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Sample records for breaks prevents loss

  1. An on-line pressurizer surveillance system design to prevent small-break loss-of-coolant accidents through power-operated relief valves using a microcomputer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.H.; Chang, S.H.

    1987-01-01

    A small-break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) caused by a stuck-open power-operated relief valve is one of the important contributors to nuclear power plant risk. A pressurizer surveillance system was designed to use a microcomputer to prevent the malfunction of the system; the effect of this improvement has been assessed through probabilistic risk assessment. The microcomputer diagnoses the malfunction of the system by a process-checking method and automatically performs the backup action related to each malfunction. This improvement means that we can correctly diagnose ''spurious opening,'' ''failure to reclose,'' and ''small-break LOCA,'' which are difficult for operators to diagnose quickly and correctly, and by taking automatic backup action one can reduce the probability of human error

  2. Small break loss of coolant accidents: Bottom and side break

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, P.G.; Richter, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    A LOCA can be caused, e.g. by a small break in the primary cooling system. The rate of fluid escaping through such a break will define the time until the core will be uncovered. Therefore the prediction of fluid loss and pressure transient is of major importance to plan for timely action in response to such an event. Stratification of the two phases might be present upstream of the break, thus, the location of the break relative to the vapor-liquid interface and the overall upstream fluid conditions are relevant for the calculation of fluid loss. Experimental results and analyses are presented here for small breaks at the bottom or at the side of a small pressure vessel. It was found that in such a case the onset of the so-called ''vapor pull through'' is important but swelling at sufficient depressurization rates of the liquid due to flashing is also of significance. It was also discovered that in the bottom break the flow rate is strongly dependent on the break entrance quality of the vapour-liquid mixture. The side break can be treated similarly to the bottom break if the interface level is above the break. The analyses developed on the basis of experimental observations showed reasonable agreement of predicted and measured pressure transients. It was possible to calculate the changing interface level and mixture void fraction history in a way compatible with the behavior observed during the experiments. Even though the experiments were performed at low pressures, this work should help to get a better understanding of physical phenomena occurring in a full scale small break LOCA. (orig./HP)

  3. Small break LOCA [loss of coolant accident] mitigation for Bellefonte

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayless, P.D.; Dobbe, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Several 5-cm (2-in.) diameter cold leg break loss coolant accidents for the Bellefonte nuclear plant were analyzed as part of the Severe Accident Sequence Analysis Program. The transients assumed various system failures, and included the S 2 D sequence. Operator actions to mitigate the S 2 D transient were also investigated. The transients were analyzed until either core damage began or long-term decay heat removal was established. The S 2 D sequence was analyzed into the core damage phase of the transient. The analyses showed that the flow from one high pressure injection pump was necessary and sufficient to prevent core damage in the absence of operator actions. Operator actions were also able to prevent core damage for the S 2 D sequence

  4. Review on research of small break loss of coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bo Jinhai; Wang Fei

    1998-01-01

    The Small Break Loss of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) and its research art-of -work are reviewed. A typical SBLOCA process in Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) and Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) and the influence of break size, break location and reactor coolant pump on the process are described. The existing papers are classified in two categories: experimental and numerical modeling, with the primary experimental apparatuses in the world listed and the research works on SBLOCA summarized

  5. Noise and Hearing Loss Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . NOISE AND HEARING LOSS PREVENTION Language: English (US) Español ( ... when hazardous noise levels cannot be adequately reduced. Noise and Hearing Loss on the NIOSH Science Blog ...

  6. Peaking cladding temperature and break equivalent size of intermediate break loss of coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Bangqi

    2012-01-01

    The analysis results of intermediate break loss of coolant accident for the nuclear power plant of million kw level showed to be as following: (1) At the begin of life, the break occur simultaneity reactor shutdown with L(X)P. it's equivalent break size and peaking cladding temperature is respectively 20 cm and 849℃. (2) At the begin of life, the break occur simultaneity reactor shutdown without loop. the reactor coolant pumps will be stop after reactor shutdown 10 minutes, it's equivalent break size and peaking cladding temperature is respectively 10.5 cm and 921℃. (3) At the bur up of 31 GWd/t(EOC1). the break occur simultaneity reactor shutdown without loop, the reactor coolant pumps will be stop after reactor shutdown 20 minutes, it's equivalent break size and peaking cladding temperature is respectively 8 cm and 1145℃. The above analysis results showed that the peaking cladding temperature of intermediate break loss of coolant accident is not only related with the break equivalent size and core bur up, and is closely related with the stop time of coolant pumps because the coolant pumps would drive the coolant from safety system to produce the seal loop in break loop and affect the core coolant flow, results in the fuel cladding temperature increasing or damaging. Therefore, the break spectrum, burn up spectrum, the stop time of coolant pumps and operator action time will need to detail analysis and provide appropriate operating procedure, otherwise the peaking cladding temperature will exceed 1204℃ and threaten the safety of the reactor core when the intermediate break loss of coolant accident occur in some break equivalent size, burn up, stop pumps time and operator action not appropriate. The pressurizer pressure low signal simultaneity containment pressure higher signal were used as the operator manual close the signal of reactor coolant pumps after reactor shutdown of 20 minutes. have successful solved the operator intervention time from 10 minutes

  7. Break spectrum analyses for small break loss of coolant accidents in a RESAR-3S Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, C.D.; Kullberg, C.M.

    1986-03-01

    A series of thermal-hydraulic analyses were performed to investigate phenomena occurring during small break loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) sequences in a RESAR-3S pressurized water reactor. The analysis included simulations of plant behavior using the TRAC-PF1 and RELAP5/MOD2 computer codes. Series of calculations were performed using both codes for different break sizes. The analyses presented here also served an audit function in that the results shown here were used by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as an independent confirmation of similar analyses performed by Westinghouse Electric Company using another computer code. 10 refs., 62 figs., 14 tabs

  8. Responses to Small Break Loss of Coolant Accidents for SMART

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Kyoo Hwan; Kim, Hee C.; Chang, Moon H.; Zee, Sung Q.; Kim, Si-Hwan; Lee, Un-Chul

    2004-01-01

    The SMART NSSS adopts the design characteristics of containing most of the primary circuit components, such as the reactor core, main coolant pumps (MCPs), steam generators (SGs), and N 2 gas pressurizer (PZR) in a single leak-tight Reactor Pressure Vessel (RPV) with a relatively large ratio of the primary coolant inventory to the core power compared to the conventional loop-type PWR. Due to these design characteristics, the SMART can fundamentally eliminate the possibility of Large Break Loss of Coolant Accidents (LBLOCAs), improve the natural circulation capability, and assure a sufficient time to mitigate the possibility of core uncover. Also, SMART adopts inherent safety improving features and passive engineered safety systems such as the substantially large negative moderator temperature coefficients, passive residual heat removal system, emergency core cooling system, and a steel-made leak-tight Safeguard Vessel (SV) housing the RPV. This paper presents the results of the safety analyses using a MARS/SMR code for the instantaneous guillotine ruptures of the major pipelines penetrating the RPV. The analysis results, employing conservative initial/boundary conditions and assumptions, show that the safety systems of the SMART basic design adequately remove the core decay heat without causing core uncover for all the cases of the Small Break Loss of Coolant Accidents (SBLOCAs). The sensitivity study results with variable SV conditions show that the reduced SV net free volume can shorten the time for reaching the thermal and mechanical equilibrium condition between the RPV and SV. Under these boundary conditions, the primary system inventory loss can be minimized and the core remains covered for a longer period of time without any makeup of the coolant. (authors)

  9. Information Security - Data Loss Prevention Procedure

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this procedure is to extend and provide specificity to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Information Security Policy regarding data loss prevention and digital rights management.

  10. Preventing Vision Loss in Diabetes - Summary

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2008-04-24

    This podcast is for a professional audience and briefly discusses how to prevent vision loss in people with diabetes.  Created: 4/24/2008 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP), Division of Diabetes Translation (DDT), National Diabetes Education Program (NDEP).   Date Released: 6/4/2008.

  11. Simulation of small break loss of coolant accident using relap 5/ MOD 2 computer code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Megahed, M.M.

    1992-01-01

    An assessment of relap 5 / MOD 2/Cycle 36.05 best estimate computer code capabilities in predicting the thermohydraulic response of a PWR following a small break loss of coolant accident is presented. The experimental data base for the evaluation is the results of Test S-N H-3 performed in the semi scale MOD-2 c Test facility which modeled a 0.5% small break loss of coolant accident with an accompanying failure of the high pressure injection emergency core cooling system. A conclusion was reached that the code is capable of making small break loss of coolant accident calculations efficiently. However, some of the small break loss of coolant accident related phenomena were not properly predicted by the code, suggesting a need for code improvement.9 fig., 3 tab

  12. Uncovering effective strategies for hearing loss prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morata, Thais C.; Meinke, Deanna

    2016-01-01

    Occupational health agencies, researchers and policy makers have recognized the need for evidence on the effectiveness of interventions designed to reduce or prevent workplace injuries and illnesses. While many workplaces comply with legal or obligatory requirements and implement recommended interventions, few publications exist documenting the effectiveness of these actions. Additionally, some workplaces have discovered through their own processes, novel ways to reduce the risk of injury. Peer-reviewed information on the effectiveness of the many strategies and approaches currently in use could help correct weaknesses, or further encourage their adoption and expansion. The evaluation of intervention effectiveness would certainly contribute to improved worker health and safety. This need is particularly relevant regarding noise exposure in the workplace and hearing loss prevention interventions. In a 2006 review of the U.S. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Hearing Loss Research Program, the independent National Academies of Sciences recommended that NIOSH place greater emphasis on identifying the effectiveness of hearing loss prevention measures on the basis of outcomes that are as closely related as possible to reducing noise exposure and work related hearing loss (http://www.nap.edu/openbook.php?record_id=11721). NIOSH used two different approaches to address that recommendation: the first one was to conduct research, including broad systematic reviews on the effectiveness of interventions to prevent occupational noise-induced hearing loss. The second was to create an award program, the Safe-In-Sound Excellence in Hearing Loss Prevention Award™, to identify and honor excellent real-world examples of noise control and other hearing loss prevention practices and innovations. PMID:27397968

  13. Primary break with total loss of high pressure safety injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordelle, F.; Champ, M.; Pochard, R.

    1988-10-01

    The probabilitic safety assessment of a 900 MW plant has displayed the potential importance, with regard to the risk, of intermediate primary breaks with failure of the high pressure safety injection system. The probability of such sequence is about 10 -6 /plant X year. Therefore, it is necessary to establish: - if this sequence can lead to core melt down, - if clad ruptures can occur. This event must be taken into account to determine the repair time of contaminated systems. For these studies, a three inch equivalent diameter break is considerd, as this is the most sensitive in its category with regard to these phenomena. In addition to the above objectives, the purpose of these studies is to evaluate the sensitivity of the results to the following parameters: - the time limit at which the operator starts cooling down the plant via the steam generators. Two calculations have been made with the RELAP code (1 and 2) and two with the CATHARE code (3 and 4) - the pump trip time. Four calculations have been made with the CATHARE code (5, 6, 7 and 8). In the case of failure of only one high pressure safety injection file, 6 calculations have been made with the CATHARE code, concerning the influence of pump trip time (9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14)

  14. Infertility and Perinatal Loss: When the Bough Breaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byatt, Nancy

    2016-01-01

    Infertility and perinatal loss are common, and associated with lower quality of life, marital discord, complicated grief, major depressive disorder, anxiety disorders, and posttraumatic stress disorder. Young women, who lack social supports, have experienced recurrent pregnancy loss or a history of trauma and / or preexisting psychiatric illness are at a higher risk of experiencing psychiatric illnesses or symptoms after a perinatal loss or during infertility. It is especially important to detect, assess, and treat depression, anxiety, or other psychiatric symptoms because infertility or perinatal loss may be caused or perpetuated by such symptoms. Screening, psychoeducation, provision of resources and referrals, and an opportunity to discuss their loss and plan for future pregnancies can facilitate addressing mental health concerns that arise. Women at risk of or who are currently experiencing psychiatric symptoms should receive a comprehensive treatment plan that includes the following: (1) proactive clinical monitoring, (2) evidence-based approaches to psychotherapy, and (3) discussion of risks, benefits, and alternatives of medication treatment during preconception and pregnancy. PMID:26847216

  15. Breaks in the 45S rDNA Lead to Recombination-Mediated Loss of Repeats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniël O. Warmerdam

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available rDNA repeats constitute the most heavily transcribed region in the human genome. Tumors frequently display elevated levels of recombination in rDNA, indicating that the repeats are a liability to the genomic integrity of a cell. However, little is known about how cells deal with DNA double-stranded breaks in rDNA. Using selective endonucleases, we show that human cells are highly sensitive to breaks in 45S but not the 5S rDNA repeats. We find that homologous recombination inhibits repair of breaks in 45S rDNA, and this results in repeat loss. We identify the structural maintenance of chromosomes protein 5 (SMC5 as contributing to recombination-mediated repair of rDNA breaks. Together, our data demonstrate that SMC5-mediated recombination can lead to error-prone repair of 45S rDNA repeats, resulting in their loss and thereby reducing cellular viability.

  16. Investigation of small break loss-of-coolant phenomena in a small scale nonnuclear test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzuol, J.M.; Fauble, T.J.; Harvego, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    A small-scale nonnuclear integral test facility designed to simulate a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system was used to evaluate the effects of a small break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) on the system thermal-hydraulic response. The experiment approximated a 2.5% (11-cm diameter) communicative break in the cold leg of a PWR, and included initial conditions which were similar to conditions in a PWR operating at full power. The 2.5% break size ensured that the nominal break flow rate was greater than the high pressure injection system (HPIS) flow rate, thus providing the potential for a continuous system depressurization. The sequence of events was similar to that used in evaluation model analysis of small break loss-of-coolant accidents, and included simulated reactor scram and loss of offsite power. Comparisions of experimental data with computer code calculations are used to demonstrate the capabilities and limitations of integral system calculations used to predict phenomena which can be important in the assessment of a small break LOCA in a PWR

  17. Obesity Prevention and Weight Maintenance After Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    German, Alexander James

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is one of the most prevalent medical diseases in pets. Outcomes are often disappointing; many animals either fail to reach target weight or regain weight. This article discusses managing obesity, focusing on prevention. It gives guidance on establishing monitoring programs that use regular body weight and condition assessments to identify animals at risk of inappropriate weight gain, enabling early intervention. Weight management in obese animals is a lifelong process. Regular weight and body condition monitoring are key to identifying animals that rebound early, while continuing to feed a therapeutic weight loss diet can help prevent it from happening. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Estimation of break location and size for loss of coolant accidents using neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Na, Man Gyun; Shin, Sun Ho; Jung, Dong Won; Kim, Soong Pyung; Jeong, Ji Hwan; Lee, Byung Chul

    2004-01-01

    In this work, a probabilistic neural network (PNN) that has been applied well to the classification problems is used in order to identify the break locations of loss of coolant accidents (LOCA) such as hot-leg, cold-leg and steam generator tubes. Also, a fuzzy neural network (FNN) is designed to estimate the break size. The inputs to PNN and FNN are time-integrated values obtained by integrating measurement signals during a short time interval after reactor scram. An automatic structure constructor for the fuzzy neural network automatically selects the input variables from the time-integrated values of many measured signals, and optimizes the number of rules and its related parameters. It is verified that the proposed algorithm identifies very well the break locations of LOCAs and also, estimate their break size accurately

  19. Assessment of RELAP/MOD2 using large break loss-of-coolant experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, L.; Liao, L.Y.; Liang, K.S.; Wang, S.F.; Chen, Y.B.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper assessment of RELAP5/MOD2 using LOFT L2-5 and Semiscale S-06-3 tests are performed to provide information of the code capability and its limitation in analyzing large break LOCA of a nuclear power plant. Experiments L2-5 and S-06-3 are conducted to simulate a hypothetical LOCA which results from a 200% double-ended offset shear break in the cold-leg of a typical pressurized water reactor by utilizing scaling facilities of the LOFT and Semiscale Mod-1 systems, respectively. The RELAP5/MOD2 calculations for both tests begin with break initiation and subsequent blowdown, continue through lower plenum refill, core reflood, and terminate with corewide quench. Major phenomena of both large break loss-of-coolant tests are well predicted by RELAP5/MOD2. The results indicate that the break flow and system pressure are reasonably calculated. The cladding temperature response during blowdown period, which is the major importance to a large break LOCA, calculated by RELAP5/MOD2 shows good agreement with the test data

  20. Cultural processes in psychotherapy for perinatal loss: Breaking the cultural taboo against perinatal grief.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markin, Rayna D; Zilcha-Mano, Sigal

    2018-03-01

    This paper argues that there is a cultural taboo against the public recognition and expression of perinatal grief that hinders parents' ability to mourn and their psychological adjustment following a loss. It is proposed that this cultural taboo is recreated within the therapy relationship, as feelings of grief over a perinatal loss are minimized or avoided by the therapist and parent or patient. Importantly, it is suggested that if these cultural dynamics are recognized within the therapy relationship, then psychotherapy has the immense opportunity to break the taboo by validating the parent's loss as real and helping the parent to mourn within an empathic and affect-regulating relationship. Specifically, it is suggested that therapists break the cultural taboo against perinatal grief and help parents to mourn through: acknowledging and not pathologizing perinatal grief reactions, considering intrapsychic and cultural factors that impact a parent's response to loss, exploring cultural reenactments within the therapy relationship, empathizing with the parent's experience of loss and of having to grieve within a society that does not recognize perinatal loss, coregulating the parent's feelings of grief and loss, and helping patients to create personally meaningful mourning rituals. Lastly, the impact of within and between cultural differences and therapist attitudes on the therapy process is discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2018 APA, all rights reserved).

  1. Study on severe accident induced by large break loss of coolant accident for pressureized water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Longfei; Zhang Dafa; Wang Shaoming

    2007-01-01

    Using the best estimate computer code SCDAP/RELAP5/MOD3.2 and taking US Westinghouse corporation Surry nuclear power plant as the reference object, a typical three-loop pressurized water reactor severe accident calculation model was established and 25 cm large break loss of coolant accident (LBLOCA) in cold and hot leg of primary loop induced core melt accident was analyzed. The calculated results show that core melt progression is fast and most of the core material melt and relocated to the lower plenum. The lower head of reactor pressure vessel failed at an early time and the cold leg break is more severe than the hot leg break in primary loop during LBLOCA. (authors)

  2. Breaks in the 45S rDNA Lead to Recombination-Mediated Loss of Repeats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warmerdam, Daniël O; van den Berg, Jeroen; Medema, René H

    2016-03-22

    rDNA repeats constitute the most heavily transcribed region in the human genome. Tumors frequently display elevated levels of recombination in rDNA, indicating that the repeats are a liability to the genomic integrity of a cell. However, little is known about how cells deal with DNA double-stranded breaks in rDNA. Using selective endonucleases, we show that human cells are highly sensitive to breaks in 45S but not the 5S rDNA repeats. We find that homologous recombination inhibits repair of breaks in 45S rDNA, and this results in repeat loss. We identify the structural maintenance of chromosomes protein 5 (SMC5) as contributing to recombination-mediated repair of rDNA breaks. Together, our data demonstrate that SMC5-mediated recombination can lead to error-prone repair of 45S rDNA repeats, resulting in their loss and thereby reducing cellular viability. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture and steam line break thermohydraulic experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendler, O J; Takeuchi, K; Young, M Y

    1986-10-01

    The Westinghouse Model Boiler No. 2 (MB-2) steam generator test model at the Engineering Test Facility in Tampa, Florida, was reinstrumented and modified for performing a series of tests simulating steam generator accident transients. The transients simulated were: loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture, and steam line break events. This document presents a description of (1) the model boiler and the associated test facility, (2) the tests performed, and (3) the analyses of the test results.

  4. Loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture and steam line break thermohydraulic experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendler, O.J.; Takeuchi, K.; Young, M.Y.

    1986-10-01

    The Westinghouse Model Boiler No. 2 (MB-2) steam generator test model at the Engineering Test Facility in Tampa, Florida, was reinstrumented and modified for performing a series of tests simulating steam generator accident transients. The transients simulated were: loss of feed flow, steam generator tube rupture, and steam line break events. This document presents a description of (1) the model boiler and the associated test facility, (2) the tests performed, and (3) the analyses of the test results

  5. Analysis of a small break loss-of-coolant accident of pressurized water reactor by APROS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Falahi, A. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland); Haennine, M. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Porkholm, K. [IVO International, Ltd., Vantaa (Finland)

    1995-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to study the capability of APROS (Advanced PROcess Simulator) code to simulate the real plant thermal-hydraulic transient of a Small Break Loss-Of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) of Loss-Of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility. The LOFT is a scaled model of a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). This work is a part of a larger validation of the APROS thermal-hydraulic models. The results of SBLOCA transient calculated by APROS showed a reasonable agreement with the measured data.

  6. Analysis of unmitigated large break loss of coolant accidents using MELCOR code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pescarini, M.; Mascari, F.; Mostacci, D.; De Rosa, F.; Lombardo, C.; Giannetti, F.

    2017-11-01

    In the framework of severe accident research activity developed by ENEA, a MELCOR nodalization of a generic Pressurized Water Reactor of 900 MWe has been developed. The aim of this paper is to present the analysis of MELCOR code calculations concerning two independent unmitigated large break loss of coolant accident transients, occurring in the cited type of reactor. In particular, the analysis and comparison between the transients initiated by an unmitigated double-ended cold leg rupture and an unmitigated double-ended hot leg rupture in the loop 1 of the primary cooling system is presented herein. This activity has been performed focusing specifically on the in-vessel phenomenology that characterizes this kind of accidents. The analysis of the thermal-hydraulic transient phenomena and the core degradation phenomena is therefore here presented. The analysis of the calculated data shows the capability of the code to reproduce the phenomena typical of these transients and permits their phenomenological study. A first sequence of main events is here presented and shows that the cold leg break transient results faster than the hot leg break transient because of the position of the break. Further analyses are in progress to quantitatively assess the results of the code nodalization for accident management strategy definition and fission product source term evaluation.

  7. Analysis of small break loss of coolant accident for Chinese CPR1000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Ju Youl [FNC Technology Co., Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Cilier, Anthonie [North-West University, Mahikeng (South Africa); Poc, Li-chi Cliff [Micro-Simulation Technology, Montville (United States)

    2016-05-15

    This research analyses the small break loss of coolant accident (LOCA) on a Chinese CPR1000 type reactor. LOCA accident is used as benchmark for the PCTRAN/CPR1000 code by comparing the effects and results to the Manshaan FSAR accident analysis. LOCA is a design basis accident in which a guillotine break is postulated to occur in one of the cold legs of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). Consequently, the primary system pressure would drop and almost all the reactor coolant would be discharged into the reactor containment. The drop in pressure would activate the reactor protection system and the reactor would trip. The simulation of a 3-inch small break loss of coolant accident using the PCTRAN/CPR1000 has revealed this code's effectiveness as well as weaknesses in specific simulation applications. The code has the ability to run at 16 times real time and produce very accurate results. The results are consistently producing the same trends as licensed codes used in Safety Assessment Reports. It is however able to produce these results in a fraction of the time and also provides a whole plant simulation coupling the various thermal, hydraulic, chemical and neutronic systems together with a plant specific control system.

  8. Cost of preventing workplace heat-related illness through worker breaks and the benefit of climate-change mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takakura, Jun'ya; Fujimori, Shinichiro; Takahashi, Kiyoshi; Hijioka, Yasuaki; Hasegawa, Tomoko; Honda, Yasushi; Masui, Toshihiko

    2017-06-01

    The exposure of workers to hot environments is expected to increase as a result of climate change. In order to prevent heat-related illness, it is recommended that workers take breaks during working hours. However, this would lead to reductions in worktime and labor productivity. In this study, we estimate the economic cost of heat-related illness prevention through worker breaks associated with climate change under a wide range of climatic and socioeconomic conditions. We calculate the worktime reduction based on the recommendation of work/rest ratio and the estimated future wet bulb glove temperature, which is an index of heat stresses. Corresponding GDP losses (cost of heat-related illness prevention through worker breaks) are estimated using a computable general equilibrium model throughout this century. Under the highest emission scenario, GDP losses in 2100 will range from 2.6 to 4.0% compared to the current climate conditions. On the other hand, GDP losses will be less than 0.5% if the 2.0 °C goal is achieved. The benefit of climate-change mitigation for avoiding worktime loss is comparable to the cost of mitigation (cost of the greenhouse gas emission reduction) under the 2.0 °C goal. The relationship between the cost of heat-related illness prevention through worker breaks and global average temperature rise is approximately linear, and the difference in economic loss between the 1.5 °C goal and the 2.0 °C goal is expected to be approximately 0.3% of global GDP in 2100. Although climate mitigation and socioeconomic development can limit the vulnerable regions and sectors, particularly in developing countries, outdoor work is still expected to be affected. The effectiveness of some adaptation measures such as additional installation of air conditioning devices or shifting the time of day for working are also suggested. In order to reduce the economic impacts, adaptation measures should also be implemented as well as pursing ambitious climate change

  9. PCTRAN enhancement for large break loss of coolant accident concurrent with loss of offsite power in VVER-1000 simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadad, Kamal; Esmaeili-Sanjavanmareh, Mansour [Shiraz Univ., Shiraz (Iran, Islamic Republic of). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2017-05-15

    PCTRAN capability to simulate a large break loss of coolant accident concurrent with the loss of offsite power in Bushehr Nuclear Power Plant is enhanced and investigated. Following the correction of the accident scenario for Bushehr nuclear power plant in PCTRAN, simulation results are compared with the final safety assessment report of that plant. As a result, the primary loop thermal hydraulics parameters including pressure, total flow rates, leakage flow rates and reactor power are in a good agreement with the reference data. Hot and cold leg temperature variations have the same trends as reference data but have a maximum of 80 C disagreement at the transient initiation. The reason for this disagreement is explained and its adjustment is discussed. Improvements of PCTRAN simulator are mainly due to enhancing user control for atmospheric steam dump valve, containment pressure and emergency core cooling systems which are thoroughly described in this paper.

  10. Frontier between medium and large break loss of coolant accidents of pressurized water reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Taewan

    2017-10-01

    In order to provide the probabilistic safety assessment with more realistic condition to calculate the frequency of the initiating event, a study on the frontier between medium-break and large-break loss-of-coolant-accidents has been performed by using best-estimate thermal hydraulic code, TRACE. A methodology based on the combination of the essential safety features and system parameter has been applied to the Zion nuclear power plant to evaluate the validity of the frontier utilized for the probabilistic safety assessment. The peak cladding temperature has been chosen as a relevant system parameter that represents the system behavior during the transient. The results showed that the frontier should be extended from 6 in. to 10 in. based on the required safety functions and system response.

  11. Small break loss of coolant accident analysis of advanced PWR plant designs utilizing DVI line venturis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kemper, Robert M.; Gagnon, Andre F.; McNamee, Kevin; Cheung, Augustine C.

    1995-01-01

    The Westinghouse Advanced Passive and evolutionary Pressurizer Water Reactors (i.e. AP600 and APWR) incorporate direct vessel injection (DVI) of emergency core coolant as a means of minimizing the potential spilling of emergency core cooling water during a loss of coolant accident (LOCA). As a result, the most limiting small break LOCA (SBLOCA) event for these designs, with respect core inventory makeup capability, is a postulated double ended rupture of one of the DVI lines. This paper presents the results of a design optimization study that examines the installation of a venturi in the DVI line as a means of limiting the reactor coolant lost from the reactor vessel. The comparison results demonstrate that by incorporating a properly sized venturi in the DVI line, core uncovery concerns as a result of a DVI line break can be eliminated for both the AP600 and APWR plants. (author)

  12. Investigation of a hydrogen mitigation system during large break loss-of-coolant accident for a two-loop pressurized water reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dehjourian, Mehdi; Rahgoshay, Mohmmad; Jahanfamia, Gholamreza [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University of Tehran, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sayareh, Reza [Faculty of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Kerman Graduate University of Technology, Kerman (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shirani, Amir Saied [Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Hydrogen release during severe accidents poses a serious threat to containment integrity. Mitigating procedures are necessary to prevent global or local explosions, especially in large steel shell containments. The management of hydrogen safety and prevention of over-pressurization could be implemented through a hydrogen reduction system and spray system. During the course of the hypothetical large break loss-of-coolant accident in a nuclear power plant, hydrogen is generated by a reaction between steam and the fuel-cladding inside the reactor pressure vessel and also core concrete interaction after ejection of melt into the cavity. The MELCOR 1.8.6 was used to assess core degradation and containment behavior during the large break loss-of-coolant accident without the actuation of the safety injection system except for accumulators in Beznau nuclear power plant. Also, hydrogen distribution in containment and performance of hydrogen reduction system were investigated.

  13. Interventions to prevent occupational noise-induced hearing loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Jos H.; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C.; Dreschler, Wouter A.; Mischke, Christina

    2012-01-01

    Background Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to noise levels that increase their risk of hearing impairment. Little is known about the effectiveness of hearing loss prevention interventions. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions for preventing

  14. Interventions to prevent occupational noise induced hearing loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Jos H.; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C.; Dreschler, Wout; Sorgdrager, Bas

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to noise levels that increase their risk of hearing impairment. Little is known about the effectiveness of hearing loss prevention interventions. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions for preventing

  15. Simulation of small break loss of coolant accident in pressurized water reactor (PWR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abass, N. M. N.

    2012-02-01

    A major safety concern in pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) design is the loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA),in which a break in the primary coolant circuit leads to depressurization, boiling of the coolant, consequent reduced cooling of the reactor core, and , unless remedial measures are taken, overheating of the fuel rods. This concern has led to the development of several simulators for safety analysis. This study demonstrates how the passive and active safety systems in conventional and advanced PWR behave during the small break loss of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA). The consequences of SBOLOCA have been simulated using IAEA Generic pressurized Water Reactor Simulator (GPWRS) and personal Computer Transient analyzer (PCTRAN) . The results were presented and discussed. The study has confirmed the major safety advantage of passive plants versus conventional PWRs is that the passive safety systems provide long-term core cooling and decay heat removal without the need for operator actions and without reliance on active safety-related system. (Author)

  16. Organizing knowledge for tutoring fire loss prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel L. Schmoldt

    1989-01-01

    The San Bernardino National Forest in southern California has recently developed a systematic approach to wildfire prevention planning. However, a comprehensive document or other mechanism for teaching this process to other prevention personnel does not exist. An intelligent tutorial expert system is being constructed to provide a means for learning the process and to...

  17. A study of entrainment at a break and in the core during small break loss-of-coolant accidents in PWRs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonomoto, Taisuke

    1996-05-01

    Objectives of the present study are to obtain a better understanding of entrainment at a break and in the core during small break loss-of-coolant-accidents (SBLOCAs) in PWRs, and to develop a means for the best evaluation of the phenomena. For the study of entrainment at a break, a theoretical model was developed, which was assessed by comparisons with several experimental data bases. By modifying a LOCA analysis code using the present model, experimental results obtained from SBLOCA experiments at a PWR large-scale simulator were reproduced very well. For the study of entrainment in the core, reflooding experiments were conducted at high pressure, from which the onset conditions were obtained. It was confirmed that the cooling behavior for a dry-out core is very simple under typical high pressure reflooding conditions for PWRs, because liquid entrainment does not occur in the core. (author)

  18. Breaking Boundaries: Complementary and Alternative Medicine Provider Framing of Preventive Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Vinita

    2017-11-01

    This textual examination extends understandings of how complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) providers constitute preventive care in their discourse by identifying the frame of breaking boundaries referencing relational, structural, and philosophical orientations in their practice with their clients. Analysis of semistructured, in-depth interviews with CAM providers ( n = 17) reveals that the frame of breaking boundaries was comprised of three themes: finding one's own strength; I don't prescribe, so I'm exploring; and ground yourself, and have an escape route. The themes describe preventive care by identifying how CAM providers negotiate their relational positionality in connecting with clients, structural positionality within the field of health care, and philosophical positionality within the ontological understandings that guide how health is defined and conceptualized. The study contributes toward enhancing diverse understandings of constituting preventive care in practice and suggests pragmatic implications for addressing biomedical provider communication with their patients seeking CAM care alongside conventional treatments.

  19. Simulation of the SPE-4 small-break loss-of-coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebull, P.; Hassan, Y.A.

    1993-01-01

    A small-break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA) conducted at the PMK-2 integral test facility was analyzed using RELAP5/MOD3. 1. The experiment simulated a 7.4% break in the cold leg of a VVER-440/213-type nuclear power plant as part of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Fourth Standard Problem Exercise (SPE-4). The VVER design differs from pressurized water reactors (PWRS) of western origin, primarily in its use of horizontal steam generators, hot- and cold-leg loop seals, and safety injection tanks. Because of these differences, it will exhibit somewhat different transient behavior than most PWRS. The PMK-2 test facility, located at the KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute (AEKI), is a scale model of the Paks nuclear power plant in Hungary with scaling factors of 1:2070 in power and volume and 1:1 in elevation. Primarily used to study SBLOCAs and natural circulation behavior of VVER reactors, it has been used in three previous SPEs

  20. LOFT/LP-SB-2, Loss of Fluid Test, Small Hot Leg Break LOCA, Delayed Pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    1 - Description of test facility: The LOFT Integral Test Facility is a scale model of a LPWR. The intent of the facility is to model the nuclear, thermal-hydraulic phenomena which would take place in a LPWR during a LOCA. The general philosophy in scaling coolant volumes and flow areas in LOFT was to use the ratio of the LOFT core [50 MW(t)] to a typical LPWR core [3000 MW(t)]. For some components, this factor is not applied; however, it is used as extensively as practical. In general, components used in LOFT are similar in design to those of a LPWR. Because of scaling and component design, the LOFT LOCA is expected to closely model a LPWR LOCA. 2 - Description of test: The third OECD LOFT experiment was conducted on 14 July 1983. It simulated a 3-in (7.62 cm) equivalent break diameter located in the hot leg of the operating loop. The major objective of this experiment was to determine system transient characteristics for small hot leg break loss-of-coolant accidents with delayed pump trip. The experiment was conducted from initial temperature and pressure conditions representative of typical commercial PWRs. 3 - Experimental limitations or shortcomings: Short core and steam generator, excessive core bypass, other scaling compromises, and lack of adequate measurements in certain areas

  1. LOFT/LP-SB-1, Loss of Fluid Test, Small Hot Leg Break LOCA, Early Pump

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    1 - Description of test facility: The LOFT Integral Test Facility is a scale model of a LPWR. The intent of the facility is to model the nuclear, thermal-hydraulic phenomena which would take place in a LPWR during a LOCA. The general philosophy in scaling coolant volumes and flow areas in LOFT was to use the ratio of the LOFT core [50 MW(t)] to a typical LPWR core [3000 MW(t)]. For some components, this factor is not applied; however, it is used as extensively as practical. In general, components used in LOFT are similar in design to those of a LPWR. Because of scaling and component design, the LOFT LOCA is expected to closely model a LPWR LOCA. 2 - Description of test: The second OECD LOFT experiment was conducted on 23 June 1983. It simulated a 3-in (7.62 cm) equivalent break diameter located in the hot leg of the operating loop. The major objective of this experiment was to determine system transient characteristics for small hot leg break loss-of-coolant accidents with early pump trip. The experiment was conducted from initial temperature and pressure conditions representative of typical commercial PWRs. 3 - Experimental limitations or shortcomings: Short core and steam generator, excessive core bypass, other scaling compromises, and lack of adequate measurements in certain areas

  2. Review of boiling water reactor small break loss of coolant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gururaj, P.M.; Dua, S.S.; Rao, A.S.

    1981-01-01

    This paper presents a review of the analytical and the experimental work performed by the General Electric Company to determine the performance of boiling water reactors (BWR) following postulated small break accidents (SBA). This review paper addresses the following issues: (1) the response of the BWR following small loss of inventory events; (2) methods of analysis and their justification; (3) necessity, if any, of operator action and the length of time available in which such action can be performed; and (4) operator interface following the SBA event. The results from these SBA studies for different BWR product lines show that even with the multiple system failures assumed, the BWR can successfully withstand an SBA. For a typical BWR/6, it takes the failure of 13 water delivery pumps to cause any significant core heatup. The only operator actions determined to be necessary are simple ones and ample time is available to the operator to perform these actions, if needed

  3. Loss-of-coolant accident for large pipe breaks in light water reactor plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keusenhoff, J.

    1980-01-01

    The importance of loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCA) and their control for nuclear reactor safety is explained. Showing the cooling circuits and emergency core cooling systems (ECCS) of both, PWR and BWR, the possible break spectrum and the general sequence of events is discussed. The governing physical phenomena for the different LOCA phases are pointed out in more detail. Special emphasis is taken on rules, regulations and failure criteria for licensing purposes. Analysis methods and codes for both, evaluation and best-estimate model are compared under deterministic and probabilistic approach, respectively. Some insight in present integral and separate effect tests demonstrates the interdependency of analysis and experiment. Results of LOCA analysis and experiments show the present state of the art. (orig.)

  4. Thermal hydraulic analysis of aggressive secondary cooldown in a small break loss of coolant accident with a total loss of high pressure safety injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seok Jung; Lim, Ho Gon; Yang, Joon Eon

    2003-03-01

    Recently, Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) has being applied to various fields as a basic technique of Risk-Informed Applications (RIA). The present study focuses on detailed thermal hydraulic analyses for major accident sequences and success criteria to support a development of PSA model using RIA for Korea Standard Nuclear Power plant (KSNP). The primary purpose of the present study in this year is to evaluate the success cri-teria of Aggressive Secondary Cooldown (ASC) in a Small Size Loss Of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) without HPSI and to enhance the understanding of related thermal hydraulic behavior and phenomena. An effort was made to evaluate the system success criteria and a mission time for the recovery action by an operator to prevent the core damage for that accident scenario. The accident scenario for KSNP was a 2 inch coldleg break LOCA with a total loss of High Pressure Safety Injection (HPSI) and 1/2 Low Pressure Safety Injection (LPSI) available and perform-ing ASC limited by 55.6 .deg. C/hr (100 .deg. F/hr) cooldown rate at 15 minute after reactor trip. It successively reached the LPSI condition for about 1.5hr after starting the ASC operation with the Peak Cladding Temperature (PCT) of the hottest rod below the core damage criteria of 1204.4 .deg. C (2200 .deg. F). Sensitivity studies were performed for (1) cool-ant average temperature parameters, (2) ASC operation control method, (3) operation start time, (4) 1 inch break size. The present analysis identified thermal hydraulic phenomena and parameters affecting on the behavior, which consist of coolant break flow and inventory, parameters governing secondary heat removal, ASC operation control method, and its reference temperature parameters. In the present study, more relaxed success criteria than the previous PSA for KSNP could be generated under an assumption that an operator should maintain the ade-quate ASC operation. However, it is necessary to evaluate the uncertainties arisen from the

  5. Generic evaluation of small break loss-of-coolant accident behavior in Babcock and Wilcox designed 177-FA operating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    Slow system depressurization resulting from small break loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) in the reactor coolant system have not, until recently, received detailed analytical study comparable to that devoted to large breaks. Following the TMI-2 accident, the staff had a series of meetings with Babcock and Wilcox (B and W) and the B and W licensees. The staff requested that B and W and the licensees: (1) systematically evaluate plant response for small break loss-of-coolant accidents; (2) address each of the concerns documented in the Michelson report; (3) validate the computer codes used against the TMI-2 accident; (4) extend the break spectrum analysis to very small breaks, giving special consideration to failure of pressurizer valves to close; (5) analyze degraded conditions where AFW is not available; (6) prepare design changes aimed at reducing the probability of loss-of-coolant accidents produced by the failure of a PORV to close; and (7) develop revised emergency procedures for small breaks. This report describes the review of the generic analyses performed by B and W based on the requests stated above

  6. Phenomena identification and ranking tables for Westinghouse AP600 small break loss-of-coolant accident, main steam line break, and steam generator tube rupture scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, G.E.; Fletcher, C.D.; Davis, C.B. [and others

    1997-06-01

    This report revision incorporates new experimental evidence regarding AP600 behavior during small break loss-of-coolant accidents. This report documents the results of Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) efforts for the Westinghouse AP600 reactor. The purpose of this PIRT is to identify important phenomena so that they may be addressed in both the experimental programs and the RELAP5/MOD3 systems analysis computer code. In Revision of this report, the responses of AP600 during small break loss-of-coolant accident, main steam line break, and steam generator tube rupture accident scenarios were evaluated by a committee of thermal-hydraulic experts. Committee membership included Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory staff and recognized thermal-hydraulic experts from outside of the laboratory. Each of the accident scenarios was subdivided into separate, sequential periods or phases. Within each phase, the plant behavior is controlled by, at most, a few thermal-hydraulic processes. The committee identified the phenomena influencing those processes, and ranked & influences as being of high, medium, low, or insignificant importance. The primary product of this effort is a series of tables, one for each phase of each accident scenario, describing the thermal-hydraulic phenomena judged by the committee to be important, and the relative ranking of that importance. The rationales for the phenomena selected and their rankings are provided. This document issue incorporates an update of the small break loss-of-coolant accident portion of the report. This revision is the result of the release of experimental evidence from AP600-related integral test facilities (ROSA/AP600, OSU, and SPES) and thermal-hydraulic expert review. The activities associated with this update were performed during the period from June 1995 through November 1996. 8 refs., 26 figs., 42 tabs.

  7. Phenomena identification and ranking tables for Westinghouse AP600 small break loss-of-coolant accident, main steam line break, and steam generator tube rupture scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, G.E.; Fletcher, C.D.; Davis, C.B.

    1997-06-01

    This report revision incorporates new experimental evidence regarding AP600 behavior during small break loss-of-coolant accidents. This report documents the results of Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) efforts for the Westinghouse AP600 reactor. The purpose of this PIRT is to identify important phenomena so that they may be addressed in both the experimental programs and the RELAP5/MOD3 systems analysis computer code. In Revision of this report, the responses of AP600 during small break loss-of-coolant accident, main steam line break, and steam generator tube rupture accident scenarios were evaluated by a committee of thermal-hydraulic experts. Committee membership included Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory staff and recognized thermal-hydraulic experts from outside of the laboratory. Each of the accident scenarios was subdivided into separate, sequential periods or phases. Within each phase, the plant behavior is controlled by, at most, a few thermal-hydraulic processes. The committee identified the phenomena influencing those processes, and ranked ampersand influences as being of high, medium, low, or insignificant importance. The primary product of this effort is a series of tables, one for each phase of each accident scenario, describing the thermal-hydraulic phenomena judged by the committee to be important, and the relative ranking of that importance. The rationales for the phenomena selected and their rankings are provided. This document issue incorporates an update of the small break loss-of-coolant accident portion of the report. This revision is the result of the release of experimental evidence from AP600-related integral test facilities (ROSA/AP600, OSU, and SPES) and thermal-hydraulic expert review. The activities associated with this update were performed during the period from June 1995 through November 1996. 8 refs., 26 figs., 42 tabs

  8. 76 FR 62093 - Preventing Occupational Hearing Loss: Stakeholder Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-06

    ... Loss: Stakeholder Meeting AGENCY: Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), Labor. ACTION... stakeholder meeting on preventing occupational hearing loss. Every year, between 20,000 and 25,000 workers... controls. OSHA is holding this stakeholder meeting as part of its commitment to work with stakeholders on...

  9. Long-term recovery of pressurized water reactors following a large break loss-of-coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, C.D.; Callow, R.A.

    1989-01-01

    The USNRC recently identified a possible safety concern for PWR's. Following the reflood phase of a large break loss-of-coolant accident, long-term cooling of the reactor core may not be ensured. Specifically, the concern is that, for a pump discharge cold leg break, the loop seals in the reactor coolant pump suction piping will refill with liquid and the post-reflood steam production may depress the liquid levels in the downflow sides of the loop seals. A loop seal depression would cause a corresponding depression of the core liquid levels and possibly a fuel rod heatup in the upper core region. This paper is intended as an introduction of the safety issue that: 1) describes the important aspects of the problem, 2) provides an initial analysis of the consequences, and 3) discusses ongoing work in this area. Because the elevation of the loop seals is near the mid-core elevation in plants of WE design, the concern is greatest for those plants. There is less concern for most plants of CE design, and likely no concern for plants of BW design. This issue was addressed by employing both steady-state and transient systems analysis approaches. Two approaches were used because of uncertainties regarding actual reactor coolant system behavior during the post-reflood period. The steady-state approach involved the development and application of a simple computer program to investigate reactor coolant system behavior assuming quiescent post-reflood conditions. The transient systems approach involved investigating this behavior using the RELAP5/MOD2 computer code and a comprehensive RELAP5 model of a WE PWR. The steady-state analysis indicated only a moderate fuel rod heatup is possible. The transient systems analysis indicated boiling and condensation-induced flow oscillations are sufficient to prevent fuel rod heatup. Analysis uncertainties are discussed. (orig./HP)

  10. LOFT/LP-LB-1, Loss of Fluid Test, Large-Break LOCA Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    1 - Description of test facility: The LOFT Integral Test Facility is a scale model of a LPWR. The intent of the facility is to model the nuclear, Thermal-hydraulic phenomena which would take place in a LPWR during a LOCA. The general philosophy in scaling coolant volumes and flow areas in LOFT was to use the ratio of the LOFT core [50 MW(t)] to a typical LPWR core [3000 MW(t)]. For some components, this factor is not applied; however, it is used as extensively as practical. In general, components used in LOFT are similar in design to those of a LPWR. Because of scaling and component design, the LOFT LOCE is expected to closely model a LPWR LOCA. 2 - Description of test: Experiment LP-LB-1 was conducted on 3 February 1984 in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory under the auspices of the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. The primary objectives of Experiment LP-LB-1 were to determine system transient characteristics and to assess code predictive capabilities for design basis large-break loss-of-coolant accidents in pressurized water reactors (PWRs). This experiment simulated a double-ended offset shear of one inlet pipe in a four-loop PWR and was initiated from conditions representative of licensing limits in a PWR. Other boundary conditions for the simulation were loss of offsite power, rapid primary coolant pump coast down, and United Kingdom minimum safeguard emergency core coolant injection rates. The nuclear fuel rods were not pressurized. The transient was initiated by opening the quick-opening blowdown valves in the broken loop hot and cold legs. 3 - Experimental limitations or shortcomings: Short core and steam generator, excessive core bypass, other scaling compromises, and lack of adequate measurements in certain areas

  11. A break-even analysis of a community rehabilitation falls prevention service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comans, Tracy; Brauer, Sandy; Haines, Terry

    2009-06-01

    To identify and compare the minimum number of clients that a multidisciplinary falls prevention service delivered through domiciliary or centre-based care needs to treat to allow the service to reach a 'break-even' point. A break-even analysis was undertaken for each of two models of care for a multidisciplinary community rehabilitation falls prevention service. The two models comprised either a centre-based group exercise and education program or a similar program delivered individually in the client's home. The service consisted of a physiotherapist, occupational therapist and therapy assistant. The participants were adults aged over 65 years who had experienced previous falls. Costs were based on the actual cost of running a community rehabilitation team located in Brisbane. Benefits were obtained by estimating the savings gained to society from the number of falls prevented by the program on the basis of the falls reduction rates obtained in similar multidisciplinary programs. It is estimated that a multi-disciplinary community falls prevention team would need to see 57 clients per year to make the service break-even using a centre-based model of care and 78 clients for a domiciliary-based model. The service this study was based on has the capability to see around 300 clients per year in a centre-based service or 200-250 clients per year in a home-based service. Based on the best available estimates of costs of falls, multidisciplinary falls prevention teams in the community targeting people at high risk of falls are worthwhile funding from a societal viewpoint.

  12. Investigation of break location effects on thermal-hydraulics during intermediate break loss-of-coolant accident experiments at ROSA-III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Yasuo; Tasaka, Kanji

    1986-01-01

    The rig of safety assessment (ROSA)-III facility is a volumetrically scaled (1/424) boiling water reactor (BWR/6) system with an electrically heated core designed for integral loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) and emergency core cooling system (ECCS) tests. Break location effects on thermal-hydraulics during intermediate LOCAs were investigated by using four experiments at the ROSA-III, the 15 and 25 % main recirculation pump suction line break (MRPS-B) experiments, the 21 % single-ended jet pump drive line break (JPD-B) experiment and the 15 % main steam line break (MSL-B) experiment. Water injection from the high pressure core spray (HPCS) was not used in any of the experiments. Failure of ECCS actuation by the high containment pressure was also assumed in the tests. In the MRPS-B experiments, the discharge flow turned from low quality fluid to high quality fluid when the downcomer water level dropped to the main recirculation line outlet elevation, which suppressed coolant loss from the vessel and the core. In the JPD-B experiment, the jet pump drive nozzle was covered with low quality fluid and low quality fluid discharge continued even after the downcomer water level reached the jet pump suction elevation. Low quality fluid discharge ceased after the ADS actuation. It suggestes that the JPD-B LOCA has the possibility of causing larger and more severe core dryout and cladding temperature excursion than the MRPS-B LOCA. The MSL-B LOCA was characterized by mixture level swell in the downcomer and the core. The core mixture level swell resulted in the much later core dryout initiation than that in the MRPS-B LOCA, however, ECCS actuation was also delayed because of slow downcomer water level drop. (author)

  13. The numerical simulation of the WWER-440/V-213 reactor pressure vessel internals response to maximum hypothetical large break loss of coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hermansky, P.; Krajcovic, M.

    2012-01-01

    The reactor internals are designed to ensure cooling of the fuel, to ensure the movement of emergency control assemblies under all operating conditions including accidents and facilitate removal of the fuel and of the internals following an accident This paper presents results of the numerical simulation of the WWER-440/V213 reactor vessel internals dynamic response to maximum hypothetical Large-Break Loss of Coolant Accident. The purpose of this analysis is to determine the reactor vessel internals response due to rapid depressurization and to prove no such deformations occur in the reactor vessel internals which would prevent timely and proper activation of the emergency control assemblies. (Authors)

  14. An investigation of core liquid level depression in small break loss-of-coolant accidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schultz, R.R.; Watkins, J.C.; Motley, F.E.; Stumpf, H.; Chen, Y.S.

    1991-08-01

    Core liquid level depression can result in partial core dryout and heatup early in a small break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) transient. Such behavior occurs when steam, trapped in the upper regions of the reactor primary system (between the loop seal and the core inventory), moves coolant out of the core region and uncovers the rod upper elevations. The net result is core liquid level depression. Core liquid level depression and subsequent core heatups are investigated using subscale data from the ROSA-IV Program's 1/48-scale Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) and the 1/1705-scale Semiscale facility. Both facilities are Westinghouse-type, four-loop, pressurized water reactor simulators. The depression phenomena and factors which influence the minimum core level are described and illustrated using examples from the data. Analyses of the subject experiments, conducted using the TRAC-PF1/MOD1 (Version 12.7) thermal-hydraulic code, are also described and summarized. Finally, the response of a typical Westinghouse four-loop plant (RESAR-3S) was calculated to qualitatively study coal liquid level depression in a full-scale system. 31 refs., 37 figs., 6 tabs

  15. Prediction of loop seal formation and clearing during small break loss of coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Suk Ho; Kim, Hho Jung

    1992-01-01

    Behavior of loop seal formation and clearing during small break loss of coolant accident is investigated using the RELAP5/MOD2 and /MOD3 codes with the test of SB-CL-18 of the LSTF(Large Scale Test Facility). The present study examines the thermal-hydraulic mechanisms responsible for early core uncovery includeing the manometric effect due to an asymmetric coolant holdup in the steam generator upflow and downflow side. The analysis with the RELAP5/ MOD2 demonstrates the main phenomena occuring in the depressurization transient including the loop seal formation and clearing with sufficient accuracy. Nevertheless, several differences regarding the evolution of phenomena and their timing have been pointed out in the base calculations. The RELAP5/MOD3 predicts overall phenomena, particularly the steam generator liquid holdup better than the RELAP5/MOD2. The nodalization study in the components of the steam generator U-tubes and the cross-over legs with the RELAP5/MOD3 results in good prediction of the loop seal clearing phenomena and their timing. (Author)

  16. LOFT/LP-02-6, Loss of Fluid Test, 1. OECD Large Break Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    1 - Description of test facility: The LOFT Integral Test Facility is a scale model of a LPWR. The intent of the facility is to model the nuclear, thermal-hydraulic phenomena which would take place in a LPWR during a LOCA. The general philosophy in scaling coolant volumes and flow areas in LOFT was to use the ratio of the LOFT core [50 MW(t)] to a typical LPWR core [3000 MW(t)]. For some components, this factor is not applied; however, it is used as extensively as practical. In general, components used in LOFT are similar in design to those of a LPWR. Because of scaling and component design, the LOFT LOCA is expected to closely model a LPWR LOCA. 2 - Description of test: The fourth OECD LOFT experiment was conducted on 3 October 1983. This was the first OECD LOFT large break experiment. The initial and boundary conditions were chosen to be representative of USNRC licensing limits for commercial PWRs. This included loss of off-site power coincident with LOCA initiation. This experiment included the first use in LOFT of pressurized fuel rods in the center bundle. The experiment was initiated by opening the quick-opening blow-down valves in the broken hot and cold legs. 3 - Experimental limitations or shortcomings: Short core and steam generator, excessive core bypass, other scaling compromises, and lack of adequate measurements in certain areas

  17. Comparison of three small-break loss-of-coolant accident tests with different break locations using the system-integrated modular advanced reactor-integral test loop facility to estimate the safety of the smart design

    OpenAIRE

    Hwang Bae; Dong Eok Kim; Sung-Uk Ryu; Sung-Jae Yi; Hyun-Sik Park

    2017-01-01

    Three small-break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) tests with safety injection pumps were carried out using the integral-effect test loop for SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor), i.e., the SMART-ITL facility. The types of break are a safety injection system line break, shutdown cooling system line break, and pressurizer safety valve line break. The thermal–hydraulic phenomena show a traditional behavior to decrease the temperature and pressure whereas the local phenomena are s...

  18. Scaling criteria and an assessment of Semiscale Mod-3 scaling for small-break loss-of-coolant transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, T.K.; Anderson, J.L.; Shimeck, D.J.

    1982-01-01

    Various methods of scaling fluid thermal-hydraulic test facilities and their relative merits and disadvantages are examined in light of nuclear reactor safety considerations. Particular emphasis is placed on examination of the scaling of the Semiscale Mod-3 system and determination of thermal-hydraulic phenomena thought to be important during a small break loss-of-coolant accident in a pressurized water nuclear reactor. The influence of geometric and dynamic scaling concerns in the Mod-3 system on small break behavior are addressed from an engineering viewpoint and corrective measures contemplated or required to make results from Semiscale tests more meaningful relative to expected PWR response are discussed

  19. Tracking changes and preventing loss in critical tiger habitat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Anup R; Dinerstein, Eric; Wikramanayake, Eric; Anderson, Michael L; Olson, David; Jones, Benjamin S; Seidensticker, John; Lumpkin, Susan; Hansen, Matthew C; Sizer, Nigel C; Davis, Crystal L; Palminteri, Suzanne; Hahn, Nathan R

    2016-04-01

    The global population of wild tigers remains dangerously low at fewer than 3500 individuals. Habitat loss, along with poaching, can undermine the international target recovery of doubling the number of wild tigers by 2022. Using a new satellite-based monitoring system, we analyzed 14 years of forest loss data within the 76 landscapes (ranging from 278 to 269,983 km(2)) that have been prioritized for conservation of wild tigers. Our analysis provides an update of the status of tiger habitat and describes new applications of technology to detect precisely where forest loss is occurring in order to curb future habitat loss. Across the 76 landscapes, forest loss was far less than anticipated (79,597 ± 22,629 km(2), 7.7% of remaining habitat) over the 14-year study period (2001-2014). Habitat loss was unevenly distributed within a subset of 29 landscapes deemed most critical for doubling wild tiger populations: 19 showed little change (1.5%), whereas 10 accounted for more than 98% (57,392 ± 16,316 km(2)) of habitat loss. Habitat loss in source population sites within 76 landscapes ranged from no loss to 435 ± 124 km(2) ([Formula: see text], SD = 89, total = 1676 ± 476 km(2)). Doubling the tiger population by 2022 requires moving beyond tracking annual changes in habitat. We highlight near-real-time forest monitoring technologies that provide alerts of forest loss at relevant spatial and temporal scales to prevent further erosion.

  20. Interventions for asymptomatic retinal breaks and lattice degeneration for preventing retinal detachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkinson, Charles P

    2014-09-05

    Asymptomatic retinal breaks and lattice degeneration are visible lesions that are risk factors for later retinal detachment. Retinal detachments occur when fluid in the vitreous cavity passes through tears or holes in the retina and separates the retina from the underlying retinal pigment epithelium. Creation of an adhesion surrounding retinal breaks and lattice degeneration, with laser photocoagulation or cryotherapy, has been recommended as an effective means of preventing retinal detachment. This therapy is of value in the management of retinal tears associated with the symptoms of flashes and floaters and persistent vitreous traction upon the retina in the region of the retinal break, because such symptomatic retinal tears are associated with a high rate of progression to retinal detachment. Retinal tears and holes unassociated with acute symptoms and lattice degeneration are significantly less likely to be the sites of retinal breaks that are responsible for later retinal detachment. Nevertheless, treatment of these lesions frequently is recommended, in spite of the fact that the effectiveness of this therapy is unproven. The objective of this review was to assess the effectiveness and safety of techniques used to treat asymptomatic retinal breaks and lattice degeneration for the prevention of retinal detachment. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Group Trials Register) (2014, Issue 2), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to February 2014), EMBASE (January 1980 to February 2014), PubMed (January 1948 to February 2014), the metaRegister of Controlled Trials (mRCT) (www.controlled-trials.com), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials

  1. A conservation paradox in the Great Basin—Altering sagebrush landscapes with fuel breaks to reduce habitat loss from wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinneman, Douglas J.; Aldridge, Cameron L.; Coates, Peter S.; Germino, Matthew J.; Pilliod, David S.; Vaillant, Nicole M.

    2018-03-15

    Interactions between fire and nonnative, annual plant species (that is, “the grass/fire cycle”) represent one of the greatest threats to sagebrush (Artemisia spp.) ecosystems and associated wildlife, including the greater sage-grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus). In 2015, U.S. Department of the Interior called for a “science-based strategy to reduce the threat of large-scale rangeland fire to habitat for the greater sage-grouse and the sagebrush-steppe ecosystem.” An associated guidance document, the “Integrated Rangeland Fire Management Strategy Actionable Science Plan,” identified fuel breaks as high priority areas for scientific research. Fuel breaks are intended to reduce fire size and frequency, and potentially they can compartmentalize wildfire spatial distribution in a landscape. Fuel breaks are designed to reduce flame length, fireline intensity, and rates of fire spread in order to enhance firefighter access, improve response times, and provide safe and strategic anchor points for wildland fire-fighting activities. To accomplish these objectives, fuel breaks disrupt fuel continuity, reduce fuel accumulation, and (or) increase plants with high moisture content through the removal or modification of vegetation in strategically placed strips or blocks of land.Fuel breaks are being newly constructed, enhanced, or proposed across large areas of the Great Basin to reduce wildfire risk and to protect remaining sagebrush ecosystems (including greater sage-grouse habitat). These projects are likely to result in thousands of linear miles of fuel breaks that will have direct ecological effects across hundreds of thousands of acres through habitat loss and conversion. These projects may also affect millions of acres indirectly because of edge effects and habitat fragmentation created by networks of fuel breaks. Hence, land managers are often faced with a potentially paradoxical situation: the need to substantially alter sagebrush habitats with fuel breaks

  2. Comparison of three small-break loss-of-coolant accident tests with different break locations using the system-integrated modular advanced reactor-integral test loop facility to estimate the safety of the smart design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hwang Bae

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Three small-break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA tests with safety injection pumps were carried out using the integral-effect test loop for SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor, i.e., the SMART-ITL facility. The types of break are a safety injection system line break, shutdown cooling system line break, and pressurizer safety valve line break. The thermal–hydraulic phenomena show a traditional behavior to decrease the temperature and pressure whereas the local phenomena are slightly different during the early stage of the transient after a break simulation. A safety injection using a high-pressure pump effectively cools down and recovers the inventory of a reactor coolant system. The global trends show reproducible results for an SBLOCA scenario with three different break locations. It was confirmed that the safety injection system is robustly safe enough to protect from a core uncovery.

  3. Comparison of three small-break loss-of-coolant accident tests with different break locations using the system-integrated modular advanced reactor-integral test loop facility to estimate the safety of the smart design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Hwang; Ryu, Sung Uk; Yi, Sung Jae; Park, Hyun Sik [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Dong Eok [Dept. of Precision Mechanical Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Sangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    Three small-break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) tests with safety injection pumps were carried out using the integral-effect test loop for SMART (System-integrated Modular Advanced ReacTor), i.e., the SMART-ITL facility. The types of break are a safety injection system line break, shutdown cooling system line break, and pressurizer safety valve line break. The thermal–hydraulic phenomena show a traditional behavior to decrease the temperature and pressure whereas the local phenomena are slightly different during the early stage of the transient after a break simulation. A safety injection using a high-pressure pump effectively cools down and recovers the inventory of a reactor coolant system. The global trends show reproducible results for an SBLOCA scenario with three different break locations. It was confirmed that the safety injection system is robustly safe enough to protect from a core uncovery.

  4. Break-down of Losses in High Performing Metal-Supported Solid Oxide Fuel Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kromp, Alexander; Nielsen, Jimmi; Blennow Tullmar, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Metal supported SOFC designs offer competitive advantages such as reduced material costs and improved mechanical robustness. On the other hand, disadvantages might arise due to possible corrosion of the porous metal parts during processing and operation at high fuel utilization. In this paper we...... in hydrogen. The electrochemically active parts were applied by infiltrating CGO-Ni precursor solution into the porous metal and anode backbone and screenprinting (La,Sr)(Co,Fe)O3-based cathodes. To prevent a solid state reaction between cathode and zirconia electrolyte, CGO buffer layers were applied...... in between cathode and electrolyte. The detailed electrochemical characterization by means of impedance spectroscopy and a subsequent data analysis by the distribution of relaxation times enabled us to separate the different loss contributions in the cell. Based on an appropriate equivalent circuit model...

  5. Interventions to prevent occupational noise-induced hearing loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tikka, Christina; Verbeek, Jos H.; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C.; Dreschler, Wouter A.; Ferrite, Silvia

    2017-01-01

    This is the second update of a Cochrane Review originally published in 2009. Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to noise levels that increase their risk of hearing disorders. There is uncertainty about the effectiveness of hearing loss prevention interventions. To assess the effectiveness of

  6. Generic evaluation of feedwater transients and small break loss-of-coolant accidents in combustion engineering designed operating plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to summarize the results of a generic evaluation of feedwater transients, small break loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs), and other TMI-2-related events in the Combustion Engineering (CE)-designed operating plants and to establish or confirm the bases for their continued operation. The results of this evaluation are presented in this report in the form of a set of findings and recommendations in each of the principal review areas

  7. Breaks in the 45S rDNA Lead to Recombination-Mediated Loss of Repeats

    OpenAIRE

    Warmerdam, Daniël O.; van den Berg, Jeroen; Medema, René H.

    2016-01-01

    rDNA repeats constitute the most heavily transcribed region in the human genome. Tumors frequently display elevated levels of recombination in rDNA, indicating that the repeats are a liability to the genomic integrity of a cell. However, little is known about how cells deal with DNA double-stranded breaks in rDNA. Using selective endonucleases, we show that human cells are highly sensitive to breaks in 45S but not the 5S rDNA repeats. We find that homologous recombination inhibits repair of b...

  8. The cost effectiveness of vancomycin for preventing infections after shoulder arthroplasty: a break-even analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatch, M Daniel; Daniels, Stephen D; Glerum, Kimberly M; Higgins, Laurence D

    2017-03-01

    Increasing methicillin resistance and recognition of Propionibacterium acnes as a cause of infection in shoulder arthroplasty has led to the adoption of local vancomycin powder application as a more effective method to prevent expensive periprosthetic infections. However, no study has analyzed the cost effectiveness of vancomycin powder for preventing infection after shoulder replacement. Cost data for infection-related care of 16 patients treated for deep periprosthetic shoulder infection was collected from our institution for the break-even analysis. An equation was developed and applied to the data to determine how effective vancomycin powder would need to be at reducing a baseline infection rate to make prophylactic use cost effective. The efficacy of vancomycin (absolute risk reduction [ARR]) was evaluated at different unit costs, baseline infection rates, and average costs of treating infection. We determined vancomycin to be cost effective if the initial infection rate decreased by 0.04% (ARR). Using the current costs of vancomycin reported in the literature (range: $2.50/1000 mg to $44/1000 mg), we determined vancomycin to be cost effective with an ARR range of 0.01% at a cost of $2.50/1000 mg to 0.19% at $44/1000 mg. Baseline infection rate does not influence the ARR obtained at any specific cost of vancomycin or the cost of treating infection. We have derived and used a break-even equation to assess efficacy of prophylactic antibiotics during shoulder surgery. We further demonstrated the prophylactic administration of local vancomycin powder during shoulder arthroplasty to be a highly cost-effective practice. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Experiment data report for LOFT large-break loss-of-coolant experiment L2-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bayless, P.D.; Divine, J.M.

    1982-08-01

    Selected pertinent and uninterpreted data from the third nuclear large break loss-of-coolant experiment (Experiment L2-5) conducted in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility are presented. The LOFT facility is a 50-MW(t) pressurized water reactor (PWR) system with instruments that measure and provide data on the system thermal-hydraulic and nuclear conditions. The operation of the LOFT system is typical of large [approx. 1000 MW(e)] commercial PWR operations. Experiment L2-5 simulated a double-ended offset shear of a cold leg in the primary coolant system. The primary coolant pumps were tripped within 1 s after the break initiation, simulating a loss of site power. Consistent with the loss of power, the starting of the high- and low-pressure injection systems was delayed. The peak fuel rod cladding temperature achieved was 1078 +- 13 K. The emergency core cooling system re-covered the core and quenched the cladding. No evidence of core damage was detected

  10. International Standard Problems and Small Break Loss-Of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksan, N.

    2008-01-01

    Best-estimate thermalhydraulic system codes are widely used to perform safety and licensing analyses of nuclear power plants and also used in the design of advance reactors. Evaluation of the capabilities and the performance of these codes can be accomplished by comparing the code predictions with measured experimental data obtained on different test facilities. In this respect, parallel to other national and international programs, OECD/Nea (OECD Nuclear Energy Agency) Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI) has promoted, over the last twenty-nine years some forty-eight International Standard Problems (ISPs). These ISPs were performed in different fields as in-vessel thermalhydraulic behaviour, fuel behaviour under accident conditions, fission product release and transport, core/concrete interactions, hydrogen distribution and mixing, containment thermalhydraulic behaviour. 80% of these ISPs were related to the working domain of Principal Working Group no. 2 on Coolant System Behaviour (PWG2). The ISPs have been one of the major PWG2 activities for many years. The individual ISP comparison reports include the analysis and conclusions of the specific ISP exercises. A global review and synthesis on the contribution that ISPs have made to address nuclear reactor safety issues was initiated by CSNI-PWG2 and an overview on the subject of small break LOCA ISP's is given in this paper based on a report prepared by a CSNI-PWG2 writing group. In addition, the relevance of small break LOCA in a PWR with relation to nuclear reactor safety and the reorientation of the reactor safety program after TMI-2 accident, specifically small break LOCA, are shortly summarized. Five small break LOCA related ISP's are considered, since these were used for the assessment of the advanced best-estimate codes. The considered ISP's deal with the phenomenon typical of small break LOCAs in Western design PWRs. The experiments in four integral test facilities, LOBI, SPES, BETHSY

  11. Does platform switching really prevent crestal bone loss around implants?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiyuki Hagiwara

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available To maintain long-term implant stability, it is important to minimize bone loss around the implant. Several clinical studies have shown a mean marginal bone loss around dental implants of 1.5–2 mm in the first year after prosthetic restoration. Currently, concepts to prevent bone loss around dental implants have been reported as the platform switching (PLS. This technique use of prosthetic abutments with reduced width in relation to the implant platform diameter seems to have the greatest potential to limit the crestal resorption. However, there are only a few reports on the mechanism of action or the extent of bone loss prevention, and as such, it is difficult to say that the effect of PLS has been thoroughly examined. Excluding case reports, articles on PLS can be broadly categorized into: (1 radiographic evaluation of crestal bone level in humans, (2 histological and histomorphometrical analysis in animals, or (3 finite element analysis. This review revealed a shortage of published data for above three categories related PLS. Researchers have attempted to explain the mechanism of action of PLS; however, it is necessary to conduct further studies, including histological studies using animals, to clarify the mechanism fully.

  12. Cancer prevention knowledge of people with profound hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zazove, Philip; Meador, Helen E; Reed, Barbara D; Sen, Ananda; Gorenflo, Daniel W

    2009-03-01

    Deaf persons, a documented minority population, have low reading levels and difficulty communicating with physicians. The effect of these on their knowledge of cancer prevention recommendations is unknown. A cross-sectional study of 222 d/Deaf persons in Michigan, age 18 and older, chose one of four ways (voice, video of a certified American Sign Language interpreter, captions, or printed English) to complete a self-administered computer video questionnaire about demographics, hearing loss, language history, health-care utilization, and health-care information sources, as well as family and social variables. Twelve questions tested their knowledge of cancer prevention recommendations. The outcome measures were the percentage of correct answers to the questions and the association of multiple variables with these responses. Participants averaged 22.9% correct answers with no gender difference. Univariate analysis revealed that smoking history, types of medical problems, last physician visit, and women having previous cancer preventive tests did not affect scores. Improved scores occurred with computer use (p = 0.05), higher education (p internet (p = 0.02), and believing that smoking is bad (p bad (p = 0.05) were associated with improved scores. Persons with profound hearing loss have poor knowledge of recommended cancer prevention interventions. English use in multiple settings was strongly associated with increased knowledge.

  13. Analysis of two small break loss-of-coolant experiments in the BETHSY facility using RELAP5/MOD3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, P.A.; Schultz, R.R.; Choi, C.J.

    1992-07-01

    Small break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) data were recorded during tests 9.lb and 6.2 TC in the Boucle d'Etudes Thermohydrouliques Systeme (BETHSY) facility at the Centre d'Etudes Nucleares de Grenoble (CENG) complex in Grenoble, France. The data from test 9.lb form the basis for the International Standard Problem number 27 (ISP-27). For each test the primary system depressurization, break flow rate, core heat-up, and effect of operator actions were analyzed. Based on the test 9.lb/ISP-27 and 6.2 TC data, an assessment study of the RELAP5/MOD3 version 7 code was performed which included a study of the above phenomena along with countercurrent flow limitation and vapor pull-through. The code provided a reasonable simulation of the various phenomena which occurred during the tests

  14. International Standard Problems and Small Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Aksan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Best-estimate thermal-hydraulic system codes are widely used to perform safety and licensing analyses of nuclear power plants and also used in the design of advance reactors. Evaluation of the capabilities and the performance of these codes can be accomplished by comparing the code predictions with measured experimental data obtained on different test facilities. OECD/NEA Committee on the Safety of Nuclear Installations (CSNI has promoted, over the last twenty-nine years, some forty-eight international standard problems (ISPs. These ISPs were performed in different fields as in-vessel thermal-hydraulic behaviour, fuel behaviour under accident conditions, fission product release and transport, core/concrete interactions, hydrogen distribution and mixing, containment thermal-hydraulic behaviour. 80% of these ISPs were related to the working domain of principal working group no.2 on coolant system behaviour (PWG2 and were one of the major PWG2 activities for many years. A global review and synthesis on the contribution that ISPs have made to address nuclear reactor safety issues was initiated by CSNI-PWG2 and an overview on the subject of small break LOCA ISPs is given in this paper based on a report prepared by a writing group. In addition, the relevance of small break LOCA in a PWR with relation to nuclear reactor safety and the reorientation of the reactor safety program after TMI-2 accident are shortly summarized. The experiments in four integral test facilities, LOBI, SPES, BETHSY, ROSA IV/LSTF and the recorded data during a steam generator tube rupture transient in the DOEL-2 PWR (Belgium were the basis of the five small break LOCA related ISP exercises, which deal with the phenomenon typical of small break LOCAs in Western design PWRs. Some lessons learned from these small break LOCA ISPs are identified in relation to code deficiencies and capabilities, progress in the code capabilities, possibility of scaling, and various additional aspects

  15. Analysis of an Advanced Test Reactor Small-Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident with an Engineered Safety Feature to Automatically Trip the Primary Coolant Pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Polkinghorne, Steven T.; Davis, Cliff B.; McCracken, Richard T.

    2000-01-01

    A new engineered safety feature that automatically trips the primary coolant pumps following a low-pressure reactor scram was recently installed in the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). The purpose of this engineered safety feature is to prevent the ATR's surge tank, which contains compressed air, from emptying during a small-break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA). If the surge tank were to empty, the air introduced into the primary coolant loop could potentially cause the performance of the primary and/or emergency coolant pumps to degrade, thereby reducing core thermal margins. Safety analysis performed with the RELAP5 thermal-hydraulic code and the SINDA thermal analyzer shows that adequate thermal margins are maintained during an SBLOCA with the new engineered safety feature installed. The analysis also shows that the surge tank will not empty during an SBLOCA even if one of the primary coolant pumps fails to trip

  16. A study of the large break loss-of-coolant accident in the Angra-1 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, E.M.

    1984-01-01

    The simulation of the Angra-I nuclear power plant under the condition of large break loss of coolant accident is presented, the thermal-hydraulic analysis of the primary circuit during each phase of the acident and thermal analysis of the hottest fuel rod curing reflooding are shown. Computer codes RELAP4/MOD5 (options EM and FLOOD) and TOODEE 2 are used to perform these computations. Fuel rod peak temperatures reached during the simulation are below the permissible levels. However, during the reflooding phase; the maximum oxidation of the cladding exceeds the limit of 0.17 times the original cladding thickness. (Author) [pt

  17. AP600 large-break loss-of-collant-accident developmental assessment plan for TRAC-PF1/MOD2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, T.D.

    1996-07-01

    The Westinghouse AP600 reactor is an advanced pressurized water reactor with passive safety systems to protect the plant against possible accidents and transients. The design has been submitted to the U.S. NRC for design certification. The NRC has selected the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC)-PF1/MOD2 for performing large break loss-of coolant-accident (LBLOCA) analysis to support the certification effort. This document defines the tests to be used in the current phase of developmental assessment related to AP600 LBLOCA

  18. Breaking boundaries for biodiversity : expanding the policy agenda to halt biodiversity loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veen, M.P.; Sanders, M.E.; Tekelenburg, A.; Gerritsen, A.L.; Lörzing, J.A.; Brink, Th.

    2010-01-01

    Our assessment from the perspective of the Netherlands, a country in the temperate zone, showed a slightly positive picture, in line with the overall results for this zone. The loss of biodiversity in the Netherlands has been slowed down, but the European target – halting the loss of biodiversity –

  19. Modeling operator actions during a small break loss-of-coolant accident in a Babcock and Wilcox nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghan, L.S.; Ortiz, M.G.

    1991-01-01

    A small break loss-of-accident (SBLOCA) in a typical Babcock and Wilcox (B ampersand W) nuclear power plant was modeled using RELAP5/MOD3. This work was performed as part of the United States Regulatory Commission's (USNRC) Code, Scaling, Applicability and Uncertainty (CSAU) study. The break was initiated by severing one high pressure injection (HPI) line at the cold leg. Thus, the small break was further aggravated by reduced HPI flow. Comparisons between scoping runs with minimal operator action, and full operator action, clearly showed that the operator plays a key role in recovering the plant. Operator actions were modeled based on the emergency operating procedures (EOPs) and the Technical Bases Document for the EOPs. The sequence of operator actions modeled here is only one of several possibilities. Different sequences of operator actions are possible for a given accident because of the subjective decisions the operator must make when determining the status of the plant, hence, which branch of the EOP to follow. To assess the credibility of the modeled operator actions, these actions and results of the simulated accident scenario were presented to operator examiners who are familiar with B ampersand W nuclear power plants. They agreed that, in general, the modeled operator actions conform to the requirements set forth in the EOPs and are therefore plausible. This paper presents the method for modeling the operator actions and discusses the simulated accident scenario from the viewpoint of operator actions

  20. LOFT/L3-, Loss of Fluid Test, 7. NRC L3 Small Break LOCA Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    1 - Description of test facility: The LOFT Integral Test Facility is a scale model of a LPWR. The intent of the facility is to model the nuclear, thermal-hydraulic phenomena which would take place in a LPWR during a LOCA. The general philosophy in scaling coolant volumes and flow areas in LOFT was to use the ratio of the LOFT core [50 MW(t)] to a typical LPWR core [3000 MW(t)]. For some components, this factor is not applied; however, it is used as extensively as practical. In general, components used in LOFT are similar in design to those of a LPWR. Because of scaling and component design, the LOFT LOCA is expected to closely model a LPWR LOCA. 2 - Description of test: This was the seventh in the NRC L3 Series of small-break LOCA experiments. A 2.5-cm (10-in.) cold-leg non-communicative-break LOCA was simulated. The experiment was conducted on 20 June 1980

  1. Thermal hydraulic analysis of aggressive secondary cooldown in small break loss of coolant accident with total loss of high pressure safety injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, S. J.; Im, H. K.; Yang, J. U.

    2003-01-01

    Recently, Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) has being applied to various fields as a basic technique of Risk-Informed Applications (RIA). To use RIA, the present study focuses on the detailed thermal hydraulic analyses for major accident sequences and success criteria to support a development of PSA model for Korea Standard Nuclear Power plant (KSNP). The primary purpose of the present study is to evaluate the success criteria of Aggressive Secondary Cooldown (ASC) in Small Break Loss Of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) with total loss of High Pressure Safety Injection (HPSI) and to enhance the understanding of related thermal hydraulic behavior and phenomena. The accident scenario was 2 inch coldleg break LOCA without HPSI, with 1/2 Low Pressure Safety Injection (LPSI), and performing ASC limited by 55.6 .deg. C /hr (100 .deg. F/hr) cooldown rate at 15 minute after reactor trip, which successively reaches the LPSI condition for about 1.5hr after starting ASC operation with the Peak Cladding Temperature (PCT) of the hottest rod below the core damage criteria 1204.4 .deg. C (2200 .deg. F). In the present study, more relaxed success criteria than the previous PSA for KSNP could be generated under an assumption that operator should maintain the adequate ASC operation. However, it is necessary to evaluate uncertainties arisen from the related parameters of the ASC operation

  2. Methylproamine protects against ionizing radiation by preventing DNA double-strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sprung, Carl N.; Vasireddy, Raja S.; Karagiannis, Tom C.; Loveridge, Shanon J.; Martin, Roger F.; McKay, Michael J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The majority of cancer patients will receive radiotherapy (RT), therefore, investigations into advances of this modality are important. Conventional RT dose intensities are limited by adverse responses in normal tissues and a primary goal is to ameliorate adverse normal tissue effects. The aim of these experiments is to further our understanding regarding the mechanism of radioprotection by the DNA minor groove binder, methylproamine, in a cellular context at the DNA level. Materials and methods: We used immunocytochemical methods to measure the accumulation of phosphorylated H2AX (γH2AX) foci following ionizing radiation (IR) in patient-derived lymphoblastoid cells exposed to methylproamine. Furthermore, we performed pulsed field gel electrophoresis DNA damage and repair assays to directly interrogate the action of methylproamine on DNA in irradiated cells. Results: We found that methylproamine-treated cells had fewer γH2AX foci after IR compared to untreated cells. Also, the presence of methylproamine decreased the amount of lower molecular weight DNA entering the gel as shown by the pulsed field gel electrophoresis assay. Conclusions: These results suggest that methylproamine acts by preventing the formation of DNA double-strand breaks (dsbs) and support the hypothesis that radioprotection by methylproamine is mediated, at least in part, by decreasing initial DNA damage.

  3. Small-break loss-of-coolant accidents in the updated PIUS 600 advanced reactor design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyack, B.E.; Steiner, J.L.; Harmony, S.C. [Los Alamos National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States)] [and others

    1995-09-01

    The PIUS advanced reactor is a 640-MWe pressurized water reactor developed by Asea Brown Boveri (ABB). A unique feature of the PIUS concept is the absence of mechanical control and shutdown rods. Reactivity is normally controlled by coolant boron concentration and the temperature of the moderator coolant. ABB submitted the PIUS design to the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for preapplication review, and Los Alamos supported the NRC`s review effort. Baseline analyses of small-break initiators at two locations were performed with the system neutronic and thermal-hydraulic analysis code TRAC-PF1/MOD2. In addition, sensitivity studies were performed to explore the robustness of the PIUS concept to severe off-normal conditions having a very low probability of occurrence.

  4. Interventions to prevent occupational noise-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tikka, Christina; Verbeek, Jos H; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C; Dreschler, Wouter A; Ferrite, Silvia

    2017-07-07

    This is the second update of a Cochrane Review originally published in 2009. Millions of workers worldwide are exposed to noise levels that increase their risk of hearing disorders. There is uncertainty about the effectiveness of hearing loss prevention interventions. To assess the effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical interventions for preventing occupational noise exposure or occupational hearing loss compared to no intervention or alternative interventions. We searched the CENTRAL; PubMed; Embase; CINAHL; Web of Science; BIOSIS Previews; Cambridge Scientific Abstracts; and OSH UPDATE to 3 October 2016. We included randomised controlled trials (RCT), controlled before-after studies (CBA) and interrupted time-series (ITS) of non-clinical interventions under field conditions among workers to prevent or reduce noise exposure and hearing loss. We also collected uncontrolled case studies of engineering controls about the effect on noise exposure. Two authors independently assessed study eligibility and risk of bias and extracted data. We categorised interventions as engineering controls, administrative controls, personal hearing protection devices, and hearing surveillance. We included 29 studies. One study evaluated legislation to reduce noise exposure in a 12-year time-series analysis but there were no controlled studies on engineering controls for noise exposure. Eleven studies with 3725 participants evaluated effects of personal hearing protection devices and 17 studies with 84,028 participants evaluated effects of hearing loss prevention programmes (HLPPs). Effects on noise exposure Engineering interventions following legislationOne ITS study found that new legislation in the mining industry reduced the median personal noise exposure dose in underground coal mining by 27.7 percentage points (95% confidence interval (CI) -36.1 to -19.3 percentage points) immediately after the implementation of stricter legislation. This roughly translates to a 4.5 dB(A) decrease in

  5. Nonlocal response in thin-film waveguides: Loss versus nonlocality and breaking of complementarity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Raza, Søren; Christensen, Thomas; Wubs, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    the Thomas-Fermi internal kinetic energy of the free electrons in the metal. We derive the nonlocal dispersion relations of the three waveguide structures taking into account also retardation and interband effects, and examine the delicate interplay between nonlocal response and absorption losses...

  6. Breaking through the loss cycle of burnout: the role of motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Brummelhuis, L.L.; ter Hoeven, C.L.; Bakker, A.B.; Peper, B.

    2011-01-01

    We aimed to study burnout as a process that develops over time. On the basis of the Conservation of Resources theory (Hobfoll, 2002), we tested whether burnout induces a loss cycle, depleting resources, and enhancing demands. In addition, we investigated whether intrinsic job motivation and

  7. Urbanization, habitat loss, biodiversity decline:  solution pathways to break the cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas Elmqvist; Wayne Zipperer; Burak  Güneralp

    2016-01-01

    The interactions between urbanization with biodiversity and ecosystem services that take place defy simple generalizations. There is increasing evidence for the negative impacts of urbanization on biodiversity, most directly in the form of habitat loss and fragmentation. Recent forecasts suggest that the amount of urban land near protected areas is expected to increase...

  8. Advanced Neutron Source Reactor (ANSR) phenomena identification and ranking (PIR) for large break loss of coolant accidents (LBLOCA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruggles, A.E.; Cheng, L.Y.; Dimenna, R.A.; Griffith, P.; Wilson, G.E.

    1994-06-01

    A team of experts in reactor analysis conducted a phenomena identification and ranking (PIR) exercise for a large break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA) in the Advanced Neutron source Reactor (ANSR). The LBLOCA transient is broken into two separate parts for the PIR exercise. The first part considers the initial depressurization of the system that follows the opening of the break. The second part of the transient includes long-term decay heat removal after the reactor is shut down and the system is depressurized. A PIR is developed for each part of the LBLOCA. The ranking results are reviewed to establish if models in the RELAP5-MOD3 thermalhydraulic code are adequate for use in ANSR LBLOCA simulations. Deficiencies in the RELAP5-MOD3 code are identified and existing data or models are recommended to improve the code for this application. Experiments were also suggested to establish models for situations judged to be beyond current knowledge. The applicability of the ANSR PIR results is reviewed for the entire set of transients important to the ANSR safety analysis

  9. Analysis of large break loss of coolant accident with simultaneous injection into cold leg and hot leg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Bangqi

    1997-01-01

    When a large break loss of coolant accident occurs, the most part of the safety injection water injected into the cold leg by the safety injection system will flow through the channel between the pressure vessel and the barrel out of the break into the containment, only a little part of the safety injection water can flow into the reactor core. If the safety injection can inject into both the cold leg and the hot leg simultaneously, the safety injection water injected from the cold leg will flow into the core more easily, because the safety injection water injected from the hot leg will carry out more heat from the upper plenum and the core, so the upper plenum and the core is depressed. In addition, a small part of the safety injection water injected from the hot leg will flow down in the core after impinging the guide tubes in the upper plenum, so the core will get more safety injection water than only cold leg injection, and the core will be much safer

  10. Contemporary noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sułkowski, Wiesław; Owczarek, Kalina; Olszewski, Jurek

    2017-08-31

    Hearing impairment caused by noise, traditionally called - depending on the duration of exposure - acute or chronic acoustic trauma, includes, in addition to presbyacusis, the most common adult population of hearing impaired. In Poland - according to the report of the Central Statistical Office (GUS, 2011), the number of workers employed in NDN exceeded the noise level (85 dB) is about 200 thousand, the highest in the mining, metal and metal products production, textiles and wood production. According to the Regulation of the Council of Ministers of on June 30, 2009, on the list of occupational diseases (Journal of Laws No. 132, item 1115), it is defined as "bilateral permanent hearing loss of the cochlear or sensory-nerve type, expressed as an increase in hearing threshold of at least 45 dB in the ear better heard, calculated as an arithmetic mean for frequencies 1,2 and 3 kHz. Hearing impairments also occur in the military and police during field training and in combat where the source of acoustic injuries are firearms and pulse-inducing explosions (as in some industries) with high C peak levels (Lc peak) Time to rise to a maximum of <1 ms. The prevalence of loud music listening, particularly by personal stereo players, is also affecting children and adolescents with audiometric hearing loss, according to the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates of around 15-20%. The preventive action strategy is defined by the European Union legislation and the national implementing legislation that reduces or eliminates the risk and reduces (if not eliminated), taking into account available technical and organizational solutions to minimize the risk of hearing damage. If you can not reduce the noise levels with technical and organizational methods, you need individual hearing protectors. Ear protectors may be equipped with electronic systems with active noise reduction (which can improve low and medium frequency performance), adjustable attenuation (improves speech

  11. Weight loss in the prevention and treatment of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delahanty, Linda M

    2017-11-01

    The American Diabetes Association nutrition and lifestyle recommendations for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes focus on losing 7% of body weight and increasing physical activity to at least 150minperweek. This emphasis is largely based on results of the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) and Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) clinical trials. DPP demonstrated that a lifestyle intervention aimed at 7% weight loss and 150min of activity per week reduced diabetes incidence by 58% after 2.8years of follow-up and resulted in sustained improvements in hemoglobinA1c, blood pressure and lipid levels. After 15years of follow-up, DPP's lifestyle intervention sustained a 27% risk reduction in progression to diabetes. Look AHEAD's lifestyle intervention significantly reduced hemoglobinA1c, blood pressure, triglycerides, and the amount and costs of medications needed to treat these conditions when compared with diabetes support and education. Other clinical and psychological benefits achieved with lifestyle intervention were greater reductions in c-reactive protein, less self-reported retinopathy, reduced risk of nephropathy, less sexual dysfunction, decreased incidence of urinary incontinence and fatty liver, remission of sleep apnea, better physical functioning, less knee pain, more remission of diabetes, reduced incidence of depression, less body image dissatisfaction and improved quality-of-life. A number of DPP translation studies have demonstrated weight losses of 4 to 7% at 6month and 1year follow-up which has led to Medicare coverage for CDC recognized DPP lifestyle programs starting in April 2018. Translation studies of Look AHEAD using a variety of delivery formats are underway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Thermal hydraulic analysis of aggressive secondary cooldown in a small break loss of coolant accident with a total loss of high pressure safety injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Seok Jung; Lim, Ho Gon; Yang, Joon Eon

    2003-01-01

    To support the development of a Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) model usable in Riskinformed Applications (RIA) for Korea Standard Nuclear power Plants (KSNP), we have performed a thermal hydraulic analysis of Aggressive Secondary Cooldown (ASC) in a 2-inch Small Break Loss Of Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) with a total loss of High Pressure Safety Injection (HPSI). The present study focuses on the estimation of the success criteria of ASC, and the enhanced understanding of the detailed thermal hydraulic behavior and phenomena. The results have shown that the Reactor Coolant System (RCS) pressure can be reduced to the Low Pressure Safety Injection (LPSI) operation conditions without core damage. It was also shown that more relaxed success criteria compared to those in the previous PSA models of KSNP could be used in the new PSA model. However, it was found that the results could be affected by various parameters related with ASC operation, i.e., reference temperature for the calculation of the cooldown rate and its control method

  13. Application of code scaling applicability and uncertainty methodology to the large break loss of coolant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, M.Y.; Bajorek, S.M.; Nissley, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    In the late 1980s, after completion of an extensive research program, the United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC) amended its regulations (10CFR50.46) to allow the use of realistic physical models to analyze the loss of coolant accident (LOCA) in a light water reactors. Prior to this time, the evaluation of this accident was subject to a prescriptive set of rules (appendix K of the regulations) requiring conservative models and assumptions to be applied simultaneously, leading to very pessimistic estimates of the impact of this accident on the reactor core. The rule change therefore promised to provide significant benefits to owners of power reactors, allowing them to increase output. In response to the rule change, a method called code scaling, applicability and uncertainty (CSAU) was developed to apply realistic methods, while properly taking into account data uncertainty, uncertainty in physical modeling and plant variability. The method was claimed to be structured, traceable, and practical, but was met with some criticism when first demonstrated. In 1996, the USNRC approved a methodology, based on CSAU, developed by a group led by Westinghouse. The lessons learned in this application of CSAU will be summarized. Some of the issues raised concerning the validity and completeness of the CSAU methodology will also be discussed. (orig.)

  14. On-line pressurizer surveillance system design to prevent small break LOCA through PORV using micro-computer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jong-Ho; Chang, Soon-Heung

    1986-01-01

    Small break LOCA caused by a stuck-open PORV is one of the important contributors to nuclear power plant risk. This paper deals with the design of a pressurizer surveillance system using micro-computer to prevent the malfunction of system and has assessed the effect of this improvement through Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) method. Micro-computer diagnoses the malfunction of system by a process checking method and performs automatically backup action related to each malfunction. Owing to this improvement, we can correctly diagnose ''Spurious Opening'', ''Fail to Reclose'' and ''Small break LOCA'' which are difficult for operator to diagnose quickly and correctly and reduce the probability of a human error by an automatic backup action. (author)

  15. Loss of Coolant Accident Simulation for the Top-Slot break at Cold Leg Focusing on the Loop Seal Reformation under Long Term Cooling with the ATLAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Rok; Park, Yu Sun; Bae, Byoung Uhn; Choi, Nam Hyun; Kang, Kyoung Ho; Choi, Ki Yong [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In the present paper, loss of coolant accident for the top-slot break at cold leg was simulated with the ATLAS, which is a thermal-hydraulic integral effect test facility for evolutionary pressurized water reactors (PWRs) of an advanced power reactor of 1400 MWe (APR1400). The simulation was focused on the loop seal reformation under long term cooling condition. During a certain class of Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in a PWR like an advanced power reactor of 1400 MWe (APR1400), the steam volume in the reactor vessel upper plenum and/or upper head may continue expanding until steam blows liquid out of the intermediate leg (U-shaped pump suction cold leg), called loop seal clearing (LSC), opening a path for the steam to be relieved from the break. Prediction of the LSC phenomena is difficult because they are varies for many parameters, which are break location, type, size, etc. This LSC is the major factor that affects the coolant inventory in the small break LOCA (SBLOCA) or intermediate break LOCA (IBLOCA). There is an issue about the loop seal reformation that liquid refills intermediate leg and blocks the steam path after LSC. During the SBLOCA or IBLOCA, the Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) is operated. For long term of the top slot small or intermediate break at cold leg, the primary steam condensation by SG heat transfer or SIP, SIT water flooding (reverse flow to loop seal) make loop seal reformation possibly. The primary pressure increase at the top core region due to the steam release blockage by loop seal reformation. And then core level decreases and partial core uncover may occur. The loss of coolant accident for the top-slot break at cold leg was simulated with the ATLAS. The loop seal clearing and loop seal reformation were occurred repeatedly.

  16. Effect of emergency core cooling system flow reduction on channel temperature during recirculation phase of large break loss-of-coolant accident at Wolsong unit 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Seon Oh; Cho, Yong Jin [Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Joong [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-08-15

    The feasibility of cooling in a pressurized heavy water reactor after a large break loss-of-coolant accident has been analyzed using Multidimensional Analysis of Reactor Safety-KINS Standard code during the recirculation phase. Through evaluation of sensitivity of the fuel channel temperature to various effective recirculation flow areas, it is determined that proper cooling of the fuel channels in the broken loop is feasible if the effective flow area remains above approximately 70% of the nominal flow area. When the flow area is reduced by more than approximately 25% of the nominal value, however, incipience of boiling is expected, after which the thermal integrity of the fuel channel can be threatened. In addition, if a dramatic reduction of the recirculation flow occurs, excursions and frequent fluctuations of temperature in the fuel channels are likely to be unavoidable, and thus damage to the fuel channels would be anticipated. To resolve this, emergency coolant supply through the newly installed external injection path can be used as one alternative means of cooling, enabling fuel channel integrity to be maintained and permanently preventing severe accident conditions. Thus, the external injection flow required to guarantee fuel channel coolability has been estimated.

  17. Effect of emergency core cooling system flow reduction on channel temperature during recirculation phase of large break loss-of-coolant accident at Wolsong unit 1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seon Oh Yu

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of cooling in a pressurized heavy water reactor after a large break loss-of-coolant accident has been analyzed using Multidimensional Analysis of Reactor Safety-KINS Standard code during the recirculation phase. Through evaluation of sensitivity of the fuel channel temperature to various effective recirculation flow areas, it is determined that proper cooling of the fuel channels in the broken loop is feasible if the effective flow area remains above approximately 70% of the nominal flow area. When the flow area is reduced by more than approximately 25% of the nominal value, however, incipience of boiling is expected, after which the thermal integrity of the fuel channel can be threatened. In addition, if a dramatic reduction of the recirculation flow occurs, excursions and frequent fluctuations of temperature in the fuel channels are likely to be unavoidable, and thus damage to the fuel channels would be anticipated. To resolve this, emergency coolant supply through the newly installed external injection path can be used as one alternative means of cooling, enabling fuel channel integrity to be maintained and permanently preventing severe accident conditions. Thus, the external injection flow required to guarantee fuel channel coolability has been estimated.

  18. Momentum-resolved hidden-order gap reveals symmetry breaking and origin of entropy loss in URu2Si2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bareille, C.; Boariu, F. L.; Schwab, H.; Lejay, P.; Reinert, F.; Santander-Syro, A. F.

    2014-07-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking in physical systems leads to salient phenomena at all scales, from the Higgs mechanism and the emergence of the mass of the elementary particles, to superconductivity and magnetism in solids. The hidden-order state arising below 17.5 K in URu2Si2 is a puzzling example of one of such phase transitions: its associated broken symmetry and gap structure have remained longstanding riddles. Here we directly image how, across the hidden-order transition, the electronic structure of URu2Si2 abruptly reconstructs. We observe an energy gap of 7 meV opening over 70% of a large diamond-like heavy-fermion Fermi surface, resulting in the formation of four small Fermi petals, and a change in the electronic periodicity from body-centred tetragonal to simple tetragonal. Our results explain the large entropy loss in the hidden-order phase, and the similarity between this phase and the high-pressure antiferromagnetic phase found in quantum-oscillation experiments.

  19. Statistical analysis of fuel failures in large break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA) in EPR type nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arkoma, Asko; Hänninen, Markku; Rantamäki, Karin; Kurki, Joona; Hämäläinen, Anitta

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The number of failing fuel rods in a LB-LOCA in an EPR is evaluated. • 59 scenarios are simulated with the system code APROS. • 1000 rods per scenario are simulated with the fuel performance code FRAPTRAN-GENFLO. • All the rods in the reactor are simulated in the worst scenario. • Results suggest that the regulations set by the Finnish safety authority are met. - Abstract: In this paper, the number of failing fuel rods in a large break loss-of-coolant accident (LB-LOCA) in EPR-type nuclear power plant is evaluated using statistical methods. For this purpose, a statistical fuel failure analysis procedure has been developed. The developed method utilizes the results of nonparametric statistics, the Wilks’ formula in particular, and is based on the selection and variation of parameters that are important in accident conditions. The accident scenario is simulated with the coupled fuel performance – thermal hydraulics code FRAPTRAN-GENFLO using various parameter values and thermal hydraulic and power history boundary conditions between the simulations. The number of global scenarios is 59 (given by the Wilks’ formula), and 1000 rods are simulated in each scenario. The boundary conditions are obtained from a new statistical version of the system code APROS. As a result, in the worst global scenario, 1.2% of the simulated rods failed, and it can be concluded that the Finnish safety regulations are hereby met (max. 10% of the rods allowed to fail)

  20. Statistical analysis of fuel failures in large break loss-of-coolant accident (LBLOCA) in EPR type nuclear power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkoma, Asko, E-mail: asko.arkoma@vtt.fi; Hänninen, Markku; Rantamäki, Karin; Kurki, Joona; Hämäläinen, Anitta

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • The number of failing fuel rods in a LB-LOCA in an EPR is evaluated. • 59 scenarios are simulated with the system code APROS. • 1000 rods per scenario are simulated with the fuel performance code FRAPTRAN-GENFLO. • All the rods in the reactor are simulated in the worst scenario. • Results suggest that the regulations set by the Finnish safety authority are met. - Abstract: In this paper, the number of failing fuel rods in a large break loss-of-coolant accident (LB-LOCA) in EPR-type nuclear power plant is evaluated using statistical methods. For this purpose, a statistical fuel failure analysis procedure has been developed. The developed method utilizes the results of nonparametric statistics, the Wilks’ formula in particular, and is based on the selection and variation of parameters that are important in accident conditions. The accident scenario is simulated with the coupled fuel performance – thermal hydraulics code FRAPTRAN-GENFLO using various parameter values and thermal hydraulic and power history boundary conditions between the simulations. The number of global scenarios is 59 (given by the Wilks’ formula), and 1000 rods are simulated in each scenario. The boundary conditions are obtained from a new statistical version of the system code APROS. As a result, in the worst global scenario, 1.2% of the simulated rods failed, and it can be concluded that the Finnish safety regulations are hereby met (max. 10% of the rods allowed to fail)

  1. Radiological consequence analyses of loss of coolant accidents of various break sizes of Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanyasi Rao, V.V.S.; Hari Prasad, M.; Ghosh, A.K.

    2010-01-01

    For any advanced technology, it is essential to ensure that the consequences associated with the accident sequences arising, if any, from the operation of the plant are as low as possible and certainly below the guidelines/limits set by the regulatory bodies. Nuclear power is no exception to this. In this paper consequences of the events arising from Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) sequences in Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR), are analysed. The sequences correspond to different break sizes of LOCA followed by the operation or otherwise of Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS). Operation or otherwise of the containment safety systems has also been considered. It has been found that there are no releases to the environment when ECCS is available. The releases, when ECCS is not available, arise from the slack and the ground. The radionuclides considered include noble gases, iodine, and cesium. The hourly meteorological parameters (wind speed, wind direction, precipitation and stability category), considered for this study, correspond to those of Kakrapar site. The consequences evaluated are the thyroid dose and the bone marrow dose received by a person located at various distances from the release point. Isodose curves are generated. From these evaluations, it has been found that the doses are very low. The complementary cumulative frequency distributions (CCFD) for thyroid and bone marrow doses have also been presented for the cases analysed. (author)

  2. Microstructural examination of fuel rods subjected to a simulated large-break loss of coolant accident in reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garlick, A.

    1985-01-01

    A series of tests has been conducted in the National Research Universal (NRU) reactor, Chalk River, Canada, to investigate the behaviour of full-length 32-rod PWR fuel bundles during a simulated large-break loss of coolant accident (LOCA). In one of these tests (MT-3), 12 central rods were pre-pressurized in order to evaluate the ballooning and rupture of cladding in the Zircaloy high-α/α+β temperature region. All 12 rods ruptured after experiencing < 90% diametral strain but there was no suggestion of coplanar blockage. Post-irradiation examination was carried out on cross-sections of cladding from selected rods to determine the aximuthal distribution of wall thinning along the ballooned regions. These data are assessed to check whether they are consistent with a mechanism in which fuel stack eccentricity generates temperature gradients around the ballooning cladding and leads to premature rupture during a LOCA. After anodizing, the cladding microstructures were examined for the presence of prior-beta phase that would indicate the α/α+β transformation temperature (1078K) had been exceeded. These results were compared with isothermal annealing test data on unirradiated cladding from the same manufacturing batch

  3. Breaking the rhythm of depression : Cognitive Behavior Therapy and relapse prevention for depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bockting, Claudi L.H.

    2010-01-01

    A crucial part of the treatment of depression is the prevention of relapse and recurrence. Psychological interventions, especially cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) are helpful in preventing relapse and recurrence in depression. The effectivity of four types of relapse prevention cognitive behavior

  4. The efficiency of voluntary incentive policies for preventing biodiversity loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Lewis; Andrew J. Plantinga; Erik Nelson; Stephen Polasky

    2011-01-01

    Habitat loss is a primary cause of loss of biodiversity but conserving habitat for species presents challenges. Land parcels differ in their ability to produce returns for landowners and landowners may have private information about the value of the land to them. Land parcels also differ in the type and quality of habitat and the spatial pattern of land use across...

  5. Reducing security risk using data loss prevention technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeskow, John

    2015-11-01

    Data loss/leakage protection (DLP) technology seeks to improve data security by answering three fundamental questions: > Where are confidential data stored? > Who is accessing the information? > How are data being handled?

  6. Sensitivity analysis of local uncertainties in large break loss-of-coolant accident (LB-LOCA) thermo-mechanical simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arkoma, Asko, E-mail: asko.arkoma@vtt.fi; Ikonen, Timo

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • A sensitivity analysis using the data from EPR LB-LOCA simulations is done. • A procedure to analyze such complex data is outlined. • Both visual and quantitative methods are used. • Input factors related to core design are identified as most significant. - Abstract: In this paper, a sensitivity analysis for the data originating from a large break loss-of-coolant accident (LB-LOCA) analysis of an EPR-type nuclear power plant is presented. In the preceding LOCA analysis, the number of failing fuel rods in the accident was established (Arkoma et al., 2015). However, the underlying causes for rod failures were not addressed. It is essential to bring out which input parameters and boundary conditions have significance to the outcome of the analysis, i.e. the ballooning and burst of the rods. Due to complexity of the existing data, the first part of the analysis consists of defining the relevant input parameters for the sensitivity analysis. Then, selected sensitivity measures are calculated between the chosen input and output parameters. The ultimate goal is to develop a systematic procedure for the sensitivity analysis of statistical LOCA simulation that takes into account the various sources of uncertainties in the calculation chain. In the current analysis, the most relevant parameters with respect to the cladding integrity are the decay heat power during the transient, the thermal hydraulic conditions in the rod’s location in reactor, and the steady-state irradiation history of the rod. Meanwhile, the tolerances in fuel manufacturing parameters were found to have negligible effect on cladding deformation.

  7. Methodology for the Assessment of Confidence in Safety Margin for Small Break Loss of Coolant Accident Sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagrale, D. B.; Prasad, M.; Rao, R. S.; Gaikwad, A.J., E-mail: avinashg@aerb.gov.in [Nuclear Safety Analysis Division, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Mumbai (India)

    2014-10-15

    Deterministic Safety Analysis and Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) analyses are used concurrently to assess the Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) safety. The conventional deterministic analysis is conservative. The best estimate plus uncertainty analysis is increasingly being used for deterministic calculation in NPPs. The PSA methodology aims to be as realistic as possible while integrating information about accident phenomena, plant design, operating practices, component reliability and human behaviour. The peak clad temperature (PCT) distribution provides an insight into the confidence in safety margin for an initiating event. The paper deals with the concept of calculating the peak clad temperature with 95 percent confidence and 95 percent probability (PCT{sub 95/95}) in small break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA) and methodologies for assessing safety margin. Five input parameters mainly, nominal power level, decay power, fuel clad gap conductivity, fuel thermal conductivity and discharge coefficient, were selected. A Uniform probability density function was assigned to the uncertain parameters and these uncertainties are propagated using Latin Hypercube Sampling (LHS) technique. The sampled data for 5 parameters were randomly mixed by LHS to obtain 25 input sets. A non-core damage accident sequence was selected from the SBLOCA event tree of a typical VVER study to estimate the PCTs and safety margin. A Kolmogorov– Smirnov goodness-of-fit test was carried out for PCTs. The smallest value of safety margin would indicate the robustness of the system with 95% confidence and 95% probability. Regression analysis was also carried out using 1000 sample size for the estimating PCTs. Mean, variance and finally safety margin were analysed. (author)

  8. Future Integrated Systems Concept for Preventing Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accidents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.; Jacobson, Steven r.

    2010-01-01

    Loss of control remains one of the largest contributors to aircraft fatal accidents worldwide. Aircraft loss-of-control accidents are highly complex in that they can result from numerous causal and contributing factors acting alone or (more often) in combination. Hence, there is no single intervention strategy to prevent these accidents. This paper presents future system concepts and research directions for preventing aircraft loss-of-control accidents.

  9. Thermal-Hydraulic Integral Effect Test with ATLAS for an Intermediate Break Loss of Coolant Accident at a Pressurizer Surge Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kyoung Ho; Seok Cho; Park, Hyun Sik; Choi, Nam Hyun; Park, Yu Sun; Kim, Jong Rok; Bae, Byoung Uhn; Kim, Yeon Sik; Kim, Kyung Doo; Choi, Ki Yong; Song, Chul Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The main objectives of this test were not only to provide physical insight into the system response of the APR1400 during the pressurizer surge line break accident but also to produce an integral effect test data to validate the SPACE code. In order to simulate a double-ended guillotine break of a pressurizer surge line in the APR1400, the IB-SUR-01R test was performed with ATLAS. The major thermal-hydraulic phenomena such as the system pressures, the collapsed water levels, and the break flow rate were presented and discussed. Despite the core was uncovered, no excursion in the cladding temperature was observed. The pressurizer surge line break can be classified as a hot leg break from a break location point of view. Compared with a cold leg break, coolability in the core may be better in case of a hot leg break due to the enhanced flow in the core region. This integral effect test data will be used to evaluate the prediction capability of existing safety analysis codes of the MARS and the RELAP5 as well as the SPACE code. Furthermore, this data can be utilized to identify any code deficiency for an IBLOCA simulation, especially for DVI-adapted plants. Redefinition of break size for design basis accident (DBA) based on risk information is being extensively investigated due to the potential for safety benefits and unnecessary burden reduction from current LBLOCA (large break loss of coolant accident)-based ECC (Emergency Core Cooling) Acceptance Criteria. As a transition break size (TBS), the rupture of medium-size pipe is considered to be more important than ever in risk-informed regulation (RIR)-relevant safety analysis. As plants age, are up-rated, and continue to seek improved operating efficiencies, the small break and intermediate break LOCA (IBLOCA) can become a concern. In particular, IBLOCA with DVI (Direct Vessel Injection) features will be addressed to support redefinition of a design-basis LOCA. With an aim of expanding code validation to address small

  10. Use of Otoacoustic emissions in noise induced hearing loss prevention

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edwards, A

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available in laboratory- main clinical use on identification of hearing loss in newborn babies • Clinically sensitive tool for assessing NIHL and the outer hair cells (OHC) • repeatable results • identify cochlear damage before evidenced on an audiogram – normal... audiogram but evidence of OHC loss • Feasible method of evaluating HPD effectiveness using temporary emission shift (TES) • CSIR research developed a prediction model for Hearing Threshold Levels Copy of dancing hair cell.wm © CSIR 2010 Slide 6...

  11. Breaking the Rhythm of Depression: Cognitive Behavior Therapy and Relapse Prevention for Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudi L.H. Bockting

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A crucial part of the treatment of depression is the prevention of relapse and recurrence. Psychological interventions, especially cognitive behavior therapy (CBT are helpful in preventing relapse and recurrence in depression. The effectivity of four types of relapse prevention cognitive behavior therapy strategies will be addressed, i.e. acute prophylactic cognitive behavior therapy, continuation cognitive behavior therapy, sequential cognitive behavior therapy and cognitive behavior therapy in partial remission.Specific ingredients of three sequential cognitive behavior therapy programs (well-being cognitive therapy, preventive cognitive therapy, and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy will be discussed as applied after remission in patients that experienced previous depressive episodes. Sequential preventive cognitive behavior therapy after acute treatment may be an attractive alternative treatment for many patients who currently use antidepressants for years and years to prevent relapse and recurrence. This is an extremely challenging issue to research thoroughly. Future studies must rule out what intervention for whom is the best protection against relapse and recurrence in depression.

  12. A worksite-based weight loss intervention for obesity prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worksites are increasingly being used as locations for implementing healthy diet and weight loss interventions. Hence, there is an urgent need to identify programs that are both successful and sustainable. We conducted a 6-month pilot randomized controlled trial in overweight and obese employees a...

  13. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss - A Preventable Disease?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Thomas W.; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H.; Stokholm, Zara A.

    2017-01-01

    AIMS: To survey current, Danish industrial noise levels and the use of hearing protection devices (HPD) over a 10-year period and to characterise the association between occupational noise and hearing threshold shift in the same period. Furthermore, the risk of hearing loss among the baseline and...

  14. Energy-Efficiency Options for Insurance Loss Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, E. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Div.; Knoepfel, I. [Swiss Reinsurance Co., Zurich (Switzerland)

    1997-06-09

    Energy-efficiency improvements offer the insurance industry two areas of opportunity: reducing ordinary claims and avoiding greenhouse gas emissions that could precipitate natural disaster losses resulting from global climate change. We present three vehicles for taking advantage of this opportunity, including research and development, in- house energy management, and provision of key information to insurance customers and risk managers. The complementary role for renewable energy systems is also introduced.

  15. Tetrahydroxystilbene Glucoside Effectively Prevents Apoptosis Induced Hair Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lulu Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Polygonum multiflorum against hair loss has been widely recognized. 2,3,5,4′-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-D-glucoside (TSG is the main component of Polygonum multiflorum; however, its role in hair regeneration has not been established. To evaluate the hair growth-promoting activity of TSG, depilated C57BL/6J mice were topically treated with normal saline, TSG, Pifithrin-α, Minoxidil for 2 weeks. In this study, we identified that p53, Caspase-3, Active Caspase-3, and Caspase-9 were obviously upregulated in the skin of human and mice with hair loss by western blot analysis. Depilated mice treated with TSG showed markedly hair regrowth. TUNEL+ cells were also reduced in mice with TSG. These changes were accompanied with inhibition of Fas, p53, Bax, Active Caspase-3, and Procaspase-9 activities. These results demonstrated that TSG exerts great hair regrowth effect on hair loss, which was probably mediated by inhibition of p53, Fas, and Bax induced apoptosis.

  16. Experimental Research Into High Barometric Oxygen Prevention of Guinea Pig Hearing Loss,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-08-28

    PREVENTION OF GUINEA PIG HEARING LOSS by Yin Jiacai, Sun Fang ren, et al. DTIC MLECTE •<• EP 2 9 1992 Approved for public release, Distribution unlimited...PREVENTION OF GUINEA PIG HEARING LOSS By: Yin Jiacai, Sun Fang ren, et al. English pages: 9 Source: Chung-Hua I Shueh Tsa Chih, Vol. 65, Nr. 11, Nov.eember...Distributionf._DL~~~t .•b • / or __ Dlist szeccat .lef ’ ~1 EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH INTO HIGH BAROMETRIC OXYGEN PREVENTION OF GUINEA PIG HEARING LOSS BY: Yin

  17. Breaking the Silence and Other Prevention Lessons From the Opioid Epidemic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, Paul E

    2018-05-01

    The goal of this editorial is to equip readers with opioid education resources that enable you to role model what it looks like to speak out about addiction. How are we doing as a profession speaking up about addiction? Stigma is commanded by a deep irony: where peer pressure is what likely keeps us quiet, peer support is what enables us to speak up. The "#MeToo" movement is an extraordinary example of the inertia needed to break open a taboo topic. From Hollywood celebrities to US women's gymnastics stars, it was clear that as more women spoke up about sexual harassment, well, the more women spoke out. As unnatural as it felt to talk about being harassed or abused, many simply acknowledged that it was the courage of their peers that helped them find their courage. Workplace supervisors have a front row seat for watching the epidemic and our role relates to what I consider the most straightforward definition of addiction: It is when "it" (i.e., alcohol, opioids, gambling) begins to cause problems.

  18. Determination of the in-containment source term for a Large-Break Loss of Coolant Accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-04-01

    This is the report of a project that focused on one of the most important design basis accidents: the Large Break Loss Of Coolant Accident (LBLOCA) (for pressurised water reactors). The first step in the calculation of the radiological consequences of this accident is the determination of the source term inside the containment. This work deals with this part of the calculation of the LBLOCA radiological consequences for which a previous benchmark (1988) has shown wide variations in the licensing practices adopted by European countries. The calculation of this source term may naturally be split in several steps (see chapter II), corresponding to several physical stages in the release of fission products: fraction of core failure, release from the damaged fuel, airborne part of the release and the release into the reactor coolant system and the sumps, chemical behaviour of iodine in the aqueous and gas phases, natural and spray removal in the containment atmosphere. A chapter is devoted to each of these topics. In addition, two other chapters deal with the basic assumptions to define the accidental sequence and the nuclides to be considered when computing doses associated with the LBLOCA. The report describes where there is agreement between the partner organisations and where there are still differences in approach. For example, there is agreement concerning the percentage of failed fuel which could be used in future licensing assessments (however this subject is still under discussion in France, a lower value is thinkable). For existing plants, AVN (Belgium) wishes to keep the initial licensing assumptions. For the release from damaged fuel, there is not complete agreement: AVN (Belgium) wishes to maintain its present approach. IPSN (France), GRS (Germany) and NNC (UK) prefer to use their own methodologies that result in slightly different values to the proposed values for a common position. There are presently no recommendations of the release of fuel particulates

  19. Investment in paediatric tuberculosis prevention in Pakistan: Loss or gain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siddiqui, E.U.; Ejaz, K.; Lone, S.; Raza, S.J.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effectiveness of paediatric tuberculosis prevention, by reevaluation factors in children exposed to tuberculosis from less privileged strata of Pakistan. Methods: This cross sectional descriptive study was conducted at National Institute of Child Health, from January 2004 to December 2005. Paediatric patients under 15 years of either gender, diagnosed with active tuberculosis were enrolled. Interviews were conducted with parents regarding common preventive measures and factors advocating tuberculosis spread. Later factors leading to non-compliance to safety recommendations were also evaluated. Results: Fifty five (70%) children younger than 5 years, had index cases in direct contact within their own house. Fifteen (14%) patients contracted the infection from neighbours, with 11 being older than 5 years. There were 82 (51%) cases with Protein Calorie Malnutrition (PCM). Total of 66(41%) cases of PCM were <5 years age (p <0.005). Data showed 123(77%) children living in a family with 5 or more members. Sixty eight (55%) children of these large families had to live in a single room house. Conclusion: There is a high frequency of direct contact tuberculosis in children belonging to the lower socioeconomic class. This is attributed to poor housing condition and over crowding. The current paediatric tuberculosis prevention strategies as adapted from World Health Organizations' Millennium Development Goals are ineffectual to make changes in children exposed to tuberculosis from less privileged strata of Pakistan. Our societal and demographic factors remain static, continually exposing our children to higher risk of tuberculosis exposure. (author)

  20. Metformin therapy prevents early pregnancy loss in polycystic ovarian syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hassan, J.A.; Anbareen, T.

    2011-01-01

    Background: The study was done to compare the early pregnancy loss rate in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome who received or did not receive metformin in pregnancy. Study type, settings and duration: A case control interventional study carried out at Civil Hospital Karachi, Hamdard University Hospital and Private Gynaecology clinics from January 2005 to July 2008. Subjects and Methods Eighty two non diabetic patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome who became pregnant were included in the study. A questionnaire was filled for all patients that included information on basic demography and mean age, parity, weight. Fasting blood sugar and serum insulin levels were done for all these women. Only patients with raised insulin levels (more than 10 mu/l) were included in the study and all were offered to use oral metformin throughout pregnancy as 500 mg three times a day with folic acid supplements 5 mg once daily. Those who agreed to take the drug throughout pregnancy and to comply with the therapy were taken as cases, while those who did not agree to take the medicine acted as controls. Patients with other causes of recurrent pregnancy loss were excluded from the study. All pregnancies were followed using serial ultrasound examination to see any pregnancy loss in the two groups. Eighty two cases of polycystic ovaries with pregnancy were seen during the study period. All cases had raised serum insulin levels. Fifty patients agreed to take metformin through out pregnancy while, 32 cases did not agree to take metformin during pregnancy and thus acted as controls. The two groups did not differ in mean age, parity, weight and mean fasting blood sugar levels. Fasting insulin levels were high in metformin group (18.40 mu/l ) than in controls (12.53 mu/l). Missed abortion rate was significantly lower (12%) in metformin group than in controls (28%) (p<0.028). No congenital anomalies were found in both the groups on ultrasound at 16-19 weeks. Metformin treatment during

  1. Metformin therapy prevents early pregnancy loss in polycystic ovarian syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassan, J A; Anbareen, T [Dow University of Health Sciences, Karachi (Pakistan). Dept. of Gynae; Anbareen, T [Hamdard University Hospital, Karachi (Pakistan)

    2011-01-15

    Background: The study was done to compare the early pregnancy loss rate in women with polycystic ovarian syndrome who received or did not receive metformin in pregnancy. Study type, settings and duration: A case control interventional study carried out at Civil Hospital Karachi, Hamdard University Hospital and Private Gynaecology clinics from January 2005 to July 2008. Subjects and Methods Eighty two non diabetic patients with polycystic ovarian syndrome who became pregnant were included in the study. A questionnaire was filled for all patients that included information on basic demography and mean age, parity, weight. Fasting blood sugar and serum insulin levels were done for all these women. Only patients with raised insulin levels (more than 10 mu/l) were included in the study and all were offered to use oral metformin throughout pregnancy as 500 mg three times a day with folic acid supplements 5 mg once daily. Those who agreed to take the drug throughout pregnancy and to comply with the therapy were taken as cases, while those who did not agree to take the medicine acted as controls. Patients with other causes of recurrent pregnancy loss were excluded from the study. All pregnancies were followed using serial ultrasound examination to see any pregnancy loss in the two groups. Eighty two cases of polycystic ovaries with pregnancy were seen during the study period. All cases had raised serum insulin levels. Fifty patients agreed to take metformin through out pregnancy while, 32 cases did not agree to take metformin during pregnancy and thus acted as controls. The two groups did not differ in mean age, parity, weight and mean fasting blood sugar levels. Fasting insulin levels were high in metformin group (18.40 mu/l ) than in controls (12.53 mu/l). Missed abortion rate was significantly lower (12%) in metformin group than in controls (28%) (p<0.028). No congenital anomalies were found in both the groups on ultrasound at 16-19 weeks. Metformin treatment during

  2. Donepezil prevents RANK-induced bone loss via inhibition of osteoclast differentiation by downregulating acetylcholinesterase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuyoshi Sato

    2015-09-01

    Conclusions: AChE promotes osteoclast differentiation in vitro. Donepezil inhibits osteoclast function in vitro and prevents bone loss by suppressing bone resorption in vivo, suggesting the possibility that donepezil reduces fracture risk in patients with Alzheimer's disease.

  3. Storage Losses in Feedstuffs and How to Prevent Them | Eze | Lwati ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biological deterioration of feedstuffs entails losses both in quantity and quality, including deterioration in chemical composition, contamination by mycotoxins, rancidity, loss in nutritive value and change in colour and smell. In this paper, the conditions for the safe storage of feedstuffs and also the methods for the prevention ...

  4. Vitamin K supplementation does not prevent bone loss in ovariectomized Norway rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite plausible biological mechanisms, the differential abilities of phylloquinone (PK) and menaquinones (MKn) to prevent bone loss remain controversial. The objective of the current study was to compare the effects of PK, menaquinone-4 (MK-4) and menaquinone-7(MK-7) on the rate of bone loss in o...

  5. Prevention of reproductive losses in women with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davydova Iu.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose — to explore the peculiarities of pregnancy and childbirth in women with systemic lupus erythematosus in view of pregravid preparation. Patients and methods. The study included three groups. I group — 24 pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus who received pregravid preparation, group II of 28 pregnant women with systemic lupus erythematosus, have spontaneously pregnancy, III — control group 28 pregnant women without autoimmune diseases. Groups comparable in age, education, eating habits and living in similar climatic conditions. In pregravid preparations include micronized progesterone (utrozhestan in a daily dose of 200 mg of 16 to 25 days of the cycle when detecting failure II cycle phase — Tivortin in therapeutic dosage, drug containing iodine and folic acid at daily dosages recommended by WHO for preconception period (respectively, 200 mg and 400 mg. Results. In all three groups there were no spontaneous termination of pregnancy up to 12 weeks. In the first group shows significantly better results when comparing the frequency of pregnancy complications, pregnancy outcomes, metabolic disorders. Conduct prevention of endothelial dysfunction drug Tivortin and continued therapy support L-arginine in the early stages of gestation, in groups of pregnant women with high titers of anti-Ro antibodies, antiphospholipid antibodies, along with prolonged intake of micronized progesterone (utrozhestan, helped to reduce the incidence of hypertensive complications of pregnancy (gestational hypertension, pre!eclampsia and the birth of children with IUGR or low birth weight for gestational age. Group II women were not able to modify the drug therapy. Pregnant women in this group were receiving corticosteroids due to activation of an autoimmune disease. In some women was the need to enhance the treatment of SLE with corticosteroids in pulse mode using a 2-line therapy in the postpartum period. Conclusions. Pregnancy in women with

  6. A study on the effect of fluidic device installed in a safety injection tank on thermal-hydraulic phenomena of large break loss of coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Young Jong; Bae, Kyoo Hwan; Song, Jin Ho; Sim, Suk Ku; Park, Jong Kyun

    1999-03-01

    The performance of the Safety Injection Tank (SIT) with fluidic device (advanced SIT) is analyzed for the large break loss of coolant accident (LBLOCA) using RELAP5/MOD3.1-KREM. First the case is analyzed using the conventional SIT. Among various cases the case with 4-split downcomer, discharge coefficient Cd=0.6, MCP trip with reactor trip and break location of cold leg discharge side with the pressurizer is found to be the most limiting case. For the same condition, the advanced SIT results the similar PCT, however it can maintain adequately the liquid level in the downcomer. By changing the ECCS location from the current injection to the cold leg elevations, PCT is improved by 75 K. (Author). 6 refs., 4 tabs., 54 figs

  7. RELAP5 simulation of a large break Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in the hot leg of the primary system in Angra 2 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrade, Delvonei Alves de; Sabundjian, Gaiane

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this work is to present the simulation of a large break loss of coolant accident - LBLOCA in the hot leg of the primary loop in Angra 2, with RELAP5/MOD3.2.2g code. This accident is described in the Final Safety Report Analysis of Angra 2 - FSAR and consists basically of the hot leg total break, in loop 20 of the plant. The area considered for the rupture is 4480 cm 2 , which corresponds to 100% of the pipe flow area. Besides, this work also has the objective of verifying the efficiency of the emergency core coolant system - ECCS in case of accidents and transients. The thermal-hydraulic processes inherent to the accident phenomenology, such as hot leg vaporization and consequently core vaporization causing an inappropriate flow distribution in the reactor core, can lead to a reduction in the liquid level, until the ECCS is capable to reflood it

  8. [FEDERAL CLINICAL RECOMMENDATIONS IN DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OF HEARING LOSS DUE TO NOISE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeninskaya, E E; Bukhtiarov, I V; Bushmanov, A Iu; Dayhes, N A; Denisov, E I; Izmerov, N F; Mazitova, N N; Pankova, V B; Preobrazhenskaya, E A; Prokopenko, L V; Simonova, N I; Tavartkiladze, G A; Fedina, I N

    2016-01-01

    Noise induced hearing loss is a slowly developing hearing impairment, caused by occupational exposure to excessive noise levels, constitutes a lesion of the auditory analyzer and clinically manifested as chronic bilateral sensorineural hearing loss. Currently, there is not a treatment that provide a cure of sensorineural hearing loss. Regular, individually tailored treatment should be directed to the pathogenic mechanisms and specific clinical symptoms of hearing loss, as well as the prevention of complications. We recommend using non-drug therapies that can improve blood flow in labyrinth, tissue and cellular metabolism.

  9. Generic evaluation of feedwater transients and small break loss-of-coolant accidents in GE-designed operating plants and near-term operating license applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The results are presented of a generic evaluation of feedwater transients, small-break loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs), and other TMI-2-related events for General Electric Company (GE)-designed operating plants and near-term operating license applications to confirm or establish the bases for the continued safe operation of the operating plants. The results of this evaluation are presented in this report in the form of a set of findings and recommendations in each of the principal review areas. Additional review of the accident is continuing and further information is being obtained and evaluated. Any new information will be reviewed and modifications will be made as appropriate

  10. LOFT/L3-6, Loss of Fluid Test, 6. NRC L3 Small Break LOCA Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    1 - Description of test facility: The LOFT Integral Test Facility is a scale model of a LPWR. The intent of the facility is to model the nuclear, thermal-hydraulic phenomena which would take place in a LPWR during a LOCA. The general philosophy in scaling coolant volumes and flow areas in LOFT was to use the ratio of the LOFT core [50 MW(t)] to a typical LPWR core [3000 MW(t)]. For some components, this factor is not applied; however, it is used as extensively as practical. In general, components used in LOFT are similar in design to those of a LPWR. Because of scaling and component design, the LOFT LOCA is expected to closely model a LPWR LOCA. 2 - Description of test: This was the sixth in the NRC L3 Series of small-break LOCA experiments. A 10-cm (2.5-in.) cold-leg non-communicative-break LOCA was simulated. Pumps were running. The experiment was conducted on 10 December 1980

  11. LOFT/L3-5, Loss of Fluid Test, 5. NRC L3 Small Break LOCA Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-01-01

    1 - Description of test facility: The LOFT Integral Test Facility is a scale model of a LPWR. The intent of the facility is to model the nuclear, thermal-hydraulic phenomena which would take place in a LPWR during a LOCA. The general philosophy in scaling coolant volumes and flow areas in LOFT was to use the ratio of the LOFT core [50 MW(t)] to a typical LPWR core [3000 MW(t)]. For some components, this factor is not applied; however, it is used as extensively as practical. In general, components used in LOFT are similar in design to those of a LPWR. Because of scaling and component design, the LOFT LOCA is expected to closely model a LPWR LOCA. 2 - Description of test: This was the fifth in the NRC L3 Series of small-break LOCA experiments. A 10-cm (2.5-in.) cold-leg non-communicative-break LOCA was simulated. Pumps were shut off. The experiment was conducted on 29 September 1980

  12. LOFT/L2-5, Loss of Fluid Test, 3. NRC L2 Large Break LOCA Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    1 - Description of test facility: The LOFT Integral Test Facility is a scale model of a LPWR. The intent of the facility is to model the nuclear, thermal-hydraulic phenomena which would take place in a LPWR during a LOCA. The general philosophy in scaling coolant volumes and flow areas in LOFT was to use the ratio of the LOFT core [50 MW(t)] to a typical LPWR core [3000 MW(t)]. For some components, this factor is not applied; however, it is used as extensively as practical. In general, components used in LOFT are similar in design to those of a LPWR. Because of scaling and component design, the LOFT LOCA is expected to closely model a LPWR LOCA. 2 - Description of test: This experiment was the third of the NRC L2 Series of nuclear large Break LOCA experiments, conducted on 16 June 1981. It simulated a 100% cold leg break with a maximum heat generation of 40 kW/m and rapid pump coast down

  13. LOFT/L2-3, Loss of Fluid Test, 2. NRC L2 Large Break LOCA Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    1 - Description of test facility: The LOFT Integral Test Facility is a scale model of a LPWR. The intent of the facility is to model the nuclear, thermal-hydraulic phenomena which would take place in a LPWR during a LOCA. The general philosophy in scaling coolant volumes and flow areas in LOFT was to use the ratio of the LOFT core [50 MW(t)] to a typical LPWR core [3000 MW(t)]. For some components, this factor is not applied; however, it is used as extensively as practical. In general, components used in LOFT are similar in design to those of a LPWR. Because of scaling and component design, the LOFT LOCA is expected to closely model a LPWR LOCA. 2 - Description of test: This experiment was the second of the NRC L2 Series of nuclear large Break LOCA experiments, and was conducted on 12 May 1979. It simulated a 100% cold leg break with a maximum heat generation of 39 kW/m

  14. Treatments to Prevent Bone Loss in Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Altayar, Osama; Al Nofal, Alaa; Carranza Leon, B. Gisella; Prokop, Larry J.; Wang, Zhen; Murad, M. Hassan

    2017-01-01

    Objective: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that evaluated the effect of hormonal therapy [estrogen therapy including oral contraceptive pills (OCP)] and bisphosphonates in preventing bone loss in patients with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA). Methods: We searched several electronic databases for controlled and noncontrolled studies that enrolled females of any age presenting with FHA (including athletic, weight loss, and stress-associated amenorrhea/olig...

  15. Interventions to prevent occupational noise-induced hearing loss: A Cochrane systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Jos H.; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C.; Dreschler, Wouter A.; Mischke, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the effectiveness of interventions for preventing occupational noise exposure or hearing loss compared to no intervention or alternative interventions. Design We searched biomedical databases up to 25 January 2012 for randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled before-after studies and interrupted time-series of hearing loss prevention among workers exposed to noise. Study sample We included 19 studies with 82 794 participants evaluating effects of hearing loss prevention programs (HLPP). The overall quality of studies was low to very low, as rated using the GRADE approach. Results One study of stricter legislation showed a favorable effect on noise levels. Three studies, of which two RCTs, did not find an effect of a HLPP. Four studies showed that better use of hearing protection devices in HLPPs decreased the risk of hearing loss. In four other studies, workers in a HLPP still had a 0.5 dB greater hearing loss at 4 kHz (95% CI – 0.5 to 1.7) than non-exposed workers. In two similar studies there was a substantial risk of hearing loss in spite of a HLPP. Conclusions Stricter enforcement of legislation and better implementation of HLPPs can reduce noise levels in workplaces. Better evaluations of technical interventions and long-term effects are needed. PMID:24564697

  16. Interventions to prevent occupational noise-induced hearing loss: a Cochrane systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbeek, Jos H; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C; Dreschler, Wouter A; Mischke, Christina

    2014-03-01

    To assess the effectiveness of interventions for preventing occupational noise exposure or hearing loss compared to no intervention or alternative interventions. We searched biomedical databases up to 25 January 2012 for randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled before-after studies and interrupted time-series of hearing loss prevention among workers exposed to noise. We included 19 studies with 82 794 participants evaluating effects of hearing loss prevention programs (HLPP). The overall quality of studies was low to very low, as rated using the GRADE approach. One study of stricter legislation showed a favorable effect on noise levels. Three studies, of which two RCTs, did not find an effect of a HLPP. Four studies showed that better use of hearing protection devices in HLPPs decreased the risk of hearing loss. In four other studies, workers in a HLPP still had a 0.5 dB greater hearing loss at 4 kHz (95% CI - 0.5 to 1.7) than non-exposed workers. In two similar studies there was a substantial risk of hearing loss in spite of a HLPP. Stricter enforcement of legislation and better implementation of HLPPs can reduce noise levels in workplaces. Better evaluations of technical interventions and long-term effects are needed.

  17. Losses of neutral injected fast ions due to adiabaticity breaking processes in a field-reversed configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Toshiki; Inoue, Koji; Ishizuka, Takashi; Kondoh, Yoshiomi; Iwasawa, Naotaka

    2004-02-01

    Losses of neutral beam (NB) injected fast ions from the confinement region of a Field-Reversed Configuration (FRC) with a strong magnetic mirror are numerically analyzed for parameters relevant to NB injection experiments on the FIX (FRC injection experiment) device [T. Asai et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 2294 (2000)]. Ionization processes of beam particles are calculated by the Monte Carlo method. The confinement of beam ions is discussed with the concept of accessible regions that restrict the ion excursion and are determined from two constants of motion, the kinetic energy and canonical angular momentum, in the case of an axisymmetric and a steady state FRC without an electrostatic field. From the calculation of the accessible regions, it is found that all the fast ions suffer from the orbit loss on the wall surface and/or the end loss. Single particle orbits are also calculated to find a difference of confinement properties from the results by employing the accessible regions. The magnetic moment is observed to show non-adiabatic motions of the beam ions, which cause a gradual orbit loss on the wall even in a case that a strong magnetic mirror is applied. The results show that the correlation of the magnetic moment disappears as the fast ions experience the density gradient around the separatrix surface and the field-null points. (author)

  18. Interventions to prevent occupational noise-induced hearing loss: a Cochrane systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbeek, Jos H.; Kateman, Erik; Morata, Thais C.; Dreschler, Wouter A.; Mischke, Christina

    2014-01-01

    To assess the effectiveness of interventions for preventing occupational noise exposure or hearing loss compared to no intervention or alternative interventions. We searched biomedical databases up to 25 January 2012 for randomized controlled trials (RCT), controlled before-after studies and

  19. Non-pharmacological interventions for preventing job loss in workers with inflammatory arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoving, Jan L.; Lacaille, Diane; Urquhart, Donna M.; Hannu, Timo J.; Sluiter, Judith K.; Frings-Dresen, Monique H. W.

    2014-01-01

    Work participation of patients with inflammatory arthritis (IA) is important not only economically but also for physical and psychological health. There is no Cochrane Review to date on studies of non-pharmacological interventions specifically aimed at preventing job loss in people with IA. To

  20. LOFT/LP-SB-3, Loss of Fluid Test, Cold Leg Break LOCA, No High Pressure injection System (HPIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    1 - Description of test facility: The LOFT Integral Test Facility is a scale model of a LPWR. The intent of the facility is to model the nuclear, thermal-hydraulic phenomena which would take place in a LPWR during a LOCA. The general philosophy in scaling coolant volumes and flow areas in LOFT was to use the ratio of the LOFT core [50 MW(t)] to a typical LPWR core [3000 MW(t)]. For some components, this factor is not applied; however, it is used as extensively as practical. In general, components used in LOFT are similar in design to those of a LPWR. Because of scaling and component design, the LOFT LOCA is expected to closely model a LPWR LOCA. 2 - Description of test: The sixth OECD LOFT experiment was conducted on 5 March 1984. It simulated a 1.8-in cold leg break LOCA with no HPIS available. This experiment was designed mainly for investigation of plant recovery effectiveness using secondary bleed and feed during core uncover and addressed accumulator injection at low pressure differentials. 3 - Experimental limitations or shortcomings: Short core and steam generator, excessive core bypass, other scaling compromises, and lack of adequate measurements in certain areas

  1. Weight loss efficacy of a novel mobile Diabetes Prevention Program delivery platform with human coaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelides, Andreas; Raby, Christine; Wood, Meghan; Farr, Kit

    2016-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the weight loss efficacy of a novel mobile platform delivering the Diabetes Prevention Program. Research Design and Methods 43 overweight or obese adult participants with a diagnosis of prediabetes signed-up to receive a 24-week virtual Diabetes Prevention Program with human coaching, through a mobile platform. Weight loss and engagement were the main outcomes, evaluated by repeated measures analysis of variance, backward regression, and mediation regression. Results Weight loss at 16 and 24 weeks was significant, with 56% of starters and 64% of completers losing over 5% body weight. Mean weight loss at 24 weeks was 6.58% in starters and 7.5% in completers. Participants were highly engaged, with 84% of the sample completing 9 lessons or more. In-app actions related to self-monitoring significantly predicted weight loss. Conclusions Our findings support the effectiveness of a uniquely mobile prediabetes intervention, producing weight loss comparable to studies with high engagement, with potential for scalable population health management. PMID:27651911

  2. Charts for weight loss to detect hypernatremic dehydration and prevent formula supplementing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dommelen, Paula; Boer, Suzanne; Unal, Sevim; van Wouwe, Jacobus P

    2014-06-01

    Most breast-fed newborns get the milk they need. However, very rarely milk intake is insufficient mostly as a result of poor breastfeeding techniques. Dramatic weight loss and hypernatremic dehydration may occur. Our aim was to construct charts for weight loss. A case-control study was performed. Charts with standard deviation score (SDS) lines for weight loss in the first month were constructed for 2,359 healthy breast-fed term newborns and 271 cases with breastfeeding-associated hypernatremic dehydration with serum sodium level > 149 mEq/L. Day 0 was defined as the day of birth. Many cases with (or who will develop) hypernatremic dehydration (84%; +1 SDS line) fell below the -1 SDS line at day 3, the -2 SDS line at day 4, and the -2.5 SDS line at day 5 in the chart of the healthy breast-fed newborns. Weight loss of cases with permanent residual symptoms was far below the -2.5 SDS. Already at an early age, weight loss differs between healthy breast-fed newborns and those with hypernatremic dehydration. Charts for weight loss are, therefore, useful tools to detect early, or prevent newborns from developing, breastfeeding-associated hypernatremic dehydration, and also to prevent unnecessary formula supplementing. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. THYDE-B1/MOD1: a computer code for analysis of small-break loss-of-coolant accident of boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Ken; Akimoto, Masayuki

    1982-08-01

    THYDE-B1/MOD1 is a computer code to analyze thermo-hydraulic transients of the reactor cooling system of a BWR, mainly during a small-break loss-of-coolant accidnet (SB-LOCA) with a special emphasis on the behavior of pressure and mixture level in the pressure vessel. The coolant behavior is simulated with a volume-and-junction method based on assumptions of thermal equilibrium and homogeneous conditions for two-phase flow. A characteristic feature of this code is a three-region representation of the state of the coolant in a control volume, in which three regions, i.e., subcooled liquid, saturated mixture and saturated steam regions are allowed to exist. The regions are separated by moving boundaries, tracked by mass and energy balances for each region. The interior of the pressure vessel is represented by two volumes with three regions: one for inside of the shroud and the other for outside, while other portions of the system are treated with homogeneous model. This method, although it seems to be very simple, has been verified to be adequate for cases of BWR SB-LOCAs in which the hydraulic transient is relatively slow and the cooling of the core strongly depends on the mixture level behavior in the vessel. In order to simulate the system behavior, THYDE-B1 is provided with analytical models for reactor kinetics, heat generation and conduction in fuel rods and structures, heat transfer between coolant and solid surfaces, coolant injection systems, breaks and discharge systems, jet pumps, recirculation pumps, and so on. The verification of the code has been conducted. A good predictability of the code has been indicated through the comparison of calculated results with experimental data provided by ROSA-III small-break tests. This report presents the analytical models, solution method, and input data requirements of the THYDE-B1/MOD1 code. (author)

  4. A study on effective system depressurization during a PWR vessel bottom break LOCA with HPI failure and gas inflow prevention. ROSA-V/LSTF test SB-PV-05

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Mitsuhiro; Takeda, Takeshi; Asaka, Hideaki; Nakamura, Hideo

    2006-11-01

    A small break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) experiment was conducted at the Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) of ROSA-V program to study effects of accident management (AM) measures on core cooling, which are important in case of total failure of high pressure injection (HPI) system during an SBLOCA at a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The LSTF is a full-height and 1/48 volume-scaled facility simulating a 4-loop Westinghouse-type PWR (3423 MWt). The experiment, SB-PV-05, simulated a PWR vessel bottom SBLOCA with a rupture of nine instrument tubes, which is equivalent to 0.18% cold leg break. It is clarified that AM actions with steam generator (SG) depressurization to achieve a primary loop cooling rate at -55 K/h and auxiliary feedwater supply for 30 minutes are effective to avoid core uncovery by actuating the low pressure injection (LPI) system. It is also shown through the comparison with the previous experiment of SB-PV-03 that prevention of non-condensable gas inflow from the accumulator injection system (AIS) is very important to actuate the LPI to achieve adequate core cooling. This report presents experiment results of SB-PV-05 in detail and shows the effects of gas inflow prevention on core cooling through the estimation of primary coolant mass and energy balance in the primary system. (author)

  5. Strategies for the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents : Expert opinions from a Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, I.; Brug, J.; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Raat, H.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To identify parties involved in the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents and potentially effective prevention strategies and interventions. METHODS. Thirty experts in fields such as scientific research, medical practice, community health professions, education, youth

  6. TRAC analysis of an 80% pump-side, cold-leg, large-break loss-of-coolant accident for the Westinghouse AP600 advanced reactor design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lime, J.F.; Boyack, B.E.

    1996-01-01

    An updated TRAC 80% pump-side, cold-leg, large-break (LB) loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) has been calculated for the Westinghouse AP600 advanced reactor design. The updated calculation incorporates major code error corrections, model corrections, and plant design changes. The break size and location were calculated by Westinghouse to be the most severe LBLOCA for the AP600 design. The LBLOCA transient was calculated to 280 s, which is the time of in-containment refueling water-storage-tank injection. All fuel rods were quenched completely by 240 s. Peak cladding temperatures (PCTs) were well below the licensing limit of 1,478 K (2,200 F) but were very near the cladding oxidation temperature of 1,200 K (1,700 F). Transient event times and PCTs for the TRAC calculation were in reasonable agreement with those calculated by Westinghouse using their WCOBRA/TRAC code. However, there were significant differences in the detailed phenomena calculated by the two codes, particularly during the blowdown and refill periods. The reasons for these differences are still being investigated

  7. Simulation of the IAEA's fourth Standard Problem Exercise small-break loss-of-coolant accident using RELAP5/MOD.3.1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cebull, P.P.; Hassan, Y.A.

    1995-01-01

    A small-break loss-of-coolant accident experiment conducted at the PMK-2 integral test facility in Hungary is analyzed using the RELAP5/MOD3.1 thermal-hydraulic code. The experiment simulated a 7.4% break in the cold leg of a VVER-440/213-type nuclear power plant as part of the International Atomic Energy Agency's Fourth Standard Problem Exercise (SPE-4). Blind calculations of the exercise are presented, and the timing of various events throughout the transient is discussed. A posttest analysis is performed in which the sensitivity of the calculated results is investigated. The code RELAP5 predicts most of the transient events well, although a few problems are noted, particularly the failure of RELAP5 to predict dryout in the core even through the collapsed liquid level fell below the top of the heated portion. A discrepancy between the predicted primary mass inventory distribution and the experimental data is identified. Finally, the primary and secondary pressures calculated by RELAP5 fell too rapidly during the latter part of the transient, resulting in rather large errors in the predicted timing of some pressure-actuated events

  8. Evaluation of a postulated loss of coolant accident (LOCA) due to a 160 cm2 break in a cold leg of Angra 2 nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azevedo, Carlos Vicente Goulart de; Palmieri, Elcio Tadeu; Aronne, Ivan Dionysio

    2002-01-01

    The development of a qualified full nodalization of Angra2 NPP for RELAP5/Mod 3.2.2 gamma, aiming at the evaluation of a comprehensive number of accidents and transients, thus providing suitable safety analysis support for licensing purposes, is being carried out within the framework of CNEN internal technical cooperation, involving some of its institutes (CDTN, IPEN and IEN) and the Reactors Coordination (CODRE). This work presents a simulation of a postulated Angra2 small cold leg break loss of coolant accident (SBLOCA). A 160 cm 2 break is supposed to occur at one cold leg between the main coolant pump and the reactor vessel and is described in the Angra2 Final Safety Analysis Report, section 15.6.4.1.3.4. The simulation of several types of transients and accidents is necessary to verify the adequate performance of the modeled logic and systems. In general, the analysis of such and accident allows to demonstrate the safety Injection System performance and the reliable transition between the high pressure safety injection, the accumulator injection and the residual heat removal phases. Furthermore, it is assumed that some components are out of service due to fail or repair in order to make a conservative analysis. The results showed a compatible behavior of the molded systems and that the simulated Emergency Core Cooling System was able to provide sufficient cooling to avoid any damage to the core. (author)

  9. Intratympanic steroid prevents long-term spiral ganglion neuron loss in experimental meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe, Lise Lotte; Brandt, C.T.; Lund, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    Hypothesis: Intratympanic steroid treatment prevents hearing loss and cochlear damage in a rat model of pneumococcal meningitis. Background: Sensorineural hearing loss is a long-term complication of meningitis affecting up to a third of survivors. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the bacterial species...... for 3 days. Hearing loss and cochlear damage were assessed by distortion product otoacoustic emissions, auditory brainstem response at 16 kHz, and spiral ganglion neuron density. Results: Fifty-six days after infection, auditory brainstem response showed no significant differences between groups...... in the spiral ganglion compared with both intratympanic and systemic saline (p = 0.0082 and p = 0.0089; Mann-Whitney test). Histology revealed fibrosis of the tympanic membrane and cavity in steroid-treated animals, which plausibly caused the low-frequency hearing loss. Conclusion: Intratympanic betamethasone...

  10. Source term analysis in severe accident induced by large break loss of coolant accident coincident with ship blackout for ship reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Yanzhao; Zhang Fan; Zhao Xinwen; Zheng Yingfeng

    2013-01-01

    Using MELCOR code, the accident analysis model was established for a ship reactor. The behaviors of radioactive fission products were analyzed in the case of severe accident induced by large break loss of coolant accident coincident with ship blackout. The research mainly focused on the behaviors of release, transport, retention and the final distribution of inert gas and CsI. The results show that 83.12% of inert gas releases from the core, and the most of inert gas exists in the containment. About 83.08% of CsI release from the core, 72.66% of which is detained in the debris and the primary system, and 27.34% releases into the containment. The results can give a reference for the evaluation of cabin dose and nuclear emergency management. (authors)

  11. Post test calculation of the experiment `small break loss-of- coolant test` SBL-22 at the Finnish integral test facility PACTEL with the thermohydraulic code ATHLET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lischke, W.; Vandreier, B. [Univ. for Applied Sciences, Zittau/Goerlitz (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Technology

    1997-12-31

    At the University for Applied Sciences Zittau/Goerlitz (FH) calculations for the verification of the ATHLET-code for reactors of type VVER are carried out since 1991, sponsored by the German Ministry for Education, Science and Technology (BMBF). The special features of these reactors in comparison to reactors of western countries are characterized by the duct route of reactor coolant pipes and the horizontal steam generators. Because of these special features, a check of validity of the ATHLET-models is necessary. For further verification of the ATHLET-code the post test calculation of the experiment SBL-22 (Small break loss-of-coolant test) realized at the finnish facility PACTEL was carried out. The experiment served for the examination of the natural circulation behaviour of the loop over a continuous range of primary side water inventory. 5 refs.

  12. Post test calculation of the experiment 'small break loss-of- coolant test' SBL-22 at the Finnish integral test facility PACTEL with the thermohydraulic code ATHLET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lischke, W.; Vandreier, B.

    1997-01-01

    At the University for Applied Sciences Zittau/Goerlitz (FH) calculations for the verification of the ATHLET-code for reactors of type VVER are carried out since 1991, sponsored by the German Ministry for Education, Science and Technology (BMBF). The special features of these reactors in comparison to reactors of western countries are characterized by the duct route of reactor coolant pipes and the horizontal steam generators. Because of these special features, a check of validity of the ATHLET-models is necessary. For further verification of the ATHLET-code the post test calculation of the experiment SBL-22 (Small break loss-of-coolant test) realized at the finnish facility PACTEL was carried out. The experiment served for the examination of the natural circulation behaviour of the loop over a continuous range of primary side water inventory

  13. Post test calculation of the experiment `small break loss-of- coolant test` SBL-22 at the Finnish integral test facility PACTEL with the thermohydraulic code ATHLET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lischke, W; Vandreier, B [Univ. for Applied Sciences, Zittau/Goerlitz (Germany). Dept. of Nuclear Technology

    1998-12-31

    At the University for Applied Sciences Zittau/Goerlitz (FH) calculations for the verification of the ATHLET-code for reactors of type VVER are carried out since 1991, sponsored by the German Ministry for Education, Science and Technology (BMBF). The special features of these reactors in comparison to reactors of western countries are characterized by the duct route of reactor coolant pipes and the horizontal steam generators. Because of these special features, a check of validity of the ATHLET-models is necessary. For further verification of the ATHLET-code the post test calculation of the experiment SBL-22 (Small break loss-of-coolant test) realized at the finnish facility PACTEL was carried out. The experiment served for the examination of the natural circulation behaviour of the loop over a continuous range of primary side water inventory. 5 refs.

  14. Results of Semiscale Mod-2C small-break (5%) loss-of-coolant accident. Experiments S-LH-1 and S-LH-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loomis, G.G.; Streit, J.E.

    1985-11-01

    Two experiments simulating small break (5%) loss-of-coolant accidents (5% SBLOCAs) were performed in the Semiscale Mod-2C facility. These experiments were identical except for downcomer-to-upper-head bypass flow (0.9% in Experiment S-LH-1 and 3.0% in Experiment S-LH-2) and were performed at high pressure and temperature [15.6 MPa (2262 psia) system pressure; 37 K (67 0 F) core differential temperature; 595 K(610 0 F) hot leg fluid temperature]. From the experimental results, the signature response and transient mass distribution are determined for a 5% SBLOCA. The core thermal-hydraulic response is characterized, including core void distribution maps, and the effect of core bypass flow on transient severity is assessed. Comparisons are made between postexperiment RELAP5 calculations and the experimental results, and the capability of RELAP5 to calculate the phenomena is assessed. 115 figs

  15. Preference for gain- or loss-framed electronic cigarette prevention messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Grace; Cavallo, Dana A; Camenga, Deepa R; Morean, Meghan E; Krishnan-Sarin, Suchitra

    2016-11-01

    Effective electronic cigarette (e-cigarette) prevention messages are needed to combat the rising popularity/uptake of e-cigarettes among youth. We examined preferences for e-cigarette prevention messages that either emphasized gains (e.g., You save money by not using e-cigarettes) or losses (e.g., You spend money by using e-cigarettes) among adolescents and young adults. Using surveys in two middle schools, four high schools, and one college in CT (N=5405), we assessed students' preferences for gain- or loss-framed e-cigarette prevention messages related to four themes: financial cost, health risks, addiction potential, and social labeling as a smoker. We also assessed whether preferences for each message framing theme differed by sex, school level, cigarette-use status, and e-cigarette use-status. We also examined whether preference for message framing differed by cigarette and e-cigarette susceptibility status among never e-cigarette users. Overall, loss-framing was preferred for message themes related to health risks, addiction potential, and social labeling as a smoker, whereas gain-framing was preferred for message themes related to financial cost. Logistic regression analyses showed that 1) females preferred loss-framed messages for all themes relative to males, 2) lifetime e-cigarette users preferred loss-framed health risks and social labeling messages relative to never users, and 3) high school students preferred gain-framed social labeling messages relative to college students. The preference for message framing did not differ by cigarette or e-cigarette susceptibility. Preference for message framing differed by themes and individual characteristics. This formative research could inform the construction of persuasive e-cigarette prevention messages. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Analysis of a simulated small break in the semiscale system under loss-of-coolant accident conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cartmill, C.E.

    1978-01-01

    The Semiscale Mod-1 experimental program conducted by EG and G Idaho, Inc., is part of the overall U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored research and development program to investigate the behavior of the pressurized water reactor (PWR) system during an hypothesized loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). The Semiscale Mod-1 program is intended to provide transient thermal-hydraulic data from a simulated LOCA using a small-scale experimental nonnuclear system. The Semiscale Mod-1 program is a major contributor of experimental data that provide a means of evaluating the adequacy of overall system analytical models as well as the models of the individual system components. Selected experimental data produced by this program will also be used to aid other DOE and NRC sponsored experimental programs, such as the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) program in optimizing test series, selecting test parameters, and evaluating test results. The Semiscale Mod-1 tests are performed with an experimental system which simulates the principal features of a nuclear plant but which is smaller in volume. Nuclear heating is simulated in the tests by a core composed of an array of electrically heated rods. The core is contained in a pressure vessel which also includes a downcomer, lower plenum, and upper plenum. The Semiscale system piping is arranged such that the intact loop represents three loops of a four-loop nuclear plant, and the broken loop represents the fourth loop. In the present configuration the intact loop contains an active steam generator and pump, and the broken loop contains passive simulators for the steam generator and pump

  17. Preventing land loss in coastal Louisiana: estimates of WTP and WTA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrolia, Daniel R; Kim, Tae-Goun

    2011-03-01

    A dichotomous-choice contingent-valuation survey was conducted in the State of Louisiana (USA) to estimate compensating surplus (CS) and equivalent surplus (ES) welfare measures for the prevention of future coastal wetland losses in Louisiana. Valuations were elicited using both willingness to pay (WTP) and willingness to accept compensation (WTA) payment vehicles. Mean CS (WTP) estimates based on a probit model using a Box-Cox specification on income was $825 per household annually, and mean ES (WTA) was estimated at $4444 per household annually. Regression results indicate that the major factors influencing support for land-loss prevention were income (positive, WTP model only), perceived hurricane protection benefits (positive), environmental and recreation protection (positive), distrust of government (negative), age (positive, WTA model only), and race (positive for whites). Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Total glucosides of paeony prevents juxta-articular bone loss in experimental arthritis

    OpenAIRE

    Wei, Chen Chao; You, Fan Tian; Mei, Li Yu; Jian, Sun; Qiang, Chen Yong

    2013-01-01

    Background Total glucosides of paeony (TGP) is a biologically active compound extracted from Paeony root. TGP has been used in rheumatoid arthritis therapy for many years. However, the mechanism by which TGP prevents bone loss has been less explored. Methods TGP was orally administered for 3?months to New Zealand rabbits with antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). Digital x-ray knee images and bone mineral density (BMD) measurements of the subchondral knee bone were performed before sacrifice. Chon...

  19. Validation of Safety-Critical Systems for Aircraft Loss-of-Control Prevention and Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belcastro, Christine M.

    2012-01-01

    Validation of technologies developed for loss of control (LOC) prevention and recovery poses significant challenges. Aircraft LOC can result from a wide spectrum of hazards, often occurring in combination, which cannot be fully replicated during evaluation. Technologies developed for LOC prevention and recovery must therefore be effective under a wide variety of hazardous and uncertain conditions, and the validation framework must provide some measure of assurance that the new vehicle safety technologies do no harm (i.e., that they themselves do not introduce new safety risks). This paper summarizes a proposed validation framework for safety-critical systems, provides an overview of validation methods and tools developed by NASA to date within the Vehicle Systems Safety Project, and develops a preliminary set of test scenarios for the validation of technologies for LOC prevention and recovery

  20. Simulation of a large break loss of coolant (LBLOCA), without actuation of the emergency injection systems (ECCS) for a BWR-5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardenas V, J.; Mugica R, C. A.; Lopez M, R.

    2015-09-01

    In this paper the analysis of scenario for the loss of coolant case was realized with break at the bottom of a recirculation loop of a BWR-5 with containment type Mark II and a thermal power of 2317 MWt considering that not have coolant injection. This in order to observe the speed of progression of the accident, the phenomenology of the scenario, the time to reach the limit pressure of containment venting and the amount of radionuclides released into the environment. This simulation was performed using the MELCOR code version 2.1. The scenario posits a break in one of the shear recirculation loops. The emergency core cooling system (ECCS) and the reactor core isolation cooling (Rcic) have not credit throughout the event, which allowed achieve greater severity on scenario. The venting of the primary containment was conducted via valve of 30 inches instead of the line of 24 inches of wet well, this in order to have a larger area of exhaust of fission products directly to the reactor building. The venting took place when the pressure in the primary containment reached the 4.5 kg/cm 2 and remained open for the rest of the scenario to maximize the amount released of radionuclides to the atmosphere. The safety relief valves were considered functional they do not present mechanical failure or limit their ability to release pressure due to the large number of performances in safety mode. The results of the analysis covers about 48 hours, time at which the accident evolution was observed; behavior of level, pressure in the vessel and the fuel temperature profile was analyzed. For progression of the scenario outside the vessel, the pressure and temperature of the primary containment, level and temperature of the suppression pool, the hydrogen accumulation in the container and the radionuclides mass released into the atmosphere were analyzed. (Author)

  1. Noise exposure and hearing loss prevention programmes after 20 years of regulations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniell, W E; Swan, S S; McDaniel, M M; Camp, J E; Cohen, M A; Stebbins, J G

    2006-05-01

    To evaluate noise exposures and hearing loss prevention efforts in industries with relatively high rates of workers' compensation claims for hearing loss. Washington State workers' compensation records were used to identify up to 10 companies in each of eight industries. Each company (n = 76) was evaluated by a management interview, employee personal noise dosimetry (n = 983), and employee interviews (n = 1557). Full-shift average exposures were > or =85 dBA for 50% of monitored employees, using Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) parameters with a 5 dB exchange rate (L(ave)), but 74% were > or =85 dBA using a 3 dB exchange rate (L(eq)). Only 14% had L(ave) > or =90 dBA, but 42% had L(eq) > or =90 dBA. Most companies conducted noise measurements, but most kept no records, and consideration of noise controls was low in all industries. Hearing loss prevention programmes were commonly incomplete. Management interview scores (higher score = more complete programme) showed significant associations with percentage of employees having L(ave) > or =85 dBA and presence of a union (multiple linear regression; R2 = 0.24). Overall, 62% of interviewed employees reported always using hearing protection when exposed. Protector use showed significant associations with percentage of employees specifically required to use protection, management score, and average employee time spent > or =95 dBA (R2 = 0.65). The findings raise serious concerns about the adequacy of prevention, regulation, and enforcement strategies in the United States. The percentage of workers with excessive exposure was 1.5-3 times higher using a 3 dB exchange rate instead of the OSHA specified 5 dB exchange rate. Most companies gave limited or no attention to noise controls and relied primarily on hearing protection to prevent hearing loss; yet 38% of employees did not use protectors routinely. Protector use was highest when hearing loss prevention programmes were most complete, indicating that

  2. Improving patient access to prevent sight loss: ophthalmic electronic referrals and communication (Scotland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, A A; Mustafa, M Z; Sanders, R

    2015-02-01

    With the number of people with sight loss predicted to double to four million people in the UK by the year 2050, preventable visual loss is a significant public health issue. Sight loss is associated with an increased risk of falls, accidents and depression and evidence suggests that 50% of sight loss can be avoided. Timely diagnosis is central to the prevention of sight loss. Access to care can be a limiting factor in preventable cases. By improving referrals and access to hospital eye services it is possible to treat and minimise the number of patients with preventable sight loss and the impact this has on wider society. In 2005, NHS Fife took part in a flagship pilot funded by the Scottish government e-health department to evaluate the feasibility, safety, clinical effectiveness, and cost of electronic referral with images of patients directly from community optometrists to Hospital Eye Service (HES). The pilot study showed that electronic referral was feasible, fast, safe, and obviated the need for outpatient appointments in 128 (37%) patients with a high patient satisfaction. The results of the pilot study were presented and in May 2007, the electronic referral system was rolled out regionally in southeast Scotland. Referrals were accepted at a single site with vetting by a trained team and appointments were allocated within 48 hours. Following the implementation of electronic referral, waiting times were reduced from a median of 14 to 4 weeks. Significantly fewer new patients were seen (7462 vs 8714 [p electronic communication between community optometry practices and hospital eye departments. Five electronic forms were specifically designed for cataract, glaucoma, macula, paediatric and general ophthalmic disease. A Virtual Private Network was created which enabled optometrists to connect to the Scottish clinical information gateway system and send referrals to hospital and receive referral status feedback. Numerous hurdles have been encountered and overcome

  3. Testing the effects of a message framing intervention on intentions towards hearing loss prevention in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bruijn, Gert-Jan; Spaans, Pieter; Jansen, Bastiaan; van't Riet, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Adolescent hearing loss is a public health problem that has eluded effective intervention. A persuasive message strategy was tested for its effectiveness on adolescents' intention to listen to music at a reduced volume. The messages manipulated both type of message frame [positive consequences of listening to music at a reduced volume (gain-framed) versus negative consequences of not listening to music at a reduced volume (loss-framed)] and type of temporal context (short-term versus long-term consequences). Participants were recruited from four vocational and secondary education schools in the Netherlands and message exposure took place online during class hours. Two weeks prior to message exposure, adolescents provided data on intention and risk perception towards hearing loss and use of (digital) music players. After message exposure, 194 adolescents (mean age = 14.71 years, SD = 1.00, 37.8% males) provided immediate follow-up data on intention. Results revealed that intention to listen to music at a reduced volume increased in those exposed to a loss-framed message with short-term consequences. No changes were found in the other conditions. Messages that emphasize negative short-term consequences of not listening to music at a moderate volume have the ability to influence adolescents' intention towards hearing loss prevention. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Planning a multilevel intervention to prevent hearing loss among farmworkers and managers: a systematic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, M E; Bartholomew, L K; Alterman, T

    2009-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is the second most prevalent self-reported occupational illness or injury in the U.S., and agricultural workers experience high rates of hearing loss. This article uses Intervention Mapping (IM), a systematic approach to intervention development, to make recommendations for a program to improve hearing loss protection among farmworkers and managers. Final recommendations, based on previous work in the literature on hearing loss prevention, qualitative formative research, and theoretical considerations, include a specification of a multilevel theory- and evidence-based hearing protection program for farmworkers and farm managers. Twelve performance objectives (e.g., "monitor hearing and hearing loss with regular hearing testing") are specified and crossed with six relevant determinants (knowledge and behavioral capability; perceived exposure and susceptibility and noise annoyance; outcome expectations; barriers; social influence; skills and self-efficacy) to create a highly detailed matrix of change objectives for farmworkers and for their managers. These change objectives are then grouped into five categories: two for both farmworkers and their managers (noticing exposures, taking action) and three only for the latter (surveying and planning, implementation and evaluation, and communication). Theoretical methods and practical strategies, including program materials and activities, are then delineated.

  5. Age-related hearing loss: prevention of threshold declines, cell loss and apoptosis in spiral ganglion neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoxia; Walton, Joseph P.

    2016-01-01

    Age-related hearing loss (ARHL) -presbycusis - is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disease and number one communication disorder of our aged population; and affects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. Its prevalence is close to that of cardiovascular disease and arthritis, and can be a precursor to dementia. The auditory perceptual dysfunction is well understood, but knowledge of the biological bases of ARHL is still somewhat lacking. Surprisingly, there are no FDA-approved drugs for treatment. Based on our previous studies of human subjects, where we discovered relations between serum aldosterone levels and the severity of ARHL, we treated middle age mice with aldosterone, which normally declines with age in all mammals. We found that hearing thresholds and suprathreshold responses significantly improved in the aldosterone-treated mice compared to the non-treatment group. In terms of cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this therapeutic effect, additional experiments revealed that spiral ganglion cell survival was significantly improved, mineralocorticoid receptors were upregulated via post-translational protein modifications, and age-related intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways were blocked by the aldosterone therapy. Taken together, these novel findings pave the way for translational drug development towards the first medication to prevent the progression of ARHL. PMID:27667674

  6. Analysis of the main steam line break accident with loss of offsite power using the fully coupled RELAP5/PANTHER/COBRA code package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruben Van Parys; Sandrine Bosso; Christophe Schneidesch; Jinzhao Zhang

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: A coupled thermal hydraulics-neutronics code package (RELAP5/PANTHER/COBRA) has been qualified for accident analysis at Tractebel Engineering. In the TE coupled code package, the best estimate thermal-hydraulic system code, RELAP5/MOD2.5, is coupled with the full three-dimensional reactor core kinetics code, PANTHER, via a dynamic data exchange control and processing tool, TALINK. An interface between PANTHER code and the sub-channel thermal-hydraulic analysis code COBRA-IIIC is developed in order to perform online calculation of Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR). The TE coupled code package has been applied to develop a MSLB accident analysis methodology using the TE deterministic bounding approach. The methodology has been applied for MSLB accident analysis in support of licensing of the power up-rate and steam generator replacement of the Doel 2 plant. The results of coupled thermal-hydraulic and neutronic analysis of SLB show that there exists an important margin in the traditional FSAR MSLB accident analysis. As a specific licensing requirement, the main steam line break accident with loss of offsite power has to be analyzed. In the standard methodology with the coupled RELAP5/PANTHER code, and some corrective methods has to be taken in order to overcome the limitations due to the close-channel T/H model in PANTHER at low flow conditions. The results show that the steam line break accident with loss of offsite power is far less limiting. In order to verify the effect of the cross-flow at low flow conditions, the fully dynamic coupling of RELAP5/PANTHER/COBRA code package is used for reanalysis of this case, in which the PANTHER close-channel T/H model is replaced by the COBRA sub-channel T/H model with crossflow option. It has been demonstrated that, although the consideration of cross-flow in this challenging situation may lead to higher core return to power and slightly lower DNBR than in the standard methodology

  7. Analysis of the main steam line break accident with loss of offsite power using the fully coupled RELAP5/PANTHER/COBRA code package

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruben Van Parys; Sandrine Bosso; Christophe Schneidesch; Jinzhao Zhang [Nuclear Department, Suez-Tractebel Engineering, avenue Ariane 5, B-1200 Brussels (Belgium)

    2005-07-01

    Full text of publication follows: A coupled thermal hydraulics-neutronics code package (RELAP5/PANTHER/COBRA) has been qualified for accident analysis at Tractebel Engineering. In the TE coupled code package, the best estimate thermal-hydraulic system code, RELAP5/MOD2.5, is coupled with the full three-dimensional reactor core kinetics code, PANTHER, via a dynamic data exchange control and processing tool, TALINK. An interface between PANTHER code and the sub-channel thermal-hydraulic analysis code COBRA-IIIC is developed in order to perform online calculation of Departure from Nucleate Boiling Ratio (DNBR). The TE coupled code package has been applied to develop a MSLB accident analysis methodology using the TE deterministic bounding approach. The methodology has been applied for MSLB accident analysis in support of licensing of the power up-rate and steam generator replacement of the Doel 2 plant. The results of coupled thermal-hydraulic and neutronic analysis of SLB show that there exists an important margin in the traditional FSAR MSLB accident analysis. As a specific licensing requirement, the main steam line break accident with loss of offsite power has to be analyzed. In the standard methodology with the coupled RELAP5/PANTHER code, and some corrective methods has to be taken in order to overcome the limitations due to the close-channel T/H model in PANTHER at low flow conditions. The results show that the steam line break accident with loss of offsite power is far less limiting. In order to verify the effect of the cross-flow at low flow conditions, the fully dynamic coupling of RELAP5/PANTHER/COBRA code package is used for reanalysis of this case, in which the PANTHER close-channel T/H model is replaced by the COBRA sub-channel T/H model with crossflow option. It has been demonstrated that, although the consideration of cross-flow in this challenging situation may lead to higher core return to power and slightly lower DNBR than in the standard methodology

  8. Two Different Isomers of Vitamin E Prevent Bone Loss in Postmenopausal Osteoporosis Rat Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norliza Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Postmenopausal osteoporotic bone loss occurs mainly due to cessation of ovarian function, a condition associated with increased free radicals. Vitamin E, a lipid-soluble vitamin, is a potent antioxidant which can scavenge free radicals in the body. In this study, we investigated the effects of alpha-tocopherol and pure tocotrienol on bone microarchitecture and cellular parameters in ovariectomized rats. Three-month-old female Wistar rats were randomly divided into ovariectomized control, sham-operated, and ovariectomized rats treated with either alpha-tocopherol or tocotrienol. Their femurs were taken at the end of the four-week study period for bone histomorphometric analysis. Ovariectomy causes bone loss in the control group as shown by reduction in both trabecular volume (BV/TV and trabecular number (Tb.N and an increase in trabecular separation (Tb.S. The increase in osteoclast surface (Oc.S and osteoblast surface (Ob.S in ovariectomy indicates an increase in bone turnover rate. Treatment with either alpha-tocopherol or tocotrienol prevents the reduction in BV/TV and Tb.N as well as the increase in Tb.S, while reducing the Oc.S and increasing the Ob.S. In conclusion, the two forms of vitamin E were able to prevent bone loss due to ovariectomy. Both tocotrienol and alpha-tocopherol exert similar effects in preserving bone microarchitecture in estrogen-deficient rat model.

  9. Breaking Bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Isaac-Cesar; Kagan, David

    2013-01-01

    The sight of a broken bat in Major League Baseball can produce anything from a humorous dribbler in the infield to a frightening pointed projectile headed for the stands. Bats usually break at the weakest point, typically in the handle. Breaking happens because the wood gets bent beyond the breaking point due to the wave sent down the bat created…

  10. Preventive effects of bee pollen Cistus ladaniferus extract on bone loss in ovariectomized rats in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Masayoshi; Uchiyama, Satoshi; Nakagawa, Taeko

    2007-01-01

    The effect of bee pollen Cistus ladaniferus extract on ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss in vivo was investigated. The water-solubilized extracts were obtained from the bee pollen of Cistus ladaniferus. Cistus extract (5.0 or 10.0 mg/100 g body weight) was orally administered once daily for 30 days to OVX rats. The analysis using a peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) showed that OVX-induced a significant decrease in mineral content, mineral density, and polar strength strain index in the femoral-metaphyseal tissues. These decreases were significantly prevented after the administration of Cistus extract (10.0 mg/100 g). Moreover, OVX-induced a significant decrease in calcium content in the femoral-diaphyseal and -metaphyseal tissues. This decrease was significantly prevented after the administration of cistus extract (5.0 or 10.0 mg/100 g). This study demonstrates that cistus extract has a preventive effect on OVX-induced bone loss in vivo. (author)

  11. Simulation of containment pressurization in a large break-loss of coolant accident using single-cell and multicell models and CONTAIN code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkahoran, Omid Noori; Ahangari, Rohollah; Shirani, Amir Saied

    2016-01-01

    Since the inception of nuclear power as a commercial energy source, safety has been recognized as a prime consideration in the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning of nuclear power plants. The release of radioactivity to the environment requires the failure of multiple safety systems and the breach of three physical barriers: fuel cladding, the reactor cooling system, and containment. In this study, nuclear reactor containment pressurization has been modeled in a large break-loss of coolant accident (LB-LOCA) by programming single-cell and multicell models in MATLAB. First, containment has been considered as a control volume (single-cell model). In addition, spray operation has been added to this model. In the second step, the single-cell model has been developed into a multicell model to consider the effects of the nodalization and spatial location of cells in the containment pressurization in comparison with the single-cell model. In the third step, the accident has been simulated using the CONTAIN 2.0 code. Finally, Bushehr nuclear power plant (BNPP) containment has been considered as a case study. The results of BNPP containment pressurization due to LB-LOCA have been compared between models, final safety analysis report, and CONTAIN code's results

  12. Simulation of Containment Pressurization in a Large Break-Loss of Coolant Accident Using Single-Cell and Multicell Models and CONTAIN Code

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Noori-Kalkhoran

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Since the inception of nuclear power as a commercial energy source, safety has been recognized as a prime consideration in the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning of nuclear power plants. The release of radioactivity to the environment requires the failure of multiple safety systems and the breach of three physical barriers: fuel cladding, the reactor cooling system, and containment. In this study, nuclear reactor containment pressurization has been modeled in a large break-loss of coolant accident (LB-LOCA by programming single-cell and multicell models in MATLAB. First, containment has been considered as a control volume (single-cell model. In addition, spray operation has been added to this model. In the second step, the single-cell model has been developed into a multicell model to consider the effects of the nodalization and spatial location of cells in the containment pressurization in comparison with the single-cell model. In the third step, the accident has been simulated using the CONTAIN 2.0 code. Finally, Bushehr nuclear power plant (BNPP containment has been considered as a case study. The results of BNPP containment pressurization due to LB-LOCA have been compared between models, final safety analysis report, and CONTAIN code’s results.

  13. Application of analytical capability to predict rapid cladding cooling and quench during the blowdown phase of a large break loss-of-coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aksan, S.N.; Tolman, E.L.; Nelson, R.A.

    1983-01-01

    Large-break Experiments L2-2 and L2-3 conducted in the Loss-of-Fluid Test (LOFT) facility experienced core-wide rapid quenches early in the blowdown transients. To further investigate rapid cladding quenches, separate effects experiments using Semiscale solid-type electric heater rods were conducted in the LOFT Test Support Facility (LTSF) over a wide range of inlet coolant conditions. The analytical capability to predict the cladding temperature response from selected LTSF experiments estimated to bound the hydraulic conditions causing the LOFT early blowdown quenches was investigated using the RELAP4 computer code and was shown to be acceptable over the film boiling cooldown phase. This analytical capability was then used to investigate the behavior of nuclear fuel rods under the same hydraulic conditions. The calculations show that, under rapid cooling conditions, the behaviors of nuclear and electrical heater rods are significantly different because the nuclear rods are conduction limited, while the electrical rods are convection limited

  14. Simulation of containment pressurization in a large break-loss of coolant accident using single-cell and multicell models and CONTAIN code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalkahoran, Omid Noori; Ahangari, Rohollah [Reactor Research School, Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shirani, Amir Saied [Faculty of Engineering, Shahid Beheshti University, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Since the inception of nuclear power as a commercial energy source, safety has been recognized as a prime consideration in the design, construction, operation, maintenance, and decommissioning of nuclear power plants. The release of radioactivity to the environment requires the failure of multiple safety systems and the breach of three physical barriers: fuel cladding, the reactor cooling system, and containment. In this study, nuclear reactor containment pressurization has been modeled in a large break-loss of coolant accident (LB-LOCA) by programming single-cell and multicell models in MATLAB. First, containment has been considered as a control volume (single-cell model). In addition, spray operation has been added to this model. In the second step, the single-cell model has been developed into a multicell model to consider the effects of the nodalization and spatial location of cells in the containment pressurization in comparison with the single-cell model. In the third step, the accident has been simulated using the CONTAIN 2.0 code. Finally, Bushehr nuclear power plant (BNPP) containment has been considered as a case study. The results of BNPP containment pressurization due to LB-LOCA have been compared between models, final safety analysis report, and CONTAIN code's results.

  15. Safflower bud inhibits RANKL-induced osteoclast differentiation and prevents bone loss in ovariectomized mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Joo-Hee; Lim, Seul-Ki; Kim, Dong-Il; Park, Min-Jung; Kim, Young-Kuk; Lee, An-Chul; Kim, Young-Min; Yang, Soo-Jin; Park, Jong-Hwan

    2017-10-15

    The powder and extract of safflower seeds are known to be effective in the prevention of bone loss in ovariectomized animals. However, the inhibitory effect and molecular mechanisms of safflower bud (SB), the germinated safflower, on bone destruction is unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the inhibitory effect and molecular mechanism of SB on osteoclastic differentiation and on bone loss in ovarietomized (OVX) mice. Osteoclastogenesis was determined by TRAP staining, F-actin ring formation, and bone resorption assay. NF-κB and MAPKs activation was analyzed by transfection assay and Western blot, respectively. Real-time PCR was performed to examine the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related genes. Histological changes, increases in TRAP-positive cells, and cathepsin K expression were examined in the metaphysis of OVX mice. Density of bone marrow was evaluated by µCT. SB inhibited the RANKL-induced differentiation of BMDMs into osteoclasts in a dose-dependent manner. F-actin ring formation and bone resorption were also reduced by SB in RANKL-treated BMDMs. In addition, SB decreased the activation of NF-κB and MAPKs and the expression of osteoclastogenesis-related genes in BMDMs treated with RANKL. Feeding of SB-included diet prevented bone loss in OVX mice. The number of TRAP-positive cells and level of protein expression of cathepsin K was reduced and bone mineral density was increased in the metaphysis of mice fed SB compared with OVX mice. These findings suggest that SB can be a preventive and therapeutic candidate for destructive bone diseases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  16. Mercury antagonists: loss of photoactive response in the brine shrimp Artemia and its prevention by thiamine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yaeger, E.; Siegel, B.Z.; Siegel, S.M.; Lasconia, M.; Correal, T.

    1986-01-01

    The positive photoatactic behavior of Artemia was disturbed when larvae cultured in 0.25 M NaCl were introduced into 10/sup -7/ to 10/sup -5/ M HgCl/sub 2/. At 10/sup -8/ M, and in controls, Hg had no effect either on orientation or mortality, and 65% of the larvae were collected at the light source in 30 min or less. In contrast, at 10/sup -6/ M, only 29% were able to do so. The presence of 10/sup -4/ M thiamine hydrochloride in the excystment medium prevented fully the loss of light-sensitivity.

  17. The Lampedusa Disaster: How to Prevent Further Loss of Life at Sea?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasmine Coppens

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Lampedusa – an Italian island barely 70 miles from northern Africa and 100 miles from Malta – has become a gateway to Europe for migrants. In some seasons, boats filled with asylum seekers arrive almost daily. However, yearly, hundreds of people die trying to cross the Mediterranean Sea. This paper will deal with the obligations of States towards seaborne migrants, the question of why so many people die near Lampedusa and the possible solutions in order to prevent further loss of life at sea.

  18. PREVENTION OF BLOOD LOSS IN THIRD STAGE OF LABOUR BY PLACENTAL BLOOD DRAINAGE- A CLINICAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Dutta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Placental cord drainage is a simple, safe and non-invasive method which reduces the duration and blood loss in the third stage of labour thereby preventing PPH. This method is of great use in day to day obstetric practices not requiring any extra effort, cost or equipment, so this type of practice is more relevant in rural areas. The objectives of the study were1. To evaluate the effectiveness of placental blood drainage via umbilical cord in reducing duration and blood loss in third stage of labour. 2. Reducing the incidence of postpartum haemorrhage. 3. Decreasing the complications in third stage of labour and reduce maternal mortality. MATERIALS AND METHODS This study was carried out in 100 full term pregnant women admitted in the labour room in Gauhati medical college and hospital in the department of obstetrics and gynaecology since 1st August 2007 to 30th August 2008. Cases were divided into two. Study group and control group. RESULTS In control group the average duration of third stage was 7.41 minutes and in study group 5.57 minutes and p value was <0.001 which is very highly significant. The blood loss in third stage of labour was more in case of control group, the mean blood loss in control was 169.48 ml and study group was 110.38 ml after delivery of placenta. The post-partum haemorrhage was present in 2% of cases in control group while in study group it was present in 0% case. CONCLUSION Placental blood drainage is one of the additional components in active management of third stage of labour, which is safe, simple and non-invasive method. It reduces the duration of third stage of labour, amount of blood loss and decreases the duration of placental separation time.

  19. Prevention of the Evolution of Workers' Hearing Loss from Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Noisy Environments through a Hearing Conservation Program

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca, Vinicius Ribas; Marques, Jair; Panegalli, Flavio; Gonçalves, Claudia Giglio de Oliveira; Souza, Wesley

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a serious problem for workers and therefore for businesses. The hearing conservation program (HCP) is a set of coordinated measures to prevent the development or evolution of occupational hearing loss, which involves a continuous and dynamic process of implementation of hearing conservation routines through anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and subsequent control of the occurrence of existing environmental risks or of those thatmay exist...

  20. Electrolyte-carbohydrate beverage prevents water loss in the early stage of high altitude training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagisawa, Kae; Ito, Osamu; Nagai, Satsuki; Onishi, Shohei

    2012-01-01

    To prevent water loss in the early stage of high altitude training, we focused on the effect of electrolyte-carbohydrate beverage (EC). Subjects were 16 male university students who belonged to a ski club. They had ski training at an altitude of 1,800 m. The water (WT) group drank only water, and the EC group drank only an electrolyte-carbohydrate beverage. They arrived at the training site in the late afternoon. The study started at 7 pm on the day of arrival and continued until noon of the 4(th) day. In the first 12 hours, 1 L of beverages were given. On the second and third days, 2.5 L of beverages were given. All subjects ate the same meals. Each morning while in fasting condition, subjects were weighed and blood was withdrawn for various parameters (hemoglobin, hematocrit, sodium, potassium and aldosterone). Urine was collected at 12 hour intervals for a total 60 hours (5 times). The urine volume, gravity, sodium and potassium concentrations were measured. Peripheral oxygen saturation and heart rate were measured during sleep with a pulse oximeter. Liquid intakes in both groups were similar, hence the electrolytes intake was higher in the EC group than in the WT group. The total urine volume was lower in the EC group than in the WT group, respectively (paltitude training may be effective in decreasing urinary output and preventing loss of blood plasma volume.

  1. Non-pharmacological interventions for preventing job loss in workers with inflammatory arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoving, Jan L; Lacaille, Diane; Urquhart, Donna M; Hannu, Timo J; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2014-11-06

    Work participation of patients with inflammatory arthritis (IA) is important not only economically but also for physical and psychological health. There is no Cochrane Review to date on studies of non-pharmacological interventions specifically aimed at preventing job loss in people with IA. To assess the effects of non-pharmacological interventions that aim to prevent job loss, work absenteeism or improve work functioning for employees with IA (rheumatoid arthritis (RA), ankylosing spondylitis (AS), psoriatic arthritis (PsA), other spondylarthritis (SpA) or IA associated with connective tissue diseases, such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE)). We searched the following databases from inception up to 30 April 2014; The Cochrane Library (including Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, i.e. CENTRAL and DARE), MEDLINE (PubMed), EMBASE (Embase.com), CINAHL (EbSCOhost), ClinicalTrials.gov and PsycINFO (ProQuest). We did not impose language restrictions in the search. We included randomised controlled trials (RCTs) that evaluated interventions aimed at preventing job loss in adults of working age (18 to 65 years) diagnosed with IA, including RA, AS, PsA, SpA or other types of IA. Primary outcomes were job loss and sickness absenteeism and the secondary outcome was work functioning. Two review authors independently selected trials for inclusion, extracted data and assessed risk of bias in the included RCTs. We included three RCTs with a total of 414 participants at risk of job loss. The majority of participants had IA, most with RA and to a lesser degree AS. The interventions aimed to prevent job loss and improve work functioning in several ways: firstly by evaluating work changes or adaptations and secondly by providing any person-directed interventions including vocational counselling, advice or education. Interventions directly targeted at the work environment were minimal and included workplace visits (one trial) or any actions by an occupational

  2. Epothilone D prevents binge methamphetamine-mediated loss of striatal dopaminergic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killinger, Bryan A; Moszczynska, Anna

    2016-02-01

    Exposure to binge methamphetamine (METH) can result in a permanent or transient loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) markers such as dopamine (DA), dopamine transporter, and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the striatum. We hypothesized that the METH-induced loss of striatal DAergic markers was, in part, due to a destabilization of microtubules (MTs) in the nigrostriatal DA pathway that ultimately impedes anterograde axonal transport of these markers. To test this hypothesis, adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with binge METH or saline in the presence or absence of epothilone D (EpoD), a MT-stabilizing compound, and assessed 3 days after the treatments for the levels of several DAergic markers as well as for the levels of tubulins and their post-translational modifications (PMTs). Binge METH induced a loss of stable long-lived MTs within the striatum but not within the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). Treatment with a low dose of EpoD increased the levels of markers of stable MTs and prevented METH-mediated deficits in several DAergic markers in the striatum. In contrast, administration of a high dose of EpoD appeared to destabilize MTs and potentiated the METH-induced deficits in several DAergic markers. The low-dose EpoD also prevented the METH-induced increase in striatal DA turnover and increased behavioral stereotypy during METH treatment. Together, these results demonstrate that MT dynamics plays a role in the development of METH-induced losses of several DAergic markers in the striatum and may mediate METH-induced degeneration of terminals in the nigrostriatal DA pathway. Our study also demonstrates that MT-stabilizing drugs such as EpoD have a potential to serve as useful therapeutic agents to restore function of DAergic nerve terminals following METH exposure when administered at low doses. Administration of binge methamphetamine (METH) negatively impacts neurotransmission in the nigrostriatal dopamine (DA) system. The effects of METH include

  3. Implications of Postharvest Food Loss/Waste Prevention to Energy and Resources Conservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, X.; Shafiee-Jood, M.

    2015-12-01

    World's growing demand for food is driven by population and income growth, dietary changes, and the ever-increasing competition between food, feed and bioenergy challenges food security; meanwhile agricultural expansion and intensification threats the environment by the various detrimental impacts. Researchers have attempted to explore strategies to overcome this grand challenge. One of the promising solutions that have attracted considerable attention recently is to increase the efficiency of food supply chain by reducing food loss and waste (FLW). According to recent studies conducted by Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), United Nation, almost one third of the food produced for human consumption globally is lost or wasted along the food supply chain. This amount of food discarded manifests a missing, yet potential, opportunity to sustainably enhance both food security and environmental sustainability. However, implementing the strategies and technologies for tackling FLW does not come up as an easy solution since it requires economic incentives, benefit and cost analysis, infrastructure development, and appropriate market mechanism. In this presentation I will provide a synthesis of knowledge on the implications of postharvest food loss/waste prevention to energy and resource conservation, environmental protection, as well as food security. I will also discuss how traditional civil and environmental engineering can contribute to the reduction of postharvest food loss, an important issue of sustainable agriculture.

  4. Self-determination theory and weight loss in a Diabetes Prevention Program translation trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trief, Paula M; Cibula, Donald; Delahanty, Linda M; Weinstock, Ruth S

    2017-06-01

    We examined self-determination theory (SDT) and weight loss, and hypothesized that the Diabetes Prevention Program's (DPP) intervention would result in an increase in autonomous regulation of motivation (AR) in participants. Further, that those with higher AR, and those who perceived educators as supporting SDT-defined needs, would lose more weight. Support, Health Information, Nutrition and Exercise (SHINE) Study data (N = 257) were analyzed. SHINE was a randomized, controlled DPP translation trial (2-years, telephonic, primary care staff). Autonomous motivation in males increased significantly, while females showed no change. Males with high AR, but not females, lost more weight. However, the significance of these relationships varied over time. Participants who perceived educators as more supportive of psychological needs lost more weight (especially males). However, effect of support on weight loss was not mediated by AR change. Autonomous motivation and educator support are relevant to male weight loss. Future research might develop interventions to enhance autonomous motivation and educator support, and understand change pathways.

  5. Effects of total flavonoids from Drynariae Rhizoma prevent bone loss in vivo and in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuang-hong Song

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Estrogen deficiency is one of the major causes of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Drynariae Rhizoma is a widely used traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of bone diseases. In this study, we investigated the therapeutic effects of the total Drynariae Rhizoma flavonoids (DRTF on estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss using an ovariectomized rat model and osteoblast-like MC3T3-E1 cells. Our results indicated that DRTF produced osteo-protective effects on the ovariectomized rats in terms of bone loss reduction, including decreased levels of bone turnover markers, enhanced biomechanical femur strength and trabecular bone microarchitecture deterioration prevention. In vitro experiments revealed that the actions of DRTF on regulating osteoblastic activities were mediated by the estrogen receptor (ER dependent pathway. Our data also demonstrated that DRTF inhibited osteoclastogenesis via up-regulating osteoprotegrin (OPG, as well as down-regulating receptor activator of NF–κB ligand (RANKL expression. In conclusion, this study indicated that DRTF treatment effectively suppressed bone mass loss in an ovariectomized rat model, and in vitro evidence suggested that the effects were exerted through actions on both osteoblasts and osteoclasts. Keywords: Osteoporosis, Osteoblast, Osteoclast, Ovariectomy, Drynariae Rhizoma

  6. A Preliminary Study of a Spanish Graphic Novella Targeting Hearing Loss Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiberson, Mark; Wakefield, Emily

    2017-09-18

    This preliminary study developed a digital graphic novella targeting hearing protection beliefs of Spanish-speaking agricultural workers. Researchers used pretest-posttest interview surveys to establish if the novella had an immediate influence on the participants' beliefs about noise-induced hearing loss and usage of hearing protection devices. Researchers developed a digital graphic novella directed to increase knowledge about noise-induced hearing loss and increase the proper use of hearing protection devices. The novella was tailored to meet the specific linguistic and literacy needs of Spanish-speaking agricultural workers. Thirty-one Spanish-speaking farmworkers of Mexican nationality participated. This study included an interview survey with specific questions on noise-induced hearing loss, myths, and hearing protection device usage. A pretest-posttest design was applied to measure the graphic novella's immediate influence on workers. The posttest scores on Hearing Protection Beliefs statements were significantly better than pretest scores, with a large effect size observed. Digital media may be an effective way to overcome language and literacy barriers with Spanish-speaking workers when providing health education and prevention efforts.

  7. Workers' compensation loss prevention representative contact and risk of lost-time injury in construction policyholders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schofield, Katherine E; Alexander, Bruce H; Gerberich, Susan G; MacLehose, Richard F

    2017-09-01

    Insurance loss prevention (LP) representatives have access and contact with businesses and employees to provide targeted safety and health resources. Construction firms, especially those smaller in size, are a high-risk population. This research evaluated the association between LP rep contact and risk for lost-time injuries in construction policyholders. Workers' compensation data were utilized to track LP rep contact with policyholders and incidence of lost-time injury over time. Survival analysis with repeated events modeling calculated hazard ratios (HR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI). Compared no LP contact, one contact was associated with a 27% reduction of risk (HR=0.73, CI=0.65-0.82), two with a 41% (HR=0.59, CI=0.51-0.68), and three or more contacts with a 28% reduction of risk (HR=0.72, CI=0.65-0.81). LP reps appear to be a valuable partner in efforts to reduce injury burden. Their presence or contact with policyholders is consistent with reduction in overall incidence of lost-time injuries. Reduction in lost-time injuries, resulting in reduced workers' compensation costs for policyholders and insurance companies, builds a business-case for safety and injury prevention. LP reps are often a low or no-cost benefit for insurance policyholders and may be an important injury prevention resource for small firms and/or those with lack of safety resources and staff. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. THYDE-B1/MOD2: a computer code for analysis of small-break loss-of-coolant accidents of boiling water reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Hideo; Muramatsu, Ken; Kukita, Yutaka; Tasaka, Kanji

    1988-04-01

    THYDE-B1/MOD2 is a fast-running best estimate (BE) computer code to analyze thermal-hydraulic behaviors of the reactor cooling system of a boiling water reactor (BWR), mainly, during a small-break loss-of-coolant accident (SBLOCA) with a special emphasis on the behavior of pressure and mixture level in the pressure vessel. The coolant behavior is simulated with a volume-and-junction method based on assumptions of thermal equilibrium and homogeneous conditions for two-phase flow. A characteristic feature of this code is a three-region representation of the state of the coolant in a control volume, in which three regions consist of subcooled liquid, saturated mixture and saturated steam regions from the volume bottom. The regions are separated by two horizontal moving boundaries which are tracked by mass and energy balances for each region. With this three region node model, the interior of the pressure vessel can be represented by only two volumes: one for inside of the shroud and the other for outside, while other portions of the system are treated with homogeneous node model. This method, although it seems to be very simple, has been verified to be adequate for cases of BWR SBLOCAs in which the thermal-hydraulic behavior is relatively slow and gravity controlled. The code has been improved and modified from the last version of the code, THYDE-B1/MOD1, especially in the phase separation model which is used in the mixture level calculation in the three region node model. Then, a good predictability of the code has been indicated through the comparison of calculated results with various SBLOCA test data including ROSA-III of JAERI and FIST of the General Electric Co. This report presents the code modifications and input data requirements of the THYDE-B1/MOD2 code. (author)

  9. Prevention of the Evolution of Workers' Hearing Loss from Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Noisy Environments through a Hearing Conservation Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Vinicius Ribas; Marques, Jair; Panegalli, Flavio; Gonçalves, Claudia Giglio de Oliveira; Souza, Wesley

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a serious problem for workers and therefore for businesses. The hearing conservation program (HCP) is a set of coordinated measures to prevent the development or evolution of occupational hearing loss, which involves a continuous and dynamic process of implementation of hearing conservation routines through anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and subsequent control of the occurrence of existing environmental risks or of those that may exist in the workplace and lead to workers' hearing damage. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the HCP in preventing further hearing loss in workers with audiograms suggestive of NIHL. The audiometric tests and medical records of 28 furniture company workers exposed to noise were reviewed and monitored for 2 years. Methods This retrospective, cross-sectional study examined five audiometric tests in the medical records (on admission and every semester) of 28 workers in a furniture company (totaling 140 audiometric exams) following the introduction of the HCP. Results Data analysis showed no differences between the audiometric tests conducted on admission and those performed every semester. Conclusions The HCP implemented was effective in preventing the worsening of hearing loss in workers already with NIHL when exposed to occupational noise. Therefore, such a measure could be useful for the employment of workers with hearing loss in job sectors that have noise exposure.

  10. Prevention of the Evolution of Workers' Hearing Loss from Noise-Induced Hearing Loss in Noisy Environments through a Hearing Conservation Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Vinicius Ribas; Marques, Jair; Panegalli, Flavio; Gonçalves, Claudia Giglio de Oliveira; Souza, Wesley

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a serious problem for workers and therefore for businesses. The hearing conservation program (HCP) is a set of coordinated measures to prevent the development or evolution of occupational hearing loss, which involves a continuous and dynamic process of implementation of hearing conservation routines through anticipation, recognition, evaluation, and subsequent control of the occurrence of existing environmental risks or of those that may exist in the workplace and lead to workers' hearing damage. Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the HCP in preventing further hearing loss in workers with audiograms suggestive of NIHL. The audiometric tests and medical records of 28 furniture company workers exposed to noise were reviewed and monitored for 2 years. Methods This retrospective, cross-sectional study examined five audiometric tests in the medical records (on admission and every semester) of 28 workers in a furniture company (totaling 140 audiometric exams) following the introduction of the HCP. Results Data analysis showed no differences between the audiometric tests conducted on admission and those performed every semester. Conclusions The HCP implemented was effective in preventing the worsening of hearing loss in workers already with NIHL when exposed to occupational noise. Therefore, such a measure could be useful for the employment of workers with hearing loss in job sectors that have noise exposure. PMID:26722345

  11. Kit W-sh Mutation Prevents Cancellous Bone Loss during Calcium Deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotinun, Sutada; Suwanwela, Jaijam; Poolthong, Suchit; Baron, Roland

    2018-01-01

    Calcium is essential for normal bone growth and development. Inadequate calcium intake increases the risk of osteoporosis and fractures. Kit ligand/c-Kit signaling plays an important role in regulating bone homeostasis. Mice with c-Kit mutations are osteopenic. The present study aimed to investigate whether impairment of or reduction in c-Kit signaling affects bone turnover during calcium deprivation. Three-week-old male WBB6F1/J-Kit W /Kit W-v /J (W/W v ) mice with c-Kit point mutation, Kit W-sh /HNihrJaeBsmJ (W sh /W sh ) mice with an inversion mutation in the regulatory elements upstream of the c-Kit promoter region, and their wild-type controls (WT) were fed either a normal (0.6% calcium) or a low calcium diet (0.02% calcium) for 3 weeks. μCT analysis indicated that both mutants fed normal calcium diet had significantly decreased cortical thickness and cancellous bone volume compared to WT. The low calcium diet resulted in a comparable reduction in cortical bone volume and cortical thickness in the W/W v and W sh /W sh mice, and their corresponding controls. As expected, the low calcium diet induced cancellous bone loss in the W/W v mice. In contrast, W sh /W sh cancellous bone did not respond to this diet. This c-Kit mutation prevented cancellous bone loss by antagonizing the low calcium diet-induced increase in osteoblast and osteoclast numbers in the W sh /W sh mice. Gene expression profiling showed that calcium deficiency increased Osx, Ocn, Alp, type I collagen, c-Fms, M-CSF, and RANKL/OPG mRNA expression in controls; however, the W sh mutation suppressed these effects. Our findings indicate that although calcium restriction increased bone turnover, leading to osteopenia, the decreased c-Kit expression levels in the W sh /W sh mice prevented the low calcium diet-induced increase in cancellous bone turnover and bone loss but not the cortical bone loss.

  12. Surface Acting and Job-Related Affective Wellbeing: Preventing Resource Loss Spiral and Resource Loss Cycle for Sustainable Workplaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seongwook Ha

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This study empirically examines the synergistic negative effect of two kinds of job demand on job-related affective wellbeing (JAW and the accelerating effects of cynicism in the negative relationships between job demands and JAW using a sample of 299 employees in the Chinese banking industry. Job demands include quantitative role overload and surface acting to represent the quantitative and qualitative aspects of job demands. Cynicism is introduced as a state where one’s energy resource is lost. The results of this study show that surface acting has a negative relationship with JAW, but quantitative role overload has no relationship with JAW. High levels of quantitative role overload exacerbate the negative relationship between surface acting and JAW. Cynicism also exacerbates the negative relationship between surface acting and JAW but does not have any moderating effect in the relationship between quantitative role overload and JAW. These results are consistent with the relationships predicted by resource loss spiral and resource loss cycle. The resource loss spiral means that resource loss, caused by handling with a quantitative role overload, lessens the employee’s ability to cope with surface acting. The resource loss cycle represents a vicious circle that amplifies the resource loss caused by surface acting. Surface acting reduces the level of one’s resources. Furthermore, surface acting reduces JAW and resources more strongly when an individual has low levels of previous energy resources than it reduces JAW and resources when he or she has high levels of previous energy resources.

  13. Total glucosides of paeony prevents juxta-articular bone loss in experimental arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chen Chao; You, Fan Tian; Mei, Li Yu; Jian, Sun; Qiang, Chen Yong

    2013-07-21

    Total glucosides of paeony (TGP) is a biologically active compound extracted from Paeony root. TGP has been used in rheumatoid arthritis therapy for many years. However, the mechanism by which TGP prevents bone loss has been less explored. TGP was orally administered for 3 months to New Zealand rabbits with antigen-induced arthritis (AIA). Digital x-ray knee images and bone mineral density (BMD) measurements of the subchondral knee bone were performed before sacrifice. Chondrocytes were observed using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Histological analysis and mRNA expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-B ligand (RANKL) and osteoprotegerin (OPG) were evaluated in joint tissues. The BMD value in TGP rabbits was significantly higher compared with that seen in the AIA model rabbits. In addition, the subchondral bone plate was almost completely preserved by TGP treatment, while there was a decrease in bone plate integrity in AIA rabbits. There was less damage to the chondrocytes of the TGP treated group. Immunohistochemical examination of the TGP group showed that a higher percentage of TGP treated chondrocytes expressed OPG as compared to the chondrocytes isolated from AIA treated animals. In contrast, RANKL expression was significantly decreased in the TGP treated group compared to the AIA group. In support of the immunohistochemistry data, the expression of RANKL mRNA was decreased and OPG mRNA expression was enhanced in the TGP group when compared to that of the AIA model group. These results reveal that TGP suppresses juxta-articular osteoporosis and prevents subchondral bone loss. The decreased RANKL and increased OPG expression seen in TGP treated animals could explain how administration of TGP maintains higher BMD.

  14. Hearing loss prevention for carpenters: Part 2 - Demonstration projects using individualized and group training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R Stephenson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Two demonstration projects were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of a comprehensive training program for carpenters. This training was paired with audiometry and counseling and a survey of attitudes and beliefs in hearing loss prevention. All participants received hearing tests, multimedia instruction on occupational noise exposure/hearing loss, and instruction and practice in using a diverse selection of hearing protection devices (HPDs. A total of 103 apprentice carpenters participated in the Year 1 training, were given a large supply of these HPDs, and instructions on how to get additional free supplies if they ran out during the 1-year interval between initial and follow-up training. Forty-two participants responded to the survey a second time a year later and completed the Year 2 training. Significant test-retest differences were found between the pre-training and the post-training survey scores. Both forms of instruction (individual versus group produced equivalent outcomes. The results indicated that training was able to bring all apprentice participants up to the same desired level with regard to attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions to use hearing protection properly. It was concluded that the health communication models used to develop the educational and training materials for this effort were extremely effective.

  15. Cepharanthine Prevents Estrogen Deficiency-Induced Bone Loss by Inhibiting Bone Resorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-he Zhou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis is a common health problem worldwide caused by an imbalance of bone formation vs. bone resorption. However, current therapeutic approaches aimed at enhancing bone formation or suppressing bone resorption still have some limitations. In this study, we demonstrated for the first time that cepharanthine (CEP, derived from Stephania cepharantha Hayata exerted a protective effect on estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss. This protective effect was confirmed to be achieved through inhibition of bone resorption in vivo, rather than through enhancement of bone formation in vivo. Furthermore, the in vitro study revealed that CEP attenuated receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL-induced osteoclast formation, and suppressed bone resorption by impairing the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K-AKT signaling pathways. The inhibitory effect of CEP could be partly reversed by treatment with anisomycin (a JNK and p38 agonist and/or SC79 (an AKT agonist in vitro. Our results thus indicated that CEP could prevent estrogen deficiency-induced bone loss by inhibiting osteoclastogenesis. Hence, CEP might be a novel therapeutic agent for anti-osteoporosis therapy.

  16. Diagnosis System for Diabetic Retinopathy and Glaucoma Screening to Prevent Vision Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Sundhara Raja DHANUSHKODI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Diabetic retinopathy (DR and glaucoma are two most common retinal disorders that are major causes of blindness in diabetic patients. DR caused in retinal images due to the damage in retinal blood vessels, which leads to the formation of hemorrhages spread over the entire region of retina. Glaucoma is caused due to hypertension in diabetic patients. Both DR and glaucoma affects the vision loss in diabetic patients. Hence, a computer aided development of diagnosis system for Diabetic retinopathy and Glaucoma screening is proposed in this paper to prevent vision loss. Method: The diagnosis system of DR consists of two stages namely detection and segmentation of fovea and hemorrhages. The diagnosis system of glaucoma screening consists of three stages namely blood vessel segmentation, Extraction of optic disc (OD and optic cup (OC region and determination of rim area between OD and OC. Results: The specificity and accuracy for hemorrhages detection is found to be 98.47% and 98.09% respectively. The accuracy for OD detection is found to be 99.3%. This outperforms state-of-the-art methods. Conclusion: In this paper, the diagnosis system is developed to classify the DR and glaucoma screening in to mild, moderate and severe respectively.

  17. Prevention of aromatase inhibitor-induced bone loss with alendronate in postmenopausal women: The BATMAN Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lomax, Anna J; Yee Yap, Saw; White, Karen; Beith, Jane; Abdi, Ehtesham; Broad, Adam; Sewak, Sanjeev; Lee, Chooi; Sambrook, Philip; Pocock, Nicholas; Henry, Margaret J; Yeow, Elaine G; Bell, Richard

    2013-12-01

    Postmenopausal women on aromatase inhibitors (AI) are at risk of aromatase inhibitor-associated bone loss (AIBL) and fractures. In 2005 Osteoporosis Australia proposed an algorithm for bisphosphonate intervention. Three hundred and three postmenopausal women with early breast cancer (EBC) were enrolled (osteoporotic, n=25; osteopaenic, n=146; normal bone mineral density (BMD), n=126). Weekly alendronate (70 mg) treatment efficacy as triggered by the algorithm in preventing bone loss was evaluated. All patients received anastrozole (1 mg daily), calcium and vitamin D. All osteoporotic patients received alendronate at baseline. Eleven out of the 146 (7.5%) osteopaenic patients commenced alendronate within 18 months of participation and eleven commenced after. One hundred and twenty four out of the 146 (84.9%) osteopaenic patients and all 126 with normal baseline BMD did not trigger the algorithm. At three years, lumbar spine mean BMD increased (15.6%, p<0.01) in the osteoporotic group. BMD in the osteopaenic group with early intervention significantly increased at three years (6.3%, p=0.02). No significant change was seen in the late intervention group. No change was observed in those with osteopaenia without alendronate. There was a significant drop in lumbar spine (-5.4%) and hip (-4.5%) mean BMD, in the normal BMD group, none of whom received alendronate. Fracture data will be presented. In postmenopausal women with endocrine-responsive EBC, BMD improved over time when a bisphosphonate is administered with anastrozole in osteoporotic patients using an osteoporosis schedule. Subjects with normal baseline BMD experienced the greatest BMD loss, although none became osteoporotic.

  18. Understanding and Preventing Loss to Follow-up: Experiences From the Spinal Cord Injury Model Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hwasoon; Cutter, Gary R; George, Brandon; Chen, Yuying

    2018-01-01

    Background: One of the most critical threats to the validity of any longitudinal research is the bias caused by study attrition. Prevention efforts should be focused on those individuals at high risk of non-participation to improve the generalizability of study findings. Objective: To identify demographic and clinical factors associated with loss to follow-up (FU) at post-injury years 1 to 35 among 25,871 people with spinal cord injury (SCI) enrolled in the National Spinal Cord Injury Database. Methods: Loss to FU was defined as no research information obtained from participants who were eligible for the planned data collection. Generalized linear mixed models were used for analysis of factors at each post-injury year. Results: The loss to FU rates were 23.1% and 32.9% for post-injury years 1 and 5, respectively, and remained >40% between post-injury years 20 and 35. The FU rate varied by study sites and was improved in recent injury cohorts. People who were more seriously injured and those who attained higher levels of education were more likely to return for FU than their counterparts. People who were at risk of being marginalized in society (non-whites, those with less education, the unemployed, victims of violence, and those with no health insurance) had the highest odds of being lost to FU across all post-injury years. Conclusion: These findings can be used to identify individuals who are less likely to participate in follow-up, which may allow targeted attention to improve their response rate.

  19. Bcl-2 prevents loss of mitochondria in CCCP-induced apoptosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graaf, Aniek O. de; Heuvel, Lambert P. van den; Dijkman, Henry B.P.M.; Abreu, Ronney A. de; Birkenkamp, Kim U.; Witte, Theo de; Reijden, Bert A. van der; Smeitink, Jan A.M.; Jansen, Joop H.

    2004-01-01

    Bcl-2 family proteins regulate apoptosis at the level of mitochondria. To examine the mechanism of Bcl-2 function, we investigated the effects of the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) on two hematopoietic cell lines and Bcl-2 overexpressing transfectants. CCCP directly interferes with mitochondrial function and induces apoptosis. We show that Bcl-2 inhibits apoptosis and that the antiapoptotic effect of Bcl-2 takes place upstream of caspase activation and nuclear changes associated with apoptosis, since these were markedly inhibited in cells overexpressing Bcl-2. Bcl-2 does not prevent the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential nor the alterations in cellular ATP content induced by CCCP in FL5.12 and Jurkat cells. A higher number of mitochondria was observed in untreated Bcl-2 transfected cells compared to parental cells, as shown by electron microscopy. Exposure to CCCP induced a dramatic decrease in the number of mitochondria and severely disrupted mitochondrial ultrastructure, with apparent swelling and loss of cristae in parental cells. Bcl-2 clearly diminished the disruption of mitochondrial structure and preserved a higher number of mitochondria. These data suggest that CCCP induces apoptosis by structural disruption of mitochondria and that Bcl-2 prevents apoptosis and mitochondrial degeneration by preserving mitochondrial integrity

  20. Bcl-2 prevents loss of mitochondria in CCCP-induced apoptosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Graaf, Aniek O; van den Heuvel, Lambert P; Dijkman, Henry B P M; de Abreu, Ronney A; Birkenkamp, Kim U; de Witte, Theo; van der Reijden, Bert A; Smeitink, Jan A M; Jansen, Joop H

    2004-10-01

    Bcl-2 family proteins regulate apoptosis at the level of mitochondria. To examine the mechanism of Bcl-2 function, we investigated the effects of the protonophore carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenyl hydrazone (CCCP) on two hematopoietic cell lines and Bcl-2 overexpressing transfectants. CCCP directly interferes with mitochondrial function and induces apoptosis. We show that Bcl-2 inhibits apoptosis and that the antiapoptotic effect of Bcl-2 takes place upstream of caspase activation and nuclear changes associated with apoptosis, since these were markedly inhibited in cells overexpressing Bcl-2. Bcl-2 does not prevent the decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential nor the alterations in cellular ATP content induced by CCCP in FL5.12 and Jurkat cells. A higher number of mitochondria was observed in untreated Bcl-2 transfected cells compared to parental cells, as shown by electron microscopy. Exposure to CCCP induced a dramatic decrease in the number of mitochondria and severely disrupted mitochondrial ultrastructure, with apparent swelling and loss of cristae in parental cells. Bcl-2 clearly diminished the disruption of mitochondrial structure and preserved a higher number of mitochondria. These data suggest that CCCP induces apoptosis by structural disruption of mitochondria and that Bcl-2 prevents apoptosis and mitochondrial degeneration by preserving mitochondrial integrity.

  1. DNA double strand breaks but not interstrand crosslinks prevent progress through meiosis in fully grown mouse oocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wai Shan Yuen

    Full Text Available There is some interest in how mammalian oocytes respond to different types of DNA damage because of the increasing expectation of fertility preservation in women undergoing chemotherapy. Double strand breaks (DSBs induced by ionizing radiation and agents such as neocarzinostatin (NCS, and interstrand crosslinks (ICLs induced by alkylating agents such as mitomycin C (MMC, are toxic DNA lesions that need to be repaired for cell survival. Here we examined the effects of NCS and MMC treatment on oocytes collected from antral follicles in mice, because potentially such oocytes are readily collected from ovaries and do not need to be in vitro grown to achieve meiotic competency. We found that oocytes were sensitive to NCS, such that this ionizing radiation mimetic blocked meiosis I and caused fragmented DNA. In contrast, MMC had no impact on the completion of either meiosis I or II, even at extremely high doses. However, oocytes treated with MMC did show γ-H2AX foci and following their in vitro maturation and parthenogenetic activation the development of the subsequent embryos was severely compromised. Addition of MMC to 1-cell embryos caused a similarly poor level of development, demonstrating oocytes have eventual sensitivity to this ICL-inducing agent but this does not occur during their meiotic division. In oocytes, the association of Fanconi Anemia protein, FANCD2, with sites of ICL lesions was not apparent until entry into the embryonic cell cycle. In conclusion, meiotic maturation of oocytes is sensitive to DSBs but not ICLs. The ability of oocytes to tolerate severe ICL damage and yet complete meiosis, means that this type of DNA lesion goes unrepaired in oocytes but impacts on subsequent embryo quality.

  2. Application of realistic (best- estimate) methodologies for large break loss of coolant (LOCA) safety analysis: licensing of Westinghouse ASTRUM evaluation model in Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lage, Carlos; Frepoli, Cesare

    2010-01-01

    When the LOCA Final Acceptance Criteria for Light Water Reactors was issued in Appendix K of 10CFR50 both the USNRC and the industry recognized that the rule was highly conservative. At that time, however, the degree of conservatism in the analysis could not be quantified. As a result, the USNRC began a research program to identify the degree of conservatism in those models permitted in the Appendix K rule and to develop improved thermal-hydraulic computer codes so that realistic accident analysis calculations could be performed. The overall results of this research program quantified the conservatism in the Appendix K rule and confirmed that some relaxation of the rule can be made without a loss in safety to the public. Also, from a risk-informed perspective it is recognized that conservatism is not always a complete defense for lack of sophistication in models. In 1988, as a result of the improved understanding of LOCA phenomena, the USNRC staff amended the requirements of 10 CFR 50.46 and Appendix K, 'ECCS Evaluation Models', so that a realistic evaluation model may be used to analyze the performance of the ECCS during a hypothetical LOCA. Under the amended rules, best-estimate plus uncertainty (BEPU) thermal-hydraulic analysis may be used in place of the overly prescriptive set of models mandated by Appendix K rule. Further guidance for the use of best-estimate codes was provided in Regulatory Guide 1.157 To demonstrate use of the revised ECCS rule, the USNRC and its consultants developed a method called the Code Scaling, Applicability, and Uncertainty (CSAU) evaluation methodology as an approach for defining and qualifying a best-estimate thermal-hydraulic code and quantifying the uncertainties in a LOCA analysis. More recently the CSAU principles have been generalized in the Evaluation Model Development and Assessment Process (EMDAP) of Regulatory Guide 1.203. ASTRUM is the Westinghouse Best Estimate Large Break LOCA evaluation model applicable to two-, three

  3. Establishing and prioritizing research questions for the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of hair loss (excluding alopecia areata): the Hair Loss Priority Setting Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macbeth, A; Tomlinson, J; Messenger, A; Moore-Millar, K; Michaelides, C; Shipman, A; Kassim, J; Brockley, J; Szczecinska, W; Farrant, P; Robinson, R; Rodgers, J; Chambers, J; Upadhyaya, S; Harries, M

    2018-02-01

    Hair and scalp problems are common. Unfortunately, many uncertainties exist around the most effective management and treatment strategies for these disorders. To identify uncertainties in hair-loss management, prevention, diagnosis and treatment that are important to both people with hair loss and healthcare professionals. A Hair Loss Priority Setting Partnership was established between patients, their carers and relatives, and healthcare professionals to identify the most important uncertainties in hair loss. The methodology of the James Lind Alliance was followed to ensure a balanced, inclusive and transparent process. In total, 2747 treatment uncertainties were submitted by 912 participants; following exclusions 884 uncertainties relating to hair loss (excluding alopecia areata) were analysed. Questions were combined into 'indicative uncertainties' following a structured format. A series of ranking exercises further reduced this list to a top 25 that was taken to a final prioritization workshop where the top 10 priorities were agreed. We present the top 10 research priorities for hair loss (excluding alopecia areata) to guide researchers and funding bodies to support studies important to both patients and clinicians. © 2017 British Association of Dermatologists.

  4. Nbn and atm cooperate in a tissue and developmental stage-specific manner to prevent double strand breaks and apoptosis in developing brain and eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo M G Rodrigues

    Full Text Available Nibrin (NBN or NBS1 and ATM are key factors for DNA Double Strand Break (DSB signaling and repair. Mutations in NBN or ATM result in Nijmegen Breakage Syndrome and Ataxia telangiectasia. These syndromes share common features such as radiosensitivity, neurological developmental defects and cancer predisposition. However, the functional synergy of Nbn and Atm in different tissues and developmental stages is not yet understood. Here, we show in vivo consequences of conditional inactivation of both genes in neural stem/progenitor cells using Nestin-Cre mice. Genetic inactivation of Atm in the central nervous system of Nbn-deficient mice led to reduced life span and increased DSBs, resulting in increased apoptosis during neural development. Surprisingly, the increase of DSBs and apoptosis was found only in few tissues including cerebellum, ganglionic eminences and lens. In sharp contrast, we showed that apoptosis associated with Nbn deletion was prevented by simultaneous inactivation of Atm in developing retina. Therefore, we propose that Nbn and Atm collaborate to prevent DSB accumulation and apoptosis during development in a tissue- and developmental stage-specific manner.

  5. Niclosamide suppresses RANKL-induced osteoclastogenesis and prevents LPS-induced bone loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheon, Yoon-Hee [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ju-Young [Imaging Science-based Lung and Bone Diseases Research Center, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Baek, Jong Min; Ahn, Sung-Jun [Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); So, Hong-Seob, E-mail: jeanso@wku.ac.kr [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Jaemin, E-mail: jmoh@wku.ac.kr [Imaging Science-based Lung and Bone Diseases Research Center, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Anatomy, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of); Institute for Skeletal Disease, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-05

    Niclosamide (5-chloro-salicyl-(2-chloro-4-nitro) anilide) is an oral anthelmintic drug used for treating intestinal infection of most tapeworms. Recently, niclosamide was shown to have considerable efficacy against some tumor cell lines, including colorectal, prostate, and breast cancers, and acute myelogenous leukemia. Specifically, the drug was identified as a potent inhibitor of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), which is associated with osteoclast differentiation and function. In this study, we assessed the effect of niclosamide on osteoclastogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Our in vitro study showed that receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappaB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclast differentiation was inhibited by niclosamide, due to inhibition of serine–threonine protein kinase (Akt) phosphorylation, inhibitor of nuclear factor-kappaB (IκB), and STAT3 serine{sup 727}. Niclosamide decreased the expression of the major transcription factors c-Fos and NFATc1, and thereafter abrogated the mRNA expression of osteoclast-specific genes, including TRAP, OSCAR, αv/β3 integrin (integrin αv, integrin β3), and cathepsin K (CtsK). In an in vivo model, niclosamide prevented lipopolysaccharide-induced bone loss by diminishing osteoclast activity. Taken together, our results show that niclosamide is effective in suppressing osteoclastogenesis and may be considered as a new and safe therapeutic candidate for the clinical treatment of osteoclast-related diseases such as osteoporosis. - Highlights: • We first investigated the anti-osteoclastogenic effects of niclosamide in vitro and in vivo. • Niclosamide impairs the activation of the Akt-IκB-STAT3 ser{sup 727} signaling axis. • Niclosamide acts a negative regulator of actin ring formation during osteoclast differentiation. • Niclosamide suppresses LPS-induced bone loss in vivo. • Niclosamide deserves new evaluation as a potential treatment target in various bone diseases.

  6. Berberine prevents nigrostriatal dopaminergic neuronal loss and suppresses hippocampal apoptosis in mice with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mia; Cho, Ki-Ho; Shin, Mal-Soon; Lee, Jae-Min; Cho, Han-Sam; Kim, Chang-Ju; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Yang, Hyeon Jeong

    2014-04-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the selective loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons and a reduction in striatal dopaminergic fibers, which result in tremors, rigidity, bradykinesia and gait disturbance. In addition to motor dysfunction, dementia is a widely recognized symptom of patients with PD. Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from Berberis vulgaris L., is known to exert anxiolytic, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antipsychotic, antidepressant and anti-amnesic effects. In the present study, we investigated the effects of berberine on short-term memory in relation to dopamine depletion and hippocampal neurogenesis using a mouse model of PD, induced by 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine/probenecid (MPTP/P) treatment. Mice in the berberine-treated groups were orally administered berberine once a day for a total of 5 weeks. Our results revealed that the injection of MPTP/P induced dopaminergic neuronal death in the substantia nigra and fiber loss in the striatum. This resulted in impaired motor balance and coordination, as assessed by the beam walking test. We further demonstrated that MPTP/P-induced apoptosis in the hippocampus deteriorated short-term memory, as shown by the step-down avoidance task. By contrast, neurogenesis in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, which is a compensatory adaptive response to excessive apoptosis, was increased upon PD induction. However, treatment with berberine enhanced motor balance and coordination by preventing dopaminergic neuronal damage. Treatment with berberine also improved short-term memory by inhibiting apoptosis in the hippocampus. Berberine demonstrated maximal potency at 50 mg/kg. Based on these data, treatment with berberine may serve as a potential therapeutic strategy for the alleviation of memory impairment and motor dysfunction in patients with PD.

  7. Vitamin D Supplementation in Elderly Black Women Does Not Prevent Bone Loss, a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloia, John F; Fazzari, Melissa; Islam, Shahidul; Mikhail, Mageda; Katumuluwa, Subhashini; Dhaliwal, Ruban; Stolberg, Alexandra; Usera, Gianina; Ragolia, Louis

    2018-06-15

    Black Americans have lower levels of serum 25(OH)D but superior bone health compared to white Americans. There is controversy over whether they should be screened for vitamin D deficiency and have higher vitamin D requirements than recommended by the Institute of Medicine (IOM). The purpose of this trial was to determine whether Vitamin D supplementation in elderly black women prevents bone loss. 260 healthy black American women, 60 years of age and older were recruited to take part in a two arm, double-dummy 3 year RCT of vitamin D 3 vs. placebo. The study was conducted in an ambulatory clinical research center. Vitamin D 3 dose was adjusted to maintain serum 25(OH)D above 75 nmol/L. Bone mineral density (BMD) and serum were measured for [parathyroid hormone (PTH), C-terminal crosslink telopeptide (CTX) and bone specific alkaline phosphatase (BSAP) every 6 months. Baseline serum 25(OH)D 3 was 54.8 ± 16.8 nmol/L. There was no group xtime interaction effect for any BMD measurement. For all BMD measurements, except for total body and spine, there was a statistically significant negative effect of time (P D above 75 nmol/L is comparable to the rate of loss with serum 25(OH)D at the RDA of 50 nmol/L. Black Americans should have the same exposure to vitamin D as white Americans. The trial was registered at clinical trials.gov: NCT01153568. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  8. Treatments to Prevent Bone Loss in Functional Hypothalamic Amenorrhea: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altayar, Osama; Al Nofal, Alaa; Carranza Leon, B Gisella; Prokop, Larry J; Wang, Zhen; Murad, M Hassan

    2017-05-01

    We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that evaluated the effect of hormonal therapy [estrogen therapy including oral contraceptive pills (OCP)] and bisphosphonates in preventing bone loss in patients with functional hypothalamic amenorrhea (FHA). We searched several electronic databases for controlled and noncontrolled studies that enrolled females of any age presenting with FHA (including athletic, weight loss, and stress-associated amenorrhea/oligomenorrhea) through 9 January 2017. The outcomes of interest were fractures and bone mineral density (BMD). Random effects meta-analysis was used to pool outcomes across studies expressed as weighted mean difference and 95% confidence interval (CI). Nine studies reporting on 280 patients that received different hormonal therapies were included. We did not identify studies that evaluated bisphosphonates. Meta-analysis demonstrated a statistically significant increase in BMD of the lumbar spine in patients receiving hormonal therapy after a median follow-up of 12 months (weighted mean difference, 0.032 g/cm 2 ; 95% CI, 0.017 to 0.047; percentage change in BMD, 3.30%; 95% CI, 1.74 to 4.86). There was no substantial effect of receiving hormonal therapy on BMD of the femoral neck, trochanteric region, Ward triangle, or total body BMD. The quality of evidence was low because of the high risk of bias, imprecision (small sample size), and indirectness (as BMD is a surrogate outcome). None of the studies reported the incidence of fractures. The current evidence does not support using hormonal therapy for the sole purpose of improving bone health in patients with FHA. There are no data about bisphosphonates in this population.

  9. Analysis of a hot-leg small break loss-of-coolant accident in a three-loop westinghouse pressurized water reactor plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, C.E.; Chexal, V.K.; Clements, T.B.

    1985-01-01

    The RETRAN-02 computer code was used to perform a best-estimate analysis of a 7.52-cm-diam hotleg break in a three-loop Westinghouse pressurized water reactor. This break size produced a net primary coolant mass depletion through the early portion of the transient. The primary system started to refill only after the accumulator valves opened. As the primary system refilled, there were extreme temperature differentials around the system with cold, denser fluid collecting at the lower elevations and two-phase fluid at higher elevations

  10. The role of the health system in the prevention of hearing loss among children in Sub-Saharan Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Abdalla, Fayrouz Mohammed; Omar, Mayeh Abu

    2011-01-01

    Around 1.2 million children living in Sub-Saharan Africa have a hearing impairment (HI) or hearing loss (HL). Limited attention and scarce resources dedicated to this condition means that such children often receive no management for their problem. This has substantial negative effects on their development, and ultimately results in poverty. Half of the number of cases of HI in such countries results from preventable causes. Formulation of effective prevention strategies to address the causes...

  11. Hearing Health in College Instrumental Musicians and Prevention of Hearing Loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Anna D; Gooding, Lori F; Shikoh, Fara; Graf, Julie

    2016-03-01

    College musicians exhibit greater declines in hearing than the general population and are at particular risk because they rehearse and perform daily in loud environments. Also, they engage in use of personal listening devices which increases the amount of "exposure" time. Despite increased risk, many do not use hearing protection devices (HPD). The purpose of this study was to (1) to identify the present level of education about hearing health, (2) identify the perceived advantages and disadvantages of using HPD, and (3) evaluate results among different musical instrument groups. A mixed-methods group design was used including both quantitative and qualitative instruments. SPSS was used to generate descriptive statistics, and non-parametric statistical analysis was performed on quantitative data. NVivo software was used to evaluate qualitative responses. Of the 90 college instrumental music students who participated, 12% reported a history of hearing loss, and over one-third reported tinnitus. Seventy-seven percent of participants had never received any training about hearing health and only a small percentage of students used HPD. The most cited reason for lack of protection use was its negative impact on sound quality. However, group differences were noted between brass, woodwind, and percussion musicians in terms of HPD uptake. Improving the type of information disseminated to college musicians may reduce the risk of ear-related deficits. Noise dosage information, HPD information, and prevention education grounded in theories like the Health Belief Model may increase awareness and promote greater use of HPDs in this population.

  12. High-impact exercise in rats prior to and during suspension can prevent bone loss

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagihara, G.R.; Paiva, A.G.; Gasparini, G.A.; Macedo, A.P.; Frighetto, P.D.; Volpon, J.B.; Shimano, A.C.

    2016-01-01

    High-impact exercise has been considered an important method for treating bone loss in osteopenic experimental models. In this study, we investigated the effects of osteopenia caused by inactivity in femora and tibiae of rats subjected to jump training using the rat tail suspension model. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each group): jump training for 2 weeks before suspension and training during 3 weeks of suspension; jump training for 2 weeks before suspension; jump training only during suspension; suspension without any training; and a control group. The exercise protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week, with a jump height of 40 cm. The bone mineral density of the femora and tibiae was measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry and the same bones were evaluated by mechanical tests. Bone microarchitecture was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Significance was determined as P<0.05. Regarding bone mineral density, mechanical properties and bone microarchitecture, the beneficial effects were greater in the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training and subsequently to training during suspension, compared with the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training or to training during suspension. Our results indicate that a period of high impact exercise prior to tail suspension in rats can prevent the installation of osteopenia if there is also training during the tail suspension

  13. High-impact exercise in rats prior to and during suspension can prevent bone loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagihara, G.R.; Paiva, A.G.; Gasparini, G.A.; Macedo, A.P. [Laboratório de Bioengenharia, Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Aparelho Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil); Frighetto, P.D. [Instituto Federal de Educação, Ciência e Tecnologia de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Volpon, J.B.; Shimano, A.C. [Laboratório de Bioengenharia, Departamento de Biomecânica, Medicina e Reabilitação do Aparelho Locomotor, Faculdade de Medicina de Ribeirão Preto, Universidade de São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2016-02-02

    High-impact exercise has been considered an important method for treating bone loss in osteopenic experimental models. In this study, we investigated the effects of osteopenia caused by inactivity in femora and tibiae of rats subjected to jump training using the rat tail suspension model. Eight-week-old female Wistar rats were divided into five groups (n=10 each group): jump training for 2 weeks before suspension and training during 3 weeks of suspension; jump training for 2 weeks before suspension; jump training only during suspension; suspension without any training; and a control group. The exercise protocol consisted of 20 jumps/day, 5 days/week, with a jump height of 40 cm. The bone mineral density of the femora and tibiae was measured by double energy X-ray absorptiometry and the same bones were evaluated by mechanical tests. Bone microarchitecture was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy. One-way ANOVA was used to compare groups. Significance was determined as P<0.05. Regarding bone mineral density, mechanical properties and bone microarchitecture, the beneficial effects were greater in the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training and subsequently to training during suspension, compared with the bones of animals subjected to pre-suspension training or to training during suspension. Our results indicate that a period of high impact exercise prior to tail suspension in rats can prevent the installation of osteopenia if there is also training during the tail suspension.

  14. Effects of Weight Loss, Weight Cycling, and Weight Loss Maintenance on Diabetes Incidence and Change in Cardiometabolic Traits in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qing; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Aroda, Vanita R.; Watson, Karol E.; Bray, George A.; Kahn, Steven E.; Florez, Jose C.; Perreault, Leigh; Franks, Paul W.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE This study examined specific measures of weight loss in relation to incident diabetes and improvement in cardiometabolic risk factors. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS This prospective, observational study analyzed nine weight measures, characterizing baseline weight, short- versus long-term weight loss, short- versus long-term weight regain, and weight cycling, within the Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) lifestyle intervention arm (n = 1,000) for predictors of incident diabetes and improvement in cardiometabolic risk factors over 2 years. RESULTS Although weight loss in the first 6 months was protective of diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 0.94 per kg, 95% CI 0.90, 0.98; P weight loss from 0 to 2 years was the strongest predictor of reduced diabetes incidence (HR 0.90 per kg, 95% CI 0.87, 0.93; P Weight cycling (defined as number of 5-lb [2.25-kg] weight cycles) ranged 0–6 times per participant and was positively associated with incident diabetes (HR 1.33, 95% CI 1.12, 1.58; P weight, the effect of weight cycling remained statistically significant for diabetes risk (HR 1.22, 95% CI 1.02, 1.47; P = 0.03) but not for cardiometabolic traits. CONCLUSIONS Two-year weight loss was the strongest predictor of reduced diabetes risk and improvements in cardiometabolic traits. PMID:25024396

  15. The Break

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Anete Mikkala Camille

    2018-01-01

    storytelling to enact fruitful breakings of patterns unbecoming. The claim being, that the hamster wheel of Work-life anno 2016 needs reconfiguration and the simple yet fruitful manner by which this is done is through acknowledging the benefits of bodies, spaces and artifacts – and the benefits of actually...... taking a break, discontinuing for a moment in order to continue better, wiser and more at ease. Both within and as part of the daily routines, and – now and then – outside these routines in the majesty of nature with time to explore and redirect the course of life in companionships with fellow man...

  16. Schema reliance for developmental goals increases from early to late adulthood: improvement for the young, loss prevention for the old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebner, Natalie C; Riediger, Michaela; Lindenberger, Ulman

    2009-06-01

    People tend to encode and retrieve information in terms of schemata, especially when processing resources are low. This study argues that the life-span schema about developmental goals constitutes a generalized expectation about the life course that associates young adults with growth and older adults with loss prevention. Predictions were that young and older adults possess this schema; that both age groups rely on it when remembering age-associated information about goals; and that this schema reliance is particularly pronounced among older adults, due to age-related difficulties in overcoming schemata. In Experiment 1, participants assigned growth or loss-prevention orientations to young and older faces and adhered to the life-span schema. In Experiment 2, participants were presented young and older faces paired with growth or loss prevention. When later asked to recognize faces and remember goal orientations, participants were more likely to remember young faces with growth and older faces with loss prevention than vice versa. This effect was more pronounced among older adults. Conclusions are that reliance on life-span schemata when remembering developmentally relevant information increases with age. (c) 2009 APA, all rights reserved.

  17. Strategies for the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents: expert opinions from a Delphi study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Ineke; Brug, Johannes; van der Ploeg, Catharina P B; Raat, Hein

    2009-05-01

    To identify parties involved in the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents and potentially effective prevention strategies and interventions. Thirty experts in fields such as scientific research, medical practice, community health professions, education, youth work, music entertainment, and enforcement authorities participated in a qualitative, electronic, 3-round, Web-based Delphi study. Multiple parties involved in the prevention of MP3-induced hearing loss among adolescents were identified; the most relevant are the adolescents themselves, their parents, manufacturers of MP3 players and earphones, and the authorities. The experts did not expect that adolescents in general would perform the necessary protective behaviors to prevent MP3-induced hearing loss. Two environmental health protection measures were identified as both relevant and feasible to be implemented (ie, authorities encourage manufacturers to produce safer products, and public health campaigns will be held to improve knowledge of the risks of high-volume music, possible protective measures, and consequences of hearing loss). Authorities, the music industry in general, and especially manufacturers of MP3 players and earphones should recognize their responsibility and create a safer MP3-listening environment by taking measures to protect today's youth from the dangers of listening to high-volume music on MP3 players.

  18. Piloted Simulation Evaluation of a Model-Predictive Automatic Recovery System to Prevent Vehicle Loss of Control on Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litt, Jonathan S.; Liu, Yuan; Sowers, Thomas S.; Owen, A. Karl; Guo, Ten-Huei

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a model-predictive automatic recovery system for aircraft on the verge of a loss-of-control situation. The system determines when it must intervene to prevent an imminent accident, resulting from a poor approach. It estimates the altitude loss that would result from a go-around maneuver at the current flight condition. If the loss is projected to violate a minimum altitude threshold, the maneuver is automatically triggered. The system deactivates to allow landing once several criteria are met. Piloted flight simulator evaluation showed the system to provide effective envelope protection during extremely unsafe landing attempts. The results demonstrate how flight and propulsion control can be integrated to recover control of the vehicle automatically and prevent a potential catastrophe.

  19. The role of the health system in the prevention of hearing loss among children in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdalla, Fayrouz Mohammed; Omar, Mayeh Abu

    2011-01-01

    Around 1.2 million children living in Sub-Saharan Africa have a hearing impairment (HI) or hearing loss (HL). Limited attention and scarce resources dedicated to this condition means that such children often receive no management for their problem. This has substantial negative effects on their development, and ultimately results in poverty. Half of the number of cases of HI in such countries results from preventable causes. Formulation of effective prevention strategies to address the causes requires an understanding of the factors that lead to the causes of HI in Sub-Saharan Africa. A number of preventable causes were shown to significantly contribute to the prevalence of HI. The most significant causes include perinatal problems, middle ear problems, infective diseases, and ototoxic drugs. These causes persist because there are few effective prevention strategies in place, and those which exist are poorly implemented. There is little public and health care worker awareness about HL and its prevention. Few resources are allocated to the prevention of HL, meaning that these issues are not addressed. Evidence have shown that current failings in the prevention of HI from such causes include widespread limited resources, inadequate staff training, and absent or ineffectual prevention guidelines. The burden of HL has been shown to be significantly reduced through effective prevention strategies, both in the developed and developing world, justifying the need for increased attention and more resources in Sub-Saharan Africa.

  20. Short-term music-induced hearing loss after sound exposure to discotheque music: the effectiveness of a break in reducing temporary threshold shift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helleman, Hiske W; Dreschler, Wouter A

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the effect of a break in music exposure on temporary threshold shifts. A cross-over design where subjects are exposed to dance music for either two hours consecutively, or exposed to two hours of dance music with a one-hour break in between. Outcome measure was the change in hearing threshold, measured in 1-dB steps at different time points after ending the music. Eighteen normal-hearing subjects participated in this study. Changes in pure-tone threshold were observed in both conditions and were similar, regardless of the break. Threshold shifts could be averaged for 1000, 2000, and 4000 Hz. The shift immediately after the ending of the music was 1.7 dB for right ears, and 3.4 dB for left ears. The difference between left and right ears was significant. One hour after the exposure, right ears were recovered to baseline conditions whereas left ears showed a small but clinically irrelevant remaining shift of approximately 1 dB. The advice to use chill-out zones is still valid, because this helps to reduce the duration to the exposure. This study does not provide evidence that a rest period gives an additional reduction of temporary threshold shifts.

  1. Key-note speaker: Predictors of weight loss after preventive Health consultations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lous, Jørgen; Freund, Kirsten S

    2018-01-01

    Invited key-note speaker ved conferencen: Preventive Medicine and Public Health Conference 2018, July 16-17, London.......Invited key-note speaker ved conferencen: Preventive Medicine and Public Health Conference 2018, July 16-17, London....

  2. Hearing loss prevention for carpenters: Part 1 - Using health communication and health promotion models to develop training that works

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol Merry Stephenson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In phase 1 of a large multiyear effort, health communication and health promotion models were used to develop a comprehensive hearing loss prevention training program for carpenters. Additionally, a survey was designed to be used as an evaluation instrument. The models informed an iterative research process in which the authors used key informant interviews, focus groups, and early versions of the survey tool to identify critical issues expected to be relevant to the success of the hearing loss prevention training. Commonly held attitudes and beliefs associated with occupational noise exposure and hearing losses, as well as issues associated with the use or non-use of hearing protectors, were identified. The training program was then specifically constructed to positively shape attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions associated with healthy hearing behaviors - especially those associated with appropriate hearing protector use. The goal was to directly address the key issues and overcome the barriers identified during the formative research phase. The survey was finalized using factor analysis methods and repeated pilot testing. It was designed to be used with the training as an evaluation tool and thus could indicate changes over time in attitudes, beliefs, and behavioral intentions regarding hearing loss prevention. Finally, the training program was fine tuned with industry participation so that its delivery would integrate seamlessly into the existing health and safety training provided to apprentice carpenters. In phase 2, reported elsewhere in this volume, the training program and the survey were tested through a demonstration project at two sites.

  3. Grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bears (Ursus americanus) prevent trabecular bone loss during disuse (hibernation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee-Lawrence, Meghan E; Wojda, Samantha J; Barlow, Lindsay N; Drummer, Thomas D; Castillo, Alesha B; Kennedy, Oran; Condon, Keith W; Auger, Janene; Black, Hal L; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2009-12-01

    Disuse typically causes an imbalance in bone formation and bone resorption, leading to losses of cortical and trabecular bone. In contrast, bears maintain balanced intracortical remodeling and prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation). Trabecular bone, however, is more detrimentally affected than cortical bone in other animal models of disuse. Here we investigated the effects of hibernation on bone remodeling, architectural properties, and mineral density of grizzly bear (Ursus arctos horribilis) and black bear (Ursus americanus) trabecular bone in several skeletal locations. There were no differences in bone volume fraction or tissue mineral density between hibernating and active bears or between pre- and post-hibernation bears in the ilium, distal femur, or calcaneus. Though indices of cellular activity level (mineral apposition rate, osteoid thickness) decreased, trabecular bone resorption and formation indices remained balanced in hibernating grizzly bears. These data suggest that bears prevent bone loss during disuse by maintaining a balance between bone formation and bone resorption, which consequently preserves bone structure and strength. Further investigation of bone metabolism in hibernating bears may lead to the translation of mechanisms preventing disuse-induced bone loss in bears into novel treatments for osteoporosis.

  4. Treatment of Radix Dipsaci extract prevents long bone loss induced by modeled microgravity in hindlimb unloading rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yinbo; Li, Chenrui; Pan, Yalei; Li, Yuhua; Kong, Xianghe; Wang, Shuo; Zhai, YuanKun; Wu, Xianglong; Fan, Wutu; Mei, Qibing

    2015-01-01

    Radix Dipsaci is a kidney tonifying herbal medicine with a long history of safe use for treatment of bone fractures and joint diseases in China. Previous studies have shown that Radix Dipsaci extract (RDE) could prevent bone loss in ovariectomized rats. This study investigates the effect of RDE against bone loss induced by simulated microgravity. A hindlimb unloading rat model was established to determine the effect of RDE on bone mineral density and bone microarchitecture. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups (n = 6 per group): control (CON), hindlimb unloading with vehicle (HLU), hindlimb unloading treated with alendronate (HLU-ALN, 2.0 mg/kg/d), and hindlimb unloading treated with RDE (HLU-RDE, 500 mg/kg/d). RDE or ALN was administrated orally for 4 weeks. Treatment with RDE had a positive effect on mechanical strength, BMD, BMC, bone turnover markers, and the changes in urinary calcium and phosphorus excretion. MicroCT analysis showed that RDE significantly prevented the reduction of the bone volume fraction, connectivity density, trabecular number, thickness, tissue mineral density, and tissue mineral content as well as improved the trabecular separation and structure model index. RDE was demonstrated to prevent the loss of bone mass induced by HLU treatment, which suggests the potential application of RDE in the treatment of microgravity-induced bone loss.

  5. Feeding blueberry diets in early life prevent senescence of osteoblasts and bone loss in ovariectomized adult female rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Zhang

    Full Text Available Appropriate nutrition during early development is essential for maximal bone mass accretion; however, linkage between early nutrition, childhood bone mass, peak bone mass in adulthood, and prevention of bone loss later in life has not been studied.In this report, we show that feeding a high quality diet supplemented with blueberries (BB to pre-pubertal rats throughout development or only between postnatal day 20 (PND20 and PND34 prevented ovariectomy (OVX-induced bone loss in adult life. This protective effect of BB is due to suppression of osteoblastic cell senescence associated with acute loss of myosin expression after OVX. Early exposure of pre-osteoblasts to serum from BB-fed rats was found to consistently increase myosin expression. This led to maintenance osteoblastic cell development and differentiation and delay of cellular entrance into senescence through regulation of the Runx2 gene. High bone turnover after OVX results in insufficient collagenous matrix support for new osteoblasts and their precursors to express myosin and other cytoskeletal elements required for osteoblast activity and differentiation.These results indicate: 1 a significant prevention of OVX-induced bone loss from adult rats can occur with only 14 days consumption of a BB-containing diet immediately prior to puberty; and 2 the molecular mechanisms underlying these effects involves increased myosin production which stimulates osteoblast differentiation and reduces mesenchymal stromal cell senescence.

  6. The knowledge and skills related to sexual abuse prevention among Chinese children with hearing loss in Beijing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Buyi; Chen, Jingqi; Jin, Yichen; Zhang, Wenjing; Feng, Yanan; Zhao, Xiaoxia

    2017-04-01

    The prevalence of any child sexual abuse (CSA) experience before the age of 16 years ranges from 10.2 to 35.2% in China, 1-5 but there has been no research so far exploring the level of awareness of CSA prevention and self-protection skills among Chinese children with hearing loss. The school based survey examines the CSA prevention knowledge and self-protection skills in Chinese children with hearing loss. Fifty-one students (30 boys, 21 girls) from 10 to 16 years old participated in the study. Children's CSA prevention knowledge and self-protection skills were tested by using anonymous self-administered questionnaire which was mainly designed based on previous Chinese CSA research questionnaires, the Personal Safety Questionnaire, and the 'What If' Situations Test (WIST). There were ten questions assessing the knowledge of CSA but none of the children could correctly answer all and seventy percent of the students could not answer more than five questions correctly. Only three students got the maximum skills score. If sexual abuse occurs, about fifty two percent of the children would report it to trusted adults and most of them would report it to their relatives. Girls received significantly higher scores than boys. Chinese children with hearing loss lack knowledge regarding child sexual abuse and the way to protect themselves. There is an urgent need to develop CSA prevention programs in the school for children with hearing loss in China. Parental training and parent-child interaction on CSA prevention should be developed and promoted as well. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Psychosocial Predictors of Weight Loss among American Indian and Alaska Native Participants in a Diabetes Prevention Translational Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward J. Dill

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The association of psychosocial factors (psychological distress, coping skills, family support, trauma exposure, and spirituality with initial weight and weight loss among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs in a diabetes prevention translational project was investigated. Participants (n=3,135 were confirmed as prediabetic and subsequently enrolled in the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention (SDPI-DP demonstration project implemented at 36 Indian health care programs. Measures were obtained at baseline and after completing a 16-session educational curriculum focusing on weight loss through behavioral changes. At baseline, psychological distress and negative family support were linked to greater weight, whereas cultural spirituality was correlated with lower weight. Furthermore, psychological distress and negative family support predicted less weight loss, and positive family support predicted greater weight loss, over the course of the intervention. These bivariate relationships between psychosocial factors and weight remained statistically significant within a multivariate model, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Conversely, coping skills and trauma exposure were not significantly associated with baseline weight or change in weight. These findings demonstrate the influence of psychosocial factors on weight loss in AI/AN communities and have substantial implications for incorporating adjunctive intervention components.

  8. Ferulic acid promotes survival and differentiation of neural stem cells to prevent gentamicin-induced neuronal hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Lintao; Cui, Xinhua; Wei, Wei; Yang, Jia; Li, Xuezhong

    2017-11-15

    Neural stem cells (NSCs) have exhibited promising potential in therapies against neuronal hearing loss. Ferulic acid (FA) has been widely reported to enhance neurogenic differentiation of different stem cells. We investigated the role of FA in promoting NSC transplant therapy to prevent gentamicin-induced neuronal hearing loss. NSCs were isolated from mouse cochlear tissues to establish in vitro culture, which were then treated with FA. The survival and differentiation of NSCs were evaluated. Subsequently, neurite outgrowth and excitability of the in vitro neuronal network were assessed. Gentamicin was used to induce neuronal hearing loss in mice, in the presence and absence of FA, followed by assessments of auditory brainstem response (ABR) and distortion product optoacoustic emissions (DPOAE) amplitude. FA promoted survival, neurosphere formation and differentiation of NSCs, as well as neurite outgrowth and excitability of in vitro neuronal network. Furthermore, FA restored ABR threshold shifts and DPOAE in gentamicin-induced neuronal hearing loss mouse model in vivo. Our data, for the first time, support potential therapeutic efficacy of FA in promoting survival and differentiation of NSCs to prevent gentamicin-induced neuronal hearing loss. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Food loss rates at the food retail, influencing factors and reasons as a basis for waste prevention measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebersorger, S; Schneider, F

    2014-11-01

    This paper quantifies food loss rates for fruit & vegetables, dairy products and bread & pastry as well as donations to social services. In addition potential influencing factors and reasons for food losses are investigated in order to provide a basis for the development of waste prevention measures. Detailed data from 612 retail outlets all over Austria, which covered the period of one year, were analysed and sorting analyses of discarded food were carried out in a small sample of retail outlets. Food loss amounts to 1.3% of the sales of dairy products, 2.8% for bread & pastry and 4.2% for fruit & vegetables. Returned bread amounts to additional 9.7% of the sales of bread & pastry. The food loss rates are similar to the results of previous publications. At present, 7% of the food loss is donated to social services, 38% of retail outlets do not donate any articles at all. Food loss rates are declining with increasing sales areas, increasing numbers of purchases per year and increasing sales of the retail outlet, but explain only 33% or less of the variation of food loss rates. Large differences between retail outlets of comparable structure indicate potential for reduction. More than a quarter of discarded food articles did not show any flaws besides the expiration of the best before or sell-by date. Waste prevention approaches should focus on avoiding returns, transfer of best practices, information and education of employees and customers as well as strengthening the donation to social services. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Down-regulation of Rad51 activity during meiosis in yeast prevents competition with Dmc1 for repair of double-strand breaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Interhomolog recombination plays a critical role in promoting proper meiotic chromosome segregation but a mechanistic understanding of this process is far from complete. In vegetative cells, Rad51 is a highly conserved recombinase that exhibits a preference for repairing double strand breaks (DSBs using sister chromatids, in contrast to the conserved, meiosis-specific recombinase, Dmc1, which preferentially repairs programmed DSBs using homologs. Despite the different preferences for repair templates, both Rad51 and Dmc1 are required for interhomolog recombination during meiosis. This paradox has recently been explained by the finding that Rad51 protein, but not its strand exchange activity, promotes Dmc1 function in budding yeast. Rad51 activity is inhibited in dmc1Δ mutants, where the failure to repair meiotic DSBs triggers the meiotic recombination checkpoint, resulting in prophase arrest. The question remains whether inhibition of Rad51 activity is important during wild-type meiosis, or whether inactivation of Rad51 occurs only as a result of the absence of DMC1 or checkpoint activation. This work shows that strains in which mechanisms that down-regulate Rad51 activity are removed exhibit reduced numbers of interhomolog crossovers and noncrossovers. A hypomorphic mutant, dmc1-T159A, makes less stable presynaptic filaments but is still able to mediate strand exchange and interact with accessory factors. Combining dmc1-T159A with up-regulated Rad51 activity reduces interhomolog recombination and spore viability, while increasing intersister joint molecule formation. These results support the idea that down-regulation of Rad51 activity is important during meiosis to prevent Rad51 from competing with Dmc1 for repair of meiotic DSBs.

  11. Automatic detection of tulip breaking virus (TBV) in tulip fields using machine vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, G.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Doorn, van J.; Baltissen, A.H.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Tulip breaking virus (TBV) causes severe economic losses in flower bulbs in the Netherlands. To prevent further spread by aphids, the vector of the disease, infected plants must be removed from the field as soon as possible. Until now screening has been carried out by visual inspection in the field.

  12. Advances in automatic detection of tulip breaking Virus (TBV) using machine vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, G.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Doorn, van J.; Baltissen, A.H.M.C.

    2014-01-01

    Tulip breaking virus (TBV) causes severe economic losses in flower bulbs in the Netherlands. To prevent further spread by aphids, infected plants must be removed from the field as soon as possible. Until now screening is done by visual inspection in the field. As the availability of human experts is

  13. Automatic detection of tulip breaking virus (TBV) in tulip fields using machine vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, G.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Doorn, van J.; Baltissen, A.H.M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Tulip breaking virus (TBV) causes severe economic losses for the Netherlands. Infected plants must be removed from the field as soon as possible to prevent further spread by aphids. Until now screening is done by visual inspection in the field. As the availability of human experts is limited there

  14. Alpha-1 antitrypsin gene therapy prevented bone loss in ovariectomy induced osteoporosis mouse model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteoporosis is a major healthcare burden affecting mostly postmenopausal women characterized by compromised bone strength and increased risk of fragility fracture. Although pathogenesis of this disease is complex, elevated proinflammatory cytokine production is clearly involved in bone loss at meno...

  15. Breaking away.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, G M; Sosnow, P L

    1995-05-01

    While life as hospital employees was comfortable, the lure of independence won out for these two emergency department physicians. Breaking away to develop a new company was not easy, but it's paid off for the entrepreneurs of the Capital Region Emergency Medicine, P.C. Developing an emergency medicine business meant learning all aspects of business: billing services, evaluating legal services, raising capital, and becoming employers. The advantage has been an ability to use profits to improve the moral of staff, an increase in salary, and an overall sense of satisfaction.

  16. Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG prevents alveolar bone loss in a mouse model of experimental periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatej, Simona M; Marino, Victor; Bright, Richard; Fitzsimmons, Tracy R; Gully, Neville; Zilm, Peter; Gibson, Rachel J; Edwards, Suzanne; Bartold, Peter M

    2018-02-01

    This study investigated the role of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on bone loss and local and systemic inflammation in an in vivo mouse model of experimental periodontitis (PD). Experimental PD was induced in mice by oral inoculation with Porphyromonas gingivalis and Fusobacterium nucleatum over a period of 44 days. The probiotic LGG was administered via oral inoculation or oral gavage prior to, and during disease induction. The antimicrobial activity of LGG on the inoculum was also tested. Alveolar bone levels and gingival tissue changes were assessed using in vivo microcomputed tomography and histological analysis. Serum levels of mouse homologues for IL-8 were measured using multiplex assays. Pre-treatment with probiotics either via oral gavage or via oral inoculation significantly reduced bone loss (p loss in a mouse model of induced PD irrespective of the mode of administration. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Intratympanic steroid prevents long-term spiral ganglion neuron loss in experimental meningitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Worsøe, Lise Lotte; Brandt, C.T.; Lund, S.P.

    2010-01-01

    most often associated with a hearing loss. Methods: Rats were randomly assigned to 3 treatment groups: a group treated with intratympanic betamethasone and 2 control groups treated with either intratympanic or systemic saline. Treatment was initiated 21 hours after infection and repeated once a day......, and distortion product otoacoustic emissions showed significant hearing loss at the low frequencies in animals treated with intratympanic steroid compared with animals treated with systemic saline (p ... in the spiral ganglion compared with both intratympanic and systemic saline (p = 0.0082 and p = 0.0089; Mann-Whitney test). Histology revealed fibrosis of the tympanic membrane and cavity in steroid-treated animals, which plausibly caused the low-frequency hearing loss. Conclusion: Intratympanic betamethasone...

  18. Mental stress as consequence and cause of vision loss: the dawn of psychosomatic ophthalmology for preventive and personalized medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabel, Bernhard A; Wang, Jiaqi; Cárdenas-Morales, Lizbeth; Faiq, Muneeb; Heim, Christine

    2018-06-01

    The loss of vision after damage to the retina, optic nerve, or brain has often grave consequences in everyday life such as problems with recognizing faces, reading, or mobility. Because vision loss is considered to be irreversible and often progressive, patients experience continuous mental stress due to worries, anxiety, or fear with secondary consequences such as depression and social isolation. While prolonged mental stress is clearly a consequence of vision loss, it may also aggravate the situation. In fact, continuous stress and elevated cortisol levels negatively impact the eye and brain due to autonomous nervous system (sympathetic) imbalance and vascular dysregulation; hence stress may also be one of the major causes of visual system diseases such as glaucoma and optic neuropathy. Although stress is a known risk factor, its causal role in the development or progression of certain visual system disorders is not widely appreciated. This review of the literature discusses the relationship of stress and ophthalmological diseases. We conclude that stress is both consequence and cause of vision loss. This creates a vicious cycle of a downward spiral, in which initial vision loss creates stress which further accelerates vision loss, creating even more stress and so forth. This new psychosomatic perspective has several implications for clinical practice. Firstly, stress reduction and relaxation techniques (e.g., meditation, autogenic training, stress management training, and psychotherapy to learn to cope) should be recommended not only as complementary to traditional treatments of vision loss but possibly as preventive means to reduce progression of vision loss. Secondly, doctors should try their best to inculcate positivity and optimism in their patients while giving them the information the patients are entitled to, especially regarding the important value of stress reduction. In this way, the vicious cycle could be interrupted. More clinical studies are now

  19. Winter-catastrophies in the reindeer husbandry of Finland: Losses and their prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timo Helle

    1982-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the occurreance of disastrous winters to the reindeer industry in Finland with special attention on the winter catastrophies and tje condition of the pastures, the influence of the disasters upon the population dynamic of the reindeer and the methods used to prevent catastrophies. A reindeer catastrophy has been defined as a situation where the number of reindeer stays 20% below the mean of the reindeer numbers during the two preceeding years. During the winter-catastrophies from 1970/71 to 1980/81 4.5% of the total reindeer number was lost. The highest losses were found in the northwesternmost part of Lappland, where there is no alternative to the reindeer lichen as it is in the middle and southern part of the reindeer industry area (arboreal lichens and supplemental feeding. In Kaldoaivi reindeer association (district, which has been studied in detail, the calf percentage is depending upon how the reindeer is able to manage the winter (r=0.62, n=ll, p«0.05. There is also a positive correlation between the slaughterweight of the calves in the early winter and the calf rate (r=0.79, n=7, p«0.05.During severe winters the mortality rate of males exceeds that of the females. Winter-catastrophies may be prevented by deminishing the numer of reindeer and by guiding the harvest to the most risky cohorts of the population. It has been proved that supplementary and emergency feeding are the most effective methods. In a normal year during the 1970s the total use of dry hay was 0.5—1.5 mill, kg., being up to 5.9—12.5 kg. per reindeer/year. In normal winters 10—16% of the total reindeer stock was intensively fed in enclosures. Supplementary feeding in enclosures is most common in the middle and southern parts of the reindeer industry area, where the essential feed is grown on own land.Katotalvet suomen poronhoidossa: menetykset ja Niiden Torjunta.Abstract in Finnish / Yhteenveto: Artikkeli käsittelee katastrofitalvien

  20. Prevention of Incident Knee Osteoarthritis by Moderate Weight Loss in Overweight and Obese Females

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Runhaar (Jos); B.C. de Vos (Bastiaan); M. van Middelkoop (Marienke); D. Vroegindeweij (Dammis); E.H.G. Oei (Edwin); S.M. Bierma-Zeinstra (Sita)

    2016-01-01

    markdownabstract__Objective:__ This study evaluated the effect of moderate weight loss on the incidence of knee osteoarthritis (OA) in middle-aged overweight and obese women, without clinical and radiologic knee OA at baseline. __Methods:__ A total of 353 women (87%) with followup data available

  1. Prevention of adolescents' music-induced hearing loss due to discotheque attendance: a Delphi study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, I.; Brug, J.; Ploeg, van der C.P.B.; Raat, H.

    2009-01-01

    Noise-induced hearing loss is a significant social and public health problem, which is found in increasing numbers of adolescents. Young people are particularly likely to expose themselves to potentially damaging loud sounds during leisure activities. Visiting discotheques is one of the most popular

  2. Evaluation of containment peak pressure and structural response for a large-break loss-of-coolant accident in a VVER-440/213 NPP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spencer, B.W.; Sienicki, J.J.; Kulak, R.F.; Pfeiffer, P.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Voeroess, L.; Techy, Z. [VEIKI Inst. for Electric Power Research, Budapest (Hungary); Katona, T. [Paks Nuclear Power Plant (Hungary)

    1998-07-01

    A collaborative effort between US and Hungarian specialists was undertaken to investigate the response of a VVER-440/213-type NPP to a maximum design-basis accident, defined as a guillotine rupture with double-ended flow from the largest pipe (500 mm) in the reactor coolant system. Analyses were performed to evaluate the magnitude of the peak containment pressure and temperature for this event; additional analyses were performed to evaluate the ultimate strength capability of the containment. Separate cases were evaluated assuming 100% effectiveness of the bubbler-condenser pressure suppression system as well as zero effectiveness. The pipe break energy release conditions were evaluated from three sources: (1) FSAR release rate based on Soviet safety calculations, (2) RETRAN-03 analysis and (3) ATHLET analysis. The findings indicated that for 100% bubbler-condenser effectiveness the peak containment pressures were less than the containment design pressure of 0.25 MPa. For the BDBA case of zero effectiveness of the bubbler-condenser system, the peak pressures were less than the calculated containment failure pressure of 0.40 MPa absolute.

  3. Systemic Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Transplantation Prevents Functional Bone Loss in a Mouse Model of Age-Related Osteoporosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiernan, Jeffrey; Hu, Sally; Grynpas, Marc D; Davies, John E; Stanford, William L

    2016-05-01

    Age-related osteoporosis is driven by defects in the tissue-resident mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs), a heterogeneous population of musculoskeletal progenitors that includes skeletal stem cells. MSC decline leads to reduced bone formation, causing loss of bone volume and the breakdown of bony microarchitecture crucial to trabecular strength. Furthermore, the low-turnover state precipitated by MSC loss leads to low-quality bone that is unable to perform remodeling-mediated maintenance--replacing old damaged bone with new healthy tissue. Using minimally expanded exogenous MSCs injected systemically into a mouse model of human age-related osteoporosis, we show long-term engraftment and markedly increased bone formation. This led to improved bone quality and turnover and, importantly, sustained microarchitectural competence. These data establish proof of concept that MSC transplantation may be used to prevent or treat human age-related osteoporosis. This study shows that a single dose of minimally expanded mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) injected systemically into a mouse model of human age-related osteoporosis display long-term engraftment and prevent the decline in bone formation, bone quality, and microarchitectural competence. This work adds to a growing body of evidence suggesting that the decline of MSCs associated with age-related osteoporosis is a major transformative event in the progression of the disease. Furthermore, it establishes proof of concept that MSC transplantation may be a viable therapeutic strategy to treat or prevent human age-related osteoporosis. ©AlphaMed Press.

  4. RANKL/RANK: from bone loss to the prevention of breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigl, Verena; Jones, Laundette P; Penninger, Josef M

    2016-11-01

    RANK and RANKL, a receptor ligand pair belonging to the tumour necrosis factor family, are the critical regulators of osteoclast development and bone metabolism. Besides their essential function in bone, RANK and RANKL have also been identified as the key factors for the formation of a lactating mammary gland in pregnancy. Mechanistically, RANK and RANKL link the sex hormone progesterone with stem cell expansion and proliferation of mammary epithelial cells. Based on their normal physiology, RANKL/RANK control the onset of hormone-induced breast cancer through the expansion of mammary progenitor cells. Recently, we and others were able to show that RANK and RANKL are also critical regulators of BRCA1-mutation-driven breast cancer. Currently, the preventive strategy for BRCA1-mutation carriers includes preventive mastectomy, associated with wide-ranging risks and psychosocial effects. The search for an alternative non-invasive prevention strategy is therefore of paramount importance. As our work strongly implicates RANK and RANKL as key molecules involved in the initiation of BRCA1-associated breast cancer, we propose that anti-RANKL therapy could be a feasible preventive strategy for women carrying BRCA1 mutations, and by extension to other women with high risk of breast cancer. © 2016 The Authors.

  5. Simulation of a loss of primary coolant accident due to a large break in Angra 2 Nuclear Power Plant with RELAP5/MOD3.2.2G code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabunddjian, Gaiane; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de

    2003-01-01

    This work presents the simulation, with RELAP5/MOD.3.2.2G code, of the postulate accident with loss of coolant in the primary circuit for large break (LBLOCA), which is described in Chapter 15 of the Final Safety Analysis Report of Angra 2 FSAR. The accident consists basically of the total break of the cold leg (Loop 20) of Angra 2 Plant. The rupture area considered is 4418 cm 2 , which represents 100% of the primary circuit pipe flow area. The Emergency Core Cooling System (ECCS) efficiency is also verified for this accident. In this simulation, failure and repair criteria are adopted for the ECCS components, in order to verify the system operation, in carrying out its function as expected by the project to preserve the integrity of the reactor core and to guarantee its cooling. LBLOCA accidents are characterized by a fast blowdown in the primary circuit to values that the low pressure injection system is activated and then, followed by the water injection by the accumulators. The thermal-hydraulic processes inherent to the accident phenomenon, such as hot leg vaporization and consequently core vaporization causing an inappropriate flow distribution in the reactor core, can lead to a reduction in the core liquid level, until the ECCS is capable to reflood it. It is important to point out that the results do not represent an independent calculation for the licensing process, but a calculation to give support to the qualification process of Angra 2 transient basic nodalization (author)

  6. Prevention of noise-induced hearing loss in the Canadian military.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelausa, E O; Abel, S M; Simard, J; Dempsey, I

    1995-10-01

    A prospective study was undertaken to investigate the development of noise-induced hearing loss in Canadian military recruits, and to assess the effectiveness of the hearing conservation program currently in place. The participants were 134 men and women, 20 to 30 years of age, employed in four trades, three of these (infantry, artillery, and armour) associated with high noise levels. The data comprised audiometric measurements made at the time of entry and after 3 years of employment, and responses to a questionnaire mainly relating to noise exposure in the workplace and during leisure activities, and the utilization of personal hearing protective devices. The findings showed that group audiograms at entry and at the 3-year recall were characterized by a 6-kHz notch that was indicative of noise-induced hearing loss, although mean threshold values were within normal limits. By the 3-year recall, 11% of the infantry had sustained a mild-to-moderate hearing loss in the left ear, greater than 25-dB HL, that was consistent with the use of small-calibre weapons. Responses to the questionnaire indicated that, while subjects appreciated the potential benefit of wearing hearing protectors, instructions in their proper use and education on the hazards of noise exposure were poor. The results suggested methods to strengthen the existing scheme for hearing conservation to further minimize risk.

  7. Identification of flow regimes and heat transfer modes in Angra-2 core during the simulation of the small break loss of coolant accident of 250 cm2 in the cold leg of primary loop using RELAP5 code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Eduardo M.; Sabundjian, Gaiane

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify the flow regimes, the heat transfer modes, and the correlations used by RELAP5/MOD3.2. gamma code in Angra-2 during the Small-Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) with a 250cm 2 of rupture area in the cold leg of primary loop. The Chapter 15 of the Final Safety Analysis Report of Angra-2 (FSAR-A2) reports this specific kind of accident. The results from this work demonstrated the several flow regimes and heat transfer modes that can be present in the core of Angra-2 during the postulated accident. The results obtained for Angra-2 nuclear reactor core during the postulated accident were satisfactory when compared with the FSAR-A2. Additionally, the results showed the correct actuation of the ECCS guaranteeing the integrity of the reactor core. (author)

  8. Identification of flow regimes and heat transfer modes in Angra-2 core during the simulation of the small break loss of coolant accident of 250 cm{sup 2} in the cold leg of primary loop using RELAP5 code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Eduardo M.; Sabundjian, Gaiane, E-mail: borges.em@hotmail.com, E-mail: gdjian@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNE-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this paper is to identify the flow regimes, the heat transfer modes, and the correlations used by RELAP5/MOD3.2. gamma code in Angra-2 during the Small-Break Loss-of-Coolant Accident (SBLOCA) with a 250cm{sup 2} of rupture area in the cold leg of primary loop. The Chapter 15 of the Final Safety Analysis Report of Angra-2 (FSAR-A2) reports this specific kind of accident. The results from this work demonstrated the several flow regimes and heat transfer modes that can be present in the core of Angra-2 during the postulated accident. The results obtained for Angra-2 nuclear reactor core during the postulated accident were satisfactory when compared with the FSAR-A2. Additionally, the results showed the correct actuation of the ECCS guaranteeing the integrity of the reactor core. (author)

  9. Fiscal loss and program fidelity: impact of the economic downturn on HIV/STI prevention program fidelity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catania, Joseph A; Dolcini, M Margaret; Gandelman, Alice A; Narayanan, Vasudha; McKay, Virginia R

    2014-03-01

    The economic downturn of 2007 created significant fiscal losses for public and private agencies conducting behavioral prevention. Such macro-economic changes may influence program implementation and sustainability. We examined how public and private agencies conducting RESPECT, a brief HIV/STI (sexually transmitted infection) counseling and testing intervention, adapted to fiscal loss and how these adaptations impacted program fidelity. We collected qualitative and quantitative data in a national sample of 15 agencies experiencing fiscal loss. Using qualitative analyses, we examined how program fidelity varied with different types of adaptations. Agencies reported three levels of adaptation: agency-level, program-level, and direct fiscal remedies. Private agencies tended to use direct fiscal remedies, which were associated with higher fidelity. Some agency-level adaptations contributed to reductions in procedural fit, leading to negative staff morale and decreased confidence in program effectiveness, which in turn, contributed to poor fidelity. Findings describe a "work stress pathway" that links program fiscal losses to poor staff morale and low program fidelity.

  10. Resistance Training Prevents Muscle Loss Induced by Caloric Restriction in Obese Elderly Individuals: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda V. Sardeli

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available It remains unclear as to what extent resistance training (RT can attenuate muscle loss during caloric restriction (CR interventions in humans. The objective here is to address if RT could attenuate muscle loss induced by CR in obese elderly individuals, through summarized effects of previous studies. Databases MEDLINE, Embase and Web of Science were used to perform a systematic search between July and August 2017. Were included in the review randomized clinical trials (RCT comparing the effects of CR with (CRRT or without RT on lean body mass (LBM, fat body mass (FBM, and total body mass (BM, measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, on obese elderly individuals. The six RCTs included in the review applied RT three times per week, for 12 to 24 weeks, and most CR interventions followed diets of 55% carbohydrate, 15% protein, and 30% fat. RT reduced 93.5% of CR-induced LBM loss (0.819 kg [0.364 to 1.273], with similar reduction in FBM and BM, compared with CR. Furthermore, to address muscle quality, the change in strength/LBM ratio tended to be different (p = 0.07 following CRRT (20.9 ± 23.1% and CR interventions (−7.5 ± 9.9%. Our conclusion is that CRRT is able to prevent almost 100% of CR-induced muscle loss, while resulting in FBM and BM reductions that do not significantly differ from CR.

  11. Combat, prevention and optimization of commercial losses of power energy; Combate, prevencao e otimizacao das perdas comerciais da energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penin, Carlos Alexandre de Sousa

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this work is to study the problem of NTL using a wide approach, analyze the experience of dealerships in Brazil and abroad, discuss the best practices for mitigation of those losses and propose improvements in the combat and prevention processes, and the legal procedures for recovery of incomes, leaning on a careful regulatory context. This study draws attention to Brazil's socioeconomic diversity, comparing it to various international examples, and intends to identify the most relevant aspects that must be considered on the theme, discussing procedures and methodologies for the equation of the amount of resources to be applied by distributing companies to achieve the appropriate reduction of NTL. (author)

  12. Prevention of adsorption losses during radioimmunoassay of polypeptide hormones: effectiveness of albumins, gelatin, caseins, Tween 20 and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Livesey, J.H.; Donald, R.A.

    1982-01-01

    It is well known that polypeptide hormones adsorb to glass and plastic surfaces and that this adsorption may be reduced by adding a relatively large quantity of another protein. Consequently proteins (or sometimes detergents) are added almost universally to peptide hormone radioimmunassays to minimise loss of analyte by adsorption. This study was undertaken because there are few reports of the relative effectiveness of the proteins so used. The results suggest that moderate concentrations of the widely used albumins of Tween 20 do not always adequately prevent the adsorption of hormonal polypeptides to surfaces. Casein and alkali-treated casein appear to be more effective than the adsorption inhibitors in general use in radioimmunoassay for the range of hormones and adsorptive surfaces tested. They were also found to be very effective for preventing the adsorption of radio-labelled human luteinizing hormone, human growth hormone and Tyr-somatostatin. (Auth.)

  13. The Break

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Anete Mikkala Camille; Larsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    the challenges of the million-dollar question is stemming from the ‘bets on the future’ – or what David Boje coins as ‘antenarratives’, (Boje, 2008) that emerged through various reconfiguring story actions, on two different occasions. The paper thus elaborates on two cases of restorying events; One taking place...... that language and the social has been granted too much power on the dispense of the bodily, physical and biological – or in short, in dispense of the material. The break To be or not to be poses the theoretical notion of dis-/continuity (Barad, 2007, 2010) from the quantum approach to storytelling (Strand 2012...... in their use of the communicative platform of Object theatre from the methodology of Material Storytelling (Strand 2012). The Bets on the Future piece discusses the extend to which the cases of using this kind of technologies may provide fruitful ‘bets on the future’ in regard to the million-dollar question...

  14. 85 dBA: is it protective enough to prevent hearing loss in South African miners?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edwards, A

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available .(2007) was found to be exacerbated by workload and heat stress. In addition, the development of TTS and potentially NIHL is accelerated by smoking, and hearing loss is accelerated by drugs for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) and by HIV/AIDS (Khoza... Pulmonary Disease in Workers of Southern Italy. Journal of Occupational & Environmental Medicine, 50(3):366-370. Campbell, K.C., Meech, R.P., Klemens, J.J., Gerberi, M.T., Dysstad, S.S., Larsen, D.L., Mitchell, D.L., El-Azizi, M., Verhulst, S...

  15. Applications of Solar Technology for Catastrophe Response, Claims Management, and Loss Prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deering, A.; Thornton, J.P.

    1999-02-17

    Today's insurance industry strongly emphasizes developing cost-effective hazard mitigation programs, increasing and retaining commercial and residential customers through better service, educating customers on their exposure and vulnerabilities to natural disasters, collaborating with government agencies and emergency management organizations, and exploring the use of new technologies to reduce the financial impact of disasters. In June of 1998, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the National Association of Independent Insurers (NAII) sponsored a seminar titled, ''Solar Technology and the Insurance Industry.'' Presentations were made by insurance company representatives, insurance trade groups, government and state emergency management organizations, and technology specialists. The meeting was attended by insurers, brokers, emergency managers, and consultants from more than 25 US companies. Leading insurers from the personal line and commercial carriers were shown how solar technology can be used in underwriting, claims, catastrophe response, loss control, and risk management. Attendees requested a follow-up report on solar technology, cost, and applications in disasters, including suggestions on how to collaborate with the utility industry and how to develop educational programs for business and consumers. This report will address these issues, with an emphasis on pre-disaster planning and mitigation alternatives. It will also discuss how energy efficiency and renewable technologies can contribute to reducing insurance losses.

  16. Non-pharmacological treatment and prevention of bone loss after spinal cord injury: a systematic review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Biering-Sørensen, F; Hansen, B; Lee, B S B

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Review the literature on non-pharmacological prevention and treatment of osteoporosis after spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: PubMed, EMBASE and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register were searched. All identified papers were read by title, abstract and full-length article when...... bone mineral, and the longer the period of athletic career, the higher the (leg) bone mineral. Early after SCI, there may be some effects of electrical stimulation (ES) (five studies). Chronic-phase ES studies vary (14 studies, including mixed periods after injury), but improvement is seen with longer...

  17. Pomegranate Peel Extract Prevents Bone Loss in a Preclinical Model of Osteoporosis and Stimulates Osteoblastic Differentiation in Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mélanie Spilmont

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional benefits of pomegranate have attracted great scientific interest. The pomegranate, including the pomegranate peel, has been used worldwide for many years as a fruit with medicinal activity, mostly antioxidant properties. Among chronic diseases, osteoporosis, which is associated with bone remodelling impairment leading to progressive bone loss, could eventually benefit from antioxidant compounds because of the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of osteopenia. In this study, with in vivo and ex vivo experiments, we investigated whether the consumption of pomegranate peel extract (PGPE could limit the process of osteopenia. We demonstrated that in ovariectomized (OVX C57BL/6J mice, PGPE consumption was able to significantly prevent the decrease in bone mineral density (−31.9%; p < 0.001 vs. OVX mice and bone microarchitecture impairment. Moreover, the exposure of RAW264.7 cells to serum harvested from mice that had been given a PGPE-enriched diet elicited reduced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption, as shown by the inhibition of the major osteoclast markers. In addition, PGPE appeared to substantially stimulate osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity at day 7, mineralization at day 21 and the transcription level of osteogenic markers. PGPE may be effective in preventing the bone loss associated with ovariectomy in mice, and offers a promising alternative for the nutritional management of this disease.

  18. Pomegranate Peel Extract Prevents Bone Loss in a Preclinical Model of Osteoporosis and Stimulates Osteoblastic Differentiation in Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilmont, Mélanie; Léotoing, Laurent; Davicco, Marie-Jeanne; Lebecque, Patrice; Miot-Noirault, Elisabeth; Pilet, Paul; Rios, Laurent; Wittrant, Yohann; Coxam, Véronique

    2015-11-11

    The nutritional benefits of pomegranate have attracted great scientific interest. The pomegranate, including the pomegranate peel, has been used worldwide for many years as a fruit with medicinal activity, mostly antioxidant properties. Among chronic diseases, osteoporosis, which is associated with bone remodelling impairment leading to progressive bone loss, could eventually benefit from antioxidant compounds because of the involvement of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of osteopenia. In this study, with in vivo and ex vivo experiments, we investigated whether the consumption of pomegranate peel extract (PGPE) could limit the process of osteopenia. We demonstrated that in ovariectomized (OVX) C57BL/6J mice, PGPE consumption was able to significantly prevent the decrease in bone mineral density (-31.9%; p < 0.001 vs. OVX mice) and bone microarchitecture impairment. Moreover, the exposure of RAW264.7 cells to serum harvested from mice that had been given a PGPE-enriched diet elicited reduced osteoclast differentiation and bone resorption, as shown by the inhibition of the major osteoclast markers. In addition, PGPE appeared to substantially stimulate osteoblastic MC3T3-E1 alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity at day 7, mineralization at day 21 and the transcription level of osteogenic markers. PGPE may be effective in preventing the bone loss associated with ovariectomy in mice, and offers a promising alternative for the nutritional management of this disease.

  19. Isokinetic eccentric resistance training prevents loss in mechanical muscle function after running

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oliveira, Anderson S. C.; Caputo, Fabrizio; Aagaard, Per

    2013-01-01

    session, subjects performed treadmill running (~35 min) and the previously mentioned measurements were repeated immediately after running. Subsequently, subjects were randomized to training (n = 12) consisting of 24 sessions of maximal IERT knee extensors actions at 180° s(-1), or served as controls (n...... damages. However, IERT may not avoid reductions in explosive muscle actions. In turn, this may allow more intense training sessions to be performed, facilitating the adaptive response to running training.......The aim of the study was to verify whether 8 weeks of resistance training employing maximal isokinetic eccentric (IERT) knee extensor actions would reduce the acute force loss observed after high-intensity treadmill running exercise. It was hypothesized that specific IERT would induce protective...

  20. Mobilizing Transit-Amplifying Cell-Derived Ectopic Progenitors Prevents Hair Loss from Chemotherapy or Radiation Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wen-Yen; Lai, Shih-Fan; Chiu, Hsien-Yi; Chang, Michael; Plikus, Maksim V; Chan, Chih-Chieh; Chen, You-Tzung; Tsao, Po-Nien; Yang, Tsung-Lin; Lee, Hsuan-Shu; Chi, Peter; Lin, Sung-Jan

    2017-11-15

    Genotoxicity-induced hair loss from chemotherapy and radiotherapy is often encountered in cancer treatment, and there is a lack of effective treatment. In growing hair follicles (HF), quiescent stem cells (SC) are maintained in the bulge region, and hair bulbs at the base contain rapidly dividing, yet genotoxicity-sensitive transit-amplifying cells (TAC) that maintain hair growth. How genotoxicity-induced HF injury is repaired remains unclear. We report here that HFs mobilize ectopic progenitors from distinct TAC compartments for regeneration in adaptation to the severity of dystrophy induced by ionizing radiation (IR). Specifically, after low-dose IR, keratin 5 + basal hair bulb progenitors, rather than bulge SCs, were quickly activated to replenish matrix cells and regenerated all concentric layers of HFs, demonstrating their plasticity. After high-dose IR, when both matrix and hair bulb cells were depleted, the surviving outer root sheath cells rapidly acquired an SC-like state and fueled HF regeneration. Their progeny then homed back to SC niche and supported new cycles of HF growth. We also revealed that IR induced HF dystrophy and hair loss and suppressed WNT signaling in a p53- and dose-dependent manner. Augmenting WNT signaling attenuated the suppressive effect of p53 and enhanced ectopic progenitor proliferation after genotoxic injury, thereby preventing both IR- and cyclophosphamide-induced alopecia. Hence, targeted activation of TAC-derived progenitor cells, rather than quiescent bulge SCs, for anagen HF repair can be a potential approach to prevent hair loss from chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Cancer Res; 77(22); 6083-96. ©2017 AACR . ©2017 American Association for Cancer Research.

  1. A selective androgen receptor modulator that reduces prostate tumor size and prevents orchidectomy-induced bone loss in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, George; Lai, Muh-Tsann; Sbriscia, Tifanie; Linton, Olivia; Haynes-Johnson, Donna; Bhattacharjee, Sheela; Dodds, Robert; Fiordeliso, James; Lanter, James; Sui, Zhihua; Lundeen, Scott

    2007-01-01

    The pharmacological activity of JNJ-26146900 is described. JNJ-26146900 is a nonsteroidal androgen receptor (AR) ligand with tissue-selective activity in rats. The compound was evaluated in in vitro and in vivo models of AR activity. It binds to the rat AR with a K(i) of 400nM and acts as a pure androgen antagonist in an in vitro cell-based assay. Its in vitro profile is similar to the androgen antagonist bicalutamide (Casodex). In intact rats, JNJ-26146900 reduces ventral prostate weight with an oral potency (ED(50)) of 20-30mg/kg, again comparable to that of bicalutamide. JNJ-26146900 prevented prostate tumor growth in the Dunning rat model, maximally inhibiting growth at a dose of 10mg/kg. It slowed tumor growth significantly in a CWR22-LD1 mouse xenograft model of human prostate cancer. It was tested in aged male rats for its ability to prevent bone loss and loss of lean body mass following orchidectomy. After 6 weeks of dosing, bone volume decreased by 33% in orchidectomized versus intact vehicle-treated rats with a probability (P) of less than 0.05, as measured by micro-computerized tomography analysis. At a dose of 30mg/kg, JNJ-26146900 significantly reduced castration-induced tibial bone loss as indicated by the following parameters: bone volume, trabecular connectivity, trabecular number and spacing between trabeculae. Bone mineral density decreased from 229+/-34mg/cm(3) of hydroxyapatite to 166+/-26mg/cm(3) following orchidectomy, and was maintained at 194+/-20mg/cm(3) with JNJ-26146900 treatment (Pselective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) have the potential for anabolic effects on bone and muscle while maintaining therapeutic efficacy in prostate cancer.

  2. Immunization with FSHβ fusion protein antigen prevents bone loss in a rat ovariectomy-induced osteoporosis model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Wenxin; Yan, Xingrong; Du, Huicong; Cui, Jihong; Li, Liwen, E-mail: liven@nwu.edu.cn; Chen, Fulin, E-mail: chenfl@nwu.edu.cn

    2013-05-03

    Highlights: •A GST-FSH fusion protein was successfully expressed in E. coli. •Immunization with GST-FSH antigen can raise high-titer anti-FSH polyclonal sera. •Anti-FSH polyclonal sera can neutralize osteoclastogenic effect of FSH in vitro. •FSH immunization can prevent bone loss in a rat osteoporosis model. -- Abstract: Osteoporosis, a metabolic bone disease, threatens postmenopausal women globally. Hormone replacement therapy (HTR), especially estrogen replacement therapy (ERT), is used widely in the clinic because it has been generally accepted that postmenopausal osteoporosis is caused by estrogen deficiency. However, hypogonadal α and β estrogen receptor null mice were only mildly osteopenic, and mice with either receptor deleted had normal bone mass, indicating that estrogen may not be the only mediator that induces osteoporosis. Recently, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), the serum concentration of which increases from the very beginning of menopause, has been found to play a key role in postmenopausal osteoporosis by promoting osteoclastogenesis. In this article, we confirmed that exogenous FSH can enhance osteoclast differentiation in vitro and that this effect can be neutralized by either an anti-FSH monoclonal antibody or anti-FSH polyclonal sera raised by immunizing animals with a recombinant GST-FSHβ fusion protein antigen. Moreover, immunizing ovariectomized rats with the GST-FSHβ antigen does significantly prevent trabecular bone loss and thereby enhance the bone strength, indicating that a FSH-based vaccine may be a promising therapeutic strategy to slow down bone loss in postmenopausal women.

  3. Gefitinib, an EGFR Tyrosine Kinase inhibitor, Prevents Smoke-Mediated Ciliated Airway Epithelial Cell Loss and Promotes Their Recovery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monica Valencia-Gattas

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke exposure is a major health hazard. Ciliated cells in the epithelium of the airway play a critical role in protection against the noxious effects of inhaled cigarette smoke. Ciliated cell numbers are reduced in smokers which weakens host defense and leads to disease. The mechanisms for the loss of ciliated cells are not well understood. The effects of whole cigarette smoke exposure on human airway ciliated ciliated cells were examined using in vitro cultures of normal human bronchial epithelial cells and a Vitrocell® VC 10® Smoking Robot. These experiments showed that whole cigarette smoke causes the loss of differentiated ciliated cells and inhibits differentiation of ciliated cells from undifferentiated basal cells. Furthermore, treatment with the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Gefitinib, during smoke exposure prevents ciliated cell loss and promotes ciliated cell differentiation from basal cells. Finally, restoration of ciliated cells was inhibited after smoke exposure was ceased but was enhanced by Gefitinib treatment. These data suggest that inhibition of EGFR activity may provide therapeutic benefit for treating smoke related diseases.

  4. Quantifying reactor safety margins: Application of code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty evaluation methodology to a large-break, loss-of-coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyack, B.; Duffey, R.; Wilson, G.; Griffith, P.; Lellouche, G.; Levy, S.; Rohatgi, U.; Wulff, W.; Zuber, N.

    1989-12-01

    The US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has issued a revised rule for loss-of-coolant accident/emergency core cooling system (ECCS) analysis of light water reactors to allow the use of best-estimate computer codes in safety analysis as an option. A key feature of this option requires the licensee to quantify the uncertainty of the calculations and include that uncertainty when comparing the calculated results with acceptance limits provided in 10 CFR Part 50. To support the revised ECCS rule and illustrate its application, the NRC and its contractors and consultants have developed and demonstrated an uncertainty evaluation methodology called code scaling, applicability, and uncertainty (CSAU). The CSAU methodology and an example application described in this report demonstrate that uncertainties in complex phenomena can be quantified. The methodology is structured, traceable, and practical, as is needed in the regulatory arena. The methodology is systematic and comprehensive as it addresses and integrates the scenario, experiments, code, and plant to resolve questions concerned with: (a) code capability to scale-up processes from test facility to full-scale nuclear power plants; (b) code applicability to safety studies of a postulated accident scenario in a specified nuclear power plant; and (c) quantifying uncertainties of calculated results. 127 refs., 55 figs., 40 tabs

  5. Simulation Modeling Requirements for Loss-of-Control Accident Prevention of Turboprop Transport Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crider, Dennis; Foster, John V.

    2012-01-01

    In-flight loss of control remains the leading contributor to aviation accident fatalities, with stall upsets being the leading causal factor. The February 12, 2009. Colgan Air, Inc., Continental Express flight 3407 accident outside Buffalo, New York, brought this issue to the forefront of public consciousness and resulted in recommendations from the National Transportation Safety Board to conduct training that incorporates stalls that are fully developed and develop simulator standards to support such training. In 2010, Congress responded to this accident with Public Law 11-216 (Section 208), which mandates full stall training for Part 121 flight operations. Efforts are currently in progress to develop recommendations on implementation of stall training for airline pilots. The International Committee on Aviation Training in Extended Envelopes (ICATEE) is currently defining simulator fidelity standards that will be necessary for effective stall training. These recommendations will apply to all civil transport aircraft including straight-wing turboprop aircraft. Government-funded research over the previous decade provides a strong foundation for stall/post-stall simulation for swept-wing, conventional tail jets to respond to this mandate, but turboprops present additional and unique modeling challenges. First among these challenges is the effect of power, which can provide enhanced flow attachment behind the propellers. Furthermore, turboprops tend to operate for longer periods in an environment more susceptible to ice. As a result, there have been a significant number of turboprop accidents as a result of the early (lower angle of attack) stalls in icing. The vulnerability of turboprop configurations to icing has led to studies on ice accumulation and the resulting effects on flight behavior. Piloted simulations of these effects have highlighted the important training needs for recognition and mitigation of icing effects, including the reduction of stall margins

  6. Maximizing Home Equity or Preventing Home Loss: Reverse Mortgage Decision Making and Racial Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, Danya E; Sarnak, Ann; Coyle, Caitlin

    2018-03-07

    Reverse mortgages are loans that allow older homeowners to borrow from their home equity with no repayment due until the borrower dies or moves out of the home. We currently know very little about how homeowners evaluate and experience reverse mortgages as solutions to their financial and housing needs in later life. Furthermore, despite an increasingly diverse population of reverse mortgage borrowers, we know little about how social inequalities may contribute to reverse mortgage decisions and their outcomes. In this paper, we examine reverse mortgage decision-making and experiences in a racially and economically diverse sample of older US homeowners. We conducted 44 in-depth interviews with older homeowners who were considering or who had obtained a reverse mortgage loan. We inductively and iteratively developed a thematic coding scheme that was applied to all interview transcripts. Our analysis produced a dichotomous schema of reverse mortgage decision making that was shaped by social and economic opportunities and constraints. For some participants, reverse mortgages represented strategic tools used to maximize home equity and its benefits. For others, it was an option of last resort to which participants turned when faced with the imminent loss of their home. Focusing on reverse mortgages, our analysis suggests way that social inequalities may be reproduced through financial decisions and the unequal landscapes of opportunity in which they are made.

  7. Management of knowledge across generations: preventing knowledge loss, enabling knowledge readiness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Day, John A.

    2012-01-01

    J. Day argued that the preservation of records is a necessary, but not a sufficient condition to enable intelligent future decision making and management of nuclear waste. He distinguishes knowledge management from information management. Information without the potential to act on it is information for its own sake. He believes that knowledge will be a key factor for the generations that follow us. Records need knowledge, and knowledge needs records. A single representation of knowledge can be dangerous. Knowledge is multifaceted and complex, which necessitates a holistic approach. Throughout the presentation the concepts of 'knowledge readiness' and 'knowledge mothballing' (the process of knowing, forgetting and relearning) were proposed. Based on experiences at Sellafield the actions of knowledge audit mapping (including technical, societal and historical knowledge), knowledge loss risk assessing (although we would like to we cannot hold on to everything, and should thus take a risk approach, asking ourselves what is at stake if we delete certain parts of information), and knowledge retention for the long term management of a nuclear facility were presented. During the discussion, the link between knowledge and behaviour was raised. It was argued that the better informed people are, the less likely they are to make mistakes

  8. Preventive measures to prevent loss to follow-up in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): implementing a strategy in Ziguinchor (Casamance, Senegal) in 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randé, H; Rouffy, D

    2016-05-01

    Since 2010, the Pharmacie et Aide Humanitaire (PAH) in Casamance (Senegal) has been maintaining a software package (Tacojo) that allows monthly monitoring of the distribution of treatment to every patient with HIV infection receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). We used this program to set up measures to prevent the loss to follow-up of patients receiving HAART. Our involvement focused on two main areas. First, each patient is routinely contacted after inclusion, to help us to understand the patient's experience of the disease and the treatment. This process aims to improve adherence to the treatment. Then, all patients who miss an appointment are routinely contacted by telephone within seven days of that appointment. The goal is to understand the reasons for the absence and to encourage patients to continue their treatment. Despite the lack of distance due to the relative newness of this program, these preventive measures have shown hopeful results (80% of the patients came back after a call). It would be interesting to apply it in a sustainable manner and in more medical facilities.

  9. Designing Skin Cancer Prevention Messages: Should We Emphasize Gains or Losses? Message Framing, Risk Type, and Prior Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Moon J; Kang, Hannah

    2018-05-01

    To test whether message framing (ie, gain vs. loss) and risk type (ie, health vs appearance risk) in skin cancer prevention messages interact with one's prior experience. Two experiments with a 2 (message framing: gain vs loss) × 2 (risk type: health vs appearance risk) factorial design were conducted. The participants were given a URL to the experiment website via e-mail. On the first page of the website, the participants were told that they would be asked to evaluate a skin cancer print public service announcement (PSA): Online experiments. A total of 397 individuals participated (236 for experiment 1 and 161 for experiment 2). Apparatus: Four versions of the skin cancer print PSAs were developed. Four PSAs were identical except for the 2 manipulated components: message framing and risk type. Measures were adopted from Cho and Boster (message framing), Jones and Leary and Kiene et al. (risk type), De Vries, Mesters, van't Riet, Willems, and Reubsaet and Knight, Kirincich, Farmer, and Hood (prior experience), and Hammond, Fong, Zanna, Thrasher, and Borland and Hoffner and Ye (behavioral intent). General linear models were used to test hypotheses. Three-way interactions among message framing, risk type, and prior experience were found: When the intent of the message was to encourage sunscreen use, the effects of message framing and risk type were shown to be the exact opposite directions from when the intent was to discourage indoor/outdoor tanning. To discourage tanning among those with prior experience, messages emphasizing losses in terms of one's health will work better. For those with no prior experience, messages emphasizing potential appearance losses will work better for discouraging tanning while messages emphasizing gains like improving appearance will do a better job in encouraging sunscreen use.

  10. Olive oil and vitamin D synergistically prevent bone loss in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camille Tagliaferri

    Full Text Available As the Mediterranean diet (and particularly olive oil has been associated with bone health, we investigated the impact of extra virgin oil as a source of polyphenols on bone metabolism. In that purpose sham-operated (SH or ovariectomized (OVX mice were subjected to refined or virgin olive oil. Two supplementary OVX groups were given either refined or virgin olive oil fortified with vitamin D3, to assess the possible synergistic effects with another liposoluble nutrient. After 30 days of exposure, bone mineral density and gene expression were evaluated. Consistent with previous data, ovariectomy was associated with increased bone turnover and led to impaired bone mass and micro-architecture. The expression of oxidative stress markers were enhanced as well. Virgin olive oil fortified with vitamin D3 prevented such changes in terms of both bone remodeling and bone mineral density. The expression of inflammation and oxidative stress mRNA was also lower in this group. Overall, our data suggest a protective impact of virgin olive oil as a source of polyphenols in addition to vitamin D3 on bone metabolism through improvement of oxidative stress and inflammation.

  11. Resveratrol prevents alveolar bone loss in an experimental rat model of periodontitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Govinda; Poudel, Sher Bahadur; Kook, Sung-Ho; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol is an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory polyphenol. Periodontitis is induced by oral pathogens, where a systemic inflammatory response accompanied by oxidative stress is the major event initiating disease. We investigated how resveratrol modulates cellular responses and the mechanisms related to this modulation in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated human gingival fibroblasts (hGFs). We also explored whether resveratrol protects rats against alveolar bone loss in an experimental periodontitis model. Periodontitis was induced around the first upper molar of the rats by applying ligature infused with LPS. Stimulating hGFs with 5μg/ml LPS augmented the expression of cyclooxygenase-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, and Toll-like receptor-4. LPS treatment also stimulated the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the phosphorylation of several protein kinases in the cells. However, the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2) was inhibited by the addition of LPS. Resveratrol treatment almost completely inhibited all of these changes in LPS-stimulated cells. Specifically, resveratrol alone augmented HO-1 induction via Nrf2-mediated signaling. Histological and micro-CT analyses revealed that administration of resveratrol (5mg/kg body weight) improved ligature/LPS-mediated alveolar bone loss in rats. Resveratrol also attenuated the production of inflammation-related proteins, the formation of osteoclasts, and the production of circulating ROS in periodontitis rats. Furthermore, resveratrol suppressed LPS-mediated decreases in HO-1 and Nrf2 levels in the inflamed periodontal tissues. Collectively, our findings suggest that resveratrol protects rats from periodontitic tissue damage by inhibiting inflammatory responses and by stimulating antioxidant defense systems. The aims of this study were to investigate how resveratrol modulates cellular responses and the mechanisms related to this modulation in

  12. Aircraft Loss-of-Control Accident Prevention: Switching Control of the GTM Aircraft with Elevator Jam Failures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bor-Chin; Kwatny, Harry G.; Belcastro, Christine; Belcastro, Celeste

    2008-01-01

    Switching control, servomechanism, and H2 control theory are used to provide a practical and easy-to-implement solution for the actuator jam problem. A jammed actuator not only causes a reduction of control authority, but also creates a persistent disturbance with uncertain amplitude. The longitudinal dynamics model of the NASA GTM UAV is employed to demonstrate that a single fixed reconfigured controller design based on the proposed approach is capable of accommodating an elevator jam failure with arbitrary jam position as long as the thrust control has enough control authority. This paper is a first step towards solving a more comprehensive in-flight loss-of-control accident prevention problem that involves multiple actuator failures, structure damages, unanticipated faults, and nonlinear upset regime recovery, etc.

  13. Combat, prevention and optimization of commercial losses of power energy; Combate, prevencao e otimizacao das perdas comerciais da energia eletrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penin, Carlos Alexandre de Sousa

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this work is to study the problem of NTL using a wide approach, analyze the experience of dealerships in Brazil and abroad, discuss the best practices for mitigation of those losses and propose improvements in the combat and prevention processes, and the legal procedures for recovery of incomes, leaning on a careful regulatory context. This study draws attention to Brazil's socioeconomic diversity, comparing it to various international examples, and intends to identify the most relevant aspects that must be considered on the theme, discussing procedures and methodologies for the equation of the amount of resources to be applied by distributing companies to achieve the appropriate reduction of NTL. (author)

  14. NPP Krsko small break LOCA analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavko, B.; Petelin, S.; Peterlin, G.

    1987-01-01

    Parametric analysis of small break loss of coolant accident for the Krsko NPP was calculated by using RELAP5/MOD1 computer code. The model that was used in our calculations has been improved over several years and was previously tested in simulation (s) of start-up tests and known NPP Krsko transients. In our calculations we modelled automatic actions initiated by control, safety and protection systems. We also modelled the required operator actions as specified in emergency operating instructions. In small-break LOCA calculations, we varied break sizes in the cold leg. The influence of steam generator tube plugging on small break LOCA accidents was also analysed. (author)

  15. Sealed Radioactive Sources. Information, Resources, and Advice for Key Groups about Preventing the Loss of Control over Sealed Radioactive Sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-10-01

    Among its many activities to improve the safety and security of sealed sources, the IAEA has been investigating the root causes of major accidents and incidents since the 1980's and publishes findings so that others can learn from them. There are growing concerns today about the possibility that an improperly stored source could be stolen and used for malicious purposes. To improve both safety and security, information needs to be in the hands of those whose actions and decisions can prevent a source from being lost or stolen in the first place. The IAEA developed this booklet to help improve communication with key groups about hazards that may result from the loss of control over sealed radioactive sources and measures that should be implemented to prevent such loss of control. Many people may benefit from the information contained in this booklet, particularly those working with sources and those likely to be involved if control over a source is lost; especially: officials in government agencies, first responders, medical users, industrial users and the metal recycling industry. The general public may also benefit from an understanding of the fundamentals of radiation safety. This booklet is comprised of several stand-alone chapters intended to communicate with these key groups. Various accidents that are described and information that is provided are relevant to more than one key group and therefore, some information is repeated throughout the booklet. This booklet seeks to raise awareness of the importance of the safety and security of sealed radioactive sources. However, it is not intended to be a comprehensive 'how to' guide for implementing safety and security measures for sealed radioactive sources. For more information on these measures, readers are encouraged to consult the key IAEA safety and security-related publications identified in this booklet

  16. Preventing Excessive Blood Loss During Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy by Using Tranexamic Acid: A Double Blinded Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Siddiq

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL is most frequently performed procedure for renal stones 2 cm and larger. Perioperative hemorrhage being most common complication, warrants as important predicting factor of adverse outcomes. Prevention with inexpensive and safe drug like tranexamic acid (TA would ultimately turn out to be cornerstone for establishing future guidelines. Aim of this study is to evaluate whether TA is efficacious in preventing blood loss during PCNL. Materials and Methods: Ethical review board approval taken. Sample size calculation yielded 240 patients, comprising 120 in each group. Group A receiving TA and group B receiving placebo. Age, gender, body mass index (BMI, stone size, volume and location, preoperative blood count, creatinine, urine analysis, coagulation profile and necessary radiological investigations done. Randomization through lottery method. Both patient and investigator were blinded. Hemoglobin (Hb and hematocrit (Hct levels done at 24 hours postoperatively and fall in values recorded. Results: Both groups were equal in characteristics like age, gender, BMI, stone size, volume and location (p>0.05. Operative variables like calyx punctured, position of puncture and operative time were also found to be similar in both groups. Median change in Hb in placebo group was 1.6 interquartile range (IQR 4, while in TA group was 1.3 (IQR 7.8 (p=0.001. Similarly, median change in Hct level in placebo group was 3.6 (IQR 11.8 and in TA group was 2.4 (IQR 13 (p<0.001. Sixteen patients were transfused after surgery; 12 (75% belonged to placebo group while 4 (25% belonged to TA group (p=0.038. Hospital stay was not significantly different in both groups (p=0.177 with median of 4.0 and IQR of 0 in both groups. Conclusion: TA during PCNL reduces blood loss and minimizes blood transfusion rate.

  17. Noise-induced hearing loss in agriculture: Creating partnerships to overcome barriers and educate the community on prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet J Ehlers

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL is a common and preventable injury for farmers. Farmers are frequently exposed to excessive noise, ranking among the top three occupations and industries with the highest risk for hearing loss. Use of hearing protection among farmers is not common. Although the age when NIHL begins among farmers is unknown, its prevalence is higher among male adolescents who live and work on farms. The purpose of this paper is to describe how NIOSH created partnerships to promote hearing conservation for this hard-to-reach population. Partnerships included organizations and individuals who were trusted sources of information for the target population, young farmers 14-35 years of age and their families, and those who had linkages in rural communities. NIOSH engaged partners through exhibits and train-the-trainer workshops at state or national conventions. NIOSH workshops included basic information on NIHL as well as information on free or low-lost resources that participants could use in training others at schools and community events. People with hearing conservation expertise have an important role and many opportunities to improve the knowledge and implementation of hearing conservation among those in agriculture.

  18. Improving access to optometry services for people at risk of preventable sight loss: a qualitative study in five UK locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leamon, S; Hayden, C; Lee, H; Trudinger, D; Appelbee, E; Hurrell, D-L; Richardson, I

    2014-12-01

    Reducing preventable sight loss is an increasing priority for public health and health care providers. We examined the factors affecting people's use of optometry services in population groups at increased risk of sight loss. This is a qualitative study in five UK locations. In England, participants were from the Pakistani and Black Caribbean communities; in Scotland from the Pakistani community; and in Northern Ireland and Wales from white socio-economically deprived communities. Thirty-four focus groups were conducted (n = 289). The study included people who attend optometry services and people not engaged with services. Barriers to access included limited awareness of eye health and eye disease, concern about the cost of spectacles and the appropriateness of optometry in a commercial setting. Attendance at the optometrist was primarily symptom led. A positive previous experience or continuing relationship with the optometrist helped to alleviate the barriers and promote attendance. Addressing the disparity between the broader messages about eye health and the current perception of the function of optometry could help improve access to services. Uptake may be improved through the co-production of interventions that better resonate with local communities. Non-retail service delivery options should be explored. © The Author 2014, Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health.

  19. Chronic Microdose Lithium Treatment Prevented Memory Loss and Neurohistopathological Changes in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunes, Marielza Andrade; Schöwe, Natalia Mendes; Monteiro-Silva, Karla Cristina; Baraldi-Tornisielo, Ticiana; Souza, Suzzanna Ingryd Gonçalves; Balthazar, Janaina; Albuquerque, Marilia Silva; Caetano, Ariadiny Lima; Viel, Tania Araujo; Buck, Hudson Sousa

    2015-01-01

    The use of lithium is well established in bipolar disorders and the benefits are being demonstrated in neurodegenerative disorders. Recently, our group showed that treatment with microdose lithium stabilized the cognitive deficits observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. In order to verify the lithium microdose potential in preventing the disease development, the aim of this work was to verify the effects of chronic treatment with microdose lithium given before and after the appearance of symptoms in a mouse model of a disease similar to AD. Transgenic mice (Cg-Tg(PDGFB-APPSwInd)20Lms/2J) and their non-transgenic litter mate genetic controls were treated with lithium carbonate (0.25mg/Kg/day in drinking water) for 16 or 8 months starting at two and ten months of age, respectively [corrected]. Similar groups were treated with water. At the end of treatments, both lithium treated transgenic groups and non-transgenic mice showed no memory disruption, different from what was observed in the water treated transgenic group. Transgenic mice treated with lithium since two months of age showed decreased number of senile plaques, no neuronal loss in cortex and hippocampus and increased BDNF density in cortex, when compared to non-treated transgenic mice. It is suitable to conclude that these data support the use of microdose lithium in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease, once the neurohistopathological characteristics of the disease were modified and the memory of transgenic animals was maintained.

  20. Chronic Microdose Lithium Treatment Prevented Memory Loss and Neurohistopathological Changes in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marielza Andrade Nunes

    Full Text Available The use of lithium is well established in bipolar disorders and the benefits are being demonstrated in neurodegenerative disorders. Recently, our group showed that treatment with microdose lithium stabilized the cognitive deficits observed in Alzheimer's disease (AD patients. In order to verify the lithium microdose potential in preventing the disease development, the aim of this work was to verify the effects of chronic treatment with microdose lithium given before and after the appearance of symptoms in a mouse model of a disease similar to AD. Transgenic mice (Cg-Tg(PDGFB-APPSwInd20Lms/2J and their non-transgenic litter mate genetic controls were treated with lithium carbonate (0.25mg/Kg/day in drinking water for 16 or 8 months starting at two and ten months of age, respectively [corrected]. Similar groups were treated with water. At the end of treatments, both lithium treated transgenic groups and non-transgenic mice showed no memory disruption, different from what was observed in the water treated transgenic group. Transgenic mice treated with lithium since two months of age showed decreased number of senile plaques, no neuronal loss in cortex and hippocampus and increased BDNF density in cortex, when compared to non-treated transgenic mice. It is suitable to conclude that these data support the use of microdose lithium in the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease, once the neurohistopathological characteristics of the disease were modified and the memory of transgenic animals was maintained.

  1. Prevention of vision loss protects against age-related impairment in learning and memory performance in DBA/2J mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Aimée A; Brown, Richard E

    2013-01-01

    The DBA/2J mouse is a model of pigmentary glaucoma in humans as it shows age-related increases in intraocular pressure (IOP), retinal ganglion cell death and visual impairment. Previously, we showed that visual ability declines from 9 to 12 months of age and visual impairment is correlated with poor learning and memory performance in visuo-spatial tasks but not in tasks that do not depend on visual cues. To test the "sensory impairment" hypothesis of aging, which postulates that sensory impaired individuals are disadvantaged in their performance on psychometric tests as a direct result of difficulties in sensory perception, we treated DBA/2J mice with a conventional glaucoma medication used in humans (Timoptic-XE, 0.00, 0.25, or 0.50%) daily from 9 weeks to 12 months of age to determine whether prevention of vision loss prevented the decline in visuo-spatial learning and memory performance. At all ages tested (3, 6, 9, and 12 months of age), mice treated with Timoptic-XE (0.25 and 0.50%) maintained a high level of performance, while 12 month old control mice (0.00%) exhibited impaired performance in visually-dependent, but not non-visual tasks. These results demonstrate that when sensory function is preserved, cognitive performance is normalized. Thus, as in many aging humans, DBA/2J mice show age-related decrements in performance on visually presented cognitive tests, not because of cognitive impairment but as a direct consequence of poor visual ability. Our results demonstrate that age-related impairment in performance in visuo-spatial tasks in DBA/2J mice can be prevented by the preservation of visual ability.

  2. Prevention of vision loss protects against age-related impairment in learning and memory performance in DBA/2J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aimee eWong

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The DBA/2J mouse is a model of pigmentary glaucoma in humans as it shows age‐related increases in intraocular pressure, retinal ganglion cell death and visual impairment. Previously, we showed that visual ability declines from 9 ‐12 months of age and visual impairment is correlated with poor learning and memory performance in visuo‐spatial tasks but not in tasks that do not depend on visual cues. To test the sensory impairment hypothesis of aging, which postulates that sensory impaired individuals are disadvantaged in their performance on psychometric tests as a direct result of difficulties in sensory perception, we treated DBA/2J mice with a conventional glaucoma medication used in humans (Timoptic‐XE, 0.00, 0.25 or 0.50% daily from 9 weeks to 12 months of age to determine whether prevention of vision loss prevented the decline in visuo-spatial learning and memory performance. At all ages tested (3, 6, 9 and 12 months of age, mice treated with Timoptic-XE (0.25 and 0.50% maintained a high level of performance, while 12 month old control mice (0.00% exhibited impaired performance in visually‐dependent, but not non‐visual tasks. These results demonstrate that when sensory function is preserved, cognitive performance is normalized. Thus, as in many aging humans, DBA/2J mice show age-related decrements in performance on visually presented cognitive tests, not because of cognitive impairment but as a direct consequence of poor visual ability. Our results demonstrate that age-related impairment in performance in visuo-spatial tasks in DBA/2J mice can be prevented by the preservation of visual ability.

  3. Potassium citrate prevents increased osteoclastogenesis resulting from acidic conditions: Implication for the treatment of postmenopausal bone loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Granchi

    Full Text Available The extracellular acidic milieu in bones results in activation of osteoclasts (OC and inhibition of osteoblasts (OB causing a net loss of calcium from the skeleton and the deterioration of bone microarchitecture. Alkalinization through supplementation with potassium citrate (K citrate has been proposed to limit the osteopenia progression, even though its pharmacological activity in bone microenvironment is not well defined. We evaluated if K citrate was able to prevent the adverse effects that acidic milieu induces on bone cells. OC and OB were maintained in neutral (pH 7.4 versus acidic (pH 6.9 culture medium, and treated with different K citrate concentrations. We evaluated the OC differentiation at seven days, by counting of multinucleated cells expressing tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase, and the activity of mature OC at 14 days, by quantifying of collagen degradation. To evaluate the effects on OB, we analyzed proliferation, mineralization, and expression of bone-related genes. We found that the low pH increased OC differentiation and activity and decreased OB function. The osteoclastogenesis was also promoted by RANKL concentrations ineffective at pH 7.4. Non-cytotoxic K citrate concentrations were not sufficient to steadily neutralize the acidic medium, but a inhibited the osteoclastogenesis, the collagen degradation, and the expression of genes involved in RANKL-mediated OC differentiation, b enhanced OB proliferation and alkaline phosphatase expression, whereas it did not affect the in vitro mineralization, and c were effective also in OC cultures resistant to alendronate, i.e. the positive control of osteoclastogenesis inhibition. In conclusion, K citrate prevents the increase in OC activity induced by the acidic microenvironment, and the effect does not depend exclusively on its alkalizing capacity. These data provide the biological basis for the use of K citrate in preventing the osteopenia progression resulting from low

  4. Preventive effect of curcumin and its highly bioavailable preparation on hearing loss induced by single or repeated exposure to noise: A comparative and mechanistic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taro Yamaguchi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available We sought to determine the preventive effects of curcumin and its highly bioavailable preparation on noise-induced hearing loss in a novel murine model of permanent hearing loss developed by repeated exposure to noise. Upon exposure to noise (8-kHz octave band noise, 90 dB sound pressure level, 1 h, hearing ability was impaired in a temporary and reversible manner. During repeated noise exposure (1-h exposure per day, 5 days, there was a progressive increase in the auditory threshold shift at 12 and 20 kHz. The threshold shift persisted for at least 6 days after noise exposure. Oral administration of curcumin for 3 days before and each day during noise exposure significantly alleviated the hearing loss induced by repeated noise exposure. Curcumin abolished intranuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB-p65 and generation of 4-hydroxynonenal-adducted proteins found in the cochlea after noise exposure. Theracurmin®, a highly absorbable and bioavailable preparation of curcumin, had strong preventive effects on hearing loss induced by repeated noise exposure. Together, these data suggest that curcumin exerts a preventive effect on noise-induced hearing loss and is therefore a good therapeutic candidate for preventing sensorineural hearing loss.

  5. Preventive effect of curcumin and its highly bioavailable preparation on hearing loss induced by single or repeated exposure to noise: A comparative and mechanistic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Taro; Yoneyama, Masanori; Onaka, Yusuke; Imaizumi, Atsushi; Ogita, Kiyokazu

    2017-08-01

    We sought to determine the preventive effects of curcumin and its highly bioavailable preparation on noise-induced hearing loss in a novel murine model of permanent hearing loss developed by repeated exposure to noise. Upon exposure to noise (8-kHz octave band noise, 90 dB sound pressure level, 1 h), hearing ability was impaired in a temporary and reversible manner. During repeated noise exposure (1-h exposure per day, 5 days), there was a progressive increase in the auditory threshold shift at 12 and 20 kHz. The threshold shift persisted for at least 6 days after noise exposure. Oral administration of curcumin for 3 days before and each day during noise exposure significantly alleviated the hearing loss induced by repeated noise exposure. Curcumin abolished intranuclear translocation of nuclear factor-κB-p65 and generation of 4-hydroxynonenal-adducted proteins found in the cochlea after noise exposure. Theracurmin ® , a highly absorbable and bioavailable preparation of curcumin, had strong preventive effects on hearing loss induced by repeated noise exposure. Together, these data suggest that curcumin exerts a preventive effect on noise-induced hearing loss and is therefore a good therapeutic candidate for preventing sensorineural hearing loss. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Bcl-2 over-expression fails to prevent age-related loss of calretinin positive neurons in the mouse dentate gyrus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Mingbo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cognitive performance declines with increasing age. Possible cellular mechanisms underlying this age-related functional decline remain incompletely understood. Early studies attributed this functional decline to age-related neuronal loss. Subsequent studies using unbiased stereological techniques found little or no neuronal loss during aging. However, studies using specific cellular markers found age-related loss of specific neuronal types. To test whether there is age-related loss of specific neuronal populations in the hippocampus, and subsequently, whether over-expression of the B-cell lymphoma protein-2 (Bcl-2 in these neurons could delay possible age-related neuronal loss, we examined calretinin (CR positive neurons in the mouse dentate gyrus during aging. Result In normal mice, there was an age-related loss of CR positive cells in the dentate gyrus. At the same region, there was no significant decrease of total numbers of neurons, which suggested that age-related loss of CR positive cells was due to the decrease of CR expression in these cells instead of cell death. In the transgenic mouse line over-expressing Bcl-2 in neurons, there was an age-related loss of CR positive cells. Interestingly, there was also an age-related neuronal loss in this transgenic mouse line. Conclusion These data suggest an age-related loss of CR positive neurons but not total neuronal loss in normal mice and this age-related neuronal change is not prevented by Bcl-2 over-expression.

  7. Evidence for the prevention of bone loss in elderly and old early non-metastatic breast cancer patients treated with aromatase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunmalm, V.; Jørgensen, N. R.; Abrahamsen, B.

    2017-01-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common cancer amongst women worldwide. Bone health is emerging as an important issue for BC survivors. In this literature study, we focus on agents for preventing bone loss in early non-metastatic estrogen receptor positive BC in treatment with aromatase inhibitors...... (AI) and to assess the evidence for antiresorptive treatment of bone loss in early non-metastatic breast cancer. We included randomized controlled trials (RCT's) comparing: (a) bisphosphonates and control; (b) different bisphosphonates; (c) denosumab and control and (d) bisphosphonates vs. denosumab...... in early non-metastatic BC women in AI treatment. Among antiresorptives, zoledronic acid currently has the highest evidence for prevention of AI associated bone loss in early non-metastatic BC. Data on fracture prevention among all patients, elderly and old is sparse. More randomized controlled studies...

  8. BOOK REVIEW: Symmetry Breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, L. H.

    2005-11-01

    loss of symmetric behaviour requires both the existence of non-symmetric ground states and the infinite extension of the system. The book is divided into two parts, treating respectively the classical and quantum regimes. In classical field theory the symmetry breaking is explained in terms of the occurrence of disjoint sectors, or different phases, of a physical system. In the quantum regime the mechanism is characterized by a symmetry breaking order parameter, for which non-perturbative criteria are discussed, following the work of Wightman, in contrast to the usual Goldstone perturbative strategy. Strocchi's main interest is in condensed matter, rather than particle, physics, and the topics he covers include spin systems, Fermi and Bose gases and finite temperature field theory. The book is based on lectures given over a number of years. It is written in a pleasing style at a level suitable for graduate students in theoretical physics. While mathematically proper, it is not forbidding for a physics readership; the author is always aware this subject is a branch of physics. It should make profitable reading for many theoretical physicists.

  9. Human albumin prevents 6-hydroxydopamine-induced loss of tyrosine hydroxylase in in vitro and in vivo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li-Juan Zhang

    Full Text Available Human albumin has recently been demonstrated to protect brain neurons from injury in rat ischemic brain. However, there is no information available about whether human albumin can prevent loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH expression of dopaminergic (DA neurons induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA toxicity that is most commonly used to create a rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD. In the present study, two microliters of 1.25% human albumin were stereotaxically injected into the right striatum of rats one day before or 7 days after the 6-OHDA lesion in the same side. D-Amphetamine-induced rotational asymmetry was measured 7 days, 3 and 10 weeks after 6-OHDA lesion. We observed that intrastriatal administration of human albumin significantly reduced the degree of rotational asymmetry. The number of TH-immunoreactive neurons present in the substantia nigra was greater in 6-OHDA lesioned rats following human albumin-treatment than non-human albumin treatment. TH-immunoreactivity in the 6-OHDA-lesioned striatum was also significantly increased in the human albumin-treated rats. To examine the mechanisms underlying the effects of human albumin, we challenged PC12 cells with 6-OHDA as an in vitro model of PD. Incubation with human albumin prevented 6-OHDA-induced reduction of cell viability in PC12 cell cultures, as measured by MTT assay. Furthermore, human albumin reduced 6-OHDA-induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS and apoptosis in cultured PC12 cells, as assessed by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis showed that human albumin inhibited 6-OHDA-induced activation of JNK, c-Jun, ERK, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK signaling in PC12 cultures challenged with 6-OHDA. Human albumin may protect against 6-OHDA toxicity by influencing MAPK pathway followed by anti-ROS formation and anti-apoptosis.

  10. Perioperative warming with a thermal gown prevents maternal temperature loss during elective cesarean section. A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bernardis, Ricardo Caio Gracco; Siaulys, Monica Maria; Vieira, Joaquim Edson; Mathias, Lígia Andrade Silva Telles

    2016-01-01

    Decrease in body temperature is common during general and regional anesthesia. Forced-air warming intraoperative during cesarean section under spinal anesthesia seems not able to prevent it. The hypothesis considers that active warming before the intraoperative period avoids temperature loss during cesarean. Forty healthy pregnant patients undergoing elective cesarean section with spinal anesthesia received active warming from a thermal gown in the preoperative care unit 30min before spinal anesthesia and during surgery (Go, n=20), or no active warming at any time (Ct, n=20). After induction of spinal anesthesia, the thermal gown was replaced over the chest and upper limbs and maintained throughout study. Room temperature, hemoglobin saturation, heart rate, arterial pressure, and tympanic body temperature were registered 30min before (baseline) spinal anesthesia, right after it (time zero) and every 15min thereafter. There was no difference for temperature at baseline, but they were significant throughout the study (p<0.0001; repeated measure ANCOVA). Tympanic temperature baseline was 36.6±0.3°C, measured 36.5±0.3°C at time zero and reached 36.1±0.2°C for gown group, while control group had baseline temperature of 36.4±0.4°C, measured 36.3±0.3°C at time zero and reached 35.4±0.4°C (F=32.53; 95% CI 0.45-0.86; p<0.001). Hemodynamics did not differ throughout the study for both groups of patients. Active warming 30min before spinal anesthesia and during surgery prevented a fall in body temperature in full-term pregnant women during elective cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. [Perioperative warming with a thermal gown prevents maternal temperature loss during elective cesarean section. A randomized clinical trial].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardis, Ricardo Caio Gracco de; Siaulys, Monica Maria; Vieira, Joaquim Edson; Mathias, Lígia Andrade Silva Telles

    2016-01-01

    Decrease in body temperature is common during general and regional anesthesia. Forced-air warming intraoperative during cesarean section under spinal anesthesia seems not able to prevent it. The hypothesis considers that active warming before the intraoperative period avoids temperature loss during cesarean. Forty healthy pregnant patients undergoing elective cesarean section with spinal anesthesia received active warming from a thermal gown in the preoperative care unit 30min before spinal anesthesia and during surgery (Go, n=20), or no active warming at any time (Ct, n=20). After induction of spinal anesthesia, the thermal gown was replaced over the chest and upper limbs and maintained throughout study. Room temperature, hemoglobin saturation, heart rate, arterial pressure, and tympanic body temperature were registered 30min before (baseline) spinal anesthesia, right after it (time zero) and every 15min thereafter. There was no difference for temperature at baseline, but they were significant throughout the study (p<0.0001; repeated measure ANCOVA). Tympanic temperature baseline was 36.6±0.3°C, measured 36.5±0.3°C at time zero and reached 36.1±0.2°C for gown group, while control group had baseline temperature of 36.4±0.4°C, measured 36.3±0.3°C at time zero and reached 35.4±0.4°C (F=32.53; 95% CI 0.45-0.86; p<0.001). Hemodynamics did not differ throughout the study for both groups of patients. Active warming 30min before spinal anesthesia and during surgery prevented a fall in body temperature in full-term pregnant women during elective cesarean delivery. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Human Albumin Prevents 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Loss of Tyrosine Hydroxylase in In Vitro and In Vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li-Juan; Xue, Yue-Qiang; Yang, Chun; Yang, Wei-Hua; Chen, Long; Zhang, Qian-Jin; Qu, Ting-Yu; Huang, Shile; Zhao, Li-Ru; Wang, Xiao-Min; Duan, Wei-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Human albumin has recently been demonstrated to protect brain neurons from injury in rat ischemic brain. However, there is no information available about whether human albumin can prevent loss of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) expression of dopaminergic (DA) neurons induced by 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) toxicity that is most commonly used to create a rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). In the present study, two microliters of 1.25% human albumin were stereotaxically injected into the right striatum of rats one day before or 7 days after the 6-OHDA lesion in the same side. D-Amphetamine-induced rotational asymmetry was measured 7 days, 3 and 10 weeks after 6-OHDA lesion. We observed that intrastriatal administration of human albumin significantly reduced the degree of rotational asymmetry. The number of TH-immunoreactive neurons present in the substantia nigra was greater in 6-OHDA lesioned rats following human albumin-treatment than non-human albumin treatment. TH-immunoreactivity in the 6-OHDA-lesioned striatum was also significantly increased in the human albumin-treated rats. To examine the mechanisms underlying the effects of human albumin, we challenged PC12 cells with 6-OHDA as an in vitro model of PD. Incubation with human albumin prevented 6-OHDA-induced reduction of cell viability in PC12 cell cultures, as measured by MTT assay. Furthermore, human albumin reduced 6-OHDA-induced formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis in cultured PC12 cells, as assessed by flow cytometry. Western blot analysis showed that human albumin inhibited 6-OHDA-induced activation of JNK, c-Jun, ERK, and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) signaling in PC12 cultures challenged with 6-OHDA. Human albumin may protect against 6-OHDA toxicity by influencing MAPK pathway followed by anti-ROS formation and anti-apoptosis. PMID:22815976

  13. Unification of SUSY breaking and GUT breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Department of Physics, Hokkaido University,Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Omura, Yuji [Department of Physics, Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2015-02-18

    We build explicit supersymmetric unification models where grand unified gauge symmetry breaking and supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking are caused by the same sector. Besides, the SM-charged particles are also predicted by the symmetry breaking sector, and they give the soft SUSY breaking terms through the so-called gauge mediation. We investigate the mass spectrums in an explicit model with SU(5) and additional gauge groups, and discuss its phenomenological aspects. Especially, nonzero A-term and B-term are generated at one-loop level according to the mediation via the vector superfields, so that the electro-weak symmetry breaking and 125 GeV Higgs mass may be achieved by the large B-term and A-term even if the stop mass is around 1 TeV.

  14. Lipoxin A4 suppresses osteoclastogenesis in RAW264.7 cells and prevents ovariectomy-induced bone loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Changyu; Guan, Hanfeng; Cai, Cong; Li, Feng, E-mail: lifengmd@hust.edu.cn; Xiao, Jun, E-mail: jun_xiao@hust.edu.cn

    2017-03-15

    Lipoxin A4 (LXA4; 5S, 6R, 15Strihydroxy- 7,9,13-trans-11-eicosatetraenoic acid) is a metabolic product of arachidonic acid under the action of lipoxidase. This lipid molecule plays important roles in several biological functions, especially inflammatory processes. In vivo, LXA4 regulates the inflammatory response through several signaling pathways. Its mechanism suggests that it might have an effect on osteoclastogenesis and bone loss. Using both in vitro and in vivo studies, it was here observed that LXA4 could significantly inhibit the formation and function of osteoclasts and these effects could be blocked by Boc-2, the specific inhibitor of FPR2/ALX (the receptor of LXA4). Meanwhile, LXA4 reduce the amount of ovariectomy-induced bone loss. These protective effects was found to be associated with inhibition of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), activator protein-1 (AP-1), PI3K-AKT, and p-38, ERK, and JNK in MAPKs. The expression of the receptor activator of the NF-κB ligand RANKL:osteoprotegerin ratio and serum levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were decreased by LXA4. Moreover, LXA4 prevented the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), the expression of osteoclast-specific genes, including tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP), cathepsin K (CK), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, RANK, and osteoclastic related transcription factors of c-Fos, NFATc1 could also be significantly inhibited by LXA4 in a dose-dependent manner. Studies have demonstrated that LXA4 can inhibit the formation and function of osteoclasts through modulation of several pathways both upstream and downstream of RANKL signaling and FPR2/ALX was involved in the procedures. This shows that LXA4 may be used as a new strategy for the treatment of osteoclast-related diseases. - Highlights: • Lipoxin A4 can significantly inhibit the formation and function of osteoclasts. • Several pathways both upstream and downstream of RANKL signaling can be inhibit by Lipoxin A4. • Lipoxin A4 can

  15. Effects of a new mild shampoo for preventing hair loss in Asian by a simple hand-held phototrichogram technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, J H; Lee, S Y; Yoo, M; Park, W-S; Lee, S J; Boo, Y C; Koh, J-S

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of a commercially available shampoo in Korean subjects with alopecia using a simple hand-held phototrichogram technique. Forty-four subjects with alopecia were enrolled and forty subjects continued for 16 weeks. In the test group, total hair counts increased significantly at weeks 8 and 16, and the number of shedding hair significantly decreased at week 16. Terminal hair counts significantly increased at week 8. In the control group, hair thickness and the number of vellus hairs significantly decreased at week 16. The number of total hairs significantly increased in the test group than in the control group at weeks 8 and 16. The number of shedding hairs significantly decreased in the test group than in the control group at week 16. Visual assessment using clinical digital images showed that the number of total hairs appeared to increase although there was no statistical significance. In this study, it was found that the test shampoo could prevent hair loss. © 2011 DERMAPRO Co Ltd. ICS © 2011 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  16. Prevention of postmenopausal bone loss - effects of alternative administration forms of estrogens, alternative gestagens and calcium addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riis, B.J.; Christiansen, C.

    1987-02-01

    Calcium metabolism was examined in 133 healthy postmenopausal women every three months during two years of treatment with oral or percutaneous 17..beta..-estradiol combined with different doses of calcium supplementation and/or different gestagens. Bone mineral content measured in the forearm (single photon absorptiometry), in the spine and in the total skeleton (dual photon absorptiometry) was unchanged in all estrogen-treated groups during the two years of treatment, and the responses in the groups with and without calcium supplementation and with different gestagens were not significantly different. Furthermore, the responses were independent of route of administration of the estrogen. Biochemical indices of bone turnover (serum alkaline phosphatase and fasting urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine) decreased highly significantly during estrogen treatment (p<0.001) independent of route of administration of the estrogen, of calcium supplementation, and of gestagen agent. We conclude that estrogen treatment independently of route of administration, prevents postmenopausal bone loss. The gestagen agents used here do not affect calcium metabolism, and calcium supplementation has no additive effect to estrogen therapy.

  17. The bisphosphonate zoledronate prevents vertebral bone loss in mature estrogen-deficient rats as assessed by micro-computed tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glatt M.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of long-term treatment with the bisphosphonate zoledronate on vertebral bone architecture was investigated in estrogen-deficient mature rats. 4-month-old rats were ovariectomized and development of cancellous osteopenia was assessed after 1 year. The change of bone architectural parameters was determined with a microtomographic instrument of high resolution. After 1 year of estrogen-deficiency, animals lost 55% of vertebral trabecular bone in comparison to sham operated control animals. Trabecular number (Tb.N and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th were significantly reduced in ovariectomized animals, whereas trabecular separation (Tb.Sp, bone surface to volume fraction (BS/BV and trabecular bone pattern factor (TBPf were significantly increased, indicating a loss of architectural integrity throughout the vertebral body. 3 groups of animals were treated subcutaneously with zoledronate for 1 year with 0.3, 1.5 and 7.5 microgram/kg/week to inhibit osteoclastic bone degradation. Administration started immediately after ovariectomy and treatment dose-dependently prevented the architectural bone deterioration and completely suppressed the effects of estrogen deficiency at the higher doses. The results show that microtomographic determination of static morphometric parameters can be used to quantitate the effects of drugs on vertebral bone architecture in small laboratory animals and that zoledronate is highly effective in this rat model.

  18. A Role for BLM in Double-Strand Break Repair Pathway Choice: Prevention of CtIP/Mre11-Mediated Alternative Nonhomologous End-Joining

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grabarz, Anastazja; Guirouilh-Barbat, Josée; Barascu, Aurelia

    2013-01-01

    The choice of the appropriate double-strand break (DSB) repair pathway is essential for the maintenance of genomic stability. Here, we show that the Bloom syndrome gene product, BLM, counteracts CtIP/MRE11-dependent long-range deletions (>200 bp) generated by alternative end-joining (A-EJ). BLM...... represses A-EJ in an epistatic manner with 53BP1 and RIF1 and is required for ionizing-radiation-induced 53BP1 focus assembly. Conversely, in the absence of 53BP1 or RIF1, BLM promotes formation of A-EJ long deletions, consistent with a role for BLM in DSB end resection. These data highlight a dual role...... for BLM that influences the DSB repair pathway choice: (1) protection against CtIP/MRE11 long-range deletions associated with A-EJ and (2) promotion of DNA resection. These antagonist roles can be regulated, according to cell-cycle stage, by interacting partners such as 53BP1 and TopIII, to avoid...

  19. Pir51, a Rad51-interacting protein with high expression in aggressive lymphoma, controls mitomycin C sensitivity and prevents chromosomal breaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henson, Sarah E. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Tsai, Shih-Chang [Department of Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Malone, Cindy Sue [Department of Biology, California State University Northridge, Northridge, CA 91330 (United States); Soghomonian, Shahe V. [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Ouyang, Yan [Department of Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Wall, Randolph [Department of Microbiology, Immunology, and Molecular Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Molecular Biology Institute and Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Marahrens, York [Department of Human Genetics, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States) and Molecular Biology Institute and Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)]. E-mail: YMarahrens@mednet.ucla.edu; Teitell, Michael A. [Molecular Biology Institute and Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States) and Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, California NanoSystems Institute, and Institute for Stem Cell Biology and Medicine, University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)]. E-mail: mteitell@ucla.edu

    2006-10-10

    Pir51, a protein of unknown function that interacts with Rad51, was identified in a screen for genes that were highly expressed in aggressive mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) versus indolent small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) patient samples. We show that Pir51 is a nuclear protein expressed in a variety of cell types and that its expression is regulated during the cell cycle in a pattern nearly identical to Rad51. Also similar to Rad51, Pir51 levels did not change in response to a variety of DNA damaging agents. siRNA depletion of Pir51 did not reduce homologous recombination repair (HRR), but sensitized cells to mitomycin C (MMC)-induced DNA crosslinking and resulted in elevated levels of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in metaphase chromosome spreads and reduced colony formation. Therefore, Pir51 maintains genomic integrity and potentially connects the early response to DNA crosslinks, orchestrated by the ATR kinase and Fanconi Anemia (FA) proteins, to later stages of Rad51-dependent repair. Our results provide the first example of a Rad51-binding protein that influences DNA crosslink repair without affecting homologous recombination repair.

  20. Pir51, a Rad51-interacting protein with high expression in aggressive lymphoma, controls mitomycin C sensitivity and prevents chromosomal breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henson, Sarah E.; Tsai, Shih-Chang; Malone, Cindy Sue; Soghomonian, Shahe V.; Ouyang, Yan; Wall, Randolph; Marahrens, York; Teitell, Michael A.

    2006-01-01

    Pir51, a protein of unknown function that interacts with Rad51, was identified in a screen for genes that were highly expressed in aggressive mantle cell lymphoma (MCL) versus indolent small lymphocytic lymphoma (SLL) patient samples. We show that Pir51 is a nuclear protein expressed in a variety of cell types and that its expression is regulated during the cell cycle in a pattern nearly identical to Rad51. Also similar to Rad51, Pir51 levels did not change in response to a variety of DNA damaging agents. siRNA depletion of Pir51 did not reduce homologous recombination repair (HRR), but sensitized cells to mitomycin C (MMC)-induced DNA crosslinking and resulted in elevated levels of double-strand breaks (DSBs) in metaphase chromosome spreads and reduced colony formation. Therefore, Pir51 maintains genomic integrity and potentially connects the early response to DNA crosslinks, orchestrated by the ATR kinase and Fanconi Anemia (FA) proteins, to later stages of Rad51-dependent repair. Our results provide the first example of a Rad51-binding protein that influences DNA crosslink repair without affecting homologous recombination repair

  1. Duality after supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadmi, Yael; Cheng, Hsin-Chia

    1998-05-01

    Starting with two supersymmetric dual theories, we imagine adding a chiral perturbation that breaks supersymmetry dynamically. At low energy we then get two theories with soft supersymmetry-breaking terms that are generated dynamically. With a canonical Kaehler potential, some of the scalars of the ''magnetic'' theory typically have negative mass-squared, and the vector-like symmetry is broken. Since for large supersymmetry breaking the ''electric'' theory becomes ordinary QCD, the two theories are then incompatible. For small supersymmetry breaking, if duality still holds, the magnetic theory analysis implies specific patterns of chiral symmetry breaking in supersymmetric QCD with small soft masses

  2. The transcription fidelity factor GreA impedes DNA break repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Priya; Sepúlveda, Leonardo A; Halliday, Jennifer A; Liu, Jingjing; Núñez, María Angélica Bravo; Golding, Ido; Rosenberg, Susan M; Herman, Christophe

    2017-10-12

    Homologous recombination repairs DNA double-strand breaks and must function even on actively transcribed DNA. Because break repair prevents chromosome loss, the completion of repair is expected to outweigh the transcription of broken templates. However, the interplay between DNA break repair and transcription processivity is unclear. Here we show that the transcription factor GreA inhibits break repair in Escherichia coli. GreA restarts backtracked RNA polymerase and hence promotes transcription fidelity. We report that removal of GreA results in markedly enhanced break repair via the classic RecBCD-RecA pathway. Using a deep-sequencing method to measure chromosomal exonucleolytic degradation, we demonstrate that the absence of GreA limits RecBCD-mediated resection. Our findings suggest that increased RNA polymerase backtracking promotes break repair by instigating RecA loading by RecBCD, without the influence of canonical Chi signals. The idea that backtracked RNA polymerase can stimulate recombination presents a DNA transaction conundrum: a transcription fidelity factor that compromises genomic integrity.

  3. Preventing Loss of Independence through Exercise (PLIÉ): qualitative analysis of a clinical trial in older adults with dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Eveline; Barnes, Deborah E; Ackerman, Sara L; Lee, Jennifer; Chesney, Margaret; Mehling, Wolf E

    2015-01-01

    Preventing Loss of Independence through Exercise (PLIÉ) is a novel, integrative exercise program for individuals with dementia that combines elements of different conventional and complementary exercise modalities (e.g. tai-chi, yoga, Feldenkrais, and dance movement therapy) and focuses on training procedural memory for basic functional movements (e.g., sit-to-stand) while increasing mindful body awareness and facilitating social connection. This study presents analyses of qualitative data collected during a 36-week cross-over pilot clinical trial in 11 individuals. Qualitative data included exercise instructors' written notes, which were prepared after each class and also following biweekly telephone calls with caregivers and monthly home visits; three video-recorded classes; and written summaries prepared by research assistants following pre- and post-intervention quantitative assessments. Data were extracted for each study participant and placed onto a timeline for month of observation. Data were coded and analyzed to identify themes that were confirmed and refined through an iterative, collaborative process by the entire team including a qualitative researcher (SA) and the exercise instructors. Three overarching themes emerged: (1) Functional changes included increasing body awareness, movement memory and functional skill. (2) Emotional changes included greater acceptance of resting, sharing of personal stories and feelings, and positive attitude toward exercise. (3) Social changes included more coherent social interactions and making friends. These qualitative results suggest that the PLIÉ program may be associated with beneficial functional, emotional, and social changes for individuals with mild to moderate dementia. Further study of the PLIÉ program in individuals with dementia is warranted.

  4. Hearing loss prevention education using adopt-a-band: changes in self-reported earplug use in two high school marching bands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auchter, Melissa; Le Prell, Colleen G

    2014-06-01

    Hearing loss prevention has always been an important issue for audiologists. The importance of hearing loss prevention education for young musicians is now recognized by the National Association for Music Education as well as the National Association of Schools of Music. Adopt-a-Band is a commercial program designed to foster hearing loss prevention behavior in young musicians. This study assessed changes in earplug use, measured using self-report surveys, after Adopt-a-Band training. Participants were members of 2 high school marching bands who viewed an informational DVD and reviewed fact sheets. Flat-attenuation earplugs were distributed, and training was provided. In addition, study participants engaged in discussion of hearing loss with a doctor of audiology student. Before training, 23% of participants reported they had previously used hearing protection. Immediately after training, 94% of participants reported they planned to use hearing protection at least occasionally. In a final end-of-season survey, earplug use had reliably increased; 62% of participants reported they used earplugs at least occasionally. Earplug use increased, but self-reported behavioral change was not as robust as predicted from self-reported participant intentions. Participant comments regarding factors that influenced their earplug use decisions suggest opportunities to improve training.

  5. Prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halken, S; Høst, A

    2001-01-01

    , breastfeeding should be encouraged for 4-6 months. In high-risk infants a documented extensively hydrolysed formula is recommended if exclusive breastfeeding is not possible for the first 4 months of life. There is no evidence for preventive dietary intervention neither during pregnancy nor lactation...... populations. These theories remain to be documented in proper, controlled and prospective studies. Breastfeeding and the late introduction of solid foods (>4 months) is associated with a reduced risk of food allergy, atopic dermatitis, and recurrent wheezing and asthma in early childhood. In all infants....... Preventive dietary restrictions after the age of 4-6 months are not scientifically documented....

  6. Case study: Atlantis Systems International - Using KM principles to drive productivity and performance, prevent critical knowledge loss and encourage innovation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melnick, B.

    2007-01-01

    necessarily produce innovation in the form of new products and services or in the continual improvement of work flows. Innovation at this level requires the creation of a knowledge building culture where the explicit goal for everyone in the organization is to continuously build and contribute new knowledge to the benefit of both the individual and the organization. By 2007, Atlantis revenues had grown by over 200%; the workforce increased from 102 employees to approx 210 employees; retention rates have remained consistent at 3% over a three year period, and the business has expanded its operations into the United States. In addition the company successfully leveraged its knowledge and expertise in training from the aerospace sector to enter the nuclear energy sector. The paper will present a conceptual framework for understanding Knowledge Management as it relates to organizational development, change management and innovation. Using concrete examples over a 3 three period, it will describe how knowledge management strategies applied by Atlantis to increase performance and profitability, encourage growth, accelerate innovation, attract and retain key talent, prevent knowledge loss, can be applied to the address the looming 'Grey Out' of the nuclear energy sector. (author)

  7. Iatrogenic hyperthyroidism does not promote weight loss or prevent ageing-related increases in body mass in thyroid cancer survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polotsky, Hanah N; Brokhin, Matvey; Omry, Gal; Polotsky, Alex J; Tuttle, R Michael

    2012-04-01

    otherwise, healthy patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, significant weight gain occurred during the 3-5 years of follow-up despite ongoing thyrotropin suppression. The data suggest that mild iatrogenic hyperthyroidism does not promote weight loss or prevent ageing-related weight gain. Greater weight gain was seen in patients prepared for radioactive remnant ablation with THW than with rhTSH. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  8. Development of technique for estimating primary cooling system break diameter in predicting nuclear emergency event sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatebe, Yasumasa; Yoshida, Yoshitaka

    2012-01-01

    If an emergency event occurs in a nuclear power plant, appropriate action is selected and taken in accordance with the plant status, which changes from time to time, in order to prevent escalation and mitigate the event consequences. It is thus important to predict the event sequence and identify the plant behavior resulting from the action taken. In predicting the event sequence during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), it is necessary to estimate break diameter. The conventional method for this estimation is time-consuming, since it involves multiple sensitivity analyses to determine the break diameter that is consistent with the plant behavior. To speed up the process of predicting the nuclear emergency event sequence, a new break diameter estimation technique that is applicable to pressurized water reactors was developed in this study. This technique enables the estimation of break diameter using the plant data sent from the safety parameter display system (SPDS), with focus on the depressurization rate in the reactor cooling system (RCS) during LOCA. The results of LOCA analysis, performed by varying the break diameter using the MAAP4 and RELAP5/MOD3.2 codes, confirmed that the RCS depressurization rate could be expressed by the log linear function of break diameter, except in the case of a small leak, in which RCS depressurization is affected by the coolant charging system and the high-pressure injection system. A correlation equation for break diameter estimation was developed from this function and tested for accuracy. Testing verified that the correlation equation could estimate break diameter accurately within an error of approximately 16%, even if the leak increases gradually, changing the plant status. (author)

  9. Bubbles and breaking waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, S. A.

    1980-01-01

    The physical processes which control the transfer of gases between the atmosphere and oceans or lakes are poorly understood. Clouds of micro-bubbles have been detected below the surface of Loch Ness when the wind is strong enough to cause the waves to break. The rate of transfer of gas into solution from these bubbles is estimated to be significant if repeated on a global scale. We present here further evidence that the bubbles are caused by breaking waves, and discuss the relationship between the mean frequency of wave breaking at a fixed point and the average distance between breaking waves, as might be estimated from an aerial photograph.

  10. A Theoretical Model for the Prediction of Siphon Breaking Phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Young-In; Seo, Jae-Kwang; Kim, Keung Koo; Yoon, Juhyeon

    2014-01-01

    A siphon phenomenon or siphoning often refers to the movement of liquid from a higher elevation to a lower one through a tube in an inverted U shape (whose top is typically located above the liquid surface) under the action of gravity, and has been used in a variety of reallife applications such as a toilet bowl and a Greedy cup. However, liquid drainage due to siphoning sometimes needs to be prevented. For example, a siphon breaker, which is designed to limit the siphon effect by allowing the gas entrainment into a siphon line, is installed in order to maintain the pool water level above the reactor core when a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) occurs in an open-pool type research reactor. In this paper, we develop a theoretical model to predict the siphon breaking phenomenon. In this paper, a theoretical model to predict the siphon breaking phenomenon is developed. It is shown that the present model predicts well the fundamental features of the siphon breaking phenomenon and undershooting height

  11. A Theoretical Model for the Prediction of Siphon Breaking Phenomenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Young-In; Seo, Jae-Kwang; Kim, Keung Koo; Yoon, Juhyeon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A siphon phenomenon or siphoning often refers to the movement of liquid from a higher elevation to a lower one through a tube in an inverted U shape (whose top is typically located above the liquid surface) under the action of gravity, and has been used in a variety of reallife applications such as a toilet bowl and a Greedy cup. However, liquid drainage due to siphoning sometimes needs to be prevented. For example, a siphon breaker, which is designed to limit the siphon effect by allowing the gas entrainment into a siphon line, is installed in order to maintain the pool water level above the reactor core when a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) occurs in an open-pool type research reactor. In this paper, we develop a theoretical model to predict the siphon breaking phenomenon. In this paper, a theoretical model to predict the siphon breaking phenomenon is developed. It is shown that the present model predicts well the fundamental features of the siphon breaking phenomenon and undershooting height.

  12. Family support is associated with success in achieving weight loss in a group lifestyle intervention for diabetes prevention in Arab Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinelli, Nicole R; Brown, Morton B; Herman, William H; Jaber, Linda A

    2011-01-01

    We have recently shown the feasibility of a community-based, culturally-specific, Diabetes Prevention Program-adapted, goal-oriented group lifestyle intervention targeting weight loss in Arab Americans. The objective of this study was to examine factors associated with weight-loss goal attainment at 24-weeks of the lifestyle intervention. We assessed the relationship among demographic, psychosocial, and behavioral measures and the attainment of > or =7% decrease of initial body weight among 71 lifestyle intervention participants. Weight loss goal of > or = 7% of body weight was achieved by 44% of study participants. Demographic and psychosocial factors were not associated with weight loss. Individuals attaining the weight loss goal were more likely to have family support during the core curriculum sessions (70% vs 30%; P=.0023). Decrease in body weight was positively correlated with attendance at sessions (r=.46; P=.0016) and physical activity minutes (r=.66; Pwomen; these trends were similar but not significant in men. Family support was an important predictor of attainment of the weight loss goal. Family-centered lifestyle interventions are likely to succeed in curtailing the rising epidemic of diabetes in the Arab-American Community.

  13. Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis)

    OpenAIRE

    McGee, Meghan E.; Maki, Aaron J.; Johnson, Steven E.; Lynne Nelson, O.; Robbins, Charles T.; Donahue, Seth W.

    2007-01-01

    Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and subsequently recover it at a faster rate than other animals. ...

  14. A Lifestyle Program of Exercise and Weight Loss is Effective in Preventing and Treating Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: Why Are Programs Not More Available?

    OpenAIRE

    Ades, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    There is substantial evidence that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can be prevented in high-risk individuals by a lifestyle program of regular exercise and weight reduction. Additionally, there is emerging evidence that new onset T2DM (< 1 year) can go into remission after weight loss and exercise in a majority of motivated individuals, obviating a need for glucose lowering medications. Yet, lifestyle programs to support such behavior change are not widely available. Moreover, health care ins...

  15. Short-term, daily exposure to cold temperature may be an efficient way to prevent muscle atrophy and bone loss in a microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Claudia; Wang, Ping; Zhang, Xiangming; Wang, Ya

    2015-04-01

    Microgravity induces less pressure on muscle/bone, which is a major reason for muscle atrophy as well as bone loss. Currently, physical exercise is the only countermeasure used consistently in the U.S. human space program to counteract the microgravity-induced skeletal muscle atrophy and bone loss. However, the routinely almost daily time commitment is significant and represents a potential risk to the accomplishment of other mission operational tasks. Therefore, development of more efficient exercise programs (with less time) to prevent astronauts from muscle atrophy and bone loss are needed. Consider the two types of muscle contraction: exercising forces muscle contraction and prevents microgravity-induced muscle atrophy/bone loss, which is a voluntary response through the motor nervous system; and cold temperature exposure-induced muscle contraction is an involuntary response through the vegetative nervous system, we formed a new hypothesis. The main purpose of this pilot study was to test our hypothesis that exercise at 4 °C is more efficient than at room temperature to prevent microgravity-induced muscle atrophy/bone loss and, consequently reduces physical exercise time. Twenty mice were divided into two groups with or without daily short-term (10 min × 2, at 12 h interval) cold temperature (4 °C) exposure for 30 days. The whole bodyweight, muscle strength and bone density were measured after terminating the experiments. The results from the one-month pilot study support our hypothesis and suggest that it would be reasonable to use more mice, in a microgravity environment and observe for a longer period to obtain a conclusion. We believe that the results from such a study will help to develop efficient exercise, which will finally benefit astronauts' heath and NASA's missions.

  16. 'BREAKS' Protocol for Breaking Bad News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Vijayakumar; Bista, Bibek; Koshy, Cheriyan

    2010-05-01

    Information that drastically alters the life world of the patient is termed as bad news. Conveying bad news is a skilled communication, and not at all easy. The amount of truth to be disclosed is subjective. A properly structured and well-orchestrated communication has a positive therapeutic effect. This is a process of negotiation between patient and physician, but physicians often find it difficult due to many reasons. They feel incompetent and are afraid of unleashing a negative reaction from the patient or their relatives. The physician is reminded of his or her own vulnerability to terminal illness, and find themselves powerless over emotional distress. Lack of sufficient training in breaking bad news is a handicap to most physicians and health care workers. Adherence to the principles of client-centered counseling is helpful in attaining this skill. Fundamental insight of the patient is exploited and the bad news is delivered in a structured manner, because the patient is the one who knows what is hurting him most and he is the one who knows how to move forward. Six-step SPIKES protocol is widely used for breaking bad news. In this paper, we put forward another six-step protocol, the BREAKS protocol as a systematic and easy communication strategy for breaking bad news. Development of competence in dealing with difficult situations has positive therapeutic outcome and is a professionally satisfying one.

  17. miRNA-431 Prevents Amyloid-β-Induced Synapse Loss in Neuronal Cell Culture Model of Alzheimer's Disease by Silencing Kremen1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Sean P; Baker, Kelly E; Fisher, Amanda; Hoff, Lee; Pak, Elena S; Murashov, Alexander K

    2018-01-01

    Synapse loss is well regarded as the underlying cause for the progressive decline of memory function over the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD) development. Recent observations suggest that the accumulation of the Wnt antagonist Dickkopf-1 (Dkk1) in the AD brain plays a critical role in triggering synaptic degeneration. Mechanistically, Dkk1 cooperates with Kremen1 (Krm1), its transmembrane receptor, to block the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. Here, we show that silencing Krm1 with miR-431 prevents amyloid-β-mediated synapse loss in cortico-hippocampal cultures isolated from triple transgenic 3xTg-AD mice. Exposure to AβDDL (an amyloid-β derived diffusive ligand) or Dkk1 reduced the number of pre- and post-synaptic puncta in primary neuronal cultures, while treatment with miR-431 prevented synapse loss. In addition, treatment with miR-431 also prevented neurite degeneration. Our findings demonstrate that miR-431 protects synapses and neurites from Aβ-toxicity in an AD cell culture model and may be a promising therapeutic target.

  18. GLP-1 receptor agonist treatment increases bone formation and prevents bone loss in weight-reduced obese women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iepsen, Eva Pers Winning; Lundgren, Julie Rehné; Hartmann, Bolette

    2015-01-01

    with or without administration of the GLP-1 RA liraglutide (1.2mg/day) for 52 weeks. In case of weight gain, up to two meals per day could be substituted with a low-calorie diet product in order to maintain the weight loss. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Total, pelvic and arm-leg bone mineral content (BMC) and bone...... markers (CTX-1 and P1NP) were investigated before, after weight loss and after 52 weeks weight maintenance. Primary end points: Change in BMC and bone markers after 52 weeks weight maintenance with or without GLP-1 RA treatment. RESULTS: Total, pelvic and arm-leg BMC decreased during weight maintenance...... in the control group (ptotal and arm-leg BMC loss was 4 times greater in the control group compared to the liraglutide group (estimated difference 27g (95% CI 5-48), p=0.01), although the 12% weight loss was maintained in both groups...

  19. Defilade, Stationary Target and Moving Target Embankment, Low Water Crossing, and Course Road Designs for Soil Loss Prevention

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Svendsen, Niels G; Kalita, Prasanta K; Gebhart, Dick L; Denight, Michael L

    2006-01-01

    ... for military training requirements. This report proposes several new range structure designs to begin the iterative process of developing new range edifices that reduce soil loss, control erosion, promote sustainability, and enhance training...

  20. Gauge symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, S.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of how gauge symmetries of the weak interactions get broken is discussed. Some reasons why such a heirarchy of gauge symmetry breaking is needed, the reason gauge heirarchies do not seem to arise in theories of a given and related type, and the implications of theories with dynamical symmetry breaking, which can exhibit a gauge hierarchy

  1. Dynamical supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affleck, I.

    1985-03-01

    Supersymmetry, and in particular, dynamical supersymmetry breaking, offers the hope of a natural solution of the gauge hierarchy problem in grand unification. I briefly review recent work on dynamical supersymmetry breaking in four-dimensional Higgs theories and its application to grand unified model building

  2. Tensor tenopexy: a clinical study to assess its effectiveness in improving Eustachian tube function and preventing hearing loss in patients with cleft palate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Raja; Sharma, Ramesh K; Panda, Naresh K; Munjal, Sanjay; Makkar, Surinder

    2013-09-01

    There is a consensus about the occurrence of otitis media in children with cleft palate before repair. However, controversy continues regarding the recovery of Eustachian tube function and level of hearing loss in the patients after cleft palate repair. Levator sling palatoplasty is an important component of the cleft repair. Most surgeons would routinely transect the tensor tendon (tensor tenotomy) during the course of palatoplasty. However, this procedure may pose a risk to Eustachian tube function. Some authorities feel that addition of tensor tenopexy during palatoplasty would maintain the Eustachian tube in an open conformation, thereby improving middle ear ventilation. The present study assesses the effectiveness of tensor tenopexy in improving Eustachian tube function and preventing hearing loss in cleft palate patients treated with palatoplasty. A prospective randomised controlled trial was conducted in the Department of Plastic Surgery at a tertiary care institute in India. A total of 17 children in the age group of 9-24 months were assigned to one of two groups: palatoplasty with either tensor tenotomy (n = 8) or tensor tenotomy with tensor tenopexy (n = 9). All patients were subjected to tympanometry, otoscopy and brainstem evoked response audiometry before surgery and at 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after surgery. Of these, 52.9% of patients already had hearing loss at the time of presentation. Hearing loss and middle ear effusion persisted even after palatoplasty. There was no significant difference in hearing loss and middle ear effusion between the two groups of patients. Thus, tensor tenopexy was not found to be helpful in maintaining Eustachian tube function or preventing hearing loss in cleft palate patients. However, further long-term studies are needed to confirm this study. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Importance of weight loss maintenance and risk prediction in the prevention of type 2 Diabetes: analysis of European Diabetes Prevention Study RCT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Penn, L.; White, M.; Lindström, J.; Boer, den A.Th.; Blaak, E.E.; Eriksson, J.G.; Feskens, E.J.M.; Ilanne-Parikka, P.; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, S.M.; Walker, M.; Mathers, J.C.; Uusitupa, M.; Tuomilehto, J.

    2013-01-01

    Background Prevalence of type 2 diabetes (T2D) is increasing worldwide. T2D prevention by lifestyle intervention is effective. Pragmatic scalable interventions are needed, with evidence to efficiently target and monitor such interventions. We report pooled analyses of data from three European trial

  4. Consistency of Trend Break Point Estimator with Underspecified Break Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the consistency of trend break point estimators when the number of breaks is underspecified. The consistency of break point estimators in a simple location model with level shifts has been well documented by researchers under various settings, including extensions such as allowing a time trend in the model. Despite the consistency of break point estimators of level shifts, there are few papers on the consistency of trend shift break point estimators in the presence of an underspecified break number. The simulation study and asymptotic analysis in this paper show that the trend shift break point estimator does not converge to the true break points when the break number is underspecified. In the case of two trend shifts, the inconsistency problem worsens if the magnitudes of the breaks are similar and the breaks are either both positive or both negative. The limiting distribution for the trend break point estimator is developed and closely approximates the finite sample performance.

  5. Genetic Predisposition to Weight Loss and Regain With Lifestyle Intervention: Analyses From the Diabetes Prevention Program and the Look AHEAD Randomized Controlled Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papandonatos, George D; Pan, Qing; Pajewski, Nicholas M; Delahanty, Linda M; Peter, Inga; Erar, Bahar; Ahmad, Shafqat; Harden, Maegan; Chen, Ling; Fontanillas, Pierre; Wagenknecht, Lynne E; Kahn, Steven E; Wing, Rena R; Jablonski, Kathleen A; Huggins, Gordon S; Knowler, William C; Florez, Jose C; McCaffery, Jeanne M; Franks, Paul W

    2015-12-01

    Clinically relevant weight loss is achievable through lifestyle modification, but unintentional weight regain is common. We investigated whether recently discovered genetic variants affect weight loss and/or weight regain during behavioral intervention. Participants at high-risk of type 2 diabetes (Diabetes Prevention Program [DPP]; N = 917/907 intervention/comparison) or with type 2 diabetes (Look AHEAD [Action for Health in Diabetes]; N = 2,014/1,892 intervention/comparison) were from two parallel arm (lifestyle vs. comparison) randomized controlled trials. The associations of 91 established obesity-predisposing loci with weight loss across 4 years and with weight regain across years 2-4 after a minimum of 3% weight loss were tested. Each copy of the minor G allele of MTIF3 rs1885988 was consistently associated with greater weight loss following lifestyle intervention over 4 years across the DPP and Look AHEAD. No such effect was observed across comparison arms, leading to a nominally significant single nucleotide polymorphism×treatment interaction (P = 4.3 × 10(-3)). However, this effect was not significant at a study-wise significance level (Bonferroni threshold P lifestyle. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  6. Using the extended parallel process model to prevent noise-induced hearing loss among coal miners in Appalachia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murray-Johnson, L.; Witte, K.; Patel, D.; Orrego, V.; Zuckerman, C.; Maxfield, A.M.; Thimons, E.D. [Ohio State University, Columbus, OH (US)

    2004-12-15

    Occupational noise-induced hearing loss is the second most self-reported occupational illness or injury in the United States. Among coal miners, more than 90% of the population reports a hearing deficit by age 55. In this formative evaluation, focus groups were conducted with coal miners in Appalachia to ascertain whether miners perceive hearing loss as a major health risk and if so, what would motivate the consistent wearing of hearing protection devices (HPDs). The theoretical framework of the Extended Parallel Process Model was used to identify the miners' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs, and current behaviors regarding hearing protection. Focus group participants had strong perceived severity and varying levels of perceived susceptibility to hearing loss. Various barriers significantly reduced the self-efficacy and the response efficacy of using hearing protection.

  7. Contribution of single-strand breaks and alkali-labile bonds to the loss of infectivity of γ-irradiated phiX174 RF-DNA in E. coli cells mutant in various repair functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKee, R.H.

    1975-01-01

    Twenty-one radiation sensitive mutants have been examined for their capacity to support gamma-irradiated phiX174 RF-DNA. The survival of phiX174 RF-DNA was reduced in essentially all of the sensitive mutants. The irradiated phiX174 RF-DNA was then separated into populations containing either single-strand breaks or alkali-labile bonds to examine the capacity of the mutants to repair each of the classes of lesions. It was found that all E. coli strains are unable to repair 22 percent of the single-strand breaks and all sensitive mutants are unable to repair an additional 10 percent of the breaks. All the repair functions examined are involved in single-strand break repair and none are more or less necessary than any of the others. PhiX174 RF-DNA is also inactivated by alkali-labile bonds. In the normal strains the inactivation efficiency is 0.16 lethal events per lesion with a threshold dose of 15 to 20 krads. The mutants are divided into two classes by their sensitivity to alkali-labile bonds. Both classes of mutants are also inactivated by alkali-labile bonds with efficiencies of about 0.17 and 0.29 lethal events per lesion, respectively. It is proposed that the differences seen in survival curves of phiX174 measured in the sensitive mutants is due to this difference. Although in normal cells the efficiency of inactivation of phiX174 by single-strand breaks is 50 percent greater than by alkali-labile bonds, alkali-labile bonds are produced at approximately twice the rate of single-strand breaks so alkali-labile bonds account for about 61 percent of the overall inactivation. In the mutants of least sensitivity alkali-labile bonds account for about 54 percent of the inactivating events and in the most sensitive about 67 percent

  8. Prevention of bone loss by vitamin D supplementation in elderly women : A randomized double-blind trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ooms, Marcel E.; Roos, Jan C.; Bezemer, P. Dick; van der Vijgh, Wim J F; Bouter, Lex M.; Lips, Paul

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of vitamin D supplementation on bone turnover and bone loss in elderly women. Three hundred forty-eight women, ages 70 yr and older, were randomized to receive 400 IU vitamin D3 per day (n = 177) or placebo (n = 171), double-blind, for a period of

  9. Sustained Dorzolamide Release Prevents Axonal and Retinal Ganglion Cell Loss in a Rat Model of IOP-Glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitha, Ian; Kimball, Elizabeth C; Oglesby, Ericka N; Pease, Mary Ellen; Fu, Jie; Schaub, Julie; Kim, Yoo-Chun; Hu, Qi; Hanes, Justin; Quigley, Harry A

    2018-04-01

    To determine if one injection of a sustained release formulation of dorzolamide in biodegradable microparticles (DPP) reduces retinal ganglion cell (RGC) loss in a rat model of glaucoma. We injected either DPP or control microparticles intravitreally in rats. Two days later, unilateral ocular hypertension was induced by translimbal, diode laser treatment by a surgeon masked to treatment group. IOP and clinical exams were performed until sacrifice 6 weeks after laser treatment. RGC loss was measured by masked observers in both optic nerve cross-sections and RGC layer counts from retinal whole mounts. Cumulative IOP exposure was significantly reduced by DPP injection (49 ± 48 mm Hg × days in treated versus 227 ± 191 mm Hg × days in control microparticle eyes; P = 0.012, t -test). While control-injected eyes increased in axial length by 2.4 ± 1.7%, DPP eyes did not significantly enlarge (0.3 ± 2.2%, difference from control, P = 0.03, t -test). RGC loss was significantly less in DPP eyes compared with control microparticle injection alone (RGC axon count reduction: 21% vs. 52%; RGC body reduction: 25% vs. 50% [beta tubulin labeling]; P = 0.02, t -test). A single injection of sustained release DPP protected against RGC loss and axial elongation in a rat model of IOP glaucoma. Sustained release IOP-lowering medications have the potential to stop glaucoma progression.

  10. Implant-supported overdentures, a prevention of bone loss in edentulous mandibles? A 5-year follow-up study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Wowern, N; Gotfredsen, K

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study were to analyse 1) the changes in the bone mineral content (BMC) in mandibles with implant-supported overdentures when compared with the physiologic age-related mandibular BMC loss, 2) whether the BMC changes were different in groups without or with a bar connecting...

  11. Dosage Effects of a Preventive Social-Emotional Learning Intervention on Achievement Loss Associated with Middle School Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenblatt, Jennifer L.; Elias, Maurice J.

    2008-01-01

    A number of studies have documented a normative decline in academic achievement across the transition from elementary school to middle or junior high school. The current study examined the effectiveness of varying levels of a social-emotional learning intervention, "Talking with TJ," in limiting achievement loss across transition. Data were…

  12. Breaking Tolerance to Thyroid Antigens: Changing Concepts in Thyroid Autoimmunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Basil

    2014-01-01

    Thyroid autoimmunity involves loss of tolerance to thyroid proteins in genetically susceptible individuals in association with environmental factors. In central tolerance, intrathymic autoantigen presentation deletes immature T cells with high affinity for autoantigen-derived peptides. Regulatory T cells provide an alternative mechanism to silence autoimmune T cells in the periphery. The TSH receptor (TSHR), thyroid peroxidase (TPO), and thyroglobulin (Tg) have unusual properties (“immunogenicity”) that contribute to breaking tolerance, including size, abundance, membrane association, glycosylation, and polymorphisms. Insight into loss of tolerance to thyroid proteins comes from spontaneous and induced animal models: 1) intrathymic expression controls self-tolerance to the TSHR, not TPO or Tg; 2) regulatory T cells are not involved in TSHR self-tolerance and instead control the balance between Graves' disease and thyroiditis; 3) breaking TSHR tolerance involves contributions from major histocompatibility complex molecules (humans and induced mouse models), TSHR polymorphism(s) (humans), and alternative splicing (mice); 4) loss of tolerance to Tg before TPO indicates that greater Tg immunogenicity vs TPO dominates central tolerance expectations; 5) tolerance is induced by thyroid autoantigen administration before autoimmunity is established; 6) interferon-α therapy for hepatitis C infection enhances thyroid autoimmunity in patients with intact immunity; Graves' disease developing after T-cell depletion reflects reconstitution autoimmunity; and 7) most environmental factors (including excess iodine) “reveal,” but do not induce, thyroid autoimmunity. Micro-organisms likely exert their effects via bystander stimulation. Finally, no single mechanism explains the loss of tolerance to thyroid proteins. The goal of inducing self-tolerance to prevent autoimmune thyroid disease will require accurate prediction of at-risk individuals together with an antigen

  13. Prevention of Paclitaxel-induced allodynia by Minocycline: Effect on loss of peripheral nerve fibers and infiltration of macrophages in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wen-Jun

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although paclitaxel is a frontline antineoplastic agent for treatment of solid tumors, the paclitaxel-evoked pain syndrome is a serious problem for patients. There is currently no valid drug to prevent or treat the paclitaxel-induced allodynia, partly due to lack of understanding regarding the cellular mechanism. Studies have shown that minocycline, an inhibitor of microglia/macrophage, prevented neuropathic pain and promoted neuronal survival in animal models of neurodegenerative disease. Recently, Cata et al also reported that minocycline inhibited allodynia induced by low-dose paclitaxel (2 mg/kg in rats, but the mechanism is still unclear. Results Here, we investigate by immunohistochemistry the change of intraepidermal nerve fiber (IENF in the hind paw glabrous skin, expression of macrophage and activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3 in DRG at different time points after moderate-dose paclitaxel treatment (cumulative dose 24 mg/kg; 3 × 8 mg/kg in rats. Moreover, we observe the effect of minocycline on the IENF, macrophages and ATF3. The results showed that moderate-dose paclitaxel induced a persisted, gradual mechanical allodynia, which was accompanied by the loss of IENF in the hind paw glabrous skin and up-regulation of macrophages and ATF3 in DRG in rats. The expressions of ATF3 mainly focus on the NF200-positive cells. More importantly, we observed that pretreatment of minocycline at dose of 30 mg/kg or 50 mg/kg, but not 5 mg/kg, prevented paclitaxel-evoked allodynia. The evidence from immunohistochemistry showed that 30 mg/kg minocycline rescued the degeneration of IENF, attenuated infiltration of macrophages and up-regulation of ATF3 induced by paclitaxel treatment in rats. Conclusions Minocycline prevents paclitaxel-evoked allodynia, likely due to its inhibition on loss of IENF, infiltration of macrophages and up-regulation of ATF3 in rats. The finding might provide potential target for preventing paclitaxel

  14. Decreased bone turnover with balanced resorption and formation prevent cortical bone loss during disuse (hibernation) in grizzly bears (Ursus arctos horribilis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGee, Meghan E; Maki, Aaron J; Johnson, Steven E; Nelson, O Lynne; Robbins, Charles T; Donahue, Seth W

    2008-02-01

    Disuse uncouples bone formation from resorption, leading to increased porosity, decreased bone geometrical properties, and decreased bone mineral content which compromises bone mechanical properties and increases fracture risk. However, black bear bone properties are not adversely affected by aging despite annual periods of disuse (i.e., hibernation), which suggests that bears either prevent bone loss during disuse or lose bone and subsequently recover it at a faster rate than other animals. Here we show decreased cortical bone turnover during hibernation with balanced formation and resorption in grizzly bear femurs. Hibernating grizzly bear femurs were less porous and more mineralized, and did not demonstrate any changes in cortical bone geometry or whole bone mechanical properties compared to active grizzly bear femurs. The activation frequency of intracortical remodeling was 75% lower during hibernation than during periods of physical activity, but the normalized mineral apposition rate was unchanged. These data indicate that bone turnover decreases during hibernation, but osteons continue to refill at normal rates. There were no changes in regional variation of porosity, geometry, or remodeling indices in femurs from hibernating bears, indicating that hibernation did not preferentially affect one region of the cortex. Thus, grizzly bears prevent bone loss during disuse by decreasing bone turnover and maintaining balanced formation and resorption, which preserves bone structure and strength. These results support the idea that bears possess a biological mechanism to prevent disuse osteoporosis.

  15. Short-term blueberry-enriched antioxidant diet prevents and reverses object recognition memory loss in aged rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective Previously, four months of a blueberry-enriched (BB) antioxidant diet prevented impaired object recognition memory in aged rats. Experiment 1 determined whether one and two-month BB diets would have a similar effect and whether the benefits would disappear promptly after terminating the d...

  16. Supersymmetry breaking from superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, M.K.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA; California Univ., Berkeley

    1990-01-01

    The gauge hierarchy problem is briefly reviewed and a class of effective field theories obtained from superstrings is described. These are characterized by a clasical symmetry, related to the space-time duality of string theory, that is responsible for the suppression of observable supersymmetry breaking effects. At the quantum level, the symmetry is broken by anomalies that provide the seed of observable supersymmetry breaking, and an acceptably large gauge hierarchy may be generated

  17. Supersymmetry breaking from superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1990-05-01

    The gauge hierarchy problem is briefly reviewed and a class of effective field theories obtained from superstrings is described. These are characterized by a classical symmetry, related to the space-time duality of string theory, that is responsible for the suppression of observable supersymmetry breaking effects. At the quantum level, the symmetry is broken by anomalies that provide the seed of observable supersymmetry breaking, and an acceptably large gauge hierarchy may be generated. 26 refs

  18. The perilipin homologue, lipid storage droplet 2, regulates sleep homeostasis and prevents learning impairments following sleep loss.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew S Thimgan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Extended periods of waking result in physiological impairments in humans, rats, and flies. Sleep homeostasis, the increase in sleep observed following sleep loss, is believed to counter the negative effects of prolonged waking by restoring vital biological processes that are degraded during sleep deprivation. Sleep homeostasis, as with other behaviors, is influenced by both genes and environment. We report here that during periods of starvation, flies remain spontaneously awake but, in contrast to sleep deprivation, do not accrue any of the negative consequences of prolonged waking. Specifically, the homeostatic response and learning impairments that are a characteristic of sleep loss are not observed following prolonged waking induced by starvation. Recently, two genes, brummer (bmm and Lipid storage droplet 2 (Lsd2, have been shown to modulate the response to starvation. bmm mutants have excess fat and are resistant to starvation, whereas Lsd2 mutants are lean and sensitive to starvation. Thus, we hypothesized that bmm and Lsd2 may play a role in sleep regulation. Indeed, bmm mutant flies display a large homeostatic response following sleep deprivation. In contrast, Lsd2 mutant flies, which phenocopy aspects of starvation as measured by low triglyceride stores, do not exhibit a homeostatic response following sleep loss. Importantly, Lsd2 mutant flies are not learning impaired after sleep deprivation. These results provide the first genetic evidence, to our knowledge, that lipid metabolism plays an important role in regulating the homeostatic response and can protect against neuronal impairments induced by prolonged waking.

  19. Loss of microRNA-22 prevents high-fat diet induced dyslipidemia and increases energy expenditure without affecting cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Gabriela Placoná; Huang, Zhan-Peng; Liu, Jianming; Chen, Jinghai; Ding, Jian; Fonseca, Renata Inzinna; Barreto-Chaves, Maria Luiza; Donato, Jose; Hu, Xiaoyun; Wang, Da-Zhi

    2017-12-15

    Obesity is associated with development of diverse diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and dyslipidemia. MiRNA-22 (miR-22) is a critical regulator of cardiac function and targets genes involved in metabolic processes. Previously, we generated miR-22 null mice and we showed that loss of miR-22 blunted cardiac hypertrophy induced by mechanohormornal stress. In the present study, we examined the role of miR-22 in the cardiac and metabolic alterations promoted by high-fat (HF) diet. We found that loss of miR-22 attenuated the gain of fat mass and prevented dyslipidemia induced by HF diet, although the body weight gain, or glucose intolerance and insulin resistance did not seem to be affected. Mechanistically, loss of miR-22 attenuated the increased expression of genes involved in lipogenesis and inflammation mediated by HF diet. Similarly, we found that miR-22 mediates metabolic alterations and inflammation induced by obesity in the liver. However, loss of miR-22 did not appear to alter HF diet induced cardiac hypertrophy or fibrosis in the heart. Our study therefore establishes miR-22 as an important regulator of dyslipidemia and suggests it may serve as a potential candidate in the treatment of dyslipidemia associated with obesity. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  20. High-frequency, low-magnitude vibration does not prevent bone loss resulting from muscle disuse in mice following botulinum toxin injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manske, Sarah L; Good, Craig A; Zernicke, Ronald F; Boyd, Steven K

    2012-01-01

    High-frequency, low-magnitude vibration enhances bone formation ostensibly by mimicking normal postural muscle activity. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether daily exposure to low-magnitude vibration (VIB) would maintain bone in a muscle disuse model with botulinum toxin type A (BTX). Female 16-18 wk old BALB/c mice (N = 36) were assigned to BTX-VIB, BTX-SHAM, VIB, or SHAM. BTX mice were injected with BTX (20 µL; 1 U/100 g body mass) into the left hindlimb posterior musculature. All mice were anaesthetized for 20 min/d, 5 d/wk, for 3 wk, and the left leg mounted to a holder. Through the holder, VIB mice received 45 Hz, ± 0.6 g sinusoidal acceleration without weight bearing. SHAM mice received no vibration. At baseline and 3 wk, muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA) and tibial bone properties (epiphysis, metaphysis and diaphysis) were assessed by in vivo micro-CT. Bone volume fraction in the metaphysis decreased 12 ± 9% and 7 ± 6% in BTX-VIB and BTX-SHAM, but increased in the VIB and SHAM. There were no differences in dynamic histomorphometry outcomes between BTX-VIB and BTX nor between VIB and SHAM. Thus, vibration did not prevent bone loss induced by a rapid decline in muscle activity nor produce an anabolic effect in normal mice. The daily loading duration was shorter than would be expected from postural muscle activity, and may have been insufficient to prevent bone loss. Based on the approach used in this study, vibration does not prevent bone loss in the absence of muscle activity induced by BTX.

  1. High-frequency, low-magnitude vibration does not prevent bone loss resulting from muscle disuse in mice following botulinum toxin injection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah L Manske

    Full Text Available High-frequency, low-magnitude vibration enhances bone formation ostensibly by mimicking normal postural muscle activity. We tested this hypothesis by examining whether daily exposure to low-magnitude vibration (VIB would maintain bone in a muscle disuse model with botulinum toxin type A (BTX. Female 16-18 wk old BALB/c mice (N = 36 were assigned to BTX-VIB, BTX-SHAM, VIB, or SHAM. BTX mice were injected with BTX (20 µL; 1 U/100 g body mass into the left hindlimb posterior musculature. All mice were anaesthetized for 20 min/d, 5 d/wk, for 3 wk, and the left leg mounted to a holder. Through the holder, VIB mice received 45 Hz, ± 0.6 g sinusoidal acceleration without weight bearing. SHAM mice received no vibration. At baseline and 3 wk, muscle cross-sectional area (MCSA and tibial bone properties (epiphysis, metaphysis and diaphysis were assessed by in vivo micro-CT. Bone volume fraction in the metaphysis decreased 12 ± 9% and 7 ± 6% in BTX-VIB and BTX-SHAM, but increased in the VIB and SHAM. There were no differences in dynamic histomorphometry outcomes between BTX-VIB and BTX nor between VIB and SHAM. Thus, vibration did not prevent bone loss induced by a rapid decline in muscle activity nor produce an anabolic effect in normal mice. The daily loading duration was shorter than would be expected from postural muscle activity, and may have been insufficient to prevent bone loss. Based on the approach used in this study, vibration does not prevent bone loss in the absence of muscle activity induced by BTX.

  2. The Efficacy of Supportive Peri-Implant Therapies in Preventing Peri-Implantitis and Implant Loss: a Systematic Review of the Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ausra Ramanauskaite

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the efficacy of supportive peri-implant therapies in preventing clinical and radiological signs of peri-implantitis and implant loss. Material and Methods: Longitudinal human studies, published between January 1, 2006, and February 1, 2016, were included based on an electronic search using MEDLINE and EMBASE databases and complemented by a manual search. Articles were included only if 1 they comprised a group of patients involved in/adhering to regular supportive peri-implant therapies (SPTs and a control group without such therapies or with poor adherence to them, 2 the protocol of the SPTs was clearly described and 3 the outcome was indicated by means of clinical/radiological changes or implant loss. Results: After initially identifying a total of 710 titles and abstracts, 12 full text articles were selected for eligibility assessment. Seven studies, three prospective and four retrospective, fulfilled the inclusion criteria for this review. The frequency of recall visits varied between the studies from a minimum of one visit every three months to an individually tailored regimen. In all the studies a lack of SPTs or poor adherence to them resulted in significantly higher frequencies of sites with mucosal bleeding, deepened peri-implant pockets or alveolar bone loss. In line with the above, a lack of/poor adherence to SPTs was associated with higher implant loss. Conclusions: To prevent peri-implantitis, an individually tailored supportive programme based on patient motivation and re-instruction in oral hygiene measures combined with professional implant cleaning seem to be crucial.

  3. Effect of self-efficacy on weight loss: a psychosocial analysis of a community-based adaptation of the diabetes prevention program lifestyle intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Laura M; Finch, Emily A; Saha, Chandan; Marrero, David G; Ackermann, Ronald T

    2014-11-01

    Objective. Weight loss is the most effective approach to reducing diabetes risk. It is a research priority to identify factors that may enhance weight loss success, particularly among those at risk for diabetes. This analysis explored the relationships between self-efficacy, weight loss, and dietary fat intake among adults at risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Methods. This pilot, site-randomized trial was designed to compare group-based Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle intervention delivery by YMCA staff to brief counseling alone (control) in 92 adults at risk for diabetes (BMI ≥ 24 kg/m(2), ≥ 2 diabetes risk factors, and a random capillary blood glucose of 110-199 mg/dl). Self-efficacy was measured using the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle questionnaire. Data were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. A paired t test was used to determine within-group changes in self-efficacy and weight at 6 and 12 months. Using a fitted model, we estimated how much of an increase in self-efficacy was related to a 5% weight reduction at 6 and 12 months. Results. Self-efficacy was associated with a 5% reduction in baseline weight at 6 and 12 months but was not related to fat intake. Conclusion. These findings suggest that it is important to assess the level of self-efficacy when counseling adults at high risk for diabetes about weight loss. Certain aspects of self-efficacy seem to play a greater role, depending on the stage of weight loss.

  4. Inhibition of bone resorption in vitro and prevention of ovariectomy-induced bone loss in vivo by flurbiprofen nitroxybutylester (HCT1026).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armour, K J; van 't Hof, R J; Armour, K E; Torbergsen, A C; Del Soldato, P; Ralston, S H

    2001-09-01

    Inhibitors of prostaglandin production, such as nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), and pharmacologic nitric oxide (NO) donors, such as organic nitrates, have been suggested to protect against bone loss in both humans and experimental animals. Recently, a new class of nitrosylated NSAID (known as NO-NSAIDs) has been developed, which combines the properties of a NO donor with those of a cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitor. This study investigated the effects of one of these compounds, flurbiprofen nitroxybutylester (HCT1026), on bone metabolism in vitro and in vivo. The effects of HCT1026 on osteoclast formation and resorption were determined in vitro using cocultures of primary mouse osteoblasts and osteoclasts. The effect of HCT1026 in vivo was assessed using a mouse model of ovariectomy-induced bone loss. HCT1026 was significantly more efficacious than the parent compound, flurbiprofen, at inhibiting osteoclast formation and bone resorption in vitro, and these effects could not be reproduced by combinations of flurbiprofen with a variety of NO donors. Studies in vivo showed that HCT1026 protected against ovariectomy-induced bone loss by inhibiting osteoclastic bone resorption, whereas flurbiprofen at similar concentrations was ineffective. These data indicate that HCT1026 is a potent inhibitor of bone resorption in vitro and protects against ovariectomy-induced bone loss in vivo by a novel mechanism that appears to be distinct from its NO donor properties and from its inhibitory effects on COX activity. We conclude that HCT1026 may be of clinical value in the prevention and treatment of inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, which are characterized by joint inflammation as well as periarticular and systemic bone loss.

  5. Effect of Self-Efficacy on Weight Loss: A Psychosocial Analysis of a Community-Based Adaptation of the Diabetes Prevention Program Lifestyle Intervention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, Emily A.; Saha, Chandan; Marrero, David G.; Ackermann, Ronald T.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective. Weight loss is the most effective approach to reducing diabetes risk. It is a research priority to identify factors that may enhance weight loss success, particularly among those at risk for diabetes. This analysis explored the relationships between self-efficacy, weight loss, and dietary fat intake among adults at risk for developing type 2 diabetes. Methods. This pilot, site-randomized trial was designed to compare group-based Diabetes Prevention Program lifestyle intervention delivery by YMCA staff to brief counseling alone (control) in 92 adults at risk for diabetes (BMI ≥ 24 kg/m2, ≥ 2 diabetes risk factors, and a random capillary blood glucose of 110–199 mg/dl). Self-efficacy was measured using the Weight Efficacy Lifestyle questionnaire. Data were collected at baseline, 6 months, and 12 months. A paired t test was used to determine within-group changes in self-efficacy and weight at 6 and 12 months. Using a fitted model, we estimated how much of an increase in self-efficacy was related to a 5% weight reduction at 6 and 12 months. Results. Self-efficacy was associated with a 5% reduction in baseline weight at 6 and 12 months but was not related to fat intake. Conclusion. These findings suggest that it is important to assess the level of self-efficacy when counseling adults at high risk for diabetes about weight loss. Certain aspects of self-efficacy seem to play a greater role, depending on the stage of weight loss. PMID:25647049

  6. ICAP [International Code Assessment and Applications Program] assessment of RELAP5/MOD2, Cycle 36.05 against LOFT [Loss of Fluid Test] Small Break Experiment L3-7

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Euy-Joon; Chung, Bud-Dong; Kim, Hho-Jung

    1990-04-01

    The LOFT small break (1 in-dia) experiment L3-7 has been analyzed using the reactor thermal hydraulic analysis code RELAP5/MOD2, Cycle 36.05. The base calculation (Case A) was completed and compared with the experimental data. Three types of sensitivity studies (Cases B, Cm, and D) were carried out to investigate the effects of (1) break discharge coefficient Cd, (2) pump two-phase difference multiplier and (3) High Pressure Injection System (HPIS) capacity on major thermal and hydraulic (T/H) parameters. A nodalization study (Case E) was conducted to assess the phenomena with a simplified nodalization. The results indicate that Cd of 0.9 and 0.1 fit to the single discharge flow rate of Test L3-7 best among the tried cases. The pump two-phase multiplier has little effects on the T/H parameters because of the low discharge flow rate and the early pump coast down in this smaller size SBLOCA. But HPIS capacity has a very strong influence on parameters such as pressure, flow and temperature. It is also shown that a simplified nodalization could accomodate the dominant T/H phenomena with the same degree of code accuracy and efficiency

  7. Comparison of three different methods to prevent heat loss in healthy dogs undergoing 90 minutes of general anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark-Price, Stuart C; Dossin, Olivier; Jones, Katherine R; Otto, Angela N; Weng, Hsin-Yi

    2013-05-01

    To compare a towel under, a warm water pad under or a forced warm air blanket over dogs as techniques to reduce heat loss during a standardized anesthetic. Prospective, randomized, crossover study. Eight, healthy, mixed breed dogs weighing 16.3-19.6 kg. Dogs were anesthetized four times for 90 minutes. Dogs were placed on a steel table (treatment TA), with a cotton towel (treatment TO) or a circulating warm water pad (treatment WP) between the dog and the table, or with, a towel under the dog and covered with a forced warm air blanket (treatment WAB). Rectal temperature (RT) was recorded at 5 minute intervals. Changes in temperature (ΔRT) were calculated as the RT at a given point subtracted from the RT before anesthesia (baseline) and compared over time. After 90 minutes of anesthesia, the ΔRT was 3.42 °C ± 0.29 for TA, 2.78 °C ± 0.43 for TO, 1.98 °C ± 0.29 for WP, and 0.91 °C ± 0.27 for WAB. Significant differences in ΔRT occurred between TA and WAB at 20 minutes (0.94 °C ± 0.42, p = 0.0206), between TO and WAB at 30 minutes (1.16 °C ± 0.62, p = 0.0063), between WP and WAB at 50 minutes (0.96 °C ± 0.98, p = 0.0249), between TA and WP at 35 minutes (1.19 °C ± 0.54, p = 0.0091), between TO and WP at 70 minutes (1.12 °C ± 0.56, p = 0.0248), and between TA and TO at 75 minutes (0.96 °C ± 0.62, p = 0.0313). These differences in ΔRT between each treatment persisted from the times indicated until the end of the anesthesia. During anesthesia, forced warm air blankets were superior to other methods tested for limiting heat loss. An efficient heat loss technique should be used for anesthesia longer than 20 minutes duration in medium sized dogs. © 2013 The Authors. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia © 2013 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  8. ANALISA BREAK EVENT POINT (BEP TERHADAP LABA PERUSAHAAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yusuf

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Break event point or the break-even point can be defined as a situation where the operating company does not make a profit and not a loss. The goal is to provide the knowledge to increase knowledge about the break event point (the point of principal and its relationship with the company profit and to know how the results of the. Analysis break event point is very important for the leadership of the company to determine the production rate how much the cost will be equal to the amount of sales or in other words to determine the break event point we will determine the relationship between sales, production, selling price, cost, loss or profit, making it easier for leaders to take discretion.DOI: 10.15408/ess.v4i1.1955 

  9. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  10. PWR cold-leg small break loca with faulty HPI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumamaru, H.; Kukita, Y.

    1991-01-01

    The ROSA-IV Large Scale Test Facility (LSTF) is a 1/48 volumetrically-scaled model of a pressurized water reactor (PWR). At the LSTF are performed cold-leg small-break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) tests with faulty high pressure injection (HPI) system for break areas from 0.5% to 10% and an intentional primary system depressurization test following a small-break LOCA test. A simple prediction model is proposed for prediction of times of major events. Test data and calculations show that intentional primary system depressurization with use of the pressurizer power-operated relief valves (PORVs) is effective for break areas of approximately 0.5% or less, is unnecessary for breaks of 5% or more, and is insufficient for intermediate break areas to maintain adequate core cooling. (author)

  11. A Mediation Analysis of the ATHENA Intervention for Female Athletes: Prevention of Athletic-Enhancing Substance Use and Unhealthy Weight Loss Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ranby, Krista W; Aiken, Leona S; Elliot, Diane L; Moe, Esther L; McGinnis, Wendy; Goldberg, Linn

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explain, through mediation analyses, the mechanisms by which ATHENA (Athletes Targeting Healthy Exercise and Nutrition Alternatives), a primary prevention and health promotion intervention designed to deter unhealthy body shaping behaviors among female high school athletes, produced immediate changes in intentions for unhealthy weight loss and steroid/creatine use, and to examine the link to long-term follow-up intentions and behaviors. Methods In a randomized trial of 1668 athletes, intervention participants completed coach-led peer-facilitated sessions during their sport season. Participants provided pre-test, immediate post-test, and 9-month follow-up assessments. Results ATHENA decreased intentions for steroid/creatine use and intentions for unhealthy weight loss behaviors at post-test. These effects were most strongly mediated by social norms and self-efficacy for healthy eating. Low post-test intentions were maintained 9 months later and predicted subsequent behavior. Conclusions ATHENA successfully modified mediators that in turn related to athletic-enhancing substance use and unhealthy weight loss practices. Mediation analyses aid in the understanding of health promotion interventions and inform program development. PMID:19386771

  12. Short-term blueberry-enriched diet prevents and reverses object recognition memory loss in aging rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malin, David H; Lee, David R; Goyarzu, Pilar; Chang, Yu-Hsuan; Ennis, Lalanya J; Beckett, Elizabeth; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James A

    2011-03-01

    Previously, 4 mo of a blueberry-enriched (BB) antioxidant diet prevented impaired object recognition memory in aging rats. Experiment 1 determined whether 1- and 2-mo BB diets would have a similar effect and whether the benefits would disappear promptly after terminating the diets. Experiment 2 determined whether a 1-mo BB diet could subsequently reverse existing object memory impairment in aging rats. In experiment 1, Fischer-344 rats were maintained on an appropriate control diet or on 1 or 2 mo of the BB diet before testing object memory at 19 mo postnatally. In experiment 2, rats were tested for object recognition memory at 19 mo and again at 20 mo after 1 mo of maintenance on a 2% BB or control diet. In experiment 1, the control group performed no better than chance, whereas the 1- and 2-mo BB diet groups performed similarly and significantly better than controls. The 2-mo BB-diet group, but not the 1-mo group, maintained its performance over a subsequent month on a standard laboratory diet. In experiment 2, the 19-mo-old rats performed near chance. At 20 mo of age, the rats subsequently maintained on the BB diet significantly increased their object memory scores, whereas the control diet group exhibited a non-significant decline. The change in object memory scores differed significantly between the two diet groups. These results suggest that a considerable degree of age-related object memory decline can be prevented and reversed by brief maintenance on BB diets. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A lifestyle program of exercise and weight loss is effective in preventing and treating type 2 diabetes mellitus: Why are programs not more available?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ades, Philip A

    2015-11-01

    There is substantial evidence that type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) can be prevented in high-risk individuals by a lifestyle program of regular exercise and weight reduction. Additionally, there is emerging evidence that new onset T2DM (lifestyle programs to support such behavior change are not widely available. Moreover, health care insurance companies generally do not provide coverage for behavioral weight loss programs to prevent or treat T2DM. Consequently, physicians caring for individuals with T2DM may find it much easier to start a chronic glucose lowering medication rather than attempting to motivate and support patients through long-term behavior change. The cardiac rehabilitation model of disease management, with a network of over 2000 programs in the U.S., is well suited to deliver medically-supervised lifestyle programs. National organizations such as the American Diabetes Association and the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation should support greater availability and use of lifestyle programs for T2DM treatment and prevention. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Bone Loss Prevention of Bisphosphonates in Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Hu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of bisphosphonates in improving bone mineral density (BMD and decreasing the occurrence rate of fractures and adverse events in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD. Methods. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs which use bisphosphonates in IBD patients were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE database, EMBASE database, Web of Knowledge, and the Cochrane Databases between 1990 and June 2016. People received bisphosphonate or placebos with a follow-up of at least one year were also considered. STATA 12.0 software was used for the meta-analysis. Results. Eleven randomized clinical trials were included in the meta-analysis. The data indicated that the percentage change in the increased BMD in the bisphosphonates groups was superior to that of the control groups at the lumbar spine and total hip. At the femoral neck, there was no significant difference between the two groups. The incidence of new fractures during follow-up showed significant reduction. The adverse event analysis revealed no significant difference between the two groups. Conclusion. Our results demonstrate that bisphosphonates therapy has an effect on bone loss in patients with IBD but show no evident efficiency at increasing the incidence of adverse events.

  15. Prevention of inflammation-mediated bone loss in murine and canine periodontal disease via recruitment of regulatory lymphocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glowacki, Andrew J; Yoshizawa, Sayuri; Jhunjhunwala, Siddharth; Vieira, Andreia E; Garlet, Gustavo P; Sfeir, Charles; Little, Steven R

    2013-11-12

    The hallmark of periodontal disease is the progressive destruction of gingival soft tissue and alveolar bone, which is initiated by inflammation in response to an invasive and persistent bacterial insult. In recent years, it has become apparent that this tissue destruction is associated with a decrease in local regulatory processes, including a decrease of forkhead box P3-expressing regulatory lymphocytes. Accordingly, we developed a controlled release system capable of generating a steady release of a known chemoattractant for regulatory lymphocytes, C-C motif chemokine ligand 22 (CCL22), composed of a degradable polymer with a proven track record of clinical translation, poly(lactic-co-glycolic) acid. We have previously shown that this sustained presentation of CCL22 from a point source effectively recruits regulatory T cells (Tregs) to the site of injection. Following administration of the Treg-recruiting formulation to the gingivae in murine experimental periodontitis, we observed increases in hallmark Treg-associated anti-inflammatory molecules, a decrease of proinflammatory cytokines, and a marked reduction in alveolar bone resorption. Furthermore, application of the Treg-recruiting formulation (fabricated with human CCL22) in ligature-induced periodontitis in beagle dogs leads to reduced clinical measures of inflammation and less alveolar bone loss under severe inflammatory conditions in the presence of a diverse periodontopathogen milieu.

  16. Screening of Long Q-T Syndrome in Patients with Congenital Sensorineural Hearing Loss (Jervell and Lange Neilesen Syndrome: Prevention of Fatal Events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Matin

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective:The idiopathic long Q-T syndrome is an infrequently occurring disorder in which affected individuals have an unusual electrocardiographic repolarization abnormality presenting as syncope or loss of consciousness related to ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. Congenital long Q-T prolongation can be associated with congenital deafness in an autosomal recessive manner (Jervell and Lange-Nielsen syndrome. The purpose of this stuff was to screen this electrocardiographic abnormality in deaf-mute school children in our population, which has not been yet performed. Materials & Methods:  Of 1190 patients with hearing loss, 779 had congenital sensorineural deafness (CSD, aged 13±3.8 years (4-24, 63% female and 37% male. The family history of deafness was as follows: Cardiac axis deviation was found in 56 (7% patients. Electrical conduction abnormalities were found in 12 (15% patients, Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome, sinus bradycardia, and sinus arrhythmia were found in 2 (0.25%, 4 (0.5%, and 3 (0.38% patients, respectively. The Q-T interval, and Q-Tc duration were 312.6±28.9 ms (200-500 ms, median 320 ms, and 383.6±29.3 ms (232-527 ms, median 413ms, respectively. Long Q-T syndrome was found in 4 (0.5% patients (3F and 1M. Results: Two of these 4 patients had total deafness and 2 had profound hearing loss. None of the patients with mild deafness had Q-T prolongation. Only one of these patients was symptomatic, and had been treated as a case of epilepsy for several years. Conclusion: This data supports the presence of long Q-T syndrome in patients with sensorineural hearing loss in our population, so routine electrocardiographic screening of anyone with congenital deafness is warranted to prevent subsequent associated cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death.

  17. Role of estrogen replacement therapy in memory enhancement and the prevention of neuronal loss associated with Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpkins, J W; Green, P S; Gridley, K E; Singh, M; de Fiebre, N C; Rajakumar, G

    1997-09-22

    Recent evidence supports a role for estrogens in both normal neural development and neuronal maintenance throughout life. Women spend 25-33% of their life in an estrogen-deprived state and retrospective studies have shown an inverse correlation between dose and duration of estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) and incidence of Alzheimer's disease (AD), suggesting a role for estrogen in the prevention and/or treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. To explore these observations further, an animal model was developed using ovariectomy (OVX) and ovariectomy with estradiol replacement (E2) in female Sprague-Dawley rats to mimic postmenopausal changes. Using an active-avoidance paradigm and a spatial memory task, the effects of estrogen deprivation were tested on memory-related behaviors. OVX caused a decline in avoidance behavior, and estrogen replacement normalized the response. In the Morris water task of spatial memory, OVX animals showed normal spatial learning but were deficient in spatial memory, an effect that was prevented by estrogen treatment. Together these data indicate that OVX in rats results in an estrogen-reversible impairment of learning/memory behavior. Because a plethora of information has been generated that links decline in memory-related behavior to dysfunction of cholinergic neurons, the effects of estrogens on cholinergic neurons were tested. We demonstrated that OVX causes a decrease in high affinity choline uptake and choline acetyltransferase activity in the hippocampus and frontal cortex; ERT reverses this effect. Further, we showed that estrogens promote the expression of mRNA for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF), 2 neurotrophic substances that have been shown to ameliorate the effects of age and injury on cholinergic neurons. Tissue culture models were used to evaluate whether estrogen treatment increases the survival of neurons when exposed to a variety of insults. 17-beta-Estradiol (beta-E2) protects

  18. Breaking the silence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Hanne; Kirkevold, Marit; McCallin, Antoinette

    2012-01-01

    and individual interviews were analyzed using the grounded theory method. The findings revealed that the main concern of the patients was feeling isolated, which was resolved using a process of interactional integration. Interactional integration begins by breaking the silence to enable the progression from...

  19. Violent breaking wave impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredmose, Henrik; Peregrine, D.H.; Bullock, G.N.

    2009-01-01

    When an ocean wave breaks against a steep-fronted breakwater, sea wall or a similar marine structure, its impact on the structure can be very violent. This paper describes the theoretical studies that, together with field and laboratory investigations, have been carried out in order to gain a bet...

  20. Auditoria dos programas de prevenção de perdas auditivas em Curitiba (PPPA Hearing loss prevention programs control of Curitiba (HLPP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina C.M. Cavalli

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O presente trabalho teve como objetivo examinar se medidas práticas de prevenção de perdas auditivas, adotadas por indústrias de Curitiba e região metropolitana, atendem às exigências da legislação trabalhista vigente e recomendações científicas que abordam este tema. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Coorte transversal. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Um questionário elaborado pelo instituto americano National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH em 1996, para auditoria de programas de prevenção de perdas auditivas (PPPA, nos serviu de instrumento para a coleta de dados. O instrumento original possui 89 questões divididas em oito temas relacionados à prática dos programas: treinamento e educação, envolvimento do supervisor, medição do ruído, controle de Engenharia e Administrativo, monitoração audiométrica e manutenção dos registros, encaminhamentos, equipamento de proteção individual e questões administrativas. A coleta de dados foi realizada com Médicos do Trabalho, Engenheiros e/ou Técnicos de Segurança das indústrias. As empresas foram divididas em dois grupos: o das empresas que possuem um PPPA e o das que não possuem. CONCLUSÃO: Com base nos dados obtidos concluímos que não houve diferença significativa de conduta entre os grupos e que ambos cumprem parcialmente a legislação trabalhista relacionada à prevenção dos efeitos do ruído. Quanto às questões que abordam aspectos que se excedem às exigências legais, concluímos que as empresas que possuem PPPA dedicam maiores esforços à prevenção de perdas auditivas. Com estes dados identificamos pontos fortes e fracos das medidas que vêm sendo adotadas pelas indústrias da região, os quais poderão nos direcionar à elaboração de medidas preventivas mais efetivas e de propostas para revisão da legislação vigente.AIM: The objective of this study is to examine if the hearing loss prevention practices in industries located in the greater

  1. View of industry on the impact of pipe break criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernsen, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Historically, large pipe breaks in the types of materials used and under operating conditions similar to those in light water reactor service have not occurred. Nevertheless, the non-mechanistic assumption of a double ended pipe break of the early sixties, selected for loss of coolant accident analysis purposes, has become a mechanistic criterion for the design and arrangement of high pressure piping systems and their associated supports and enclosures in today's nuclear plants. While it seems reasonable and appropriate to continue to design the Emergency Core Cooling Systems for a range of loss of coolant accidents up to and including those that approximate the area of the largest pipe connected to the reactor vessel and to use this break in determining the loading and temperature rise rate for containment structures and equipment qualification, it no longer seems reasonable to provide precisely engineered break protection for a limited number of potential pipe break locations. This observation is gaining increasing support, particularly as engineering judgment and historical perspectives are being supplemented by both deterministic and probabilistic studies that indicate the potential for large instantaneous breaks in nuclear grade piping systems is virtually incredible. Fracture mechanics analyses support leak-before-break assumptions with wide margins and probabilistic studies indicate potentials for double-ended pipe breaks in the range of less than one in a billion years

  2. Safety and efficacy of ebselen for the prevention of noise-induced hearing loss: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase 2 trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kil, Jonathan; Lobarinas, Edward; Spankovich, Christopher; Griffiths, Scott K; Antonelli, Patrick J; Lynch, Eric D; Le Prell, Colleen G

    2017-09-02

    Noise-induced hearing loss is a leading cause of occupational and recreational injury and disease, and a major determinant of age-related hearing loss. No therapeutic agent has been approved for the prevention or treatment of this disorder. In animal models, glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1) activity is reduced after acute noise exposure. Ebselen, a novel GPx1 mimic, has been shown to reduce both temporary and permanent noise-induced hearing loss in preclinical studies. We assessed the safety and efficacy of ebselen for the prevention of noise-induced hearing loss in young adults in a phase 2 clinical trial. In this single-centre, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 2 trial, healthy adults aged 18-31 years were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1) at the University of Florida (Gainsville, FL, USA) to receive ebselen 200 mg, 400 mg, or 600 mg, or placebo orally twice daily for 4 days, beginning 2 days before a calibrated sound challenge (4 h of pre-recorded music delivered by insert earphones). Randomisation was done with an allocation sequence generated by an independent third party. The primary outcome was mean temporary threshold shift (TTS) at 4 kHz measured 15 min after the calibrated sound challenge by pure tone audiometry; a reduction of 50% in an ebselen dose group compared with the placebo group was judged to be clinically relevant. All participants who received the calibrated sound challenge and at least one dose of study drug were included in the efficacy analysis. All randomly assigned patients were included in the safety analysis. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01444846. Between Jan 11, 2013, and March 24, 2014, 83 participants were enrolled and randomly assigned to receive ebselen 200 mg (n=22), 400 mg (n=20), or 600 mg (n=21), or placebo (n=20). Two participants in the 200 mg ebselen group were discontinued from the study before the calibrated sound challenge because they no longer met the inclusion criteria; these

  3. Noradrenaline from Locus Coeruleus Neurons Acts on Pedunculo-Pontine Neurons to Prevent REM Sleep and Induces Its Loss-Associated Effects in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanday, Mudasir Ahmad; Somarajan, Bindu I; Mehta, Rachna; Mallick, Birendra Nath

    2016-01-01

    Normally, rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) does not appear during waking or non-REMS. Isolated, independent studies showed that elevated noradrenaline (NA) levels inhibit REMS and induce REMS loss-associated cytomolecular, cytomorphological, psychosomatic changes and associated symptoms. However, the source of NA and its target in the brain for REMS regulation and function in health and diseases remained to be confirmed in vivo . Using tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-siRNA and virus-coated TH-shRNA in normal freely moving rats, we downregulated NA synthesis in locus coeruleus (LC) REM-OFF neurons in vivo . These TH-downregulated rats showed increased REMS, which was prevented by infusing NA into the pedunculo-pontine tegmentum (PPT), the site of REM-ON neurons, normal REMS returned after recovery. Moreover, unlike normal or control-siRNA- or shRNA-injected rats, upon REMS deprivation (REMSD) TH-downregulated rat brains did not show elevated Na-K ATPase (molecular changes) expression and activity. To the best of our knowledge, these are the first in vivo findings in an animal model confirming that NA from the LC REM-OFF neurons (1) acts on the PPT REM-ON neurons to prevent appearance of REMS, and (2) are responsible for inducing REMSD-associated molecular changes and symptoms. These observations clearly show neuro-physio-chemical mechanism of why normally REMS does not appear during waking. Also, that LC neurons are the primary source of NA, which in turn causes some, if not many, REMSD-associated symptoms and behavioral changes. The findings are proof-of-principle for the first time and hold potential to be exploited for confirmation toward treating REMS disorder and amelioration of REMS loss-associated symptoms in patients.

  4. High-fat, carbohydrate-free diet markedly aggravates obesity but prevents beta-cell loss and diabetes in the obese, diabetes-susceptible db/db strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirhashemi, Farshad; Kluth, Oliver; Scherneck, Stephan; Vogel, Heike; Kluge, Reinhart; Schurmann, Annette; Joost, Hans-Georg; Neschen, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    We have previously reported that a high-fat, carbohydrate-free diet prevents diabetes and beta-cell destruction in the New Zealand Obese (NZO) mouse strain. Here we investigated the effect of diets with and without carbohydrates on obesity and development of beta-cell failure in a second mouse model of type 2 diabetes, the db/db mouse. When kept on a carbohydrate-containing standard (SD; with (w/w) 5.1, 58.3, and 17.6% fat, carbohydrates and protein, respectively) or high-fat diet (HFD; 14.6, 46.7 and 17.1%), db/db mice developed severe diabetes (blood glucose >20 mmol/l, weight loss, polydipsia and polyurea) associated with a selective loss of pancreatic beta-cells, reduced GLUT2 expression in the remaining beta-cells, and reduced plasma insulin levels. In contrast, db/db mice kept on a high-fat, carbohydrate-free diet (CFD; with 30.2 and 26.4% (w/w) fat or protein) did not develop diabetes and exhibited near-normal, hyperplastic islets in spite of a morbid obesity (fat content >60%) associated with hyperinsulinaemia. These data indicate that in genetically different mouse models of obesity-associated diabetes, obesity and dietary fat are not sufficient, and dietary carbohydrates are required, for beta-cell destruction.

  5. Study of the impact of food irradiation on preventing losses: Experience in Africa. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2002-05-01

    There have been positive developments on food irradiation in different regions of the world, especially in the United States of America and several Asian and Latin American countries. In some countries in Africa, this technology has been studied in the past few decades with encouraging results. To assist these countries in conducting pilot scale research and development on irradiation of specific commodities of interest to them including market testing and feasibility to establish commercial irradiators for multi-purpose application, a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Impact of Irradiation to Prevent Food Losses in Africa was carried out between 1995 and 1999. This CRP demonstrated that food irradiation has a potential to reduce losses of basic staple food crops including yams, dried and smoked fish, potatoes and onions through pilot scale experiments carried out in some African countries. Small scale market testing of such irradiated food such as spices, potatoes and onions showed encouraging results. In some countries (Cote d'Ivoire, Egypt, Ghana, Senegal and South Africa), it is feasible to establish commercial irradiation facilities for treating food. In Morocco, irradiation shows a potential to meet quarantine requirements in international food trade. It should be noted that commercial scale application of irradiation of some food products has been carried out in South Africa since the 1980s

  6. Study of the impact of food irradiation on preventing losses: Experience in Africa. Proceedings of a final research co-ordination meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-05-01

    There have been positive developments on food irradiation in different regions of the world, especially in the United States of America and several Asian and Latin American countries. In some countries in Africa, this technology has been studied in the past few decades with encouraging results. To assist these countries in conducting pilot scale research and development on irradiation of specific commodities of interest to them including market testing and feasibility to establish commercial irradiators for multi-purpose application, a Coordinated Research Project (CRP) on Impact of Irradiation to Prevent Food Losses in Africa was carried out between 1995 and 1999. This CRP demonstrated that food irradiation has a potential to reduce losses of basic staple food crops including yams, dried and smoked fish, potatoes and onions through pilot scale experiments carried out in some African countries. Small scale market testing of such irradiated food such as spices, potatoes and onions showed encouraging results. In some countries (Cote d'Ivoire, Egypt, Ghana, Senegal and South Africa), it is feasible to establish commercial irradiation facilities for treating food. In Morocco, irradiation shows a potential to meet quarantine requirements in international food trade. It should be noted that commercial scale application of irradiation of some food products has been carried out in South Africa since the 1980s.

  7. Reasons for loss to follow-up among mothers registered in a prevention-of-mother-to-child transmission program in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bwirire, L D; Fitzgerald, M; Zachariah, R; Chikafa, V; Massaquoi, M; Moens, M; Kamoto, K; Schouten, E J

    2008-12-01

    This study was conducted to identify reasons for a high and progressive loss to follow-up among HIV-positive mothers within a prevention-of-mother-to-child HIV transmission (PMTCT) program in a rural district hospital in Malawi. Three focus group discussions were conducted among a total of 25 antenatal and post-natal mothers as well as nurse midwives (median age 39 years, range 22-55 years). The main reasons for loss to follow-up included: (1) not being prepared for HIV testing and its implications before the antenatal clinic (ANC) visit; (2) fear of stigma, discrimination, household conflict and even divorce on disclosure of HIV status; (3) lack of support from husbands who do not want to undergo HIV testing; (4) the feeling that one is obliged to rely on artificial feeding, which is associated with social and cultural taboos; (5) long waiting times at the ANC; and (6) inability to afford transport costs related to the long distances to the hospital. This study reveals a number of community- and provider-related operational and cultural barriers hindering the overall acceptability of PMTCT that need to be addressed urgently. Mothers attending antenatal services need to be better informed and supported, at both community and health-provider level.

  8. Routinizing Breaking News

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartley, Jannie Møller

    2011-01-01

    This chapter revisits seminal theoretical categorizations of news proposed three decades earlier by US sociologist Gaye Tuchman. By exploring the definition of ”breaking news” in the contemporary online newsrooms of three Danish news organisations, the author offers us a long overdue re-theorizat......-theorization of journalistic practice in the online context and helpfully explores well-evidenced limitations to online news production, such as the relationship between original reporting and the use of ”shovelware.”......This chapter revisits seminal theoretical categorizations of news proposed three decades earlier by US sociologist Gaye Tuchman. By exploring the definition of ”breaking news” in the contemporary online newsrooms of three Danish news organisations, the author offers us a long overdue re...

  9. Breaking News as Radicalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartley, Jannie Møller

    The aim of the paper is to make explicit how the different categories are applied in the online newsroom and thus how new categories can be seen as positioning strategies in the form of radicalisations of already existing categories. Thus field theory provides us with tools to analyse how online...... journalists are using the categorisations to create hierarchies within the journalistic field in order to position themselves as specialists in what Tuchman has called developing news, aiming and striving for what today is know as breaking news and the “exclusive scoop,” as the trademark of online journalism...... in a media environment where immediacy rules (Domingo 2008a). Following this research the primary focus of this paper is the category breaking news and Tuchmans developing news, but as they are all connected the analysis will also draw upon the other categories in Tuchmans typology. The theoretical framework...

  10. Predicting appointment breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, A G; Talaga, J

    1995-01-01

    The goal of physician referral services is to schedule appointments, but if too many patients fail to show up, the value of the service will be compromised. The authors found that appointment breaking can be predicted by the number of days to the scheduled appointment, the doctor's specialty, and the patient's age and gender. They also offer specific suggestions for modifying the marketing mix to reduce the incidence of no-shows.

  11. Single sector supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luty, Markus A.; Terning, John

    1999-01-01

    We review recent work on realistic models that break supersymmetry dynamically and give rise to composite quarks and leptons, all in a single sector. These models have a completely natural suppression of flavor-changing neutral currents, and the hierarchy of Yukawa couplings is explained by the dimensionality of composite states. The generic signatures are unification of scalar masses with different quantum numbers at the compositeness scale, and lighter gaugino, Higgsino, and third-generation sfermion masses

  12. Dual descriptions of supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intrilligator, K.; Thomas, S.

    1996-08-01

    Dynamical supersymmetry breaking is considered in models which admit descriptions in terms of electric, confined, or magnetic degrees of freedom in various limits. In this way, a variety of seemingly different theories which break supersymmetry are actually interrelated by confinement or duality. Specific examples are given in which there are two dual descriptions of the supersymmetry breaking ground state

  13. A synopsis of experimental activities on small-break LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hein, D.

    1984-01-01

    Through reactor safety studies like WASH 1400 or the ''Deutsche Risiko-Studie'' the attention has turned from large break loss of coolant accidents to small breaks because of the high contribution of this type of accidents to core meltdown. But only after the TMI-2 accident were also the main activities in the experimental fields shifted world-wide to the small break LOCAs. Since TMI numerous research programs have either been finished or are underway. This review paper presents: a classification of the various types of transients according to break size; a discussion of major physical phenomena associated with a small break LOCA, and a description of a few selected research programs and the most important results achieved. (author)

  14. Bayesian Belief Networks for predicting drinking water distribution system pipe breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, Royce A.; Guikema, Seth D.; Henneman, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we use Bayesian Belief Networks (BBNs) to construct a knowledge model for pipe breaks in a water zone. To the authors’ knowledge, this is the first attempt to model drinking water distribution system pipe breaks using BBNs. Development of expert systems such as BBNs for analyzing drinking water distribution system data is not only important for pipe break prediction, but is also a first step in preventing water loss and water quality deterioration through the application of machine learning techniques to facilitate data-based distribution system monitoring and asset management. Due to the difficulties in collecting, preparing, and managing drinking water distribution system data, most pipe break models can be classified as “statistical–physical” or “hypothesis-generating.” We develop the BBN with the hope of contributing to the “hypothesis-generating” class of models, while demonstrating the possibility that BBNs might also be used as “statistical–physical” models. Our model is learned from pipe breaks and covariate data from a mid-Atlantic United States (U.S.) drinking water distribution system network. BBN models are learned using a constraint-based method, a score-based method, and a hybrid method. Model evaluation is based on log-likelihood scoring. Sensitivity analysis using mutual information criterion is also reported. While our results indicate general agreement with prior results reported in pipe break modeling studies, they also suggest that it may be difficult to select among model alternatives. This model uncertainty may mean that more research is needed for understanding whether additional pipe break risk factors beyond age, break history, pipe material, and pipe diameter might be important for asset management planning. - Highlights: • We show Bayesian Networks for predictive and diagnostic management of water distribution systems. • Our model may enable system operators and managers to prioritize system

  15. A Class I UV-Blocking (senofilcon A) Soft Contact Lens Prevents UVA-induced Yellow Fluorescence and NADH loss in the Rabbit Lens Nucleus in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblin, Frank J.; Lin, Li-Ren; Simpanya, Mukoma F.; Leverenz, Victor R.; Fick, Catherine E.

    2012-01-01

    It is known that fluorescence, much of it caused by UVA light excitation, increases in the aging human lens, resulting in loss of sharp vision. This study used an in vivo animal model to investigate UVA-excited fluorescence in the rabbit lens, which contains a high level of the UVA chromophore NADH, existing both free and bound to λ-crystallin. Also, the ability of a Class I (senofilcon A) soft contact lens to protect against UVA-induced effects on the rabbit lens was tested. Rabbit eyes were irradiated with UVA light in vivo (100 mW/cm2 on the cornea) for 1 hour using monochromatic 365 nm light. Irradiation was conducted in the presence of either a senofilcon A contact lens, a minimally UV-absorbing lotrafilcon A contact lens, or no contact lens at all. Eyes irradiated without a contact lens showed blue 365 nm-excited fluorescence initially, but this changed to intense yellow fluorescence after 1 hour. Isolated, previously irradiated lenses exhibited yellow fluorescence originating from the lens nucleus when viewed under 365 nm light, but showed normal blue fluorescence arising from the cortex. Previously irradiated lenses also exhibited a faint yellow color when observed under visible light. The senofilcon A contact lens protected completely against the UVA-induced effects on fluorescence and lens yellowing, whereas the lotrafilcon A lens showed no protection. The UVA-exposure also produced a 53% loss of total NADH (free plus bound) in the lens nucleus, with only a 13% drop in the anterior cortex. NADH loss in the nucleus was completely prevented with use of a senofilcon A contact lens, but no significant protection was observed with a lotrafilcon A lens. Overall, the senofilcon A lens provided an average of 67% protection against UVA-induced loss of four pyridine nucleotides in four different regions of the lens. HPLC analysis with fluorescence detection indicated a nearly six-fold increase in 365 nm-excited yellow fluorescence arising from lens nuclear

  16. Inertial Symmetry Breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Christopher T.

    2018-03-19

    We review and expand upon recent work demonstrating that Weyl invariant theories can be broken "inertially," which does not depend upon a potential. This can be understood in a general way by the "current algebra" of these theories, independently of specific Lagrangians. Maintaining the exact Weyl invariance in a renormalized quantum theory can be accomplished by renormalization conditions that refer back to the VEV's of fields in the action. We illustrate the computation of a Weyl invariant Coleman-Weinberg potential that breaks a U(1) symmetry together,with scale invariance.

  17. Break the Pattern!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Cathrine; Trentemøller, Stine

    Break the Pattern! A critical enquiry into three scientific workplace cultures: Hercules, Caretakers and Worker Bees is the third publication of the international three year long project "Understanding Puzzles in the Gendered European Map" (UPGEM). By contrasting empirical findings from academic ...... (physics in culture) and discuss how physics as and in culture influence the perception of science, of work and family life, of the interplay between religion and science as well as how physics as culture can either hinder or promote the career of female scientists....

  18. Breaking the Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul Rind; Kirketerp, Anne

    2006-01-01

    The paper shortly reveals the history of a small school - the KaosPilots - dedicated to educate young people to carriers as entrepreneurs. In this contribution we want to explore how the KaosPilots managed to break the waves of institutionalised concepts and practices of teaching entrepreneurship....... Following the so-called 'Dogma' concept developed by Danish filmmakers, this contribution aim to explore the key elements making up the recipes guiding the entrepreneurship training program exercised by the school. Key factors forming a community of learning practice are outlined as well as the critical...... pedagogical elements on which the education in entrepreneurship rests....

  19. Spontaneous symmetry breaking, self-trapping, and Josephson oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    This volume collects a a number of contributions on spontaneous symmetry breaking. Current studies in this general field are going ahead at a full speed. The book present review chapters which give an overview on the major break throughs of recent years. It covers a number of different physical settings which are introduced when a nonlinearity is added to the underlying symmetric problems and its strength exceeds a certain critical value. The corresponding loss of symmetry, called spontaneous symmetry breaking, alias self-trapping into asymmetric states is extensively discussed in this book.

  20. Role of Double-Strand Break End-Tethering during Gene Conversion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi Jain

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Correct repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs is critical for maintaining genome stability. Whereas gene conversion (GC-mediated repair is mostly error-free, repair by break-induced replication (BIR is associated with non-reciprocal translocations and loss of heterozygosity. We have previously shown that a Recombination Execution Checkpoint (REC mediates this competition by preventing the BIR pathway from acting on DSBs that can be repaired by GC. Here, we asked if the REC can also determine whether the ends that are engaged in a GC-compatible configuration belong to the same break, since repair involving ends from different breaks will produce potentially deleterious translocations. We report that the kinetics of repair are markedly delayed when the two DSB ends that participate in GC belong to different DSBs (termed Trans compared to the case when both DSB ends come from the same break (Cis. However, repair in Trans still occurs by GC rather than BIR, and the overall efficiency of repair is comparable. Hence, the REC is not sensitive to the "origin" of the DSB ends. When the homologous ends for GC are in Trans, the delay in repair appears to reflect their tethering to sequences on the other side of the DSB that themselves recombine with other genomic locations with which they share sequence homology. These data support previous observations that the two ends of a DSB are usually tethered to each other and that this tethering facilitates both ends encountering the same donor sequence. We also found that the presence of homeologous/repetitive sequences in the vicinity of a DSB can distract the DSB end from finding its bona fide homologous donor, and that inhibition of GC by such homeologous sequences is markedly increased upon deleting Sgs1 but not Msh6.

  1. Output capabilities of personal music players and assessment of preferred listening levels of test subjects: outlining recommendations for preventing music-induced hearing loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breinbauer, Hayo A; Anabalón, Jose L; Gutierrez, Daniela; Cárcamo, Rodrigo; Olivares, Carla; Caro, Jorge

    2012-11-01

    Our goal was to assess the impact of personal music players, earphones, and music styles on output, the subject's preferred listening levels, and outline recommendations for the prevention of music-induced hearing loss. Experimental study. Personal music players' output capabilities and volunteers' preferred output levels were assessed in different settings. Based on current noise-induced hearing loss exposure limits, recommendations were outlined. On three different devices and earphone types and 10 music styles, free field equivalent sound pressure output levels were assessed by applying a microphone probe inside the auditory canal. Forty-five hearing-healthy volunteers were asked to select preferred listening levels in different background noise scenarios. Sound pressure output reached 126 dB. No difference was found between device types, whereas earbud and supra-aural earphones showed significantly lower outputs than in-ear earphones (P music style groups were identified with as much as 14.4 dB difference between them. In silence, 17.8% of volunteers spontaneously selected a listening level above 85 dB. With 90 dB background noise, 40% selected a level above 94 dB. Earphone attenuation capability was found to correlate significantly with preferred level reductions (r = 0.585, P < .001). In-ear and especially supra-aural earphones reduced preferred listening levels the most. Safe-use recommendations were outlined, whereas selecting the lowest volume setting comfortable remained the main suggestion. High background noise attenuating earphones may help in reducing comfortable listening levels and should be preferred. A risk table was elaborated, presenting time limits before reaching a risky exposure. Copyright © 2012 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. A randomized controlled trial to prevent excessive gestational weight gain and promote postpartum weight loss in overweight and obese women: Health In Pregnancy and Postpartum (HIPP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong; Addy, Cheryl L; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Burgis, Judith T; Wingard, Ellen; Dahl, Alicia A; Whitaker, Kara M; Schneider, Lara; Boutté, Alycia K

    2018-03-01

    Interventions to prevent excessive gestational weight gain and promote postpartum weight loss have yielded modest results, particularly in overweight and obese women. To examine the impact of a theory-based lifestyle intervention on gestational weight gain, postpartum weight loss, and related maternal and child outcomes and to examine race differences in these outcomes. A randomized controlled trial (target N=400; 200 intervention, 200 standard care; 200 African American, 200 white). Overweight and obese African American and white women ≤16weeks gestation are recruited from obstetrics and gynecology clinics in South Carolina. Intervention participants receive two in-depth counseling sessions (early pregnancy and postpartum), telephone counseling, behavioral podcasts, and social media support that target weight self-monitoring and increasing physical activity and healthy dietary behavior practices, guided by Social Cognitive Theory. Standard care participants receive monthly mailings and a matched number of podcasts on non-weight related topics. All intervention activities last from ≤18weeks gestation to 6months after delivery. Gestational weight gain is the primary outcome. Secondary outcomes are meeting gestational weight gain guidelines (inadequate, adequate, excessive), weekly rate of gestational weight gain, postpartum weight retention, physical activity and dietary behaviors, health-related quality of life, and offspring adiposity. Participants are assessed at baseline (≤16weeks gestation), 32weeks gestation, and 6 and 12months postpartum, and offspring are assessed at 6 and 12months. HIPP is an innovative study that addresses significant gaps in the literature. Primary outcome results are expected in 2019. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Prediction of LOCA Break Size Using CFNN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Geon Pil; Yoo, Kwae Hwan; Back, Ju Hyun; Kim, Dong Yeong; Na, Man Gyun [Chosun University Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The NPPs have the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) such as a safety injection system. The ECCS may not function properly in case of the small break size due to a slight change of pressure in the pipe. If the coolant is not supplied by ECCS, the reactor core will melt. Therefore, the meltdown of reactor core have to be prevented by appropriate accident management through the prediction of LOCA break size in advance. This study presents the prediction of LOCA break size using cascaded fuzzy neural network (CFNN). The CFNN model repeatedly applies FNN modules that are serially connected. The CFNN model is a data-based method that requires data for its development and verification. The data were obtained by numerically simulating severe accident scenarios of the optimized power reactor (OPR1000) using MAAP code, because real severe accident data cannot be obtained from actual NPP accidents. The CFNN model has been designed to rapidly predict the LOCA break size in LOCA situations. The CFNN model was trained by using the training data set and checked by using test data set. These data sets were obtained using MAAP code for OPR1000 reactor. The performance results of the CFNN model show that the RMS error decreases as the stage number of the CFNN model increases. In addition, the performance result of the CFNN model presents that the RMS error level is below 4%.

  4. More dynamical supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csaki, C.; Randall, L.; Skiba, W.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new class of theories which dynamically break supersymmetry based on the gauge group SU(n) x SU(3) x U(1) for even n. These theories are interesting in that no dynamical superpotential is generated in the absence of perturbations. For the example SU(4) x SU(3) x U(1) we explicitly demonstrate that all flat directions can be lifted through a renormalizable superpotential and that supersymmetry is dynamically broken. We derive the exact superpotential for this theory, which exhibits new and interesting dynamical phenomena. For example, modifications to classical constraints can be field dependent. We also consider the generalization to SU(n) x SU(3) x U(1) models (with even n>4). We present a renormalizable superpotential which lifts all flat directions. Because SU(3) is not confining in the absence of perturbations, the analysis of supersymmetry breaking is very different in these theories from the n=4 example. When the SU(n) gauge group confines, the Yukawa couplings drive the SU(3) theory into a regime with a dynamically generated superpotential. By considering a simplified version of these theories we argue that supersymmetry is probably broken. (orig.)

  5. Bootstrap Dynamical Symmetry Breaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Shu Hou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the emergence of a 125 GeV Higgs-like particle at the LHC, we explore the possibility of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking by strong Yukawa coupling of very heavy new chiral quarks Q . Taking the 125 GeV object to be a dilaton with suppressed couplings, we note that the Goldstone bosons G exist as longitudinal modes V L of the weak bosons and would couple to Q with Yukawa coupling λ Q . With m Q ≳ 700  GeV from LHC, the strong λ Q ≳ 4 could lead to deeply bound Q Q ¯ states. We postulate that the leading “collapsed state,” the color-singlet (heavy isotriplet, pseudoscalar Q Q ¯ meson π 1 , is G itself, and a gap equation without Higgs is constructed. Dynamical symmetry breaking is affected via strong λ Q , generating m Q while self-consistently justifying treating G as massless in the loop, hence, “bootstrap,” Solving such a gap equation, we find that m Q should be several TeV, or λ Q ≳ 4 π , and would become much heavier if there is a light Higgs boson. For such heavy chiral quarks, we find analogy with the π − N system, by which we conjecture the possible annihilation phenomena of Q Q ¯ → n V L with high multiplicity, the search of which might be aided by Yukawa-bound Q Q ¯ resonances.

  6. Evaluation of a dentifrice containing 8% arginine, calcium carbonate, and sodium monofluorophosphate to prevent enamel loss after erosive challenges using an intra-oral erosion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, R; Rege, A; Corby, P; Klaczany, G; Allen, K; Hershkowitz, D; Godder, B; Wolff, M

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the ability of a dentifrice containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate (Pro-Argin' Technology), and 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP) to prevent enamel loss from an erosive acid challenge in comparison to a silica-based dentifrice with 1450 ppm fluoride as MFP using an intra-oral erosion model. The intra-oral clinical study used a double blind, two-treatment, crossover design. A palatal retainer was used to expose the enamel specimens to the oral environment during the five-day treatment period. The retainer was designed to house three partially demineralized bovine enamel samples. The study population was composed of 24 adults, ages 18 to 70 years. The study consisted of two treatment periods, with a washout period lasting seven (+/- three) days preceding each treatment phase. A silica-based dentifrice without fluoride was used during the washout period. The Test Dentifrice used in this study contained 8% arginine and calcium carbonate (Pro-Argin Technology), and 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium monofluorophosphate (MFP). The Control Dentifrice was silica-based and contained 1450 ppm fluoride as MFP. The treatment period lasted five days, during which the panelists wore the retainer 24 hours a day (except during meals and the ex vivo acid challenges) and brushed with their assigned product while wearing the retainer. The panelists brushed once in the morning and once in the evening each day for one minute, followed by a one-minute swish with the slurry and a rinse with 15 ml of water. The panelists brushed only their teeth and not the specimens directly. There were four ex vivo challenges with 1% citric acid dispersed throughout the day: two in the morning, one in the afternoon, and one in the evening. Mineral loss was monitored by a quantitative light fluorescence (QLF) technique. Twenty-three of 24 subjects successfully completed the study. The one subject who did not complete the study did so for

  7. The prevention and reduction of weight loss in an acute tertiary care setting: protocol for a pragmatic stepped wedge randomised cluster trial (the PRoWL project)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Malnutrition, with accompanying weight loss, is an unnecessary risk in hospitalised persons and often remains poorly recognised and managed. The study aims to evaluate a hospital-wide multifaceted intervention co-facilitated by clinical nurses and dietitians addressing the nutritional care of patients, particularly those at risk of malnutrition. Using the best available evidence on reducing and preventing unplanned weight loss, the intervention (introducing universal nutritional screening; the provision of oral nutritional supplements; and providing red trays and additional support for patients in need of feeding) will be introduced by local ward teams in a phased way in a large tertiary acute care hospital. Methods/Design A pragmatic stepped wedge randomised cluster trial with repeated cross section design will be conducted. The unit of randomisation is the ward, with allocation by a random numbers table. Four groups of wards (n = 6 for three groups, n = 7 for one group) will be randomly allocated to each intervention time point over the trial. Two trained local facilitators (a nurse and dietitian for each group) will introduce the intervention. The primary outcome measure is change in patient’s body weight, secondary patient outcomes are: length of stay, all-cause mortality, discharge destinations, readmission rates and ED presentations. Patient outcomes will be measured on one ward per group, with 20 patients measured per ward per time period by an unblinded researcher. Including baseline, measurements will be conducted at five time periods. Staff perspectives on the context of care will be measured with the Alberta Context Tool. Discussion Unplanned and unwanted weight loss in hospital is common. Despite the evidence and growing concern about hospital nutrition there are very few evaluations of system-wide nutritional implementation programs. This project will test the implementation of a nutritional intervention across one hospital system using a

  8. Breaking of ocean surface waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babanin, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    Wind-generated waves are the most prominent feature of the ocean surface, and so are breaking waves manifested by the appearance of sporadic whitecaps. Such breaking represents one of the most interesting and most challenging problems for both fluid mechanics and physical oceanography. It is an intermittent random process, very fast by comparison with other processes in the wave breaking on the water surface is not continuous, but its role in maintaining the energy balance within the continuous wind-wave field is critical. Ocean wave breaking also plays the primary role in the air-sea exchange of momentum, mass and heat, and it is of significant importance for ocean remote sensing, coastal and maritime engineering, navigation and other practical applications. Understanding the wave breaking its occurrence, the breaking rates and even ability to describe its onset has been hindered for decades by the strong non-linearity of the process, together with its irregular and ferocious nature. Recently, this knowledge has significantly advanced, and the review paper is an attempt to summarise the facts into a consistent, albeit still incomplete picture of the phenomenon. In the paper, variety of definitions related to the were breaking are discussed and formulated and methods for breaking detection and measurements are examined. Most of attention is dedicated to the research of wave breaking probability and severity. Experimental, observational, numerical and statistical approaches and their outcomes are reviewed. Present state of the wave-breaking research and knowledge is analysed and main outstanding problems are outlined (Authors)

  9. Qinshan NPP large break LOCA safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Guobao; Tang Jiahuan; Zhou Quanfu; Wang Yangding

    1997-01-01

    Qinshan NPP is the first nuclear power plant in the mainland of China, a 300 MW(e) two-loop PWR. Large break LOCA is the design-basis accident of Qinshan NPP. Based on available computer codes, the own analysis method which complies with Appendix k of 10 CFR 50 has been established. The RELAP4/MOD7 code is employed for the calculations of blowdown, refill and reflood phase of the RCS respectively. The CONTEMPT-LT/028 code is used for the containment pressure and temperature analysis. The temperature transient in the hot rod is calculated using the FRAP-6T code. Conservative initial and functional assumptions were adopted during Qinshan NPP large break LOCA analysis. The results of the analysis show the applicable acceptance criteria for the loss-of-coolant accident are met

  10. The Efficacy of Bisphosphonates in Preventing Aromatase Inhibitor Induced Bone Loss for Postmenopausal Women with Early Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooleriveetil Padikkal Anagha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We aim to determine the efficacy of bisphosphonates in preventing aromatase inhibitor induced bone loss (AIBL in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer. The secondary objective was to determine the safety of bisphosphonates. Materials and Methods. We searched electronic databases in a time period of 1995 January to 2013 June. Random effects meta-analytical models were used; between study heterogeneity and publication bias was assessed. Results. A total of six eligible studies reported the BMD T score of LS at 12 months and from that 3 trials of Zoledronic acid compared the change in BMD in immediate ZOL versus delayed ZOL done with subgroups like patients with normal BMD at baseline (OR = 5.402, 95% CI = 1.329–21.959, P value = 0.018 and osteopenic BMD at baseline (OR = 4.008, 95% CI = 2.249–7.143, P value = 0.0002. Both had a significant decrease in BMD that favoured the delayed ZOL; 3 trials of risedronate and ibandronate also had a significant decrease in BMD in AIs alone group. Immediate ZOL versus delayed ZOL also showed increased risk of getting an ADR in immediate group. Conclusion. Third generation bisphosphonates has an effect on BMD of patients who are on treatment of AIs in breast cancer. Furthermore, the patients treated with immediate ZOL had a significantly high risk of musculoskeletal ADR’s than patients with delayed ZOL.

  11. A multi-ingredient dietary supplement abolishes large-scale brain cell loss, improves sensory function, and prevents neuronal atrophy in aging mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemon, J A; Aksenov, V; Samigullina, R; Aksenov, S; Rodgers, W H; Rollo, C D; Boreham, D R

    2016-06-01

    Transgenic growth hormone mice (TGM) are a recognized model of accelerated aging with characteristics including chronic oxidative stress, reduced longevity, mitochondrial dysfunction, insulin resistance, muscle wasting, and elevated inflammatory processes. Growth hormone/IGF-1 activate the Target of Rapamycin known to promote aging. TGM particularly express severe cognitive decline. We previously reported that a multi-ingredient dietary supplement (MDS) designed to offset five mechanisms associated with aging extended longevity, ameliorated cognitive deterioration and significantly reduced age-related physical deterioration in both normal mice and TGM. Here we report that TGM lose more than 50% of cells in midbrain regions, including the cerebellum and olfactory bulb. This is comparable to severe Alzheimer's disease and likely explains their striking age-related cognitive impairment. We also demonstrate that the MDS completely abrogates this severe brain cell loss, reverses cognitive decline and augments sensory and motor function in aged mice. Additionally, histological examination of retinal structure revealed markers consistent with higher numbers of photoreceptor cells in aging and supplemented mice. We know of no other treatment with such efficacy, highlighting the potential for prevention or amelioration of human neuropathologies that are similarly associated with oxidative stress, inflammation and cellular dysfunction. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 57:382-404, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Curcumin inhibition of JNKs prevents dopaminergic neuronal loss in a mouse model of Parkinson’s disease through suppressing mitochondria dysfunction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Jing

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Curcumin,a natural polyphenol obtained from turmeric,has been implicated to be neuroprotective in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders although the mechanism remains poorly understood. The results of our recent experiments indicated that curcumin could protect dopaminergic neurons from apoptosis in a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP mouse model of Parkinson’s disease (PD. The death of dopaminergic neurons and the loss of dopaminergic axon in the striatum were significantly suppressed by curcumin in MPTP mouse model. Further studies showed that curcumin inhibited JNKs hyperphosphorylation induced by MPTP treatment. JNKs phosphorylation can cause translocation of Bax to mitochondria and the release of cytochrome c which both ultimately contribute to mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. These pro-apoptosis effect can be diminished by curcumin. Our experiments demonstrated that curcumin can prevent nigrostriatal degeneration by inhibiting the dysfunction of mitochondrial through suppressing hyperphosphorylation of JNKs induced by MPTP. Our results suggested that JNKs/mitochondria pathway may be a novel target in the treatment of PD patients.

  13. Effect of Twice-Yearly Denosumab on Prevention of Bone Mineral Density Loss in De Novo Kidney Transplant Recipients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonani, M; Frey, D; Brockmann, J; Fehr, T; Mueller, T F; Saleh, L; von Eckardstein, A; Graf, N; Wüthrich, R P

    2016-06-01

    We conducted an open-label, prospective, randomized trial to assess the efficacy and safety of RANKL inhibition with denosumab to prevent the loss of bone mineral density (BMD) in the first year after kidney transplantation. Ninety kidney transplant recipients were randomized 1:1 2 weeks after surgery to receive denosumab (60 mg at baseline and 6 months) or no treatment. After 12 months, total lumbar spine areal BMD (aBMD) increased by 4.6% (95% confidence interval [CI] 3.3-5.9%) in 46 patients in the denosumab group and decreased by -0.5% (95% CI -1.8% to 0.9%) in 44 patients in the control group (between-group difference 5.1% [95% CI 3.1-7.0%], p bone turnover (C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide) markedly decreased with denosumab (all p transplantation but was associated with more frequent episodes of urinary tract infection. © Copyright 2015 The American Society of Transplantation and the American Society of Transplant Surgeons.

  14. Musculoskeletal injuries in break-dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chul Hyun; Song, Kwang Soon; Min, Byung Woo; Lee, Sung Moon; Chang, Hyuk Won; Eum, Dae Seup

    2009-11-01

    Since no epidemiologic studies have been reported about musculoskeletal injuries in break-dancers, there are no data on the rates and patterns of musculoskeletal injuries in this population that clinicians can use to find ways to decrease injury rate. We believe that the incidence of injuries in break-dancers is higher than assumed and that injury rates and patterns differ between professional and amateur dancers. Descriptive epidemiologic study. Of a total of 42 study subjects, 23 were professional dancers and 19 were amateur dancers. Injury frequency, site and type, along with the presence of supervised training, the use of protective devices and warm-up exercises done were recorded. Of the 42 study subjects, excluding two amateur dancers, 40 (95.2%) had had musculoskeletal injuries at more than one site. The mean number of sites per dancer was 4.60. The frequency of injury depended on the site and was as follows: wrist (69.0%), finger (61.9%), knee (61.9%), shoulder (52.4%), lumbar spine (50.0%), elbow (42.9%), cervical spine (38.1%), ankle (38.1%), foot (28.6%) and hip (16.7%). Sprain, strain and tendinitis were the most common injuries, accounting for the most cases. Of the 42 dancers, 13 (31%) had had fractures or dislocations. Eight (19.1%) learned break-dancing under supervised instruction, 17 (40.5%) used protective devices and 28 (66.7%) performed warm-up exercises before dancing. There were significant differences in age, dance career length, amount of dance training, mean number of injury sites and the presence of supervised training between professionals and amateurs (Pnature of the activities that result in both unusual and common injuries in break-dancers and educate them about safety. Careful screening, instruction and supervised training of break-dancers will help to prevent injuries.

  15. Simulation of a large break loss of coolant (LBLOCA), without actuation of the emergency injection systems (ECCS) for a BWR-5; Simulacion de un escenario de perdida de refrigerante grande (LBLOCA), sin actuacion de los sistemas de inyeccion de emergencia (ECCS) para un reactor BWR-5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cardenas V, J.; Mugica R, C. A.; Lopez M, R., E-mail: jaime.cardenas@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Barragan 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Ciudad de Mexico (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    In this paper the analysis of scenario for the loss of coolant case was realized with break at the bottom of a recirculation loop of a BWR-5 with containment type Mark II and a thermal power of 2317 MWt considering that not have coolant injection. This in order to observe the speed of progression of the accident, the phenomenology of the scenario, the time to reach the limit pressure of containment venting and the amount of radionuclides released into the environment. This simulation was performed using the MELCOR code version 2.1. The scenario posits a break in one of the shear recirculation loops. The emergency core cooling system (ECCS) and the reactor core isolation cooling (Rcic) have not credit throughout the event, which allowed achieve greater severity on scenario. The venting of the primary containment was conducted via valve of 30 inches instead of the line of 24 inches of wet well, this in order to have a larger area of exhaust of fission products directly to the reactor building. The venting took place when the pressure in the primary containment reached the 4.5 kg/cm{sup 2} and remained open for the rest of the scenario to maximize the amount released of radionuclides to the atmosphere. The safety relief valves were considered functional they do not present mechanical failure or limit their ability to release pressure due to the large number of performances in safety mode. The results of the analysis covers about 48 hours, time at which the accident evolution was observed; behavior of level, pressure in the vessel and the fuel temperature profile was analyzed. For progression of the scenario outside the vessel, the pressure and temperature of the primary containment, level and temperature of the suppression pool, the hydrogen accumulation in the container and the radionuclides mass released into the atmosphere were analyzed. (Author)

  16. Electroweak breaking in supersymmetric models

    CERN Document Server

    Ibáñez, L E

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the mechanism for electroweak symmetry breaking in supersymmetric versions of the standard model. After briefly reviewing the possible sources of supersymmetry breaking, we show how the required pattern of symmetry breaking can automatically result from the structure of quantum corrections in the theory. We demonstrate that this radiative breaking mechanism works well for a heavy top quark and can be combined in unified versions of the theory with excellent predictions for the running couplings of the model. (To be published in ``Perspectives in Higgs Physics'', G. Kane editor.)

  17. Gain-Framed Messages Do Not Motivate Sun Protection: A Meta-Analytic Review of Randomized Trials Comparing Gain-Framed and Loss-Framed Appeals for Promoting Skin Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Keefe, Daniel J.; Wu, Daisy

    2012-01-01

    Persuading people to undertake actions to prevent skin cancer is an important public health challenge. A number of studies have compared the effectiveness of gain-framed and loss-framed appeals in this domain, often expecting gain-framed appeals to be more persuasive. A meta-analytic review (k = 33, N = 4,168), however, finds no significant difference in the persuasiveness of gain- and loss-framed appeals for encouraging skin cancer prevention. This conclusion is unaffected by differences in the specific protective action advocated or by differences in the kind of outcomes invoked. But the results offer an intimation that men might be more susceptible to framing variations in this domain—with loss-framed appeals potentially having a persuasive advantage. PMID:22829794

  18. Chymase inhibition prevents fibronectin and myofibrillar loss and improves cardiomyocyte function and LV torsion angle in dogs with isolated mitral regurgitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat, Betty; Chen, Yuanwen; Killingsworth, Cheryl; Gladden, James D; Shi, Ke; Zheng, Junying; Powell, Pamela C; Walcott, Greg; Ahmed, Mustafa I; Gupta, Himanshu; Desai, Ravi; Wei, Chih-Chang; Hase, Naoki; Kobayashi, Tsunefumi; Sabri, Abdelkarim; Granzier, Henk; Denney, Thomas; Tillson, Michael; Dillon, A Ray; Husain, Ahsan; Dell'italia, Louis J

    2010-10-12

    The left ventricular (LV) dilatation of isolated mitral regurgitation (MR) is associated with an increase in chymase and a decrease in interstitial collagen and extracellular matrix. In addition to profibrotic effects, chymase has significant antifibrotic actions because it activates matrix metalloproteinases and kallikrein and degrades fibronectin. Thus, we hypothesize that chymase inhibitor (CI) will attenuate extracellular matrix loss and LV remodeling in MR. We studied dogs with 4 months of untreated MR (MR; n=9) or MR treated with CI (MR+CI; n=8). Cine MRI demonstrated a >40% increase in LV end-diastolic volume in both groups, consistent with a failure of CI to improve a 25% decrease in interstitial collagen in MR. However, LV cardiomyocyte fractional shortening was decreased in MR versus normal dogs (3.71±0.24% versus 4.81±0.31%; P<0.05) and normalized in MR+CI dogs (4.85±0.44%). MRI with tissue tagging demonstrated an increase in LV torsion angle in MR+CI versus MR dogs. CI normalized the significant decrease in fibronectin and FAK phosphorylation and prevented cardiomyocyte myofibrillar degeneration in MR dogs. In addition, total titin and its stiffer isoform were increased in the LV epicardium and paralleled the changes in fibronectin and FAK phosphorylation in MR+CI dogs. These results suggest that chymase disrupts cell surface-fibronectin connections and FAK phosphorylation that can adversely affect cardiomyocyte myofibrillar structure and function. The greater effect of CI on epicardial versus endocardial titin and noncollagen cell surface proteins may be responsible for the increase in torsion angle in chronic MR.

  19. Acetyl-L-Carnitine via Upegulating Dopamine D1 Receptor and Attenuating Microglial Activation Prevents Neuronal Loss and Improves Memory Functions in Parkinsonian Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sonu; Mishra, Akanksha; Srivastava, Neha; Shukla, Rakesh; Shukla, Shubha

    2018-01-01

    Parkinson's disease is accompanied by nonmotor symptoms including cognitive impairment, which precede the onset of motor symptoms in patients and are regulated by dopamine (DA) receptors and the mesocorticolimbic pathway. The relative contribution of DA receptors and astrocytic glutamate transporter (GLT-1) in cognitive functions is largely unexplored. Similarly, whether microglia-derived increased immune response affects cognitive functions and neuronal survival is not yet understood. We have investigated the effect of acetyl-L-carnitine (ALCAR) on cognitive functions and its possible underlying mechanism of action in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced hemiparkinsonian rats. ALCAR treatment in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats improved memory functions as confirmed by decreased latency time and path length in the Morris water maze test. ALCAR further enhanced D1 receptor levels without altering D2 receptor levels in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) regions, suggesting that the D1 receptor is preferentially involved in the regulation of cognitive functions. ALCAR attenuated microglial activation and release of inflammatory mediators through balancing proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, which subsequently enhanced the survival of mature neurons in the CA1, CA3, and PFC regions and improved cognitive functions in hemiparkinsonian rats. ALCAR treatment also improved glutathione (GSH) content, while decreasing oxidative stress indices, inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (iNOS) levels, and astrogliosis resulting in the upregulation of GLT-1 levels. Additionally, ALCAR prevented the loss of dopaminergic (DAergic) neurons in ventral tagmental area (VTA)/substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc) regions of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats, thus maintaining the integrity of the nigrostriatal pathway. Together, these results demonstrate that ALCAR treatment in hemiparkinsonian rats ameliorates neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits, hence suggesting its therapeutic potential in

  20. R-parity breaking phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissani, F.

    1996-02-01

    We review various features of the R-parity breaking phenomenology, with particular attention to the low energy observables, and to the patterns of the R-parity breaking interactions that arise in Grand Unified models. (author). 22 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  1. Inflation from supersymmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, I. [UMR CNRS 7589 Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Paris 6, LPTHE, Paris (France); University of Bern, Albert Einstein Center, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Chatrabhuti, A.; Isono, H.; Knoops, R. [Chulalongkorn University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Pathumwan, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2017-11-15

    We explore the possibility that inflation is driven by supersymmetry breaking with the superpartner of the goldstino (sgoldstino) playing the role of the inflaton. Moreover, we impose an R-symmetry that allows one to satisfy easily the slow-roll conditions, avoiding the so-called η-problem, and leads to two different classes of small-field inflation models; they are characterised by an inflationary plateau around the maximum of the scalar potential, where R-symmetry is either restored or spontaneously broken, with the inflaton rolling down to a minimum describing the present phase of our Universe. To avoid the Goldstone boson and be left with a single (real) scalar field (the inflaton), R-symmetry is gauged with the corresponding gauge boson becoming massive. This framework generalises a model studied recently by the present authors, with the inflaton identified by the string dilaton and R-symmetry together with supersymmetry restored at weak coupling, at infinity of the dilaton potential. The presence of the D-term allows a tuning of the vacuum energy at the minimum. The proposed models agree with cosmological observations and predict a tensor-to-scalar ratio of primordial perturbations 10{sup -9}

  2. Symmetry breaking by bifundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    We derive all possible symmetry breaking patterns for all possible Higgs fields that can occur in intersecting brane models: bifundamentals and rank-2 tensors. This is a field-theoretic problem that was already partially solved in 1973 by Ling-Fong Li [1]. In that paper the solution was given for rank-2 tensors of orthogonal and unitary group, and U (N )×U (M ) and O (N )×O (M ) bifundamentals. We extend this first of all to symplectic groups. When formulated correctly, this turns out to be straightforward generalization of the previous results from real and complex numbers to quaternions. The extension to mixed bifundamentals is more challenging and interesting. The scalar potential has up to six real parameters. Its minima or saddle points are described by block-diagonal matrices built out of K blocks of size p ×q . Here p =q =1 for the solutions of Ling-Fong Li, and the number of possibilities for p ×q is equal to the number of real parameters in the potential, minus 1. The maximum block size is p ×q =2 ×4 . Different blocks cannot be combined, and the true minimum occurs for one choice of basic block, and for either K =1 or K maximal, depending on the parameter values.

  3. Symmetry and symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balian, R.; Lambert, D.; Brack, A.; Lachieze-Rey, M.; Emery, E.; Cohen-Tannoudji, G.; Sacquin, Y.

    1999-01-01

    The symmetry concept is a powerful tool for our understanding of the world. It allows a reduction of the volume of information needed to apprehend a subject thoroughly. Moreover this concept does not belong to a particular field, it is involved in the exact sciences but also in artistic matters. Living beings are characterized by a particular asymmetry: the chiral asymmetry. Although this asymmetry is visible in whole organisms, it seems it comes from some molecules that life always produce in one chirality. The weak interaction presents also the chiral asymmetry. The mass of particles comes from the breaking of a fundamental symmetry and the void could be defined as the medium showing as many symmetries as possible. The texts put together in this book show to a great extent how symmetry goes far beyond purely geometrical considerations. Different aspects of symmetry ideas are considered in the following fields: the states of matter, mathematics, biology, the laws of Nature, quantum physics, the universe, and the art of music. (A.C.)

  4. PREGNANCY LOSS IN MARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tibary A

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pregnancy loss is an important aspect of equine practice due to the economic and emotional loss that it engenders. Pregnancy loss is often divided in two categories: early pregnancy loss (EPL or embryonic death (ED (first 42 days and fetal losses (after 42 days. Diagnosis of the causes of pregnancy loss is often very challenging. Many of the causes of EPL remain poorly documented but studies on embryo development and embryo-uterine interaction have been able to shed some light on predisposing factors. Fetal losses or abortions are dominated by infectious causes and particularly bacterial placentitis. Detailed reviews of pregnancy loss were recently published by the authors (Tibary et al., 2012; Tibary and Pearson, 2012; Tibary et al., 2014. The objective of this paper is to provide an overview of the epidemiology, etiology, diagnosis and prevention of pregnancy loss in the mare.

  5. STRESS FRACTURE OF THE ULNA IN A BREAK-DANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsu Chen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Break dancing is a popular activity in teenagers and is associated with severe trauma to bones and tissues. We report the first known case of a break dancer with an ulnar stress fracture. Such injuries occur in a variety of sports due to substantial stress on the ulna and repetitive excessive rotation of the forearm. In this study we describe a patient who experienced an ulnar stress fracture during break dancing training. The diagnosis was established by history and physical examination. Initial radiographic findings were negative. However, radiographs taken 3 months after initial presented revealed callus formation over the ulnar shaft. This suggested that readjustment is required in break dancing training protocols. It is important to increase awareness of this injury among physicians to expedite the diagnosis and to prevent the possibility of conversion to an overt fracture in the future

  6. Thefts, break-ins, etc.

    CERN Multimedia

    Property Protection Group

    2004-01-01

    TAKING PRECAUTIONS IS THE BEST MEANS OF PROTECTION On the eve of CERN's annual end of year closure, it is in your own interest, that of your colleagues and that of the Organization, that the following recommendations be followed: 1. MONEY, VALUABLES & KEYS: Do not leave money or valuables in your office or your lockers. Keys and their copies should be removed or kept in a safe place. 2. DOORS & WINDOWS: Lock office, workshop, meeting-room doors etc. when you leave. Also close the windows if they are easily accessible from outside. 3. REPORTING INCIDENTS: Each crime solved could prevent another from being perpetrated. Please report any thefts, losses, objects gone missing and other incidents to the CERN Fire Brigade (tel. 74848) and keep them informed of any important developments (objects found, new clues, suspicious people or vehicles etc.). The Property Protection Group would like to wish you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year! Property Protection Group Tel. 72848

  7. Supersymmetry breaking with extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwirner, Fabio

    2004-01-01

    This talk reviews some aspects of supersymmetry breaking in the presence of extra dimensions. The first part is a general introduction, recalling the motivations for supersymmetry and extra dimensions, as well as some unsolved problems of four-dimensional models of supersymmetry breaking. The central part is a more focused introduction to a mechanism for (super)symmetry breaking, proposed first by Scherk and Schwarz, where extra dimensions play a crucial role. The last part is devoted to the description of some recent results and of some open problems. (author)

  8. Break down of losses in thin electrolyte SOFCs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barfod, Rasmus; Hagen, Anke; Ramousse, S.

    2006-01-01

    /YSZ cermet anode, and a LSM composite cathode. Additional, qualitative information was obtained using symmetric cells with LSM composite electrodes. The investigations were carried out in the temperature interval from 700 to 850 degrees C. The electrolyte and anode activation energies obtained were 0.9 and 1...

  9. Liraglutide and obesity in elderly: efficacy in fat loss and safety in order to prevent sarcopenia. A perspective case series study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Simone; Guido, Davide; Bologna, Chiara; Solerte, Sebastiano Bruno; Guerriero, Fabio; Isu, Antonio; Rondanelli, Mariangela

    2016-12-01

    For the growing numbers of obese elderly with diabetes, the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor analogue (liraglutide) appears a safe way to promote and maintain substantial weight loss. Given this background, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of the liraglutide treatment, at doses up to 3.0 mg per day, on the body composition, focusing on sarcopenia, in overweight and obese elderly with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A perspective study was carried out in overweight and obese T2DM patients with HbA1c equal to 7.0 % (53 mmol/mol) ~10.0 % (86), under 3-month treatment (at least) of maximal dose of metformin at stable regime, and additional liraglutide at doses up to 3.0 mg per day. Body composition markers such as skeletal muscle index (SMI), android and gynoid fat mass, and arms and legs fat free mass, was measured by dual-energy X-ray densitometry (DXA) at baseline and after 24 weeks of liraglutide treatment. Glucose control was also carried out by glucose and HbA1c. Nine subjects (male/female 6/3, mean age 68.22 ± 3.86 years, BMI 32.34 ± 4.89 kg/m 2 ) were evaluated. We noted a median decrease in BMI (-0.78 kg/m 2 ), weight (-2000 g), fat mass (-1498 g) and android fat (-0.9 %), and a increase in SMI (+0.03 kg/m 2 ) from baseline. Glycemic control also improved, with a median change HbA1c of -0.80 %. Twenty-four weeks of liraglutide treatment was associated with reductions in fat mass and android fat. In addition, in order to prevent sarcopenia, it preserved the muscular tropism.

  10. Predictors of loss to follow-up among children registered in an HIV prevention mother-to-child transmission cohort study in Pernambuco, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouveia, Pedro Alves da Cruz; da Silva, Gerlane Alves Pontes; de Albuquerque, Maria de Fatima Pessoa Militão

    2014-11-27

    Mother-to-child transmission of HIV (MTCT) is the major form of acquiring the disease among children. The loss to follow-up (LTF) of mothers and their children is a problem that affects the effectiveness of programs for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT). The aim of this study is to identify risk factors associated with the LTF of HIV-exposed children in the state of Pernambuco, Brazil. A retrospective cohort study was carried out with 1200 HIV-exposed children born between 2000 and 2009, registered up to the age of 2 months in a public health PMTCT program. Children were considered LTF if they did not return for scheduled visits to monitor infection status. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify risk factors for LTF. A total of 185 children (15.4%; CI: 95%: 13.4-17.4%) met the case definition of LTF before the determination of serological HIV status. Risk factors independently associated with LTF were mother-child pairs who reside in rural and remote areas (OR 1.86; 95% CI: 1.30-2.66) and mothers who use illicit drugs (OR 1.8; 95% CI: 1.08-3.0). Initiation of the PMTCT during pregnancy was a protective factor for LTF (OR 0.69; 95% CI: 0.49-0.96). The decentralization of support services for HIV-exposed children to other cities in the state seems to be crucial for the accurate monitoring of outcomes. It is also important to introduce additional measures addressing mothers who are drug users so that they remain in the program: an intensive follow-up program that actively searches for absentee mother-child pairs, support from social services and treatment for drug-dependency. The findings of this study highlight the importance of diagnosing mothers as early as possible in order to conduct a more complete follow-up period of the children. Solving the above-mentioned problems is a challenge, which must be overcome so as to improve the quality of PMTCT.

  11. Hearing loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decreased hearing; Deafness; Loss of hearing; Conductive hearing loss; Sensorineural hearing loss; Presbycusis ... Symptoms of hearing loss may include: Certain sounds seeming too loud Difficulty following conversations when two or more people are talking ...

  12. A randomized phase III prospective trial of bethanechol to prevent mucositis, candidiasis, and taste loss in patients with head and neck cancer undergoing radiotherapy. A secondary analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jham, B.C.; Chen, H.; Carvalho, A.L.; Freire, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of bethanechol administration concomitant to radiotherapy (RT) on oral mucositis, candidiasis and taste loss. We performed a secondary analysis of a previously conducted prospective randomized trial which evaluated the effect of bethanechol on salivary gland dysfunction before, during, and after RT for head and neck cancer (HNC), in comparison to artificial saliva. Mucositis, candidiasis and taste loss were analyzed in 36 patients. Mucositis was scored using the World Health Organization (WHO) method; candidiasis was diagnosed by means of clinical examination, whereas taste loss was assessed by the patients' subjective report of absence of taste. No significant differences were observed between groups in relation to frequency and severity of mucositis or frequency of candidiasis and taste loss. In conclusion, bethanechol does not appear to reduce the incidence of mucositis, candidiasis, and taste loss when administered during RT. (author)

  13. Radionuclide Release after LBLOCA with Loss of Class IV Power Accident in CANDU-6 Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hoon [KHNP Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-10-15

    A large break in a pipe train of a primary heat transport system discharges coolant, which has high energy and large mass, into the containment building. Reactor shutdown and emergency core cooling water will limit the fuel cladding failure, but cannot prevent it entirely. The containment building is the last barrier of radionuclide release to the environment. Containment isolation and pressure suppression by dousing and local air cooler reduce the amount of radionuclide release to the environment. The objective of containment behavior analysis for large break loss of coolant with loss of class IV power accident is to assess the amount of radionuclide release to the ambient atmosphere. Radionuclide release rates in this event, with all safety system available, that is, the containment building is intact, as well as with containment system impairment, are analyzed with GOTHIC and SMART code

  14. Stochastic mechanism of symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baseyan, H.Z.

    1983-01-01

    A new symmetry breaking mechanism conditioned by presence of random fields in vacuum is proposed. Massive Yang-Mills fields finally arise, that may be interpreted as ''macroscopic'' manifestation of the ''microscopic'' Yang-Mills massless theory

  15. Hearing Loss: Symptoms, Diagnosis & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Hearing Loss Symptoms, Devices, Prevention & Research Past Issues / Spring ... a disease. It can accompany any type of hearing loss. It can be a side effect of ...

  16. Dynamic breaking of a single gold bond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pobelov, Ilya V.; Lauritzen, Kasper Primdal; Yoshida, Koji

    2017-01-01

    While one might assume that the force to break a chemical bond gives a measure of the bond strength, this intuition is misleading. If the force is loaded slowly, thermal fluctuations may break the bond before it is maximally stretched, and the breaking force will be less than the bond can sustain...... of a single Au-Au bond and show that the breaking force is dependent on the loading rate. We probe the temperature and structural dependencies of breaking and suggest that the paradox can be explained by fast breaking of atomic wires and slow breaking of point contacts giving very similar breaking forces....

  17. HIV-positive pregnant women attending the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV/AIDS (PMTCT) services in Ethiopia: economic productivity losses across urban-rural settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegeye, Elias Asfaw; Mbonigaba, Josue; Kaye, Sylvia Blanche

    2018-06-01

    HIV/AIDS impacts significantly on pregnant women and on children in Ethiopia. This impact has a multiplier effect on household economies and on productivity losses, and is expected to vary across rural and urban settings. Applying the human capital approach to data collected from 131 respondents, this study estimated productivity losses per HIV-positive pregnant woman-infant pair across urban and rural health facilities in Ethiopia, which in turn were used to estimate the national productivity loss. The study found that the annual productivity loss per woman-infant pair was Ethiopian birr (ETB) 7,433 or United States dollar (US$) 378 and ETB 625 (US$ 32) in urban and rural settings, respectively. The mean patient days lost per year due to inpatient admission at hospitals/health centres was 11 in urban and 22 in rural health facilities. On average, urban home care-givers spent 20 (SD = 21) days annually providing home care services, while their rural counterparts spent 23 days (SD = 26). The productivity loss accounted for 16% and 7% of household income in urban and rural settings, respectively. These high and varying productivity losses require preventive interventions that are appropriate to each setting to ensure the welfare of women and children in Ethiopia.

  18. Breaking the glass ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarus, A

    1997-03-01

    The glass ceiling is a form of organizational bias and discrimination that prevents qualified professionals from achieving positions of top governance and leadership. This article examines glass ceiling barriers that keep physicians from the upper reaches of management. While these factors apply mainly to women and minority physicians in academia, and are attributable to sexual harassment and discrimination, physicians as a class are frequently denied executive management positions. Such denial results from inadequate preparation for a career in health care administration. Important issues in the professional development of physician executives include mentoring, training and education, administrative experience, and cultural and personality factors. All of those must be considered when making the transition from medicine to management.

  19. "And Then Break the Cliché": Understanding and Addressing HIV Vulnerability Through Development of an HIV Prevention Telenovela with Men Who Have Sex with Men and Transwomen in Lima, Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Jonathan; Perez-Brumer, Amaya G; Cabello, Robinson; Clark, Jesse L

    2018-02-20

    HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) continue to affect men who have sex with men (MSM) and transgender women (TW) in Peru at disproportionately high rates. The ineffectiveness of traditional prevention strategies may be due to the disconnect between health promotion messages and community-level understandings of sexual cultures. We conducted 15 workshops with MSM and TW to develop a community-based sexual health intervention. Intervention development consisted of focus groups and scenic improvisation to identify sexual scripts for an HIV prevention telenovela, or Spanish soap opera. Workshops were stratified by self-reported socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, and gender identity: (1) low-income MSM (n = 9); (2) middle/high-income MSM (n = 6); and (3) TW (n = 8). Employing a conceptual model based on sexual scripts and critical consciousness theories, this paper reports on three themes identified during the telenovela-development process as participants sought to "rescript" social and sexual stereotypes associated with HIV-related vulnerability: (1) management of MSM and TW social identities at the intersection of socioeconomic status, sexuality, and gender performance; (2) social constructions of gender and/or sexual role and perceived and actual HIV/STI risk(s) within sexual partnership interactions; and (3) idealized and actual sexual scripts in the negotiation of safer sex practices between MSM/TW and their partners. These findings are key to reframing existing prevention strategies that fail to effectively engage poorly defined "high-risk populations." Leveraging community-based expertise, the results provide an alternative to the static transfer of information through expert-patient interactions in didactic sessions commonly used in HIV prevention interventions among MSM and TW.

  20. 5-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of immediate versus delayed zoledronic acid for the prevention of bone loss in postmenopausal women with breast cancer starting letrozole after tamoxifen: N03CC (Alliance) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner-Johnston, Nina D; Sloan, Jeff A; Liu, Heshan; Kearns, Ann E; Hines, Stephanie L; Puttabasavaiah, Suneetha; Dakhil, Shaker R; Lafky, Jacqueline M; Perez, Edith A; Loprinzi, Charles L

    2015-08-01

    Postmenopausal women with breast cancer receiving aromatase inhibitors are at an increased risk of bone loss. The current study was undertaken to determine whether upfront versus delayed treatment with zoledronic acid (ZA) impacted bone loss. This report described the 5-year follow-up results. A total of 551 postmenopausal women with breast cancer who completed tamoxifen treatment and were undergoing daily letrozole treatment were randomized to either upfront (274 patients) or delayed (277 patients) ZA at a dose of 4 mg intravenously every 6 months. In the patients on the delayed treatment arm, ZA was initiated for a postbaseline bone mineral density T-score of prevented bone loss compared with delayed treatment in postmenopausal women receiving letrozole and these differences were maintained at 5 years. The incidence of osteoporosis or fractures was not found to be significantly different between treatment arms. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  1. Simulation of breaking waves using the high-order spectral method with laboratory experiments: wave-breaking energy dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffert, Betsy R.; Ducrozet, Guillaume

    2018-01-01

    We examine the implementation of a wave-breaking mechanism into a nonlinear potential flow solver. The success of the mechanism will be studied by implementing it into the numerical model HOS-NWT, which is a computationally efficient, open source code that solves for the free surface in a numerical wave tank using the high-order spectral (HOS) method. Once the breaking mechanism is validated, it can be implemented into other nonlinear potential flow models. To solve for wave-breaking, first a wave-breaking onset parameter is identified, and then a method for computing wave-breaking associated energy loss is determined. Wave-breaking onset is calculated using a breaking criteria introduced by Barthelemy et al. (J Fluid Mech https://arxiv.org/pdf/1508.06002.pdf, submitted) and validated with the experiments of Saket et al. (J Fluid Mech 811:642-658, 2017). Wave-breaking energy dissipation is calculated by adding a viscous diffusion term computed using an eddy viscosity parameter introduced by Tian et al. (Phys Fluids 20(6): 066,604, 2008, Phys Fluids 24(3), 2012), which is estimated based on the pre-breaking wave geometry. A set of two-dimensional experiments is conducted to validate the implemented wave breaking mechanism at a large scale. Breaking waves are generated by using traditional methods of evolution of focused waves and modulational instability, as well as irregular breaking waves with a range of primary frequencies, providing a wide range of breaking conditions to validate the solver. Furthermore, adjustments are made to the method of application and coefficient of the viscous diffusion term with negligible difference, supporting the robustness of the eddy viscosity parameter. The model is able to accurately predict surface elevation and corresponding frequency/amplitude spectrum, as well as energy dissipation when compared with the experimental measurements. This suggests the model is capable of calculating wave-breaking onset and energy dissipation

  2. Lessons from worldwide measles out-breaks in 2011-2012 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measles is a leading cause of under-five mortality among vaccine preventable diseases in today's developing world. In fact, Tanzania has been experiencing measles out-breaks almost every year. Since last year, the world has experienced several out-breaks in several areas including many developed countries with high ...

  3. Thermal-hydraulic analysis of loss-of-coolant accident in the JMTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakurai, Fumio; Oyamada, Rokuro

    1985-02-01

    The reevaluation of the Loss-of-Coolant Accident (LOCA) was required through the process of a safety review for the Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR) core conversion from the high-enriched uranium fuel (Enrichment : 93%) to the medium-enriched uranium fuel (Enrichment : 45%). The following were concluded by thermal-hydraulic analysis of a LOCA caused by a double-ended pipe break in the JMTR primary cooling system. (1) The fuel in the core does not burn-out as long as it is covered with water. (2) A larger siphon break valve (larger than phi60mm) should be installed instead of the present one (phi25mm) on the primary cooling system in order to prevent the core from being uncovered with water in case of a LOCA caused by a double-ended pipe break. The present siphon break valve was installed to keep the core covered with water in case of a LOCA caused by a small pipe rupture. In this analysis, the Siphon Breaker Analysis Code (SBAC) was written in order to analyse the size of the siphon break valve and its accuracy was confirmed to be within 5% through a verification experiment. (author)

  4. Pregnancy Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... To receive Pregnancy email updates Enter email Submit Pregnancy loss Pregnancy loss is a harsh reality faced ... have successful pregnancies. Expand all | Collapse all Why pregnancy loss happens As many as 10 to 15 ...

  5. Weight Loss and the Prevention of Weight Regain: Evaluation of a Treatment Model of Exercise Self-Regulation Generalizing to Controlled Eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annesi, James J; Johnson, Ping H; Tennant, Gisèle A; Porter, Kandice J; Mcewen, Kristin L

    2016-01-01

    For decades, behavioral weight-loss treatments have been unsuccessful beyond the short term. Development and testing of innovative, theoretically based methods that depart from current failed practices is a priority for behavioral medicine. To evaluate a new, theory-based protocol in which exercise support methods are employed to facilitate improvements in psychosocial predictors of controlled eating and sustained weight loss. Women with obesity were randomized into either a comparison treatment that incorporated a print manual plus telephone follow-ups (n = 55) or an experimental treatment of The Coach Approach exercise-support protocol followed after 2 months by group nutrition sessions focused on generalizing self-regulatory skills from an exercise support to a controlled eating context (n = 55). Repeated-measures analysis of variance contrasted group changes in weight, physical activity, fruit and vegetable intake, mood, and exercise- and eating-related self-regulation and self-efficacy over 24 months. Regression analyses determined salient interrelations of change scores over both the weight-loss phase (baseline-month 6) and weight-loss maintenance phase (month 6-month 24). Improvements in all psychological measures, physical activity, and fruit and vegetable intake were significantly greater in the experimental group where a mean weight loss of 5.7 kg (6.1% of initial body weight) occurred at month 6, and was largely maintained at a loss of 5.1 kg (5.4%) through the full 24 months of the study. After establishing temporal intervals for changes in self-regulation, self-efficacy, and mood that best predicted improvements in physical activity and eating, a consolidated multiple mediation model suggested that change in self-regulation best predicted weight loss, whereas change in self-efficacy best predicted maintenance of lost weight. Because for most participants loss of weight remained greater than that required for health benefits, and costs for treatment

  6. Analisis Break Even Point Penjualan Pupuk Kompos Toar Organic Fertilizer di Kakaskasen Kota Tomohon

    OpenAIRE

    Sianipar, Maya Basaria; Mandei, Juliana R; Katiandagho, Theodora M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the value of sales of compos at break even. Starting from of 2012, 2013, 2014 and 2015. Analysis of break even point is an analysis tools that is used by management of a company that serves to determine the level of sales, so the company doesn't profit and loss. Analysis of break even points can be used by a manager or a leader of the company with the aim to determine the level of sales volume before experiencing benefits and losses.Research uses the d...

  7. Break model comparison in different RELAP5 versions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parzer, I.

    2003-01-01

    The presented work focuses on the break flow prediction in RELAP5/MOD3 code, which is crucial to predict core uncovering and heatup during the Small Break Loss-of-Coolant Accidents (SB LOCA). The code prediction has been compared to the IAEA-SPE-4 experiments conducted on the PMK-2 integral test facilities in Hungary. The simulations have been performed with MOD3.2.2 Beta, MOD3.2.2 Gamma, MOD3.3 Beta and MOD3.3 frozen code version. In the present work we have compared the Ransom-Trapp and Henry-Fauske break model predictions. Additionally, both model predictions have been compared to itself, when used as the main modeling tool or when used as another code option, as so-called 'secret developmental options' on input card no.1. (author)

  8. Estimation of LOCA break size using cascaded Fuzzy neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Geon Pil; Yoo, Kwae Hwan; Back, Ju Hyun; Na, Man Gyun [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    Operators of nuclear power plants may not be equipped with sufficient information during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), which can be fatal, or they may not have sufficient time to analyze the information they do have, even if this information is adequate. It is not easy to predict the progression of LOCAs in nuclear power plants. Therefore, accurate information on the LOCA break position and size should be provided to efficiently manage the accident. In this paper, the LOCA break size is predicted using a cascaded fuzzy neural network (CFNN) model. The input data of the CFNN model are the time-integrated values of each measurement signal for an initial short-time interval after a reactor scram. The training of the CFNN model is accomplished by a hybrid method combined with a genetic algorithm and a least squares method. As a result, LOCA break size is estimated exactly by the proposed CFNN model.

  9. String breaking with Wilson loops?

    CERN Document Server

    Kratochvila, S; Kratochvila, Slavo; Forcrand, Philippe de

    2003-01-01

    A convincing, uncontroversial observation of string breaking, when the static potential is extracted from Wilson loops only, is still missing. This failure can be understood if the overlap of the Wilson loop with the broken string is exponentially small. In that case, the broken string ground state will only be seen if the Wilson loop is long enough. Our preliminary results show string breaking in the context of the 3d SU(2) adjoint static potential, using the L\\"uscher-Weisz exponential variance reduction approach. As a by-product, we measure the fundamental SU(2) static potential with improved accuracy and see clear deviations from Casimir scaling.

  10. Transiently increasing cAMP levels selectively in hippocampal excitatory neurons during sleep deprivation prevents memory deficits caused by sleep loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havekes, Robbert; Bruinenberg, Vibeke M.; Tudor, Jennifer C.; Ferri, Sarah L.; Baumann, Arnd; Meerlo, Peter; Abel, Ted

    2014-01-01

    The hippocampus is particularly sensitive to sleep loss. Although previous work has indicated that sleep deprivation impairs hippocampal cAMP signaling, it remains to be determined whether the cognitive deficits associated with sleep deprivation are caused by attenuated cAMP signaling in the

  11. Theoretical study on loss of coolant accident of a research reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kwon-Yeong; Kim, Wan-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A theoretical model of siphon breaking phenomena was developed. • A general formula using Chisholm coefficient B was proposed. • The safety requirements regarding a loss of coolant accident of research reactors could be found out. - Abstract: Under the design conditions of a research reactor, the siphon phenomenon induced by pipe rupture can cause continuous efflux of water. In order to prevent water efflux, an additional facility is necessary. A siphon breaker is a type of safety facility that can resist the loss of coolant effectively. However, analysis of siphon breaking is complex since it comprises two-phase flow and there are many inputs to be considered. For this reason, we analyzed the experimental results to develop a theoretical model of siphon breaking phenomena. Developed model is based on fluid mechanics and Chisholm model. From Bernoulli’s equation, the velocity and quantity as well as undershooting height, water level, pressure, friction coefficient, and factors related to the two-phase flow could be calculated. The Chisholm model, which is able to analyze the two-phase flow, can predict the results in a manner similar to those obtained from a real-scale experiment, and a general formula using Chisholm coefficient B was proposed in this study. Also, we verified the theoretical model and concluded that it is possible to analyze the siphon breaking. Moreover, the design conditions that can satisfy the safety requirements regarding a loss of coolant accident of research reactors could be found out by using the theoretical model. In conclusion, we propose the theoretical model which can analyze the siphon breaking as real, and it is helpful not only to analyze but also to design the siphon breaker.

  12. Thefts, break-ins, etc.

    CERN Multimedia

    Host States Relations Secretariat

    2005-01-01

    TAKING PRECAUTIONS IS THE BEST MEANS OF PROTECTION On the eve of CERN's annual end-of-year closure, it is in your own interest, that of your colleagues and that of the Organization, that the following recommendations be followed: 1. MONEY, VALUABLES & KEYS: Do not leave money or valuables in your office or your lockers. Keys and their copies should be removed or kept in a safe place. 2. DOORS & WINDOWS: Lock office, workshop, meeting-room doors etc. when you leave. Also close the windows if they are easily accessible from outside. 3. REPORTING INCIDENTS: Each crime solved could prevent another from being perpetrated. Please report any thefts, losses, objects gone missing and other incidents to the CERN Fire Brigade (tel. 74848) and keep them informed of any important developments (objects found, new clues, suspicious people or vehicles, etc.). The Host States Relations Service would like to wish you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year! Host States Relations Secretariat Tel. 72848

  13. Effect of Cistanches Herba Aqueous Extract on Bone Loss in Ovariectomized Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaiguo Huang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available To assess the ability of traditional Chinese medicine Cistanches Herba extract (CHE to prevent bone loss in the ovariectomized (OVX rat, Cistanches Herba extract (CHE was administered intragastrically to the rats. Female rats were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium (40 mg kg−1, i.p., and their ovaries were removed bilaterally. The rats in the sham-operated group were anesthetized, laparotomized, and sutured without removing their ovaries. After 1 week of recovery from surgery, the OVX rats were randomly divided into three groups and orally treated with H2O (OVX group or CHE (100 or 200 mg kg−1 daily for 3 months. The sham-operated group (n = 8 was orally treated with H2O. After 3 months, the total body bone mineral density (BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, Bone biomechanical index, blood mineral levels and blood antioxidant enzymes activities were examined in sham-operated, ovariectomized and Cistanches Herba extract treated rats. Results showed that Cistanches Herba extract treatment significantly dose-dependently enhanced bone mineral density (BMD, bone mineral content (BMC, maximum load, displacement at maximum load, stress at maximum load, load at auto break, displacement at auto break, and stress at auto break, and blood antioxidant enzymes activities, decreased blood Ca, Zn and Cu levels compared to the OVX group. This experiment demonstrates that the administration of Cistanches Herba extract to ovariectomized rats reverses bone loss and prevents osteoporosis.

  14. EGCG Prevents High Fat Diet-Induced Changes in Gut Microbiota, Decreases of DNA Strand Breaks, and Changes in Expression and DNA Methylation of Dnmt1 and MLH1 in C57BL/6J Male Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Remely

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Obesity as a multifactorial disorder involves low-grade inflammation, increased reactive oxygen species incidence, gut microbiota aberrations, and epigenetic consequences. Thus, prevention and therapies with epigenetic active antioxidants, (--Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG, are of increasing interest. DNA damage, DNA methylation and gene expression of DNA methyltransferase 1, interleukin 6, and MutL homologue 1 were analyzed in C57BL/6J male mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD or a control diet (CD with and without EGCG supplementation. Gut microbiota was analyzed with quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. An induction of DNA damage was observed, as a consequence of HFD-feeding, whereas EGCG supplementation decreased DNA damage. HFD-feeding induced a higher inflammatory status. Supplementation reversed these effects, resulting in tissue specific gene expression and methylation patterns of DNA methyltransferase 1 and MutL homologue 1. HFD feeding caused a significant lower bacterial abundance. The Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio is significantly lower in HFD + EGCG but higher in CD + EGCG compared to control groups. The results demonstrate the impact of EGCG on the one hand on gut microbiota which together with dietary components affects host health. On the other hand effects may derive from antioxidative activities as well as epigenetic modifications observed on CpG methylation but also likely to include other epigenetic elements.

  15. Symmetry breaking by Wilson loops in gauge field theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowker, J.S.; Jadhav, S.P.

    1989-01-01

    An analysis is presented of the gauge symmetry breaking caused by Wilson loops on a space-time whose spatial section is openR/sup d/ x S 3 /Γ, for all those fundamental groups Γ that give a homogeneous space. We concentrate on pure SU(3) and SU(5) gauge field theories and find that symmetry breaking can occur when d = 0, for all Γ. If d = 3, the extra minimal scalars prevent any breaking and one must include other fields to achieve this. Explicit forms for the vacuum energies are exhibited in the case of lens and prism spaces, the former for SU(n). For Γ = Z/sub m/, when m and the radius of the sphere become infinite, we recover the results on the space-time openR/sup d//sup +3/ x S 1

  16. Code breaking in the pacific

    CERN Document Server

    Donovan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Covers the historical context and the evolution of the technically complex Allied Signals Intelligence (Sigint) activity against Japan from 1920 to 1945 Describes, explains and analyzes the code breaking techniques developed during the war in the Pacific Exposes the blunders (in code construction and use) made by the Japanese Navy that led to significant US Naval victories

  17. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barklow, T.L.; Burdman, G.; Chivukula, R.S.

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models

  18. Appointment breaking: causes and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, A G; Talaga, J

    1992-12-01

    From a review of research on health care appointment breaking, the authors find that patient demographic characteristics, psychosocial problems, previous appointment keeping, health beliefs, and situational factors predict no-show behavior. Suggestions are offered for designing the marketing mix to increase patient appointment keeping. Methods for mitigating the negative effects of no-shows on health care providers are described.

  19. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barklow, T.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burdman, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Chivukula, R.S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.

  20. Oil prices: Breaks and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguera, José

    2013-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature of the stationarity of financial time series and the literature on oil and macroeconomics in several ways. First, it uses Kejriwal and Perron (2010) sequential procedure to endogenously determine multiple structural changes in real oil prices without facing the circular testing problem between structural changes and stationary assumptions of previous tests. Second, it performs a diagnostic check to detect the significance and magnitude of the potential breaks. Third, it uses the above information to test for the existence of stochastic trends in real oil prices, and fourth, it speculates about possible explanations for the break dates found in order to encourage further work and discussions. The exercise uses monthly data from January 1861 to August 2011. - Highlights: ► The model endogenously determine multiple structural changes in real oil prices. ► The methods used does not face the circular testing problem. ► It also detect the significance and magnitude of the breaks detected. ► It tests for the existence of stochastic trends. ► It explains the reasons for the break dates found

  1. Instantons and chiral symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, C.E.I.; McDougall, N.A.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed investigation of chiral symmetry breaking due to instanton dynamics is carried out, within the framework of the dilute gas approximation, for quarks in both the fundamental and adjoint representations of SU(2). The momentum dependence of the dynamical mass is found to be very similar in each representation. (orig.)

  2. Instantons and chiral symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, C.E.I.; McDougall, N.A. (Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Theoretical Physics)

    1984-10-22

    A detailed investigation of chiral symmetry breaking due to instanton dynamics is carried out, within the framework of the dilute gas approximation, for quarks in both the fundamental and adjoint representations of SU(2). The momentum dependence of the dynamical mass is found to be very similar in each representation.

  3. Inflationary implications of supersymmetry breaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghese, Andrea; Roest, Diederik; Zavala, Ivonne

    2013-01-01

    We discuss a general bound on the possibility to realise inflation in any minimal supergravity with F-terms. The derivation crucially depends on the sGoldstini, the scalar field directions that are singled out by spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. The resulting bound involves both slow-roll

  4. Aluminum break-point contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinemann, Martina; Groot, R.A. de

    1997-01-01

    Ab initio molecular dynamics is used to study the contribution of a single Al atom to an aluminum breakpoint contact during the final stages of breaking and the initial stages of the formation of such a contact. A hysteresis effect is found in excellent agreement with experiment and the form of the

  5. Breaking Carbon Lock-in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Driscoll, Patrick Arthur

    2014-01-01

    This central focus of this paper is to highlight the ways in which path dependencies and increasing returns (network effects) serve to reinforce carbon lock-in in large-scale road transportation infrastructure projects. Breaking carbon lock-in requires drastic changes in the way we plan future...

  6. Recovery of reticulocytes and prevention of radiation-induced weight loss in mice by γ-tocotrienol: possible application to cancer therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, K.S.; Srinivasan, V.; Toles, R.E.; Miner, V.L.; Seed, T.M.

    2003-01-01

    Gamma-tocotrienol (GT), an alpha-tocopherol (AT, vitamin E) isomer was found to be better than AT against radiation-induced lethality. CD2F1 male mice (LD 50/30 radiation dose 9 Gy) were injected subcutaneously with 10 mg/mouse each of GT or AT. After 24 hrs, mice were given 11 Gy 60 Cobalt radiation. All mice treated with AT survived; only 50% of the mice treated with GT survived. The mechanism of protection may not involve apoptotic pathway since GT did not affect caspase-3 activity whereas AT suppressed radiation-induced increase in activity. Recovery profiles of blood cells and weight loss were also evaluated. Mice were treated with AT, GT, or vehicle prior to sublethal whole-body gamma irradiation. In the AT- and GT-treated mice, the recovery rates of neutrophils, platelets, erythrocytes, and reticulocytes were greater than in vehicle-treated controls. The highest level (265% of the normal) of reticulocytes in GT or AT treated mice was reached in 15 days postirradiation; the highest level (450% of the normal) in vehicle-treated controls was reached 20 days after irradiation. Recovery profile of erythrocytes suggested that reticulocytes in the irradiated controls matured slowly into erythrocytes; reticulocytes in GT or AT treated mice matured at a faster rate. Radiation-induced weight loss was studied at a supralethal dose of 10.5 Gy. All animals, irrespective of the treatments lost up to 20% weight in 5 days. After a transient increase, irradiated controls and AT-treated mice continued to decline in weight (13 to 17%) till day 16 after irradiation. GT-treated mice lost only 1% to 9% after the initial loss in 5 days. These studies indicate that GT may be preferable than AT not only as a non-toxic radiation protective agent but also as an ideal adjuvant in alleviating anemia and weight loss accompanying radiotherapy or chemotherapy of cancer

  7. Transplantation of osteoporotic bone marrow stromal cells rejuvenated by the overexpression of SATB2 prevents alveolar bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rongyao; Fu, Zongyun; Liu, Xue; Xiao, Tao; Zhang, Ping; Du, Yifei; Yuan, Hua; Cheng, Jie; Jiang, Hongbing

    2016-11-01

    Estrogen-deficient osteoporosis is an aging-related disease with high morbidity that not only significantly increases a woman's risk of fragility fracture but is also associated with tooth and bone loss in the supporting alveolar bone of the jaw. Emerging evidence suggests that the aging of bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) contributes to the development of osteoporosis. In this study, we aimed to investigate the role of the special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2), a stemness and senescence regulator of craniofacial BMSCs, in rat ovariectomy-induced alveolar osteoporosis. We also sought to determine whether transplantation of SATB2-modified BMSCs could ameliorate estrogen deficient alveolar bone loss. Our data revealed that BMSCs from ovariectomy-induced alveolar bone exhibited typical senescence phenotypes such as diminished stemness and osteogenic capacity, increased expression of senescence or osteoclastic markers and enhanced adipogenic potential. These phenotypic changes are a result of SATB2-mediated senescence dysregulation as evidenced by nuclear γH2AX foci formation. Moreover, overexpression of SATB2 significantly alleviated the senescence of osteoporotic BMSCs in vitro. Importantly, transplantation of SATB2-modified BMSCs significantly attenuated ovariectomy-induced alveolar bone loss in vivo. Together, our results revealed that SATB2 is a critical regulator of alveolar BMSC senescence, and its overexpression decreases these senescent changes both in vitro and in vivo. SATB2-modified BMSC delivery could be a viable and promising therapeutic strategy for alveolar bone loss induced by estrogen-deficient osteoporosis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Special small-break applications with TRAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobranich, D.; DeMuth, N.S.; Henninger, R.J.; Burns, R.D. III.

    1981-01-01

    Input models for the Transient Reactor Analysis Code (TRAC) are described and applications of these models to reactor transients involving small breaks in the primary coolant pressure boundary are demonstrated. The operation of the primary overpressure protection system (relief and safety valves) and the thermal-hydraulic response of the reactor to these transients are obtained from numerical simulations. Also, the effects of steam generator recirculation, steam generator tube rupture, Emergency Core Cooling (ECC) injection and reactivity feedback on the course and consequences of these transients are investigated. These models allow reliable predictions of accident signatures that can help determine the adequacy of equipment and procedures at nuclear power plants to prevent and to control severe accidents

  9. Parental Break-Ups and Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing, Agnete S.; Dich, Nadya; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Parental break-up is wide spread, and the effects of parental break-up on children’s well-being are known. The evidence regarding child age at break-up and subsequent family arrangements is inconclusive. Aim: to estimate the effects of parental break-up on stress in pre-adolescent chi......Background: Parental break-up is wide spread, and the effects of parental break-up on children’s well-being are known. The evidence regarding child age at break-up and subsequent family arrangements is inconclusive. Aim: to estimate the effects of parental break-up on stress in pre......-adolescent children with a specific focus on age at break-up and post-breakup family arrangements. Methods: We used data from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Participants included 44 509 children followed from birth to age 11. Stress was self-reported by children at age 11, when the children also reported...... on parental break-up and post break-up family arrangements. Results: Twenty-one percent of the children had experienced a parental break-up at age 11, and those who had experienced parental break-up showed a higher risk of stress (OR:1.72, 95%CI:1.55;1.91) regardless of the child’s age at break-up. Children...

  10. Effect of microdose transdermal 17beta-estradiol compared with raloxifene in the prevention of bone loss in healthy postmenopausal women: a 2-year, randomized, double-blind trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefers, Matthias; Muysers, Christoph; Alexandersen, Peter; Christiansen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    Declining estrogen levels after menopause result in bone loss and increased fracture risk. This study investigated whether transdermal microdose 17beta-estradiol (E2) has efficacy and safety comparable to those of raloxifene, a selective estrogen-receptor modulator approved for the prevention and treatment of postmenopausal osteoporosis. This study involved a multicenter, randomized, double-blind, active-controlled, noninferiority trial in 500 osteopenic postmenopausal women comparing transdermal microdose E2 (0.014 mg/d) versus oral raloxifene (60 mg/d), administered for 2 years. Percent change from baseline in bone mineral density at the lumbar spine was measured after 2 years of treatment. Secondary endpoints included proportion of women with no loss of bone mineral density in lumbar spine, change in bone mineral density at hip, biochemical markers of bone turnover, and safety parameters. In the per protocol set, lumbar spine bone mineral density increased by 2.4% (95% CI, 1.9-2.9) with microdose E2 versus 3.0% (95% CI, 2.5-3.5) with raloxifene after 2 years; 77.3% of E2 recipients and 80.5% of those taking raloxifene had no bone loss in the lumbar spine. Both treatments were well tolerated. Most women (99% in the E2 group and 100% in the raloxifene group) showed no histological evidence of endometrial stimulation after 2 years. Mean dense area in breast mammograms was 19.8% in the E2 group versus 19.0% in the raloxifene group after 2 years. Transdermal microdose E2 was similarly effective as raloxifene in preventing bone loss at the lumbar spine. Both treatments were well tolerated, with no clinically significant effect on endometrium or breast density.

  11. Parameterization of planetary wave breaking in the middle atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Rolando R.

    1991-01-01

    A parameterization of planetary wave breaking in the middle atmosphere has been developed and tested in a numerical model which includes governing equations for a single wave and the zonal-mean state. The parameterization is based on the assumption that wave breaking represents a steady-state equilibrium between the flux of wave activity and its dissipation by nonlinear processes, and that the latter can be represented as linear damping of the primary wave. With this and the additional assumption that the effect of breaking is to prevent further amplitude growth, the required dissipation rate is readily obtained from the steady-state equation for wave activity; diffusivity coefficients then follow from the dissipation rate. The assumptions made in the derivation are equivalent to those commonly used in parameterizations for gravity wave breaking, but the formulation in terms of wave activity helps highlight the central role of the wave group velocity in determining the dissipation rate. Comparison of model results with nonlinear calculations of wave breaking and with diagnostic determinations of stratospheric diffusion coefficients reveals remarkably good agreement, and suggests that the parameterization could be useful for simulating inexpensively, but realistically, the effects of planetary wave transport.

  12. Improving long term driving comfort by taking breaks - how break activity affects effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Sammonds, GM; Mansfield, NJ; Fray, M

    2017-01-01

    During long duration journeys, drivers are encouraged to take regular breaks. The benefits of breaks have been documented for safety; breaks may also be beneficial for comfort. The activity undertaken during a break may influence its effectiveness. Volunteers completed 3 journeys on a driving simulator. Each 130 min journey included a 10 min break after the first hour. During the break volunteers either stayed seated, left the simulator and sat in an adjacent room, or took a walk on a treadmi...

  13. A model of intrinsic symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Li; Li, Sheng; George, Thomas F.; Sun, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Different from the symmetry breaking associated with a phase transition, which occurs when the controlling parameter is manipulated across a critical point, the symmetry breaking presented in this Letter does not need parameter manipulation. Instead, the system itself suddenly undergoes symmetry breaking at a certain time during its evolution, which is intrinsic symmetry breaking. Through a polymer model, it is revealed that the origin of the intrinsic symmetry breaking is nonlinearity, which produces instability at the instance when the evolution crosses an inflexion point, where this instability breaks the original symmetry

  14. Preventing sight loss in older people. A qualitative study exploring barriers to the uptake of regular sight tests of older people living in socially deprived communities in South Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddyr, S; Jones, A

    2015-02-01

    This paper describes research findings that try to understand some of the reasons that prevent older people in deprived communities in South Wales from accessing NHS funded sight tests and leads to a discussion of suitable interventions that seek to improve access to primary eye care services and prevent avoidable sight loss. Data were collected from eight focus groups (n = 63) of mixed gender and ages (60-80+ years), of white origin living in deprived communities in South Wales. Individuals were recruited for the focus groups by extensively publicizing the project, with a range of health and older people's community services and groups such as sheltered housing complexes, stroke support groups and coffee morning groups. The study included people who attended optometry services and people not engaged with services. A purposive sampling technique summarizes the sampling approach taken, an approach which the team utilized to recruit 'information rich' cases, namely individuals, groups and organizations that provided the greatest insight into the research question. Focus groups were recorded and transcribed verbatim. Data underwent thematic content analysis and subsequent interpretations were corroborated by expert advisors and a project steering group. Cost was perceived as a significant barrier to accessing sight tests, particularly in relation to purchasing glasses. Other barriers included the perceived pressure to buy glasses associated with visits to the optometrists; poor understanding of the purpose of a sight test in a health prevention context and acceptance of deteriorating sight loss due to the ageing process. Areas of improvement for the delivery of preventative eye health services to older people are identified, as are areas for reflection on the part of those who work within the eye health industry. Copyright © 2014 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss - A Preventable Disease? Results of a 10-Year Longitudinal Study of Workers Exposed to Occupational Noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Thomas W; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H; Stokholm, Zara A; Grynderup, Matias B; Hansen, Åse M; Kristiansen, Jesper; Vestergaard, Jesper M; Bonde, Jens P; Kolstad, Henrik A

    2017-01-01

    To survey current, Danish industrial noise levels and the use of hearing protection devices (HPD) over a 10-year period and to characterise the association between occupational noise and hearing threshold shift in the same period. Furthermore, the risk of hearing loss among the baseline and the follow-up populations according to first year of occupational noise exposure is evaluated. In 2001-2003, we conducted a baseline survey of noise- and hearing-related disorders in 11 industries with suspected high noise levels. In 2009-2010, we were able to follow up on 271 out of the 554 baseline workers (49%). Mean noise levels per industry and self-reported HPD use are described at baseline and follow-up. The association between cumulative occupational noise exposure and hearing threshold shift over the 10-year period was assessed using linear regression, and the risk of hearing loss according to year of first occupational noise exposure was evaluated with logistic regression. Over the 10-year period, mean noise levels declined from 83.9 dB(A) to 82.8 dB(A), and for workers exposed >85 dB(A), the use of HPD increased from 70.1 to 76.1%. We found a weak, statistically insignificant, inverse association between higher ambient cumulative noise exposure and poorer hearing (-0.10 dB hearing threshold shift per dB-year (95% confidence interval (CI): -0.36; 0.16)). The risk of hearing loss seemed to increase with earlier first year of noise exposure, but odds ratios were only statistically significant among baseline participants with first exposure before the 1980s (odds ratio: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.11; 3.22). We observed declining industrial noise levels, increased use of HPD and no significant impact on hearing thresholds from current ambient industrial noise levels, which indicated a successful implementation of Danish hearing conservation programs.

  16. Antiretroviral treatment interruption and loss to follow-up in two HIV cohorts in Australia and Asia: implications for 'test and treat' prevention strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guy, Rebecca; Wand, Handan; McManus, Hamish; Vonthanak, Saphonn; Woolley, Ian; Honda, Miwako; Read, Tim; Sirisanthana, Thira; Zhou, Julian; Carr, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    Both antiretroviral treatment interruption (TI) and cessation have been strongly discouraged since 2006. We describe the incidence, duration, and risk factors for TI and loss-to-follow-up (LTFU) rates across 13 countries. All 4689 adults (76% men) in two large HIV cohorts in Australia and Asia commencing combination antiretroviral therapy (ART) to March 2010 were included. TI was defined by ART cessation >30 days, then recommencement, and loss to follow-up (LTFU) by no visit since 31 March 2009 and no record of death. Survival analysis and Poisson regression methods were used. With median follow-up of 4.4 years [interquartile range (IQR):2.1-6.5], TI incidence was 6.7 per 100 person years (PY) (95% CI:6.1-7.3) pre-2006, falling to 2.0 (95% CI:1.7-2.2) from 2006 (pfood restrictions (fasting or with food). In conclusion, since 2006, 7.8% of patients had significant time off treatment, which has the potential to compromise any 'test and treat' policy as during the interruption viral load will rebound and increase the risk of transmission.

  17. Physics of chiral symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuryak, E.V.

    1991-01-01

    This subsection of the 'Modeling QCD' Workshop has included five talks. E. Shuryak spoke on 'Recent Progress in Understanding Chiral Symmetry Breaking'; below it is split into two parts: (i) a mini-review of the field and (ii) a brief presentation of the status of the theory of interacting instantons. The next sections correspond to the following talks: (iii) K. Goeke et al., 'Chiral Restoration and Medium Corrections to Nucleon in the NJL Model'; (iv) M. Takizawa and K. Kubodera, 'Study of Meson Properties and Quark Condensates in the NJL Model with Instanton Effects'; (v) G. Klein and A. G. Williams, 'Dynamical Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Dual QCD'; and (vi) R. D. Ball, 'Skyrmions and Baryons.' (orig.)

  18. Supersymmetry breaking by gaugino condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    We briefly review the status and some of the recent work on supersymmetry breaking by gaugino condensation effects in the context of superstring theories. This issue is intimately related to the structure of the effective potential coming from superstrings. Minimization of this not only allows to find the scale of supersymmetry breaking, but also to determine dynamically other fundamental parameters of the theory, in particular the gauge coupling constant at the unification point and the expectation values of the moduli which give the size and shape of the compactified space. In a multiple condensate scenario these get reasonable values which may, in turn, lead to a determination of the family mass hierarchy. Some directions for future work are examined too. (author). 23 refs

  19. Post accidental small breaks analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depond, G.; Gandrille, J.

    1980-04-01

    EDF ordered to FRAMATOME by 1977 to complete post accidental long term studies on 'First Contrat-Programme' reactors, in order to demonstrate the safety criteria long term compliance, to get information on NSSS behaviour and to improve the post accidental procedures. Convenient analytical models were needed and EDF and FRAMATOME respectively developped the AXEL and FRARELAP codes. The main results of these studies is that for the smallest breaks, it is possible to manually undertake cooling and pressure reducing actions by dumping the steam generators secondary side in order to meet the RHR operating specifications and perform long term cooling through this system. A specific small breaks procedure was written on this basis. The EDF and FRAMATOME codes are continuously improved; the results of a French set of separate effects experiments will be incorporated as well as integral system verification

  20. Prophylactic treatment of retinal breaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blindbæk, Søren Leer; Grauslund, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Prophylactic treatment of retinal breaks has been examined in several studies and reviews, but so far, no studies have successfully applied a systematic approach. In the present systematic review, we examined the need of follow-up after posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) - diagnosed by slit...... published before 2012. Four levels of screening identified 13 studies suitable for inclusion in this systematic review. No meta-analysis was conducted as no data suitable for statistical analysis were identified. In total, the initial examination after symptomatic PVD identified 85-95% of subsequent retinal......-47% of cases, respectively. The cumulated incidence of RRD despite prophylactic treatment was 2.1-8.8%. The findings in this review suggest that follow-up after symptomatic PVD is only necessary in cases of incomplete retinal examination at presentation. Prophylactic treatment of symptomatic retinal breaks...

  1. Breaking through the tranfer tunnel

    CERN Document Server

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    This image shows the tunnel boring machine breaking through the transfer tunnel into the LHC tunnel. Proton beams will be transferred from the SPS pre-accelerator to the LHC at 450 GeV through two specially constructed transfer tunnels. From left to right: LHC Project Director, Lyn Evans; CERN Director-General (at the time), Luciano Maiani, and Director for Accelerators, Kurt Hubner.

  2. Models of electroweak symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Pomarol, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This chapter present models of electroweak symmetry breaking arising from strongly interacting sectors, including both Higgsless models and mechanisms involving a composite Higgs. These scenarios have also been investigated in the framework of five-dimensional warped models that, according to the AdS/CFT correspondence, have a four-dimensional holographic interpretation in terms of strongly coupled field theories. We explore the implications of these models at the LHC.

  3. DNA strand breaks, repair, and survival in x-irradiated mammalian cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dugle, D.L.; Gillespie, C.J.; Chapman, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    The yields of unrepairable single- and double-strand breaks in the DNA of x-irradiated Chinese hamster cells were measured by low-speed neutral and alkaline sucrose density gradient sedimentation in order to investigate the relation between these lesions and reproductive death. After maximal single-strand rejoining, at all doses, the number of residual single-strand breaks was twice the number of residual double-strand breaks. Both double-strand and unrepairable single-strand breaks were proportional to the square of absorbed dose, in the range 10-50 krad. No rejoining of double-strand breaks was observed. These observations suggest that, in mammalian cells, most double-strand breaks are not repairable, while all single-strand breaks are repaired except those that are sufficiently close on complementary strands to constitute double-strand breaks. Comparison with cell survival measurements at much lower doses suggests that loss of reproductive capacity corresponds to induction of approximately one double-strand break

  4. Supersymmetry breaking at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratzert, K.

    2002-11-01

    The mechanism of supersymmetry breaking at finite temperature is still only partly understood. Though it has been proven that temperature always breaks supersymmetry, the spontaneous nature of this breaking remains unclear, in particular the role of the Goldstone fermion. The aim of this work is to unify two existing approaches to the subject. From a hydrodynamic point of view, it has been argued under very general assumptions that in any supersymmetric quantum field theory at finite temperature there should exist a massless fermionic collective excitation, named phonino because of the analogy to the phonon. In the framework of a self-consistent resummed perturbation theory, it is shown for the example of the Wess-Zumino model that this mode fits very well into the quantum field theoretical framework pursued by earlier works. Interpreted as a bound state of boson and fermion, it contributes to the supersymmetric Ward-Takahashi identities in a way showing that supersymmetry is indeed broken spontaneously with the phonino playing the role of the Goldstone fermion. The second part of the work addresses the case of supersymmetric quantum electrodynamics. It is shown that also here the phonino exists and must be interpreted as the Goldstone mode. This knowledge allows a generalization to a wider class of models. (orig.)

  5. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss – A Preventable Disease? Results of a 10-Year Longitudinal Study of Workers Exposed to Occupational Noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederiksen, Thomas W.; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia H.; Stokholm, Zara A.; Grynderup, Matias B.; Hansen, Åse M.; Kristiansen, Jesper; Vestergaard, Jesper M.; Bonde, Jens P.; Kolstad, Henrik A.

    2017-01-01

    Aims: To survey current, Danish industrial noise levels and the use of hearing protection devices (HPD) over a 10-year period and to characterise the association between occupational noise and hearing threshold shift in the same period. Furthermore, the risk of hearing loss among the baseline and the follow-up populations according to first year of occupational noise exposure is evaluated. Materials and Methods: In 2001–2003, we conducted a baseline survey of noise- and hearing-related disorders in 11 industries with suspected high noise levels. In 2009–2010, we were able to follow up on 271 out of the 554 baseline workers (49%). Mean noise levels per industry and self-reported HPD use are described at baseline and follow-up. The association between cumulative occupational noise exposure and hearing threshold shift over the 10-year period was assessed using linear regression, and the risk of hearing loss according to year of first occupational noise exposure was evaluated with logistic regression. Results: Over the 10-year period, mean noise levels declined from 83.9 dB(A) to 82.8 dB(A), and for workers exposed >85 dB(A), the use of HPD increased from 70.1 to 76.1%. We found a weak, statistically insignificant, inverse association between higher ambient cumulative noise exposure and poorer hearing (−0.10 dB hearing threshold shift per dB-year (95% confidence interval (CI): −0.36; 0.16)). The risk of hearing loss seemed to increase with earlier first year of noise exposure, but odds ratios were only statistically significant among baseline participants with first exposure before the 1980s (odds ratio: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.11; 3.22). Conclusions: We observed declining industrial noise levels, increased use of HPD and no significant impact on hearing thresholds from current ambient industrial noise levels, which indicated a successful implementation of Danish hearing conservation programs. PMID:29192620

  6. Noise-Induced Hearing Loss – A Preventable Disease? Results of a 10-Year Longitudinal Study of Workers Exposed to Occupational Noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas W Frederiksen

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To survey current, Danish industrial noise levels and the use of hearing protection devices (HPD over a 10-year period and to characterise the association between occupational noise and hearing threshold shift in the same period. Furthermore, the risk of hearing loss among the baseline and the follow-up populations according to first year of occupational noise exposure is evaluated. Materials and Methods: In 2001–2003, we conducted a baseline survey of noise- and hearing-related disorders in 11 industries with suspected high noise levels. In 2009–2010, we were able to follow up on 271 out of the 554 baseline workers (49%. Mean noise levels per industry and self-reported HPD use are described at baseline and follow-up. The association between cumulative occupational noise exposure and hearing threshold shift over the 10-year period was assessed using linear regression, and the risk of hearing loss according to year of first occupational noise exposure was evaluated with logistic regression. Results: Over the 10-year period, mean noise levels declined from 83.9 dB(A to 82.8 dB(A, and for workers exposed >85 dB(A, the use of HPD increased from 70.1 to 76.1%. We found a weak, statistically insignificant, inverse association between higher ambient cumulative noise exposure and poorer hearing (−0.10 dB hearing threshold shift per dB-year (95% confidence interval (CI: −0.36; 0.16. The risk of hearing loss seemed to increase with earlier first year of noise exposure, but odds ratios were only statistically significant among baseline participants with first exposure before the 1980s (odds ratio: 1.90, 95% CI: 1.11; 3.22. Conclusions: We observed declining industrial noise levels, increased use of HPD and no significant impact on hearing thresholds from current ambient industrial noise levels, which indicated a successful implementation of Danish hearing conservation programs.

  7. Loss of PINK1 attenuates HIF-1α induction by preventing 4E-BP1-dependent switch in protein translation under hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, William; Wadlington, Natasha L; Chen, Linan; Zhuang, Xiaoxi; Brorson, James R; Kang, Un Jung

    2014-02-19

    Parkinson's disease (PD) has multiple proposed etiologies with implication of abnormalities in cellular homeostasis ranging from proteostasis to mitochondrial dynamics to energy metabolism. PINK1 mutations are associated with familial PD and here we discover a novel PINK1 mechanism in cellular stress response. Using hypoxia as a physiological trigger of oxidative stress and disruption in energy metabolism, we demonstrate that PINK1(-/-) mouse cells exhibited significantly reduced induction of HIF-1α protein, HIF-1α transcriptional activity, and hypoxia-responsive gene upregulation. Loss of PINK1 impairs both hypoxia-induced 4E-BP1 dephosphorylation and increase in the ratio of internal ribosomal entry site (IRES)-dependent to cap-dependent translation. These data suggest that PINK1 mediates adaptive responses by activating IRES-dependent translation, and the impairments in translation and the HIF-1α pathway may contribute to PINK1-associated PD pathogenesis that manifests under cellular stress.

  8. The unsuitability of implantable Doppler probes for the early detection of renal vascular complications - a porcine model for prevention of renal transplant loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amdisen, Chris; Jespersen, Bente; Møldrup, Ulla

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Vascular occlusion is a rare, but serious complication after kidney transplantation often resulting in graft loss. We therefore aimed to develop an experimental porcine model for stepwise reduction of the renal venous blood flow and to compare an implantable Doppler probe...... and microdialysis for fast detection of vascular occlusion. Methods: In 20 pigs, implantable Doppler probes were placed on the renal artery and vein and a microdialysis catheter was placed in the renal cortex. An arterial flowprobe served as gold standard. Following two-hour baseline measurements, the pigs were....../3 (66%) reduction in renal blood flow. The implantable Doppler probe was not able to detect flow changes until there was total venous occlusion. Microdialysis detected changes in local metabolism after both arterial and venous occlusion; the implantable Doppler probe could only detect vascular...

  9. Subcutaneous administration of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-II/IGF binding protein-2 complex stimulates bone formation and prevents loss of bone mineral density in a rat model of disuse osteoporosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conover, Cheryl A.; Johnstone, Edward W.; Turner, Russell T.; Evans, Glenda L.; John Ballard, F. John; Doran, Patrick M.; Khosla, Sundeep

    2002-01-01

    Elevated serum levels of insulin-like growth factor binding protein-2 (IGFBP-2) and a precursor form of IGF-II are associated with marked increases in bone formation and skeletal mass in patients with hepatitis C-associated osteosclerosis. In vitro studies indicate that IGF-II in complex with IGFBP-2 has high affinity for bone matrix and is able to stimulate osteoblast proliferation. The purpose of this study was to determine the ability of the IGF-II/IGFBP-2 complex to increase bone mass in vivo. Osteopenia of the femur was induced by unilateral sciatic neurectomy in rats. At the time of surgery, 14-day osmotic minipumps containing vehicle or 2 microg IGF-II+9 microg IGFBP-2/100g body weight/day were implanted subcutaneously in the neck. Bone mineral density (BMD) measurements were taken the day of surgery and 14 days later using a PIXImus small animal densitometer. Neurectomy of the right hindlimb resulted in a 9% decrease in right femur BMD (P<0.05 vs. baseline). This loss in BMD was completely prevented by treatment with IGF-II/IGFBP-2. On the control limb, there was no loss of BMD over the 14 days and IGF-II/IGFBP-2 treatment resulted in a 9% increase in left femur BMD (P<0.05). Bone histomorphometry indicated increases in endocortical and cancellous bone formation rates and in trabecular thickness. These results demonstrate that short-term administration of the IGF-II/IGFBP-2 complex can prevent loss of BMD associated with disuse osteoporosis and stimulate bone formation in adult rats. Furthermore, they provide proof of concept for a novel anabolic approach to increasing bone mass in humans with osteoporosis.

  10. Loss of Kdm5c Causes Spurious Transcription and Prevents the Fine-Tuning of Activity-Regulated Enhancers in Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilyn Scandaglia

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During development, chromatin-modifying enzymes regulate both the timely establishment of cell-type-specific gene programs and the coordinated repression of alternative cell fates. To dissect the role of one such enzyme, the intellectual-disability-linked lysine demethylase 5C (Kdm5c, in the developing and adult brain, we conducted parallel behavioral, transcriptomic, and epigenomic studies in Kdm5c-null and forebrain-restricted inducible knockout mice. Together, genomic analyses and functional assays demonstrate that Kdm5c plays a critical role as a repressor responsible for the developmental silencing of germline genes during cellular differentiation and in fine-tuning activity-regulated enhancers during neuronal maturation. Although the importance of these functions declines after birth, Kdm5c retains an important genome surveillance role preventing the incorrect activation of non-neuronal and cryptic promoters in adult neurons.

  11. Using vitamin E to prevent the impairment in behavioral test, cell loss and dendrite changes in medial prefrontal cortex induced by tartrazine in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafati, Ali; Nourzei, Nasrin; Karbalay-Doust, Saied; Noorafshan, Ali

    2017-03-01

    Tartrazine is a food color that may adversely affect the nervous system. Vitamin E is a neuro-protective agent. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of tartrazine and vitamin E on the performance of rats in memory and learning tests as well as the structure of medial Prefrontal Cortex (mPFC). The rats were first divided into seven groups which received the followings for a period of seven weeks: distilled water, corn oil, vitamin E (100mg/kg/day), a low dose (50mg/kg/day) and a high dose (50mg/kg/day) of tartrazine with and without vitamin E. Behavioral tests were conducted and the brain was extracted for stereological methods The high dose of tartrazine decreased the exploration time of novel objects (Ptartrazine led into an increase in working and reference memory errors in acquisition and retention phases (eight-arm radial maze) compared to distilled water group (Ptartrazine induced a reduction in the volume of mPFC (∼13%) and its subdivision. Not only that, but the number of neurons and glial cells (∼14%) as well as the mushroom and thin spines per dendrite length declined. The length of dendrites per neuron also reduced in comparison to the distilled water group (Ptartrazine prevented the above-mentioned changes. An acceptable daily dose of tartrazine could induce impairment in spatial memory and dendrite structure. Moreover, a high dose of tartrazine may defect the visual memory, mPFC structure, the spatial memory and also cause dendrite changes. Vitamin E could prevent the behavioral and structural changes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  12. Genetic variation of habitual coffee consumption and glycemic changes in response to weight-loss diet intervention: the Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS LOST) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Liyuan; Ma, Wenjie; Sun, Dianjianyi; Heianza, Yoriko; Wang, Tiange; Zheng, Yan; Huang, Tao; Duan, Donghui; Bray, J George A; Champagne, Catherine M; Sacks, Frank M; Qi, Lu

    2017-11-01

    Background: Coffee consumption has been associated with glucose metabolism and risk of type 2 diabetes. Objective: We examined whether the genetic variation determining habitual coffee consumption affected glycemic changes in response to weight-loss dietary intervention. Design: A genetic risk score (GRS) was calculated based on 8 habitual coffee consumption-associated single nucleotide polymorphisms. We used general linear models to test changes in glycemic traits in groups randomly assigned to high- and low-fat diets according to tertiles of the GRS. Results: We observed significant interactions between the GRS and low compared with high dietary fat intake on 6-mo changes in fasting insulin and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) ( P -interaction = 0.023 and 0.022, respectively), adjusting for age, sex, race, physical activity, smoking, alcohol, seasonal variation, and baseline values of the respective outcomes. Participants with a higher GRS of habitual coffee consumption showed a greater reduction in fasting insulin and a marginally greater decrease in HOMA-IR in the low-fat diet intervention group. Conclusions: Our data suggest that participants with genetically determined high coffee consumption may benefit more by eating a low-fat diet in improving fasting insulin and HOMA-IR in a short term. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995 and NCT03258203. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Pregnancy Loss and Miscarriage

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bulletins-Gynecology/Early-Pregnancy-Loss What are common symptoms? Causes and Risks How is it diagnosed? Is there a way to prevent? Related A-Z Topics High-Risk Pregnancy Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Stillbirth NICHD News Spotlights Release: Anti-HIV ...

  14. Investigations of radiation-induced strand breaks of poly(U) in aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemaire, D.G.E.

    1984-01-01

    DNA strand breaks induced by γ irradiation were studied in polyuridylic acid (Poly(U)), a single-strand model substance with a single base. Poly(U) in diluted, aqueous solution was irradiated in a Co-γ source, and the 100 eV yields of strand breaks (Cr values) were determined on the basis of the loss of molecular weight. The molecular weight was determined by small-angle laser light scattering. (orig./PW) [de

  15. Leaders break ground for INFINITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Community leaders from Mississippi and Louisiana break ground for the new INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center facility during a Nov. 20 ceremony. Groundbreaking participants included (l to r): Gottfried Construction representative John Smith, Mississippi Highway Commissioner Wayne Brown, INFINITY board member and Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise, Stennis Director Gene Goldman, Studio South representative David Hardy, Leo Seal Jr. family representative Virginia Wagner, Hancock Bank President George Schloegel, Mississippi Rep. J.P. Compretta, Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians representative Charlie Benn and Louisiana Sen. A.G. Crowe.

  16. Give Young Scientists a Break

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, H. S.

    2009-11-01

    There has been much concern about the impact of tight funding on the careers of young scientists. When only a small percentage of grants are approved, even the smallest problem or error with an application can push it out of the funding range. Unfortunately, the relative lack of grant writing skills by new investigators often has this effect. To avoid a situation where only experienced investigators with polished writing skills are funded, the National Institutes of Health has instituted a more generous ranking scale for new investigators. Not surprisingly, some senior investigators have protested, calling it reverse discrimination. I say that their anger is misplaced. New investigators do deserve a break.

  17. Inflationary implications of supersymmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghese, Andrea; Roest, Diederik; Zavala, Ivonne [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-07-23

    We discuss a general bound on the possibility to realise inflation in any minimal supergravity with F-terms. The derivation crucially depends on the sGoldstini, the scalar field directions that are singled out by spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. The resulting bound involves both slow-roll parameters and the geometry of the Kähler manifold of the chiral scalars. We analyse the inflationary implications of this bound, and in particular discuss to what extent the requirements of single field and slow-roll can both be met in F-term inflation.

  18. History of electroweak symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibble, T W B

    2015-01-01

    In this talk, I recall the history of the development of the unified electroweak theory, incorporating the symmetry-breaking Higgs mechanism, as I saw it from my standpoint as a member of Abdus Salam's group at Imperial College. I start by describing the state of physics in the years after the Second World War, explain how the goal of a unified gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions emerged, the obstacles encountered, in particular the Goldstone theorem, and how they were overcome, followed by a brief account of more recent history, culminating in the historic discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012. (paper)

  19. Sediment transport under breaking waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob; Mayer, Stefan

    2000-01-01

    The sediment transport in the surf zone is modelled by combining a Navier-Stokes solver, a free surface model, a turbulence model, and a sediment transport model. The flow solver is based on the finite volume technique for non-orthogonal grids. The model is capable of simulating the turbulence...... generated at the surface where the wave breaks as well as the turbulence generated near the bed due to the wave-motion and the undertow. In general, the levels of turbulent kinetic energy are found to be higher than experiments show. This results in an over prediction of the sediment transport. Nevertheless...

  20. Simultaneous knock-down of six β-galactosidase genes in petunia petals prevents loss of pectic galactan but decreases petal strength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donoghue, Erin M; Somerfield, Sheryl D; Deroles, Simon C; Sutherland, Paul W; Hallett, Ian C; Erridge, Zoë A; Brummell, David A; Hunter, Donald A

    2017-04-01

    Galactose (Gal) is incorporated into cell wall polysaccharides as flowers open, but then is lost because of β-galactosidase activity as flowers mature and wilt. The significance of this for flower physiology resides in the role of galactan-containing polysaccharides in the cell wall, which is still largely unresolved. To investigate this, transcript accumulation of six cell wall-associated β-galactosidases was simultaneously knocked down in 'Mitchell' petunia (Petunia axillaris x (P. axillaris x P. hybrida)) flower petals. The multi-PhBGAL RNAi construct targeted three bud- and three senescence-associated β-galactosidase genes. The petals of the most down-regulated line (GA19) were significantly disrupted in galactose turnover during flower opening, and at the onset of senescence had retained 86% of their galactose compared with 20% in the controls. The Gal content of Na 2 CO 3 -soluble cell wall extracts and the highly insoluble polysaccharides associated with cellulose were particularly affected. Immunodetection with the antibody LM5 showed that much of the cell wall Gal in GA19 was retained as galactan, presumably the side-chains of rhamnogalacturonan-I. The flowers of GA19, despite having retained substantially more galactan, were no different from controls in their internal cell arrangement, dimensions, weight or timing of opening and senescence. However, the GA19 petals had less petal integrity (as judged by force required to cause petal fracture) after opening and showed a greater decline in this integrity with time than controls, raising the possibility that galactan loss is a mechanism for helping to maintain petal tissue cohesion after flower opening. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. CDK5-mediated phosphorylation of p19INK4d avoids DNA damage-induced neurodegeneration in mouse hippocampus and prevents loss of cognitive functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogara, María Florencia; Belluscio, Laura M; de la Fuente, Verónica; Berardino, Bruno G; Sonzogni, Silvina V; Byk, Laura; Marazita, Mariela; Cánepa, Eduardo T

    2014-07-01

    DNA damage, which perturbs genomic stability, has been linked to cognitive decline in the aging human brain, and mutations in DNA repair genes have neurological implications. Several studies have suggested that DNA damage is also increased in brain disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. However, the precise mechanisms connecting DNA damage with neurodegeneration remain poorly understood. CDK5, a critical enzyme in the development of the central nervous system, phosphorylates a number of synaptic proteins and regulates dendritic spine morphogenesis, synaptic plasticity and learning. In addition to these physiological roles, CDK5 has been involved in the neuronal death initiated by DNA damage. We hypothesized that p19INK4d, a member of the cell cycle inhibitor family INK4, is involved in a neuroprotective mechanism activated in response to DNA damage. We found that in response to genotoxic injury or increased levels of intracellular calcium, p19INK4d is transcriptionally induced and phosphorylated by CDK5 which provides it with greater stability in postmitotic neurons. p19INK4d expression improves DNA repair, decreases apoptosis and increases neuronal survival under conditions of genotoxic stress. Our in vivo experiments showed that decreased levels of p19INK4d rendered hippocampal neurons more sensitive to genotoxic insult resulting in the loss of cognitive abilities that rely on the integrity of this brain structure. We propose a feedback mechanism by which the neurotoxic effects of CDK5-p25 activated by genotoxic stress or abnormal intracellular calcium levels are counteracted by the induction and stabilization of p19INK4d protein reducing the adverse consequences on brain functions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Breaks induced in the deoxyribonucleic acid of aerosolized Escherichia coli by ozonized cyclohexene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Mik, G; De Groot, I

    1978-01-01

    The inactivation of aerosolized Escherichia coli by ozone, cyclohexene, and ozonized cyclohexene was studied. The parameters for damage were loss of reproduction and introduction of breaks in the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). Aerosolization of E. coli in clean air at 80 percent relative humidity or in air containing either ozone or cyclohexene hardly affected survival; however, some breaks per DNA molecule were induced, as shown by sucrose gradient sedimentation of the DNA. Aerosolization of E. coli in air containing ozonized cyclohexene at 80 percent relative humidity decreased the survival by a factor of 10(3) or more after 1 h of exposure and induced many breaks in the DNA. PMID:341811

  3. Experiencing Loss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristiansen, Maria; Younis, Tarek; Hassani, Amani

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we explore how Islam, minority status and refugee experiencesintersect in shaping meaning-making processes following bereavement. We do this througha phenomenological analysis of a biographical account of personal loss told by Aisha, a Muslim Palestinian refugee living in Denmark......, who narrates her experience of losing herhusband to lung cancer. By drawing on a religious framework, Aisha creates meaning fromher loss, which enables her to incorporate this loss into her life history and sustain agency.Her narrative invites wider audiences to witness her tale of overcoming loss...

  4. Structural Break Tests Robust to Regression Misspecification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Abi Morshed

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Structural break tests for regression models are sensitive to model misspecification. We show—analytically and through simulations—that the sup Wald test for breaks in the conditional mean and variance of a time series process exhibits severe size distortions when the conditional mean dynamics are misspecified. We also show that the sup Wald test for breaks in the unconditional mean and variance does not have the same size distortions, yet benefits from similar power to its conditional counterpart in correctly specified models. Hence, we propose using it as an alternative and complementary test for breaks. We apply the unconditional and conditional mean and variance tests to three US series: unemployment, industrial production growth and interest rates. Both the unconditional and the conditional mean tests detect a break in the mean of interest rates. However, for the other two series, the unconditional mean test does not detect a break, while the conditional mean tests based on dynamic regression models occasionally detect a break, with the implied break-point estimator varying across different dynamic specifications. For all series, the unconditional variance does not detect a break while most tests for the conditional variance do detect a break which also varies across specifications.

  5. Memory loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... barbiturates or ( hypnotics ) ECT (electroconvulsive therapy) (most often short-term memory loss) Epilepsy that is not well controlled Illness that ... appointment. Medical history questions may include: Type of memory loss, such as short-term or long-term Time pattern, such as how ...

  6. Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Trial of Risedronate for the Prevention of Bone Mineral Density Loss in Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy Plus Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choo, Richard [Department of Radiation Oncology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Lukka, Himu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juravinski Cancer Center, McMaster University, Hamilton (Canada); Cheung, Patrick [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Corbett, Tom [Department of Radiation Oncology, Juravinski Cancer Center, McMaster University, Hamilton (Canada); Briones-Urbina, Rosario [Department of Medicine, Women' s College Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Vieth, Reinhold [Departments of Nutritional Sciences and Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, Mount Sinai Hospital, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Ehrlich, Lisa [Department of Radiology, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto (Canada); Kiss, Alex [Department of Health Policy, Management, and Evaluation, Sunnybrook Health Sciences Center, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada); Danjoux, Cyril, E-mail: Cyril.danjoux@sunnybrook.ca [Department of Radiation Oncology, Odette Cancer Centre, University of Toronto, Toronto (Canada)

    2013-04-01

    Purpose: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment to radiation therapy (RT) for the management of locally advanced prostate carcinoma. Long-term ADT decreases bone mineral density (BMD) and increases the risk of osteoporosis. The objective of this clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of risedronate for the prevention of BMD loss in nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients undergoing RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT. Methods and Materials: A double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted for nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients receiving RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT. All had T scores > −2.5 on dual energy x-ray absorptiometry at baseline. Patients were randomized 1:1 between risedronate and placebo for 2 years. The primary endpoints were the percent changes in the BMD of the lumbar spine at 1 and 2 years from baseline, measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Analyses of the changes in BMD and bone turnover biomarkers were carried out by comparing mean values of the intrapatient changes between the 2 arms, using standard t tests. Results: One hundred four patients were accrued between 2004 and 2007, with 52 in each arm. Mean age was 66.8 and 67.5 years for the placebo and risedronate, respectively. At 1 and 2 years, mean (±SE) BMD of the lumbar spine decreased by 5.77% ± 4.66% and 13.55% ± 6.33%, respectively, in the placebo, compared with 0.12% ± 1.29% at 1 year (P=.2485) and 0.85% ± 1.56% (P=.0583) at 2 years in the risedronate. The placebo had a significant increase in serum bone turnover biomarkers compared with the risedronate. Conclusions: Weekly oral risedronate prevented BMD loss at 2 years and resulted in significant suppression of bone turnover biomarkers for 24 months for patients receiving RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT.

  7. Randomized, Double-Blinded, Placebo-Controlled, Trial of Risedronate for the Prevention of Bone Mineral Density Loss in Nonmetastatic Prostate Cancer Patients Receiving Radiation Therapy Plus Androgen Deprivation Therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choo, Richard; Lukka, Himu; Cheung, Patrick; Corbett, Tom; Briones-Urbina, Rosario; Vieth, Reinhold; Ehrlich, Lisa; Kiss, Alex; Danjoux, Cyril

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) has been used as an adjuvant treatment to radiation therapy (RT) for the management of locally advanced prostate carcinoma. Long-term ADT decreases bone mineral density (BMD) and increases the risk of osteoporosis. The objective of this clinical trial was to evaluate the efficacy of risedronate for the prevention of BMD loss in nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients undergoing RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT. Methods and Materials: A double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial was conducted for nonmetastatic prostate cancer patients receiving RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT. All had T scores > −2.5 on dual energy x-ray absorptiometry at baseline. Patients were randomized 1:1 between risedronate and placebo for 2 years. The primary endpoints were the percent changes in the BMD of the lumbar spine at 1 and 2 years from baseline, measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Analyses of the changes in BMD and bone turnover biomarkers were carried out by comparing mean values of the intrapatient changes between the 2 arms, using standard t tests. Results: One hundred four patients were accrued between 2004 and 2007, with 52 in each arm. Mean age was 66.8 and 67.5 years for the placebo and risedronate, respectively. At 1 and 2 years, mean (±SE) BMD of the lumbar spine decreased by 5.77% ± 4.66% and 13.55% ± 6.33%, respectively, in the placebo, compared with 0.12% ± 1.29% at 1 year (P=.2485) and 0.85% ± 1.56% (P=.0583) at 2 years in the risedronate. The placebo had a significant increase in serum bone turnover biomarkers compared with the risedronate. Conclusions: Weekly oral risedronate prevented BMD loss at 2 years and resulted in significant suppression of bone turnover biomarkers for 24 months for patients receiving RT plus 2 to 3 years of ADT

  8. Scaling effects concerning the analysis of small break experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austregesilo Filho, H.

    1985-01-01

    Some scaling effects related to the experimental facilities as well as to the analytical models used for the design and safety analysis of nuclear power plants are discussed or the basis of phenomena expected to occur during small-break loss - of - coolant accidents. The results of isolated small-break experiments should not be directly extrapolated to the safety analysis of commercial reactors, due to the scaling distortions inherent to the test facilities. With respect to the analytical models used to simulate thermohydraulic processes in experimental facilities, their eventual dependence relative to the system dimension should be examined in order to assess their applicability to the safety analysis of commercial power plants. (Author) [pt

  9. Parental monitoring and rule-breaking behaviour in secondary school students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovačević-Lepojević Marina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Parental monitoring is recognised as one of the most important family factors that are associated with rule-breaking behaviour. The objective of this paper is to determine the nature of correlations between parental monitoring and its key components (parents’ knowledge, child disclosure, parental solicitation and parental control and rule-breaking behaviour. Additionally, the prediction of the rule-breaking behaviour by parental monitoring variables, age and gender will be considered. The sample included 507 secondary school students from Belgrade, aged 15 to 18. The data on rule-breaking behaviour were collected through ASEBA YSR/11-18, and on parental monitoring via the Parental monitoring scale. The most important conclusions are the following: the strongest negative correlations are found between parental knowledge and child disclosure with rule-breaking behaviour; child disclosure is the most important source of parental knowledge; the variables of parental monitoring, gender and age explained 31.4% of the variance of rule-breaking behaviour; finally, parental control and age, unlike other variables, did not predict rule-breaking behaviour. Given that parents mostly know how children spend their free time only if the children tell this to them, it is recommended that the prevention programme of rule-breaking behaviour should be oriented towards the improvement of parent-child relationships instead of focusing on parental control and supervision. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 179017: Socijalna participacija osoba sa intelektualnom ometenošću

  10. Prophylactic Subacute Administration of Zinc Increases CCL2, CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 Expression and Prevents the Long-Term Memory Loss in a Rat Model of Cerebral Hypoxia-Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Manuel Blanco-Alvarez

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Prophylactic subacute administration of zinc decreases lipoperoxidation and cell death following a transient cerebral hypoxia-ischemia, thus suggesting neuroprotective and preconditioning effects. Chemokines and growth factors are also involved in the neuroprotective effect in hypoxia-ischemia. We explored whether zinc prevents the cerebral cortex-hippocampus injury through regulation of CCL2, CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 expression following a 10 min of common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO. Male rats were grouped as follows: (1 Zn96h, rats injected with ZnCl2 (one dose every 24 h during four days; (2 Zn96h + CCAO, rats treated with ZnCl2 before CCAO; (3 CCAO, rats with CCAO only; (4 Sham group, rats with mock CCAO; and (5 untreated rats. The cerebral cortex-hippocampus was dissected at different times before and after CCAO. CCL2/CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 expression was assessed by RT-PCR and ELISA. Learning in Morris Water Maze was achieved by daily training during 5 days. Long-term memory was evaluated on day 7 after learning. Subacute administration of zinc increased expression of CCL2, CCR2, FGF2, and IGF-1 in the early and late phases of postreperfusion and prevented the CCAO-induced memory loss in the rat. These results might be explained by the induction of neural plasticity because of the expression of CCL2 and growth factors.

  11. Symmetry breaking in gauge glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.

    1988-09-01

    In order to explain why nature selects the gauge groups of the Standard Model, Brene and Nielsen have proposed a way to break gauge symmetry which does not rely on the existence of a Higgs field. The observed gauge groups will in this scheme appear as the only surviving ones when this mechanism is applied to a random selection of gauge groups. The essential assumption is a discrete space-time with random couplings. Some working assumptions were made for computational reasons of which the most important is that quantum fluctuations were neclected. This work presents an example which under the same conditions show that a much wider class of groups than predicted by Brene and Nielsen will be broken. In particular no possible Standard Model Group survives unbroken. Numerical calculations support the analytical result. (orig.)

  12. Rotational Symmetry Breaking in Baby Skyrme Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karliner, Marek; Hen, Itay

    We discuss one of the most interesting phenomena exhibited by baby skyrmions - breaking of rotational symmetry. The topics we will deal with here include the appearance of rotational symmetry breaking in the static solutions of baby Skyrme models, both in flat as well as in curved spaces, the zero-temperature crystalline structure of baby skyrmions, and finally, the appearance of spontaneous breaking of rotational symmetry in rotating baby skyrmions.

  13. Big break for charge symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.A. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle (United States); Kolck, U. van [Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Two new experiments have detected charge-symmetry breaking, the mechanism responsible for protons and neutrons having different masses. Symmetry is a crucial concept in the theories that describe the subatomic world because it has an intimate connection with the laws of conservation. The theory of the strong interaction between quarks - quantum chromodynamics - is approximately invariant under what is called charge symmetry. In other words, if we swap an up quark for a down quark, then the strong interaction will look almost the same. This symmetry is related to the concept of {sup i}sospin{sup ,} and is not the same as charge conjugation (in which a particle is replaced by its antiparticle). Charge symmetry is broken by the competition between two different effects. The first is the small difference in mass between up and down quarks, which is about 200 times less than the mass of the proton. The second is their different electric charges. The up quark has a charge of +2/3 in units of the proton charge, while the down quark has a negative charge of -1/3. If charge symmetry was exact, the proton and the neutron would have the same mass and they would both be electrically neutral. This is because the proton is made of two up quarks and a down quark, while the neutron comprises two downs and an up. Replacing up quarks with down quarks, and vice versa, therefore transforms a proton into a neutron. Charge-symmetry breaking causes the neutron to be about 0.1% heavier than the proton because the down quark is slightly heavier than the up quark. Physicists had already elucidated certain aspects of charge-symmetry breaking, but our spirits were raised greatly when we heard of the recent work of Allena Opper of Ohio University in the US and co-workers at the TRIUMF laboratory in British Columbia, Canada. Her team has been trying to observe a small charge-symmetry-breaking effect for several years, using neutron beams at the TRIUMF accelerator. The researchers studied the

  14. Rock breaking methods to replace blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huisheng; Xie, Xinghua; Feng, Yuqing

    2018-03-01

    The method of breaking rock by blasting has a high efficiency and the cost is relatively low, but the associated vibration, flyrock, production of toxic gases since the 1970’s, the Western developed countries began to study the safety of breaking rock. This paper introduces different methods and their progress to safely break rock. Ideally, safe rock breaking would have little vibration, no fly stone, and no toxic gases, which can be widely used in municipal engineering, road excavation, high-risk mining, quarrying and complex environment.

  15. Give me a better break: Choosing workday break activities to maximize resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Emily M; Wu, Cindy

    2016-02-01

    Surprisingly little research investigates employee breaks at work, and even less research provides prescriptive suggestions for better workday breaks in terms of when, where, and how break activities are most beneficial. Based on the effort-recovery model and using experience sampling methodology, we examined the characteristics of employee workday breaks with 95 employees across 5 workdays. In addition, we examined resources as a mediator between break characteristics and well-being. Multilevel analysis results indicated that activities that were preferred and earlier in the work shift related to more resource recovery following the break. We also found that resources mediated the influence of preferred break activities and time of break on health symptoms and that resource recovery benefited person-level outcomes of emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behavior. Finally, break length interacted with the number of breaks per day such that longer breaks and frequent short breaks were associated with more resources than infrequent short breaks. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Economics of Garlic Production in Baran District of Rajasthan; Break Even Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Meena, Lokesh Kumar; Sen, Chandra; Bairwa, Shoji lal; Arunjhajharia; Raghuwanshi, N. K.

    2013-01-01

    The study focuses on economic analysis of garlic production in the Baran District of Rajasthan. The study is carried out to determine break even analysis and constraints of garlic production in the study area. Break even analysis is carried out to arrive at that minimum level at which optimum conditions of cost and returns is equated that is no profit no loss point. In this study selected small, medium and large farmers will not be at loss even if their actual yield of garlic is decline by 56...

  17. Weight Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Rights Employment Discrimination Health Care Professionals Law Enforcement Driver's License For Lawyers Food & Fitness Home Food MyFoodAdvisor ... Fit Types of Activity Weight Loss Assess Your Lifestyle Getting Started Food Choices In My Community Home ...

  18. Lie-algebra approach to symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    A formal Lie-algebra approach to symmetry breaking is studied in an attempt to reduce the arbitrariness of Lagrangian (Hamiltonian) models which include several free parameters and/or ad hoc symmetry groups. From Lie algebra it is shown that the unbroken Lagrangian vacuum symmetry can be identified from a linear function of integers which are Cartan matrix elements. In broken symmetry if the breaking operators form an algebra then the breaking symmetry (or symmetries) can be identified from linear functions of integers characteristic of the breaking symmetries. The results are applied to the Dirac Hamiltonian of a sum of flavored fermions and colored bosons in the absence of dynamical symmetry breaking. In the partially reduced quadratic Hamiltonian the breaking-operator functions are shown to consist of terms of order g 2 , g, and g 0 in the color coupling constants and identified with strong (boson-boson), medium strong (boson-fermion), and fine-structure (fermion-fermion) interactions. The breaking operators include a boson helicity operator in addition to the familiar fermion helicity and ''spin-orbit'' terms. Within the broken vacuum defined by the conventional formalism, the field divergence yields a gauge which is a linear function of Cartan matrix integers and which specifies the vacuum symmetry. We find that the vacuum symmetry is chiral SU(3) x SU(3) and the axial-vector-current divergence gives a PCAC -like function of the Cartan matrix integers which reduces to PCAC for SU(2) x SU(2) breaking. For the mass spectra of the nonets J/sup P/ = 0 - ,1/2 + ,1 - the integer runs through the sequence 3,0,-1,-2, which indicates that the breaking subgroups are the simple Lie groups. Exact axial-vector-current conservation indicates a breaking sum rule which generates octet enhancement. Finally, the second-order breaking terms are obtained from the second-order spin tensor sum of the completely reduced quartic Hamiltonian

  19. A Class I UV-blocking (senofilcon A) soft contact lens prevents UVA-induced yellow fluorescence and NADH loss in the rabbit lens nucleus in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giblin, Frank J; Lin, Li-Ren; Simpanya, Mukoma F; Leverenz, Victor R; Fick, Catherine E

    2012-09-01

    It is known that fluorescence, much of it caused by UVA light excitation, increases in the aging human lens, resulting in loss of sharp vision. This study used an in vivo animal model to investigate UVA-excited fluorescence in the rabbit lens, which contains a high level of the UVA chromophore NADH, existing both free and bound to λ-crystallin. Also, the ability of a Class I (senofilcon A) soft contact lens to protect against UVA-induced effects on the rabbit lens was tested. Rabbit eyes were irradiated with UVA light in vivo (100 mW/cm(2) on the cornea) for 1 h using monochromatic 365 nm light. Irradiation was conducted in the presence of either a senofilcon A contact lens, a minimally UV-absorbing lotrafilcon A contact lens, or no contact lens at all. Eyes irradiated without a contact lens showed blue 365 nm-excited fluorescence initially, but this changed to intense yellow fluorescence after 1 h. Isolated, previously irradiated lenses exhibited yellow fluorescence originating from the lens nucleus when viewed under 365 nm light, but showed normal blue fluorescence arising from the cortex. Previously irradiated lenses also exhibited a faint yellow color when observed under visible light. The senofilcon A contact lens protected completely against the UVA-induced effects on fluorescence and lens yellowing, whereas the lotrafilcon A lens showed no protection. The UVA-exposure also produced a 53% loss of total NADH (free plus bound) in the lens nucleus, with only a 13% drop in the anterior cortex. NADH loss in the nucleus was completely prevented with use of a senofilcon A contact lens, but no significant protection was observed with a lotrafilcon A lens. Overall, the senofilcon A lens provided an average of 67% protection against UVA-induced loss of four pyridine nucleotides in four different regions of the lens. HPLC analysis with fluorescence detection indicated a nearly six-fold increase in 365 nm-excited yellow fluorescence arising from lens nuclear

  20. Loss of heterozygosity and DNA damage repair in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daigaku, Yasukazu [Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Endo, Kingo [Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Watanabe, Eri [Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan); Ono, Tetsuya [Graduate School of Medicine, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8575 (Japan); Yamamoto, Kazuo [Graduate School of Life Sciences, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8577 (Japan)]. E-mail: yamamot@mail.tains.tohoku.ac.jp

    2004-11-22

    Loss of heterozygosity (LOH) of tumor suppressor genes is a crucial step in the development of sporadic and hereditary cancer. Understanding how LOH events arise may provide an opportunity for the prevention or early intervention of cancer development. In an effort to investigate the source of LOH events, we constructed MAT{alpha} can1{delta}::LEU2 and MATa CAN1 haploid yeast strains and examined canavanine-resistance mutations in a MATa CAN1/MAT{alpha} can1{delta}::LEU2 heterozygote formed by mating UV-irradiated and nonirradiated haploids. An increase in LOH was observed when the irradiated CAN1 haploid was mated with nonirradiated can1{delta}::LEU2, while reversed irradiation only marginally increased LOH. In the rad51{delta} background, allelic crossover type LOH increased following UV irradiation but not gene conversion. In the rad52{delta} background, neither type of LOH increased. The chromosome structure following LOH and the requirement for Rad51 and Rad52 proteins indicated the involvement of gene conversion, allelic crossover and break-induced replication. We argued that LOH events could have occurred during the repair of double-strand breaks on a functional (damaged) but not nonfunctional (undamaged) chromosome through recombination.