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Sample records for breakpoints demarcating sites

  1. Chromosomal instability in Afrotheria: fragile sites, evolutionary breakpoints and phylogenetic inference from genome sequence assemblies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruiz-Herrera Aurora

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extant placental mammals are divided into four major clades (Laurasiatheria, Supraprimates, Xenarthra and Afrotheria. Given that Afrotheria is generally thought to root the eutherian tree in phylogenetic analysis of large nuclear gene data sets, the study of the organization of the genomes of afrotherian species provides new insights into the dynamics of mammalian chromosomal evolution. Here we test if there are chromosomal bands with a high tendency to break and reorganize in Afrotheria, and by analyzing the expression of aphidicolin-induced common fragile sites in three afrotherian species, whether these are coincidental with recognized evolutionary breakpoints. Results We described 29 fragile sites in the aardvark (OAF genome, 27 in the golden mole (CAS, and 35 in the elephant-shrew (EED genome. We show that fragile sites are conserved among afrotherian species and these are correlated with evolutionary breakpoints when compared to the human (HSA genome. Inddition, by computationally scanning the newly released opossum (Monodelphis domestica and chicken sequence assemblies for use as outgroups to Placentalia, we validate the HSA 3/21/5 chromosomal synteny as a rare genomic change that defines the monophyly of this ancient African clade of mammals. On the other hand, support for HSA 1/19p, which is also thought to underpin Afrotheria, is currently ambiguous. Conclusion We provide evidence that (i the evolutionary breakpoints that characterise human syntenies detected in the basal Afrotheria correspond at the chromosomal band level with fragile sites, (ii that HSA 3p/21 was in the amniote ancestor (i.e., common to turtles, lepidosaurs, crocodilians, birds and mammals and was subsequently disrupted in the lineage leading to marsupials. Its expansion to include HSA 5 in Afrotheria is unique and (iii that its fragmentation to HSA 3p/21 + HSA 5/21 in elephant and manatee was due to a fission within HSA 21 that is probably shared

  2. Over half of breakpoints in gene pairs involved in cancer-specific recurrent translocations are mapped to human chromosomal fragile sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierce Levi CT

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene rearrangements such as chromosomal translocations have been shown to contribute to cancer development. Human chromosomal fragile sites are regions of the genome especially prone to breakage, and have been implicated in various chromosome abnormalities found in cancer. However, there has been no comprehensive and quantitative examination of the location of fragile sites in relation to all chromosomal aberrations. Results Using up-to-date databases containing all cancer-specific recurrent translocations, we have examined 444 unique pairs of genes involved in these translocations to determine the correlation of translocation breakpoints and fragile sites in the gene pairs. We found that over half (52% of translocation breakpoints in at least one gene of these gene pairs are mapped to fragile sites. Among these, we examined the DNA sequences within and flanking three randomly selected pairs of translocation-prone genes, and found that they exhibit characteristic features of fragile DNA, with frequent AT-rich flexibility islands and the potential of forming highly stable secondary structures. Conclusion Our study is the first to examine gene pairs involved in all recurrent chromosomal translocations observed in tumor cells, and to correlate the location of more than half of breakpoints to positions of known fragile sites. These results provide strong evidence to support a causative role for fragile sites in the generation of cancer-specific chromosomal rearrangements.

  3. Demarcation of secondary hyperalgesia zones

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Thomas K; Enghuus, Casper; Petersen, Morten A; Werner, Mads U

    2015-01-01

    of analgesic drug effects in humans. However, since the methods applied in demarcating the secondary hyperalgesia zone seem inconsistent across studies, we examined the effect of a standardized approach upon the measurement of SHA following a first degree burn injury (BI). NEW METHOD: The study was a...... SHAs (P<0.0001). No day-to-day or observer-to-observer differences in SHAs were observed. Intraclass correlation coefficients, in the range of 0.51 to 0.84, indicated a moderate to almost perfect reliability between observers. COMPARISON WITH EXISTING METHODS: No standardized approach in SHA......-assessment has hitherto been presented. CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to demonstrate that demarcation of secondary hyperalgesia zones depends on the developed pressure of the punctate stimulator used....

  4. Cytogenetic effects of radiotherapy. Breakpoint distribution in induced chromosome aberrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 660 breakpoints were identified in the chromosome aberrations detected in lymphocytes from cancer patients after radiotherapy. The results show that chromosomes 1, 3, and 7 were significantly more affected than other chromosomes by ionizing radiation in vivo. Chromosome arms 1p, 1q, 7q, and 11p were also significantly more affected. Some bands also showed a special sensitivity to radiation, and band 1q32 was the most affected. This band is proposed as a hot point for the clastogenic effect of ionizing radiation. A significant clustering of breakpoints in G bands was also found, especially at the telomeres, as previously described by other authors. Clustering of breakpoints was also observed in bands where fragile sites, protooncogenes, breakpoints involved in chromosomal cancer rearrangements, and breakpoints involved in chromosomal evolution of the Hominoidea are located

  5. Over half of breakpoints in gene pairs involved in cancer-specific recurrent translocations are mapped to human chromosomal fragile sites

    OpenAIRE

    Pierce Levi CT; Williams Laura E; Burrow Allison A; Wang Yuh-Hwa

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Gene rearrangements such as chromosomal translocations have been shown to contribute to cancer development. Human chromosomal fragile sites are regions of the genome especially prone to breakage, and have been implicated in various chromosome abnormalities found in cancer. However, there has been no comprehensive and quantitative examination of the location of fragile sites in relation to all chromosomal aberrations. Results Using up-to-date databases containing all cancer...

  6. Setting and Revising Antibacterial Susceptibility Breakpoints

    OpenAIRE

    Turnidge, John; PATERSON, DAVID L.

    2007-01-01

    Clinical microbiology laboratories need to communicate results of antibacterial susceptibility testing to prescribers. Sophisticated prescribers who are knowledgeable of the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antibacterials may desire no more information than the MIC of the drug in question. However, most prescribers require interpretation of antibacterial susceptibility testing results. Breakpoints can assist in determining if an antibacterial is potentially useful in the treatment of ...

  7. Breakpoint Distance and PQ-Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Haitao; Chauve, Cedric; Zhu, Binhai

    The PQ-tree is a fundamental data structure that can encode large sets of permutations. It has recently been used in comparative genomics to model ancestral genomes with some uncertainty: given a phylogeny for some species, extant genomes are represented by permutations on the leaves of the tree, and each internal node in the phylogenetic tree represents an extinct ancestral genome, represented by a PQ-tree. An open problem related to this approach is then to quantify the evolution between genomes represented by PQ-trees. In this paper we present results for two problems of PQ-tree comparison motivated by this application. First, we show that the problem of comparing two PQ-trees by computing the minimum breakpoint distance among all pairs of permutations generated respectively by the two considered PQ-trees is NP-complete for unsigned permutations. Next, we consider a generalization of the classical Breakpoint Median problem, where an ancestral genome is represented by a PQ-tree and p permutations are given, with p ≥ 1, and we want to compute a permutation generated by the PQ-tree that minimizes the sum of the breakpoint distances to the p permutations. We show that this problem is Fixed-Parameter Tractable with respect to the breakpoint distance value. This last result applies both on signed and unsigned permutations, and to uni-chromosomal and multi-chromosomal permutations.

  8. Demarcation of Seabuckthorn Plantations in Three Northern Areas of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    Seabuckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides) planting areas in the three northern areas (north, northeast and northwest) of China are divided into five planting zones: the semi-humid forest prairie climate zone for ecological and economic types of seabuckthorn plantations in the southern part of the Loess Plateau; the semi-arid steppe climate zone for similar types of plantations in the central part of the Loess Plateau; the arid desert steppe climate zone for ecological type of seabuckthorn plantations in the northern part of the Loess Plateau; the semi-arid and semi-humid steppe climate zone again for ecological and economic types of plantations in northern Hebei and western Liaoning and the cold humid steppe climate zone for economic types of plantations in the northern part of northeast China. The aim of this demarcation is to avoid a random introduction of seabuckthorn. In each of the five zones,objectives should be set and suitable seabuckthorn species, subspecies and varieties should be planted according to site conditions,seed sources and methods of tree breeding. The cultivation centers, bases, stations, or units should be established and successful models of seedling and planting methods should be encouraged. The principle of matching trees with suitable site conditions and adjusting measures to local conditions should be practiced. From a strategic viewpoint of solving ecological and economic problems of seabuckthorn development in the three northern areas, every seabuckthorn center must have its own germplasm nursery, standard plantation for popularizing, excellent seed and seedling nurseries and sufficient afforestation areas for demonstration and propaganda purposes. These measures would improve the ecological environment and promote economic and social development in the three northern areas of China.

  9. Distribution of X-ray-induced chromosome breakpoints in Down syndrome lymphocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shafik, H.M.; Au, W.W.; Whorton, E.B. Jr.; Legator, M.S. (Univ. of Texas Medical Branch, Galveston (USA))

    1990-01-01

    Down syndrome (DS) individuals are known to be predisposed to develop leukemia and their lymphocytes are highly sensitive to the induction of chromosome aberrations by X-rays. A study was conducted to identify the chromosome breakpoints and to evaluate whether site specificity for chromosome breakage and rearrangement may exist which may explain the predisposition phenomenon. DS lymphocytes at the G1 phase of the cell cycle were irradiated with 300, 450, and 600 rad of X-rays. Cells were harvested after 3 days in culture and 193 G-banded karyotypes were analyzed to identify the induced chromosome abnormalities. Out of 273 breakpoints identified, 122 were involved in the formation of stable chromosome rearrangements and 151 in the formation of unstable abnormalities. The Poisson analysis of these breakpoints demonstrated that 16 chromosome bands located in chromosomes 1, 3, 7, 12, 17, 19 and X were preferentially involved in breakage and rearrangement (P less than 0.05). These 16 bands are also found to be locations of cancer breakpoints, oncogenes, or fragile sites. Many abnormal cells were observed to carry stable chromosome rearrangements only. Therefore, these cells are presumed to be compatible with survival and to be initiated in the transformation process. We propose that similar stable and site-specific chromosome rearrangements may exist in proliferating cells in DS individuals after exposure to clastogens and that this abnormality predisposes them to develop leukemia.

  10. Distribution of X-ray-induced chromosome breakpoints in Down syndrome lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Down syndrome (DS) individuals are known to be predisposed to develop leukemia and their lymphocytes are highly sensitive to the induction of chromosome aberrations by X-rays. A study was conducted to identify the chromosome breakpoints and to evaluate whether site specificity for chromosome breakage and rearrangement may exist which may explain the predisposition phenomenon. DS lymphocytes at the G1 phase of the cell cycle were irradiated with 300, 450, and 600 rad of X-rays. Cells were harvested after 3 days in culture and 193 G-banded karyotypes were analyzed to identify the induced chromosome abnormalities. Out of 273 breakpoints identified, 122 were involved in the formation of stable chromosome rearrangements and 151 in the formation of unstable abnormalities. The Poisson analysis of these breakpoints demonstrated that 16 chromosome bands located in chromosomes 1, 3, 7, 12, 17, 19 and X were preferentially involved in breakage and rearrangement (P less than 0.05). These 16 bands are also found to be locations of cancer breakpoints, oncogenes, or fragile sites. Many abnormal cells were observed to carry stable chromosome rearrangements only. Therefore, these cells are presumed to be compatible with survival and to be initiated in the transformation process. We propose that similar stable and site-specific chromosome rearrangements may exist in proliferating cells in DS individuals after exposure to clastogens and that this abnormality predisposes them to develop leukemia

  11. Kalman Filter Track Fits and Track Breakpoint Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Astier, Pierre; Cardini, Alessandro; Cousins, Robert D.; Letessier-Selvon, Antoine; Popov, Boris A.; Vinogradova, Tatiana

    1999-01-01

    We give an overview of track fitting using the Kalman filter method in the NOMAD detector at CERN, and emphasize how the wealth of by-product information can be used to analyze track breakpoints (discontinuities in track parameters caused by scattering, decay, etc.). After reviewing how this information has been previously exploited by others, we describe extensions which add power to breakpoint detection and characterization. We show how complete fits to the entire track, with breakpoint par...

  12. Kalman filter track fits and track breakpoint analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Astier, Pierre; Cardini, Alessandro; Cousins, Robert D. E-mail: cousins@physics.ucla.edu; Letessier-Selvon, Antoine; Popov, Boris A.; Vinogradova, Tatiana

    2000-08-01

    We give an overview of track fitting using the Kalman filter method in the NOMAD detector at CERN, and emphasize how the wealth of by-product information can be used to analyze track breakpoints (discontinuities in track parameters caused by scattering, decay, etc.). After reviewing how this information has been previously exploited by others, we describe extensions which add power to breakpoint detection and characterization. We show how complete fits to the entire track, with breakpoint parameters added, can be easily obtained from the information from unbroken fits. Tests inspired by the Fisher F-test can then be used to judge breakpoints. Signed quantities (such as change in momentum at the breakpoint) can supplement unsigned quantities such as the various chisquares. We illustrate the method with electrons from real data, and with Monte Carlo simulations of pion decays.

  13. Kalman filter track fits and track breakpoint analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We give an overview of track fitting using the Kalman filter method in the NOMAD detector at CERN, and emphasize how the wealth of by-product information can be used to analyze track breakpoints (discontinuities in track parameters caused by scattering, decay, etc.). After reviewing how this information has been previously exploited by others, we describe extensions which add power to breakpoint detection and characterization. We show how complete fits to the entire track, with breakpoint parameters added, can be easily obtained from the information from unbroken fits. Tests inspired by the Fisher F-test can then be used to judge breakpoints. Signed quantities (such as change in momentum at the breakpoint) can supplement unsigned quantities such as the various chisquares. We illustrate the method with electrons from real data, and with Monte Carlo simulations of pion decays

  14. Kalman Filter Track Fits and Track Breakpoint Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Astier, Pierre; Cousins, R D; Letessier-Selvon, A A; Popov, B A; Vinogradova, T G; Astier, Pierre; Cardini, Alessandro; Cousins, Robert D.; Letessier-Selvon, Antoine; Popov, Boris A.; Vinogradova, Tatiana

    2000-01-01

    We give an overview of track fitting using the Kalman filter method in the NOMAD detector at CERN, and emphasize how the wealth of by-product information can be used to analyze track breakpoints (discontinuities in track parameters caused by scattering, decay, etc.). After reviewing how this information has been previously exploited by others, we describe extensions which add power to breakpoint detection and characterization. We show how complete fits to the entire track, with breakpoint parameters added, can be easily obtained from the information from unbroken fits. Tests inspired by the Fisher F-test can then be used to judge breakpoints. Signed quantities (such as change in momentum at the breakpoint) can supplement unsigned quantities such as the various chisquares. We illustrate the method with electrons from real data, and with Monte Carlo simulations of pion decays.

  15. Carbapenem susceptibility breakpoints, clinical implications with the moving target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, J Nicholas; Miglis, Cristina M; Lee, Jane Y; Tuvell, Merika; Lertharakul, Tina; Scheetz, Marc H

    2016-01-01

    Carbapenems are primary agents used to treat a variety of Gram-negative multi-drug resistant infections. In parallel with increasing use, increasing resistance to carbapenem agents has manifested as increased minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs). To attempt to improve clinical outcomes with carbapenems, the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute and the Food Drug Administration decreased susceptibility breakpoints. The European equivalent expert committee, the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing, also utilizes lower MIC susceptibility breakpoints. This review focuses on the rationale for recent breakpoint changes and the associated clinical outcomes for patients treated with carbapenems for infections with varying MICs proximal to the breakpoint. Supporting pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics that underpin the breakpoints are also reviewed. PMID:26918486

  16. Significance of density and demarcation of calcifications in calcifying tendinitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calcification of tendons can be either degenerative and progressive in nature or reactive and selfhealing. Radiologic examinations permit to distinguish between both kinds. The reactive calcification, known also as calcifying tendinitis, passes through two main phases, the formative and the resorptive phase. Since treatment is different for each phase, their roentgenologic distinction is important. Dense, well demarcated and homogenous calcifications indicate the presence of a formative phase whereas less dense, ill defined and fluffy deposits point toward an ongoing resorption. (orig.)

  17. Significance of density and demarcation of calcifications in calcifying tendinitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uhthoff, H.K.; Sarkar, K.; Hammond, I.

    1982-04-01

    Calcification of tendons can be either degenerative and progressive in nature or reactive and selfhealing. Radiologic examinations permit to distinguish between both kinds. The reactive calcification, known also as calcifying tendinitis, passes through two main phases, the formative and the resorptive phase. Since treatment is different for each phase, their roentgenologic distinction is important. Dense, well demarcated and homogenous calcifications indicate the presence of a formative phase whereas less dense, ill defined and fluffy deposits point toward an ongoing resorption.

  18. Isolation of a cosmid clone corresponding to an inv(21) breakpoint of a patient with transient abnormal myelopoiesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ohta, Tohru, Nakano, Motoi, Tsujita, Takahiro [Nagasaki Univ. School of Medicine, Nagasaki (Japan)] [and others

    1996-03-01

    Transient abnormal myelopoiesis (TAM) is a leukemoid reaction occurring occasionally in Down syndrome (DS) newborn infants. It has been hypothesized that {open_quotes}disomic homozygosity{close_quotes} in 21-trisomic cells plays an important role in the genesis of TAM, and the putative TAM gene was suggested to be mapped at a 21q11 region. We encountered a DS-associated TAM infant with a 47, XY, inv(21) (q11.1q22.13), +inv(21) (q11.1q22.13) karyotype. On the basis of another presumption that in this patient the putative TAM gene is disrupted by the break, we tried to isolate a breakpoint DNA. FISH analysis with cosmid clones corresponding to various sequence-tagged-site (STS) markers mapped at around 21q11.1-q11.2, we confirmed that the proximal breakpoint of the inv (21) was located between two STSs, G51E07 and D21S215, the latter locus being consistent with the previous tentative mapping. After construction of a cosmid contig encompassing between the two markers, we have isolated a cosmid clone corresponding to the proximal breakpoint of the inversion. This breakpoint was located near a previously identified duplicated region that is homologous to the sequence at 21q22.1. The isolated cosmid clone is useful for analysis of other TAM patients and for a search for a transcript at or flanking the breakpoint. 27 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Physical macroeconomics: a demarcation of accounting and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hahn, M. de [Statistics Netherlands, Voorburg (Netherlands)

    2001-07-01

    This paper provides a general discussion on physical flow accounting methodology. The discussion is limited to those methods primarily applied to the national economy level. Specific attention is given to the demarcation of accounting versus analysis. The primary goal of statistics and accounting is to provide an acceptable level of 'descriptiveness' and 'neutrality' in its representation of facts. On the other hand, modelling or analysis usually relies on assumptions of a much wider scale, for example in relation to human behaviour, or by the necessity of ceteris paribus clauses in partial analysis. While accounting usually provides answers on past events, analysis is often ex-ante oriented. A number of accounting methods are reviewed on the basis of their accounting scopes and indicator proposals. In general the accounting frameworks are rather complementary or at least not contradictory but inconsistencies emerge in some of the indicators that are derived from the accounts. The paper further elaborates on the significance of the national accounts in this field of research. National accounting concepts and definitions contributes to a sound demarcation of the (national) economy, which appears equally valid for physical representations of a national economy. This demarcation also supports the sound allocation of environmental burdens to specific national or regional economies. At the same time, the economic relevance of physical flows is to a large extent exposed by their connection to specific economic (production and consumption) processes and concomitant transactions. This linkage, as for example accommodated in a National Accounting Matrix including Environmental Accounts (NAMEA) provides in this respect a useful statistical framework that provides a consistent comparison of environmental burdens to economic benefits (or environmental benefits to economic costs)

  20. Development of Doxycycline MIC and Disk Diffusion Interpretive Breakpoints and Revision of Tetracycline Breakpoints for Streptococcus pneumoniae

    OpenAIRE

    Dallas, Steven D.; McGee, Lesley; Limbago, Brandi; Patel, Jean B; McElmeel, M. Leticia; Fulcher, Letitia C.; Lonsway, David R.; Jorgensen, James H.

    2013-01-01

    A study was performed to derive susceptibility testing interpretive breakpoints for doxycycline with Streptococcus pneumoniae and to reassess breakpoints for tetracycline using the requirements defined in Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) document M23-A3. Tetracycline and doxycycline MICs and disk diffusion zone sizes were determined on 189 isolates selected from the 2009-2010 CDC Active Bacterial Core surveillance strain collection according to the testing methods described ...

  1. The development of functional response units: the role of demarcating stimuli.

    OpenAIRE

    Reid, A K; Chadwick, C Z; Dunham, M.; Miller, A.

    2001-01-01

    An experiment with rats examined the roles of demarcating stimuli and differential reinforcement probability on the development of functional response units. It examined the development of units in a probabilistic, free-operant situation in which the presence of demarcating stimuli was manipulated. In all conditions, behavior became organized into two-response sequences framed by changes in local reinforcement probability. A tone demarcating the beginning and end of contingent response sequen...

  2. Pigmentary demarcation lines on the face in Saudi women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Samary Abdullah

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pigmentary demarcation lines (PDL are physiological abrupt transition lines between hyperpigmented skin and lighter areas. Recent evidence suggests that they involve the face. Aims: To survey facial PDL in Saudi females referred to general dermatology clinics for various complaints and determine any associated risks. Methods: Screening for facial lines was done in general dermatology clinics over a year. Whenever a patient was found to have facial PDL, a detailed questionnaire and examination were undertaken. Results: Out of 1033 patients screened, 144 patients (14% were found to have at least one of the facial PDLs. The median age of onset was 16 years. The most common line was F with 76 patients (53%. Family history was positive in 51 patients (35%. Conclusion: Facial PDL is a common and chronic pigmentary problem in Saudi women. It should be recognized and differentiated from other similar diseases like melasma. A significant proportion of patients have a milder presentation.

  3. The demarcation of permanent preservation areas along rivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João de Deus Medeiros

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Through the analysis of the new Brazilian Forest Code (Law 4,771/65 legislative reform, this paper shows the evolution of legal protection to the riparian system (marginal strips, defined as vegetation strings along rivers and other water bodies, which vary according to the water body width. The demarcation of permanent preservation areas along rivers is a complex process which has led to doubts and conflicts. Riparian systems are spaces aimed at the agricultural expansion and, thus, they’re under pressure. The analysis showed that the limitation posed by the new rule agrees with the principle of reasonableness. The new Brazilian Forest Code review, which is currently included in the National Congress agenda, will be able to positively contribute to achieve the possible and desired balance between respect to the natural environment and expansion of land uses.

  4. Genomic EWS-FLI1 fusion sequences in Ewing sarcoma resemble breakpoint characteristics of immature lymphoid malignancies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manfred Berger

    Full Text Available Chromosomal translocations between the EWS gene and members of the ETS gene family are characteristic molecular features of the Ewing sarcoma. The most common translocation t(11;22(q24;q12 fuses the EWS gene to FLI1, and is present in 85-90% of Ewing sarcomas. In the present study, a specifically designed multiplex long-range PCR assay was applied to amplify genomic EWS-FLI1 fusion sites from as little as 100 ng template DNA. Characterization of the EWS-FLI1 fusion sites of 42 pediatric and young adult Ewing sarcoma patients and seven cell lines revealed a clustering in the 5' region of the EWS-breakpoint cluster region (BCR, in contrast to random distribution of breakpoints in the FLI1-BCR. No association of breakpoints with various recombination-inducing sequence motifs was identified. The occurrence of small deletions and duplications at the genomic junction is characteristic of involvement of the non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ repair system, similar to findings at chromosomal breakpoints in pediatric leukemia and lymphoma.

  5. 33 CFR 80.01 - General basis and purpose of demarcation lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... SECURITY INTERNATIONAL NAVIGATION RULES COLREGS DEMARCATION LINES General § 80.01 General basis and purpose... those waters upon which mariners shall comply with the International Regulations for...

  6. DNA Probe Pooling for Rapid Delineation of Chromosomal Breakpoints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chun-Mei; Kwan, Johnson; Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly F.; Wang, Mei; Escudero, Tomas; Munne' , Santiago; Zitzelsberger, Horst F.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich

    2009-01-30

    Structural chromosome aberrations are hallmarks of many human genetic diseases. The precise mapping of translocation breakpoints in tumors is important for identification of genes with altered levels of expression, prediction of tumor progression, therapy response, or length of disease-free survival as well as the preparation of probes for detection of tumor cells in peripheral blood. Similarly, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for carriers of balanced, reciprocal translocations benefit from accurate breakpoint maps in the preparation of patient-specific DNA probes followed by a selection of normal or balanced oocytes or embryos. We expedited the process of breakpoint mapping and preparation of case-specific probes by utilizing physically mapped bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones. Historically, breakpoint mapping is based on the definition of the smallest interval between proximal and distal probes. Thus, many of the DNA probes prepared for multi-clone and multi-color mapping experiments do not generate additional information. Our pooling protocol described here with examples from thyroid cancer research and PGD accelerates the delineation of translocation breakpoints without sacrificing resolution. The turnaround time from clone selection to mapping results using tumor or IVF patient samples can be as short as three to four days.

  7. Fine mapping of the EDA gene: A translocation breakpoint is associated with a CpG island that is transcribed

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, A.K.; Schlessinger, D. [Washington Univ. School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO (United States); Montonen, O. [Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)] [and others

    1996-01-01

    In order to identify the gene for human X-linked anhidrotic ectodermal dysplasia (EDA), a translocation breakpoint in a female with t(X;1)(q13.1;p36.3) and EDA (patient AK) was finely mapped. The EDA region contains five groups of rare-cutter restriction sites that define CpG islands. The two more centromeric of these islands are associated with transcripts of 3.5 kb and 1.8 kb. The third CpG island maps within <1 kb of the translocation breakpoint in patient AK, as indicated by a genomic rearrangement, and {approximately}100 kb centromeric from another previously mapped translocation breakpoint (patient AnLy). Northern analysis with a probe from this CpG island detected an {approximately}6-kb mRNA in several fetal tissues tested. An extended YAC contig of 1,200 kb with an average of fivefold coverage was constructed. The two most telomeric CpG islands map 350 kb telomeric of the two translocations. Taken together, the results suggest that the CpG island just proximal of the AK translocation breakpoint lies at the 5{prime} end of a candidate gene for EDA. 26 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  8. Fast detection of deletion breakpoints using quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abildinova, Gulshara; Abdrakhmanova, Zhanara; Tuchinsky, Helena; Nesher, Elimelech; Pinhasov, Albert; Raskin, Leon

    2016-06-16

    The routine detection of large and medium copy number variants (CNVs) is well established. Hemizygotic deletions or duplications in the large Duchenne muscular dystrophy DMD gene responsible for Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies are routinely identified using multiple ligation probe amplification and array-based comparative genomic hybridization. These methods only map deleted or duplicated exons, without providing the exact location of breakpoints. Commonly used methods for the detection of CNV breakpoints include long-range PCR and primer walking, their success being limited by the deletion size, GC content and presence of DNA repeats. Here, we present a strategy for detecting the breakpoints of medium and large CNVs regardless of their size. The hemizygous deletion of exons 45-50 in the DMD gene and the large autosomal heterozygous PARK2 deletion were used to demonstrate the workflow that relies on real-time quantitative PCR to narrow down the deletion region and Sanger sequencing for breakpoint confirmation. The strategy is fast, reliable and cost-efficient, making it amenable to widespread use in genetic laboratories. PMID:27333265

  9. On the Complexity of Rearrangement Problems under the Breakpoint Distance

    CERN Document Server

    Kovac, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    Tannier et al. introduced a generalization of breakpoint distance for multichromosomal genomes. They showed that the median problem under the breakpoint distance is solvable in polynomial time in the multichromosomal circular and mixed models. This is intriguing, since in all other rearrangement models (DCJ, reversal, unichromosomal or multilinear breakpoint models), the problem is NP-hard. The complexity of the small or even the large phylogeny problem under the breakpoint distance remained an open problem. We improve the algorithm for the median problem and show that it is equivalent to the problem of finding maximum cardinality non-bipartite matching (under linear reduction). On the other hand, we prove that the more general small phylogeny problem is NP-hard. Surprisingly, we show that it is already NP-hard (or even APX-hard) for 4 species (a quartet phylogeny). In other words, while finding an ancestor for 3 species is easy, already finding two ancestors for 4 species is hard. We also show that, in the u...

  10. Fast detection of deletion breakpoints using quantitative PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulshara Abildinova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The routine detection of large and medium copy number variants (CNVs is well established. Hemizygotic deletions or duplications in the large Duchenne muscular dystrophy DMD gene responsible for Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophies are routinely identified using multiple ligation probe amplification and array-based comparative genomic hybridization. These methods only map deleted or duplicated exons, without providing the exact location of breakpoints. Commonly used methods for the detection of CNV breakpoints include long-range PCR and primer walking, their success being limited by the deletion size, GC content and presence of DNA repeats. Here, we present a strategy for detecting the breakpoints of medium and large CNVs regardless of their size. The hemizygous deletion of exons 45-50 in the DMD gene and the large autosomal heterozygous PARK2 deletion were used to demonstrate the workflow that relies on real-time quantitative PCR to narrow down the deletion region and Sanger sequencing for breakpoint confirmation. The strategy is fast, reliable and cost-efficient, making it amenable to widespread use in genetic laboratories.

  11. Detecting phylogenetic breakpoints and discordance from genome-wide alignments for species tree reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ané, Cécile

    2011-01-01

    With the easy acquisition of sequence data, it is now possible to obtain and align whole genomes across multiple related species or populations. In this work, I assess the performance of a statistical method to reconstruct the whole distribution of phylogenetic trees along the genome, estimate the proportion of the genome for which a given clade is true, and infer a concordance tree that summarizes the dominant vertical inheritance pattern. There are two main issues when dealing with whole-genome alignments, as opposed to multiple genes: the size of the data and the detection of recombination breakpoints. These breakpoints partition the genomic alignment into phylogenetically homogeneous loci, where sites within a given locus all share the same phylogenetic tree topology. To delimitate these loci, I describe here a method based on the minimum description length (MDL) principle, implemented with dynamic programming for computational efficiency. Simulations show that combining MDL partitioning with Bayesian concordance analysis provides an efficient and robust way to estimate both the vertical inheritance signal and the horizontal phylogenetic signal. The method performed well both in the presence of incomplete lineage sorting and in the presence of horizontal gene transfer. A high level of systematic bias was found here, highlighting the need for good individual tree building methods, which form the basis for more elaborate gene tree/species tree reconciliation methods. PMID:21362638

  12. Continuous Piecewise Linear δ-Approximations for MINLP Problems. I. Minimal Breakpoint Systems for Univariate Functions

    OpenAIRE

    Steffen Rebennack; Josef Kallrath

    2012-01-01

    For univariate functions, we compute optimal breakpoint systems subject to the condition that the piecewise linear approximation (or, under- and overestimator) never deviates more than a given δ-tolerance from the original function, over a given finite interval. The linear approximators, under- and overestimators involve shift variables at the breakpoints leading to a small number of breakpoints while still ensuring continuity over the full interval. We develop two mixed integer non-linear pr...

  13. Investigation of the breakpoint region in stacks with a finite number of intrinsic Josephson junctions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shukrinov, Yu M.; Mahfouzi, F.; Pedersen, Niels Falsig

    2007-01-01

    We study the breakpoint region on the outermost branch of current-voltage characteristics of the stacks with di_erent number of intrinsic Josephson junctions. E_ect of the boundary conditions on the breakpoint region is demonstrated. At periodic boundary conditions the breakpoint region is absent...... for stacks with even number of junctions. For stacks with odd number of junctions and for stacks with nonperiodic boundary conditions the breakpoint current is increased with number of junctions and saturated at the value corresponding to the periodic boundary conditions. The region of saturation and...

  14. Poor-rich demarcation of Matthew effect on scale-free systems and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Dong; Dong Ming; Abdelaziz Bouras; Yu Sui-Ran

    2011-01-01

    In a scale-free network, only a minority of nodes are connected very often, while the majority of nodes are connected rarely. However, what is the ratio of minority nodes to majority nodes resulting from the Matthew effect? In this paper,based on a simple preferential random model, the poor-rich demarcation points are found to vary in a limited range,and form a poor-rich demarcation interval that approximates to k/m ∈[3,4]. As a result, the(cumulative)degree distribution of a scale-free network can be divided into three intervals:the poor interval, the demarcation interval and the rich interval. The inequality of the degree distribution in each interval is measured. Finally, the Matthew effect is applied to the ABC analysis of project management.

  15. The Application of the Second Land Survey Database in Land Surveying and Demarcating%第二次土地调查数据库成果在土地勘测定界中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余兰

    2012-01-01

    介绍了第二次土地调查数据库成果在勘测定界中的应用,进一步规范了土地勘测定界成果资料,确保了成果质量,真正做到了图、数与实地一致,并通过生产实际探讨了县级土地勘测定界内外业工作方法.%This paper introduces the application of the second land survey database in Land surveying and demarcating, further standardizes the achievement material of land surveying and demarcating, ensures the quality of result, achieves the graph, data and site consistency, and discusses the working method of county level land surveying and demarcating.

  16. Antimicrobial breakpoint estimation accounting for variability in pharmacokinetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nekka Fahima

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD indices are increasingly being used in the microbiological field to assess the efficacy of a dosing regimen. In contrast to methods using MIC, PK/PD-based methods reflect in vivo conditions and are more predictive of efficacy. Unfortunately, they entail the use of one PK-derived value such as AUC or Cmax and may thus lead to biased efficiency information when the variability is large. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the efficacy of a treatment by adjusting classical breakpoint estimation methods to the situation of variable PK profiles. Methods and results We propose a logical generalisation of the usual AUC methods by introducing the concept of "efficiency" for a PK profile, which involves the efficacy function as a weight. We formulated these methods for both classes of concentration- and time-dependent antibiotics. Using drug models and in silico approaches, we provide a theoretical basis for characterizing the efficiency of a PK profile under in vivo conditions. We also used the particular case of variable drug intake to assess the effect of the variable PK profiles generated and to analyse the implications for breakpoint estimation. Conclusion Compared to traditional methods, our weighted AUC approach gives a more powerful PK/PD link and reveals, through examples, interesting issues about the uniqueness of therapeutic outcome indices and antibiotic resistance problems.

  17. A Fast and Exact Algorithm for the Exemplar Breakpoint Distance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Mingfu; Moret, Bernard M E

    2016-05-01

    A fundamental problem in comparative genomics is to compute the distance between two genomes. For two genomes without duplicate genes, we can easily compute a variety of distance measures in linear time, but the problem is NP-hard under most models when genomes contain duplicate genes. Sankoff proposed the use of exemplars to tackle the problem of duplicate genes and gene families: each gene family is represented by a single gene (the exemplar for that family), chosen so as to optimize some metric. Unfortunately, choosing exemplars is itself an NP-hard problem. In this article, we propose a very fast and exact algorithm to compute the exemplar breakpoint distance, based on new insights in the underlying structure of genome rearrangements and exemplars. We evaluate the performance of our algorithm on simulation data and compare its performance to the best effort to date (a divide-and-conquer approach), showing that our algorithm runs much faster and scales much better. We also devise a new algorithm for the intermediate breakpoint distance problem, which can then be applied to assign orthologs. We compare our algorithm with the state-of-the-art method MSOAR by assigning orthologs among five well annotated mammalian genomes, showing that our algorithm runs much faster and is slightly more accurate than MSOAR. PMID:26953781

  18. Susceptibility testing with the sensititer breakpoint broth microdilution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doern, G V; Dascal, A; Keville, M

    1985-05-01

    The antimicrobial susceptibility profiles of a total of 318 aerobic and facultatively anaerobic bacteria (255 gram-negative bacilli and 63 gram-positive cocci) were determined, using a new commercially available breakpoint broth microdilution procedure (Sensititer Breakpoint System (SBS), Gibco Diagnostics, Inc., Madison, WI) that categorizes test results in the form of susceptibility categories: susceptible, intermediate, and resistant. Results obtained with the SBS were compared with those achieved with a standardized disk diffusion procedure. Among a total of 4,414 organism-antimicrobic comparisons, concordance between the results of the SBS and the disk diffusion procedure was observed in 3,888 cases (88.1%). Four hundred twenty-three (9.6%) minor discrepancies, 45 (1.0%) major discrepancies, and 58 (1.3%) very major discrepancies were noted. Arbitration of major and very major discrepancies with a full-range minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) procedure confirmed the results of the SBS in 53.4% of cases. A single organism-antimicrobial combination, the nonenterococcal streptococci tested against the aminoglycosides, yielded a significant number of very major errors which were arbitrated in favor of the disk diffusion result. These errors were probably due to poor growth of the test organism in the broth medium used for performing the SBS test (i.e., cation-supplemented Mueller-Hinton broth). With this exception, the SBS was found to be at least as accurate as the standardized disk diffusion procedure. PMID:3922668

  19. European gene mapping project (EUROGEM) : Breakpoint panels for human chromosomes based on the CEPH reference families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Attwood, J; Bryant, SP; Bains, R; Povey, R; Povey, S; Rebello, M; Kapsetaki, M; Moschonas, NK; Grzeschik, KH; Otto, M; Dixon, M; Sudworth, HE; Kooy, RF; Wright, A; Teague, P; Terrenato, L; Vergnaud, G; Monfouilloux, S; Weissenbach, J; Alibert, O; Dib, C; Faure, S; Bakker, E; Pearson, NM; Vossen, RHAM; Gal, A; MuellerMyhsok, B; Cann, HM; Spurr, NK

    1996-01-01

    Meiotic breakpoint panels for human chromosomes 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10, 13, 14, 15, 17; 18, 20 and X were constructed from genotypes from the CEPH reference families. Each recombinant chromosome included has a breakpoint well-supported with reference to defined quantitative criteria. The panels

  20. ESTIMATING THE AGE OF DEMARCATION OF JUVENILE AND MATURE WOOD IN Luehea divaricata Mart.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darci Alberto Gatto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at determining the age of demarcation of juvenile and mature wood of Luehea divaricata Mart., using anatomical characteristics. Three adult trees, in good trunk, with diameter at DBH larger than 30 cm, from Encosta Superior do Nordeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, were selected. Discs with thickness of 2 cm at 0.1 m of height from the base of the trunk were used. From each disc a radial ribbon 2 cm wide including the pith was removed. The initial wood of each growth ring was separated for maceration (method of Jeffrey. There were measured length and diameter of thirty fibers from each growth ring. Demarcation of the two types of wood was defined by the radial variation (pith-bark of the anatomical characteristics (length, diameter, width of the lumen and wall thickness of fibers, using simple linear regression. Results indicate that fiber length is the best characteristic, while fiber diameter, lumen width and wall thickness were considered inadequate for demarcation. The age of demarcation of juvenile and mature wood of Luehea divaricata was defined as 21 years-old, approximately.

  1. Delineation of frost characteristics on cold walls by using a new formula for psychrometrics demarcation boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a direct formula that predicts either the frost formation on cold walls is correspondence to psychrometric-subsaturated or supersaturated regions is presented. The developed formula uses the data of the entering air dry-bulb temperature and absolute humidity, and the absolute humidity of the air at saturation corresponding to the coil surface temperature. Cases studies of demarcation criteria for frost formation on evaporator coil using experimental measured data, and on walls of cold storage freezer using measured data from literature are used to validate the formula and it is found that results are completely matches to the graphic plot of the data on the psychrometric chart. In case of cold storage freezers, the result clearly shows that a greater demarcation criteria value indicates frost formation under sever condition that is characterized as snow-like with low density and thermal conductivity.

  2. Feasibility of multi-spectral imaging system to provide enhanced demarcation for skin tumor resection

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roode, Rowland; Noordmans, Herke Jan; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf

    2007-02-01

    Invading tumors like basal cell carcinoma have usually no distinct demarcation for the human eye. Therefore, during resection, an additional rim around the tumor is removed. However, extending sprouts can be missed since most lesions are not uniform. To improve the visualization of the tumor demarcation, we developed a multi-spectral imaging system especially adapted for dermatological applications based on tunable liquid crystal spectral tunable filter technology and LED illumination. Enhanced visualization of skin tumor demarcation was achieved using three strategies. The first strategy is based on creating false color images by combining narrow band spectral filtered images by placing them into the red, green and blue image components of a color image at three specific wavelengths. These specific wavelengths were determined using a trial on error tool to achieve the highest contrast between malignant and healthy tissue. The second strategy is to make ratio images of narrow band spectral filtered images at specific wavelengths. A trail on error tool was created which enables the user to try multiple wavelengths to obtain optimal contrast. This method could be applied in realtime. For the third strategy, on pixel spectral segmentation is applied by selecting the pixel spectra in the center of a tumor, surrounding tissue and healthy tissue far away from the tumor. The correlation between these specific spectra and all image pixels is calculated using a fast algorithm. The degree is correlation is graded by color coding and presented in a false color images showing a detailed demarcation of suspicious regions in the tissue. Although this strategy is expected to provide a higher specificity, it takes more time to calculate than the first strategy.

  3. Pre-service Science Teachers’ Perceptions about Demarcation of Science from Pseudoscience

    OpenAIRE

    Turgut, Halil; Marmara Üniversitesi

    2010-01-01

    Due to increasing interest in science, theories and claims are placed in the media. However, theories and claims involving pseudoscientific expressions mislead individuals and cause some misconceptions about science. By taking that problem into consideration, evaluating the perceptions and competencies of teacher candidates about the issue of demarcation becomes a need simply because they are educated for science classes that are assumed to be the most proper contexts to prepare the individua...

  4. Tourette syndrome in a pedigree with a 7;18 translocation: Identification of a YAC spanning the translocation breakpoint at 18q22.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boghosian-Sell, L.; Overhauser, J. [Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA (United States); Comings, D.E. [City of Hope Medical Center, Duarte, CA (United States)

    1996-11-01

    Tourette syndrome is a neuropsychiatric disorder characterized by the presence of multiple, involuntary motor and vocal tics. Associated pathologies include attention deficit disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Extensive linkage analysis based on an autosomal dominant mode of transmission with reduced penetrance has failed to show linkage with polymorphic markers, suggesting either locus heterogeneity or a polygenic origin for Tourette syndrome. An individual diagnosed with Tourette syndrome has been described carrying a constitutional chromosome translocation. Other family members carrying the translocation exhibit features seen in Tourette syndrome including motor tics, vocal tics, and OCD. Since the disruption of specific genes by a chromosomal rearrangement can elicit a particular phenotype, we have undertaken the physical mapping of the 7;18 translocation such that genes mapping at the site of the breakpoint can be identified and evaluated for a possible involvement in Tourette syndrome. Using somatic cell hybrids retaining either the der(7) or the der(18), a more precise localization of the breakpoints on chromosomes 7 and 18 have been determined. Furthermore, physical mapping has identified two YAC clones that span the translocation breakpoint on chromosome 18 as determined by FISH. These YAC clones will be useful for the eventual identification of genes that map to chromosomes 7 and 18 at the site of the translocation. 41 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  5. Determination of IVC breakpoint for Josephson junction stack. Periodic and nonperiodic (with γ = 0) boundary conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdyukova, S. I.

    2013-05-01

    We prove that in the case of periodic and nonperiodic (with γ = 0) boundary conditions, the calculation of the current-voltage characteristic for a stack of n intrinsic Josephson junctions reduces to solving a unique equation. The current-voltage characteristic V( I) has the shape of a hysteresis loop. On the back branch of the loop, V( I) rapidly decreases to zero near the breakpoint I b . We succeeded to derive an equation determining the approximate breakpoint location.

  6. Pharmacodynamics of Doxycycline and Tetracycline against Staphylococcus pseudintermedius: Proposal of Canine-Specific Breakpoints for Doxycycline

    OpenAIRE

    Maaland, Marit Gaastra; Papich, Mark G.; Turnidge, John; Guardabassi, Luca

    2013-01-01

    Doxycycline is a tetracycline that has been licensed for veterinary use in some countries, but no clinical breakpoints are available for veterinary pathogens. The objectives of this study were (i) to establish breakpoints for doxycycline and (ii) to evaluate the use of tetracycline as a surrogate to predict the doxycycline susceptibility of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius isolates. MICs and inhibition zone diameters were determined for 168 canine S. pseudintermedius isolates according to ...

  7. Susceptibility of Extended-Spectrum-β-Lactamase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae According to the New CLSI Breakpoints

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Peng; Hu, Fupin; Xiong, Zizhong; Ye, Xinyu; Zhu, Demei; Wang, Yun F. (Wayne); Wang, Minggui

    2011-01-01

    In 2010 the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) lowered the susceptibility breakpoints of some cephalosporins and aztreonam for Enterobacteriaceae and eliminated the need to perform screening for extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) and confirmatory tests. The aim of this study was to determine how many ESBL-producing strains of three common species of Enterobacteriaceae test susceptible using the new breakpoints. As determined with the CLSI screening and confirmatory tests, ...

  8. Impact of New Antifungal Breakpoints on Antifungal Resistance in Candida Species

    OpenAIRE

    Fothergill, Annette W.; Sutton, Deanna A.; McCarthy, Dora I.; Wiederhold, Nathan P.

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed our antifungal susceptibility data for micafungin, anidulafungin, fluconazole, and voriconazole against Candida species and compared resistance rates determined by the previous and recently revised CLSI antifungal breakpoints. With the new breakpoints, resistance was significantly increased for micafungin (from 0.8% to 7.6%), anidulafungin (from 0.9% to 7.3%), and voriconazole (from 6.1% to 18.4%) against Candida glabrata. Resistance was also increased for fluconazole against Cand...

  9. Genomic inverse PCR for exploration of ligated breakpoints (GIPFEL, a new method to detect translocations in leukemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Fueller

    Full Text Available Here we present a novel method "Genomic inverse PCR for exploration of ligated breakpoints" (GIPFEL that allows the sensitive detection of recurrent chromosomal translocations. This technique utilizes limited amounts of DNA as starting material and relies on PCR based quantification of unique DNA sequences that are created by circular ligation of restricted genomic DNA from translocation bearing cells. Because the complete potential breakpoint region is interrogated, a prior knowledge of the individual, specific interchromosomal fusion site is not required. We validated GIPFEL for the five most common gene fusions associated with childhood leukemia (MLL-AF4, MLL-AF9, MLL-ENL, ETV6-RUNX1, and TCF3-PBX1. A workflow of restriction digest, purification, ligation, removal of linear fragments and precipitation enriching for circular DNA was developed. GIPFEL allowed detection of translocation specific signature sequences down to a 10-4 dilution which is close to the theoretical limit. In a blinded proof-of-principle study utilizing DNA from cell lines and 144 children with B-precursor-ALL associated translocations this method was 100% specific with no false positive results. Sensitivity was 83%, 65%, and 24% for t(4;11, t(9;11 and t(11;19 respectively. Translocation t(12;21 was correctly detected in 64% and t(1;19 in 39% of the cases. In contrast to other methods, the characteristics of GIPFEL make it particularly attractive for prospective studies.

  10. Identification of novel markers that demarcate the nucleolus during severe stress and chemotherapeutic treatment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haitong Su

    Full Text Available The nucleolus, the ribosomal factory of the cell, has emerged as a key player that regulates many aspects of cell biology. Several thousand proteins associate at least transiently with nucleoli, thereby generating a highly dynamic compartment with a protein profile which is sensitive to changes in cell physiology and pharmacological agents. Powerful tools that reliably demarcate the nucleoli are a prerequisite to measure their composition and activities. Previously, we developed quantitative methods to measure fluorescently labeled molecules in nucleoli. While these tools identify nucleoli under control and mild stress conditions, the accurate detection of nucleolar boundaries under harsh experimental conditions is complicated by the lack of appropriate markers for the nucleolar compartment. Using fluorescence microscopy we have now identified new marker proteins to detect nucleoli upon (a severe stress and (b drug treatments that trigger a pronounced reorganization of nucleoli. Our results demonstrate that nucleolin is an ideal marker to delimit nucleoli when cells are exposed to heat or oxidative stress. Furthermore, we show for the first time that cellular apoptosis susceptibility protein (CAS and human antigen R protein (HuR are excluded from nucleoli and can be employed to delimit these compartments under severe conditions that redistribute major nucleolar proteins. As proof-of-principle, we used these markers to demarcate nucleoli in cells treated with pharmacological compounds that disrupt the nucleolar organization. Furthermore, to gain new insights into the biology of the nucleolus, we applied our protocols and quantified stress- and drug-induced changes in nucleolar organization and function. Finally, we show that CAS, HuR and nucleolin not only identify nucleoli in optical sections, but are also suitable to demarcate the nucleolar border following 3D reconstruction. Taken together, our studies present novel marker proteins that

  11. On the Existence of Step-To-Step Breakpoint Transitions in Accelerated Sprinting

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGhie, David; Danielsen, Jørgen; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Haugen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Accelerated running is characterised by a continuous change of kinematics from one step to the next. It has been argued that breakpoints in the step-to-step transitions may occur, and that these breakpoints are an essential characteristic of dynamics during accelerated running. We examined this notion by comparing a continuous exponential curve fit (indicating continuity, i.e., smooth transitions) with linear piecewise fitting (indicating breakpoint). We recorded the kinematics of 24 well trained sprinters during a 25 m sprint run with start from competition starting blocks. Kinematic data were collected for 24 anatomical landmarks in 3D, and the location of centre of mass (CoM) was calculated from this data set. The step-to-step development of seven variables (four related to CoM position, and ground contact time, aerial time and step length) were analysed by curve fitting. In most individual sprints (in total, 41 sprints were successfully recorded) no breakpoints were identified for the variables investigated. However, for the mean results (i.e., the mean curve for all athletes) breakpoints were identified for the development of vertical CoM position, angle of acceleration and distance between support surface and CoM. It must be noted that for these variables the exponential fit showed high correlations (r2>0.99). No relationship was found between the occurrences of breakpoints for different variables as investigated using odds ratios (Mantel-Haenszel Chi-square statistic). It is concluded that although breakpoints regularly appear during accelerated running, these are not the rule and thereby unlikely a fundamental characteristic, but more likely an expression of imperfection of performance. PMID:27467387

  12. Demarcation of potential seismic sources on integration of genetic algorithm and BP algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周庆; 叶洪

    2002-01-01

    In this paper potential seismic sources in coastal region of South China are identified by integration of genetic algorithm (GA) and back propagation (BP algorithm). GA is used for finding the best parameter combination rapidly in an infinite solution space for artificial neural networks (ANN). The results show that the distribution of potential seismic sources with different upper magnitude demarcated by this classifier is mostly satisfied the intrinsic relationship between seismic environment and earthquake occurrence, with less effect from subjective judgment of human being.

  13. Case-specific, breakpoint-spanning DNA probes for analysis of single interphase cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lersch, R A; Fung, J; Munné, S; Pedersen, R A; Weier, H U

    2000-01-01

    Balanced reciprocal translocations are known to interfere with homolog pairing in meiosis. Many individuals carrying such chromosomal abnormalities suffer from reduced fertility or spontaneous abortions and seek help in the form of assisted reproductive technology. Although most translocations are relatively easy to detect in metaphase cells, the majority of embryonic cells biopsied in the course of in vitro fertilization (IVF) procedures are in interphase. These nuclei are, thus, unsuitable for analysis by chromosome banding or painting using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Our assay, based on FISH detection of breakpoint-spanning DNA probes, identifies translocations in interphase nuclei by microscopic inspection of hybridization domains. Probes are selected that span the breakpoint regions on normal homologs. The probes should hybridize to several hundred kilobases of DNA flanking the breakpoint. The two breakpoint-spanning DNA probes for the translocation chromosomes are labeled in separate colors (e.g., red and green). The translocation event producing two fused red/green hybridization domains can then be detected in interphase cell nuclei using a fluorescence microscope. We applied this scheme to analyze somatic and germ cells from 21 translocation patients, each with distinct breakpoints. Here, we summarize our experience and provide a description of strategies, cost estimates, as well as typical time frames. PMID:11142758

  14. Demarcation laser photocoagulation induced retinal necrosis and rupture resulting in large retinal tear formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quezada, Carlos; Pieramici, Dante J; Matsui, Rodrigo; Rabena, Melvin; Graue, Federico

    2015-06-01

    Retinal tears after laser photocoagulation are a rare complication that occurs after intense laser. It is talked about among retina specialist occurring particularly at the end of a surgical case while applying endophotocoagulation; to the best our knowledge, there are no reports in the literature of a large retinal tear induced after attempted in-office demarcation laser photocoagulation (DLP) that simulated a giant retinal tear. DLP has been employed in the management of selected cases of macula sparring rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD). Even though extension of the retinal detachment through the "laser barrier" is considered a failure of treatment, few complications have been described with the use of this less invasive retinal detachment repair technique. We describe a case of a high myopic woman who initially was treated with demarcation laser photocoagulation for an asymptomatic retinal detachment associated with a single horseshoe tear and a full thickness large retinal tear was created where the laser was placed. Intense laser photocoagulation resulted in abrupt laser induced retinal necrosis and rupture creating this large retinal break. Proper laser technique should reduce the risks associated with this procedure. PMID:25770055

  15. Concurrent progressive ratio schedules: Effects of reinforcer probability on breakpoint and response allocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmolowicz, David P; Sofis, Michael J; Darden, Alexandria C

    2016-07-01

    Although progressive ratio (PR) schedules have been used to explore effects of a range of reinforcer parameters (e.g., magnitude, delay), effects of reinforcer probability remain underexplored. The present project used independently progressing concurrent PR PR schedules to examine effects of reinforcer probability on PR breakpoint (highest completed ratio prior to a session terminating 300s pause) and response allocation. The probability of reinforcement on one lever remained at 100% across all conditions while the probability of reinforcement on the other lever was systematically manipulated (i.e., 100%, 50%, 25%, 12.5%, and a replication of 25%). Breakpoints systematically decreased with decreasing reinforcer probabilities while breakpoints on the control lever remained unchanged. Patterns of switching between the two levers were well described by a choice-by-choice unit price model that accounted for the hyperbolic discounting of the value of probabilistic reinforcers. PMID:27131782

  16. Ring chromosome 13: lack of distinct syndromes based on different breakpoints on 13q.

    OpenAIRE

    Brandt, C A; Hertz, J M; Petersen, M B; Vogel, F.; Noer, H; Mikkelsen, M

    1992-01-01

    A stillborn male child with anencephaly and multiple malformations was found to have the karyotype 46,XY,r(13) (p11q21.1). The breakpoint at 13q21.1, determined by high resolution banding, is the most proximal breakpoint ever reported in patients with ring chromosome 13. In situ hybridisation with the probe L1.26 confirmed the derivation from chromosome 13 and DNA polymorphism analysis showed maternal origin of the ring chromosome. Our results, together with a review of previous reports of ca...

  17. Cosmology at the Crossroads of the Natural and Human Sciences: is demarcation possible?

    CERN Document Server

    Nesteruk, Alexei V

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses the problem of demarcation between the dimensions of natural and the human sciences in contemporary cosmology. In spite of a common presumption that cosmology is a natural science, the specificity of its alleged subject matter, that is the universe as a whole, makes cosmology fundamentally different from other natural sciences. The reason is that in cosmology the subject of cosmological research and its "object" are in a certain sense inseparable. Any study of the universe involves two opposite perspectives which can be described as "a-cosmic" and "cosmic", egocentric and non-egocentric. Cosmology involves two languages, namely that of physical causality (pertaining to the natural sciences) and that of intentionality (pertaining to the human sciences). On the one hand the universe can be seen as a product of discursive reason, that is as an abstract "physical" entity unfolding in space and time. On the other hand the universe can be experienced through our participation in, or communion wi...

  18. Improved structural characterization of chromosomal breakpoints using high resolution custom array-CGH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lindstrand, A.; Schoumans, J.; Gustavsson, P.; Hanemaaijer, N.; Malmgren, H.; Blennow, E.

    2010-01-01

    Array-CGH is a powerful tool for the rapid detection of genomic imbalances. By customizing the array it is possible to increase the resolution in a targeted genomic region of interest and determine the structure of the breakpoints with high accuracy, as well as to detect very small imbalances. We ha

  19. Data Mining Validation of Fluconazole Breakpoints Established by the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Isabel; Bielza, Concha; Larrañaga, Pedro; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Laguna, Fernando; Rodriguez-Pardo, Dolors; Almirante, Benito; Pahissa, Albert; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan L.

    2009-01-01

    European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) breakpoints classify Candida strains with a fluconazole MIC ≤ 2 mg/liter as susceptible, those with a fluconazole MIC of 4 mg/liter as representing intermediate susceptibility, and those with a fluconazole MIC > 4 mg/liter as resistant. Machine learning models are supported by complex statistical analyses assessing whether the results have statistical relevance. The aim of this work was to use supervised classification algorithms to analyze the clinical data used to produce EUCAST fluconazole breakpoints. Five supervised classifiers (J48, Correlation and Regression Trees [CART], OneR, Naïve Bayes, and Simple Logistic) were used to analyze two cohorts of patients with oropharyngeal candidosis and candidemia. The target variable was the outcome of the infections, and the predictor variables consisted of values for the MIC or the proportion between the dose administered and the MIC of the isolate (dose/MIC). Statistical power was assessed by determining values for sensitivity and specificity, the false-positive rate, the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve, and the Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC). CART obtained the best statistical power for a MIC > 4 mg/liter for detecting failures (sensitivity, 87%; false-positive rate, 8%; area under the ROC curve, 0.89; MCC index, 0.80). For dose/MIC determinations, the target was >75, with a sensitivity of 91%, a false-positive rate of 10%, an area under the ROC curve of 0.90, and an MCC index of 0.80. Other classifiers gave similar breakpoints with lower statistical power. EUCAST fluconazole breakpoints have been validated by means of machine learning methods. These computer tools must be incorporated in the process for developing breakpoints to avoid researcher bias, thus enhancing the statistical power of the model. PMID:19433568

  20. Revisit of fluoroquinolone and azithromycin susceptibility breakpoints for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Surojit; Ray, Ujjwayini; Dutta, Shanta

    2016-07-01

    In recent years, increase in occurrence of fluoroquinolone (FQ)-resistant S almonella Typhi isolates has caused considerable inconvenience in selecting appropriate antimicrobials for treatment of typhoid. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends azithromycin for the empirical treatment option of uncomplicated typhoid. The CLSI updated the breakpoints of disc diffusion (DD) and MIC results of FQs and azithromycin for Salmonella Typhi in 2015, but DD breakpoints of ofloxacin and levofloxacin were not included. In this study, the inhibition zone diameters and MICs of nalidixic acid, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, levofloxacin and azithromycin were determined in Salmonella Typhi Kolkata isolates (n =146) over a 16-year period (1998 to 2013) and the data were compared with the available CLSI breakpoints. Very major error and major error (ME) of FQs were not observed in the study isolates, but the minor error of ciprofloxacin (15.8 %) and ME of azithromycin (3.5 %) exceeded the acceptable limit. A positive correlation between MICs of FQ and mutations in the quinolone-resistance-determining region (QRDR) showed the reliability of MIC results to determine FQ susceptibility of Salmonella Typhi (n =74). Isolates showing decreased ciprofloxacin susceptibility (MIC 0.125-0.5 µg  ml-1) were likely to have at least one mutation in the QRDR region. The results on DD breakpoints of ofloxacin (resistant, ≤15 mm; intermediate, 16-24 mm, and susceptible, ≥25 mm) and levofloxacin (resistant, ≤18 mm; intermediate, 19-27 mm, and susceptible, ≥28 mm) corroborated those of earlier studies. In view of the emerging FQ- and azithromycin-resistant Salmonella Typhi isolates, DD and MIC breakpoints of those antimicrobials should be revisited routinely. PMID:27221661

  1. Translocation and deletion breakpoints in cancer genomes are associated with potential non-B DNA-forming sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacolla, Albino; Tainer, John A.; Vasquez, Karen M.; Cooper, David N.

    2016-01-01

    Gross chromosomal rearrangements (including translocations, deletions, insertions and duplications) are a hallmark of cancer genomes and often create oncogenic fusion genes. An obligate step in the generation of such gross rearrangements is the formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). Since the genomic distribution of rearrangement breakpoints is non-random, intrinsic cellular factors may predispose certain genomic regions to breakage. Notably, certain DNA sequences with the potential to fold into secondary structures [potential non-B DNA structures (PONDS); e.g. triplexes, quadruplexes, hairpin/cruciforms, Z-DNA and single-stranded looped-out structures with implications in DNA replication and transcription] can stimulate the formation of DNA DSBs. Here, we tested the postulate that these DNA sequences might be found at, or in close proximity to, rearrangement breakpoints. By analyzing the distribution of PONDS-forming sequences within ±500 bases of 19 947 translocation and 46 365 sequence-characterized deletion breakpoints in cancer genomes, we find significant association between PONDS-forming repeats and cancer breakpoints. Specifically, (AT)n, (GAA)n and (GAAA)n constitute the most frequent repeats at translocation breakpoints, whereas A-tracts occur preferentially at deletion breakpoints. Translocation breakpoints near PONDS-forming repeats also recur in different individuals and patient tumor samples. Hence, PONDS-forming sequences represent an intrinsic risk factor for genomic rearrangements in cancer genomes. PMID:27084947

  2. Evaluation of various species demarcation criteria in attempts to classify ten new tombusvirus isolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, R; Verhoeven, J Th J; Fribourg, C E; Pfeilstetter, E; Lesemann, D E

    2004-09-01

    The usefulness of various suggested species demarcation criteria was compared in attempts to determine the taxonomic status of ten new tombusvirus isolates. Five of them (Lim 1, 2, 3, 5 and 6) were obtained from different sources of commercially grown statice (Limonium sinuatum), two (Gyp 1 and 2) from different sources of commercially grown Gypsophila paniculata and three from water samples, i.e. from a small river (Schunter) in Northern Germany, from a brook (near Dossenheim) in Southern Germany and from the groundwater in a Limonium production glasshouse in the Netherlands (Lim 4). The immunoelectron microscopical decoration test allowed a quick preliminary assignment of various isolates to several known tombusviruses. A more precise analysis of the relationships was achieved by comparing the deduced amino acid sequences of the coat proteins. Sequence as well as serological data suggested that eight of the isolates should be classified as strains or variants of either Carnation Italian ringspot virus, Grapevine Algerian latent virus, Petunia asteroid mosaic virus or Sikte waterborne virus, respectively, whereas the 9th isolate (Lim 2) appears to represent a distinct new tombusvirus species. The case of the 10th isolate (Lim 5) illustrates the classification problems experienced when the properties of a virus place it close to the more or less arbitrary man-made borderline between virus species and virus strains. The coat protein gene sequences were also determined for some viruses for which these data had not yet been available, i.e. Neckar river virus, Sikte waterborne virus and Eggplant mottled crinkle virus. The sequences of the coat protein gene and also of ORF 1 of the latter virus proved to be almost identical to the corresponding genome regions of the recently described Pear latent virus, which for priority reasons should be renamed. Criteria which have been suggested in addition to serology and sequence comparisons for tombusvirus species demarcation, i

  3. Demarcation of local neighborhoods to study relations between contextual factors and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chor Dora

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have highlighted the importance of collective social factors for population health. One of the major challenges is an adequate definition of the spatial units of analysis which present properties potentially related to the target outcomes. Political and administrative divisions of urban areas are the most commonly used definition, although they suffer limitations in their ability to fully express the neighborhoods as social and spatial units. Objective This study presents a proposal for defining the boundaries of local neighborhoods in Rio de Janeiro city. Local neighborhoods are constructed by means of aggregation of contiguous census tracts which are homogeneous regarding socioeconomic indicators. Methodology Local neighborhoods were created using the SKATER method (TerraView software. Criteria used for socioeconomic homogeneity were based on four census tract indicators (income, education, persons per household, and percentage of population in the 0-4-year age bracket considering a minimum population of 5,000 people living in each local neighborhood. The process took into account the geographic boundaries between administrative neighborhoods (a political-administrative division larger than a local neighborhood, but smaller than a borough and natural geographic barriers. Results The original 8,145 census tracts were collapsed into 794 local neighborhoods, distributed along 158 administrative neighborhoods. Local neighborhoods contained a mean of 10 census tracts, and there were an average of five local neighborhoods per administrative neighborhood. The local neighborhood units demarcated in this study are less socioeconomically heterogeneous than the administrative neighborhoods and provide a means for decreasing the well-known statistical variability of indicators based on census tracts. The local neighborhoods were able to distinguish between different areas within administrative neighborhoods

  4. Indiana secondary students' evolution learning experiences and demarcations of science from non-science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnelly, Lisa A.

    2007-12-01

    Previous research has documented students' conceptual difficulties learning evolution and how student learning may be related to students' views of evolution and science. This mixed methods study addressed how 74 high school biology students from six Indiana high schools viewed their evolution learning experiences, the demarcations of science from non-science, and evolution understanding and acceptance. Data collection entailed qualitative and quantitative methods including interviews, classroom observations, surveys, and assessments to address students' views of science and non-science, evolution learning experiences, and understanding and acceptance of evolution. Qualitative coding generated several demarcation and evolution learning experience codes that were subsequently used in quantitative comparisons of evolution understanding and acceptance. The majority of students viewed science as empirical, tentative but ultimately leading to certain truth, compatible with religion, the product of experimental work, and the product of human creativity. None of the students offered the consensus NOS view that scientific theories are substantiated explanations of phenomena while scientific laws state relationships or patterns between phenomena. About half the students indicated that scientific knowledge was subjectively and socio-culturally influenced. The majority of students also indicated that they had positive evolution learning experiences and thought evolution should be taught in secondary school. The quantitative comparisons revealed how students who viewed scientific knowledge as subjectively and socio-culturally influenced had higher understanding than their peers. Furthermore, students who maintained that science and religion were compatible did not differ with respect to understanding but had higher acceptance than their peers who viewed science and religion as conflicting. Furthermore, students who maintained that science must be consistent with their

  5. A new approach to assess COPD by identifying lung function break-points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Göran; Jarenbäck, Linnea; Peterson, Stefan; Ankerst, Jaro; Bjermer, Leif; Tufvesson, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose COPD is a progressive disease, which can take different routes, leading to great heterogeneity. The aim of the post-hoc analysis reported here was to perform continuous analyses of advanced lung function measurements, using linear and nonlinear regressions. Patients and methods Fifty-one COPD patients with mild to very severe disease (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] Stages I–IV) and 41 healthy smokers were investigated post-bronchodilation by flow-volume spirometry, body plethysmography, diffusion capacity testing, and impulse oscillometry. The relationship between COPD severity, based on forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and different lung function parameters was analyzed by flexible nonparametric method, linear regression, and segmented linear regression with break-points. Results Most lung function parameters were nonlinear in relation to spirometric severity. Parameters related to volume (residual volume, functional residual capacity, total lung capacity, diffusion capacity [diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide], diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide/alveolar volume) and reactance (reactance area and reactance at 5Hz) were segmented with break-points at 60%–70% of FEV1. FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) and resonance frequency had break-points around 80% of FEV1, while many resistance parameters had break-points below 40%. The slopes in percent predicted differed; resistance at 5 Hz minus resistance at 20 Hz had a linear slope change of −5.3 per unit FEV1, while residual volume had no slope change above and −3.3 change per unit FEV1 below its break-point of 61%. Conclusion Continuous analyses of different lung function parameters over the spirometric COPD severity range gave valuable information additional to categorical analyses. Parameters related to volume, diffusion capacity, and reactance showed break-points around 65% of FEV1, indicating that air trapping starts to dominate

  6. A new approach to assess COPD by identifying lung function break-points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson G

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Göran Eriksson,1,* Linnea Jarenbäck,1,* Stefan Peterson,2 Jaro Ankerst,1 Leif Bjermer,1 Ellen Tufvesson11Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, 2Regional Cancer Center South, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: COPD is a progressive disease, which can take different routes, leading to great heterogeneity. The aim of the post-hoc analysis reported here was to perform continuous analyses of advanced lung function measurements, using linear and nonlinear regressions.Patients and methods: Fifty-one COPD patients with mild to very severe disease (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] Stages I–IV and 41 healthy smokers were investigated post-bronchodilation by flow-volume spirometry, body plethysmography, diffusion capacity testing, and impulse oscillometry. The relationship between COPD severity, based on forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, and different lung function parameters was analyzed by flexible nonparametric method, linear regression, and segmented linear regression with break-points.Results: Most lung function parameters were nonlinear in relation to spirometric severity. Parameters related to volume (residual volume, functional residual capacity, total lung capacity, diffusion capacity [diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide], diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide/alveolar volume and reactance (reactance area and reactance at 5Hz were segmented with break-points at 60%–70% of FEV1. FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC and resonance frequency had break-points around 80% of FEV1, while many resistance parameters had break-points below 40%. The slopes in percent predicted differed; resistance at 5 Hz minus resistance at 20 Hz had a linear slope change of -5.3 per unit FEV1, while residual volume had no slope change above and -3.3 change per unit FEV1 below its break-point of 61

  7. Determination of IVC breakpoint for josephson junction stack. Non-periodic boundary conditions with γ = 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serdyukova, S. I.

    2014-07-01

    We prove that, in the case of non-periodic (with γ = 1) boundary conditions, the calculation of the current-voltage characteristic (IVC) for a stack of n intrinsic Josephson junctions reduces to solving a system of [( n + 1)/2] non-linear differential equations instead of the n original ones. The current voltage characteristic V( I) has the shape of a hysteresis loop. On the back branch of the loop V( I) decreases to zero rapidly near the breakpoint I b . We succeeded to derive an algorithm determining the approximate breakpoint location and to improve simultaneously the mixed numerical-analytical algorithm of IVC calculation for a stack of Josephson junctions developed by us before. The efficiency of the improved algorithm is shown by the calculations of IVC for stacks consisting of various numbers of intrinsic Josephson junctions.

  8. Mutation analysis in Duchenne and Becker muscular dystrophy patients from Bulgaria shows a peculiar distribution of breakpoints by intron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todorova, A.; Bronzova, J.; Kremensky, I. [Univ. Hospital of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sofia (Bulgaria)] [and others

    1996-10-02

    For the first time in Bulgaria, a deletion/duplication screening was performed on a group of 84 unrelated Duchenne/Becker muscular dystrophy patients, and the breakpoint distribution in the dystrophin gene was analyzed. Intragenic deletions were detected in 67.8% of patients, and intragenic duplications in 2.4%. A peculiar distribution of deletion breakpoints was found. Only 13.2% of the deletion breakpoints fell in the {open_quotes}classical{close_quotes} hot spot in intron 44, whereas the majority (> 54%) were located within the segment encompassing introns 45-51, which includes intron 50, the richest in breakpoints (16%) in the Bulgarian sample. Comparison with data from Greece and Turkey points at the probable existence of a deletion hot spot within intron 50, which might be a characteristic of populations of the Balkan region. 17 refs., 2 figs.

  9. SoftSearch: integration of multiple sequence features to identify breakpoints of structural variations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven N Hart

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Structural variation (SV represents a significant, yet poorly understood contribution to an individual's genetic makeup. Advanced next-generation sequencing technologies are widely used to discover such variations, but there is no single detection tool that is considered a community standard. In an attempt to fulfil this need, we developed an algorithm, SoftSearch, for discovering structural variant breakpoints in Illumina paired-end next-generation sequencing data. SoftSearch combines multiple strategies for detecting SV including split-read, discordant read-pair, and unmated pairs. Co-localized split-reads and discordant read pairs are used to refine the breakpoints. RESULTS: We developed and validated SoftSearch using real and synthetic datasets. SoftSearch's key features are 1 not requiring secondary (or exhaustive primary alignment, 2 portability into established sequencing workflows, and 3 is applicable to any DNA-sequencing experiment (e.g. whole genome, exome, custom capture, etc.. SoftSearch identifies breakpoints from a small number of soft-clipped bases from split reads and a few discordant read-pairs which on their own would not be sufficient to make an SV call. CONCLUSIONS: We show that SoftSearch can identify more true SVs by combining multiple sequence features. SoftSearch was able to call clinically relevant SVs in the BRCA2 gene not reported by other tools while offering significantly improved overall performance.

  10. Gene alterations at Drosophila inversion breakpoints provide prima facie evidence for natural selection as an explanation for rapid chromosomal evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillén Yolanda

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chromosomal inversions have been pervasive during the evolution of the genus Drosophila, but there is significant variation between lineages in the rate of rearrangement fixation. D. mojavensis, an ecological specialist adapted to a cactophilic niche under extreme desert conditions, is a chromosomally derived species with ten fixed inversions, five of them not present in any other species. Results In order to explore the causes of the rapid chromosomal evolution in D. mojavensis, we identified and characterized all breakpoints of seven inversions fixed in chromosome 2, the most dynamic one. One of the inversions presents unequivocal evidence for its generation by ectopic recombination between transposon copies and another two harbor inverted duplications of non-repetitive DNA at the two breakpoints and were likely generated by staggered single-strand breaks and repair by non-homologous end joining. Four out of 14 breakpoints lay in the intergenic region between preexisting duplicated genes, suggesting an adaptive advantage of separating previously tightly linked duplicates. Four out of 14 breakpoints are associated with transposed genes, suggesting these breakpoints are fragile regions. Finally two inversions contain novel genes at their breakpoints and another three show alterations of genes at breakpoints with potential adaptive significance. Conclusions D. mojavensis chromosomal inversions were generated by multiple mechanisms, an observation that does not provide support for increased mutation rate as explanation for rapid chromosomal evolution. On the other hand, we have found a number of gene alterations at the breakpoints with putative adaptive consequences that directly point to natural selection as the cause of D. mojavensis rapid chromosomal evolution.

  11. Chromosomal instability in Afrotheria: fragile sites, evolutionary breakpoints and phylogenetic inference from genome sequence assemblies

    OpenAIRE

    Ruiz-Herrera Aurora; Robinson Terence J

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Extant placental mammals are divided into four major clades (Laurasiatheria, Supraprimates, Xenarthra and Afrotheria). Given that Afrotheria is generally thought to root the eutherian tree in phylogenetic analysis of large nuclear gene data sets, the study of the organization of the genomes of afrotherian species provides new insights into the dynamics of mammalian chromosomal evolution. Here we test if there are chromosomal bands with a high tendency to break and reorgani...

  12. EUCAST technical note on isavuconazole breakpoints for Aspergillus, itraconazole breakpoints for Candida and updates for the antifungal susceptibility testing method documents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendrup, M C; Meletiadis, J; Mouton, J W; Guinea, J; Cuenca-Estrella, M; Lagrou, K; Howard, S J

    2016-06-01

    The Subcommittee on Antifungal Susceptibility Testing (AFST) of the ESCMID European Committee for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) has determined breakpoints for isavuconazole and Aspergillus and for itraconazole and Candida spp., released a new document summarizing existing and new minimum inhibitory concentration ranges for quality control strains and revised the method documents for yeast and mould susceptibility testing. This technical note is based on the EUCAST isavuconazole and itraconazole rationale documents, version 1.0 of the routine and extended internal quality control for antifungal susceptibility testing as recommended by EUCAST, and the E.Def 7.3, E.Def 9.2 and E.Def 9.3 method documents (http://www.eucast.org). PMID:26851656

  13. Network as transconcept: elements for a conceptual demarcation in the field of public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, Carlos Eduardo Menezes; Bosi, Maria Lúcia Magalhães

    2016-06-10

    The main proposal to set up an articulated mode of operation of health services has been the concept of network, which has been appropriated in different ways in the field of public health, as it is used in other disciplinary fields or even taking it from common sense. Amid the diversity of uses and concepts, we recognize the need for rigorous conceptual demarcation about networks in the field of health. Such concern aims to preserve the strategic potential of this concept in the research and planning in the field, overcoming uncertainties and distortions still observed in its discourse-analytic circulation in public health. To this end, we will introduce the current uses of network in different disciplinary fields, emphasizing dialogues with the field of public health. With this, we intend to stimulate discussions about the development of empirical dimensions and analytical models that may allow us to understand the processes produced within and around health networks. RESUMO A principal proposta para configurar um modo articulado de funcionamento dos serviços de saúde tem sido o conceito de rede, que vem sendo apropriado de diferentes formas no campo da saúde coletiva, conforme seu emprego em outros campos disciplinares ou mesmo tomando-o do senso comum. Em meio à pluralidade de usos e concepções, reconhecemos a necessidade de rigorosa demarcação conceitual acerca de redes no campo da saúde. Tal preocupação visa a preservar o potencial estratégico desse conceito na investigação e planificação no campo, superando precariedades e distorções ainda observadas em sua circulação discursivo-analítica na saúde coletiva. Para tanto, apresentaremos os usos correntes de rede em diferentes campos disciplinares, destacando interlocuções com o campo da saúde coletiva. Com isso, pretendemos estimular o debate acerca do desenvolvimento de dimensões empíricas e modelos de análise que permitam compreender os processos produzidos no interior e ao redor

  14. Indigenous territorial rights as a human right; an analysis of the (auto) demarcation of indigenous territories process in Venezuela (1999-2014)

    OpenAIRE

    Linda Bustillos; Vladimir Aguilar; Carlos Grimaldo

    2016-01-01

    The 1999 Constitution of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela (CBRV) recognizes Indigenous Rights; among them, the territorial claims. In agreement with what is stated in the article 119 of the Magna Carta, the right to the territory of these populations is exercised through the public policy of demarcation, which is understood as the process in which its territorial space is disclaimed, made by the State in participation with the peoples and communities to be demarcated, subsequently to enti...

  15. The effects of acute L-carnitine administration on ventilatory breakpoint and exercise performanceduring incremental exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Kaviani

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available (Received 31 October, 2009 ; Accepted 10 March, 2010AbstractBackground and purpose: Many athletes adopt nutritional manipulations to improve their performance. Among the substances generally consumed is carnitine (L-trimethyl-3-hydroxy-ammoniobutanoate which has been used by athletes as an ergogenic aid, due to its role in the transport of long-chain fatty acids across mitochondrial membranes. Nutritional supplements containing carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, and minerals have been widely used in various sporting fields to provide a boost to the recommended daily allowance. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of acute L-carnitine administration on ventilatory breakpoint, an exercise performance during incremental exercise.Materials and methods: This study was double-blind, randomized and crossover in design. The subjects were 12 randomly selected active male physical education students, 21.75±0.64 years old, with a mean body mass index (BMI of 23.7±0.94kg/m2, divided into 2 groups. They received orally either 2g of L-carnitine dissolved in 200 ml of water, plus 6 drops of lemon juice or a placebo (6 ml lemon juice dissolved in 200 ml of water 90 minutes before they began to exercise on a treadmill. They performed a modified protocol of Conconi test to exhaustion. One-way analysis of variance with repeated measurements was used for data analysis.Results: The results showed that exercise performance improved in LC group (2980±155 meter compared with placebo group (2331±51 meter. Furthermore, no significant difference was found in ventilatory breakpoint between the two groups.Conclusion: This finding indicates that administration of L- Carnitine, 90 minutes prior to exercise may improve performance; despite the ventilatory breakpoint as one of the anaerobic system indices that had no effect. J Mazand Univ Med Sci 2009; 19(73: 43-50 (Persian.

  16. Rapid mapping of chromosomal breakpoints: from blood to BAC in 20 days.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chun-Mei; Kwan, Johnson; Weier, Jingly F.; Baumgartner, Aldof; Wang, Mei; Escudero, Tomas; Munne, Santiago; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich

    2009-02-25

    Structural chromosome aberrations and associated segmental or chromosomal aneusomies are major causes of reproductive failure in humans. Despite the fact that carriers of reciprocal balanced translocation often have no other clinical symptoms or disease, impaired chromosome homologue pairing in meiosis and karyokinesis errors lead to over-representation of translocations carriers in the infertile population and in recurrent pregnancy loss patients. At present, clinicians have no means to select healthy germ cells or balanced zygotes in vivo, but in vitro fertilization (IVF) followed by preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) offers translocation carriers a chance to select balanced or normal embryos for transfer. Although a combination of telomeric and centromeric probes can differentiate embryos that are unbalanced from normal or unbalanced ones, a seemingly random position of breakpoints in these IVF-patients poses a serious obstacle to differentiating between normal and balanced embryos, which for most translocation couples, is desirable. Using a carrier with reciprocal translocation t(4;13) as an example, we describe our state-of-the-art approach to the preparation of patient-specific DNA probes that span or 'extent' the breakpoints. With the techniques and resources described here, most breakpoints can be accurately mapped in a matter of days using carrier lymphocytes, and a few extra days are allowed for PGD-probe optimization. The optimized probes will then be suitable for interphase cell analysis, a prerequisite for PGD since blastomeres are biopsied from normally growing day 3 - embryos regardless of their position in the mitotic cell cycle. Furthermore, routine application of these rapid methods should make PGD even more affordable for translocation carriers enrolled in IVF programs.

  17. Rapid mapping of chromosomal breakpoints: from blood to BAC in 20 days.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Wang

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Structural chromosome aberrations and associated segmental or chromosomal aneusomies are major causes of reproductive failure in humans. Despite the fact that carriers of reciprocal balanced translocation often have no other clinical symptoms or disease, impaired chromosome homologue pairing in meiosis and karyokinesis errors lead to over-representation of translocations carriers in the infertile population and in recurrent pregnancy loss patients. At present, clinicians have no means to select healthy germ cells or balanced zygotes in vivo, but in vitro fertilization (IVF followed by preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD offers translocation carriers a chance to select balanced or normal embryos for transfer. Although a combination of telomeric and centromeric probes can differentiate embryos that are unbalanced from normal or unbalanced ones, a seemingly random position of breakpoints in these IVF-patients poses a serious obstacle to differentiating between normal and balanced embryos, which for most translocation couples, is desirable. Using a carrier with reciprocal translocation t(4;13 as an example, we describe our state-of-the-art approach to the preparation of patient-specific DNA probes that span or 'extent' the breakpoints. With the techniques and resources described here, most breakpoints can be accurately mapped in a matter of days using carrier lymphocytes, and a few extra days are allowed for PGD-probe optimization. The optimized probes will then be suitable for interphase cell analysis, a prerequisite for PGD since blastomeres are biopsied from normally growing day 3--embryos regardless of their position in the mitotic cell cycle. Furthermore, routine application of these rapid methods should make PGD even more affordable for translocation carriers enrolled in IVF programs.

  18. Effects of breakpoint changes on carbapenem susceptibility rates of Enterobacteriaceae: Results from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, United States, 2008 to 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Rennie, Robert P.; Jones, Ronald N

    2014-01-01

    In the absence of clinical resistance, breakpoints for many antimicrobial agents are often set high. Clinical failures following use of the agents over time requires re-evaluation of breakpoints. This is based on patient response, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic information and in vitro minimal inhibitory concentration data. Data from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program has shown that Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoint changes for carbapenems that occurred betwee...

  19. Determination of ETV6‐RUNX1 genomic breakpoint by next‐generation sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Yanliang; Wang, Xingwei; Hu, Shaoyan; Tang, Jingyan; Li, Benshang; Chai, Yihuan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The t(12;21)(p13;q22) ETV6‐RUNX1 gene fusion is one of the most common chromosomal translocation in childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL). It is associated with favorable prognosis. The identification of the genomic sequence of the breakpoint flanking regions of the ETV6‐RUNX1 translocation should be the best strategy to monitor minimal residual disease (MRD) in patients with ETV6‐RUNX1‐positive ALL. In this study, the ETV6‐RUNX1 translocation was sequenced by next‐generation ...

  20. Unit roots and structural breakpoints in China's macroeconomic and financial time series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG Qi; TENG Jianzhou

    2006-01-01

    This paper applies unit-root tests to 10 Chinese macroeconomic and financial time series that allow for the possibility of up to two endogenous structural breaks.We found that 6 of the series,i.e.,GDP,GDP per capita,employment,bank credit,deposit liabilities and investment,can be more accurately characterized as a segmented trend stationarity process around one or two structural breakpoints as opposed to a stochastic unit root process.Our findings have important implications for policy-makers to formulate long-term growth strategy and short-run stabilization policies,as well as causality analysis among the series.

  1. Rearrangement of the breakpoint cluster region in Philadelphia chromosome positive acute leukemia.

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi, Isao; Sekito,Noriko; Takeuchi, Makoto; Osada, Ken; Matsuzaki,Toshiro; Fukuda, Shunichi; Lai,Minyu; Uchida, Kozaburo; Kimura,Ikuro; Miyamoto,Kanji; Kitajima,Koichi; Sanada, Hiroshi

    1988-01-01

    The rearrangement of breakpoint cluster region (ber) was examined in leukemic cells obtained from 3 patients initially diagnosed as having Ph+ acute leukemia, 2 with acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) and one with acute mixed leukemia. DNA was digested with Bgl II and BamH I. The ber rearrangement was present in the case of acute mixed leukemia (Case 1), but was absent in the 2 cases of ALL (Cases 2 and 3). These results suggest that Case 1 represented a type of blast crisis of chronic myelocyt...

  2. Using Sorting by Reversal: Breakpoint Graph for Gene Assembly in Ciliates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brijder, Robert; Jan Hoogeboom, Hendrik

    2007-09-01

    The theory of gene assembly in ciliates has much in common with the theory of sorting by reversal. Both model processes that are based on splicing, and have a fixed begin and end product. The main difference is the type of splicing operations used to obtain the end product from the begin product. In this overview paper we show that the concept of breakpoint graph, known from the theory of sorting by reversal, has many uses in the theory of gene assembly. Our aim is to present the material in an intuitive and informal manner to allow for an efficient introduction into the subject.

  3. Molecular analysis of the distribution of chromosomal breakpoints: characterization of a 'hot' region for breaks in human chromosome 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Ionizing radiation randomly damages DNA and chromosomes whereas subsequent chromosome breaks are non-random. Assuming, as an ideal and naive but useful proposition, that breaks are equally likely anywhere in the chromosome and that a deletion always occurs between two breaks, the frequency of fragments would decrease linearly with increasing fragment size. This simple distribution is not, however, observed. To shed light on the 'real' situation of break formation we mapped breakpoints in the human chromosome no. 11 of 353 independent CD59- mutants isolated from human/hamster hybrid AL cells exposed to radiations (high and low dose-rate gamma rays, high LET carbon or nitrogen ions, protons) or chemicals (arsenic or irradiated, mutagenic histidine) or unexposed. The number of breaks per unit length of DNA differed significantly in different regions of chromosome 11.The highest level of breaks (140/mbp) were in the 0.8 mbp segment between CD59 and Catalase (CAT). Finer mapping of break points was carried out using 26 PCR primer pairs spread across this interval in 15 independent mutants. In two mutants, the break point was in a 107 bp fragment; in the other 13 the breaks were in a single 35 mbp fragment, but not all were at exactly the same site; 4 of 13 occurred in 3 different 3 mbp sub-segments. We are sequencing these fragments to look for such features as repeats: 'colder' regions like that between CD59 and WT will also be analyzed. But, since at least some breaks occurred at different sites and the frequency and distribution of breaks was about the same for all treatments, our we postulate that hot (and cold spots) may be due more to structural features or specific repair than to sequence or type of damage

  4. Genomic instability in rat: Breakpoints induced by ionising radiation and interstitial telomeric-like sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Norwegian rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the most widely studied experimental species in biomedical research although little is known about its chromosomal structure. The characterisation of possible unstable regions of the karyotype of this species would contribute to the better understanding of its genomic architecture. The cytogenetic effects of ionising radiation have been widely used for the study of genomic instability, and the importance of interstitial telomeric-like sequences (ITSs) in instability of the genome has also been reported in previous studies in vertebrates. In order to describe the unstable chromosomal regions of R. norvegicus, the distribution of breakpoints induced by X-irradiation and ITSs in its karyotype were analysed in this work. For the X-irradiation analysis, 52 foetuses (from 14 irradiated rats) were studied, 4803 metaphases were analysed, and a total of 456 breakpoints induced by X-rays were detected, located in 114 chromosomal bands, with 25 of them significantly affected by X-irradiation (hot spots). For the analysis of ITSs, three foetuses (from three rats) were studied, 305 metaphases were analysed and 121 ITSs were detected, widely distributed in the karyotype of this species. Seventy-six percent of all hot spots analysed in this study were co-localised with ITSs

  5. Detection of chromosomal breakpoints in patients with developmental delay and speech disorders.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kagistia H Utami

    Full Text Available Delineating candidate genes at the chromosomal breakpoint regions in the apparently balanced chromosome rearrangements (ABCR has been shown to be more effective with the emergence of next-generation sequencing (NGS technologies. We employed a large-insert (7-11 kb paired-end tag sequencing technology (DNA-PET to systematically analyze genome of four patients harbouring cytogenetically defined ABCR with neurodevelopmental symptoms, including developmental delay (DD and speech disorders. We characterized structural variants (SVs specific to each individual, including those matching the chromosomal breakpoints. Refinement of these regions by Sanger sequencing resulted in the identification of five disrupted genes in three individuals: guanine nucleotide binding protein, q polypeptide (GNAQ, RNA-binding protein, fox-1 homolog (RBFOX3, unc-5 homolog D (C.elegans (UNC5D, transmembrane protein 47 (TMEM47, and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis (XIAP. Among them, XIAP is the causative gene for the immunodeficiency phenotype seen in the patient. The remaining genes displayed specific expression in the fetal brain and have known biologically relevant functions in brain development, suggesting putative candidate genes for neurodevelopmental phenotypes. This study demonstrates the application of NGS technologies in mapping individual gene disruptions in ABCR as a resource for deciphering candidate genes in human neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs.

  6. Breakpoint analysis of transcriptional and genomic profiles uncovers novel gene fusions spanning multiple human cancer types.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig P Giacomini

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Gene fusions, like BCR/ABL1 in chronic myelogenous leukemia, have long been recognized in hematologic and mesenchymal malignancies. The recent finding of gene fusions in prostate and lung cancers has motivated the search for pathogenic gene fusions in other malignancies. Here, we developed a "breakpoint analysis" pipeline to discover candidate gene fusions by tell-tale transcript level or genomic DNA copy number transitions occurring within genes. Mining data from 974 diverse cancer samples, we identified 198 candidate fusions involving annotated cancer genes. From these, we validated and further characterized novel gene fusions involving ROS1 tyrosine kinase in angiosarcoma (CEP85L/ROS1, SLC1A2 glutamate transporter in colon cancer (APIP/SLC1A2, RAF1 kinase in pancreatic cancer (ATG7/RAF1 and anaplastic astrocytoma (BCL6/RAF1, EWSR1 in melanoma (EWSR1/CREM, CDK6 kinase in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (FAM133B/CDK6, and CLTC in breast cancer (CLTC/VMP1. Notably, while these fusions involved known cancer genes, all occurred with novel fusion partners and in previously unreported cancer types. Moreover, several constituted druggable targets (including kinases, with therapeutic implications for their respective malignancies. Lastly, breakpoint analysis identified new cell line models for known rearrangements, including EGFRvIII and FIP1L1/PDGFRA. Taken together, we provide a robust approach for gene fusion discovery, and our results highlight a more widespread role of fusion genes in cancer pathogenesis.

  7. Genomic instability in rat: Breakpoints induced by ionising radiation and interstitial telomeric-like sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Camats, Nuria [Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina (IBB), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz-Herrera, Aurora [Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Parrilla, Juan Jose [Servicio de Ginecologia y Obstetricia, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, Ctra, Madrid-Cartagena, s/n, El Palmar, 30120 Murcia (Spain); Acien, Maribel [Servicio de Ginecologia y Obstetricia, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, Ctra, Madrid-Cartagena, s/n, El Palmar, 30120 Murcia (Spain); Paya, Pilar [Servicio de Ginecologia y Obstetricia, Hospital Universitario Virgen de la Arrixaca, Ctra, Madrid-Cartagena, s/n, El Palmar, 30120 Murcia (Spain); Giulotto, Elena [Dipartimento di Genetica e Microbiologia Adriano Buzzati Traverso, Universita degli Studi di Pavia, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Egozcue, Josep [Departament de Biologia Cel.lular, Fisiologia i Immunologia Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia, Francisca [Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina (IBB), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain); Garcia, Montserrat [Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina (IBB), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain) and Departament de Biologia Cellular, Fisiologia i Immunologia Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona, 08193 Barcelona (Spain)]. E-mail: Montserrat.Garcia.Caldes@uab.es

    2006-03-20

    The Norwegian rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the most widely studied experimental species in biomedical research although little is known about its chromosomal structure. The characterisation of possible unstable regions of the karyotype of this species would contribute to the better understanding of its genomic architecture. The cytogenetic effects of ionising radiation have been widely used for the study of genomic instability, and the importance of interstitial telomeric-like sequences (ITSs) in instability of the genome has also been reported in previous studies in vertebrates. In order to describe the unstable chromosomal regions of R. norvegicus, the distribution of breakpoints induced by X-irradiation and ITSs in its karyotype were analysed in this work. For the X-irradiation analysis, 52 foetuses (from 14 irradiated rats) were studied, 4803 metaphases were analysed, and a total of 456 breakpoints induced by X-rays were detected, located in 114 chromosomal bands, with 25 of them significantly affected by X-irradiation (hot spots). For the analysis of ITSs, three foetuses (from three rats) were studied, 305 metaphases were analysed and 121 ITSs were detected, widely distributed in the karyotype of this species. Seventy-six percent of all hot spots analysed in this study were co-localised with ITSs.

  8. Fine mapping of the 1q21 breakpoint of the papillary venal cell carcinoma-associated (X;1) translocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weterman, MAJ; Dijkhuizen, T; vandenBerg, E; vanKessel, AG

    1996-01-01

    A combination of Southern blot analysis on a panel of tumor-derived somatic cell hybrids and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) techniques was used to map a series of DNA markers relative to the 1q21 breakpoint of the renal cell carcinoma (RCC)-associated (X;1)-(p11;q21) translocation. This b

  9. Accuracy of Carbapenem Nonsusceptibility for Identification of KPC-Possessing Enterobacteriaceae by Use of the Revised CLSI Breakpoints

    OpenAIRE

    Landman, David; Salamera, Julius; Singh, Manisha; Quale, John

    2011-01-01

    Using the updated 2010 CLSI carbapenem breakpoints for the Enterobacteriaceae, nonsusceptibility to ertapenem and imipenem predicted the presence of blaKPC poorly, especially among Escherichia coli and Enterobacter species. In regions where KPC-producing bacteria are endemic, testing for nonsusceptibility to meropenem may provide improved accuracy in identifying these isolates.

  10. Breakpoint characterization of large deletions in EXT1 or EXT2 in 10 Multiple Osteochondromas families

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szuhai Karoly

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteochondromas (cartilage-capped bone tumors are by far the most commonly treated of all primary benign bone tumors (50%. In 15% of cases, these tumors occur in the context of a hereditary syndrome called multiple osteochondromas (MO, an autosomal dominant skeletal disorder characterized by the formation of multiple cartilage-capped bone tumors at children's metaphyses. MO is caused by various mutations in EXT1 or EXT2, whereby large genomic deletions (single-or multi-exonic are responsible for up to 8% of MO-cases. Methods Here we report on the first molecular characterization of ten large EXT1- and EXT2-deletions in MO-patients. Deletions were initially indentified using MLPA or FISH analysis and were subsequently characterized using an MO-specific tiling path array, allele-specific PCR-amplification and sequencing analysis. Results Within the set of ten large deletions, the deleted regions ranged from 2.7 to 260 kb. One EXT2 exon 8 deletion was found to be recurrent. All breakpoints were located outside the coding exons of EXT1 and EXT2. Non-allelic homologous recombination (NAHR mediated by Alu-sequences, microhomology mediated replication dependent recombination (MMRDR and non-homologous end-joining (NHEJ were hypothesized as the causal mechanisms in different deletions. Conclusions Molecular characterization of EXT1- and EXT2-deletion breakpoints in MO-patients indicates that NAHR between Alu-sequences as well as NHEJ are causal and that the majority of these deletions are nonrecurring. These observations emphasize once more the huge genetic variability which is characteristic for MO. To our knowledge, this is the first study characterizing large genomic deletions in EXT1 and EXT2.

  11. Use of Animal Models To Support Revising Meningococcal Breakpoints of β-Lactams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkacem, Nouria; Hong, Eva; Antunes, Ana; Terrade, Aude; Deghmane, Ala-Eddine; Taha, Muhamed-Kheir

    2016-07-01

    Antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) in Neisseria meningitidis is an important part of the management of invasive meningococcal disease. It defines MICs of antibiotics that are used in treatment and/or prophylaxis and that mainly belong to the beta-lactams. The interpretation of the AST results requires breakpoints to classify the isolates into susceptible, intermediate, or resistant. The resistance to penicillin G is defined by a MIC of >0.25 mg/liter, and that of amoxicillin is defined by a MIC of >1 mg/liter. We provide data that may support revision of resistance breakpoints for beta-lactams in meningococci. We used experimental intraperitoneal infection in 8-week-old transgenic female mice expressing human transferrin and human factor H. Dynamic bioluminescence imaging was performed to follow the infection by bioluminescent meningococcus strains with different MICs. Three hours later, infected mice were treated intramuscularly using several doses of amoxicillin or penicillin G. Signal decreased during infection with a meningococcus strain showing a penicillin G MIC of 0.064 mg/liter at all doses. Signals decreased for the strain with a penicillin G MIC of 0.5 mg/liter only after treatment with the highest doses, corresponding to 250,000 units/kg of penicillin G or 200 mg/kg of amoxicillin, although this decrease was at a lower rate than that of the strain with a MIC of 0.064 mg/liter. The decrease in bioluminescent signals was associated with a decrease in the levels of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6 (IL-6). Our data suggest that a high dose of amoxicillin or penicillin G can reduce growth during infection by isolates showing penicillin G MICs of >0.25 mg/liter and ≤1 mg/liter. PMID:27090179

  12. Prognostic significance of contrast enhancement and tumor demarcation at CT of squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity and oropharynx

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A retrospective analysis of the CT examinations of 45 patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the tongue, floor of the mouth and tongue base with long-term follow-up is presented. The aim of the study was to determine whether differences in tumor contrast enhancement and tumor demarcation at contrast-enhanced CT were correlated to prognosis in terms of posttreatment residual tumor or local recurrence. Ill-defined tumor margins were by means of multiple regression analysis significantly correlated to local failures. This feature was, however, not associated with a significant decreased survival. The degree of tumor contrast enhancement did not parallel variations in the histopathologic composition of the tumors. (orig.)

  13. A recurrent chromosome translocation breakpoint in breast and pancreatic cancer cell lines targets the neuregulin/NRG1 gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adélaïde, José; Huang, Huai-En; Murati, Anne; Alsop, Amber E; Orsetti, Béatrice; Mozziconacci, Marie-Joëlle; Popovici, Cornel; Ginestier, Christophe; Letessier, Anne; Basset, Céline; Courtay-Cahen, Céline; Jacquemier, Jocelyne; Theillet, Charles; Birnbaum, Daniel; Edwards, Paul A W; Chaffanet, Max

    2003-08-01

    The 8p11-21 region is a frequent target of alterations in breast cancer and other carcinomas. We surveyed 34 breast tumor cell lines and 9 pancreatic cancer cell lines for alterations of this region by use of multicolor fluorescence in situ hybridization (M-FISH) and BAC-specific FISH. We describe a recurrent chromosome translocation breakpoint that targets the NRG1 gene on 8p12. NRG1 encodes growth factors of the neuregulin/heregulin-1 family that are ligands for tyrosine kinase receptors of the ERBB family. Breakpoints within the NRG1 gene were found in four of the breast tumor cell lines: ZR-75-1, in a dic(8;11); HCC1937, in a t(8;10)(p12;p12.1); SUM-52, in an hsr(8)(p12); UACC-812, in a t(3;8); and in two of the pancreatic cancer cell lines: PaTu I, in a der(8)t(4;8); and SUIT-2, in a del(8)(p). Mapping by two-color FISH showed that the breaks were scattered over 1.1 Mb within the NRG1 gene. It is already known that the MDA-MB-175 breast tumor cell line has a dic(8;11), with a breakpoint in NRG1 that fuses NRG1 to the DOC4 gene on 11q13. Thus, we have found a total of seven breakpoints, in two types of cancer cell lines, that target the NRG1 gene. This suggests that the NRG1 locus is a recurring target of translocations in carcinomas. PCR analysis of reverse-transcribed cell line RNAs revealed an extensive complexity of the NRG1 transcripts but failed to detect a consistent pattern of mRNA isoforms in the cell lines with NRG1 breakpoint. PMID:12800145

  14. Clinically and Microbiologically Derived Azithromycin Susceptibility Breakpoints for Salmonella enterica Serovars Typhi and Paratyphi A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thieu, Nga Tran Vu; Dolecek, Christiane; Karkey, Abhilasha; Gupta, Ruchi; Turner, Paul; Dance, David; Maude, Rapeephan R.; Ha, Vinh; Tran, Chinh Nguyen; Thi, Phuong Le; Be, Bay Pham Van; Phi, La Tran Thi; Ngoc, Rang Nguyen; Ghose, Aniruddha; Dongol, Sabina; Campbell, James I.; Thanh, Duy Pham; Thanh, Tuyen Ha; Moore, Catrin E.; Sona, Soeng; Gaind, Rajni; Deb, Monorama; Anh, Ho Van; Van, Sach Nguyen; Tinh, Hien Tran; Day, Nicholas P. J.; Dondorp, Arjen; Thwaites, Guy; Faiz, Mohamed Abul; Phetsouvanh, Rattanaphone; Newton, Paul; Basnyat, Buddha; Farrar, Jeremy J.; Baker, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Azithromycin is an effective treatment for uncomplicated infections with Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi and serovar Paratyphi A (enteric fever), but there are no clinically validated MIC and disk zone size interpretative guidelines. We studied individual patient data from three randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of antimicrobial treatment in enteric fever in Vietnam, with azithromycin used in one treatment arm, to determine the relationship between azithromycin treatment response and the azithromycin MIC of the infecting isolate. We additionally compared the azithromycin MIC and the disk susceptibility zone sizes of 1,640 S. Typhi and S. Paratyphi A clinical isolates collected from seven Asian countries. In the RCTs, 214 patients who were treated with azithromycin at a dose of 10 to 20 mg/ml for 5 to 7 days were analyzed. Treatment was successful in 195 of 214 (91%) patients, with no significant difference in response (cure rate, fever clearance time) with MICs ranging from 4 to 16 μg/ml. The proportion of Asian enteric fever isolates with an MIC of ≤16 μg/ml was 1,452/1,460 (99.5%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 98.9 to 99.7) for S. Typhi and 207/240 (86.3%; 95% CI, 81.2 to 90.3) (P 16 μg/ml and to determine MIC and disk breakpoints for S. Paratyphi A. PMID:25733500

  15. Elements of regional beetle faunas: faunal variation and compositional breakpoints along climate, land cover and geographical gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heino, Jani; Alahuhta, Janne

    2015-03-01

    Regional faunas are structured by historical, spatial and environmental factors. We studied large-scale variation in four ecologically different beetle groups (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Carabidae, Hydrophiloidea, Cerambycidae) along climate, land cover and geographical gradients, examined faunal breakpoints in relation to environmental variables, and investigated the best fit pattern of assemblage variation (i.e. randomness, checkerboards, nestedness, evenly spaced, Gleasonian, Clementsian). We applied statistical methods typically used in the analysis of local ecological communities to provide novel insights into faunal compositional patterns at large spatial grain and geographical extent. We found that spatially structured variation in climate and land cover accounted for most variation in each beetle group in partial redundancy analyses, whereas the individual effect of each explanatory variable group was generally much less important in accounting for variation in provincial species composition. We also found that climate variables were most strongly associated with faunal breakpoints, with temperature-related variables alone accounting for about 20% of variation at the first node of multivariate regression tree for each beetle group. The existence of faunal breakpoints was also shown by the 'elements of faunal structure' analyses, which suggested Clementsian gradients across the provinces, that is, that there were two or more clear groups of species responding similarly to the underlying ecological gradients. The four beetle groups showed highly similar biogeographical patterns across our study area. The fact that temperature was related to faunal breakpoints in the species composition of each beetle group suggests that climate sets a strong filter to the distributions of species at this combination of spatial grain and spatial extent. This finding held true despite the ecological differences among the four beetle groups, ranging from fully aquatic to fully

  16. Sensititre autoreader for same-day breakpoint broth microdilution susceptibility testing of members of the family Enterobacteriaceae.

    OpenAIRE

    Doern, G V; Staneck, J L; Needham, C.; Tubert, T

    1987-01-01

    The Sensititre Autoreader system is an instrument-assisted broth microdilution susceptibility test procedure based on the detection of fluorogenic growth substrate metabolism by test bacteria with different concentrations of antimicrobial agents. In the current investigation, this system was assessed as a means for predicting the in vitro activity of 17 antimicrobial agents versus numerous species of the family Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by using a breakpoint broth microdil...

  17. Effects of Breakpoint Changes on Carbapenem Susceptibility Rates ofEnterobacteriaceae: Results from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program, United States, 2008 to 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert P Rennie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In the absence of clinical resistance, breakpoints for many antimicrobial agents are often set high. Clinical failures following use of the agents over time requires re-evaluation of breakpoints. This is based on patient response, pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic information and in vitro minimal inhibitory concentration data. Data from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program has shown that Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute breakpoint changes for carbapenems that occurred between 2008 and 2012 in North America have resulted in decreased levels of susceptibility for some species. In particular, reduced susceptibility to imipenem was observed for Proteus mirabilis (35% and Morganella morganii (80%. Minor decreases in susceptibility were also noted for Enterobacter species with ertapenem (5% and imipenem (4.3%, and Serratia species with imipenem (6.4%. No significant decreases in susceptibility were observed for meropenem following the breakpoint changes. There were no earlier breakpoints established for doripenem. Very few of these Enterobacteriaceae produce carbapenamase enzymes; therefore, the clinical significance of these changes has not yet been clearly determined. In conclusion, ongoing surveillance studies with in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration data are essential in predicting the need for breakpoint changes and in identifying the impact of such changes on the percent susceptibility of different species.

  18. Both V(D)J coding ends but neither signal end can recombine at the bcl-2 major breakpoint region, and the rejoining is ligase IV dependent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Sathees C; Hsieh, Chih-Lin; Lieber, Michael R

    2005-08-01

    The t(14;18) chromosomal translocation is the most common translocation in human cancer, and it occurs in all follicular lymphomas. The 150-bp bcl-2 major breakpoint region (Mbr) on chromosome 18 is a fragile site, because it adopts a non-B DNA conformation that can be cleaved by the RAG complex. The non-B DNA structure and the chromosomal translocation can be recapitulated on intracellular human minichromosomes where immunoglobulin 12- and 23-signals are positioned downstream of the bcl-2 Mbr. Here we show that either of the two coding ends in these V(D)J recombination reactions can recombine with either of the two broken ends of the bcl-2 Mbr but that neither signal end can recombine with the Mbr. Moreover, we show that the rejoining is fully dependent on DNA ligase IV, indicating that the rejoining phase relies on the nonhomologous DNA end-joining pathway. These results permit us to formulate a complete model for the order and types of cleavage and rejoining events in the t(14;18) translocation. PMID:16024785

  19. Chronic γ-irradiation results in increased cell killing and chromosomal aberration with specific breakpoints in fibroblast cell strains derived from non-Hodgkin's lymphoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cultured skin fibroblast cells from 16 NHL (non-Hodgkin's lymphoma) patients and 2 clinically normal subjects were compared for cell survival and chromosomal aberration after chronic γ-irradiation. Fibroblasts from an ataxia telangiectasia (AT) homozygote and an AT heterozygote were used as positive controls. Following irradiation, fibroblasts from all 16 NHL patients showed an increase in both cell death and chromosomal aberration (breaks and rearrangements) compared to normal subjects. The difference in frequency of chromosomal aberration between normals and NHL-patients remained virtually unchanged over a period of 24-72 h post irradiation incubation of cells. Cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry carried out in 1 normal and 1 NHL fibroblast cell strain showed that more cells representing the NHL patient were in G2/M phase compared to the normal at various times of cytogenetic analysis. While the AT homozygote appeared to be the most radiosensitive, the AT heterozygote showed a slightly higher incidence of cell death and chromosomal aberration than the normals. The cellular and chromosomal radiosensitivity of fibroblast cell lines from NHL-patients differed slightly from that of AT heterozygote but clearly occupied an intermediate position between the AT homozygote and the normal subjects. Cells from 3 of the NHL patients showed radiation-induced specific chromosomal breaks involving chromosomes 1, 2, 6, 8, 10 and 11 which correspond to known fragile sites. Such breakpoints associated with increased radiosensitivity may be indicative of predisposition to malignancy in the patients studied. (author). 30 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs

  20. Marine geodesy a multipurpose approach to solve oceanic problems. [including submersible navigation under iced seas, demarcation and determination of boundaries in deep ocean, tsunamis, and ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, N.

    1974-01-01

    Various current and future problem areas of marine geodesy are identified. These oceanic problem areas are highly diversified and include submersible navigation under ice seas, demarcation and determination of boundaries in deep ocean, tsunamis, ecology, etc., etc. Their achieved as well as desired positional accuracy estimates, based upon publications and discussions, are also given. A multipurpose approach to solve these problems is described. An optimum configuration of an ocean-bottom control-net unit is provided.

  1. The sole trader's assets and liabilities - a tax law study on the importance of accounting to the demarcation of business activity

    OpenAIRE

    Nilsson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Sweden is a typical small-business country and, based on the numbers, a clear majority of the companies operate as sole traders. Unlike limited companies and other legal entities, which classify all income as business income, the income or expenditures of private persons are classified as either business, service or capital income. The main objective of this thesis is to systematically examine the tax law rules demarcating which assets and liabilities are to be classified under business activ...

  2. Chromosomal breakpoints and structural alterations of the c-myc locus differ in endemic and sporadic forms of Burkitt lymphoma.

    OpenAIRE

    Pelicci, P.G.; Knowles, D M; Magrath, I; Dalla-Favera, R

    1986-01-01

    We have examined the position of the chromosomal breakpoint relative to the human c-myc gene (MYC) and the presence of other structural alterations of the same locus in 19 fresh samples of Burkitt lymphoma (BL) and 13 BL-derived cell lines. This panel includes the two pathogenetic forms of BL: the endemic (African-type) BL (eBL) and sporadic (American-type) BL (sBL). In all cases tested, including fresh samples and cell lines, structural alterations of the 5' portion of the gene were detected...

  3. Bilateral renal agenesis/hypoplasia/dysplasia (BRAHD: postmortem analysis of 45 cases with breakpoint mapping of two de novo translocations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louise Harewood

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Bilateral renal agenesis/hypoplasia/dysplasia (BRAHD is a relatively common, lethal malformation in humans. Established clinical risk factors include maternal insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and male sex of the fetus. In the majority of cases, no specific etiology can be established, although teratogenic, syndromal and single gene causes can be assigned to some cases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 45 unrelated fetuses, stillbirths or infants with lethal BRAHD were ascertained through a single regional paediatric pathology service (male:female 34:11 or 3.1:1. The previously reported phenotypic overlaps with VACTERL, caudal dysgenesis, hemifacial microsomia and Müllerian defects were confirmed. A new finding is that 16/45 (35.6%; m:f 13:3 or 4.3:1 BRAHD cases had one or more extrarenal malformations indicative of a disoder of laterality determination including; incomplete lobulation of right lung (seven cases, malrotation of the gut (seven cases and persistence of the left superior vena cava (five cases. One such case with multiple laterality defects and sirelomelia was found to have a de novo apparently balanced reciprocal translocation 46,XY,t(2;6(p22.3;q12. Translocation breakpoint mapping was performed by interphase fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH using nuclei extracted from archival tissue sections in both this case and an isolated bilateral renal agenesis case associated with a de novo 46,XY,t(1;2(q41;p25.3. Both t(2;6 breakpoints mapped to gene-free regions with no strong evidence of cis-regulatory potential. Ten genes localized within 500 kb of the t(1;2 breakpoints. Wholemount in-situ expression analyses of the mouse orthologs of these genes in embryonic mouse kidneys showed strong expression of Esrrg, encoding a nuclear steroid hormone receptor. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that Esrrg was restricted to proximal ductal tissue within the embryonic kidney. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The previously unreported

  4. A complex double translocation involving four chromosomes and five breakpoints in a child with mild mental retardation.

    OpenAIRE

    Couzin, D A; Watt, J L; Auchterlonie, I. A.

    1983-01-01

    A 6-year-old boy with speech delay and mild mental retardation (IQ 82) was found to have a complex double translocation involving four chromosomes and a total of five breakpoints, two being on the same arm. This resulted in the karyotype 46,XY,t(2;4;7)(7;8)(q14;q31;q11q22;q13). As far as the authors are aware this is the first time that such a complex double translocation has been reported. Both parents had normal karyotypes.

  5. Molecular characterization of two proximal deletion breakpoint regions in both Prader-Willi and Angelman syndrome patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, S.L.; Huang, B.; Ledbetter, D.H. [National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States)] [and others

    1995-07-01

    Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) and Angelman syndrome (AS) are distinct mental retardation syndromes caused by paternal and maternal deficiencies, respectively, in chromosome 15q11{minus}q13. Approximately 70% of these patients have a large deletion of {approximately}4 Mb extending from D15S9 (ML34) through D15S12 (IR10A). To further characterize the deletion breakpoints proximal to D15S9, three new polymorphic microsatellite markers were developed that showed observed heterozygosities of 60%-87%. D15S541 and D15S542 were isolated for YAC A124A3 containing the D15S18 (IR39) locus. D15S543 was isolated from a cosmid cloned from the proximal right end of YAC 254B5 containing the D15S9 (ML34) locus. Gene-centromere mapping of these markers, using a panel of ovarian teratomas of known meiotic origin, extended the genetic map of chromosome 15 by 2-3 cM toward the centromere. Analysis of the more proximal S541/S542 markers on 53 Prader-Willi and 33 Angelman deletion patients indicated two classes of patients: 44% (35/80) of the informative patients were deleted for these markers (class I), while 56% (45/80) were not deleted (class II), with no difference between PWS and AS. In contrast, D15S543 was deleted in all informative patients (13/48) or showed the presence of a single allele (in 35/48 patients), suggesting that this marker is deleted in the majority of PWS and AS cases. These results confirm the presence of two common proximal deletion breakpoint regions in both Prader-Willi and Angelman syndromes and are consistent with the same deletion mechanism being responsible for paternal and maternal deletions. One breakpoint region lies between D15S541/S542 and D15S543, with an additional breakpoint region being proximal to D15S541/S542. 46 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  6. Evaluation of Oxacillin and Cefoxitin Disk and MIC Breakpoints for Prediction of Methicillin Resistance in Human and Veterinary Isolates of Staphylococcus intermedius Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, M T; Burnham, C-A D; Westblade, L F; Dien Bard, J; Lawhon, S D; Wallace, M A; Stanley, T; Burd, E; Hindler, J; Humphries, R M

    2016-03-01

    Staphylococcus pseudintermedius is a coagulase-positive species that colonizes the nares and anal mucosa of healthy dogs and cats. Human infections with S. pseudintermedius range in severity from bite wounds and rhinosinusitis to endocarditis; historically, these infections were thought to be uncommon, but new laboratory methods suggest that their true incidence is underreported. Oxacillin and cefoxitin disk and MIC tests were evaluated for the detection of mecA- or mecC-mediated methicillin resistance in 115 human and animal isolates of the Staphylococcus intermedius group (SIG), including 111 Staphylococcus pseudintermediusand 4 Staphylococcus delphini isolates, 37 of which were mecA positive. The disk and MIC breakpoints evaluated included the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) M100-S25 Staphylococcus aureus/Staphylococcus lugdunensis oxacillin MIC breakpoints and cefoxitin disk and MIC breakpoints, the CLSI M100-S25 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS) oxacillin MIC breakpoint and cefoxitin disk breakpoint, the CLSI VET01-S2 S. pseudintermedius oxacillin MIC and disk breakpoints, and the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) S. pseudintermedius cefoxitin disk breakpoint. The oxacillin results interpreted by the VET01-S2 (disk and MIC) and M100-S25 CoNS (MIC) breakpoints agreed with the results of mecA/mecC PCR for all isolates, with the exception of one false-resistant result (1.3% of mecA/mecC PCR-negative isolates). In contrast, cefoxitin tests performed poorly, ranging from 3 to 89% false susceptibility (very major errors) and 0 to 48% false resistance (major errors). BD Phoenix, bioMérieux Vitek 2, and Beckman Coulter MicroScan commercial automated susceptibility test panel oxacillin MIC results were also evaluated and demonstrated >95% categorical agreement with mecA/mecC PCR results if interpreted by using the M100-S25 CoNS breakpoint. The Alere penicillin-binding protein 2a test accurately detected all

  7. Mechanism of fragility at BCL2 gene minor breakpoint cluster region during t(14;18) chromosomal translocation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Mridula; Raghavan, Sathees C

    2012-03-16

    The t(14;18) translocation in follicular lymphoma is one of the most common chromosomal translocations. Breaks in chromosome 18 are localized at the 3'-UTR of BCL2 gene or downstream and are mainly clustered in either the major breakpoint region or the minor breakpoint cluster region (mcr). The recombination activating gene (RAG) complex induces breaks at IgH locus of chromosome 14, whereas the mechanism of fragility at BCL2 mcr remains unclear. Here, for the first time, we show that RAGs can nick mcr; however, the mechanism is unique. Three independent nicks of equal efficiency are generated, when both Mg(2+) and Mn(2+) are present, unlike a single nick during V(D)J recombination. Further, we demonstrate that RAG binding and nicking at the mcr are independent of nonamer, whereas a CCACCTCT motif plays a critical role in its fragility, as shown by sequential mutagenesis. More importantly, we recapitulate the BCL2 mcr translocation and find that mcr can undergo synapsis with a standard recombination signal sequence within the cells, in a RAG-dependent manner. Further, mutation to the CCACCTCT motif abolishes recombination within the cells, indicating its vital role. Hence, our data suggest a novel, physiologically relevant, nonamer-independent mechanism of RAG nicking at mcr, which may be important for generation of chromosomal translocations in humans. PMID:22275374

  8. Analysis of t(9;17)(q33.2;q25.3) chromosomal breakpoint regions and genetic association reveals novel candidate genes for bipolar disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rajkumar, A.P.; Christensen, Jane H.; Mattheisen, Manuel;

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Breakpoints of chromosomal abnormalities facilitate identification of novel candidate genes for psychiatric disorders. Genome-wide significant evidence supports the linkage between chromosome 17q25.3 and bipolar disorder (BD). Co-segregation of translocation t(9;17)(q33.2;q25.3) with...... psychiatric disorders has been reported. We aimed to narrow down these chromosomal breakpoint regions and to investigate the associations between single nucleotide polymorphisms within these regions and BD as well as schizophrenia (SZ) in large genome-wide association study samples. METHODS: We cross......-linked Danish psychiatric and cytogenetic case registers to identify an individual with both t(9;17)(q33.2;q25.3) and BD. Fluorescent in situ hybridization was employed to map the chromosomal breakpoint regions of this proband. We accessed the Psychiatric Genomics Consortium BD (n = 16,731) and SZ (n = 21...

  9. Distribution of radiation-induced G1 exchange and terminal deletion breakpoints in Chinese hamster chromosomes as detected by G banding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A total of 255 chromosomal aberrations induced by X-rays in G1 phase of the cell cycle were scored in 600 G-banded metaphases prepared from Chinese hamster female cells. On the basis of a detailed analysis of these aberrations a total of 441 chromosomal breakpoints were mapped to the individual Chinese hamster chromosomes and their bands. More breakpoints were mapped to G-light (80.5%) than to G-dark (19.5%) bands. These results indicate that radiation-induced exchange and terminal deletion breakpoints, as observed in the first postirradiation metaphase, have different patterns of distribution in Chinese hamster chromosomes. Clustering of terminal deletions in the long arms of X chromosomes, which are entirely occupied by heterochromatin, suggests that chromosomal repair mechanisms responsible for rejoining of chromosomal breaks are less effective in heterochromatic than in other genomic regions. (author)

  10. Breakpoint characterization of the der(19)t(11;19)(q13;p13) in the ovarian cancer cell line SKOV-3

    OpenAIRE

    Onkes, W.; Fredrik, R.; Micci, F; Schonbeck, B.; Martin-Subero, J.; ULLMANN, R; Hilpert, F; Brautigam, K.; JANSSEN, O; Maass, N; Siebert, R.; S. Heim; Arnold, N; Weimer, J.

    2013-01-01

    About 20% of ovarian carcinomas show alterations of 19p13 and/or 19q13 in the form of added extra material whose origin often is from chromosome 11. Based on earlier spectral karyotype analysis of the ovarian cancer cell line SKOV-3, which shows an unbalanced translocation der(19)t(11;19), the aim of this study was to determine the precise breakpoints of that derivative chromosome. After rough delimitation of the breakpoints of microdissected derivative chromosomes by array analysis, we desig...

  11. Aetiology of severe demarcated enamel opacities--an evaluation based on prospective medical and social data from 17,000 children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagrell, Tobias G; Ludvigsson, Johnny; Ullbro, Christer; Lundin, Sven-Ake; Koch, Göran

    2011-01-01

    During the 1970s dentists reported an increasing prevalence of a "new" type of enamel disturbance.The disturbance was very specific, with areas of demarcated hypomineralised enamel, and was mostly found in permanent first molars and incisors. Several studies have tried to reveal the aetiology behind the enamel disturbance but sofar no clear factors correlated have been found. The aim of the present study was to evaluate aetiological factors to severe demarcated opacities (SDO) in first permanent molars in a large cohort of children enrolled in the "All Babies in Southeast Sweden" (ABIS) project. ABIS is a prospective study of all children in five Swedish counties born between Oct 1, 1997 and Oct 1, 1999, in all about 17,000 children.They have been followed from birth with recording of a large number of factors on nutrition, diseases, medication, infections, social situation etc. With help from 89 Public Dental Service clinics in the same area preliminary examinations of the children, born between Oct 1,1997 and Oct 1,1999, reported 595 children with severe demarcated opacities (SDO) in first molars.These children and a randomly selected age matched group of 1,200 children were further invited to be examined by specialists in paediatric dentistry. At these examinations 224 severe cases were identified as well as 253 children completely without enamel disturbances among children registered in ABIS.These two groups were analysed according to any correlation between SDO and variables in the ABIS databank. The analyses showed no association between SDO and pre-, peri-, and neonatal data. However, we found a positive association between SDO and breastfeeding for more than 6 months (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1-3.2), late introduction of gruel (OR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1-2.9), and late introduction of infant formula (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.2-2.9). A combination of these three variables increased the risk to develop SDO by more than five times (OR 5.1; 95% CI 1.6-15.7). No significant

  12. The demarcation between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina in the Una region from the 17th to the 20th century according to original cartographic material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mithad Kozličić

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the latest scientific research results regarding the presentation of what are nowadays Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina territories on geographic maps from the 17th to the 20th century. The focus is set on twenty maps that point to the most important tendencies. Particular attention is paid to wars and international treaties which regulated the demarcation of Una watercourse up to its confluence to the Sava as a centuries-old border between the Habsburg and the Ottoman empires.

  13. Characterization of two ectrodactyly-associated translocation breakpoints separated by 2.5 Mb on chromosome 2q14.1-q14.2.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    David, D.; Marques, B.; Ferreira, C.; Vieira, P.; Corona-Rivera, A.; Ferreira, J.C.; Bokhoven, J.H.L.M. van

    2009-01-01

    Split hand-split foot malformation or ectrodactyly is a heterogeneous congenital defect of digit formation. The aim of this study is the mapping of the breakpoints and a detailed molecular characterization of the candidate genes for an isolated and syndromic form of ectrodactyly, both associated wit

  14. Breakpoint characterization of the der(19)t(11;19)(q13;p13) in the ovarian cancer cell line SKOV-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onkes, Wiebke; Fredrik, Regina; Micci, Francesca; Schönbeck, Benjamin J; Martin-Subero, Jose I; Ullmann, Reinhard; Hilpert, Felix; Bräutigam, Karen; Janssen, Ottmar; Maass, Nicolai; Siebert, Reiner; Heim, Sverre; Arnold, Norbert; Weimer, Jörg

    2013-05-01

    About 20% of ovarian carcinomas show alterations of 19p13 and/or 19q13 in the form of added extra material whose origin often is from chromosome 11. Based on earlier spectral karyotype analysis of the ovarian cancer cell line SKOV-3, which shows an unbalanced translocation der(19)t(11;19), the aim of this study was to determine the precise breakpoints of that derivative chromosome. After rough delimitation of the breakpoints of microdissected derivative chromosomes by array analysis, we designed a matrix of primers spanning 11q13.2 and 19p13.2 detecting multiple amplicons on genomic and cDNA. Sequencing the amplicons, accurate localization of both breakpoints on both chromosomes was possible and we found that exon 14 of HOOK2 from chromosome 19 and exon 2 of ACTN3 from chromosome 11 were fused in the derivative chromosome. The breakpoint in the HOOK2 gene was in an intrinsic triplet of nucleic acids leading to a shift in the ACTN3 reading frame in the derivative chromosome. This frameshift alteration should give rise to an early stop codon causing a loss of function of ACTN3. Signals in two-dimensional Western blotting exactly match to calculated molecular mass and the isoelectric point of the fusion protein. PMID:23362175

  15. Mycobacterium tuberculosis pncA Polymorphisms That Do Not Confer Pyrazinamide Resistance at a Breakpoint Concentration of 100 Micrograms per Milliliter in MGIT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitfield, Michael G.; Streicher, Elizabeth M.; Sampson, Samantha L.; Sirgel, Frik A.; van Helden, Paul D.; Mercante, Alexandra; Willby, Melisa; Hughes, Kelsey; Birkness, Kris; Morlock, Glenn; van Rie, Annelies; Posey, James E.

    2015-01-01

    Sequencing of the Mycobacterium tuberculosis pncA gene allows for pyrazinamide susceptibility testing. We summarize data on pncA polymorphisms that do not confer resistance at a susceptibility breakpoint of 100 μg/ml pyrazinamide in MGIT within a cohort of isolates from South Africa and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. PMID:26292310

  16. Follicular lymphoma with a novel t(14;18) breakpoint involving the immunoglobulin heavy chain switch mu region indicates an origin from germinal center B cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenton, JAL; Vaandrager, JW; Aarts, WM; Bende, RJ; Heering, K; van Dijk, M; Morgan, G; van Noesel, CJM; Schuuring, E; Kluin, PM

    2002-01-01

    With the use of DNA-fiber fluorescent in situ hybridization, a BCL2 protein positive follicular lymphoma with a novel BCL2 breakpoint involving the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IGH) switch mu (S-mu) region instead of the J(H) or D-H gene segments was identified. Sequence analysis showed that the geno

  17. Sequencing and characterisation of rearrangements in three S. pastorianus strains reveals the presence of chimeric genes and gives evidence of breakpoint reuse.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah K Hewitt

    Full Text Available Gross chromosomal rearrangements have the potential to be evolutionarily advantageous to an adapting organism. The generation of a hybrid species increases opportunity for recombination by bringing together two homologous genomes. We sought to define the location of genomic rearrangements in three strains of Saccharomyces pastorianus, a natural lager-brewing yeast hybrid of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces eubayanus, using whole genome shotgun sequencing. Each strain of S. pastorianus has lost species-specific portions of its genome and has undergone extensive recombination, producing chimeric chromosomes. We predicted 30 breakpoints that we confirmed at the single nucleotide level by designing species-specific primers that flank each breakpoint, and then sequencing the PCR product. These rearrangements are the result of recombination between areas of homology between the two subgenomes, rather than repetitive elements such as transposons or tRNAs. Interestingly, 28/30 S. cerevisiae-S. eubayanus recombination breakpoints are located within genic regions, generating chimeric genes. Furthermore we show evidence for the reuse of two breakpoints, located in HSP82 and KEM1, in strains of proposed independent origin.

  18. Detection of three common translocation breakpoints in non-Hodgkin's lymphomas by fluorescence in situ hybridization on routine paraffin-embedded tissue sections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haralambieva, E; Kleiverda, K; Mason, DY; Schuuring, E; Kluin, PM

    2002-01-01

    Non-random chromosomal translocations are specifically involved in the pathogenesis of many non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and have clinical implications as diagnostic and/or prognostic markers. Their detection is often impaired by technical problems, including the distribution of the breakpoints over larg

  19. A high-resolution comparative map between pig chromosome 17 and human chromosomes 4, 8, and 20: Identification of synteny breakpoints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lahbib-Mansais, Yvette; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Mompart, Florence;

    2005-01-01

    We report on the construction of a high-resolution comparative map of porcine chromosome 17 (SSC17) focusing on evolutionary breakpoints with human chromosomes. The comparative map shows high homology with human chromosome 20 but suggests more limited homologies with other human chromosomes. SSC1...

  20. A panel of sequence tagged sites for chromosome band 11q23

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunnacliffe, A.; Perry, H. (Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom)); Radice, P. (Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom) Istituto Nazionale Tumori, Milan (Italy)); Budarf, M.L.; Emanuel, B.S. (Univ. of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA (United States))

    1993-09-01

    A panel of sequence tagged sites (STSs) representing 30 markers previously assigned to human chromosome band 11q23 has been assembled. Eleven STSs represent cloned genes, and the remainder are from anonymous DNA segments. The STSs have been used in PCR experiments to localize their cognate sequences further with respect to five translocation breakpoints that define three intervals in 11q23. Two of these translocation breakpoints have been mapped more precisely by the STS assignments. The STS panel will form a useful starting point for the generation of a genomic contig of band 11q23. 32 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  1. Analysis of the V(D)J recombination efficiency at lymphoid chromosomal translocation breakpoints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, S C; Kirsch, I R; Lieber, M R

    2001-08-01

    Chromosomal translocations and deletions are among the major events that initiate neoplasia. For lymphoid chromosomal translocations, misrecognition by the RAG (recombination activating gene) complex of V(D)J recombination is one contributing factor that has long been proposed. The chromosomal translocations involving LMO2 (t(11;14)(p13;q11)), Ttg-1 (t(11;14)(p15;q11)), and Hox11 (t(10;14)(q24;q11)) are among the clearest examples in which it appears that a D or J segment has synapsed with an adventitious heptamer/nonamer at a gene outside of one of the antigen receptor loci. The interstitial deletion at 1p32 involving SIL (SCL-interrupting locus)/SCL (stem cell leukemia) is a case involving two non-V(D)J sites that have been suggested to be V(D)J recombination mistakes. Here we have used our human extrachromosomal substrate assay to formally test the hypothesis that these regions are V(D)J recombination misrecognition sites and, more importantly, to quantify their efficiency as V(D)J recombination targets within the cell. We find that the LMO2 fragile site functions as a 12-signal at an efficiency that is only 27-fold lower than that of a consensus 12-signal. The Ttg-1 site functions as a 23-signal at an efficiency 530-fold lower than that of a consensus 23-signal. Hox11 failed to undergo recombination as a 12- or 23-signal and was at least 20,000-fold less efficient than consensus signals. SIL has been predicted to function as a 12-signal and SCL as a 23-signal. However, we find that SIL actually functions as a 23-signal. These results provide a formal demonstration that certain chromosomal fragile sites can serve as RAG complex targets, and they determine whether these sites function as 12- versus 23-signals. These results quantify one of the three major factors that determine the frequency of these translocations in T-cell acute lymphocytic leukemia. PMID:11390401

  2. On the validity of setting breakpoint minimum inhibition concentrations at one quarter of the plasma concentration achieved following oral administration of oxytetracycline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coyne, R.; Samuelsen, O.; Bergh, Ø.;

    2004-01-01

    that the therapy was probably beneficial. Thus, the data obtained in this work suggest that the application of the 4:1 ratio is not a valid method of generating meaningful breakpoint MIC values. Published values for the MIC of OTC against A. salmonicida and the plasma concentrations achieved after oral...... administration of OTC medicated feed were applied to investigate the validity of the application of the 4:1 ratio. Breakpoints generated by the application of this ratio to these data would suggest that OTC could never have had any value in combating A. salmonicida infections. As this conclusion is contrary...... to experience, it is argued that examination of the published data reinforces the conclusion that the 4:1 ratio has little value in the oral therapy of fish disease....

  3. A High-Resolution Comparative Chromosome Map of Cricetus cricetus and Peromyscus eremicus Reveals the Involvement of Constitutive Heterochromatin in Breakpoint Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira-da-Silva, Ana; Louzada, Sandra; Adega, Filomena; Chaves, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    Compared to humans and other mammals, rodent genomes, specifically Muroidea species, underwent intense chromosome reshuffling in which many complex structural rearrangements occurred. This fact makes them preferential animal models for studying the process of karyotype evolution. Here, we present the first combined chromosome comparative maps between 2 Cricetidae species, Cricetus cricetus and Peromyscus eremicus, and the index species Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus. Comparative chromosome painting was done using mouse and rat paint probes together with in silico analysis from the Ensembl genome browser database. Hereby, evolutionary events (inter- and intrachromosomal rearrangements) that occurred in C. cricetus and P. eremicus since the putative ancestral Muroidea genome could be inferred, and evolutionary breakpoint regions could be detected. A colocalization of constitutive heterochromatin and evolutionary breakpoint regions in each genome was observed. Our results suggest the involvement of constitutive heterochromatin in karyotype restructuring of these species, despite the different levels of conservation of the C. cricetus (derivative) and P. eremicus (conserved) genomes. PMID:25999143

  4. Summer holidays as break-point in shaping a tannery sludge microbial community around a stable core microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Cesira; Boscaro, Vittorio; Munz, Giulio; Mori, Gualtiero; Vannini, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Recently, several investigations focused on the discovery of a bacterial consortium shared among different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Nevertheless, the definition of a core microbiota over time represents the necessary counterpart in order to unravel the dynamics of bacterial communities in these environments. Here we performed a monthly survey on the bacterial community of a consortial industrial plant. Objectives of this study were: (1) to identify a core microbiota constant over time; (2) to evaluate the temporal dynamics of the community during one year. A conspicuous and diversified core microbiota is constituted by operational taxonomic units which are present throughout the year in the plant. Community composition data confirm that the presence and abundance of bacteria in WWTPs is highly consistent at high taxonomic level. Our results indicate however a difference in microbial community structure between two groups of samples, identifying the summer holiday period as the break-point. Changes in the structure of the microbial community occur otherwise gradually, one month after another. Further studies will clarify how the size and diversity of the core microbiota could affect the observed dynamics. PMID:27461169

  5. Putative cruciform DNA structures at BCL6 breakpoint region may explain BCL6 translocation in diffuse large B-Cell lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancer is a disease characterized by uncontrolled proliferation of cells, caused by genetic alterations such as chromosomal translocations, which are present in almost all hematological malignancies. Diffuse Large B-cell Lymphoma (DLBL) is the most common non-Hodgkin's lymphoma, comprising 40-50% of all lymphomas both in India and worldwide, and is characterized by BCL6 chromosomal translocation. However, the mechanism of this translocation is completely unknown. By mapping of translocation breakpoints from patients, we have identified three breakpoint cluster regions at 5' UTR of BCL6 gene. Bioinformatics analysis of cluster II, which possesses majority of breakpoints, this region may form cruciform DNA structures. Gel mobility shift assays using oligomeric DNA from the region suggested that a portion of cluster II folded into hairpin structures. Mutations to the wild type sequences disrupted hairpin formation. Circular dichroism studies on BCL6 oligomers resulted in a spectra containing two overlapping peaks at 265 nm and 285 nm, confirming hairpin structure. Further, the structure was destroyed upon heating, and reformed when appropriate conditions were provided. P1 nuclease assay in conjunction with KMnO4 probing suggested that the structure possessed an eight nucleotide double-stranded stem and a nine nucleotide loop. To further understand the mechanism of BCL6 translocation in vivo, human cells were transfected with episomes harboring cluster II region and the results obtained will be discussed. Hence, our results suggest the formation of a putative cruciform DNA structure at BCL6 breakpoint region and that may facilitate breakage at BCL6 gene explaining chromosomal translocations in DLBL. (author)

  6. Influence of Clinical Breakpoint Changes from CLSI 2009 to EUCAST 2011 Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing Guidelines on Multidrug Resistance Rates of Gram-Negative Rods

    OpenAIRE

    Hombach, Michael; Wolfensberger, Aline; Stefan P Kuster; Böttger, Erik C.

    2013-01-01

    Multidrug resistance (MDR) rates of Gram-negative rods were analyzed comparing CLSI 2009 and EUCAST 2011 antibiotic susceptibility testing guidelines. After EUCAST 2011 was applied, the MDR rates increased for Klebsiella pneumoniae (2.2%), Enterobacter cloacae (1.1%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (0.7%), and Escherichia coli (0.4%). A total of 24% of Enterobacteriaceae MDR isolates and 12% of P. aeruginosa MDR isolates were categorized as MDR due to breakpoint changes.

  7. Molecular breakpoint cloning and gene expression studies of a novel translocation t(4;15(q27;q11.2 associated with Prader-Willi syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slater Howard R

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prader-Willi syndrome (MIM #176270; PWS is caused by lack of the paternally-derived copies, or their expression, of multiple genes in a 4 Mb region on chromosome 15q11.2. Known mechanisms include large deletions, maternal uniparental disomy or mutations involving the imprinting center. De novo balanced reciprocal translocations in 5 reported individuals had breakpoints clustering in SNRPN intron 2 or exon 20/intron 20. To further dissect the PWS phenotype and define the minimal critical region for PWS features, we have studied a 22 year old male with a milder PWS phenotype and a de novo translocation t(4;15(q27;q11.2. Methods We used metaphase FISH to narrow the breakpoint region and molecular analyses to map the breakpoints on both chromosomes at the nucleotide level. The expression of genes on chromosome 15 on both sides of the breakpoint was determined by RT-PCR analyses. Results Pertinent clinical features include neonatal hypotonia with feeding difficulties, hypogonadism, short stature, late-onset obesity, learning difficulties, abnormal social behavior and marked tolerance to pain, as well as sticky saliva and narcolepsy. Relative macrocephaly and facial features are not typical for PWS. The translocation breakpoints were identified within SNRPN intron 17 and intron 10 of a spliced non-coding transcript in band 4q27. LINE and SINE sequences at the exchange points may have contributed to the translocation event. By RT-PCR of lymphoblasts and fibroblasts, we find that upstream SNURF/SNRPN exons and snoRNAs HBII-437 and HBII-13 are expressed, but the downstream snoRNAs PWCR1/HBII-85 and HBII-438A/B snoRNAs are not. Conclusion As part of the PWCR1/HBII-85 snoRNA cluster is highly conserved between human and mice, while no copy of HBII-438 has been found in mouse, we conclude that PWCR1/HBII-85 snoRNAs is likely to play a major role in the PWS- phenotype.

  8. First application of liquid-metal-jet sources for small-animal imaging: High-resolution CT and phase-contrast tumor demarcation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsson, Daniel H.; Lundstroem, Ulf; Burvall, Anna; Hertz, Hans M. [Department of Applied Physics, KTH Royal Institute of Technology/Albanova, 10691 Stockholm (Sweden); Westermark, Ulrica K.; Arsenian Henriksson, Marie [Department of Microbiology, Tumor and Cell Biology (MTC), Karolinska Institutet, 17177 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-02-15

    Purpose: Small-animal studies require images with high spatial resolution and high contrast due to the small scale of the structures. X-ray imaging systems for small animals are often limited by the microfocus source. Here, the authors investigate the applicability of liquid-metal-jet x-ray sources for such high-resolution small-animal imaging, both in tomography based on absorption and in soft-tissue tumor imaging based on in-line phase contrast. Methods: The experimental arrangement consists of a liquid-metal-jet x-ray source, the small-animal object on a rotating stage, and an imaging detector. The source-to-object and object-to-detector distances are adjusted for the preferred contrast mechanism. Two different liquid-metal-jet sources are used, one circulating a Ga/In/Sn alloy and the other an In/Ga alloy for higher penetration through thick tissue. Both sources are operated at 40-50 W electron-beam power with {approx}7 {mu}m x-ray spots, providing high spatial resolution in absorption imaging and high spatial coherence for the phase-contrast imaging. Results: High-resolution absorption imaging is demonstrated on mice with CT, showing 50 {mu}m bone details in the reconstructed slices. High-resolution phase-contrast soft-tissue imaging shows clear demarcation of mm-sized tumors at much lower dose than is required in absorption. Conclusions: This is the first application of liquid-metal-jet x-ray sources for whole-body small-animal x-ray imaging. In absorption, the method allows high-resolution tomographic skeletal imaging with potential for significantly shorter exposure times due to the power scalability of liquid-metal-jet sources. In phase contrast, the authors use a simple in-line arrangement to show distinct tumor demarcation of few-mm-sized tumors. This is, to their knowledge, the first small-animal tumor visualization with a laboratory phase-contrast system.

  9. A non-B-DNA structure at the Bcl-2 major breakpoint region is cleaved by the RAG complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Sathees C; Swanson, Patrick C; Wu, Xiantuo; Hsieh, Chih-Lin; Lieber, Michael R

    2004-03-01

    The causes of spontaneous chromosomal translocations in somatic cells of biological organisms are largely unknown, although double-strand DNA breaks are required in all proposed mechanisms. The most common chromosomal abnormality in human cancer is the reciprocal translocation between chromosomes 14 and 18 (t(14;18)), which occurs in follicular lymphomas. The break at the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus on chromosome 14 is an interruption of the normal V(D)J recombination process. But the breakage on chromosome 18, at the Bcl-2 gene, occurs within a confined 150-base-pair region (the major breakpoint region or Mbr) for reasons that have remained enigmatic. We have reproduced key features of the translocation process on an episome that propagates in human cells. The RAG complex--which is the normal enzyme for DNA cleavage at V, D or J segments--nicks the Bcl-2 Mbr in vitro and in vivo in a manner that reflects the pattern of the chromosomal translocations; however, the Mbr is not a V(D)J recombination signal. Rather the Bcl-2 Mbr assumes a non-B-form DNA structure within the chromosomes of human cells at 20-30% of alleles. Purified DNA assuming this structure contains stable regions of single-strandedness, which correspond well to the translocation regions in patients. Hence, a stable non-B-DNA structure in the human genome appears to be the basis for the fragility of the Bcl-2 Mbr, and the RAG complex is able to cleave this structure. PMID:14999286

  10. Demarcation of diapause development by cold and its relation to time-interval activation of TIME-ATPase in eggs of the silkworm, Bombyx mori.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ti, Xiaonan; Tuzuki, Nobuhiko; Tani, Naoki; Morigami, Etsuko; Isobe, Minoru; Kai, Hidenori

    2004-11-01

    We investigated the mode of action of winter cold in the termination of diapause by investigating Time-Interval-Measuring Enzyme (TIME). First, we determined the period of cold required for the completion of diapause development. Synchronously developing egg batches of a pure strain (C108 Bombyx mori silkworm) were used to minimize variations in hatching time. Hatching occurred with only 18 days chilling at 5 degrees C when the incubation at 25 degrees C after the chilling was elongated. The 18-day period was much shorter than we expected; diapause in B. mori is known to terminate completely with about 100 days of chilling. Even in such a short period of chilling, no sporadic hatching occurred. Moreover, we determined that a temperature-insensitive stage, which we called "Neboke", followed the short cold-requiring stage. Thus, the stage of diapause development was demarcated from other stages of diapause. While the length of diapause development was elongated when chilling was delayed after oviposition, the Neboke stage length was invariant. Cold evidently exerts its effect only on diapause development. When TIME was purified from eggs and chilled in test tubes, a transitory burst of its ATPase activity occurred at a time equivalent to shortly before the completion of diapause development; this was an interval-timer activation. The mechanism by which cold activates TIME to measure the time interval may help explain in biochemical terms the insect's adaptation to its seasonal environments. PMID:15607508

  11. A Line Demarcating Greenwich Village

    OpenAIRE

    Chien, Kevin Yang-Cheng

    1997-01-01

    The trail of the artifact is an anonymous line on a tourist map of Manhattan. It delimits the boundary, separates the inner and outer, and occupies space. This occupied space juxtaposing the edge of Greenwich Village is an invisible and a undetermined line in the city. Architecture is the result of thinking of object as act, as transformation, and as invention. The project searches, explores, and makes this line present.

  12. Increased expression of aphidicolin-induced common fragile sites in Tourette syndrome: The key to understand the genetics of comorbid phenotypes?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gericke, G.S.; Simonic, I.; Cloete, E.; Becker, P.J. [Univ. of Pretoria (South Africa)

    1996-02-16

    In a comparison of 80 common aphidicolin-induced fragile sites (FS) between 26 DSM-IV Tourette syndrome (TS) and 24 control individuals, the mean of the summed break frequencies following mild aphidicolin pretreatment was significantly higher in TS individuals than in controls (P < 0.001). Other breakpoints encountered during this study, i.e., random breaks, breaks corresponding to rare FS, and breakpoints recorded by others but not listed as common FS according to the Chromosome Coordinating Meeting were listed as category II breakpoints. By using the most significantly different mean FS breakage figures between TS and control individuals, further stepwise discriminant analysis allowed identification of TS individuals from only a few sites in both the common FS and category II breakpoint groups. Future research needs to focus on confirmation of altered common fragile site expression in association with behavioral variation, whether expression of certain discriminatory sites concurs with specific comorbid disorder expression; the nature of the molecular alterations at these FS and the implications of a genomic instability phenotype for the mapping of a primary TS gene or genes. 45 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  13. Formation of a G-quadruplex at the BCL2 major breakpoint region of the t(14;18) translocation in follicular lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Nambiar, Mridula; Goldsmith, G.; Moorthy, Balaji T.; Lieber, Michael R.; Joshi, Mamata V.; Choudhary, Bibha; Hosur, Ramakrishna V.; Sathees C Raghavan

    2010-01-01

    The t(14;18) translocation in follicular lymphoma is one of the most common chromosomal translocations. Most breaks on chromosome 18 are located at the 3′-UTR of the BCL2 gene and are mainly clustered in the major breakpoint region (MBR). Recently, we found that the BCL2 MBR has a non-B DNA character in genomic DNA. Here, we show that single-stranded DNA modeled from the template strand of the BCL2 MBR, forms secondary structures that migrate faster on native PAGE in the presence of potassium...

  14. P2X2 Receptor Terminal Field Demarcates a "Transition Zone" for Gustatory and Mechanosensory Processing in the Mouse Nucleus Tractus Solitarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breza, Joseph M; Travers, Susan P

    2016-07-01

    Peripheral gustatory neurons express P2X2 purinergic receptors and terminate in the rostral portion of the nucleus tractus solitarius (rNTS), but a relationship between the P2X2 terminal field and taste evoked activity has not been established. Additionally, a portion of somatosensory neurons from the trigeminal nerve, which are devoid of P2X2 expression, also terminate in the lateral rNTS. We hypothesized that P2X2 receptor expression on afferent nerve endings could be used as an anatomical tool for segregating gustatory from mechanosensory responsive regions in the mouse rNTS. C57BL/6 mice were used to record extracellular activity from neurons within the rNTS and the laterally adjacent reticular formation and trigeminal nucleus. Histological reconstruction of electrolytic lesions indicated that gustatory activity coincided with electrode tracks that traversed through P2X2 terminal fields. Gustatory recordings made more rostral in the rNTS had receptive fields located in the anterior oral cavity (AO), whereas gustatory recordings made more caudal in the rNTS had receptive fields located in the posterior oral cavity (PO). Mechanosensory neurons with AO receptive fields were recorded near the lateral border of the P2X2 terminal field and became numerous on electrode tracks made lateral to the P2X2 terminal field. In contrast, mechanosensory responses with PO receptive fields were recorded within the P2X2 terminal field along with gustatory activity and transitioned to mechanosensory only outside the P2X2 terminal field. Collectively, our results indicate that the lateral border of the P2X2 terminal field, demarcates a faithful "transition zone," where AO responses transition from gustatory to mechanosensory. PMID:27131102

  15. Identification of a Novel P190-Derived Breakpoint Peptide Suitable for Peptide Vaccine Therapeutic Approach in Ph+ Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micaela Ippoliti

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Ph+ acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL is a high-risk acute leukemia with poor prognosis, in which the specific t(9;22(q34;q11 translocation results in a chimeric bcr-abl (e1a2 breakpoint and in a 190 KD protein (p190 with constitutive tyrosine kinase activity. The advent of first- and second-generation tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs improved the short-term outcome of Ph+ ALL patients not eligible for allo-SCT; yet disease recurrence is almost inevitable. Peptides derived from p190-breakpoint area are leukemia-specific antigens that may mediate an antitumor response toward p190+ leukemia cells. We identified one peptide named p190-13 able to induce in vitro peptide-specific CD4+ T cell proliferation in Ph+ ALL patients in complete remission during TKIs. Thus this peptide appears a good candidate for developing an immune target vaccine strategy possibly synergizing with TKIs for remission maintenance.

  16. N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) formation potential of amine-based water treatment polymers: Effects of in situ chloramination, breakpoint chlorination, and pre-oxidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sang Hyuck; Padhye, Lokesh P; Wang, Pei; Cho, Min; Kim, Jae-Hong; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2015-01-23

    Recent studies show that cationic amine-based water treatment polymers may be important precursors that contribute to formation of the probable human carcinogen N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) during water treatment and disinfection. To better understand how water treatment parameters affect NDMA formation from the polymers, the effects of in situ chloramination, breakpoint chlorination, and pre-oxidation on the NDMA formation from the polymers were investigated. NDMA formation potential (NDMA-FP) as well as dimethylamine (DMA) residual concentration were measured from poly(epichlorohydrin dimethylamine) (polyamine) and poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (polyDADMAC) solutions upon reactions with oxidants including free chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone, and monochloramine under different treatment conditions. The results supported that dichloramine (NHCl2) formation was the critical factor affecting NDMA formation from the polymers during in situ chloramination. The highest NDMA formation from the polymers occurred near the breakpoint of chlorination. Polymer chain breakdown and transformation of the released DMA and other intermediates were important factors affecting NDMA formation from the polymers in pre-oxidation followed by post-chloramination. Pre-oxidation generally reduced NDMA-FP of the polymers; however, the treatments involving pre-ozonation increased polyDADMAC's NDMA-FP and DMA release. The strategies for reducing NDMA formation from the polymers may include the avoidance of the conditions favorable to NHCl2 formation and the avoidance of polymer exposure to strong oxidants such as ozone. PMID:25112551

  17. Characterization of two ectrodactyly-associated translocation breakpoints separated by 2.5 Mb on chromosome 2q14.1–q14.2

    OpenAIRE

    David, Dezső; Marques, Bárbara; Ferreira, Cristina; Vieira, Paula; Corona-Rivera, Alfredo; Ferreira, José Carlos; Van Bokhoven, Hans

    2009-01-01

    Split hand-split foot malformation or ectrodactyly is a heterogeneous congenital defect of digit formation. The aim of this study is the mapping of the breakpoints and a detailed molecular characterization of the candidate genes for an isolated and syndromic form of ectrodactyly, both associated with de novo apparently balanced chromosome translocations involving the same chromosome 2 band, [t(2;11)(q14.2;q14.2)] and [t(2;4)(q14.1;q35)], respectively. Breakpoints were mapped by fluorescence i...

  18. Evaluation by Data Mining Techniques of Fluconazole Breakpoints Established by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and Comparison with Those of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST)▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuesta, Isabel; Bielza, Concha; Cuenca-Estrella, Manuel; Larrañaga, Pedro; Rodríguez-Tudela, Juan L.

    2010-01-01

    The EUCAST and the CLSI have established different breakpoints for fluconazole and Candida spp. However, the reference methodologies employed to obtain the MICs provide similar results. The aim of this work was to apply supervised classification algorithms to analyze the clinical data used by the CLSI to establish fluconazole breakpoints for Candida infections and to compare these data with the results obtained with the data set used to set up EUCAST fluconazole breakpoints, where the MIC for detecting failures was >4 mg/liter, with a sensitivity of 87%, a false-positive rate of 8%, and an area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of 0.89. Five supervised classifiers (J48 and CART decision trees, the OneR decision rule, the naïve Bayes classifier, and simple logistic regression) were used to analyze the original cohort of patients (Rex's data set), which was used to establish CLSI breakpoints, and a later cohort of candidemia (Clancy's data set), with which CLSI breakpoints were validated. The target variable was the outcome of the infections, and the predictor variable was the MIC or dose/MIC ratio. For Rex's data set, the MIC detecting failures was >8 mg/liter, and for Clancy's data set, the MIC detecting failures was >4 mg/liter, in close agreement with the EUCAST breakpoint (MIC > 4 mg/liter). The sensitivities, false-positive rates, and areas under the ROC curve obtained by means of CART, the algorithm with the best statistical results, were 52%, 18%, and 0.7, respectively, for Rex's data set and 65%, 6%, and 0.72, respectively, for Clancy's data set. In addition, the correlation between outcome and dose/MIC ratio was analyzed for Clancy's data set, where a dose/MIC ratio of >75 was associated with successes, with a sensitivity of 93%, a false-positive rate of 29%, and an area under the ROC curve of 0.83. This dose/MIC ratio of >75 was identical to that found for the cohorts used by EUCAST to establish their breakpoints (a dose/MIC ratio of

  19. Usefulness of Microscan System panels with EUCAST clinical breakpoints to evaluate the antimicrobial susceptibility of ß-lactamase producing- Gram negative isolates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Nucleo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed to evaluate the ability of NBC45, NBC46 and NB40 Microscan (MS panels, updated to 2010 EUCAST breakpoints, to identify at species level and to correctly define the susceptibility to ß-lactams of 61 ß-lactamases (BLs producing Gram-negative isolates. A collection of 73 fully identified strains was analyzed: 21 Klebsiella spp., 17 E. coli, 15 P. mirabilis, 9 A. baumannii (Ab, 7 P. aeruginosa and 4 Enterobacter spp.. 61/73 were BLs and/or carbapenemases producers: 15 were CTX-M-1/-2/-14/-15 positive, and among them two were also VIM-1 positive. Four were TEM-52/-92, 3 PER-1, 2 SHV-12/-18 and 6 CMY-16 producers, while 11 were KPC-2/-3, 9 OXA-51/-58/-23, 8 VIM-1 and 2 IMP-13 positive. One K. oxytoca K-1 iper-producer, 11 non-BL producers/ATCC control strains and a OprD2 porin lacking P. aeruginosa were also included. All isolates were identified by Api-20E and VITEK-2 System and antibiotic susceptibilities were obtained by broth microdilution method. Resistance genes were identified by PCR and sequencing. All 73 isolates were correctly identified and a complete agreement for susceptibility patterns was observed for both ATCC control strains and non-BL clinical isolates. MS failed to detect a BL/Extended-Spectrum-ß-Lactamase (ESâL production in 5/61 cases: any ESßL alert was detected using NBC46 panel for 3/15 CTX-M positive strains and 2 VIM-1/CTX-M-15 producing K. pneumoniae isolates. Intermediate resistance to cefoxitin (MIC 16 mg/L, susceptibility to cefepime (MIC 8 mg/L for ertapenem (ETP, according to previously results. All VIM-1 producers resulted intermediate/resistant to imipenem (IP and meropenem (MP; decreased MIC values were observed in 2/8 cases. Carbapenem MICs >8 mg/L were detected for IP-13 P. aeruginosa producers; 6/9 OXA carbapenemases- producing Ab showed IP MIC >8 mg/L and 3/6 MP MIC >8 mg/L. 3/9 Ab OXA-58/-51 producers, tested using NB40 panel, were intermediate or resistant to doripenem and meropenem

  20. Double-strand break formation by the RAG complex at the bcl-2 major breakpoint region and at other non-B DNA structures in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Sathees C; Swanson, Patrick C; Ma, Yunmei; Lieber, Michael R

    2005-07-01

    The most common chromosomal translocation in cancer, t(14;18) at the 150-bp bcl-2 major breakpoint region (Mbr), occurs in follicular lymphomas. The bcl-2 Mbr assumes a non-B DNA conformation, thus explaining its distinctive fragility. This non-B DNA structure is a target of the RAG complex in vivo, but not because of its primary sequence. Here we report that the RAG complex generates at least two independent nicks that lead to double-strand breaks in vitro, and this requires the non-B DNA structure at the bcl-2 Mbr. A 3-bp mutation is capable of abolishing the non-B structure formation and the double-strand breaks. The observations on the bcl-2 Mbr reflect more general properties of the RAG complex, which can bind and nick at duplex-single-strand transitions of other non-B DNA structures, resulting in double-strand breaks in vitro. Hence, the present study reveals novel insight into a third mechanism of action of RAGs on DNA, besides the standard heptamer/nonamer-mediated cleavage in V(D)J recombination and the in vitro transposase activity. PMID:15988007

  1. CEBPA copy number variations in normal karyotype acute myeloid leukemia: Possible role of breakpoint-associated microhomology and chromatin status in CEBPA mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libura, Marta; Pawełczyk, Marta; Florek, Izabella; Matiakowska, Karolina; Jaźwiec, Bożena; Borg, Katarzyna; Solarska, Iwona; Zawada, Magdalena; Czekalska, Sylwia; Libura, Jolanta; Salamanczuk, Zoriana; Jakóbczyk, Małgorzata; Mucha, Barbara; Duszeńko, Ewa; Soszyńska, Krystyna; Karabin, Karolina; Piątkowska-Jakubas, Beata; Całbecka, Małgorzata; Gajkowska-Kulig, Justyna; Gadomska, Grażyna; Kiełbiński, Marek; Ejduk, Anna; Kata, Dariusz; Grosicki, Sebastian; Kyrcz-Krzemień, Sławomira; Warzocha, Krzysztof; Kuliczkowski, Kazimierz; Skotnicki, Aleksander; Jęrzejczak, Wiesław Wiktor; Haus, Olga

    2015-12-01

    Copy number variations (CNV) in CEBPA locus represent heterogeneous group of mutations accompanying acute myeloid leukemia (AML). The aim of this study was to characterize different CEBPA mutation categories in regard to biological data like age, cytology, CD7, and molecular markers, and identify possible factors affecting their etiology. We report here the incidence of 12.6% of CEBPA mutants in the population of 262 normal karyotype AML (NK-AML) patients. We confirmed that double mutant AMLs presented uniform biological features when compared to single CEBPA mutations and accompanied mostly younger patients. We hypothesized that pathogenesis of distinct CEBPA mutation categories might be influenced by different factors. The detailed sequence analysis revealed frequent breakpoint-associated microhomologies of 2 to 12bp. The analysis of distribution of microhomology motifs along CEBPA gene showed that longer stretches of microhomology at the mutational junctions were relatively rare by chance which suggests their functional role in the CEBPA mutagenesis. Additionally, accurate quantification of CEBPA transcript levels showed that double CEBPA mutations correlated with high-level CEBPA expression, whereas single N-terminal CEBPA mutations were associated with low-level CEBPA expression. This might suggest that high-level CEBPA expression and/or accessibility of CEBPA locus contribute to B-ZIP in-frame duplications. PMID:26460249

  2. Formation of a G-quadruplex at the BCL2 major breakpoint region of the t(14;18) translocation in follicular lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nambiar, Mridula; Goldsmith, G.; Moorthy, Balaji T.; Lieber, Michael R.; Joshi, Mamata V.; Choudhary, Bibha; Hosur, Ramakrishna V.; Raghavan, Sathees C.

    2011-01-01

    The t(14;18) translocation in follicular lymphoma is one of the most common chromosomal translocations. Most breaks on chromosome 18 are located at the 3′-UTR of the BCL2 gene and are mainly clustered in the major breakpoint region (MBR). Recently, we found that the BCL2 MBR has a non-B DNA character in genomic DNA. Here, we show that single-stranded DNA modeled from the template strand of the BCL2 MBR, forms secondary structures that migrate faster on native PAGE in the presence of potassium, due to the formation of intramolecular G-quadruplexes. Circular dichroism shows evidence for a parallel orientation for G-quadruplex structures in the template strand of the BCL2 MBR. Mutagenesis and the DMS modification assay confirm the presence of three guanine tetrads in the structure. 1H nuclear magnetic resonance studies further confirm the formation of an intramolecular G-quadruplex and a representative model has been built based on all of the experimental evidence. We also provide data consistent with the possible formation of a G-quadruplex structure at the BCL2 MBR within mammalian cells. In summary, these important features could contribute to the single-stranded character at the BCL2 MBR, thereby contributing to chromosomal fragility. PMID:20880994

  3. A response to Yu et al. "A forward-backward fragment assembling algorithm for the identification of genomic amplification and deletion breakpoints using high-density single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP array", BMC Bioinformatics 2007, 8: 145

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diaz-Uriarte Ramon

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Yu et al. (BMC Bioinformatics 2007,8: 145+ have recently compared the performance of several methods for the detection of genomic amplification and deletion breakpoints using data from high-density single nucleotide polymorphism arrays. One of the methods compared is our non-homogenous Hidden Markov Model approach. Our approach uses Markov Chain Monte Carlo for inference, but Yu et al. ran the sampler for a severely insufficient number of iterations for a Markov Chain Monte Carlo-based method. Moreover, they did not use the appropriate reference level for the non-altered state. Methods We rerun the analysis in Yu et al. using appropriate settings for both the Markov Chain Monte Carlo iterations and the reference level. Additionally, to show how easy it is to obtain answers to additional specific questions, we have added a new analysis targeted specifically to the detection of breakpoints. Results The reanalysis shows that the performance of our method is comparable to that of the other methods analyzed. In addition, we can provide probabilities of a given spot being a breakpoint, something unique among the methods examined. Conclusion Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods require using a sufficient number of iterations before they can be assumed to yield samples from the distribution of interest. Running our method with too small a number of iterations cannot be representative of its performance. Moreover, our analysis shows how our original approach can be easily adapted to answer specific additional questions (e.g., identify edges.

  4. Identification of subtelomeric genomic imbalances and breakpoint mapping with quantitative PCR in 296 individuals with congenital defects and/or mental retardation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brockmann Knut

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Submicroscopic imbalances in the subtelomeric regions of the chromosomes are considered to play an important role in the aetiology of mental retardation (MR. The aim of the study was to evaluate a quantitative PCR (qPCR protocol established by Boehm et al. (2004 in the clinical routine of subtelomeric testing. Results 296 patients with MR and a normal karyotype (500–550 bands were screened for subtelomeric imbalances by using qPCR combined with SYBR green detection. In total, 17 patients (5.8% with 20 subtelomeric imbalances were identified. Six of the aberrations (2% were classified as causative for the symptoms, because they occurred either de novo in the patients (5 cases or the aberration were be detected in the patient and an equally affected parent (1 case. The extent of the deletions ranged from 1.8 to approximately 10 Mb, duplications were 1.8 to approximately 5 Mb in size. In 6 patients, the copy number variations (CNVs were rated as benign polymorphisms, and the clinical relevance of these CNVs remains unclear in 5 patients (1.7%. Therefore, the overall frequency of clinically relevant imbalances ranges between 2% and 3.7% in our cohort. Conclusion This study illustrates that the qPCR/SYBR green technique represents a rapid and versatile method for the detection of subtelomeric imbalances and the option to map the breakpoint. Thus, this technique is highly suitable for genotype/phenotype studies in patients with MR/developmental delay and/or congenital defects.

  5. Demarcation and Periodization and Periodization of the Qujialing Culture%屈家岭文化的界定与分期

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈文

    2001-01-01

    The Qujialing culture generally recognized in academic circles, actually, contains two complexes of cultural eletemts which did not coexist with each other and were characterized by two combinations of pottery objects different in date. What should be excluded is the complex with the combination of the small ding tripod, curved-bellied cup, ring-foot gui basin, dou stemmed vessel, pot and jar of black pottery ware. The Qujialing is the archaeological culture with grey clay pottery as the main ware and with the double-bellied vessel, pot shaped object, bell-shaped cup, gu-shaped cup, high ring-foot cup, necked jar and painted spindle-whorl as the typical features, and belongs to the late Neolithic Age. Through analyses of many type sites it is known that the culture can be divided into four periods with five stages, with the combined typical pottery objects running through the course of development and showing a clear evolutionary track. It was disbributed chiefly in the Yangtze-Hanshui Plain, expanded to the surrounding zones around the third period, and formed certain local features ind ifferent areas.

  6. Hobo transposons causing chromosomal breakpoints.

    OpenAIRE

    Ladevèze, V; Aulard, S.; Chaminade, N; Périquet, G; Lemeunier, F

    1998-01-01

    Several laboratory surveys have shown that transposable elements (TEs) can cause chromosomal breaks and lead to inversions, as in dysgenic crosses involving P-elements. However, it is not presently clear what causes inversions in natural populations of Drosophila. The only direct molecular studies must be taken as evidence against the involvement of mobile elements. Here, in Drosophila lines transformed with the hobo transposable element, and followed for 100 generations, we show the appearan...

  7. Clustered organization of Krueppel zinc-finger genes at Xp11. 23, flanking a translocation breakpoint at OATL1: A physical map with locus assignments for ZNF21, ZNF41, ZNF81, and ELK1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knight, J.C.; Fletcher, C.D.M. (Soft Tissue Tumour Unit, London (United Kingdom)); Grimaldi, G. (International Institute of Genetics and Biophysics, Naples (Italy)); Thiesen, H.J. (Basel Institute for Immunology (Switzerland)); Bech-Hansen, N.T. (Alberta Children' s Hospital, Calgary (Canada)); Coleman, M.P. (Institute of Molecular Medicine, Oxford (United Kingdom))

    1994-05-01

    The ZNF21, ZNF41, and ZNF81 genes encode Krueppel-type zinc-finger proteins (ZFPs) and have previously been mapped to chromosome Xp. Published data describing the clustering of ZFP genes on human autosomes led to investigation of the organization of ZNF21, ZNF41, and ZNF81 on the X chromosome. Rodent-human hybrid analysis sublocalized all three genes to Xp22.11-p11.23. ZNF21, ZNF41, and ZNF81 were then shown to segregate within a series of YACs (95 to 730 kb) containing known markers at Xp11.23, such that these YACs could be assembled into a contig spanning approximately 1.5 Mb of DNA. Southern analysis of intact YACs and YAC DNAs cut with rare-cutter restriction enzymes enabled establishment of the spatial organization of the ZFP gene cluster, the OATL1 pseudogene, the recurrent t(X;18) chromosome translocation breakpoint in synovial sarcoma, and the previously described cluster of ARAF1, SYN1, TIMP, and PFC genes. The authors have assigned the ETS-related gene ELK1 to a locus tightly linked to the PFC gene; the entire cluster of five genes is contained within a distance of 120 kb. ZNF41 maps to a 440-kb YAC spanning this region, while a more proximal cluster comprising the ZNF21 and ZNF81 gene lies 150 kb distal to the chromosome breakpoint associated with synovial sarcoma. 50 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Demarcation of Security in Authentication Protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahmed, Naveed; Jensen, Christian D.

    2011-01-01

    easier, and enables us to define security goals with a fine granularity. We present one such separation, by introducing the notion of binding sequence as a security primitive. A binding sequence, roughly speaking, is the only required security property of an authentication protocol. All other...... authentication goals, the correctness requirements, can be derived from the binding sequence....

  9. Demarcating misconduct from misinterpretations and mistakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hanne

    2012-01-01

    debated how to define scientific misconduct. Most definitions centered on falsification, fabrication, and plagiarism (the so-called FFP definition), but suggestions were also made for definitions that were broader and more open-ended, such as the 1995 suggestion from the US Commission of Research...

  10. Falsification and Demarcation in Astronomy and Cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sovacool, Benjamin

    2005-01-01

    This work inaugurates a critical inquiry into whether the ideas of Karl Popper, a philosopher of science, are used by astronomers and astrophysicists, a practicing community of scientists. It examines four basic components of Karl Popper's philosophy falsification, prohibition, simplicity, and risk taking and the extent that these themes become…

  11. Planning model for the expansion of the electrical generation system with risk demarcation criteria; Modelo para la planificacion de la expansion del sistema electrico de generacion con criterios de acotamiento de riesgo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Galicia, Julio Alberto; Nieva Gomez, Rolando [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico)

    2009-07-01

    The general characteristics of a planning model for the electrical generation system expansion with risk demarcation criteria, as well as the main results of a representative study case of the Mexican Electrical System is presented. The model is based on a methodology of multiannual optimization for the generation expansion plans determination. In this context, every expansion plan defines the technology type to be installed, as well as the installation year, unit size and its location within a regional electric network. For this purpose, the model considers an interregional representation of the system identifying the necessary reinforcements to the capacity of the interregional connections. It also incorporates a Demarcation of Risk module that considers the uncertainty of the future scenarios of fuels prices to generate a set of expansion plans, among which includes the following: a) For every future of the fuel prices: the plan that diminishes the present value of the total cost (investment plus production). b) The plan that diminishes the economic risk derived from the uncertainty in the future of the fuel prices. c) A subgroup of expansion plans that are located in the efficient borders of decision, under the context of three criteria of interest: the economic risk, the investment cost of and the total cost in the future considered of greater relevance. [Spanish] Se presentan las caracteristicas generales de un modelo de planificacion de la expansion del sistema electrico de generacion con criterios de acotamiento de riesgo, asi como los principales resultados de un caso de estudio representativo del Sistema Electrico Mexicano. El modelo se basa en una metodologia de optimacion multi-anual para la determinacion de planes de expansion de la generacion. En este contexto, cada plan de expansion define el tipo de tecnologia que debera instalarse, asi como el ano de instalacion, el tamano de la unidad y su localizacion dentro de una red electrica regional. Para

  12. The Development of Demarcation and Connotation of Hybridity in Postcolonial Cultural Context%“混杂性”概念在后殖民文化语境中的植入及内涵衍变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗颖

    2013-01-01

    “混杂性”是当今文化理论研究的热点,是后殖民主义理论的关键词。混杂性本为生物学术语,在十九世纪殖民种族主义话语中,沾染了负面的种族与文化内涵。法农等反殖民族知识分子批判了种族主义的混杂观。至二十世纪八、九十年代,混杂性的内涵得到了进一步的发展。萨义德强调了文化混杂性的普遍存在,驳斥了帝国主义与民族主义的文化本质主义与文化纯粹观。霍米•巴巴从语言与文化层面论述了混杂性的颠覆力与能动性,建构了混杂性理论体系。“混杂性”概念在后殖民文化语境中的植入与内涵衍变,反映出不同的意识形态理念。%Hybridity is a hotspot in current culture studies as well as a key term in postcolonialism. Hybridity is a biological term in origin. It is contaminated with negative racial and cultural connotation in the nineteenth century colonial racist discourse. Fanon and other anti-colonial intellectuals criticize the racial connotation of hybridity. In 1980s and 1990s, there is further connotative development of hybridity. Said emphasizes permeating existence of cultural hybridity to refute imperialist and nationalist concept of cultural purity and essentialism. Homi Bhabha explores the subversive and initiative nature of hybridity from language and cultural perspectives and constructs the theory of hybridity. Analyzes the development of demarcation and connotation of hybridity in postcolonial cultural context from historical dimension associating with different ideologies, which shows that hybridity should be studied dialectically and context-specifically.

  13. Contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The term 'Contaminated sites' refers to soil and groundwater contamination caused by local sources such as landfills or industrial sites. As of July 2002, there were in Austria 2,372 sites registered as potentially contaminated sites, from them: 165 sites required remediation, for 55 sites non remedial measures were necessary and to date 65 sites were remediated with a cost of 700,000 M Euro. An overview about funding of remedial measures, estimation of the extent of the problem (remediation requirements, chlorinated hydrocarbons accidents), deficits (lack of legal harmonization, slow implementation of remedial measures, etc.) is presented. Table 1. (nevyjel)

  14. Privacy in Online Social Networking Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Ida Evones

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available There are more than 192 act ive social networking websites. Bringing every kind of social group together in one place and letting them interact is really a big thing indeed .Huge amount of information process in the sites each day, end up making it vulnerable to attack. There is no systematic framework taking into account the importance of privacy. Increased privacy settings don’t always guarantee privacy when there is a loop hole in the applications. Lack of user education results is over sharing. Privacy settings to limit access to some data are available, but these settings are never the default. Only a tiny minority make use of these. Online social network does not provide any demarcation line between private and public information. The personal informat ion shared in online social networks can harm the user in often unexpected ways. Private data is available in plenty. The major privacy problems are due to complicated privacy model, implementation errors and economic pressure. Until recently, not much work was done in this area. The recent papers, which I have collected is a Testimony to state that lot of work needs to be done in this area.

  15. Privacy in Online Social Networking Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Ida Evones

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available There are more than 192 active social networking websites. Bringing every kind of social group together in one place and letting them interact is really a big thing indeed .Huge amount of information process in the sites each day, end up making it vulnerable to attack. There is no systematic framework taking into account the importance of privacy. Increased privacy settings don’t always guarantee privacy when there is a loop hole in the applications. Lack of user education results is over sharing. Privacy settings to limit access to some data are available, but these settings are never the default. Only a tiny minority make use of these. Online social network does not provide any demarcation line between private and public information. The personal information shared in online social networks can harm the user in often unexpected ways. Private data is available in plenty. The major privacy problems are due to complicated privacy model, implementation errors and economic pressure. Until recently, not much work was done in this area. The recent papers, which I have collected is a Testimony to state that lot of work needs to be done in this area.

  16. Site organization and site arrangement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper deals with criteria for the choice of a production unit or power plant site, the organization and development of a site in terms of its particular characteristics and takes into account personnel considerations in site organizations as well as the problem of integrating the architecture into the environment. (RW)

  17. Site operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter is a discussion of the management and operations practices used at the Barnwell Waste Management Facility in Barnwell, SC. The following topics are discussed: (1) Waste receiving and inspection, including manifest and certificates of compliance, radiological surveys, disposition of nonconforming items, and decontamination and disposition of secondary waste streams; (2) Waste disposal, including Title 10 CFR 61 requirements, disposal area evaluations, shipment offloading, container emplacement, and radiation protection; (3) Trench closure, including trench backfilling, trench capping, and permanent markers; (4) Site maintenance and stabilization, including trench maintenance, surface water management, and site closure activities; (5) Site monitoring programs, including operational monitoring, and environmental monitoring program; (6) Personnel training and qualifications, including basic training program, safety training program, special skills training, and physical qualifications; (7) Records management, including waste records, personnel training records, personnel dosimetry records, site monitoring records, trench qualification and construction records, and site drawings and stabilization records; (8) Site security; (9) Emergency response plans; and (10) Quality assurance

  18. Site investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For the construction of nuclear power stations, comprehensive site investigations are required to assure the adequacy and suitability of the site under consideration. The site investigations cover mainly the following matters: 1) hydrology; 2) geology; 3) seismology; 4) meteorology. Site investigations for nuclear power stations are carried out in stages in increasing detail and to an appreciable depth in order to assure the soundness of the project, and, in particular, to determine all measures required to assure the safety of the nuclear power station and the protection of the population against radiation exposure. (orig./RW)

  19. Site assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vesth, Allan; Gómez Arranz, Paula

    This report describes the site assessment of given position in a given site, for a wind turbine with a well-defined hub height and rotor diameter. The analysis is carried out in accordance to IEC 61400-12-1 [1], and both an obstacle assessment and a terrain assessment are performed....

  20. High-resolution mapping of the [gamma]-aminobutyric acid receptor subunit [beta]3 and [alpha]5 gene cluster on chromosome 15q11-q13, and localization of breakpoints in two Angelman syndrome patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinnett, D.; Wagstaff, J.; Woolf, E. (Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States) Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States)); Glatt, K. (Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)); Kirkness, E.J. (National Inst. of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, Rockville, MD (United States))Lalande, M. (Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (United States) Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA (United States) Howard Hughes Medical Inst., Boston, MA (United States))

    1993-06-01

    The [gamma]-aminobutyric acid (GABA[sub A]) receptors are a family of ligand-gated chloride channels constituting the major inhibitory neurotransmitter receptors in the nervous system. In order to determine the genomic organization of the GABA[sub A] receptor [beta]3 subunit gene (GABRB3) and [alpha]5 subunit gene (GABRA5) in chromosome 15q11-q13, the authors have constructed a high-resolution physical map using the combined techniques of field-inversion gel electrophoresis and phage genomic library screening. This map, which covers nearly 1.0 Mb, shows that GABRB3 and GABRA5 are separated by less than 100 kb and are arranged in a head-to-head configuration. GABRB3 encompasses approximately 250 kb, while GABRA5 is contained within 70 kb. This difference in size is due in large part to an intron of 150 kb within GABRB3. The authors have also identified seven putative CpG islands within a 600-kb interval. Chromosomal rearrangement breakpoints -- in one Angelman syndrome (AS) patient with an unbalanced translocation and in another patient with a submicroscopic deletion -- are located within the large GABRB3 intron. These findings will facilitate chromosomal walking strategies for cloning the regions disrupted by the DNA rearrangements in these AS patients and will be valuable for mapping new genes to the AS chromosomal region. 64 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conditions and criteria for selecting a site for a nuclear weapons test at the Nevada Test Site are summarized. Factors considered are: (1) scheduling of drill rigs, (2) scheduling of site preparation (dirt work, auger hole, surface casing, cementing), (3) schedule of event (when are drill hole data needed), (4) depth range of proposed W.P., (5) geologic structure (faults, Pz contact, etc.), (6) stratigraphy (alluvium, location of Grouse Canyon Tuff, etc.), (7) material properties (particularly montmorillonite and CO2 content), (8) water table depth, (9) potential drilling problems (caving), (10) adjacent collapse craters and chimneys, (11) adjacent expended but uncollapsed sites, (12) adjacent post-shot or other small diameter holes, (13) adjacent stockpile emplacement holes, (14) adjacent planned events (including LANL), (15) projected needs of Test Program for various DOB's and operational separations, and (16) optimal use of NTS real estate

  2. Demarkacija i obeležavanje V graničnog odseka državne granice između Srbije i Crne Gore i Republike Makedonije / Demarcation and denoting of the 5th section of the border between Serbia and Montenegro and Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Prodanović

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available U ovom radu govori se o demarkaciji i obeležavanju V graničnog odseka državne granice između Srbije i Crne Gore i Republike Makedonije. Posebno je naglašen tehnički deo, odnosno izvršenje terenskih geodetskih radova čiji su nosioci, sa srpskocrnogorske strane, bili pripadnici Vojnogeografskog instituta. / The topic of this text is demarcation and denoting of the 5 section of the border between Serbia and Montenegro and Republic of Macedonia (especially geodetic survey indispensable for these labors, -which members Joint Working Group of Serbia and Montenegro from Military Geographic Institute carried out.

  3. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2001-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations.

  4. Site Construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Eric C.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a guide to planning and building a Web site, with an emphasis on setting up a Web server. Discussion includes hiring a consultant, contracts and payment, assembly of teams, training, development of a business plan, registration of domain name, purchase of hardware and software, local area networks, and types of Internet connection. (JKP)

  5. Site Restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of the Site Restoration Department of SCK-CEN in 2000 are summarised. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and activities related to the management of decommissioning projects. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations

  6. 75 FR 61174 - Warner Valley Comprehensive Site Plan, Final Environmental Impact Statement, Lassen Volcanic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... are contributing features). They transformed overnight accommodations from tent camping near hot... character. Lack of clearly demarcated parking affects natural resources by allowing car traffic to...

  7. International workshop on site investigation and evaluation based on the siting process in Sweden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the site-specific conditions for the three sites of interest. Most groups agreed that core drilling at a location within what is presumed to be a 'block of good rock' should be started as soon as possible. However, to be meaningful it is first necessary to formulate a preliminary structural model of the site such that the results of the bore hole investigations can be properly evaluated. The suite of investigation methods available to SKB and included in the SKB programme was discussed. The working groups only identified a few more site characterisation methods worth considering. Particular consideration was recommended for 3D seismic surveying and long directional drilling. Most groups pointed out the need for SKB to establish sufficient structure, in terms of decision-making and project management organisation, to enable prioritisation of programme objectives, clear demarcation of programme responsibilities and the positive identification of intermediate programme goals. Several groups suggested quite similar organisations with different teams at each site but combined with a rather strong central evaluation function. The need for integrating Safety Assessment, Design and Site Investigation was stressed. SKB is presently in the process of changing the organisation to meet the demands of site characterisation work. Finally, the timing was excellent for having our reports reviewed by a group of international experts and to get comments and proposals at different levels. The summary of the workshop as presented in this report will be essential for the continued planning work

  8. Heritage sites

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Drdácký, Tomáš

    Prague : Institute of theoretical and applied mechanics AS CR, v.v.i, 2011 - (Drdácký, M.; Binda, L.; Hennen, I.; Kőpp, C.; Lanza, L.), s. 138-141 ISBN 978-80-86246-37-6 Grant ostatní: evropská komise(XE) CHEF-SSPI-044251 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20710524 Keywords : flood * heritage sites * cultural heritage Subject RIV: AL - Art, Architecture, Cultural Heritage

  9. Site Restoration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of SCK-CEN's Site Restoration Department for 2001 are described. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and the management of spent fuel and the flow of dismantled materials and the recycling of materials from decommissioning activities based on the smelting of metallic materials in specialised foundries. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations and performs R and D on new techniques including processes for the treatment of various waste components including the reprocessing of spent fuel, the treatment of tritium, the treatment of liquid alkali metals into cabonates through oxidation, the treatment of radioactive organic waste and the reconditioning of bituminised waste products

  10. Site Restoration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noynaert, L.; Bruggeman, A.; Cornelissen, R.; Massaut, V.; Rahier, A

    2002-04-01

    The objectives, the programme, and the achievements of SCK-CEN's Site Restoration Department for 2001 are described. Main activities include the decommissioning of the BR3 PWR-reactor as well as other clean-up activities, projects on waste minimisation and the management of spent fuel and the flow of dismantled materials and the recycling of materials from decommissioning activities based on the smelting of metallic materials in specialised foundries. The department provides consultancy and services to external organisations and performs R and D on new techniques including processes for the treatment of various waste components including the reprocessing of spent fuel, the treatment of tritium, the treatment of liquid alkali metals into cabonates through oxidation, the treatment of radioactive organic waste and the reconditioning of bituminised waste products.

  11. Mochovce site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Mochovce site the construction of four units of WWER 440 NPP with V-213 type of reactor is being carried out. The financing of Mochovce units completion was resolved in April 1996. The completion work commenced at the construction site under leadership of SKODA Prague, the general supplier. The completion work on building part and tests of constructional electric distributions and lightning constructors started. The revisions in technological part were finished, and final protocols from revisions are the basis for starting of completion work. The assembly of transport container anchorage,ventilation system in hermetic areas and hermetic coverage of pools for stored spent nuclear fuel is being carried out. The pre-completion tests of instrumentation and control of ventilation systems, individual dosimetric control in medical station, and tests of nuclear programme according to commissioning and assembling work schedule at the equipment for physical protection of the NPP area started. Inspection activities at Mochovce were performed in accordance with inspection plan for 1996. Evaluation of routine inspections was performed by means of quarterly protocols. Main findings from the inspections performed in Mochovce were in the following areas: (a) deficiencies in the knowledge of the respective regulation and conditions from the Resolution of the state regulatory body, concerning selected employees; (b) training of the selected employees; (c) aim of the measures imposes by inspectors is to eliminate deficiencies in preparation of programmes for pre-completion and completion testing. NRA SR assessment activities at Mochovce NPP were focused mainly on approving and inspecting of design modification to approving programmes for pre-completion and completion testing of system s and equipment and on approving quality assurance programmes. The suggestions of international missions, which reviewed Mochovce safety in the years, were taken into consideration in the programme

  12. Region 9 NPL Sites (Superfund Sites 2013)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NPL site POINT locations for the US EPA Region 9. NPL (National Priorities List) sites are hazardous waste sites that are eligible for extensive long-term cleanup...

  13. Region 9 NPL Sites (Superfund Sites) Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NPL site POLYGON locations for the US EPA Region 9. NPL (National Priorities List) sites are hazardous waste sites that are eligible for extensive long-term cleanup...

  14. Region 9 NPL Sites (Superfund Sites)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NPL site POINT locations for the US EPA Region 9. NPL (National Priorities List) sites are hazardous waste sites that are eligible for extensive long-term cleanup...

  15. Contaminated Sites in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Sites contaminated by hazardous materials or wastes. These sites are those administered by the Contaminated Sites Section of Iowa DNR. Many are sites which are...

  16. Expression and identification of folate-sensitive fragile sites in British Suffolk sheep (Ovis aries)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ahmad Ali; Muhammad Abdullah; Masroor Ellahi Babar; Khalid Javed; Asif Nadeem

    2008-12-01

    An investigation to understand the dynamics and biological significance of fragile site expression, and identification of 5-fluorodeoxyuridine (FUdR) induced chromosomal gaps/breaks, were carried out in an experimental flock of 45 Suffolk sheep. The statistical comparison revealed, highly significant variation in the frequency of chromosomal fragile site expression between control and FUdR cultures. Mean (± S.D.) values for cells with gaps and breaks, or aberrant cell count (AC), and the number of aberrations (NoA) per animal were 2.02 ± 0.34, 2.42 ± 0.48, 13.26 ± 0.85 and 21.87 ± 1.88 ($P \\lt 0.01$) in control and FUdR cultures, respectively. The comparison of age revealed nonsignificant variation between control and FUdR cultures. The G-band analysis of fragile site data revealed gaps in 29 autosomal and two X-chromosomal bands in the control cultures, whereas FUdR treated cultures scored 78 unstable bands in autosomes of which 56 were significantly fragile. X-chromosomes expressed breaks and gaps in six G-negative bands and five of them (Xq13, Xq15, Xq17, Xq24 and Xq26) were significantly fragile. The distribution comparison of autosomal fragile sites between sex groups did not reveal any significant variation. Female X-chromosomes were significantly more fragile than the male X-chromosomes. The distribution comparison for age groups (lambs versus adults) revealed significantly higher number of fragile bands in adults. Comparison of published data on reciprocal translocations in sheep with the fragile-site data obtained in this study indicated that the break sites of both phenomena were correlated. Similarities were also found between fragile sites and breakpoints of evolutionary significance in family Bovidae.

  17. ANALYTICAL ANARCHISM: THE PROBLEM OF DEFINITION AND DEMARCATION

    OpenAIRE

    Konstantinov M.S.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the first time in the science of our country is considered a new trend of anarchist thought - analytical anarchism. As a methodological tool used critical analysis of the key propositions of the basic versions of this trend: the anarcho- capitalist and egalitarian. The study was proposed classification of discernible trends within the analytical anarchism on the basis of value criteria, identified conceptual and methodological problems of definition analytical anarchism and its ...

  18. Demarcation of coastal vulnerability line along the Indian coast

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ajai; Baba, M.; Unnikrishnan, A.S.; Rajawat, A.S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Ratheesh, R.; Kurian, N.P.; Hameed, S.; Sundar, D.

    height could be estimated for following two scenarios: i) In the first scenario flood heights are considered only for the projected sea level rise for next 25, 50 and 100 years coupled with highest high tide levels. ii) In the second scenario flood... then appended. Transect-wise analyses of the distance between shorelines of two or more years have been carried out. Finally, transect-wise annual rates have been calculated and future projection of shoreline (i.e. shoreline position for the next 25, 50...

  19. Demarcating Territory: Historical Markers in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Bardet, Pascal

    2013-01-01

    Les bornes historiques ont fait leur apparition aux Etats-Unis à partir des années 30 et participent à leur manière aux mécanismes symboliques d’appropriation territoriale, au même titre que l’onomastique, la toponymie et l’anthroponymie. La nomination et l’inscription spatiales d’un lieu lui donnent vie et lui confèrent une charge symbolique importante, au-delà de la simple référence historique. Le marquage du territoire, inscription autant symbolique que linguistique, passe donc par une “mi...

  20. Cultural Demarcation of Hausa Song and Poetry Tradition

    OpenAIRE

    Taesang Jang

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this article is to discuss the ethnic criteria for the classification of the Hausa literary genres of song and poetry. In terms of texts, no remarkable difference is noticed between song and poetry. In fact, Hausa has a single term, wak'a (plural wak'ok'i) for both types of literary expression. All wak'ok'i share certain things in common such as sung oral presentation (not spoken recitation) and strict metrical (or rhythmic) patterns. Nevertheless, one can draw a distinction betwee...

  1. 基于扩展断裂点模型的农村居民点整理布局优化%Layout optimization for rural settlements consolidation based on extended break-point model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯电军; 沈陈华

    2014-01-01

    applying AHP, and the value of RSPCI for each rural settlement patch was calculated by applying unit score weighting. Then, the rural settlement patches and identified optimization strategies were classified according to Jenks natural breaks classification method. Finally, spatial impact range of core at village level based on extended break-point model of weighted Voronoi diagram and the direction of migration of rural settlements were determined in order to optimize the spatial pattern of rural settlements. The results showed that the indicator systems of RSPCI in Zhulin town included four factors:location, residential settlement, natural resources and economics. The weight for each of them was 0.11, 0.31, 0.28 and 0.30 respectively. The rural settlements were divided into four levels based on value of RSPCI including central village, core village, natural village and scattered village levels. The hierarchical structures for different levels of rural settlement were obvious in terms of size and the number. Four kinds of optimization strategies including priority development, restrictive development, combined migration and retention policies should be used to optimize spatial pattern and layout of rural settlement. Among 466 rural settlement patches in the town, 28 were given with full priority to develop, 193 were given with limited priority to develop, 244 were combined and migrated, and 1 was reserved. The migration direction of 244 patches was given by extended break point model of weighted Voronoi diagram. Therefore, rural settlement patches for different levels showed different influences on scope. As a result, different spatial layout optimization strategies should be employed for different rural settlement patches. In order to maintain a stable structure for residential settlement patches, rural settlement patches with low comprehensive influence should be migrated to those with high comprehensive influence during rural settlement consolidation. The results above

  2. Nuclear installations sites safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report is divided into ten parts bearing: 1 Safety analysis procedures for Basis Nuclear Installations sites (BNI) in France 2 Site safety for BNI in France 3 Industrial and transport activities risks for BNI in France 4 Demographic characteristics near BNI sites in France 5 Meteorologic characteristics of BNI sites in France 6 Geological aspects near the BNI sites in France 7 Seismic studies for BNI sites in France 8 Hydrogeological aspects near BNI sites in France 9 Hydrological aspects near BNI sites in France 10 Ecological and radioecological studies of BNI sites in France

  3. Hanford Site Development Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinne, C.A.; Curry, R.H.; Hagan, J.W.; Seiler, S.W.; Sommer, D.J. (Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (USA)); Yancey, E.F. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (USA))

    1990-01-01

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs.

  4. Hanford Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (Site Development Plan) is intended to guide the short- and long-range development and use of the Hanford Site. All acquisition, development, and permanent facility use at the Hanford Site will conform to the approved plan. The Site Development Plan also serves as the base document for all subsequent studies that involve use of facilities at the Site. This revision is an update of a previous plan. The executive summary presents the highlights of the five major topics covered in the Site Development Plan: general site information, existing conditions, planning analysis, Master Plan, and Five-Year Plan. 56 refs., 67 figs., 31 tabs

  5. Superfund Site Information - Site Sampling Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes Superfund site-specific sampling information including location of samples, types of samples, and analytical chemistry characteristics of...

  6. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund) - NPL Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — National Priorities List (NPL) Sites - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access...

  7. Site specific information in site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The programme for the siting of a deep repository for final disposal of spent nuclear fuel was started already in 1983 and is carried out today by Posiva Oy which continues the work started by Teollisuuden Voima Oy. The programme aims at site selection by the end of the year 2000. The programme has progressed in successive interim stages with defined goals. After an early phase for site identification, five sites were selected in 1987 for preliminary site characterisation. Three of these were selected and judged to be best suited for the more detailed characterisation in 1992. An additional new site was included into the programme based on a separate feasibility study in the beginning of 1997. Since the year 1983 several safety assessments together with technical plans of the facility have been completed. When approaching the site selection the needs for more detailed consideration of the site specific properties in the safety assessment have been increased. The Finnish regulator STUK has published a proposal for general safety requirements for the final disposal of spent nuclear fuel in Finland. This set of requirements has been projected to be used in conjunction of the decision making by the end 2000. Based on the site evaluation all sites can provide a stable environment and there is evidence that the requirements for the longevity of the canister can be fulfilled at each site. In this manner the four candidate sites do not differ too much from each other. The main difference between the sites is in the salinity of the deep groundwater. The significance of differences in the salinity for the long-term safety cannot be defined yet. The differences may contribute to the discussion of the longevity of the bentonite buffer and also to the modelling of the groundwater flow and transport. The use of the geosphere as a transport barrier is basically culminated on the questions about sparse but fast flow routes and 'how bad channeling can be'. To answer these questions

  8. Studies on the use of SIR-C and X-SAR data for identification, demarcation, and assessment of forest ecosystems. Final report; Untersuchungen zum Einsatz von SIR-C und X-SAR Daten fuer die Identifizierung, Abgrenzung und Beurteilung von Waldoekosystemen. Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johlige, A.; Foerster, B.; Ammer, U.

    1997-12-31

    The purpose of the present evaluation was to use SIR-C and X-SAR data for forest surveying and assess their suitability for this task. Amongst other work this included the discrimination of forest and non-forest, demarcation of cleared areas within forests, discrimination of different forest types, and assessment of the influence of foliation. The chief steps of the study were the preparation of radar data, accompanying aerial photo evaluation for the extraction of training and verification areas, and detailed signature analysis. Evaluation trials in ``Oberpfaffenhofen`` supertest area yielded unsatisfactory results when it came to discriminating different forest ecosystems. This can be attributed to the very heterogeneous and small-scale structure of the area and the absence of topographically coded X, C, and L band data. In the second study area, located in the ``Bavarian Forest National Park``, geocoded data of all three bands were available in the form of combined products. This permitted using the mask of the local angles of incidence to reduce the influence of relief. In this case distinguishability within wooded regions was also enhanced. A general finding was that ground resolution as it presents to the user is clearly poorer than the nominal resolution. What impressed us most was the high degree of weather-independence of the radar data. All data handled in this study were recorded under conditions that would have made photography impossible. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel der Auswertung ist es SIR-C/X-SAR Daten fuer die Waldbeobachtung einzusetzen und ihre Eignung dafuer zu bewerten. Zu loesende Teilaufgaben waren u.a. die Wald-Nichtwaldtrennung, die Abtrennung unbestockter Flaechen im Wald, Unterscheidung verschiedener Waldtypen selbst und die Beurteilung des Einflusses des Belaubungszustndes. Die zentralen Arbeitsschritte waren die Aufbereitung der Radardaten, die begleitende Luftbildauswertung zur Extraktion von Trainings- und Verifizierungsgebieten und die

  9. Drupal 7 Multilingual Sites

    CERN Document Server

    Pol, Kristen

    2012-01-01

    A practical book with plenty of screenshots to guide you through the many features of multilingual Drupal. A demo ecommerce site is provided if you want to practice on a sample site, although you can apply the techniques learnt in the book directly to your site too. Any Drupal users who know the basics of building a Drupal site and are familiar with the Drupal UI, will benefit from this book. No previous knowledge of localization or internationalization is required.

  10. Olkiluoto site description 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-12-15

    This fourth version of the Olkiluoto Site Report, produced by the OMTF (Olkiluoto Modelling Task Force), updates the Olkiluoto Site Report 2008 with the data and knowledge obtained up to December 2010. A descriptive model of the site (the Site Descriptive Model, SDM), i.e. a model describing the geological and hydrogeological structure of the site, properties of the bedrock and the groundwater and its flow, and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms. The SDM is divided into six parts: surface system, geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and transport properties.

  11. Site Environmental Report, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    The Site Environmental Report (SER) is prepared annually in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, ``General Environmental Protection Program.`` This 1993 SER provides the general public as well as scientists and engineers with the results from the site`s ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included in this report is information concerning the site`s progress toward achieving full compliance with requirements set forth by DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA). For some readers, the highlights provided in the Executive Summary may provide sufficient information. Many readers, however, may wish to read more detailed descriptions of the information than those which are presented here.

  12. Olkiluoto site description 2011

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This fourth version of the Olkiluoto Site Report, produced by the OMTF (Olkiluoto Modelling Task Force), updates the Olkiluoto Site Report 2008 with the data and knowledge obtained up to December 2010. A descriptive model of the site (the Site Descriptive Model, SDM), i.e. a model describing the geological and hydrogeological structure of the site, properties of the bedrock and the groundwater and its flow, and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms. The SDM is divided into six parts: surface system, geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry and transport properties

  13. Soil site response

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The response of stiff quaternary soil sites to strong earthquake shaking is an important factor in the development of seismic siting criteria for nuclear power plants. Analytical methods for estimating this site response are in common use, but there is need for empirical verification of these modeling techniques. There are two dense 3-D strong motion arrays installed and operating in California to directly measure the response of stiff quaternary soil to earthquake shaking. These are the Hollister Earthquake Observatory and the Borrego Valley Downhole Arrays. Site response measurements from these arrays, along with detailed geotechnical and geophysical site investigations, will provide important calibration and confirmation of site response modeling techniques used for seismic siting criteria development. This paper presents an overview of the two arrays and initial results of the measurements. (orig.)

  14. Hanford Site Development Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site Development Plan (HSDP) provides an overview of land use, infrastructure, and facility requirements to support US Department of Energy (DOE) programs at the Hanford Site. The HSDP's primary purpose is to inform senior managers and interested parties of development activities and issues that require a commitment of resources to support the Hanford Site. The HSDP provides a land use plan for the Hanford Site and presents a picture of what is currently known and anticipated in accordance with DOE Order 4320.1B. Site Development Planning. The HSDP wig be updated annually as future decisions further shape the mission and overall site development process. Further details about Hanford Site development are defined in individual area development plans

  15. Site characterization plan:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in acordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for a repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and eveloping a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing prinicples, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed. 880 refs., 130 figs., 25 tabs

  16. Site characterization plan:

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Yucca Mountain site in Nevada is one of three candidate sites for the first geologic repository for radioactive waste. On May 28, 1986, it was recommended for detailed study in a program of site characterization. This site characterization plan (SCP) has been prepared in accordance with the requirements of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act to summarize the information collected to date about the geologic conditions at the site;to describe the conceptual designs for the repository and the waste package;and to present the plans for obtaining the geologic information necessary to demonstrate the suitability of the site for repository, to design the repository and the waste package, to prepare an environmental impact statement, and to obtain from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) an authorization to construct the repository. This introduction begins with a brief section on the process for siting and developing a repository, followed by a discussion of the pertinent legislation and regulations. A description of site characterization is presented next;it describes the facilities to be constructed for the site characterization program and explains the principal activities to be conducted during the program. Finally, the purpose, content, organizing principles, and organization of this site characterization plan are outlined, and compliance with applicable regulations is discussed

  17. 2010年CLSI头孢菌素折点改变对产ESBLs奇异变形杆菌药物敏感性结果评估和分析%Evaluation and analysis of the suscepbility interpretation on ESBL-producing Proteus mirabilis according to the changes of cephalosporin breakpoints in CLSI 2010

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶胜来; 熊自忠

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the influences of susceptibility interpretation and distribution of extended-spectrum (3-lactamases (ESBLs) producers in Proteus mirabilis according to CLSI 2009 (S19) and 2010 (S20) breakpoints of ceftazi-dime (CAZ) , cefotaxime (CTX) and cefazolin (CFZ). Method ESBLs producers were confirmed by the CLSI phenotypic confirmatory test in 33 clinical isolates of Proteus mirabilis and antimicrobial susceptibility of these isolates were tested by agar dilution method. Antibacterial susceptibility of ESBLs-positive and ESBLs-negative isolates and the distribution of ESBLs producers of the resistant isolates were analyzed according to the breakpoints of S19 and S20. Result ESBLs producers were detected in 18.2% (6/33) of Proteus mirabilis. In ESBLs positive isolates, the resistence rate of CAZ, CTX and CFZ increased from 50. 0% , 50. 0% and 66. 7% under S19 to 66. 7% , 100. 0% and 100. 0% under S20, respectively. The susceptibility rates decreased from 33. 3% , 50. 0% and 0. 0% under S19 to 16. 7% , 0. 0% and 0. 0% under S20, respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the S19 and S20 cephalosporin breakpoints in the distribution of ESBLs producers. Conclusion If use the new CTX and CFZ S20 breakpoints, the concordance of antibacterial susceptibility results and ESBL phenotype will increase greatly. It is no longer necessary to be confirmed by CLSI phenotype confirmatory test. As to CAZ, further evaluation and research is required.%目的 评估2009年CLSI M100-S19及2010年CLSI M100-S20文件中头孢他啶(CAZ)、头孢噻肟(CTX)和头孢唑啉(CFZ)最低抑菌浓度新旧折点变化对产ESBLs奇异变形杆菌药物敏感性试验结果的影响.方法 对临床分离33株奇异变形杆菌进行产ESBLs菌株的确证试验,琼脂稀释法检测最低抑菌浓度(MIC),根据药物敏感性结果分别对产ESBLs奇异变形杆菌和非产ESBLs奇异变形杆菌在S19和S20新旧折点下CAZ、CTX和CFZ三种药物

  18. TOPOGRAPHIC SITE RESPONSE AT HARD ROCK SITES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, A. K.; Hough, S. E.

    2009-12-01

    Site (material impedance) and topographic (geometric form) effects are known to be key factors that influence seismic ground motions. To characterize site effects, Yong et al. (2009) developed a terrain-based Vs30 prediction model using an automated classification method (Iwahashi and Pike, 2007) that relied on taxonomic criteria (slope gradient, local convexity and surface texture) developed from geomorphometry to identify 16 terrain types from a 1-km spatial resolution (SRTM30 data) digital elevation model of California. On the basis that the underlying framework for this model contains parameters (esp., local convexity) which aptly describe the geometry (i.e., base to height ratio) of relief features that are known to also control the behavior of ground motions (Bouchon, 1973), we extend our investigation to study topographic effects. Focusing on sites that would generally be considered “hard rock,” the classification scheme distinguishes 7 separate terrain types ranging from “moderately eroded mountains” to “well dissected alpine summits.” Observed 1-Hz amplification factors at Southern California Seismographic Network sites reveal a weak but systematic correlation with these 7 terrain types. Significant scatter is also found within each terrain type; typical standard deviations of logarithmic amplification factors are 0.2-0.3. Considering stations that have high amplification factors, we find some that have apparently been misclassified due to data resolution limitations. Many of the remaining stations with higher than expected amplifications are located on or near topographic peaks or ridges. The unusually high amplification factors at hard-rock sites, typically factors of 1.5-2, can most plausibly be explained as a topographic effect.

  19. Retroviral Integration Site Selection

    OpenAIRE

    Angela Ciuffi; Sébastien Desfarges

    2010-01-01

    The stable insertion of a copy of their genome into the host cell genome is an essential step of the life cycle of retroviruses. The site of viral DNA integration, mediated by the viral-encoded integrase enzyme, has important consequences for both the virus and the host cell. The analysis of retroviral integration site distribution was facilitated by the availability of the human genome sequence, revealing the non-random feature of integration site selection and identifying different favored ...

  20. Marte Valles site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Jim W.

    1994-01-01

    This site is located at 16 deg N, 177 deg W on the flood plains of Marte Valles, which is perhaps the youngest channel system on Mars. The young age of this channel warrants investigation because of climatic implications for fluvial activities in recent geologic time. The paucity of craters makes this an excellent site in terms of safety requirements. Some of the objectives stated previously for the Maja Valles region would also apply to this site (grab bag of rock types, etc.).

  1. Site environmental report summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this summary of the Fernald 1992 Site Environmental Report the authors will describe the impact of the Fernald site on man and the environment and provide results from the ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included is a summary of the data obtained from sampling conducted to determine if the site complies with DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA) requirements. These requirements are set to protect both man and the environment

  2. ON - SITE MATERIAL MANAGEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Sahil.R.Choure; M.R.Apte

    2015-01-01

    Site material management is a process for controlling field and office activities on construction site related to the materials. The site material management system attempts to insure that the right quality and quantity of materials are appropriately delivered and handled onsite in a timely manner. Planning a nd controlling all of the efforts necessary to ensure that the correct quality and quantity of materials are properly specified in a timely manner and ...

  3. Site environmental programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, J.W.; Hanf, R.W.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the site environmental programs. Effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance programs monitor for impacts from operations in several areas. The first area consists of the point of possible release into the environment. The second area consists of possible contamination adjacent to DOE facilities, and the third area is the general environment both on and off the site.

  4. Nuclear site selection studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is of special importance, especially from the nuclear safety viewpoint, to select suitable sites for different nuclear structures with the considered future activities. Site selection sometimes involves high costs not necessarily for merely selecting of site but for some preliminary measures to be taken so as the site may have the necessary characteristics. The more suitable the natural characteristics of the site for the considered project, the more successful and efficient the project, the lower the project costs and the longer the project operation period. If so, the project will cause the growth of public culture and sustainable socioeconomic development. This paper is the result of the conclusion of numerous massive reports of this activity in the preliminary phase based on theories, practices and the related safety principles on this ground as well as the application of data and information of the past and a glance to the future. The conception of need for a site for medium structures and nuclear research projects and how to perform this process are presented step by step here with a scientific approach to its selection during the investigations. In this study, it is practically described how the site is selected, by determining and defining the characteristics of research and nuclear projects with medium structures and also its fitting to the optimum site. The discovered sites typically involve the best advantages in technical and economic aspects and no particular contrast with the concerned structures

  5. CERCLA site assessment workbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This contains comments for each chapter of exercises (in Vol. 1) which illustrate how to conduct site assessments for CERCLA regulation. A through analysis of the exercises is provided so that work and solutions from Vol 1 can be critiqued and comments are also included on the strategy of site assessment whereas the exercises illustrate the principles involved. Covered exercises include the following: A preliminary assessment of a ground water site; waste characteristics and characterization of sources; documentation of observed releases and actual contamination of targets; the strategy of an SI at a surface water site; the soil exposure pathway; the air pathway

  6. Region 9 Removal Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of CERCLA (Superfund) Removal sites. CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act)...

  7. 1994 Site environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-07-01

    The Fernald site is a Department of Energy (DOE)-owned facility that produced high-quality uranium metals for military defense for nearly 40 years. DOE suspended production at the site in 1989 and formally ended production in 1991. Although production activities have ceased, the site continues to examine the air and liquid pathways as possible routes through which pollutants from past operations and current remedial activities may leave the site. The Site Environmental Report (SER) is prepared annually in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program. This 1994 SER provides the general public as well as scientists and engineers with the results from the site`s ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included in this report is information concerning the site`s progress toward achieving full compliance with requirements set forth by DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA). For some readers, the highlights provided in this Executive Summary may provide sufficient information. Many readers, however, may wish to read more detailed descriptions of the information than those which are presented here. All information presented in this summary is discussed more fully in the main body of this report.

  8. The binding sites for the chromatin insulator protein CTCF map to DNA methylation-free domains genome-wide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Rituparna; Yu, WenQiang; Whitehead, Joanne; Xu, JunWang; Lezcano, Magda; Pack, Svetlana; Kanduri, Chandrasekhar; Kanduri, Meena; Ginjala, Vasudeva; Vostrov, Alexander; Quitschke, Wolfgang; Chernukhin, Igor; Klenova, Elena; Lobanenkov, Victor; Ohlsson, Rolf

    2004-08-01

    All known vertebrate chromatin insulators interact with the highly conserved, multivalent 11-zinc finger nuclear factor CTCF to demarcate expression domains by blocking enhancer or silencer signals in a position-dependent manner. Recent observations document that the properties of CTCF include reading and propagating the epigenetic state of the differentially methylated H19 imprinting control region. To assess whether these findings may reflect a universal role for CTCF targets, we identified more than 200 new CTCF target sites by generating DNA microarrays of clones derived from chromatin-immunopurified (ChIP) DNA followed by ChIP-on-chip hybridization analysis. Target sites include not only known loci involved in multiple cellular functions, such as metabolism, neurogenesis, growth, apoptosis, and signalling, but potentially also heterochromatic sequences. Using a novel insulator trapping assay, we also show that the majority of these targets manifest insulator functions with a continuous distribution of stringency. As these targets are generally DNA methylation-free as determined by antibodies against 5-methylcytidine and a methyl-binding protein (MBD2), a CTCF-based network correlates with genome-wide epigenetic states. PMID:15256511

  9. The Binding Sites for the Chromatin Insulator Protein CTCF Map to DNA Methylation-Free Domains Genome-Wide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukhopadhyay, Rituparna; Yu, WenQiang; Whitehead, Joanne; Xu, JunWang; Lezcano, Magda; Pack, Svetlana; Kanduri, Chandrasekhar; Kanduri, Meena; Ginjala, Vasudeva; Vostrov, Alexander; Quitschke, Wolfgang; Chernukhin, Igor; Klenova, Elena; Lobanenkov, Victor; Ohlsson, Rolf

    2004-01-01

    All known vertebrate chromatin insulators interact with the highly conserved, multivalent 11-zinc finger nuclear factor CTCF to demarcate expression domains by blocking enhancer or silencer signals in a position-dependent manner. Recent observations document that the properties of CTCF include reading and propagating the epigenetic state of the differentially methylated H19 imprinting control region. To assess whether these findings may reflect a universal role for CTCF targets, we identified more than 200 new CTCF target sites by generating DNA microarrays of clones derived from chromatin-immunopurified (ChIP) DNA followed by ChIP-on-chip hybridization analysis. Target sites include not only known loci involved in multiple cellular functions, such as metabolism, neurogenesis, growth, apoptosis, and signalling, but potentially also heterochromatic sequences. Using a novel insulator trapping assay, we also show that the majority of these targets manifest insulator functions with a continuous distribution of stringency. As these targets are generally DNA methylation-free as determined by antibodies against 5-methylcytidine and a methyl-binding protein (MBD2), a CTCF-based network correlates with genome-wide epigenetic states. PMID:15256511

  10. Savannah River Site's Site Specific Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Site Specific Plan (SSP) has been prepared by the Savannah River Site (SRS) in order to show the Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities that were identified during the preparation of the Department of Energy-Headquarters (DOE-HQ) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management Five-Year Plan (FYP) for FY 1992--1996. The SSP has been prepared in accordance with guidance received from DOE-HQ. DOE-SR is accountable to DOE-HQ for the implementation of this plan. The purpose of the SSP is to develop a baseline for policy, budget, and schedules for the DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management activities. The plan explains accomplishments since the Fiscal Year (FY) 1990 plan, demonstrates how present and future activities are prioritized, identifies currently funded activities and activities that are planned to be funded in the upcoming fiscal year, and describes future activities that SRS is considering

  11. Improving Web Site Usability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watts, Chris

    2004-01-01

    Over the last 10 years the Internet has become an essential part of the way companies do business. These days, it is as important to have a Web site as it is to have a phone book listing. Unfortunately, many Web sites are riddled with perplexing navigation and unclear priorities that leave many users confused and frustrated. This article presents…

  12. Site characterization handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-06-01

    This Handbook discusses both management and technical elements that should be considered in developing a comprehensive site characterization program. Management elements typical of any project of a comparable magnitude and complexity are combined with a discussion of strategies specific to site characterization. Information specific to the technical elements involved in site characterization is based on guidance published by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) with respect to licensing requirements for LLW disposal facilities. The objective of this Handbook is to provide a reference for both NRC Agreement States and non-Agreement States for use in developing a comprehensive site characterization program that meets the specific objectives of the State and/or site developer/licensee. Each site characterization program will vary depending on the objectives, licensing requirements, schedules/budgets, physical characteristics of the site, proposed facility design, and the specific concerns raised by government agencies and the public. Therefore, the Handbook is not a prescriptive guide to site characterization. 18 refs., 6 figs.

  13. The site selection process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the most arduous tasks associated with the management of radioactive wastes is the siting of new disposal facilities. Experience has shown that the performance of the disposal facility during and after disposal operations is critically dependent on the characteristics of the site itself. The site selection process consists of defining needs and objectives, identifying geographic regions of interest, screening and selecting candidate sites, collecting data on the candidate sites, and finally selecting the preferred site. Before the site selection procedures can be implemented, however, a formal legal system must be in place that defines broad objectives and, most importantly, clearly establishes responsibilities and accompanying authorities for the decision-making steps in the procedure. Site selection authorities should make every effort to develop trust and credibility with the public, local officials, and the news media. The responsibilities of supporting agencies must also be spelled out. Finally, a stable funding arrangement must be established so that activities such as data collection can proceed without interruption. Several examples, both international and within the US, are given

  14. Site-Specific Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reeh, Henrik; Hemmersam, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Currently, cities across the Northern European region are actively redeveloping their former industrial harbours. Indeed, harbours areas are essential in the long-term transition from industrial to information and experience societies; harbours are becoming sites for new businesses and residences...... question is how innovation may contribute to urban life and site-specific qualities....

  15. WWW: Neuroscience Web Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Dennis

    2006-01-01

    The human brain contains an estimated 100 billion neurons, and browsing the Web, one might be led to believe that there's a Web site for every one of those cells. It's no surprise that there are lots of Web sites concerning the nervous system. After all, the human brain is toward the top of nearly everyone's list of favorite organs and of…

  16. Preliminary Site Characterization Report, Rulsion Site, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report is a summary of environmental information gathered during a review of the documents pertaining to Project Rulison and interviews with personnel who worked on the project. Project Rulison was part of Operation Plowshare (a program designed to explore peaceful uses for nuclear devices). The project consisted of detonating a 43-kiloton nuclear device on September 10, 1969, in western Colorado to stimulate natural gas production. Following the detonation, a reentry well was drilled and several gas production tests were conducted. The reentry well was shut-in after the last gas production test and was held in standby condition until the general cleanup was undertaken in 1972. A final cleanup was conducted after the emplacement and testing wells were plugged in 1976. However, some surface radiologic contamination resulted from decontamination of the drilling equipment and fallout from the gas flaring during drilling operations. With the exception of the drilling effluent pond, all surface contamination at the Rulison Site was removed during the cleanup operations. All mudpits and other excavations were backfilled, and both upper and lower drilling pads were leveled and dressed. This report provides information regarding known or suspected areas of contamination, previous cleanup activities, analytical results, a review of the regulatory status, the site`s physical environment, and future recommendations for Project Ruhson. Based on this research, several potential areas of contamination have been identified. These include the drilling effluent pond and mudpits used during drilling operations. In addition, contamination could migrate in the gas horizon.

  17. Site decommissioning management plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fauver, D.N.; Austin, J.H.; Johnson, T.C.; Weber, M.F.; Cardile, F.P.; Martin, D.E.; Caniano, R.J.; Kinneman, J.D.

    1993-10-01

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has identified 48 sites contaminated with radioactive material that require special attention to ensure timely decommissioning. While none of these sites represent an immediate threat to public health and safety they have contamination that exceeds existing NRC criteria for unrestricted use. All of these sites require some degree of remediation, and several involve regulatory issues that must be addressed by the Commission before they can be released for unrestricted use and the applicable licenses terminated. This report contains the NRC staff`s strategy for addressing the technical, legal, and policy issues affecting the timely decommissioning of the 48 sites and describes the status of decommissioning activities at the sites.

  18. Site decommissioning management plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff has identified 48 sites contaminated with radioactive material that require special attention to ensure timely decommissioning. While none of these sites represent an immediate threat to public health and safety they have contamination that exceeds existing NRC criteria for unrestricted use. All of these sites require some degree of remediation, and several involve regulatory issues that must be addressed by the Commission before they can be released for unrestricted use and the applicable licenses terminated. This report contains the NRC staff's strategy for addressing the technical, legal, and policy issues affecting the timely decommissioning of the 48 sites and describes the status of decommissioning activities at the sites

  19. Lunar Polar Landing Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Oscar; Foing, Bernard H.; Flahaut, Jessica

    2016-07-01

    An important step for a scientific mission is to assess on where the mission should be conducted. This study on landing site selection focuses on a mission to the poles of the Moon where an in-situ mission should be conducted to answer the questions with respect to volatiles and ices. The European interest for a mission to the poles of the Moon is presented in the mission concept called Heracles. This mission would be a tele-operated, sample return mission where astronauts will controlling a rover from an Orion capsule in cislunar orbit. The primary selection of landing sites was based on the scientific interest of areas near the poles. The maximum temperature map from Diviner was used to select sites where CO^2¬ should always be stable. This means that the maximum temperature is lower than 54K which is the sublimation temperature for CO^2¬ in lunar atmospheric pressure. Around these areas 14 potential regions of interest were selected. Further selection was based on the epoch of the surface in these regions of interest. It was thought that it would be of high scientific value if sites are sampled which have another epoch than already sampled by one of the Apollo or Luna missions. Only 6 sites on both North as South Pole could contain stable CO^2 ¬and were older than (Pre-)Necterian. Before a landing site and rover traverse was planned these six sites were compared on their accessibility of the areas which could contain stable CO^2. It was assumed that slope lower than 20^o is doable to rove. Eventually Amundsen and Rozhdestvenskiy West were selected as regions of interest. Assumptions for selecting landing sites was that area should have a slope lower than 5^o, a diameter of 1km, in partial illuminated area, and should not be isolated but inside an area which is in previous steps marked as accessible area to rove. By using multiple tools in ArcGIS it is possible to present the area's which were marked as potential landing sites. The closest potential landing

  20. 1994 Site environmental report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fernald site is a Department of Energy (DOE)-owned facility that produced high-quality uranium metals for military defense for nearly 40 years. DOE suspended production at the site in 1989 and formally ended production in 1991. Although production activities have ceased, the site continues to examine the air and liquid pathways as possible routes through which pollutants from past operations and current remedial activities may leave the site. The Site Environmental Report (SER) is prepared annually in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program. This 1994 SER provides the general public as well as scientists and engineers with the results from the site's ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included in this report is information concerning the site's progress toward achieving full compliance with requirements set forth by DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA). For some readers, the highlights provided in this Executive Summary may provide sufficient information. Many readers, however, may wish to read more detailed descriptions of the information than those which are presented here. All information presented in this summary is discussed more fully in the main body of this report

  1. SITE-94. Radionuclide solubilities for SITE-94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arthur, R.; Apted, M. [QuantiSci, Denver, CO (United States)

    1996-12-01

    In this report, solubility constraints are evaluated on radioelement source-term concentrations supporting the SITE-94 performance assessment. Solubility models are based on heterogeneous-equilibrium, mass- and charge-balance constraints incorporated into the EQ3/6 geochemical software package, which is used to calculate the aqueous speciation behavior and solubilities of U, Th, Pu, Np, Am, Ni, Ra, Se, Sn, Sr, Tc and Zr in site groundwaters and near-field solutions. The chemical evolution of the near field is approximated using EQ3/6 in terms of limiting conditions at equilibrium, or steady state, in three closed systems representing fully saturated bentonite, Fe{sup o} corrosion products of the canister, and spent fuel. The calculations consider both low-temperature (15 deg C) and high-temperature (80 deg C) conditions in the near field, and the existence of either reducing or strongly oxidizing conditions in each of the bentonite, canister, and spent-fuel barriers. Heterogeneities in site characteristics are evaluated through consideration of a range of initial groundwaters and their interactions with engineered barriers. Aqueous speciation models for many radioelements are constrained by thermodynamic data that are estimated with varying degrees of accuracy. An important question, however, is how accurate do these models need to be for purposes of estimating source-term concentrations? For example, it is unrealistic to expect a high degree of accuracy in speciation models if such models predict solubilities that are below the analytical detection limit for a given radioelement. From a practical standpoint, such models are irrelevant if calculated solubilities cannot be tested by direct comparison to experimental data. In the absence of models that are both accurate and relevant for conditions of interest, the detection limit could define a pragmatic upper limit on radioelement solubility 56 refs, 25 tabs, 10 figs

  2. SITE-94. Radionuclide solubilities for SITE-94

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report, solubility constraints are evaluated on radioelement source-term concentrations supporting the SITE-94 performance assessment. Solubility models are based on heterogeneous-equilibrium, mass- and charge-balance constraints incorporated into the EQ3/6 geochemical software package, which is used to calculate the aqueous speciation behavior and solubilities of U, Th, Pu, Np, Am, Ni, Ra, Se, Sn, Sr, Tc and Zr in site groundwaters and near-field solutions. The chemical evolution of the near field is approximated using EQ3/6 in terms of limiting conditions at equilibrium, or steady state, in three closed systems representing fully saturated bentonite, Feo corrosion products of the canister, and spent fuel. The calculations consider both low-temperature (15 deg C) and high-temperature (80 deg C) conditions in the near field, and the existence of either reducing or strongly oxidizing conditions in each of the bentonite, canister, and spent-fuel barriers. Heterogeneities in site characteristics are evaluated through consideration of a range of initial groundwaters and their interactions with engineered barriers. Aqueous speciation models for many radioelements are constrained by thermodynamic data that are estimated with varying degrees of accuracy. An important question, however, is how accurate do these models need to be for purposes of estimating source-term concentrations? For example, it is unrealistic to expect a high degree of accuracy in speciation models if such models predict solubilities that are below the analytical detection limit for a given radioelement. From a practical standpoint, such models are irrelevant if calculated solubilities cannot be tested by direct comparison to experimental data. In the absence of models that are both accurate and relevant for conditions of interest, the detection limit could define a pragmatic upper limit on radioelement solubility

  3. Summer Meal Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Information pertaining to Summer Meal Sites, as collected by Citiparks in the City of Pittsburgh Department of Parks and Recreation. This dataset includes the...

  4. Superfund Site Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This asset includes a number of individual data sets related to site-specific information for Superfund, which is governed under the Comprehensive Environmental...

  5. Measuring site occupancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Wojdyla, Katarzyna; Williamson, James;

    2014-01-01

    Site occupancy is an extremely important aspect of quantification of protein modifications. Knowing the degree of modification of each oxidised cysteine residue is critical to understanding the biological role of these modifications. Yet modification site occupancy is very often overlooked, in part...... occupancy of the modification site. We show that, on one hand, heavily modified cysteines are not necessarily involved in the response to oxidative stress. On the other hand residues with low modification level can be dramatically affected by mild oxidative imbalance. We make use of high resolution mass...... peptides corresponding to 90 proteins. Only 6 modified peptides changed significantly under mild oxidative stress. Quantitative information allowed us to determine relative modification site occupancy of each identified modified residue and pin point heavily modified ones. The method proved to be precise...

  6. Site development costs for wind farm sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steadman, M.J.

    1992-12-31

    A review has been made of the machines likely to be used in the construction of wind farms. The layout of wind farms of nominal installed capacities ranging from 1MW to 20MW using machines of power output between 150kW and 3200kW at spacings of 10 and 20 times rotor diameter have been considered. Electrical power collection arrangements for machines generating at appropriate voltages have been proposed together with the transmission of the power generated to the bulk transmission system. The civil engineering and building works necessary for farm development have been considered and proposals made for these. A review of likely foundation conditions in the United Kingdom has been made together with proposals for unpiled and piled foundations for the range of machine sizes considered. Costs have been established for the electrical, civil engineering and building works for farms for various nominal installed capacity using machines of different sizes. A method of establishing a budgetary estimate of the site development costs for a wind farm of given capacity using different machine sizes anywhere in the United Kingdom, excluding Northern Ireland, has been put forward. The budgetary estimates so determined should always be confirmed when site specific data is to hand. (author).

  7. PhosphoSiteAnalyzer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bennetzen, Martin V; Cox, Jürgen; Mann, Matthias; Andersen, Jens S.

    2012-01-01

    Phosphoproteomic experiments are routinely conducted in laboratories worldwide, and because of the fast development of mass spectrometric techniques and efficient phosphopeptide enrichment methods, researchers frequently end up having lists with tens of thousands of phosphorylation sites for...... sets that have been subjected to kinase prediction using the previously published NetworKIN algorithm. NetworKIN applies sophisticated linear motif analysis and contextual network modeling to obtain kinase-substrate associations with high accuracy and sensitivity. PhosphoSiteAnalyzer provides an...

  8. Fusion facility siting considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inherent in the fusion program's transition from hydrogen devices to commercial power machines is a general increase in the size and scope of succeeding projects. This growth will lead to increased emphasis on safety, environmental impact, and the external effects of fusion in general, and of each new device in particular. A critically important consideration in this regard is site selection. The purpose of this paper is to examine major siting issues that may affect the economics, safety, and environmental impact of fusion

  9. Sites and Enactments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen; Neergaard, Helle

    2010-01-01

    This paper develops a framework for researching entrepreneurial opportunities. We argue that these can best be understood as dynamic and fluid effects of entrepreneurial processes that are enacted differently across different sites. On this basis we develop a framework for studying entrepreneurial...... opportunities that is suited to track those opportunities across enactments and sites. The framework is demonstrated through an analysis of the genesis of the company The Republic ofTea, as portrayed in the book of the same name...

  10. ON - SITE MATERIAL MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahil.R.Choure

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Site material management is a process for controlling field and office activities on construction site related to the materials. The site material management system attempts to insure that the right quality and quantity of materials are appropriately delivered and handled onsite in a timely manner. Planning a nd controlling all of the efforts necessary to ensure that the correct quality and quantity of materials are properly specified in a timely manner and most importantly are available at the point of use when required. Materials management is the system whic h represents a major expense in construction, so improving site material management improves opportunities for reducing the overall project costs. Poor management can result in increased costs during construction. Efficient management of materials can resu lt in substantial savings in project costs. This project is about on - site material control and the aim is to minimize delays, wastage of material and indirectly the cost. The project’s focus is on material quality control, proper storage facility, materia l accounting on site of Amanora future towers. The project concentrated on the products that contribute the most to construction organization revenue. Study will be done to understand and analyze the above practices on the construction project of Amanora f uture towers.

  11. Estimating Absolute Site Effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malagnini, L; Mayeda, K M; Akinci, A; Bragato, P L

    2004-07-15

    The authors use previously determined direct-wave attenuation functions as well as stable, coda-derived source excitation spectra to isolate the absolute S-wave site effect for the horizontal and vertical components of weak ground motion. They used selected stations in the seismic network of the eastern Alps, and find the following: (1) all ''hard rock'' sites exhibited deamplification phenomena due to absorption at frequencies ranging between 0.5 and 12 Hz (the available bandwidth), on both the horizontal and vertical components; (2) ''hard rock'' site transfer functions showed large variability at high-frequency; (3) vertical-motion site transfer functions show strong frequency-dependence, and (4) H/V spectral ratios do not reproduce the characteristics of the true horizontal site transfer functions; (5) traditional, relative site terms obtained by using reference ''rock sites'' can be misleading in inferring the behaviors of true site transfer functions, since most rock sites have non-flat responses due to shallow heterogeneities resulting from varying degrees of weathering. They also use their stable source spectra to estimate total radiated seismic energy and compare against previous results. they find that the earthquakes in this region exhibit non-constant dynamic stress drop scaling which gives further support for a fundamental difference in rupture dynamics between small and large earthquakes. To correct the vertical and horizontal S-wave spectra for attenuation, they used detailed regional attenuation functions derived by Malagnini et al. (2002) who determined frequency-dependent geometrical spreading and Q for the region. These corrections account for the gross path effects (i.e., all distance-dependent effects), although the source and site effects are still present in the distance-corrected spectra. The main goal of this study is to isolate the absolute site effect (as a function of frequency

  12. Site clearance working group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-03-01

    The Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana continue to be areas with a high level of facility removal, and the pace of removal is projected to increase. Regulations were promulgated for the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana requiring that abandoned sites be cleared of debris that could interfere with fishing and shrimping activities. The site clearance regulations also required verification that the sites were clear. Additionally, government programs were established to compensate fishermen for losses associated with snagging their equipment on oil and gas related objects that remained on the water bottoms in areas other than active producing sites and sites that had been verified as clear of obstructions and snags. The oil and gas industry funds the compensation programs. This paper reviews the regulations and evolving operating practices in the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana where site clearance and fisherman`s gear compensation regulations have been in place for a number of years. Although regulations and guidelines may be in place elsewhere in the world, this paper focuses on the Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana. Workshop participants are encouraged to bring up international issues during the course of the workshop. Additionally, this paper raises questions and focuses on issues that are of concern to the various Gulf of Mexico and Louisiana water surface and water bottom stakeholders. This paper does not have answers to the questions or issues. During the workshop participants will debate the questions and issues in an attempt to develop consensus opinions and/or make suggestions that can be provided to the appropriate organizations, both private and government, for possible future research or policy adjustments. Site clearance and facility removal are different activities. Facility removal deals with removal of the structures used to produce oil and gas including platforms, wells, casing, piles, pipelines, well protection structures, etc.

  13. Region 9 NPL Sites (Superfund Sites 2013) Polygons

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NPL site POLYGON locations for the US EPA Region 9. NPL (National Priorities List) sites are hazardous waste sites that are eligible for extensive long-term cleanup...

  14. Siting and public acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discusses the problem of nuclear power plant siting according to presently applicable legislation in Italy, taking into account urban and environmental aspects. Act No 393 of 2 August 1975 on the siting of nuclear plants introduced a significant change in that prior to its adoption, the competence to license nuclear installations was divided amongst so many bodies that approval was inevitably delayed. Act No. 393 lays down the siting procedure which involves authorities at regional and State level and provides a step by step consultation of the Communes concerned and gives them a time limit for replying to the proposed project, while enabling the necessary scientific, environmental and urban investigations to be made. Thus although ultimate decisions rest with the State, the regional bodies representing the public have a voice in them. In such planning the authorities must take into account the public interest, from the environmental and social angles as well as political and economic interests. (NEA)

  15. SLAC site design aesthetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is a single mission laboratory dedicated to basic research in high energy particle physics. SLAC site also houses Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) which is a multi-mission laboratory for research using beams of ultraviolet light and low energy photons as emitted tangentially from SLAC colliding beam facilities. This paper discusses various aspects of SLAC site design aesthetics under following headings: imposed footprint of SLAC; description of Selected Site; use of earth cover for radiation and sight screens; use of landscaping for cosmetic purposes; use of exterior paint colors to soften SLAC impact on neighbors; relocation of SLAC main entrance; relocation of SLAC collider arcs and experimental hall; parking lots and storage yards; and land use zoning at SLAC

  16. SLAC site design aesthetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) is a single mission laboratory dedicated to basic research in high energy particle physics. SLAC site also houses Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory (SSRL) which is a multi-mission laboratory for research using beams of ultraviolet light and low energy photons as emitted tangentially from SLAC colliding beam facilities. This paper discusses various aspects of SLAC site design aesthetics under the following headings: (1) imposed footprint of SLAC, (2) description of selected site, (3) use of earth cover for radiation and sight screens, (4) use of landscaping for cosmetic purposes, (5) use of exterior paint colors to soften SLAC impact on neighbors, (6) relocation of SLAC main entrance, (7) relocation of SLAC collider arcs and experimental hall, (8) parking lots and storage yards, and (9) land use zoning at SLAC

  17. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.M. Simmons

    2004-04-16

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel.

  18. YUCCA MOUNTAIN SITE DESCRIPTION

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' summarizes, in a single document, the current state of knowledge and understanding of the natural system at Yucca Mountain. It describes the geology; geochemistry; past, present, and projected future climate; regional hydrologic system; and flow and transport within the unsaturated and saturated zones at the site. In addition, it discusses factors affecting radionuclide transport, the effect of thermal loading on the natural system, and tectonic hazards. The ''Yucca Mountain Site Description'' is broad in nature. It summarizes investigations carried out as part of the Yucca Mountain Project since 1988, but it also includes work done at the site in earlier years, as well as studies performed by others. The document has been prepared under the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management quality assurance program for the Yucca Mountain Project. Yucca Mountain is located in Nye County in southern Nevada. The site lies in the north-central part of the Basin and Range physiographic province, within the northernmost subprovince commonly referred to as the Great Basin. The basin and range physiography reflects the extensional tectonic regime that has affected the region during the middle and late Cenozoic Era. Yucca Mountain was initially selected for characterization, in part, because of its thick unsaturated zone, its arid to semiarid climate, and the existence of a rock type that would support excavation of stable openings. In 1987, the United States Congress directed that Yucca Mountain be the only site characterized to evaluate its suitability for development of a geologic repository for high-level radioactive waste and spent nuclear fuel

  19. Region 9 NPL Sites - 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NPL site point locations for the US EPA Region 9. NPL (National Priorities List) sites are hazardous waste sites that are eligible for extensive long-term cleanup...

  20. Small Wind Site Assessment Guidelines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, Tim [Advanced Energy Systems LLC, Eugene, OR (United States); Preus, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Site assessment for small wind energy systems is one of the key factors in the successful installation, operation, and performance of a small wind turbine. A proper site assessment is a difficult process that includes wind resource assessment and the evaluation of site characteristics. These guidelines address many of the relevant parts of a site assessment with an emphasis on wind resource assessment, using methods other than on-site data collection and creating a small wind site assessment report.

  1. 2014 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paquette, Douglas [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Remien, Jason [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Foley, Brian [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Burke, John [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Dorsch, William [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ratel, Karen [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Howe, Robert [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Welty, Tim [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Williams, Jeffrey [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Pohlpt, Peter [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lagattolla, Richard [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Metz, Robert [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Milligan, James [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Lettieri, Lawrence [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2015-10-01

    BNL prepares an annual Site Environmental Report (SER) in accordance with DOE Order 231.1B, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting. The report is written to inform the public, regulators, employees, and other stakeholders of the Laboratory’s environmental performance during the calendar year in review.

  2. World Heritage Sites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘翠云

    2004-01-01

    If you think about World Heritage Sites, you probably think of places associated with ancient art and culture, historical buildings and monuments. And of course, many of these are on the World Heritage List (WHL) (世界遗产名录).

  3. Plant Hormone Binding Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Napier, Richard

    2004-01-01

    • Aims Receptors for plant hormones are becoming identified with increasing rapidity, although a frustrating number remain unknown. There have also been many more hormone‐binding proteins described than receptors. This Botanical Briefing summarizes what has been discovered about hormone binding sites, their discovery and descriptions, and will not dwell on receptor functions or activities except where these are relevant to understand binding.

  4. Ignitor Siting Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchetti, Massimo; Zunino, Cristina

    2002-11-01

    Ignitor is a compact high-magnetic field experiment aimed at studying plasma burning conditions in Deuterium-Tritium plasmas up to ignition. The ENEL-TERNA center in Rondissone (Italy) has been selected for its localisation. The main positive features of this site are the presence of electrical facilities because of the distribution node of Rondissone, the availability of the main office building and of the space for the construction of the Ignitor machine. Available data concerning the nearby nuclear site of Saluggia, only five kilometers away, are in fact used. The non-site dependent accidental analysis of Ignitor has been recently reviewed. New design of the Tritium Handling System has reduced tritium inventory in Ignitor to about 3 g. Then, many of the environmental source terms considered in previous accidental analyses are reduced. Design Basis Accidents (DBA) bring to maximum doses for the public below 1 mSv, and collective doses cause negligible health effects. All the assessments show that Ignitor can be effectively located in the ENEL-TERNA site, satisfying environmental and safety requirements.

  5. Surveying Lab II site

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    The network of survey reference points on the Lab II site was extended to meet the geodetic needs of the SPS and its North Experimental Area. The work was greatly eased by a geodolite, a measuring instrument on loan from the Fermi Laboratory, which uses a modulated laser beam. (See CERN Courier 14 (1974) p. 247.)

  6. Improved Approximation for Breakpoint Graph Decomposition and Sorting by Reversals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzi, Romeo; Caprara, Alberto

    2002-01-01

    ), calls for a largest collection of edge disjoint cycles in a suitably-defined graph. It has been shown that for almost all instances SBR is equivalent to BGD, in the sense that any solution of the latter corresponds to a solution of the former having the same value. In this paper, we show how to improve...... the n! instances of SBR on permutations with n elements. Our result uses the best known approximation algorithms for Stable Set on graphs with maximum degree 4 as well as for Set Packing where the maximum size of a set is 6. Any improvement in the ratio achieved by these approximation algorithms will...

  7. Antimicrobial breakpoint estimation accounting for variability in pharmacokinetics

    OpenAIRE

    Nekka Fahima; Li Jun; Bi Goue

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) indices are increasingly being used in the microbiological field to assess the efficacy of a dosing regimen. In contrast to methods using MIC, PK/PD-based methods reflect in vivo conditions and are more predictive of efficacy. Unfortunately, they entail the use of one PK-derived value such as AUC or Cmax and may thus lead to biased efficiency information when the variability is large. The aim of the present work was to evaluate t...

  8. Numerical modeling of surf beat generated by moving breakpoint

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    As an important hydrodynamic phenomenon in the nearshore zone, the cross-shore surf beat is numerically studied in this paper with a fully nonlinear Boussinesq-type model, which resolves the primary wave motion as well as the long waves. Compared with the classical Boussinesq equations, the equations adopted here allow for improved linear dispersion characteristics. Wave breaking and run-up in the swash zone are included in the numerical model. Mutual interactions between short waves and long waves are inherent in the model. The numerical study of long waves is based on bichromatic wave groups with a wide range of mean frequencies, group frequencies and modulation rates. The cross-shore variation in the amplitudes of short waves and long waves is investigated. The model results are compared with laboratory experiments from the literature and good agreement is found.

  9. Breakpoint Tuning in DCT-Based Nonlinear Layered Video Codecs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cuenca

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Many studies have been conducted to evaluate the benefits of using layered video coding schemes as a means to improve the robustness of video communications systems. In this paper, we study a frame-aware nonlinear layering scheme for the transport of a DCT-based video over packet-switched networks. This scheme takes into account the relevance of the different elements of the video sequence composing the encoded video sequence. Throughout a detailed study over a large set of video streams, we show that by properly tuning the encoding parameters, it is feasible to gracefully degrade or even maintain the video quality while reducing the amount of data representing the video sequence. We then provide the major guidelines to properly tune up the encoding parameters allowing us to set the basis towards the development of more robust video communications systems.

  10. 湖南安乡县划城岗遗址第二次发掘简报%Secondary Excavation at the Huachenggang Site in Anxiang County,Hunan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    湖南省文物考古研究所

    2001-01-01

    The Huachenggang site lies at Shahukou village in Anzhang township, Anxiang county, Hunan province, and constitutes a very important Neolithic site in the middle Yangtze River. The secondary excavation there was carried out in four areas and revealed rich cultural remains and objects.According to the correlation between the stratigraphical deposits in the areas and the features of the unearthed objects from there, the cultural remains of the site can be divided into four categories respectively belonging to the Tangjiagang, Daxi, Qujialing and Shijiahe cultures, which form a evolutionary sequence in one continuous line. The excavation of the site provides new evidence for further verifying the existence of the Tangjiagang culture, researching into the origin and periodization of the Daxi culture in the Dongting Lake region and understanding the demarcation between the Daxi and Qujialing cultures. The unearthed plentiful painted and white pottery exquisite in workmanship furnishes important clues to studies into the origin and evolution of these types of vessels produced in this area.

  11. Olkiluoto site description 2006

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This second version of the Olkiluoto Site Report, produced by the OMTF (Olkiluoto Modelling Task Force), updates the Olkiluoto Site Report 2004 (Posiva 2005) with the data and knowledge obtained up to December 2005. The main product of the modelling has been to develop a descriptive model of the site (the Site Descriptive Model), i.e. a model describing the geometry, properties of the bedrock and the water and the associated interacting processes and mechanisms. For practical reasons, the Site Descriptive Model is divided into five parts: surface system, geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry, which are presented in individual chapters. Four separated models are presented: the geological, rock mechanics, hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical models. The consistency between the hydrogeological and hydrogeochemical models is assessed in a joint chapter. Chapter 1 presents an outline of the report, explains the background to its development and sets out its objectives and scope. It is also introduces and explains the integrated modelling methodology, the nomenclature used in the descriptions of the models and the prediction/outcome studies. Chapter 2 provides a brief overview of the data used for producing the Site Description. Chapters 3 to 8 present the descriptive modelling, which involves interpreting data, interpolating or extrapolating between measurement points and calibrating the model against data, based on the various assumptions made about each conceptual model. Chapter 9 presents the results of the prediction/outcome studies performed during 2005 and Chapter 10 the overall consistency and confidence assessment. Overall conclusions are provided in Chapter 11. The main advances since Site Report 2004 are: A new geological model is presented in Chapter 4, representing a significant change from Bedrock Model 2003/1. There has been extensive use of geological data, whereas hydrogeological data have deliberately not been used and more

  12. Geotechnical site assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A final report summarizing the research conducted on geotechnical site assessment methodology at the Carwynnen test mine in Cornwall. The geological setting of the test site in the Cornubian granite batholith is described. The effect of structure imposed by discontinuities on the engineering behaviour of rock masses is discussed and the scanline survey method of obtaining data on discontinuities in the rock mass is described. The applicability of some methods of statistical analysis for discontinuity data is reviewed. The requirement for remote geophysical methods of characterizing the mass is discussed and experiments using seismic and ultrasonic velocity measurements are reported. Methods of determining the in-situ stresses are described and the final results of a programme of in-situ stress measurements using the overcoring and hydrofracture methods are reported. (author)

  13. The rhesus site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Franz F; Flegel, Willy A

    2014-10-01

    The Rhesus Site is a resource for information of the 'Rhesus' blood group. It is intended for specialists and non-specialists. The website details research in the field relevant for transfusion medicine, immunohematology, and molecular research. Link areas guide to important publications and to methodological resources for Rhesus. Many data originally presented at The Rhesus Site have been formally published later. The 'RhesusBase' section represents the largest database for RHD alleles; the 'RhesusSurveillance' section details the results of the largest prospective observational study on anti-D immunization events in D-positive patients. Visitors to the website are encouraged to explore the intricacies of the most complex blood group gene locus. PMID:25538538

  14. IOs as Social Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Park, Susan M.; Vetterlein, Antje

    Norms research has made significant inroads into examining their emergence and influence in international relations, while recognizing international organizations (IOs) as key social sites for norms to be created and/or disseminated. This paper interrogates how IOs as “organizational platforms...... for actors with a given identity, which becomes institutionalized and internalized over time. Building on recent work that details how a norm’s strength is also derived from its specificity, the article assesses how the different ways an IO adopts norms may affect the norm’s power. The article....... Viewing the norm building process in this way provides insight into the effect of IOs as social sites in strengthening a norm....

  15. Shaft siting decision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study identifies and establishes relative guidelines to be used for siting of repository shafts. Weights were determined for the significant factors that impact the selection of shaft locations for a nuclear waste repository in salt. The study identified a total of 45 factors. A panel of experienced mining people utilized the Kepner-Tregoe (K-T) Decision Analysis Process to perform a structured evaluation of each significant shaft siting factor. The evaluation determined that 22 of the factors were absolute constraints and that the other 23 factors were desirable characteristics. The group established the relative weights for each of the 23 desirable characteristics by using a paired comparison method. 8 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs

  16. Site selection methodology in Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: In the site selection process, all site characteristics that could be acceptable from a safety viewpoint are considered. The site selection process is important from not only the safety point of view, but also economical concerns. Some of the countries have important difficulties in finding locations to build nuclear power plants. Because these countries are encountering different evidences during the site selection, such as seismic unstability, inadequate cooling water availability (river site case) and the difficulties of the transportation of heavy equipment etc. Site selection study is performed in three phases; site survey, site evaluation and site confirmation. The purpose of the site survey is to identify one or more site that are likely to be suitable for detailed characterization during the site evaluation phase. In the evaluation stage, in order to demonstrate whether the site is acceptable, the studies and investigations are focused on the one or more preferable sites. Finally in the site confirmation stage which is a pre-operational stage , the activities are accumulated in detail and performed during construction of the nuclear power plants. In Turkey the siting study is performed in accordance with the decree on pertaining to issue of licenses for nuclear installations.In fact, this decree is mainly adapted from the IAEA safety guides and NRC experiences. But the decree doesn't have selection procedures. These are defined in the related regulations

  17. Site characterization techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1995-01-01

    Geoelectrical methods have been used since the 1920's to search for metallic ore deposits. During the last decade, traditional mining geophysical techniques have been adapted for environmental site characterization. Geoelectrical geophysics is now a well developed engineering specialty, with different methods to focus both on a range of targets and on depths below the surface. Most methods have also been adapted to borehole measurements.

  18. Feline injection site sarcomas

    OpenAIRE

    Nóbrega, C.; Mesquita, Jr.; Cruz, R; C. Coelho; Esteves, F.; Mega, A. C.; Santos, C.; Vala, Helena

    2016-01-01

    Feline injection site sarcoma (FISS), formerly known as Vaccine Associated Sarcoma (VAS) is a rare, but life-threatening disease. The incidence estimates have varied from 1 case of FISS per 1,000-10,000 cats vaccinated in North America and between 1 per 5,000-12,500 vaccination visits in United Kingdom. It has been primarily associated with vaccine administration, but several other injectable materials/substances have been implicated as aetiologic agents, namely lufenuron, penicilin, meti...

  19. 1999 SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ENGEL-COX,J.; ZIMMERMAN,E.; LEE,R.; WILLIAMS,J.; GREEN,T.; PAQUETTE,D.; HOODA,B.; SCARPITTA,S.; GENZER,P.; ET AL

    2000-09-01

    Throughout the scientific community, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is renowned for its leading-edge research in physics, medicine, chemistry, biology, materials, and the environment. BNL is committed to supporting its world-class scientific research with an internationally recognized environmental protection program. The 1999 Site Environmental Report (SER) summarizes the status of the Laboratory's environmental programs and performance, including the steady progress towards cleaning up the site and fully integrating environmental stewardship into all facets of the Laboratory's mission. BNL is located on 5,265 acres of pine barrens in Suffolk County in the center of Long Island, New York. The Laboratory is situated above a sole source aquifer at the headwaters of the Peconic River; therefore, protecting ground and surface water quality is a special concern. Approximately 3,600 acres of the site are undeveloped and serve as habitat for a wide variety of animals and plants, including one New York State endangered species, the tiger salamander, and two New York State threatened species, the banded sunfish and the stiff goldenrod. Monitoring, preserving, and restoring these ecological resources is a high priority for the Laboratory.

  20. Olkiluoto site description 2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Olkiluoto Site Description 2004 is a description of the Olkiluoto site, in which the various disciplines have been integrated to produce a coherent picture, and is based on the data available prior to the start of the underground excavation of the ONKALO facility. This report is the first version of such a Site Report and supplements the site syntheses that have already been published. Further Site Reports will be produced on a regular basis and it is planned that the Site Report should form the geoscientific basis of the Safety Case in a future licence application. The report updates the Baseline report published in 2003 and is designed to produce an integrated site model, by focusing on interdisciplinary interactions, and also by including new data obtained during 2003 and 2004. The report has been produced by the OMTF (Olkiluoto Modelling Task Force), which covers the areas of geology, rock mechanics, hydrogeology and hydrogeochemistry. In addition to discussing the input from these four disciplines, the Site Report also includes a description of the surface conditions. Formally, the surface conditions are not within the remit of the OMTF, which is concentrating on modelling the bedrock around the ONKALO and the future repository. The influence of the surface conditions to the overall system and to the conditions at depth is recognised, however, and thus a summary of climate, ecosystems and overburden properties is also included in this report. Chapter 1 sets out the methodology to be used in the modelling, describes the various discipline-specific models which are developed and the modelled areas which are used, and also describes two important processes - the prediction/outcome studies and the uncertainty and confidence assessment. The difference between the estimate (the prediction) and the result (the outcome) indicates the level of knowledge and the prevailing uncertainties in the models. Chapter 2 presents the applied investigation data, which are

  1. Astronomy. Internet site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimenko, Anatoly Vasilievich

    The Internet site covers a wide area of actual astronomical topics, including 1) Astronomical News 2) Didactics of Astronomy 3) Space Research (Cosmonautics) 4) That's interesting 5) A Handbook of an astronomer 6) The Solar system 7) A Photogalery 8) Works of Schoolars 9) History of Astronomy The most important of them is the section concerning Space Research (Cosmonautics). This section covers a wide range of topics, beginning with very complete Illustrated History of Soviet Space research , the building of Soviet Rockets, a complete list of Cosmonauts with biographies, a list of all the flies. The author of the site concerns much ineterest to recent and extraordinary astronomiucal phenomena, such as Hazardous asteroids, Comets, Solar and Moon Eclipses, Meteorites, as well as to correct from the scientifical point of view interpretation of the extraordinary astronomical phenomena. The section concerning the Solar system is richly illustrated and give detailed explanations to Solar System evolution and actual state, explains many phenomena in the Solar system. THe Internet site is designed for schoolars as well as to amateur and professional astronomers.

  2. Phosphoinositides in membrane contact sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiborg, Camilla; Wenzel, Eva M; Pedersen, Nina M; Stenmark, Harald

    2016-04-15

    Cellular membranes communicate extensively via contact sites that form between two membranes. Such sites allow exchange of specific ions, lipids or proteins between two compartments without content mixing, thereby preserving organellar architecture during the transfer process. Even though the molecular compositions of membrane contact sites are diverse, it is striking that several of these sites, including contact sites between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and endosomes, Golgi and the plasma membrane (PM), and contact sites between lysosomes and peroxisomes, contain phosphorylated derivatives of phosphatidylinositol known as phosphoinositides. In this mini-review we discuss the involvement and functions of phosphoinositides in membrane contact sites. PMID:27068950

  3. ZFN-Site searches genomes for zinc finger nuclease target sites and off-target sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iseli Christian

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Zinc Finger Nucleases (ZFNs are man-made restriction enzymes useful for manipulating genomes by cleaving target DNA sequences. ZFNs allow therapeutic gene correction or creation of genetically modified model organisms. ZFN specificity is not absolute; therefore, it is essential to select ZFN target sites without similar genomic off-target sites. It is important to assay for off-target cleavage events at sites similar to the target sequence. Results ZFN-Site is a web interface that searches multiple genomes for ZFN off-target sites. Queries can be based on the target sequence or can be expanded using degenerate specificity to account for known ZFN binding preferences. ZFN off-target sites are outputted with links to genome browsers, facilitating off-target cleavage site screening. We verified ZFN-Site using previously published ZFN half-sites and located their target sites and their previously described off-target sites. While we have tailored this tool to ZFNs, ZFN-Site can also be used to find potential off-target sites for other nucleases, such as TALE nucleases. Conclusions ZFN-Site facilitates genome searches for possible ZFN cleavage sites based on user-defined stringency limits. ZFN-Site is an improvement over other methods because the FetchGWI search engine uses an indexed search of genome sequences for all ZFN target sites and possible off-target sites matching the half-sites and stringency limits. Therefore, ZFN-Site does not miss potential off-target sites.

  4. Overview of Site Preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The preparation of Cadarache as the host of ITER is organised at a double level: Europe, since the beginning of the candidature in 2001, is coordinating the so-called European ITER Site Studies; France, as the host country, has put in place a dedicated structure at a decisional level (close to the government), and operational level in the PACA region with two entities: The Agency Iter France (AIF), inside the CEA, interlocutor of international and European entities, in charge of site preparation and fund recollection; An accompanying prefectoral mission, in charge mainly of road adaptation and the international school. The paper will cover all the aspects related to the preparation of the implementation of ITER: Technical aspects: the progress of site preparation itself, its servicing (water supply, electrical supply, Internet...), the road adaptation between the large harbour of Fos-sur-mer and Cadarache, etc. will be detailed. Regulatory procedures: in the framework of the delegation that the ITER partners gave to the CEA/AIF on 14th September 2005, two main large files are in progress: The public debate, organised by an independent authority, informs the population of the challenges and impacts of ITER in Provence; The safety documents: the writing of the preliminary safety report, which will be submitted to the Nuclear Safety Authority and the files submitted to the public during the public enquiries are ongoing. Socioeconomic aspects: the welcome of ITER staff and their families is operational, via a dedicated Welcome Office; the location of an international school in Manosque leads now to its pre-figuration. The overall organisation will be described, as well as all planning forecast for the coming years, leading to the start of construction. (author)

  5. Geotechnical site assessment methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reports comprising this volume concern the research conducted on geotechnical site assessment methodology at the Carwynnen test mine in granites in Cornwall, with particular reference to the effect of structures imposed by discontinuities on the engineering behaviour of rock masses. The topics covered are: in-situ stress measurements using (a) the hydraulic fracturing method, or (b) the US Bureau of Mines deformation probe; scanline discontinuity survey - coding form and instructions, and data; applicability of geostatistical estimation methods to scalar rock properties; comments on in-situ stress at the Carwynnen test mine and the state of stress in the British Isles. (U.K.)

  6. Windows Azure web sites

    CERN Document Server

    Chambers, James

    2013-01-01

    A no-nonsense guide to maintaining websites in Windows Azure If you're looking for a straightforward, practical guide to get Azure websites up and running, then this is the book for you. This to-the-point guide provides you with the tools you need to move and maintain a website in the cloud. You'll discover the features that most affect developers and learn how they can be leveraged to work to your advantage. Accompanying projects enhance your learning experience and help you to walk away with a thorough understanding of Azure's supported technologies, site deployment, and manageme

  7. Present on Site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingemann, Bruno

    Why are exhibitions and museums so important? What can they be used for? Who determines relevance in a transformative process? Transforming exhibitions is not just something you do, it is something that gets better the more you do it. This book looks at the intersection of the visitor or user, wh...... • Invisibles – The exhibition design processes • Openings – Category, objects and communication Present on site is relevant not only for students and researchers in the field of museum communication, media and design studies, but also for exhibition and museum practitioners....

  8. A Site Rediscovered

    OpenAIRE

    Mailhot, Sarah Anne

    2013-01-01

    This is a site-driven project located in my hometown of Lewiston, Maine, a point along the Androscoggin River.  Driving over the bridge as a child, I was intrigued by the waterfall, but it always seemed unattainable; the mills and abandoned buildings prevented access.  When my dad said that the last mill burned down at Great Falls in 2009, I was saddened but knew this provided a new opportunity for the community. This project is not about placing a building, but rather intervening and creatin...

  9. 1994 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-05-01

    The 1994 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental activities at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) for the calendar year (CY) 1994. The report strives to present environmental data in a manner that characterizes the performance and compliance status of the Laboratory`s environmental management programs when measured against regulatory standards and DOE requirements. The report also discusses significant highlight and planning efforts of these programs. The format and content of the report are consistent with the requirements of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program.

  10. 1994 Site Environmental Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 1994 Site Environmental Report summarizes environmental activities at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) for the calendar year (CY) 1994. The report strives to present environmental data in a manner that characterizes the performance and compliance status of the Laboratory's environmental management programs when measured against regulatory standards and DOE requirements. The report also discusses significant highlight and planning efforts of these programs. The format and content of the report are consistent with the requirements of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program

  11. CLEANING OF FRENCH SITES

    CERN Document Server

    Mauro Nonis

    2002-01-01

    In the last two weeks some cleaning problems have been remarked in several CERN buildings on the French part of CERN sites. This is mainly due to the start up of the new cleaning contract from the 1st July. These problems are not related to a budgetary reduction of the activity. We excuse for the malfunctions that have been created to CERN community and we assure you that we have taken all the needed measures to solve the problem in the shortest delay. Mauro Nonis (ST/FM)

  12. Sites and Enactments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korsgaard, Steffen T.; Neergaard, Helle

    2008-01-01

    Starting from a social constructionist viewpoint and siding with the enactment/creation perspective this paper seeks to develop a specific method for researching individual opportunities. Drawing on science and technology studies as well as poststructuralism, a concept of opportunities is...... formulated where opportunities are seen as dynamic in the sense that they are enacted in different social practices at different sites. The method is illustrated through an analysis of the birth of The Republic of Tea, a very successful tea company, as presented in the book "The Republic of Tea"....

  13. Site-City Interaction through Modifications of Site Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Semblat, Jean-François; Guéguen, Philippe; Bard, Pierre-Yves; Duval, Anne Marie

    2009-01-01

    The analysis of seismic site effects generally disregards the influence of surface structures on the free field motion in densely urbanized areas. This paper aims at investigating this particular problem called site-city interaction especially by comparison to the "free-field" amplification process. Several evidences (experimental, analytical, numerical) of the site-city interaction phenomenon have been given in previous work (Gu\\'eguen, Bard, Semblat 2000). The influence of site city-interaction could be large for structures having eigenfrequencies close to that of the surface soil layers. Furthermore, the density of structures is also an important governing parameter of the problem. Considering a specific site (Nice, France) where site-city interaction is supposed to be significant, we start from detailed experimental and numerical studies of seismic site effects giving both amplification levels and occuring frequencies, as well as the location of the maximum amplification areas. The influence of site-city ...

  14. Socioeconomic Site Study Plan: Draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Social and economic issues and concerns of the Deak Smith County site area will be evaluated during site characterization. Effects that the area could experience from a repository project include demographic, economic, community service, fiscal, and social impacts. The Socioeconomic Site Study Plan is designed to provide a strategy to assess the potential for those impacts. The Socioeconomic Site Study Plan is structured to provide an overview of the socioeconomic program requirements, objectives, and activities to be conducted during site characterization. This report will describe the study design and its rationale; data collection, management, and reporting; program schedules and milestones; site study organization and management; and quality assurance issues. 43 refs

  15. The Packwood Lake Site: Lithic Technology and Site Function

    OpenAIRE

    Markos, Jeffery A.

    1991-01-01

    The specific functional characterization of the sites used for this comparison was necessary in an attempt to eliminate the potential for intersite redundancy of representative on-site lithic reduction activities; therefore, for purposes of this research, sites that represent relative functional extremes and manifest specific lithic reduction activities associated with those functions were expected to be the most effective for comparative purposes with the Packwood Lake site assemblage (see B...

  16. Preliminary siting characterization Salt Disposition Facility - Site B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A siting and reconnaissance geotechnical program has been completed in S-Area at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. This program investigated the subsurface conditions for the area known as ''Salt Disposition Facility (SDF), Site B'' located northeast of H-Area and within the S-Area. Data acquired from the Site B investigation includes both field exploration and laboratory test data

  17. Preliminary siting characterization Salt Disposition Facility - Site B

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wyatt, D.

    2000-01-04

    A siting and reconnaissance geotechnical program has been completed in S-Area at the Savannah River Site in South Carolina. This program investigated the subsurface conditions for the area known as ``Salt Disposition Facility (SDF), Site B'' located northeast of H-Area and within the S-Area. Data acquired from the Site B investigation includes both field exploration and laboratory test data.

  18. 2003 SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ENVIRONMENT AND WASTE MANAGMENT SERVICES DIVISION; ET AL.

    2004-10-01

    Each year, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), a multi-program national laboratory, prepares an annual Site Environmental Report (SER) in accordance with Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting, of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The SER is written to inform outside regulators, the public, and Laboratory employees of BNL's environmental performance during the calendar year in review, and to summarize BNL's on-site environmental data; environmental management performance; compliance with applicable DOE, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), state, and local regulations; and environmental, restoration, and surveillance monitoring programs. BNL has prepared annual SERs since 1971 and has documented nearly all of its environmental history since the Laboratory's inception in 1947. This report is intended to be a technical document. It is available in print and as a downloadable file on the BNL web page at http://www.bnl.ser.htm. A summary of the SER is also prepared each year to provide a general overview, and is distributed with a CD version of the full-length SER. The summary supports BNL's educational and community outreach program.

  19. AMF 1 Site Science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, Mark Alan [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2016-08-18

    This report documents progress on DOE Grant# DE-FG02-08ER64531 funded by the Department of Energy’s Atmospheric Systems Research (ASR) program covering the period between its inception in 2008 and its conclusion in 2014. The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program’s Mobile Facility #1 (AMF#1) is a collection of state-of-the art atmospheric sensing systems including remote and in situ instrumentation designed to characterize the atmospheric column above and in the immediate vicinity of the deployment location. The grant discussed in this report funded the activities of the AMF#1 Site Scientist Team. Broad responsibilities of this team included examining new deployment sites and recommending instrument deployment configurations; data quality control during the early stages of deployments and for certain instruments through the course of the deployment; scientific outreach in the host country or location (particularly international deployments); scientific research oriented toward basic questions about cloud physics and radiation transfer in the deployment region; and training of Ph.D. students to conduct future research relevant to the Atmospheric Systems Research (ASR) program.

  20. 1996 Site environmental report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-06-01

    The FEMP is a Department of Energy (DOE)-owned facility that produced high-quality uranium metals for military defense for nearly 40 years. DOE suspended production at the FEMP in 1989 and formally ended production in 1991. Although production activities have ceased, the site continues to examine the air and liquid pathways as possible routes through which pollutants from past operations and current remedial activities may leave the FEMP. The Site Environmental Report (SER) is prepared annually in accordance with DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program. This 1996 SER provides the general public as well as scientists and engineers with the results from the ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Also included in this report is information concerning the FEMP progress toward achieving full compliance with requirements set forth by DOE, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA). For some readers, the highlights provided in this Executive Summary may provide sufficient information. Many readers, however, may wish are presented here. All information presented in this summary is discussed more fully in the main body of this report.

  1. Site Recommendation Subsurface Layout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C.L. Linden

    2000-06-28

    The purpose of this analysis is to develop a Subsurface Facility layout that is capable of accommodating the statutory capacity of 70,000 metric tons of uranium (MTU), as well as an option to expand the inventory capacity, if authorized, to 97,000 MTU. The layout configuration also requires a degree of flexibility to accommodate potential changes in site conditions or program requirements. The objective of this analysis is to provide a conceptual design of the Subsurface Facility sufficient to support the development of the Subsurface Facility System Description Document (CRWMS M&O 2000e) and the ''Emplacement Drift System Description Document'' (CRWMS M&O 2000i). As well, this analysis provides input to the Site Recommendation Consideration Report. The scope of this analysis includes: (1) Evaluation of the existing facilities and their integration into the Subsurface Facility design. (2) Identification and incorporation of factors influencing Subsurface Facility design, such as geological constraints, thermal loading, constructibility, subsurface ventilation, drainage control, radiological considerations, and the Test and Evaluation Facilities. (3) Development of a layout showing an available area in the primary area sufficient to support both the waste inventories and individual layouts showing the emplacement area required for 70,000 MTU and, if authorized, 97,000 MTU.

  2. Computer aided site management. Site use management by digital mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The logistics program developed for assisting the Hague site management is presented. A digital site mapping representation and geographical data bases are used. The digital site map and its integration into a data base are described. The program can be applied to urban and rural land management aid. Technical administrative and economic evaluations of the program are summarized

  3. 2006 Rose Site 9P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 9P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 31, 1999. The site was originally...

  4. 2006 Rose Site 13P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 13P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on August 25, 1999. The site was...

  5. 2006 Rose Site 10P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 10P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 31, 1999. The site was originally...

  6. 2006 Rose Site 31P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 31P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on August 22, 1999. The site was...

  7. 2006 Rose Site 27P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 27P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on August 24, 1999. The site was...

  8. 1999 Rose Site 27P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 27P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on August 24, 1999. The site was...

  9. 2004 Rose Site 10P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 10P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 31, 1999. The site was originally...

  10. 2012 Rose Site 31P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 31P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on August 22, 1999. The site was...

  11. 2012 Rose Site 27P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 27P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on August 24, 1999. The site was...

  12. 1999 Rose Site 8P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 8P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 29, 1999. The site was originally...

  13. 2004 Rose Site 25P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 25P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 30, 1999. The site was originally...

  14. 1999 Rose Site 25P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 25P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 30, 1999. The site was originally...

  15. 2004 Rose Site 9P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 9P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 31, 1999. The site was originally...

  16. 1999 Rose Site 13P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 13P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on August 25, 1999. The site was...

  17. 2012 Rose Site 8P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 8P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 29, 1999. The site was originally...

  18. 2004 Rose Site 8P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 8P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 29, 1999. The site was originally...

  19. 2012 Rose Site 10P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 10P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 31, 1999. The site was originally...

  20. 2002 Rose Site 10P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 10P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 31, 1999. The site was originally...

  1. 2004 Rose Site 13P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 13P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on August 25, 1999. The site was...

  2. 2004 Rose Site 31P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 31P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on August 22, 1999. The site was...

  3. 2002 Rose Site 9P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 9P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 31, 1999. The site was originally...

  4. 2012 Rose Site 25P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 25P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 30, 1999. The site was originally...

  5. 2002 Rose Site 8P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 8P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 29, 1999. The site was originally...

  6. 1999 Rose Site 10P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 10P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 31, 1999. The site was originally...

  7. 2012 Rose Site 9P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 9P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 31, 1999. The site was originally...

  8. 2012 Rose Site 13P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 13P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on August 25, 1999. The site was...

  9. 1999 Rose Site 9P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 9P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 31, 1999. The site was originally...

  10. 1999 Rose Site 31P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 31P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on August 22, 1999. The site was...

  11. EPR Flamanville 3, Site Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antoine Menager, the EPR Flamanville 3 Site Manager described the organization and the management of the Flamanville site during the construction phase. He placed emphasis on Health and Safety, Environmental and Social Responsibility and on Nuclear Safety and Quality

  12. Site Remediation in Practice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the remediation of a former uranium mining area in Hungary. The work was carried out using stringent quality controls and special attention was paid to the radiological survey during the cleanup works on the roads, on pipe lines and yards, on the mill site and places used earlier for heap leaching. Groundwater quality control and the related groundwater quality restoration were the most important aspects of the post remediation phase which was aimed at the long term protection of the nearby drinking water aquifer. The expenditure for the remediation was approximately $100 million. The estimated cost for long term monitoring and water treatment is about US $4 million/year. (author)

  13. 2006 SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY; RATEL,K.

    2007-10-01

    Each year, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) prepares an annual Site Environmental Report (SER) in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting of the U.S. Department of Energy. The report is written to inform the public, regulators, employees, and other stakeholders of BNL's environmental performance during the calendar year in review. The SER summarizes environmental data; environmental management performance; compliance with applicable DOE, federal, state, and local regulations; and compliance, restoration, and surveillance monitoring program performance. BNL has prepared annual SERs since 1971 and has documented nearly all of its environmental history since the Laboratory's inception in 1947. The report is available in print and as a downloadable file on the BNL web page at http://www.bnl.gov/ewms/ser/. A summary of the SER is also prepared each year to provide a general overview of the report, and is distributed with a CD of the full report.

  14. Sprucing up the site

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    From the Globe to restaurants and meeting rooms, feverish activity is under way on both of the CERN sites to replace old equipment, carry out maitenance on existing facilities and buildings and increase their energy efficiency. Work being carried out on the Globe of Science and Innovation.The visual landmark of CERN, the Globe, has been undergoing maintenance work since July. The 40 m diameter sphere, made entirely of wood, is currently being sanded down and new treatments are being applied to the wood to protect the whole building. The work will continue until the beginning of October. Major work is also under way on some of the most emblematic rooms of the Lab, such as the Conference Room in Building 60 and the Council Chamber: while the first has been completely refurbished, with around 15 extra seats added and new audiovisual facilities installed, in the latter the air conditioning and the main electrical switchboards have been r...

  15. Web Site Development Support

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul, Hameed

    2016-01-01

    This summer I assisted the RPT Program Office in developing a design plan to update their existing website to current NASA web standards. The finished website is intended for the general public, specifically potential customers interested in learning about NASA's chemical rocket test facility capabilities and test assignment process. The goal of the website is to give the public insight about the purpose and function of the RPT Program. Working on this project gave me the opportunity to learn skills necessary for effective project management. The RPT Program Office manages numerous facilities so they are required to travel often to other sites for meetings throughout the year. Maneuvering around the travel schedule of the office and the workload priority of the IT Department proved to be quite the challenge. I overcame the travel schedule of the office by frequently communicating and checking in with my mentor via email and telephone.

  16. Bioremediation of contaminated sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By volatilizing aromatic compounds through aeration, landfarming is a recognized approach to the bioremediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soil. With this method, the soil is cultivated and aided with fertilizer amendment to provide a nutrient source for the microbial population involved in the degradation of hydrocarbons. The effectiveness of bioremediation will depend on several factors, including topographic features, soil properties, and biochemistry. Since bioremediation is inhibited by anaerobic conditions, sites that are sloped or have trenches to collect runoff water are preferable. As for soil properties, the percentage of sand should not be too high, but aeration is essential to avoid anaerobic conditions. Addition of straw is generally beneficial, and fertilizers with nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium will help degrading hydrocarbons. Temperature, pH, and salt content are also important factors since they facilitate microbial activity. 3 refs

  17. 2009 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratel, K.M.; Brookhaven National Laboratory

    2010-09-30

    Each year, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) prepares an annual Site Environmental Report (SER) in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting of the U.S. Department of Energy. The report is written to inform the public, regulators, employees, and other stakeholders of BNL's environmental performance during the calendar year in review. The SER summarizes environmental data; environmental management performance; compliance with applicable DOE, federal, state, and local regulations; and compliance, restoration, and surveillance monitoring program performance. BNL has prepared annual SERs since 1971 and has documented nearly all of its environmental history since the Laboratory's inception in 1947. The report is available in print and as a downloadable file on the BNL web page at http://www.bnl.gov/ewms/ser/. A summary of the SER is also prepared each year to provide a general overview of the report, and is distributed with a CD of the full report.

  18. 2004 Johnston Site 10P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 10P was established at Johnston Atoll by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on January 15, 2004. Site 10P replaced site JOH 2A-P...

  19. Site selection for Mars exobiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, J.; Des Marais, D.; Greeley, R.; Landheim, R.; Klein, H.

    1995-01-01

    The selection of sites on Mars that have a high priority for exobiological research is fundamental for planning future exploration. The most immediate need is to identify targets for high resolution orbital imaging during the Mars Observer and Mars '94/'96 missions that can be used to refined site priorities for surface exploration. We present an objective approach to site selection whereby individual sites are selected and scored, based on the presence of key geological features which indicate high priority environments. Prime sites are those that show evidence for the prolonged activity of liquid water and which have sedimentary deposits that are likely to have accumulated in environments favorable for life. High priority areas include fluvio-lacustrine (stream-fed lake systems), springs, and periglacial environments. Sites where mineralization may have occurred in the presence of organisms (e.g. springs) are given high priority in the search for a fossil record on Mars. A systematic review of Viking data for 83 sites in the Mars Landing Site Catalog (MLSC) resulted in the selection of 13 as being of exobiological interest. The descriptions of these sites were expanded to address exobiological concerns. An additional five sites were identified for inclusion in the second edition of the MLSC. We plan to broaden our site selection activities to include a systematic global reconnaissance of Mars using Viking data, and will continue to refine site priorities for exobiological research based on data from future missions in order to define strategies for surface exploration.

  20. Development and Application of SITES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SITES (Site Information and Total Environmental Data Management System) has been developed for the purpose of systematically managing site characteristics and environmental data produced during the pre-operational, operational, and post-closure phases of a radioactive waste disposal facility. SITES is an integration system, which consists of 4 modules, to be available for maintenance of site characteristics data, for safety assessment, and for site/environment monitoring; site environmental data management module (SECURE), integrated safety assessment module (SAINT), site/environment monitoring module (SUDAL) and geological information module for geological data management (SITES-GIS). Each module has its database with the functions of browsing, storing, and reporting data and information. Data from SECURE and SUDAL are interconnected to be utilized as inputs to SAINT. SAINT has the functions that multi-user can access simultaneously via client-server system, and the safety assessment results can be managed with its embedded Quality Assurance feature. Comparison between assessment results and environmental monitoring data can be made and visualized in SUDAL and SITES-GIS. Also, SUDAL is designed that the periodic monitoring data and information could be opened to the public via internet homepage. SITES has applied to the Wolsong low- and intermediate-level radioactive waste disposal center in Korea, and is expected to enhance the function of site/environment monitoring in other nuclear-related facilities and also in industrial facilities handling hazardous materials.

  1. DOE site performance assessment activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Information on performance assessment capabilities and activities was collected from eight DOE sites. All eight sites either currently dispose of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) or plan to dispose of LLW in the near future. A survey questionnaire was developed and sent to key individuals involved in DOE Order 5820.2A performance assessment activities at each site. The sites surveyed included: Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Nevada Test Site (NTS), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Paducah), Portsmouth Gaseous Diffusion Plant (Portsmouth), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The questionnaire addressed all aspects of the performance assessment process; from waste source term to dose conversion factors. This report presents the information developed from the site questionnaire and provides a comparison of site-specific performance assessment approaches, data needs, and ongoing and planned activities. All sites are engaged in completing the radioactive waste disposal facility performance assessment required by DOE Order 5820.2A. Each site has achieved various degrees of progress and have identified a set of critical needs. Within several areas, however, the sites identified common needs and questions

  2. Variability in the incidence of miRNAs and genes in fragile sites and the role of repeats and CpG islands in the distribution of genetic material.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Laganà

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Chromosomal fragile sites are heritable specific loci especially prone to breakage. Some of them are associated with human genetic disorders and several studies have demonstrated their importance in genome instability in cancer. MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small non-coding RNAs responsible of post-transcriptional gene regulation and their involvement in several diseases such as cancer has been widely demonstrated. The altered expression of miRNAs is sometimes due to chromosomal rearrangements and epigenetic events, thus it is essential to study miRNAs in the context of their genomic locations, in order to find significant correlations between their aberrant expression and the phenotype. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we use statistical models to study the incidence of human miRNA genes on fragile sites and their association with cancer-specific translocation breakpoints, repetitive elements, and CpG islands. Our results show that, on average, fragile sites are denser in miRNAs and also in protein coding genes. However, the distribution of miRNAs and protein coding genes in fragile versus non-fragile sites depends on chromosome. We find also a positive correlation between fragility and repeats, and between miRNAs and CpG islands. CONCLUSION: Our results show that the relationship between site fragility and miRNA density is far more complex than previously thought. For example, we find that protein coding genes seem to be following similar patterns as miRNAs, if considered their overall distribution. However, once we allow for differences at the chromosome level in our statistical analysis, we find that distribution of miRNA and protein coding genes in fragile sites is very different from that of miRNA. This is a novel result that we believe may help discover new potential correlations between the localization of miRNAs and their crucial role in biological processes and in the development of diseases.

  3. Characterising Web Site Link Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Shi; Petricek, Vaclav

    2007-01-01

    The topological structures of the Internet and the Web have received considerable attention. However, there has been little research on the topological properties of individual web sites. In this paper, we consider whether web sites (as opposed to the entire Web) exhibit structural similarities. To do so, we exhaustively crawled 18 web sites as diverse as governmental departments, commercial companies and university departments in different countries. These web sites consisted of as little as a few thousand pages to millions of pages. Statistical analysis of these 18 sites revealed that the internal link structure of the web sites are significantly different when measured with first and second-order topological properties, i.e. properties based on the connectivity of an individual or a pairs of nodes. However, examination of a third-order topological property that consider the connectivity between three nodes that form a triangle, revealed a strong correspondence across web sites, suggestive of an invariant. ...

  4. Site Management Guide (Blue Book)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The U.S. Department of Energy (Department) Office of Legacy Management (LM), established in 2003, manages the Department's postclosure responsibilities and ensures the future protection of human health and the environment. During World War II and the Cold War, the Federal government developed and operated a vast network of industrial facilities for the research, production, and testing of nuclear weapons, as well as other scientific and engineering research. These processes left a legacy of radioactive and chemical waste, environmental contamination, and hazardous facilities and materials at well over 100 sites. Since 1989, the Department has taken an aggressive accelerated cleanup approach to reduce risks and cut costs. At most Departmental sites undergoing cleanup, some residual hazards will remain at the time cleanup is completed due to financial and technical impracticality. However, the Department still has an obligation to protect human health and the environment after cleanup is completed. LM fulfills DOE's postclosure obligation by providing long-term management of postcleanup sites which do not have continuing missions. LM is also responsible for sites under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Currently, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is responsible for site surveys and remediation at FUSRAP sites. Once remediation is completed, LM becomes responsible for long-term management. LM also has responsibility for uranium processing sites addressed by Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA). UMTRCA Title II sites are sites that were commercially owned and are regulated under a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license. For license termination, the owner must conduct an NRC-approved cleanup of any on-site radioactive waste remaining from former uranium ore-processing operations. The site owner must also provide full funding for inspections and, if necessary, ongoing maintenance. Once site

  5. Site Management Guide (Blue Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (Department) Office of Legacy Management (LM), established in 2003, manages the Department’s postclosure responsibilities and ensures the future protection of human health and the environment. During World War II and the Cold War, the Federal government developed and operated a vast network of industrial facilities for the research, production, and testing of nuclear weapons, as well as other scientific and engineering research. These processes left a legacy of radioactive and chemical waste, environmental contamination, and hazardous facilities and materials at well over 100 sites. Since 1989, the Department has taken an aggressive accelerated cleanup approach to reduce risks and cut costs. At most Departmental sites undergoing cleanup, some residual hazards will remain at the time cleanup is completed due to financial and technical impracticality. However, the Department still has an obligation to protect human health and the environment after cleanup is completed. LM fulfills DOE’s postclosure obligation by providing long-term management of postcleanup sites which do not have continuing missions. LM is also responsible for sites under the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Currently, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) is responsible for site surveys and remediation at FUSRAP sites. Once remediation is completed, LM becomes responsible for long-term management. LM also has responsibility for uranium processing sites addressed by Title II of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA). UMTRCA Title II sites are sites that were commercially owned and are regulated under a U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) license. For license termination, the owner must conduct an NRC-approved cleanup of any on-site radioactive waste remaining from former uranium ore-processing operations. The site owner must also provide full funding for inspections and, if necessary, ongoing maintenance. Once site

  6. 2002 SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY

    2003-10-01

    The 2002 Site Environmental Report (SER) is prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1, ''Environment, Safety and Health Reporting'', and summarizes the status of Brookhaven National Laboratory's (BNL) environmental programs and performance and restoration efforts, as well as any impacts, both past and present, that Laboratory operations have had on the environment. The document is intended to be technical in nature. A summary of the report is also prepared as a separate document to provide a general overview and includes a CD version of the full report. Operated by Brookhaven Science Associates (BSA) for the Department of Energy (DOE), BNL manages its world-class scientific research with particular sensitivity to environmental and community issues. BNL's motto, ''Exploring Life's Mysteries...Protecting its Future'', reflects BNL's management philosophy to fully integrate environmental stewardship into all facets of its missions, with a health balance between science and the environment.

  7. 2007 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratel,K.

    2008-10-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) prepares an annual Site Environmental Report (SER) in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting of the U.S. Department of Energy. The report is written to inform the public, regulators, employees, and other stakeholders of the Laboratory's environmental performance during the calendar year in review. Volume I of the SER summarizes environmental data; environmental management performance; compliance with applicable DOE, federal, state, and local regulations; and performance in restoration and surveillance monitoring programs. BNL has prepared annual SERs since 1971 and has documented nearly all of its environmental history since the Laboratory's inception in 1947. Volume II of the SER, the Groundwater Status Report, also is prepared annually to report on the status of and evaluate the performance of groundwater treatment systems at the Laboratory. Volume II includes detailed technical summaries of groundwater data and its interpretation, and is intended for internal BNL users, regulators, and other technically oriented stakeholders. A brief summary of the information contained in Volume II is included in this volume in Chapter 7, Groundwater Protection. Both reports are available in print and as downloadable files on the BNL web page at http://www.bnl.gov/ewms/ser/. An electronic version on compact disc is distributed with each printed report. In addition, a summary of Volume I is prepared each year to provide a general overview of the report, and is distributed with a compact disc containing the-length report.

  8. 2005 SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY

    2006-08-29

    Each year, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) prepares an annual Site Environmental Report (SER) in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The report is written to inform the public, regulators, employees, and other stakeholders of BNL's environmental performance during the calendar year in review. The SER summarizes environmental data; environmental management performance; compliance with applicable DOE, federal, state, and local regulations; and compliance, restoration, and surveillance monitoring program performance. BNL has prepared annual SERs since 1971 and has documented nearly all of its environmental history since the Laboratory's inception in 1947. The report is available in print and as a downloadable file on the BNL web page at http://www.bnl.gov/ewms/ser/. A summary of the SER is also prepared each year to provide a general overview of the report, and is distributed with a CD of the full report.

  9. 2004 SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY; SER TEAM; ENVIRONMENTAL INFORMATION MANAGEMENT SERVICES GROUP; ENVIROMENTAL AND WASTE MANAGEMENT SERVICES DIVISION FIELD SAMPLING TEAM; (MANY OTHER CONTRIBUTORS)

    2005-08-22

    Each year, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) prepares an annual Site Environmental Report (SER) in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). The SER is written to inform the public, regulators, Laboratory employees, and other stakeholders of BNL's environmental performance during the calendar year in review. The report summarizes BNL's environmental data; environmental management performance; compliance with applicable DOE, federal, state, and local regulations; and restoration and surveillance monitoring programs. BNL has prepared annual SERs since 1971 and has documented nearly all of its environmental history since the Laboratory's inception in 1947. The SER is intended to be a technical document. It is available in print and as a downloadable file on the BNL web page at http://www.bnl.gov/esd/SER.htm. A summary of the SER is also prepared each year to provide a general overview of the report, and is distributed with a CD version of the full report. The summary supports BNL's educational and community outreach program.

  10. Generic Site Safety Report

    CERN Document Server

    International Atomic Energy Agency. Vienna. ITER Joint Central Team

    2001-01-01

    The ITER Engineering Design Activities (EDA) are being conducted jointly by Euratom, Japan, and the Russian Federation, as Parties to the ITER EDA Agreement signed on 21 July 1992 and subsequently extended until July 20th 2001. (The United States of America was an ITER Party until September 30th 1999). The activities are conducted under the auspices of the IAEA by the ITER Joint Central Team and by the Home Teams (HT). The JCT is composed of qualified persons made available by each of the Parties in approximately equal numbers. The JCT members are located at the ITER Joint Work Sites (JWS) in Naka (Japan), Garching (Germany), and formerly in San Diego (USA). The Home Teams are established and organized by each Party for performing the tasks of the work programme for the EDA, assigned to them in approximately equal shares. Home Teams in each of the Parties perform specific design tasks, and perform research and development in technology (physics R&D is contributed voluntarily). The Home Team Leaders (HTL) ...

  11. SITE-94. Site specific base data for the performance assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report documents the site specific base data that were available, and the utilization of these data within SITE-94. A brief summary is given of SKB's preliminary site investigations for the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory (HRL), which were the main source of site-specific data for SITE-94, and an overview is given of the field methods and instrumentation for the preliminary investigations. A compilation is given of comments concerning the availability and quality of the data for Aespoe, and specific recommendations are given for future site investigations. It was found that the HRL pre-investigations produced a large quantity of data which were, for the most part, of sufficient quality to be valuable for a performance assessment. However, some problems were encountered regarding documentation, procedural consistency, positional information, and storage of the data from the measurements. 77 refs, 4 tabs

  12. Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) : Assessing Site Cotamination

    OpenAIRE

    ECT Team, Purdue

    2007-01-01

    While a number of techniques exist for the remediation of contaminated soils, one of the largest problems is often the initial site assessment. It can be a difficult, expensive and time-consuming process to determine the exact extent of site contamination. The U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station (WES) under the sponsorship of the U.S. Army Environmental Center (AEC) initiated the development of the Site Characterization and Analysis Penetrometer System (SCAPS) Research, Developmen...

  13. SitesIdentify: a protein functional site prediction tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doig Andrew J

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rate of protein structures being deposited in the Protein Data Bank surpasses the capacity to experimentally characterise them and therefore computational methods to analyse these structures have become increasingly important. Identifying the region of the protein most likely to be involved in function is useful in order to gain information about its potential role. There are many available approaches to predict functional site, but many are not made available via a publicly-accessible application. Results Here we present a functional site prediction tool (SitesIdentify, based on combining sequence conservation information with geometry-based cleft identification, that is freely available via a web-server. We have shown that SitesIdentify compares favourably to other functional site prediction tools in a comparison of seven methods on a non-redundant set of 237 enzymes with annotated active sites. Conclusion SitesIdentify is able to produce comparable accuracy in predicting functional sites to its closest available counterpart, but in addition achieves improved accuracy for proteins with few characterised homologues. SitesIdentify is available via a webserver at http://www.manchester.ac.uk/bioinformatics/sitesidentify/

  14. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund) - Non-NPL Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Non-NPL Sites - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access Database contains a...

  15. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) - Contaminants at CERCLIS (Superfund) Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Contaminants at Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Sites - The CERCLIS Public Access Database...

  16. SITE COMPREHENSIVE LISTING (CERCLIS) (Superfund) - Responsible Parties at CERCLIS Sites

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Responsible Parties at CERCLIS Sites - The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Information System (CERCLIS) (Superfund) Public Access...

  17. Umatilla Satellite and Release Sites Project : Final Siting Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montgomery, James M.

    1992-04-01

    This report presents the results of site analysis for the Umatilla Satellite and Release Sites Project. The purpose of this project is to provide engineering services for the siting and conceptual design of satellite and release facilities for the Umatilla Basin hatchery program. The Umatilla Basin hatchery program consists of artificial production facilities for salmon and steelhead to enhance production in the Umatilla River as defined in the Umatilla master plan approved in 1989 by the Northwest Power Planning Council. Facilities identified in the master plan include adult salmon broodstock holding and spawning facilities, facilities for recovery, acclimation, and/or extended rearing of salmon juveniles, and development of river sites for release of hatchery salmon and steelhead. The historic and current distribution of fall chinook, summer chinook, and coho salmon and steelhead trout was summarized for the Umatilla River basin. Current and future production and release objectives were reviewed. Twenty seven sites were evaluated for the potential and development of facilities. Engineering and environmental attributes of the sites were evaluated and compared to facility requirements for water and space. Site screening was conducted to identify the sites with the most potential for facility development. Alternative sites were selected for conceptual design of each facility type. A proposed program for adult holding facilities, final rearing/acclimation, and direct release facilities was developed.

  18. Siting the superconducting super collider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the request of the Department of Energy, the National Academy of Sciences and the National Academy of Engineering established the Super Collider Site Evaluation Committee to evaluate the suitability of proposed sites for the Superconducting Super Collider. Thirty-six proposals were examined by the committee. Using the set of criteria announced by DOE in its Invitation for Site Proposals, the committee identified eight sites that merited inclusion on a ''best qualified list.'' The list represents the best collective judgment of 21 individuals, carefully chosen for their expertise and impartiality, after a detailed assessment of the proposals using 19 technical subcriteria and DOE's life cycle cost estimates. The sites, in alphabetical order, are: Arizona/Maricopa; Colorado; Illinois; Michigan/Stockbridge; New York/Rochester; North Carolina; Tennessee; and Texas/Dallas-Fort Worth. The evaluation of these sites and the Superconducting Super Collider are discussed in this book

  19. Conceptualizing of Social Networking Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Sodhi, J. S.; Shilpi Sharma

    2012-01-01

    People often move to their friends, families and colleagues when they feel urge and having doubts or queries to solve. Participation in social networking site has dramatically increased in recent years. Many social networking sites boost with million of members using their network on regular basis to communicate, share , create and collaborate with others. In this paper we explore the phenomenon of using social networking site to trace a link of the search from the community of users for bett...

  20. Drupal 7 Multi Sites Configuration

    CERN Document Server

    Butcher, Matt

    2012-01-01

    Follow the creation of a multi-site instance with Drupal. The practical examples and accompanying screenshots will help you to get multiple Drupal sites set up in no time. This book is for Drupal site builders. It is assumed that readers are familiar with Drupal already, with a basic grasp of its concepts and components. System administration concepts, such as configuring Apache, MySQL, and Vagrant are covered but no previous knowledge of these tools is required.

  1. Site environmental report for 2002.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larsen, Barbara L.

    2003-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, California (SNL/CA) is a government-owned/contractor-operated laboratory. Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, operates the laboratory for the Department of Energy's (DOE) National Nuclear Security Administration. The DOE, Sandia Site Office oversees operations at the site, using Sandia Corporation as a management and operating contractor. This Site Environmental Report for 2002 was prepared in accordance with DOE Order 231.1. The report provides a summary of environmental monitoring information and compliance activities that occurred at SNL/CA during calendar year 2002. General site and environmental program information is also included.

  2. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Siting Guide, Site selection and evaluation criteria for an early site permit application. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-03-24

    In August 1991, the Joint Contractors came to agreement with Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Department of Energy (DOE) on a workscope for the cost-shared Early Site Permit Demonstration Program. One task within the scope was the development of a guide for site selection criteria and procedures. A generic Siting Guide his been prepared that is a roadmap and tool for applicants to use developing detailed siting plans for their specific region of the country. The guide presents three fundamental principles that, if used, ensure a high degree of success for an ESP applicant. First, the site selection process should take into consideration environmentally diverse site locations within a given region of interest. Second, the process should contain appropriate opportunities for input from the public. Third, the process should be applied so that it is clearly reasonable to an impartial observer, based on appropriately selected criteria, including criteria which demonstrate that the site can host an advanced light water reactor (ALWR). The Siting Guide provides for a systematic, comprehensive site selection process in which three basic types of criteria (exclusionary, avoidance, and suitability) are presented via a four-step procedure. It provides a check list of the criteria for each one of these steps. Criteria are applied qualitatively, as well as presented numerically, within the guide. The applicant should use the generic guide as an exhaustive checklist, customizing the guide to his individual situation.

  3. Early Site Permit Demonstration Program: Siting Guide, Site selection and evaluation criteria for an early site permit application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In August 1991, the Joint Contractors came to agreement with Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) and the Department of Energy (DOE) on a workscope for the cost-shared Early Site Permit Demonstration Program. One task within the scope was the development of a guide for site selection criteria and procedures. A generic Siting Guide his been prepared that is a roadmap and tool for applicants to use developing detailed siting plans for their specific region of the country. The guide presents three fundamental principles that, if used, ensure a high degree of success for an ESP applicant. First, the site selection process should take into consideration environmentally diverse site locations within a given region of interest. Second, the process should contain appropriate opportunities for input from the public. Third, the process should be applied so that it is clearly reasonable to an impartial observer, based on appropriately selected criteria, including criteria which demonstrate that the site can host an advanced light water reactor (ALWR). The Siting Guide provides for a systematic, comprehensive site selection process in which three basic types of criteria (exclusionary, avoidance, and suitability) are presented via a four-step procedure. It provides a check list of the criteria for each one of these steps. Criteria are applied qualitatively, as well as presented numerically, within the guide. The applicant should use the generic guide as an exhaustive checklist, customizing the guide to his individual situation

  4. Region 9 Removal Sites 2012

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Point geospatial dataset representing locations of CERCLA (Superfund) Removal sites. CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act)...

  5. Site locality identification study: Hanford Site. Volume II. Data cataloging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-07-01

    Data compilation and cataloging for the candidate site locality identification study were conducted in order to provide a retrievable data cataloging system for the present siting study and future site evaluation and licensng processes. This task occurred concurrently with and also independently of other tasks of the candidate site locality identification study. Work in this task provided the data utilized primarily in the development and application of screening and ranking processes to identify candidate site localities on the Hanford Site. The overall approach included two steps: (1) data acquisition and screening; and (2) data compilation and cataloging. Data acquisition and screening formed the basis for preliminary review of data sources with respect to their probable utilization in the candidate site locality identification study and review with respect to the level of completeness and detail of the data. The important working assumption was that the data to be used in the study be based on existing and available published and unpublished literature. The data compilation and cataloging provided the basic product of the Task; a retrievable data cataloging system in the form of an annotated reference list and key word index and an index of compiled data. The annotated reference list and key word index are cross referenced and can be used to trace and retrieve the data sources utilized in the candidate site locality identification study.

  6. Bedrock hydrogeology Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling, SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has conducted site investigations at two different locations, the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a final repository for spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 concept. Site characterisation should provide all data required for an integrated evaluation of the suitability of the investigated site and an important component in the characterisation work is the development of a hydrogeological model. The hydrogeological model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It also provides input to the safety assessment. Another important use of the hydrogeological model is in the environmental impact assessment. This report presents the understanding of the hydrogeological conditions of the bedrock at Forsmark reached following the completion of the surface-based investigations and provides a summary of the bedrock hydrogeological model and the underlying data supporting its development. It constitutes the main reference on bedrock hydrogeology for the site descriptive model concluding the surface-based investigations at Forsmark, SDM-site, and is intended to describe the hydraulic properties and hydrogeological conditions of the bedrock at the site and to give the information essential for demonstrating understanding

  7. Bedrock hydrogeology Forsmark. Site descriptive modelling, SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Follin, Sven (SF GeoLogic AB, Taeby (Sweden))

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has conducted site investigations at two different locations, the Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp areas, with the objective of siting a final repository for spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 concept. Site characterisation should provide all data required for an integrated evaluation of the suitability of the investigated site and an important component in the characterisation work is the development of a hydrogeological model. The hydrogeological model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It also provides input to the safety assessment. Another important use of the hydrogeological model is in the environmental impact assessment. This report presents the understanding of the hydrogeological conditions of the bedrock at Forsmark reached following the completion of the surface-based investigations and provides a summary of the bedrock hydrogeological model and the underlying data supporting its development. It constitutes the main reference on bedrock hydrogeology for the site descriptive model concluding the surface-based investigations at Forsmark, SDM-site, and is intended to describe the hydraulic properties and hydrogeological conditions of the bedrock at the site and to give the information essential for demonstrating understanding

  8. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005, Attachment A - Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy A. Wills

    2006-10-01

    This appendix to the ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005'', dated October 2006 (DOE/NV/11718--1214; DOE/NV/25946--007) expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction. Included are subsections that summarize the site?s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site's environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site which afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This appendix complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  9. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005, Attachment A - Site Description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This appendix to the ''Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2005'', dated October 2006 (DOE/NV/11718--1214; DOE/NV/25946--007) expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction. Included are subsections that summarize the site?s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site's environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site which afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This appendix complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report

  10. Site locality identification study: Hanford Site. Volume II. Data cataloging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Data compilation and cataloging for the candidate site locality identification study were conducted in order to provide a retrievable data cataloging system for the present siting study and future site evaluation and licensng processes. This task occurred concurrently with and also independently of other tasks of the candidate site locality identification study. Work in this task provided the data utilized primarily in the development and application of screening and ranking processes to identify candidate site localities on the Hanford Site. The overall approach included two steps: (1) data acquisition and screening; and (2) data compilation and cataloging. Data acquisition and screening formed the basis for preliminary review of data sources with respect to their probable utilization in the candidate site locality identification study and review with respect to the level of completeness and detail of the data. The important working assumption was that the data to be used in the study be based on existing and available published and unpublished literature. The data compilation and cataloging provided the basic product of the Task; a retrievable data cataloging system in the form of an annotated reference list and key word index and an index of compiled data. The annotated reference list and key word index are cross referenced and can be used to trace and retrieve the data sources utilized in the candidate site locality identification study

  11. Thioredoxin binding site of phosphoribulokinase overlaps the catalytic site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ATP-regulatory binding site of phosphoribulokinase was studied using bromoacetylethanolamine phosphate (BrAcNHEtOP). BrAcNHEtOP binds to the active-regulatory binding site of the protein. Following trypsin degradation of the labeled protein, fragments were separated by HPLC and sequenced. (DT)

  12. 2010 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ratel, K.; Lee, R; Remien, J; Hooda, B; Green, T; Williams, J; Pohlot, P; Dorsch, W; Paquette, D; Burke, J

    2011-10-01

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) prepares an annual Site Environmental Report (SER) in accordance with DOE Order 231.1A, Environment, Safety and Health Reporting of the U.S. Department of Energy. The report is written to inform the public, regulators, employees, and other stakeholders of the Laboratory's environmental performance during the calendar year in review. Volume I of the SER summarizes environmental data; environmental management performance; compliance with applicable DOE, federal, state, and local regulations; and performance in restoration and surveillance monitoring programs. BNL has prepared annual SERs since 1971 and has documented nearly all of its environmental history since the Laboratory's inception in 1947. Volume II of the SER, the Groundwater Status Report, also is prepared annually to report on the status of and evaluate the performance of groundwater treatment systems at the Laboratory. Volume II includes detailed technical summaries of groundwater data and its interpretation, and is intended for internal BNL users, regulators, and other technically oriented stakeholders. A brief summary of the information contained in Volume II is included in Chapter 7, Groundwater Protection, of this volume. Both reports are available in print and as downloadable files on the BNL web page at http://www.bnl.gov/ewms/ser/. An electronic version on compact disc is distributed with each printed report. In addition, a summary of Volume I is prepared each year to provide a general overview of the report, and is distributed with a compact disc containing the full report. BNL is operated and managed for DOE's Office of Science by Brookhaven Science Associates (BSA), a partnership formed by Stony Brook University and Battelle Memorial Institute. For more than 60 years, the Laboratory has played a lead role in the DOE Science and Technology mission and continues to contribute to the DOE missions in energy resources, environmental quality, and

  13. Site Environmental Report summary, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-06-01

    This report describes the Fernald site mission, exposure pathways, and environmental standards and guidelines. Environmental monitoring activities measure and estimate the amount of radioactive and nonradioactive materials that may leave the site and enter the surrounding environment. This presents an overall view of the impact these activities have on the local environment and public health.

  14. Site Environmental Report summary, 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the Fernald site mission, exposure pathways, and environmental standards and guidelines. Environmental monitoring activities measure and estimate the amount of radioactive and nonradioactive materials that may leave the site and enter the surrounding environment. This presents an overall view of the impact these activities have on the local environment and public health

  15. Site environmental report for 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, R.C.

    1997-08-01

    To help verify effective protection of public safety and preservation of the environment, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)/California maintains an extensive, ongoing environmental monitoring program. This program monitors all significant airborne and liquid effluents and the environment at the SNL/California site perimeter. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) performs off-site environmental monitoring for both sites. These monitoring efforts ensure that emission controls are effective in preventing contamination of the environment. As part of SNL/California`s Environmental Monitoring Program, an environmental surveillance system measures the possible presence of radioactive and hazardous materials in ambient air, surface water, groundwater, sewage, soil, vegetation, and locally produced food-stuffs. The program also includes an extensive environmental dosimetry program, which measures external radiation levels around the Livermore site and nearby vicinity. Each year, the results of the Environmental Monitoring Program are published in this report, the Site Environmental Report. This executive summary focuses on impacts to the environment and estimated radiation doses to the public from site emissions. Chapter 3, {open_quotes}Compliance Summary,{close_quotes} reviews the site`s various environmental protection activities and compliance status, with applicable environmental regulations. The effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance results for 1996 show that SNL/California operations had no harmful effects on the environment or the public. 37 figs., 12 tabs.

  16. Privacy and Social Networking Sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Dianne M.; Duven, Carolyn J.

    2008-01-01

    College students are relying on the Internet to make connections with other people every day. As the Internet has developed and grown, so have the capabilities for interaction. Social networking sites, a group of Web sites that provide people with the opportunity to create an online profile and to share that profile with others, are a part of…

  17. Southern Africa CTA Site Proposal

    CERN Document Server

    Krüger, P P

    2012-01-01

    Southern Africa has some of the world's best sites for air Cherenkov telescopes. South Africa has only one viable site, which is south of Sutherland and also close to the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). This site has very good infrastructure and is easy to access, but only 47% of the night-time has a cloudless sky usable for observations. Namibia, which already hosts the H.E.S.S telescope, has a number of potential sites with much less cloud coverage. The H.E.S.S. site is one of the highest of these sites at 1840 m a.s.l. with about 64% of the night-time cloudless. It also has very low night sky background levels and is relatively close (about 100 km) to Windhoek. Moving further away from Windhoek to the south, the cloud coverage and artificial night sky brightness becomes even less, with the site at Kuibis (between Keetmanshoop and Luderitz) at 1640 m a.s.l. having clear night skies 73% of the time. Even though this site seems remote (being 660 km from Windhoek by road), it is close to the national ...

  18. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007 Attachment A: Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills

    2008-09-01

    This appendix expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2007 (U.S. Department of Energy [DOE], 2008). Included are subsections that summarize the site's geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site's environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site which afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  19. Hanford Site sustainable development initiatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, C.T.

    1994-05-01

    Since the days of the Manhattan Project of World War II, the economic well being of the Tri-Cities (Pasco, Kennewick, and Richland) of Washington State has been tied to the US Department of Energy missions at the nearby Hanford Site. As missions at the Site changed, so did the economic vitality of the region. The Hanford Site is now poised to complete its final mission, that of environmental restoration. When restoration is completed, the Site may be closed and the effect on the local economy will be devastating if action is not taken now. To that end, economic diversification and transition are being planned. To facilitate the process, the Hanford Site will become a sustainable development demonstration project.

  20. Hanford Site sustainable development initiatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the days of the Manhattan Project of World War II, the economic well being of the Tri-Cities (Pasco, Kennewick, and Richland) of Washington State has been tied to the US Department of Energy missions at the nearby Hanford Site. As missions at the Site changed, so did the economic vitality of the region. The Hanford Site is now poised to complete its final mission, that of environmental restoration. When restoration is completed, the Site may be closed and the effect on the local economy will be devastating if action is not taken now. To that end, economic diversification and transition are being planned. To facilitate the process, the Hanford Site will become a sustainable development demonstration project

  1. Implementing ‘Site BIM’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davies, Richard; Harty, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Numerous Building Information Modelling (BIM) tools are well established and potentially beneficial in certain uses. However, issues of adoption and implementation persist, particularly for on-site use of BIM tools in the construction phase. We describe an empirical case-study of the implementation...... of an innovative ‘Site BIM’ system on a major hospital construction project. The main contractor on the project developed BIM-enabled tools to allow site workers using mobile tablet personal computers to access design information and to capture work quality and progress data on-site. Accounts show...... that ‘Site BIM’, while judged to be successful and actively supporting users, was delivered through an exploratory and emergent development process of informal prototyping. Technical IT skills were adopted into the construction project through personal relationships and arrangements rather than formal...

  2. Introduction to the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cushing, C.E.

    1995-06-01

    This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report discusses the Site mission and provides general information about the site. The U.S. DOE has established a new mission for Hanford including: Management of stored wastes, environmental restoration, research and development, and development of new technologies. The Hanford Reservation is located in south central Washington State just north of the confluence of the Snake and Yakima Rivers with the Columbia River. The approximately 1,450 square kilometers which comprises the Hanford Site, with restricted public access, provides a buffer for the smaller areas within the site which have historically been used for the production of nuclear materials, radioactive waste storage, and radioactive waste disposal.

  3. Effect of new breakpoints proposed by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute for evaluating antibiotics-resistance of Streptococcus pneumoniae nonmeningitis strains isolated from children%应用CLSI新的折点值标准判读儿童分离的肺炎链球菌非脑膜炎株的耐药性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华春珍; 李建平; 俞惠民; 尚世强; 陈志敏; 徐立群

    2012-01-01

    目的 应用美国临床和实验室标准化研究所(Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute,CLSI)新的折点值标准,比较2001—2002年和2008年儿童分离的肺炎链球菌非脑膜炎株对青霉素及其它抗生素的耐药情况.方法 肺炎链球菌的药物敏感试验采用Kirby-Bauer法,青霉素最低抑菌浓度检测采用E-test法,药敏结果参照2010年CLSI M100-S20版指南判读;组间率的比较采用x2检验.结果 2008年度83.7%的菌株对青霉素敏感,15.1%中介,1.2%耐药,青霉素MIC50和MIC90分别为1.0μg/mL和3.0μg/mL; 2001~2002年97.5%的菌株对青霉素敏感,2.5%中介,无耐药株,青霉素MIC50为0.064μg/mL,MIC90为1.5μg/mL,两者耐药率有显著性差异(x2=23.48,P<0.05).所有菌株对万古霉素敏感.菌株对红霉素的耐药率最高,在两个时期分别达92.2%和91.4%.结论 本地区2008年度分离的肺炎链球菌对青霉素的敏感率较2001~2002年明显下降,但总体敏感率仍维持在较高水平,青霉素仍可作为治疗该菌颅外感染的一线有效药物.%Objective To compare the antibiotics-resistance of the non-meningitis Streptococcus pneumoniae strains isolated from children during the year of 2001-2002 and in 2008 in Hangzhou since the new CLSI breakpoint was used. Methods The sensitivities of antibiotics to Streptococcus pneumoniae strains were determined in intro with Kirby-Bauer diffuse methods, and MICs of penicillin were determined with E-test methods, χ2 test were used in the study. Results Of all 166 strains isolated in 2008, 83.7%, 15.1% and 1.2% were sensitive, intermediate and resistant to penicillin, respectively, the pencillin MIC50 was 1.0μg/mL and MIC90 was 3.0μg/mL, while during 2001-2002, 97.5% were sensitive and 2.5% were intermediate, the penicillin MIC50 and MIC90 were 0.064μg/mL and 1.5μg/ mL respectively, the resistant rates was significant between the two groups(χ2=23.48, P<0.05). More than 90.0% of all strains was

  4. Siting guidelines and their role in repository site selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first requirement of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act was for the Secretary of Energy to issue general guidelines for siting repositories. The guidelines were to specify detailed geologic considerations that would be the primary criteria for the selection of sites in various host rocks, as well as factors that would qualify or disqualify any site from development as a repository. These guidelines were clearly intended to provide not only the framework for the siting program but also the stimulus for establishing effective communication and consultation among the parties involved in the program. The Act further required that the guidelines be a factor in the development of all future decision documents of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management, including the environmental assessments that would accompany the nomination of sites for characterization, the site-characterization plans that are to be prepared before the sinking of exploratory shafts at any candidate site, and the environmental impact statement that is to support the recommendation of a site for development as a repository. More than two years after its passage, the intention of the Act for the guidelines has been realized. Concurred in by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission on June 22, 1984, and issued by the Department in November 1984, the guidelines include postclosure technical guidelines that apply to conditions governing the long-term performance of the repository system; preclosure technical guidelines that apply to conditions governing the siting, construction, operation, and closure of the repository; and system guidelines whose objective is to ensure that the regulatory requirements of the Environmental Protection Agency and the Nuclear Regulatory Commission are met

  5. Site description of Laxemar at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken site characterisation in two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to identify a suitable location for a geological repository of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method. The site investigations have been conducted in campaigns, punctuated by data freezes. After each data freeze, the site data have been analysed and modelling has been carried out with the overall purpose to develop a site descriptive model (SDM). The site descriptive model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It is also essential for safety assessment, since the SDM is the only source for site-specific input. Another important use of the site descriptive model is in the environmental impact assessment. An SDM is an integrated model of geology, thermal properties, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, bedrock transport properties and a description of the surface system. The site descriptive model compiled in the current report, SDM-Site Laxemar, presents an integrated understanding of the Laxemar-Simpevarp area (with special emphasis on the Laxemar subarea) at the completion of the surface-based investigations, which were conducted during the period 2002 to 2007. A summary is also provided of the abundant underlying data and the discipline specific models that support the site understanding. The description relies heavily on background reports that address, in particular, details of the data analyses and modelling of the different disciplines. The Laxemar-Simpevarp area is located in the province of Smaaland within the municipality of Oskarshamn, about 230 km south of Stockholm. The candidate area for site investigation is located along the shoreline of the strait of Kalmarsund, within a 1.8 billion year old suite of well preserved bedrock belonging to the Transscandinavian Igneous Belt formed during

  6. Site description of Forsmark at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB, has undertaken site characterisation in two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to identify a suitable location for a geological repository of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method. The site investigations have been conducted in campaigns, punctuated by data freezes. After each data freeze, the site data have been analysed and modelling has been carried out with the overall purpose to develop a site descriptive model (SDM). The site descriptive model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It is also essential for safety assessment, since the model is the only source for site-specific input. Another important use of the site descriptive model is in the environmental impact assessment. An SDM is an integrated model for geology, thermal properties, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, bedrock transport properties and a description of the surface system. The site descriptive model compiled in the current report, SDM-Site, presents an integrated understanding of the Forsmark area at the completion of the surface-based investigations, which were conducted at Forsmark during the period 2002 to 2007. It also provides a summary of the abundant underlying data and the discipline-specific models that support the site understanding. The description relies heavily on background reports that address, in particular, details in data analyses and modelling in the different disciplines. The Forsmark area is located in northern Uppland within the municipality of Oesthammar, about 120 km north of Stockholm. The candidate area for site investigation is located along the shoreline of Oeregrundsgrepen, within the north-western part of a major tectonic lens that formed between 1.87 and 1.85 billion years ago during the Svecokarelian orogeny. The candidate area is approximately 6 km long and 2 km wide. The

  7. Web sites that work secrets from winning web sites

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Leading web site entrepreneur Jon Smith has condensed the secrets of his success into 52 inspiring ideas that even the most hopeless technophobe can implement. The brilliant tips and practical advice in Web sites that work will uplift and transform any website, from the simplest to the most complicated. It deals with everything from fundamentals such as how to assess the effectiveness of a website and how to get a site listed on the most popular search engines to more sophisticated challenges like creating a community and dealing with legal requirements. Straight-talking, practical and humorou

  8. Tidal energy site - Tidal energy site mammal/bird survey

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A vessel-based line visual transect survey was conducted for birds and marine mammals near the proposed Snohomish County PUD Admiralty Inlet tidal energy site...

  9. Site environmental report for 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To help verify effective protection of public safety and preservation of the environment, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)/California maintains an extensive, ongoing environmental monitoring program. This program monitors all significant airborne and liquid effluents and the environment at the SNL/California site perimeter. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) performs off-site environmental monitoring for both sites. These monitoring efforts ensure that emission controls are effective in preventing contamination of the environment. As part of SNL/California's Environmental Monitoring Program, an environmental surveillance system measures the possible presence of radioactive and hazardous materials in ambient air, surface water, groundwater, sewage, soil, vegetation, and locally produced food-stuffs. The program also includes an extensive environmental dosimetry program, which measures external radiation levels around the Livermore site and nearby vicinity. Each year, the results of the Environmental Monitoring Program are published in this report, the Site Environmental Report. This executive summary focuses on impacts to the environment and estimated radiation doses to the public from site emissions. Chapter 3, open-quotes Compliance Summary,close quotes reviews the site's various environmental protection activities and compliance status, with applicable environmental regulations. The effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance results for 1996 show that SNL/California operations had no harmful effects on the environment or the public. 37 figs., 12 tabs

  10. Savannah River Site computing architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-03-29

    A computing architecture is a framework for making decisions about the implementation of computer technology and the supporting infrastructure. Because of the size, diversity, and amount of resources dedicated to computing at the Savannah River Site (SRS), there must be an overall strategic plan that can be followed by the thousands of site personnel who make decisions daily that directly affect the SRS computing environment and impact the site`s production and business systems. This plan must address the following requirements: There must be SRS-wide standards for procurement or development of computing systems (hardware and software). The site computing organizations must develop systems that end users find easy to use. Systems must be put in place to support the primary function of site information workers. The developers of computer systems must be given tools that automate and speed up the development of information systems and applications based on computer technology. This document describes a proposal for a site-wide computing architecture that addresses the above requirements. In summary, this architecture is standards-based data-driven, and workstation-oriented with larger systems being utilized for the delivery of needed information to users in a client-server relationship.

  11. 1992 Fernald Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    The Fernald site is a Department of Energy (DOE) owned facility that produced high-quality uranium metals for military defense for nearly 40 years. DOE suspended production at the Fernald site in 1989 and formally ended production in 1991. Although production activities have ceased, the site continues to examine the air and liquid pathways as possible routes through which pollutants from past operations and current remedial activities may leave the site. This report covers the reporting period from January 1, 1992, through December 31, 1992, with the exception of Chapter Three, which provides information from the first quarter of 1993 as well as calendar year 1992 information. This 1992 report provides the general public as well as scientists and engineers with the results from the site`s ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Use included in this report are summary data of the sampling conducted to determine if the site complies with DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA) requirements. Finally, this report provides general information on the major waste management and environmental restoration activities during 1992.

  12. Uranium mining sites - Thematic sheets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A first sheet proposes comments, data and key numbers about uranium extraction in France: general overview of uranium mining sites, status of waste rock and tailings after exploitation, site rehabilitation. The second sheet addresses the sources of exposure to ionizing radiations due to ancient uranium mining sites: discussion on the identification of these sources associated with these sites, properly due to mining activities or to tailings, or due to the transfer of radioactive substances towards water and to the contamination of sediments, description of the practice and assessment of radiological control of mining sites. A third sheet addresses the radiological exposure of public to waste rocks, and the dose assessment according to exposure scenarios: main exposure ways to be considered, studied exposure scenarios (passage on backfilled path and grounds, stay in buildings built on waste rocks, keeping mineralogical samples at home). The fourth sheet addresses research programmes of the IRSN on uranium and radon: epidemiological studies (performed on mine workers; on French and on European cohorts, French and European studies on the risk of lung cancer associated with radon in housing), study of the biological effects of chronic exposures. The last sheet addresses studies and expertises performed by the IRSN on ancient uranium mining sites in France: studies commissioned by public authorities, radioactivity control studies performed by the IRSN about mining sites, participation of the IRSN to actions to promote openness to civil society

  13. Underground siting of nuclear power reactors, determination of site characteristics, and general site availability in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report details the criteria and conclusions developed by staff of the Energy Commission pertaining to general site availability for underground nuclear power plants. Establishing the existence of technically suitable siting areas was deemed an integral part of the overall study of underground nuclear power reactors. Specifically, this portion of the study deals with parameters, both physical and social, which could influence or limit the siting of underground nuclear power plants in California. Siting criteria were developed for two sub-surface concepts: (1) berm-contained plants, wherein the reactor and principal radioactivity-containing structures are covered with soil; and, (2) rock sited plants, wherein the reactor and principal systems are located in large caverns excavated in competent rock

  14. Site characterisation methods and data interpretation. The Drigg site characterisation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Further site characterisation work is being undertaken to underpin the impact assessment of BNFL's Drigg low level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal site. This site has been in operation for about forty years and is located approximately seven kilometres south of the Sellafield reprocessing plant in West Cumbria. The site accepts the majority of LLW produced in the U.K. which may be generated by hospitals and general industry as well as the nuclear industry itself. Historically, waste was tumble tipped into trenches which were then covered with an interim cap incorporating a plastic membrane. Waste is now placed in a concrete vault within steel Isofreight containers. This practice will continue through to the end of operations which is anticipated to be in the middle of the next century. Subsequently, a final closure cap will be emplaced over the disposal area. The five year Drigg Site Characterisation programme was, therefore, set up in order to improve and build upon our current understanding of the geology and hydrogeology of the site. The first one and a half years are devoted entirely to data acquisition with the greatest activity surrounding the drilling and geophysical aspects of the programme. Four years will be devoted to collecting a high quality time series data set of water levels, stream flows and meteorological variables and to produce a comprehensive interpretation of the hydrogeology of the site. The programme to date has been very successful and the acquired information has enabled us to start refining our geological model of the site which will then be used to underpin our eventual conceptual hydrogeological model. 3 refs

  15. Invasion Percolation Between two Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Araujo, A. D.; Vasconcelos, T. F.; A. A. Moreira; L. S. Lucena; Andrade, J. S.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the process of invasion percolation between two sites (injection and extraction sites) separated by a distance r in two-dimensional lattices of size L. Our results for the non-trapping invasion percolation model indicate that the statistics of the mass of invaded clusters is significantly dependent on the local occupation probability (pressure) Pe at the extraction site. For Pe=0, we show that the mass distribution of invaded clusters P(M) follows a power-law P(M) ~ M^{-\\alpha}...

  16. Remediation of former industrial sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The remediation of former industrial sites in now raising serious questions over the points of the sites investigation and of risk assessment, because it is necessary to take into account the ultimate aim of this process, being the reintegration of these sites into the surrounding social-economical context as well as their control. The case of the former uranium treatment units of Seelingstaedt (situated in the former East Germany) is a perfect illustration of the difficulties that may be encountered whilst important remediation projects take place. (author). 5 figs., 2 tabs

  17. Fracturing at the Bure site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of the evaluation of ANDRA's dossiers relative to the Meuse/Haute Marne site (Bure site), the IPSN (the French institute of radioprotection and nuclear safety) has carried out a structural survey of the site area which consists in: a morpho-structural analysis (impact of geologic fractures on the topography) using numerical field models (maps) at the regional and local scales, and a tectonic analysis in collaboration with the tectonophysics laboratory of Paris 6 university. This paper presents the results of this survey. (J.S.)

  18. Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Salmon Site Remedial Investigation Report provides the results of activities initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to determine if contamination at the Salmon Site poses a current or future risk to human health and the environment. These results were used to develop and evaluate a range of risk-based remedial alternatives. Located in Lamar County, Mississippi, the Salmon Site was used by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (predecessor to the DOE) between 1964 and 1970 for two nuclear and two gas explosions conducted deep underground in a salt dome. The testing resulted in the release of radionuclides into the salt dome. During reentry drilling and other site activities, liquid and solid wastes containing radioactivity were generated resulting in surface soil and groundwater contamination. Most of the waste and contaminated soil and water were disposed of in 1993 during site restoration either in the cavities left by the tests or in an injection well. Other radioactive wastes were transported to the Nevada Test Site for disposal. Nonradioactive wastes were disposed of in pits at the site and capped with clean soil and graded. The preliminary investigation showed residual contamination in the Surface Ground Zero mud pits below the water table. Remedial investigations results concluded the contaminant concentrations detected present no significant risk to existing and/or future land users, if surface institutional controls and subsurface restrictions are maintained. Recent sampling results determined no significant contamination in the surface or shallow subsurface. The test cavity resulting from the experiments is contaminated and cannot be economically remediated with existing technologies. The ecological sampling did not detect biological uptake of contaminants in the plants or animals sampled. Based on the current use of the Salmon Site, the following remedial actions were identified to protect both human health and the environment: (1) the

  19. 2006 Rose Site 26P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 26P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 29, 2004. With a start point...

  20. 2012 Rose Site 4P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 4P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on February 9, 2004. With a start point...

  1. 2006 Rose Site 29P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 29P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 31, 2004. With a start point...

  2. Topical Day on Site Remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ongoing activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre relating to site remediation and restoration are summarized. Special attention has been paid to the different phases of remediation including characterization, impact assessment, evaluation of remediation actions, and execution of remediation actions

  3. Hanford Site Environmental Report 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TM Poston; RW Hanf; RL Dirkes

    2000-09-28

    This Hanford Site environmental report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, to describe environmental management performance, to demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations, and to highlight major environmental programs and efforts. The report is written to meet requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and to meet the needs of the public. This summary has been written with a minimum of technical terminology. Individual sections of the report are designed to: (1) describe the Hanford Site and its mission; (2) summarize the status of compliance with environmental regulations; (3) describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site; (4) discuss the estimated radionuclide exposure to the public from 1999 Hanford Site activities; (5) present the effluent monitoring, environmental surveillance, groundwater protection and monitoring information; and (6) discuss the activities to ensure quality.

  4. Hanford Site 1998 Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RL Dirkes; RW Hanf; TM Poston

    1999-09-21

    This Hanford Site environmental report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, to describe environmental management performance, to demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations, and to highlight major environmental programs and efforts. The report is written to meet requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and to meet the needs of the public. This summary has been written with a minimum of technical terminology. Individual sections of the report are designed to: describe the Hanford Site and its mission; summarize the status of compliance with environmental regulations; describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site; discuss the estimated radionuclide exposure to the public from 1998 Hanford Site activities; present the effluent monitoring, environmental surveillance, and groundwater protection and monitoring information; and discuss the activities to ensure quality.

  5. Site Environmental Report for 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pauer, Ronald O. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Baskin, David [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Borglin, Ned [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Fox, Robert [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Harvey, Zachary [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Jelinski, John [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Thorson, Patrick [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wehle, Petra [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Xu, Suying [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The annual Site Environmental Report documents Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory’s performance in reducing its environmental impacts, progress toward cleaning up groundwater contamination, and compliance with applicable Department of Energy, federal, state, and local environmental regulations.

  6. Hanford Site Environmental Report 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Hanford Site environmental report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, to describe environmental management performance, to demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations, and to highlight major environmental programs and efforts. The report is written to meet requirements and guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and to meet the needs of the public. This summary has been written with a minimum of technical terminology. Individual sections of the report are designed to: (1) describe the Hanford Site and its mission; (2) summarize the status of compliance with environmental regulations; (3) describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site; (4) discuss the estimated radionuclide exposure to the public from 1999 Hanford Site activities; (5) present the effluent monitoring, environmental surveillance, groundwater protection and monitoring information; and (6) discuss the activities to ensure quality

  7. Drug Establishments Current Registration Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Drug Establishments Current Registration Site (DECRS) is a database of current information submitted by drug firms to register establishments (facilities) which...

  8. 2012 Rose Site 32P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 32P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on August 2, 2004. With a start point...

  9. 2012 Rose Site 29P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 29P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 31, 2004. With a start point...

  10. 2006 Johnston Site 6P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 6P was established at Johnston Atoll by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 3, 2000. With a start point (meter 0) at...

  11. 2012 Rose Site 23P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 23P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on February 10, 2004. With a start point...

  12. 2000 Johnston Site 4P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 4P was established at Johnston Atoll by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 1, 2000. With a start point (meter 0) at...

  13. 2004 Rose Site 23P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 23P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on February 10, 2004. With a start point...

  14. 2004 Rose Site 26P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 26P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 29, 2004. With a start point...

  15. 2000 Johnston Site 6P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 6P was established at Johnston Atoll by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 3, 2000. With a start point (meter 0) at...

  16. 2005 Rose Site 26P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 26P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish (5) = between meters 4 and 5). Quantitative analysis of the...

  17. 2002 Rose Site 7P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 7P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on February 24, 2002. With a start point...

  18. 2005 Rose Site 13P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 13P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish (5) = between meters 4 and 5). Quantitative analysis of the...

  19. 2012 Rose Site 26P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 26P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 29, 2004. With a start point...

  20. 2005 Rose Site 27P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 27P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish (5) = between meters 4 and 5). Quantitative analysis of the...

  1. 2004 Rose Site 7P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 7P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on February 24, 2002. With a start point...

  2. 2012 Rose Site 14P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 14P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on February 25, 2002. With a start point...

  3. 2012 Rose Site 28P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 28P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 29, 2004. With a start point...

  4. 2004 Rose Site 30P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 30P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 29, 2004. With a start point...

  5. 2004 Rose Site 5P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 5P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on February 20, 2002. With a start point...

  6. 2005 Rose Site 31P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 31P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish (5) = between meters 4 and 5). Quantitative analysis of the...

  7. 2004 Rose Site 32P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 32P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on August 2, 2004. With a start point...

  8. 2004 Rose Site 29P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 29P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 31, 2004. With a start point...

  9. 2002 Rose Site 5P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 5P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on February 20, 2002. With a start point...

  10. 2012 Rose Site 7P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 7P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on February 24, 2002. With a start point...

  11. 2004 Rose Site 14P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 14P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on February 25, 2002. With a start point...

  12. 2004 Rose Site 4P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 4P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on February 9, 2004. With a start point...

  13. 2004 Rose Site 28P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 28P was established off Rose Atoll, American Samoa by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 29, 2004. With a start point...

  14. 2000 Johnston Site 5P

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Underwater Site 5P was established at Johnston Atoll by Dr. James Maragos, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, on July 2, 2000. With a start point (meter 0) at...

  15. Sprucing up the site - update

    CERN Multimedia

    2009-01-01

    As mentioned in a previous article the Bulletin will be publishing regular short updates following the consolidation work going on around the CERN sites: All internal lighting is being replaced in the office buildings on the Prevessin site. Work has started in building 866 and will move to 864 and 865 later. New energy-efficient lights are being installed, which will reduce electricity consumption by 30 -50%, and in the common areas like corridors the lighting will be switched on by motion sensors. Also in the Prevessin site, the lines in the car parks are being repainted. This will continue in the Meyrin site later. Work has started in Building 30 to completely refurbish the AT Auditorium.

  16. Topical Day on Site Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandenhove, H. [ed.

    1996-09-18

    Ongoing activities at the Belgian Nuclear Research Centre relating to site remediation and restoration are summarized. Special attention has been paid to the different phases of remediation including characterization, impact assessment, evaluation of remediation actions, and execution of remediation actions.

  17. The Table Mountain Field Site

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Table Mountain Field Site, located north of Boulder, Colorado, is designated as an area where the magnitude of strong, external signals is restricted (by State...

  18. State Cancer Profiles Web site

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The State Cancer Profiles (SCP) web site provides statistics to help guide and prioritize cancer control activities at the state and local levels. SCP is a...

  19. Sensitive Sites - OSPR [ds358

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The data was created by reviewing the information contained in the Site Summaries of the Area Contingency Plan (ACP) section 9800. A summary of the document is:...

  20. National Ignition Facility site requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Site Requirements (SR) provide bases for identification of candidate host sites for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) and for the generation of data regarding potential actual locations for the facilities. The SR supplements the NIF Functional Requirements (FR) with information needed for preparation of responses to queries for input to HQ DOE site evaluation. The queries are to include both documents and explicit requirements for the potential host site responses. The Sr includes information extracted from the NIF FR (for convenience), data based on design approaches, and needs for physical and organization infrastructure for a fully operational NIF. The FR and SR describe requirements that may require new construction or may be met by use or modification of existing facilities. The SR do not establish requirements for NIF design or construction project planning. The SR document does not constitute an element of the NIF technical baseline

  1. Confidence assessment. Site-descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this report is to assess the confidence that can be placed in the Laxemar site descriptive model, based on the information available at the conclusion of the surface-based investigations (SDM-Site Laxemar). In this exploration, an overriding question is whether remaining uncertainties are significant for repository engineering design or long-term safety assessment and could successfully be further reduced by more surface-based investigations or more usefully by explorations underground made during construction of the repository. Procedures for this assessment have been progressively refined during the course of the site descriptive modelling, and applied to all previous versions of the Forsmark and Laxemar site descriptive models. They include assessment of whether all relevant data have been considered and understood, identification of the main uncertainties and their causes, possible alternative models and their handling, and consistency between disciplines. The assessment then forms the basis for an overall confidence statement. The confidence in the Laxemar site descriptive model, based on the data available at the conclusion of the surface based site investigations, has been assessed by exploring: - Confidence in the site characterization data base, - remaining issues and their handling, - handling of alternatives, - consistency between disciplines and - main reasons for confidence and lack of confidence in the model. Generally, the site investigation database is of high quality, as assured by the quality procedures applied. It is judged that the Laxemar site descriptive model has an overall high level of confidence. Because of the relatively robust geological model that describes the site, the overall confidence in the Laxemar Site Descriptive model is judged to be high, even though details of the spatial variability remain unknown. The overall reason for this confidence is the wide spatial distribution of the data and the consistency between

  2. Confidence assessment. Site-descriptive modelling SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    The objective of this report is to assess the confidence that can be placed in the Laxemar site descriptive model, based on the information available at the conclusion of the surface-based investigations (SDM-Site Laxemar). In this exploration, an overriding question is whether remaining uncertainties are significant for repository engineering design or long-term safety assessment and could successfully be further reduced by more surface-based investigations or more usefully by explorations underground made during construction of the repository. Procedures for this assessment have been progressively refined during the course of the site descriptive modelling, and applied to all previous versions of the Forsmark and Laxemar site descriptive models. They include assessment of whether all relevant data have been considered and understood, identification of the main uncertainties and their causes, possible alternative models and their handling, and consistency between disciplines. The assessment then forms the basis for an overall confidence statement. The confidence in the Laxemar site descriptive model, based on the data available at the conclusion of the surface based site investigations, has been assessed by exploring: - Confidence in the site characterization data base, - remaining issues and their handling, - handling of alternatives, - consistency between disciplines and - main reasons for confidence and lack of confidence in the model. Generally, the site investigation database is of high quality, as assured by the quality procedures applied. It is judged that the Laxemar site descriptive model has an overall high level of confidence. Because of the relatively robust geological model that describes the site, the overall confidence in the Laxemar Site Descriptive model is judged to be high, even though details of the spatial variability remain unknown. The overall reason for this confidence is the wide spatial distribution of the data and the consistency between

  3. GPS reference station siting tool

    OpenAIRE

    Macabiau, Christophe; Roturier, Benoit; Chatre, Eric; Renard, Alain

    2000-01-01

    The CNS Research Laboratory (URE-CNS) of the ENAC, in collaboration with the STNA and SEXTANT AVIONIQUE, is developing a tool for pro-viding DGPS reference stations siting guidelines for the French Civil Aviation Authority. This tool is based on computed error predictions using mathematical models, and on signal disturbance measurements made at preselected locations. The aim of the proposed paper is to present the complete siting tool which was developed along with some examples of its use sh...

  4. Step sites in syngas catalysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostrup-Nielsen, J.; Nørskov, Jens Kehlet

    2006-01-01

    Step sites play an important role in many catalytic reactions. This paper reviews recent results on metal catalysts for syngas reactions with emphasis on steam reforming. Modern characterization techniques (STEM, HREM...) and theoretical calculations (DFT) has allowed a more quantitative...... explanation of the impact of step sites on catalyst activity and side reactions such as carbon formation. This leads to a discussion of principles for catalyst promotion....

  5. Public health and landfill sites

    OpenAIRE

    Staines, Anthony; Crowley, D.; Bruen, M.; O'Connor, P.

    2004-01-01

    Landfill management is a complex discipline, requiring very high levels of organisation, and considerable investment. Until the early 1990’s most Irish landfill sites were not managed to modern standards. Illegal landfill sites are, of course, usually not managed at all. Landfills are very active. The traditional idea of ‘put it in the ground and forget about it’ is entirely misleading. There is a lot of chemical and biological activity underground. This produces complex changes in the che...

  6. CIVCAL. The virtual site visit

    OpenAIRE

    Kumaraswamy, Mohan

    2002-01-01

    CIVCAL is a comprehensive web-site, designed as a multimedia educational package to support undergraduate teaching and learning in civil engineering and building & construcion. It facilitates 'virtual site visits', bringing 'the field' to the students, to compensate for the increasing difficulties in taking students to the field. CIVCAL contains photographic images, animations, video clips and other devices with explanatory text that aim to convey useful experiences from past and present ...

  7. Radiation safety for site radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This guidance is an update of the 1975 Code of Practice for Site Radiography and is for the use of employers and their radiographers who carry out site work. The subject is discussed under the following headings: Administrative organization, Personnel requirements, Equipment (x-ray and gamma-ray equipment, security, pipeline crawler equipment and safety equipment) Work methods and monitoring, Carriage of sources, Contingency plans, Legal considerations. (U.K.)

  8. Site environmental report for 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brekke, D.D.; Holland, R.C.; Gordon, K.W. [ed.

    1995-12-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is committed to conducting its operations in an environmentally safe and sound manner. It is mandatory that activities at SNL/California comply with all applicable environmental statutes, regulations, and standards. Moreover, SNL/California continuously strives to reduce risks to employees, the public, and the environment to the lowest levels reasonably possible. To help verify effective protection of public safety and preservation of the environment, SNL/California maintains an extensive, ongoing environmental monitoring program. This program monitors all significant airborne and liquid effluents and the environment at the SNL/California site perimeter. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) performs off-site environmental monitoring for both sites. These monitoring efforts ensure that emission controls are effective in preventing contamination of the environment. As part of SNL/California`s Environmental Monitoring Program, an environmental surveillance system measures the possible presence of radioactive and hazardous materials in ambient air, surface water, groundwater, sewage, soil, vegetation, and locally-produced food-stuffs. The program also includes an extensive environmental dosimetry program, which measures external radiation levels around the Livermore site and nearby vicinity. Each year, the results of the Environmental Monitoring Program are published in this report, the Site Environmental Report This executive summary focuses on impacts to the environment and estimated radiation doses to the public from site emissions. Chapter 3, {open_quotes}Compliance Summary,{close_quotes} reviews the site`s various environmental protection activities and compliance status with applicable environmental regulations. The effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance results for 1994 show that SNL/California operations had no harmful effects on the environment or the public. A summary of the findings is provided below.

  9. Reviewing NPP Cernavoda site evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Nuclear Power Plant Cernavoda site was selected before the IAEA Safety Guide issue, during NUSS program development. The Romanian codes issued in 1976, as a regulatory body requirements, establish general criteria regarding safety concept and concentration limits of different radionuclides in air and water body and limits of individual or collective dose. In 1979 the Romanian Authority signed the contract with AECL to improve the CANDU-600 concept in the nuclear development programme and erection of 4 units on the Cernavoda site. The construction work started in 1980. In 1983 the former Romanian Government decided to build up another unit (finally it will be 5 units) on Cernavoda site, so the total gross electrical power we have 3,500 MW. The Canadian safety and quality standards or requirements was harmonized with the Romanian rules and regulations. Many studies, investigations and research were done to qualify the site and have a good knowledge about its characteristics coupled with CANDU-600 performance. The new evolution of the site was performed by Romanian technical staff in CITON and the final conclusions were favourable for erection and operation of NPP. The first unit of Cernavoda NPP is on operation and now the efforts are concentrated to continue the works for the unit 2. The paper underlines how the Cernavoda site characteristics meet IAEA Code of Practice and Safety Guides issued until now. (author)

  10. Chariot, Alaska Site Fact Sheet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Chariot site is located in the Ogotoruk Valley in the Cape Thompson region of northwest Alaska. This region is about 125 miles north of (inside) the Arctic Circle and is bounded on the southwest by the Chukchi Sea. The closest populated areas are the Inupiat villages of Point Hope, 32 miles northwest of the site, and Kivalina, 41 miles to the southeast. The site is accessible from Point Hope by ATV in the summer and by snowmobile in the winter. Project Chariot was part of the Plowshare Program, created in 1957 by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), a predecessor agency of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), to study peaceful uses for atomic energy. Project Chariot began in 1958 when a scientific field team chose Cape Thompson as a potential site to excavate a harbor using a series of nuclear explosions. AEC, with assistance from other agencies, conducted more than 40 pretest bioenvironmental studies of the Cape Thompson area between 1959 and 1962; however, the Plowshare Program work at the Project Chariot site was cancelled because of strong public opposition. No nuclear explosions were conducted at the site.

  11. Chariot, Alaska Site Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-01-16

    The Chariot site is located in the Ogotoruk Valley in the Cape Thompson region of northwest Alaska. This region is about 125 miles north of (inside) the Arctic Circle and is bounded on the southwest by the Chukchi Sea. The closest populated areas are the Inupiat villages of Point Hope, 32 miles northwest of the site, and Kivalina,41 miles to the southeast. The site is accessible from Point Hope by ATV in the summer and by snowmobile in the winter. Project Chariot was part of the Plowshare Program, created in 1957 by the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), a predecessor agency of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), to study peaceful uses for atomic energy. Project Chariot began in 1958 when a scientific field team chose Cape Thompson as a potential site to excavate a harbor using a series of nuclear explosions. AEC, with assistance from other agencies, conducted more than40 pretest bioenvironmental studies of the Cape Thompson area between 1959 and 1962; however, the Plowshare Program work at the Project Chariot site was cancelled because of strong public opposition. No nuclear explosions were conducted at the site.

  12. Savannah River Site computing architecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-03-29

    A computing architecture is a framework for making decisions about the implementation of computer technology and the supporting infrastructure. Because of the size, diversity, and amount of resources dedicated to computing at the Savannah River Site (SRS), there must be an overall strategic plan that can be followed by the thousands of site personnel who make decisions daily that directly affect the SRS computing environment and impact the site's production and business systems. This plan must address the following requirements: There must be SRS-wide standards for procurement or development of computing systems (hardware and software). The site computing organizations must develop systems that end users find easy to use. Systems must be put in place to support the primary function of site information workers. The developers of computer systems must be given tools that automate and speed up the development of information systems and applications based on computer technology. This document describes a proposal for a site-wide computing architecture that addresses the above requirements. In summary, this architecture is standards-based data-driven, and workstation-oriented with larger systems being utilized for the delivery of needed information to users in a client-server relationship.

  13. Site Environmental Report for 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is committed to conducting its operations in an environmentally safe and sound manner. It is mandatory that activities at SNL/California comply with all applicable environmental statutes, regulations, and standards. Moreover, SNL/California continuously strives to reduce risks to employees, the public, and the environment to the lowest levels reasonably possible. To help verify effective protection of public safety and preservation of the environment, SNL/California maintains an extensive, ongoing environmental monitoring program. This program monitors all significant effluents and the environment at the SNL/California site perimeter. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) performs off-site external radiation monitoring for both sites. These monitoring efforts ensure that emission controls are effective in preventing contamination of the environment. As part of SNL/California's Environmental Monitoring Program, an environmental surveillance system measures the possible presence of hazardous materials in groundwater, stormwater, and sewage. The program also includes an extensive environmental dosimetry program, which measures external radiation levels around the Livermore site and nearby vicinity. Each year, the results of the Environmental Monitoring Program are published in this report, the Site Environmental Report. This executive summary focuses on impacts to the environment. Chapter 3, ''Compliance Summary,'' reviews the site's various environmental protection activities and compliance status with applicable environmental regulations. The effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance results for 1998 show that SNL/California operations had no harmful effects on the environment or the public

  14. The Hanford Site focus, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes what the Hanford Site will look like in the next two years. We offer thumbnail sketches of Hanford Site programs and the needs we are meeting through our efforts. We describe our goals, some recent accomplishments, the work we will do in fiscal year (FY) 1994, the major activities the FY 1995 budget request covers, and the economic picture in the next few years. The Hanford Site budget shows the type of work being planned. US Department of Energy (DOE) sites like the Hanford Site use documents called Activity Data Sheets to meet this need. These are building blocks that are included in the budget. Each Activity Data Sheet is a concise (usually 4 or 5 pages) summary of a piece of work funded by the DOE's Environmental Restoration and Waste Management budget. Each sheet describes a waste management or environmental restoration need over a 5-year period; related regulatory requirements and agreements; and the cost, milestones, and steps proposed to meet the need. The Hanford Site is complex and has a huge budget, and its Activity Data Sheets run to literally thousands of pages. This report summarizes the Activity Data Sheets in a less detailed and much more reader-friendly fashion

  15. Hanford Site environmental management specification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) uses this Hanford Site Environmental Management Specification (Specification) to document top-level mission requirements and planning assumptions for the prime contractors involved in Hanford Site cleanup and infrastructure activities under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management. This Specification describes at a top level the activities, facilities, and infrastructure necessary to accomplish the cleanup of the Hanford Site and assigns this scope to Site contractors and their respective projects. This Specification also references the key National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), and safety documentation necessary to accurately describe the cleanup at a summary level. The information contained in this document reflects RL's application of values, priorities, and critical success factors expressed by those involved with and affected by the Hanford Site project. The prime contractors and their projects develop complete baselines and work plans to implement this Specification. These lower-level documents and the data that support them, together with this Specification, represent the full set of requirements applicable to the contractors and their projects. Figure 1-1 shows the relationship of this Specification to the other basic Site documents. Similarly, the documents, orders, and laws referenced in this specification represent only the most salient sources of requirements. Current and contractual reference data contain a complete set of source documents

  16. Hanford Site environmental management specification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grygiel, M.L.

    1998-06-10

    The US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) uses this Hanford Site Environmental Management Specification (Specification) to document top-level mission requirements and planning assumptions for the prime contractors involved in Hanford Site cleanup and infrastructure activities under the responsibility of the US Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management. This Specification describes at a top level the activities, facilities, and infrastructure necessary to accomplish the cleanup of the Hanford Site and assigns this scope to Site contractors and their respective projects. This Specification also references the key National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 (CERCLA), and safety documentation necessary to accurately describe the cleanup at a summary level. The information contained in this document reflects RL`s application of values, priorities, and critical success factors expressed by those involved with and affected by the Hanford Site project. The prime contractors and their projects develop complete baselines and work plans to implement this Specification. These lower-level documents and the data that support them, together with this Specification, represent the full set of requirements applicable to the contractors and their projects. Figure 1-1 shows the relationship of this Specification to the other basic Site documents. Similarly, the documents, orders, and laws referenced in this specification represent only the most salient sources of requirements. Current and contractual reference data contain a complete set of source documents.

  17. Site Environmental Report for 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holland, R.C.

    1999-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is committed to conducting its operations in an environmentally safe and sound manner. It is mandatory that activities at SNL/California comply with all applicable environmental statutes, regulations, and standards. Moreover, SNL/California continuously strives to reduce risks to employees, the public, and the environment to the lowest levels reasonably possible. To help verify effective protection of public safety and preservation of the environment, SNL/California maintains an extensive, ongoing environmental monitoring program. This program monitors all significant effluents and the environment at the SNL/California site perimeter. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) performs off-site external radiation monitoring for both sites. These monitoring efforts ensure that emission controls are effective in preventing contamination of the environment. As part of SNL/California's Environmental Monitoring Program, an environmental surveillance system measures the possible presence of hazardous materials in groundwater, stormwater, and sewage. The program also includes an extensive environmental dosimetry program, which measures external radiation levels around the Livermore site and nearby vicinity. Each year, the results of the Environmental Monitoring Program are published in this report, the Site Environmental Report. This executive summary focuses on impacts to the environment. Chapter 3, ''Compliance Summary,'' reviews the site's various environmental protection activities and compliance status with applicable environmental regulations. The effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance results for 1998 show that SNL/California operations had no harmful effects on the environment or the public.

  18. 1992 Fernald Site Environmental Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fernald site is a Department of Energy (DOE) owned facility that produced high-quality uranium metals for military defense for nearly 40 years. DOE suspended production at the Fernald site in 1989 and formally ended production in 1991. Although production activities have ceased, the site continues to examine the air and liquid pathways as possible routes through which pollutants from past operations and current remedial activities may leave the site. This report covers the reporting period from January 1, 1992, through December 31, 1992, with the exception of Chapter Three, which provides information from the first quarter of 1993 as well as calendar year 1992 information. This 1992 report provides the general public as well as scientists and engineers with the results from the site's ongoing Environmental Monitoring Program. Use included in this report are summary data of the sampling conducted to determine if the site complies with DOE, US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA), and Ohio EPA (OEPA) requirements. Finally, this report provides general information on the major waste management and environmental restoration activities during 1992

  19. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009, Attachment A: Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy Wills, ed.

    2010-09-13

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2009. Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  20. Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008 Attachment A: Site Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cathy A. Wills

    2009-09-01

    This attachment expands on the general description of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) presented in the Introduction to the Nevada Test Site Environmental Report 2008 (National Security Technologies, LLC [NSTec], 2009a). Included are subsections that summarize the site’s geological, hydrological, climatological, and ecological setting. The cultural resources of the NTS are also presented. The subsections are meant to aid the reader in understanding the complex physical and biological environment of the NTS. An adequate knowledge of the site’s environment is necessary to assess the environmental impacts of new projects, design and implement environmental monitoring activities for current site operations, and assess the impacts of site operations on the public residing in the vicinity of the NTS. The NTS environment contributes to several key features of the site that afford protection to the inhabitants of adjacent areas from potential exposure to radioactivity or other contaminants resulting from NTS operations. These key features include the general remote location of the NTS, restricted access, extended wind transport times, the great depths to slow-moving groundwater, little or no surface water, and low population density. This attachment complements the annual summary of monitoring program activities and dose assessments presented in the main body of this report.

  1. Subsurface characterization and geohydrologic site evaluation West Chestnut Ridge site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The West Chestnut Ridge Site at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory is being considered for use as a repository for low-level radioactive waste. The purposes of this study were to provide a geohydrological characterization of the site for use in pathways analysis, and to provide preliminary geotechnical recommendations that would be used for development of a site utilization plan. Subsurface conditions were investigated at twenty locations and observation wells were installed. Field testing at each location included the Standard Penetration Test and permeability tests in soil and rock. A well pumping test was ocmpleted at one site. Laboratory testing included permeability, deformability, strength and compaction tests, as well as index and physical property tests. The field investigations showed that the subsurface conditions include residual soil overlying a weathered zone of dolomite which grades into relatively unweathered dolomite at depth. The thickness of residual soil is typically 80 ft (24 m) on the ridges, but can be as little as 10 ft (3 m) in the valleys. Trench excavations to depths of 30 ft (9 m) should not present serious slope stability problems above the water table. On-site soils can be used for liners or trench backfill but these soils may require moisture conditioning to achieve required densities. 19 figures, 8 tables

  2. An Examination of Migration Patterns to Ontario Cities: Demarcating Ontario’s Periphery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean B. O’Hagan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study sets out to determine if similarities or differences exist in migration patterns for cities of northern Ontario and southern Ontario. Data is also grouped into large and small cities to establish if demographic success comes mostly from inter- or intraregional migrants. Relevant characteristics of individuals migrating in a knowledge economy, specifically education and employment data, are also examined. These findings are then placed within two important paradigms of economic geography, brain circulation and institutionalism. The intention is to measure migration patterns but also use these findings to re-evaluate the core-periphery model as it applies to northern and southern Ontario.

  3. Detection and Demarcation of Tumor using Vector Quantization in MRI images

    CERN Document Server

    Kekre, H B; Gharge, Saylee M

    2010-01-01

    Segmenting a MRI images into homogeneous texture regions representing disparate tissue types is often a useful preprocessing step in the computer-assisted detection of breast cancer. That is why we proposed new algorithm to detect cancer in mammogram breast cancer images. In this paper we proposed segmentation using vector quantization technique. Here we used Linde Buzo-Gray algorithm (LBG) for segmentation of MRI images. Initially a codebook of size 128 was generated for MRI images. These code vectors were further clustered in 8 clusters using same LBG algorithm. These 8 images were displayed as a result. This approach does not leads to over segmentation or under segmentation. For the comparison purpose we displayed results of watershed segmentation and Entropy using Gray Level Co-occurrence Matrix along with this method.

  4. Prediction error demarcates the transition from retrieval, to reconsolidation, to new learning

    OpenAIRE

    Sevenster, D.; Beckers, T.; Kindt, M

    2014-01-01

    Although disrupting reconsolidation is promising in targeting emotional memories, the conditions under which memory becomes labile are still unclear. The current study showed that post-retrieval changes in expectancy as an index for prediction error may serve as a read-out for the underlying processes engaged by memory reactivation. Minor environmental changes define whether retrieval induces memory reconsolidation or the initiation of a new memory trace even before fear extinction can be obs...

  5. Science or Pseudoscience: Does Science Education Demarcate? The Case of Chemistry and Alchemy in Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erduran, Sibel

    Themes from history and philosophy of chemistry have traditionally been absent in chemistry education. This paper targets the problem of demarcationism within the context of chemistry and alchemy. In so doing, it argues that demarcationism can be an appropriate base for bringing the historical and philosophical aspects of the discipline of…

  6. Creating a Demarcation Point between Content Production and Encoding in a Digital Classroom

    OpenAIRE

    Almeroth, Kevin; Rollins, Sami; Shen, Zhongnan; Bimber, Bruce

    2003-01-01

    Incorporating a significant amount of technology into a classroom is an important, but extremely difficult task. In this paper we describe the next generation of the UCSB digital classroom, called the Collaborative Technologies Lab (CTL). The primary goal of the CTL is to investigate the challenges of deploying technology for technology's sake. We feel that without the ability to deploy a large amount of technology and offer robust functionality, the whole idea of enhanced learning environ...

  7. Demarcation of informative chromosomes in tropical sweet corn inbred lines using microsatellite DNA markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedram Kashiani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A study of genetic variation among 10 pairs of chromosomes extracted from 13 tropical sweet corn inbred lines, using 99 microsatellite markers, revealed a wide range of genetic diversity. Allelic richness and the number of effective alleles per chromosome ranged from 2.78 to 4.33 and 1.96 to 3.47, respectively, with respective mean values of 3.62 and 2.73. According to the Shannon's information index (I and Nei's gene diversity coefficient (Nei, Chromosome 10 was the most informative chromosome (I = 1.311 and Nei = 0.703, while Chromosome 2 possessed the least (I = 0.762 and Nei = 0.456. Based on linkage disequilibrium (LD measurements for loci less than 50 cM apart on the same chromosome, all loci on Chromosomes 1, 6 and 7 were in equilibrium. Even so, there was a high proportion of genetic variation in Chromosomes 4, 5, 8, 9 and 10, thereby revealing their appropriateness for use in the genetic diversity investigations among tropical sweet corn lines. Chromosome 4, with the highest number of loci in linkage disequilibrium, was considered the best for marker-phenotype association and QTL mapping, followed by Chromosomes 5, 8, 9 and 10.

  8. The Context of Demarcation in Nature of Science Teaching: The Case of Astrology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turgut, Halil

    2011-01-01

    The aim of developing students' understanding of the nature of science [NOS] has been considered an important aspect of science education. However, the results of previous research indicate that students of various ages and even teachers possess both inaccurate and inappropriate views of the NOS. Such a failure has been explained by the view that…

  9. Intracranial pressure following complete removal of a small demarcated brain tumor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Morten; Juhler, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    intended to create a study population with as normal brains as possible. A new telemetric ICP monitoring device was implanted at the end of surgery and monitoring was conducted 2 and 4 weeks postoperatively. RESULTS: In the supine position, mean ICP was 0.5 ± 4.0 mm Hg at 4 weeks postoperatively. Postural...

  10. Demarcation of mutant-carrying regions in barley plants after ethylmethane-sulfonate seed treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P.

    1966-01-01

    The branching pattern of the barley plant is analyzed and the anatomical structure of the resting barley embryo studied in longitudinal and cross-sections as well as by dissection techniques. The frequency and distribution of ethylmethane-sulfonate induced chloroplast and morphological seedling...... present in the embryo of the seed. These will, however, not appear in plants under normal development.There are, according to the present analysis, 6 spikes for which 1 or 2 functional initial cells for their sporogenous tissue are already established in the embryo, i.e. at the time of mutagenic treatment...... mutants were analyzed in spikes classified according to their ontogenetic relationship. The frequency with which two spikes segregated identical mutants was determined by pairwise comparisons of all spikes in each plant. In this way the frequency of mutant cluster sharing between spikes and spike groups...

  11. Demarcation between Military and Humanitarian Activities in Afghanistan and the Role of Law

    OpenAIRE

    ROGER NASH

    2007-01-01

    Recent trends towards closer integration of military and humanitarian aspects of post-conflictreconstruction have raised questions as to the legal regime regulating such operations. The lack ofa guiding framework has in practice resulted in suboptimal division of labour between militaryand humanitarian actors, even when common political and humanitarian interests can beidentified.Afghanistan has in recent years seen significant involvement of international politicalactors in both military and...

  12. A timeline demarcating two waves of clonal deletion and Foxp3 upregulation during thymocyte development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Daniel Y; Yap, Jin Y; Wirasinha, Rushika C; Howard, Debbie R; Goodnow, Christopher C; Daley, Stephen R

    2016-04-01

    Thymocytes that bind strongly to self-antigens are prevented from becoming naive T cells by several mechanisms. They undergo clonal deletion at two stages of development; wave 1 in immature thymocytes lacking the medulla-homing chemokine receptor, CCR7, or wave 2 in more mature CCR7(+) thymocytes. Alternatively, self-reactive thymocytes upregulate Foxp3 to become T-regulatory cells. Here, we describe the differential timing of the two waves of deletion and Foxp3 upregulation relative to the immature proliferating stage. Proliferating thymocytes were pulse-labeled in normal C57BL/6 mice with 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU). Thymocytes progressed into wave 1 (CCR7(-)) and wave 2 (CCR7(+)) of clonal deletion ~2 and 5 days after proliferation, respectively. Foxp3 upregulation occurred between 4 and 8 days after proliferation, predominantly in thymocytes with a Helios(+) CCR7(+) phenotype. These findings establish a timeline that suggests that wave 1 of clonal deletion occurs in the thymic cortex, whereas wave 2 and Foxp3 upregulation both occur in the thymic medulla. PMID:26510893

  13. Demarcating Games and Play: Empathizing and systematizing as modes of being in the world

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rune Kristian; Hammar, Emil

    the ability to predict and respond to the behavior of non-agentive deterministic systems by analyzing input- operation-output relations and inferring the rules that govern such systems. This perspective is adapted to games from the empathizing-systematizing framework, which underlies the extreme male...... brain theory (ibid.). This theory suggests that the human mind has a finite capacity to understand the world, which is of an either empathizing or systematizing nature. The empathizing-systematizing framework posits, that an individual’s total capacity for understanding is finite so that an increase in...

  14. Borders, history and identities: symbolic struggle in indigenous land demarcation processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey Cordeiro Ferreira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The present article analyzes the issue of the border based upon a study of the experiences of the Terena indigenous people in Mato Grosso do Sul. This people lives in villages situated in an international border region. I present a number of theoretical reflections on symbolic conflicts, the border development process and its effects on indigenous societies. The article contains two analytic movements: 1. an analysis of the symbolic conflict permeating the legal processes, linked to the territorial conflicts between the Terena and rural producers, showing how the idea of the border is activated in the construction of political mechanisms for excluding and (delegitimizing ethnic groups; 2. an analysis of the State’s border policies, territorial dynamics and its confrontation with indigenous symbolic policies in different local situations along the border, which also form part of the symbolic struggle for recognition of the legitimacy of indigenous identities and territories.

  15. Site environmental report for 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is committed to conducting its operations in an environmentally safe and sound manner. It is mandatory that activities at SNL/California comply with all applicable environmental statutes, regulations, and standards. Moreover, SNL/California continuously strives to reduce risks to employees, the public, and the environment to the lowest levels reasonably possible. To help verify effective protection of public safety and preservation of the environment, SNL/California maintains an extensive, ongoing environmental monitoring program. This program monitors all significant airborne and liquid effluents and the environment at the SNL/California site perimeter. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) performs off-site environmental monitoring for both sites. These monitoring efforts ensure that emission controls are effective in preventing contamination of the environment. As part of SNL/California's Environmental Monitoring Program, an environmental surveillance system measures the possible presence of radioactive and hazardous materials in ambient air, surface water, groundwater, sewage, soil, vegetation, and locally-produced food-stuffs. The program also includes an extensive environmental dosimetry program, which measures external radiation levels around the Livermore site and nearby vicinity. Each year, the results of the Environmental Monitoring Program are published in this report, the Site Environmental Report This executive summary focuses on impacts to the environment and estimated radiation doses to the public from site emissions. Chapter 3, open-quotes Compliance Summary,close quotes reviews the site's various environmental protection activities and compliance status with applicable environmental regulations. The effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance results for 1994 show that SNL/California operations had no harmful effects on the environment or the public. A summary of the findings is provided below

  16. Site description of Laxemar at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-Site Laxemar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2009-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken site characterisation in two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to identify a suitable location for a geological repository of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method. The site investigations have been conducted in campaigns, punctuated by data freezes. After each data freeze, the site data have been analysed and modelling has been carried out with the overall purpose to develop a site descriptive model (SDM). The site descriptive model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It is also essential for safety assessment, since the SDM is the only source for site-specific input. Another important use of the site descriptive model is in the environmental impact assessment. An SDM is an integrated model of geology, thermal properties, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, bedrock transport properties and a description of the surface system. The site descriptive model compiled in the current report, SDM-Site Laxemar, presents an integrated understanding of the Laxemar-Simpevarp area (with special emphasis on the Laxemar subarea) at the completion of the surface-based investigations, which were conducted during the period 2002 to 2007. A summary is also provided of the abundant underlying data and the discipline specific models that support the site understanding. The description relies heavily on background reports that address, in particular, details of the data analyses and modelling of the different disciplines. The Laxemar-Simpevarp area is located in the province of Smaaland within the municipality of Oskarshamn, about 230 km south of Stockholm. The candidate area for site investigation is located along the shoreline of the strait of Kalmarsund, within a 1.8 billion year old suite of well preserved bedrock belonging to the Transscandinavian Igneous Belt formed during

  17. Site description of Forsmark at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-Site Forsmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2008-12-15

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB, has undertaken site characterisation in two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to identify a suitable location for a geological repository of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method. The site investigations have been conducted in campaigns, punctuated by data freezes. After each data freeze, the site data have been analysed and modelling has been carried out with the overall purpose to develop a site descriptive model (SDM). The site descriptive model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It is also essential for safety assessment, since the model is the only source for site-specific input. Another important use of the site descriptive model is in the environmental impact assessment. An SDM is an integrated model for geology, thermal properties, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, bedrock transport properties and a description of the surface system. The site descriptive model compiled in the current report, SDM-Site, presents an integrated understanding of the Forsmark area at the completion of the surface-based investigations, which were conducted at Forsmark during the period 2002 to 2007. It also provides a summary of the abundant underlying data and the discipline-specific models that support the site understanding. The description relies heavily on background reports that address, in particular, details in data analyses and modelling in the different disciplines. The Forsmark area is located in northern Uppland within the municipality of Oesthammar, about 120 km north of Stockholm. The candidate area for site investigation is located along the shoreline of Oeregrundsgrepen, within the north-western part of a major tectonic lens that formed between 1.87 and 1.85 billion years ago during the Svecokarelian orogeny. The candidate area is approximately 6 km long and 2 km wide. The

  18. Site description of Laxemar at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-Site Laxemar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Company (SKB) has undertaken site characterisation in two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to identify a suitable location for a geological repository of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method. The site investigations have been conducted in campaigns, punctuated by data freezes. After each data freeze, the site data have been analysed and modelling has been carried out with the overall purpose to develop a site descriptive model (SDM). The site descriptive model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It is also essential for safety assessment, since the SDM is the only source for site-specific input. Another important use of the site descriptive model is in the environmental impact assessment. An SDM is an integrated model of geology, thermal properties, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, bedrock transport properties and a description of the surface system. The site descriptive model compiled in the current report, SDM-Site Laxemar, presents an integrated understanding of the Laxemar-Simpevarp area (with special emphasis on the Laxemar subarea) at the completion of the surface-based investigations, which were conducted during the period 2002 to 2007. A summary is also provided of the abundant underlying data and the discipline specific models that support the site understanding. The description relies heavily on background reports that address, in particular, details of the data analyses and modelling of the different disciplines. The Laxemar-Simpevarp area is located in the province of Smaaland within the municipality of Oskarshamn, about 230 km south of Stockholm. The candidate area for site investigation is located along the shoreline of the strait of Kalmarsund, within a 1.8 billion year old suite of well preserved bedrock belonging to the Transscandinavian Igneous Belt formed during

  19. Site description of Forsmark at completion of the site investigation phase. SDM-Site Forsmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., SKB, has undertaken site characterisation in two different areas, Forsmark and Laxemar-Simpevarp, in order to identify a suitable location for a geological repository of spent nuclear fuel according to the KBS-3 method. The site investigations have been conducted in campaigns, punctuated by data freezes. After each data freeze, the site data have been analysed and modelling has been carried out with the overall purpose to develop a site descriptive model (SDM). The site descriptive model is used by repository engineering to design the underground facility and to develop a repository layout adapted to the site. It is also essential for safety assessment, since the model is the only source for site-specific input. Another important use of the site descriptive model is in the environmental impact assessment. An SDM is an integrated model for geology, thermal properties, rock mechanics, hydrogeology, hydrogeochemistry, bedrock transport properties and a description of the surface system. The site descriptive model compiled in the current report, SDM-Site, presents an integrated understanding of the Forsmark area at the completion of the surface-based investigations, which were conducted at Forsmark during the period 2002 to 2007. It also provides a summary of the abundant underlying data and the discipline-specific models that support the site understanding. The description relies heavily on background reports that address, in particular, details in data analyses and modelling in the different disciplines. The Forsmark area is located in northern Uppland within the municipality of Oesthammar, about 120 km north of Stockholm. The candidate area for site investigation is located along the shoreline of Oeregrundsgrepen, within the north-western part of a major tectonic lens that formed between 1.87 and 1.85 billion years ago during the Svecokarelian orogeny. The candidate area is approximately 6 km long and 2 km wide. The

  20. Instrumentation for CTA site characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Fruck, Christian; Ernenwein, Jean-Pierre; Mandát, Dušan; Schweizer, Thomas; Häfner, Dennis; Bulik, Tomasz; Cieslar, Marek; Costantini, Heide; Dominik, Michal; Ebr, Jan; Garczarczyk, Markus; Lorentz, Eckart; Pareschi, Giovanni; Pech, Miroslav; Puerto-Giménez, Irene; Teshima, Masahiro

    2015-01-01

    Many atmospheric and climatic criteria have to be taken into account for the selection of a suitable site for the next generation of imaging air-shower Cherenkov telescopes, the "Cherenkov Telescope Array" CTA. Such data are not available with sufficient precision or the comparability to allow for a comprehensive characterization of the proposed sites to be made. Identical cross-calibrated instruments have been developed which allow for precise comparison between sites, the cross-validation of existing data, and the ground-validation of satellite data. The site characterization work package of the CTA consortium opted to construct and deploy 9 copies of an autonomous multi-purpose weather sensor, incorporating an infrared cloud sensor a newly developed sensor for measuring the light of the night sky, and an All-Sky-Camera, the whole referred to as Autonomous Tool for Measuring Observatory Site COnditions PrEcisely (ATMOSCOPE). We present here the hardware that was combined into the ATMOSCOPE and characterize ...

  1. Recycling abandoned lead battery sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past, automobile batteries were recycled principally for their lead content. The waste generated at battery wrecking facilities consisted of spent acid, crushed casings (ebonite and plastic), and where secondary smelting was involved, matte, slag, and carbon from the smelting process. These waste products were generally disposed in an on-site in a landfill or stored in piles. If the facility shut down because further commercial operations were not financially viable, the waste piles remained to be addressed at a later date through remedial action or reclamation programs. There are many of these facilities in the US. Nationally, about 28 sites have been discovered by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the Superfund program and are under investigation or administrative orders for remedial action. A major remediation effort is now underway at the Gould Superfund Site in Portland, Oregon, which was operated as a secondary smelting facility between 1949 and 1981. This paper describes the nature of the contamination at the Gould site and the work conducted by Canonie Environmental Services Corp. (Canonie) to develop a process which would treat the waste from battery wrecking operations and produce revenue generating recyclable products while removing the source contamination (lead) from the site. The full-scale commercial plant is now operating and is expected to achieve a throughput rate of between 200 and 250 tons per day in the coming weeks

  2. Concept of a standard site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Containment limits the release of radioactive material from a reactor to the atmosphere. Correct siting increases the probability that the material will be well diluted before it reaches centres of population. Adequate provisions can be specified if the maximum acceptable consequences are defined and the rate of dispersal is known. It is shown that, with a few minor exceptions, the differences between the atmospheric dispersion rates at different power reactor sites are, for the practical purpose, insignificant. A standard site is therefore proposed (which, in concept, is comparable to that of standard man). The problem of providing a degree of containment suited to a particular site has always been difficult, mainly because the differences, like those between individual men, appear more important than they really are. The emphasis on details obscures the essential similarities. The definition of the standard site includes a new approach to the problem of estimating atmospheric dispersion rates. The usual approach is dominated by the concept of the minimum rate of dispersion in adverse weather of a maximum credible release of radioactive material. Tae new approach estimates not a minimum dispersion rate but the probability that any given rate will occur. With the information in this form a properly calculated risk can be taken when the required degree of containment rs specified. The paper gives the results of a direct experimental determination of the required probabilities. (author)

  3. Methodology of site protection studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preliminary studies preceding building of a nuclear facility aim at assessing the choice of a site and establishing operating and control procedures. These studies are of two types. Studies on the impact of environment on the nuclear facility to be constructed form one type and studies on the impact of nuclear facilities on the environment form the second type. A methodology giving a framework to studies of second type is presented. These studies are undertaken to choose suitable sites for nuclear facilities. After a preliminary selection of a site based on the first estimate, a detailed site study is undertaken. The procedure for this consists of five successive phases, namely, (1) an inquiry assessing the initial state of the site, (2) an initial synthesis of accumulated information for assessing the health and safety consequences of releases, (3) laboratory and field studies simulating the movement of waste products for a quantitative assessment of effects, (4) final synthesis for laying down the release limits and radiological control methods, and (5) conclusions based on comparing the data of final synthesis to the limits prescribed by regulations. These five phases are outlined. Role of periodic reassessments after the facility is in operation for same time is explained. (M.G.B.)

  4. High volume medical web sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, B; Elliott, G

    2000-01-01

    In 1998, 22 million individuals reported surfing the web for medical information, and this number will increase to over 30 million by 2000. Fifteen of the highest volume medical web sites are described in this paper. Sponsorship and/or ownership of the fifteen sites varied. The government sponsors one, and some are the products of well-known educational institutions. One site is supported by a consumer health organization, and the American Medical Association was in the top 15. However, the most common owners are commercial, for-profit businesses. Attributes of the ideal site were categorized, and include a robust privacy and disclosure statement with an emphasis on education and an appropriate role for advertising. The covering of Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) should be in a balanced and unbiased manner. There has to be an emphasis on knowledge based evidence as opposed to testimonials, and sources should be timely and reviewed. Bibliographies of authors need to be available. Hyperlinking to other web resources is valuable, as even the largest of sites cannot come close to covering all of medicine. PMID:10687272

  5. Mars exobiology landing sites for future exploration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landheim, Ragnhild; Greeley, Ronald; Desmarais, David; Farmer, Jack D.; Klein, Harold

    1993-01-01

    The selection of landing sites for Exobiology is an important issue for planning for future Mars missions. Results of a recent site selection study which focused on potential landing sites described in the Mars Landing Site Catalog are presented. In addition, basic Exobiology science objectives in Mars exploration are reviewed, and the procedures used in site evaluation and prioritization are outlined.

  6. Hanford Site Environmental Report 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirkes, R.L.; Hanf, R.W.; Woodruff, R.K. [eds.

    1994-06-01

    The Hanford Site Environmental Report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, describe environmental management performance, and demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations. The report also highlights major environmental programs and efforts. The report is written to meet reporting requirements and Guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) an to meet the needs of the public. This summary has been written with a minimum of technical terminology. Individual sections of the report are designed to (a) describe the Hanford Site and its mission, (b) summarize the status in 1993 of compliance with environmental regulations, (c) describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site, (d) discuss estimated radionuclide exposure to the public from 1993 Hanford activities, (e) present information on effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance, including ground-water protection and monitoring, (f) discuss activities to ensure quality. More detailed information can be found in the body of the report, the appendixes, and the cited references.

  7. Site selection: Past and present

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Site selection has been going on since the earliest times. The process has evolved through the Industrial Revolution to the present period of exploding population and environmental awareness. Now the work must be done both with increasing sophistication and greater transparency. Modern techniques for site selection have been developed during the last two decades or so, utilizing a teachable body of knowledge and a growing literature. Many firms and individuals have contributed to this growing field. The driving force has been the need for such a process in siting and licensing of critical facilities such as nuclear power plants. A list of crucial, documented steps for identifying social impacts and acceptability are provided. A recent innovation is the self-selection method developed by government. The Superconducting Supercollider serves as an example of this approach. Geological or geologically dependent factors often dominate the process. The role as engineering and environmental geoscientists is to provide responsible leadership, consultation, and communication to the effort

  8. Hanford site waste tank characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the on-going work in the characterization of the Hanford-Site high-level waste tanks. The waste in these tanks was produced as part of the nuclear weapons materials processing mission that occupied the Hanford Site for the first 40 years of its existence. Detailed and defensible characterization of the tank wastes is required to guide retrieval, pretreatment, and disposal technology development, to address waste stability and reactivity concerns, and to satisfy the compliance criteria for the various regulatory agencies overseeing activities at the Hanford Site. The resulting Tank Characterization Reports fulfill these needs, as well as satisfy the tank waste characterization milestones in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order

  9. Siting of geological disposal facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radioactive waste is generated from the production of nuclear energy and from the use of radioactive materials in industrial applications, research and medicine. The importance of safe management of radioactive waste for the protection of human health and the environment has long been recognized and considerable experience has been gained in this field. The Radioactive Waste Safety Standards (RADWASS) programme is the IAEA's contribution to establishing and promoting the basic safety philosophy for radioactive waste management and the steps necessary to ensure its implementation. This Safety Guide defines the process to be used and guidelines to be considered in selecting sites for deep geological disposal of radioactive wastes. It reflects the collective experience of eleven Member States having programmes to dispose of spent fuel, high level and long lived radioactive waste. In addition to the technical factors important to site performance, the Safety Guide also addresses the social, economic and environmental factors to be considered in site selection. 3 refs

  10. Lysimeter station for Saligny site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The transport of contaminants in the geological environment of a surface repository for radioactive waste (LILW) is strongly influenced by the rate of infiltration. One method to determine and assess the water balance (infiltration rate, evapotranspiration, runoff, etc.) is based on the use of lysimeters. The choice of lysimeters can be based only on a detailed knowledge of the Saligny site, the conformation of the soil and subsoil layers, the existing ecosystem and the usual habits of the population from surrounding areas. This paper intends to present the recommendations that could be implemented at the Saligny disposal site. According to the studies made, the most appropriate type of lysimeter for Saligny site is a non weighable monolithic lysimeter. This must meet the requirements for all determination made in the pre-operational period. After the repository construction starts, the lysimeter can be upgraded to weighable lysimeter, an instrument that provides the same results, but with very low measurement errors. (authors)

  11. Hanford Site Environmental Report 1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Hanford Site Environmental Report is prepared annually to summarize environmental data and information, describe environmental management performance, and demonstrate the status of compliance with environmental regulations. The report also highlights major environmental programs and efforts. The report is written to meet reporting requirements and Guidelines of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) an to meet the needs of the public. This summary has been written with a minimum of technical terminology. Individual sections of the report are designed to (a) describe the Hanford Site and its mission, (b) summarize the status in 1993 of compliance with environmental regulations, (c) describe the environmental programs at the Hanford Site, (d) discuss estimated radionuclide exposure to the public from 1993 Hanford activities, (e) present information on effluent monitoring and environmental surveillance, including ground-water protection and monitoring, (f) discuss activities to ensure quality. More detailed information can be found in the body of the report, the appendixes, and the cited references

  12. Site characterization of the West Chestnut Ridge site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report summarizes the results of investigations performed to date on the West Chestnut Ridge Site, on the Department of Energy (DOE) Oak Ridge Reservation. The investigations performed include geomorphic observations, areal geologic mapping, surficial soil mapping, subsurface investigations, soil geochemical and mineralogical analyses, geohydrologic testing, groundwater fluctuation monitoring, and surface water discharge and precipitation monitoring. 33 references, 32 figures, 24 tables

  13. SITE-94. Chemical and physical transport parameters for SITE-94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Karin [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Technical Environmental Planning

    1996-02-01

    Important parameters are the interactions of radionuclides with solid surfaces, parameters describing the geometrical conditions like porosity, data on water composition (ionic strength, pH, redox conditions, complex formers etc) and data on the solids that may be of importance to the water and radionuclide chemistry. In this report some of these data of relevance for the Aespoe site are discussed. Based on a literature survey, sorption data as well as values for some other parameters have been selected for rock, fracture fillings and bentonite relevant to the chemical conditions in and around a repository at Aespoe. A comparison to data used for earlier, site-specific as well as general, safety assessments of underground repositories has been performed. The data are recommendations for modelling of radionuclide release from a hypothetical high level waste repository at Aespoe. Since the data to a large extent are not based on experimental measurements, more accurate predictions may be expected if more experimental data are available. Before such studies are performed for a specific site, a variational analysis in order to evaluate the importance of the single parameters is recommended. After such a study, the key parameters may be investigated in detail and the modelling can be expected to be more accurate what concerns influence of single parameters. However, the uncertainty in conceptual areas like how to model accurately the long term hydrology of the site etc still remains. 32 refs.

  14. French uranium mining sites remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following a presentation of the COGEMA's general policy for the remediation of uranium mining sites and the regulatory requirements, the current phases of site remediation operations are described. Specific operations for underground mines, open pits, milling facilities and confining the milled residues to meet long term public health concerns are detailed and discussed in relation to the communication strategies to show and explain the actions of COGEMA. A brief review of the current remediation situation at the various French facilities is finally presented. (author)

  15. Site survey method and apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disclosure of the invention is directed to a site survey ground vehicle based apparatus and method for automatically detecting source materials, such as radioactivity, marking the location of the source materials, such as with paint, and mapping the location of the source materials on a site. The apparatus of the invention is also useful for collecting and analyzing samples. The apparatus includes a ground vehicle, detectors mounted at the front of the ground vehicle, and individual detector supports which follow somewhat irregular terrain to allow consistent and accurate detection, and autolocation equipment. 19 figures

  16. The SME (site margin earthquake)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A methodology is proposed for assessing the seismic safety margin of existing CANDU nuclear generating stations. The available seismic margin assessment approaches and the unique features of the CANDU system, were appraised. The proposed methodology includes: the characterization of the site margin earthquake, the definition of the performance criteria for the elements of a success path and determination of its seismic withstand capacity. It is proposed that the margin earthquake be established on the basis of a combined approach of using historical records and regional seismotectonic and site specific evaluations. The ability of the components and systems to withstand the margin earthquake is determined by database comparisons, inspection and analysis. (author)

  17. Designing a responsive web site

    OpenAIRE

    Fejzić , Diana

    2016-01-01

    Due to the increasing prevalence of smartphones and tablet computers design became a crucial part of web design. For a user, responsive web design enables the best user experience, regardless of whether a user is visiting the site via a mobile phone, a tablet or a computer. This thesis covers the process of planning, designing and responsive web site development, for a fictitious company named “Creative Design d.o.o.”, with the help of web technologies. In the initial part of the thesis, w...

  18. The pedagogy of memorial sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiza Kończyk

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Memorial site pedagogy is a term describing the practice and theory of historico-political education in museums in former nazi concentration camps. It combines gaining and deepening historical knowledge on the topic of World War II with self-development and shaping socially desirable attitudes, through usage of non-formal educational methods. Pedagogy of memorial sites aims at, among other things, learning tolerance and respect for diversity and shaping reflective and active members of society. It offers an answer to the needs of contemporary European societies in the area of strengthening democratic attitudes.

  19. Efficient on-site construction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Hvam, Lars

    2011-01-01

    Purpose – This research aims to analyse the implementation of a German platform for housing projects through a successful case on modern methods of construction featuring efficient on-site construction. Through continuous development, the platform has been carefully designed to suit a carefully...... costing); and incremental rather than radical innovation. Originality/value – The findings challenge the predominant understanding of industrialisation of the construction processes, illustrating how substantial improvements can be achieved through platform thinking, on-site production and traditional...... construction practices....

  20. Drupal 6 site blueprints LITE

    CERN Document Server

    Ogunjobi, Timi

    2011-01-01

    Each chapter is dedicated to a hands-on example project, which are based on fictitious web site development briefs that illustrate practical ways of applying Drupal. Each chapter contains step-by-step instructions for building the web project, aided by the extensive use of screenshots. When you have completed each project, you will have the knowledge and confidence to apply the techniques you have learned to create your own custom web application. This book is for anybody who wants to build Drupal sites, and see how to apply the many available Drupal plugins and features in different scenarios

  1. Joomla! 15 Site Blueprints LITE

    CERN Document Server

    Ogunjobi, Timi

    2011-01-01

    Each chapter is dedicated to a hands-on example project, which are based on fictitious web site development briefs that illustrate practical ways of applying Joomla!. Each chapter contains step-by-step instructions for building the web project, aided by the extensive use of screenshots. When you have completed each project, you will have the knowledge and confidence to apply the techniques you have learned to create your own custom web application. This book is for anybody who wants to build Joomla! sites, and see how to apply the many available Joomla! plugins and features in different scenar

  2. NGNP Site Selection Status Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides an overview of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) licensing process, the preliminary site activities that have taken place in the current fiscal year (FY-06), and the site-related plans for FY-07. The NRC maintains oversight of the construction and operation of a facility throughout its lifetime to assure compliance with the Commission's regulations for the protection of public health and safety, the common defense and security, and the environment. To implement this process, all nuclear power plant applications must undergo a safety review, an environmental review, and antitrust review by the NRC.

  3. 2011 ANNUAL SITE ENVIRONMENTAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, A.; Eddy, T.; Jannik, T.; Terry, B.; Cauthen, K.; Coward, L.; Dunaway-Ackerman, J.; Wilson, M.; Hutchison, J.; O' Quinn, S.

    2012-10-01

    The Savannah River Site Environmental Report for 2011 (SRNS-STI-2012-00200) is prepared for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) according to requirements of DOE Order 231.1 B, “Environment, Safety and Health Reporting." The annual SRS Environmental Report has been produced for more than 50 years. Several hundred copies are and interested individuals. The report’s purpose is to: present summary environmental data that characterize site environmental management performance; describe compliance status with respect to environmental standards and requirements; highlight significant programs and efforts.

  4. Site investigations: Strategy for rock mechanics site descriptive model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Johan [JA Streamflow AB, Aelvsjoe (Sweden); Christiansson, Rolf [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Hudson, John [Rock Engineering Consultants, Welwyn Garden City (United Kingdom)

    2002-05-01

    As a part of the planning work for the Site Investigations, SKB has developed a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Modelling Strategy. Similar strategies are being developed for other disciplines. The objective of the strategy is that it should guide the practical implementation of evaluating site specific data during the Site Investigations. It is also understood that further development may be needed. This methodology enables the crystalline rock mass to be characterised in terms of the quality at different sites, for considering rock engineering constructability, and for providing the input to numerical models and performance assessment calculations. The model describes the initial stresses and the distribution of deformation and strength properties of the intact rock, of fractures and fracture zones, and of the rock mass. The rock mass mechanical properties are estimated by empirical relations and by numerical simulations. The methodology is based on estimation of mechanical properties using both empirical and heroretical/numerical approaches; and estimation of in situ rock stress using judgement and numerical modelling, including the influence of fracture zones. These approaches are initially used separately, and then combined to produce the required characterisation estimates. The methodology was evaluated with a Test Case at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden. The quality control aspects are an important feature of the methodology: these include Protocols to ensure the structure and coherence of the procedures used, regular meetings to enhance communication, feedback from internal and external reviewing, plus the recording of an audit trail of the development steps and decisions made. The strategy will be reviewed and, if required, updated as appropriate.

  5. Update on environmental site assessment requirements at drilling waste sites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Details of recent changes to environmental site assessment (ESA) requirements at drilling waste sites were presented. Drilling wastes are typically disposed of into soil on the well site or adjacent forested or agricultural land. Wastes can become a source of contamination if the disposal is improperly conducted. Drilling fluids are often saline and contain other additives such as heavy metals and hydrocarbons. Alberta Environment's reclamation certification program has instituted changes representing an increased focus on ensuring that well sites are free of contamination. ESAs must focus on potential areas of contamination, including drilling waste disposal areas. Three compliance options were presented in a guidance document for assessing drilling waste disposal areas. Option 1 was to be used to complete a Phase 1 ESA for disposal areas that have Alberta Energy and Utility Board (EUB) Guide 50 notification information available. Option 2 provides Phase 1 ESA requirements for sites that do not have Guide 50 notification information. Option 3 provided specific Phase 2 ESA requirements for drilling waste disposal areas. Consultants, members of industry and regulators have identified a number of additions and clarifications that could improve the document. Methods for assessing the impact of drill stem test returns under Options 1 and 2 are now being considered. It was observed that lime and gypsum have caused confusion as research now suggests they have less influence on waste salinity than has been assumed in the salt calculations. It was concluded that members of the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) intend to gather data to further assess the influences of lime and gypsum, as well as data to evaluate the relationships between barium analytical data and barite calculations. Other amendments will include: the ability to use actual mix ratios in the calculations; improved guidance for sampling sumps; and general revisions to improve clarity

  6. Site investigations: Strategy for rock mechanics site descriptive model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a part of the planning work for the Site Investigations, SKB has developed a Rock Mechanics Site Descriptive Modelling Strategy. Similar strategies are being developed for other disciplines. The objective of the strategy is that it should guide the practical implementation of evaluating site specific data during the Site Investigations. It is also understood that further development may be needed. This methodology enables the crystalline rock mass to be characterised in terms of the quality at different sites, for considering rock engineering constructability, and for providing the input to numerical models and performance assessment calculations. The model describes the initial stresses and the distribution of deformation and strength properties of the intact rock, of fractures and fracture zones, and of the rock mass. The rock mass mechanical properties are estimated by empirical relations and by numerical simulations. The methodology is based on estimation of mechanical properties using both empirical and heroretical/numerical approaches; and estimation of in situ rock stress using judgement and numerical modelling, including the influence of fracture zones. These approaches are initially used separately, and then combined to produce the required characterisation estimates. The methodology was evaluated with a Test Case at the Aespoe Hard Rock Laboratory in Sweden. The quality control aspects are an important feature of the methodology: these include Protocols to ensure the structure and coherence of the procedures used, regular meetings to enhance communication, feedback from internal and external reviewing, plus the recording of an audit trail of the development steps and decisions made. The strategy will be reviewed and, if required, updated as appropriate

  7. Region 9 NPL Site (Polygons) 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NPL site POLYGON locations for the US EPA Region 9. NPL (National Priorities List) sites are hazardous waste sites that are eligible for extensive long-term cleanup...

  8. Region 9 NPL Sites (Points) 2015

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NPL site point locations for the US EPA, Region 9. NPL (National Priorities List) sites are hazardous waste sites that are eligible for extensive long-term cleanup...

  9. Region 9 NPL Site Polygons - 2014

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — NPL site POLYGON locations for the US EPA Region 9. NPL (National Priorities List) sites are hazardous waste sites that are eligible for extensive long-term cleanup...

  10. Leaking Underground Storage Tank Sites in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Leaking Underground Storage Tank (LUST) sites where petroleum contamination has been found. There may be more than one LUST site per UST site.

  11. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high- level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considered for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has found that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of the five sites suitable for characterization.

  12. Environmental assessment: Davis Canyon site, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    1986-05-01

    In February 1983, the US Department of Energy (DOE) identified the Davis Canyon site in Utah as one of the nine potentially acceptable sites for a mined geologic repository for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste. To determine their suitability, the Davis Canyon site and the eight other potentially acceptable sites have been evaluated in accordance with the DOE's General Guidelines for the Recommendation of Sites for the Nuclear Waste Repositories. These evaluations were reported in draft environmental assessments (EAs), which were issued for public review and comment. After considering the comments received on the draft EAs, the DOE prepared the final EA. The Davis Canyon site is in the Paradox Basin, which is one of five distinct geohydrologic settings considering for the first repository. This setting contains one other potentially acceptable site -- the Lavender Canyon site. Although the Lavender Canyon site is suitable for site characterization, the DOE has concluded that the Davis Canyon site is the preferred site in the Paradox Basin. On the basis of the evaluations reported in this EA, the DOE has found that the Davis Canyon site is not disqualified under the guidelines. Furthermore, the DOE has found that the site is suitable for site characterization because the evidence does not support a conclusion that the site will not be able to meet each of the qualifying conditions specified in the guidelines. On the basis of these findings, the DOE is nominating the Davis Canyon site as one of five sites suitable for characterization.

  13. Site cleanup lessons learned: formerly utilized sites remedial action program (FUSRAP) Middlesex Site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Middlesex Site discussed in this paper is the Middlesex Sampling Plant (MSP) property, some properties adjacent to the plant, and some vicinity properties. This site has been designated as part of the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). The steps taken during the decontamination and restoration work are described; there is also discussion of special equipment, new techniques, unexpected problems, and lessons learned which might be applicable to future remedial action tasks. The remedial actions resulted in moving the contaminated materials from the adjacent and vicinity properties to an interim stockpile area. At the stockpile area the material is protected and migration prevented under a controlled monitoring program. Determination of the final disposition of the material has not been made. 33 figures

  14. World's finest tech sites immortalised

    CERN Multimedia

    2008-01-01

    They may have transformed man's understanding of the universe but the monumental impact of the world's first large radio telescope and the planet's largest particle physics lab has never been fully recognised. Now both Jodrell Bank and CERN are among the technological landmarks that could be immortalised alongside the pyramids of Egypt and Taj Mahal on UNESCO's World Heritage Site (WHS) list.

  15. Remote sensing for site characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Friedrich, (Edited By); King, Trude V.; Hoerig, Bernhard; Peters, Douglas C.

    2000-01-01

    This volume, Remote Sensing for Site Characterization, describes the feasibility of aircraft- and satellite-based methods of revealing environmental-geological problems. A balanced ratio between explanations of the methodological/technical side and presentations of case studies is maintained. The comparison of case studies from North America and Germany show how the respective territorial conditions lead to distinct methodological approaches.

  16. Hanford Site Ecological Quality Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bilyard, Gordon R.; Sackschewsky, Michael R.; Tzemos, Spyridon

    2002-02-17

    This report reviews the ecological quality profile methodology and results for the Hanford Site. It covers critical ecological assets and terrestrial resources, those in Columbia River corridor and those threatened and engdangered, as well as hazards and risks to terrestrial resources. The features of a base habitat value profile are explained, as are hazard and ecological quality profiles.

  17. CTBT on-site inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zucca, J. J. [Principal Deputy, Global Security Directorate, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California (United States)

    2014-05-09

    On-site inspection (OSI) is a critical part of the verification regime for the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The OSI verification regime provides for international inspectors to make a suite of measurements and observations on site at the location of an event of interest. The other critical component of the verification regime is the International Monitoring System (IMS), which is a globally distributed network of monitoring stations. The IMS along with technical monitoring data from CTBT member countries, as appropriate, will be used to trigger an OSI. After the decision is made to carry out an OSI, it is important for the inspectors to deploy to the field site rapidly to be able to detect short-lived phenomena such as the aftershocks that may be observable after an underground nuclear explosion. The inspectors will be on site from weeks to months and will be working with many tens of tons of equipment. Parts of the OSI regime will be tested in a field exercise in the country of Jordan late in 2014. The build-up of the OSI regime has been proceeding steadily since the CTBT was signed in 1996 and is on track to becoming a deterrent to someone considering conducting a nuclear explosion in violation of the Treaty.

  18. NATIONAL ACADEMY PRESS WEB SITE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Academy Press is the publisher for the National Academy of Sciences, the National Academy of Engineering, the Institute of Medicine, and the National Research Council. Through this web site, you have access to a virtual treasure trove of books, reports and publicatio...

  19. Status report: Fernald site remediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Fernald site is rapidly transitioning from a Remedial Investigation/ Feasibility Study (RI/FS) site to one where design and construction of the remedies dominates. Fernald is one of the first sites in the Department of Energy (DOE) complex to accomplish this task and real physical progress is being made in moving the five operable units through the CERCLA process. Two of the required Records of Decision (ROD) are in hand and all five operable units will have received their RODs (IROD for OU3) by the end of 1995. Pre-design investigations, design work or construction are now in progress on the operable units. The lessons learned from the work done to date include implementing innovations in the RI and FS process as well as effective use of Removal Actions to begin the actual site remediation. Also, forging close working relationships with the Federal and State Regulators, citizens action groups and the Fernald Citizens Task Force has helped move the program forward. The Fernald successes have been achieved by close coordination and cooperation among all groups working on the projects and by application of innovative technologies within the decision making process

  20. Interactive Web Sites for Teens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haycock, Ken

    2005-01-01

    Eighty-three percent of teenagers are online. The average teen spends 5 to 10 hours a week on the Web. When using Web sites, teenagers are easily bored. Teenagers are also not nearly as skilled as adults at navigating the Web and do not really care for glitzy graphics. Insufficient reading skills, immature research strategies, and unwillingness to…