old.

  4. Breaking through the tranfer tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    This image shows the tunnel boring machine breaking through the transfer tunnel into the LHC tunnel. Proton beams will be transferred from the SPS pre-accelerator to the LHC at 450 GeV through two specially constructed transfer tunnels. From left to right: LHC Project Director, Lyn Evans; CERN Director-General (at the time), Luciano Maiani, and Director for Accelerators, Kurt Hubner.

  5. 16th Edition Breaks New Ground

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Fei

    2010-01-01

    @@ Breaking new ground,Intertextile Shanghai Apparel Fabrics,successfully closed its doors on October 22nd,2010at the Shanghai New International Exhibition Centre,attracting a record breaking,more than 57,000 buyers.

  6. Spontaneous Breaking of the Quantum Superposition

    OpenAIRE

    Pankovic, Vladan; Predojevic, Milan

    2007-01-01

    In this work spontaneous (non-dynamical) breaking (effective hiding) of the unitary quantum mechanical dynamical symmetry (superposition) is considered. It represents an especial but very interesting case of the general formalism of the spontaneous symmetry breaking (effective hiding). Conceptual analogies with spontaneous breaking of the gauge symmetry in Weinberg-Sallam's electro-weak interaction are pointed out. Also, consequences of the spontaneous superposition breaking in the measuremen...

  7. Memory loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    A person with memory loss needs a lot of support. It helps to show the person familiar objects, music, or and photos or play familiar music. Write down when the person should take any medicine or do other ...

  8. BREAKING WAVE FORCES ON VERTICAL CYLINDERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The breaking wave forces on vertical cylinders in shallow waters were studied by means of experimental methods. The results indicate that the breaking wave pressure is distributed exponentially with respect to water depth. An experimental formula was given using the test data. Compared with test data, the calculated breaking wave forces are in good agreement with the test data.

  9. Electroweak symmetry breaking at photon colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electroweak-symmetry-breaking sector of the standard model can be weakly-coupled or can be strongly-coupled, which is characterized by some kinds of strong interaction among the Goldstone bosons of the electroweak-symmetry-breaking sector. In this paper, we summarize an investigation of probing the strong electroweak-symmetry-breaking effects at photon colliders. ((orig.))

  10. Improving Short Wave Breaking Behavior In Surfbeat Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelvink, J.; Daly, C.; Vandongeren, A. R.; van Thiel de Vries, J.; McCall, R.

    2009-12-01

    C. Obviously this has important consequences for the forcing of both long waves and mean currents. In our presentation we will show results of comparisons of both formulations. References. Arcilla, A.S., Roelvink, J.A., O'Connor, B.A. Reniers, A., and Jimenez. J.A. The Delta Flume '93 Experiment. Coastal Dynamics '94. Arcilla, Stive and Kraus (eds), ASCE, New York, pp. 488-502. Battjes, J.A. and J.P.F.M. Janssen, (1978), Energy loss and set-up due to breaking in random waves, Proc. 16th Int. Coastal Eng. Conf., Hamburg, vol. 1: 569-587. Dally, W.R. (1992) Random breaking waves: Field verification of a wave-by-wave algorithm for engineering application. Coastal Engineering, Volume 16, Issue 4, March 1992, Pages 369-397. Roelvink, Dano, Ad Reniers, Ap van Dongeren, Jaap van Thiel de Vries, Robert McCall, Jamie Lescinski. Modelling storm impacts on beaches, dunes and barrier islands, Coast. Eng. (2009), doi:10.1016/j.coastaleng.2009.08.006 Roelvink, J.A. Dissipation in random wave groups incident on a beach. Coastal Eng., 19 (1993) pp. 127-150.

  11. High-performance liquid chromatography-diode array and electrospray-mass spectrometry analysis of non-allowed substances in cosmetic products for preventing hair loss and other hormone-dependent skin diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Orsi, Daniela; Pellegrini, Manuela; Pichini, Simona; Mattioli, Donatella; Marchei, Emilia; Gagliardi, Luigi

    2008-11-01

    A simple high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with ultraviolet diode array (UV-DAD) and electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) detection has been developed for the determination of minoxidil, progesterone, estrone, spironolactone, canrenone, hydrocortisone and triamcinolone acetonide in cosmetic products. The presence of these substances in commercial cosmetic samples is prohibited. The compounds were separated by reversed phase chromatography with water (0.1% trifluoroacetic acid) and acetonitrile gradient elution and detected by UV-DAD at 230, 254 and 280 nm and by ESI-MS positive ionisation mode. Benzoic acid was used as internal standard. Linearity was studied with UV-DAD detection from 1.50 to 1,000 microg/ml or mug/g range, depending on the different compounds and type of cosmetic preparation and with ESI-MS in the 50-1,000 ng/ml or ng/g range. Good determination coefficients (r(2)>or=0.99) were found in both UV and ESI-MS. At three concentrations spanning the linear dynamic ranges of both UV-DAD and ESI-MS assay, mean recoveries were always higher than 90% for the different analytes. This method was successfully applied to the analysis of substances under investigations illegally added in cosmetic cream and lotions, sold on internet web sites to prevent hair loss and other hormone-dependent skin diseases, like acne and hirsutism. PMID:18656319

  12. Age-Related Loss of Muscle Mass and Strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey Goldspink

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Age-related muscle wasting and increased frailty are major socioeconomic as well as medical problems. In the quest to extend quality of life it is important to increase the strength of elderly people sufficiently so they can carry out everyday tasks and to prevent them falling and breaking bones that are brittle due to osteoporosis. Muscles generate the mechanical strain that contributes to the maintenance of other musculoskeletal tissues, and a vicious circle is established as muscle loss results in bone loss and weakening of tendons. Molecular and proteomic approaches now provide strategies for preventing age-related muscle wasting. Here, attention is paid to the role of the GH/IGF-1 axis and the special role of the IGFI-Ec (mechano growth factor/MGF which is derived from the IGF-I gene by alternative splicing. During aging MGF levels decline but when administered MGF activates the muscle satellite (stem cells that “kick start” local muscle repair and induces hypertrophy.

  13. Prevention of bone loss by aqueous extract of Epimedii sagittatum in an ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis%箭叶淫羊藿对去卵巢大鼠骨量丢失的保护作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    年华; 徐玲玲; 马明华; 秦路平; 郑汉臣; 张巧艳

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prevention effect of aqueous extract of Epimedii sagittatum (ESE) on ovariectomy-induced (OVX) bone loss in rats. Methods: Rats were divided into sham-operated and OVX groups. The OVX rats were divided into four groups treated with distilled water, 17β-estradiol (1 mg/kg, ig) and ESE (0.5 and 1 g /kg, ig) for 11 weeks. Serum calcium, phosphorus, estradiol, bone gla protein concentrations and serum alkaline phosphatase activity were measured. Bone density was assayed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. The undecalcified longitudinal proximal tibial metaphysical sections were cut and stained for the bone histomorphometric analysis. Results: In OVX rats, alkaline phosphatase activity in serum was markedly increased by ESE treatment, which had no obvious influence on the body weight. Meanwhile, atrophy of uterus and descent of bone mineral density were suppressed by ESE treatment. In addition, ESE completely corrected the decreased concentrations of calcium and E2 in serum observed in OVX rats. Histological results also showed ESE prevented the increases in trabecular separation (Tb. Sp) in OVX rats whereas it did not alter trabecular thickness (Tb. Th) and trabecular number (Tb. N) in OVX rats. Moreover, ESE had remarkable effect on bone formation rate with bone volume as referent (BFR/BV) and bone formation rate with bone surface as referent (BFR/BS). Conclusion: The findings assessed on the basis of biochemical test, bone mineral density and histomorphornetric parameters show that aqueous extract of Epimedii sagittatum has a definite antiosteoporotic effect and can prevent the OVX-induced bone loss in rats.%目的:研究箭叶淫羊藿对去卵巢大鼠骨量丢失的保护作用.方法:大鼠分去卵巢组和假手术组.去卵巢组包括空白对照组、雌激素组、0.5 g/kg淫羊藿提取物组和1 g/kg淫羊藿提取物组.11周后,测定大鼠血清钙、磷的浓度和碱性磷酸酶的活性,竞争放射免疫法测定血

  14. Small break LOCA analysis for Maanshan nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jer-Cherng Kang; Shou-Chuan Chiang; Lang-Chen Wang [Taiwan Power Company, Taipei (China)

    1994-12-31

    Since 1990, Taiwan Power Company has conducted a LWR LOCA technology transfer program on RELAP5YA computer code from Yankee Atomic Electric Company (YAEC). One objective of this program is to acquire the RELAP5YA computer code from YAEC for Taipower in-house licensing analysis. The RELAP5YA is a computer program developed at YAEC for analysing the dynamic behaviour of thermal-hydraulic systems, and it can cover most of the postulated accidents and transients in light water reactor systems. In this paper, Taipower`s engineers have performed a small break loss of coolant accidents analysis for Maanshan nuclear power plant. Thais action is used to perform the licensing actions for increasing the operation margin on the steam generator tube plugging. The result is shown that the steam generator tube can be plugged slightly without a reduction in safety margins. This analysis covers a spectrum of break size for a small break LOCA. For a complete spectrum of the transient and accident analysis, the large break LOCA and the non-LOCA analysis were performed by the fuel vendor for the reload safety evaluation.

  15. Cascades of Genetic Instability Resulting from Compromised Break-Induced Replication

    OpenAIRE

    Soumini Vasan; Angela Deem; Sreejith Ramakrishnan; Juan Lucas Argueso; Anna Malkova

    2014-01-01

    Break-induced replication (BIR) is a mechanism to repair double-strand breaks (DSBs) that possess only a single end that can find homology in the genome. This situation can result from the collapse of replication forks or telomere erosion. BIR frequently produces various genetic instabilities including mutations, loss of heterozygosity, deletions, duplications, and template switching that can result in copy-number variations (CNVs). An important type of genomic rearrangement specifically link...

  16. Surface tension effects in wave breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deike, Luc; Melville, W. K.; Popinet, Stephane

    2014-11-01

    We present a numerical study of wave breaking by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations for two-phase air-water flows using the solver Gerris. We describe a parametric study of the influence of capillary effects on wave breaking using two-dimensional simulations. The onset of wave breaking as a function of the Bond number, Bo, and the initial wave steepness S is determined and a phase diagram in terms of (S,Bo) is presented that distinguishes between non-breaking gravity waves, parasitic capillaries on a gravity wave, spilling breakers and plunging breakers. The wave energy dissipation is computed for each wave regime and is found to be in good agreement with experimental results for breaking waves. Moreover, the enhanced dissipation just by parasitic capillaries is comparable to the dissipation due to breaking. Extending the simulations to three dimensions permits studies of the generation and statistics of bubbles and spray during breaking.

  17. Preventing stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stroke - prevention; CVA - prevention; cerebral vascular accident - prevention; TIA - prevention, transient ischemic attack - prevention ... A stroke occurs when the blood supply is cut off to any part of the brain. A stroke is ...

  18. Hidden loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kieffer-Kristensen, Rikke; Johansen, Karen Lise Gaardsvig

    2013-01-01

    to participate. RESULTS: All children were affected by their parents' ABI and the altered family situation. The children's expressions led the authors to identify six themes, including fear of losing the parent, distress and estrangement, chores and responsibilities, hidden loss, coping and support. The main......PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to listen to and learn from children showing high levels of post-traumatic stress symptoms after parental acquired brain injury (ABI), in order to achieve an in-depth understanding of the difficulties the children face in their everyday lives...... finding indicates that the children experienced numerous losses, many of which were often suppressed or neglected by the children to protect the ill parents. CONCLUSIONS: The findings indicated that the children seemed to make a special effort to hide their feelings of loss and grief in order to protect...

  19. History of electroweak symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Kibble, T W B

    2015-01-01

    In this talk, I recall the history of the development of the unified electroweak theory, incorporating the symmetry-breaking Higgs mechanism, as I saw it from my standpoint as a member of Abdus Salam's group at Imperial College. I start by describing the state of physics in the years after the Second World War, explain how the goal of a unified gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions emerged, the obstacles encountered, in particular the Goldstone theorem, and how they were overcome, followed by a brief account of more recent history, culminating in the historic discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012.

  20. Leaders break ground for INFINITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Community leaders from Mississippi and Louisiana break ground for the new INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center facility during a Nov. 20 ceremony. Groundbreaking participants included (l to r): Gottfried Construction representative John Smith, Mississippi Highway Commissioner Wayne Brown, INFINITY board member and Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise, Stennis Director Gene Goldman, Studio South representative David Hardy, Leo Seal Jr. family representative Virginia Wagner, Hancock Bank President George Schloegel, Mississippi Rep. J.P. Compretta, Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians representative Charlie Benn and Louisiana Sen. A.G. Crowe.

  1. Spontaneous Breaking of Flavor Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Törnqvist, N A

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that part of the quark masses of the standard model can be generated spontaneously within the strong interactions of QCD. After the breaking of U(Nf) x U(Nf) symmetry by the vacuum, also the resulting flavor symmetric, degenerate meson mass spectrum is shown to be unstable with respect to quantum loops, for rather general models. For a C-degenerate meson spectrum the stable mass spectrum obeys the Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka rule and the approximateequal spacing rule.

  2. The behavior of ANGRA 2 nuclear power plant core for a small break LOCA simulated with RELAP5 code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabundjian, Gaianê; Andrade, Delvonei A.; Belchior, Antonio, Jr.; da Silva Rocha, Marcelo; Conti, Thadeu N.; Torres, Walmir M.; Macedo, Luiz A.; Umbehaun, Pedro E.; Mesquita, Roberto N.; Masotti, Paulo H. F.; de Souza Lima, Ana Cecília

    2013-05-01

    This work discusses the behavior of Angra 2 nuclear power plant core, for a postulate Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in the primary circuit for Small Break Loss Of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA). A pipe break of the hot leg Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) was simulated with RELAP 5 code. The considered rupture area is 380 cm2, which represents 100% of the ECCS pipe flow area. Results showed that the cooling is enough to guarantee the integrity of the reactor core.

  3. 唑来膦酸对髋关节置换后假体柄周围骨丢失的预防效果%Preventive effect of zoledronic acid on bone loss around the prosthesis stem after hip replacement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘国青; 苑振峰; 刘鹏; 庞同涛; 张先巍

    2015-01-01

    to prevent fractures surrounding the prosthesis. OBJECTIVE:To observe the preventive effect of zoledronic acid on bone loss surrounding the prosthesis stem after hip replacement. METHODS:A total of 80 patients after total hip replacement in the People’s Hospital of Shenxian from February 2011 to September 2014 were enrol ed in this study. They were divided into two groups (n=40). At 4 days after replacement, patients in the observation group received treatment with zoledronic acid, but those in the control group did not give zoledronic acid. The rest medication was identical between the two groups. Bone mineral density in the hip was measured before replacement and at 1 year after replacement in both groups. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels and alkaline phosphatase activities were observed before replacement, 3 days and 1 year after medication in the two groups. Adverse reaction during medication was recorded in the observation group. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION:The average bone mineral density was significantly decreased in both groups at 1 year after replacement, and significant differences were found as compared with before replacement (P replacement (P0.05). Alkaline phosphatase activities were low in the observation group at 1 year after medication, and significant difference was detected as compared with the control group and that before replacement (P0.05). Within two or three days after medication, nine patients suffered from varying degrees of muscle aches and fever in the observation group, and above symptoms were lessened after taking acetaminophen. These results verify that after total hip replacement, zoledronic acid injection can effectively prevent bone loss around the prosthesis in early stage after replacement, but fever symptoms may occur within a week after replacement. Thus, it is recommended that zoledronic acid injection can be given at 1 week after replacement. If fever and other symptoms appear, acetaminophen can be given.

  4. Boundary breaking for interdisciplinary learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Kidron

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to contribute to the body of knowledge on processesby which students develop interdisciplinary understanding of contents, as well as to suggest technology-enhanced means for supporting them in these processes in the context of higher education. In doing so, we suggest a rethinking of three traditional practices that tend to characterise typical higher education instruction: (1 compartmentalisation of disciplines; (2 traditional pedagogy; and (3 traditional hierarchies based on levels of expertise. Our high-level conjecture was that meaningful dialogue with peers and experts supports both the deepening of ideas in one knowledge domain and the formation of connections between ideas from several domains, both of which are required for the development of interdisciplinary understanding. We developed the Boundary Breaking for Interdisciplinary Learning (BBIL model, which harnesses technology to break boundaries between disciplines, learners and organisational levels of hierarchy. Findings indicate that 36 undergraduate students who participated in an interdisciplinary online course that implemented the BBIL model have significantly improved their interdisciplinary understanding of the course contents. This study illustrates how innovative use of available, free and low-cost technology can produce a ‘positive disruption’ in higher education instruction.

  5. How often precipitation records break?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Oikonomou, Maria; Floutsakou, Athina; Bessas, Nikolaos; Mamassis, Nikos

    2016-04-01

    How often precipitation records break? Are there any factors that determine the average time needed for the next maximum to occur? In order to investigate these simple questions we use several hundreds of daily precipitation records (more than 100 years long each) and we study the time intervals between each successive maximum precipitation value. We investigate if the record breaking time interval is related (a) to the autocorrelation structure, (b) to probability dry, and (c) to the tail of the marginal distribution. For the last, we first, evaluate which type of tail is better fitted by choosing among three general types of tails corresponding to the distributions Pareto, Lognormal and Weibull; and second, we assess the heaviness of the tail based on the estimated shape parameter. The performance of each tail is evaluated in terms of return period values, i.e., we compare the empirical return periods of precipitation values above a threshold with the predicted ones by each of the three types of fitted tails.

  6. Improved single sector supersymmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luty, Markus A.; Terning, John

    1998-12-09

    Building on recent work by N. Arkani-Hamed and the present authors, we construct realistic models that break supersymmetry dynamically and give rise to composite quarks and leptons, all in a single strongly-coupled sector. The most important improvement compared to earlier models is that the second-generation composite states correspond to dimension-2 ''meson'' operators in the ultraviolet. This leads to a higher scale for flavor physics, and gives a completely natural suppression of flavor-changing neutral currents. We also construct models in which the hierarchy of Yukawa couplings is explained by the dimensionality of composite states. These models provide an interesting and viable alternative to gravity- and gauge-mediated models. The generic signatures are unification of scalar masses with different quantum numbers at the compositeness scale, and lighter gaugino, Higgsino, and third-generation squark and slepton masses. We also analyze large classes of models that give rise to both compositeness and supersymmetry breaking, based on gauge theories with confining, fixed-point, or free-magnetic dynamics.

  7. Strictly Anomaly Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Hindmarsh, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We consider an MSSM extension with anomaly mediation as the source of supersymmetry-breaking, and a U(1) symmetry which solves the tachyonic slepton problem, and introduces both the see-saw mechanism for neutrino masses, and the Higgs mu-term. We compare its spectra with those from so-called minimal anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking. We find a Standard Model-like Higgs of mass 124 GeV with a gravitino mass of 120 TeV and tan(beta)=17, while a contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment within 2 sigma of the discrepancy between Standard Model theory and experiment favours a slightly lower gravitino mass of around 80 TeV. The model naturally produces a period of hybrid inflation, with exit to a false vacuum characterised by large Higgs vevs, the true ground state being achieved after a period of thermal inflation. The scalar spectral index is reduced to approximately 0.975, and the correct abundance of dark matter can be produced by decays of thermally-produced gravitinos, provided the gravitino ma...

  8. Introduction to Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson,S.

    2008-10-02

    The Standard Model (SM) is the backbone of elementary particle physics-not only does it provide a consistent framework for studying the interactions of quark and leptons, but it also gives predictions which have been extensively tested experimentally. In these notes, I review the electroweak sector of the Standard Model, discuss the calculation of electroweak radiative corrections to observables, and summarize the status of SM Higgs boson searches. Despite the impressive experimental successes, however, the electroweak theory is not completely satisfactory and the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking is untested. I will discuss the logic behind the oft-repeated statement: 'There must be new physics at the TeV scale'. These lectures reflect my strongly held belief that upcoming results from the LHC will fundamentally change our understanding of electroweak symmetry breaking. In these lectures, I review the status of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model, with an emphasis on the importance of radiative corrections and searches for the Standard Model Higgs boson. A discussion of the special role of the TeV energy scale in electroweak physics is included.

  9. Chiral symmetry breaking and monopoles

    CERN Document Server

    Di Giacomo, Adriano; Pucci, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    To understand the relation between the chiral symmetry breaking and monopoles, the chiral condensate which is the order parameter of the chiral symmetry breaking is calculated in the $\\overline{\\mbox{MS}}$ scheme at 2 [GeV]. First, we add one pair of monopoles, varying the monopole charges $m_{c}$ from zero to four, to SU(3) quenched configurations by a monopole creation operator. The low-lying eigenvalues of the Overlap Dirac operator are computed from the gauge links of the normal configurations and the configurations with additional monopoles. Next, we compare the distributions of the nearest-neighbor spacing of the low-lying eigenvalues with the prediction of the random matrix theory. The low-lying eigenvalues not depending on the scale parameter $\\Sigma$ are compared to the prediction of the random matrix theory. The results show the consistency with the random matrix theory. Thus, the additional monopoles do not affect the low-lying eigenvalues. Moreover, we discover that the additional monopoles increa...

  10. Experiencing Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Maria; Younis, Tarek; Hassani, Amani;

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore how Islam, minority status and refugee experiencesintersect in shaping meaning-making processes following bereavement. We do this througha phenomenological analysis of a biographical account of personal loss told by Aisha, a Muslim Palestinian refugee living in Denmark...

  11. An intermediate break BWR LOCA test (RUN 991) at ROSA-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Double failures on the emergency-core-cooling systems (ECCSs) can be resulted in a case of loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) of a boiling water reactor (BWR) by assuming an ECCS line break and the single failure criterion on another ECCS. In the Rig-of-Safety Assessment (ROSA)-III program, two BWR LOCA simulation tests with intermediate break areas were performed to experimentally study influences of the ECCS double failures on core cooling phenomena. As there was no break unit in the ROSA-III ECCS lines, two break locations were selected above and below the ECCS line elevation. Namely, one is a main steam line (MSL) break test of RUN 992 which was previously reported. Another one is a single-ended jet pump drive line (JPDL) break test of RUN 991. And this break location effect on the system responses was briefly studied in a report of JAERI 1307. This report presents precise experiment results of RUN 991 with respect to the core cooling phenomena related to transient system mass and also presents additional findings on the influences of ECCS double failures in some intermediate break LOCA tests including above two tests. (author)

  12. Observation of parity-time symmetry breaking transitions in a dissipative Floquet system of ultracold atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jiaming; Liu, Ji; de Melo, Leonardo; Joglekar, Yogesh N; Luo, Le

    2016-01-01

    Open physical systems with balanced loss and gain exhibit a transition, absent in their solitary counterparts, which engenders modes that exponentially decay or grow with time and thus spontaneously breaks the parity-time PT symmetry. This PT-symmetry breaking is induced by modulating the strength or the temporal profile of the loss and gain, but also occurs in a pure dissipative system without gain. It has been observed that, in classical systems with mechanical, electrical, and electromagnetic setups with static loss and gain, the PT-symmetry breaking transition leads to extraordinary behavior and functionalities. However, its observation in a quantum system is yet to be realized. Here we report on the first quantum simulation of PT-symmetry breaking transitions using ultracold Li-6 atoms. We simulate static and Floquet dissipative Hamiltonians by generating state-dependent atom loss in a noninteracting Fermi gas, and observe the PT-symmetry breaking transitions by tracking the atom number for each state. W...

  13. Do DNA Double-Strand Breaks Drive Aging?

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Ryan R; Vijg, Jan

    2016-09-01

    DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are rare, but highly toxic, lesions requiring orchestrated and conserved machinery to prevent adverse consequences, such as cell death and cancer-causing genome structural mutations. DSBs trigger the DNA damage response (DDR) that directs a cell to repair the break, undergo apoptosis, or become senescent. There is increasing evidence that the various endpoints of DSB processing by different cells and tissues are part of the aging phenotype, with each stage of the DDR associated with specific aging pathologies. In this Perspective, we discuss the possibility that DSBs are major drivers of intrinsic aging, highlighting the dynamics of spontaneous DSBs in relation to aging, the distinct age-related pathologies induced by DSBs, and the segmental progeroid phenotypes in humans and mice with genetic defects in DSB repair. A model is presented as to how DSBs could drive some of the basic mechanisms underlying age-related functional decline and death. PMID:27588601

  14. Eficácia da ciclosporina 0,05% na prevenção da perda endotelial no transplante de córnea Efficacy of cyclosporine 0.05% for preventing endothelial loss in corneal transplant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Moro

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a ação da ciclosporina 0,05% tópica na prevenção da perda endotelial no transplante de córnea. MÉTODOS: Estudo retrospectivo de 18 olhos submetidos a transplante penetrante por ceratocone realizados no serviço pelo mesmo cirurgião. Pacientes com microscopia especular com a 1200 células/mm² constituiram o outro grupo (grupo B. O critério de inclusão foi a presença da microscopia especular no período pós-operatório de 6 meses, 1 ano e 2 anos. Os critérios de exclusão foram retransplantes precoces, olhos contralaterais de casos bilaterais, episódios prévios de rejeição ao enxerto, doenças oculares associadas como glaucoma. A análise estatística foi realizada pelos testes de Friedman com significância estatística. Foi realizada uma avaliação da variação percentual de perda endotelial em relação à microscopia especular base, comparada aos períodos de 6 meses x 1 ano x 2 anos. RESULTADOS: No grupo A (pacientes que não utilizaram a ciclosporina 0,05% nos respectivos períodos de 6 meses, 1 ano e 2 anos, observou-se um decréscimo da variação percentual de perda endotelial estatisticamente significante (p = 0,001 . No grupo B (pacientes que utilizaram a ciclosporina 0,05% nos respectivos períodos de 6 meses, 1 ano e 2 anos, observou-se um decréscimo da variação percentual de perda endotelial estatisticamente não significante (p = 0,513 . CONCLUSÃO: Os resultados mostram uma desaceleração da variação percentual de perda endotelial nos transplantes penetrantes de córnea dos pacientes que utilizaram ciclosporina, quando comparados aos pacientes não tratados topicamente com tal medicação, sugerindo eficácia na manutenção das células endoteliais e sobrevida do transplante de córnea.PURPOSE: To assess the efficacy of topical cyclosporine .05% for preventing endothelial loss in cornea transplant. METHODS: Retrospective study of 18 eyes submitted to penetrating transplant due to

  15. Breaking the cycle of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, B; Jacobvitz, D; Sroufe, L A

    1988-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify variables that distinguish mothers who broke the cycle of abuse from mothers who were abused as children and who also abused their own children. Based on maternal interviews and questionnaires completed over a 64-month period, measures of mothers' past and current relationship experiences, stressful life events, and personality characteristics were obtained. Abused mothers who were able to break the abusive cycle were significantly more likely to have received emotional support from a nonabusive adult during childhood, participated in therapy during any period of their lives, and to have had a nonabusive and more stable, emotionally supportive, and satisfying relationship with a mate. Abused mothers who reenacted their maltreatment with their own children experienced significantly more life stress and were more anxious, dependent, immature, and depressed. PMID:3168615

  16. Z'-mediated supersymmetry breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langacker, Paul; Paz, Gil; Wang, Lian-Tao; Yavin, Itay

    2008-02-01

    We consider a class of models in which supersymmetry breaking is communicated dominantly via a U1' gauge interaction, which also helps solve the mu problem. Such models can emerge naturally in top-down constructions and are a version of split supersymmetry. The spectrum contains heavy sfermions, Higgsinos, exotics, and Z' approximately 10-100 TeV, light gauginos approximately 100-1000 GeV, a light Higgs boson approximately 140 GeV, and a light singlino. A specific set of U1' charges and exotics is analyzed, and we present five benchmark models. The implications for the gluino lifetime, cold dark matter, and the gravitino and neutrino masses are discussed. PMID:18352261

  17. Dynamical centrosymmetry breaking in graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Carvalho, David N; Biancalana, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    We discover an unusual phenomenon that occurs when a graphene monolayer is illuminated by a short and intense pulse at normal incidence. Due to the pulse-induced oscillations of the Dirac cones, a dynamical breaking of the layer's centrosymmetry takes place, leading to the generation of second harmonic waves. We prove that this result can only be found by using the full Dirac equation and show that the widely used semiconductor Bloch equations fail to reproduce this and some other important physics of graphene. Our results open new windows in the understanding of nonlinear light-matter interactions in a wide variety of new 2D materials with a gapped or ungapped Dirac-like dispersion.

  18. Symmetry Breaking in Finite Volume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chuan

    2000-01-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a cooperative phenomenon for systems with infinitely many degrees of freedom and it plays an essential role in quantum field theories. Lattice O(N) model is studied within the Hamiltonian approach using an adiabatic approximation. It is shown that the low-lying spectrum of the system in the broken phase can be understood by using the adiabatic, or Born-Oppenheimer approximation, which turns out to become an expansion in the inverse power of volume. In the infinite volume limit, the symmetry is broken while in the finite volume the slow rotation of the zero-momentum mode restores the symmetry and gives rise to the rotator spectrum, which has been observed in realistic Monte Carlo simulations.

  19. Economics of Garlic Production in Baran District of Rajasthan; Break Even Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lokesh Kumar Meena; Chandra Sen; Arun jhajharia; N. K. Raghuwanshi

    2013-01-01

    The study focuses on economic analysis of garlic production in the Baran District of Rajasthan. The study is carried out to determine break even analysis and constraints of garlic production in the study area. Break even analysis is carried out to arrive at that minimum level at which optimum conditions of cost and returns is equated that is no profit no loss point. In this study selected small, medium and large farmers will not be at loss even if their actual yield of garlic is decline by 56...

  20. Robinson 2 reactor vessel: pressurized thermal shock analysis for a small-break LOCA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marston, T.; Griesbach, T.; Chao, J.; Chexal, B.; Norris, D.; Nickell, B.; Layman, B.

    1984-08-01

    A best-estimate Pressurized Thermal Shock (PTS) analysis was performed for a three-inch diameter hot-leg small-break loss-of-coolant accident for the Robinson 2 plant. This plant specific analysis was performed using EPRI's linked set of codes for PTS analysis. The analysis shows that with the H.B. Robinson 2 reactor pressure vessel, a hot-leg small-break loss-of-coolant accident does not pose a significant health or safety concern to the public for at least 40 years of operation.

  1. Supersymmetry-breaking nonlinear sigma models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, Takumi, E-mail: imai@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Izawa, K.-I. [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo (WPI), Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Nakai, Yuichiro [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2012-10-22

    We consider a novel class of constraints on chiral superfields to obtain supersymmetric nonlinear sigma models in four spacetime dimensions, which strictly combine the internal symmetry breaking with spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. The resultant massless modes can be exclusively Nambu-Goldstone bosons without their complex partners and the goldstino that is charged under the internal symmetry. The massive modes show a peculiar relation among their masses and the scales of symmetry breakings.

  2. Mutual information and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    OpenAIRE

    Hamma, A.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Illuminati, F.

    2015-01-01

    We show that the metastable, symmetry-breaking ground states of quantum many-body Hamiltonians have vanishing quantum mutual information between macroscopically separated regions, and are thus the most classical ones among all possible quantum ground states. This statement is obvious only when the symmetry-breaking ground states are simple product states, e.g. at the factorization point. On the other hand, symmetry-breaking states are in general entangled along the entire ordered phase, and t...

  3. PREVENTING TOBACCO USE AMONG YOUNG PEOPLE

    OpenAIRE

    SCHINKE, STEVEN PAUL; Gilchrist, Lewayne D.

    1986-01-01

    Preventing tobacco use in youths may be an easier task than helping adults break the habit of smoking and overcome its ill effects. Using experimental procedures based on social work techniques, this study suggests that social work efforts are an effective tool in programs and services that focus on primary prevention.

  4. 雷洛昔芬对放疗去势大鼠骨丢失的保护作用%Protective effect of raloxifene in preventing bone loss in rats following radiotherapy induced gonadectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈静; 朱芳; 李贵玲

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察雷洛昔芬(选择性雌激素受体调节剂)对放疗去势大鼠的骨代谢生化指标、骨密度及骨形态学的影响,探讨其对放疗所致卵巢早衰引起骨丢失的保护作用.方法:选用3月龄雌性Wistar大鼠40只,随机分为4组:假放疗组、放疗组、放疗+雷洛昔芬组、放疗+己烯雌酚组,每组10只,16周后,腹主动脉取血,检测血清雌二醇、卵泡刺激素、骨钙素及碱性磷酸酶的水平;处死大鼠,取大鼠右侧股骨,测定各组骨密度;同时取左侧股骨制作骨切片行HE染色,观察骨形态学变化.结果:放疗组及放疗+雷洛昔芬组的雌二醇水平明显低于假放疗组及放疗+己烯雌酚组(P<0.05);而两组的卵泡刺激素水平明显高于假放疗组及放疗+己烯雌酚组(P<0.05);放疗组骨钙素和碱性磷酸酶明显高于其他3组,而另3组无明显差异(P>0.05);放疗组大鼠骨密度显著低于其他3组,其骨小梁稀疏,部分断裂,而另3组骨小梁致密,无明显断裂.结论:大鼠卵巢放疗可致去势,放疗去势后大鼠有骨质丢失发生,而选择性雌激素受体调节剂雷洛昔芬对放疗去势后大鼠的骨丢失有保护作用.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the protective effect of the selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) raloxifene in preventing hone loss secondary to radiotherapy induced premature ovarian failure(POF). This was studied by observing the effects of Raloxifene on biochemical markers of bone metabolism, bone morphology and bone mineral density of rats following radiotherapy induced gonadectomy. METHODS 40 female Wistar rats aged 3 months were randomly divided into 4 groups (10 rats in each group): Group A(sham radiotherapy), Group B(radiotherapy),Group C (radiotherapy and raloxifene) ,Group D(radiotherapy and diethylstilbestrol). All rats were killed 16 weeks later. Then serum estradiol (E2)、 follicle stimulating hormone(FSH),bone gla protein(BGP) and alkaline phosphatase

  5. Parity-Time Symmetry Breaking in Coupled Nanobeam Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Senlin; Zhang, Yuguang; He, Sailing

    2015-01-01

    The parity-time symmetry (PT symmetry) breaking phenomenon is investigated in a coupled nanobeam cavity system. An exceptional point is observed during the tuning of the relation of the gain/loss and coupling strength of the closely placed nanobeam pairs. The PT symmetry concept can be applied to realize unidirectional light propagation and single mode operation lasers, which may allow for a new way to harness the optical signal in photonic integrated circuits. Otherwise, operating at this particular exceptional point, sensitivity of tiny perturbation detection can be enhanced greatly compared with conventional sensors.

  6. Magnetic Modulation of Stellar Angular Momentum Loss

    CERN Document Server

    Garraffo, Cecilia; Cohen, Ofer

    2014-01-01

    Angular Momentum Loss is important for understanding astrophysical phenomena such as stellar rotation, magnetic activity, close binaries, and cataclysmic variables. Magnetic breaking is the dominant mechanism in the spin down of young late-type stars. We have studied angular momentum loss as a function of stellar magnetic activity. We argue that the complexity of the field and its latitudinal distribution are crucial for angular momentum loss rates. In this work we discuss how angular momentum is modulated by magnetic cycles, and how stellar spin down is not just a simple function of large scale magnetic field strength.

  7. On breaks of the Indian monsoon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sulochana Gadgil; P V Joseph

    2003-12-01

    For over a century, the term break has been used for spells in which the rainfall over the Indian monsoon zone is interrupted. The phenomenon of `break monsoon' is of great interest because long intense breaks are often associated with poor monsoon seasons. Such breaks have distinct circulation characteristics (heat trough type circulation) and have a large impact on rainfed agriculture.Although interruption of the monsoon rainfall is considered to be the most important feature of the break monsoon, traditionally breaks have been identified on the basis of the surface pressure and wind patterns over the Indian region. We have defined breaks (and active spells) on the basis of rainfall over the monsoon zone. The rainfall criteria are chosen so as to ensure a large overlap with the traditional breaks documented by Ramamurthy (1969) and De et al (1998). We have identified these rainbreaks for 1901-89. We have also identified active spells on the basis of rainfall over the Indian monsoon zone. We have shown that the all-India summer monsoon rainfall is significantly negatively correlated with the number of rainbreak days (correlation coefficient −0.56) and significantly positively correlated with the number of active days (correlation coefficient 0.47).Thus the interannual variation of the all-India summer monsoon rainfall is shown to be related to the number of days of rainbreaks and active spells identified here. There have been several studies of breaks (and also active spells in several cases) identified on the basis of different criteria over regions differing in spatial scales (e.g., Webster et al 1998; Krishnan et al 2000; Goswami and Mohan 2000; and Annamalai and Slingo 2001). We find that there is considerable overlap between the rainbreaks we have identified and breaks based on the traditional definition. There is some overlap with the breaks identified by Krishnan et al (2000) but little overlap with breaks identified by Webster et al (1998). Further

  8. Application of the statistical safety evaluation method to the small break LOCA with high pressure injection failure. Sensitivity analyses to determine the break conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By applying a statistical safety evaluation method, the uncertainties of best estimate results can be estimated quantitatively, and as a consequence, excessive conservatism can be reasonably removed to obtain evaluation results with enhanced reliability. Application of a statistical evaluation method is being made to analyses of the “low pressure injection by intentional depressurization of the steam generator secondary side” which is an accident management approach in a SBLOCA (small break loss-of-coolant accident) with HPI (high pressure injection) failure. At the time of a SBLOCA, the break conditions such as the break size are important parameters since they influence PCT (peak cladding temperature). In this research, sensitivity analyses about the break size, direction and position were carried out for a system plant under a condition which the start timing of the steam generator secondary side intentional depressurization is severer than an actual abnormal operating condition. From the result of the sensitivity analyses, differences in the phenomena progression which change depending on the break conditions were evaluated, and a 3 inch facing-down break of the cold-leg was determined as the base case of a statistical safety evaluation. (author)

  9. Loss Modification Incentives for Insurers Under Expected Utility and Loss Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Soetevent, Adriaan; Zhou, L.

    2014-01-01

    Forthcoming in 'De Economist'. Given the possibility to modify the probability of a loss, will a profit-maximizing insurer engage in loss prevention or is it in his interest to increase the loss probability? This paper investigates this question. First, we calculate the expected profit maximizing loss probability within an expected utility framework. We then use Köszegi and Rabin's (2006, 2007) loss aversion model to answer the same question for the case where consumers have reference-depende...

  10. DNA Replication Reaches the Breaking Point

    OpenAIRE

    Petrini, John H.J.

    2009-01-01

    DNA strand breaks that result in stalled or damaged replication forks can be detrimental to the DNA replication process. In this issue, Doksani et al. (2009) examine the impact of a single double-stranded DNA break on replication in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  11. Four Top Production and Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Kingman

    1995-01-01

    With the recent discovery of a heavy top quark $(m_t \\approx 175 - 200$ GeV), the top quark opens an window to electroweak symmetry breaking. We propose the study of four-top, $t\\bar t t\\bar t$, production at hadronic supercolliders as a probe to electroweak symmetry breaking.

  12. Anatomy of String Breaking in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Prkacin, Z; Dussel, T; Lippert, T; Neff, H; Schilling, K; Prkacin, Zdravko; Bali, Gunnar S; Dussel, Thomas; Lippert, Thomas; Neff, Hartmut; Schilling, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the string breaking mechanism in n_f=2 QCD. We discuss the lattice techniques used and present results on energy levels and mixing angle of the static BBbar|QbarQ two-state system. The string breaking is visualized, by means of an animation of the action density distribution as a function of the static colour source-antisource separation.

  13. Electroweak Symmetry Breaking and the Higgs Boson

    CERN Document Server

    Pich, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The first LHC run has confirmed the Standard Model as the correct theory at the electroweak scale, and the existence of a Higgs-like particle associated with the spontaneous breaking of the electroweak gauge symmetry. These lectures overview the present knowledge on the Higgs boson and discuss alternative scenarios of electroweak symmetry breaking which are already being constrained by the experimental data.

  14. Charge-symmetry-breaking nucleon form factors

    CERN Document Server

    Kubis, Bastian

    2009-01-01

    A quantitative understanding of charge-symmetry breaking is an increasingly important ingredient for the extraction of the nucleon's strange vector form factors. We review the theoretical understanding of the charge-symmetry-breaking form factors, both for single nucleons and for Helium-4.

  15. Big break for charge symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, G A

    2003-01-01

    Two new experiments have detected charge-symmetry breaking, the mechanism responsible for protons and neutrons having different masses. Symmetry is a crucial concept in the theories that describe the subatomic world because it has an intimate connection with the laws of conservation. The theory of the strong interaction between quarks - quantum chromodynamics - is approximately invariant under what is called charge symmetry. In other words, if we swap an up quark for a down quark, then the strong interaction will look almost the same. This symmetry is related to the concept of sup i sospin sup , and is not the same as charge conjugation (in which a particle is replaced by its antiparticle). Charge symmetry is broken by the competition between two different effects. The first is the small difference in mass between up and down quarks, which is about 200 times less than the mass of the proton. The second is their different electric charges. The up quark has a charge of +2/3 in units of the proton charge, while ...

  16. The Influence of Slope Breaks on Lava Flow Surface Disruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaze, Lori S.; Baloga, Stephen M.; Fagents, Sarah A.; Wright, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Changes in the underlying slope of a lava flow impart a significant fraction of rotational energy beyond the slope break. The eddies, circulation and vortices caused by this rotational energy can disrupt the flow surface, having a significant impact on heat loss and thus the distance the flow can travel. A basic mechanics model is used to compute the rotational energy caused by a slope change. The gain in rotational energy is deposited into an eddy of radius R whose energy is dissipated as it travels downstream. A model of eddy friction with the ambient lava is used to compute the time-rate of energy dissipation. The key parameter of the dissipation rate is shown to be rho R(sup 2/)mu, where ? is the lava density and mu is the viscosity, which can vary by orders of magnitude for different flows. The potential spatial disruption of the lava flow surface is investigated by introducing steady-state models for the main flow beyond the steepening slope break. One model applies to slow-moving flows with both gravity and pressure as the driving forces. The other model applies to fast-moving, low-viscosity, turbulent flows. These models provide the flow velocity that establishes the downstream transport distance of disrupting eddies before they dissipate. The potential influence of slope breaks is discussed in connection with field studies of lava flows from the 1801 Hualalai and 1823 Keaiwa Kilauea, Hawaii, and 2004 Etna eruptions.

  17. Automatic Prosodic Break Detection and Feature Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chong-Jia Ni; Ai-Ying Zhang; Wen-Ju Liu; Bo Xu

    2012-01-01

    Automatic prosodic break detection and annotation are important for both speech understanding and natural speech synthesis.In this paper,we discuss automatic prosodic break detection and feature analysis.The contributions of the paper are two aspects.One is that we use classifier combination method to detect Mandarin and English prosodic break using acoustic,lexical and syntactic evidence.Our proposed method achieves better performance on both the Mandarin prosodic annotation corpus — Annotated Speech Corpus of Chinese Discourse and the English prosodic annotation corpus —Boston University Radio News Corpus when compared with the baseline system and other researches' experimental results.The other is the feature analysis for prosodic break detection.The functions of different features,such as duration,pitch,energy,and intensity,are analyzed and compared in Mandarin and English prosodic break detection.Based on the feature analysis,we also verify some linguistic conclusions.

  18. A laboratory study of breaking waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaros³aw Têgowski

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with some aspects of the wave-breaking phenomenon. The objectives were to study wave-breaking criteria, and the probability of whitecap coverage under fully controlled wave conditions. An additional task was to in vestigate the characteristic spectral features of the noise produced by breaking waves and the acoustic energy generated during wave breaking events. A controlled experiment was carried out in the Ocean Basin Laboratory at MARINTEK, Trondheim (Norway. Waves were generated by a computer-controlled multi-flap wave maker, which reproduced a realistic pattern of the sea surface for the prescribed spectra. Using wave staff recordings and photographic techniques, correlations between the breaking parameters and the radiated acoustic emissions were established.

  19. Supersymmetry Breaking by Higher Dimension Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Farakos, Fotis; Kehagias, Alex; Porrati, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    We discuss a supersymmetry breaking mechanism for N = 1 theories triggered by higher dimensional op- erators. We consider such operators for real linear and chiral spinor superfields that break superymmetry and reduce to the Volkov-Akulov action. We also consider supersymmetry breaking induced by a higher dimensional operator of a nonminimal scalar (complex linear) multiplet. The latter differs from the stan- dard chiral multiplet in its auxiliary sector, which contains, in addition to the complex scalar auxiliary of a chiral superfield, a complex vector and two spinors auxiliaries. By adding an appropriate higher di- mension operator, the scalar auxiliary may acquire a nonzero vev triggering spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. We find that the spectrum of the theory in the supersymmetry breaking vacuum consists of a free chiral multiplet and a constraint chiral superfield describing the goldstino. Interestingly, the latter turns out to be one of the auxiliary fermions, which becomes dynamical in the supersym...

  20. Research progress on dam-break floods

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jiansong

    2011-08-01

    Because of the catastrophic effects downstream of dam-break failure, more and more researchers around the world have been working on the study of dam-break flows to accurately forecast the downstream inundation mapping. With the rapid development of computer hardware and computing techniques, numerical study on dam-break flows has been a popular research subject. In the paper, the numerical methodologies used to solve the governing partial differential equations of dam-break flows are classified and summarized, and their characteristics and applications are discussed respectively. Furthermore, the fully-developed mathematical models developed in recent decades are reviewed, and also introduced the authors\\' on-going work. Finally, some possible future developments on modeling the dam-break flows and some solutions are presented and discussed. © 2011 IEEE.

  1. FRAUD PREVENTION SOLUTIONS

    OpenAIRE

    АЛИБЕКОВА Ю.К.

    2015-01-01

    Currently, business ethics and integrity of top managers and employees are often under a big question, so we cannot rely on them. Non-compliant behavior of top management and employees related to fraud and corrupt practices lead to huge financial losses, loss of reputation and litigations. Incidents of internal fraud and embezzlement are happening in every business imaginable. Fraud prevention solutions we recommend are the fundamental for corporate financial compliance. All stakeholders must...

  2. PT-symmetry breaking with divergent potentials: lattice and continuum cases

    CERN Document Server

    Joglekar, Yogesh N; Saxena, Avadh

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the parity- and time-reversal ($\\mathcal{PT}$)-symmetry breaking in lattice models in the presence of long-ranged, non-hermitian, $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetric potentials that remain finite or become divergent in the continuum limit. By scaling analysis of the fragile $\\mathcal{PT}$ threshold for an open finite lattice, we show that continuum loss-gain potentials $V_\\alpha(x)\\propto i |x|^\\alpha \\mathrm{sign}(x)$ have a positive $\\mathcal{PT}$-breaking threshold for $\\alpha>-2$, and a zero threshold for $\\alpha\\leq -2$. When $\\alpha<0$ localized states with complex (conjugate) energies in the continuum energy-band occur at higher loss-gain strengths. We investigate the signatures of $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetry breaking in coupled waveguides, and show that the emergence of localized states dramatically shortens the relevant time-scale in the $\\mathcal{PT}$-symmetry broken region.

  3. Hydraulic Response of Caisson Breakwaters in Multidirectional Breaking and Non-Breaking Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech, J.; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Hald, Tue;

    1998-01-01

    induced loading and overtopping on caisson breakwaters situated in breaking seas. Regarding the wave forces only minor differences between breaking and non breaking waves in deep water were observed, and it was found that the prediction formula of Goda also seems to apply well for multidirectionally...... breaking waves at deep water. The study on wave overtopping showed that the 3D wave overtopping formula suggested by Franco et al., 1995b, predicts the wave overtopping reasonable well for both non breaking and breaking waves at deep water.......The present paper concerns the results and findings of a physical study on wave impacts on vertical caisson breakwaters situated in irregular, multidirectional breaking seas. The study has taken place as part of the framework programme "Dynamic of Structures" financially supported by the Danish...

  4. Science Illiteracy: Breaking the Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebofsky, L. A.; Lebofsky, N. R.

    2003-12-01

    At the University of Arizona, as at many state universities and colleges, the introductory science classes for non-science majors may be the only science classes that future K--8 teachers will take. The design of the UA's General Education program requires all future non-science certified teachers to take the General Education science classes. These classes are therefore an ideal venue for the training of the state's future teachers. Many students, often including future teachers, are ill-prepared for college, i.e., they lack basic science content knowledge, basic mathematics skills, and reading and writing skills. They also lack basic critical thinking skills and study skills. It is within this context that our future teachers are trained. How do we break the cycle of science illiteracy? There is no simple solution, and certainly not a one-size-fits-all panacea that complements every professor's style of instruction. However, there are several programs at the University of Arizona, and also principles that I apply in my own classes, that may be adaptable in other classrooms. Assessment of K--12 students' learning supports the use of inquiry-based science instruction. This approach can be incorporated in college classes. Modeling proven and productive teaching methods for the future teachers provides far more than ``just the facts,'' and all students gain from the inquiry approach. Providing authentic research opportunities employs an inquiry-based approach. Reading (outside the textbook) and writing provide feedback to students with poor writing and critical thinking skills. Using peer tutors and an instant messaging hot line gives experience to the tutors and offers "comfortable" assistance to students.

  5. Detection of the tulip breaking virus (TBV) in tulips using optical sensors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, G.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Doorn, van J.; Clevers, J.G.P.W.; Schoor, van der R.; Baltissen, A.H.M.C.

    2010-01-01

    The tulip breaking virus (TBV) causes severe economic losses for countries that export tulips such as the Netherlands. Infected plants have to be removed from the field as soon as possible. There is an urgent need for a rapid and objective method of screening. In this study, four proximal optical se

  6. Breaking stress of neutron star crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The breaking stress (the maximum of the stress-strain curve) of neutron star crust is important for neutron star physics including pulsar glitches, emission of gravitational waves from static mountains, and flares from star quakes. We perform many molecular dynamic simulations of the breaking stress at different coupling parameters (inverse temperatures), strain rates and composition of matter. We describe our results with the Zhurkov model of strength. We apply this model to estimate the breaking stress for timescales ∼1 s - 1 year, which are most important for applications, but much longer than can be directly simulated. At these timescales the breaking stress depends strongly on the temperature. For coupling parameter Γ<200 matter breaks at very small stress, if it is applied for a few years. This viscoelastic creep can limit the lifetime of mountains on neutron stars. We also suggest an alternative model of timescale-independent breaking stress, which can be used to estimate an upper limit on the breaking stress. This work was partially supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant 11-02-00253-a), by the State Program 'Leading Scientific Schools of Russian Federation' (grant NSh 3769.2010.2), by the President grant for young Russian scientists (MK-5857.2010.2), by United States DOE grant (DE-FG02-87ER40365) and by Shared University Research grants from IBM, Inc. to Indiana University.

  7. Breaking e-Banking CAPTCHAs

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Shujun; Shah, Syed Amier Haider; Khan, Muhammad Asad Usman; Khayam, Syed Ali; Sadeghi, Ahmad-Reza; Schmitz, Roland

    2010-01-01

    Many financial institutions have deployed CAPTCHAs to protect their services (e.g., e-banking) from automated attacks. In addition to CAPTCHAs for login, CAPTCHAs are also used to prevent malicious manipulation of e-banking transactions by automated Man-in-the-Middle (MitM) attackers. Despite serious financial risks, security of e-banking CAPTCHAs is largely unexplored. In this paper, we report the first comprehensive study on e-banking CAPTCHAs deployed around the world. A new set of image p...

  8. Rape prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Date rape - prevention; Sexual assault - prevention ... Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Sexual assault and abuse and STDs. In: 2015 sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines 2015. Updated June 4, 2015. www.cdc.gov/ ...

  9. Loss Modification Incentives for Insurers Under Expected Utility and Loss Aversion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soetevent, Adriaan R.; Zhou, Liting

    2016-01-01

    We investigate whether a profit-maximizing insurer with the opportunity to modify the loss probability will engage in loss prevention or instead spend effort to increase the loss probability. First we study this question within a traditional expected utility framework; then we apply Koszegi and Rabi

  10. Genetics of x-ray induced double strand break repair in saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budd, M.E.

    1982-07-01

    The possible fates of x-ray-induced double-strand breaks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were examined. One possible pathway which breaks can follow, the repair pathway, was studied by assaying strains with mutations in the RAD51, RAD54, and RAD57 loci for double-strand break repair. In order of increasing radiation sensitivity one finds: rad57-1(23/sup 0/)> rad51-1(30/sup 0/)> rad54-3(36/sup 0/). At 36/sup 0/, rad54-3 cells cannot repair double-strand breaks, while 23/sup 0/, they can. Strains with the rad57-1 mutation can rejoin broken chromosomes at both temperatures. However, the low survival at 36/sup 0/ shows that the assay is not distinguishing large DNA fragments which allow cell survival from those which cause cell death. A rad51-1 strain could also rejoin broken chromosomes, and was thus capable of incomplete repair. The data can be explained with the hypothesis that rad54-3 cells are blocked in an early step of repair, while rad51-1 and rad57-1 strains are blocked in a later step of repair. The fate of double-strand breaks when they are left unrepaired was investigated with the rad54-3 mutation. If breaks are prevented from entering the RAD54 repair pathway they become uncommitted lesions. These lesions are repaired slower than the original breaks. One possible fate for an uncommitted lesion is conversion into a fixed lesion, which is likely to be an unrepairable or misrepaired double-strand break. The presence of protein synthesis after irradiation increases the probability that a break will enter the repair pathway. Evidence shows that increased probability of repair results from enhanced synthesis of repair proteins shortly after radiation. (ERB)

  11. Genetics of x-ray induced double strand break repair in saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possible fates of x-ray-induced double-strand breaks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae were examined. One possible pathway which breaks can follow, the repair pathway, was studied by assaying strains with mutations in the RAD51, RAD54, and RAD57 loci for double-strand break repair. In order of increasing radiation sensitivity one finds: rad57-1(230)> rad51-1(300)> rad54-3(360). At 360, rad54-3 cells cannot repair double-strand breaks, while 230, they can. Strains with the rad57-1 mutation can rejoin broken chromosomes at both temperatures. However, the low survival at 360 shows that the assay is not distinguishing large DNA fragments which allow cell survival from those which cause cell death. A rad51-1 strain could also rejoin broken chromosomes, and was thus capable of incomplete repair. The data can be explained with the hypothesis that rad54-3 cells are blocked in an early step of repair, while rad51-1 and rad57-1 strains are blocked in a later step of repair. The fate of double-strand breaks when they are left unrepaired was investigated with the rad54-3 mutation. If breaks are prevented from entering the RAD54 repair pathway they become uncommitted lesions. These lesions are repaired slower than the original breaks. One possible fate for an uncommitted lesion is conversion into a fixed lesion, which is likely to be an unrepairable or misrepaired double-strand break. The presence of protein synthesis after irradiation increases the probability that a break will enter the repair pathway. Evidence shows that increased probability of repair results from enhanced synthesis of repair proteins shortly after radiation

  12. Dirac Neutrino Masses from Generalized Supersymmetry Breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate that Dirac neutrino masses in the experimentally preferred range are generated within supersymmetric gauge extensions of the standard model with a generalized supersymmetry breaking sector. If the superpotential neutrino Yukawa terms are forbidden by the gauge symmetry [such as a U(1)'], sub-eV scale effective Dirac mass terms can arise at tree level from hard supersymmetry breaking Yukawa couplings, or at one loop due to nonanalytic soft supersymmetry breaking trilinear scalar couplings. The radiative neutrino magnetic and electric dipole moments vanish at one-loop order

  13. Search for primordial symmetry breakings in CMB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Maresuke

    2016-06-01

    There are possibilities to violate symmetries (e.g. parity and rotational invariance) in the primordial cosmological fluctuations. Such symmetry breakings can imprint very rich signatures in late-time phenomena, which may be possible to observe. Especially, Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) will change its face drastically, corresponding to the symmetry-breaking types, since the harmonic-space representation is very sensitive to the statistical, spin and angular dependences of cosmological perturbations. Here, we discuss (1) general responses of CMB to the symmetry breakings, (2) some theoretical models creating interesting CMB signatures, and (3) aspects of the estimation from observational data.

  14. Formation of radiation-induced DNA breaks: the ratio of double-strand breaks to single-strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation causes the formation of strand breaks in cellular DNA, as well as other types of lesions in the chromatin of cells. Some of the earliest investigations of the molecular basis of radiation-induced damage and the implications of enzymatic repair were done by Dr. H. S. Kaplan. Because it is difficult to assay for DNA lesions in the large mammalian genome, the authors have developed a method of assaying for DNA double-strand breaks in the supercoiled nucleosome-complexed Simian virus 40 (SV40) genome, irradiated intracellularly. In this communication they present their measurements of the DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) to single-strand breaks (SSBs) ratio obtained from the intracellularly irradiated SV40 genome. After cobalt gamma ray and X ray irradiations, this ratio is about 1/10. Their methods and results are compared with pertinent data in the literature. If the DSBs/SSBs ratio of 1/10 for cellular chromatin is correct, a substantial number of DNA double-strand breaks are formed in a mammalian cell after moderate doses (1 Gy) of radiation. The implications of different types of DNA double-strand breaks are discussed

  15. Unconventional supersymmetry and its breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Pedro D., E-mail: alvarez@physics.ox.ac.uk [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECS), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. República 440, Santiago (Chile); Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Pais, Pablo, E-mail: pais@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECS), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. República 440, Santiago (Chile); Zanelli, Jorge, E-mail: z@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECS), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. República 440, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-07-30

    We present a gauge theory for a superalgebra that includes an internal gauge (G) and local Lorentz (so(1,D−1)) algebras. These two symmetries are connected by fermionic supercharges. The field content of the system includes a (non-)abelian gauge potential A, a spin-1/2 Dirac spinor ψ, the Lorentz connection ω{sup ab}, and the vielbein e{sub μ}{sup a}. The connection one-form A is in the adjoint representation of G, while ψ is in the fundamental. In contrast to standard supersymmetry and supergravity, the metric is not a fundamental field and is in the center of the superalgebra: it is not only invariant under the internal gauge group, G, and under Lorentz transformations, SO(1,D−1), but is also invariant under supersymmetry. The distinctive features of this theory that mark the difference with standard supersymmetries are: i) the number of fermionic and bosonic states is not necessarily the same; ii) there are no superpartners with equal mass; iii) although this supersymmetry originates in a local gauge theory and gravity is included, there is no gravitino; iv) fermions acquire mass from their coupling to the background or from higher order self-couplings, while bosons remain massless. In odd dimensions, the Chern–Simons (CS) form provides an action that is (quasi-)invariant under the entire superalgebra. In even dimensions, the Yang–Mills (YM) form is the only natural option and the symmetry breaks down to G⊗SO(1,D−1). In four dimensions, the construction follows the Townsend–Mac Dowell–Mansouri approach, starting with an osp(4|2)∼usp(2,2|1) connection. Due to the absence of osp(4|2)-invariant traces in four dimensions, the resulting Lagrangian is only invariant under u(1)⊕so(3,1), which includes a Nambu–Jona-Lasinio (NJL) term. In this case, the Lagrangian depends on a single dimensionful parameter that fixes Newton's constant, the cosmological constant and the NJL coupling.

  16. Effects of chronic oral L-arginine administration on the L-arginine/NO pathway in patients with peripheral arterial occlusive disease or coronary artery disease: L-Arginine prevents renal loss of nitrite, the major NO reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jessica Y; Rothmann, Sabine; Schröder, Frank; Langen, Jennifer; Lücke, Thomas; Mariotti, François; Huneau, Jean François; Frölich, Jürgen C; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2015-09-01

    prostacyclin and thromboxane synthesis (in PAOD). In the PAOD study, UNOxR did not change in the Arginine group (480 ± 51 vs 486 ± 50), but fell in the Placebo group (422 ± 67 vs 332 ± 42, P = 0.025). In the CAD study, UNOxR did not change significantly in the Arginine group (518 ± 77 at start vs 422 ± 40 after 3 months vs 399 ± 66 after 6 months), but fell in the Placebo group (524 ± 69 vs 302 ± 36 vs 285 ± 31; P = 0.025 for 0 vs 3 months). Infusion of Arg tended to decrease the UNOxR in the children (317 ± 41 vs 208 ± 16, P = 0.06). We propose that oral long-term Arg supplementation prevents loss of NO bioactivity by saving nitrite. The optimum Arg dose needs to be elaborated and is likely to be less than 10 g per day in adults. Orally and intravenously administered arginine was well tolerated by the elderly patients and young children, respectively. PMID:26123989

  17. Successive breaks in biliary stents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinel, Jesús; Pinedo, Eugenia; Ojeda, Vanesa; Guerra, María

    2016-04-01

    A 64 year-old male, was diagnosed with obstructive jaundice due to a well-differentiated pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor with liver metastases. The patient underwent endoscopic placement of covered self-expanding biliary stent (10x60 mm, Hanaro) by ERCP. He was admitted with cholangitis one year later. The following ERCP revealed a fractured stent with loss of the distal end (duodenal) and partial migration of the remaining stent to the common bile duct. The fragmented stent was removed from the common bile duct and a new, similar one was inserted. Four months later the patient was admitted with cholangitis. A new ERCP was done and biliary stent was also fragmented. It was removed and an uncovered stent (Wallflex) was inserted. PMID:27065248

  18. Dirac Neutrino Masses from Generalized Supersymmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Demir, Durmus A; Langacker, Paul

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate that Dirac neutrino masses in the experimentally preferred range are generated within supersymmetric gauge extensions of the Standard Model with a generalized supersymmetry breaking sector. If the usual superpotential Yukawa couplings are forbidden by the additional gauge symmetry (such as a U(1)'), effective Dirac mass terms involving the "wrong Higgs" field can arise either at tree level due to hard supersymmetry breaking fermion Yukawa couplings, or at one-loop due to nonanalytic or "nonholomorphic" soft supersymmetry breaking trilinear scalar couplings. As both of these operators are naturally suppressed in generic models of supersymmetry breaking, the resulting neutrino masses are naturally in the sub-eV range. The neutrino magnetic and electric dipole moments resulting from the radiative mechanism also vanish at one-loop order.

  19. Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingkai; Powell, David A.; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Lapine, Mikhail; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2014-07-01

    Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking underpins a variety of areas such as subatomic physics and biochemistry, and leads to an impressive range of fundamental phenomena. Here we show that this prominent effect is now available in artificial electromagnetic systems, enabled by the advent of magnetoelastic metamaterials where a mechanical degree of freedom leads to a rich variety of strong nonlinear effects such as bistability and self-oscillations. We report spontaneous symmetry breaking in torsional chiral magnetoelastic structures where two or more meta-molecules with opposite handedness are electromagnetically coupled, modifying the system stability. Importantly, we show that chiral symmetry breaking can be found in the stationary response of the system, and the effect is successfully demonstrated in a microwave pump-probe experiment. Such symmetry breaking can lead to a giant nonlinear polarization change, energy localization and mode splitting, which provides a new possibility for creating an artificial phase transition in metamaterials, analogous to that in ferrimagnetic domains.

  20. Detecting Structural Breaks using Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ntantamis, Christos

    Testing for structural breaks and identifying their location is essential for econometric modeling. In this paper, a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approach is used in order to perform these tasks. Breaks are defined as the data points where the underlying Markov Chain switches from one state to anoth...... in the monetary policy of United States, the dierent functional form being variants of the Taylor (1993) rule.......Testing for structural breaks and identifying their location is essential for econometric modeling. In this paper, a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approach is used in order to perform these tasks. Breaks are defined as the data points where the underlying Markov Chain switches from one state to another....... The estimation of the HMM is conducted using a variant of the Iterative Conditional Expectation-Generalized Mixture (ICE-GEMI) algorithm proposed by Delignon et al. (1997), that permits analysis of the conditional distributions of economic data and allows for different functional forms across regimes...

  1. 50例剖腹产术中出血的临床分析与预防措施%50 Cases Clinical Analysis of Blood Loss During Caesarean Section and Preventive Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘青建; 刘彩萍

    2013-01-01

    preventive measures.Result:In 50 cases of cesarean bleeding,11 patients due to placental factors occur in patients with bleeding,accounting for 22.0%;9 patients with coagulation disorders occur due to blood loss,accounting for 18.0%;17 cases of patients with uterine inertia occurred intraoperative bleeding,accounting for 34.0%;six cases occurred in patients with bleeding due to uterine fibroids,accounting for 12.0%,seven patients because of bleeding laceration occurred,accounting for 14.0%.Caesarean section for all patients bleeding after giving symptomatic treatment of patients with stable vital signs,no deaths.Conclusion:Placental factors,coagulation disorders,uterine inertia,uterine fibroids,bleeding laceration caesarean section is the main reason,in the clinical treatment should be based on the patient's condition,analyze the causes of bleeding,combined with medical conditions,formulate caesarean bleeding hemostasis scientific programs to ensure the safety of mother and child.

  2. Dirac Neutrino Masses from Generalized Supersymmetry Breaking

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Durmus A.; Everett, Lisa L.; Langacker, Paul

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate that Dirac neutrino masses in the experimentally preferred range are generated within supersymmetric gauge extensions of the Standard Model with a generalized supersymmetry breaking sector. If the usual superpotential Yukawa couplings are forbidden by the additional gauge symmetry (such as a U(1)'), effective Dirac mass terms involving the "wrong Higgs" field can arise either at tree level due to hard supersymmetry breaking fermion Yukawa couplings, or at one-loop due to nonana...

  3. Grand unification with large supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General criteria are given for the magnitudes of mass splittings between supersymmetric partners compatible with the desired hierarchy of mass scales in GUTs. These splittings arise naturally when masses are generated radiatively from a Higgs sector breaking supersymmetry through the O'Raifeartaigh mechanism (Nucl. Phys; B96:331 (1975)). Explicit GUTs are constructed in which the supersymmetry breaking scale may easily be as large as the Planck mass. (author)

  4. Yet another symmetry breaking to be discovered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, M.

    2016-07-01

    The discovery of spontaneous symmetry breaking in particle physics was the greatest contribution in Nambu's achievements. There is another class of symmetries that exist in low-energy nature, yet is doomed to be broken at high energy, due to a lack of protection of the gauge symmetry. I shall review our approach to searching for this class of symmetry breaking, the lepton number violation linked to the generation of the matter-antimatter asymmetry in our universe.

  5. Behavior of thermal breaks under seismic loads

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thi Thanh Huyen

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays sustainable constructions imply an objective of energetic performances by reducing the level of thermal conduction. The thermal-break elements, an innovative technological element is under study in several countries in Europe. If the thermal benefits have already been proved, the mechanical effects of such a wall-slab connection in a building for the seismic risk have not been assessed. To evaluate the building seismic vulnerability modifications due to these thermal breaks, experime...

  6. Breaking antidunes: Cyclic behavior due to hysteresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deigaard, Rolf

    2006-01-01

    The cyclic behavior of breaking antidunes (growth, breaking of surface wave, obliteration) is investigated by use of a numerical model. The model includes the transition between supercritical and transcritical flow. As the antidune grows the flow becomes transcritical and a hydraulic jump is form...... upstream of the antidune crest. The relation between growth of the antidune and supercritical flow and between decay and transcritical flow is shown, and the significance of hysteresis in the flow conditions is investigated....

  7. Chimera Death: Symmetry Breaking in Dynamical Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zakharova, Anna; Kapeller, Marie; Schöll, Eckehard

    2014-01-01

    For a network of generic oscillators with nonlocal topology and symmetry-breaking coupling we establish novel partially coherent inhomogeneous spatial patterns, which combine the features of chimera states (coexisting incongruous coherent and incoherent domains) and oscillation death (oscillation suppression), which we call chimera death. We show that due to the interplay of nonlocality and breaking of rotational symmetry by the coupling two distinct scenarios from oscillatory behavior to a s...

  8. A random fuse model for breaking processes

    OpenAIRE

    de Arcangelis, L.; Redner, S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    We introduce and study a simple idealized model to describe breaking processes by analysing the current-carrying properties of a random network consisting of insulators and fuses. By increasing the value of the external voltage applied across the network, a sequence of fuses will « burn out » and change irreversible into insultating bonds. This process terminates when a conducting path no longer exists in the network. We monitor several basic quantities during this breaking process, such as t...

  9. Relativistic theory of string breaking in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Simonov, Yu A

    2011-01-01

    The QCD string breaking due to quark pair creation in the vacuum confining field, possibly accompanied by vector, scalar or Nambu-Goldstone bosons, is studied nonperturbatively. The scalar light pair creation vertex occurs due to chiral symmetry breaking and has a confining form, which is computed explicitly together with subleading vector contributions. Dependence on light quark mass and flavor is specifically studied. The dominant scalar term is in good agreement with the $^3P_0$ model and experimental data.

  10. Evaluation of the effects of break nozzle configuration in the Semiscale Mod-1 system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Semiscale Mod-1 Program has utilized two different break nozzle configurations in the test system. An evaluation has been made to determine the effect these break nozzle configurations have on system thermal-hydraulic response during a 200 percent double-ended cold leg break loss-of-coolant accident simulation. The first nozzle was a convergent-divergent nozzle (Henry nozzle) and the second, an elongated constant area throat nozzle. Analysis is confined primarily to system response phenomena observed to be affected by the nozzle configuration and concentrates on the fluid response at the break and the resulting core behavior during subcooled and saturated blowdown. The evaluation shows that considerable difference in system response occurs as a result of the difference in break nozzle configuration. The elongated throat nozzle was scaled from the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) nozzle geometry and since the LOFT counterpart tests were designed to provide results for the LOFT Program, the elongated throat nozzle was used in the subsequent LOFT counterpart tests

  11. Breaking of waves in deep water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Chavarria, Gerardo

    2013-11-01

    The breaking of waves is a nonlinear phenomenon during which a fraction of the energy is dissipated. In the previous stage the wave undergoes a growth of its amplitude and the wave pattern is modified in the sense that the crests become more pronounced than the troughs. The breaking has been extensively studied in the case of waves approaching the shore. However, the wave breaking in deep water remains an open problem in fluid dynamics. In this work we study the wave breaking due to focusing of an initially parabolic wave front. To this end the evolution of wave is numerically investigated using a meshless code (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics). We present some results about the evolution of waves excited by a parabolic wave maker, among others, the growth induced by the focusing, the behavior around the Huygens' cusp and the process of wave breaking. Then, we compare the numerical results with the criteria given in the literature about the onset of breaking and we discuss how the energy dissipates, for example by the rise of short waves. In addition we compare the numerical results with data obtained in two different experiments made by our team. Author acknowledges DGAPA-UNAM by support under project IN116312, ``Vorticidad y ondas no lineales en fluidos.''

  12. CP breaking in lattice chiral gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CP symmetry is not manifestly implemented for the local and doubler-free Ginsparg-Wilson operator in lattice chiral gauge theory. We precisely identify where the effects of this CP breaking appear. We show that they appear in: (I) Overall constant phase of the fermion generating functional. (II) Overall constant coefficient of the fermion generating functional. (III) Fermion propagator appearing in external fermion lines and the propagator connected to Yukawa vertices. The first effect appears from the transformation of the path integral measure and it is absorbed into a suitable definition of the constant phase factor for each topological sector; in this sense there appears no 'CP anomaly'. The second constant arises from the explicit breaking in the action and it is absorbed by the suitable weights with which topological sectors are summed. The last one in the propagator is inherent to this formulation and cannot be avoided by a mere modification of the projection operator, for example, in the framework of the Ginsparg-Wilson operator. This breaking emerges as an (almost) contact term in the propagator when the Higgs field, which is treated perturbatively, has no vacuum expectation value. In the presence of the vacuum expectation value, however, a completely new situation arises and the breaking becomes intrinsically non-local, though this breaking may still be removed in a suitable continuum limit. This non-local CP breaking is expected to persist for a non-perturbative treatment of the Higgs coupling. (author)

  13. An analysis of MB-2 100% steam line break test T-2013 using RELAP5/MOD2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents RELAP5/MOD2 calculations of the 100% steam line break test T-2013 performed on the Westinghouse Model Boiler-2 facility (MB-2). The input deck uses a noding structure typical of what would be used for an integral rig or full plant study using the RELAP5/MOD2 code. Sensitivity calculations were performed for the break junction discharge coefficient and the separator drain line loss coefficient. (author)

  14. Data report for ROSA-IV LSTF 5% hot leg break experiment Run SB-HL-01

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental data for the 5% hot leg break test, Run SB-HL-01, conducted at the ROSA-IV Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) on July 30, 1986, are presented. This test was part of a test series which studied the break location effects on small-break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) transients, and assumed total failure of both high pressure injection (HPI) and auxiliary feedwater (AFW) systems. The test results were characterized by asymmetric loop responses, flashing in the cold legs as well as upper downcomer, and condensation depressurization in the cold legs following injection of emergency core coolant (ECC) from accumulators. (author)

  15. Can AGN feedback break the self-similarity of galaxies, groups, and clusters?

    CERN Document Server

    Gaspari, M; Temi, P; Ettori, S

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly thought that AGN feedback can break the self-similar scaling relations of galaxies, groups, and clusters. Using high-resolution 3D hydrodynamic simulations, we isolate the impact of AGN feedback on the $L_{\\rm x}-T_{\\rm x} $ relation, testing the two archetypal and common regimes, self-regulated mechanical feedback and a quasar thermal blast. We find that AGN feedback has severe difficulty in breaking the relation in a consistent way. The similarity breaking is directly linked to the gas evacuation within $R_{500}$, while the central cooling times are inversely proportional to the core density. Breaking self-similarity implies thus breaking the cool core, morphing all systems to non-cool-core objects, which is in clear contradiction with the observed data populated by several cool-core systems. Self-regulated feedback, which quenches cooling flows and preserves cool cores, prevents the dramatic evacuation and similarity breaking at any scale; the relation scatter is also limited. The impulsive ...

  16. Vision Loss, Sudden

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of age-related macular degeneration. Spotlight on Aging: Vision Loss in Older People Most commonly, vision loss ... Some Causes and Features of Sudden Loss of Vision Cause Common Features* Tests Sudden loss of vision ...

  17. Sulforaphane induces DNA single strand breaks in cultured human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sestili, Piero, E-mail: piero.sestili@uniurb.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomolecolari, Via Maggetti, 21, Universita degli Studi di Urbino ' Carlo Bo' , 61029 Urbino, PU (Italy); Paolillo, Marco [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomolecolari, Via Maggetti, 21, Universita degli Studi di Urbino ' Carlo Bo' , 61029 Urbino, PU (Italy); Lenzi, Monia [Dipartimento di Farmacologia, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, Via Irnerio 48, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Colombo, Evelin; Vallorani, Luciana; Casadei, Lucia; Martinelli, Chiara [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomolecolari, Via Maggetti, 21, Universita degli Studi di Urbino ' Carlo Bo' , 61029 Urbino, PU (Italy); Fimognari, Carmela [Dipartimento di Farmacologia, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, Via Irnerio 48, 40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2010-07-07

    Sulforaphane (SFR), an isothiocyanate from cruciferous vegetables, possesses growth-inhibiting and apoptosis-inducing activities in cancer cell lines. Recently, SFR has been shown to promote the mitochondrial formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human cancer cell lines. The present study was undertaken to see whether SFR-derived ROS might cause DNA damage in cultured human cells, namely T limphoblastoid Jurkat and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). 1-3 h treatments with 10-30 {mu}M SFR elicited intracellular ROS formation (as assayed with dihydrorhodamine, DHR, oxidation) as well as DNA breakage (as assessed with fast halo assay, FHA). These effects lacked cell-type specificity, since could be observed in both Jurkat and HUVEC. Differential-pH FHA analysis of damaged DNA showed that SFR causes frank DNA single strand breaks (SSBs); no DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) were found within the considered treatment times (up to 3 h). SFR-derived ROS were formed at the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) level: indeed rotenone or myxothiazol (MRC Complex I and III inhibitors, respectively) abrogated ROS formation. Furthermore ROS were not formed in Jurkat cells pharmacologically depleted of respiring mitochondria (MRC-/Jurkat). Formation of ROS was causally linked to the induction of SSBs: indeed all the experimental conditions capable of preventing ROS formation also prevented the damage of nuclear DNA from SFR-intoxicated cells. As to the toxicological relevance of SSBs, we found that their prevention slightly but significantly attenuated SFR cytotoxicity, suggesting that high-dose SFR toxicity is the result of a complex series of events among which GSH depletion seems to play a pivotal role. In conclusion, the present study identifies a novel mechanism contributing to SFR toxicity which - since DNA damage is a prominent mechanism underlying the cytotoxic activity of established antineoplastic agents - might help to exploit the therapeutic value

  18. Simvastatin partially prevents tail-suspension-induced bone loss in rats%辛伐他汀部分阻止尾悬吊大鼠股骨近端骨量的丢失

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田发明; 张柳; 邢磊; 范新昊; 张楠; 吕志伟

    2013-01-01

    removed for the measurement of bone mineral density (BMD) using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. BMSCs were collected from the left femur and the tibiae and cultured for differentiation into osteoblasts .Detection of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and von Kossa staining were performed at the 16th and 25th day, respectively.Real-time RT-PCR was performed to detect the mRNA expression of BMP-2 and RANKL at the 21st day.Results The bone mass of rats in tail-suspended group was lower than that in control group.The total BMD ( tBMD) and distal BMD ( dBMD) in G1 was significantly higher than that in G2 and G3.And the proximal BMD ( pBMD) in G1 was significantly higher than that in G2, but it had no significant difference with that in G3.The pBMD in G3 was higher than that in G2, but no significant difference was observed.Von Kossa staining, ALP activity, and the mRNA expression of BMP-2 and RANKL showed no significant difference among groups. Conclusion Three-week tail-suspension can lead to osteoporosis in SD rats .Simvastatin can partially prevent the bone loss in the proximal femur in vivo, but cannot significantly promote the BMSCs differentiation into osteoblasts .

  19. Visual loss after spine surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Mohan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Incidence of perioperative visual loss ranges from 0.06% to 0.2% with the most common cause as ischemic optic neuropathy. We report one-year follow up of a 50-years-old hypertensive housewife who underwent lumbar decompression and fusion for degenerative scoliosis, but woke up with painless unilateral visual loss. Fundus examination was normal. Her visual acuity improved from initial finger counting close to face to finger counting at 3 m at 1 year. Identification of high risk patients may help in appropriate preoperative counselling, prevention and early recognition of this devastating complication.

  20. 医院护理人员流失的相关因素分析与预防对策%Analysis and Preventive Measures of Related Factors of Nursing Staff Loss in Hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐佳

    2015-01-01

    The loss of nursing staff in hospital is an important factor to influence the normal operation and management of the hospital,the nursing staff loss is caused to the loss of intangible assets and the huge replacement cost,the factors causing the loss of nursing staff include:occupation pressure, psychological pressure,social pressure,compiling factors,so do a good job in human resources management,avoid talent erosion is the important content of hospital management work.We should through the improvement of personnel system standard management,improve remuneration to retain talent,humanized management,reduce stress,strengthen quality education to establish the correct values and other measures to avoid loss of nursing staff.%医院护理人员流失问题是影响医院正常运营和管理的重要因素,护理人员的流失带来的是无形资产的流失和巨大的重置成本。造成护理人员流失的因素包括职业压力、心理压力、社会压力、编制因素,因而做好人力资源管理、避免人才流失是医院管理工作中的重要内容,应通过完善人事制度、规范管理、提高薪酬待遇留住人才、人性化管理减少压力、加强素质教育、树立正确的价值观等措施来避免护理人员的流失。

  1. Modelling oil price volatility with structural breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we provide two main innovations: (i) we analyze oil prices of two prominent markets namely West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Brent using the two recently developed tests by Narayan and Popp (2010) and Liu and Narayan, 2010 both of which allow for two structural breaks in the data series; and (ii) the latter method is modified to include both symmetric and asymmetric volatility models. We identify two structural breaks that occur in 1990 and 2008 which coincidentally correspond to the Iraqi/Kuwait conflict and the global financial crisis, respectively. We find evidence of persistence and leverage effects in the oil price volatility. While further extensions can be pursued, the consideration of asymmetric effects as well as structural breaks should not be jettisoned when modelling oil price volatility. - Highlights: ► We analyze oil price volatility using NP (2010) and LN (2010) tests. ► We modify the LN (2010) to account for leverage effects in oil price. ► We find two structural breaks that reflect major global crisis in the oil market. ► We find evidence of persistence and leverage effects in oil price volatility. ► Leverage effects and structural breaks are fundamental in oil price modelling.

  2. A break in the obesity epidemic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visscher, T L S; Heitmann, B L; Rissanen, A;

    2015-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic papers are presenting prevalence data suggesting breaks and decreases in obesity rates. However, before concluding that the obesity epidemic is not increasing anymore, the validity of the presented data should be discussed more thoroughly. We had a closer look into the litera......Recent epidemiologic papers are presenting prevalence data suggesting breaks and decreases in obesity rates. However, before concluding that the obesity epidemic is not increasing anymore, the validity of the presented data should be discussed more thoroughly. We had a closer look...... into the literature presented in recent reviews to address the major potential biases and distortions, and to develop insights about how to interpret the presented suggestions for a potential break in the obesity epidemic. Decreasing participation rates, the use of reported rather than measured data and small sample...... sizes, or lack of representativeness, did not seem to explain presented breaks in the obesity epidemic. Further, available evidence does not suggest that stabilization of obesity rates is seen in higher socioeconomic groups only, or that urbanization could explain a potential break in the obesity...

  3. Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1982-12-01

    These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed. (WHK)

  4. Enhanced breaking of heavy quark spin symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Feng-Kun; Shen, Cheng-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Heavy quark spin symmetry is useful to make predictions on ratios of decay or production rates of systems involving heavy quarks. The breaking of spin symmetry is generally of the order of $O({\\Lambda_{\\rm QCD}/m_Q})$, with $\\Lambda_{\\rm QCD}$ the scale of QCD and $m_Q$ the heavy quark mass. In this paper, we propose a new mechanism to enhance the spin symmetry breaking. Taking the decays of the $\\Upsilon(10860)$ into the $\\chi_{bJ}\\omega\\, (J=0,1,2)$ as an example, we show that a small $S$- and $D$-wave mixing can induce a significant breaking of the spin symmetry relations for the ratios of the branching fractions of these decays, owing to an enhancement of the decays of the $D$-wave component due to nearby coupled channels.

  5. Supersymmetry breaking induced by radiative corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Bajc, Borut; Mede, Timon

    2012-01-01

    We show that simultaneous gauge and supersymmetry breaking can be induced by radiative corrections, a la Coleman-Weinberg. A local supersymmetry-breaking minimum is induced in the effective potential of a gauge non-singlet field, in a region where the tree-level potential is almost flat. Supersymmetry breaking is then transmitted to the MSSM through gauge and chiral messenger loops, thus avoiding the suppression of gaugino masses characteristic of direct gauge mediation models. The use of a single field ensures that no dangerous tachyonic scalar masses are generated at the one-loop level. We illustrate this mechanism with an explicit example based on an SU(5) model with a single adjoint. An interesting feature of the scenario is that the GUT scale is increased with respect to standard unification, thus allowing for a larger colour Higgs triplet mass, as preferred by the experimental lower bound on the proton lifetime.

  6. Multiscale Simulation of Breaking Wave Impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Ole

    errors in the fluid volume. The dam break test case shows that the incompressible and inviscid ALE-WLS model can calculate nonlinear fluid motion, fluid structure impacts and overturning waves. The propagation speed of the wetting front and impact pressures are compared to experiments and the results......The purpose of this project is to make an accurate, robust, geometric flexible and efficient model for calculation of forces on structures from nonlinear ocean waves and breaking wave impacts. Accurate prediction of the extreme forces on wind turbine foundations, breakwaters and tidal or wave power......-distance based adaptivity method and redistributed via a point position filtering method. The incompressible and inviscid ALE-WLS model is applied to the following standard validation test cases: deforming elliptical drop, small amplitude standing waves and the dam break problem. The deforming elliptical drop...

  7. U(1) mediation of flux supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the mediation of supersymmetry breaking triggered by background fluxes in Type II string compactifications with N = 1 supersymmetry. The mediation arises due to an U(1) vector multiplet coupling to both a hidden supersymmetry breaking flux sector and a visible D-brane sector. The required internal manifolds can be constructed by non-Kaehler resolutions of singular Calabi-Yau manifolds. The effective action encoding the U(1) coupling is then determined in terms of the global topological properties of the internal space. We investigate suitable local geometries for the hidden and visible sector in detail. This includes a systematic study of orientifold symmetries of del Pezzo surfaces realized in compact geometries after geometric transition. We construct compact examples admitting the key properties to realize flux supersymmetry breaking and U(1) mediation. Their toric realization allows us to analyze the geometry of curve classes and confirm the topological connection between the hidden and visible sector.

  8. Workshop on electroweak symmetry breaking: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinchliffe, I. (ed.)

    1984-10-01

    A theoretical workshop on electroweak symmetry breaking at the Superconducting Supercollider was held at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, June 4-22, 1984. The purpose of the workshop was to focus theoretical attention on the ways in which experimentation at the SSC could reveal manifestations of the phenomenon responsible for electroweak symmetry breaking. This issue represents, at present, the most compelling scientific argument for the need to explore the energy region to be made accessible by the SSC, and a major aim of the workshop was to involve a broad cross section of particle theorists in the ongoing process of sharpening the requirements for both accelerator and detector design that will ensure detection and identification of meaningful signals, whatever form the electroweak symmetry breaking phenomenon should actually take. Separate entries were prepared for the data base for the papers presented.

  9. Break-glass handling exceptional situations in access control

    CERN Document Server

    Petritsch, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Helmut Petritsch describes the first holistic approach to Break-Glass which covers the whole life-cycle: from access control modeling (pre-access), to logging the security-relevant system state during Break-Glass accesses (at-access), and the automated analysis of Break-Glass accesses (post-access). Break-Glass allows users to override security restrictions in exceptional situations. While several Break-Glass models specific to given access control models have already been discussed in research (e.g., extending RBAC with Break-Glass), the author introduces a generic Break-Glass model. The pres

  10. Breaking bad news in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Konstantis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In a regional hospital, many patients are newly diagnosed with cancer. Breaking the bad news in these patients and their relatives is a tough task. Many doctors are not experienced in talking to patients about death or death-related diseases. In recent years, there have been great efforts to change the current situation. The aim of this study was to investigate the experience and education of medical personnel in breaking bad news in a secondary hospital. Materials and Methods: 59 doctors from General Hospital of Komotini, Greece were included in the study. All the doctors were in clinical specialties that treated cancer patients. A brief questionnaire was developed based on current guidelines such as Baile/SPIKES framework and the ABCDE mnemonic. Results: Residents are involved in delivering bad news less frequently than specialists. Only 21 doctors (35.59% had specific training on breaking bad news. 20 doctors (33.90% were aware of the available techniques and protocols on breaking bad news. 47 doctors (79.66% had a consistent plan for breaking bad news. 57 (96.61% delivered bad news in a quiet place, 53 (89.83% ensured no interruptions and enough time, 53 (89.83% used simple words and 54 (91.53% checked for understanding and did not rush through the news. 46 doctors (77.97% allowed relatives to determine patient′s knowledge about the disease. Conclusions: There were low rates of specific training in breaking bad news. However, the selected location, the physician′s speech and their plan were according to current guidelines.

  11. GOBLIN computer code. Comparison between calculations and TLTA small break test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GOBLIN calcuations have been performed for two simulation tests of the boiling water reactor (BWR) small break loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) which were conducted in the two loop test apparatus (TLTA). The first test investigated the small break with nondegraded emergency core coolant (ECC) systems and the second test studied the same small break but with degraded ECC systems in which the high pressure core spray (HPCS) was assumed unavailable. Very good agreement between test data and calculations is achieved. The second test is the most challenging from code comparison point of view and the code prediction of the complicated mass distribution pattern which changes with time is very satisfactory. In the first test and to some extent late in the second test multidimensional subchannel effects are evident in the core bundle region. These are not and cannot be reproduced by the code since the bundle model of GOBLIN is strictly one-dimensional. (Author)

  12. Suppression and restoration of disorder-induced light localization mediated by PT-symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Konotop, Vladimir V; Vysloukh, Victor A; Huang, Guoxiang; Torner, Lluis

    2016-01-01

    We uncover that the breaking point of the PT-symmetry in optical waveguide arrays has a dramatic impact on light localization induced by the off-diagonal disorder. Specifically, when the gain/loss control parameter approaches a critical value at which PT-symmetry breaking occurs, a fast growth of the coupling between neighboring waveguides causes diffraction to dominate to an extent that light localization is strongly suppressed and statistically averaged width of the output pattern substantially increases. Beyond the symmetry-breaking point localization is gradually restored, although in this regime the power of localized modes grows upon propagation. The strength of localization monotonically increases with disorder at both, broken and unbroken PT-symmetry.

  13. Two-stage perceptual learning to break visual crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ziyun; Fan, Zhenzhi; Fang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    When a target is presented with nearby flankers in the peripheral visual field, it becomes harder to identify, which is referred to as crowding. Crowding sets a fundamental limit of object recognition in peripheral vision, preventing us from fully appreciating cluttered visual scenes. We trained adult human subjects on a crowded orientation discrimination task and investigated whether crowding could be completely eliminated by training. We discovered a two-stage learning process with this training task. In the early stage, when the target and flankers were separated beyond a certain distance, subjects acquired a relatively general ability to break crowding, as evidenced by the fact that the breaking of crowding could transfer to another crowded orientation, even a crowded motion stimulus, although the transfer to the opposite visual hemi-field was weak. In the late stage, like many classical perceptual learning effects, subjects' performance gradually improved and showed specificity to the trained orientation. We also found that, when the target and flankers were spaced too finely, training could only reduce, rather than completely eliminate, the crowding effect. This two-stage learning process illustrates a learning strategy for our brain to deal with the notoriously difficult problem of identifying peripheral objects in clutter. The brain first learned to solve the "easy and general" part of the problem (i.e., improving the processing resolution and segmenting the target and flankers) and then tackle the "difficult and specific" part (i.e., refining the representation of the target).

  14. Gauge - Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking in String Compactifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaconescu, Duiliu-Emanuel; /Rutgers U., Piscataway; Florea, Bogdan; Kachru, Shamit; Svrcek, Peter; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2006-01-04

    We provide string theory examples where a toy model of a SUSY GUT or the MSSM is embedded in a compactification along with a gauge sector which dynamically breaks supersymmetry. We argue that by changing microscopic details of the model (such as precise choices of flux), one can arrange for the dominant mediation mechanism transmitting SUSY breaking to the Standard Model to be either gravity mediation or gauge mediation. Systematic improvement of such examples may lead to top-down models incorporating a solution to the SUSY flavor problem.

  15. R-Parity Breaking in Minimal Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz, M A

    1997-01-01

    We consider the Minimal Supergravity Model with universality of scalar and gaugino masses plus an extra bilinear term in the superpotential which breaks R-Parity and lepton number. We explicitly check the consistency of this model with the radiative breaking of the electroweak symmetry. A neutrino mass is radiatively induced, and large Higgs-Lepton mixings are compatible with its experimental bound. We also study briefly the lightest Higgs mass. This one-parameter extension of SUGRA-MSSM is the simplest way of introducing R-parity violation.

  16. Polarimetric contrast microscopy by orthogonality breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the design and first implementation of an active polarimetric imaging system based on the recently introduced concept of polarimetric sensing by orthogonality breaking, which involves a specific crossed-polarization dual-frequency illumination. We describe the laser source architecture and microscope set-up devoted to visible imaging at 488 nm, as well as the specific homodyne detection chain required for orthogonality breaking measurements. The first polarimetric images obtained with this non-conventional approach are presented. The polarimetric contrasts observed validate the polarimetric sensitivity of the technique. (fast track communication)

  17. Report of Break Out Group 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alward, Randy; Carley, Kathleen M.; Madsen, Fredrik Huitfeldt;

    2006-01-01

    , action" (OODA) loop. The break out group discussed vulnerability presentation needs common across various application domains, particularly in support of network discovery and network analysis tasks in those domains. Finally, the break out group wished to determine whether there is a means...... of characterizing a vulnerability. This would take into account the potential for the vulnerability to be exploited as well as the potential impact on the operations supported by the network, and on the network structure itself, of a successful exploit of that vulnerability....

  18. Chiral Symmetry Breaking from Center Vortices

    CERN Document Server

    Höllwieser, Roman; Schweigler, Thomas; Heller, Urs M

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the creation of near-zero modes from would-be zero modes of various topological charge contributions from classical center vortices in SU(2) lattice gauge theory. We show that colorful spherical vortex and instanton configurations have very similar Dirac eigenmodes and also vortex intersections are able to give rise to a finite density of near-zero modes, leading to chiral symmetry breaking via the Banks-Casher formula. We discuss the influence of the magnetic vortex fluxes on quarks and how center vortices may break chiral symmetry.

  19. Boundary and analytic attitude: reflections on a summer holiday break.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Susanna

    2016-06-01

    The effect of a boundary in analytic work at the summer holiday break is discussed in relation to archetypal experiences of exclusion, loss and limitation. Some attempts by patients to mitigate an analyst's act of separation are reviewed as enactments, and in particular the meanings of a gift made by one patient. Analytic attitude towards enactment from within different schools of practice is sketched, with reference to the effect on the analyst of departing from the received practice of their own allegiance. A theory is adumbrated that the discomfort of 'contravening the rules' has a useful effect in sparking the analyst into consciousness, with greater attention to salient features in an individual case. Interpretation as an enactment is briefly considered, along with the possible effects of containing the discomfort of a patient's enactment in contrast to confronting it with interpretation. PMID:27192364

  20. PT Symmetry Breaking and Nonlinear Optical Isolation in Coupled Microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Xin

    2016-01-01

    We perform a theoretical study of nonlinear optical isolator devices based on coupled microcavities with gain and loss. Using coupled-mode theory, we derive a correspondence between the boundary of asymptotic stability in the nonlinear regime, where gain saturation is present, and the PT-breaking transition in the underlying linear system. For zero detuning and weak input intensity, the onset of optical isolation can be rigorously derived, and corresponds precisely to the PT transition point. When the couplings to the external ports are unequal, the isolation ratio exhibits an abrupt jump at the transition point, determined by the ratio of the couplings. This could be exploited to realize an actively controlled nonlinear optical isolator, in which strong optical isolation can be switched on or off using tiny variations in the inter-resonator separation.

  1. Numerical Study on Breaking Criteria for Solitary Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chung-ren CHOU; Ruey-syan SHIH; John Z. YIM

    2003-01-01

    Studies of the breaking criteria for solitary waves on a slope are presented in this paper. The boundary element method is used to model the processes of shoaling and breaking of solitary waves on various slopes. Empirical formulae that can be used to characterize the breaking of solitary waves are presented. These include the breaking index, the wave height, the water depth, and the maximum particle velocity at the point of breaking. Comparisons with the results of other researches are given.

  2. ROSA-V/LSTF vessel top head LOCA tests SB-PV-07 and SB-PV-08 with break sizes of 1.0 and 0.1% and operator recovery actions for core cooling

    OpenAIRE

    鈴木 光弘; 竹田 武司; 中村 秀夫

    2010-01-01

    A series of break size parameter tests (SB-PV-07 and SB-PV-08) were conducted at the Large Scale Test Facility of ROSA-V Program to have an insight into effects of accident management action on core cooling during a simulated vessel top break loss-of-coolant accident with a total failure assumption on the high pressure injection (HPI) system at a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Typical phenomena of vessel top break with break sizes between 1.0 and 0.1% cold leg break equivalent were clarifie...

  3. Break-through of Mass Integration in Textile Industry through Development of Generic Water Recycle Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    dyehouse, Trevira Neckelmann A/S, has now for two consecutive years successfully implemented direct water recycling saving 40 % water. Mass Integration and water pinch techniques were used to identify the potentials and combined with textile intelligence to achieve the best system design for the reuse......As a result of a long term South African – Danish research co-operation on Cleaner Production in textile industry, a number of generic and widely applicable water recycle schemes for textile wet processing has been developed, and the first break-through of water recycling has been achieved. Textile...... conservatism and consideration for product quality in the industry have till recently prevented water reuse from breaking through in practice. A four year research program on industrial water reuse, however, recently resulted in the first break-through of water reuse in Danish textile industry: one polyester...

  4. Replicating the benefits of closed timelike curves without breaking causality

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Xiao; Thompson, Jayne; Haw, Jing Yan; Vedral, Vlatko; Ralph, Timothy C; Lam, Ping Koy; Weedbrook, Christian; Gu, Mile

    2014-01-01

    In general relativity, closed timelike curves can break causality with remarkable and unsettling consequences. At the classical level, they induce causal paradoxes disturbing enough to motivate conjectures that explicitly prevent their existence. At the quantum level, resolving such paradoxes induce radical benefits - from cloning unknown quantum states to solving problems intractable to quantum computers. Instinctively, one expects these benefits to vanish if causality is respected. Here we show that in harnessing entanglement, we can efficiently solve NP-complete problems and clone arbitrary quantum states - even when all time-travelling systems are completely isolated from the past. Thus, the many defining benefits of closed timelike curves can still be harnessed, even when causality is preserved. Our results unveil the subtle interplay between entanglement and general relativity, and significantly improve the potential of probing the radical effects that may exist at the interface between relativity and q...

  5. Gender Consideration in Experiment Design for Air Break in Prebreathe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conkin, Johnny; Dervay, Joseph P.; Gernhardt, Michael L.

    2007-01-01

    If gender is a confounder of the decompression sickness (DCS) or venous gas emboli (VGE) outcomes of a proposed air break in oxygen prebreathe (PB) project, then decisions about the final experiment design must be made. We evaluated if the incidence of DCS and VGE from tests in altitude chambers over 20 years were different between men and women after resting and exercise PB protocols. Nitrogen washout during PB is our primary risk mitigation strategy to prevent subsequent DCS and VGE in subjects. Bubbles in the pulmonary artery (venous blood) were detected from the precordial position using Doppler ultrasound bubble detectors. The subjects were monitored for VGE for four min at about 15 min intervals for the duration of the altitude exposure, with maximum bubble grade assigned a Spencer Grade of IV.

  6. Symmetry Breaking for Black-Scholes Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xuan-Liu; ZHANG Shun-Li; QU Chang-Zheng

    2007-01-01

    Black-Scholes equation is used to model stock option pricing. In this paper, optimal systems with one to four parameters of Lie point symmetries for Black-Scholes equation and its extension are obtained. Their symmetry breaking interaction associated with the optimal systems is also studied. As a result, symmetry reductions and corresponding solutions for the resulting equations are obtained.

  7. Symmetry Breaking for Black-Scholes Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuan-Liu; Zhang, Shun-Li; Qu, Chang-Zheng

    2007-06-01

    Black-Scholes equation is used to model stock option pricing. In this paper, optimal systems with one to four parameters of Lie point symmetries for Black-Scholes equation and its extension are obtained. Their symmetry breaking interaction associated with the optimal systems is also studied. As a result, symmetry reductions and corresponding solutions for the resulting equations are obtained.

  8. Symmetry Breaking for Black-Scholes Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black-Scholes equation is used to model stock option pricing. In this paper, optimal systems with one to four parameters of Lie point symmetries for Black-Scholes equation and its extension are obtained. Their symmetry breaking interaction associated with the optimal systems is also studied. As a result, symmetry reductions and corresponding solutions for the resulting equations are obtained.

  9. Viable Gravity-Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Kribs, Graham D; Roy, Tuhin S

    2010-01-01

    We present a complete, viable model of gravity-mediated supersymmetry breaking that is safe from all flavor constraints. The central new idea is to employ a supersymmetry breaking sector without singlets, but with D-terms comparable to F-terms, causing supersymmetry breaking to be dominantly communicated through U(1)_R-symmetric operators. We construct a visible sector that is an extension of the MSSM where an \\emph{accidental} U(1)_R symmetry emerges naturally. Gauginos acquire Dirac masses from gravity-mediated D-terms, and tiny Majorana masses from anomaly-mediated contributions. Contributions to soft breaking scalar (mass)^2 arise from flavor-arbitrary gravity-induced F-terms plus one-loop finite flavor-blind contributions from Dirac gaugino masses. Renormalization group evolution of the gluino causes it to naturally increase nearly an order of magnitude larger than the squark masses. This hierarchy, combined with an accidentially U(1)_R-symmetric visible sector, nearly eliminates all flavor violation con...

  10. Where large deep-ocean waves break

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.; Climatoribus, A.; Gostiaux, L.

    2015-01-01

    Underwater topography like seamounts causes the breaking of large “internal waves” with associated turbulent mixing strongly affecting the redistribution of sediment. Here ocean turbulence is characterized and quantified in the lowest 100?m of the water column at three nearby sites above the slope o

  11. Lifshitz-sector mediated SUSY breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a novel mechanism of SUSY breaking by coupling a Lorentz-invariant supersymmetric matter sector to non-supersymmetric gravitational interactions with Lifshitz scaling. The improved UV properties of Lifshitz propagators moderate the otherwise uncontrollable ultraviolet divergences induced by gravitational loops. This ensures that both the amount of induced Lorentz violation and SUSY breaking in the matter sector are controlled by ΛHL2/MP2, the ratio of the Hořava-Lifshitz cross-over scale ΛHL to the Planck scale MP. This ratio can be kept very small, providing a novel way of explicitly breaking supersymmetry without reintroducing fine-tuning. We illustrate our idea by considering a model of scalar gravity with Hořava-Lifshitz scaling coupled to a supersymmetric Wess-Zumino matter sector, in which we compute the two-loop SUSY breaking corrections to the masses of the light scalars due to the gravitational interactions and the heavy fields

  12. Fragmentation in DNA double-strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA double strand breaks are important lesions induced by irradiations. Random breakage model or quantification supported by this concept is suitable to analyze DNA double strand break data induced by low LET radiation, but deviation from random breakage model is more evident in high LET radiation data analysis. In this work we develop a new method, statistical fragmentation model, to analyze the fragmentation process of DNA double strand breaks. After charged particles enter the biological cell, they produce ionizations along their tracks, and transfer their energies to the cells and break the cellular DNA strands into fragments. The probable distribution of the fragments is obtained under the condition in which the entropy is maximum. Under the approximation E≅E0 + E1l + E2l2, the distribution functions are obtained as exp(αl + βl2). There are two components, the one proportional to exp(βl2), mainly contributes to the low mass fragment yields, the other component, proportional to exp(αl), decreases slowly as the mass of the fragments increases. Numerical solution of the constraint equations provides parameters α and β. Experimental data, especially when the energy deposition is higher, support the statistical fragmentation model. (authors)

  13. Density Functional Simulation of a Breaking Nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakamura, A.; Brandbyge, Mads; Hansen, Lars Bruno;

    1999-01-01

    We study the deformation and breaking of an atomic-sized sodium wire using density functional simulations. The wire deforms through sudden atomic rearrangements and smoother atomic displacements. The conductance of the wire exhibits plateaus at integer values in units of 2e(2)/h corresponding...

  14. Dynamical Symmetry Breaking in RN Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Kotvytskiy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that in the RN gravitation model, there is no dynamical symmetry breaking effect in the formalism of the Schwinger-Dyson equation (in flat background space-time. A general formula for the second variation of the gravitational action is obtained from the quantum corrections hμν (in arbitrary background metrics.

  15. Physical implications of dynamical symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some model-independent physical implications of a class of hypercolorbased theories of dynamical symmetry-breaking are described and discussed. The role which e+e- colliders can play, in distinguishing between such theories and the canonical methodology, is underlined

  16. Achromatic Breaks for Swift GRBs: Any Evidence?

    OpenAIRE

    S. Covino(INAF - Oss. Astronomico di Brera); Malesani, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Vergani, S.D.; Chincarini, G.; Kann, D. A.; A. Moretti(Fermilab, Batavia, IL, USA); Stella, L.

    2006-01-01

    The availability of multi-wavelength high-quality data of gamma-ray burst afterglows in the Swift era, contrary to the expectations, did not allow us to fully confirm yet one of the most fundamental features of the standard afterglow picture: the presence of an achromatic break in the decaying light curve. We briefly review the most interesting cases identified so far.

  17. Supersymmetry Breaking and the Cosmological Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Banks, T

    2014-01-01

    I review three attempts to explain the small value of the cosmological constant, and their connection to SUSY breaking. They are The String Landscape, Supersymmetric Large Extra Dimensions (SLED), and the Holographic Space-time Formalism invented by Fischler and myself.

  18. Preventive aspects regarding back pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorner, Thomas E; Crevenna, Richard

    2016-02-01

    Prevention, as the act of keeping from happening, aims to avert things that would occur if no intervention would be taken. From the epidemiology of back pain, consequences of the disease that are worth preventing can be derived. Biological, psychological, and social factors lead to back pain and chronification and ultimately to various adverse outcomes. The most important preventable consequences of back pain include loss of ability to function in daily life, loss of work productivity, sickness absence, and disability pension, excessive and inappropriate healthcare utilisation, impairments in quality of life, and disturbance of sexual life. The most important tools for prevention of back pain lie within rehabilitation after acute pain treatment and include exercise and physical training as well as health education and increasing health literacy. The bio-psycho-social nature of back pain must be taken into account in all preventive measures. PMID:26695480

  19. 1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 prevents bone loss of the secondary spongiosa in arthritic rats by an increase of bone formation and mineralization and inhibition of bone resorption

    OpenAIRE

    Oelzner, Peter; Petrow, Peter K; Wolf, Gunter; Bräuer, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Background Active vitamin D metabolites have been shown to have protective effects in experimental arthritis especially when used as preventive treatment. However, because the direct effects of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH) 2D3) on bone formation and resorption are very complex, the net effect of 1,25(OH)2D3 on histomorphometric parameters of bone turnover and mineralisation should be investigated. Therefore, we examined the influence of 1,25(OH)2D3 therapy on arthritis-induced alteratio...

  20. Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Foster, John V.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to fatal aircraft accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. To gain a better understanding into aircraft loss-of-control events and possible intervention strategies, this paper presents a detailed analysis of loss-of-control accident data (predominantly from Part 121), including worst case combinations of causal and contributing factors and their sequencing. Future potential risks are also considered.

  1. MODELING DAM-BREAK FLOOD OVER NATURAL RIVERS USING DISCONTINUOUS GALERKIN METHOD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAI Wencong; KHAN Abdul A.

    2012-01-01

    A well-balanced numerical model is presented for two-dimensional,depth-averaged,shallow water flows based on the Discontinuous Galerkin (DG) method.The model is applied to simulate dam-brcak flood in natural rivers with wet/dry bed and complex topography.To eliminate numerical imbalance,the pressure force and bed slope terms are combined in the shallow water flow equations.For partially wet/dry elements,a treatment of the source term that preserves the well-balanced property is presented.A treatment for modeling flow over initially dry bed is presented.Numerical results show that the time step used is related to the dry bed criterion.The intercell numerical flux in the DG method is computed by the Harten-Lax-van Contact (HLLC) approximate Riemann solver.A two-dimensional slope limiting procedure is employed to prevent spurious oscillation.The robustness and accuracy of the model are demonstrated through several test cases,including dam-break flow in a channel with three bumps,laboratory dam-break tests over a triangular bump and an L-shape bend,dam-break flood in the Paute River,and the Malpasset dam-break case.Numerical results show that the model is robust and accurate to simulate dam-break flood over natural rivers with complex geometry and wet/dry beds.

  2. Living with vision loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetes - vision loss; Retinopathy - vision loss; Low vision; Blindness - vision loss ... Low vision is a visual disability. Wearing regular glasses or contacts does not help. People with low vision have ...

  3. Economic Loan Loss Provision and Expected Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hlawatsch

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The intention of a loan loss provision is the anticipation of the loan's expected losses by adjusting the book value of the loan. Furthermore, this loan loss provision has to be compared to the expected loss according to Basel II and, in the case of a difference, liable equity has to be adjusted. This however assumes that the loan loss provision and the expected loss are based on a similar economic rationale, which is only valid conditionally in current loan loss provisioning methods according to IFRS. Therefore, differences between loan loss provisions and expected losses should only result from different approaches regarding the parameter estimation within each model and not due to different assumptions regarding the outcome of the model. The provisioning and accounting model developed in this paper overcomes the before-mentioned shortcomings and is consistent with an economic rationale of expected losses. Additionally, this model is based on a close-to-market valuation of the loan that is in favor of the basic idea of IFRS. Suggestions for changes in current accounting and capital requirement rules are provided.

  4. Young People: Taking Few Precautions Against Hearing Loss in Discotheques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, I.; Brug, J.; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Raat, H.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated adolescents' music-listening risk and protective behaviors in discotheques. While frequently standing close to the loudspeakers, taking few breaks, and hardly using hearing-protection devices, many are at risk of developing permanent hearing loss. Assessing visiting mode may be

  5. Information loss, made worse by quantum gravity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eBojowald

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Quantum gravity is often expected to solve both the singularity problem and the information-loss problem of black holes. This article presents an example from loop quantum gravity in which the singularity problem is solved in such a way that the information-loss problem is made worse. Quantum effects in this scenario, in contrast to previous non-singular models, do not eliminate the event horizon and introduce a new Cauchy horizon where determinism breaks down. Although infinities are avoided, for all practical purposes the core of the black hole plays the role of a naked singularity. Recent developments in loop quantum gravity indicate that this aggravated information loss problem is likely to be the generic outcome, putting strong conceptual pressure on the theory.

  6. The break of medical confidentiality for the benefit of public health: a controversial topic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papageorgiou Ε.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This paper refers to the decision made by the Greek Government to publish photographs and personal data of HIV positive sex workers on the grounds of protecting public health. Method: Initially, the law and theoretical background of medical confidentiality and its break were reviewed and then the conditions and data that led to the specific decision made by the Greek Authorities were investigated. Also the contribution of NGOs in the prevention of Public Health was studied. Conclusion: The survey showed that in this particular case the break of confidentiality was excessive and biased due to the origin and illegal activity of the women. A proper solution to the HIV/AIDS outbreak would be the intensification of prevention. In this sector, NGOs can and should play an active role considering that the primary care in Greece, especially during the economic crisis, shows organizational and operational weaknesses.

  7. Radiation-induced DNA strand breaks and the relationship between strand breaks and fecundity in mosquitofish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosquitofish (Gambusia affines) were collected from a small pond on the US DOE reservation that is contaminated with 137Cs, 90Sr and other radionuclides. Fish from non-contaminated populations were also collected. DNA was isolated from both the liver and the blood and examined for DNA single- and double-strand breaks by gel electrophoresis. In general, both single- and double-strand DNA breaks were more prevalent in fish from radionuclide-contaminated sites than from uncontaminated sites. In addition, there were more double-strand than single-strand breaks in DNA from contaminated fish, and more strand breaks in blood cell than in liver DNA. Also, fecundity and number of malformed embryos were determined in fish from all sites. It was found that, for fish from the contaminated site, the number of DNA strand breaks was negatively correlated with fecundity, and that females with malformed embryos in their broods had more DNA strand breaks than did females with no malformed embryos. These findings have implications for both ecological risk assessment and evolutionary ecology

  8. The Role of Preventive Medicine in Childhood Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Gokhan Berktug Bahadir; Akgun Oral; Ahmet Guven

    2011-01-01

    Death or fatal complications due to childhood trauma may lead to loss of human and human-power, leeway and financial losses. The most important step in preventing trauma and deaths related to trauma is which it is known that the trauma can be prevented it is even an unpredictable event. Therefore, \\"the risk of injury\\" and \\"injury prevention\\" in childhood must be comprehended and interested in by anyone. In this review, the problems leading to trauma, prevention methods and preventive medi...

  9. A role for Ddc1 in signaling meiotic double-strand breaks at the pachytene checkpoint

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Eun-Jin Erica; Roeder, G. Shirleen

    2002-01-01

    The pachytene checkpoint prevents meiotic cell cycle progression in response to unrepaired recombination intermediates. We show that Ddc1 is required for the pachytene checkpoint in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. During meiotic prophase, Ddc1 localizes to chromosomes and becomes phosphorylated; these events depend on the formation and processing of double-strand breaks (DSBs). Ddc1 colocalizes with Rad51, a DSB-repair protein, indicating that Ddc1 associates with sites of DSB repair. The Rad24 che...

  10. 77 FR 20493 - National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-05

    ... Documents#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8791 of April 2, 2012 National Child Abuse Prevention Month, 2012 By the... National Child Abuse Prevention Month, we renew our commitment to break the cycle of violence, strengthen... half a million American children suffer neglect or abuse every year. A strong and well-informed...

  11. Preventative Maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Migliorino, James

    Boards of education must be convinced that spending money up front for preventive maintenance will, in the long run, save districts' tax dollars. A good program of preventive maintenance can minimize disruption of service; reduce repair costs, energy consumption, and overtime; improve labor productivity and system equipment reliability; handle…

  12. Poison Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevention Listen Español Text Size Email Print Share Poison Prevention Page Content Article Body Post the Poison Help number 1-800-222-1222 on the ... or empty container of a toxic substance, call Poison Help immediately. More than a million American children ...

  13. Preventing Falls

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from osteoporosis. Lower-body strength exercises and balance exercises can help you prevent falls and avoid the disability that may result from falling. Here are some fall prevention tips from Go4Life : l Have your eyes and hearing tested often. Always wear your glasses when you ...

  14. Preventing Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Center for Injury Prevention and Control, Division of Violence Prevention Page maintained by: Office of the Associate Director for Communication, Digital Media Branch, Division of Public Affairs Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC Jobs ...

  15. Fractional Branes and Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Franco, S; Saad, F; Uranga, Angel M; Franco, Sebastian; Hanany, Amihay; Saad, Fouad; Uranga, Angel M.

    2006-01-01

    We study the dynamics of fractional branes at toric singularities, including cones over del Pezzo surfaces and the recently constructed Y^{p,q} theories. We find that generically the field theories on such fractional branes show dynamical supersymmetry breaking, due to the appearance of non-perturbative superpotentials. In special cases, one recovers the known cases of supersymmetric infrared behaviors, associated to SYM confinement (mapped to complex deformations of the dual geometries, in the gauge/string correspondence sense) or N=2 fractional branes. In the supersymmetry breaking cases, when the dynamics of closed string moduli at the singularity is included, the theories show a runaway behavior (involving moduli such as FI terms or equivalently dibaryonic operators), rather than stable non-supersymmetric minima. We comment on the implications of this gauge theory behavior for the infrared smoothing of the dual warped throat solutions with 3-form fluxes, describing duality cascades ending in such field th...

  16. The Radiative Z2 Breaking Twin Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Jiang-Hao

    2016-01-01

    In twin Higgs model, the Higgs boson mass is protected by a $Z_2$ symmetry. The $Z_2$ symmetry needs to be broken either explicitly or spontaneously to obtain misalignment between electroweak and new physics vacua. We propose a novel $Z_2$ breaking mechanism, in which the $Z_2$ is spontaneously broken by radiative corrections to the Higgs potential. Two twin Higgses with different vacua are needed, and vacuum misalignment is realized by opposite but comparable contributions from gauge and Yukawa interactions to the potential. Due to fully radiative symmetry breaking, the Higgs sector is completely determined by twin Higgs vacuum, Yukawa and gauge couplings. There are eight pseudo-Goldstone bosons: the Higgs boson, inert doublet Higgs, and three twin scalars. We show the 125 GeV Higgs mass and constraints from Higgs coupling measurements could be satisfied.

  17. Mechanics of breaking coal by water jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Z.; Xi, B.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, L. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

    2008-09-15

    It is presumed that the elastic modulus and compressive strength of inhomogeneous rock conform to the Weibull distribution. The methods of breaking inhomogeneous rock by water jet and the threshold pressure of the water jet were deduced using percolation theory. Continuous drilling in the inhomogeneous coal by water jet was numerically simulated by the finite element method and an experiment of breaking coal by water jet was carried out. The study indicated that under the pressure of water jets, the low strength cells in inhomogeneous rock are first destroyed and a crack is created. The effect of a water wedge occurring by the water jet entering the crack space produces a tensile stress concentration at the tip of a crack, so cracks expand rapidly and converge gradually. Eventually the rock is fragmented and a cracked pit forms. The length of a crack in coal caused by a water jet at 60 MPa is over 0.5 m. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  18. Dynamics of Symmetry Breaking and Tachyonic Preheating

    CERN Document Server

    Felder, G; Greene, P B; Kofman, L A; Linde, Andrei D; Tkachev, Igor I; Felder, Gary; Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Greene, Patrick B.; Kofman, Lev; Linde, Andrei; Tkachev, Igor

    2001-01-01

    We reconsider the old problem of the dynamics of spontaneous symmetry breaking using 3d lattice simulations, and develop a theory of tachyonic preheating, which occurs due to the spinodal instability of the scalar field. Tachyonic preheating is so efficient that symmetry breaking typically completes within a single oscillation of the field distribution as it rolls towards the minimum of its effective potential. As an application of this theory we consider preheating in the hybrid inflation scenario, including SUSY-motivated F-term and D-term inflationary models. We show that preheating in hybrid inflation is typically tachyonic and the stage of oscillations of a homogeneous component of the scalar fields driving inflation ends after a single oscillation. Our results may also be relevant for the theory of the formation of disoriented chiral condensates in heavy ion collisions.

  19. Four Generations: SUSY and SUSY Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Godbole, Rohini M; Wingerter, Akin

    2009-01-01

    We revisit four generations within the context of supersymmetry. We compute the perturbativity limits for the fourth generation Yukawa couplings and show that if the masses of the fourth generation lie within reasonable limits of their present experimental lower bounds, it is possible to have perturbativity only up to scales around 1000 TeV. Such low scales are ideally suited to incorporate gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking, where the mediation scale can be as low as 10-20 TeV. The minimal messenger model, however, is highly constrained. While lack of electroweak symmetry breaking rules out a large part of the parameter space, a small region exists, where the fourth generation stau is tachyonic. General gauge mediation with its broader set of boundary conditions is better suited to accommodate the fourth generation.

  20. A Fourth Chiral Generation And Susy Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Wingerter, Akin

    2011-01-01

    We revisit four generations within the context of supersymmetry. We compute the perturbativity limits for the fourth generation Yukawa couplings and show that if the masses of the fourth generation lie within reasonable limits of their present experimental lower bounds, it is possible to have perturbativity only up to scales around 1000 TeV, i.e. the current experimental bounds and perturbative unification are mutually exclusive. Such low scales are ideally suited to incorporate gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking, where the mediation scale can be as low as 10-20 TeV. The minimal messenger model, however, is highly constrained. Lack of electroweak symmetry breaking rules out a large part of the parameter space, and in the remaining part, the fourth generation stau is tachyonic.

  1. Electroweak symmetry breaking: Higgs/whatever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first of these two lectures the Higgs mechanism is reviewed in its most general form, which does not necessarily require the existence of Higgs bosons. The general consequences of the hypothesis that electroweak symmetry breaking is due to the Higgs mechanism are deduced just from gauge invariance and unitarity. In the second lecture the general properties are illustrated with three specific models: the Weinberg-Salam model, its minimal supersymmetric extension, and technicolor. The second lecture concludes with a discussion of the experiment signals for strong WW scattering, whose presence or absence will allow us to determine whether the symmetry breaking sector lies above or below 1 TeV. 57 refs

  2. Symmetry breaking in non conservative systems

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Pérez, N E

    2016-01-01

    We apply Noether's theorem to show how the invariances of conservative systems are broken for nonconservative systems, in the variational formulation of Galley. This formulation considers a conservative action, extended by the inclusion of a time reversed sector and a nonconservative generalized potential. We assume that this potential is invariant under the symmetries of the initial conservative system. The breaking occurs because the time reversed sector requires inverse symmetry transformations, under which the nonconservative potential is not invariant. The resulting violation of the conservation laws is consistent with the equations of motion. We generalize this formulation for fermionic and sypersymmetric systems. In the case of a supersymmetric oscillator, the effect of damping is that the bosonic and fermionic components become different frequencies. Considering that initially the nonconservative action is invariant under supersymmetry, and that the breaking is associated to an instability, this resul...

  3. Cosmology of biased discrete symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelmini, Graciela B.; Gleiser, Marcelo; Kolb, Edward W.

    1988-01-01

    The cosmological consequences of spontaneous breaking of an approximate discrete symmetry are studied. The breaking leads to formation of proto-domains of false and true vacuum separated by domain walls of thickness determined by the mass scale of the model. The cosmological evolution of the walls is extremely sensitive to the magnitude of the biasing; several scenarios are possible, depending on the interplay between the surface tension on the walls and the volume pressure from the biasing. Walls may disappear almost immediately after they form, or may live long enough to dominate the energy density of the Universe and cause power-law inflation. Limits are obtained on the biasing that characterizes each possible scenario.

  4. Nuclear break-up of 11Be

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, V; Lacroix, D; Blumenfeld, Y; Bourgeois, C; Chabot, M; Chomaz, Ph; Désesquelles, P; Duflot, V; Duprat, J; Fallot, M; Frascaria, N; Grévy, S; Guillemaud-Müller, D; Roussel-Chomaz, P; Savajols, H; Sorlin, O

    2007-01-01

    The break-up of 11Be was studied at 41AMeV using a secondary beam of 11Be from the GANIL facility on a 48Ti target by measuring correlations between the 10Be core, the emitted neutrons and gamma rays. The nuclear break-up leading to the emission of a neutron at large angle in the laboratory frame is identified with the towing mode through its characteristic n-fragment correlation. The experimental spectra are compared with a model where the time dependent Schrodinger equation (TDSE) is solved for the neutron initially in the 11 Be. A good agreement is found between experiment and theory for the shapes of neutron experimental energies and angular distributions. The spectroscopic factor of the 2s orbital is tentatively extracted to be 0.46+-0.15. The neutron emission from the 1p and 1d orbitals is also studied.

  5. Isospin breaking in octet baryon mass splittings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Najjar, J. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Pleiter, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Juelich Supercomputer Centre; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Division; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics

    2012-06-15

    Using an SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion in the quark mass, we determine the QCD component of the nucleon, Sigma and Xi mass splittings of the baryon octet due to up-down (and strange) quark mass differences in terms of the kaon mass splitting. Provided the average quark mass is kept constant, the expansion coefficients in our procedure can be determined from computationally cheaper simulations with mass degenerate sea quarks and partially quenched valence quarks. Both the linear and quadratic terms in the SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion are considered; it is found that the quadratic terms only change the result by a few percent, indicating that the expansion is highly convergent.

  6. Isospin breaking in octet baryon mass splittings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using an SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion in the quark mass, we determine the QCD component of the nucleon, Sigma and Xi mass splittings of the baryon octet due to up-down (and strange) quark mass differences in terms of the kaon mass splitting. Provided the average quark mass is kept constant, the expansion coefficients in our procedure can be determined from computationally cheaper simulations with mass degenerate sea quarks and partially quenched valence quarks. Both the linear and quadratic terms in the SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion are considered; it is found that the quadratic terms only change the result by a few percent, indicating that the expansion is highly convergent.

  7. Collective neutrino oscillations and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Huaiyu

    2015-08-01

    Neutrino oscillations in a hot and dense astrophysical environment such as a core-collapse supernova pose a challenging, seven-dimensional flavor transport problem. To make the problem even more difficult (and interesting), neutrinos can experience collective oscillations through nonlinear refraction in the dense neutrino medium in this environment. Significant progress has been made in the last decade towards the understanding of collective neutrino oscillations in various simplified neutrino gas models with imposed symmetries and reduced dimensions. However, a series of recent studies seem to have "reset" this progress by showing that these models may not be compatible with collective neutrino oscillations because the latter can break the symmetries spontaneously if they are not imposed. We review some of the key concepts of collective neutrino oscillations by using a few simple toy models. We also elucidate the breaking of spatial and directional symmetries in these models because of collective oscillations.

  8. Collective neutrino oscillations and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, Huaiyu

    2015-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations in a hot and dense astrophysical environment such as a core-collapse supernova pose a challenging, seven-dimensional flavor transport problem. To make the problem even more difficult (and interesting), neutrinos can experience collective oscillations through nonlinear refraction in the dense neutrino medium in this environment. Significant progress has been made in the last decade towards the understanding of collective neutrino oscillations in various simplified neutrino gas models with imposed symmetries and reduced dimensions. However, a series of recent studies seem to have "reset" this progress by showing that these models may not be compatible with collective neutrino oscillations because the latter can break the symmetries spontaneously if they are not imposed. We review some of the key concepts of collective neutrino oscillations by using a few simple toy models. We also elucidate the breaking of spatial and directional symmetries in these models because of collective oscillation...

  9. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in loop quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helesfai, G [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Eoetvoes University, Pazmany Peter setany 1/A, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary)], E-mail: heles@manna.elte.hu

    2008-12-07

    In this paper we investigate the question of how spontaneous symmetry breaking works in the framework of loop quantum gravity and compare it to the results obtained in the case of the Proca field, where we were able to quantize the theory in loop quantum gravity without introducing a Higgs field. We obtained that the Hamiltonian of the two systems is very similar, the only difference is an extra scalar field in the case of spontaneous symmetry breaking. This field can be identified as the field that carries the mass of the vector field. In the quantum regime this becomes a well-defined operator, which turns out to be a self-adjoint operator with continuous spectrum. To calculate the spectrum we used a new representation in the case of scalar fields, which in addition enabled us to rewrite the constraint equations to a finite system of linear partial differential equations. This made it possible to solve part of the constraints explicitly.

  10. Large eddy simulation of breaking waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Deigaard, Rolf

    2001-01-01

    the steepening and the overturning of the wave. At a given instant, the model domain is extended to three dimensions, and the two-dimensional flow field develops spontaneously three-dimensional flow features with turbulent eddies. After a few wave periods, stationary (periodic) conditions are achieved......A numerical model is used to simulate wave breaking, the large scale water motions and turbulence induced by the breaking process. The model consists of a free surface model using the surface markers method combined with a three-dimensional model that solves the flow equations. The turbulence...... is described by large eddy simulation where the larger turbulent features are simulated by solving the flow equations, and the small scale turbulence that is not resolved by the flow model is represented by a sub-grid model. A simple Smagorinsky sub-grid model has been used for the present simulations...

  11. Boost Breaking in the EFT of Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Delacretaz, Luca V; Senatore, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    If time-translations are spontaneously broken, so are boosts. This symmetry breaking pattern can be non-linearly realized by either just the Goldstone boson of time translations, or by four Goldstone bosons associated with time translations and boosts. In this paper we extend the Effective Field Theory of Multifield Inflation to consider the case in which the additional Goldstone bosons associated with boosts are light and coupled to the Goldstone boson of time translations. The symmetry breaking pattern forces a coupling to curvature so that the mass of the additional Goldstone bosons is predicted to be equal to $\\sqrt{2}H$ in the vast majority of the parameter space where they are light. This pattern therefore offers a natural way of generating self-interacting particles with Hubble mass during inflation. After constructing the general effective Lagrangian, we study how these particles mix and interact with the curvature fluctuations, generating potentially detectable non-Gaussian signals.

  12. A robust network of double-strand break repair pathways governs genome integrity during C. elegans development.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pontier, D.B.; Tijsterman, M.

    2009-01-01

    To preserve genomic integrity, various mechanisms have evolved to repair DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Depending on cell type or cell cycle phase, DSBs can be repaired error-free, by homologous recombination, or with concomitant loss of sequence information, via nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) o

  13. Breaking the Chain of Early Childhood Caries Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maxine Strickland

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Dental disease can have devas-tating effects on children who lack access to dental care. The US was shocked to learn of the recent death of a child from a caries related infection. The bio-logical basis of dental caries risk is usually considered interims of individual behavior. The role of the family and other more complex units of social organization in determining caries risk are not often appreciated. The transmission of caries causing bacteria from mothers (or other care givers having extensive contact with the child has been well docu-mented. In addition the age at which children are vulnerable to colonization with caries causing organisms is known. Despite the fact that the dental and scientific communities possess knowledge concerning the routs of caries transmission, efforts to implement preventive programs specifically targeting the reduction of caries transmission have been inconsistent. Working with and motivating families to prevent caries transmission should be the shared objective of researchers and clinicians. Armed with the available know-ledge, caries should not the thought of as an inevitable part of life. The goal of this essay is to challenge readers to empower people at risk to make decisions that enable them to break the chain of caries infection.

  14. Music and Video Gaming during Breaks

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shuyan; Schad, Daniel J.; Kuschpel, Maxim S.; Michael A Rapp; Heinz, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Different systems for habitual versus goal-directed control are thought to underlie human decision-making. Working memory is known to shape these decision-making systems and their interplay, and is known to support goal-directed decision making even under stress. Here, we investigated if and how decision systems are differentially influenced by breaks filled with diverse everyday life activities known to modulate working memory performance. We used a within-subject design where young adult...

  15. Wave breaking in tapered holey fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuguang Li; Lei Zhang; Bo Fu; Yi Zheng; Ying Han; Xingtao Zhao

    2011-01-01

    We numerically study the propagation of 1-ps laser pulse in three tapered holey fibers (THFs). The curvature indices of the concave, linear, and convex tapers are 2.0, 1.0, and 0.5, respectively. The central wavelength, located in the normal dispersion regime, is 800 nm. The nonlinear coefficient of the THFs increases from the initial 0.095 m-1· W-1 to the final 0.349 m-l·W-1. Wave breaking accompanied by oscillatory structures occurs near pulse edges, and sidelobes appear in the pulse spectrum. With the increase in propagation distance z, the pulse shape becomes broader and the pulse spectrum flattens. A concave THF is advantageous to the generation of wave breaking and enables easier achievement of super fiat spectra at short lengths.%@@ We numerically study the propagation of 1-ps laser pulse in three tapered holey fibers (THFs).The curvature indices of the concave, linear, and convex tapers are 2.0, 1.0, and 0.5, respectively.The central wavelength, located in the normal dispersion regime, is 800 nm.The nonlinear coefficient of the THFs increases from the initial 0.095 m-1.W-1 to the final 0.349 m-1.W-1.Wave breaking accompanied by oscillatory structures occurs near pulse edges, and sidelobes appear in the pulse spectrum.With the increase in propagation distance z, the pulse shape becomes broader and the pulse spectrum flattens.A concave THF is advantageous to the generation of wave breaking and enables easier achievement of super flat spectra at short lengths.

  16. Soft branes in supersymmetry-breaking backgrounds

    OpenAIRE

    McGuirk, Paul; Shiu, Gary; Ye, Fang

    2012-01-01

    We revisit the analysis of effective field theories resulting from non-supersymmetric perturbations to supersymmetric flux compactifications of the type-IIB superstring with an eye towards those resulting from the backreaction of a small number of anti-D3-branes. Independently of the background, we show that the low-energy Lagrangian describing the fluctuations of a stack of probe D3-branes exhibits soft supersymmetry breaking, despite perturbations to marginal operators that were not fully c...

  17. Breaking democracy with non renormalizable mass terms

    CERN Document Server

    Silva-Marcos, Joaquim I

    2001-01-01

    The exact democratic structure for the quark mass matrix, resulting from the action of the family symmetry group $A_{3L}\\times A_{3R}$, is broken by the vacuum expectation values of heavy singlet fields appearing in non renormalizable dimension 6 operators. Within this specific context of breaking of the family symmetry we formulate a very simple ansatz which leads to correct quark masses and mixings.

  18. Flavour Violation in Anomaly Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking

    OpenAIRE

    Allanach, B. C.; Hiller, G; Jones, D. R. T.; Slavich, P.(LPTHE, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Sorbonne Universités, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252, Paris, France)

    2009-01-01

    32 pages, 8 figures International audience We study squark flavour violation in the anomaly mediated supersymmetry broken (AMSB) minimal supersymmetric standard model. Analytical expressions for the three-generational squark mass matrices are derived. We show that the anomaly-induced soft breaking terms have a decreasing amount of squark flavour violation when running from the GUT to the weak scale. Taking into account inter-generational squark mixing, we work out non-trivial constraint...

  19. Electroweak Symmetry Breaking Beyond the Standard Model

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharyya, Gautam

    2012-01-01

    In this talk, I shall address two key issues related to electroweak symmetry breaking. First, how fine-tuned different models are that trigger this phenomenon? Second, even if a light Higgs boson exists, does it have to be necessarily elementary? After a brief introduction, I shall first review the fine-tuning aspects of the MSSM, NMSSM, generalized NMSSM and GMSB scenarios. I shall then compare and contrast the little Higgs, composite Higgs and the Higgsless models. Finally, I shall summariz...

  20. How does DNA break during chromosomal translocations?

    OpenAIRE

    Nambiar, Mridula; Raghavan, Sathees C.

    2011-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations are one of the most common types of genetic rearrangements and are molecular signatures for many types of cancers. They are considered as primary causes for cancers, especially lymphoma and leukemia. Although many translocations have been reported in the last four decades, the mechanism by which chromosomes break during a translocation remains largely unknown. In this review, we summarize recent advances made in understanding the molecular mechanism of chromosomal t...