WorldWideScience

Sample records for breaking resolution limits

  1. Breaking time-resolution limits in pulse radiolysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jinfeng; Kondoh, Takafumi; Norizawa, Kimihiro; Yoshida, Yoichi; Tagawa, Seiichi

    2009-01-01

    Pulse radiolysis, which is a time-resolved stroboscopic method based on ultrashort electron pulse and ultrashort analyzing light, is widely used for the study of the chemical kinetics and radiation primary processes or reactions. Although it has become possible to use femtosecond-pulse electron beam and femtosecond laser light in pulse radiolysis, the resolution is limited by the difference in group velocities of the electrons and the light in sample. In this contribution, we introduce a concept of equivalent velocity spectroscopy (EVS) into pulse radiolysis and demonstrate the methodology experimentally. In EVS, both the electron and the analyzing light pulses precisely overlap at every point in the sample and throughout the propagation time by rotating the electron pulse. The advance allows us to overcome the resolution degradation due to the different group velocity. We also present a method for measuring the rotated angle of the electron pulse and a technique for rotating the electron pulse with a deflecting cavity.

  2. Breaking the Crowther limit: Combining depth-sectioning and tilt tomography for high-resolution, wide-field 3D reconstructions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hovden, Robert, E-mail: rmh244@cornell.edu [School of Applied and Engineering Physics and Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Ercius, Peter [National Center for Electron Microscopy, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States); Jiang, Yi [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Wang, Deli; Yu, Yingchao; Abruña, Héctor D. [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Elser, Veit [Department of Physics, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States); Muller, David A. [School of Applied and Engineering Physics and Kavli Institute at Cornell for Nanoscale Science, Cornell University, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2014-05-01

    To date, high-resolution (<1 nm) imaging of extended objects in three-dimensions (3D) has not been possible. A restriction known as the Crowther criterion forces a tradeoff between object size and resolution for 3D reconstructions by tomography. Further, the sub-Angstrom resolution of aberration-corrected electron microscopes is accompanied by a greatly diminished depth of field, causing regions of larger specimens (>6 nm) to appear blurred or missing. Here we demonstrate a three-dimensional imaging method that overcomes both these limits by combining through-focal depth sectioning and traditional tilt-series tomography to reconstruct extended objects, with high-resolution, in all three dimensions. The large convergence angle in aberration corrected instruments now becomes a benefit and not a hindrance to higher quality reconstructions. A through-focal reconstruction over a 390 nm 3D carbon support containing over 100 dealloyed and nanoporous PtCu catalyst particles revealed with sub-nanometer detail the extensive and connected interior pore structure that is created by the dealloying instability. - Highlights: • Develop tomography technique for high-resolution and large field of view. • We combine depth sectioning with traditional tilt tomography. • Through-focal tomography reduces tilts and improves resolution. • Through-focal tomography overcomes the fundamental Crowther limit. • Aberration-corrected becomes a benefit and not a hindrance for tomography.

  3. Breaking the Crowther limit: Combining depth-sectioning and tilt tomography for high-resolution, wide-field 3D reconstructions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hovden, Robert; Ercius, Peter; Jiang, Yi; Wang, Deli; Yu, Yingchao; Abruña, Héctor D.; Elser, Veit; Muller, David A.

    2014-01-01

    To date, high-resolution ( 6 nm) to appear blurred or missing. Here we demonstrate a three-dimensional imaging method that overcomes both these limits by combining through-focal depth sectioning and traditional tilt-series tomography to reconstruct extended objects, with high-resolution, in all three dimensions. The large convergence angle in aberration corrected instruments now becomes a benefit and not a hindrance to higher quality reconstructions. A through-focal reconstruction over a 390 nm 3D carbon support containing over 100 dealloyed and nanoporous PtCu catalyst particles revealed with sub-nanometer detail the extensive and connected interior pore structure that is created by the dealloying instability. - Highlights: • Develop tomography technique for high-resolution and large field of view. • We combine depth sectioning with traditional tilt tomography. • Through-focal tomography reduces tilts and improves resolution. • Through-focal tomography overcomes the fundamental Crowther limit. • Aberration-corrected becomes a benefit and not a hindrance for tomography

  4. Origins Space Telescope: Breaking the Confusion Limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Edward L.; Origins Space Telescope Science and Technology Definition Team

    2018-01-01

    The Origins Space Telescope (OST) is the mission concept for the Far-Infrared Surveyor, one of the four science and technology definition studies of NASA Headquarters for the 2020 Astronomy and Astrophysics Decadal survey. Origins will enable flagship-quality general observing programs led by the astronomical community in the 2030s.OST will have a background-limited sensitivity for a background 27,000 times lower than the Herschel background caused by thermal emission from Herschel's warm telescope. For continuum observations the confusion limit in a diffraction-limited survey can be reached in very short integration times at longer far-infrared wavelengths. But the confusion limit can be pierced for both the nearest and the farthest objects to be observed by OST. For outer the Solar System the targets' motion across the sky will provide a clear signature in surveys repeated after an interval of days to months. This will provide a size-frequency distribution of TNOs that is not biased toward high albedo objects.For the distant Universe the first galaxies and the first metals will provide a third dimension of spectral information that can be measured with a long-slit, medium resolution spectrograph. This will allow 3Dmapping to measure source densities as a function of redshift. The continuum shape associated with sourcesat different redshifts can be derived from correlation analyses of these 3D maps.Fairly large sky areas can be scanned by moving the spacecraft at a constant angular rate perpendicular to the orientation of the long slit of the spectrograph, avoiding the high overhead of step-and-stare surveying with a large space observatory.We welcome you to contact the Science and Technology Definition Team (STDT) with your science needs and ideas by emailing us at ost_info@lists.ipac.caltech.edu

  5. Interstellar scattering and resolution limitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dennison, B.

    1987-01-01

    Density irregularities in both the interplanetary medium and the ionized component of the interstellar medium scatter radio waves, resulting in limitations on the achievable resolution. Interplanetary scattering (IPS) is weak for most observational situations, and in principle the resulting phase corruption can be corrected for when observing with sufficiently many array elements. Interstellar scattering (ISS), on the other hand, is usually strong at frequencies below about 8 GHz, in which case intrinsic structure information over a range of angular scales is irretrievably lost. With the earth-space baselines now planned, it will be possible to search directly for interstellar refraction, which is suspected of modulating the fluxes of background sources. 14 references

  6. Lower Limits on Soft Supersymmetry-Breaking Scalar Masses

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John R.; Olive, Keith A.; Ellis, John; Olive, Keith A.

    2002-01-01

    Working in the context of the CMSSM, we argue that phenomenological constraints now require the universal soft supersymmetry-breaking scalar mass m_0 be non-zero at the input GUT scale. This conclusion is primarily imposed by the LEP lower limit on the Higgs mass and the requirement that the lightest supersymmetric particle not be charged. We find that m_0 > 0 for all tan beta if mu 0 only when tan beta sim 8 and one allows an uncertainty of 3+ GeV in the theoretical calculation of the Higgs mass. Upper limits on flavour-changing neutral interactions in the MSSM squark sector allow substantial violations of non-universality in the m_0 values, even if their magnitudes are comparable to the lower limit we find in the CMSSM. Also, we show that our lower limit on m_0 at the GUT scale in the CMSSM is compatible with the no-scale boundary condition m_0 = 0 at the Planck scale.

  7. Resolution limits for wave equation imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yunsong

    2014-08-01

    Formulas are derived for the resolution limits of migration-data kernels associated with diving waves, primary reflections, diffractions, and multiple reflections. They are applicable to images formed by reverse time migration (RTM), least squares migration (LSM), and full waveform inversion (FWI), and suggest a multiscale approach to iterative FWI based on multiscale physics. That is, at the early stages of the inversion, events that only generate low-wavenumber resolution should be emphasized relative to the high-wavenumber resolution events. As the iterations proceed, the higher-resolution events should be emphasized. The formulas also suggest that inverting multiples can provide some low- and intermediate-wavenumber components of the velocity model not available in the primaries. Finally, diffractions can provide twice or better the resolution than specular reflections for comparable depths of the reflector and diffractor. The width of the diffraction-transmission wavepath is approximately λ at the diffractor location for the diffraction-transmission wavepath. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Resolution limits for wave equation imaging

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Yunsong; Schuster, Gerard T.

    2014-01-01

    migration (LSM), and full waveform inversion (FWI), and suggest a multiscale approach to iterative FWI based on multiscale physics. That is, at the early stages of the inversion, events that only generate low-wavenumber resolution should be emphasized

  9. Recent Advancements in DNA Damage-Transcription Crosstalk and High-Resolution Mapping of DNA Breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitelli, Valerio; Galbiati, Alessandro; Iannelli, Fabio; Pessina, Fabio; Sharma, Sheetal; d'Adda di Fagagna, Fabrizio

    2017-08-31

    Until recently, DNA damage arising from physiological DNA metabolism was considered a detrimental by-product for cells. However, an increasing amount of evidence has shown that DNA damage could have a positive role in transcription activation. In particular, DNA damage has been detected in transcriptional elements following different stimuli. These physiological DNA breaks are thought to be instrumental for the correct expression of genomic loci through different mechanisms. In this regard, although a plethora of methods are available to precisely map transcribed regions and transcription start sites, commonly used techniques for mapping DNA breaks lack sufficient resolution and sensitivity to draw a robust correlation between DNA damage generation and transcription. Recently, however, several methods have been developed to map DNA damage at single-nucleotide resolution, thus providing a new set of tools to correlate DNA damage and transcription. Here, we review how DNA damage can positively regulate transcription initiation, the current techniques for mapping DNA breaks at high resolution, and how these techniques can benefit future studies of DNA damage and transcription.

  10. Resolution, coverage, and geometry beyond traditional limits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ronen, Shuki; Ferber, Ralf

    1998-12-31

    The presentation relates to the optimization of the image of seismic data and improved resolution and coverage of acquired data. Non traditional processing methods such as inversion to zero offset (IZO) are used. To realize the potential of saving acquisition cost by reducing in-fill and to plan resolution improvement by processing, geometry QC methods such as DMO Dip Coverage Spectrum (DDCS) and Bull`s Eyes Analysis are used. The DDCS is a 2-D spectrum whose entries consist of the DMO (Dip Move Out) coverage for a particular reflector specified by it`s true time dip and reflector normal strike. The Bull`s Eyes Analysis relies on real time processing of synthetic data generated with the real geometry. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  11. Breaking the black-body limit with resonant surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valagiannopoulos Constantinos A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The speed with which electromagnetic energy can be wirelessly transferred from a source to the user is a crucial indicator for the performance of a large number of electronic and photonic devices. We expect that energy transfer can be enhanced using special materials. In this paper, we determine the constituent parameters of a medium which can support theoretically infinite energy concentration close to its boundary; such a material combines properties of Perfectly Matched Layers (PML and Double-Negative (DNG media. It realizes conjugate matching with free space for every possible mode including, most importantly, all evanescent modes; we call this medium Conjugate Matched Layer (CML. Sources located outside such layer deliver power to the conjugate-matched body exceptionally effectively, impressively overcoming the black-body absorption limit which takes into account only propagating waves. We also expand this near-field concept related to the infinitely fast absorption of energy along the air-medium interface to enhance the far-field radiation. This becomes possible with the use of small particles randomly placed along the boundary; the induced currents due to the extremely high-amplitude resonating fields can play the role of emission “vessels”, by sending part of the theoretically unlimited near-field energy far away from the CML structure.

  12. Limiting liability via high resolution image processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenwade, L.E.; Overlin, T.K.

    1996-12-31

    The utilization of high resolution image processing allows forensic analysts and visualization scientists to assist detectives by enhancing field photographs, and by providing the tools and training to increase the quality and usability of field photos. Through the use of digitized photographs and computerized enhancement software, field evidence can be obtained and processed as `evidence ready`, even in poor lighting and shadowed conditions or darkened rooms. These images, which are most often unusable when taken with standard camera equipment, can be shot in the worst of photographic condition and be processed as usable evidence. Visualization scientists have taken the use of digital photographic image processing and moved the process of crime scene photos into the technology age. The use of high resolution technology will assist law enforcement in making better use of crime scene photography and positive identification of prints. Valuable court room and investigation time can be saved and better served by this accurate, performance based process. Inconclusive evidence does not lead to convictions. Enhancement of the photographic capability helps solve one major problem with crime scene photos, that if taken with standard equipment and without the benefit of enhancement software would be inconclusive, thus allowing guilty parties to be set free due to lack of evidence.

  13. Fundamental limits to imaging resolution for focused ion beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orloff, J.; Swanson, L.W.; Utlaut, M.

    1996-01-01

    This article investigates the limitations on the formation of focused ion beam images from secondary electrons. We use the notion of the information content of an image to account for the effects of resolution, contrast, and signal-to-noise ratio and show that there is a competition between the rate at which small features are sputtered away by the primary beam and the rate of collection of secondary electrons. We find that for small features, sputtering is the limit to imaging resolution, and that for extended small features (e.g., layered structures), rearrangement, redeposition, and differential sputtering rates may limit the resolution in some cases. copyright 1996 American Vacuum Society

  14. Signal detection without finite-energy limits to quantum resolution

    OpenAIRE

    Luis Aina, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    We show that there are extremely simple signal detection schemes where the finiteness of energy resources places no limit on the resolution. On the contrary, larger resolution can be obtained with lower energy. To this end the generator of the signal-dependent transformation encoding the signal information on the probe state must be different from the energy. We show that the larger the deviation of the probe state from being the minimum-uncertainty state, the better the resolution.

  15. Energy resolution limitations in a gas scintillation proportional counter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simons, D.G.; de Korte, P.A.J.; Peacock, A.; Bleeker, J.A.M.

    1985-01-01

    An investigation is made of the factors limiting the energy resolution of a gas scintillation proportional counter (GSPC). Several of these limitations originate in the drift region of such a counter and data is presented, giving a quantitative description of those effects. Data is also presented of a GSPC without a drift region, that therefore largely circumvents most of those degrading factors. The results obtained so far indicate that in that detector the limitation to the resolution is most probably due to cleanliness of the gas. Further research is underway in order to assess quantitatively the limiting factors in such a driftless GSPC

  16. Probability function of breaking-limited surface elevation. [wind generated waves of ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tung, C. C.; Huang, N. E.; Yuan, Y.; Long, S. R.

    1989-01-01

    The effect of wave breaking on the probability function of surface elevation is examined. The surface elevation limited by wave breaking zeta sub b(t) is first related to the original wave elevation zeta(t) and its second derivative. An approximate, second-order, nonlinear, non-Gaussian model for zeta(t) of arbitrary but moderate bandwidth is presented, and an expression for the probability density function zeta sub b(t) is derived. The results show clearly that the effect of wave breaking on the probability density function of surface elevation is to introduce a secondary hump on the positive side of the probability density function, a phenomenon also observed in wind wave tank experiments.

  17. Audit calculation of the limiting CESSAR feedwater-line-break transient with RELAP5/MOD1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, K.S.; Kennedy, M.F.; Guttmann, J.

    1983-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) performed a series of audit calculations of the limiting FLB transient presented in Appendix 15B to the CESSAR FSAR, supported by a limited number of additional calculations to investigate the sensitivity of the results (in terms of peak primary reactor system pressure) to break area and reactor trip time. The latter calculations were performed to quantify potential benefits in crediting reactor tip on low steam generator downcomer water level, which occurs earlier than the trip shown in the limiting FSAR transient, which tripped on high pressurizer pressure. These calculations were performed to verify the break spectrum results presented by C-E and to insure that C-E did indeed analyze the limiting transient. All of the ANL calculations were performed with RELAP5/MOD1 (cycle 18) using an input deck developed at ANL from CESSAR plant data provided by C-E. In this paper we compare the results and provide insight into the generic behavior of a Feedwater Line Break transient

  18. Fine resolution mapping of double-strand break sites for human ribosomal DNA units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernard J. Pope

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available DNA breakage arises during a variety of biological processes, including transcription, replication and genome rearrangements. In the context of disease, extensive fragmentation of DNA has been described in cancer cells and during early stages of neurodegeneration (Stephens et al., 2011 Stephens et al. (2011 [5]; Blondet et al., 2001 Blondet et al. (2001 [1]. Stults et al. (2009 Stults et al. (2009 [6] reported that human rDNA gene clusters are hotspots for recombination and that rDNA restructuring is among the most common chromosomal alterations in adult solid tumours. As such, analysis of rDNA regions is likely to have significant prognostic and predictive value, clinically. Tchurikov et al. (2015a, 2016 Tchurikov et al. (2015a, 2016 [7,9] have made major advances in this direction, reporting that sites of human genome double-strand breaks (DSBs occur frequently at sites in rDNA that are tightly linked with active transcription - the authors used a RAFT (rapid amplification of forum termini protocol that selects for blunt-ended sites. They reported the relative frequency of these rDNA DSBs within defined co-ordinate ‘windows’ of varying size and made these data (as well as the relevant ‘raw’ sequencing information available to the public (Tchurikov et al., 2015b. Assay designs targeting rDNA DSB hotspots will benefit greatly from the publication of break sites at greater resolution. Here, we re-analyse public RAFT data and make available rDNA DSB co-ordinates to the single-nucleotide level.

  19. A resolution of the inclusive flavor-breaking τ |Vus| puzzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudspith, Renwick J.; Lewis, Randy; Maltman, Kim; Zanotti, James

    2018-06-01

    We revisit the puzzle of |Vus | values obtained from the conventional implementation of hadronic-τ- decay-based flavor-breaking finite-energy sum rules lying > 3 σ below the expectations of three-family unitarity. Significant unphysical dependences of |Vus | on the choice of weight, w, and upper limit, s0, of the experimental spectral integrals entering the analysis are confirmed, and a breakdown of assumptions made in estimating higher dimension, D > 4, OPE contributions identified as the main source of these problems. A combination of continuum and lattice results is shown to suggest a new implementation of the flavor-breaking sum rule approach in which not only |Vus |, but also D > 4 effective condensates, are fit to data. Lattice results are also used to clarify how to reliably treat the slowly converging D = 2 OPE series. The new sum rule implementation is shown to cure the problems of the unphysical w- and s0-dependence of |Vus | and to produce results ∼0.0020 higher than those of the conventional implementation employing the same data. With B-factory input, and using, in addition, dispersively constrained results for the Kπ branching fractions, we find |Vus | = 0.2231(27)exp(4)th, in excellent agreement with the result from Kℓ3, and compatible within errors with the expectations of three-family unitarity, thus resolving the long-standing inclusive τ |Vus | puzzle.

  20. Statistical Angular Resolution Limit for Ultrawideband MIMO Noise Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The two-dimensional angular resolution limit (ARL of elevation and azimuth for MIMO radar with ultrawideband (UWB noise waveforms is investigated using statistical resolution theory. First, the signal model of monostatic UWB MIMO noise radar is established in a 3D reference frame. Then, the statistical angular resolution limits (SARLs of two closely spaced targets are derived using the detection-theoretic and estimation-theoretic approaches, respectively. The detection-theoretic approach is based on the generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT with given probabilities of false alarm and detection, while the estimation-theoretic approach is based on Smith’s criterion which involves the Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB. Furthermore, the relationship between the two approaches is presented, and the factors affecting the SARL, that is, detection parameters, transmit waveforms, array geometry, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR, and parameters of target (i.e., radar cross section (RCS and direction, are analyzed. Compared with the conventional radar resolution theory defined by the ambiguity function, the SARL reflects the practical resolution ability of radar and can provide an optimization criterion for radar system design.

  1. Resolution and systematic limitations in beam based alignment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenenbaum, P.G.

    2000-03-15

    Beam based alignment of quadrupoles by variation of quadrupole strength is a widely-used technique in accelerators today. The authors describe the dominant systematic limitation of this technique, which arises from the change in the center position of the quadrupole as the strength is varied, and derive expressions for the resulting error. In addition, the authors derive an expression for the statistical resolution of such techniques in a periodic transport line, given knowledge of the line's transport matrices, the resolution of the beam position monitor system, and the details of the strength variation procedure. These results are applied to the Next Linear Collider main linear accelerator, an 11 kilometer accelerator containing 750 quadrupoles and 5,000 accelerator structures. The authors find that in principle a statistical resolution of 1 micron is easily achievable but the systematic error due to variation of the magnetic centers could be several times larger.

  2. Noise and physical limits to maximum resolution of PET images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herraiz, J.L.; Espana, S. [Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain); Vicente, E.; Vaquero, J.J.; Desco, M. [Unidad de Medicina y Cirugia Experimental, Hospital GU ' Gregorio Maranon' , E-28007 Madrid (Spain); Udias, J.M. [Dpto. Fisica Atomica, Molecular y Nuclear, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Avda. Complutense s/n, E-28040 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: jose@nuc2.fis.ucm.es

    2007-10-01

    In this work we show that there is a limit for the maximum resolution achievable with a high resolution PET scanner, as well as for the best signal-to-noise ratio, which are ultimately related to the physical effects involved in the emission and detection of the radiation and thus they cannot be overcome with any particular reconstruction method. These effects prevent the spatial high frequency components of the imaged structures to be recorded by the scanner. Therefore, the information encoded in these high frequencies cannot be recovered by any reconstruction technique. Within this framework, we have determined the maximum resolution achievable for a given acquisition as a function of data statistics and scanner parameters, like the size of the crystals or the inter-crystal scatter. In particular, the noise level in the data as a limitation factor to yield high-resolution images in tomographs with small crystal sizes is outlined. These results have implications regarding how to decide the optimal number of voxels of the reconstructed image or how to design better PET scanners.

  3. Noise and physical limits to maximum resolution of PET images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herraiz, J.L.; Espana, S.; Vicente, E.; Vaquero, J.J.; Desco, M.; Udias, J.M.

    2007-01-01

    In this work we show that there is a limit for the maximum resolution achievable with a high resolution PET scanner, as well as for the best signal-to-noise ratio, which are ultimately related to the physical effects involved in the emission and detection of the radiation and thus they cannot be overcome with any particular reconstruction method. These effects prevent the spatial high frequency components of the imaged structures to be recorded by the scanner. Therefore, the information encoded in these high frequencies cannot be recovered by any reconstruction technique. Within this framework, we have determined the maximum resolution achievable for a given acquisition as a function of data statistics and scanner parameters, like the size of the crystals or the inter-crystal scatter. In particular, the noise level in the data as a limitation factor to yield high-resolution images in tomographs with small crystal sizes is outlined. These results have implications regarding how to decide the optimal number of voxels of the reconstructed image or how to design better PET scanners

  4. Breaking the theoretical scaling limit for predicting quasiparticle energies: the stochastic GW approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhauser, Daniel; Gao, Yi; Arntsen, Christopher; Karshenas, Cyrus; Rabani, Eran; Baer, Roi

    2014-08-15

    We develop a formalism to calculate the quasiparticle energy within the GW many-body perturbation correction to the density functional theory. The occupied and virtual orbitals of the Kohn-Sham Hamiltonian are replaced by stochastic orbitals used to evaluate the Green function G, the polarization potential W, and, thereby, the GW self-energy. The stochastic GW (sGW) formalism relies on novel theoretical concepts such as stochastic time-dependent Hartree propagation, stochastic matrix compression, and spatial or temporal stochastic decoupling techniques. Beyond the theoretical interest, the formalism enables linear scaling GW calculations breaking the theoretical scaling limit for GW as well as circumventing the need for energy cutoff approximations. We illustrate the method for silicon nanocrystals of varying sizes with N_{e}>3000 electrons.

  5. Current limitations in super-resolution fluorescence microscopy for biological specimens: How deep can we go from the cover glass?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Yasushi

    2017-04-01

    Diffraction limit of resolution has been one of the biggest limitations in the optical microscopy. Super-resolution fluorescence microscopy has enabled us to break this limit. However, for the observations of real biological specimens, especially for the imaging of tissues or whole body, the target structures of interest are often embedded deep inside the specimen. Here, we would present our results to extend the target of the super-resolution microscopy deeper into the cells. Confocal microscope optics work effectively to minimize the effect by the aberrations by the cellular components, but at the expense of the signal intensities. Spherical aberrations by the refractive index mismatch between the cellular environment and the immersion liquid can be much larger, but can be reduced by adjusting the correction collar at the objective lens.

  6. Comparison of vacuum rise time, vacuum limit accuracy, and occlusion break surge of 3 new phacoemulsification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Young Keun; Miller, Kevin M

    2009-08-01

    To compare vacuum rise time, vacuum limit accuracy, and occlusion break surge of 3 new phacoemulsification machines. Jules Stein Eye Institute and Department of Ophthalmology, David Geffen School of Medicine at UCLA, Los Angeles, California, USA. The vacuum rise time under normal and enhanced aspiration modes, vacuum limit accuracy, and occlusion break surge of the Infiniti Vision System, Stellaris Vision Enhancement System, and WhiteStar Signature Phacoemulsification System were tested. Vacuum rise time and limit accuracy were measured at limit settings of 400 mm Hg and 600 mm Hg. Surge area was recorded at vacuum limit settings of 200 mm Hg, 300 mm Hg, 400 mm Hg, and 500 mm Hg. The Infiniti had the fastest vacuum rise times under normal and enhanced aspiration modes. At 4 seconds, the vacuum limit accuracy was greatest with the Infiniti at the 400 mm Hg limit and the Signature at the 600 mm Hg limit. The Stellaris did not reach either vacuum target. The Infiniti performed better than the other 2 machines during testing of occlusion break surge at all vacuum limit settings above 200 mm Hg. Under controlled laboratory test conditions, the Infiniti had the fastest vacuum rise time, greatest vacuum limit accuracy at 400 mm Hg, and least occlusion break surge. These results can be explained by the lower compliance of the Infiniti system.

  7. Towards breaking the spatial resolution barriers: An optical flow and super-resolution approach for sea ice motion estimation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrou, Zisis I.; Xian, Yang; Tian, YingLi

    2018-04-01

    Estimation of sea ice motion at fine scales is important for a number of regional and local level applications, including modeling of sea ice distribution, ocean-atmosphere and climate dynamics, as well as safe navigation and sea operations. In this study, we propose an optical flow and super-resolution approach to accurately estimate motion from remote sensing images at a higher spatial resolution than the original data. First, an external example learning-based super-resolution method is applied on the original images to generate higher resolution versions. Then, an optical flow approach is applied on the higher resolution images, identifying sparse correspondences and interpolating them to extract a dense motion vector field with continuous values and subpixel accuracies. Our proposed approach is successfully evaluated on passive microwave, optical, and Synthetic Aperture Radar data, proving appropriate for multi-sensor applications and different spatial resolutions. The approach estimates motion with similar or higher accuracy than the original data, while increasing the spatial resolution of up to eight times. In addition, the adopted optical flow component outperforms a state-of-the-art pattern matching method. Overall, the proposed approach results in accurate motion vectors with unprecedented spatial resolutions of up to 1.5 km for passive microwave data covering the entire Arctic and 20 m for radar data, and proves promising for numerous scientific and operational applications.

  8. Adaptive resolution simulation of supramolecular water : The concurrent making, breaking, and remaking of water bundles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zavadlav, Julija; Marrink, Siewert J; Praprotnik, Matej

    The adaptive resolution scheme (AdResS) is a multiscale molecular dynamics simulation approach that can concurrently couple atomistic (AT) and coarse-grained (CG) resolution regions, i.e., the molecules can freely adapt their resolution according to their current position in the system. Coupling to

  9. Prediction of Counter-Current Flow Limitation at Hot Leg Pipe During a Small-Break Loca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, H.Y. [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-07-01

    The possibility of hot leg flooding during reflux condensation cooling after a small-break loss-of-coolant accident in a nuclear power plant is evaluated. The vapor and liquid velocities in hot leg and steam generator tubes are calculated during reflux condensation cooling with the accident scenarios of three typical break sizes, 0.13 %, 1.02 % and 10.19 % cold leg break. The effect of initial water level to counter-current flow limitation is taken into account. It is predicted that the hot leg flooding is precluded when all steam generators are available for heat removal. It is also shown the both hot leg flooding and SG flooding are possible under the operation of one steam generators. Therefore, it can be said that the occurrence of hot leg flooding under reflux condensation cooling is possible when the number of steam generators available for heat removal is limited. (author). 15 refs., 15 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. DNA Double Strand Break Response and Limited Repair Capacity in Mouse Elongated Spermatids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad A. Ahmed

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Spermatids are extremely sensitive to genotoxic exposures since during spermiogenesis only error-prone non homologous end joining (NHEJ repair pathways are available. Hence, genomic damage may accumulate in sperm and be transmitted to the zygote. Indirect, delayed DNA fragmentation and lesions associated with apoptotic-like processes have been observed during spermatid elongation, 27 days after irradiation. The proliferating spermatogonia and early meiotic prophase cells have been suggested to retain a memory of a radiation insult leading later to this delayed fragmentation. Here, we used meiotic spread preparations to localize phosphorylate histone H2 variant (γ-H2AX foci marking DNA double strand breaks (DSBs in elongated spermatids. This technique enabled us to determine the background level of DSB foci in elongated spermatids of RAD54/RAD54B double knockout (dko mice, severe combined immunodeficiency SCID mice, and poly adenosine diphosphate (ADP-ribose polymerase 1 (PARP1 inhibitor (DPQ-treated mice to compare them with the appropriate wild type controls. The repair kinetics data and the protein expression patterns observed indicate that the conventional NHEJ repair pathway is not available for elongated spermatids to repair the programmed and the IR-induced DSBs, reflecting the limited repair capacity of these cells. However, although elongated spermatids express the proteins of the alternative NHEJ, PARP1-inhibition had no effect on the repair kinetics after IR, suggesting that DNA damage may be passed onto sperm. Finally, our genetic mutant analysis suggests that an incomplete or defective meiotic recombinational repair of Spo11-induced DSBs may lead to a carry-over of the DSB damage or induce a delayed nuclear fragmentation during the sensitive programmed chromatin remodeling occurring in elongated spermatids.

  11. Leak-before-break diagrams using simple plastic limit load criteria for pipes with circumferential cracks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goerner, F.; Munz, D.

    1984-01-01

    Simple criteria for local and global instabilities were used to calculate leak-before-break-diagrams for load-controlled deformations. Relations between the tension and bending stresses in the uncracked pipe and the critical crack angle α/sub c/, below which complete fracture cannot occur, were developed for combined loading by internal pressure and external tension and bending. The different assumptions made for local and global instability lead to similar conclusions about the allowable crack length for leak-before-break behavior. It was not the intention of this paper to compare the conclusions with experimental results available

  12. Breaking New Ground with High Resolution Turn-By-Turn BPMs at the ESRF

    CERN Document Server

    Farvacque, L; Scheidt, K

    2001-01-01

    This High-Resolution, Turn-by-Turn BPM system is a low-cost extension to the existing BPM system, based on the RF-multiplexing concept, used for slow Closed-Orbit measurements. With this extension Beam Position measurements in both planes, at all (224) BPMs in the 844 m ESRF Storage Ring, for up to 2048 Orbit Turns with 1 μm resolution are performed. The data acquisition is synchronised to a single, flat 1 μs, transverse deflection kick to the 1μs beamfill in the 2.8μs revolution period. The high quality of this synchronisation, together with the good reproducibility of the deflection kick and the overall stability of the Closed Orbit beam allows to repeat the kick and acquisition in many cycles. The subsequent averaging of the data obtained in these cycles yields the 1um resolution. The latter allows lattice measurements with high precision such as the localisation of very small focussing errors and modulation in Beta values and phase advances. It also finds an unique ...

  13. Limitations on energy resolution of segmented silicon detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiącek, P.; Chudyba, M.; Fiutowski, T.; Dąbrowski, W.

    2018-04-01

    In the paper experimental study of charge division effects and energy resolution of X-ray silicon pad detectors are presented. The measurements of electrical parameters, capacitances and leakage currents, for six different layouts of pad arrays are reported. The X-ray spectra have been measured using a custom developed dedicated low noise front-end electronics. The spectra measured for six different detector layouts have been analysed in detail with particular emphasis on quantitative evaluation of charge division effects. Main components of the energy resolution due to Fano fluctuations, electronic noise, and charge division, have been estimated for six different sensor layouts. General recommendations regarding optimisation of pad sensor layout for achieving best possible energy resolution have been formulated.

  14. Penrose limit, spontaneous symmetry breaking, and holography in a pp-wave background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Sumit R.; Gomez, Cesar; Rey, Soo-Jong

    2002-01-01

    We argue that the gauge theory dual to the type IIB string theory in a ten-dimensional pp-wave background resides on a Euclidean subspace spanning four of the eight transverse coordinates. We then show that the evolution of the string along one of the light cone directions in the bulk is identifiable as the RG flow of the gauge theory, a relation facilitating the 'holography' of the pp-wave background. The 'holography' reorganizes the dual gauge theory into theories defined over Hilbert subspaces of fixed R charge. The reorganization breaks the SO(4,2)xSO(6) symmetry to a maximal subgroup SO(4)xSO(4) spontaneously. We argue that the low-energy string modes may be regarded as Goldstone modes resulting from such a symmetry breaking pattern

  15. Resolution unfolding with limits imposed by statistical experimental errors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, D.W.

    1977-02-01

    A typical form of the resolution equation is derived by considering the physical measurement of an energy dependent spectrum. It is shown that the information contained in a data set may be expressed by writing the spectrum as a linear combination of a set of resolution functions. Introduction of other functions to describe the spectrum involves extra physical information. An iterative conjugate gradient technique to obtain a spectrum consistent with the data is described. At each iteration the residual discrepancy between the currently predicted yield and the measured data is used to generate the form and mangitude of the next term to be added to the spectrum. Other unfolding techniques are described and analysed, some faster than the conjugate gradient technique in special cases, but restricted in usefulness by implicit assumptions about the resolution functions. The nature of residual errors is considered. The variations of independently measured data sets are discussed, and hence, the variations of the sequence of terms appearing in a consequent conjugate gradient analysis. An approximate measure is obtained for the expected variation of independently obtained spectra. Refinements are briefly considered which apply to a resolution function that is not known precisely or which make use of a requirement that the spectrum be positive throughout its range. It is concluded that a conjugate gradient technique is best if sufficient computer facilities are available, and that, of the less demanding techniques, the best is one that is essentially a more slowly convergent version of a conjugate gradient method. (author)

  16. Breaking The Millisecond Barrier On SpiNNaker: Implementing Asynchronous Event-Based Plastic Models With Microsecond Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier eLagorce

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Spike-based neuromorphic sensors such as retinas and cochleas, change the way in which the world is sampled. Instead of producing data sampled at a constant rate, these sensors output spikes that are asynchronous and event driven. The event-based nature of neuromorphic sensors implies a complete paradigm shift in current perception algorithms towards those that emphasize the importance of precise timing. The spikes produced by these sensors usually have a time resolution in the order of microseconds. This high temporal resolution is a crucial factor in learning tasks. It is also widely used in the field of biological neural networks. Sound localization for instance relies on detecting time lags between the two ears which, in the barn owl, reaches a temporal resolution of 5 microseconds. Current available neuromorphic computation platforms such as SpiNNaker often limit their users to a time resolution in the order of milliseconds that is not compatible with the asynchronous outputs of neuromorphic sensors. To overcome these limitations and allow for the exploration of new types of neuromorphic computing architectures, we introduce a novel software framework on the SpiNNaker platform. This framework allows for simulations of spiking networks and plasticity mechanisms using a completely asynchronous and event-based scheme running with a microsecond time resolution. Results on two example networks using this new implementation are presented.

  17. Diffractive optics and nanophotonics resolution below the diffraction limit

    CERN Document Server

    Minin, Igor

    2016-01-01

    In this book the authors present several examples of techniques used to overcome the Abby diffraction limit using flat and 3D diffractive optical elements, photonic crystal lenses, photonic jets, and surface plasmon diffractive optics. The structures discussed can be used in the microwave and THz range and also as scaled models for optical frequencies. Such nano-optical microlenses can be integrated, for example, into existing semiconductor heterostructure platforms for next-generation optoelectronic applications. Chapter 1 considers flat diffractive lenses and innovative 3D radiating structures including a conical millimeter-wave Fresnel zone plate (FZP) lens proposed for subwavelength focusing. In chapter 2 the subwavelength focusing properties of diffractive photonic crystal lenses are considered and it is shown that at least three different types of photonic crystal lens are possible.  With the aim of achieving subwavelength focusing, in chapter 3 an alternative mechanism to produce photonic jets at Tera...

  18. Rated-voltage enhancement by fast-breaking of the fault current for a resistive superconducting fault current limiter component

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, C.-R.; Kim, M.-J.; Yu, S.-D.; Yim, S.-W.; Kim, H.-R.; Hyun, O.-B.

    2010-01-01

    Performance of a resistive superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) component is usually limited by temperature rise associated with energy input by fault current application during a fault. Therefore, it is expected that short application of the fault current may enhance the power ratings of the component. This can be accomplished by a combination of a HTS component and a mechanical switch. The fast switch (FS) developed recently enables the fault duration to be as short as 1/2 cycle after a fault. Various second-generation (2G) high temperature superconductors (HTS) and YBCO thin films have been tested. The relation between the rated voltage V and the fault duration time t was found to be V 2 ∼ t -1 . Based upon the relation, we predict that when the FS break the fault current within 1/2 cycle after a fault, the amount of HTS components required to build an SFCL can be reduced by as much as about 60%, of that when breaking the fault current at three cycles.

  19. MULTI-EPOCH OBSERVATIONS OF HD 69830: HIGH-RESOLUTION SPECTROSCOPY AND LIMITS TO VARIABILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beichman, C. A.; Tanner, A. M.; Bryden, G.; Akeson, R. L.; Ciardi, D. R. [NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, 91125 (United States); Lisse, C. M. [Johns Hopkins University, Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723 (United States); Boden, A. F. [Caltech Optical Observatories, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Dodson-Robinson, S. E.; Salyk, C. [University of Texas, Astronomy Department, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Wyatt, M. C., E-mail: chas@pop.jpl.nasa.gov [Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, CB3 0HA (United Kingdom)

    2011-12-10

    The main-sequence solar-type star HD 69830 has an unusually large amount of dusty debris orbiting close to three planets found via the radial velocity technique. In order to explore the dynamical interaction between the dust and planets, we have performed multi-epoch photometry and spectroscopy of the system over several orbits of the outer dust. We find no evidence for changes in either the dust amount or its composition, with upper limits of 5%-7% (1{sigma} per spectral element) on the variability of the dust spectrum over 1 year, 3.3% (1{sigma}) on the broadband disk emission over 4 years, and 33% (1{sigma}) on the broadband disk emission over 24 years. Detailed modeling of the spectrum of the emitting dust indicates that the dust is located outside of the orbits of the three planets and has a composition similar to main-belt, C-type asteroids in our solar system. Additionally, we find no evidence for a wide variety of gas species associated with the dust. Our new higher signal-to-noise spectra do not confirm our previously claimed detection of H{sub 2}O ice leading to a firm conclusion that the debris can be associated with the break-up of one or more C-type asteroids formed in the dry, inner regions of the protoplanetary disk of the HD 69830 system. The modeling of the spectral energy distribution and high spatial resolution observations in the mid-infrared are consistent with a {approx}1 AU location for the emitting material.

  20. Breaking Lorentz reciprocity to overcome the time-bandwidth limit in physics and engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsakmakidis, K. L.; Shen, L.; Schulz, S. A.; Zheng, X.; Upham, J.; Deng, X.; Altug, H.; Vakakis, A. F.; Boyd, R. W.

    2017-06-01

    A century-old tenet in physics and engineering asserts that any type of system, having bandwidth Δω, can interact with a wave over only a constrained time period Δt inversely proportional to the bandwidth (Δt·Δω ~ 2π). This law severely limits the generic capabilities of all types of resonant and wave-guiding systems in photonics, cavity quantum electrodynamics and optomechanics, acoustics, continuum mechanics, and atomic and optical physics but is thought to be completely fundamental, arising from basic Fourier reciprocity. We propose that this “fundamental” limit can be overcome in systems where Lorentz reciprocity is broken. As a system becomes more asymmetric in its transport properties, the degree to which the limit can be surpassed becomes greater. By way of example, we theoretically demonstrate how, in an astutely designed magnetized semiconductor heterostructure, the above limit can be exceeded by orders of magnitude by using realistic material parameters. Our findings revise prevailing paradigms for linear, time-invariant resonant systems, challenging the doctrine that high-quality resonances must invariably be narrowband and providing the possibility of developing devices with unprecedentedly high time-bandwidth performance.

  1. Improving spatial resolution in quantum imaging beyond the Rayleigh diffraction limit using multiphoton W entangled states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen Jianming, E-mail: jianming.wen@gmail.co [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Du, Shengwang [Department of Physics, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology, Clear Bay (Hong Kong); Xiao Min [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures and Department of Physics, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Department of Physics, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); School of Modern Engineering and Applied Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2010-08-23

    Using multiphoton entangled states, we demonstrate improving spatial imaging resolution beyond the Rayleigh diffraction limit in the quantum imaging process. In particular, we examine resolution enhancement using triphoton W state and a factor of 2 is achievable as with the use of the Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state, compared to using a classical-light source.

  2. Identification of limiting case between DBA and SBDBA (CL break area sensitivity): A new model for the boron injection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez Gonzalez, R., E-mail: r.gonzalez@ing.unipi.it [San Piero a Grado Nuclear Research Group (GRNSPG), University of Pisa, Via Livornese 1291, 56122 San Piero a Grado, Pisa (Italy); Petruzzi, A., E-mail: a.petruzzi@ing.unipi.it [San Piero a Grado Nuclear Research Group (GRNSPG), University of Pisa, Via Livornese 1291, 56122 San Piero a Grado, Pisa (Italy); D’Auria, F., E-mail: f.dauria@ing.unipi.it [San Piero a Grado Nuclear Research Group (GRNSPG), University of Pisa, Via Livornese 1291, 56122 San Piero a Grado, Pisa (Italy); Mazzantini, O., E-mail: mazzantini@na-sa.com.ar [Nucleo-electrica Argentina Sociedad Anonima (NA-SA), Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2014-08-15

    Atucha-2 is a Siemens-designed Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) reactor under construction in the Republic of Argentina. Its geometrical complexity and peculiarity (e.g. oblique Control Rods, Positive Void coefficient) required a developed and validated complex three dimensional (3D) neutron kinetics (NK) coupled thermal hydraulic (TH) model. Reactor shut-down is obtained by oblique CRs and, during accidental conditions, by an emergency shut-down system (JDJ) injecting a highly concentrated boron solution (boron clouds) in the moderator tank. The boron clouds reconstruction is obtained using a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) CFX code calculation. A complete Large Break Loss Of Coolant Accident (LBLOCA) calculation implies the application of the RELAP5-3D{sup ©} system code. Within the framework of the third Agreement “Nucleoelèctrica Argentina-Sociedad Anonima (NA-SA) – University of Pisa/GRNSPG” (Contract, 2009), a new RELAP5-3D control system for the boron injection system was developed and implemented in the validated coupled RELAP5-3D/NESTLE model of the Atucha 2 NPP. The aim of this activity is to find out the limiting case (maximum break area size) for the Peak Cladding Temperature for LOCAs under fixed boundary conditions.

  3. Breaking the Carnot limit without violating the second law: A thermodynamic analysis of off-resonant quantum light generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boukobza, E.; Ritsch, H.

    2013-06-01

    The Carnot limit, formulated in 1824, represents the maximal efficiency of a classical heat engine. In this work we present a thermodynamical analysis of a light amplifier based on a three-level atom coupled off-resonantly to a single quantized cavity mode and to two heat reservoirs with positive temperatures. Based on standard work and heat flow equilibrium, we show that for a cavity blue-detuned with respect to the atomic resonance, the system can surpass the Carnot limit. Nevertheless, the second law of thermodynamics is still obeyed, as the total entropy always increases. By analyzing a semiclassical version of the model, we derive a formula for the critical frequency for which the Carnot limit is broken and a formula for the amplifier efficiency which agrees with its quantum counterpart. In the semiclassical regime, however, the second law is not satisfied and hence it does not offer a physically acceptable description of the system. Finally, we show that breaking the Carnot limit occurs also in a blue-detuned quantum amplifier with output coupling, which represents a realistic model of a laser or maser.

  4. Minimum detection limit and spatial resolution of thin-sample field-emission electron probe microanalysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, Yugo; Hamada, Kotaro; Urano, Akira

    2013-01-01

    The minimum detection limit and spatial resolution for a thinned semiconductor sample were determined by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) using a Schottky field emission (FE) electron gun and wavelength dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Comparison of the FE-EPMA results with those obtained using energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry in conjunction with scanning transmission electron microscopy, confirmed that FE-EPMA is largely superior in terms of detection sensitivity. Thin-sample FE-EPMA is demonstrated as a very effective method for high resolution, high sensitivity analysis in a laboratory environment because a high probe current and high signal-to-noise ratio can be achieved. - Highlights: • Minimum detection limit and spatial resolution determined for FE-EPMA. • Detection sensitivity of FE-EPMA greatly superior to that of STEM-EDX. • Minimum detection limit and spatial resolution controllable by probe current

  5. Optimizing phonon scattering by tuning surface-interdiffusion-driven intermixing to break the random-alloy limit of thermal conductivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolong; Li, Wu

    2018-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of the cross-plane thermal conductivity κ of superlattices (SLs) as interfaces change from perfectly abrupt to totally intermixed, by using nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations in combination with the spectral heat current calculations. We highlight the role of surface-interdiffusion-driven intermixing by calculating the κ of SLs with changing interface roughness, whose tuning allows for κ values much lower than the "alloy limit" and the abrupt interface limit in same cases. The interplay between alloy and interface scattering in different frequency ranges provides a physical basis to predict a minimum of thermal conductivity. More specifically, we also explore how the interface roughness affects the thermal conductivities for SL materials with a broad span of atomic mass and bond strength. In particular, we find that (i) only when the "spacer" thickness of SLs increases up to a critical value, κ of rough SLs can break the corresponding "alloy limit," since SLs with different "spacer" thickness have different characteristic length of phonon transport, which is influenced by surface-interdiffusion-driven intermixing to different extend. (ii) Whether κ changes monotonically with interface roughness strongly depends on the period length and intrinsic behavior of phonon transport for SL materials. Especially, for the SL with large period length, there exists an optimal interface roughness that can minimize the thermal conductivity. (iii) Surface-interdiffusion-driven intermixing is more effective in achieving a low κ below the alloy limit for SL materials with large mass mismatch than with small one. (iv) It is possible for SL materials with large lattice mismatch (i.e., bond strength) to design an ideally abrupt interface structure with κ much below the alloy limit. These results have clear implications for optimization of thermal transport for heat management and for the development of thermoelectric materials.

  6. Pushing the limits of spatial resolution with the Kuiper Airborne observatory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lester, Daniel

    1994-01-01

    The study of astronomical objects at high spatial resolution in the far-IR is one of the most serious limitations to our work at these wavelengths, which carry information about the luminosity of dusty and obscured sources. At IR wavelengths shorter than 30 microns, ground based telescopes with large apertures at superb sites achieve diffraction-limited performance close to the seeing limit in the optical. At millimeter wavelengths, ground based interferometers achieve resolution that is close to this. The inaccessibility of the far-IR from the ground makes it difficult, however, to achieve complementary resolution in the far-IR. The 1983 IRAS survey, while extraordinarily sensitive, provides us with a sky map at a spatial resolution that is limited by detector size on a spatial scale that is far larger than that available in other wavelengths on the ground. The survey resolution is of order 4 min in the 100 micron bandpass, and 2 min at 60 microns (IRAS Explanatory Supplement, 1988). Information on a scale of 1' is available on some sources from the CPC. Deconvolution and image resolution using this database is one of the subjects of this workshop.

  7. Patient dose rate: An ultimate limit for spatial and density resolution of scanning systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kowalski, G.; Wagner, W.

    1979-01-01

    In X-ray scanning systems, picture quality of the reconstructed slices is limited to a maximum spatial as well as density resolution by the applied radiation dose. Density resolution can be improved in proportion to the root of the patient dose, whereas a doubled spatial resolving power requires an eight times higher patient dose, assuming a fixed slice thickness. Only a careful trade-off between the applied patient dose, density resolution and spatial resolution yields a maximal diagnostic value for the physician. Specifications of a scanning system have to take into account these ultimate restrictions, so that picture quality really is limited by the patient's dose rather than by technical constraints. In addition a method is given by which the applied dose can be reduced by focusing the main intensity onto the region of interest, in case that region is known a priori. (orig.) [de

  8. A two-dimensional analysis of the sensitivity of a pulse first break to wave speed contrast on a scale below the resolution length of ray tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willey, Carson L; Simonetti, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    Mapping the speed of mechanical waves traveling inside a medium is a topic of great interest across many fields from geoscience to medical diagnostics. Much work has been done to characterize the fidelity with which the geometrical features of the medium can be reconstructed and multiple resolution criteria have been proposed depending on the wave-matter interaction model used to decode the wave speed map from scattering measurements. However, these criteria do not define the accuracy with which the wave speed values can be reconstructed. Using two-dimensional simulations, it is shown that the first-arrival traveltime predicted by ray theory can be an accurate representation of the arrival of a pulse first break even in the presence of diffraction and other phenomena that are not accounted for by ray theory. As a result, ray-based tomographic inversions can yield accurate wave speed estimations also when the size of a sound speed anomaly is smaller than the resolution length of the inversion method provided that traveltimes are estimated from the signal first break. This increased sensitivity however renders the inversion more susceptible to noise since the amplitude of the signal around the first break is typically low especially when three-dimensional anomalies are considered.

  9. On the limiting resolution of silicon detectors for short-range particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verbitskaya, E M; Eremin, V K; Malyarenko, A M; Strokan, N B; Sukhanov, V L

    1986-10-20

    The transition to planar tecnology has lead to substantial improvement of energy resolution of Si detectors of strongly ionizing nuclear radiations. For 5 MeV ..cap alpha..-particles the resolution (delta/sub ..cap alpha../) is equal 9.2 keV. The application of the method of local diffusion permitted to attain delta/sub ..cap alpha../=8.1-8.4 keV. The comparison of the new resolution level with the theoretical limit is carried out. It is shown that the combination of partial contributions of fluctuations caused by fundamental mechanisms practically determined delta/sub ..cap alpha../ of obtained detectors.

  10. Resolution limits of migration and linearized waveform inversion images in a lossy medium

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.; Dutta, Gaurav; Li, Jing

    2017-01-01

    The vertical-and horizontal-resolution limits Delta x(lossy) and Delta z(lossy) of post-stack migration and linearized waveform inversion images are derived for lossy data in the far-field approximation. Unlike the horizontal resolution limit Delta x proportional to lambda z/L in a lossless medium which linearly worsens in depth z, Delta x(lossy) proportional to z(2)/QL worsens quadratically with depth for a medium with small Q values. Here, Q is the quality factor, lambda is the effective wavelength, L is the recording aperture, and loss in the resolution formulae is accounted for by replacing lambda with z/Q. In contrast, the lossy vertical-resolution limit Delta z(lossy) only worsens linearly in depth compared to Delta z proportional to lambda for a lossless medium. For both the causal and acausal Q models, the resolution limits are linearly proportional to 1/Q for small Q. These theoretical predictions are validated with migration images computed from lossy data.

  11. Resolution limits of migration and linearized waveform inversion images in a lossy medium

    KAUST Repository

    Schuster, Gerard T.

    2017-03-10

    The vertical-and horizontal-resolution limits Delta x(lossy) and Delta z(lossy) of post-stack migration and linearized waveform inversion images are derived for lossy data in the far-field approximation. Unlike the horizontal resolution limit Delta x proportional to lambda z/L in a lossless medium which linearly worsens in depth z, Delta x(lossy) proportional to z(2)/QL worsens quadratically with depth for a medium with small Q values. Here, Q is the quality factor, lambda is the effective wavelength, L is the recording aperture, and loss in the resolution formulae is accounted for by replacing lambda with z/Q. In contrast, the lossy vertical-resolution limit Delta z(lossy) only worsens linearly in depth compared to Delta z proportional to lambda for a lossless medium. For both the causal and acausal Q models, the resolution limits are linearly proportional to 1/Q for small Q. These theoretical predictions are validated with migration images computed from lossy data.

  12. Quantifying high resolution transitional breaks in plant and mammal distributions at regional extent and their association with climate, topography and geology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Virgilio, Giovanni; Laffan, Shawn W; Ebach, Malte C

    2013-01-01

    We quantify spatial turnover in communities of 1939 plant and 59 mammal species at 2.5 km resolution across a topographically heterogeneous region in south-eastern Australia to identify distributional breaks and low turnover zones where multiple species distributions overlap. Environmental turnover is measured to determine how climate, topography and geology influence biotic turnover differently across a variety of biogeographic breaks and overlaps. We identify the genera driving turnover and confirm the versatility of this approach across spatial scales and locations. Directional moving window analyses, rotated through 360°, were used to measure spatial turnover variation in different directions between gridded cells containing georeferenced plant and mammal occurrences and environmental variables. Generalised linear models were used to compare taxic turnover results with equivalent analyses for geology, regolith weathering, elevation, slope, solar radiation, annual precipitation and annual mean temperature, both uniformly across the entire study area and by stratifying it into zones of high and low turnover. Identified breaks and transitions were compared to a conservation bioregionalisation framework widely used in Australia. Detailed delineations of plant and mammal turnover zones with gradational boundaries denoted subtle variation in species assemblages. Turnover patterns often diverged from bioregion boundaries, though plant turnover adhered most closely. A prominent break zone contained either comparable or greater numbers of unique genera than adjacent overlaps, but these were concentrated in a small subsection relatively under-protected by conservation reserves. The environmental correlates of biotic turnover varied for different turnover zones in different subsections of the study area. Topography and temperature showed much stronger relationships with plant turnover in a topographically complex overlap, relative to a lowland overlap where weathering

  13. Target-oriented retrieval of subsurface wave fields - Pushing the resolution limits in seismic imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcelos, Ivan; Ozmen, Neslihan; van der Neut, Joost; Cui, Tianci

    2017-04-01

    Travelling wide-bandwidth seismic waves have long been used as a primary tool in exploration seismology because they can probe the subsurface over large distances, while retaining relatively high spatial resolution. The well-known Born resolution limit often seems to be the lower bound on spatial imaging resolution in real life examples. In practice, data acquisition cost, time constraints and other factors can worsen the resolution achieved by wavefield imaging. Could we obtain images whose resolution beats the Born limits? Would it be practical to achieve it, and what are we missing today to achieve this? In this talk, we will cover aspects of linear and nonlinear seismic imaging to understand elements that play a role in obtaining "super-resolved" seismic images. New redatuming techniques, such as the Marchenko method, enable the retrieval of subsurface fields that include multiple scattering interactions, while requiring relatively little knowledge of model parameters. Together with new concepts in imaging, such as Target-Enclosing Extended Images, these new redatuming methods enable new targeted imaging frameworks. We will make a case as to why target-oriented approaches to reconstructing subsurface-domain wavefields from surface data may help in increasing the resolving power of seismic imaging, and in pushing the limits on parameter estimation. We will illustrate this using a field data example. Finally, we will draw connections between seismic and other imaging modalities, and discuss how this framework could be put to use in other applications

  14. Stimulated Emission Pumping Enablling Sub-Diffraction-Limited Spatial Resolution in CARS Microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleff, C.; Gross, P.; Fallnich, C.; Offerhaus, Herman L.; Herek, Jennifer Lynn; Kruse, K.; Beeker, W.P; Beeker, W.P.; Lee, Christopher James; Boller, Klaus J.; Dobner, S.

    2012-01-01

    Suppression of CARS signal generation is demonstrated by equalization of the ground and Raman states via a control state in a theoretical investigation. Using donut-shaped control light fields for population transfer results in sub-diffraction-limited spatial resolution CARS microscopy.

  15. Pushing the limits of signal resolution to make coupling measurement easier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert Pucheta, José Enrique; Pitoux, Daisy; Grison, Claire M; Robin, Sylvie; Merlet, Denis; Aitken, David J; Giraud, Nicolas; Farjon, Jonathan

    2015-05-07

    Probing scalar couplings are essential for structural elucidation in molecular (bio)chemistry. While the measurement of JHH couplings is facilitated by SERF experiments, overcrowded signals represent a significant limitation. Here, a new band selective pure shift SERF allows access to δ(1)H and JHH with an ultrahigh spectral resolution.

  16. Parametric fitting of data obtained from detectors with finite resolution and limited acceptance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagunashvili, N.D.

    2011-01-01

    A goodness-of-fit test for fitting of a parametric model to data obtained from a detector with finite resolution and limited acceptance is proposed. The parameters of the model are found by minimization of a statistic that is used for comparing experimental data and simulated reconstructed data. Numerical examples are presented to illustrate and validate the fitting procedure.

  17. Resolution-limiting factors in 2-deoxyglucose autoradiography. I. Factors other than diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gallistel, C.R.; Nichols, S. (Pennsylvania Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA). Dept. of Psychology)

    1983-05-16

    The authors measured the extent to which factors other than the diffusion of the radioactive label during tissue preparation limits the spatial resolving power of 2-deoxyglucose (2-DG) autoradiography. Radioactive swept frequency gratings were created using microcircuit lithography. The gratings consisted of alternating equal width radioactive and non-radioactive bars in groups of narrowing bar width (effective range 500-20 ..mu..m). The vertical thickness of the gratings ranged from 2.25 to 20 ..mu..m. The isotope in the radioactive bars was either /sup 14/C or /sup 3/H. A variety of X-ray films were exposed to these gratings and the resulting images scanned with microdensitometers or video digitizers to determine the fall off in image contrast (dark-bar values minus light-bar values) as a function of the number of dark bars (lines) per millimeter. The power of the isotope was the resolution limiting factor. Grating thickness and type of film made little difference. The limit of resolution with /sup 14/C was 10 lines/mm: with /sup 3/H it was 25 lines/mm. The microdensitometer itself is apt to be a resolution limiting factor; the resolving power of those commonly used in autoradiography is unlikely to exceed 10 lines/mm. From measurements of the steepness of gray-matter to white-matter transitions in the image from a tissue section, they conclude that the resolution in the image was no worse than 1.6-3.2 lines/mm. Either the isotope or diffusion of the 2-DG during tissue preparation must be the factor that limits resolution.

  18. Using x-ray computed tomography in hydrology: Systems, resolutions, and limitations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wildenschild, Dorthe; Hopmans, J.W.; Vaz, C.M.P.

    2002-01-01

    media, obtained with different scanning systems and sample sizes, to illustrate advantages and limitations of these various systems, including topics of spatial resolution and contrast. In addition, we present examples of our most recent three-dimensional high-resolution images, for which......A combination of advances in experimental techniques and mathematical analysis has made it possible to characterize phase distribution and pore geometry in porous media using non-destructive X-ray computed tomography (CT). We present qualitative and quantitative CT results for partially saturated...

  19. Theoretical limit of spatial resolution in diffuse optical tomography using a perturbation model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konovalov, A B; Vlasov, V V

    2014-01-01

    We have assessed the limit of spatial resolution of timedomain diffuse optical tomography (DOT) based on a perturbation reconstruction model. From the viewpoint of the structure reconstruction accuracy, three different approaches to solving the inverse DOT problem are compared. The first approach involves reconstruction of diffuse tomograms from straight lines, the second – from average curvilinear trajectories of photons and the third – from total banana-shaped distributions of photon trajectories. In order to obtain estimates of resolution, we have derived analytical expressions for the point spread function and modulation transfer function, as well as have performed a numerical experiment on reconstruction of rectangular scattering objects with circular absorbing inhomogeneities. It is shown that in passing from reconstruction from straight lines to reconstruction using distributions of photon trajectories we can improve resolution by almost an order of magnitude and exceed the accuracy of reconstruction of multi-step algorithms used in DOT. (optical tomography)

  20. Counter-current flow limitation at hot leg pipe during reflux condensation cooling after small-break LOCA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Hae Yong; Ha, Sang Jun; Jo, Yung Jo; Jun, Hwang Yong

    1999-01-01

    The possibility of hot leg flooding is evaluated in case of a small-break loss-of-coolant accident in Korean Next Generation Reactor (KNGR) operating at the core power of 3983 MW normally. The vapor and liquid velocities in hot leg and steam generator tubes are calculated during reflux condensation cooling with the accident scenarios of three typical break sizes, 0.13 %, 1.02 % and 10.19 % cold leg break. The calculated results are compared with the existing flooding correlations. It is predicted that the hot leg flooding is excluded when two steam generators are available. It is also shown that the possibility of hot leg flooding under the operation with one steam generator is very low. Therefore, it can be said that the occurrence of hot leg flooding is unexpected when the reflux condensation cooling is maintained in steam generator tubes

  1. Sub 100 nm proton beam micromachining: theoretical calculations on resolution limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kan, J.A. van; Sum, T.C.; Osipowicz, T.; Watt, F.

    2000-01-01

    Proton beam micromachining is a novel direct-write process for the production of three-dimensional (3D) microstructures. A focused beam of MeV protons is scanned in a pre-determined pattern over a suitable resist material (e.g. PMMA or SU-8) and the latent image formed is subsequently developed chemically. In this paper calculations on theoretical resolution limits of proton beam micromachined three-dimensional microstructures are presented. Neglecting the finite beam size, a Monte Carlo ion transport code was used in combination with a theoretical model describing the delta-ray (δ-ray) energy deposition to determine the lateral energy deposition distribution in PMMA resist material. The energy deposition distribution of ion induced secondary electrons (δ-rays) has been parameterized using analytical models. It is assumed that the attainable resolution is limited by a convolution of the spread of the ion beam and energy deposition of the δ-rays

  2. Some Fundamental Limits on SAW RFID Tag Information Capacity and Collision Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Richard J.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we apply results from multi-user information theory to study the limits of information capacity and collision resolution for SAW RFID tags. In particular, we derive bounds on the achievable data rate per tag as a function of fundamental parameters such as tag time-bandwidth product, tag signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and number of tags in the environment. We also discuss the implications of these bounds for tag waveform design and tag interrogation efficiency

  3. On the Chew-Low plot as a limiting case of the distorted wave theory of break-up reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baur, G.

    1976-01-01

    A recently developed formulation of break-up reactions in the frame of the DW approximation is compared to a theory of Chew and Low given in 1958. By suitably rewriting the DWBA matrix element, one can pick out a term, dominant for certain kinematical conditions, which is identical to the expression given by Chew and Low. (orig.) [de

  4. High-resolution surface analysis for extended-range downscaling with limited-area atmospheric models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Separovic, Leo; Husain, Syed Zahid; Yu, Wei; Fernig, David

    2014-12-01

    High-resolution limited-area model (LAM) simulations are frequently employed to downscale coarse-resolution objective analyses over a specified area of the globe using high-resolution computational grids. When LAMs are integrated over extended time frames, from months to years, they are prone to deviations in land surface variables that can be harmful to the quality of the simulated near-surface fields. Nudging of the prognostic surface fields toward a reference-gridded data set is therefore devised in order to prevent the atmospheric model from diverging from the expected values. This paper presents a method to generate high-resolution analyses of land-surface variables, such as surface canopy temperature, soil moisture, and snow conditions, to be used for the relaxation of lower boundary conditions in extended-range LAM simulations. The proposed method is based on performing offline simulations with an external surface model, forced with the near-surface meteorological fields derived from short-range forecast, operational analyses, and observed temperatures and humidity. Results show that the outputs of the surface model obtained in the present study have potential to improve the near-surface atmospheric fields in extended-range LAM integrations.

  5. Influence of Signal-to-Noise Ratio and Point Spread Function on Limits of Super-Resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.Q.; Vliet, L.J. van; Schutte, K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a method to predict the limit of possible resolution enhancement given a sequence of low resolution images. Three important parameters influence the outcome of this limit: the total Point Spread Function (PSF), the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and the number of input images.

  6. Densities mixture unfolding for data obtained from detectors with finite resolution and limited acceptance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagunashvili, N.D., E-mail: nikolai@unak.is

    2015-04-01

    A procedure based on a Mixture Density Model for correcting experimental data for distortions due to finite resolution and limited detector acceptance is presented. Addressing the case that the solution is known to be non-negative, in the approach presented here, the true distribution is estimated by a weighted sum of probability density functions with positive weights and with the width of the densities acting as a regularization parameter responsible for the smoothness of the result. To obtain better smoothing in less populated regions, the width parameter is chosen inversely proportional to the square root of the estimated density. Furthermore, the non-negative garrote method is used to find the most economic representation of the solution. Cross-validation is employed to determine the optimal values of the resolution and garrote parameters. The proposed approach is directly applicable to multidimensional problems. Numerical examples in one and two dimensions are presented to illustrate the procedure.

  7. Consistency of Trend Break Point Estimator with Underspecified Break Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the consistency of trend break point estimators when the number of breaks is underspecified. The consistency of break point estimators in a simple location model with level shifts has been well documented by researchers under various settings, including extensions such as allowing a time trend in the model. Despite the consistency of break point estimators of level shifts, there are few papers on the consistency of trend shift break point estimators in the presence of an underspecified break number. The simulation study and asymptotic analysis in this paper show that the trend shift break point estimator does not converge to the true break points when the break number is underspecified. In the case of two trend shifts, the inconsistency problem worsens if the magnitudes of the breaks are similar and the breaks are either both positive or both negative. The limiting distribution for the trend break point estimator is developed and closely approximates the finite sample performance.

  8. Atomic resolution ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope with scan rate breaking the resonant frequency of a quartz tuning fork resonator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quanfeng; Lu, Qingyou

    2011-05-01

    We present an ultra-fast scanning tunneling microscope with atomic resolution at 26 kHz scan rate which surpasses the resonant frequency of the quartz tuning fork resonator used as the fast scan actuator. The main improvements employed in achieving this new record are (1) fully low voltage design (2) independent scan control and data acquisition, where the tuning fork (carrying a tip) is blindly driven to scan by a function generator with the scan voltage and tunneling current (I(T)) being measured as image data (this is unlike the traditional point-by-point move and measure method where data acquisition and scan control are switched many times).

  9. Reconstructing the distribution of haloes and mock galaxies below the resolution limit in cosmological simulations

    OpenAIRE

    de la Torre, Sylvain; Peacock, John A.

    2012-01-01

    We present a method for populating dark matter simulations with haloes of mass below the resolution limit. It is based on stochastically sampling a field derived from the density field of the halo catalogue, using constraints from the conditional halo mass function n(m|{\\delta}). We test the accuracy of the method and show its application in the context of building mock galaxy samples. We find that this technique allows precise reproduction of the two-point statistics of galaxies in mock samp...

  10. Resolution testing and limitations of geodetic and tsunami datasets for finite fault inversions along subduction zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, A.; Newman, A. V.

    2017-12-01

    Finite fault inversions utilizing multiple datasets have become commonplace for large earthquakes pending data availability. The mixture of geodetic datasets such as Global Navigational Satellite Systems (GNSS) and InSAR, seismic waveforms, and when applicable, tsunami waveforms from Deep-Ocean Assessment and Reporting of Tsunami (DART) gauges, provide slightly different observations that when incorporated together lead to a more robust model of fault slip distribution. The merging of different datasets is of particular importance along subduction zones where direct observations of seafloor deformation over the rupture area are extremely limited. Instead, instrumentation measures related ground motion from tens to hundreds of kilometers away. The distance from the event and dataset type can lead to a variable degree of resolution, affecting the ability to accurately model the spatial distribution of slip. This study analyzes the spatial resolution attained individually from geodetic and tsunami datasets as well as in a combined dataset. We constrain the importance of distance between estimated parameters and observed data and how that varies between land-based and open ocean datasets. Analysis focuses on accurately scaled subduction zone synthetic models as well as analysis of the relationship between slip and data in recent large subduction zone earthquakes. This study shows that seafloor deformation sensitive datasets, like open-ocean tsunami waveforms or seafloor geodetic instrumentation, can provide unique offshore resolution for understanding most large and particularly tsunamigenic megathrust earthquake activity. In most environments, we simply lack the capability to resolve static displacements using land-based geodetic observations.

  11. Resolution limit of probe-forming systems with magnetic quadrupole lens triplets and quadruplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponomarev, A.G.; Melnik, K.I.; Miroshnichenko, V.I.; Storizhko, V.E.; Sulkio-Cleff, B.

    2003-01-01

    Over the past decade, in MeV ion beam microanalysis efforts to achieve a spatial resolution better than 0.1 μm with a beam current of ∼100 pA have been connected with microprobes of new generation where the probe is formed by means of separated magnetic quadrupole lens structures . However, as was pointed out in , no dramatic improvements in spatial resolution have been produced so far. For better understanding of the situation the authors carried out theoretical studies of multiparameter sets of probe-forming systems based on separated triplets and quadruplets of magnetic quadrupole lenses. Comparisons were made between the highest current values attained at different systems for a given beam spot size. The maximum parasitic sextupole and octupole field components were found whose contributions to spot broadening are tolerable. It is shown that the use of modern electrostatic accelerators and precision magnetic quadrupole lenses makes it possible to eliminate the effect of chromatic aberrations and second- and third-order parasitic aberrations resulting from distortions of the quadrupole lens symmetry. Therefore probe-forming systems with triplets and quadruplets of magnetic quadrupole lenses have a lower theoretical spatial resolution limit which is restricted mainly by intrinsic spherical third-order aberrations in state-of-the-art microprobes

  12. Linear versus non-linear structural information limit in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Aert, S.; Chen, J.H.; Van Dyck, D.

    2010-01-01

    A widely used performance criterion in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) is the information limit. It corresponds to the inverse of the maximum spatial object frequency that is linearly transmitted with sufficient intensity from the exit plane of the object to the image plane and is limited due to partial temporal coherence. In practice, the information limit is often measured from a diffractogram or from Young's fringes assuming a weak phase object scattering beyond the inverse of the information limit. However, for an aberration corrected electron microscope, with an information limit in the sub-angstrom range, weak phase objects are no longer applicable since they do not scatter sufficiently in this range. Therefore, one relies on more strongly scattering objects such as crystals of heavy atoms observed along a low index zone axis. In that case, dynamical scattering becomes important such that the non-linear and linear interaction may be equally important. The non-linear interaction may then set the experimental cut-off frequency observed in a diffractogram. The goal of this paper is to quantify both the linear and the non-linear information transfer in terms of closed form analytical expressions. Whereas the cut-off frequency set by the linear transfer can be directly related with the attainable resolution, information from the non-linear transfer can only be extracted using quantitative, model-based methods. In contrast to the historic definition of the information limit depending on microscope parameters only, the expressions derived in this paper explicitly incorporate their dependence on the structure parameters as well. In order to emphasize this dependence and to distinguish from the usual information limit, the expressions derived for the inverse cut-off frequencies will be referred to as the linear and non-linear structural information limit. The present findings confirm the well-known result that partial temporal coherence has

  13. Fine-resolution conservation planning with limited climate-change information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Payal; Mallory, Mindy L; Ando, Amy W; Guntenspergen, Glenn R

    2017-04-01

    Climate-change induced uncertainties in future spatial patterns of conservation-related outcomes make it difficult to implement standard conservation-planning paradigms. A recent study translates Markowitz's risk-diversification strategy from finance to conservation settings, enabling conservation agents to use this diversification strategy for allocating conservation and restoration investments across space to minimize the risk associated with such uncertainty. However, this method is information intensive and requires a large number of forecasts of ecological outcomes associated with possible climate-change scenarios for carrying out fine-resolution conservation planning. We developed a technique for iterative, spatial portfolio analysis that can be used to allocate scarce conservation resources across a desired level of subregions in a planning landscape in the absence of a sufficient number of ecological forecasts. We applied our technique to the Prairie Pothole Region in central North America. A lack of sufficient future climate information prevented attainment of the most efficient risk-return conservation outcomes in the Prairie Pothole Region. The difference in expected conservation returns between conservation planning with limited climate-change information and full climate-change information was as large as 30% for the Prairie Pothole Region even when the most efficient iterative approach was used. However, our iterative approach allowed finer resolution portfolio allocation with limited climate-change forecasts such that the best possible risk-return combinations were obtained. With our most efficient iterative approach, the expected loss in conservation outcomes owing to limited climate-change information could be reduced by 17% relative to other iterative approaches. © 2016 Society for Conservation Biology.

  14. Fine‐resolution conservation planning with limited climate‐change information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Payal; Mallory, Mindy L.; Ando , Amy W.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.

    2017-01-01

    Climate‐change induced uncertainties in future spatial patterns of conservation‐related outcomes make it difficult to implement standard conservation‐planning paradigms. A recent study translates Markowitz's risk‐diversification strategy from finance to conservation settings, enabling conservation agents to use this diversification strategy for allocating conservation and restoration investments across space to minimize the risk associated with such uncertainty. However, this method is information intensive and requires a large number of forecasts of ecological outcomes associated with possible climate‐change scenarios for carrying out fine‐resolution conservation planning. We developed a technique for iterative, spatial portfolio analysis that can be used to allocate scarce conservation resources across a desired level of subregions in a planning landscape in the absence of a sufficient number of ecological forecasts. We applied our technique to the Prairie Pothole Region in central North America. A lack of sufficient future climate information prevented attainment of the most efficient risk‐return conservation outcomes in the Prairie Pothole Region. The difference in expected conservation returns between conservation planning with limited climate‐change information and full climate‐change information was as large as 30% for the Prairie Pothole Region even when the most efficient iterative approach was used. However, our iterative approach allowed finer resolution portfolio allocation with limited climate‐change forecasts such that the best possible risk‐return combinations were obtained. With our most efficient iterative approach, the expected loss in conservation outcomes owing to limited climate‐change information could be reduced by 17% relative to other iterative approaches.

  15. Electron mean free path dependence of the critical currents and the pair-breaking limit in superconducting films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fedorov, N.; Rinderer, L.

    1977-01-01

    We have studied the current-induced breakdown of superconductivity in wide (100--980 μm) and thin (0.25--0.98 μm) films of tin. It is shown that the current at which the resistance of the sample begins to rise rapidly in the process of the destruction of superconductivity by a current can be fairly well associated with the theoretical value of the pair-breaking current in the Ginzburg-Landau phenomenological approach (I/sub c//sup G L/). This effect is observed over a rather wide temperature region (up to ΔTapprox.0.7 K), depending on the electron mean free path in the films. The values of the critical currents outside the above-mentioned region correlate qualitatively with those determined by inhomogeneities of the films as proposed by Larkin and Ovchinnikov

  16. A high resolution IR/visible imaging system for the W7-X limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wurden, G. A.; Dunn, J. P.; Stephey, L. A.; Biedermann, C.; Jakubowski, M. W.; Gamradt, M.

    2016-01-01

    A high-resolution imaging system, consisting of megapixel mid-IR and visible cameras along the same line of sight, has been prepared for the new W7-X stellarator and was operated during Operational Period 1.1 to view one of the five inboard graphite limiters. The radial line of sight, through a large diameter (184 mm clear aperture) uncoated sapphire window, couples a direct viewing 1344 × 784 pixel FLIR SC8303HD camera. A germanium beam-splitter sends visible light to a 1024 × 1024 pixel Allied Vision Technologies Prosilica GX1050 color camera. Both achieve sub-millimeter resolution on the 161 mm wide, inertially cooled, segmented graphite tiles. The IR and visible cameras are controlled via optical fibers over full Camera Link and dual GigE Ethernet (2 Gbit/s data rates) interfaces, respectively. While they are mounted outside the cryostat at a distance of 3.2 m from the limiter, they are close to a large magnetic trim coil and require soft iron shielding. We have taken IR data at 125 Hz to 1.25 kHz frame rates and seen that surface temperature increases in excess of 350 °C, especially on leading edges or defect hot spots. The IR camera sees heat-load stripe patterns on the limiter and has been used to infer limiter power fluxes (∼1–4.5 MW/m"2), during the ECRH heating phase. IR images have also been used calorimetrically between shots to measure equilibrated bulk tile temperature, and hence tile energy inputs (in the range of 30 kJ/tile with 0.6 MW, 6 s heating pulses). Small UFO’s can be seen and tracked by the FLIR camera in some discharges. The calibrated visible color camera (100 Hz frame rate) has also been equipped with narrow band C-III and H-alpha filters, to compare with other diagnostics, and is used for absolute particle flux determination from the limiter surface. Sometimes, but not always, hot-spots in the IR are also seen to be bright in C-III light.

  17. A high resolution IR/visible imaging system for the W7-X limiter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wurden, G. A., E-mail: wurden@lanl.gov; Dunn, J. P. [Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Stephey, L. A. [University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Biedermann, C.; Jakubowski, M. W.; Gamradt, M. [Max Planck Institut für Plasma Physik, Wendelsteinstrasse 1, 17491 Greifswald (Germany)

    2016-11-15

    A high-resolution imaging system, consisting of megapixel mid-IR and visible cameras along the same line of sight, has been prepared for the new W7-X stellarator and was operated during Operational Period 1.1 to view one of the five inboard graphite limiters. The radial line of sight, through a large diameter (184 mm clear aperture) uncoated sapphire window, couples a direct viewing 1344 × 784 pixel FLIR SC8303HD camera. A germanium beam-splitter sends visible light to a 1024 × 1024 pixel Allied Vision Technologies Prosilica GX1050 color camera. Both achieve sub-millimeter resolution on the 161 mm wide, inertially cooled, segmented graphite tiles. The IR and visible cameras are controlled via optical fibers over full Camera Link and dual GigE Ethernet (2 Gbit/s data rates) interfaces, respectively. While they are mounted outside the cryostat at a distance of 3.2 m from the limiter, they are close to a large magnetic trim coil and require soft iron shielding. We have taken IR data at 125 Hz to 1.25 kHz frame rates and seen that surface temperature increases in excess of 350 °C, especially on leading edges or defect hot spots. The IR camera sees heat-load stripe patterns on the limiter and has been used to infer limiter power fluxes (∼1–4.5 MW/m{sup 2}), during the ECRH heating phase. IR images have also been used calorimetrically between shots to measure equilibrated bulk tile temperature, and hence tile energy inputs (in the range of 30 kJ/tile with 0.6 MW, 6 s heating pulses). Small UFO’s can be seen and tracked by the FLIR camera in some discharges. The calibrated visible color camera (100 Hz frame rate) has also been equipped with narrow band C-III and H-alpha filters, to compare with other diagnostics, and is used for absolute particle flux determination from the limiter surface. Sometimes, but not always, hot-spots in the IR are also seen to be bright in C-III light.

  18. Limits in point to point resolution of MOS based pixels detector arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fourches, N.; Desforge, D.; Kebbiri, M.; Kumar, V.; Serruys, Y.; Gutierrez, G.; Leprêtre, F.; Jomard, F.

    2018-01-01

    In high energy physics point-to-point resolution is a key prerequisite for particle detector pixel arrays. Current and future experiments require the development of inner-detectors able to resolve the tracks of particles down to the micron range. Present-day technologies, although not fully implemented in actual detectors, can reach a 5-μm limit, this limit being based on statistical measurements, with a pixel-pitch in the 10 μm range. This paper is devoted to the evaluation of the building blocks for use in pixel arrays enabling accurate tracking of charged particles. Basing us on simulations we will make here a quantitative evaluation of the physical and technological limits in pixel size. Attempts to design small pixels based on SOI technology will be briefly recalled here. A design based on CMOS compatible technologies that allow a reduction of the pixel size below the micrometer is introduced here. Its physical principle relies on a buried carrier-localizing collecting gate. The fabrication process needed by this pixel design can be based on existing process steps used in silicon microelectronics. The pixel characteristics will be discussed as well as the design of pixel arrays. The existing bottlenecks and how to overcome them will be discussed in the light of recent ion implantation and material characterization experiments.

  19. Nuclear structure at the limits of resolution: Looking through individual wave functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zelevinsky, V.G. [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    60 years ago Niels Bohr suggested the idea of the compound nucleus. Bohr`s picture strongly resembles that of quantum chaos. Here one comes to the limits of resolution studying particular stationary states at high level density. Present knowledge comes from the experiment and from theoretical constructions, confirmed by the experiment at lower energies and extrapolated into the region where fine resolution measurements are not feasible. Such an analysis was carried out recently for heavy atoms and shell model nuclei. Among complicated states with the same values of integrals of motion, either (i) adjacent states have different structure or (ii) they {open_quotes}look the same{close_quotes} on the microscopic scale. Only (ii) corresponds to strong mixing assumed in the compound nucleus theory. Many-body chaos in nuclei is caused by residual interactions rather than by specific shape of the {open_quotes}container{close_quotes} as in quantum billiards. The shell model, including all degrees of freedom (in truncated space) along with the symmetry requirements, guarantees the correct level density up to some excitation energy. Therefore one can extrapolate the calculations into terra incognita of high lying states.

  20. Spatial resolution limits for the localization of noise sources using direct sound mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Comesana, D. Fernandez; Holland, K. R.; Fernandez Grande, Efren

    2016-01-01

    the relationship between spatial resolution, noise level and geometry. The proposed expressions are validated via simulations and experiments. It is shown that particle velocity mapping yields better results for identifying closely spaced sound sources than sound pressure or sound intensity, especially...... extensively been used for many years to locate sound sources. However, it is not yet well defined when two sources should be regarded as resolved by means of direct sound mapping. This paper derives the limits of the direct representation of sound pressure, particle velocity and sound intensity by exploring......One of the main challenges arising from noise and vibration problems is how to identify the areas of a device, machine or structure that produce significant acoustic excitation, i.e. the localization of main noise sources. The direct visualization of sound, in particular sound intensity, has...

  1. Intrinsic spatial resolution limitations due to differences between positron emission position and annihilation detection localization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez, Pedro; Malano, Francisco; Valente, Mauro

    2012-01-01

    Since its successful implementation for clinical diagnostic, positron emission tomography (PET) represents the most promising medical imaging technique. The recent major growth of PET imaging is mainly due to its ability to trace the biologic pathways of different compounds in the patient's body, assuming the patient can be labeled with some PET isotope. Regardless of the type of isotope, the PET imaging method is based on the detection of two 511-keV gamma photons being emitted in opposite directions, with almost 180 deg between them, as a consequence of electron-positron annihilation. Therefore, this imaging method is intrinsically limited by random uncertainties in spatial resolutions, related with differences between the actual position of positron emission and the location of the detected annihilation. This study presents an approach with the Monte Carlo method to analyze the influence of this effect on different isotopes of potential implementation in PET. (author)

  2. Temporal resolution limit estimation of x-ray streak cameras using a CsI photocathode

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xiang; Gu, Li; Zong, Fangke; Zhang, Jingjin; Yang, Qinlao, E-mail: qlyang@szu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Optoelectronic Devices and Systems of Ministry of Education and Guangdong Province, Institute of Optoelectronics, Shenzhen University, Shenzhen 518060 (China)

    2015-08-28

    A Monte Carlo model is developed and implemented to calculate the characteristics of x-ray induced secondary electron (SE) emission from a CsI photocathode used in an x-ray streak camera. Time distributions of emitted SEs are investigated with an incident x-ray energy range from 1 to 30 keV and a CsI thickness range from 100 to 1000 nm. Simulation results indicate that SE time distribution curves have little dependence on the incident x-ray energy and CsI thickness. The calculated time dispersion within the CsI photocathode is about 70 fs, which should be the temporal resolution limit of x-ray streak cameras that use CsI as the photocathode material.

  3. Installation of high-resolution ERDA in UTTAC at the University of Tsukuba: Determination of the energy resolution and the detection limit for hydrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sekiba, D., E-mail: sekiba@tac.tsukuba.ac.jp [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); University of Tsukuba, Tandem Accelerator Complex (UTTAC), Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Chito, K.; Harayama, I. [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Watahiki, Y.; Ishii, S. [University of Tsukuba, Tandem Accelerator Complex (UTTAC), Tennodai 1-1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8577 (Japan); Ozeki, K. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ibaraki University, Nakanarusawa 4-12-1, Hitachi, Ibaraki 316-8511 (Japan)

    2017-06-15

    A newly developed high-resolution elastic recoil detection analysis (HERDA) system installed at the 1 MV Tandetron in UTTAC at the University of Tsukuba is introduced. The effective solid angle of detector, energy resolution and detection limit for hydrogen are, for the first time, determined quantitatively by the measurements on an a-C:H (and D) film deposited on a Si substrate. In the case of a 500 keV {sup 16}O{sup +} as the incident beam, an energy resolution of ∼0.45 keV and a detection limit of ∼3.8 × 10{sup 20} atoms/cm{sup 3} (∼0.18 at.%) with a data acquisition time of ∼310 s are derived.

  4. Hyper-resolution hydrological modeling: Completeness of Formulation, Appropriateness of Descritization, and Physical LImits of Predictability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, F. L.

    2017-12-01

    HIgh performance computing and the widespread availabilities of geospatial physiographic and forcing datasets have enabled consideration of flood impact predictions with longer lead times and more detailed spatial descriptions. We are now considering multi-hour flash flood forecast lead times at the subdivision level in so-called hydroblind regions away from the National Hydrography network. However, the computational demands of such models are high, necessitating a nested simulation approach. Research on hyper-resolution hydrologic modeling over the past three decades have illustrated some fundamental limits on predictability that are simultaneously related to runoff generation mechanism(s), antecedent conditions, rates and total amounts of precipitation, discretization of the model domain, and complexity or completeness of the model formulation. This latter point is an acknowledgement that in some ways hydrologic understanding in key areas related to land use, land cover, tillage practices, seasonality, and biological effects has some glaring deficiencies. This presentation represents a review of what is known related to the interacting effects of precipitation amount, model spatial discretization, antecedent conditions, physiographic characteristics and model formulation completeness for runoff predictions. These interactions define a region in multidimensional forcing, parameter and process space where there are in some cases clear limits on predictability, and in other cases diminished uncertainty.

  5. Breaking Bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Isaac-Cesar; Kagan, David

    2013-01-01

    The sight of a broken bat in Major League Baseball can produce anything from a humorous dribbler in the infield to a frightening pointed projectile headed for the stands. Bats usually break at the weakest point, typically in the handle. Breaking happens because the wood gets bent beyond the breaking point due to the wave sent down the bat created…

  6. Applying petrophysical models to radar travel time and electrical resistivity tomograms: Resolution-dependent limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day-Lewis, F. D.; Singha, K.; Binley, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Geophysical imaging has traditionally provided qualitative information about geologic structure; however, there is increasing interest in using petrophysical models to convert tomograms to quantitative estimates of hydrogeologic, mechanical, or geochemical parameters of interest (e.g., permeability, porosity, water content, and salinity). Unfortunately, petrophysical estimation based on tomograms is complicated by limited and variable image resolution, which depends on (1) measurement physics (e.g., electrical conduction or electromagnetic wave propagation), (2) parameterization and regularization, (3) measurement error, and (4) spatial variability. We present a framework to predict how core-scale relations between geophysical properties and hydrologic parameters are altered by the inversion, which produces smoothly varying pixel-scale estimates. We refer to this loss of information as "correlation loss." Our approach upscales the core-scale relation to the pixel scale using the model resolution matrix from the inversion, random field averaging, and spatial statistics of the geophysical property. Synthetic examples evaluate the utility of radar travel time tomography (RTT) and electrical-resistivity tomography (ERT) for estimating water content. This work provides (1) a framework to assess tomograms for geologic parameter estimation and (2) insights into the different patterns of correlation loss for ERT and RTT. Whereas ERT generally performs better near boreholes, RTT performs better in the interwell region. Application of petrophysical models to the tomograms in our examples would yield misleading estimates of water content. Although the examples presented illustrate the problem of correlation loss in the context of near-surface geophysical imaging, our results have clear implications for quantitative analysis of tomograms for diverse geoscience applications. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  7. Influence of signal-to-noise ratio and point spread function on limits of super-resolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pham, T.Q.; Van Vliet, L.; Schutte, K.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents a method to predict the limit of possible resolution enhancement given a sequence of lowresolution images. Three important parameters influence the outcome of this limit: the total Point Spread Function (PSF), the Signal-to-Noise Ratio (SNR) and the number of input images.

  8. Comparison between subjective and quantitative methods for assessing the resolution limit of radiographic systems; Comparacao entre metodos subjetivos e quantitativos na medida da resolucao limite de sistemas radiograficos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Matheus; Oliveira, Marcela de; Miranda, Jose R.A. [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Biociencias de Botucatu; Pina, Diana R., E-mail: matheus@ibb.unesp.br [UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Dept. de Doencas Tropicais e Diagnostico por Imagem

    2012-07-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two ways of measuring the resolution limit of radiographic systems, one subjective and one quantitative. To this end, nine images were acquired with different radiographic techniques using a pattern of bars and aluminum plates. With these images were acquired modulation transfer function (MTF) through the edge image obtained by the aluminum plate - the MTF 10% was measured on all images - and the variation of these points, which was faced with the evaluation obtained by the resolution limit of the standard bar. Although we have observed a greater variation between measurements obtained using the bar-pattern, the simplicity of this measuring technique favors the common use of the same. We concluded that, to optimize the quality control of radiographic equipment, it is suggested to measure the MTF at least in periods of time while the annual pattern of bars to be used in shorter time periods to measure changes in resolution of the system. (author)

  9. Breaking of the SU(4) limit for the Gamow-Teller strength in N{proportional_to}Z nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petermann, I. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Martinez-Pinedo, G. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Langanke, K. [Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung Darmstadt, Darmstadt (Germany); Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Darmstadt (Germany); Caurier, E. [Universite Louis Pasteur, Institut de Recherches Subatomiques, Strasbourg (France)

    2007-12-15

    We have performed large-scale shell model calculations of the Gamow-Teller strength distributions in N{proportional_to}Z pf-shell nuclei. These calculations were motivated by the experimental attempts to measure the low-lying GT strength for the even-even N=Z+2 or N=Z-2 nuclei {sup 46}Ti, {sup 50}Cr, {sup 54}Fe and {sup 62}Ge, where a sizable low-energy GT strength could be interpreted as reminiscence of SU(4) symmetry; in the limit of exact SU(4) symmetry the GT{sub -} strength would be concentrated in a single transition to the lowest T=0, J=1{sup +} state in the daughter. We confirm that the SU(4) symmetry is strongly broken by the spin-orbit interaction and by increasing neutron excess. (orig.)

  10. Best estimate plus uncertainty analysis of departure from nucleate boiling limiting case with CASL core simulator VERA-CS in response to PWR main steam line break event

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, C.S., E-mail: csbrown3@ncsu.edu [Department of Nuclear Engineering, North Carolina State University, 2500 Stinson Drive, Raleigh, NC 27695-7909 (United States); Zhang, H., E-mail: Hongbin.Zhang@inl.gov [Idaho National Laboratory, P.O. Box 1625, Idaho Falls, ID 83415-3870 (United States); Kucukboyaci, V., E-mail: kucukbvn@westinghouse.com [Westinghouse Electric Company, 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States); Sung, Y., E-mail: sungy@westinghouse.com [Westinghouse Electric Company, 1000 Westinghouse Drive, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States)

    2016-12-01

    Highlights: • Best estimate plus uncertainty (BEPU) analyses of PWR core responses under main steam line break (MSLB) accident. • CASL’s coupled neutron transport/subchannel code VERA-CS. • Wilks’ nonparametric statistical method. • MDNBR 95/95 tolerance limit. - Abstract: VERA-CS (Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications, Core Simulator) is a coupled neutron transport and thermal-hydraulics subchannel code under development by the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). VERA-CS was applied to simulate core behavior of a typical Westinghouse-designed 4-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR) with 17 × 17 fuel assemblies in response to two main steam line break (MSLB) accident scenarios initiated at hot zero power (HZP) at the end of the first fuel cycle with the most reactive rod cluster control assembly stuck out of the core. The reactor core boundary conditions at the most DNB limiting time step were determined by a system analysis code. The core inlet flow and temperature distributions were obtained from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The two MSLB scenarios consisted of the high and low flow situations, where reactor coolant pumps either continue to operate with offsite power or do not continue to operate since offsite power is unavailable. The best estimate plus uncertainty (BEPU) analysis method was applied using Wilks’ nonparametric statistical approach. In this demonstration of BEPU application, 59 full core simulations were performed for each accident scenario to provide the minimum departure from nucleate boiling ratio (MDNBR) at the 95/95 (95% probability with 95% confidence level) tolerance limit. A parametric goodness-of-fit approach was also applied to the results to obtain the MDNBR value at the 95/95 tolerance limit. Initial sensitivity analysis was performed with the 59 cases per accident scenario by use of Pearson correlation coefficients. The results show that this typical PWR core

  11. Best estimate plus uncertainty analysis of departure from nucleate boiling limiting case with CASL core simulator VERA-CS in response to PWR main steam line break event

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, C.S.; Zhang, H.; Kucukboyaci, V.; Sung, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Best estimate plus uncertainty (BEPU) analyses of PWR core responses under main steam line break (MSLB) accident. • CASL’s coupled neutron transport/subchannel code VERA-CS. • Wilks’ nonparametric statistical method. • MDNBR 95/95 tolerance limit. - Abstract: VERA-CS (Virtual Environment for Reactor Applications, Core Simulator) is a coupled neutron transport and thermal-hydraulics subchannel code under development by the Consortium for Advanced Simulation of Light Water Reactors (CASL). VERA-CS was applied to simulate core behavior of a typical Westinghouse-designed 4-loop pressurized water reactor (PWR) with 17 × 17 fuel assemblies in response to two main steam line break (MSLB) accident scenarios initiated at hot zero power (HZP) at the end of the first fuel cycle with the most reactive rod cluster control assembly stuck out of the core. The reactor core boundary conditions at the most DNB limiting time step were determined by a system analysis code. The core inlet flow and temperature distributions were obtained from computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. The two MSLB scenarios consisted of the high and low flow situations, where reactor coolant pumps either continue to operate with offsite power or do not continue to operate since offsite power is unavailable. The best estimate plus uncertainty (BEPU) analysis method was applied using Wilks’ nonparametric statistical approach. In this demonstration of BEPU application, 59 full core simulations were performed for each accident scenario to provide the minimum departure from nucleate boiling ratio (MDNBR) at the 95/95 (95% probability with 95% confidence level) tolerance limit. A parametric goodness-of-fit approach was also applied to the results to obtain the MDNBR value at the 95/95 tolerance limit. Initial sensitivity analysis was performed with the 59 cases per accident scenario by use of Pearson correlation coefficients. The results show that this typical PWR core

  12. Dual descriptions of supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intrilligator, K.; Thomas, S.

    1996-08-01

    Dynamical supersymmetry breaking is considered in models which admit descriptions in terms of electric, confined, or magnetic degrees of freedom in various limits. In this way, a variety of seemingly different theories which break supersymmetry are actually interrelated by confinement or duality. Specific examples are given in which there are two dual descriptions of the supersymmetry breaking ground state

  13. Breaking the speed limit--comparative sprinting performance of brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Santos, Theodore; Sanz-Ronda, Francisco Javier; Ruiz-Legazpi, Jorge

    2013-01-01

    Sprinting behavior of free-ranging fish has long been thought to exceed that of captive fish. Here we present data from wild-caught brook trout (Salvelinus fontinalis) and brown trout (Salmo trutta), volitionally entering and sprinting against high-velocity flows in an open-channel flume. Performance of the two species was nearly identical, with the species attaining absolute speeds > 25 body lengths·s−1. These speeds far exceed previously published observations for any salmonid species and contribute to the mounting evidence that commonly accepted estimates of swimming performance are low. Brook trout demonstrated two distinct modes in the relationship between swim speed and fatigue time, similar to the shift from prolonged to sprint mode described by other authors, but in this case occurring at speeds > 19 body lengths·s−1. This is the first demonstration of multiple modes of sprint swimming at such high swim speeds. Neither species optimized for distance maximization, however, indicating that physiological limits alone are poor predictors of swimming performance. By combining distributions of volitional swim speeds with endurance, we were able to account for >80% of the variation in distance traversed by both species.

  14. Travelling-wave resonant four-wave mixing breaks the limits of cavity-enhanced all-optical wavelength conversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morichetti, Francesco; Canciamilla, Antonio; Ferrari, Carlo; Samarelli, Antonio; Sorel, Marc; Melloni, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    Wave mixing inside optical resonators, while experiencing a large enhancement of the nonlinear interaction efficiency, suffers from strong bandwidth constraints, preventing its practical exploitation for processing broad-band signals. Here we show that such limits are overcome by the new concept of travelling-wave resonant four-wave mixing (FWM). This approach combines the efficiency enhancement provided by resonant propagation with a wide-band conversion process. Compared with conventional FWM in bare waveguides, it exhibits higher robustness against chromatic dispersion and propagation loss, while preserving transparency to modulation formats. Travelling-wave resonant FWM has been demonstrated in silicon-coupled ring resonators and was exploited to realize a 630-μm-long wavelength converter operating over a wavelength range wider than 60 nm and with 28-dB gain with respect to a bare waveguide of the same physical length. Full compatibility of the travelling-wave resonant FWM with optical signal processing applications has been demonstrated through signal retiming and reshaping at 10 Gb s(-1).

  15. Spatial resolution limits for the isotropic-3D PET detector X’tal cube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Eiji, E-mail: rush@nirs.go.jp; Tashima, Hideaki; Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Inadama, Naoko; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Murayama, Hideo; Yamaya, Taiga

    2013-11-11

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has become a popular imaging method in metabolism, neuroscience, and molecular imaging. For dedicated human brain and small animal PET scanners, high spatial resolution is needed to visualize small objects. To improve the spatial resolution, we are developing the X’tal cube, which is our new PET detector to achieve isotropic 3D positioning detectability. We have shown that the X’tal cube can achieve 1 mm{sup 3} uniform crystal identification performance with the Anger-type calculation even at the block edges. We plan to develop the X’tal cube with even smaller 3D grids for sub-millimeter crystal identification. In this work, we investigate spatial resolution of a PET scanner based on the X’tal cube using Monte Carlo simulations for predicting resolution performance in smaller 3D grids. For spatial resolution evaluation, a point source emitting 511 keV photons was simulated by GATE for all physical processes involved in emission and interaction of positrons. We simulated two types of animal PET scanners. The first PET scanner had a detector ring 14.6 cm in diameter composed of 18 detectors. The second PET scanner had a detector ring 7.8 cm in diameter composed of 12 detectors. After the GATE simulations, we converted the interacting 3D position information to digitalized positions for realistic segmented crystals. We simulated several X’tal cubes with cubic crystals from (0.5 mm){sup 3} to (2 mm){sup 3} in size. Also, for evaluating the effect of DOI resolution, we simulated several X’tal cubes with crystal thickness from (0.5 mm){sup 3} to (9 mm){sup 3}. We showed that sub-millimeter spatial resolution was possible using cubic crystals smaller than (1.0 mm){sup 3} even with the assumed physical processes. Also, the weighted average spatial resolutions of both PET scanners with (0.5 mm){sup 3} cubic crystals were 0.53 mm (14.6 cm ring diameter) and 0.48 mm (7.8 cm ring diameter). For the 7.8 cm ring diameter, spatial

  16. First experimental proof for aberration correction in XPEEM: Resolution, transmission enhancement, and limitation by space charge effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Th.; Sala, A.; Marchetto, H.; Umbach, E.; Freund, H.-J.

    2013-01-01

    The positive effect of double aberration correction in x-ray induced Photoelectron Emission Microscopy (XPEEM) has been successfully demonstrated for both, the lateral resolution and the transmission, using the Au 4f XPS peak for element specific imaging at a kinetic energy of 113 eV. The lateral resolution is improved by a factor of four, compared to a non-corrected system, whereas the transmission is enhanced by a factor of 5 at a moderate resolution of 80 nm. With an optimized system setting, a lateral resolution of 18 nm could be achieved, which is up to now the best value reported for energy filtered XPEEM imaging. However, the absolute resolution does not yet reach the theoretical limit of 2 nm, which is due to space charge limitation. This occurs along the entire optical axis up to the contrast aperture. In XPEEM the pulsed time structure of the exciting soft x-ray light source causes a short and highly intense electron pulse, which results in an image blurring. In contrast, the imaging with elastically reflected electrons in the low energy electron microscopy (LEEM) mode yields a resolution clearly below 5 nm. Technical solutions to reduce the space charge effect in an aberration-corrected spectro-microscope are discussed. - Highlights: ► First successful double aberration correction in XPEEM. ► Improvement of resolution and transmission by aberration correction. ► Lateral resolution of 18 nm in energy filtered XPEEM is the best up to now reported value. ► First investigation of space charge effects in aberrations corrected PEEM

  17. Stimulated-emission pumping enabling sub-diffraction-limited spatial resolution in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cleff, C.; Gross, P.; Fallnich, C.; Offerhaus, Herman L.; Herek, Jennifer Lynn; Kruse, K.; Beeker, W.P.; Lee, Christopher James; Boller, Klaus J.

    2013-01-01

    We present a theoretical investigation of stimulated emission pumping to achieve sub-diffraction-limited spatial resolution in coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy. A pair of control light fields is used to prepopulate the Raman state involved in the CARS process prior to the CARS

  18. Limits of a spatial resolution of the cascaded GEM based detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kudryavtsev, V.N.; Maltsev, T.V.; Shekhtman, L.I.

    2017-01-01

    Spatial resolution of tracking detectors based on GEM cascades is determined in the simulation and measured. The simulation includes GEANT4 implemented transport of high energy electrons with careful accounting for atomic relaxation processes including emission of fluorescent photons and Auger electrons and custom post-processing taking into account diffusion, gas amplification fluctuations, the distribution of signals over readout electrodes, electronics noise and particular algorithm of final coordinate calculation (centre-of-gravity algorithm). The simulation demonstrates that the minimum of the spatial resolution of about 10–20 μm can be achieved with a gas mixture of Ar-CO 2 (75%–25%) at a strip pitch in the range from 250 μm to 300 μm. At a larger pitch the resolution quickly degrades reaching 70–100 μm at a pitch of 450–500 μm. The reasons of such behavior are discussed and corresponding hypothesis is tested. Particularly, the effect of electron cloud modification due to a GEM operation is considered using the ANSYS and Garfield++ simulation programs. The detection efficiency and spatial resolution of low-material triple-GEM detectors for the DEUTERON facility at BINP are measured at the extracted beam facility of the VEPP-4M collider. One-coordinate resolution of two detectors for the DEUTERON facility is measured with a 2 GeV electron beam. The determined values of the detectors' spatial resolution is equal to 46.6 ± 0.1 μm and 38.5 ± 0.2 μm for orthogonal tracks in two detectors, respectively.

  19. Limits of a spatial resolution of the cascaded GEM based detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudryavtsev, V. N.; Maltsev, T. V.; Shekhtman, L. I.

    2017-06-01

    Spatial resolution of tracking detectors based on GEM cascades is determined in the simulation and measured. The simulation includes GEANT4 implemented transport of high energy electrons with careful accounting for atomic relaxation processes including emission of fluorescent photons and Auger electrons and custom post-processing taking into account diffusion, gas amplification fluctuations, the distribution of signals over readout electrodes, electronics noise and particular algorithm of final coordinate calculation (centre-of-gravity algorithm). The simulation demonstrates that the minimum of the spatial resolution of about 10-20 μm can be achieved with a gas mixture of Ar-CO2 (75%-25%) at a strip pitch in the range from 250 μm to 300 μm. At a larger pitch the resolution quickly degrades reaching 70-100 μm at a pitch of 450-500 μm. The reasons of such behavior are discussed and corresponding hypothesis is tested. Particularly, the effect of electron cloud modification due to a GEM operation is considered using the ANSYS and Garfield++ simulation programs. The detection efficiency and spatial resolution of low-material triple-GEM detectors for the DEUTERON facility at BINP are measured at the extracted beam facility of the VEPP-4M collider. One-coordinate resolution of two detectors for the DEUTERON facility is measured with a 2 GeV electron beam. The determined values of the detectors' spatial resolution is equal to 46.6 ± 0.1 μm and 38.5 ± 0.2 μm for orthogonal tracks in two detectors, respectively.

  20. Limitations to depth resolution in high-energy, heavy-ion elastic recoil detection analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliman, R.G.; Palmer, G.R.; Ophel, T.R.; Timmers, H.

    1998-01-01

    The depth resolution of heavy-ion elastic recoil detection analysis was examined for Al and Co thin films ranging in thickness from 100 to 400 nm. Measurements were performed with 154 MeV Au ions as the incident beam, and recoils were detected using a gas ionisation detector. Energy spectra were extracted for the Al and Co recoils and the depth resolution determined as a function of film thickness from the width of the high- and low- energy edges. These results were compared with theoretical estimates calculated using the computer program DEPTH. (authors)

  1. Tip-tilt compensation: Resolution limits for ground-based telescopes using laser guide star adaptive optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olivier, S.S.; Max, C.E.; Gavel, D.T.; Brase, J.M.

    1992-01-01

    The angular resolution of long-exposure images from ground-based telescopes equipped with laser guide star adaptive optics systems is fundamentally limited by the the accuracy with which the tip-tilt aberrations introduced by the atmosphere can be corrected. Assuming that a natural star is used as the tilt reference, the residual error due to tilt anisoplanatism can significantly degrade the long-exposure resolution even if the tilt reference star is separated from the object being imaged by a small angle. Given the observed distribution of stars in the sky, the need to find a tilt reference star quite close to the object restricts the fraction of the sky over which long-exposure images with diffraction limited resolution can be obtained. In this paper, the authors present a comprehensive performance analysis of tip-tilt compensation systems that use a natural star as a tilt reference, taking into account properties of the atmosphere and of the Galactic stellar populations, and optimizing over the system operating parameters to determine the fundamental limits to the long-exposure resolution. Their results show that for a ten meter telescope on Mauna Kea, if the image of the tilt reference star is uncorrected, about half the sky can be imaged in the V band with long-exposure resolution less than 60 milli-arc-seconds (mas), while if the image of the tilt reference star is fully corrected, about half the sky can be imaged in the V band with long-exposure resolution less than 16 mas. Furthermore, V band images long-exposure resolution of less than 16 mas may be obtained with a ten meter telescope on Mauna Kea for unresolved objects brighter than magnitude 22 that are fully corrected by a laser guide star adaptive optics system. This level of resolution represents about 70% of the diffraction limit of a ten meter telescope in the V band and is more than a factor of 45 better than the median seeing in the V band on Mauna Kea

  2. Optical Frequency Comb Fourier Transform Spectroscopy with Resolution Exceeding the Limit Set by the Optical Path Difference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltynowicz, Aleksandra; Rutkowski, Lucile; Johanssson, Alexandra C.; Khodabakhsh, Amir; Maslowski, Piotr; Kowzan, Grzegorz; Lee, Kevin; Fermann, Martin

    2015-06-01

    Fourier transform spectrometers (FTS) based on optical frequency combs (OFC) allow detection of broadband molecular spectra with high signal-to-noise ratios within acquisition times orders of magnitude shorter than traditional FTIRs based on thermal sources. Due to the pulsed nature of OFCs the interferogram consists of a series of bursts rather than a single burst at zero optical path difference (OPD). The comb mode structure can be resolved by acquiring multiple bursts, in both mechanical FTS systems and dual-comb spectroscopy. However, in all existing demonstrations the resolution was ultimately limited either by the maximum available OPD between the interferometer arms or by the total acquisition time enabled by the storage memory. We present a method that provides spectral resolution exceeding the limit set by the maximum OPD using an interferogram containing only a single burst. The method allows measurements of absorption lines narrower than the OPD-limited resolution without any influence of the instrumental lineshape function. We demonstrate this by measuring undistorted CO2 and CO absorption lines with linewidth narrower than the OPD-limited resolution using OFC-based mechanical FTS in the near- and mid-infrared wavelength ranges. The near-infrared system is based on an Er:fiber femtosecond laser locked to a high finesse cavity, while the mid-infrared system is based on a Tm:fiber-laser-pumped optical parametric oscillator coupled to a multi-pass cell. We show that the method allows acquisition of high-resolution molecular spectra with interferometer length orders of magnitude shorter than traditional FTIR. Mandon, J., G. Guelachvili, and N. Picque, Nat. Phot., 2009. 3(2): p. 99-102. Zeitouny, M., et al., Ann. Phys., 2013. 525(6): p. 437-442. Zolot, A.M., et al., Opt. Lett., 2012. 37(4): p. 638-640.

  3. Group-focused morality is associated with limited conflict detection and resolution capacity: Neuroanatomical evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Kyle; Baumgartner, Thomas; Knoch, Daria

    2017-02-01

    Group-focused moral foundations (GMFs) - moral values that help protect the group's welfare - sharply divide conservatives from liberals and religiously devout from non-believers. However, there is little evidence about what drives this divide. Moral foundations theory and the model of motivated social cognition both associate group-focused moral foundations with differences in conflict detection and resolution capacity, but in opposing directions. Individual differences in conflict detection and resolution implicate specific neuroanatomical differences. Examining neuroanatomy thus affords an objective and non-biased opportunity to contrast these influential theories. Here, we report that increased adherence to group-focused moral foundations was strongly associated (whole-brain corrected) with reduced gray matter volume in key regions of the conflict detection and resolution system (anterior cingulate cortex and lateral prefrontal cortex). Because reduced gray matter is reliably associated with reduced neural and cognitive capacity, these findings support the idea outlined in the model of motivated social cognition that belief in group-focused moral values is associated with reduced conflict detection and resolution capacity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Stacking it up: Exploring the limits of ultra-high resolution atomic force microscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, N.J.

    2017-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) is a technique wherein an atomically sharp needle raster scans across a surface, detecting forces between it and the sample. In state-of-the-art AFM experiments the measured forces are typically on the order of pico-Newtons, and the lateral resolution is on the order of

  5. CT energy weighting in the presence of scatter and limited energy resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, Taly Gilat

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Energy-resolved CT has the potential to improve the contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) through optimal weighting of photons detected in energy bins. In general, optimal weighting gives higher weight to the lower energy photons that contain the most contrast information. However, low-energy photons are generally most corrupted by scatter and spectrum tailing, an effect caused by the limited energy resolution of the detector. This article first quantifies the effects of spectrum tailing on energy-resolved data, which may also be beneficial for material decomposition applications. Subsequently, the combined effects of energy weighting, spectrum tailing, and scatter are investigated through simulations. Methods: The study first investigated the effects of spectrum tailing on the estimated attenuation coefficients of homogeneous slab objects. Next, the study compared the CNR and artifact performance of images simulated with varying levels of scatter and spectrum tailing effects, and reconstructed with energy integrating, photon-counting, and two optimal linear weighting methods: Projection-based and image-based weighting. Realistic detector energy-response functions were simulated based on a previously proposed model. The energy-response functions represent the probability that a photon incident on the detector at a particular energy will be detected at a different energy. Realistic scatter was simulated with Monte Carlo methods. Results: Spectrum tailing resulted in a negative shift in the estimated attenuation coefficient of slab objects compared to an ideal detector. The magnitude of the shift varied with material composition, increased with material thickness, and decreased with photon energy. Spectrum tailing caused cupping artifacts and CT number inaccuracies in images reconstructed with optimal energy weighting, and did not impact images reconstructed with photon counting weighting. Spectrum tailing did not significantly impact the CNR in reconstructed images

  6. Stochastic modelling of a single ion channel: an alternating renewal approach with application to limited time resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milne, R K; Yeo, G F; Edeson, R O; Madsen, B W

    1988-04-22

    Stochastic models of ion channels have been based largely on Markov theory where individual states and transition rates must be specified, and sojourn-time densities for each state are constrained to be exponential. This study presents an approach based on random-sum methods and alternating-renewal theory, allowing individual states to be grouped into classes provided the successive sojourn times in a given class are independent and identically distributed. Under these conditions Markov models form a special case. The utility of the approach is illustrated by considering the effects of limited time resolution (modelled by using a discrete detection limit, xi) on the properties of observable events, with emphasis on the observed open-time (xi-open-time). The cumulants and Laplace transform for a xi-open-time are derived for a range of Markov and non-Markov models; several useful approximations to the xi-open-time density function are presented. Numerical studies show that the effects of limited time resolution can be extreme, and also highlight the relative importance of the various model parameters. The theory could form a basis for future inferential studies in which parameter estimation takes account of limited time resolution in single channel records. Appendixes include relevant results concerning random sums and a discussion of the role of exponential distributions in Markov models.

  7. Coherence and diffraction limited resolution in microscopic OCT by a unified approach for the correction of dispersion and aberrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz-Hildebrandt, H.; Münter, Michael; Ahrens, M.; Spahr, H.; Hillmann, D.; König, P.; Hüttmann, G.

    2018-03-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) images scattering tissues with 5 to 15 μm resolution. This is usually not sufficient for a distinction of cellular and subcellular structures. Increasing axial and lateral resolution and compensation of artifacts caused by dispersion and aberrations is required to achieve cellular and subcellular resolution. This includes defocus which limit the usable depth of field at high lateral resolution. OCT gives access the phase of the scattered light and hence correction of dispersion and aberrations is possible by numerical algorithms. Here we present a unified dispersion/aberration correction which is based on a polynomial parameterization of the phase error and an optimization of the image quality using Shannon's entropy. For validation, a supercontinuum light sources and a costume-made spectrometer with 400 nm bandwidth were combined with a high NA microscope objective in a setup for tissue and small animal imaging. Using this setup and computation corrections, volumetric imaging at 1.5 μm resolution is possible. Cellular and near cellular resolution is demonstrated in porcine cornea and the drosophila larva, when computational correction of dispersion and aberrations is used. Due to the excellent correction of the used microscope objective, defocus was the main contribution to the aberrations. In addition, higher aberrations caused by the sample itself were successfully corrected. Dispersion and aberrations are closely related artifacts in microscopic OCT imaging. Hence they can be corrected in the same way by optimization of the image quality. This way microscopic resolution is easily achieved in OCT imaging of static biological tissues.

  8. Crossing the Resolution Limit in Near-Infrared Imaging of Silicon Chips: Targeting 10-nm Node Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Agarwal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The best reported resolution in optical failure analysis of silicon chips is 120-nm half pitch demonstrated by Semicaps Private Limited, whereas the current and future industry requirement for 10-nm node technology is 100-nm half pitch. We show the first experimental evidence for resolution of features with 100-nm half pitch buried in silicon (λ/10.6, thus fulfilling the industry requirement. These results are obtained using near-infrared reflection-mode imaging using a solid immersion lens. The key novel feature of our approach is the choice of an appropriately sized collection pinhole. Although it is usually understood that, in general, resolution is improved by using the smallest pinhole consistent with an adequate signal level, it is found that in practice for silicon chips there is an optimum pinhole size, determined by the generation of induced currents in the sample. In failure analysis of silicon chips, nondestructive imaging is important to avoid disturbing the functionality of integrated circuits. High-resolution imaging techniques like SEM or TEM require the transistors to be exposed destructively. Optical microscopy techniques may be used, but silicon is opaque in the visible spectrum, mandating the use of near-infrared light and thus poor resolution in conventional optical microscopy. We expect our result to change the way semiconductor failure analysis is performed.

  9. The inference of vector magnetic fields from polarization measurements with limited spectral resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lites, B. W.; Skumanich, A.

    1985-01-01

    A method is presented for recovery of the vector magnetic field and thermodynamic parameters from polarization measurement of photospheric line profiles measured with filtergraphs. The method includes magneto-optic effects and may be utilized on data sampled at arbitrary wavelengths within the line profile. The accuracy of this method is explored through inversion of synthetic Stokes profiles subjected to varying levels of random noise, instrumental wave-length resolution, and line profile sampling. The level of error introduced by the systematic effect of profile sampling over a finite fraction of the 5 minute oscillation cycle is also investigated. The results presented here are intended to guide instrumental design and observational procedure.

  10. The Break

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Anete Mikkala Camille

    2018-01-01

    storytelling to enact fruitful breakings of patterns unbecoming. The claim being, that the hamster wheel of Work-life anno 2016 needs reconfiguration and the simple yet fruitful manner by which this is done is through acknowledging the benefits of bodies, spaces and artifacts – and the benefits of actually...... taking a break, discontinuing for a moment in order to continue better, wiser and more at ease. Both within and as part of the daily routines, and – now and then – outside these routines in the majesty of nature with time to explore and redirect the course of life in companionships with fellow man...

  11. Clinical evaluation of high-resolution CT, 1. CT diagnosis of liver tumors and its limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araki, T [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    1980-03-01

    To estimate diagnostic accuracy of CT in liver tumors, CT diagnosis in 120 patients with primary hepatocellular carcinoma was discussed. As a result, primary hepatocellular carcinoma less than 2 cm in diameter could not be visualized by CT. Even tumors between 4 and 8 cm in diameter showed false negative caused by isodense tumors on images of 4 patients. To improve the detectability of liver tumors by CT, the higher resolution of low contrast regions on images are required. As a method to improve qualitative diagnosis of liver tumors, rapid intravenous injection of contrast medium was performed on 42 patients with liver tumors, As a result, images reflecting vascularity of tumors were obtained, and the differential diagnosis was possible to some extent by observing the movement of the contrast. Especially, cavernous hemangioma could be distinguished from hepatocellular carcinoma, because cavernous hemangioma showed specific images and could be diagnosed accurately.

  12. Global high resolution versus Limited Area Model climate change projections over Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Déqué, Michel; Jones, R. G.; Wild, M.

    2005-01-01

    the 2071-2100 and the 1961-1990 means is compared with the same diagnostic obtained with nine Regional Climate Models (RCM) all driven by the Hadley Centre atmospheric GCM. The seasonal mean response for 2m temperature and precipitation is investigated. For temperature, GCMs and RCMs behave similarly......, except that GCMs exhibit a larger spread. However, during summer, the spread of the RCMs - in particular in terms of precipitation - is larger than that of the GCMs. This indicates that the European summer climate is strongly controlled by parameterized physics and/or high-resolution processes...... errors are more spread. In addition, GCM precipitation response is slightly but significantly different from that of the RCMs....

  13. Image processing of muscle striations below the resolution limit of the light microscope

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, D.H.; Holdren, D.N.; Periasamy, A.; Everts, W.C.; Pollack, G.H.

    1985-01-01

    We describe the use of digital deconvolution in the study of muscle striations below the resolution imposed by the optical diffraction of our video light microscope. To use deconvolution procedures on muscle images, the transfer function of the optical system is first characterized. This is accomplished by imaging a step object and fitting the image with the combination of a first order Bessel and Guassian function using a non-linear least squares approach. Due to the ill-conditioned nature of deconvolution, however, ambiguity in the reconstruction is sometimes found. To allow better estimation of the true object, separate deconvolution approaches are used and the reconstructions compared. In this manner, the fine structure of muscle striations is determined

  14. Spatial resolution limit study of a CCD camera and scintillator based neutron imaging system according to MTF determination and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kharfi, F.; Denden, O.; Bourenane, A.; Bitam, T.; Ali, A.

    2012-01-01

    Spatial resolution limit is a very important parameter of an imaging system that should be taken into consideration before examination of any object. The objectives of this work are the determination of a neutron imaging system's response in terms of spatial resolution. The proposed procedure is based on establishment of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF). The imaging system being studied is based on a high sensitivity CCD neutron camera (2×10 −5 lx at f1.4). The neutron beam used is from the horizontal beam port (H.6) of the Algerian Es-Salam research reactor. Our contribution is on the MTF determination by proposing an accurate edge identification method and a line spread function undersampling problem-resolving procedure. These methods and procedure are integrated into a MatLab code. The methods, procedures and approaches proposed in this work are available for any other neutron imaging system and allow for judging the ability of a neutron imaging system to produce spatial (internal details) properties of any object under examination. - Highlights: ► Determination of spatial response of a neutron imaging system. ► Ability of a neutron imaging system to reproduce spatial properties of any object. ► Spatial resolution limits measurement using MTF with the slanted edge method. ► Accurate edge identification and line spread function sampling improvement. ► Development of a MatLab code to compute automatically the MTF.

  15. On the limitations and optimisation of high-resolution 3D medical X-ray imaging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Shuang; Brahme, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Based on a quantitative analysis of both attenuation and refractive properties of X-ray propagation in human body tissues and the introduction of a mathematical model for image quality analysis, some limitations and optimisation of high-resolution three-dimensional (3D) medical X-ray imaging techniques are studied. A comparison is made of conventional attenuation-based X-ray imaging methods with the phase-contrast X-ray imaging modalities that have been developed recently. The results indicate that it is theoretically possible through optimal design of the X-ray imaging system to achieve high spatial resolution (<100 μm) in 3D medical X-ray imaging of the human body at a clinically acceptable dose level (<10 mGy) by introducing a phase-contrast X-ray imaging technique.

  16. Direct Detection Electron Energy-Loss Spectroscopy: A Method to Push the Limits of Resolution and Sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, James L; Lang, Andrew C; Leff, Asher C; Longo, Paolo; Trevor, Colin; Twesten, Ray D; Taheri, Mitra L

    2017-08-15

    In many cases, electron counting with direct detection sensors offers improved resolution, lower noise, and higher pixel density compared to conventional, indirect detection sensors for electron microscopy applications. Direct detection technology has previously been utilized, with great success, for imaging and diffraction, but potential advantages for spectroscopy remain unexplored. Here we compare the performance of a direct detection sensor operated in counting mode and an indirect detection sensor (scintillator/fiber-optic/CCD) for electron energy-loss spectroscopy. Clear improvements in measured detective quantum efficiency and combined energy resolution/energy field-of-view are offered by counting mode direct detection, showing promise for efficient spectrum imaging, low-dose mapping of beam-sensitive specimens, trace element analysis, and time-resolved spectroscopy. Despite the limited counting rate imposed by the readout electronics, we show that both core-loss and low-loss spectral acquisition are practical. These developments will benefit biologists, chemists, physicists, and materials scientists alike.

  17. Experimental study to optimize time resolution and detection limit of online 222Rn-in-water measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Just, G.; Freyer, K.; Treutler, H.C.; Philipsborn, H. von

    2001-01-01

    The possibility to detect short-term variations of the activity concentration of 222 Rn in water by online monitoring with temporal resolutions of a few minutes and a lower limit of detection of about 1 Bq/l enhances the applicability of such measurements. New applications would be possible in the field of hydro-geology in which Rn is used as tracer gas, the monitoring of pumping procedures, for the study of exchange processes during groundwater sampling and for various applications with geophysical effects. A suitable, simple method is the measuring principle proposed by Surbeck (Fribourg) some years ago which is based on the separation of air and water by a diffusion membrane. Process parameters enhancing the time resolution of the method as well as the efficiency of different radon detectors have been studied. (orig.) [de

  18. Image quality assessment for determining efficacy and limitations of Super-Resolution Convolutional Neural Network (SRCNN)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Chris M.; Harguess, Joshua; Crabb, Brendan; Parameswaran, Shibin

    2017-09-01

    Traditional metrics for evaluating the efficacy of image processing techniques do not lend themselves to under- standing the capabilities and limitations of modern image processing methods - particularly those enabled by deep learning. When applying image processing in engineering solutions, a scientist or engineer has a need to justify their design decisions with clear metrics. By applying blind/referenceless image spatial quality (BRISQUE), Structural SIMilarity (SSIM) index scores, and Peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) to images before and after im- age processing, we can quantify quality improvements in a meaningful way and determine the lowest recoverable image quality for a given method.

  19. Hadron multiplicity as the limit of jet multiplicity at high resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lupia, S.; Ochs, W. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Muenchen (Germany). Werner-Heisenberg-Institut

    1998-05-01

    Recently exact numerical results from the evolution equation for parton multiplicities in QCD jets have been obtained. A comparison with various approximate results is presented. A good description is obtained not only of the jet multiplicities measured at LEP-1 but also of the hadron multiplicities for cm s energies above 1.6 GeV in e{sup +}e{sup -} annihilation. The solution suggests that a final state hadron can be represented by a jet in the limit of small (nonperturbative) k {sub perpendicular} {sub to} cut-off Q{sub 0}. In this description using as adjustable parameters only the QCD scale {Lambda} and the cut-off Q{sub 0}, the coupling {alpha}{sub s} can be seen to rise towards large values above unity at low energies. (orig.). 8 refs.

  20. Hadron multiplicity as the limit of jet multiplicity at high resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lupia, S.; Ochs, W.

    1998-01-01

    Recently exact numerical results from the evolution equation for parton multiplicities in QCD jets have been obtained. A comparison with various approximate results is presented. A good description is obtained not only of the jet multiplicities measured at LEP-1 but also of the hadron multiplicities for cm s energies above 1.6 GeV in e + e - annihilation. The solution suggests that a final state hadron can be represented by a jet in the limit of small (nonperturbative) k perpendicular to cut-off Q 0 . In this description using as adjustable parameters only the QCD scale Λ and the cut-off Q 0 , the coupling α s can be seen to rise towards large values above unity at low energies. (orig.)

  1. Optical Sideband Generation: a Longitudinal Electron Beam Diagnostic Beyond the Laser Bandwidth Resolution Limit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory; Tilborg, J. van; Matlis, N. H.; Plateau, G. R.; Leemans, W. P.

    2010-06-01

    Electro-optic sampling (EOS) is widely used as a technique to measure THz-domain electric field pulses such asthe self-fields of femtosecond electron beams. We present an EOS-based approach for single-shot spectral measurement that excels in simplicity (compatible with fiber integration) and bandwidth coverage (overcomes the laser bandwidth limitation), allowing few-fs electron beams or single-cycle THz pulses to be characterized with conventional picosecond probes. It is shown that the EOS-induced optical sidebands on the narrow-bandwidth optical probe are spectrally-shifted replicas of the THz pulse. An experimental demonstration on a 0-3 THz source is presented.

  2. DETERMINATION OF RESOLUTION LIMITS OF ELECTRICAL TOMOGRAPHY ON THE BLOCK MODEL IN A HOMOGENOUS ENVIRONMENT BY MEANS OF ELECTRICAL MODELLING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franjo Šumanovac

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The block model in a homogenous environment can generally serve for presentation of some geological models: changes of facies, changes of rock compactness-fragmentation, underground cavities, bauxite deposits, etc. Therefore, on the block model of increased resistivities in a homogenous environment of low resistivity, the potentials of the electrical tomography method were tested for the purpose of their detection. Regarding potentials of block detection, resolution methods depend on: depth of block location, ratio between block resistivity and the environment in which it is located as well as applied survey geometry, i.e. electrode array. Thus the analyses carried out for the most frequently used electrode arrays in the investigations are the following: the Wenner, Wenner-Schlumberger, dipole-dipole and pole-pole arrays. For each array, maximum depths at which a block can be detected relative to the ratio between block resistivity and parent rock environment were analyzed. The results are shown in the two-dimensional graphs, where the ratio between the block resistivity and the environment is shown on the X-axis, and the resolution depth on the Y-axis, after which the curves defining the resolution limits were drawn. These graphs have a practical use, since they enable a fast, simple determination of potentials of the method application on a specific geological model.

  3. Upper limits for stratospheric H2O2 and HOCl from high resolution balloon-borne infrared solar absorption spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, J. C.; Rinsland, C. P.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, D. G.; Murcray, F. J.

    1985-01-01

    Solar absorption spectra from two stratospheric balloon flights have been analyzed for the presence of H2O2 and HOCl absorption in the 1230.0 to 1255.0 per cm region. The data were recorded at 0.02 per cm resolution during sunset with the University of Denver interferometer system on October 27, 1978 and March 23, 1981. Selected spectral regions were analyzed with the technique of nonlinear least squares spectral curve fitting. Upper limits of 0.33 ppbv for H2O2 and 0.36 ppbv for HOCl near 28 km are derived from the 1978 flight data while upper limits of 0.44 ppbv for H2O2 and 0.43 ppbv for HOCl at 29.5 km are obtained from the 1981 flight data.

  4. High-resolution digital 3D models of Algar do Penico Chamber: limitations, challenges, and potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo Silvestre M.Sc.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The study of karst and its geomorphological structures is important for understanding the relationships between hydrology and climate over geological time. In that context, we conducted a terrestrial laser-scan survey to map geomorphological structures in the karst cave of Algar do Penico in southern Portugal. The point cloud data set obtained was used to generate 3D meshes with different levels of detail, allowing the limitations of mapping capabilities to be explored. In addition to cave mapping, the study focuses on 3D-mesh analysis, including the development of two algorithms for determination of stalactite extremities and contour lines, and on the interactive visualization of 3D meshes on the Web. Data processing and analysis were performed using freely available open-source software. For interactive visualization, we adopted a framework based on Web standards X3D, WebGL, and X3DOM. This solution gives both the general public and researchers access to 3D models and to additional data produced from map tools analyses through a web browser, without the need for plug-ins.

  5. Breaking away.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, G M; Sosnow, P L

    1995-05-01

    While life as hospital employees was comfortable, the lure of independence won out for these two emergency department physicians. Breaking away to develop a new company was not easy, but it's paid off for the entrepreneurs of the Capital Region Emergency Medicine, P.C. Developing an emergency medicine business meant learning all aspects of business: billing services, evaluating legal services, raising capital, and becoming employers. The advantage has been an ability to use profits to improve the moral of staff, an increase in salary, and an overall sense of satisfaction.

  6. Quantifying Efficacy and Limits of Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV Technology for Weed Seedling Detection as Affected by Sensor Resolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José M. Peña

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to optimize the application of herbicides in weed-crop systems, accurate and timely weed maps of the crop-field are required. In this context, this investigation quantified the efficacy and limitations of remote images collected with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV for early detection of weed seedlings. The ability to discriminate weeds was significantly affected by the imagery spectral (type of camera, spatial (flight altitude and temporal (the date of the study resolutions. The colour-infrared images captured at 40 m and 50 days after sowing (date 2, when plants had 5–6 true leaves, had the highest weed detection accuracy (up to 91%. At this flight altitude, the images captured before date 2 had slightly better results than the images captured later. However, this trend changed in the visible-light images captured at 60 m and higher, which had notably better results on date 3 (57 days after sowing because of the larger size of the weed plants. Our results showed the requirements on spectral and spatial resolutions needed to generate a suitable weed map early in the growing season, as well as the best moment for the UAV image acquisition, with the ultimate objective of applying site-specific weed management operations.

  7. Quantifying efficacy and limits of unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) technology for weed seedling detection as affected by sensor resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, José M; Torres-Sánchez, Jorge; Serrano-Pérez, Angélica; de Castro, Ana I; López-Granados, Francisca

    2015-03-06

    In order to optimize the application of herbicides in weed-crop systems, accurate and timely weed maps of the crop-field are required. In this context, this investigation quantified the efficacy and limitations of remote images collected with an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for early detection of weed seedlings. The ability to discriminate weeds was significantly affected by the imagery spectral (type of camera), spatial (flight altitude) and temporal (the date of the study) resolutions. The colour-infrared images captured at 40 m and 50 days after sowing (date 2), when plants had 5-6 true leaves, had the highest weed detection accuracy (up to 91%). At this flight altitude, the images captured before date 2 had slightly better results than the images captured later. However, this trend changed in the visible-light images captured at 60 m and higher, which had notably better results on date 3 (57 days after sowing) because of the larger size of the weed plants. Our results showed the requirements on spectral and spatial resolutions needed to generate a suitable weed map early in the growing season, as well as the best moment for the UAV image acquisition, with the ultimate objective of applying site-specific weed management operations.

  8. Quantum break-time of de Sitter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvali, Gia; Gómez, César; Zell, Sebastian, E-mail: georgi.dvali@physik.uni-muenchen.de, E-mail: cesar.gomez@uam.es, E-mail: sebastian.zell@campus.lmu.de [Arnold Sommerfeld Center, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität, Theresienstraße 37, 80333 München (Germany)

    2017-06-01

    The quantum break-time of a system is the time-scale after which its true quantum evolution departs from the classical mean field evolution. For capturing it, a quantum resolution of the classical background—e.g., in terms of a coherent state—is required. In this paper, we first consider a simple scalar model with anharmonic oscillations and derive its quantum break-time. Next, following [1], we apply these ideas to de Sitter space. We formulate a simple model of a spin-2 field, which for some time reproduces the de Sitter metric and simultaneously allows for its well-defined representation as quantum coherent state of gravitons. The mean occupation number N of background gravitons turns out to be equal to the de Sitter horizon area in Planck units, while their frequency is given by the de Sitter Hubble parameter. In the semi-classical limit, we show that the model reproduces all the known properties of de Sitter, such as the redshift of probe particles and thermal Gibbons-Hawking radiation, all in the language of quantum S -matrix scatterings and decays of coherent state gravitons. Most importantly, this framework allows to capture the 1/ N -effects to which the usual semi-classical treatment is blind. They violate the de Sitter symmetry and lead to a finite quantum break-time of the de Sitter state equal to the de Sitter radius times N . We also point out that the quantum-break time is inversely proportional to the number of particle species in the theory. Thus, the quantum break-time imposes the following consistency condition: older and species-richer universes must have smaller cosmological constants. For the maximal, phenomenologically acceptable number of species, the observed cosmological constant would saturate this bound if our Universe were 10{sup 100} years old in its entire classical history.

  9. Quantum break-time of de Sitter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvali, Gia; Gómez, César; Zell, Sebastian

    2017-06-01

    The quantum break-time of a system is the time-scale after which its true quantum evolution departs from the classical mean field evolution. For capturing it, a quantum resolution of the classical background—e.g., in terms of a coherent state—is required. In this paper, we first consider a simple scalar model with anharmonic oscillations and derive its quantum break-time. Next, following [1], we apply these ideas to de Sitter space. We formulate a simple model of a spin-2 field, which for some time reproduces the de Sitter metric and simultaneously allows for its well-defined representation as quantum coherent state of gravitons. The mean occupation number N of background gravitons turns out to be equal to the de Sitter horizon area in Planck units, while their frequency is given by the de Sitter Hubble parameter. In the semi-classical limit, we show that the model reproduces all the known properties of de Sitter, such as the redshift of probe particles and thermal Gibbons-Hawking radiation, all in the language of quantum S-matrix scatterings and decays of coherent state gravitons. Most importantly, this framework allows to capture the 1/N-effects to which the usual semi-classical treatment is blind. They violate the de Sitter symmetry and lead to a finite quantum break-time of the de Sitter state equal to the de Sitter radius times N. We also point out that the quantum-break time is inversely proportional to the number of particle species in the theory. Thus, the quantum break-time imposes the following consistency condition: older and species-richer universes must have smaller cosmological constants. For the maximal, phenomenologically acceptable number of species, the observed cosmological constant would saturate this bound if our Universe were 10100 years old in its entire classical history.

  10. High Resolution Melting (HRM) for High-Throughput Genotyping—Limitations and Caveats in Practical Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słomka, Marcin; Sobalska-Kwapis, Marta; Wachulec, Monika; Bartosz, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    High resolution melting (HRM) is a convenient method for gene scanning as well as genotyping of individual and multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This rapid, simple, closed-tube, homogenous, and cost-efficient approach has the capacity for high specificity and sensitivity, while allowing easy transition to high-throughput scale. In this paper, we provide examples from our laboratory practice of some problematic issues which can affect the performance and data analysis of HRM results, especially with regard to reference curve-based targeted genotyping. We present those examples in order of the typical experimental workflow, and discuss the crucial significance of the respective experimental errors and limitations for the quality and analysis of results. The experimental details which have a decisive impact on correct execution of a HRM genotyping experiment include type and quality of DNA source material, reproducibility of isolation method and template DNA preparation, primer and amplicon design, automation-derived preparation and pipetting inconsistencies, as well as physical limitations in melting curve distinction for alternative variants and careful selection of samples for validation by sequencing. We provide a case-by-case analysis and discussion of actual problems we encountered and solutions that should be taken into account by researchers newly attempting HRM genotyping, especially in a high-throughput setup. PMID:29099791

  11. High Resolution Melting (HRM) for High-Throughput Genotyping-Limitations and Caveats in Practical Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Słomka, Marcin; Sobalska-Kwapis, Marta; Wachulec, Monika; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Strapagiel, Dominik

    2017-11-03

    High resolution melting (HRM) is a convenient method for gene scanning as well as genotyping of individual and multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). This rapid, simple, closed-tube, homogenous, and cost-efficient approach has the capacity for high specificity and sensitivity, while allowing easy transition to high-throughput scale. In this paper, we provide examples from our laboratory practice of some problematic issues which can affect the performance and data analysis of HRM results, especially with regard to reference curve-based targeted genotyping. We present those examples in order of the typical experimental workflow, and discuss the crucial significance of the respective experimental errors and limitations for the quality and analysis of results. The experimental details which have a decisive impact on correct execution of a HRM genotyping experiment include type and quality of DNA source material, reproducibility of isolation method and template DNA preparation, primer and amplicon design, automation-derived preparation and pipetting inconsistencies, as well as physical limitations in melting curve distinction for alternative variants and careful selection of samples for validation by sequencing. We provide a case-by-case analysis and discussion of actual problems we encountered and solutions that should be taken into account by researchers newly attempting HRM genotyping, especially in a high-throughput setup.

  12. High Resolution Melting (HRM for High-Throughput Genotyping—Limitations and Caveats in Practical Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Słomka

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available High resolution melting (HRM is a convenient method for gene scanning as well as genotyping of individual and multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. This rapid, simple, closed-tube, homogenous, and cost-efficient approach has the capacity for high specificity and sensitivity, while allowing easy transition to high-throughput scale. In this paper, we provide examples from our laboratory practice of some problematic issues which can affect the performance and data analysis of HRM results, especially with regard to reference curve-based targeted genotyping. We present those examples in order of the typical experimental workflow, and discuss the crucial significance of the respective experimental errors and limitations for the quality and analysis of results. The experimental details which have a decisive impact on correct execution of a HRM genotyping experiment include type and quality of DNA source material, reproducibility of isolation method and template DNA preparation, primer and amplicon design, automation-derived preparation and pipetting inconsistencies, as well as physical limitations in melting curve distinction for alternative variants and careful selection of samples for validation by sequencing. We provide a case-by-case analysis and discussion of actual problems we encountered and solutions that should be taken into account by researchers newly attempting HRM genotyping, especially in a high-throughput setup.

  13. Note: Differential configurations for the mitigation of slow fluctuations limiting the resolution of digital lock-in amplifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carminati, M.; Gervasoni, G.; Sampietro, M.; Ferrari, G.

    2016-02-01

    The resolution of digital lock-in amplifiers working with a narrow bandwidth (automatic tuning of dummy references, allowing a 25-fold resolution improvement for enhanced long-term tracking of impedance sensors.

  14. Restoration and Super-Resolution of Diffraction-Limited Imagery Data by Bayesian and Set-Theoretic Approaches

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sundareshan, Malur

    2001-01-01

    This project was primarily aimed at the design of novel algorithms for the restoration and super-resolution processing of imagery data to improve the resolution in images acquired from practical sensing operations...

  15. The Break

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Anete Mikkala Camille; Larsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    the challenges of the million-dollar question is stemming from the ‘bets on the future’ – or what David Boje coins as ‘antenarratives’, (Boje, 2008) that emerged through various reconfiguring story actions, on two different occasions. The paper thus elaborates on two cases of restorying events; One taking place...... that language and the social has been granted too much power on the dispense of the bodily, physical and biological – or in short, in dispense of the material. The break To be or not to be poses the theoretical notion of dis-/continuity (Barad, 2007, 2010) from the quantum approach to storytelling (Strand 2012...... in their use of the communicative platform of Object theatre from the methodology of Material Storytelling (Strand 2012). The Bets on the Future piece discusses the extend to which the cases of using this kind of technologies may provide fruitful ‘bets on the future’ in regard to the million-dollar question...

  16. Tidal Mixing at the Shelf Break

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hogg, Nelson; Legg, Sonya

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this project was to study mixing forced by tidal flow over sudden changes in topographic slope such as near the shelf-break, using high-resolution nonhydrostatic numerical simulations employing the MIT gem...

  17. Routinizing Breaking News

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartley, Jannie Møller

    2011-01-01

    This chapter revisits seminal theoretical categorizations of news proposed three decades earlier by US sociologist Gaye Tuchman. By exploring the definition of ”breaking news” in the contemporary online newsrooms of three Danish news organisations, the author offers us a long overdue re-theorizat......-theorization of journalistic practice in the online context and helpfully explores well-evidenced limitations to online news production, such as the relationship between original reporting and the use of ”shovelware.”......This chapter revisits seminal theoretical categorizations of news proposed three decades earlier by US sociologist Gaye Tuchman. By exploring the definition of ”breaking news” in the contemporary online newsrooms of three Danish news organisations, the author offers us a long overdue re...

  18. Rapid identification of tomato Sw-5 resistance-breaking isolates of Tomato spotted wilt virus using high resolution melting and TaqMan SNP Genotyping assays as allelic discrimination techniques.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valentina di Rienzo

    Full Text Available In tomato, resistance to Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV is conferred by the dominant gene, designated Sw-5. Virulent Sw-5 resistance breaking (SRB mutants of TSWV have been reported on Sw-5 tomato cultivars. Two different PCR-based allelic discrimination techniques, namely Custom TaqMan™ SNP Genotyping and high-resolution melting (HRM assays, were developed and compared for their ability to distinguish between avirulent (Sw-5 non-infecting, SNI and SRB biotypes. TaqMan assays proved to be more sensitive (threshold of detection in a range of 50-70 TSWV RNA copies and more reliable than HRM, assigning 25 TSWV isolates to their correct genotype with an accuracy of 100%. Moreover, the TaqMan SNP assays were further improved developing a rapid and simple protocol that included crude leaf extraction for RNA template preparations. On the other hand, HRM assays showed higher levels of sensitivity than TaqMan when used to co-detect both biotypes in different artificial mixtures. These diagnostic assays contributed to gain preliminary information on the epidemiology of TSWV isolates in open field conditions. In fact, the presented data suggest that SRB isolates are present as stable populations established year round, persisting on both winter (globe artichoke and summer (tomato crops, in the same cultivated areas of Southern Italy.

  19. Breaking Bad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harlev, Mikkel Alexander; Sun Yin, Haohua; Langenheldt, Klaus Christian

    2018-01-01

    Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency whose transactions are recorded on a distributed, openly accessible ledger. On the Bitcoin Blockchain, an entity’s real-world identity is hidden behind a pseudonym, a so-called address. Therefore, Bitcoin is widely assumed to provide a high degree of anonymity, which...... is a driver for its frequent use for illicit activities. This paper presents a novel approach for reducing the anonymity of the Bitcoin Blockchain by using Supervised Machine Learning to predict the type of yet-unidentified entities. We utilised a sample of 434 entities with ≈ 200 million transactions...... discuss our novel approach of Supervised Machine Learning for uncovering Blockchain anonymity and its potential applications to forensics and financial compliance and its societal implications, outline study limitations and propose future research directions....

  20. PROVIDING STRINGENT STAR FORMATION RATE LIMITS OF z ∼ 2 QSO HOST GALAXIES AT HIGH ANGULAR RESOLUTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vayner, Andrey; Wright, Shelley A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Do, Tuan [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON, M5S 3H4 (Canada); Larkin, James E. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Armus, Lee [Spitzer Science Center, California Institute of Technology, 1200 E. California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Gallagher, S. C. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of Western Ontario, London, ON N6A 3K7 (Canada)

    2016-04-10

    We present integral field spectrograph (IFS) with laser guide star adaptive optics (LGS-AO) observations of z ∼ 2 quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) designed to resolve extended nebular line emission from the host galaxy. Our data was obtained with W. M. Keck and Gemini North Observatories, using OSIRIS and NIFS coupled with the LGS-AO systems, respectively. We have conducted a pilot survey of five QSOs, three observed with NIFS+AO and two observed with OSIRIS+AO at an average redshift of z = 2.2. We demonstrate that the combination of AO and IFSs provides the necessary spatial and spectral resolutions required to separate QSO emission from its host. We present our technique for generating a point-spread function (PSF) from the broad-line region of the QSO and performing PSF subtraction of the QSO emission to detect the host galaxy emission at a separation of ∼0.″2 (∼1.4 kpc). We detect Hα narrow-line emission for two sources, SDSS J1029+6510 (z{sub Hα} = 2.182) and SDSS J0925+0655 (z{sub Hα} = 2.197), that have evidence for both star formation and extended narrow-line emission. Assuming that the majority of narrow-line Hα emission is from star formation, we infer a star formation rate (SFR) for SDSS J1029+6510 of 78.4 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} originating from a compact region that is kinematically offset by 290–350 km s{sup −1}. For SDSS J0925+0655 we infer a SFR of 29 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} distributed over three clumps that are spatially offset by ∼7 kpc. The null detections on three of the QSOs are used to infer surface brightness limits and we find that at 1.4 kpc from the QSO the un-reddened star formation limit is ≲0.3 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} kpc{sup −2}. If we assume typical extinction values for z = 2 type-1 QSOs, the dereddened SFR for our null detections would be ≲0.6 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1} kpc{sup −2}. These IFS observations indicate that while the central black hole is accreting mass at 10%–40% of the Eddington rate, if

  1. Phase contrast scanning transmission electron microscopy imaging of light and heavy atoms at the limit of contrast and resolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yücelen, Emrah; Lazić, Ivan; Bosch, Eric G T

    2018-02-08

    Using state of the art scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) it is nowadays possible to directly image single atomic columns at sub-Å resolution. In standard (high angle) annular dark field STEM ((HA)ADF-STEM), however, light elements are usually invisible when imaged together with heavier elements in one image. Here we demonstrate the capability of the recently introduced Integrated Differential Phase Contrast STEM (iDPC-STEM) technique to image both light and heavy atoms in a thin sample at sub-Å resolution. We use the technique to resolve both the Gallium and Nitrogen dumbbells in a GaN crystal in [[Formula: see text

  2. CAN AGN FEEDBACK BREAK THE SELF-SIMILARITY OF GALAXIES, GROUPS, AND CLUSTERS?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaspari, M. [Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 1, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Brighenti, F. [Astronomy Department, University of Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy); Temi, P. [Astrophysics Branch, NASA/Ames Research Center, MS 245-6, Moffett Field, CA 94035 (United States); Ettori, S., E-mail: mgaspari@mpa-garching.mpg.de [INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Bologna, Via Ranzani 1, I-40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2014-03-01

    It is commonly thought that active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback can break the self-similar scaling relations of galaxies, groups, and clusters. Using high-resolution three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, we isolate the impact of AGN feedback on the L {sub x}-T {sub x} relation, testing the two archetypal and common regimes, self-regulated mechanical feedback and a quasar thermal blast. We find that AGN feedback has severe difficulty in breaking the relation in a consistent way. The similarity breaking is directly linked to the gas evacuation within R {sub 500}, while the central cooling times are inversely proportional to the core density. Breaking self-similarity thus implies breaking the cool core, morphing all systems to non-cool-core objects, which is in clear contradiction with the observed data populated by several cool-core systems. Self-regulated feedback, which quenches cooling flows and preserves cool cores, prevents dramatic evacuation and similarity breaking at any scale; the relation scatter is also limited. The impulsive thermal blast can break the core-included L {sub x}-T {sub x} at T {sub 500} ≲ 1 keV, but substantially empties and overheats the halo, generating a perennial non-cool-core group, as experienced by cosmological simulations. Even with partial evacuation, massive systems remain overheated. We show that the action of purely AGN feedback is to lower the luminosity and heat the gas, perpendicular to the fit.

  3. CAN AGN FEEDBACK BREAK THE SELF-SIMILARITY OF GALAXIES, GROUPS, AND CLUSTERS?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaspari, M.; Brighenti, F.; Temi, P.; Ettori, S.

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly thought that active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback can break the self-similar scaling relations of galaxies, groups, and clusters. Using high-resolution three-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations, we isolate the impact of AGN feedback on the L x -T x relation, testing the two archetypal and common regimes, self-regulated mechanical feedback and a quasar thermal blast. We find that AGN feedback has severe difficulty in breaking the relation in a consistent way. The similarity breaking is directly linked to the gas evacuation within R 500 , while the central cooling times are inversely proportional to the core density. Breaking self-similarity thus implies breaking the cool core, morphing all systems to non-cool-core objects, which is in clear contradiction with the observed data populated by several cool-core systems. Self-regulated feedback, which quenches cooling flows and preserves cool cores, prevents dramatic evacuation and similarity breaking at any scale; the relation scatter is also limited. The impulsive thermal blast can break the core-included L x -T x at T 500 ≲ 1 keV, but substantially empties and overheats the halo, generating a perennial non-cool-core group, as experienced by cosmological simulations. Even with partial evacuation, massive systems remain overheated. We show that the action of purely AGN feedback is to lower the luminosity and heat the gas, perpendicular to the fit

  4. Unification of SUSY breaking and GUT breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Department of Physics, Hokkaido University,Sapporo 060-0810 (Japan); Omura, Yuji [Department of Physics, Nagoya University,Nagoya 464-8602 (Japan)

    2015-02-18

    We build explicit supersymmetric unification models where grand unified gauge symmetry breaking and supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking are caused by the same sector. Besides, the SM-charged particles are also predicted by the symmetry breaking sector, and they give the soft SUSY breaking terms through the so-called gauge mediation. We investigate the mass spectrums in an explicit model with SU(5) and additional gauge groups, and discuss its phenomenological aspects. Especially, nonzero A-term and B-term are generated at one-loop level according to the mediation via the vector superfields, so that the electro-weak symmetry breaking and 125 GeV Higgs mass may be achieved by the large B-term and A-term even if the stop mass is around 1 TeV.

  5. What Are the Primary Limitations in B-Cell Affinity Maturation, and How Much Affinity Maturation Can We Drive with Vaccination? Breaking through Immunity's Glass Ceiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelsoe, Garnett; Haynes, Barton F

    2018-05-01

    A key goal of HIV-1 vaccine development is the induction of broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) targeted to the vulnerable regions of the HIV envelope. BnAbs develop over time in ∼50% of HIV-1-infected individuals. However, to date, no vaccines have induced bnAbs and few or none of these vaccine-elicited HIV-1 antibodies carry the high frequencies of V(D)J mutations characteristic of bnAbs. Do the high frequencies of mutations characteristic of naturally induced bnAbs represent a fundamental barrier to the induction of bnAbs by vaccines? Recent studies suggest that high frequencies of V(D)J mutations can be achieved by serial vaccination strategies. Rather, it appears that, in the absence of HIV-1 infection, physiologic immune tolerance controls, including a germinal center process termed affinity reversion, may limit vaccine-driven bnAb development by clonal elimination or selecting for mutations incompatible with bnAb activity. Copyright © 2018 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  6. Breaking Through the Multi-Mesa-Channel Width Limited of Normally Off GaN HEMTs Through Modulation of the Via-Hole-Length.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Cheng-Yen; Wu, Wen-Hsin; You, Yao-Hong; Lin, Jun-Huei; Lee, Chia-Yu; Hsu, Wen-Ching; Kuan, Chieh-Hsiung; Lin, Ray-Ming

    2017-12-01

    We present new normally off GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) that overcome the typical limitations in multi-mesa-channel (MMC) width through modulation of the via-hole-length to regulate the charge neutrality screen effect. We have prepared enhancement-mode (E-mode) GaN HEMTs having widths of up to 300 nm, based on an enhanced surface pinning effect. E-mode GaN HEMTs having MMC structures and widths as well as via-hole-lengths of 100 nm/2 μm and 300 nm/6 μm, respectively, exhibited positive threshold voltages (V th ) of 0.79 and 0.46 V, respectively. The on-resistances of the MMC and via-hole-length structures were lower than those of typical tri-gate nanoribbon GaN HEMTs. In addition, the devices not only achieved the E-mode but also improved the power performance of the GaN HEMTs and effectively mitigated the device thermal effect. We controlled the via-hole-length sidewall surface pinning effect to obtain the E-mode GaN HEMTs. Our findings suggest that via-hole-length normally off GaN HEMTs have great potential for use in next-generation power electronics.

  7. Breaking Through the Multi-Mesa-Channel Width Limited of Normally Off GaN HEMTs Through Modulation of the Via-Hole-Length

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Cheng-Yen; Wu, Wen-Hsin; You, Yao-Hong; Lin, Jun-Huei; Lee, Chia-Yu; Hsu, Wen-Ching; Kuan, Chieh-Hsiung; Lin, Ray-Ming

    2017-06-01

    We present new normally off GaN high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs) that overcome the typical limitations in multi-mesa-channel (MMC) width through modulation of the via-hole-length to regulate the charge neutrality screen effect. We have prepared enhancement-mode (E-mode) GaN HEMTs having widths of up to 300 nm, based on an enhanced surface pinning effect. E-mode GaN HEMTs having MMC structures and widths as well as via-hole-lengths of 100 nm/2 μm and 300 nm/6 μm, respectively, exhibited positive threshold voltages ( V th) of 0.79 and 0.46 V, respectively. The on-resistances of the MMC and via-hole-length structures were lower than those of typical tri-gate nanoribbon GaN HEMTs. In addition, the devices not only achieved the E-mode but also improved the power performance of the GaN HEMTs and effectively mitigated the device thermal effect. We controlled the via-hole-length sidewall surface pinning effect to obtain the E-mode GaN HEMTs. Our findings suggest that via-hole-length normally off GaN HEMTs have great potential for use in next-generation power electronics.

  8. Resolution of the time dependent P{sub n} equations by a Godunov type scheme having the diffusion limit; Resolution des equations P{sub n} instationnaires par un schema de type Godunov, ayant la limite diffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cargo, P.; Samba, G

    2007-07-01

    We consider the P{sub n} model to approximate the transport equation in one dimension of space. In a diffusive regime, the solution of this system is solution of a diffusion equation. We are looking for a numerical scheme having the diffusion limit property: in a diffusive regime, it gives the solution of the limiting diffusion equation on a mesh at the diffusion scale. The numerical scheme proposed is an extension of the Godunov type scheme proposed by L. Gosse to solve the P{sub 1} model without absorption term. Moreover, it has the well-balanced property: it preserves the steady solutions of the system. (authors)

  9. Duality after supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shadmi, Yael; Cheng, Hsin-Chia

    1998-05-01

    Starting with two supersymmetric dual theories, we imagine adding a chiral perturbation that breaks supersymmetry dynamically. At low energy we then get two theories with soft supersymmetry-breaking terms that are generated dynamically. With a canonical Kaehler potential, some of the scalars of the ''magnetic'' theory typically have negative mass-squared, and the vector-like symmetry is broken. Since for large supersymmetry breaking the ''electric'' theory becomes ordinary QCD, the two theories are then incompatible. For small supersymmetry breaking, if duality still holds, the magnetic theory analysis implies specific patterns of chiral symmetry breaking in supersymmetric QCD with small soft masses

  10. Resolution of the Poincare problem and nonexistence of algebraic limit cycles in family (I) of Chinese classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chavarriga, Javier; Garcia, Isaac A.; Sorolla, Jordi

    2005-01-01

    Any quadratic system with limit cycles can be written in one of the three families stated by the Chinese classification. In this paper we consider family (I), i.e., x-bar =δx-y+-bar x2+mxy+ny2,y-bar =x. We show that the degree of its real irreducible invariant algebraic curves is bounded by 3. By the way, we prove that there is not any algebraic limit cycle for this family

  11. Hydroacoustic resolution of small-scale vertical distribution in Baltic cod Gadus morhua - habitat choise and limits during spawning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schaber, Matthias; Hinrichsen, Hans-Harald; Neuenfeldt, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    to cod. The results showed a clear influence of ambient salinity and oxygen concentration on the distribution pattern and distributional limitation of cod during spawning time, and also consistency of data storage tag-derived distribution patterns with those based on individual echotracking. We therefore...... and hence the spatial structure of the ecosystem. Our aim here is to present a method to resolve small-scale distribution on an individual level, as needed for the behaviorally-based prediction of habitat choice and limits. We focused on the small-scale vertical distribution of cod Gadus morhua L....... in the Bornholm Basin, central Baltic Sea, during spawning time in 2 years with different vertical thermohaline and oxygen stratifications. Individual cod were identified by echotracking of real-time in situ hydroacoustic distribution data. In order to resolve and identify hydrographic preferences and limits...

  12. Prospects of high-resolution resonant X-ray inelastic scattering studies on solid materials, liquids and gases at diffraction-limited storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmitt, Thorsten; Groot, Frank M. F. de; Rubensson, Jan-Erik

    2014-01-01

    Diffraction-limited storage rings will allow for pushing the achievable energy resolution, signal intensity and the sampled spot size in resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) experiments to new limits. In this article the types of improved soft X-ray RIXS studies that will become possible with these instrumental improvements are envisioned. The spectroscopic technique of resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) will particularly profit from immensely improved brilliance of diffraction-limited storage rings (DLSRs). In RIXS one measures the intensities of excitations as a function of energy and momentum transfer. DLSRs will allow for pushing the achievable energy resolution, signal intensity and the sampled spot size to new limits. With RIXS one nowadays probes a broad range of electronic systems reaching from simple molecules to complex materials displaying phenomena like peculiar magnetism, two-dimensional electron gases, superconductivity, photovoltaic energy conversion and heterogeneous catalysis. In this article the types of improved RIXS studies that will become possible with X-ray beams from DLSRs are envisioned

  13. Genome-wide mapping of DNA strand breaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frédéric Leduc

    Full Text Available Determination of cellular DNA damage has so far been limited to global assessment of genome integrity whereas nucleotide-level mapping has been restricted to specific loci by the use of specific primers. Therefore, only limited DNA sequences can be studied and novel regions of genomic instability can hardly be discovered. Using a well-characterized yeast model, we describe a straightforward strategy to map genome-wide DNA strand breaks without compromising nucleotide-level resolution. This technique, termed "damaged DNA immunoprecipitation" (dDIP, uses immunoprecipitation and the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin end-labeling (TUNEL to capture DNA at break sites. When used in combination with microarray or next-generation sequencing technologies, dDIP will allow researchers to map genome-wide DNA strand breaks as well as other types of DNA damage and to establish a clear profiling of altered genes and/or intergenic sequences in various experimental conditions. This mapping technique could find several applications for instance in the study of aging, genotoxic drug screening, cancer, meiosis, radiation and oxidative DNA damage.

  14. Atlantic hurricanes and associated insurance loss potentials in future climate scenarios: limitations of high-resolution AGCM simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas F. Stocker

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Potential future changes in tropical cyclone (TC characteristics are among the more serious regional threats of global climate change. Therefore, a better understanding of how anthropogenic climate change may affect TCs and how these changes translate in socio-economic impacts is required. Here, we apply a TC detection and tracking method that was developed for ERA-40 data to time-slice experiments of two atmospheric general circulation models, namely the fifth version of the European Centre model of Hamburg model (MPI, Hamburg, Germany, T213 and the Japan Meteorological Agency/ Meteorological research Institute model (MRI, Tsukuba city, Japan, TL959. For each model, two climate simulations are available: a control simulation for present-day conditions to evaluate the model against observations, and a scenario simulation to assess future changes. The evaluation of the control simulations shows that the number of intense storms is underestimated due to the model resolution. To overcome this deficiency, simulated cyclone intensities are scaled to the best track data leading to a better representation of the TC intensities. Both models project an increased number of major hurricanes and modified trajectories in their scenario simulations. These changes have an effect on the projected loss potentials. However, these state-of-the-art models still yield contradicting results, and therefore they are not yet suitable to provide robust estimates of losses due to uncertainties in simulated hurricane intensity, location and frequency.

  15. Resolution limits achievable with CMOS front-end in X- and γ-ray analysis with semiconductor detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manfredi, P.F.; Manghisoni, M.; Ratti, L.; Re, V.; Speziali, V.

    2003-01-01

    During the past 15 years, the CMOS technologies have provided the most widely followed approach to signal processing with microstrip detectors. In more recent times, CMOS front-end systems have been developed to acquire and process signals from pixel detectors. During the past few years, the favor toward CMOS processes in their applications in the broad area of detector signal processing has been enhanced by the technological advancement known as device scaling and by two aspects connected to it. One is the shrinking in channel length L into the deep submicron region. The second one is the related reduction in the gate-oxide thickness t ox to a few nm. The reduction in t ox has, as a consequence of primary importance, a decreased 1/f-noise contribution to the equivalent noise charge (ENC). The thinner gate-oxide and the shrinking in gate length, in some regions of operations, concur to increase the transconductance of the device, which results in a smaller ENC contribution from channel thermal noise. The goal of the present paper is to address the question of whether or not the most advanced CMOS processes may meet the requirements set by high resolution, high dynamic range applications like the energy-dispersive photon analysis with solid-state detectors of comparatively large capacitance

  16. Bubbles and breaking waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorpe, S. A.

    1980-01-01

    The physical processes which control the transfer of gases between the atmosphere and oceans or lakes are poorly understood. Clouds of micro-bubbles have been detected below the surface of Loch Ness when the wind is strong enough to cause the waves to break. The rate of transfer of gas into solution from these bubbles is estimated to be significant if repeated on a global scale. We present here further evidence that the bubbles are caused by breaking waves, and discuss the relationship between the mean frequency of wave breaking at a fixed point and the average distance between breaking waves, as might be estimated from an aerial photograph.

  17. Microsphere-aided optical microscopy and its applications for super-resolution imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upputuri, Paul Kumar; Pramanik, Manojit

    2017-12-01

    The spatial resolution of a standard optical microscope (SOM) is limited by diffraction. In visible spectrum, SOM can provide ∼ 200 nm resolution. To break the diffraction limit several approaches were developed including scanning near field microscopy, metamaterial super-lenses, nanoscale solid immersion lenses, super-oscillatory lenses, confocal fluorescence microscopy, techniques that exploit non-linear response of fluorophores like stimulated emission depletion microscopy, stochastic optical reconstruction microscopy, etc. Recently, photonic nanojet generated by a dielectric microsphere was used to break the diffraction limit. The microsphere-approach is simple, cost-effective and can be implemented under a standard microscope, hence it has gained enormous attention for super-resolution imaging. In this article, we briefly review the microsphere approach and its applications for super-resolution imaging in various optical imaging modalities.

  18. A Simple Approach for Obtaining High Resolution, High Sensitivity ¹H NMR Metabolite Spectra of Biofluids with Limited Mass Supply

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Rommereim, Donald N.; Wind, Robert A.; Minard, Kevin R.; Sears, Jesse A.

    2006-11-01

    A simple approach is reported that yields high resolution, high sensitivity ¹H NMR spectra of biofluids with limited mass supply. This is achieved by spinning a capillary sample tube containing a biofluid at the magic angle at a frequency of about 80Hz. A 2D pulse sequence called ¹H PASS is then used to produce a high-resolution ¹H NMR spectrum that is free from magnetic susceptibility induced line broadening. With this new approach a high resolution ¹H NMR spectrum of biofluids with a volume less than 1.0 µl can be easily achieved at a magnetic field strength as low as 7.05T. Furthermore, the methodology facilitates easy sample handling, i.e., the samples can be directly collected into inexpensive and disposable capillary tubes at the site of collection and subsequently used for NMR measurements. In addition, slow magic angle spinning improves magnetic field shimming and is especially suitable for high throughput investigations. In this paper first results are shown obtained in a magnetic field of 7.05T on urine samples collected from mice using a modified commercial NMR probe.

  19. A super-high angular resolution principle for coded-mask X-ray imaging beyond the diffraction limit of a single pinhole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Chen; Zhang Shuangnan

    2009-01-01

    High angular resolution X-ray imaging is always useful in astrophysics and solar physics. In principle, it can be performed by using coded-mask imaging with a very long mask-detector distance. Previously, the diffraction-interference effect was thought to degrade coded-mask imaging performance dramatically at the low energy end with its very long mask-detector distance. The diffraction-interference effect is described with numerical calculations, and the diffraction-interference cross correlation reconstruction method (DICC) is developed in order to overcome the imaging performance degradation. Based on the DICC, a super-high angular resolution principle (SHARP) for coded-mask X-ray imaging is proposed. The feasibility of coded mask imaging beyond the diffraction limit of a single pinhole is demonstrated with simulations. With the specification that the mask element size is 50 x 50 μm 2 and the mask-detector distance is 50 m, the achieved angular resolution is 0.32 arcsec above about 10 keV and 0.36 arcsec at 1.24 keV (λ = 1 nm), where diffraction cannot be neglected. The on-axis source location accuracy is better than 0.02 arcsec. Potential applications for solar observations and wide-field X-ray monitors are also briefly discussed. (invited reviews)

  20. 'BREAKS' Protocol for Breaking Bad News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Vijayakumar; Bista, Bibek; Koshy, Cheriyan

    2010-05-01

    Information that drastically alters the life world of the patient is termed as bad news. Conveying bad news is a skilled communication, and not at all easy. The amount of truth to be disclosed is subjective. A properly structured and well-orchestrated communication has a positive therapeutic effect. This is a process of negotiation between patient and physician, but physicians often find it difficult due to many reasons. They feel incompetent and are afraid of unleashing a negative reaction from the patient or their relatives. The physician is reminded of his or her own vulnerability to terminal illness, and find themselves powerless over emotional distress. Lack of sufficient training in breaking bad news is a handicap to most physicians and health care workers. Adherence to the principles of client-centered counseling is helpful in attaining this skill. Fundamental insight of the patient is exploited and the bad news is delivered in a structured manner, because the patient is the one who knows what is hurting him most and he is the one who knows how to move forward. Six-step SPIKES protocol is widely used for breaking bad news. In this paper, we put forward another six-step protocol, the BREAKS protocol as a systematic and easy communication strategy for breaking bad news. Development of competence in dealing with difficult situations has positive therapeutic outcome and is a professionally satisfying one.

  1. Extraction method based on emulsion breaking for the determination of Cu, Fe and Pb in Brazilian automotive gasoline samples by high-resolution continuum source flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leite, Clarice C.; de Jesus, Alexandre; Kolling, Leandro; Ferrão, Marco F.; Samios, Dimitrios; Silva, Márcia M.

    2018-04-01

    This work reports a new method for extraction of Cu, Fe and Pb from Brazilian automotive gasoline and their determination by high-resolution continuous source flame atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS FAAS). The method was based on the formation of water-in-oil emulsion by mixing 2.0 mL of extraction solution constituted by 12% (w/v) Triton X-100 and 5% (v/v) HNO3 with 10 mL of sample. After heating at 90 °C for 10 min, two well-defined phases were formed. The bottom phase (approximately 3.5 mL), composed of acidified water and part of the ethanol originally present in the gasoline sample, containing the extracted analytes was analyzed. The surfactant and HNO3 concentrations and the heating temperature employed in the process were optimized by Doehlert design, using a Brazilian gasoline sample spiked with Cu, Fe and Pb (organometallic compounds). The efficiency of extraction was investigated and it ranged from 80 to 89%. The calibration was accomplished by using matrix matching method. For this, the standards were obtained performing the same extraction procedure used for the sample, using emulsions obtained with a gasoline sample free of analytes and the addition of inorganic standards. Limits of detection obtained were 3.0, 5.0 and 14.0 μg L-1 for Cu, Fe and Pb, respectively. These limits were estimated for the original sample taking into account the preconcentration factor obtained. The accuracy of the proposed method was assured by recovery tests spiking the samples with organometallic standards and the obtained values ranged from 98 to 105%. Ten gasoline samples were analyzed and Fe was found in four samples (0.04-0.35 mg L-1) while Cu (0.28 mg L-1) and Pb (0.60 mg L-1) was found in just one sample.

  2. Limited copy number-high resolution melting (LCN-HRM) enables the detection and identification by sequencing of low level mutations in cancer biopsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Hongdo; Dobrovic, Alexander

    2009-10-08

    Mutation detection in clinical tumour samples is challenging when the proportion of tumour cells, and thus mutant alleles, is low. The limited sensitivity of conventional sequencing necessitates the adoption of more sensitive approaches. High resolution melting (HRM) is more sensitive than sequencing but identification of the mutation is desirable, particularly when it is important to discriminate false positives due to PCR errors or template degradation from true mutations.We thus developed limited copy number - high resolution melting (LCN-HRM) which applies limiting dilution to HRM. Multiple replicate reactions with a limited number of target sequences per reaction allow low level mutations to be detected. The dilutions used (based on Ct values) are chosen such that mutations, if present, can be detected by the direct sequencing of amplicons with aberrant melting patterns. Using cell lines heterozygous for mutations, we found that the mutations were not readily detected when they comprised 10% of total alleles (20% tumour cells) by sequencing, whereas they were readily detectable at 5% total alleles by standard HRM. LCN-HRM allowed these mutations to be identified by direct sequencing of those positive reactions.LCN-HRM was then used to review formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) clinical samples showing discordant findings between sequencing and HRM for KRAS exon 2 and EGFR exons 19 and 21. Both true mutations present at low levels and sequence changes due to artefacts were detected by LCN-HRM. The use of high fidelity polymerases showed that the majority of the artefacts were derived from the damaged template rather than replication errors during amplification. LCN-HRM bridges the sensitivity gap between HRM and sequencing and is effective in distinguishing between artefacts and true mutations.

  3. Gauge symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinberg, S.

    1976-01-01

    The problem of how gauge symmetries of the weak interactions get broken is discussed. Some reasons why such a heirarchy of gauge symmetry breaking is needed, the reason gauge heirarchies do not seem to arise in theories of a given and related type, and the implications of theories with dynamical symmetry breaking, which can exhibit a gauge hierarchy

  4. Dynamical supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Affleck, I.

    1985-03-01

    Supersymmetry, and in particular, dynamical supersymmetry breaking, offers the hope of a natural solution of the gauge hierarchy problem in grand unification. I briefly review recent work on dynamical supersymmetry breaking in four-dimensional Higgs theories and its application to grand unified model building

  5. Expert system applied at the Angra-2 Nuclear Power Plant to assist in the resolution of limiting conditions for operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schechter, André D.; Nicolau, Andressa S.; Schirru, Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Expert Systems (ES) are widely used to help a common user act as an expert on a particular subject, the information is saved in the program database and the user introduces facts to be interpreted in real time. The inference engine will take these facts and return the answer of the expert. This tool is widely used, for example, in medicine to diagnose patients, game development, the mining industry, and the operation of nuclear power plants. In this article, a model of ES, of the real time, is development in order to treat the Limiting Conditions for Operation (LCO) of the Angra-2 Nuclear Power Plant. In this PWR plant, all information from the LCO comes from failure trees and the ES was adapted to be able to handle the facts with the values True, False, None and Null of the tree. The simulations results of this article and experiments with ES applied in LCOs show that it is an efficient computational tool to deal with this type of problem. The use of this type of technology in the operation of nuclear power plants can reduce the risk of an accident caused by human error, which is one of the most common causes in the history of the nuclear industry. (author)

  6. Improved Dyson series expansion for steady-state quantum transport beyond the weak coupling limit: Divergences and resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thingna, Juzar; Zhou, Hangbo; Wang, Jian-Sheng

    2014-01-01

    We present a general theory to calculate the steady-state heat and electronic currents for nonlinear systems using a perturbative expansion in the system-bath coupling. We explicitly demonstrate that using the truncated Dyson-series leads to divergences in the steady-state limit, thus making it impossible to be used for actual applications. In order to resolve the divergences, we propose a unique choice of initial condition for the reduced density matrix, which removes the divergences at each order. Our approach not only allows us to use the truncated Dyson-series, with a reasonable choice of initial condition, but also gives the expected result that the steady-state solutions should be independent of initial preparations. Using our improved Dyson series we evaluate the heat and electronic currents up to fourth-order in system-bath coupling, a considerable improvement over the standard quantum master equation techniques. We then numerically corroborate our theory for archetypal settings of linear systems using the exact nonequilibrium Green's function approach. Finally, to demonstrate the advantage of our approach, we deal with the nonlinear spin-boson model to evaluate heat current up to fourth-order and find signatures of cotunnelling process

  7. Expert system applied at the Angra-2 Nuclear Power Plant to assist in the resolution of limiting conditions for operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schechter, André D.; Nicolau, Andressa S.; Schirru, Roberto, E-mail: schechterandre@poli.ufrj.br, E-mail: andressa@lmp.ufrj.br, E-mail: schirru@lmp.ufrj.br [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear

    2017-07-01

    Expert Systems (ES) are widely used to help a common user act as an expert on a particular subject, the information is saved in the program database and the user introduces facts to be interpreted in real time. The inference engine will take these facts and return the answer of the expert. This tool is widely used, for example, in medicine to diagnose patients, game development, the mining industry, and the operation of nuclear power plants. In this article, a model of ES, of the real time, is development in order to treat the Limiting Conditions for Operation (LCO) of the Angra-2 Nuclear Power Plant. In this PWR plant, all information from the LCO comes from failure trees and the ES was adapted to be able to handle the facts with the values True, False, None and Null of the tree. The simulations results of this article and experiments with ES applied in LCOs show that it is an efficient computational tool to deal with this type of problem. The use of this type of technology in the operation of nuclear power plants can reduce the risk of an accident caused by human error, which is one of the most common causes in the history of the nuclear industry. (author)

  8. Intrinsic limits on resolutions in muon- and electron-neutrino charged-current events in the KM3NeT/ORCA detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ageron, M.; Aiello, S.; Albert, A.; Ameli, F.; Anassontzis, E. G.; Andre, M.; Androulakis, G.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Avgitas, T.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Mart, J.; Belias, A.; Berbee, E.; van den Berg, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; van Beveren, V.; Beverini, N.; Biagi, S.; Biagioni, A.; Billault, M.; Bondì, M.; Bormuth, R.; Bouhadef, B.; Bourlis, G.; Bourret, S.; Boutonnet, C.; Bouwhuis, M.; Bozza, C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Buis, E.; Buompane, R.; Busto, J.; Cacopardo, G.; Caillat, L.; Calamai, M.; Calvo, D.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Cecchini, S.; Celli, S.; Champion, C.; Cherubini, S.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, L.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Classen, L.; Cobas, D.; Cocimano, R.; Coelho, J. A. B.; Coleiro, A.; Colonges, S.; Coniglione, R.; Cordelli, M.; Cosquer, A.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Cuttone, G.; D'Amato, C.; D'Amico, A.; D'Onofrio, A.; De Bonis, G.; De Sio, C.; Di Palma, I.; Díaz, A. F.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Drakopoulou, E.; Drouhin, D.; Durocher, M.; Eberl, T.; Eichie, S.; van Eijk, D.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsaesser, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Favaro, M.; Fermani, P.; Ferrara, G.; Frascadore, G.; Furini, M.; Fusco, L. A.; Gal, T.; Galatà, S.; Garufi, F.; Gay, P.; Gebyehu, M.; Giacomini, F.; Gialanella, L.; Giordano, V.; Gizani, N.; Gracia, R.; Graf, K.; Grégoire, T.; Grella, G.; Grmek, A.; Guerzoni, M.; Habel, R.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Harissopulos, S.; Heid, T.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Henry, S.; Hernández-Rey, J. J.; Hevinga, M.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C. M. F.; Illuminati, G.; James, C. W.; Jansweijerf, P.; Jongen, M.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U. F.; Keller, P.; Kieft, G.; Kießling, D.; Koffeman, E. N.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Leisos, A.; Leone, F.; Leonora, E.; Lindsey Clark, M.; Liolios, A.; Llorens Alvarez, C. D.; Lo Presti, D.; Löhner, H.; Lonardo, A.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Maccioni, E.; Mannheim, K.; Manzali, M.; Margiotta, A.; Margotti, A.; Marinelli, A.; Maris, O.; Markou, C.; Martínez-Mora, J. A.; Martini, A.; Marzaioli, F.; Mele, R.; Melis, K. W.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Migneco, E.; Mijakowski, P.; Miraglia, A.; Mollo, C. M.; Mongelli, M.; Morganti, M.; Moussa, A.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Navas, S.; Nicolau, C. A.; Olcina, I.; Olivetto, C.; Orlando, A.; Orzelli, A.; Pancaldi, G.; Papaikonomou, A.; Papaleo, R.; Păvălas, G. E.; Peek, H.; Pellegrini, G.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Pfutzner, M.; Piattelli, P.; Pikounis, K.; Pleinert, M.-O.; Poma, G. E.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Pratolongo, F.; Pühlhofer, G.; Pulvirenti, S.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Raffaelli, F.; Randazzo, N.; Rauch, T.; Real, D.; Resvanis, L.; Reubelt, J.; Riccobene, G.; Rossi, C.; Rovelli, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D. F. E.; Sánchez García, A.; Sánchez Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Santangelo, A.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Schimmel, F.; Schmelling, J.; Schnabel, J.; Sciacca, V.; Sedita, M.; Seitz, T.; Sgura, I.; Simeone, F.; Sipala, V.; Spisso, B.; Spurio, M.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steijger, J.; Stellacci, S. M.; Stransky, D.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Terrasi, F.; Tézier, D.; Theraube, S.; Timmer, P.; Tönnis, C.; Trasatti, L.; Travaglini, R.; Trovato, A.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vermeulen, J.; Versari, F.; Vicini, P.; Viola, S.; Vivolo, D.; Volkert, M.; Wiggers, L.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Zachariadou, K.; Zani, S.; Zornoza, J. D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2017-05-01

    Studying atmospheric neutrino oscillations in the few-GeV range with a multi-megaton detector promises to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. This is the main science goal pursued by the future KM3NeT/ORCA water Cherenkov detector in the Mediterranean Sea. In this paper, the processes that limit the obtainable resolution in both energy and direction in charged-current neutrino events in the ORCA detector are investigated. These processes include the composition of the hadronic fragmentation products, the subsequent particle propagation and the photon-sampling fraction of the detector. GEANT simulations of neutrino interactions in seawater produced by GENIE are used to study the effects in the 1-20 GeV range. It is found that fluctuations in the hadronic cascade in conjunction with the variation of the inelasticity y are most detrimental to the resolutions. The effect of limited photon sampling in the detector is of significantly less importance. These results will therefore also be applicable to similar detectors/media, such as those in ice. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  9. A lower limit to the accretion disc radius in the low-luminosity AGN NGC 1052 derived from high-angular resolution data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reb, Lennart; Fernández-Ontiveros, Juan A.; Prieto, M. Almudena; Dolag, Klaus

    2018-05-01

    We investigate the central sub-arcsec region of the low-luminosity active galactic nucleus NGC 1052, using a high-angular resolution dataset that covers 10 orders of magnitude in frequency. This allows us to infer the continuum emission within the innermost ˜17 pc around the black hole to be of non-thermal, synchrotron origin and to set a limit to the maximum contribution of a standard accretion disc. Assuming the canonical 10 per cent mass-light conversion efficiency for the standard accretion disc, its inferred accretion power would be too low by one order of magnitude to account for the observed continuum luminosity. We thus introduce a truncated accretion disc and derive a truncation radius to mass-light conversion efficiency relation, which we use to reconcile the inferred accretion power with the continuum luminosity. As a result we find that a truncated disc providing the necessary accretion power must be truncated at rtr ≳ 26 rg, consistent with the inner radius derived from the observations of the Fe Kα line in the X-ray spectrum of this nucleus. This is the first time to derive a limit on the truncation radius of the accretion disc from high-angular resolution data only.

  10. The resolving limit of a three-diode coincidence circuit; Limite de resolution d'un circuit de coincidence a trois diodes; Predel razreshayushchej sposobnosti trekhdiodnoj skhemy sovpadeniya; Poder de resolucion de un circuito de coincidencia de tres diodos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, H [University of Marburg, Marburg, Federal Republic of Germany (Germany)

    1962-04-15

    To investigate the resolving limit of a three-diode coincidence circuit according to De Benedetti and Richings, a complete coincidence device, consisting of diode stage, amplifier, amplitude discriminator, and Univibrator was tested with pulses of 10{sup -9} s risetime and 2 x 10{sup -9} s basal duration. The amplitudes were measured and also the integrals of the pulses received at the amplifier output as well as the resolution curve dependent on the interesting parameters-amplitude of the input pulses, input resistance of the amplifier, operating conditions of the diodes, etc. In order to explain the measurements certain investigations were made. The resolution curve of the coincidence device was deduced and the resolving time calculated. It was calculated how the diode stage, the amplifier noise and the matching of the amplifier to the diode stage determine the resolving time of the coincidence device. An analysis of the measurements and theoretical results yielded 10{sup -11} s as the lowest resolving time-limit which can be realized with a three-diode coincidence device under optimum conditions. The derivation of the resolution curve is given and the measurements are reported. It is shown that experimental and theoretical results are in good agreement. (author) [French] Pour etudier la limite de resolution d'un circuit de coincidence a trois diodes, selon la methode de De Benedetti et Richings, l'auteur a essaye un systeme a coincidences complet comportant un ensemble de diodes, un amplificateur, un selecteur d'amplitude et un univibrateur, pour des impulsions d'un temps de montee de 10{sup -9} s et d'une duree de base de 2 x 10{sup -9} s. Il a mesure les amplitudes et les integrales des impulsions recues a la sortie de l'amplificateur ainsi que la courbe de resolution en fonction des parametres interessants (amplitude des impulsions d'entree, resistance d'entree de l'amplificateur, regime de fonctionnement des diodes, etc.). L'auteur a cherche a expliquer les

  11. Supersymmetry breaking from superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, M.K.; Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA; California Univ., Berkeley

    1990-01-01

    The gauge hierarchy problem is briefly reviewed and a class of effective field theories obtained from superstrings is described. These are characterized by a clasical symmetry, related to the space-time duality of string theory, that is responsible for the suppression of observable supersymmetry breaking effects. At the quantum level, the symmetry is broken by anomalies that provide the seed of observable supersymmetry breaking, and an acceptably large gauge hierarchy may be generated

  12. Supersymmetry breaking from superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1990-05-01

    The gauge hierarchy problem is briefly reviewed and a class of effective field theories obtained from superstrings is described. These are characterized by a classical symmetry, related to the space-time duality of string theory, that is responsible for the suppression of observable supersymmetry breaking effects. At the quantum level, the symmetry is broken by anomalies that provide the seed of observable supersymmetry breaking, and an acceptably large gauge hierarchy may be generated. 26 refs

  13. Higgsless grand unified theory breaking and trinification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carone, Christopher D.; Conroy, Justin M.

    2004-01-01

    Boundary conditions on an extra dimensional interval can be chosen to break bulk gauge symmetries and to reduce the rank of the gauge group. We consider this mechanism in models with gauge trinification. We determine the boundary conditions necessary to break the trinified gauge group directly down to that of the standard model. Working in an effective theory for the gauge-symmetry-breaking parameters on a boundary, we examine the limit in which the grand-unified theory-breaking-sector is Higgsless and show how one may obtain the low-energy particle content of the minimal supersymmetric standard model. We find that gauge unification is preserved in this scenario, and that the differential gauge coupling running is logarithmic above the scale of compactification. We compare the phenomenology of our model to that of four dimensional 'trinified' theories

  14. U(1) mediation of flux supersymmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Thomas W.; Klemm, Albrecht

    2008-10-01

    We study the mediation of supersymmetry breaking triggered by background fluxes in Type II string compactifications with Script N = 1 supersymmetry. The mediation arises due to an U(1) vector multiplet coupling to both a hidden supersymmetry breaking flux sector and a visible D-brane sector. The required internal manifolds can be constructed by non-Kähler resolutions of singular Calabi-Yau manifolds. The effective action encoding the U(1) coupling is then determined in terms of the global topological properties of the internal space. We investigate suitable local geometries for the hidden and visible sector in detail. This includes a systematic study of orientifold symmetries of del Pezzo surfaces realized in compact geometries after geometric transition. We construct compact examples admitting the key properties to realize flux supersymmetry breaking and U(1) mediation. Their toric realization allows us to analyze the geometry of curve classes and confirm the topological connection between the hidden and visible sector.

  15. U(1) mediation of flux supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, Thomas W.; Klemm, Albrecht

    2008-01-01

    We study the mediation of supersymmetry breaking triggered by background fluxes in Type II string compactifications with N = 1 supersymmetry. The mediation arises due to an U(1) vector multiplet coupling to both a hidden supersymmetry breaking flux sector and a visible D-brane sector. The required internal manifolds can be constructed by non-Kaehler resolutions of singular Calabi-Yau manifolds. The effective action encoding the U(1) coupling is then determined in terms of the global topological properties of the internal space. We investigate suitable local geometries for the hidden and visible sector in detail. This includes a systematic study of orientifold symmetries of del Pezzo surfaces realized in compact geometries after geometric transition. We construct compact examples admitting the key properties to realize flux supersymmetry breaking and U(1) mediation. Their toric realization allows us to analyze the geometry of curve classes and confirm the topological connection between the hidden and visible sector.

  16. Strong Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grinstein, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Models of spontaneous breaking of electroweak symmetry by a strong interaction do not have fine tuning/hierarchy problem. They are conceptually elegant and use the only mechanism of spontaneous breaking of a gauge symmetry that is known to occur in nature. The simplest model, minimal technicolor with extended technicolor interactions, is appealing because one can calculate by scaling up from QCD. But it is ruled out on many counts: inappropriately low quark and lepton masses (or excessive FCNC), bad electroweak data fits, light scalar and vector states, etc. However, nature may not choose the minimal model and then we are stuck: except possibly through lattice simulations, we are unable to compute and test the models. In the LHC era it therefore makes sense to abandon specific models (of strong EW breaking) and concentrate on generic features that may indicate discovery. The Technicolor Straw Man is not a model but a parametrized search strategy inspired by a remarkable generic feature of walking technicolor,...

  17. A case of mydriatic fixed pupil with diabetes mellitus, about limited resolution capacity of computed tomography and twin light reflex (Nozaki)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozaki, Hisashi; Ayakawa, Yoshio; Okamoto, Toshiko; Awaya, Shinobu.

    1982-01-01

    A 56 year old house wife with a ten history of diabetes mellitus was admitted with visual impairment of both eyes. The pupil of the right eye larger than that of the lefteye, and did not react to light. Examination revealed diabetic retinopathy of both eyes with the right dilatedandfixed pupil and ocular movements were not abnormal except convergence. Computed Tomography did not show abnormal findings. It is necessary, however, to keep in mind that normal apperance of CT-scan does not always mean normal conditions, because of it's limited resolution capacity. From clinical signs and symptoms, the mydriatic fixed pupil might be diagnosed as diabetic origin. Thus, despite of outstanding technical advances such as a CT-scan, it should be emphasized that the most important diagnostic procedure is clinical signs, symptoms, accurate history, and clinical examinations. It seems to be a useful procedure that twin light reflex is applied to the fixed pupil with retina or optic nerve involvement as well as direct, consensual light reaction, and swing flashlight test. (author)

  18. Breaking the silence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Hanne; Kirkevold, Marit; McCallin, Antoinette

    2012-01-01

    and individual interviews were analyzed using the grounded theory method. The findings revealed that the main concern of the patients was feeling isolated, which was resolved using a process of interactional integration. Interactional integration begins by breaking the silence to enable the progression from...

  19. Violent breaking wave impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredmose, Henrik; Peregrine, D.H.; Bullock, G.N.

    2009-01-01

    When an ocean wave breaks against a steep-fronted breakwater, sea wall or a similar marine structure, its impact on the structure can be very violent. This paper describes the theoretical studies that, together with field and laboratory investigations, have been carried out in order to gain a bet...

  20. Two-stage perceptual learning to break visual crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ziyun; Fan, Zhenzhi; Fang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    When a target is presented with nearby flankers in the peripheral visual field, it becomes harder to identify, which is referred to as crowding. Crowding sets a fundamental limit of object recognition in peripheral vision, preventing us from fully appreciating cluttered visual scenes. We trained adult human subjects on a crowded orientation discrimination task and investigated whether crowding could be completely eliminated by training. We discovered a two-stage learning process with this training task. In the early stage, when the target and flankers were separated beyond a certain distance, subjects acquired a relatively general ability to break crowding, as evidenced by the fact that the breaking of crowding could transfer to another crowded orientation, even a crowded motion stimulus, although the transfer to the opposite visual hemi-field was weak. In the late stage, like many classical perceptual learning effects, subjects' performance gradually improved and showed specificity to the trained orientation. We also found that, when the target and flankers were spaced too finely, training could only reduce, rather than completely eliminate, the crowding effect. This two-stage learning process illustrates a learning strategy for our brain to deal with the notoriously difficult problem of identifying peripheral objects in clutter. The brain first learned to solve the "easy and general" part of the problem (i.e., improving the processing resolution and segmenting the target and flankers) and then tackle the "difficult and specific" part (i.e., refining the representation of the target).

  1. Breaking News as Radicalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartley, Jannie Møller

    The aim of the paper is to make explicit how the different categories are applied in the online newsroom and thus how new categories can be seen as positioning strategies in the form of radicalisations of already existing categories. Thus field theory provides us with tools to analyse how online...... journalists are using the categorisations to create hierarchies within the journalistic field in order to position themselves as specialists in what Tuchman has called developing news, aiming and striving for what today is know as breaking news and the “exclusive scoop,” as the trademark of online journalism...... in a media environment where immediacy rules (Domingo 2008a). Following this research the primary focus of this paper is the category breaking news and Tuchmans developing news, but as they are all connected the analysis will also draw upon the other categories in Tuchmans typology. The theoretical framework...

  2. Predicting appointment breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, A G; Talaga, J

    1995-01-01

    The goal of physician referral services is to schedule appointments, but if too many patients fail to show up, the value of the service will be compromised. The authors found that appointment breaking can be predicted by the number of days to the scheduled appointment, the doctor's specialty, and the patient's age and gender. They also offer specific suggestions for modifying the marketing mix to reduce the incidence of no-shows.

  3. Single sector supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luty, Markus A.; Terning, John

    1999-01-01

    We review recent work on realistic models that break supersymmetry dynamically and give rise to composite quarks and leptons, all in a single sector. These models have a completely natural suppression of flavor-changing neutral currents, and the hierarchy of Yukawa couplings is explained by the dimensionality of composite states. The generic signatures are unification of scalar masses with different quantum numbers at the compositeness scale, and lighter gaugino, Higgsino, and third-generation sfermion masses

  4. Dynamics of symmetry breaking in strongly coupled QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bardeen, W.A.

    1988-10-01

    I review the dynamical structure of strong coupled QED in the quenched planar limit. The symmetry structure of this theory is examined with reference to the nature of both chiral and scale symmetry breaking. The renormalization structure of the strong coupled phase is analysed. The compatibility of spontaneous scale and chiral symmetry breaking is studied using effective lagrangian methods. 14 refs., 3 figs

  5. Unraveling the Thousand Word Picture: An Introduction to Super-Resolution Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Antony; Tsekouras, Konstantinos; Calderon, Christopher; Bustamante, Carlos; Pressé, Steve

    2017-06-14

    Super-resolution microscopy provides direct insight into fundamental biological processes occurring at length scales smaller than light's diffraction limit. The analysis of data at such scales has brought statistical and machine learning methods into the mainstream. Here we provide a survey of data analysis methods starting from an overview of basic statistical techniques underlying the analysis of super-resolution and, more broadly, imaging data. We subsequently break down the analysis of super-resolution data into four problems: the localization problem, the counting problem, the linking problem, and what we've termed the interpretation problem.

  6. Subwavelength resolution from multilayered structure (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Bo Han; Jen, Yi-Jun; Liu, Wei-Chih; Lin, Shan-wen; Lan, Yung-Chiang; Tsai, Din Ping

    2016-10-01

    Breaking optical diffraction limit is one of the most important issues needed to be overcome for the demand of high-density optoelectronic components. Here, a multilayered structure which consists of alternating semiconductor and dielectric layers for breaking optical diffraction limitation at THz frequency region are proposed and analyzed. We numerically demonstrate that such multilayered structure not only can act as a hyperbolic metamaterial but also a birefringence material via the control of the external temperature (or magnetic field). A practical approach is provided to control all the diffraction signals toward a specific direction by using transfer matrix method and effective medium theory. Numerical calculations and computer simulation (based on finite element method, FEM) are carried out, which agree well with each other. The temperature (or magnetic field) parameter can be tuned to create an effective material with nearly flat isofrequency feature to transfer (project) all the k-space signals excited from the object to be resolved to the image plane. Furthermore, this multilayered structure can resolve subwavelength structures at various incident THz light sources simultaneously. In addition, the resolution power for a fixed operating frequency also can be tuned by only changing the magnitude of external magnetic field. Such a device provides a practical route for multi-functional material, photolithography and real-time super-resolution image.

  7. BOOK REVIEW: Symmetry Breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryder, L. H.

    2005-11-01

    One of the most fruitful and enduring advances in theoretical physics during the last half century has been the development of the role played by symmetries. One needs only to consider SU(3) and the classification of elementary particles, the Yang Mills enlargement of Maxwell's electrodynamics to the symmetry group SU(2), and indeed the tremendous activity surrounding the discovery of parity violation in the weak interactions in the late 1950s. This last example is one of a broken symmetry, though the symmetry in question is a discrete one. It was clear to Gell-Mann, who first clarified the role of SU(3) in particle physics, that this symmetry was not exact. If it had been, it would have been much easier to discover; for example, the proton, neutron, Σ, Λ and Ξ particles would all have had the same mass. For many years the SU(3) symmetry breaking was assigned a mathematical form, but the importance of this formulation fell away when the quark model began to be taken seriously; the reason the SU(3) symmetry was not exact was simply that the (three, in those days) quarks had different masses. At the same time, and in a different context, symmetry breaking of a different type was being investigated. This went by the name of `spontaneous symmetry breaking' and its characteristic was that the ground state of a given system was not invariant under the symmetry transformation, though the interactions (the Hamiltonian, in effect) was. A classic example is ferromagnetism. In a ferromagnet the atomic spins are aligned in one direction only—this is the ground state of the system. It is clearly not invariant under a rotation, for that would change the ground state into a (similar but) different one, with the spins aligned in a different direction; this is the phenomenon of a degenerate vacuum. The contribution of the spin interaction, s1.s2, to the Hamiltonian, however, is actually invariant under rotations. As Coleman remarked, a little man living in a ferromagnet would

  8. Inertial Symmetry Breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Christopher T.

    2018-03-19

    We review and expand upon recent work demonstrating that Weyl invariant theories can be broken "inertially," which does not depend upon a potential. This can be understood in a general way by the "current algebra" of these theories, independently of specific Lagrangians. Maintaining the exact Weyl invariance in a renormalized quantum theory can be accomplished by renormalization conditions that refer back to the VEV's of fields in the action. We illustrate the computation of a Weyl invariant Coleman-Weinberg potential that breaks a U(1) symmetry together,with scale invariance.

  9. Break the Pattern!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Cathrine; Trentemøller, Stine

    Break the Pattern! A critical enquiry into three scientific workplace cultures: Hercules, Caretakers and Worker Bees is the third publication of the international three year long project "Understanding Puzzles in the Gendered European Map" (UPGEM). By contrasting empirical findings from academic ...... (physics in culture) and discuss how physics as and in culture influence the perception of science, of work and family life, of the interplay between religion and science as well as how physics as culture can either hinder or promote the career of female scientists....

  10. Breaking the Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul Rind; Kirketerp, Anne

    2006-01-01

    The paper shortly reveals the history of a small school - the KaosPilots - dedicated to educate young people to carriers as entrepreneurs. In this contribution we want to explore how the KaosPilots managed to break the waves of institutionalised concepts and practices of teaching entrepreneurship....... Following the so-called 'Dogma' concept developed by Danish filmmakers, this contribution aim to explore the key elements making up the recipes guiding the entrepreneurship training program exercised by the school. Key factors forming a community of learning practice are outlined as well as the critical...... pedagogical elements on which the education in entrepreneurship rests....

  11. Pair breaking and charge relaxation in superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielson, J.B.; Pethick, C.J.; Rammer, J.; Smith, H.

    1982-01-01

    We present a general formalism based on the quasiclassical Green's function for calculating charge imbalance in nonequilibrium superconductors. Our discussion is sufficiently general that it applies at arbitrary temperatures, and under conditions when the width of quasiparticle states are appreciable due to pair breaking processes, and when strong coupling effects are significant. As a first application we demonstrate in detail how in the limit of smallpair breaking and for a weak coupling superconductor the collision term in the formalism reduces to the one in the quasiparticle Boltzmann equation. We next treat the case of charge imbalance generated by tunnel injection, with pair breaking by phonons and magnetic impurities. Over the range of temperatures investigated exerimentally to date, the calculated charge imbalance is rather close to that evaluated using the Boltzmann equation, even if pair braeking is so strong as almost to destroy superconductivity. Finally we consider charge imbalance generated by the combined influence of a supercurrent and a temperature gradient. We give calculations for a dirty superconductor with scattering by phonons as the pair breaking mechanism, and the results give a reasonable account of the experimental data of Clarke, Fjordboge, and Lindelof. We carry out calculations for the case of impurity scattering along which are valid not only in the clean and dirty limits, but also for intermediate situations. These enable us to see how the large contribution to the charge imbalance found for energies close to the gap edge in the clean case is reduced with increasing impurity scattering

  12. More dynamical supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Csaki, C.; Randall, L.; Skiba, W.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a new class of theories which dynamically break supersymmetry based on the gauge group SU(n) x SU(3) x U(1) for even n. These theories are interesting in that no dynamical superpotential is generated in the absence of perturbations. For the example SU(4) x SU(3) x U(1) we explicitly demonstrate that all flat directions can be lifted through a renormalizable superpotential and that supersymmetry is dynamically broken. We derive the exact superpotential for this theory, which exhibits new and interesting dynamical phenomena. For example, modifications to classical constraints can be field dependent. We also consider the generalization to SU(n) x SU(3) x U(1) models (with even n>4). We present a renormalizable superpotential which lifts all flat directions. Because SU(3) is not confining in the absence of perturbations, the analysis of supersymmetry breaking is very different in these theories from the n=4 example. When the SU(n) gauge group confines, the Yukawa couplings drive the SU(3) theory into a regime with a dynamically generated superpotential. By considering a simplified version of these theories we argue that supersymmetry is probably broken. (orig.)

  13. Bootstrap Dynamical Symmetry Breaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Shu Hou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the emergence of a 125 GeV Higgs-like particle at the LHC, we explore the possibility of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking by strong Yukawa coupling of very heavy new chiral quarks Q . Taking the 125 GeV object to be a dilaton with suppressed couplings, we note that the Goldstone bosons G exist as longitudinal modes V L of the weak bosons and would couple to Q with Yukawa coupling λ Q . With m Q ≳ 700  GeV from LHC, the strong λ Q ≳ 4 could lead to deeply bound Q Q ¯ states. We postulate that the leading “collapsed state,” the color-singlet (heavy isotriplet, pseudoscalar Q Q ¯ meson π 1 , is G itself, and a gap equation without Higgs is constructed. Dynamical symmetry breaking is affected via strong λ Q , generating m Q while self-consistently justifying treating G as massless in the loop, hence, “bootstrap,” Solving such a gap equation, we find that m Q should be several TeV, or λ Q ≳ 4 π , and would become much heavier if there is a light Higgs boson. For such heavy chiral quarks, we find analogy with the π − N system, by which we conjecture the possible annihilation phenomena of Q Q ¯ → n V L with high multiplicity, the search of which might be aided by Yukawa-bound Q Q ¯ resonances.

  14. Breaking of ocean surface waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Babanin, A.V.

    2009-01-01

    Wind-generated waves are the most prominent feature of the ocean surface, and so are breaking waves manifested by the appearance of sporadic whitecaps. Such breaking represents one of the most interesting and most challenging problems for both fluid mechanics and physical oceanography. It is an intermittent random process, very fast by comparison with other processes in the wave breaking on the water surface is not continuous, but its role in maintaining the energy balance within the continuous wind-wave field is critical. Ocean wave breaking also plays the primary role in the air-sea exchange of momentum, mass and heat, and it is of significant importance for ocean remote sensing, coastal and maritime engineering, navigation and other practical applications. Understanding the wave breaking its occurrence, the breaking rates and even ability to describe its onset has been hindered for decades by the strong non-linearity of the process, together with its irregular and ferocious nature. Recently, this knowledge has significantly advanced, and the review paper is an attempt to summarise the facts into a consistent, albeit still incomplete picture of the phenomenon. In the paper, variety of definitions related to the were breaking are discussed and formulated and methods for breaking detection and measurements are examined. Most of attention is dedicated to the research of wave breaking probability and severity. Experimental, observational, numerical and statistical approaches and their outcomes are reviewed. Present state of the wave-breaking research and knowledge is analysed and main outstanding problems are outlined (Authors)

  15. Development of an iterative reconstruction method to overcome 2D detector low resolution limitations in MLC leaf position error detection for 3D dose verification in IMRT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visser, Ruurd; J., Godart; Wauben, D.J.L.; Langendijk, J.; van 't Veld, A.A.; Korevaar, E.W.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to introduce a new iterative method to reconstruct multi leaf collimator (MLC) positions based on low resolution ionization detector array measurements and to evaluate its error detection performance. The iterative reconstruction method consists of a fluence model, a

  16. Small break loss of coolant accidents: Bottom and side break

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardy, P.G.; Richter, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    A LOCA can be caused, e.g. by a small break in the primary cooling system. The rate of fluid escaping through such a break will define the time until the core will be uncovered. Therefore the prediction of fluid loss and pressure transient is of major importance to plan for timely action in response to such an event. Stratification of the two phases might be present upstream of the break, thus, the location of the break relative to the vapor-liquid interface and the overall upstream fluid conditions are relevant for the calculation of fluid loss. Experimental results and analyses are presented here for small breaks at the bottom or at the side of a small pressure vessel. It was found that in such a case the onset of the so-called ''vapor pull through'' is important but swelling at sufficient depressurization rates of the liquid due to flashing is also of significance. It was also discovered that in the bottom break the flow rate is strongly dependent on the break entrance quality of the vapour-liquid mixture. The side break can be treated similarly to the bottom break if the interface level is above the break. The analyses developed on the basis of experimental observations showed reasonable agreement of predicted and measured pressure transients. It was possible to calculate the changing interface level and mixture void fraction history in a way compatible with the behavior observed during the experiments. Even though the experiments were performed at low pressures, this work should help to get a better understanding of physical phenomena occurring in a full scale small break LOCA. (orig./HP)

  17. Electroweak breaking in supersymmetric models

    CERN Document Server

    Ibáñez, L E

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the mechanism for electroweak symmetry breaking in supersymmetric versions of the standard model. After briefly reviewing the possible sources of supersymmetry breaking, we show how the required pattern of symmetry breaking can automatically result from the structure of quantum corrections in the theory. We demonstrate that this radiative breaking mechanism works well for a heavy top quark and can be combined in unified versions of the theory with excellent predictions for the running couplings of the model. (To be published in ``Perspectives in Higgs Physics'', G. Kane editor.)

  18. Turbulence dissipation under breaking waves and bores in a natural surf zone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grasso, F.R.; Castelle, B.; Ruessink, B.G.

    2012-01-01

    Wave breaking is the primary driver of beach erosion, injecting breaking-induced turbulence at the sea surface and diffusing bed boundary layer turbulence at the sea bed. The limited understanding of the vertical turbulence structure under natural breaking waves, and hence sand entrainment, is one

  19. Effective potential and chiral symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hochberg, David

    2010-01-01

    The nonequilibrium effective potential is calculated for the Frank model of spontaneous mirror-symmetry breaking in chemistry in which external noise is introduced to account for random environmental effects. The well-mixed limit, corresponding to negligible diffusion, and the case of diffusion in two space dimensions are studied in detail. White noise has a disordering effect in the former case, whereas in the latter case a phase transition occurs for external noise exceeding a critical intensity which racemizes the system.

  20. Testing the limits of Paleozoic chronostratigraphic correlation via high-resolution (13Ccarb) biochemostratigraphy across the Llandovery–Wenlock (Silurian) boundary: Is a unified Phanerozoic time scale achievable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cramer, Bradley D.; Loydell, David K.; Samtleben, Christian; Munnecke, Axel; Kaljo, Dimitri; Mannik, Peep; Martma, Tonu; Jeppsson, Lennart; Kleffner, Mark A.; Barrick, James E.; Johnson, Craig A.; Emsbo, Poul; Joachimski, Michael M.; Bickert, Torsten; Saltzman, Matthew R.

    2010-01-01

    The resolution and fidelity of global chronostratigraphic correlation are direct functions of the time period under consideration. By virtue of deep-ocean cores and astrochronology, the Cenozoic and Mesozoic time scales carry error bars of a few thousand years (k.y.) to a few hundred k.y. In contrast, most of the Paleozoic time scale carries error bars of plus or minus a few million years (m.y.), and chronostratigraphic control better than ??1 m.y. is considered "high resolution." The general lack of Paleozoic abyssal sediments and paucity of orbitally tuned Paleozoic data series combined with the relative incompleteness of the Paleozoic stratigraphic record have proven historically to be such an obstacle to intercontinental chronostratigraphic correlation that resolving the Paleozoic time scale to the level achieved during the Mesozoic and Cenozoic was viewed as impractical, impossible, or both. Here, we utilize integrated graptolite, conodont, and carbonate carbon isotope (??13Ccarb) data from three paleocontinents (Baltica, Avalonia, and Laurentia) to demonstrate chronostratigraphic control for upper Llando very through middle Wenlock (Telychian-Sheinwoodian, ~436-426 Ma) strata with a resolution of a few hundred k.y. The interval surrounding the base of the Wenlock Series can now be correlated globally with precision approaching 100 k.y., but some intervals (e.g., uppermost Telychian and upper Shein-woodian) are either yet to be studied in sufficient detail or do not show sufficient biologic speciation and/or extinction or carbon isotopic features to delineate such small time slices. Although producing such resolution during the Paleozoic presents an array of challenges unique to the era, we have begun to demonstrate that erecting a Paleozoic time scale comparable to that of younger eras is achievable. ?? 2010 Geological Society of America.

  1. Numerical Simulation of a Seaway with Breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommermuth, Douglas; O'Shea, Thomas; Brucker, Kyle; Wyatt, Donald

    2012-11-01

    The focus of this presentation is to describe the recent efforts to simulate a fully non-linear seaway with breaking by using a high-order spectral (HOS) solution of the free-surface boundary value problem to drive a three-dimensional Volume of Fluid (VOF) solution. Historically, the two main types of simulations to simulate free-surface flows are the boundary integral equations method (BIEM) and high-order spectral (HOS) methods. BIEM calculations fail at the point at which the surface impacts upon itself, if not sooner, and HOS methods can only simulate a single valued free-surface. Both also employ a single-phase approximation in which the effects of the air on the water are neglected. Due to these limitations they are unable to simulate breaking waves and air entrainment. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) method on the other hand is suitable for modeling breaking waves and air entrainment. However it is computationally intractable to generate a realistic non-linear sea-state. Here, we use the HOS solution to quickly drive, or nudge, the VOF solution into a non-linear state. The computational strategies, mathematical formulation, and numerical implementation will be discussed. The results of the VOF simulation of a seaway with breaking will also be presented, and compared to the single phase, single valued HOS results.

  2. Classifying and assembling two-dimensional X-ray laser diffraction patterns of a single particle to reconstruct the three-dimensional diffraction intensity function: resolution limit due to the quantum noise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tokuhisa, Atsushi; Taka, Junichiro; Kono, Hidetoshi; Go, Nobuhiro

    2012-01-01

    A new algorithm is developed for reconstructing the high-resolution three-dimensional diffraction intensity function of a globular biological macromolecule from many quantum-noise-limited two-dimensional X-ray laser diffraction patterns, each for an unknown orientation. The structural resolution is expressed as a function of the incident X-ray intensity and quantities characterizing the target molecule. A new two-step algorithm is developed for reconstructing the three-dimensional diffraction intensity of a globular biological macromolecule from many experimentally measured quantum-noise-limited two-dimensional X-ray laser diffraction patterns, each for an unknown orientation. The first step is classification of the two-dimensional patterns into groups according to the similarity of direction of the incident X-rays with respect to the molecule and an averaging within each group to reduce the noise. The second step is detection of common intersecting circles between the signal-enhanced two-dimensional patterns to identify their mutual location in the three-dimensional wavenumber space. The newly developed algorithm enables one to detect a signal for classification in noisy experimental photon-count data with as low as ∼0.1 photons per effective pixel. The wavenumber of such a limiting pixel determines the attainable structural resolution. From this fact, the resolution limit due to the quantum noise attainable by this new method of analysis as well as two important experimental parameters, the number of two-dimensional patterns to be measured (the load for the detector) and the number of pairs of two-dimensional patterns to be analysed (the load for the computer), are derived as a function of the incident X-ray intensity and quantities characterizing the target molecule

  3. Nonlinear super-resolution nano-optics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Wei, Jingsong

    2015-01-01

    This book covers many advances in the subjects of nano-optics and nano photonics. The author describes the principle and technical schematics of common methods for breaking through the optical diffraction limit and focuses on realizing optical super-resolution with nonlinear effects of thin film materials. The applications of nonlinear optical super-resolution effects in nano-data storage, nanolithography, and nano-imaging are also presented. This book is useful to graduate students majoring in optics and nano science and also serves as a reference book for academic researchers, engineers, technical professionals in the fields of super-resolution optics and laser techniques, nano-optics and nano photonics, nano-data storage, nano imaging, micro/nanofabrication and nanolithography and nonlinear optics.

  4. R-parity breaking phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vissani, F.

    1996-02-01

    We review various features of the R-parity breaking phenomenology, with particular attention to the low energy observables, and to the patterns of the R-parity breaking interactions that arise in Grand Unified models. (author). 22 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  5. View of industry on the impact of pipe break criteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernsen, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Historically, large pipe breaks in the types of materials used and under operating conditions similar to those in light water reactor service have not occurred. Nevertheless, the non-mechanistic assumption of a double ended pipe break of the early sixties, selected for loss of coolant accident analysis purposes, has become a mechanistic criterion for the design and arrangement of high pressure piping systems and their associated supports and enclosures in today's nuclear plants. While it seems reasonable and appropriate to continue to design the Emergency Core Cooling Systems for a range of loss of coolant accidents up to and including those that approximate the area of the largest pipe connected to the reactor vessel and to use this break in determining the loading and temperature rise rate for containment structures and equipment qualification, it no longer seems reasonable to provide precisely engineered break protection for a limited number of potential pipe break locations. This observation is gaining increasing support, particularly as engineering judgment and historical perspectives are being supplemented by both deterministic and probabilistic studies that indicate the potential for large instantaneous breaks in nuclear grade piping systems is virtually incredible. Fracture mechanics analyses support leak-before-break assumptions with wide margins and probabilistic studies indicate potentials for double-ended pipe breaks in the range of less than one in a billion years

  6. Inflation from supersymmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Antoniadis, I. [UMR CNRS 7589 Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Paris 6, LPTHE, Paris (France); University of Bern, Albert Einstein Center, Institute for Theoretical Physics, Bern (Switzerland); Chatrabhuti, A.; Isono, H.; Knoops, R. [Chulalongkorn University, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Pathumwan, Bangkok (Thailand)

    2017-11-15

    We explore the possibility that inflation is driven by supersymmetry breaking with the superpartner of the goldstino (sgoldstino) playing the role of the inflaton. Moreover, we impose an R-symmetry that allows one to satisfy easily the slow-roll conditions, avoiding the so-called η-problem, and leads to two different classes of small-field inflation models; they are characterised by an inflationary plateau around the maximum of the scalar potential, where R-symmetry is either restored or spontaneously broken, with the inflaton rolling down to a minimum describing the present phase of our Universe. To avoid the Goldstone boson and be left with a single (real) scalar field (the inflaton), R-symmetry is gauged with the corresponding gauge boson becoming massive. This framework generalises a model studied recently by the present authors, with the inflaton identified by the string dilaton and R-symmetry together with supersymmetry restored at weak coupling, at infinity of the dilaton potential. The presence of the D-term allows a tuning of the vacuum energy at the minimum. The proposed models agree with cosmological observations and predict a tensor-to-scalar ratio of primordial perturbations 10{sup -9}

  7. Symmetry breaking by bifundamentals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schellekens, A. N.

    2018-03-01

    We derive all possible symmetry breaking patterns for all possible Higgs fields that can occur in intersecting brane models: bifundamentals and rank-2 tensors. This is a field-theoretic problem that was already partially solved in 1973 by Ling-Fong Li [1]. In that paper the solution was given for rank-2 tensors of orthogonal and unitary group, and U (N )×U (M ) and O (N )×O (M ) bifundamentals. We extend this first of all to symplectic groups. When formulated correctly, this turns out to be straightforward generalization of the previous results from real and complex numbers to quaternions. The extension to mixed bifundamentals is more challenging and interesting. The scalar potential has up to six real parameters. Its minima or saddle points are described by block-diagonal matrices built out of K blocks of size p ×q . Here p =q =1 for the solutions of Ling-Fong Li, and the number of possibilities for p ×q is equal to the number of real parameters in the potential, minus 1. The maximum block size is p ×q =2 ×4 . Different blocks cannot be combined, and the true minimum occurs for one choice of basic block, and for either K =1 or K maximal, depending on the parameter values.

  8. Symmetry and symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balian, R.; Lambert, D.; Brack, A.; Lachieze-Rey, M.; Emery, E.; Cohen-Tannoudji, G.; Sacquin, Y.

    1999-01-01

    The symmetry concept is a powerful tool for our understanding of the world. It allows a reduction of the volume of information needed to apprehend a subject thoroughly. Moreover this concept does not belong to a particular field, it is involved in the exact sciences but also in artistic matters. Living beings are characterized by a particular asymmetry: the chiral asymmetry. Although this asymmetry is visible in whole organisms, it seems it comes from some molecules that life always produce in one chirality. The weak interaction presents also the chiral asymmetry. The mass of particles comes from the breaking of a fundamental symmetry and the void could be defined as the medium showing as many symmetries as possible. The texts put together in this book show to a great extent how symmetry goes far beyond purely geometrical considerations. Different aspects of symmetry ideas are considered in the following fields: the states of matter, mathematics, biology, the laws of Nature, quantum physics, the universe, and the art of music. (A.C.)

  9. Electrical limitations to energy resolution in semiconductor particle detectors; Limitations electriques du pouvoir de resolution en energie des detecteurs a semi-conducteurs; Ehlektricheskie ogranicheniya razreshayushchej sposobnosti po ehnergii v poluprovodnikovykh detektorakh chastits; Limitaciones electricas en la resolucion energetica de detectores de particulas a base de semiconductores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, W L; Goulding, F S [Lawrence Radiation Laboratory, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1962-04-15

    Based on the assumption that the noise contribution of a semiconductor detector is due solely to its bulk properties, equations are presented which indicate the theoretical limits of noise in detectoramplifier combinations. These equations show that an optimum amplifier time-constant and detector bias voltage exist for which condition the minimum noise is independent of the semiconductor resistivity. The optimum performance of a detector-amplifier system is shown to depend only upon detector area, input capacity (less detector capacity), semiconductor minority carrier lifetime and the transconductance of the amplifier input tube. A new detector structure which includes a guard-ring electrode as an integral part of the detector structure is described which has the effect of largely eliminating noise due to surface leakage. Experimental results for detector leakage and energy resolution which agree well with theory are presented. The theoretical limit of noise, expressed as full width at half maximum, is from 7 to 10 keV for 1-cm{sup 2} p-type silicon detectors at 25{sup o}C. (author) [French] Partant de l'hypothese que le bruit imputable au detecteur a semi-conducteur est du exclusivement aux proprietes fondamentales du semi-conducteur, les auteurs etablissent des equations donnant les limites theoriques du bruit dans les combinaisons detecteur-amplificateur. Ces equations montrent qu'il existe une constante de temps optimum de l'amplificateur et une tension de polarisation du detecteur, pour lesquelles le bruit minimum est independant de la resistivite du semi-conducteur. Les auteurs prouvent que l'optimum de fonctionnement d'un ensemble detecteur-amplificateur ne depend que de la surface du detecteur, de la capacite a l'entree (deduction faite de la capacite du detecteur), du porteur minoritaire du semi-conducteur, de la duree de vie et de la transconductance du tube d'entree de l'amplificateur. Ils decrivent un modele nouveau de detecteur qui comprend une

  10. High resolution positron tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brownell, G.L.; Burnham, C.A.

    1982-01-01

    The limits of spatial resolution in practical positron tomography are examined. The four factors that limit spatial resolution are: positron range; small angle deviation; detector dimensions and properties; statistics. Of these factors, positron range may be considered the fundamental physical limitation since it is independent of instrument properties. The other factors are to a greater or lesser extent dependent on the design of the tomograph

  11. Analysis of chiral symmetry breaking mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, X. H.; Academia Sinica, Beijing; Huang, T.; CCAST

    1997-01-01

    The renormalization group invariant quark condensate μ is determined both from the consistent equation for quark condensate in the chiral limit and from the Schwinger-Dyson (SD) equation improved by the intermediate range QCD force singular like δ (q) which is associated with the gluon condensate. The solutions of μ in these two equations are consistent. The authors also obtain the critical strong coupling constant α c above which chiral symmetry breaks in these two approaches. The nonperturbative kernel of the SD equation makes α c smaller and μ bigger. An intuitive picture of the condensation above α c is discussed. In addition, with the help of the Slavnov-Taylor-Ward (STW) identity they derive the equations for the nonperturbative quark propagator from the SD equation in the presence of the intermediate range force and find that the intermediate-range force is also responsible for dynamical chiral symmetry breaking

  12. Framework for an asymptotically safe standard model via dynamical breaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abel, Steven; Sannino, Francesco

    2017-01-01

    We present a consistent embedding of the matter and gauge content of the Standard Model into an underlying asymptotically safe theory that has a well-determined interacting UV fixed point in the large color/flavor limit. The scales of symmetry breaking are determined by two mass-squared parameters...... with the breaking of electroweak symmetry being driven radiatively. There are no other free parameters in the theory apart from gauge couplings....

  13. Anomalous U(1) as a mediator of Supersymmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia; Dvali, Gia; Pomarol, Alex

    1996-01-01

    We point out that an anomalous gauge U(1) symmetry is a natural candida= te for being the mediator and messenger of supersymmetry breaking. It facilitate= s dynamical supersymmetry breaking even in the flat limit. Soft masses are induced by both gravity and the U(1) gauge interactions giving an unusual= mass hierarchy in the sparticle spectrum which suppresses flavor violations. T= his scenario does not suffer from the Polonyi problem.

  14. Supersymmetry breaking with extra dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwirner, Fabio

    2004-01-01

    This talk reviews some aspects of supersymmetry breaking in the presence of extra dimensions. The first part is a general introduction, recalling the motivations for supersymmetry and extra dimensions, as well as some unsolved problems of four-dimensional models of supersymmetry breaking. The central part is a more focused introduction to a mechanism for (super)symmetry breaking, proposed first by Scherk and Schwarz, where extra dimensions play a crucial role. The last part is devoted to the description of some recent results and of some open problems. (author)

  15. Intrinsic limits on resolutions in muon- and electron-neutrino charged-current events in the KM3NeT/ORCA detector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adrián-Martínez, S.; Ageron, M.; Aiello, S.; Albert, A.; Amélineau, F.; Anassontzis, E.G.; André, M.; Androulakis, G.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Avgitas, T.; Barbarino, G.; Barbarito, E.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Belias, A.; Berbee, E.; van den Berg, A.; Bertin, V.; Beurthey, S.; van Beveren, V.; Beverini, N.; Biagi, S.; Biagioni, A.; Billault, M.; Bondì, M.; Bormuth, R.; Bouhadef, B.; Bourlis, G.; Bourret, S.; Boutonnet, C.; Bouwhuis, M.; Bozza, C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Buis, E.; Buompane, R.; Busto, J.; Cacopardo, G.; Caillat, L.; Calamai, M.; Calvo, D.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Cecchini, S.; Celli, S.; Champion, C.; Cherubini, S.; Chiarella, V.; Chiarelli, L.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Classen, L.; Cobas, D.; Cocimano, R.; Coelho, J.A.B.; Coleiro, A.; Colonges, S.; Coniglione, R.; Cordelli, M.; Cosquer, A.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Cuttone, G.; D’Amato, C.; D’Amico, A.; D’Onofrio, A.; De Bonis, G.; De Sio, C.; Di Palma, I.; Díaz, A.F.; Distefano, C.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Dorosti-Hasankiadeh, Q.; Drakopoulou, E.; Drouhin, D.; Durocher, M.; Eberl, T.; Eichie, S.; van Eijk, D.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsaesser, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Favaro, M.; Fermani, P.; Ferrara, G.; Frascadore, G.; Furini, M.; Fusco, L.A.; Gal, T.; Galatà, S.; Garufi, F.; Gay, P.; Gebyehu, M.; Giacomini, F.; Gialanella, L.; Giordano, V.; Gizani, N.; Gracia, R.; Graf, K.; Grégoire, T.; Grella, G.; Grmek, A.; Guerzoni, M.; Habel, R.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Harissopulos, S.; Heid, T.; Heijboer, A.; Heine, E.; Henrys, S.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Hevinga, M.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.M.F.; Illuminati, G.; James, C.W.; Jansweijerf, P.; Jongen, M.; de Jong, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Kappes, A.; Katz, U.F.; Keller, P.; Kieft, G.; Kießling, D.; Koffeman, E.N.; Kooijman, P.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lahmann, R.; Lamare, P.; Larosa, G.; Leisos, A.; Leone, F.; Leonora, E.; Lindsey Clark, M.; Liolios, A.; Llorens Alvarez, C.D.; Lo Presti, D.; Löhner, H.; Lonardo, A.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Maccioni, E.; Mannheim, K.; Manzali, M.; Margiotta, A.; Margotti, A.; Marinelli, A.; Maris, O.; Markou, C.; Martínez-Mora, J.A.; Martini, A.; Marzaioli, F.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.W.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Migneco, E.; Mijakowski, P.; Miraglia, A.; Mollo, C.M.; Mongelli, M.; Morganti, M.; Moussa, A.; Musico, P.; Musumeci, M.; Navas, S.; Nicolau, C.A.; Olcina, I.; Olivetto, C.; Orlando, A.; Orzelli, A.; Pancaldi, G.; Papaikonomou, A.; Papaleo, R.; Pavalas, G.E.; Peek, H.; Pellegrini, G.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Pfutzner, M.; Piattelli, P.; Pikounis, K.; Pleinert, M.-O.; Poma, G.E.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Pratolongo, F.; Pühlhofer, G.; Pulvirenti, S.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Raffaelli, F.; Randazzo, N.; Rauch, T.; Real, D.; Resvanis, L.; Reubelt, J.; Riccobene, G.; Rossi, C.; Rovelli, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sánchez García, A.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Sanguineti, M.; Santangelo, A.; Santonocito, D.; Sapienza, P.; Schimmel, F.; Schmelling, J.; Schnabel, J.; Sciacca, V.; Sedita, M.; Seitz, T.; Sgura, I.; Simeone, F.; Sipala, V.; Spisso, B.; Spurio, M.; Stavropoulos, G.; Steijger, J.; Stellacci, S.M.; Stransky, D.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Terrasi, F.; Tézier, D.; Theraube, S.; Timmer, P.; Tönnis, C.; Trasatti, L.; Travaglini, R.; Trovato, A.; Tsirigotis, A.; Tzamarias, S.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Vermeulen, J.; Versari, F.; Vicini, P.; Viola, S.; Vivolo, D.; Volkert, M.; Wiggers, L.; Wilms, J.; de Wolf, E.; Zachariadou, K.; Zani, S.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2017-01-01

    Studying atmospheric neutrino oscillations in the few-GeV range with a multi-megaton detector promises to determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. This is the main science goal pursued by the future KM3NeT/ORCA water Cherenkov detector in the Mediterranean Sea. In this paper, the processes that limit

  16. Stochastic mechanism of symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baseyan, H.Z.

    1983-01-01

    A new symmetry breaking mechanism conditioned by presence of random fields in vacuum is proposed. Massive Yang-Mills fields finally arise, that may be interpreted as ''macroscopic'' manifestation of the ''microscopic'' Yang-Mills massless theory

  17. Breaking the Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stylianides, Andreas J.

    2009-01-01

    A proof's potential to promote understanding and conviction is one of the main reasons for which proof is so important for students' learning of mathematics. Unless students realise the limitations of empirical arguments as methods for validating mathematical generalisations, they are unlikely to appreciate the importance of proof in mathematics.…

  18. Rapid Linguistic Ambiguity Resolution in Young Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Eye Tracking Evidence for the Limits of Weak Central Coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Noemi; Snedeker, Jesse; Rabagliati, Hugh

    2015-12-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have often been reported to have difficulty integrating information into its broader context, which has motivated the Weak Central Coherence theory of ASD. In the linguistic domain, evidence for this difficulty comes from reports of impaired use of linguistic context to resolve ambiguous words. However, recent work has suggested that impaired use of linguistic context may not be characteristic of ASD, and is instead better explained by co-occurring language impairments. Here, we provide a strong test of these claims, using the visual world eye tracking paradigm to examine the online mechanisms by which children with autism resolve linguistic ambiguity. To address concerns about both language impairments and compensatory strategies, we used a sample whose verbal skills were strong and whose average age (7; 6) was lower than previous work on lexical ambiguity resolution in ASD. Participants (40 with autism and 40 controls) heard sentences with ambiguous words in contexts that either strongly supported one reading or were consistent with both (John fed/saw the bat). We measured activation of the unintended meaning through implicit semantic priming of an associate (looks to a depicted baseball glove). Contrary to the predictions of weak central coherence, children with ASD, like controls, quickly used context to resolve ambiguity, selecting appropriate meanings within a second. We discuss how these results constrain the generality of weak central coherence. © 2015 International Society for Autism Research, Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Dynamic breaking of a single gold bond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pobelov, Ilya V.; Lauritzen, Kasper Primdal; Yoshida, Koji

    2017-01-01

    While one might assume that the force to break a chemical bond gives a measure of the bond strength, this intuition is misleading. If the force is loaded slowly, thermal fluctuations may break the bond before it is maximally stretched, and the breaking force will be less than the bond can sustain...... of a single Au-Au bond and show that the breaking force is dependent on the loading rate. We probe the temperature and structural dependencies of breaking and suggest that the paradox can be explained by fast breaking of atomic wires and slow breaking of point contacts giving very similar breaking forces....

  20. Classifying and assembling two-dimensional X-ray laser diffraction patterns of a single particle to reconstruct the three-dimensional diffraction intensity function: resolution limit due to the quantum noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokuhisa, Atsushi; Taka, Junichiro; Kono, Hidetoshi; Go, Nobuhiro

    2012-05-01

    A new two-step algorithm is developed for reconstructing the three-dimensional diffraction intensity of a globular biological macromolecule from many experimentally measured quantum-noise-limited two-dimensional X-ray laser diffraction patterns, each for an unknown orientation. The first step is classification of the two-dimensional patterns into groups according to the similarity of direction of the incident X-rays with respect to the molecule and an averaging within each group to reduce the noise. The second step is detection of common intersecting circles between the signal-enhanced two-dimensional patterns to identify their mutual location in the three-dimensional wavenumber space. The newly developed algorithm enables one to detect a signal for classification in noisy experimental photon-count data with as low as ~0.1 photons per effective pixel. The wavenumber of such a limiting pixel determines the attainable structural resolution. From this fact, the resolution limit due to the quantum noise attainable by this new method of analysis as well as two important experimental parameters, the number of two-dimensional patterns to be measured (the load for the detector) and the number of pairs of two-dimensional patterns to be analysed (the load for the computer), are derived as a function of the incident X-ray intensity and quantities characterizing the target molecule. © 2012 International Union of Crystallography

  1. The Beam Break-Up Numerical Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travish, G.A.

    1989-11-01

    Beam Break-Up (BBU) is a severe constraint in accelerator design, limiting beam current and quality. The control of BBU has become the focus of much research in the design of the next generation collider, recirculating and linear induction accelerators and advanced accelerators. Determining the effect on BBU of modifications to cavities, the focusing elements or the beam is frequently beyond the ability of current analytic models. A computer code was written to address this problem. The Beam Break-Up Numerical Simulator (BBUNS) was designed to numerically solve for beam break-up (BBU) due to an arbitrary transverse wakefield. BBUNS was developed to be as user friendly as possible on the Cray computer series. The user is able to control all aspects of input and output by using a single command file. In addition, the wakefield is specified by the user and read in as a table. The program can model energy variations along and within the beam, focusing magnetic field profiles can be specified, and the graphical output can be tailored. In this note we discuss BBUNS, its structure and application. Included are detailed instructions, examples and a sample session of BBUNS. This program is available for distribution. 50 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs

  2. High-resolution magneto stratigraphic of the Eocene-Oligocene boundary in the Umbria-Marche sequence; Stratigrafia magnetica ad alta risoluzione del limite Eocene-Oligocene nella successione Umbro-Marchigiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanci, L.; Lowrie, W.; Montanari, A.

    1998-12-31

    High-resolution magneto stratigraphy across the Eocene-Olicene boundary has been employed in a detailed investigation of the nature of low-amplitude, short-wavelength oceanic magnetic anomalies. [Italiano] La stratigrafia magnetica ad alta risoluzione del limite Eocene-Oligocene ed il magnetismo delle rocce sono stati studiati in dettaglio per verificare la presenza di eventuali inversioni di polarita` brevi (short chrons) e variazioni delle intensita` del campo geomagnetico che possano essere messe in relazione con le anomalie oceaniche a bassa ampiezza e corto periodo.

  3. Toughening elastomers with sacrificial bonds and watching them break.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducrot, Etienne; Chen, Yulan; Bulters, Markus; Sijbesma, Rint P; Creton, Costantino

    2014-04-11

    Elastomers are widely used because of their large-strain reversible deformability. Most unfilled elastomers suffer from a poor mechanical strength, which limits their use. Using sacrificial bonds, we show how brittle, unfilled elastomers can be strongly reinforced in stiffness and toughness (up to 4 megapascals and 9 kilojoules per square meter) by introducing a variable proportion of isotropically prestretched chains that can break and dissipate energy before the material fails. Chemoluminescent cross-linking molecules, which emit light as they break, map in real time where and when many of these internal bonds break ahead of a propagating crack. The simple methodology that we use to introduce sacrificial bonds, combined with the mapping of where bonds break, has the potential to stimulate the development of new classes of unfilled tough elastomers and better molecular models of the fracture of soft materials.

  4. Nearshore bars and the break-point hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallenger, A.H.; Howd, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    The set of hypotheses calling for bar formation at the break point was tested with field data. During two different experiments, waves were measured across the surf zone coincident with the development of a nearshore bar. We use a criterion, based on the wave height to depth ratio, to determine the offshore limit of the inner surf zone. During the first experiment, the bar became better developed and migrated offshore while remaining well within the inner surf zone. During the second experiment, the surf zone was narrower and we cannot rule out the possibility of break point processes contributing to bar development. We conclude that bars are not necessarily coupled with the break point and can become better developed and migrate offshore while being in the inner surf zone landward from initial wave breaking in the outer surf zone. ?? 1989.

  5. Experimental evaluation of rigor mortis IX. The influence of the breaking (mechanical solution) on the development of rigor mortis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krompecher, Thomas; Gilles, André; Brandt-Casadevall, Conception; Mangin, Patrice

    2008-04-07

    Objective measurements were carried out to study the possible re-establishment of rigor mortis on rats after "breaking" (mechanical solution). Our experiments showed that: *Cadaveric rigidity can re-establish after breaking. *A significant rigidity can reappear if the breaking occurs before the process is complete. *Rigidity will be considerably weaker after the breaking. *The time course of the intensity does not change in comparison to the controls: --the re-establishment begins immediately after the breaking; --maximal values are reached at the same time as in the controls; --the course of the resolution is the same as in the controls.

  6. Simulation of breaking waves using the high-order spectral method with laboratory experiments: Wave-breaking onset

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffert, Betsy R.; Ducrozet, Guillaume; Bonnefoy, Félicien

    2017-11-01

    waves provides a wide range of breaking-wave strengths, types and scales for validation of the model. A comparison of calculations made using HOS-NWT with experimental measurements show that the model is successful at predicting the occurrence of wave breaking, as well as accurately calculating breaking onset time and location. Although the current study is limited to a unidirectional wave field, the success of the wave-breaking model presented provides the basis for application of the model in a multidirectional wave field. By including wave breaking onset with the addition of an appropriate energy dissipation model into HOS-NWT, we can increase the application range of the model, as well as decrease the occurrence of numerical instabilities that are associated with breaking waves in a potential flow solver. An accurate description of the wave field is useful for predicting the dynamic response of offshore vessels and marine renewable energy devices, predicting loads on marine structures and the general physics of ocean waves, for example.

  7. Parasites as Biological Tags for Stock Discrimination of Beaked Redfish (Sebastes mentella: Parasite Infra-Communities vs. Limited Resolution of Cytochrome Markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Klapper

    Full Text Available The use of parasites as biological tags for discrimination of fish stocks has become a commonly used approach in fisheries management. Metazoan parasite community analysis and anisakid nematode population genetics based on a mitochondrial cytochrome marker were applied in order to assess the usefulness of the two parasitological methods for stock discrimination of beaked redfish Sebastes mentella of three fishing grounds in the North East Atlantic. Multivariate, model-based approaches demonstrated that the metazoan parasite fauna of beaked redfish from East Greenland differed from Tampen, northern North Sea, and Bear Island, Barents Sea. A joint model (latent variable model was used to estimate the effects of covariates on parasite species and identified four parasite species as main source of differences among fishing grounds; namely Chondracanthus nodosus, Anisakis simplex s.s., Hysterothylacium aduncum, and Bothriocephalus scorpii. Due to its high abundance and differences between fishing grounds, Anisakis simplex s.s. was considered as a major biological tag for host stock differentiation. Whilst the sole examination of Anisakis simplex s.s. on a population genetic level is only of limited use, anisakid nematodes (in particular, A. simplex s.s. can serve as biological tags on a parasite community level. This study confirmed the use of multivariate analyses as a tool to evaluate parasite infra-communities and to identify parasite species that might serve as biological tags. The present study suggests that S. mentella in the northern North Sea and Barents Sea is not sub-structured.

  8. Three-dimensional super-resolution imaging for fluorescence emission difference microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, Shangting; Kuang, Cuifang, E-mail: cfkuang@zju.edu.cn; Li, Shuai; Liu, Xu; Ding, Zhihua [State key laboratory of modern optical instrumentations, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2015-08-15

    We propose a method theoretically to break the diffraction limit and to improve the resolution in all three dimensions for fluorescence emission difference microscopy. We produce two kinds of hollow focal spot by phase modulation. By incoherent superposition, these two kinds of focal spot yield a 3D hollow focal spot. The optimal proportion of these two kinds of spot is given in the paper. By employing 3D hollow focal spot, super-resolution image can be yielded by means of fluorescence emission difference microscopy, with resolution enhanced both laterally and axially. According to computation result, size of point spread function of three-dimensional super-resolution imaging is reduced by about 40% in all three spatial directions with respect to confocal imaging.

  9. Heavy ion-induced lesions in DNA: A theoretical model for the initial induction of DNA strand breaks and chromatin breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, J.B.

    1993-01-01

    A theoretical model has been developed and used to calculate yields and spatial distributions of DNA strand breaks resulting from the interactions of heavy ions with chromatin in aqueous systems. The three dimensional spatial distribution of ionizing events has been modeled for charged particles as a function of charge and velocity. Chromatin has been modeled as a 30 nm diameter solenoid of nucleosomal DNA. The Monte Carlo methods used by Chatterjee et al. have been applied to DNA in a chromatin conformation. Refinements to their methods include: a combined treatment of primary and low energy (<2 keV) secondary electron interactions, an improved low energy delta ray model, and the combined simulation of direct energy deposition on the DNA and attack by diffusing hydroxyl radicals. Individual particle tracks are treated independently, which is assumed to be applicable to low fluence irradiations in which multiple particle effects are negligible. Single strand break cross section open-quotes hooksclose quotes seen in experiments at very high LET appear to be due to the collapsing radial extent of the track, as predicted in the open-quotes deep sieveclose quotes hypothesis proposed by Tobias et al. Spatial distributions of lesions produced by particles have been found to depend on chromatin structure. In the future, heavy ions may be used as a tool to probe the organization of DNA in chromatin. A Neyman A-binomial variation of the open-quotes cluster modelclose quotes for the distribution of chromatin breaks per irradiated cell has been theoretically tested. The model includes a treatment of the chromatin fragment detection technique's resolution, which places a limitation on the minimum size of fragments which can be detected. The model appears to fit some of the experimental data reasonably well. However, further experimental and theoretical refinements are desirable

  10. Quark diquark symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Souza, M.M. de

    1980-01-01

    Assuming the baryons are made of quark-diquark pairs, the wave functions for the 126 allowed ground states are written. The quark creation and annihilations operators are generalized to describe the quark-diquark structure in terms of a parameter σ. Assuming that all quark-quark interactions are mediated by gluons transforming like an octet of vector mesons, the effective Hamiltonian and the baryon masses as constraint equations for the elements of the mass matrix is written. The symmetry is the SU(6) sub(quark)x SU(21) sub(diquark) broken by quark-quark interactions respectively invariant under U(6), U(2) sub(spin), U(3) and also interactions transforming like the eighth and the third components of SU(3). In the limit of no quark-diquark structure (σ = 0), the ground state masses is titted to within 1% of the experimental data, except for the Δ(1232), where the error is almost 2%. Expanding the decuplet mass equations in terms of σ and keeping terms only up to the second order, this error is reduced to 67%. (Author) [pt

  11. String breaking with Wilson loops?

    CERN Document Server

    Kratochvila, S; Kratochvila, Slavo; Forcrand, Philippe de

    2003-01-01

    A convincing, uncontroversial observation of string breaking, when the static potential is extracted from Wilson loops only, is still missing. This failure can be understood if the overlap of the Wilson loop with the broken string is exponentially small. In that case, the broken string ground state will only be seen if the Wilson loop is long enough. Our preliminary results show string breaking in the context of the 3d SU(2) adjoint static potential, using the L\\"uscher-Weisz exponential variance reduction approach. As a by-product, we measure the fundamental SU(2) static potential with improved accuracy and see clear deviations from Casimir scaling.

  12. 78 FR 76757 - Regulatory Guidance on Hours of Service of Drivers Rest Break Requirement; Drivers Who Become...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-19

    ... limitations for unforeseen reasons, is the driver in violation of the Sec. 395.3 rest break provision if more... unforeseen reasons, is not in violation of the Sec. 395.3 rest-break requirements if 8 or more hours have... Regulatory Guidance on Hours of Service of Drivers Rest Break Requirement; Drivers Who Become Ineligible for...

  13. Simulation of breaking waves using the high-order spectral method with laboratory experiments: wave-breaking energy dissipation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seiffert, Betsy R.; Ducrozet, Guillaume

    2018-01-01

    successfully for a wide range of breaking conditions. The model is also able to successfully calculate the transfer of energy between frequencies due to wave focusing and wave breaking. This study is limited to unidirectional waves but provides a valuable basis for future application of the wave-breaking model to a multidirectional wave field. By including parameters for removing energy due to wave-breaking into a nonlinear potential flow solver, the risk of developing numerical instabilities due to an overturning wave is decreased, thereby increasing the application range of the model, including calculating more extreme sea states. A computationally efficient and accurate model for the generation of a nonlinear random wave field is useful for predicting the dynamic response of offshore vessels and marine renewable energy devices, predicting loads on marine structures, and in the study of open ocean wave generation and propagation in a realistic environment.

  14. Flavor symmetry breaking and meson masses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhagwat, Mandar S.; Roberts, Craig D.; Chang Lei; Liu Yuxin; Tandy, Peter C.

    2007-01-01

    The axial-vector Ward-Takahashi identity is used to derive mass formulas for neutral pseudoscalar mesons. Flavor symmetry breaking entails nonideal flavor content for these states. Adding that the η ' is not a Goldstone mode, exact chiral-limit relations are developed from the identity. They connect the dressed-quark propagator to the topological susceptibility. It is confirmed that in the chiral limit the η ' mass is proportional to the matrix element which connects this state to the vacuum via the topological susceptibility. The implications of the mass formulas are illustrated using an elementary dynamical model, which includes an Ansatz for that part of the Bethe-Salpeter kernel related to the non-Abelian anomaly. In addition to the current-quark masses, the model involves two parameters, one of which is a mass-scale. It is employed in an analysis of pseudoscalar- and vector-meson bound-states. While the effects of SU(N f =2) and SU(N f =3) flavor symmetry breaking are emphasized, the five-flavor spectra are described. Despite its simplicity, the model is elucidative and phenomenologically efficacious; e.g., it predicts η-η ' mixing angles of ∼-15 deg. and π 0 -η angles of ∼1 deg

  15. Code breaking in the pacific

    CERN Document Server

    Donovan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Covers the historical context and the evolution of the technically complex Allied Signals Intelligence (Sigint) activity against Japan from 1920 to 1945 Describes, explains and analyzes the code breaking techniques developed during the war in the Pacific Exposes the blunders (in code construction and use) made by the Japanese Navy that led to significant US Naval victories

  16. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barklow, T.L.; Burdman, G.; Chivukula, R.S.

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models

  17. Appointment breaking: causes and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, A G; Talaga, J

    1992-12-01

    From a review of research on health care appointment breaking, the authors find that patient demographic characteristics, psychosocial problems, previous appointment keeping, health beliefs, and situational factors predict no-show behavior. Suggestions are offered for designing the marketing mix to increase patient appointment keeping. Methods for mitigating the negative effects of no-shows on health care providers are described.

  18. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barklow, T.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burdman, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Chivukula, R.S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.

  19. Oil prices: Breaks and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguera, José

    2013-01-01

    This paper contributes to the literature of the stationarity of financial time series and the literature on oil and macroeconomics in several ways. First, it uses Kejriwal and Perron (2010) sequential procedure to endogenously determine multiple structural changes in real oil prices without facing the circular testing problem between structural changes and stationary assumptions of previous tests. Second, it performs a diagnostic check to detect the significance and magnitude of the potential breaks. Third, it uses the above information to test for the existence of stochastic trends in real oil prices, and fourth, it speculates about possible explanations for the break dates found in order to encourage further work and discussions. The exercise uses monthly data from January 1861 to August 2011. - Highlights: ► The model endogenously determine multiple structural changes in real oil prices. ► The methods used does not face the circular testing problem. ► It also detect the significance and magnitude of the breaks detected. ► It tests for the existence of stochastic trends. ► It explains the reasons for the break dates found

  20. Instantons and chiral symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carneiro, C.E.I.; McDougall, N.A.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed investigation of chiral symmetry breaking due to instanton dynamics is carried out, within the framework of the dilute gas approximation, for quarks in both the fundamental and adjoint representations of SU(2). The momentum dependence of the dynamical mass is found to be very similar in each representation. (orig.)

  1. Instantons and chiral symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carneiro, C.E.I.; McDougall, N.A. (Oxford Univ. (UK). Dept. of Theoretical Physics)

    1984-10-22

    A detailed investigation of chiral symmetry breaking due to instanton dynamics is carried out, within the framework of the dilute gas approximation, for quarks in both the fundamental and adjoint representations of SU(2). The momentum dependence of the dynamical mass is found to be very similar in each representation.

  2. Inflationary implications of supersymmetry breaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghese, Andrea; Roest, Diederik; Zavala, Ivonne

    2013-01-01

    We discuss a general bound on the possibility to realise inflation in any minimal supergravity with F-terms. The derivation crucially depends on the sGoldstini, the scalar field directions that are singled out by spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. The resulting bound involves both slow-roll

  3. Aluminum break-point contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinemann, Martina; Groot, R.A. de

    1997-01-01

    Ab initio molecular dynamics is used to study the contribution of a single Al atom to an aluminum breakpoint contact during the final stages of breaking and the initial stages of the formation of such a contact. A hysteresis effect is found in excellent agreement with experiment and the form of the

  4. Breaking Carbon Lock-in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Driscoll, Patrick Arthur

    2014-01-01

    This central focus of this paper is to highlight the ways in which path dependencies and increasing returns (network effects) serve to reinforce carbon lock-in in large-scale road transportation infrastructure projects. Breaking carbon lock-in requires drastic changes in the way we plan future...

  5. Breaking Waves on the Ocean Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwendeman, Michael S.

    equilibrium range waves and normalizing by the wave directional spread. Meanwhile, correlation of W with turbulent dissipation measurements is significantly worse, which may be due to uncertainty in the measurements or bias related to micro-breaking waves. Finally, phase-resolved, three-dimensional, measurements of the whitecaps were made from a new ship-based stereo video system. Comparison with concurrent buoy measurements indicate that the stereo data accurately reproduces the wave statistics, including the frequency spectra. The whitecaps are characterized by transient and spatially localized regions of extreme surface gradients, rather than large crest-to-trough steepnesses. It was found that whitecaps were around 10 times more likely to have extreme slopes, and 50% of the observed extreme surface slopes were in the vicinity of the breaking waves. The maximum whitecap slopes show good agreement with the Stokes 120 degree limiting crest geometry, and the whitecap crest loses much of its maximum steepness shortly after the onset of breaking. The whitecap phase speeds are consistently less than the linear or weakly nonlinear predicted phase speed, which indicate the effect of narrow-band wave groups, despite the broad-band wave spectra.

  6. Parental Break-Ups and Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing, Agnete S.; Dich, Nadya; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie

    2017-01-01

    Background: Parental break-up is wide spread, and the effects of parental break-up on children’s well-being are known. The evidence regarding child age at break-up and subsequent family arrangements is inconclusive. Aim: to estimate the effects of parental break-up on stress in pre-adolescent chi......Background: Parental break-up is wide spread, and the effects of parental break-up on children’s well-being are known. The evidence regarding child age at break-up and subsequent family arrangements is inconclusive. Aim: to estimate the effects of parental break-up on stress in pre......-adolescent children with a specific focus on age at break-up and post-breakup family arrangements. Methods: We used data from the Danish National Birth Cohort. Participants included 44 509 children followed from birth to age 11. Stress was self-reported by children at age 11, when the children also reported...... on parental break-up and post break-up family arrangements. Results: Twenty-one percent of the children had experienced a parental break-up at age 11, and those who had experienced parental break-up showed a higher risk of stress (OR:1.72, 95%CI:1.55;1.91) regardless of the child’s age at break-up. Children...

  7. Explicit Supersymmetry Breaking on Boundaries of Warped Extra Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hall, Lawrence J.; Nomura, Yasunori; Okui, Takemichi; Oliver, Steven J.

    2003-02-25

    Explicit supersymmetry breaking is studied in higher dimensional theories by having boundaries respect only a subgroup of the bulk symmetry. If the boundary symmetry is the maximal subgroup allowed by the boundary conditions imposed on the fields, then the symmetry can be consistently gauged; otherwise gauging leads to an inconsistent theory. In a warped fifth dimension, an explicit breaking of all bulk supersymmetries by the boundaries is found to be inconsistent with gauging; unlike the case of flat 5D, complete supersymmetry breaking by boundary conditions is not consistent with supergravity. Despite this result, the low energy effective theory resulting from boundary supersymmetry breaking becomes consistent in the limit where gravity decouples, and such models are explored in the hope that some way of successfully incorporating gravity can be found. A warped constrained standard model leads to a theory with one Higgs boson with mass expected close to the experimental limit. A unified theory in a warped fifth dimension is studied with boundary breaking of both SU(5) gauge symmetry and supersymmetry. The usual supersymmetric predictionfor gauge coupling unification holds even though the TeV spectrum is quite unlike the MSSM. Such a theory may unify matter and Higgs in the same SU(5) hypermultiplet.

  8. Improving long term driving comfort by taking breaks - how break activity affects effectiveness

    OpenAIRE

    Sammonds, GM; Mansfield, NJ; Fray, M

    2017-01-01

    During long duration journeys, drivers are encouraged to take regular breaks. The benefits of breaks have been documented for safety; breaks may also be beneficial for comfort. The activity undertaken during a break may influence its effectiveness. Volunteers completed 3 journeys on a driving simulator. Each 130 min journey included a 10 min break after the first hour. During the break volunteers either stayed seated, left the simulator and sat in an adjacent room, or took a walk on a treadmi...

  9. A model of intrinsic symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ge, Li; Li, Sheng; George, Thomas F.; Sun, Xin

    2013-01-01

    Different from the symmetry breaking associated with a phase transition, which occurs when the controlling parameter is manipulated across a critical point, the symmetry breaking presented in this Letter does not need parameter manipulation. Instead, the system itself suddenly undergoes symmetry breaking at a certain time during its evolution, which is intrinsic symmetry breaking. Through a polymer model, it is revealed that the origin of the intrinsic symmetry breaking is nonlinearity, which produces instability at the instance when the evolution crosses an inflexion point, where this instability breaks the original symmetry

  10. Intrinsic spatial resolution limitations due to differences between positron emission position and annihilation detection localization; Limitacoes da resolucao espacial intrinseca devido as diferencas entre a posicao da emissao do positron e a deteccao da localizacao de aniquilacao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez, Pedro; Malano, Francisco; Valente, Mauro, E-mail: valente@famaf.unc.edu.ar [Universidad Nacional de Cordoba, Cordoba (Argentina). Fac. de Matematica, Astronomia y Fisica (FaMAF)

    2012-07-01

    Since its successful implementation for clinical diagnostic, positron emission tomography (PET) represents the most promising medical imaging technique. The recent major growth of PET imaging is mainly due to its ability to trace the biologic pathways of different compounds in the patient's body, assuming the patient can be labeled with some PET isotope. Regardless of the type of isotope, the PET imaging method is based on the detection of two 511-keV gamma photons being emitted in opposite directions, with almost 180 deg between them, as a consequence of electron-positron annihilation. Therefore, this imaging method is intrinsically limited by random uncertainties in spatial resolutions, related with differences between the actual position of positron emission and the location of the detected annihilation. This study presents an approach with the Monte Carlo method to analyze the influence of this effect on different isotopes of potential implementation in PET. (author)

  11. TH-AB-209-03: Overcoming Resolution Limitations of Diffuse Optical Signals in X-Ray Induced Luminescence (XIL) Imaging Via Selective Plane Illumination and 2D Deconvolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quigley, B; Smith, C; La Riviere, P [Department of Radiology, University of Chicago, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the resolution and sensitivity of XIL imaging using a surface radiance simulation based on optical diffusion and maximum likelihood expectation maximization (MLEM) image reconstruction. XIL imaging seeks to determine the distribution of luminescent nanophosphors, which could be used as nanodosimeters or radiosensitizers. Methods: The XIL simulation generated a homogeneous slab with optical properties similar to tissue. X-ray activated nanophosphors were placed at 1.0 cm depth in the tissue in concentrations of 10{sup −4} g/mL in two volumes of 10 mm{sup 3} with varying separations between each other. An analytical optical diffusion model determined the surface radiance from the photon distributions generated at depth in the tissue by the nanophosphors. The simulation then determined the detected luminescent signal collected with a f/1.0 aperture lens and back-illuminated EMCCD camera. The surface radiance was deconvolved using a MLEM algorithm to estimate the nanophosphors distribution and the resolution. To account for both Poisson and Gaussian noise, a shifted Poisson imaging model was used in the deconvolution. The deconvolved distributions were fitted to a Gaussian after radial averaging to measure the full width at half maximum (FWHM) and the peak to peak distance between distributions was measured to determine the resolving power. Results: Simulated surface radiances for doses from 1mGy to 100 cGy were computed. Each image was deconvolved using 1000 iterations. At 1mGy, deconvolution reduced the FWHM of the nanophosphors distribution by 65% and had a resolving power is 3.84 mm. Decreasing the dose from 100 cGy to 1 mGy increased the FWHM by 22% but allowed for a dose reduction of a factor of 1000. Conclusion: Deconvolving the detected surface radiance allows for dose reduction while maintaining the resolution of the nanophosphors. It proves to be a useful technique in overcoming the resolution limitations of diffuse optical imaging in

  12. Physics of chiral symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shuryak, E.V.

    1991-01-01

    This subsection of the 'Modeling QCD' Workshop has included five talks. E. Shuryak spoke on 'Recent Progress in Understanding Chiral Symmetry Breaking'; below it is split into two parts: (i) a mini-review of the field and (ii) a brief presentation of the status of the theory of interacting instantons. The next sections correspond to the following talks: (iii) K. Goeke et al., 'Chiral Restoration and Medium Corrections to Nucleon in the NJL Model'; (iv) M. Takizawa and K. Kubodera, 'Study of Meson Properties and Quark Condensates in the NJL Model with Instanton Effects'; (v) G. Klein and A. G. Williams, 'Dynamical Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Dual QCD'; and (vi) R. D. Ball, 'Skyrmions and Baryons.' (orig.)

  13. Supersymmetry breaking by gaugino condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casas, J.A.

    1991-01-01

    We briefly review the status and some of the recent work on supersymmetry breaking by gaugino condensation effects in the context of superstring theories. This issue is intimately related to the structure of the effective potential coming from superstrings. Minimization of this not only allows to find the scale of supersymmetry breaking, but also to determine dynamically other fundamental parameters of the theory, in particular the gauge coupling constant at the unification point and the expectation values of the moduli which give the size and shape of the compactified space. In a multiple condensate scenario these get reasonable values which may, in turn, lead to a determination of the family mass hierarchy. Some directions for future work are examined too. (author). 23 refs

  14. Post accidental small breaks analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depond, G.; Gandrille, J.

    1980-04-01

    EDF ordered to FRAMATOME by 1977 to complete post accidental long term studies on 'First Contrat-Programme' reactors, in order to demonstrate the safety criteria long term compliance, to get information on NSSS behaviour and to improve the post accidental procedures. Convenient analytical models were needed and EDF and FRAMATOME respectively developped the AXEL and FRARELAP codes. The main results of these studies is that for the smallest breaks, it is possible to manually undertake cooling and pressure reducing actions by dumping the steam generators secondary side in order to meet the RHR operating specifications and perform long term cooling through this system. A specific small breaks procedure was written on this basis. The EDF and FRAMATOME codes are continuously improved; the results of a French set of separate effects experiments will be incorporated as well as integral system verification

  15. Prophylactic treatment of retinal breaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blindbæk, Søren Leer; Grauslund, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    Prophylactic treatment of retinal breaks has been examined in several studies and reviews, but so far, no studies have successfully applied a systematic approach. In the present systematic review, we examined the need of follow-up after posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) - diagnosed by slit...... published before 2012. Four levels of screening identified 13 studies suitable for inclusion in this systematic review. No meta-analysis was conducted as no data suitable for statistical analysis were identified. In total, the initial examination after symptomatic PVD identified 85-95% of subsequent retinal......-47% of cases, respectively. The cumulated incidence of RRD despite prophylactic treatment was 2.1-8.8%. The findings in this review suggest that follow-up after symptomatic PVD is only necessary in cases of incomplete retinal examination at presentation. Prophylactic treatment of symptomatic retinal breaks...

  16. Breaking through the tranfer tunnel

    CERN Document Server

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    This image shows the tunnel boring machine breaking through the transfer tunnel into the LHC tunnel. Proton beams will be transferred from the SPS pre-accelerator to the LHC at 450 GeV through two specially constructed transfer tunnels. From left to right: LHC Project Director, Lyn Evans; CERN Director-General (at the time), Luciano Maiani, and Director for Accelerators, Kurt Hubner.

  17. Models of electroweak symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Pomarol, Alex

    2015-01-01

    This chapter present models of electroweak symmetry breaking arising from strongly interacting sectors, including both Higgsless models and mechanisms involving a composite Higgs. These scenarios have also been investigated in the framework of five-dimensional warped models that, according to the AdS/CFT correspondence, have a four-dimensional holographic interpretation in terms of strongly coupled field theories. We explore the implications of these models at the LHC.

  18. Anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking in four dimensions, naturally

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luty, Markus A.; Sundrum, Raman

    2003-01-01

    We present a simple four-dimensional model in which anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking naturally dominates. The central ingredient is that the hidden sector is near a strongly coupled infrared fixed point for several decades of energy below the Planck scale. Strong renormalization effects then sequester the hidden sector from the visible sector. Supersymmetry is broken dynamically and requires no small input parameters. The model provides a natural and economical explanation of the hierarchy between the supersymmetry-breaking scale and the Planck scale, while allowing anomaly mediation to address the phenomenological challenges posed by weak scale supersymmetry. In particular, flavor-changing neutral currents are naturally near their experimental limits

  19. Supersymmetry breaking at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kratzert, K.

    2002-11-01

    The mechanism of supersymmetry breaking at finite temperature is still only partly understood. Though it has been proven that temperature always breaks supersymmetry, the spontaneous nature of this breaking remains unclear, in particular the role of the Goldstone fermion. The aim of this work is to unify two existing approaches to the subject. From a hydrodynamic point of view, it has been argued under very general assumptions that in any supersymmetric quantum field theory at finite temperature there should exist a massless fermionic collective excitation, named phonino because of the analogy to the phonon. In the framework of a self-consistent resummed perturbation theory, it is shown for the example of the Wess-Zumino model that this mode fits very well into the quantum field theoretical framework pursued by earlier works. Interpreted as a bound state of boson and fermion, it contributes to the supersymmetric Ward-Takahashi identities in a way showing that supersymmetry is indeed broken spontaneously with the phonino playing the role of the Goldstone fermion. The second part of the work addresses the case of supersymmetric quantum electrodynamics. It is shown that also here the phonino exists and must be interpreted as the Goldstone mode. This knowledge allows a generalization to a wider class of models. (orig.)

  20. High resolution solar observations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Title, A.

    1985-01-01

    Currently there is a world-wide effort to develop optical technology required for large diffraction limited telescopes that must operate with high optical fluxes. These developments can be used to significantly improve high resolution solar telescopes both on the ground and in space. When looking at the problem of high resolution observations it is essential to keep in mind that a diffraction limited telescope is an interferometer. Even a 30 cm aperture telescope, which is small for high resolution observations, is a big interferometer. Meter class and above diffraction limited telescopes can be expected to be very unforgiving of inattention to details. Unfortunately, even when an earth based telescope has perfect optics there are still problems with the quality of its optical path. The optical path includes not only the interior of the telescope, but also the immediate interface between the telescope and the atmosphere, and finally the atmosphere itself

  1. Transmission of supersymmetry breaking from a four-dimensional boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirabelli, E.A.; Peskin, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    In the strong-coupling limit of the heterotic string theory constructed by Horava and Witten, an 11-dimensional supergravity theory is coupled to matter multiplets confined to 10-dimensional mirror planes. This structure suggests that realistic unification models are obtained, after compactification of 6 dimensions, as theories of 5-dimensional supergravity in an interval, coupling to matter fields on 4-dimensional walls. Supersymmetry breaking may be communicated from one boundary to another by the 5-dimensional fields. In this paper, we study a toy model of this communication in which 5-dimensional super-Yang-Mills theory in the bulk couples to chiral multiplets on the walls. Using the auxiliary fields of the Yang-Mills multiplet, we find a simple algorithm for coupling the bulk and boundary fields. We demonstrate two different mechanisms for generating soft supersymmetry breaking terms in the boundary theory. We also compute the Casimir energy generated by supersymmetry breaking. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  2. Introduction to symmetry-breaking phenomena in physics

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva. Audiovisual Unit

    2001-01-01

    The notion of broken symmetries started slowly to emerge in the 19th century. The early studies of Pasteur on the parity asymmetry of life, the studies of Curie on piezoelectricity and on the symmetries of effects versus the symmetry of causes ( which clearly excluded spontaneous symmetry breaking), are important historical landmarks. However the possibility of spontaneous symmetry breaking within the usual principles of statistical mechanics, waited for the work of Peierls and Onsager. The whole theory of phase transitions and critical phenomena, as well as the construction of field theoretic models as long distance limit of yet unknown physics, relies nowadays on the concept of criticality associated to spontaneous symmetry breaking. The phenomena of Goldstone bosons, of Meissner-Higgs effects, are central to the theory of condensed matter as well as to particle physics. In cosmology as well, the various inflationary scenarios begin similarly with this same concept. The three lectures will provide a simple ...

  3. Nonlinear wave breaking in self-gravitating viscoelastic quantum fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mitra, Aniruddha, E-mail: anibabun@gmail.com [Center for Plasma Studies, Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700 032 (India); Roychoudhury, Rajkumar, E-mail: rajdaju@rediffmail.com [Advanced Centre for Nonlinear and Complex Phenomena, 1175 Survey Park, Kolkata 700075 (India); Department of Mathematics, Bethune College, Kolkata 700006 (India); Bhar, Radhaballav [Center for Plasma Studies, Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700 032 (India); Khan, Manoranjan, E-mail: mkhan.ju@gmail.com [Center for Plasma Studies, Department of Instrumentation Science, Jadavpur University, Kolkata, 700 032 (India)

    2017-02-12

    The stability of a viscoelastic self-gravitating quantum fluid has been studied. Symmetry breaking instability of solitary wave has been observed through ‘viscosity modified Ostrovsky equation’ in weak gravity limit. In presence of strong gravitational field, the solitary wave breaks into shock waves. Response to a Gaussian perturbation, the system produces quasi-periodic short waves, which in terns predicts the existence of gravito-acoustic quasi-periodic short waves in lower solar corona region. Stability analysis of this dynamical system predicts gravity has the most prominent effect on the phase portraits, therefore, on the stability of the system. The non-existence of chaotic solution has also been observed at long wavelength perturbation through index value theorem. - Highlights: • In weak gravitational field, viscoelastic quantum fluid exhibits symmetry breaking instability. • Gaussian perturbation produces quasi-periodic gravito-acoustic waves into the system. • There exists no chaotic state of the system against long wavelength perturbations.

  4. Breaking strain of neutron star crust and gravitational waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horowitz, C J; Kadau, Kai

    2009-05-15

    Mountains on rapidly rotating neutron stars efficiently radiate gravitational waves. The maximum possible size of these mountains depends on the breaking strain of the neutron star crust. With multimillion ion molecular dynamics simulations of Coulomb solids representing the crust, we show that the breaking strain of pure single crystals is very large and that impurities, defects, and grain boundaries only modestly reduce the breaking strain to around 0.1. Because of the collective behavior of the ions during failure found in our simulations, the neutron star crust is likely very strong and can support mountains large enough so that their gravitational wave radiation could limit the spin periods of some stars and might be detectable in large-scale interferometers. Furthermore, our microscopic modeling of neutron star crust material can help analyze mechanisms relevant in magnetar giant flares and microflares.

  5. Determination of the detection limit and decision threshold for ionizing radiation measurements. Part 3: Fundamentals and application to counting measurements by high resolution gamma spectrometry, without the influence of sample treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    This part of ISO 11929 addresses the field of ionizing radiation measurements in which events (in particular pulses) are counted by high resolution gamma spectrometry registrating a pulse-heights distribution (acquisition of a multichannel spectrum), for example on samples. It considers exclusively the random character of radioactive decay and of pulse counting and ignores all other influences (e.g. arising from sample treatment, weighing, enrichment or the instability of the test setup). It assumes that the distance of neighbouring peaks of gamma lines is not smaller than four times the full width half maximum (FWHM) of gamma line and that the background near to gamma line is nearly a straight line. Otherwise ISO 11929-1 or ISO 11929-2 should be used. ISO 11929 consists of the following parts, under the general title Determination of the detection limit and decision threshold for ionizing radiation measurements: Part 1: Fundamentals and application to counting measurements without the influence of sample treatment; Part 2: Fundamentals and application to counting measurements with the influence of sample treatment; Part 3: Fundamentals and application to counting measurements by high resolution gamma spectrometry, without the influence of sample treatment; Part 4: Fundamentals and application to measurements by use of linear scale analogue ratemeters, without the influence of sample treatment. This part of ISO 11929 was prepared in parallel with other International Standards prepared by WG2 (now WG 17): ISO 11932:1996, Activity measurements of solid materials considered for recycling, re-use or disposal as nonradioactive waste, and ISO 11929-1, ISO 11929-2 and ISO 11929-4, and is, consequently, complementary to these documents

  6. Symmetry breaking during seeded growth of nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Xiaohu; Xia, Younan

    2012-11-14

    Currently, most of the reported noble-metal nanocrystals are limited to a high level of symmetry, as constrained by the inherent, face-centered cubic (fcc) lattice of these metals. In this paper, we report, for the first time, a facile and versatile approach (backed up by a clear mechanistic understanding) for breaking the symmetry of an fcc lattice and thus obtaining nanocrystals with highly unsymmetrical shapes. The key strategy is to induce and direct the growth of nanocrystal seeds into unsymmetrical modes by manipulating the reduction kinetics. With silver as an example, we demonstrated that the diversity of possible shapes taken by noble-metal nanocrystals could be greatly expanded by incorporating a series of new shapes drastically deviated from the fcc lattice. This work provides a new method to investigate shape-controlled synthesis of metal nanocrystal.

  7. Resolution propositions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-05-01

    To put a resolution to the meeting in relation with the use of weapons made of depleted uranium is the purpose of this text. The situation of the use of depleted uranium by France during the Gulf war and other recent conflicts will be established. This resolution will give the most strict recommendations face to the eventual sanitary and environmental risks in the use of these kind of weapons. (N.C.)

  8. Leaders break ground for INFINITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Community leaders from Mississippi and Louisiana break ground for the new INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center facility during a Nov. 20 ceremony. Groundbreaking participants included (l to r): Gottfried Construction representative John Smith, Mississippi Highway Commissioner Wayne Brown, INFINITY board member and Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise, Stennis Director Gene Goldman, Studio South representative David Hardy, Leo Seal Jr. family representative Virginia Wagner, Hancock Bank President George Schloegel, Mississippi Rep. J.P. Compretta, Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians representative Charlie Benn and Louisiana Sen. A.G. Crowe.

  9. Give Young Scientists a Break

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, H. S.

    2009-11-01

    There has been much concern about the impact of tight funding on the careers of young scientists. When only a small percentage of grants are approved, even the smallest problem or error with an application can push it out of the funding range. Unfortunately, the relative lack of grant writing skills by new investigators often has this effect. To avoid a situation where only experienced investigators with polished writing skills are funded, the National Institutes of Health has instituted a more generous ranking scale for new investigators. Not surprisingly, some senior investigators have protested, calling it reverse discrimination. I say that their anger is misplaced. New investigators do deserve a break.

  10. Inflationary implications of supersymmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borghese, Andrea; Roest, Diederik; Zavala, Ivonne [Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Groningen, Nijenborgh 4, 9747 AG Groningen (Netherlands)

    2013-07-23

    We discuss a general bound on the possibility to realise inflation in any minimal supergravity with F-terms. The derivation crucially depends on the sGoldstini, the scalar field directions that are singled out by spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. The resulting bound involves both slow-roll parameters and the geometry of the Kähler manifold of the chiral scalars. We analyse the inflationary implications of this bound, and in particular discuss to what extent the requirements of single field and slow-roll can both be met in F-term inflation.

  11. History of electroweak symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kibble, T W B

    2015-01-01

    In this talk, I recall the history of the development of the unified electroweak theory, incorporating the symmetry-breaking Higgs mechanism, as I saw it from my standpoint as a member of Abdus Salam's group at Imperial College. I start by describing the state of physics in the years after the Second World War, explain how the goal of a unified gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions emerged, the obstacles encountered, in particular the Goldstone theorem, and how they were overcome, followed by a brief account of more recent history, culminating in the historic discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012. (paper)

  12. Sediment transport under breaking waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob; Mayer, Stefan

    2000-01-01

    The sediment transport in the surf zone is modelled by combining a Navier-Stokes solver, a free surface model, a turbulence model, and a sediment transport model. The flow solver is based on the finite volume technique for non-orthogonal grids. The model is capable of simulating the turbulence...... generated at the surface where the wave breaks as well as the turbulence generated near the bed due to the wave-motion and the undertow. In general, the levels of turbulent kinetic energy are found to be higher than experiments show. This results in an over prediction of the sediment transport. Nevertheless...

  13. Structural Break Tests Robust to Regression Misspecification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alaa Abi Morshed

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Structural break tests for regression models are sensitive to model misspecification. We show—analytically and through simulations—that the sup Wald test for breaks in the conditional mean and variance of a time series process exhibits severe size distortions when the conditional mean dynamics are misspecified. We also show that the sup Wald test for breaks in the unconditional mean and variance does not have the same size distortions, yet benefits from similar power to its conditional counterpart in correctly specified models. Hence, we propose using it as an alternative and complementary test for breaks. We apply the unconditional and conditional mean and variance tests to three US series: unemployment, industrial production growth and interest rates. Both the unconditional and the conditional mean tests detect a break in the mean of interest rates. However, for the other two series, the unconditional mean test does not detect a break, while the conditional mean tests based on dynamic regression models occasionally detect a break, with the implied break-point estimator varying across different dynamic specifications. For all series, the unconditional variance does not detect a break while most tests for the conditional variance do detect a break which also varies across specifications.

  14. BWR recirculation loop discharge line break LOCA tests with break areas of 50 and 100% assuming HPCS failure at ROSA-III test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Mitsuhiro; Tasaka, Kanji; Yonomoto, Taisuke; Anoda, Yoshinari; Kumamaru, Hiroshige; Nakamura, Hideo; Murata, Hideo; Shiba, Masayoshi; Iriko, Masanori.

    1985-03-01

    This report presents the experimental results of RUN 962 and RUN 963 in ROSA-III program, which are 50 and 100 % break LOCA tests at the BWR recirculation pump discharge line, respectively. The ROSA-III test facility simulates a volumetrically scaled (1/424) BWR system and has four half-length electrically heated fuel bundles, two active recirculation loops, three types of ECCSs and steam and feedwater systems. The experimental data of RUN 962 and RUN 963 were compared with those of RUN 961, a 200 % discharge line break test to study the break area effects on the transient thermal hydraulic phenomena. The least flow areas at the jet pump drive nozzles and recirculation pump discharge nozzle in the broken recirculation loop limitted the discharge flows from the pressure vessel and the depressurization rate in the 100 and 200 % break tests, whereas the least flow area at break nozzle limitted the depressurization rate in the 50 % break test. The highest PCT was observed in the 50 % break test among the three tests. (author)

  15. Symmetry breaking in gauge glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, K.

    1988-09-01

    In order to explain why nature selects the gauge groups of the Standard Model, Brene and Nielsen have proposed a way to break gauge symmetry which does not rely on the existence of a Higgs field. The observed gauge groups will in this scheme appear as the only surviving ones when this mechanism is applied to a random selection of gauge groups. The essential assumption is a discrete space-time with random couplings. Some working assumptions were made for computational reasons of which the most important is that quantum fluctuations were neclected. This work presents an example which under the same conditions show that a much wider class of groups than predicted by Brene and Nielsen will be broken. In particular no possible Standard Model Group survives unbroken. Numerical calculations support the analytical result. (orig.)

  16. Rotational Symmetry Breaking in Baby Skyrme Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karliner, Marek; Hen, Itay

    We discuss one of the most interesting phenomena exhibited by baby skyrmions - breaking of rotational symmetry. The topics we will deal with here include the appearance of rotational symmetry breaking in the static solutions of baby Skyrme models, both in flat as well as in curved spaces, the zero-temperature crystalline structure of baby skyrmions, and finally, the appearance of spontaneous breaking of rotational symmetry in rotating baby skyrmions.

  17. Angstrom-Resolution Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Single Molecules via Wave-Function Fingerprints of Nuclear Spins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Wen-Long; Liu, Ren-Bao

    2016-08-01

    Single-molecule sensitivity of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and angstrom resolution of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are the highest challenges in magnetic microscopy. Recent development in dynamical-decoupling- (DD) enhanced diamond quantum sensing has enabled single-nucleus NMR and nanoscale NMR. Similar to conventional NMR and MRI, current DD-based quantum sensing utilizes the "frequency fingerprints" of target nuclear spins. The frequency fingerprints by their nature cannot resolve different nuclear spins that have the same noise frequency or differentiate different types of correlations in nuclear-spin clusters, which limit the resolution of single-molecule MRI. Here we show that this limitation can be overcome by using "wave-function fingerprints" of target nuclear spins, which is much more sensitive than the frequency fingerprints to the weak hyperfine interaction between the targets and a sensor under resonant DD control. We demonstrate a scheme of angstrom-resolution MRI that is capable of counting and individually localizing single nuclear spins of the same frequency and characterizing the correlations in nuclear-spin clusters. A nitrogen-vacancy-center spin sensor near a diamond surface, provided that the coherence time is improved by surface engineering in the near future, may be employed to determine with angstrom resolution the positions and conformation of single molecules that are isotope labeled. The scheme in this work offers an approach to breaking the resolution limit set by the "frequency gradients" in conventional MRI and to reaching the angstrom-scale resolution.

  18. Big break for charge symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, G.A. [Department of Physics, University of Washington, Seattle (United States); Kolck, U. van [Department of Physics, University of Arizona, Tucson (United States)

    2003-06-01

    Two new experiments have detected charge-symmetry breaking, the mechanism responsible for protons and neutrons having different masses. Symmetry is a crucial concept in the theories that describe the subatomic world because it has an intimate connection with the laws of conservation. The theory of the strong interaction between quarks - quantum chromodynamics - is approximately invariant under what is called charge symmetry. In other words, if we swap an up quark for a down quark, then the strong interaction will look almost the same. This symmetry is related to the concept of {sup i}sospin{sup ,} and is not the same as charge conjugation (in which a particle is replaced by its antiparticle). Charge symmetry is broken by the competition between two different effects. The first is the small difference in mass between up and down quarks, which is about 200 times less than the mass of the proton. The second is their different electric charges. The up quark has a charge of +2/3 in units of the proton charge, while the down quark has a negative charge of -1/3. If charge symmetry was exact, the proton and the neutron would have the same mass and they would both be electrically neutral. This is because the proton is made of two up quarks and a down quark, while the neutron comprises two downs and an up. Replacing up quarks with down quarks, and vice versa, therefore transforms a proton into a neutron. Charge-symmetry breaking causes the neutron to be about 0.1% heavier than the proton because the down quark is slightly heavier than the up quark. Physicists had already elucidated certain aspects of charge-symmetry breaking, but our spirits were raised greatly when we heard of the recent work of Allena Opper of Ohio University in the US and co-workers at the TRIUMF laboratory in British Columbia, Canada. Her team has been trying to observe a small charge-symmetry-breaking effect for several years, using neutron beams at the TRIUMF accelerator. The researchers studied the

  19. Supersymmetry breaking and Nambu-Goldstone fermions with cubic dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sannomiya, Noriaki; Katsura, Hosho; Nakayama, Yu

    2017-03-01

    We introduce a lattice fermion model in one spatial dimension with supersymmetry (SUSY) but without particle number conservation. The Hamiltonian is defined as the anticommutator of two nilpotent supercharges Q and Q†. Each supercharge is built solely from spinless fermion operators and depends on a parameter g . The system is strongly interacting for small g , and in the extreme limit g =0 , the number of zero-energy ground states grows exponentially with the system size. By contrast, in the large-g limit, the system is noninteracting and SUSY is broken spontaneously. We study the model for modest values of g and show that under certain conditions spontaneous SUSY breaking occurs in both finite and infinite chains. We analyze the low-energy excitations both analytically and numerically. Our analysis suggests that the Nambu-Goldstone fermions accompanying the spontaneous SUSY breaking have cubic dispersion at low energies.

  20. Rock breaking methods to replace blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Huisheng; Xie, Xinghua; Feng, Yuqing

    2018-03-01

    The method of breaking rock by blasting has a high efficiency and the cost is relatively low, but the associated vibration, flyrock, production of toxic gases since the 1970’s, the Western developed countries began to study the safety of breaking rock. This paper introduces different methods and their progress to safely break rock. Ideally, safe rock breaking would have little vibration, no fly stone, and no toxic gases, which can be widely used in municipal engineering, road excavation, high-risk mining, quarrying and complex environment.

  1. NPP Krsko small break LOCA analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mavko, B.; Petelin, S.; Peterlin, G.

    1987-01-01

    Parametric analysis of small break loss of coolant accident for the Krsko NPP was calculated by using RELAP5/MOD1 computer code. The model that was used in our calculations has been improved over several years and was previously tested in simulation (s) of start-up tests and known NPP Krsko transients. In our calculations we modelled automatic actions initiated by control, safety and protection systems. We also modelled the required operator actions as specified in emergency operating instructions. In small-break LOCA calculations, we varied break sizes in the cold leg. The influence of steam generator tube plugging on small break LOCA accidents was also analysed. (author)

  2. Give me a better break: Choosing workday break activities to maximize resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Emily M; Wu, Cindy

    2016-02-01

    Surprisingly little research investigates employee breaks at work, and even less research provides prescriptive suggestions for better workday breaks in terms of when, where, and how break activities are most beneficial. Based on the effort-recovery model and using experience sampling methodology, we examined the characteristics of employee workday breaks with 95 employees across 5 workdays. In addition, we examined resources as a mediator between break characteristics and well-being. Multilevel analysis results indicated that activities that were preferred and earlier in the work shift related to more resource recovery following the break. We also found that resources mediated the influence of preferred break activities and time of break on health symptoms and that resource recovery benefited person-level outcomes of emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behavior. Finally, break length interacted with the number of breaks per day such that longer breaks and frequent short breaks were associated with more resources than infrequent short breaks. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  3. Translational Symmetry Breaking and Gapping of Heavy-Quasiparticle Pocket in URu2Si2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Rikiya; Tsubota, Koji; Ishiga, Toshihiko; Sunagawa, Masanori; Sonoyama, Jyunki; Aoki, Dai; Flouquet, Jacques; Wakita, Takanori; Muraoka, Yuji; Yokoya, Takayoshi

    2013-01-01

    URu2Si2 is a uranium compound that exhibits a so-called ‘hidden-order’ transition at ~17.5 K. However, the order parameter of this second-order transition as well as many of its microscopic properties remain unclarified despite considerable research. One of the key questions in this regard concerns the type of spontaneous symmetry breaking occurring at the transition; although rotational symmetry breaking has been detected, it is not clear whether another type of symmetry breaking also occurs. Another key question concerns the property of Fermi-surface gapping in the momentum space. Here we address these key questions by a momentum-dependent observation of electronic states at the transition employing ultrahigh-resolution three-dimensional angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Our results provide compelling evidence of the spontaneous breaking of the lattice's translational symmetry and particle-hole asymmetric gapping of a heavy quasiparticle pocket at the transition. PMID:24084937

  4. The leak before break criteria, requirements and implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martinez M, E.

    1992-05-01

    Inside this work a general balance is made on the Leak before break approach (LBB), like they are the history and licensing, those limitations, the acceptance criteria of the LBB, the current state of the regulatory development and the current state of it application in countries like E.U.A, Germany, Canada, Italy and France. Everything it with the purpose of evaluating the opportunities that offers the LBB criteria for it possible application in Mexico. (Author)

  5. Influence of light-quark masses in dynamical scale breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barcelos Neto, J.; Chanda, R.

    1984-01-01

    It is demonstrated that light quark masses may significantly contribute to the logarithmic scale breaking in deep inelastic electromagnetic lepton-nucleon scattering. This is mainly due to the combination of scale variables together with large 'current' masses for u and d quarks, recently reported in the literature. Upper limits for current masses of u and d quarks, using positivity properties of the forward electromagnetic structure function F 2 of the nucleon are also estimated. (Author) [pt

  6. Detecting breast microcalcifications using super-resolution and wave-equation ultrasound imaging: a numerical phantom study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Lianjie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Simonetti, Francesco [IMPERIAL COLLEGE LONDON; Huthwaite, Peter [IMPERIAL COLLEGE LONDON; Rosenberg, Robert [UNM; Williamson, Michael [UNM

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound image resolution and quality need to be significantly improved for breast microcalcification detection. Super-resolution imaging with the factorization method has recently been developed as a promising tool to break through the resolution limit of conventional imaging. In addition, wave-equation reflection imaging has become an effective method to reduce image speckles by properly handling ultrasound scattering/diffraction from breast heterogeneities during image reconstruction. We explore the capabilities of a novel super-resolution ultrasound imaging method and a wave-equation reflection imaging scheme for detecting breast microcalcifications. Super-resolution imaging uses the singular value decomposition and a factorization scheme to achieve an image resolution that is not possible for conventional ultrasound imaging. Wave-equation reflection imaging employs a solution to the acoustic-wave equation in heterogeneous media to backpropagate ultrasound scattering/diffraction waves to scatters and form images of heterogeneities. We construct numerical breast phantoms using in vivo breast images, and use a finite-difference wave-equation scheme to generate ultrasound data scattered from inclusions that mimic microcalcifications. We demonstrate that microcalcifications can be detected at full spatial resolution using the super-resolution ultrasound imaging and wave-equation reflection imaging methods.

  7. High resolution, high speed ultrahigh vacuum microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poppa, Helmut

    2004-01-01

    The history and future of transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is discussed as it refers to the eventual development of instruments and techniques applicable to the real time in situ investigation of surface processes with high resolution. To reach this objective, it was necessary to transform conventional high resolution instruments so that an ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) environment at the sample site was created, that access to the sample by various in situ sample modification procedures was provided, and that in situ sample exchanges with other integrated surface analytical systems became possible. Furthermore, high resolution image acquisition systems had to be developed to take advantage of the high speed imaging capabilities of projection imaging microscopes. These changes to conventional electron microscopy and its uses were slowly realized in a few international laboratories over a period of almost 40 years by a relatively small number of researchers crucially interested in advancing the state of the art of electron microscopy and its applications to diverse areas of interest; often concentrating on the nucleation, growth, and properties of thin films on well defined material surfaces. A part of this review is dedicated to the recognition of the major contributions to surface and thin film science by these pioneers. Finally, some of the important current developments in aberration corrected electron optics and eventual adaptations to in situ UHV microscopy are discussed. As a result of all the path breaking developments that have led to today's highly sophisticated UHV-TEM systems, integrated fundamental studies are now possible that combine many traditional surface science approaches. Combined investigations to date have involved in situ and ex situ surface microscopies such as scanning tunneling microscopy/atomic force microscopy, scanning Auger microscopy, and photoemission electron microscopy, and area-integrating techniques such as x-ray photoelectron

  8. Sgoldstino-less inflation and low energy SUSY breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argurio, Riccardo [Physique Théorique et Mathématique and International Solvay Institutes, Université Libre de Bruxelles, CP231, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Coone, Dries; Mariotti, Alberto [Theoretische Natuurkunde and IIHE/ELEM, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, and International Solvay Institutes, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); Heurtier, Lucien, E-mail: rargurio@ulb.ac.be, E-mail: a.a.coone@rug.nl, E-mail: lucien.heurtier@ulb.ac.be, E-mail: alberto.mariotti@vub.ac.be [Service de Physique Théorique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, CP225, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium)

    2017-07-01

    We assess the range of validity of sgoldstino-less inflation in a scenario of low energy supersymmetry breaking. We first analyze the consistency conditions that an effective theory of the inflaton and goldstino superfields should satisfy in order to be faithfully described by a sgoldstino-less model. Enlarging the scope of previous studies, we investigate the case where the effective field theory cut-off, and hence also the sgoldstino mass, are inflaton-dependent. We then introduce a UV complete model where one can realize successfully sgoldstino-less inflation and gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking, combining the α-attractor mechanism and a weakly coupled model of spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry. In this class of models we find that, given current limits on superpartner masses, the gravitino mass has a lower bound of the order of the MeV, i.e. we cannot reach very low supersymmetry breaking scales. On the plus side, we recognize that in this framework, one can derive the complete superpartner spectrum as well as compute inflation observables, the reheating temperature, and address the gravitino overabundance problem. We then show that further constraints come from collider results and inflation observables. Their non trivial interplay seems a staple feature of phenomenological studies of supersymmetric inflationary models.

  9. Breaking bad news: issues relating to nursing practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warnock, Clare

    2014-07-15

    The breaking of bad news was traditionally regarded to be the time when a doctor and nurse sat down with a patient and family members to provide information about, for example, a life-limiting diagnosis or a poor prognosis. However, breaking bad news is now generally accepted as a process, not a one-off event, and is considered to refer to any bad, sad or difficult information that alters patients' perceptions of their present and future. Nurses have an important role in the process of providing information and helping patients prepare for, receive, understand and cope with the bad news they have been given. This article aims to help nurses understand the process of breaking bad news and discuss the challenges and difficulties that nurses can face when they are involved with patients who have been given bad news. It also provides guidance with regard to preparing for breaking bad news, giving difficult information, responding to possible reactions, and supporting patients and their relatives after they have received bad news.

  10. Lie-algebra approach to symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, J.T.

    1981-01-01

    A formal Lie-algebra approach to symmetry breaking is studied in an attempt to reduce the arbitrariness of Lagrangian (Hamiltonian) models which include several free parameters and/or ad hoc symmetry groups. From Lie algebra it is shown that the unbroken Lagrangian vacuum symmetry can be identified from a linear function of integers which are Cartan matrix elements. In broken symmetry if the breaking operators form an algebra then the breaking symmetry (or symmetries) can be identified from linear functions of integers characteristic of the breaking symmetries. The results are applied to the Dirac Hamiltonian of a sum of flavored fermions and colored bosons in the absence of dynamical symmetry breaking. In the partially reduced quadratic Hamiltonian the breaking-operator functions are shown to consist of terms of order g 2 , g, and g 0 in the color coupling constants and identified with strong (boson-boson), medium strong (boson-fermion), and fine-structure (fermion-fermion) interactions. The breaking operators include a boson helicity operator in addition to the familiar fermion helicity and ''spin-orbit'' terms. Within the broken vacuum defined by the conventional formalism, the field divergence yields a gauge which is a linear function of Cartan matrix integers and which specifies the vacuum symmetry. We find that the vacuum symmetry is chiral SU(3) x SU(3) and the axial-vector-current divergence gives a PCAC -like function of the Cartan matrix integers which reduces to PCAC for SU(2) x SU(2) breaking. For the mass spectra of the nonets J/sup P/ = 0 - ,1/2 + ,1 - the integer runs through the sequence 3,0,-1,-2, which indicates that the breaking subgroups are the simple Lie groups. Exact axial-vector-current conservation indicates a breaking sum rule which generates octet enhancement. Finally, the second-order breaking terms are obtained from the second-order spin tensor sum of the completely reduced quartic Hamiltonian

  11. Temporary core liquid level depression during cold-leg small-break LOCA effect of break size and power level

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koizumi, Y.; Kumamaru, H.; Mimura, Y.; Kukita, Y.; Tasaka, K.

    1989-01-01

    Cold-leg small break LOCA experiments (0.5-10% break) were conducted at the large scale test facility (LSTF), a volumetrically-scaled (1/48) simulator of a PWR, of the ROSA-IV Program. When a break area was less than 2.5% of the scaled cold-leg flow area, the core liquid level was temporarily further depressed to the bottom elevation of the crossover leg during the loop seal clearing early in the transient only by the manometric pressure balance since no coolant remained in the upper portion of the primary system. When the break size was larger than 5%, the core liquid level was temporarily further depressed lower than the bottom elevation of the crossover leg during the loop seal clearing since coolant remained at the upper portion of the primary system; the steam generator (SG) U-tube upflow side and the SG inlet plenum, due to counter current flow limiting by updrafting steam while the coolant drained. The amount of coolant trapped there was dependent on the vapor velocity (core power); the larger the core power, the lower the minimum core liquid level. The RELAP5/MOD2 code reasonable predicted phenomena observed in the experiments. (orig./DG)

  12. Controlling break-the-glass through alignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriansyah, A.; Dongen, van B.F.; Zannone, N.

    2013-01-01

    Modern IT systems have to deal with unpredictable situations and exceptions more and more often. In contrast, security mechanisms are usually very rigid. Functionality like break-the-glass is thus employed to allow users to bypass security mechanisms in case of emergencies. However, break-the-glass

  13. Charge-symmetry-breaking nucleon form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubis, Bastian, E-mail: kubis@hiskp.uni-bonn.de [Universitaet Bonn, Helmholtz-Institut fuer Strahlen- und Kernphysik (Theorie) and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    A quantitative understanding of charge-symmetry breaking is an increasingly important ingredient for the extraction of the nucleon's strange vector form factors. We review the theoretical understanding of the charge-symmetry-breaking form factors, both for single nucleons and for {sup 4}He.

  14. Charge-symmetry-breaking nucleon form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubis, Bastian

    2011-01-01

    A quantitative understanding of charge-symmetry breaking is an increasingly important ingredient for the extraction of the nucleon’s strange vector form factors. We review the theoretical understanding of the charge-symmetry-breaking form factors, both for single nucleons and for 4 He.

  15. Breaking antidunes: Cyclic behavior due to hysteresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deigaard, Rolf

    2006-01-01

    The cyclic behavior of breaking antidunes (growth, breaking of surface wave, obliteration) is investigated by use of a numerical model. The model includes the transition between supercritical and transcritical flow. As the antidune grows the flow becomes transcritical and a hydraulic jump is form...

  16. Metastable Supersymmetry Breaking in a Cooling Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplunovsky, Vadim S.

    2007-01-01

    I put metastable supersymmetry breaking in a cosmological context. I argue that under reasonable assumptions, the cooling down early Universe favors metastable SUSY-breaking vacua over the stable supersymmetric vacua. To illustrate the general argument, I analyze the early-Universe history of the Intriligator-Seiberg-Shih model

  17. The new break-even analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laskaris, James; Regan, Katie

    2013-12-01

    Changes in the economic and legislative environment have complicated the capital acquisition landscape. Hospitals and health systems should: Question the assumptions that underlie their break-even analysis. Revamp the break-even calculator. Engage in discussions about the clinical aspects of equipment and technology acquisition decisions.

  18. Strongly coupled semidirect mediation of supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibe, M.; Izawa, K.-I.; Nakai, Y.

    2009-01-01

    Strongly coupled semidirect gauge mediation models of supersymmetry breaking through massive mediators with standard-model charges are investigated by means of composite degrees of freedom. Sizable mediation is realized to generate the standard-model gaugino masses for a small mediator mass without breaking the standard-model symmetries.

  19. Multiscale Simulation of Breaking Wave Impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Ole

    compare reasonably well. The incompressible and inviscid ALE-WLS model is coupled with the potential flow model of Engsig-Karup et al. [2009], to perform multiscale calculation of breaking wave impacts on a vertical breakwater. The potential flow model provides accurate calculation of the wave...... with a potential flow model to provide multiscale calculation of forces from breaking wave impacts on structures....

  20. Research progress on dam-break floods

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jiansong; Bao, Kai; Zhang, Hui

    2011-01-01

    Because of the catastrophic effects downstream of dam-break failure, more and more researchers around the world have been working on the study of dam-break flows to accurately forecast the downstream inundation mapping. With the rapid development of computer hardware and computing techniques, numerical study on dam-break flows has been a popular research subject. In the paper, the numerical methodologies used to solve the governing partial differential equations of dam-break flows are classified and summarized, and their characteristics and applications are discussed respectively. Furthermore, the fully-developed mathematical models developed in recent decades are reviewed, and also introduced the authors' on-going work. Finally, some possible future developments on modeling the dam-break flows and some solutions are presented and discussed. © 2011 IEEE.

  1. Dynamical study of symmetries: breaking and restauration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schuck, P.

    1986-09-01

    First symmetry breaking (spontaneous) is explained and the physical implication discussed for infinite systems. The relation with phase transitions is indicated. Then the specific aspects of symmetry breaking in finite systems is treated and illustrated in detail for the case of translational invariance with the help of an oversimplified but exactly solvable model. The method of projection (restauration of symmetry) is explained for the static case and also applied to the model. Symmetry breaking in the dynamical case and for instance the notion of a soft mode responsible for the symmetry breaking is discussed in the case of superfluidity and another exactly solvable model is introduced. The Goldstone mode is treated in detail. Some remarks on analogies with the breaking of chiral symmetry are made. Some recent developments in the theory of symmetry restauration are briefly outlined [fr

  2. Research progress on dam-break floods

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jiansong

    2011-08-01

    Because of the catastrophic effects downstream of dam-break failure, more and more researchers around the world have been working on the study of dam-break flows to accurately forecast the downstream inundation mapping. With the rapid development of computer hardware and computing techniques, numerical study on dam-break flows has been a popular research subject. In the paper, the numerical methodologies used to solve the governing partial differential equations of dam-break flows are classified and summarized, and their characteristics and applications are discussed respectively. Furthermore, the fully-developed mathematical models developed in recent decades are reviewed, and also introduced the authors\\' on-going work. Finally, some possible future developments on modeling the dam-break flows and some solutions are presented and discussed. © 2011 IEEE.

  3. Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1982-12-01

    These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed

  4. Break-up reactions: theoretical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baye, D.

    2007-01-01

    Breakup reactions are one of the main tools for the study of exotic nuclei. In particular, Coulomb breakup is expected to provide information on spectroscopic properties of halo nuclei and on astrophysical S factors for radiative-capture reactions. The simplest studies are based on perturbation theory and especially on its first order. However the validity of the first-order approximation may be limited for extended systems such as halo nuclei and its conditions are not always satisfied in existing experiments. More elaborate reaction models are available: resolution of the semi-classical time-dependent Schroedinger equation, eikonal and dynamical eikonal approximations, method of coupled discretized-continuum channels (CDCC). These methods are reviewed and summarized. Their interest and limitations are discussed. The Be 11 and B 8 breakups are treated as examples of the various approximations. (author)

  5. Big break for charge symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, G A

    2003-01-01

    Two new experiments have detected charge-symmetry breaking, the mechanism responsible for protons and neutrons having different masses. Symmetry is a crucial concept in the theories that describe the subatomic world because it has an intimate connection with the laws of conservation. The theory of the strong interaction between quarks - quantum chromodynamics - is approximately invariant under what is called charge symmetry. In other words, if we swap an up quark for a down quark, then the strong interaction will look almost the same. This symmetry is related to the concept of sup i sospin sup , and is not the same as charge conjugation (in which a particle is replaced by its antiparticle). Charge symmetry is broken by the competition between two different effects. The first is the small difference in mass between up and down quarks, which is about 200 times less than the mass of the proton. The second is their different electric charges. The up quark has a charge of +2/3 in units of the proton charge, while ...

  6. Comparison of occlusion break responses and vacuum rise times of phacoemulsification systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif-Kashani, Pooria; Fanney, Douglas; Injev, Val

    2014-07-30

    Occlusion break surge during phacoemulsification cataract surgery can lead to potential surgical complications. The purpose of this study was to quantify occlusion break surge and vacuum rise time of current phacoemulsification systems used in cataract surgery. Occlusion break surge at vacuum pressures between 200 and 600 mmHg was assessed with the Infiniti® Vision System, the WhiteStar Signature® Phacoemulsification System, and the Centurion® Vision System using gravity-fed fluidics. Centurion Active FluidicsTM were also tested at multiple intraoperative pressure target settings. Vacuum rise time was evaluated for Infiniti, WhiteStar Signature, Centurion, and Stellaris® Vision Enhancement systems. Rise time to vacuum limits of 400 and 600 mmHg was assessed at flow rates of 30 and 60 cc/minute. Occlusion break surge was analyzed by 2-way analysis of variance. The Centurion system exhibited substantially less occlusion break surge than the other systems tested. Surge area with Centurion Active Fluidics was similar to gravity fluidics at an equivalent bottle height. At all Centurion Active Fluidics intraoperative pressure target settings tested, surge was smaller than with Infiniti and WhiteStar Signature. Infiniti had the fastest vacuum rise time and Stellaris had the slowest. No system tested reached the 600-mmHg vacuum limit. In this laboratory study, Centurion had the least occlusion break surge and similar vacuum rise times compared with the other systems tested. Reducing occlusion break surge may increase safety of phacoemulsification cataract surgery.

  7. Updated pipe break analysis for Advanced Neutron Source Reactor conceptual design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wendel, M.W.; Chen, N.C.J.; Yoder, G.L.

    1994-01-01

    The Advanced Neutron Source Reactor (ANSR) is a research reactor to be built at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory that will supply the highest continuous neutron flux levels of any reactor in the world. It uses plate-type fuel with high-mass-flux and highly subcooled heavy water as the primary coolant. The Conceptual Safety Analysis for the ANSR was completed in June 1992. The thermal-hydraulic pipe-break safety analysis (performed with a specialized version of RELAP5/MOD3) focused primarily on double-ended guillotine breaks of the primary piping and some core-damage mitigation options for such an event. Smaller, instantaneous pipe breaks in the cold- and hot-leg piping were also analyzed to a limited extent. Since the initial analysis for the conceptual design was completed, several important changes to the RELAP5 input model have been made reflecting improvements in the fuel grading and changes in the elevation of the primary coolant pumps. Also, a new philosophy for pipe-break safety analysis (similar to that adopted for the New Production Reactor) accentuates instantaneous, limited flow area pipe-break accidents in addition to finite-opening-time, double-ended guillotine breaks of the major coolant piping. This paper discloses the results of the most recent instantaneous pipe-break calculations

  8. Time-reversal symmetry breaking in quantum billiards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaefer, Florian

    2009-01-26

    The present doctoral thesis describes experimentally measured properties of the resonance spectra of flat microwave billiards with partially broken timereversal invariance induced by an embedded magnetized ferrite. A vector network analyzer determines the complex scattering matrix elements. The data is interpreted in terms of the scattering formalism developed in nuclear physics. At low excitation frequencies the scattering matrix displays isolated resonances. At these the effect of the ferrite on isolated resonances (singlets) and pairs of nearly degenerate resonances (doublets) is investigated. The hallmark of time-reversal symmetry breaking is the violation of reciprocity, i.e. of the symmetry of the scattering matrix. One finds that reciprocity holds in singlets; it is violated in doublets. This is modeled by an effective Hamiltonian of the resonator. A comparison of the model to the data yields time-reversal symmetry breaking matrix elements in the order of the level spacing. Their dependence on the magnetization of the ferrite is understood in terms of its magnetic properties. At higher excitation frequencies the resonances overlap and the scattering matrix elements fluctuate irregularly (Ericson fluctuations). They are analyzed in terms of correlation functions. The data are compared to three models based on random matrix theory. The model by Verbaarschot, Weidenmueller and Zirnbauer describes time-reversal invariant scattering processes. The one by Fyodorov, Savin and Sommers achieves the same for systems with complete time-reversal symmetry breaking. An extended model has been developed that accounts for partial breaking of time-reversal invariance. This extended model is in general agreement with the data, while the applicability of the other two models is limited. The cross-correlation function between forward and backward reactions determines the time-reversal symmetry breaking matrix elements of the Hamiltonian to up to 0.3 mean level spacings. Finally

  9. Time-reversal symmetry breaking in quantum billiards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaefer, Florian

    2009-01-01

    The present doctoral thesis describes experimentally measured properties of the resonance spectra of flat microwave billiards with partially broken timereversal invariance induced by an embedded magnetized ferrite. A vector network analyzer determines the complex scattering matrix elements. The data is interpreted in terms of the scattering formalism developed in nuclear physics. At low excitation frequencies the scattering matrix displays isolated resonances. At these the effect of the ferrite on isolated resonances (singlets) and pairs of nearly degenerate resonances (doublets) is investigated. The hallmark of time-reversal symmetry breaking is the violation of reciprocity, i.e. of the symmetry of the scattering matrix. One finds that reciprocity holds in singlets; it is violated in doublets. This is modeled by an effective Hamiltonian of the resonator. A comparison of the model to the data yields time-reversal symmetry breaking matrix elements in the order of the level spacing. Their dependence on the magnetization of the ferrite is understood in terms of its magnetic properties. At higher excitation frequencies the resonances overlap and the scattering matrix elements fluctuate irregularly (Ericson fluctuations). They are analyzed in terms of correlation functions. The data are compared to three models based on random matrix theory. The model by Verbaarschot, Weidenmueller and Zirnbauer describes time-reversal invariant scattering processes. The one by Fyodorov, Savin and Sommers achieves the same for systems with complete time-reversal symmetry breaking. An extended model has been developed that accounts for partial breaking of time-reversal invariance. This extended model is in general agreement with the data, while the applicability of the other two models is limited. The cross-correlation function between forward and backward reactions determines the time-reversal symmetry breaking matrix elements of the Hamiltonian to up to 0.3 mean level spacings. Finally

  10. Generalized geometry and partial supersymmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triendl, Hagen Mathias

    2010-08-15

    This thesis consists of two parts. In the first part we use the formalism of (exceptional) generalized geometry to derive the scalar field space of SU(2) x SU(2)-structure compactifications. We show that in contrast to SU(3) x SU(3) structures, there is no dynamical SU(2) x SU(2) structure interpolating between an SU(2) structure and an identity structure. Furthermore, we derive the scalar manifold of the low-energy effective action for consistent Kaluza-Klein truncations as expected from N = 4 supergravity. In the second part we then determine the general conditions for the existence of stable Minkowski and AdS N = 1 vacua in spontaneously broken gauged N = 2 supergravities and construct the general solution under the assumption that two appropriate commuting isometries exist in the hypermultiplet sector. Furthermore, we derive the low-energy effective action below the scale of partial supersymmetry breaking and show that it satisfies the constraints of N = 1 supergravity. We then apply the discussion to special quaternionic-Kaehler geometries which appear in the low-energy limit of SU(3) x SU(3)-structure compactifications and construct Killing vectors with the right properties. Finally we discuss the string theory realizations for these solutions. (orig.)

  11. Generalized geometry and partial supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triendl, Hagen Mathias

    2010-08-01

    This thesis consists of two parts. In the first part we use the formalism of (exceptional) generalized geometry to derive the scalar field space of SU(2) x SU(2)-structure compactifications. We show that in contrast to SU(3) x SU(3) structures, there is no dynamical SU(2) x SU(2) structure interpolating between an SU(2) structure and an identity structure. Furthermore, we derive the scalar manifold of the low-energy effective action for consistent Kaluza-Klein truncations as expected from N = 4 supergravity. In the second part we then determine the general conditions for the existence of stable Minkowski and AdS N = 1 vacua in spontaneously broken gauged N = 2 supergravities and construct the general solution under the assumption that two appropriate commuting isometries exist in the hypermultiplet sector. Furthermore, we derive the low-energy effective action below the scale of partial supersymmetry breaking and show that it satisfies the constraints of N = 1 supergravity. We then apply the discussion to special quaternionic-Kaehler geometries which appear in the low-energy limit of SU(3) x SU(3)-structure compactifications and construct Killing vectors with the right properties. Finally we discuss the string theory realizations for these solutions. (orig.)

  12. Improving long term driving comfort by taking breaks - How break activity affects effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sammonds, George M; Mansfield, Neil J; Fray, Mike

    2017-11-01

    During long duration journeys, drivers are encouraged to take regular breaks. The benefits of breaks have been documented for safety; breaks may also be beneficial for comfort. The activity undertaken during a break may influence its effectiveness. Volunteers completed 3 journeys on a driving simulator. Each 130 min journey included a 10 min break after the first hour. During the break volunteers either stayed seated, left the simulator and sat in an adjacent room, or took a walk on a treadmill. The results show a reduction in driver discomfort during the break for all 3 conditions, but the effectiveness of the break was dependent on activity undertaken. Remaining seated in the vehicle provided some improvement in comfort, but more was experienced after leaving the simulator and sitting in an adjacent room. The most effective break occurred when the driver walked for 10 min on a treadmill. The benefits from taking a break continued until the end of the study (after a further hour of driving), such that comfort remained the best after taking a walk and worst for those who remained seated. It is concluded that taking a break and taking a walk is an effective method for relieving driving discomfort. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Science Illiteracy: Breaking the Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebofsky, L. A.; Lebofsky, N. R.

    2003-12-01

    At the University of Arizona, as at many state universities and colleges, the introductory science classes for non-science majors may be the only science classes that future K--8 teachers will take. The design of the UA's General Education program requires all future non-science certified teachers to take the General Education science classes. These classes are therefore an ideal venue for the training of the state's future teachers. Many students, often including future teachers, are ill-prepared for college, i.e., they lack basic science content knowledge, basic mathematics skills, and reading and writing skills. They also lack basic critical thinking skills and study skills. It is within this context that our future teachers are trained. How do we break the cycle of science illiteracy? There is no simple solution, and certainly not a one-size-fits-all panacea that complements every professor's style of instruction. However, there are several programs at the University of Arizona, and also principles that I apply in my own classes, that may be adaptable in other classrooms. Assessment of K--12 students' learning supports the use of inquiry-based science instruction. This approach can be incorporated in college classes. Modeling proven and productive teaching methods for the future teachers provides far more than ``just the facts,'' and all students gain from the inquiry approach. Providing authentic research opportunities employs an inquiry-based approach. Reading (outside the textbook) and writing provide feedback to students with poor writing and critical thinking skills. Using peer tutors and an instant messaging hot line gives experience to the tutors and offers "comfortable" assistance to students.

  14. 10 microsecond time resolution studies of Cygnus X-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wen, H. C. [Stanford Univ., CA (United States)

    1997-06-01

    Time variability analyses have been applied to data composed of event times of X-rays emitted from the binary system Cygnus X-1 to search for unique black hole signatures. The X-ray data analyzed was collected at ten microsecond time resolution or better from two instruments, the High Energy Astrophysical Observatory (HEAO) A-1 detector and the Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (XTE) Proportional Counter Array (PCA). HEAO A-1 and RXTE/PCA collected data from 1977--79 and from 1996 on with energy sensitivity from 1--25 keV and 2--60 keV, respectively. Variability characteristics predicted by various models of an accretion disk around a black hole have been searched for in the data. Drop-offs or quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) in the Fourier power spectra are expected from some of these models. The Fourier spectral technique was applied to the HEAO A-1 and RXTE/PCA data with careful consideration given for correcting the Poisson noise floor for instrumental effects. Evidence for a drop-off may be interpreted from the faster fall off in variability at frequencies greater than the observed breaks. Both breaks occur within the range of Keplerian frequencies associated with the inner edge radii of advection-dominated accretion disks predicted for Cyg X-1. The break between 10--20 Hz is also near the sharp rollover predicted by Nowak and Wagoner`s model of accretion disk turbulence. No QPOs were observed in the data for quality factors Q > 9 with a 95% confidence level upper limit for the fractional rms amplitude at 1.2% for a 16 M⊙ black hole.

  15. arXiv Framework for an asymptotically safe Standard Model via dynamical breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, Steven

    2017-09-15

    We present a consistent embedding of the matter and gauge content of the Standard Model into an underlying asymptotically safe theory that has a well-determined interacting UV fixed point in the large color/flavor limit. The scales of symmetry breaking are determined by two mass-squared parameters with the breaking of electroweak symmetry being driven radiatively. There are no other free parameters in the theory apart from gauge couplings.

  16. Downslope flow across the Ross Sea shelf break (Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamasco, A.; Budillon, G.; Carniel, S.; Defendi, V.; Meloni, R.; Paschini, E.; Sclavo, M.; Spezie, G.

    2003-12-01

    The analysis of some high-resolution hydrological data sets acquired during the 1997, 1998, 2001 and 2003 austral summers across the Ross Sea continental shelf break are here presented. The main focus of these cruises carried out in the framework of the Italian National Antarctic Program was the investigation of the downslope flow of the dense waters originated inside the Ross Sea. Such dense waters, flow near the bottom and, reaching the continental shelf break, ventilate the deep ocean. Two Antarctic continental shelf mechanisms can originate dense and deep waters. The former mechanism involves the formation, along the Victoria Land coasts, of a dense and saline water mass, the High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW). The HSSW formation is linked to the rejection of salt into the water column as sea ice freezes, especially during winter, in the polynya areas, where the ice is continuously pushed offshore by the strong katabatic winds. The latter one is responsible of the formation of a supercold water mass, the Ice Shelf Water (ISW). The salt supplied by the HSSW recirculated below the Ross Ice Shelf, the latent heat of melting and the heat sink provided by the Ross Ice Shelf give rise to plumes of ISW, characterized by temperatures below the sea-surface freezing point. The dense shelf waters migrate to the continental shelf-break, spill over the shelf edge and descend the continental slope as a shelf-break gravity current, subject to friction and possibly enhanced by topographic channelling. Friction, in particular, breaks the constraint of potential vorticity conservation, counteracting the geostrophic tendency for along slope flow. The density-driven downslope motion or cascading entrains ambient water, namely the lower layer of the CDW, reaches a depth where density is the same and spreads off-slope. In fact, the cascading event is inhibited by friction without entrainment. The downslope processes are important for the ocean and climate system because they play a

  17. Dynamical Symmetry Breaking of Extended Gauge Symmetries

    OpenAIRE

    Appelquist, Thomas; Shrock, Robert

    2003-01-01

    We construct asymptotically free gauge theories exhibiting dynamical breaking of the left-right, strong-electroweak gauge group $G_{LR} = {\\rm SU}(3)_c \\times {\\rm SU}(2)_L \\times {\\rm SU}(2)_R \\times {\\rm U}(1)_{B-L}$, and its extension to the Pati-Salam gauge group $G_{422}={\\rm SU}(4)_{PS} \\times {\\rm SU}(2)_L \\times {\\rm SU}(2)_R$. The models incorporate technicolor for electroweak breaking, and extended technicolor for the breaking of $G_{LR}$ and $G_{422}$ and the generation of fermion ...

  18. Spontaneous symmetry breaking and its cosmological consequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobzarev, I.Yu.

    1975-01-01

    The concept of symmetry and of the spontaneous symmetry breaking are presented in popular form as applied to quantum physics. Though the presence of the spontaneous symmetry breaking is not proved directly for interactions of elementary particles, on considering the hypothesis of its presence as applied to the hot Universe theory a possibility of obtaining rather uncommon cosmological consequences is discussed. In particular, spontaneous symmetry breaking of vacuum and the rather hot Universe lead necessarily to the presence of the domain structure of the Universe with the surfase energy at the domain interface in the form of a real physical object

  19. Supersymmetry Breaking through Transparent Extra Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmaltz, Martin

    1999-11-23

    We propose a new framework for mediating supersymmetry breaking through an extra dimension. It predicts positive scalar masses and solves the supersymmetric flavor problem. Supersymmetry breaks on a ''source'' brane that is spatially separated from a parallel brane on which the standard model matter fields and their superpartners live. The gauge and gaugino fields propagate in the bulk, the latter receiving a supersymmetry breaking mass from direct couplings to the source brane. Scalar masses are suppressed at the high scale but are generated via the renormalization group. We briefly discuss the spectrum and collider signals for a range of compactification scales.

  20. Method for Cleanly and Precisely Breaking Off a Rock Core Using a Radial Compressive Force

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Megan; Lin, Justin

    2011-01-01

    The Mars Sample Return mission has the goal to drill, break off, and retain rock core samples. After some results gained from rock core mechanics testing, the realization that scoring teeth would cleanly break off the core after only a few millimeters of penetration, and noting that rocks are weak in tension, the idea was developed to use symmetric wedging teeth in compression to weaken and then break the core at the contact plane. This concept was developed as a response to the break-off and retention requirements. The wedges wrap around the estimated average diameter of the core to get as many contact locations as possible, and are then pushed inward, radially, through the core towards one another. This starts a crack and begins to apply opposing forces inside the core to propagate the crack across the plane of contact. The advantage is in the simplicity. Only two teeth are needed to break five varieties of Mars-like rock cores with limited penetration and reasonable forces. Its major advantage is that it does not require any length of rock to be attached to the parent in order to break the core at the desired location. Test data shows that some rocks break off on their own into segments or break off into discs. This idea would grab and retain a disc, push some discs upward and others out, or grab a segment, break it at the contact plane, and retain the portion inside of the device. It also does this with few moving parts in a simple, space-efficient design. This discovery could be implemented into a coring drill bit to precisely break off and retain any size rock core.

  1. Gap Resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-04-25

    Gap Resolution is a software package that was developed to improve Newbler genome assemblies by automating the closure of sequence gaps caused by repetitive regions in the DNA. This is done by performing the follow steps:1) Identify and distribute the data for each gap in sub-projects. 2) Assemble the data associated with each sub-project using a secondary assembler, such as Newbler or PGA. 3) Determine if any gaps are closed after reassembly, and either design fakes (consensus of closed gap) for those that closed or lab experiments for those that require additional data. The software requires as input a genome assembly produce by the Newbler assembler provided by Roche and 454 data containing paired-end reads.

  2. Patient safety: break the silence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Hope L; Kimsey, Diane

    2012-05-01

    A culture of patient safety requires commitment and full participation from all staff members. In 2008, results of a culture of patient safety survey conducted in the perioperative division of the Lehigh Valley Health Network in Pennsylvania revealed a lack of patient-centered focus, teamwork, and positive communication. As a result, perioperative leaders assembled a multidisciplinary team that designed a safety training program focusing on Crew Resource Management, TeamSTEPPS, and communication techniques. The team used video vignettes and an audience response system to engage learners and promote participation. Topics included using preprocedural briefings and postprocedural debriefings, conflict resolution, and assertiveness techniques. Postcourse evaluations showed that the majority of respondents believed they were better able to question the decisions or actions of someone with more authority. The facility has experienced a marked decrease in the number of incidents requiring a root cause analysis since the program was conducted. Copyright © 2012 AORN, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Dirac neutrino masses from generalized supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demir, D.A.; Everett, L.L.; Langacker, P.

    2007-12-01

    We demonstrate that Dirac neutrino masses in the experimentally preferred range are generated within supersymmetric gauge extensions of the Standard Model with a generalized supersymmetry breaking sector. If the usual superpotential Yukawa couplings are forbidden by the additional gauge symmetry (such as a U(1) ' ), effective Dirac mass terms involving the ''wrong Higgs'' field can arise either at tree level due to hard supersymmetry breaking fermion Yukawa couplings, or at one-loop due to nonanalytic or ''nonholomorphic'' soft supersymmetry breaking trilinear scalar couplings. As both of these operators are naturally suppressed in generic models of supersymmetry breaking, the resulting neutrino masses are naturally in the sub-eV range. The neutrino magnetic and electric dipole moments resulting from the radiative mechanism also vanish at one-loop order. (orig.)

  4. Water Breaking: Understand This Sign of Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Labor and delivery, postpartum care Water breaking worries? Prepare yourself for childbirth by getting the facts about this important sign of labor. By Mayo Clinic Staff If you're ...

  5. On breaks of the Indian monsoon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    quadrapole is a basic feature of weak spells of the intraseasonal variation over the Asia-west Pacific region. ... (Earth Planet. Sci.), 112 .... be useful to define the break monsoon (and active ... monsoon zone, different scientists have used the.

  6. The problem of symmetry breaking hierarchy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of symmetry breaking hierarchy in grand unified theories is discussed, proving the impossibility to get a big hierarchy of interactions, in a natural way within the framework of perturbation theory. (L.C.) [pt

  7. Breaking the Long Hours Culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodz, J.; Kersley, B.; Strebler, M. T.; O'Regan, S.

    Case studies of 12 leading British employers were driven by employers' interest in issues related to working long hours in light of introduction of the Working Time Directive, a European Community initiative enacted into British law that sets limits on working hours per week. Data showed over one-fourth of full-time employees worked over 48 hours…

  8. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in N=3 supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinov'ev, Yu.M.

    1986-01-01

    The possibility of the spontaneous symmetry breaking without a cosmological term in N=3 supergravity is investigated. A new, dual version of N=3 supergravity - U(3)-supergravity is constructed. Such a theory is shown to admit a spontaneous supersymmetry breaking without a cosmological term and with three arbitrary scales, including partial super-Higgs effect N=3 → N=2 and N=3 → N=1

  9. Why and How Java Developers Break APIs

    OpenAIRE

    Brito, Aline; Xavier, Laerte; Hora, Andre; Valente, Marco Tulio

    2018-01-01

    Modern software development depends on APIs to reuse code and increase productivity. As most software systems, these libraries and frameworks also evolve, which may break existing clients. However, the main reasons to introduce breaking changes in APIs are unclear. Therefore, in this paper, we report the results of an almost 4-month long field study with the developers of 400 popular Java libraries and frameworks. We configured an infrastructure to observe all changes in these libraries and t...

  10. Lifshitz-sector mediated SUSY breaking

    OpenAIRE

    Pospelov, MaximDepartment of Physics and Astronomy, University of Victoria, Victoria, BC, V8P 5C2, Canada; Tamarit, Carlos(Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5, Canada)

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel mechanism of SUSY breaking by coupling a Lorentz-invariant supersymmetric matter sector to non-supersymmetric gravitational interactions with Lifshitz scaling. The improved UV properties of Lifshitz propagators moderate the otherwise uncontrollable ultraviolet divergences induced by gravitational loops. This ensures that both the amount of induced Lorentz violation and SUSY breaking in the matter sector are controlled by $ {{{\\Lambda_{\\mathrm{HL}}^2}} \\left/ {{M_P^2}} \\righ...

  11. Group theory of spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghaboussi, F.

    1987-01-01

    The connection between the minimality of the Higgs field potential and the maximal little groups of its representation obtained by spontaneous symmetry breaking is analyzed. It is shown that for several representations the lowest minimum of the potential is related to the maximal little group of those representations. Furthermore, a practical necessity criterion is given for the representation of the Higgs field needed for spontaneous symmetry breaking

  12. Esophageal mucosal breaks in gastroesophageal reflux disease partially responsive to proton pump inhibitor therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaheen, Nicholas J; Denison, Hans; Björck, Karin; Silberg, Debra G

    2013-04-01

    Approximately 20-30% of patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) do not experience complete symptom resolution during proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of esophageal mucosal breaks among patients who have a partial response to PPI therapy. This was an analysis of data from a phase 2b clinical trial carried out to assess the efficacy and safety of a reflux inhibitor, lesogaberan (AZD3355), as an add-on to PPI therapy in this patient population (clinicaltrials.gov reference: NCT01005251). A total of 661 patients with persistent GERD symptoms who had received a minimum of 4 weeks of PPI therapy were included in the study. The prevalence of esophageal mucosal breaks was assessed according to (i) the most recent endoscopy results from within the previous 24 months, if available ("historical" endoscopies), and (ii) the results of endoscopies performed at study baseline ("baseline" endoscopies). Baseline endoscopies were not carried out in patients who had a historical endoscopy showing an absence of esophageal mucosal breaks. Historical endoscopy results were available for 244 patients, of whom 48 (19.7%) had esophageal mucosal breaks. Baseline endoscopies were carried out in 465 patients, of whom 146 (31.4%) had esophageal mucosal breaks. Sensitivity analyses showed a prevalence of esophageal mucosal breaks of 20-30%. In both the historical and baseline endoscopies, most esophageal mucosal breaks were Los Angeles grades A or B. In patients with GERD symptoms partially responsive to PPI therapy, mild-to-moderate severity esophageal mucosal breaks are common (prevalence 20-30%), and may contribute to symptom etiology.

  13. The structure of GUT breaking by orbifolding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hebecker, Arthur; March-Russell, John

    2002-01-01

    Recently, an attractive model of GUT breaking has been proposed in which a 5-dimensional supersymmetric SU(5) gauge theory on an S 1 /(Z 2 xZ 2 ') orbifold is broken down to the 4d MSSM by SU(5)-violating boundary conditions. Motivated by this construction and several related realistic models, we investigate the general structure of orbifolds in the effective field theory context, and of this orbifold symmetry breaking mechanism in particular. An analysis of the group theoretic structure of orbifold breaking is performed. This depends upon the existence of appropriate inner and outer automorphisms of the Lie algebra, and we show that a reduction of the rank of the GUT group is possible. Some aspects of larger GUT theories based on SO(10) and E 6 are discussed. We explore the possibilities of defining the theory directly on a space with boundaries and breaking the gauge symmetry by more general consistently chosen boundary conditions for the fields. Furthermore, we derive the relation of orbifold breaking with the familiar mechanism of Wilson line breaking, finding a one-to-one correspondence, both conceptually and technically. Finally, we analyse the consistency of orbifold models in the effective field theory context, emphasizing the necessity for self-adjoint extensions of the Hamiltonian and other conserved operators, and especially the highly restrictive anomaly cancellation conditions that apply if the bulk theory lives in more than 5 dimensions

  14. The spontaneous ℤ_2 breaking Twin Higgs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beauchesne, Hugues; Earl, Kevin; Grégoire, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The Twin Higgs model seeks to address the little hierarchy problem by making the Higgs a pseudo-Goldstone of a global SU(4) symmetry that is spontaneously broken to SU(3). Gauge and Yukawa couplings, which explicitly break SU(4), enjoy a discrete ℤ_2 symmetry that accidentally maintains SU(4) at the quadratic level and therefore keeps the Higgs light. Contrary to most beyond the Standard Model theories, the quadratically divergent corrections to the Higgs mass are cancelled by a mirror sector, which is uncharged under the Standard Model groups. However, the Twin Higgs with an exact ℤ_2 symmetry leads to equal vevs in the Standard Model and mirror sectors, which is phenomenologically unviable. An explicit ℤ_2 breaking potential must then be introduced and tuned against the SU(4) breaking terms to produce a hierarchy of vevs between the two sectors. This leads to a moderate but non-negligible tuning. We propose a model to alleviate this tuning, without the need for an explicit ℤ_2 breaking sector. The model consists of two SU(4) fundamental Higgses, one whose vacuum preserves ℤ_2 and one whose vacuum breaks it. As the interactions between the two Higgses are turned on, the ℤ_2 breaking is transmitted from the broken to the unbroken sector and a small hierarchy of vevs is naturally produced. The presence of an effective tadpole and feedback between the two Higgses lead to a sizable improvement of the tuning. The resulting Higgs boson is naturally very Standard Model like.

  15. Breaking bad news: A communication competency for ophthalmology training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilkert, Sarah M; Cebulla, Colleen M; Jain, Shelly Gupta; Pfeil, Sheryl A; Benes, Susan C; Robbins, Shira L

    As the ophthalmology accreditation system undergoes major changes, training programs must evaluate residents in the 6 core competencies, including appropriately communicating bad news. Although the literature is replete with recommendations for breaking bad news across various non-ophthalmology specialties, no formal training programs exist for ophthalmology. There are many valuable lessons to be learned from our colleagues regarding this important skill. We examine the historic basis for breaking bad news, explore current recommendations among other specialties, and then evaluate a pilot study in breaking bad news for ophthalmology residents. The results of this study are limited by a small number of residents at a single academic center. Future studies from multiple training programs should be conducted to further evaluate the need and efficacy of formal communication skills training in this area, as well as the generalizability of our pilot training program. If validated, this work could serve as a template for future ophthalmology resident training and evaluation in this core competency. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Role of specific geographic landscapes in city break destinations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Štetić Snežana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban tourist destinations or City Break destinations are representing one of main destination products on tourist market. City Break destinations are big cities, administrative, economic and political centers of states and regions. These cities are 'open' 24 hours per day, seven days in week. Inside these tourist destination we can find different range of products (culture, entertainment, recreation, leisure, history, modern infrastructure. In these destinations season is not present and it lasts trough out the year. Promotional campaigns in City Break destinations are truing to create distinguished images in tourists mind as also as on investors, consumers and future residents. They emphasize advantages that those cities are delivering to their consumers, but often we forget that all these cities are having specific geographic landscapes. In the era of limiting of mass tourism to preserve resources for future generations and emphasizing the importance of sustainable development for tourism perspectives, the importance of specific geographic landscapes inside urban destinations for their further development as tourist destinations an their overall development is slightly neglected.

  17. A Theoretical Model for the Prediction of Siphon Breaking Phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Young-In; Seo, Jae-Kwang; Kim, Keung Koo; Yoon, Juhyeon

    2014-01-01

    A siphon phenomenon or siphoning often refers to the movement of liquid from a higher elevation to a lower one through a tube in an inverted U shape (whose top is typically located above the liquid surface) under the action of gravity, and has been used in a variety of reallife applications such as a toilet bowl and a Greedy cup. However, liquid drainage due to siphoning sometimes needs to be prevented. For example, a siphon breaker, which is designed to limit the siphon effect by allowing the gas entrainment into a siphon line, is installed in order to maintain the pool water level above the reactor core when a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) occurs in an open-pool type research reactor. In this paper, we develop a theoretical model to predict the siphon breaking phenomenon. In this paper, a theoretical model to predict the siphon breaking phenomenon is developed. It is shown that the present model predicts well the fundamental features of the siphon breaking phenomenon and undershooting height

  18. A Theoretical Model for the Prediction of Siphon Breaking Phenomenon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bae, Youngmin; Kim, Young-In; Seo, Jae-Kwang; Kim, Keung Koo; Yoon, Juhyeon [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    A siphon phenomenon or siphoning often refers to the movement of liquid from a higher elevation to a lower one through a tube in an inverted U shape (whose top is typically located above the liquid surface) under the action of gravity, and has been used in a variety of reallife applications such as a toilet bowl and a Greedy cup. However, liquid drainage due to siphoning sometimes needs to be prevented. For example, a siphon breaker, which is designed to limit the siphon effect by allowing the gas entrainment into a siphon line, is installed in order to maintain the pool water level above the reactor core when a loss of coolant accident (LOCA) occurs in an open-pool type research reactor. In this paper, we develop a theoretical model to predict the siphon breaking phenomenon. In this paper, a theoretical model to predict the siphon breaking phenomenon is developed. It is shown that the present model predicts well the fundamental features of the siphon breaking phenomenon and undershooting height.

  19. Electron microscopy at atomic resolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gronsky, R.

    1983-11-01

    The direct imaging of atomic structure in solids has become increasingly easier to accomplish with modern transmission electron microscopes, many of which have an information retrieval limit near 0.2 nm point resolution. Achieving better resolution, particularly with any useful range of specimen tilting, requires a major design effort. This presentation describes the new Atomic Resolution Microscope (ARM), recently put into operation at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Capable of 0.18 nm or better interpretable resolution over a voltage range of 400 kV to 1000 kV with +- 40/sup 0/ biaxial specimen tilting, the ARM features a number of new electron-optical and microprocessor-control designs. These are highlighted, and its atomic resolution performance demonstrated for a selection of inorganic crystals.

  20. Electron microscopy at atomic resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gronsky, R.

    1983-11-01

    The direct imaging of atomic structure in solids has become increasingly easier to accomplish with modern transmission electron microscopes, many of which have an information retrieval limit near 0.2 nm point resolution. Achieving better resolution, particularly with any useful range of specimen tilting, requires a major design effort. This presentation describes the new Atomic Resolution Microscope (ARM), recently put into operation at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Capable of 0.18 nm or better interpretable resolution over a voltage range of 400 kV to 1000 kV with +- 40 0 biaxial specimen tilting, the ARM features a number of new electron-optical and microprocessor-control designs. These are highlighted, and its atomic resolution performance demonstrated for a selection of inorganic crystals

  1. Energy resolution of scintillation detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moszyński, M., E-mail: M.Moszynski@ncbj.gov.pl; Syntfeld-Każuch, A.; Swiderski, L.; Grodzicka, M.; Iwanowska, J.; Sibczyński, P.; Szczęśniak, T.

    2016-01-01

    According to current knowledge, the non-proportionality of the light yield of scintillators appears to be a fundamental limitation of energy resolution. A good energy resolution is of great importance for most applications of scintillation detectors. Thus, its limitations are discussed below; which arise from the non-proportional response of scintillators to gamma rays and electrons, being of crucial importance to the intrinsic energy resolution of crystals. The important influence of Landau fluctuations and the scattering of secondary electrons (δ-rays) on intrinsic resolution is pointed out here. The study on undoped NaI and CsI at liquid nitrogen temperature with a light readout by avalanche photodiodes strongly suggests that the non-proportionality of many crystals is not their intrinsic property and may be improved by selective co-doping. Finally, several observations that have been collected in the last 15 years on the influence of the slow components of light pulses on energy resolution suggest that more complex processes are taking place in the scintillators. This was observed with CsI(Tl), CsI(Na), ZnSe(Te), and undoped NaI at liquid nitrogen temperature and, finally, for NaI(Tl) at temperatures reduced below 0 °C. A common conclusion of these observations is that the highest energy resolution, and particularly intrinsic resolution measured with the scintillators, characterized by two or more components of the light pulse decay, is obtainable when the spectrometry equipment integrates the whole light of the components. In contrast, the slow components observed in many other crystals degrade the intrinsic resolution. In the limiting case, afterglow could also be considered as a very slow component that spoils the energy resolution. The aim of this work is to summarize all of the above observations by looking for their origin.

  2. A Lyman Break Galaxy Candidate at z ~ 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Alaina L.; Malkan, Matthew A.; Colbert, James W.; Siana, Brian; Teplitz, Harry I.; McCarthy, Patrick

    2008-06-01

    We report the discovery of a z ~ 9 Lyman break galaxy candidate, selected from the NICMOS Parallel Imaging Survey as a J-dropout with J110 - H160 = 1.7. Spitzer/IRAC photometry reveals that the galaxy has a blue H160 - 3.6 μm color and a spectral break between 3.6 and 4.5 μm. We interpret this break as the Balmer break and derive a best-fit photometric redshift of z ~ 9. We use Monte Carlo simulations to test the significance of this photometric redshift, and we show that there is a 96% probability of z >= 7. We estimate that the lower limit to the comoving number density of such galaxies at z ~ 9 is phi > 3.8 × 10-6 Mpc-3. If the high redshift of this galaxy is confirmed, this will indicate that the luminous end of the rest-frame UV luminosity function has not evolved substantially from z ~ 9 to z ~ 3. Still, some small degeneracy remains between this z ~ 9 model and models at z ~ 2-3 deep optical imaging (reaching IAB ~ 29) can rule out the lower z models. This work is based in part on observations made with the Spitzer Space Telescope, which is operated by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology, under a contract with NASA. Support for this work was provided by NASA through an award issued by JPL/Caltech. This work is also based in part on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope, obtained from the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS 5-26555. These observations are associated with proposals 9484, 9865, 10226, and 10899.

  3. Breaking object correspondence across saccadic eye movements deteriorates object recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian H. Poth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception is based on information processing during periods of eye fixations that are interrupted by fast saccadic eye movements. The ability to sample and relate information on task-relevant objects across fixations implies that correspondence between presaccadic and postsaccadic objects is established. Postsaccadic object information usually updates and overwrites information on the corresponding presaccadic object. The presaccadic object representation is then lost. In contrast, the presaccadic object is conserved when object correspondence is broken. This helps transsaccadic memory but it may impose attentional costs on object recognition. Therefore, we investigated how breaking object correspondence across the saccade affects postsaccadic object recognition. In Experiment 1, object correspondence was broken by a brief postsaccadic blank screen. Observers made a saccade to a peripheral object which was displaced during the saccade. This object reappeared either immediately after the saccade or after the blank screen. Within the postsaccadic object, a letter was briefly presented (terminated by a mask. Observers reported displacement direction and letter identity in different blocks. Breaking object correspondence by blanking improved displacement identification but deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. In Experiment 2, object correspondence was broken by changing the object’s contrast-polarity. There were no object displacements and observers only reported letter identity. Again, breaking object correspondence deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. These findings identify transsaccadic object correspondence as a key determinant of object recognition across the saccade. This is in line with the recent hypothesis that breaking object correspondence results in separate representations of presaccadic and postsaccadic objects which then compete for limited attentional processing resources (Schneider, 2013. Postsaccadic

  4. Goldstone mode and pair-breaking excitations in atomic Fermi superfluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoinka, Sascha; Dyke, Paul; Lingham, Marcus G.; Kinnunen, Jami J.; Bruun, Georg M.; Vale, Chris J.

    2017-10-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a central paradigm of elementary particle physics, magnetism, superfluidity and superconductivity. According to Goldstone's theorem, phase transitions that break continuous symmetries lead to the existence of gapless excitations in the long-wavelength limit. These Goldstone modes can become the dominant low-energy excitation, showing that symmetry breaking has a profound impact on the physical properties of matter. Here, we present a comprehensive study of the elementary excitations in a homogeneous strongly interacting Fermi gas through the crossover from a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superfluid to a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of molecules using two-photon Bragg spectroscopy. The spectra exhibit a discrete Goldstone mode, associated with the broken-symmetry superfluid phase, as well as pair-breaking single-particle excitations. Our techniques yield a direct determination of the superfluid pairing gap and speed of sound in close agreement with strong-coupling theories.

  5. The Offlap Break Position Vs Sea Level: A Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tropeano, M.; Pieri, P.; Pomar, L.; Sabato, L.

    Sedimentary lithosomes with subhorizontal topsets, basinward prograding foresets and subhorizontal bottomsets are common in the geologic record, and most of them display similar bedding architectures and/or seismic reflection patterns (i.e. Gylbert- type deltas and shelf wedges). Nevertheless, in shallow marine settings these bodies may form in distinct sedimentary environments and they result from different sed- imentary processes. The offlap break (topset edge) occurs in relation to the posi- tion of baselevel and two main groups of lithosomes can be differentiated with re- spect to the position of the offlap break within the shelf profile. The baselevel of the first group is the sea level (or lake level); the topsets are mainly composed by continental- or very-shallow-water sedimentary facies and the offlap break practi- cally corresponds to the shoreline. Exemples of these lithosomes are high-constructive deltas (river-dominated deltas) and prograding beaches. For the second group, base- level corresponds to the base of wave/tide traction, and their topsets are mostly composed by shoreface/nearshore deposits. Examples of these lithosomes are high- destructive deltas (wave/tide-dominated deltas) and infralittoral prograding wedges (i.e Hernandez-Molina et al., 2000). The offlap break corresponds to the shelf edge (shoreface edge), which is located at the transition between nearshore and offshore set- tings, where a terrace prodelta- or transition-slope may develop (Pomar &Tropeano, 2001). Two main problems derive from these alternative interpretations of shallow- marine seaward prograding lithosomes: 1) both in ancient sedimentary shallow-marine successios (showing seaward prograding foresets) and in high resolution seismic pro- files (showing shelf wedges), the offlap break is commonly considered to correspond to the sea-level (shoreline) and used to inferr paleo sea-level positions and to construct sea-level curves. Without a good facies control, this use of

  6. Effective potential in Lorentz-breaking field theory models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeta Scarpelli, A.P. [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica, Nova Gameleira Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Setor Tecnico-Cientifico, Departamento de Policia Federal, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Brito, L.C.T. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Departamento de Fisica, Lavras, MG (Brazil); Felipe, J.C.C. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Departamento de Fisica, Lavras, MG (Brazil); Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri, Instituto de Engenharia, Ciencia e Tecnologia, Veredas, Janauba, MG (Brazil); Nascimento, J.R.; Petrov, A.Yu. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, Paraiba (Brazil)

    2017-12-15

    We calculate explicitly the one-loop effective potential in different Lorentz-breaking field theory models. First, we consider a Yukawa-like theory and some examples of Lorentz-violating extensions of scalar QED. We observe, for the extended QED models, that the resulting effective potential converges to the known result in the limit in which Lorentz symmetry is restored. Besides, the one-loop corrections to the effective potential in all the cases we study depend on the background tensors responsible for the Lorentz-symmetry violation. This has consequences for physical quantities like, for example, in the induced mass due to the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism. (orig.)

  7. Facets of confinement and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maris, P.; Raya, A.; Roberts, C.D.; Schmidt, S.M.

    2003-01-01

    The gap equation is a cornerstone in understanding dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and may also provide clues to confinement. A symmetry-preserving truncation of its kernel enables proofs of important results and the development of an efficacious phenomenology. We describe a model of the kernel that yields: a momentum-dependent dressed-quark propagator in fair agreement with quenched lattice-QCD results; and chiral limit values, f π 0 =68 MeV and left angle anti q q right angle =-(190 MeV) 3 . It is compared with models inferred from studies of the gauge sector. (orig.)

  8. Supercontinuum generation in silicon waveguides relying on wave-breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelló-Lurbe, David; Silvestre, Enrique

    2015-10-05

    Four-wave-mixing processes enabled during optical wave-breaking (OWB) are exploited in this paper for supercontinuum generation. Unlike conventional approaches based on OWB, phase-matching is achieved here for these nonlinear interactions, and, consequently, new frequency production becomes more efficient. We take advantage of this kind of pulse propagation to obtain numerically a coherent octave-spanning mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in a silicon waveguide pumping at telecom wavelengths in the normal dispersion regime. This scheme shows a feasible path to overcome limits imposed by two-photon absorption on spectral broadening in silicon waveguides.

  9. Tranverse beam break up in a periodic linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decker, G.; Wang, J.M.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of cumulative beam break up in a periodic linac for a general impedance is discussed, with the effects of acceleration included. The transverse equations of motion for a set of identical point like bunches moving along the length of the linac are cast into a simple form using a smooth approximation. This results in a working formula that is used to analyze beam breakup. Explicit expressions for the transverse motion in the case of a single resonance impedance are found using saddle point integration. This is done first with no external focusing, and again in the strong focusing limit

  10. Leak before break application in French PWR plants under operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faidy, C. [EDF SEPTEN, Villeurbanne (France)

    1997-04-01

    Practical applications of the leak-before break concept are presently limited in French Pressurized Water Reactors (PWR) compared to Fast Breeder Reactors. Neithertheless, different fracture mechanic demonstrations have been done on different primary, auxiliary and secondary PWR piping systems based on similar requirements that the American NUREG 1061 specifications. The consequences of the success in different demonstrations are still in discussion to be included in the global safety assessment of the plants, such as the consequences on in-service inspections, leak detection systems, support optimization,.... A large research and development program, realized in different co-operative agreements, completes the general approach.

  11. Incoherent transport for phases that spontaneously break translations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donos, Aristomenis; Gauntlett, Jerome P.; Griffin, Tom; Ziogas, Vaios

    2018-04-01

    We consider phases of matter at finite charge density which spontaneously break spatial translations. Without taking a hydrodynamic limit we identify a boost invariant incoherent current operator. We also derive expressions for the small frequency behaviour of the thermoelectric conductivities generalising those that have been derived in a translationally invariant context. Within holographic constructions we show that the DC conductivity for the incoherent current can be obtained from a solution to a Stokes flow for an auxiliary fluid on the black hole horizon combined with specific thermodynamic quantities associated with the equilibrium black hole solutions.

  12. Minimal but non-minimal inflation and electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marzola, Luca [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics,Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia); Institute of Physics, University of Tartu,Ravila 14c, 50411 Tartu (Estonia); Racioppi, Antonio [National Institute of Chemical Physics and Biophysics,Rävala 10, 10143 Tallinn (Estonia)

    2016-10-07

    We consider the most minimal scale invariant extension of the standard model that allows for successful radiative electroweak symmetry breaking and inflation. The framework involves an extra scalar singlet, that plays the rôle of the inflaton, and is compatibile with current experimental bounds owing to the non-minimal coupling of the latter to gravity. This inflationary scenario predicts a very low tensor-to-scalar ratio r≈10{sup −3}, typical of Higgs-inflation models, but in contrast yields a scalar spectral index n{sub s}≃0.97 which departs from the Starobinsky limit. We briefly discuss the collider phenomenology of the framework.

  13. Effective potential in Lorentz-breaking field theory models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baeta Scarpelli, A.P.; Brito, L.C.T.; Felipe, J.C.C.; Nascimento, J.R.; Petrov, A.Yu.

    2017-01-01

    We calculate explicitly the one-loop effective potential in different Lorentz-breaking field theory models. First, we consider a Yukawa-like theory and some examples of Lorentz-violating extensions of scalar QED. We observe, for the extended QED models, that the resulting effective potential converges to the known result in the limit in which Lorentz symmetry is restored. Besides, the one-loop corrections to the effective potential in all the cases we study depend on the background tensors responsible for the Lorentz-symmetry violation. This has consequences for physical quantities like, for example, in the induced mass due to the Coleman-Weinberg mechanism. (orig.)

  14. Lyman Break Galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field through Deep U-Band Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafelski, Marc; Wolfe, A. M.; Cooke, J.; Chen, H. W.; Armandroff, T. E.; Wirth, G. D.

    2009-12-01

    We introduce an extremely deep U-band image taken of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (HUDF), with a one sigma depth of 30.7 mag arcsec-2 and a detection limiting magnitude of 28 mag arcsec-2. The observations were carried out on the Keck I telescope using the LRIS-B detector. The U-band image substantially improves the accuracy of photometric redshift measurements of faint galaxies in the HUDF at z=[2.5,3.5]. The U-band for these galaxies is attenuated by lyman limit absorption, allowing for more reliable selections of candidate Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) than from photometric redshifts without U-band. We present a reliable sample of 300 LBGs at z=[2.5,3.5] in the HUDF. Accurate redshifts of faint galaxies at z=[2.5,3.5] are needed to obtain empirical constraints on the star formation efficiency of neutral gas at high redshift. Wolfe & Chen (2006) showed that the star formation rate (SFR) density in damped Ly-alpha absorption systems (DLAs) at z=[2.5,3.5] is significantly lower than predicted by the Kennicutt-Schmidt law for nearby galaxies. One caveat to this result that we wish to test is whether LBGs are embedded in DLAs. If in-situ star formation is occurring in DLAs, we would see it as extended low surface brightness emission around LBGs. We shall use the more accurate photometric redshifts to create a sample of LBGs around which we will look for extended emission in the more sensitive and higher resolution HUDF images. The absence of extended emission would put limits on the SFR density of DLAs associated with LBGs at high redshift. On the other hand, detection of faint emission on scales large compared to the bright LBG cores would indicate the presence of in situ star formation in those DLAs. Such gas would presumably fuel the higher star formation rates present in the LBG cores.

  15. KINOFORM LENSES - TOWARD NANOMETER RESOLUTION.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    STEIN, A.; EVANS-LUTTERODT, K.; TAYLOR, A.

    2004-10-23

    While hard x-rays have wavelengths in the nanometer and sub-nanometer range, the ability to focus them is limited by the quality of sources and optics, and not by the wavelength. A few options, including reflective (mirrors), diffractive (zone plates) and refractive (CRL's) are available, each with their own limitations. Here we present our work with kinoform lenses which are refractive lenses with all material causing redundant 2{pi} phase shifts removed to reduce the absorption problems inherently limiting the resolution of refractive lenses. By stacking kinoform lenses together, the effective numerical aperture, and thus the focusing resolution, can be increased. The present status of kinoform lens fabrication and testing at Brookhaven is presented as well as future plans toward achieving nanometer resolution.

  16. Modelling oil price volatility with structural breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salisu, Afees A.; Fasanya, Ismail O.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we provide two main innovations: (i) we analyze oil prices of two prominent markets namely West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Brent using the two recently developed tests by Narayan and Popp (2010) and Liu and Narayan, 2010 both of which allow for two structural breaks in the data series; and (ii) the latter method is modified to include both symmetric and asymmetric volatility models. We identify two structural breaks that occur in 1990 and 2008 which coincidentally correspond to the Iraqi/Kuwait conflict and the global financial crisis, respectively. We find evidence of persistence and leverage effects in the oil price volatility. While further extensions can be pursued, the consideration of asymmetric effects as well as structural breaks should not be jettisoned when modelling oil price volatility. - Highlights: ► We analyze oil price volatility using NP (2010) and LN (2010) tests. ► We modify the LN (2010) to account for leverage effects in oil price. ► We find two structural breaks that reflect major global crisis in the oil market. ► We find evidence of persistence and leverage effects in oil price volatility. ► Leverage effects and structural breaks are fundamental in oil price modelling.

  17. Breaks in MODIS time series portend vegetation change: verification using long-term data in an arid grassland ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Dawn M; Maynard, Jonathan J; Karl, Jason W; Peters, Debra C

    2017-07-01

    Frequency and severity of extreme climatic events are forecast to increase in the 21st century. Predicting how managed ecosystems may respond to climatic extremes is intensified by uncertainty associated with knowing when, where, and how long effects of extreme events will be manifest in an ecosystem. In water-limited ecosystems with high inter-annual variability in rainfall, it is important to be able to distinguish responses that result from seasonal fluctuations in rainfall from long-term directional increases or decreases in precipitation. A tool that successfully distinguishes seasonal from directional biomass responses would allow land managers to make informed decisions about prioritizing mitigation strategies, allocating human resource monitoring efforts, and mobilizing resources to withstand extreme climatic events. We leveraged long-term observations (2000-2013) of quadrat-level plant biomass at multiple locations across a semiarid landscape in southern New Mexico to verify the use of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) time series derived from 250-m Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data as a proxy for changes in aboveground productivity. This period encompassed years of sustained drought (2000-2003) and record-breaking high rainfall (2006 and 2008) followed by subsequent drought years (2011 through 2013) that resulted in a restructuring of plant community composition in some locations. Our objective was to decompose vegetation patterns derived from MODIS NDVI over this period into contributions from (1) the long-term trend, (2) seasonal cycle, and (3) unexplained variance using the Breaks for Additive Season and Trend (BFAST) model. BFAST breakpoints in NDVI trend and seasonal components were verified with field-estimated biomass at 15 sites that differed in species richness, vegetation cover, and soil properties. We found that 34 of 45 breaks in NDVI trend reflected large changes in mean biomass and 16 of 19 seasonal

  18. 9 CFR 590.522 - Breaking room operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... personnel. (m) Ingredients and additives used in, or for, processing egg products, shall be handled in a..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.522 Breaking room operations. (a) The breaking room shall be kept... clean and reasonably dry during breaking operations and free of egg meat and shells. (b) All breaking...

  19. Jet simulations and gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerten, H.J.; Meliani, Z.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Keppens, R.

    2011-01-01

    The conventional derivation of the gamma-ray burst afterglow jet break time uses only the blast wave fluid Lorentz factor and therefore leads to an achromatic break. We show that in general gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks are chromatic across the self-absorption break. Depending on

  20. Jet simulations and gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerten, H. J.; Meliani, Z.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Keppens, R.

    2010-01-01

    The conventional derivation of the gamma-ray burst afterglow jet break time uses only the blast wave fluid Lorentz factor and therefore leads to an achromatic break. We show that in general gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks are chromatic across the self-absorption break. Depending on

  1. Hydraulic Response of Caisson Breakwaters in Multidirectional Breaking and Non-Breaking Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech, J.; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Hald, Tue

    1998-01-01

    The present paper concerns the results and findings of a physical study on wave impacts on vertical caisson breakwaters situated in irregular, multidirectional breaking seas. The study has taken place as part of the framework programme "Dynamic of Structures" financially supported by the Danish T...... breaking waves at deep water. The study on wave overtopping showed that the 3D wave overtopping formula suggested by Franco et al., 1995b, predicts the wave overtopping reasonable well for both non breaking and breaking waves at deep water.......The present paper concerns the results and findings of a physical study on wave impacts on vertical caisson breakwaters situated in irregular, multidirectional breaking seas. The study has taken place as part of the framework programme "Dynamic of Structures" financially supported by the Danish...... induced loading and overtopping on caisson breakwaters situated in breaking seas. Regarding the wave forces only minor differences between breaking and non breaking waves in deep water were observed, and it was found that the prediction formula of Goda also seems to apply well for multidirectionally...

  2. Failure Diameter Resolution Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menikoff, Ralph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-12-19

    Previously the SURFplus reactive burn model was calibrated for the TATB based explosive PBX 9502. The calibration was based on fitting Pop plot data, the failure diameter and the limiting detonation speed, and curvature effect data for small curvature. The model failure diameter is determined utilizing 2-D simulations of an unconfined rate stick to find the minimum diameter for which a detonation wave propagates. Here we examine the effect of mesh resolution on an unconfined rate stick with a diameter (10mm) slightly greater than the measured failure diameter (8 to 9 mm).

  3. Deep Keck u-Band Imaging of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: A Catalog of z ~ 3 Lyman Break Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafelski, Marc; Wolfe, Arthur M.; Cooke, Jeff; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Armandroff, Taft E.; Wirth, Gregory D.

    2009-10-01

    We present a sample of 407 z ~ 3 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) to a limiting isophotal u-band magnitude of 27.6 mag in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. The LBGs are selected using a combination of photometric redshifts and the u-band drop-out technique enabled by the introduction of an extremely deep u-band image obtained with the Keck I telescope and the blue channel of the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer. The Keck u-band image, totaling 9 hr of integration time, has a 1σ depth of 30.7 mag arcsec-2, making it one of the most sensitive u-band images ever obtained. The u-band image also substantially improves the accuracy of photometric redshift measurements of ~50% of the z ~ 3 LBGs, significantly reducing the traditional degeneracy of colors between z ~ 3 and z ~ 0.2 galaxies. This sample provides the most sensitive, high-resolution multi-filter imaging of reliably identified z ~ 3 LBGs for morphological studies of galaxy formation and evolution and the star formation efficiency of gas at high redshift.

  4. Break-glass handling exceptional situations in access control

    CERN Document Server

    Petritsch, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Helmut Petritsch describes the first holistic approach to Break-Glass which covers the whole life-cycle: from access control modeling (pre-access), to logging the security-relevant system state during Break-Glass accesses (at-access), and the automated analysis of Break-Glass accesses (post-access). Break-Glass allows users to override security restrictions in exceptional situations. While several Break-Glass models specific to given access control models have already been discussed in research (e.g., extending RBAC with Break-Glass), the author introduces a generic Break-Glass model. The pres

  5. Report of Break Out Group 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alward, Randy; Carley, Kathleen M.; Madsen, Fredrik Huitfeldt

    2006-01-01

    , action" (OODA) loop. The break out group discussed vulnerability presentation needs common across various application domains, particularly in support of network discovery and network analysis tasks in those domains. Finally, the break out group wished to determine whether there is a means...... of characterizing a vulnerability. This would take into account the potential for the vulnerability to be exploited as well as the potential impact on the operations supported by the network, and on the network structure itself, of a successful exploit of that vulnerability.......To help understand a network and its ability to continue operating when under attack, the break out group discussed issues that need to be considered when presenting network vulnerability information to an analyst, manager or commander in effective support of that person's "observe, orient, decide...

  6. Large eddy simulation of breaking waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Deigaard, Rolf

    2001-01-01

    A numerical model is used to simulate wave breaking, the large scale water motions and turbulence induced by the breaking process. The model consists of a free surface model using the surface markers method combined with a three-dimensional model that solves the flow equations. The turbulence....... The incoming waves are specified by a flux boundary condition. The waves are approaching in the shore-normal direction and are breaking on a plane, constant slope beach. The first few wave periods are simulated by a two-dimensional model in the vertical plane normal to the beach line. The model describes...... the steepening and the overturning of the wave. At a given instant, the model domain is extended to three dimensions, and the two-dimensional flow field develops spontaneously three-dimensional flow features with turbulent eddies. After a few wave periods, stationary (periodic) conditions are achieved...

  7. Workshop on electroweak symmetry breaking: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinchliffe, I. (ed.)

    1984-10-01

    A theoretical workshop on electroweak symmetry breaking at the Superconducting Supercollider was held at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, June 4-22, 1984. The purpose of the workshop was to focus theoretical attention on the ways in which experimentation at the SSC could reveal manifestations of the phenomenon responsible for electroweak symmetry breaking. This issue represents, at present, the most compelling scientific argument for the need to explore the energy region to be made accessible by the SSC, and a major aim of the workshop was to involve a broad cross section of particle theorists in the ongoing process of sharpening the requirements for both accelerator and detector design that will ensure detection and identification of meaningful signals, whatever form the electroweak symmetry breaking phenomenon should actually take. Separate entries were prepared for the data base for the papers presented.

  8. Workshop on electroweak symmetry breaking: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinchliffe, I.

    1984-10-01

    A theoretical workshop on electroweak symmetry breaking at the Superconducting Supercollider was held at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, June 4-22, 1984. The purpose of the workshop was to focus theoretical attention on the ways in which experimentation at the SSC could reveal manifestations of the phenomenon responsible for electroweak symmetry breaking. This issue represents, at present, the most compelling scientific argument for the need to explore the energy region to be made accessible by the SSC, and a major aim of the workshop was to involve a broad cross section of particle theorists in the ongoing process of sharpening the requirements for both accelerator and detector design that will ensure detection and identification of meaningful signals, whatever form the electroweak symmetry breaking phenomenon should actually take. Separate entries were prepared for the data base for the papers presented

  9. Breaking bad news in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantis, Apostolos; Exiara, Triada

    2015-01-01

    In a regional hospital, many patients are newly diagnosed with cancer. Breaking the bad news in these patients and their relatives is a tough task. Many doctors are not experienced in talking to patients about death or death-related diseases. In recent years, there have been great efforts to change the current situation. The aim of this study was to investigate the experience and education of medical personnel in breaking bad news in a secondary hospital. 59 doctors from General Hospital of Komotini, Greece were included in the study. All the doctors were in clinical specialties that treated cancer patients. A brief questionnaire was developed based on current guidelines such as Baile/SPIKES framework and the ABCDE mnemonic. Residents are involved in delivering bad news less frequently than specialists. Only 21 doctors (35.59%) had specific training on breaking bad news. 20 doctors (33.90%) were aware of the available techniques and protocols on breaking bad news. 47 doctors (79.66%) had a consistent plan for breaking bad news. 57 (96.61%) delivered bad news in a quiet place, 53 (89.83%) ensured no interruptions and enough time, 53 (89.83%) used simple words and 54 (91.53%) checked for understanding and did not rush through the news. 46 doctors (77.97%) allowed relatives to determine patient's knowledge about the disease. There were low rates of specific training in breaking bad news. However, the selected location, the physician's speech and their plan were according to current guidelines.

  10. Breaking bad news in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Konstantis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In a regional hospital, many patients are newly diagnosed with cancer. Breaking the bad news in these patients and their relatives is a tough task. Many doctors are not experienced in talking to patients about death or death-related diseases. In recent years, there have been great efforts to change the current situation. The aim of this study was to investigate the experience and education of medical personnel in breaking bad news in a secondary hospital. Materials and Methods: 59 doctors from General Hospital of Komotini, Greece were included in the study. All the doctors were in clinical specialties that treated cancer patients. A brief questionnaire was developed based on current guidelines such as Baile/SPIKES framework and the ABCDE mnemonic. Results: Residents are involved in delivering bad news less frequently than specialists. Only 21 doctors (35.59% had specific training on breaking bad news. 20 doctors (33.90% were aware of the available techniques and protocols on breaking bad news. 47 doctors (79.66% had a consistent plan for breaking bad news. 57 (96.61% delivered bad news in a quiet place, 53 (89.83% ensured no interruptions and enough time, 53 (89.83% used simple words and 54 (91.53% checked for understanding and did not rush through the news. 46 doctors (77.97% allowed relatives to determine patient′s knowledge about the disease. Conclusions: There were low rates of specific training in breaking bad news. However, the selected location, the physician′s speech and their plan were according to current guidelines.

  11. A swath across the great divide: Kelp forests across the Samalga Pass biogeographic break

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konar, Brenda H.; Edwards, Matthew S.; Bland, Aaron; Metzger, Jacob; Ravelo, Alexandra; Traiger, Sarah; Weitzman, Ben P.

    2017-01-01

    Biogeographic breaks are often described as locations where a large number of species reach their geographic range limits. Samalga Pass, in the eastern Aleutian Archipelago, is a known biogeographic break for the spatial distribution of several species of offshore-pelagic communities, including numerous species of cold-water corals, zooplankton, fish, marine mammals, and seabirds. However, it remains unclear whether Samalga Pass also serves as a biogeographic break for nearshore benthic communities. The occurrence of biogeographic breaks across multiple habitats has not often been described. In this study, we examined if the biogeographic break for offshore-pelagic communities applies to nearshore kelp forests. To examine whether Samalga Pass serves as a biogeographic break for kelp forest communities, this study compared abundance, biomass and percent bottom cover of species associated with kelp forests on either side of the pass. We observed marked differences in kelp forest community structure, with some species reaching their geographic range limits on the opposing sides of the pass. In particular, the habitat-forming kelp Nereocystis luetkeana, and the predatory sea stars Pycnopodia helianthoides and Orthasterias koehleri all occurred on the eastern side of Samalga Pass but were not observed west of the pass. In contrast, the sea star Leptasterias camtschatica dispar was observed only on the western side of the pass. We also observed differences in overall abundance and biomass of numerous associated fish, invertebrate and macroalgal species on opposing sides of the pass. We conclude that Samalga Pass is important biogeographic break for kelp forest communities in the Aleutian Archipelago and may demark the geographic range limits of several ecologically important species.

  12. Speckle dynamics under ergodicity breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sdobnov, Anton; Bykov, Alexander; Molodij, Guillaume; Kalchenko, Vyacheslav; Jarvinen, Topias; Popov, Alexey; Kordas, Krisztian; Meglinski, Igor

    2018-04-01

    Laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) is a well-known and versatile approach for the non-invasive visualization of flows and microcirculation localized in turbid scattering media, including biological tissues. In most conventional implementations of LSCI the ergodic regime is typically assumed valid. However, most composite turbid scattering media, especially biological tissues, are non-ergodic, containing a mixture of dynamic and static centers of light scattering. In the current study, we examined the speckle contrast in different dynamic conditions with the aim of assessing limitations in the quantitative interpretation of speckle contrast images. Based on a simple phenomenological approach, we introduced a coefficient of speckle dynamics to quantitatively assess the ratio of the dynamic part of a scattering medium to the static one. The introduced coefficient allows one to distinguish real changes in motion from the mere appearance of static components in the field of view. As examples of systems with static/dynamic transitions, thawing and heating of Intralipid samples were studied by the LSCI approach.

  13. Implications of career break from personal and company perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Vuorinen, Niina

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study is to show the implications that career breaks have on individuals and employers. The intensions are to identify personal motivations for career breaks, and if the breaks change the careers of the people taking them. Furthermore, this study intends to understand how career breaks are viewed by employers, and if career breaks are becoming more acceptable internationally. The theoretical framework was based on description of work and careers both from employee an...

  14. Coupled simulation of steam line break accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Royer, E.; Raimond, E.; Caruge, D.

    2000-01-01

    The steam line break is a PWR type reactor design accident, which concerns coupled physical phenomena. To control these problems simulation are needed to define and validate the operating procedures. The benchmark OECD PWR MSLB (Main Steam Line Break) has been proposed by the OECD to validate the feasibility and the contribution of the multi-dimensional tools in the simulation of the core transients. First the benchmark OECD PWR MSLB is presented. Then the analysis of the three exercises (system with pinpoint kinetic, three-dimensional core and whole system with three-dimensional core) are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  15. The experimental investigation of supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1996-04-01

    If Nature is supersymmetric at the weak interaction scale, what can we hope to learn from experiments on supersymmetric particles? The most mysterious aspect of phenomenological supersymmetry is the mechanism of spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. This mechanism ties the observable pattern of supersymmetric particle masses to aspects of the underlying unified theory at very small distance scales. In this article, I will discuss a systematic experimental program to determine the mechanism of supersymmetry breaking. Both pp and e + e - colliders of the next generation play an essential role

  16. What records have we been breaking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholow, J.M.; Milhous, R.

    2002-01-01

    "Today was another record-breaking day," the evening radio or television declares. High temperatures, low temperatures, floods, drought - take your choice. But how can we put these pronouncements in perspective? What do they really mean?We present two types of information in this article: 1) an analysis of daily air temperature and precipitation for Fort Collins and 2) an analysis of annual precipitation for Fort Collins. Each analysis provides a different meaning to the statement about a record-breaking day or year.

  17. Detecting Structural Breaks using Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ntantamis, Christos

    Testing for structural breaks and identifying their location is essential for econometric modeling. In this paper, a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approach is used in order to perform these tasks. Breaks are defined as the data points where the underlying Markov Chain switches from one state to another....... The estimation of the HMM is conducted using a variant of the Iterative Conditional Expectation-Generalized Mixture (ICE-GEMI) algorithm proposed by Delignon et al. (1997), that permits analysis of the conditional distributions of economic data and allows for different functional forms across regimes...

  18. Exchange across the shelf break at high southern latitudes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Klinck

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Exchange of water across the Antarctic shelf break has considerable scientific and societal importance due to its effects on circulation and biology of the region, conversion of water masses as part of the global overturning circulation and basal melt of glacial ice and the consequent effect on sea level rise. The focus in this paper is the onshore transport of warm, oceanic Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW; export of dense water from these shelves is equally important, but has been the focus of other recent papers and will not be considered here. A variety of physical mechanisms are described which could play a role in this onshore flux. The relative importance of some processes are evaluated by simple calculations. A numerical model for the Ross Sea continental shelf is used as an example of a more comprehensive evaluation of the details of cross-shelf break exchange. In order for an ocean circulation model to simulate these processes at high southern latitudes, it needs to have high spatial resolution, realistic geometry and bathymetry. Grid spacing smaller than the first baroclinic radius of deformation (a few km is required to adequately represent the circulation. Because of flow-topography interactions, bathymetry needs to be represented at these same small scales. Atmospheric conditions used to force these circulation models also need to be known at a similar small spatial resolution (a few km in order to represent orographically controlled winds (coastal jets and katabatic winds. Significantly, time variability of surface winds strongly influences the structure of the mixed layer. Daily, if not more frequent, surface fluxes must be imposed for a realistic surface mixed layer. Sea ice and ice shelves are important components of the coastal circulation. Ice isolates the ocean from exchange with the atmosphere, especially in the winter. Melting and freezing of both sea ice and glacial ice influence salinity and thereby the character of shelf

  19. Peaking cladding temperature and break equivalent size of intermediate break loss of coolant accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Bangqi

    2012-01-01

    The analysis results of intermediate break loss of coolant accident for the nuclear power plant of million kw level showed to be as following: (1) At the begin of life, the break occur simultaneity reactor shutdown with L(X)P. it's equivalent break size and peaking cladding temperature is respectively 20 cm and 849℃. (2) At the begin of life, the break occur simultaneity reactor shutdown without loop. the reactor coolant pumps will be stop after reactor shutdown 10 minutes, it's equivalent break size and peaking cladding temperature is respectively 10.5 cm and 921℃. (3) At the bur up of 31 GWd/t(EOC1). the break occur simultaneity reactor shutdown without loop, the reactor coolant pumps will be stop after reactor shutdown 20 minutes, it's equivalent break size and peaking cladding temperature is respectively 8 cm and 1145℃. The above analysis results showed that the peaking cladding temperature of intermediate break loss of coolant accident is not only related with the break equivalent size and core bur up, and is closely related with the stop time of coolant pumps because the coolant pumps would drive the coolant from safety system to produce the seal loop in break loop and affect the core coolant flow, results in the fuel cladding temperature increasing or damaging. Therefore, the break spectrum, burn up spectrum, the stop time of coolant pumps and operator action time will need to detail analysis and provide appropriate operating procedure, otherwise the peaking cladding temperature will exceed 1204℃ and threaten the safety of the reactor core when the intermediate break loss of coolant accident occur in some break equivalent size, burn up, stop pumps time and operator action not appropriate. The pressurizer pressure low signal simultaneity containment pressure higher signal were used as the operator manual close the signal of reactor coolant pumps after reactor shutdown of 20 minutes. have successful solved the operator intervention time from 10 minutes

  20. The Solar System According to General Relativity: The Sun's Space Breaking Meets the Asteroid Strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borissova L.

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the exact solution of Einstein’s field equations for a sphere of incompressible liquid without the additional limitation initially introduced in 1916 by Schwarzschild, by which the space-time metric must have no singularities. The ob- tained exact solution is then applied to the Universe, the Sun, and the planets, by the assumption that these objects can be approximated as spheres of incompressible liq- uid. It is shown that gravitational collapse of such a sphere is permitted for an object whose characteristics (mass, density, and size are close to the Universe. Meanwhile, there is a spatial break associated with any of the mentioned stellar objects: the break is determined as the approaching to infinity of one of the spatial components of the metric tensor. In particular, the break of the Sun’s space meets the Asteroid strip, while Jupiter’s space break meets the Asteroid strip from the outer side. Also, the space breaks of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars are located inside the Asteroid strip (inside the Sun’s space break.

  1. Investigation of small break loss-of-coolant phenomena in a small scale nonnuclear test facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzuol, J.M.; Fauble, T.J.; Harvego, E.A.

    1980-01-01

    A small-scale nonnuclear integral test facility designed to simulate a pressurized water reactor (PWR) system was used to evaluate the effects of a small break loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) on the system thermal-hydraulic response. The experiment approximated a 2.5% (11-cm diameter) communicative break in the cold leg of a PWR, and included initial conditions which were similar to conditions in a PWR operating at full power. The 2.5% break size ensured that the nominal break flow rate was greater than the high pressure injection system (HPIS) flow rate, thus providing the potential for a continuous system depressurization. The sequence of events was similar to that used in evaluation model analysis of small break loss-of-coolant accidents, and included simulated reactor scram and loss of offsite power. Comparisions of experimental data with computer code calculations are used to demonstrate the capabilities and limitations of integral system calculations used to predict phenomena which can be important in the assessment of a small break LOCA in a PWR

  2. Assessment of RELAP/MOD2 using large break loss-of-coolant experimental data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, L.; Liao, L.Y.; Liang, K.S.; Wang, S.F.; Chen, Y.B.

    1989-01-01

    In this paper assessment of RELAP5/MOD2 using LOFT L2-5 and Semiscale S-06-3 tests are performed to provide information of the code capability and its limitation in analyzing large break LOCA of a nuclear power plant. Experiments L2-5 and S-06-3 are conducted to simulate a hypothetical LOCA which results from a 200% double-ended offset shear break in the cold-leg of a typical pressurized water reactor by utilizing scaling facilities of the LOFT and Semiscale Mod-1 systems, respectively. The RELAP5/MOD2 calculations for both tests begin with break initiation and subsequent blowdown, continue through lower plenum refill, core reflood, and terminate with corewide quench. Major phenomena of both large break loss-of-coolant tests are well predicted by RELAP5/MOD2. The results indicate that the break flow and system pressure are reasonably calculated. The cladding temperature response during blowdown period, which is the major importance to a large break LOCA, calculated by RELAP5/MOD2 shows good agreement with the test data

  3. Water level effects on breaking wave setup for Pacific Island fringing reefs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, J. M.; Merrifield, M. A.; Ford, M.

    2014-02-01

    The effects of water level variations on breaking wave setup over fringing reefs are assessed using field measurements obtained at three study sites in the Republic of the Marshall Islands and the Mariana Islands in the western tropical Pacific Ocean. At each site, reef flat setup varies over the tidal range with weaker setup at high tide and stronger setup at low tide for a given incident wave height. The observed water level dependence is interpreted in the context of radiation stress gradients specified by an idealized point break model generalized for nonnormally incident waves. The tidally varying setup is due in part to depth-limited wave heights on the reef flat, as anticipated from previous reef studies, but also to tidally dependent breaking on the reef face. The tidal dependence of the breaking is interpreted in the context of the point break model in terms of a tidally varying wave height to water depth ratio at breaking. Implications for predictions of wave-driven setup at reef-fringed island shorelines are discussed.

  4. The transcription fidelity factor GreA impedes DNA break repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Priya; Sepúlveda, Leonardo A; Halliday, Jennifer A; Liu, Jingjing; Núñez, María Angélica Bravo; Golding, Ido; Rosenberg, Susan M; Herman, Christophe

    2017-10-12

    Homologous recombination repairs DNA double-strand breaks and must function even on actively transcribed DNA. Because break repair prevents chromosome loss, the completion of repair is expected to outweigh the transcription of broken templates. However, the interplay between DNA break repair and transcription processivity is unclear. Here we show that the transcription factor GreA inhibits break repair in Escherichia coli. GreA restarts backtracked RNA polymerase and hence promotes transcription fidelity. We report that removal of GreA results in markedly enhanced break repair via the classic RecBCD-RecA pathway. Using a deep-sequencing method to measure chromosomal exonucleolytic degradation, we demonstrate that the absence of GreA limits RecBCD-mediated resection. Our findings suggest that increased RNA polymerase backtracking promotes break repair by instigating RecA loading by RecBCD, without the influence of canonical Chi signals. The idea that backtracked RNA polymerase can stimulate recombination presents a DNA transaction conundrum: a transcription fidelity factor that compromises genomic integrity.

  5. The surface morphology of retinal breaks and lattice retinal degeneration. A scanning electron microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, M R; Streeten, B W

    1986-02-01

    In 14 of 110 eye bank eyes, lesions characteristic of peripheral retinal surface pathology were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). These included operculated and flap tears, trophic round holes, lattice degeneration with holes, and paravascular retinal "pitting" degeneration. By SEM, the edges of the retinal breaks were covered by smooth cellular membranes, merging peripherally with a meshwork of vitreous fibrils. The membrane cells had poorly defined borders, a pitted surface, and variable numbers of microvilli consistent with glia. Lattice surfaces and foci of paravascular retinal degeneration were covered by similar membrane, but showed characteristic differences. It appears that breaks in the internal limiting membrane always stimulate proliferation of preretinal glial membranes. Similar cellular morphology of the membranes associated with breaks is consistent with a common cell of origin. Limited proliferation of these membranes suggests that surface gliosis is normally inhibited when the cells contact either intact basement membrane or vitreous.

  6. Dynamical Symmetry Breaking in RN Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Kotvytskiy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that in the RN gravitation model, there is no dynamical symmetry breaking effect in the formalism of the Schwinger-Dyson equation (in flat background space-time. A general formula for the second variation of the gravitational action is obtained from the quantum corrections hμν (in arbitrary background metrics.

  7. Controlling break-the-glass through alignment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adriansyah, A.; Dongen, van B.F.; Zannone, N.

    2013-01-01

    Modern IT systems have to deal with unpredictable situations and exceptions more and more often. In contrast, security mechanisms are usually very rigid. This causes organizations to employ functionality like break-the-glass that allows users to bypass security mechanisms in case of emergencies.

  8. The issue of supersymmetry breaking in strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binetruy, P.

    1989-12-01

    We discuss the central role that supersymmetry plays in string models, both in spacetime and at the level of the string world-sheet. The problems associated with supersymmetry-breaking are reviewed together with some of the attempts to solve them, in the string as well as the field theory approach

  9. Prediction of LOCA Break Size Using CFNN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Geon Pil; Yoo, Kwae Hwan; Back, Ju Hyun; Kim, Dong Yeong; Na, Man Gyun [Chosun University Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The NPPs have the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) such as a safety injection system. The ECCS may not function properly in case of the small break size due to a slight change of pressure in the pipe. If the coolant is not supplied by ECCS, the reactor core will melt. Therefore, the meltdown of reactor core have to be prevented by appropriate accident management through the prediction of LOCA break size in advance. This study presents the prediction of LOCA break size using cascaded fuzzy neural network (CFNN). The CFNN model repeatedly applies FNN modules that are serially connected. The CFNN model is a data-based method that requires data for its development and verification. The data were obtained by numerically simulating severe accident scenarios of the optimized power reactor (OPR1000) using MAAP code, because real severe accident data cannot be obtained from actual NPP accidents. The CFNN model has been designed to rapidly predict the LOCA break size in LOCA situations. The CFNN model was trained by using the training data set and checked by using test data set. These data sets were obtained using MAAP code for OPR1000 reactor. The performance results of the CFNN model show that the RMS error decreases as the stage number of the CFNN model increases. In addition, the performance result of the CFNN model presents that the RMS error level is below 4%.

  10. Lifshitz-sector mediated SUSY breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospelov, Maxim; Tamarit, Carlos

    2014-01-01

    We propose a novel mechanism of SUSY breaking by coupling a Lorentz-invariant supersymmetric matter sector to non-supersymmetric gravitational interactions with Lifshitz scaling. The improved UV properties of Lifshitz propagators moderate the otherwise uncontrollable ultraviolet divergences induced by gravitational loops. This ensures that both the amount of induced Lorentz violation and SUSY breaking in the matter sector are controlled by Λ HL 2 /M P 2 , the ratio of the Hořava-Lifshitz cross-over scale Λ HL to the Planck scale M P . This ratio can be kept very small, providing a novel way of explicitly breaking supersymmetry without reintroducing fine-tuning. We illustrate our idea by considering a model of scalar gravity with Hořava-Lifshitz scaling coupled to a supersymmetric Wess-Zumino matter sector, in which we compute the two-loop SUSY breaking corrections to the masses of the light scalars due to the gravitational interactions and the heavy fields

  11. Atmospheric noise of a breaking tidal bore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanson, Hubert

    2016-01-01

    A tidal bore is a surge of waters propagating upstream in an estuary as the tidal flow turns to rising and the flood tide propagates into a funnel-shaped system. Large tidal bores have a marked breaking roller. The sounds generated by breaking tidal bores were herein investigated in the field (Qiantang River) and in laboratory. The sound pressure record showed two dominant periods, with some similarity with an earlier study [Chanson (2009). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 125(6), 3561-3568]. The two distinct phases were the incoming tidal bore when the sound amplitude increased with the approaching bore, and the passage of the tidal bore in front of the microphone when loud and powerful noises were heard. The dominant frequency ranged from 57 to 131 Hz in the Qiantang River bore. A comparison between laboratory and prototype tidal bores illustrated both common features and differences. The low pitch sound of the breaking bore had a dominant frequency close to the collective oscillations of bubble clouds, which could be modeled with a bubble cloud model using a transverse dimension of the bore roller. The findings suggest that this model might be over simplistic in the case of a powerful breaking bore, like that of the Qiantang River.

  12. Critical wind speed at which trees break

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virot, E.; Ponomarenko, A.; Dehandschoewercker, É.; Quéré, D.; Clanet, C.

    2016-02-01

    Data from storms suggest that the critical wind speed at which trees break is constant (≃42 m /s ), regardless of tree characteristics. We question the physical origin of this observation both experimentally and theoretically. By combining Hooke's law, Griffith's criterion, and tree allometry, we show that the critical wind speed indeed hardly depends on the height, diameter, and elastic properties of trees.

  13. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in N = 2 supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zinov'ev, Y.M.

    1987-01-01

    A model describing the interaction of N = 2 supergravity with a vector and a linear multiplet is constructed. The model admits the introduction of spontaneous supersymmetry breaking with two arbitrary scales, one of which can be equal to zero, corresponding to the partial super-Higgs effect (N = 2→N = 1). The cosmological term is automatically equal to zero

  14. Firm break-up and performance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočenda, Evžen; Hanousek, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2012), s. 121-143 ISSN 1435-6104 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/1595 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : break-up of firms * corporate performance * ownership changes Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.588, year: 2012

  15. Path-breaking books in regional science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldorf, BS

    This article presents a collection of regional science books that long-standing members of the Regional Science Association International (RSAI) identified as path-breaking books. The most frequently nominated books include the "classics" by Isard, the seminal books in urban economics by Alonso,

  16. Fragmentation in DNA double-strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wei Zhiyong; Suzhou Univ., Suzhou; Zhang Lihui; Li Ming; Fan Wo; Xu Yujie

    2005-01-01

    DNA double strand breaks are important lesions induced by irradiations. Random breakage model or quantification supported by this concept is suitable to analyze DNA double strand break data induced by low LET radiation, but deviation from random breakage model is more evident in high LET radiation data analysis. In this work we develop a new method, statistical fragmentation model, to analyze the fragmentation process of DNA double strand breaks. After charged particles enter the biological cell, they produce ionizations along their tracks, and transfer their energies to the cells and break the cellular DNA strands into fragments. The probable distribution of the fragments is obtained under the condition in which the entropy is maximum. Under the approximation E≅E 0 + E 1 l + E 2 l 2 , the distribution functions are obtained as exp(αl + βl 2 ). There are two components, the one proportional to exp(βl 2 ), mainly contributes to the low mass fragment yields, the other component, proportional to exp(αl), decreases slowly as the mass of the fragments increases. Numerical solution of the constraint equations provides parameters α and β. Experimental data, especially when the energy deposition is higher, support the statistical fragmentation model. (authors)

  17. Critical wind speed at which trees break.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virot, E; Ponomarenko, A; Dehandschoewercker, É; Quéré, D; Clanet, C

    2016-02-01

    Data from storms suggest that the critical wind speed at which trees break is constant (≃42m/s), regardless of tree characteristics. We question the physical origin of this observation both experimentally and theoretically. By combining Hooke's law, Griffith's criterion, and tree allometry, we show that the critical wind speed indeed hardly depends on the height, diameter, and elastic properties of trees.

  18. SUSY breaking mediation by throat fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruemmer, F.; Hebecker, A.; Trapletti, M.

    2006-01-01

    We investigate, in the general framework of KKLT, the mediation of supersymmetry breaking by fields propagating in the strongly warped region of the compactification manifold ('throat fields'). Such fields can couple both to the supersymmetry breaking sector at the IR end of the throat and to the visible sector at the UV end. We model the supersymmetry breaking sector by a chiral superfield which develops an F term vacuum expectation value (also responsible for the uplift). It turns out that the mediation effect of vector multiplets propagating in the throat can compete with modulus-anomaly mediation. Moreover, such vector fields are naturally present as the gauge fields arising from isometries of the throat (most notably the SO(4) isometry of the Klebanov-Strassler solution). Their mediation effect is important in spite of their large 4d mass. The latter is due to the breaking of the throat isometry by the compact manifold at the UV end of the throat. The contribution from heavy chiral superfields is found to be subdominant

  19. Symmetry breaking and restoration in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natale, A.A.

    A review is made of the utilization of the Higgs mechanism in spontaneous symmetry breaking. It is shown that such as ideas came from an analogy with the superconductivity phenomenological theory based on a Ginzburg-Landau lagrangean. The symmetry restoration through the temperature influence is studied. (L.C.) [pt

  20. Dynamical symmetry breaking in barium isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rawat, Bir Singh; Chattopadhyay, P.K.

    1997-01-01

    The isotopes of Xe with mass numbers 124, 126, 128, 130 and the isotopes of barium with mass numbers 128, 130, 132, 134 were shown to correspond to the O(6) dynamical symmetry of IBM. In the investigation of the dynamical symmetry breaking in this region, the barium isotopes for departures from O(6) symmetry have been studied

  1. Variations on supersymmetry breaking and neutrino spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borzumati, F.; Hamaguchi, K.; Nomura, Y.; Yanagida, T.

    2000-01-01

    The problem of generating light neutrinos within supersymmetric models is discussed. It is shown that the hierarchy of scales induced by supersymmetry breaking can give rise to suppression factors of the correct order of magnitude to produce experimentally allowed neutrino spectra

  2. Unified gauge theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDowell, S.W.

    1975-01-01

    Unified gauge theories with spontaneous symmetry breaking are studied with a view to renormalize quantum field theory. Georgi-Glashow and Weinberg-Salam models to unify weak and electromagnetic interactions are discussed in detail. Gauge theories of strong interactions are also considered [pt

  3. Modeling the safety impacts of driving hours and rest breaks on truck drivers considering time-dependent covariates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Xie, Yuanchang

    2014-12-01

    Driving hours and rest breaks are closely related to driver fatigue, which is a major contributor to truck crashes. This study investigates the effects of driving hours and rest breaks on commercial truck driver safety. A discrete-time logistic regression model is used to evaluate the crash odds ratios of driving hours and rest breaks. Driving time is divided into 11 one hour intervals. These intervals and rest breaks are modeled as dummy variables. In addition, a Cox proportional hazards regression model with time-dependent covariates is used to assess the transient effects of rest breaks, which consists of a fixed effect and a variable effect. Data collected from two national truckload carriers in 2009 and 2010 are used. The discrete-time logistic regression result indicates that only the crash odds ratio of the 11th driving hour is statistically significant. Taking one, two, and three rest breaks can reduce drivers' crash odds by 68%, 83%, and 85%, respectively, compared to drivers who did not take any rest breaks. The Cox regression result shows clear transient effects for rest breaks. It also suggests that drivers may need some time to adjust themselves to normal driving tasks after a rest break. Overall, the third rest break's safety benefit is very limited based on the results of both models. The findings of this research can help policy makers better understand the impact of driving time and rest breaks and develop more effective rules to improve commercial truck safety. Copyright © 2014 National Safety Council and Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Musculoskeletal injuries in break-dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chul Hyun; Song, Kwang Soon; Min, Byung Woo; Lee, Sung Moon; Chang, Hyuk Won; Eum, Dae Seup

    2009-11-01

    Since no epidemiologic studies have been reported about musculoskeletal injuries in break-dancers, there are no data on the rates and patterns of musculoskeletal injuries in this population that clinicians can use to find ways to decrease injury rate. We believe that the incidence of injuries in break-dancers is higher than assumed and that injury rates and patterns differ between professional and amateur dancers. Descriptive epidemiologic study. Of a total of 42 study subjects, 23 were professional dancers and 19 were amateur dancers. Injury frequency, site and type, along with the presence of supervised training, the use of protective devices and warm-up exercises done were recorded. Of the 42 study subjects, excluding two amateur dancers, 40 (95.2%) had had musculoskeletal injuries at more than one site. The mean number of sites per dancer was 4.60. The frequency of injury depended on the site and was as follows: wrist (69.0%), finger (61.9%), knee (61.9%), shoulder (52.4%), lumbar spine (50.0%), elbow (42.9%), cervical spine (38.1%), ankle (38.1%), foot (28.6%) and hip (16.7%). Sprain, strain and tendinitis were the most common injuries, accounting for the most cases. Of the 42 dancers, 13 (31%) had had fractures or dislocations. Eight (19.1%) learned break-dancing under supervised instruction, 17 (40.5%) used protective devices and 28 (66.7%) performed warm-up exercises before dancing. There were significant differences in age, dance career length, amount of dance training, mean number of injury sites and the presence of supervised training between professionals and amateurs (Pnature of the activities that result in both unusual and common injuries in break-dancers and educate them about safety. Careful screening, instruction and supervised training of break-dancers will help to prevent injuries.

  5. Breaking bad news among cancer physicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sami Ayed Alshammary

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Breaking bad news to patients with cancer diagnosis is not an easy task for physicians. The diagnosis must be explicitly stated and understood, and prognosis must be well-discussed in the most gentle and comfortable manner. It is important that the disclosure is performed in a way that patients will not lose all hope and get very depressed, leading them to undergo an abrupt change of their outlook in life. Objective: The aim of this study was to explore the physicians' perceptions and perspectives of breaking bad news to cancer patients. Methods: A cross-sectional survey of all comprehensive cancer centre physicians currently working in a university teaching hospital in the Middle East was conducted from August to September 2016. Results: Sixty-eight percent responded to the survey. Eighty-four percent were comfortable with breaking bad news, and 70% had training in breaking bad news. Eighty-six percent of responders stated that patients should be told about their cancer. Almost 30% of the respondents stated that they would still disclose the diagnosis to patients even if it would be against the preference of the relatives. Nearly 61% said that they would only tell the details to the patients if asked while 67% of them disagreed that patients should be told about the diagnoses only if the relatives consent. About 51% of physicians wanted to discuss the bad news with the family members and patient together, whereas 24% stated that the patient alone should be involved in the discussion. Conclusion: Physicians face a dilemma when families do not wish the patient to know the cancer diagnosis and this highlights the necessity of taking into consideration the social circumstances in healthcare. When taking these into considerations, curriculum in the medical school must, therefore, be updated and must integrate the acquisition of skills in breaking bad news early in training.

  6. Limits to magnetic resonance microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glover, Paul; Mansfield, Peter

    2002-01-01

    The last quarter of the twentieth century saw the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) grow from a laboratory demonstration to a multi-billion dollar worldwide industry. There is a clinical body scanner in almost every hospital of the developed nations. The field of magnetic resonance microscopy (MRM), after mostly being abandoned by researchers in the first decade of MRI, has become an established branch of the science. This paper reviews the development of MRM over the last decade with an emphasis on the current state of the art. The fundamental principles of imaging and signal detection are examined to determine the physical principles which limit the available resolution. The limits are discussed with reference to liquid, solid and gas phase microscopy. In each area, the novel approaches employed by researchers to push back the limits of resolution are discussed. Although the limits to resolution are well known, the developments and applications of MRM have not reached their limit. (author)

  7. The phantom menace. Determination of the true Method Detection Limit (MDL) for background levels of PCDDs, PCDFs, and cPCBs in human serum by high-resolution mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, W.; Welch, S.; DiPietro, E.; Cash, T.; McClure, C.; Needham, L.; Patterson, D. [CDC/ATSDR, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2004-09-15

    The recent worldwide decline in background serum levels of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, furans, and coplanar biphenyls (PCDDs/PCDFs/cPCBs) is unquestionably an important finding. However, as serum levels continue to diminish, our analytical methods for measuring these toxicants will continue to be ''pushed to their limit''. In a previous article, we investigated some of the variables that influence the quantification of ''ultra-trace'' (fg/g) concentrations of PCDDs/PCDFs and cPCBs in human serum. In this report, we continue to explore parameters that can affect the determination of the ''true'' detection limit of our method (MDL), using both analytical standards and matrix-based samples.

  8. Current limiters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loescher, D.H. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Systems Surety Assessment Dept.; Noren, K. [Univ. of Idaho, Moscow, ID (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    The current that flows between the electrical test equipment and the nuclear explosive must be limited to safe levels during electrical tests conducted on nuclear explosives at the DOE Pantex facility. The safest way to limit the current is to use batteries that can provide only acceptably low current into a short circuit; unfortunately this is not always possible. When it is not possible, current limiters, along with other design features, are used to limit the current. Three types of current limiters, the fuse blower, the resistor limiter, and the MOSFET-pass-transistor limiters, are used extensively in Pantex test equipment. Detailed failure mode and effects analyses were conducted on these limiters. Two other types of limiters were also analyzed. It was found that there is no best type of limiter that should be used in all applications. The fuse blower has advantages when many circuits must be monitored, a low insertion voltage drop is important, and size and weight must be kept low. However, this limiter has many failure modes that can lead to the loss of over current protection. The resistor limiter is simple and inexpensive, but is normally usable only on circuits for which the nominal current is less than a few tens of milliamperes. The MOSFET limiter can be used on high current circuits, but it has a number of single point failure modes that can lead to a loss of protective action. Because bad component placement or poor wire routing can defeat any limiter, placement and routing must be designed carefully and documented thoroughly.

  9. Neutrino masses from SUSY breaking in radiative seesaw models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Figueiredo, Antonio J.R.

    2015-01-01

    Radiatively generated neutrino masses (m ν ) are proportional to supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking, as a result of the SUSY non-renormalisation theorem. In this work, we investigate the space of SUSY radiative seesaw models with regard to their dependence on SUSY breaking (SUSY). In addition to contributions from sources of SUSY that are involved in electroweak symmetry breaking (SUSY EWSB contributions), and which are manifest from left angle F H † right angle = μ left angle anti H right angle ≠ 0 and left angle D right angle = g sum H left angle H † x H H right angle ≠ 0, radiatively generated m ν can also receive contributions from SUSY sources that are unrelated to EWSB (SUSY EWS contributions). We point out that recent literature overlooks pure-SUSY EWSB contributions (∝ μ/M) that can arise at the same order of perturbation theory as the leading order contribution from SUSY EWS . We show that there exist realistic radiative seesaw models in which the leading order contribution to m ν is proportional to SUSY EWS . To our knowledge no model with such a feature exists in the literature. We give a complete description of the simplest model topologies and their leading dependence on SUSY. We show that in one-loop realisations LLHH operators are suppressed by at least μ m soft /M 3 or m soft 2 /M 3 . We construct a model example based on a oneloop type-II seesaw. An interesting aspect of these models lies in the fact that the scale of soft-SUSY effects generating the leading order m ν can be quite small without conflicting with lower limits on the mass of new particles. (orig.)

  10. The (Untold) Drama of the Turning Page: The Role of Page Breaks in Understanding Picture Books

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Katrina Emily Bartow

    2016-01-01

    While scholars have recognized the importance of page breaks in both the construction and comprehension of narrative within picture books, there has previously been limited research that focused directly on how children discuss and make sense of these spaces in the text. Yet, because of their nature as dramatic gaps in the narrative, page breaks…

  11. Automatic detection of tulip breaking virus (TBV) in tulip fields using machine vision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, G.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Doorn, van J.; Baltissen, A.H.M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Tulip breaking virus (TBV) causes severe economic losses for the Netherlands. Infected plants must be removed from the field as soon as possible to prevent further spread by aphids. Until now screening is done by visual inspection in the field. As the availability of human experts is limited there

  12. B-L mediated SUSY breaking with radiative B-L symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Tatsuru; Kubo, Takayuki

    2008-01-01

    We explore a mechanism of radiative B-L symmetry breaking in analogous to the radiative electroweak symmetry breaking. The breaking scale of B-L symmetry is related to the neutrino masses through the see-saw mechanism. Once we incorporate the U(1) B-L gauge symmetry in SUSY models, the U(1) B-L gaugino, Z-tilde B-L appears, and it can mediate the SUSY breaking (Z-prime mediated SUSY breaking) at around the scale of 10 6 GeV. Then we find a links between the neutrino mass (more precisly the see-saw or B-L scale of order 10 6 GeV) and the Z-prime mediated SUSY breaking scale. It is also very interesting that the gluino at the weak scale becomes relatively light, and almost compressed mass spectra for the gaugino sector can be realized in this scenario, which is very interesting in scope of the LHC.

  13. Creating Directed Double-strand Breaks with the Ref Protein: A Novel Rec A-Dependent Nuclease from Bacteriophage P1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruenig, Marielle C.; Lu, Duo; Won, Sang Joon; Dulberger, Charles L.; Manlick, Angela J.; Keck, James L.; Cox, Michael M. (UW)

    2012-03-16

    The bacteriophage P1-encoded Ref protein enhances RecA-dependent recombination in vivo by an unknown mechanism. We demonstrate that Ref is a new type of enzyme; that is, a RecA-dependent nuclease. Ref binds to ss- and dsDNA but does not cleave any DNA substrate until RecA protein and ATP are added to form RecA nucleoprotein filaments. Ref cleaves only where RecA protein is bound. RecA functions as a co-nuclease in the Ref/RecA system. Ref nuclease activity can be limited to the targeted strands of short RecA-containing D-loops. The result is a uniquely programmable endonuclease activity, producing targeted double-strand breaks at any chosen DNA sequence in an oligonucleotide-directed fashion. We present evidence indicating that cleavage occurs in the RecA filament groove. The structure of the Ref protein has been determined to 1.4 {angstrom} resolution. The core structure, consisting of residues 77-186, consists of a central 2-stranded {beta}-hairpin that is sandwiched between several {alpha}-helical and extended loop elements. The N-terminal 76 amino acid residues are disordered; this flexible region is required for optimal activity. The overall structure of Ref, including several putative active site histidine residues, defines a new subclass of HNH-family nucleases. We propose that enhancement of recombination by Ref reflects the introduction of directed, recombinogenic double-strand breaks.

  14. Quench limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sapinski, M.

    2012-01-01

    With thirteen beam induced quenches and numerous Machine Development tests, the current knowledge of LHC magnets quench limits still contains a lot of unknowns. Various approaches to determine the quench limits are reviewed and results of the tests are presented. Attempt to reconstruct a coherent picture emerging from these results is taken. The available methods of computation of the quench levels are presented together with dedicated particle shower simulations which are necessary to understand the tests. The future experiments, needed to reach better understanding of quench limits as well as limits for the machine operation are investigated. The possible strategies to set BLM (Beam Loss Monitor) thresholds are discussed. (author)

  15. Dual realizations of dynamical symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudas, Emilian; Papineau, Chloe

    2006-01-01

    We show the infrared equivalence between a recently proposed model containing a six dimensional scalar field with a four-dimensional localized Higgs type potential and the four-dimensional Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) model. In the dual NJL description, the fermions are localized at the origin of a large two-dimensional compact space. Due to a classical running effect above the compactification scale, the four-fermion coupling of the NJL model increases from the cutoff scale down to the compactification scale, providing the large Fermi coupling needed for the dynamical symmetry breaking. We also present a string theory embedding of our field-theory construction. On more general grounds, our results suggest that 4d models with dynamical symmetry breaking can be given a higher dimensional description in terms of field theories with nontrivial boundary conditions in the internal space

  16. Boost breaking in the EFT of inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delacrétaz, Luca V.; Senatore, Leonardo [Stanford Institute for Theoretical Physics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Noumi, Toshifumi, E-mail: lvd@stanford.edu, E-mail: tnoumi@phys.sci.kobe-u.ac.jp, E-mail: senatore@stanford.edu [Jockey Club Institute for Advanced Study, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (Hong Kong)

    2017-02-01

    If time-translations are spontaneously broken, so are boosts. This symmetry breaking pattern can be non-linearly realized by either just the Goldstone boson of time translations, or by four Goldstone bosons associated with time translations and boosts. In this paper we extend the Effective Field Theory of Multifield Inflation to consider the case in which the additional Goldstone bosons associated with boosts are light and coupled to the Goldstone boson of time translations. The symmetry breaking pattern forces a coupling to curvature so that the mass of the additional Goldstone bosons is predicted to be equal to √2 H in the vast majority of the parameter space where they are light. This pattern therefore offers a natural way of generating self-interacting particles with Hubble mass during inflation. After constructing the general effective Lagrangian, we study how these particles mix and interact with the curvature fluctuations, generating potentially detectable non-Gaussian signals.

  17. [Breaking bad news in clinical practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, Andrea; Ríos, Matías; Manríquez, José Manuel; Rojas, Gonzalo

    2014-10-01

    Breaking bad news is a complex task that requires multiple communication skills from health professionals. Clinical practice demands to communicate all type of bad news, from a diagnosis of cancer to adverse effects of a treatment. On the other hand, since the beginning of the health reform in 2003, the need to improve the quality of services was proposed, among which the concern about the rights and duties of patients stands out. Therefore, the health care provider-patient relationship becomes again the subject of discussion and study, and a topic of great importance for clinical work. We revise the consequences of breaking bad news for the patient and for the health care provider, as well as the current protocols available for this purpose. The importance of developing communication skills both for future health professionals as for those who currently work in the area is emphasized.

  18. Fractional Branes and Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Franco, S; Saad, F; Uranga, Angel M; Franco, Sebastian; Hanany, Amihay; Saad, Fouad; Uranga, Angel M.

    2006-01-01

    We study the dynamics of fractional branes at toric singularities, including cones over del Pezzo surfaces and the recently constructed Y^{p,q} theories. We find that generically the field theories on such fractional branes show dynamical supersymmetry breaking, due to the appearance of non-perturbative superpotentials. In special cases, one recovers the known cases of supersymmetric infrared behaviors, associated to SYM confinement (mapped to complex deformations of the dual geometries, in the gauge/string correspondence sense) or N=2 fractional branes. In the supersymmetry breaking cases, when the dynamics of closed string moduli at the singularity is included, the theories show a runaway behavior (involving moduli such as FI terms or equivalently dibaryonic operators), rather than stable non-supersymmetric minima. We comment on the implications of this gauge theory behavior for the infrared smoothing of the dual warped throat solutions with 3-form fluxes, describing duality cascades ending in such field th...

  19. A break in the obesity epidemic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visscher, T L S; Heitmann, B L; Rissanen, A

    2015-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic papers are presenting prevalence data suggesting breaks and decreases in obesity rates. However, before concluding that the obesity epidemic is not increasing anymore, the validity of the presented data should be discussed more thoroughly. We had a closer look into the litera......, focusing on trends in waist circumference rather than BMI leads to a less optimistic conclusion: the public health problem of obesity is still increasing.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 22 July 2014; doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.98....... into the literature presented in recent reviews to address the major potential biases and distortions, and to develop insights about how to interpret the presented suggestions for a potential break in the obesity epidemic. Decreasing participation rates, the use of reported rather than measured data and small sample...

  20. Selecting a model of supersymmetry breaking mediation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AbdusSalam, S. S.; Allanach, B. C.; Dolan, M. J.; Feroz, F.; Hobson, M. P.

    2009-01-01

    We study the problem of selecting between different mechanisms of supersymmetry breaking in the minimal supersymmetric standard model using current data. We evaluate the Bayesian evidence of four supersymmetry breaking scenarios: mSUGRA, mGMSB, mAMSB, and moduli mediation. The results show a strong dependence on the dark matter assumption. Using the inferred cosmological relic density as an upper bound, minimal anomaly mediation is at least moderately favored over the CMSSM. Our fits also indicate that evidence for a positive sign of the μ parameter is moderate at best. We present constraints on the anomaly and gauge mediated parameter spaces and some previously unexplored aspects of the dark matter phenomenology of the moduli mediation scenario. We use sparticle searches, indirect observables and dark matter observables in the global fit and quantify robustness with respect to prior choice. We quantify how much information is contained within each constraint.

  1. Soft supersymmetry breaking in KKLT flux compactification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, K.; Falkowski, A.; Nilles, H.P.; Olechowski, M.

    2005-01-01

    We examine the structure of soft supersymmetry breaking terms in KKLT models of flux compactification with low energy supersymmetry. Moduli are stabilized by fluxes and nonperturbative dynamics while a de Sitter vacuum is obtained by adding supersymmetry breaking anti-branes. We discuss the characteristic pattern of mass scales in such a set-up as well as some features of 4D N=1 supergravity breakdown by anti-branes. Anomaly mediation is found to always give an important contribution and one can easily arrange for flavor-independent soft terms. In its most attractive realization, the modulus mediation is comparable to the anomaly mediation, yielding a quite distinctive sparticle spectrum. In addition, the axion component of the modulus/dilaton superfield dynamically cancels the relative CP phase between the contributions of anomaly and modulus mediation, thereby avoiding dangerous SUSY CP violation

  2. Qinshan NPP large break LOCA safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Guobao; Tang Jiahuan; Zhou Quanfu; Wang Yangding

    1997-01-01

    Qinshan NPP is the first nuclear power plant in the mainland of China, a 300 MW(e) two-loop PWR. Large break LOCA is the design-basis accident of Qinshan NPP. Based on available computer codes, the own analysis method which complies with Appendix k of 10 CFR 50 has been established. The RELAP4/MOD7 code is employed for the calculations of blowdown, refill and reflood phase of the RCS respectively. The CONTEMPT-LT/028 code is used for the containment pressure and temperature analysis. The temperature transient in the hot rod is calculated using the FRAP-6T code. Conservative initial and functional assumptions were adopted during Qinshan NPP large break LOCA analysis. The results of the analysis show the applicable acceptance criteria for the loss-of-coolant accident are met

  3. Isospin breaking in octet baryon mass splittings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Najjar, J. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Pleiter, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Juelich Supercomputer Centre; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Division; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics

    2012-06-15

    Using an SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion in the quark mass, we determine the QCD component of the nucleon, Sigma and Xi mass splittings of the baryon octet due to up-down (and strange) quark mass differences in terms of the kaon mass splitting. Provided the average quark mass is kept constant, the expansion coefficients in our procedure can be determined from computationally cheaper simulations with mass degenerate sea quarks and partially quenched valence quarks. Both the linear and quadratic terms in the SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion are considered; it is found that the quadratic terms only change the result by a few percent, indicating that the expansion is highly convergent.

  4. Electroweak symmetry breaking: Higgs/whatever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1989-01-01

    In the first of these two lectures the Higgs mechanism is reviewed in its most general form, which does not necessarily require the existence of Higgs bosons. The general consequences of the hypothesis that electroweak symmetry breaking is due to the Higgs mechanism are deduced just from gauge invariance and unitarity. In the second lecture the general properties are illustrated with three specific models: the Weinberg-Salam model, its minimal supersymmetric extension, and technicolor. The second lecture concludes with a discussion of the experiment signals for strong WW scattering, whose presence or absence will allow us to determine whether the symmetry breaking sector lies above or below 1 TeV. 57 refs

  5. Dynamics of Symmetry Breaking and Tachyonic Preheating

    CERN Document Server

    Felder, G; Greene, P B; Kofman, L A; Linde, Andrei D; Tkachev, Igor I; Felder, Gary; Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Greene, Patrick B.; Kofman, Lev; Linde, Andrei; Tkachev, Igor

    2001-01-01

    We reconsider the old problem of the dynamics of spontaneous symmetry breaking using 3d lattice simulations, and develop a theory of tachyonic preheating, which occurs due to the spinodal instability of the scalar field. Tachyonic preheating is so efficient that symmetry breaking typically completes within a single oscillation of the field distribution as it rolls towards the minimum of its effective potential. As an application of this theory we consider preheating in the hybrid inflation scenario, including SUSY-motivated F-term and D-term inflationary models. We show that preheating in hybrid inflation is typically tachyonic and the stage of oscillations of a homogeneous component of the scalar fields driving inflation ends after a single oscillation. Our results may also be relevant for the theory of the formation of disoriented chiral condensates in heavy ion collisions.

  6. 2 DOF resolution adjustment laser position sensor

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shaik, A

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available means. [19, 20] Other - Displacement measuring instruments utilizing eddy currents, capacitive and inductive properties exist, but are not as widely spread as the technologies mentioned. Accelerometers and Gyroscopes are used to determine... resolution. The current accuracy of the IRB 340 Flex Picker, a rapid pick and place machine, is 0.1 mm. The lower limit on screen resolution for absolute 2D positioning would then be 400 phototransistors per square mm, a screen with twice the resolution...

  7. Primary break with total loss of high pressure safety injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordelle, F.; Champ, M.; Pochard, R.

    1988-10-01

    The probabilitic safety assessment of a 900 MW plant has displayed the potential importance, with regard to the risk, of intermediate primary breaks with failure of the high pressure safety injection system. The probability of such sequence is about 10 -6 /plant X year. Therefore, it is necessary to establish: - if this sequence can lead to core melt down, - if clad ruptures can occur. This event must be taken into account to determine the repair time of contaminated systems. For these studies, a three inch equivalent diameter break is considerd, as this is the most sensitive in its category with regard to these phenomena. In addition to the above objectives, the purpose of these studies is to evaluate the sensitivity of the results to the following parameters: - the time limit at which the operator starts cooling down the plant via the steam generators. Two calculations have been made with the RELAP code (1 and 2) and two with the CATHARE code (3 and 4) - the pump trip time. Four calculations have been made with the CATHARE code (5, 6, 7 and 8). In the case of failure of only one high pressure safety injection file, 6 calculations have been made with the CATHARE code, concerning the influence of pump trip time (9, 10, 11, 12, 13 and 14)

  8. Supergravity and supersymmetry breaking in four and five dimensions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, John; Lalak, Zygmunt; Pokorski, Stefan; Thomas, Steven

    1999-01-01

    We discuss supersymmetry breaking in the field-theoretical limit of the strongly coupled heterotic string compactified on a Calabi-Yau manifold, from the different perspectives of four and five dimensions. The former applies to light degrees of freedom below the threshold for five-dimensional Kaluza-Klein excitations, whereas the five-dimensional perspective is also valid up to the Calabi-Yau scale. We show how, in the latter case, two gauge sectors separated in the fifth dimension are combined to form a consistent four-dimensional supergravity. In the lowest order of the κ 2/3 expansion, we show how a four-dimensional supergravity with gauge kinetic function f 1,2 =S is reproduced, and we show how higher-order terms give rise to four-dimensional operators that differ in the two gauge sectors. In the four-dimensional approach, supersymmetry is seen to be broken when condensates form on one or both walls, and the goldstino may have a non-zero dilatino component. As in the five-dimensional approach, the Lagrangian is not a perfect square, and we have not identified a vacuum with broken supersymmetry and zero vacuum energy. We derive soft supersymmetry-breaking terms for non-standard perturbative embeddings, that are relevant in more general situations such as type I/type IIB orientifold models

  9. The z~4 Lyman Break Galaxies: Colors and Theoretical Predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Idzi, Rafal; Somerville, Rachel; Papovich, Casey; Ferguson, Henry C.; Giavalisco, Mauro; Kretchmer, Claudia; Lotz, Jennifer

    2004-01-01

    We investigate several fundamental properties of z~4 Lyman break galaxies by comparing observations with the predictions of a semianalytic model based on the cold dark matter theory of hierarchical structure formation. We use a sample of B435-dropouts from the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey and complement the Advanced Camera for Surveys optical B435, V606, i775, and z850 data with the Very Large Telescope Infrared Spectrometer and Array Camera J, H, and Ks observations. We extract B435-dropouts from our semianalytic mock catalog using the same color criteria and magnitude limits that were applied to the observed sample. We find that the i775-Ks colors of the model-derived and observed B435-dropouts are in good agreement. However, we find that the i775-z850 colors differ significantly, indicating perhaps that either too little dust or an incorrect extinction curve has been used. Motivated by the reasonably good agreement between the model and observed data, we present predictions for the stellar masses, star formation rates, and ages for the z~4 Lyman break sample. We find that according to our model, the color selection criteria used to select our z~4 sample surveys 67% of all galaxies at this epoch down to z850Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA), Inc., under NASA contract NAS5-26555. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (ESO programmes 168.A-0485, 64.0-0643, 66.A-0572, and 68.A-0544).

  10. Automatic first-break picking using the instantaneous traveltime attribute

    KAUST Repository

    Saragiotis, Christos; Alkhalifah, Tariq Ali

    2012-01-01

    Picking the first breaks is an important step in seismic processing. The large volume of the seismic data calls for automatic and objective picking. We introduce a new automatic first-break picker, which uses specifically designed time windows

  11. On the character of scale symmetry breaking in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gusijnin, V.P.; Kushnir, V.A.; Miransky, V.A.

    1988-01-01

    The problem of scale symmetry breaking in gauge theories is discussed. It is shown that the phenomenon of spontaneous breaking of scale symmetry in gauge theories is incompatible with the PCAAC dynamics. 12 refs

  12. Microwave-assisted rock breaking modelling and application

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Monchusi, B

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available As part of the ongoing development of novel mining methods, the CSIR has developed alternative methods to break rocks. In this case, we show the application of microwave energy to break narrow tabular ore bodies....

  13. Break-even analysis in a nurse-managed center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBryde-Foster, Merry J

    2005-01-01

    The concept of break-even analysis as a financial assessment tool is defined and demonstrated in evaluation of a proposed nurse-managed center. The advantages of using break-even analysis during proposal development are explored.

  14. Breaking Bad Habits | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Bad Habits Breaking Bad Habits: Why It's So Hard to Change Past Issues / ... News in Health ( http://newsinhealth.nih.gov/ ) Break Bad Habits Avoid temptations. If you always stop for a ...

  15. Breaking democracy with non renormalizable mass terms

    CERN Document Server

    Silva-Marcos, Joaquim I

    2001-01-01

    The exact democratic structure for the quark mass matrix, resulting from the action of the family symmetry group $A_{3L}\\times A_{3R}$, is broken by the vacuum expectation values of heavy singlet fields appearing in non renormalizable dimension 6 operators. Within this specific context of breaking of the family symmetry we formulate a very simple ansatz which leads to correct quark masses and mixings.

  16. Charge-independence-breaking in the triton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gloeckle, W.; Lee, T.S.H.; Wiringa, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    We find the effect of the observed charge-independence-breaking in 1 S 0 nucleon-nucleon scattering on the binding energy of the triton to be of order 80 keV. When corrections for this effect are made in an 18-channel momentum-space Faddeev calculation, we find the Paris and Argonne v 14 potentials triton binding energies that differ by only 20 keV

  17. Adjoint string breaking in the pseudoparticle approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szasz, Christian; Wagner, Marc

    2008-01-01

    We apply the pseudoparticle approach to SU(2) Yang-Mills theory and perform a detailed study of the potential between two static charges for various representations. Whereas for charges in the fundamental representation we find a linearly rising confining potential, we clearly observe string breaking, when considering charges in the adjoint representation. We also demonstrate Casimir scaling and compute gluelump masses for different spin and parity. Numerical results are in qualitative agreement with lattice results.

  18. Missed retinal breaks in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Takkar

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the causes and associations of missed retinal breaks (MRBs and posterior vitreous detachment (PVD in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD. METHODS: Case sheets of patients undergoing vitreo retinal surgery for RRD at a tertiary eye care centre were evaluated retrospectively. Out of the 378 records screened, 253 were included for analysis of MRBs and 191 patients were included for analysis of PVD, depending on the inclusion criteria. Features of RRD and retinal breaks noted on examination were compared to the status of MRBs and PVD detected during surgery for possible associations. RESULTS: Overall, 27% patients had MRBs. Retinal holes were commonly missed in patients with lattice degeneration while missed retinal tears were associated with presence of complete PVD. Patients operated for cataract surgery were significantly associated with MRBs (P=0.033 with the odds of missing a retinal break being 1.91 as compared to patients with natural lens. Advanced proliferative vitreo retinopathy (PVR and retinal bullae were the most common reasons for missing a retinal break during examination. PVD was present in 52% of the cases and was wrongly assessed in 16%. Retinal bullae, pseudophakia/aphakia, myopia, and horse shoe retinal tears were strongly associated with presence of PVD. Traumatic RRDs were rarely associated with PVD. CONCLUSION: Pseudophakic patients, and patients with retinal bullae or advanced PVR should be carefully screened for MRBs. Though Weiss ring is a good indicator of PVD, it may still be over diagnosed in some cases. PVD is associated with retinal bullae and pseudophakia, and inversely with traumatic RRD.

  19. Study on criterion for leak before break assessment of pressure pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Linjuan

    2009-01-01

    Based on the elastoplastic fracture mechanics, this paper established the expression formulas of limit buckling pressure P u on the ligament of axial and circumferential surface cracks and the initial pressure for the through cracks P c . A new Leak Before Break (LBB) assessment criterion was put forward to predict the failure mode of pressure pipes, i.e., when P u is less than P c , the pipe will leak; when P u is equal to or larger than P c , the pipe will break, which is verified by the test data reported in literatures. (authors)

  20. Low energy excitations in fermionic spin glasses: A quantum-dynamical image of Parisi symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oppermann, R.; Rosenow, B.

    1997-10-01

    We report large effects of Parisi replica permutation symmetry breaking (RPSB) on elementary excitations of fermionic systems with frustrated magnetic interactions. The electronic density of states is obtained exactly in the zero temperature limit for (K = 1)- step RPSB together with relations for arbitrary breaking K, which lead to a new fermionic and dynamical Parisi solution at K = ∞. The Ward identity for charge conservation indicates RPSB-effects on the conductivity in metallic quantum spin glasses. This implies that RPSB is essential for any fermionic system showing spin glass sections within its phase diagram. An astonishing similarity with a neural network problem is also observed. (author)

  1. Quark masses, isospin breaking and the vector piece of pi --> enugamma

    CERN Document Server

    Bernabeu, J; Ynduráin, F

    1978-01-01

    The authors discuss a direct way to detect isospin breaking generated by the current quark mass matrix. With PCAC the vector form factor of pi to e nu gamma can be described by a pure current process. In the chiral symmetry limit they prove, to all orders in QCD, that xi =m/sub d//m/sub u/ zero or infinity induces a 50% isospin breaking in the physical amplitude. Detailed effects, as function of xi , are calculated from the quark triangle diagram. Experiments to look for this possible departure from isospin invariance are feasible. (15 refs).

  2. Enhanced breaking of heavy quark spin symmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Feng-Kun, E-mail: fkguo@hiskp.uni-bonn.de [Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universität Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Meißner, Ulf-G., E-mail: meissner@hiskp.uni-bonn.de [Helmholtz-Institut für Strahlen- und Kernphysik and Bethe Center for Theoretical Physics, Universität Bonn, D-53115 Bonn (Germany); Institute for Advanced Simulation, Institut für Kernphysik and Jülich Center for Hadron Physics, Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Shen, Cheng-Ping, E-mail: shencp@ihep.ac.cn [School of Physics and Nuclear Energy Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100191 (China)

    2014-11-10

    Heavy quark spin symmetry is useful to make predictions on ratios of decay or production rates of systems involving heavy quarks. The breaking of spin symmetry is generally of the order of O(Λ{sub QCD}/m{sub Q}), with Λ{sub QCD} the scale of QCD and m{sub Q} the heavy quark mass. In this paper, we will show that a small S- and D-wave mixing in the wave function of the heavy quarkonium could induce a large breaking in the ratios of partial decay widths. As an example, we consider the decays of the ϒ(10860) into the χ{sub bJ}ω(J=0,1,2), which were recently measured by the Belle Collaboration. These decays exhibit a huge breaking of the spin symmetry relation were the ϒ(10860) a pure 5S bottomonium state. We propose that this could be a consequence of a mixing of the S-wave and D-wave components in the ϒ(10860). Prediction on the ratio Γ(ϒ(10860)→χ{sub b0}ω)/Γ(ϒ(10860)→χ{sub b2}ω) is presented assuming that the decay of the D-wave component is dominated by the coupled-channel effects.

  3. Dormancy Breaking in Ormosia arborea Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilma Pereira Gonçalves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ormosia arborea is a tree species planted in urban areas and used to restore degraded areas. Its seeds are dormant and propagation is difficult. This study compares different dormancy breaking methods and physiological seed quality and seedling production. The seeds were germinated in sand in the laboratory of the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil. The following dormancy breaking treatments were applied: control (intact seeds, 100°C water immersion; boiling water immersion followed by 24 hours of soaking; scarification with number 100 and number 50 sandpaper opposite from root emergence; sulfuric acid immersion for 1 hour, 50, 45, and 30 minutes. Seed immersion in 100°C and boiling water did not break the dormancy. The study species showed a greater vigor of seedling when its seeds were submitted to treatments associated with tegument rupturing by sandpaper or sulfuric acid. On the other hand, seed scarification with sulfuric acid for 1 hour, 50, 45, and 30 minutes or sandpaper favored seed germination and vigor.

  4. Phenomenology of GUT-less Supersymmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Jonathan Richard; Sandick, Pearl

    2007-01-01

    We study models in which supersymmetry breaking appears at an intermediate scale, M_{in}, below the GUT scale. We assume that the soft supersymmetry-breaking parameters of the MSSM are universal at M_{in}, and analyze the morphology of the constraints from cosmology and collider experiments on the allowed regions of parameter space as M_{in} is reduced from the GUT scale. We present separate analyses of the (m_{1/2},m_0) planes for tan(beta)=10 and tan(beta)=50, as well as a discussion of non-zero trilinear couplings, A_0. Specific scenarios where the gaugino and scalar masses appear to be universal below the GUT scale have been found in mirage-mediation models, which we also address here. We demand that the lightest neutralino be the LSP, and that the relic neutralino density not conflict with measurements by WMAP and other observations. At moderate values of M_{in}, we find that the allowed regions of the (m_{1/2},m_0) plane are squeezed by the requirements of electroweak symmetry breaking and that the ligh...

  5. A model for string-breaking in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Antonov, Dmitri; Del Debbio, Luigi; Di Giacomo, Adriano

    2003-01-01

    We present a model for string breaking based on the existence of chromoelectric flux tubes. We predict the form of the long-range potential and obtain an estimate of the string breaking length. A prediction is also obtained for the behaviour with temperature of the string breaking length near the deconfinement phase transition. We plan to use this model as a guide for a program of study of string breaking on the lattice. (author)

  6. Fast Times During Spring Breaks: Are Traffic Fatalities Another Consequence?

    OpenAIRE

    French, Michael; Gumus, Gulcin

    2014-01-01

    Every year in the United States, millions of college students travel for spring break, spending billions of dollars. We examine a potential adverse consequence of spring break that has received little attention in the literature - traffic safety. In particular, we estimate the impact of spring break season on fatal passenger vehicle crashes. Using daily county-level longitudinal data on traffic fatalities in popular spring break destinations from 1982-2011, we conduct separate analyses by age...

  7. Radiative breaking of cosmologically acceptable grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gato, B.; Leon, J.; Quiros, M.

    1984-01-01

    We present a cosmologically acceptable grand unified model where the breaking of SU(5) proceeds through radiative corrections induced by supergravity soft-breaking terms. The breaking scale is determined by dimensional transmutation. The model is compatible with the radiative breaking of SU(2)sub(L)xU(1)sub(Y) which provides an experimentally accessible low energy particle spectrum and small top quark mass. (orig.)

  8. Dose limits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fitoussi, L.

    1987-12-01

    The dose limit is defined to be the level of harmfulness which must not be exceeded, so that an activity can be exercised in a regular manner without running a risk unacceptable to man and the society. The paper examines the effects of radiation categorised into stochastic and non-stochastic. Dose limits for workers and the public are discussed

  9. Superconductive AC current limiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekhaled, M.

    1987-01-01

    This patent describes an AC current limiter for a power transport line including a power supply circuit and feeding a load circuit via an overload circuit-breaker member. The limiter comprises a transformer having a primary winding connected in series between the power supply circuit and the load circuit and at least one secondary winding of superconductor material contained in a cryogenic enclosure and short-circuited on itself. The leakage reactance of the transformer as seen from the primary winding is low, and the resistance of the at least one secondary winding when in the non-superconducting state and as seen from the primary is much greater than the nominal impedance of the transformer. The improvement whereby the at least one secondary winding of the transformer comprises an active winding in association with a set of auxiliary windings. The set of auxiliary windings is constituted by an even number of series-connected auxiliary windings wound in opposite directions, with the total number of turns in one direction being equal to the total number of turns in the opposite direction, and with the thermal capacity of the secondary winding as a whole being sufficiently high to limit the expansion thereof to a value which remains small during the time it takes the circuit-breaking member to operate

  10. Phenomenology of anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking scenarios with non-minimal flavour violation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuks, Benjamin [Strasbourg Univ. (France). Inst. Pluridisciplinaire Hubert Curien; Herrmann, Bjoern [Savoie Univ., Annecy-le-Vieux (France). LAPTh; Klasen, Michael [Muenster Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik 1

    2011-12-15

    In minimal anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking models, tachyonic sleptons are avoided by introducing a common scalar mass similar to the one introduced in minimal supergravity. This may lead to non-minimal flavour-violating interactions, e.g., in the squark sector. In this paper, we analyze the viable anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking parameter space in the light of the latest limits on low-energy observables and LHC searches, complete our analytical calculations of flavour-violating supersymmetric particle production at hadron colliders with those related to gluino production, and study the phenomenological consequences of non-minimal flavour violation in anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking scenarios at the LHC. Related cosmological aspects are also briefly discussed.

  11. Effective potential and spontaneous symmetry breaking in the noncommutative φ6 model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, G.D.

    2004-01-01

    We study the conditions for spontaneous symmetry breaking of the (2+1)-dimensional noncommutative φ 6 model in the small-θ limit. In this regime, considering the model as a cutoff theory, it is reasonable to assume translational invariance as a property of the vacuum state and study the conditions for spontaneous symmetry breaking by an effective potential analysis. An investigation of up to the two-loop level reveals that noncommutative effects can modify drastically the shape of the effective potential. Under reasonable conditions, the nonplanar sector of the theory can become dominant and induce symmetry breaking for values of the mass and coupling constants not reached by the commutative counterpart

  12. Inverse Limits

    CERN Document Server

    Ingram, WT

    2012-01-01

    Inverse limits provide a powerful tool for constructing complicated spaces from simple ones. They also turn the study of a dynamical system consisting of a space and a self-map into a study of a (likely more complicated) space and a self-homeomorphism. In four chapters along with an appendix containing background material the authors develop the theory of inverse limits. The book begins with an introduction through inverse limits on [0,1] before moving to a general treatment of the subject. Special topics in continuum theory complete the book. Although it is not a book on dynamics, the influen

  13. Investigation of TiN thin film oxidation depending on the substrate temperature at vacuum break

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piallat, Fabien, E-mail: fabien.piallat@gmail.com [STMicroelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38920 Crolles (France); CEA, LETI, Campus Minatec, F-38054 Grenoble (France); LTM-CNRS, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Gassilloud, Remy [CEA, LETI, Campus Minatec, F-38054 Grenoble (France); Caubet, Pierre [STMicroelectronics, 850 rue Jean Monnet, 38920 Crolles (France); Vallée, Christophe [LTM-CNRS, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France)

    2016-09-15

    Due to the reduction of the thickness of the layers used in the advanced technology nodes, there is a growing importance of the surface phenomena in the definition of the general properties of the materials. One of the least controlled and understood phenomenon is the oxidation of metals after deposition, at the vacuum break. In this study, the influence of the sample temperature at vacuum break on the oxidation level of TiN deposited by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition is investigated. TiN resistivity appears to be lower for samples which underwent vacuum break at high temperature. Using X-ray photoelectron spectrometry analysis, this change is correlated to the higher oxidation of the TiN layer. Moreover, angle resolved XPS analysis reveals that higher is the temperature at the vacuum break, higher is the surface oxidation of the sample. This surface oxidation is in turn limiting the diffusion of oxygen in the volume of the layer. Additionally, evolution of TiN layers resistivity was monitored in time and it shows that resistivity increases until a plateau is reached after about 10 days, with the lowest temperature at vacuum break resulting in the highest increase, i.e., the resistivity of the sample released to atmosphere at high temperature increased by a factor 1.7 whereas the resistivity of the sample cooled down under vacuum temperature increased by a factor 2.7.

  14. Constraints on models with a break in the primordial power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Hong, E-mail: hongli@mail.ihep.ac.c [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 918-4, Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities (TPCSF), Chinese Academy of Science (China); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Xia Junqing [Scuola Internazionale Superiore di Studi Avanzati, Via Bonomea 265, I-34136 Trieste (Italy); Brandenberger, Robert [Department of Physics, McGill University, 3600 University Street, Montreal, QC, H3A 2T8 (Canada); Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 918-4, Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities (TPCSF), Chinese Academy of Science (China); Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Beijing 100190 (China); Zhang Xinmin [Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, P.O. Box 918-4, Beijing 100049 (China); Theoretical Physics Center for Science Facilities (TPCSF), Chinese Academy of Science (China)

    2010-07-05

    One of the characteristics of the 'Matter Bounce' scenario, an alternative to cosmological inflation for producing a scale-invariant spectrum of primordial adiabatic fluctuations on large scales, is a break in the power spectrum at a characteristic scale, below which the spectral index changes from n{sub s}=1 to n{sub s}=3. We study the constraints which current cosmological data place on the location of such a break, and more generally on the position of the break and the slope at length scales smaller than the break. The observational data we use include the WMAP five-year data set (WMAP5), other CMB data from BOOMERanG, CBI, VSA, and ACBAR, large-scale structure data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS, their luminous red galaxies sample), Type Ia Supernovae data (the 'Union' compilation), and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Lyman-{alpha} forest power spectrum (Ly{alpha}) data. We employ the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to constrain the features in the primordial power spectrum which are motivated by the matter bounce model. We give an upper limit on the length scale where the break in the spectrum occurs.

  15. Constraints on models with a break in the primordial power spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Hong; Xia Junqing; Brandenberger, Robert; Zhang Xinmin

    2010-01-01

    One of the characteristics of the 'Matter Bounce' scenario, an alternative to cosmological inflation for producing a scale-invariant spectrum of primordial adiabatic fluctuations on large scales, is a break in the power spectrum at a characteristic scale, below which the spectral index changes from n s =1 to n s =3. We study the constraints which current cosmological data place on the location of such a break, and more generally on the position of the break and the slope at length scales smaller than the break. The observational data we use include the WMAP five-year data set (WMAP5), other CMB data from BOOMERanG, CBI, VSA, and ACBAR, large-scale structure data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS, their luminous red galaxies sample), Type Ia Supernovae data (the 'Union' compilation), and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Lyman-α forest power spectrum (Lyα) data. We employ the Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to constrain the features in the primordial power spectrum which are motivated by the matter bounce model. We give an upper limit on the length scale where the break in the spectrum occurs.

  16. All partial breakings in ${\\cal N}=2$ supergravity with a single hypermultiplet arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Petropoulos, P. Marios; Siampos, Konstantinos

    We consider partial supersymmetry breaking in ${\\cal N}=2$ supergravity coupled to a single vector and a single hypermultiplet. This breaking pattern is in principle possible if the quaternion-K\\"ahler space of the hypermultiplet admits (at least) one pair of commuting isometries. For this class of manifolds, explicit metrics exist and we analyse a generic electro-magnetic (dyonic) gauging of the isometries. An example of partial breaking in Minkowski spacetime has been found long ago by Ferrara, Girardello and Porrati, using the gauging of two translation isometries on $SO(4,1)/SO(4)$. We demonstrate that no other example of partial breaking of ${\\cal N}=2$ supergravity in Minkowski spacetime exists. We also examine partial-breaking vacua in anti-de Sitter spacetime that are much less constrained and exist generically even for electric gaugings. On $SO(4,1)/SO(4)$, we construct the partially-broken solution and its global limit which is the Antoniadis-Partouche-Taylor model.

  17. The evolution of the break preclusion concept for nuclear power plants in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Koeln (Germany)

    1997-04-01

    In the updating of the Guidelines for PWR`s of the {open_quotes}Reaktor-Sicherheitskommission{close_quotes} (RSK) in 1981 the requirements on the design have been changed with respect to the postulated leaks and breaks in the primary pressure boundary. The major change was a revision in the requirements for pipe whip protection. As a logical consequence of the {open_quotes}concept of basic safety{close_quotes} a guillotine type break or any other break type resulting in a large opening is not postulated any longer for the calculation of reaction and jet forces. As an upper limit for a leak an area of 0, 1 A (A = open cross section of the pipe) is postulated. This decision was based on a general assessment of the present PWR system design in Germany. Since then a number of piping systems have been requalified in the older nuclear power plants to comply with the break preclusion concept. Also a number of extensions of the concept have been developed to cover also leak-assumptions for branch pipes. Furthermore due considerations have been given to other aspects which could contribute to a leak development in the primary circuit, like vessel penetrations, manhole covers, flanges, etc. Now the break preclusion concept originally applied to the main piping has been developed into an integrated concept for the whole pressure boundary within the containment and will be applied also in the periodic safety review of present nuclear power plants.

  18. Eddy current array probe for detection of surface breaking cracks in the extrados of feeder bends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obrutsky, L.S.; Cassidy, R.A.; Chaplin, K.; Martin, P.; Bureau, J.F.

    2006-01-01

    A new eddy current array probe has been implemented as a straightforward and promising technique for detection of outer diameter (OD) surface-breaking cracks on the extrados of feeder bends. The design is based on previous work performed at AECL, which had demonstrated that eddy current probes with laterally displaced transmit-receive coils can overcome some of the limitations of inspecting ferritic steel components for surface-breaking cracks. The Feeder Integrity Joint Program-CANDU Owners Group Inc. (FIJP-COG) Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) Team members commissioned AECL to work in collaboration with the probe manufacturer ZETEC, to develop a field usable eddy current array probe. The objective was to acquire a technique with the following capabilities: fast scanning non-contact inspection technique for surface breaking discontinuities; full inspection of the bend extrados OD surface in a single scan; ability to inspect first and second bends with similar settings and capabilities; permanent record for future reference; axial and circumferential crack detection in a single scan; capability to detect OD surface-breaking cracks, which can provide additional information to that provided by ultrasonic testing (UT) for flaw characterization, and detection threshold: Surface breaking cracks equivalent to a 0.5 mm deep, 10 mm long EDM notch located on the OD of the bend extrados. This paper discusses the basis for probe design, summarizes the experimental work to evaluate probe capabilities and analyzes the results from the field trial. (author)

  19. Eddy current array probe for detection of surface breaking cracks in the extrados of feeder bends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Obrutsky, L.S.; Cassidy, R.A.; Chaplin, K. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Chalk River, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: obrutskyl@aecl.ca; Martin, P. [NB Power, Point Lepreau NGS, Point Lepreau, New Brunswick (Canada)]. E-mail: PMartin@nbpower.com; Bureau, J.F. [Zetec, Quebec, Quebec (Canada)]. E-mail: jean-francois.bureau@zetec.com

    2006-07-01

    A new eddy current array probe has been implemented as a straightforward and promising technique for detection of outer diameter (OD) surface-breaking cracks on the extrados of feeder bends. The design is based on previous work performed at AECL, which had demonstrated that eddy current probes with laterally displaced transmit-receive coils can overcome some of the limitations of inspecting ferritic steel components for surface-breaking cracks. The Feeder Integrity Joint Program-CANDU Owners Group Inc. (FIJP-COG) Non-Destructive Evaluation (NDE) Team members commissioned AECL to work in collaboration with the probe manufacturer ZETEC, to develop a field usable eddy current array probe. The objective was to acquire a technique with the following capabilities: fast scanning non-contact inspection technique for surface breaking discontinuities; full inspection of the bend extrados OD surface in a single scan; ability to inspect first and second bends with similar settings and capabilities; permanent record for future reference; axial and circumferential crack detection in a single scan; capability to detect OD surface-breaking cracks, which can provide additional information to that provided by ultrasonic testing (UT) for flaw characterization, and detection threshold: Surface breaking cracks equivalent to a 0.5 mm deep, 10 mm long EDM notch located on the OD of the bend extrados. This paper discusses the basis for probe design, summarizes the experimental work to evaluate probe capabilities and analyzes the results from the field trial. (author)

  20. Symmetry breaking in the double-well hermitian matrix models

    CERN Document Server

    Brower, R C; Jain, S; Tan, C I; Brower, Richard C.; Deo, Nevidita; Jain, Sanjay; Tan, Chung-I

    1993-01-01

    We study symmetry breaking in $Z_2$ symmetric large $N$ matrix models. In the planar approximation for both the symmetric double-well $\\phi^4$ model and the symmetric Penner model, we find there is an infinite family of broken symmetry solutions characterized by different sets of recursion coefficients $R_n$ and $S_n$ that all lead to identical free energies and eigenvalue densities. These solutions can be parameterized by an arbitrary angle $\\theta(x)$, for each value of $x = n/N < 1$. In the double scaling limit, this class reduces to a smaller family of solutions with distinct free energies already at the torus level. For the double-well $\\phi^4$ theory the double scaling string equations are parameterized by a conserved angular momentum parameter in the range $0 \\le l < \\infty$ and a single arbitrary $U(1)$ phase angle.

  1. Search for R-Parity Breaking Sneutrino Exchange at LEP

    CERN Document Server

    Acciarri, M; Aguilar-Benítez, M; Ahlen, S P; Alcaraz, J; Alemanni, G; Allaby, James V; Aloisio, A; Alverson, G; Alviggi, M G; Ambrosi, G; Anderhub, H; Andreev, V P; Angelescu, T; Anselmo, F; Arefev, A; Azemoon, T; Aziz, T; Bagnaia, P; Baksay, L; Banerjee, S; Banerjee, Sw; Banicz, K; Barczyk, A; Barillère, R; Barone, L; Bartalini, P; Baschirotto, A; Basile, M; Battiston, R; Bay, A; Becattini, F; Becker, U; Behner, F; Berdugo, J; Berges, P; Bertucci, B; Betev, B L; Bhattacharya, S; Biasini, M; Biland, A; Bilei, G M; Blaising, J J; Blyth, S C; Bobbink, Gerjan J; Böck, R K; Böhm, A; Boldizsar, L; Borgia, B; Bourilkov, D; Bourquin, Maurice; Braccini, S; Branson, J G; Brigljevic, V; Brock, I C; Buffini, A; Buijs, A; Burger, J D; Burger, W J; Busenitz, J K; Button, A M; Cai, X D; Campanelli, M; Capell, M; Cara Romeo, G; Carlino, G; Cartacci, A M; Casaus, J; Castellini, G; Cavallari, F; Cavallo, N; Cecchi, C; Cerrada-Canales, M; Cesaroni, F; Chamizo-Llatas, M; Chang, Y H; Chaturvedi, U K; Chekanov, S V; Chemarin, M; Chen, A; Chen, G; Chen, G M; Chen, H F; Chen, H S; Chéreau, X J; Chiefari, G; Chien, C Y; Cifarelli, Luisa; Cindolo, F; Civinini, C; Clare, I; Clare, R; Cohn, H O; Coignet, G; Colijn, A P; Colino, N; Commichau, V; Costantini, S; Cotorobai, F; de la Cruz, B; Csilling, Akos; Dai, T S; D'Alessandro, R; De Asmundis, R; Degré, A; Deiters, K; Della Volpe, D; Denes, P; De Notaristefani, F; DiBitonto, Daryl; Diemoz, M; Van Dierendonck, D N; Di Lodovico, F; Dionisi, C; Dittmar, Michael; Dominguez, A; Doria, A; Dova, M T; Duchesneau, D; Duinker, P; Durán, I; Dutta, S; Easo, S; Efremenko, Yu V; El-Mamouni, H; Engler, A; Eppling, F J; Erné, F C; Ernenwein, J P; Extermann, Pierre; Fabre, M; Faccini, R; Falciano, S; Favara, A; Fay, J; Fedin, O; Felcini, Marta; Fenyi, B; Ferguson, T; Ferroni, F; Fesefeldt, H S; Fiandrini, E; Field, J H; Filthaut, Frank; Fisher, P H; Fisk, I; Forconi, G; Fredj, L; Freudenreich, Klaus; Furetta, C; Galaktionov, Yu; Ganguli, S N; García-Abia, P; Gau, S S; Gentile, S; Gheordanescu, N; Giagu, S; Goldfarb, S; Goldstein, J; Gong, Z F; Gougas, Andreas; Gratta, Giorgio; Grünewald, M W; Gupta, V K; Gurtu, A; Gutay, L J; Hartmann, B; Hasan, A; Hatzifotiadou, D; Hebbeker, T; Hervé, A; Van Hoek, W C; Hofer, H; Hong, S J; Hoorani, H; Hou, S R; Hu, G; Innocente, Vincenzo; Jenkes, K; Jin, B N; Jones, L W; de Jong, P; Josa-Mutuberria, I; Kasser, A; Khan, R A; Kamrad, D; Kamyshkov, Yu A; Kapustinsky, J S; Karyotakis, Yu; Kaur, M; Kienzle-Focacci, M N; Kim, D; Kim, D H; Kim, J K; Kim, S C; Kim, Y G; Kinnison, W W; Kirkby, A; Kirkby, D; Kirkby, Jasper; Kiss, D; Kittel, E W; Klimentov, A; König, A C; Kopp, A; Korolko, I; Koutsenko, V F; Krämer, R W; Krenz, W; Kunin, A; Ladrón de Guevara, P; Laktineh, I; Landi, G; Lapoint, C; Lassila-Perini, K M; Laurikainen, P; Lebeau, M; Lebedev, A; Lebrun, P; Lecomte, P; Lecoq, P; Le Coultre, P; Lee, H J; Le Goff, J M; Leiste, R; Leonardi, E; Levchenko, P M; Li Chuan; Lin, C H; Lin, W T; Linde, Frank L; Lista, L; Liu, Z A; Lohmann, W; Longo, E; Lu, W; Lü, Y S; Lübelsmeyer, K; Luci, C; Luckey, D; Luminari, L; Lustermann, W; Ma Wen Gan; Maity, M; Majumder, G; Malgeri, L; Malinin, A; Maña, C; Mangeol, D J J; Mangla, S; Marchesini, P A; Marin, A; Martin, J P; Marzano, F; Massaro, G G G; McNally, D; McNeil, R R; Mele, S; Merola, L; Meschini, M; Metzger, W J; Von der Mey, M; Mi, Y; Mihul, A; Van Mil, A J W; Milcent, H; Mirabelli, G; Mnich, J; Molnár, P; Monteleoni, B; Moore, R; Morganti, S; Moulik, T; Mount, R; Müller, S; Muheim, F; Muijs, A J M; Nahn, S; Napolitano, M; Nessi-Tedaldi, F; Newman, H; Niessen, T; Nippe, A; Nisati, A; Nowak, H; Oh, Yu D; Opitz, H; Organtini, G; Ostonen, R; Palomares, C; Pandoulas, D; Paoletti, S; Paolucci, P; Park, H K; Park, I H; Pascale, G; Passaleva, G; Patricelli, S; Paul, T; Pauluzzi, M; Paus, C; Pauss, Felicitas; Peach, D; Pei, Y J; Pensotti, S; Perret-Gallix, D; Petersen, B; Petrak, S; Pevsner, A; Piccolo, D; Pieri, M; Piroué, P A; Pistolesi, E; Plyaskin, V; Pohl, M; Pozhidaev, V; Postema, H; Produit, N; Prokofev, D; Prokofiev, D O; Rahal-Callot, G; Raja, N; Rancoita, P G; Rattaggi, M; Raven, G; Razis, P A; Read, K; Ren, D; Rescigno, M; Reucroft, S; Van Rhee, T; Riemann, S; Riles, K; Robohm, A; Rodin, J; Roe, B P; Romero, L; Rosier-Lees, S; Rosselet, P; Van Rossum, W; Roth, S; Rubio, Juan Antonio; Ruschmeier, D; Rykaczewski, H; Salicio, J; Sánchez, E; Sanders, M P; Sarakinos, M E; Sarkar, S; Sassowsky, M; Schäfer, C; Shchegelskii, V; Schmidt-Kärst, S; Schmitz, D; Schmitz, P; Scholz, N; Schopper, Herwig Franz; Schotanus, D J; Schwenke, J; Schwering, G; Sciacca, C; Sciarrino, D; Servoli, L; Shevchenko, S; Shivarov, N; Shoutko, V; Shukla, J; Shumilov, E; Shvorob, A V; Siedenburg, T; Son, D; Sopczak, André; Smith, B; Spillantini, P; Steuer, M; Stickland, D P; Stone, A; Stone, H; Stoyanov, B; Strässner, A; Strauch, K; Sudhakar, K; Sultanov, G G; Sun, L Z; Susinno, G F; Suter, H; Swain, J D; Tang, X W; Tauscher, Ludwig; Taylor, L; Ting, C C; Ting, S M; Tonutti, M; Tonwar, S C; Tóth, J; Tully, C; Tuchscherer, H; Tung, K L; Uchida, Y; Ulbricht, J; Uwer, U; Valente, E; Van de Walle, R T; Vesztergombi, G; Vetlitskii, I; Viertel, Gert M; Vivargent, M; Völkert, R; Vogel, H; Vogt, H; Vorobev, I; Vorobyov, A A; Vorvolakos, A; Wadhwa, M; Wallraff, W; Wang, J C; Wang, X L; Wang, Z M; Weber, A; Wittgenstein, F; Wu, S X; Wynhoff, S; Xu, J; Xu, Z Z; Yang, B Z; Yang, C G; Yao, X Y; Ye, J B; Yeh, S C; You, J M; Zalite, A; Zalite, Yu; Zemp, P; Zeng, Y; Zhang, Z; Zhang, Z P; Zhou, B; Zhu, G Y; Zhu, R Y; Zichichi, Antonino; Ziegler, F

    1997-01-01

    We report on a search for R--parity breaking effects due to supersymmetric tau--sneutrino exchange in the reactions e+e- to e+e- and e+e- to mu+mu- at centre--of--mass energies from 91~{\\GeV} to 172~{\\GeV}, using the L3 detector at LEP. No evidence for deviations from the Standard Model expectations of the measured cross sections and forward--backward asymmetries for these reactions is found. Upper limits for the couplings $\\lambda_{131}$ and $\\lambda_{232}$ for sneutrino masses up to $m_{\\SNT} \\leq 190~\\GeV$ are determined from an analysis of the expected effects due to tau sneutrino exchange.

  2. Sparticle spectrum and constraints in anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huitu, K.; Laamanen, J.; Pandita, P.N.

    2002-01-01

    We study in detail the particle spectrum in anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking models in which supersymmetry breaking terms are induced by the super-Weyl anomaly. We investigate the minimal anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking models, gaugino assisted supersymmetry breaking models, as well as models with additional residual nondecoupling D-term contributions due to an extra U(1) gauge symmetry at a high energy scale. We derive sum rules for the sparticle masses in these models which can help in differentiating between them. We also obtain the sparticle spectrum numerically, and compare and contrast the results so obtained for the different types of anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking models

  3. Computational simulation of chromosome breaks in human liver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Jianshe; Li Wenjian; Jin Xiaodong

    2006-01-01

    An easy method was established for computing chromosome breaks in cells exposed to heavily charged particles. The cell chromosome break value by 12 C +6 ions was theoretically calculated, and was tested with experimental data of chromosome breaks by using a premature chromosome condensation technique. The theoretical chromosome break value agreed well with the experimental data. The higher relative biological effectiveness of the heavy ions was closely correlated to its physical characteristics. In addition, the chromosome break value can be predicted off line. (authors)

  4. Design of the TPX outboard toroidal limiters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaubel, K.M.; Anderson, P.M.; Baxi, C.B.

    1995-01-01

    The Tokamak Physics Experiment outboard limiter system incorporates the passive stabilizer plates, the ripple armor, the toroidal break and the support structures. These components are designed to withstand substantial steady state heat loads and high mechanical forces caused by plasma disruptions. The design of these components has been developed to deal with the challenging thermal, structural and remote handling requirements

  5. Scintillation camera with second order resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muehllehner, G.

    1976-01-01

    A scintillation camera for use in radioisotope imaging to determine the concentration of radionuclides in a two-dimensional area is described in which means is provided for second order positional resolution. The phototubes, which normally provide only a single order of resolution, are modified to provide second order positional resolution of radiation within an object positioned for viewing by the scintillation camera. The phototubes are modified in that multiple anodes are provided to receive signals from the photocathode in a manner such that each anode is particularly responsive to photoemissions from a limited portion of the photocathode. Resolution of radioactive events appearing as an output of this scintillation camera is thereby improved

  6. Best estimate small break LOCA analysis for KNGR SIS optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, JIn Ho; Lim, Hong Sik; Bae, Kyoo Hwan; Lee, Joon

    1996-01-01

    The KNGR has an advanced ECCS design feature which employs four mechanically-separated SI trains where each train consisting of one HPSI pump and one SIT injects ECC water directly into the reactor vessel downcomer annulus. To demonstrate that the KNGR ECCS design features meet the EPRI ALWR requirements of no core uncovery for a break of up to 6 inch diameter, small break LOCA cases with various break sizes were analyzed using a best-estimate analytical procedure. Two kinds of break locations are considered: cold leg and DVI line breaks. It was observed that the KNGR ECCS design can tolerate a cold leg break of up to 10 inches with no core uncovery. However, since DVI line break with 6 inch diameter undergoes slight core uncovery, further investigation is required for KNGR SIS optimization

  7. Climate and floods still govern California levee breaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florsheim, J.L.; Dettinger, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Even in heavily engineered river systems, climate still governs flood variability and thus still drives many levee breaks and geomorphic changes. We assemble a 155-year record of levee breaks for a major California river system to find that breaks occurred in 25% of years during the 20th Century. A relation between levee breaks and river discharge is present that sets a discharge threshold above which most levee breaks occurred. That threshold corresponds to small floods with recurrence intervals of ???2-3 years. Statistical analysis illustrates that levee breaks and peak discharges cycle (broadly) on a 12-15 year time scale, in time with warm-wet storm patterns in California, but more slowly or more quickly than ENSO and PDO climate phenomena, respectively. Notably, these variations and thresholds persist through the 20th Century, suggesting that historical flood-control effects have not reduced the occurrence or frequency of levee breaks. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  8. Spontaneous Lorentz breaking at high energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, H.-C.; Luty, Markus A.; Mukohyama, Shinji; Thaler, Jesse

    2006-01-01

    Theories that spontaneously break Lorentz invariance also violate diffeomorphism symmetries, implying the existence of extra degrees of freedom and modifications of gravity. In the minimal model ('ghost condensation') with only a single extra degree of freedom at low energies, the scale of Lorentz violation cannot be larger than about M ∼ 100GeV due to an infrared instability in the gravity sector. We show that Lorentz symmetry can be broken at much higher scales in a non-minimal theory with additional degrees of freedom, in particular if Lorentz symmetry is broken by the vacuum expectation value of a vector field. This theory can be constructed by gauging ghost condensation, giving a systematic effective field theory description that allows us to estimate the size of all physical effects. We show that nonlinear effects become important for gravitational fields with strength Φ 1/2 ∼> g, where g is the gauge coupling, and we argue that the nonlinear dynamics is free from singularities. We then analyze the phenomenology of the model, including nonlinear dynamics and velocity-dependent effects. The strongest bounds on the gravitational sector come from either black hole accretion or direction-dependent gravitational forces, and imply that the scale of spontaneous Lorentz breaking is M ∼ 12 GeV, g 2 10 15 GeV). If the Lorentz breaking sector couples directly to matter, there is a spin-dependent inverse-square law force, which has a different angular dependence from the force mediated by the ghost condensate, providing a distinctive signature for this class of models

  9. Break spectrum analyses for small break loss of coolant accidents in a RESAR-3S Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fletcher, C.D.; Kullberg, C.M.

    1986-03-01

    A series of thermal-hydraulic analyses were performed to investigate phenomena occurring during small break loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) sequences in a RESAR-3S pressurized water reactor. The analysis included simulations of plant behavior using the TRAC-PF1 and RELAP5/MOD2 computer codes. Series of calculations were performed using both codes for different break sizes. The analyses presented here also served an audit function in that the results shown here were used by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as an independent confirmation of similar analyses performed by Westinghouse Electric Company using another computer code. 10 refs., 62 figs., 14 tabs

  10. Electroweak Symmetry Breaking (3/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The focus of the lectures will be on the role of the Higgs boson in the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking, both in the Standard Model and in models of New Physics. In particular, I will discuss how a determination of its couplings to matter and gauge fields can give important information on the nature and origin of the Higgs boson. I will thus review the picture on Higgs couplings implied by the current experimental data and examine further interesting processes that can be measured in the future.

  11. Electroweak Symmetry Breaking (2/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The focus of the lectures will be on the role of the Higgs boson in the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking, both in the Standard Model and in models of New Physics. In particular, I will discuss how a determination of its couplings to matter and gauge fields can give important information on the nature and origin of the Higgs boson. I will thus review the picture on Higgs couplings implied by the current experimental data and examine further interesting processes that can be measured in the future.

  12. Electroweak Symmetry Breaking (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The focus of the lectures will be on the role of the Higgs boson in the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking, both in the Standard Model and in models of New Physics. In particular, I will discuss how a determination of its couplings to matter and gauge fields can give important information on the nature and origin of the Higgs boson. I will thus review the picture on Higgs couplings implied by the current experimental data and examine further interesting processes that can be measured in the future.

  13. Mechanically controllable break junctions for molecular electronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Dong; Jeong, Hyunhak; Lee, Takhee; Mayer, Dirk

    2013-09-20

    A mechanically controllable break junction (MCBJ) represents a fundamental technique for the investigation of molecular electronic junctions, especially for the study of the electronic properties of single molecules. With unique advantages, the MCBJ technique has provided substantial insight into charge transport processes in molecules. In this review, the techniques for sample fabrication, operation and the various applications of MCBJs are introduced and the history, challenges and future of MCBJs are discussed. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Breaking the fault tree circular logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lankin, M.

    2000-01-01

    Event tree - fault tree approach to model failures of nuclear plants as well as of other complex facilities is noticeably dominant now. This approach implies modeling an object in form of unidirectional logical graph - tree, i.e. graph without circular logic. However, genuine nuclear plants intrinsically demonstrate quite a few logical loops (circular logic), especially where electrical systems are involved. This paper shows the incorrectness of existing practice of circular logic breaking by elimination of part of logical dependencies and puts forward a formal algorithm, which enables the analyst to correctly model the failure of complex object, which involves logical dependencies between system and components, in form of fault tree. (author)

  15. Leak before break experience in CANDU reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Price, E.G.; Moan, G.D.; Coleman, C.E.

    1988-04-01

    The paper describes how the requirements for Leak-Before-Break are met in CANDU reactors. The requirements are based on operational and laboratory experience. After the onset of leakage in a fuel channel from a delayed hydride crack, time is available to the operator to take action before the crack grows to an unstable length. The time available is calculated using different models which use crack growth data from small specimen tests. When the results from crack growth behaviour experiments, carried out on components removed from reactor are used in the model, the time available for operator response is about 100 hours

  16. SU(3) flavour breaking and baryon structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, A.N.; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Pleiter, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Juelich Supercomputing Centre (JSC); Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Shanahan, P.; Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Stueben, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Regionales Rechenzentrum; Collaboration: QCDSF/UKQCD Collaboration

    2013-11-15

    We present results from the QCDSF/UKQCD collaboration for hyperon electromagnetic form factors and axial charges obtained from simulations using N{sub f}=2+1 flavours of O(a)-improved Wilson fermions. We also consider matrix elements relevant for hyperon semileptonic decays. We find flavour-breaking effects in hyperon magnetic moments which are consistent with experiment, while our results for the connected quark spin content indicates that quarks contribute more to the spin of the {Xi} baryon than they do to the proton.

  17. Electroweak symmetry breaking beyond the Standard Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Gautam

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, two key issues related to electroweak symmetry breaking are addressed. First, how fine-tuned different models are that trigger this phenomenon? Second, even if a light Higgs boson exists, does it have to be necessarily elementary? After a brief introduction, the fine-tuning aspects of the MSSM, NMSSM, generalized NMSSM and GMSB scenarios shall be reviewed, then the little Higgs, composite Higgs and the Higgsless models shall be compared. Finally, a broad overview will be given on where we stand at the end of 2011. (author)

  18. Phenomenology of flavor-mediated supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, D. Elazzar; Kribs, Graham D.

    2000-01-01

    The phenomenology of a new economical supersymmetric model that utilizes dynamical supersymmetry breaking and gauge mediation for the generation of the sparticle spectrum and the hierarchy of fermion masses is discussed. Similarities between the communication of supersymmetry breaking through a messenger sector and the generation of flavor using the Froggatt-Nielsen (FN) mechanism are exploited, leading to the identification of vector-like messenger fields with FN fields and the messenger U(1) as a flavor symmetry. An immediate consequence is that the first and second generation scalars acquire flavor-dependent masses, but do not violate flavor changing neutral current bounds since their mass scale, consistent with ''effective supersymmetry,'' is of order 10 TeV. We define and advocate a ''minimal flavor-mediated model'' (MFMM), recently introduced in the literature, which successfully accommodates the small flavor-breaking parameters of the standard model using order 1 couplings and ratios of flavon field VEVs. The mediation of supersymmetry breaking occurs via two-loop logarithm-enhanced gauge-mediated contributions, as well as several one-loop and two-loop Yukawa-mediated contributions for which we provide analytical expressions. The MFMM is parametrized by a small set of masses and couplings, with values restricted by several model constraints and experimental data. Full two-loop renormalization group evolution is performed, correctly taking into account the negative two-loop gauge contributions from heavy first and second generations. Electroweak symmetry is radiatively broken with the value of μ determined by matching to the Z mass. The weak scale spectrum is generally rather heavy, except for the lightest Higgs boson, the lightest stau, the lightest chargino, the lightest two neutralinos, and of course a very light gravitino. The next-to-lightest sparticle always has a decay length that is larger than the scale of a detector, and is either the lightest stau

  19. Density Functional Simulation of a Breaking Nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakamura, A.; Brandbyge, Mads; Hansen, Lars Bruno

    1999-01-01

    to a specific number of eigenchannels. The transitions between plateaus can be abrupt in connection with structural rearrangements or extend over a few a of elongation. The interplay between conductance modes and structural deformation is discussed by means of the eigenchannel transmission probabilities.......We study the deformation and breaking of an atomic-sized sodium wire using density functional simulations. The wire deforms through sudden atomic rearrangements and smoother atomic displacements. The conductance of the wire exhibits plateaus at integer values in units of 2e(2)/h corresponding...

  20. Cosmoparticle physics of family symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khlopov, M.Yu.

    1993-07-01

    The foundations of both particle theory and cosmology are hidden at super energy scale and can not be tested by direct laboratory means. Cosmoparticle physics is developed to probe these foundations by the proper combination of their indirect effects, thus providing definite conclusions on their reliability. Cosmological and astrophysical tests turn to be complementary to laboratory searches of rare processes, induced by new physics, as it can be seen in the case of gauge theory of broken symmetry of quark and lepton families, ascribing to the hierarchy of the horizontal symmetry breaking the observed hierarchy of masses and the mixing between quark and lepton families. 36 refs

  1. Several ways of breaking the colour symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krolikowski, W.

    1975-01-01

    We discuss some cases of colour-symmetry breaking and its implications for quark binding by one-gluon-exchange forces. We pay special attention to the case, where colour-isospin and colour-hypercharge subsymmetries are preserved. Then, the ω-PHI-like mixing of colour-nonet components 0 and 8 leads to a Zweig-type approximate selection rule for decays of PHI-like meson = antiqsub(B)qsub(B)(qsub(B) is the '' blue'' quark) into ordinary mesons (and photons). (author)

  2. Resolution of Reflection Seismic Data Revisited

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Thomas Mejer; Mosegaard, Klaus; Zunino, Andrea

    The Rayleigh Principle states that the minimum separation between two reflectors that allows them to be visually separated is the separation where the wavelet maxima from the two superimposed reflections combine into one maximum. This happens around Δtres = λb/8, where λb is the predominant...... lower vertical resolution of reflection seismic data. In the following we will revisit think layer model and demonstrate that there is in practice no limit to the vertical resolution using the parameterization of Widess (1973), and that the vertical resolution is limited by the noise in the data...

  3. Particle dispersion and mixing induced by breaking internal gravity waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouruet-Aubertot, Pascale; Koudella, C.; Staquet, C.; Winters, K. B.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to analyze diapycnal mixing induced by the breaking of an internal gravity wave — the primary wave — either standing or propagating. To achieve this aim we apply two different methods. The first method consists of a direct estimate of vertical eddy diffusion from particle dispersion while the second method relies upon potential energy budgets [Winters, K.B., Lombard, P.N., Riley, J.J., D'Asaro, E.A., 1995. J. Fluid Mech. 289, 115-128; Winters, K.B., D'Asaro, E.A., 1996. J. Fluid Mech. 317, 179-193]. The primary wave we consider is of small amplitude and is statically stable, a case for which the breaking process involves two-dimensional instabilities. The dynamics of the waves have been previously analyzed by means of two-dimensional direct numerical simulations [Bouruet-Aubertot, P., Sommeria, J., Staquet, C., 1995. J. Fluid Mech. 285, 265-301; Bouruet-Aubertot, P., Sommeria, J., Staquet, C., 1996. Dyn. Atmos. Oceans 29, 41-63; Koudella, C., Staquet, C., 1998. In: Davis, P. (Ed.), Proceedings of the IMA Conference on Mixing and Dispersion on Stably-stratified Flows, Dundee, September 1996. IMA Publication]. High resolution three-dimensional calculations of the same wave are also reported here [Koudella, C., 1999]. A local estimate of mixing is first inferred from the time evolution of sets of particles released in the flow during the breaking regime. We show that, after an early evolution dominated by shear effects, a diffusion law is reached and the dispersion coefficient is fairly independent of the initial seeding location of the particles in the flow. The eddy diffusion coefficient, K, is then estimated from the diapycnal diffusive flux. A good agreement with the value inferred from particle dispersion is obtained. This finding is of particular interest regarding the interpretation of in situ estimates of K inferred either from tracer dispersion or from microstructure measurements. Computation of the Cox number, equal to the

  4. Cosmology with equivalence principle breaking in the dark sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keselman, Jose Ariel; Nusser, Adi; Peebles, P. J. E.

    2010-01-01

    A long-range force acting only between nonbaryonic particles would be associated with a large violation of the weak equivalence principle. We explore cosmological consequences of this idea, which we label ReBEL (daRk Breaking Equivalence principLe). A high resolution hydrodynamical simulation of the distributions of baryons and dark matter confirms our previous findings that a ReBEL force of comparable strength to gravity on comoving scales of about 1 h -1 Mpc causes voids between the concentrations of large galaxies to be more nearly empty, suppresses accretion of intergalactic matter onto galaxies at low redshift, and produces an early generation of dense dark-matter halos. A preliminary analysis indicates the ReBEL scenario is consistent with the one-dimensional power spectrum of the Lyman-Alpha forest and the three-dimensional galaxy autocorrelation function. Segregation of baryons and DM in galaxies and systems of galaxies is a strong prediction of ReBEL. ReBEL naturally correlates the baryon mass fraction in groups and clusters of galaxies with the system mass, in agreement with recent measurements.

  5. Super-resolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2014-01-01

    Super-resolution, the process of obtaining one or more high-resolution images from one or more low-resolution observations, has been a very attractive research topic over the last two decades. It has found practical applications in many real world problems in different fields, from satellite...

  6. Hyperscaling violation and electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elander, Daniel, E-mail: pelander@purdue.edu [Department of Physics, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2036 (United States); Lawrance, Robert; Piai, Maurizio [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea, Wales (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    We consider a class of simplified models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking built in terms of their five-dimensional weakly-coupled gravity duals, in the spirit of bottom-up holography. The sigma-model consists of two abelian gauge bosons and one real, non-charged scalar field coupled to gravity in five dimensions. The scalar potential is a simple exponential function of the scalar field. The background metric resulting from solving the classical equations of motion exhibits hyperscaling violation, at least at asymptotically large values of the radial direction. We study the spectrum of scalar composite states of the putative dual field theory by fluctuating the sigma-model scalars and gravity, and discuss in which cases we find a parametrically light scalar state in the spectrum. We model the spontaneous breaking of the (weakly coupled) gauge symmetry to the diagonal subgroup by the choice of IR boundary conditions. We compute the mass spectrum of spin-1 states, and the precision electroweak parameter S as a function of the hyperscaling coefficient. We find a general bound on the mass of the lightest spin-1 resonance, by requiring that the indirect bounds on the precision parameters be satisfied, that implies that precision electroweak physics excludes the possibility of a techni-rho meson with mass lighter than several TeV.

  7. Rock Directed Breaking Under the Impulse Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomeriki, Sergo; Mataradze, Edgar; Chikhradze, Nikoloz; Losaberidze, Marine; Khomeriki, Davit; Shatberashvili, Grigol

    2016-10-01

    In the work the problem of directed chipping of facing stone material by means of managing of explosion process is considered. The technology of the mining of decorative stone by the use of explosion energy means the very rapid transfer of potential energy of elastic deformations to kinetic energy. As a result, the explosion impulse, in the expanse of the inertia of rock massive, does not cause the increase of existing cracks. In the course of explosion, the shock wave is propagated by ultrasonic velocity and in this case the medium parameters (pressure, density, temperature, velocity) increase in spurts. In spite of this fact the all three conservation laws of mechanics remain valid on basis of three laws the equations are derived by which the parameters of shock wave may be defined by means of the rock physical-mechanical properties. The load on the body volume at breaking under explosion acts over very small period of the time. Therefore, stressed-deformed state of the rock was studied when the impulse load acts on the boundary. It was considered that the mining of the blocks of facing stone is performed from the hard rocks. This means that the breaking proceeds in the zone of elastic deformation. In the conditions of mentioned assumptions, the expression of the stress tensor and displacement of vector components initiated by stressed-deformed state in the rock are written.

  8. Dynamical supersymmetry breaking and gauge anomalies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.

    1991-01-01

    Some aspects of supersymmetric gauge theories are discussed. It is shown that dynamical supersymmetry breaking does not occur in supersymmetric QED in higher dimensions. The cancellation of both local (perturbative) and global (non-perturbative) gauge anomalies are also discussed in supersymmetric gauge theories. We argue that there is no dynamical supersymmetry breaking in higher dimensions in any supersymmetric gauge theories free of gauge anomalies. It is also shown that for supersymmetric gauge theories in higher dimensions with a compact connected simple gauge group, when the local anomaly-free condition is satisfied, there can be at most a possible Z 2 global gauge anomaly in extended supersymmetric SO(10) (or spin (10)) gauge theories in D=10 dimensions containing additional Weyl fermions in a spinor representation of SO(10) (or spin (10)). In four dimensions with local anomaly-free condition satisfied, the only possible global gauge anomalies in supersymmetric gauge theories are Z 2 global gauge anomalies for extended supersymmetric SP(2N) (N=rank) gauge theories containing additional Weyl fermions in a representation of SP(2N) with an odd 2nd-order Dynkin index. (orig.)

  9. Large-field inflation and supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchmueller, Wilfried; Wieck, Clemens; Dudas, Emilian; Heurtier, Lucien; Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau

    2014-07-01

    Large-field inflation is an interesting and predictive scenario. Its non-trivial embedding in supergravity was intensively studied in the recent literature, whereas its interplay with supersymmetry breaking has been less thoroughly investigated. We consider the minimal viable model of chaotic inflation in supergravity containing a stabilizer field, and add a Polonyi field. Furthermore, we study two possible extensions of the minimal setup. We show that there are various constraints: first of all, it is very hard to couple an O'Raifeartaigh sector with the inflaton sector, the simplest viable option being to couple them only through gravity. Second, even in the simplest model the gravitino mass is bounded from above parametrically by the inflaton mass. Therefore, high-scale supersymmetry breaking is hard to implement in a chaotic inflation setup. As a separate comment we analyze the simplest chaotic inflation construction without a stabilizer field, together with a supersymmetrically stabilized Kaehler modulus. Without a modulus, the potential of such a model is unbounded from below. We show that a heavy modulus cannot solve this problem.

  10. Supersymmetry breaking in 4D string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De la Macorra, A.; Ross, G.G.

    1995-01-01

    We construct a (locally supersymmetric) four-fermion effective lagrangian description of the strong binding effects responsible for the formation of a gaugino condensate, extending the analysis to include the multiple moduli of orbifold compactification. Using this to estimate the binding we find that supersymmetry is broken and a phenomenologically realistic value for the gravitino mass and gauge coupling constant at the unification scale with only one gaugino condensate may be obtained. The main source for supersymmetry breaking is the VEV of the auxiliary field of the dilaton h s (i.e. h S >>h T , where T are moduli fields). By studying the scalar potential we find either that the vacuum expectation values of the moduli have a common value related to the vacuum expectation value of the dilaton or that they take the values of the dual invariant points. A squeezed orbifold can thus naturally be obtained, allowing for the possibility of minimal string unification. We include chiral matter fields and derive the scalar potential up to one-loop level. The one-loop potential is responsible for stabilising the scalar potential for vanishing vacuum expectation values of the chiral matter fields. We then calculate the soft supersymmetry breaking parameters in the visible sector. Finally we show that with a suitable choice of superpotential it is possible to cancel the cosmological constant while having supersymmetry broken. ((orig.))

  11. 'Jet breaks' and 'missing breaks' in the X-Ray afterglow of Gamma Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Dado, Shlomo; De Rújula, Alvaro

    2008-01-01

    The X-ray afterglows (AGs) of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) and X-Ray Flashes (XRFs) have, after the fast decline phase of their prompt emission, a temporal behaviour varying between two extremes. A large fraction of these AGs has a 'canonical' light curve which, after an initial shallow-decay 'plateau' phase, 'breaks smoothly' into a fast power-law decline. Very energetic GRBs, contrariwise, appear not to have a 'break', their AG declines like a power-law from the start of the observations. Breaks and 'missing breaks' are intimately related to the geometry and deceleration of the jets responsible for GRBs. In the frame of the 'cannonball' (CB) model of GRBs and XRFs, we analyze the cited extreme behaviours (canonical and pure power-law) and intermediate cases spanning the observed range of X-ray AG shapes. We show that the entire panoply of X-ray light-curve shapes --measured with Swift and other satellites-- are as anticipated, on very limpid grounds, by the CB model. We test the expected correlations between the...

  12. Structural changes in Central and Eastern European economies: breaking news or breaking the ice?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Égert, B.; Jiménez-Rodríguez, R.; Kočenda, Evžen; Morales-Zumaquero, A.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 39, 1-2 (2006), s. 85-103 ISSN 1573-9414 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC542 Institutional research plan: CEZ:MSM0021620846 Keywords : Central and Eastern European (CEE) countries * multiple structural breaks * volatility Subject RIV: AH - Economics

  13. Structural changes in transition economies: breaking the news or breaking the ice?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Égert, B.; Jiménez-Rodríguez, R.; Kočenda, Evžen; Morales-Zumaquero, A.

    -, č. 16 (2006), s. 1-15 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z70850503 Keywords : transition countries * structural break * volatility Subject RIV: AH - Economics http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/41234/1/IPC-working-paper-016-Kocenda.pdf

  14. To Break it Down or Not Break it Down: That is the Question!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coker, Cheryl A.

    2006-01-01

    Learning a new skill, even a seemingly simple one, can be an overwhelming task for a beginner. A question often faced by the practitioner as a result is whether or not to break the skill into parts for initial practice. Skill complexity and skill organization interact to provide direction as to whether whole or part practice should be employed in…

  15. Exploring non-holomorphic soft terms in the framework of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chattopadhyay, Utpal; Das, Debottam; Mukherjee, Samadrita

    2018-01-01

    It is known that in the absence of a gauge singlet field, a specific class of supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking non-holomorphic (NH) terms can be soft breaking in nature so that they may be considered along with the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM) and beyond. There have been studies related to these terms in minimal supergravity based models. Consideration of an F-type SUSY breaking scenario in the hidden sector with two chiral superfields however showed Planck scale suppression of such terms. In an unbiased point of view for the sources of SUSY breaking, the NH terms in a phenomenological MSSM (pMSSM) type of analysis showed a possibility of a large SUSY contribution to muon g - 2, a reasonable amount of corrections to the Higgs boson mass and a drastic reduction of the electroweak fine-tuning for a higgsino dominated {\\tilde{χ}}_1^0 in some regions of parameter space. We first investigate here the effects of the NH terms in a low scale SUSY breaking scenario. In our analysis with minimal gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking (mGMSB) we probe how far the results can be compared with the previous pMSSM plus NH terms based study. We particularly analyze the Higgs, stop and the electroweakino sectors focusing on a higgsino dominated {\\tilde{χ}}_1^0 and {\\tilde{χ}}_1^{± } , a feature typically different from what appears in mGMSB. The effect of a limited degree of RG evolutions and vanishing of the trilinear coupling terms at the messenger scale can be overcome by choosing a non-minimal GMSB scenario, such as one with a matter-messenger interaction.

  16. Diffraction limit of refractive compound lens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolchevsky, N.N.; Petrov, P.V.

    2015-01-01

    A compound X-ray and neutron lenses is an array of lenses with a common axis. The resolution limited by aberration and by diffraction. Diffraction limit comes from theory based on absorption aperture of the compound refractive lenses. Beam passing through transparent lenses form Airy pattern. Results of calculation of diffraction resolution limit for non-transparent X-ray and neutron lenses are discussed. (authors)

  17. DEEP KECK u-BAND IMAGING OF THE HUBBLE ULTRA DEEP FIELD: A CATALOG OF z ∼ 3 LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafelski, Marc; Wolfe, Arthur M.; Cooke, Jeff; Chen, H.-W.; Armandroff, Taft E.; Wirth, Gregory D.

    2009-01-01

    We present a sample of 407 z ∼ 3 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) to a limiting isophotal u-band magnitude of 27.6 mag in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. The LBGs are selected using a combination of photometric redshifts and the u-band drop-out technique enabled by the introduction of an extremely deep u-band image obtained with the Keck I telescope and the blue channel of the Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer. The Keck u-band image, totaling 9 hr of integration time, has a 1σ depth of 30.7 mag arcsec -2 , making it one of the most sensitive u-band images ever obtained. The u-band image also substantially improves the accuracy of photometric redshift measurements of ∼50% of the z ∼ 3 LBGs, significantly reducing the traditional degeneracy of colors between z ∼ 3 and z ∼ 0.2 galaxies. This sample provides the most sensitive, high-resolution multi-filter imaging of reliably identified z ∼ 3 LBGs for morphological studies of galaxy formation and evolution and the star formation efficiency of gas at high redshift.

  18. Breaking rocks made easy: subcritical processes and tectonic predesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voigtlaender, Anne; Krautblatter, Michael

    2017-04-01

    In geomorphic studies, to change in landforms, e.g. by rock slope failure, fluvial or glacial erosion, a threshold is commonly assumed, which is crossed either by an increase in external driving or a decrease of internal resisting forces, respectively. If the threshold is crossed, bedrock breaks and slope fails, rivers incise and glaciers plug and sew their bed. Here we put forward a focus on the decrease of the resisting forces, as an increase in the driving forces, to match the strength of bedrock, is not that likely. We suggest that the degradation of resisting forces of bedrock can be better explained by subcritical processes like creep, fatigue and stress corrosion interplaying with tectonic predesign. Both concepts, subcritical processes and tectonic predesign have been issued in the last century, but have not been widely accepted nor have their assumptions been explicitly stressed in recent case studies. Moreover both concepts profit especially on scale issues if merged. Subcritical crack growth, includes different mechanisms promoting fractures well below the ultimate strength. Single infinitesimal but irreversible damage and deformations are induced in the material over time. They interact with inherent microstructural flaws and low applied stresses, limiting local strength and macroscopic behavior of bedrock. This reissues the concept of tectonic predesigned, as proposed by A.E. Scheidegger, which not only encompasses structural features that determine the routing of drainage patterns and shear planes, e.g. joints, faults and foliations, but also the (neo)tectonic stress-field and the (in-situ) strain state of bedrocks and mountains. Combining subcritical processes and tectonic predesign we can better explain, why and where we see a dissected, eroded and geomorphic divers' landscape. In this conceptual framework actual magnitudes of the driving forces are accounted for and so is the nature of the bedrock material, to better understand the trajectories of

  19. How fast is the Patagonian shelf-break acidifying?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orselli, Iole B. M.; Kerr, Rodrigo; Ito, Rosane G.; Tavano, Virginia M.; Mendes, Carlos Rafael B.; Garcia, Carlos A. E.

    2018-02-01

    Anthropogenic carbon (Cant) concentration is determined according to the TrOCA method, from carbonate system data and hydrographic parameters collected during two consecutive spring cruises (2007 and 2008) in the Argentinean Patagonian shelf-break zone between 36°S and 50°S. Cant has intruded the water column until intermediate depths, with no Cant below 1000 m, in the deeper waters (i.e., North Atlantic Deep Water and Antarctic Bottom Water) of the Northern sector of the study area (i.e., North of 38°S). The higher Cant concentration is observed in Subantarctic Shelf Water in the Southern region, whereas in the Northern sector both Tropical Water and South Atlantic Central Water are equally affected by Cant intrusion. The Antarctic Intermediate Water represents the depth-limit achieved by Cant penetration, reinforcing the role that this water mass plays as an important vehicle to transport Cant to the oceans interior. The estimated Cant average (± method precision) is 46.6 ± 5.3 μmol kg- 1, considering the full depth of the water column. The ocean acidification state (ΔpH) shows an average (± standard deviation) of - 0.11 ± 0.05, thus, indicating an annual pH reduction of - 0.0010 yr- 1 since the Industrial Revolution (c.a. 1750). The degree of aragonite saturation is lowered towards undersaturation levels of calcite. The Patagonian shelf and shelf-break zones-a strong CO2 sink region in the global ocean-are likely a key area for Cant intrusion in the southwestern South Atlantic Ocean.

  20. LIMITS ON PROMPT, DISPERSED RADIO PULSES FROM GAMMA-RAY BURSTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bannister, K. W.; Murphy, T.; Gaensler, B. M.; Reynolds, J. E.

    2012-01-01

    We have searched for prompt radio emission from nine gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) with a 12 m telescope at 1.4 GHz, with a time resolution of 64 μs to 1 s. We detected single dispersed radio pulses with significances >6σ in the few minutes following two GRBs. The dispersion measures of both pulses are well in excess of the expected Galactic values, and the implied rate is incompatible with known sources of single dispersed pulses. The arrival times of both pulses also coincide with breaks in the GRB X-ray light curves. A null trial and statistical arguments rule out random fluctuations as the origin of these pulses with >95% and ∼97% confidence, respectively, although a simple population argument supports a GRB origin with confidence of only 2%. We caution that we cannot rule out radio frequency interference (RFI) as the origin of these pulses. If the single pulses are not related to the GRBs, we set an upper limit on the flux density of radio pulses emitted between 200 and 1800 s after a GRB of 1.27w –1/2 Jy, where 6.4 × 10 –5 s –3 s is the pulse width. We set a limit of less than 760 Jy for long timescale (>1 s) variations. These limits are some of the most constraining at high time resolution and GHz frequencies in the early stages of the GRB phenomenon.