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Sample records for breakfast cereal meal

  1. Effects of GI and content of indigestible carbohydrates of cereal-based evening meals on glucose tolerance at a subsequent standardised breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, A; Granfeldt, Y; Ostman, E; Preston, T; Björck, I

    2006-09-01

    To evaluate the impact of four low-glycaemic index (GI) and one high-GI cereal-based evening meals on glucose tolerance at a subsequent standardised breakfast. Wheat kernels, barley kernels, spaghetti, spaghetti with added wheat bran and white wheat bread (WWB) were consumed in the evening in a random order at five different occasions. At the subsequent breakfast, blood glucose, serum insulin, plasma short chain fatty acid, plasma free fatty acid (FFA) and breath hydrogen were measured. The study was performed at Applied Nutrition and Food Chemistry, Lund University, Sweden. Fifteen healthy volunteers were recruited. One subject was later excluded owing to abnormal blood glucose values. The blood glucose response (0-120 min) to the standardised breakfast was significantly lower after consuming barley kernels in the evening compared with evening meals with WWB (P=0.019) or spaghetti+wheat bran (P=0.046). There were no significant differences in insulin concentrations at breakfast. Breath hydrogen excretion at breakfast was significantly higher after an evening meal with barley kernels compared with WWB, wheat kernels or spaghetti (P=0.026, 0.026 and 0.015, respectively), and the concentration of plasma propionate at breakfast was significantly higher following an evening meal with barley kernels compared with an evening meal with WWB (P=0.041). In parallel, FFA concentrations were significantly lower after barley kernels compared with WWB (P=0.042) or spaghetti evening meals (P=0.019). The improved glucose tolerance at breakfast, following an evening meal with barley kernels appeared to emanate from suppression of FFA levels, mediated by colonic fermentation of the specific indigestible carbohydrates present in this product, or, to the combination of the low-GI features and colonic fermentation. Published online 8 March 2006.

  2. Nutritional and sensory attributes of soy-supplemented cereal meals ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Soy flour, cereal flour and starch were prepared with slight modifications of the traditional methods. Cereal starch and flour were then fortified with soy flour in a ratio of 3:1 (w/w) of cereal starch flour to soy flour and were used to prepare dumplings breakfast meals and cakes. Unfortified meals were prepared as control ...

  3. Nutritional quality of Australian breakfast cereals. Are they improving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louie, Jimmy Chun Yu; Dunford, Elizabeth K; Walker, Karen Z; Gill, Timothy P

    2012-10-01

    The nutritional quality of Australian breakfast cereals is not systematically monitored despite the importance of breakfast for general health. We examined whether the nutritional quality of Australian breakfast cereals has improved between 2004 and 2010, and whether any change could be detected after the introduction of Daily Intake Guide (DIG) front-of-pack labelling. Supermarket surveys were conducted in 2004 and 2010 using the same methodology to collect information from the nutrition information panels of Australian breakfast cereals and the nutrient content of cereals was compared by year. Breakfast cereals with and without DIG labelling in 2010 were also compared. Nutritional quality was assessed using UK Traffic Light criteria. No significant difference was detected in nutritional composition of breakfast cereals between 2004 and 2010. There was no notable improvement in nutritional composition of breakfast cereals marketed as the same product in both years. Overall there has been little improvement in the nutritional quality of Australian breakfast cereals in the 6 year period. A large proportion of Australian breakfast cereals were considered high sugar. In conclusion, the introduction of DIG labelling does not appear to have promoted product reformulation, and breakfast cereals carrying DIG labels were not consistently healthier. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of Breakfast Cereals and Cereal Advertising by a Young Adult Audience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnard, Alice

    A study examined the knowledge of and attitudes toward nutrition in general and specifically toward cold breakfast cereals and cereal advertising with different creative appeals. Subjects, 117 undergraduate university students, completed a questionnaire about their use of cold breakfast cereal and their sources of information about nutrition.…

  5. Effects of breakfast meal composition on second meal metabolic responses in adults with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, C A; Gardiner, J; McBurney, M I; Anderson, S; Weatherspoon, L J; Henry, D N; Hord, N G

    2006-09-01

    We tested the relative importance of a low-glycemic response versus a high glycemic response breakfast meal on postprandial serum glucose, insulin and free fatty acid (FFA) responses after consumption of a standardized mid-day meal in adult individuals with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Following an overnight fast of 8-10 h, a randomized crossover intervention using control and test meals was conducted over a 3-week-period. A fasting baseline measurement and postprandial measurements at various time intervals after the breakfast and mid-day meal were taken. Forty-five Type 2 DM subjects completed the requirements and were included in the study results. Two different breakfast meals were administered during the intervention: (A) a high glycemic load breakfast meal consisting of farina (kJ 1833; carbohydrate (CHO) 78 g and psylium soluble fiber 0 g), (B) a low-glycemic load breakfast meal consisting of a fiber-loop cereal (kJ 1515; CHO 62 g and psyllium soluble fiber 6.6 g). A standardized lunch was provided approximately 4 h after breakfast. Blood plasma concentrations and area under the curve (AUC) values for glucose, insulin and FFA were measured in response to the breakfast and mid-day lunch. Statistical analyses were performed using SAS software (8.02). Comparisons between diets were based on adjusted Bonferroni t-tests. In post-breakfast analyses, Breakfast B had significantly lower area under the curve (AUC) values for plasma glucose and insulin compared to Breakfast A (PBreakfast B than for Breakfast A (Pbreakfast types. Insulin AUC values for Breakfasts B were significantly lower than Breakfast A (Pbreakfast type. These data indicate that ingesting a low-glycemic load meal containing psyllium soluble fiber at breakfast significantly improves the breakfast postprandial glycemic, insulinemic and FFA responses in adults with Type 2 DM. These data revealed no residual postprandial effect of the psyllium soluble fiber breakfast meal beyond the second meal

  6. Zearalenone exposure from breakfast cereals in Norwegian children

    OpenAIRE

    Norwegian Scientific Committee for Food Safety

    2012-01-01

    The evaluation of zearalenone exposure, based on the consumption of high-fibre breakfast cereals among Norwegian 2-, 4-, 9- and 13-year olds and the same zearalenone occurrence data as used by EFSA, indicates that the current zearalenone exposure among mean and high consumers is well below the TDI for all age groups. A short-term exposure scenario among Norwegian children based on the presumption that the zearalenone concentration is 50 μg/kg in breakfast cereals (current ...

  7. Variation in the effects of three different breakfast meals on subjective satiety and subsequent intake of energy at lunch and evening meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fallaize, Rosalind; Wilson, Louise; Gray, Juliet; Morgan, Linda M; Griffin, Bruce A

    2013-06-01

    To determine the relative impact of three iso-caloric breakfast meals, of variable composition, on satiety, hunger and subsequent intake of energy. In a three-way, crossover design, 30 healthy men (age of 21.7 ± 1.2 years; BMI, 23.1 ± 2.7 kg/m²) were randomised to one of three test breakfasts, on three separate occasions, separated by 1 week. The breakfasts consisted of eggs on toast, cereal (cornflakes) with milk and toast, or a croissant and orange juice. Subjective ratings of satiety, hunger, fullness and desire to eat were recorded at 30-min intervals by electronic visual analogue scales (VAS). Energy intake was assessed by weighed food intake at an ad libitum lunch and evening meal. Participants showed increased satiety, less hunger and a lower desire to eat after the breakfast containing eggs relative to the cereal (p breakfast was also accompanied by a significantly lower intake of energy relative to the croissant- and cereal-based breakfasts at the buffet lunch and evening meal, respectively, 1,284 ± 464 (egg) versus 1,442 ± 426 kcal (croissant), p = 0.03, 1,407 ± 379 (cereal) at lunch and 1,899 ± 729 (egg) versus 2,214 ± 620 kcal (cereal), p = 0.02, 2,047 ± 712 (croissant) at evening meal. The breakfast meal with the greatest effect on satiety and subsequent intake of energy was distinct in having the highest protein and lowest carbohydrate content relative to the other two breakfasts. These findings provide evidence to support the importance of food choice at breakfast as a means of increasing satiety in the morning and reducing energy intake at lunch.

  8. Speciation of chromium in bread and breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathebula, Mpho Wendy; Mandiwana, Khakhathi; Panichev, Nikolas

    2017-02-15

    Bread and breakfast cereals are a major constituents of the human diet, yet their Cr(VI) content is not known. Chromium(VI) was determined in these products by high resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometer (HR-CS AAS) after leaching Cr(VI) with 0.10molL(-1) Na2CO3. The results showed that 33-73% of total Cr (58.17±5.12μgkg(-1)-156.1±6.66μgkg(-1)) in bread exist as Cr(VI) and the highest total Cr content was found in brown bread. It was shown that Cr(III) is oxidized to Cr(VI) during toasting of bread. Chromium(VI) content in breakfast cereals ranged between 20.4±4μgkg(-1) and 470.4±68μgkg(-1). Therefore, it can be concluded that bread and breakfast cereals contains Cr(VI) which does not exceed maximum acceptable concentration (MAC) of 0.003mgkg(-1)bw(-1)day(-1) through daily consumption of half a bowl (65g) of breakfast cereal and four slices of toasted (122g) or untoasted bread (160g). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. exergetic analysis of breakfast cereal production in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    This work comprehensively studied energy and exergy analyses of breakfast cereal production in Nigeria. The process analysis ... efficient [5, 6]. Energy consumption in food production/crop processing industry has been identified to be affected by factors like production scale; ..... Analysis of the Corn-Ethanol Cycle” Natural.

  10. Study on fluorescence of Maillard reaction compounds in breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado-Andrade, Cristina; Rufián-Henares, José A; Morales, Francisco J

    2006-09-01

    During the advanced stage of the Maillard reaction (MR) in food processing and cooking, Amadori rearrangement products undergo dehydration and fission and fluorescent substances are formed. Free and total (free + linked to the protein backbone) fluorescence (FIC) due to Maillard compounds in 60 commercial breakfast cereals was evaluated. Pronase was used for efficient release of linked fluorescent Maillard compounds from the protein backbone. Results were correlated with some heat-induced markers of the extent of the MR or sugar caramelisation during cereal processing, such as hydroxymethylfurfural, furfural, glucosilisomaltol and furosine. The effect of sample composition (dietary-fibre added, protein, etc.) on levels of FIC, expressed as fluorescence intensity (FI) per milligram of sample, is discussed. FIC is significantly correlated to the protein content of the sample and fluorescent Maillard compounds are mainly linked to the protein backbone. The ratio of total-FIC to free-FIC was 10.4-fold for corn-based, wheat-based and multicereal-based breakfast cereals but significantly higher in rice-based samples. Addition of dietary fibre or honey increased the FIC values. Data support the usefulness of FIC measurement as an unspecific heat-induced marker in breakfast cereals.

  11. The contribution of breakfast cereals to the nutritional intake of the materially deprived UK population.

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    Holmes, B A; Kaffa, N; Campbell, K; Sanders, T A B

    2012-01-01

    Breakfast is an important source of micronutrients in the diet and its consumption has been linked to positive health outcomes. The present analysis investigated the contribution that breakfast cereals make to the nutrient intakes of the materially deprived (low income) UK population. Data for 3728 respondents aged 2 years and over from the UK Low Income Diet and Nutrition Survey (2003-2005) were analysed. Nutrient intakes of consumers and non-consumers of breakfast cereal were compared. Breakfast cereals were consumed by 49% of men, 58% of women, 80% of boys and 80% of girls, and median intakes were: 35, 25, 29 and 21 g/d, respectively. Consumers of breakfast cereals had higher intakes of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, biotin, folate, vitamin B(6), vitamin B(12), iron and zinc than non-consumers. Breakfast cereal consumption was also related to higher intakes of calcium, attributable to higher milk consumption. The intake of wholegrain and high-fibre breakfast cereals was associated with a higher intake of non-starch polysaccharides. Intakes of niacin, biotin, calcium and zinc were higher but that of vitamin B(6) was lower among consumers of exclusively wholegrain and high-fibre breakfast cereals compared with consumers of other breakfast cereals. There were no significant differences observed in intakes of non-milk extrinsic sugars according to type of breakfast cereal consumed. Breakfast cereals make a significant contribution to the micronutrient intake of the low-income UK population.

  12. Breakfast and Other Meal Consumption in Adolescents from Southern Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostachowska-Gasior, Agnieszka; Piwowar, Monika; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Kasperczyk, Janusz; Skop-Lewandowska, Agata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of breakfast and other meal consumption by adolescents and to assess the relationship between the first and the last meal consumption and sex, body mass index (BMI), and middle school and high school students’ education level. The study was conducted in 2013–2014 among 3009 students (1658 girls and 1351 boys) from middle s and high schools in Krakow and Silesia (Poland). The data was obtained from questionnaires that were analyzed with a logistic regression model for measurable and dichotomous variables. Breakfast consumers were seen to eat other meals (second breakfast, lunch, dessert, supper) significantly more often than breakfast skippers. The main meal consumption habits depend on sex and change as adolescents age. Being a girl and a high school student predisposed participants to skip breakfast and supper more often. The BMI of breakfast consumers does not differ significantly from the BMI of breakfast skippers, so BMI might thus not be a sufficient marker of breakfast consumption regularity and dietary habits in an adolescent group. The importance of regularly eaten meals, especially breakfast, together with adequate daily dietary energy intake are beneficial for physical and psychological development and cannot be overestimated in nutritional education and it is necessary to promote healthy eating behavior for well-being in later adult life. PMID:27136572

  13. Breakfast and Other Meal Consumption in Adolescents from Southern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agnieszka Ostachowska-Gasior

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of breakfast and other meal consumption by adolescents and to assess the relationship between the first and the last meal consumption and sex, body mass index (BMI, and middle school and high school students’ education level. The study was conducted in 2013–2014 among 3009 students (1658 girls and 1351 boys from middle s and high schools in Krakow and Silesia (Poland. The data was obtained from questionnaires that were analyzed with a logistic regression model for measurable and dichotomous variables. Breakfast consumers were seen to eat other meals (second breakfast, lunch, dessert, supper significantly more often than breakfast skippers. The main meal consumption habits depend on sex and change as adolescents age. Being a girl and a high school student predisposed participants to skip breakfast and supper more often. The BMI of breakfast consumers does not differ significantly from the BMI of breakfast skippers, so BMI might thus not be a sufficient marker of breakfast consumption regularity and dietary habits in an adolescent group. The importance of regularly eaten meals, especially breakfast, together with adequate daily dietary energy intake are beneficial for physical and psychological development and cannot be overestimated in nutritional education and it is necessary to promote healthy eating behavior for well-being in later adult life.

  14. Breakfast and Other Meal Consumption in Adolescents from Southern Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostachowska-Gasior, Agnieszka; Piwowar, Monika; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Kasperczyk, Janusz; Skop-Lewandowska, Agata

    2016-04-28

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of breakfast and other meal consumption by adolescents and to assess the relationship between the first and the last meal consumption and sex, body mass index (BMI), and middle school and high school students' education level. The study was conducted in 2013-2014 among 3009 students (1658 girls and 1351 boys) from middle s and high schools in Krakow and Silesia (Poland). The data was obtained from questionnaires that were analyzed with a logistic regression model for measurable and dichotomous variables. Breakfast consumers were seen to eat other meals (second breakfast, lunch, dessert, supper) significantly more often than breakfast skippers. The main meal consumption habits depend on sex and change as adolescents age. Being a girl and a high school student predisposed participants to skip breakfast and supper more often. The BMI of breakfast consumers does not differ significantly from the BMI of breakfast skippers, so BMI might thus not be a sufficient marker of breakfast consumption regularity and dietary habits in an adolescent group. The importance of regularly eaten meals, especially breakfast, together with adequate daily dietary energy intake are beneficial for physical and psychological development and cannot be overestimated in nutritional education and it is necessary to promote healthy eating behavior for well-being in later adult life.

  15. Assessment of aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and zearalenone in breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahzad Zafar; Rabbani, Tehmeena; Asi, Muhammad Rafique; Jinap, S

    2014-08-15

    Aflatoxins (AFs), ochratoxin A (OTA) and zearalenone (ZEN) were analysed in 237 breakfast cereal samples collected from central areas of Punjab, Pakistan. According to the results, 41% of the samples were found contaminated with AFs, out of which 16% and 8% samples were found to be above the European Union (EU) maximum content for AFB1 and total AFs, respectively. About 48% samples were found contaminated with OTA and 30% samples were found to be above the EU maximum content. The results have shown that 53% samples of breakfast cereals were found contaminated with ZEN and 8% samples were found to be above the permissible limit of EU. The highest mean level of AFB1 and total AFs were found in semolina i.e. 3.60 and 4.55 μg/kg, respectively. Similarly, semolina was the highest contaminated breakfast cereal for OTA (3.90 μg/kg), while cornflakes (brand B) was found highest contaminated with ZEN (13.45 μg/kg). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Nutritional quality, labelling and promotion of breakfast cereals on the New Zealand market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devi, Anandita; Eyles, Helen; Rayner, Mike; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Swinburn, Boyd; Lonsdale-Cooper, Emily; Vandevijvere, Stefanie

    2014-10-01

    Breakfast cereals substantially contribute to daily energy and nutrient intakes among children. In New Zealand, new regulations are being implemented to restrict nutrition and health claims to products that meet certain 'healthy' criteria. This study investigated the difference in nutritional quality, labelling and promotion between 'healthy' and 'less healthy' breakfast cereals, and between breakfast cereals intended for children compared with other breakfast cereals on the New Zealand market. The cross-sectional data collection involved taking pictures of the nutrition information panel (NIP) and front-of pack (FoP) for all breakfast cereals (n = 247) at two major supermarkets in Auckland in 2013. A nutrient profiling tool was used to classify products into 'healthy'/'less healthy'. In total 26% of cereals did not meet the 'healthy' criteria. 'Less healthy' cereals were significantly higher in energy density, sugar and sodium content and lower in protein and fibre content compared with 'healthy' cereals. Significantly more nutrition claims (75%) and health claims (89%) featured on 'healthy' compared with 'less healthy' cereals. On the 'less healthy' cereals, nutrition claims (65%) were more predominant than health claims (17%). Of the 52 products displaying promotional characters, 48% were for 'cereals for kids', and of those, 72% featured on 'less healthy' cereals. In conclusion, most breakfast cereals met the 'healthy' criteria; however, 'cereals for kids' were 'less healthy' and displayed more promotional characters than other cereal categories. Policy recommendations include: food composition targets set or endorsed by government, strengthening and enforcing current regulations on health and nutrition claims, considering the application of nutrient profiling for nutrition claims in addition to health claims, introducing an interpretative FoP labelling system and restricting the use of promotional characters on 'less healthy' breakfast cereals. Copyright

  17. Quantification of sugars in breakfast cereals using capillary electrophoresis.

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    Toutounji, Michelle R; Van Leeuwen, Matthew P; Oliver, James D; Shrestha, Ashok K; Castignolles, Patrice; Gaborieau, Marianne

    2015-05-18

    About 80% of the Australian population consumes breakfast cereal (BC) at least five days a week. With high prevalence rates of obesity and other diet-related diseases, improved methods for monitoring sugar levels in breakfast cereals would be useful in nutrition research. The heterogeneity of the complex matrix of BCs can make carbohydrate analysis challenging or necessitate tedious sample preparation leading to potential sugar loss or starch degradation into sugars. A recently established, simple and robust free solution capillary electrophoresis (CE) method was used in a new application to 13 BCs (in Australia) and compared with several established methods for quantification of carbohydrates. Carbohydrates identified in BCs by CE included sucrose, maltose, glucose and fructose. The CE method is simple requiring no sample preparation or derivatization and carbohydrates are detected by direct UV detection. CE was shown to be a more robust and accurate method for measuring carbohydrates than Fehling method, DNS (3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid) assay and HPLC (high performance liquid chromatography). Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  18. Is breakfast the most important meal of the day?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, James A; Chowdhury, Enhad A; Gonzalez, Javier T; Richardson, Judith D; Tsintzas, Kostas; Thompson, Dylan

    2016-11-01

    The Bath Breakfast Project is a series of randomised controlled trials exploring the effects of extended morning fasting on energy balance and health. These trials were categorically not designed to answer whether or not breakfast is the most important meal of the day. However, this review will philosophise about the meaning of that question and about what questions we should be asking to better understand the effects of breakfast, before summarising how individual components of energy balance and health respond to breakfast v. fasting in lean and obese adults. Current evidence does not support a clear effect of regularly consuming or skipping breakfast on body mass/composition, metabolic rate or diet-induced thermogenesis. Findings regarding energy intake are variable, although the balance of evidence indicates some degree of compensatory feeding later in the day such that overall energy intake is either unaffected or slightly lower when breakfast is omitted from the diet. However, even if net energy intake is reduced, extended morning fasting may not result in expected weight loss due to compensatory adjustments in physical activity thermogenesis. Specifically, we report that both lean and obese adults expended less energy during the morning when remaining in the fasted state than when consuming a prescribed breakfast. Further research is required to examine whether particular health markers may be responsive to breakfast-induced responses of individual components of energy balance irrespective of their net effect on energy balance and therefore body mass.

  19. Characterization of Breakfast Cereals Available in the Mexican Market: Sodium and Sugar Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Claudia; Rincon-Gallardo Patiño, Sofia; Tolentino-Mayo, Lizbeth; Carriedo, Angela; Barquera, Simón

    2017-08-16

    Preschool Mexican children consume 7% of their total energy intake from processed breakfast cereals. This study characterized the nutritional quality and labelling (claims and Guideline Daily Amount (GDA)) of the packaged breakfast cereals available in the Mexican market. Photographs of all breakfast cereals available in the 9 main food retail chains in the country were taken. The nutrition quality of cereals was assessed using the United Kingdom Nutrient Profiling Model (UKNPM). Claims were classified using the International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable Diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) taxonomy and the GDA was defined according to the Mexican regulation, NOM-051. Overall, a total of 371 different breakfast cereals were analysed. The nutritional profile showed that 68.7% were classified as "less healthy". GDAs and claims were displayed more frequently on the "less healthy" cereals. Breakfast cereals within the "less healthy" category had significantly higher content of energy, sugar and sodium (p cereals (n = 313). This study has shown that there is a lack of consistency between the labelling on the front of the pack and the nutritional quality of breakfast cereals.

  20. Breakfast cereal and caffeinated coffee: effects on working memory, attention, mood, and cardiovascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, A P; Clark, R; Gallagher, J

    1999-08-01

    This study examined the effects of breakfast cereal and caffeinated coffee on working memory, attention, mood, and cardiovascular function. One hundred and forty-four volunteers (72 male, 72 female, mean age 21 years) were assigned to one of the groups formed by combining breakfast (cereal versus no breakfast) and caffeine (caffeinated versus decaffeinated coffee) conditions. The volunteers completed a baseline session between 0800 and 0845 h. The breakfast/caffeine administration took place between 0845 and 0915 h. They then completed another test session (starting at 0945) and had a coffee break at 1045, followed by a final session starting at 1145. The results showed that those who consumed breakfast cereal had a more positive mood at the start of the test sessions, performed better on a spatial memory task, and felt calmer at the end of the test session than those in the no breakfast condition. Ingestion of caffeine had no effect on initial mood or working memory, but it did improve encoding of new information and counteracted the fatigue that developed over the test session. Caffeine increased blood pressure and pulse rate, whereas breakfast cereal consumption only had an effect on pulse. Overall, these results confirm previous findings on the effects of breakfast and caffeine, and demonstrate distinct profiles for two common examples of early-morning food and drink, breakfast cereal and caffeinated coffee.

  1. Less healthy breakfast cereals are promoted more frequently in large supermarket chains in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potvin Kent, Monique; Rudnicki, Erika; Usher, Crystal

    2017-11-13

    The majority of food expenditures are made in supermarkets and this environment influences our purchasing and food intake. Breakfast cereals are frequently marketed as healthy food choices. The objective of this study was to examine the frequency of in-store promotions for cold breakfast cereals in Canadian supermarkets and to determine whether healthier or less healthy breakfast cereals are promoted more frequently. Data was collected once per week over a four-week period from a convenience sample of the five largest Canadian supermarkets in the Ottawa/Gatineau area. Data collection included the number of shelf facings, promotional displays, and the cost of cereals/100 g. The UK Nutrient Profiling Model was used to determine the healthfulness of each breakfast cereal. 29.8% (n = 67) of the 225 unique cereals were classified as healthier and 70.2% (n = 158) were classified as less healthy. Less healthy cereals were displayed at eye level, in the profitable middle shelves, 2.9 times more frequently than healthier cereals. There were 5.3 times more breakfast cereal shelf facings, 4.2 more end cap displays, 1.7 more mid-aisle displays and 3.3 more special pricing signage for less healthy cereals compared to healthier cereals. Less healthy cereals had a significantly higher average total number of shelf facings compared to healthier cereals (t = -4.28 (280.8), p supermarkets need to increase the marketing of healthy breakfast cereals within their stores.

  2. Comparing sorghum and wheat whole grain breakfast cereals: Sensorial acceptance and bioactive compound content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anunciação, Pamella Cristine; Cardoso, Leandro de Morais; Gomes, Jaqueline Vieira Piovesana; Della Lucia, Ceres Mattos; Carvalho, Carlos Wanderlei Piler; Galdeano, Melicia Cintia; Queiroz, Valéria Aparecida Vieira; Alfenas, Rita de Cássia Gonçalves; Martino, Hércia Stampini Duarte; Pinheiro-Sant'Ana, Helena Maria

    2017-04-15

    The sensory acceptance and the content of bioactive compounds of whole-sorghum and whole-wheat breakfast cereals were compared. Sensory acceptance was assessed using the Food Action RatingScale. 3-Deoxyanthocyanidins, flavones and flavanones were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with diode array detection, and vitamin E by HPLC with fluorescence detection. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity were determined by spectrophotometry. The sorghum breakfast cereal had better sensory acceptance (70.6%) than wheat breakfast cereal (41.18%). Sorghum had higher 3-deoxyanthocyanidin content (100% higher), total phenolic compounds (98.2% higher) and antioxidant activity (87.9% higher) than wheat breakfast cereal. Flavones and flavanones were not detected in both breakfast cereals. Total vitamin E content was 78.6% higher in wheat than in sorghum breakfast cereal. Thus, consumption of whole sorghum breakfast cereal should be encouraged, since it had good sensory acceptance and is a source of bioactive compounds that can promote benefits to human health. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The healthfulness and prominence of sugar in child-targeted breakfast cereals in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Potvin Kent

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The objective of this study was to compare the nutritional content and healthfulness of child-targeted and “not child-targeted” breakfast cereals and to assess the predominance of added sugar in these products. Methods: We collected data on the nutritional content of 262 unique breakfast cereals found in the five largest grocery store chains in Ottawa (Ontario and Gatineau (Quebec. We noted the first five ingredients and the number of added sugars present in each cereal from the ingredients list. The various cereal brands were then classified as either “healthier” or “less healthy” using the UK Nutrient Profile Model. We assessed each cereal to determine if it was child-targeted or not, based on set criteria. Statistical comparisons were made between child and not child-targeted cereals. Results: 19.8% of all breakfast cereals were child-targeted, and these were significantly lower in total and saturated fat. Child-targeted cereals were significantly higher in sodium and sugar and lower in fibre and protein, and were three times more likely to be classified as “less healthy” compared to not child-targeted cereals. No child-targeted cereals were sugar-free, and sugar was the second most common ingredient in 75% of cereals. Six breakfast cereal companies had child-targeted product lines that consisted entirely of “less healthy” cereals. Conclusion: There is a need for regulations that restrict food marketing to children and youth under the age of 17 on packaging to reduce their appeal to this age group. Children’s breakfast cereals also need to be reformulated through government-set targets, or through regulation should compliance be deemed unacceptable.

  4. Effects of cereal bars for breakfast and mid-morning snacks on mood and memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Andrew P; Wilds, Amanda

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of consuming cereal bars, given either for breakfast or a mid-morning snack, on mood and memory. Thirty-two volunteers (16 males, 16 females; mean age, 20 years 9 months) were randomly assigned to one of four groups formed by combining breakfast (cereal bar versus no breakfast) and snack (cereal bar versus no snack) conditions. A baseline session was completed at 08:30 h followed by breakfast at 9:00 h, another test at 10:00 h, followed by a mid-morning snack and then a final test at 12:00 h. In each session, volunteers rated their mood and carried out four memory tasks: free recall; recognition memory; a verbal reasoning task; and a semantic processing task. The results showed that volunteers who consumed a cereal bar for breakfast felt more alert, happy and sociable and less anxious. In addition, they also recalled more words in a free recall task. When the cereal bar was consumed as a mid-morning snack, alertness and hedonic tone increased, especially in the group who received no breakfast. The group who had no breakfast reported reduced anxiety after consumption of the snack. Recall was also improved after the snack. These findings show that consuming cereal bars in the early and mid-morning leads to beneficial behavioural effects. The results confirm earlier research on effects of breakfast and extend our knowledge of effects of snacks. Consumption of cereal bars may have important practical applications especially in situations where preparation of breakfast is difficult.

  5. The Benefits of Breakfast Cereal Consumption: A Systematic Review of the Evidence Base1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    There have been no comprehensive reviews of the relation of breakfast cereal consumption to nutrition and health. This systematic review of all articles on breakfast cereals to October 2013 in the Scopus and Medline databases identified 232 articles with outcomes related to nutrient intake, weight, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, digestive health, dental and mental health, and cognition. Sufficient evidence was available to develop 21 summary evidence statements, ranked from A (can be trusted to guide practice) to D (weak and must be applied with caution). Breakfast cereal consumption is associated with diets higher in vitamins and minerals and lower in fat (grade B) but is not associated with increased intakes of total energy or sodium (grade C) or risk of dental caries (grade B). Most studies on the nutritional impact are cross-sectional, with very few intervention studies, so breakfast cereal consumption may be a marker of an overall healthy lifestyle. Oat-, barley-, or psyllium-based cereals can help lower cholesterol concentrations (grade A), and high-fiber, wheat-based cereals can improve bowel function (grade A). Regular breakfast cereal consumption is associated with a lower body mass index and less risk of being overweight or obese (grade B). Presweetened breakfast cereals do not increase the risk of overweight and obesity in children (grade C). Whole-grain or high-fiber breakfast cereals are associated with a lower risk of diabetes (grade B) and cardiovascular disease (grade C). There is emerging evidence of associations with feelings of greater well-being and a lower risk of hypertension (grade D), but more research is required. PMID:25225349

  6. The benefits of breakfast cereal consumption: a systematic review of the evidence base.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Peter G

    2014-09-01

    There have been no comprehensive reviews of the relation of breakfast cereal consumption to nutrition and health. This systematic review of all articles on breakfast cereals to October 2013 in the Scopus and Medline databases identified 232 articles with outcomes related to nutrient intake, weight, diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, digestive health, dental and mental health, and cognition. Sufficient evidence was available to develop 21 summary evidence statements, ranked from A (can be trusted to guide practice) to D (weak and must be applied with caution). Breakfast cereal consumption is associated with diets higher in vitamins and minerals and lower in fat (grade B) but is not associated with increased intakes of total energy or sodium (grade C) or risk of dental caries (grade B). Most studies on the nutritional impact are cross-sectional, with very few intervention studies, so breakfast cereal consumption may be a marker of an overall healthy lifestyle. Oat-, barley-, or psyllium-based cereals can help lower cholesterol concentrations (grade A), and high-fiber, wheat-based cereals can improve bowel function (grade A). Regular breakfast cereal consumption is associated with a lower body mass index and less risk of being overweight or obese (grade B). Presweetened breakfast cereals do not increase the risk of overweight and obesity in children (grade C). Whole-grain or high-fiber breakfast cereals are associated with a lower risk of diabetes (grade B) and cardiovascular disease (grade C). There is emerging evidence of associations with feelings of greater well-being and a lower risk of hypertension (grade D), but more research is required. © 2014 American Society for Nutrition.

  7. A low glycaemic index breakfast cereal preferentially prevents children's cognitive performance from declining throughout the morning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingwersen, Jeanet; Defeyter, Margaret Anne; Kennedy, David O; Wesnes, Keith A; Scholey, Andrew B

    2007-07-01

    This study investigated whether the glycaemic index (GI) of breakfast cereal differentially affects children's attention and memory. Using a balanced cross-over design, on two consecutive mornings 64 children aged 6-11 years were given a high GI cereal and a low GI cereal in a counterbalanced order. They performed a series of computerised tests of attention and memory, once prior to breakfast and three times following breakfast at hourly intervals. The results indicate that children's performance declines throughout the morning and that this decline can be significantly reduced following the intake of a low GI cereal as compared with a high GI cereal on measures of accuracy of attention (M=-6.742 and -13.510, respectively, p<0.05) and secondary memory (M=-30.675 and -47.183, respectively, p<0.05).

  8. Effects of two dietary fibers as part of ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC) breakfasts on perceived appetite and gut hormones in overweight women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafond, David W; Greaves, Kathryn A; Maki, Kevin C; Leidy, Heather J; Romsos, Dale R

    2015-02-13

    The effects of an enzyme-hydrolyzed arabinoxylan from wheat (AXOS) versus an intact arabinoxylan from flax (FLAX) added to a ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC) on the postprandial appetitive, hormonal, and metabolic responses in overweight women (BMI 25.0-29.9 kg/m2) were evaluated. Subsequent meal energy intake was also assessed. Two randomized, double-blind, crossover design studies were completed. For trial 1, the participants consumed the following RTEC breakfast, matched for total weight and varied in energy content: low-fiber (LF, 4 g); high-fiber (HF, 15 g) as either AXOS or FLAX. For trial 2, the participants consumed LF, HF-AXOS, and HF-FLAX RTECs but also consumed another LF breakfast that was isocaloric (LF-iso) to that of the HF breakfasts. Perceived appetite and blood samples (trial 2 only) were assessed before and after breakfast. An ad libitum lunch was offered 4 h post-breakfast. No differences in postprandial appetite responses were observed among any breakfasts in either trial. The HF-AXOS and HF-FLAX led to increased postprandial GLP-1 and peptide YY (PYY) concentrations vs. LF-iso. No differences were observed in lunch meal energy intake among breakfast meals in either trial. Collectively, these data suggest that 15 g of low molecular weight fiber added to RTECs did not affect perceived appetite or subsequent energy intake despite differences in satiety hormone signaling in overweight females.

  9. Breakfast and Other Meal Consumption in Adolescents from Southern Poland

    OpenAIRE

    Ostachowska-Gasior, Agnieszka; Piwowar, Monika; Kwiatkowski, Jacek; Kasperczyk, Janusz; Skop-Lewandowska, Agata

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the frequency of breakfast and other meal consumption by adolescents and to assess the relationship between the first and the last meal consumption and sex, body mass index (BMI), and middle school and high school students’ education level. The study was conducted in 2013–2014 among 3009 students (1658 girls and 1351 boys) from middle s and high schools in Krakow and Silesia (Poland). The data was obtained from questionnaires that were analyzed with a logi...

  10. Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, A.C.; Ostman, E.M.; Holst, Jens Juul

    2008-01-01

    Low-glycemic index (GI) foods and foods rich in whole grain are associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We studied the effect of cereal-based bread evening meals (50 g available starch), varying in GI and content of indigestible carbohydrates, on glucose......-kernel bread compared with WWB. Breath hydrogen correlated positively with satiety (r = 0.27; P carbohydrates of the evening meal may affect glycemic excursions and related metabolic risk variables at breakfast...

  11. Development of a breakfast cereal using waste from cassava processing industry - doi: 10.4025/actascitechnol.v35i1.12012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alyne Ellen Dischsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Breakfast cereals are extruded products with high content of protein and carbohydrates, and can be enriched to increase their nutritional value. The study aimed to develop a high-fiber breakfast cereal from cassava residue, and to analyze the texture, fiber content and overall acceptability. The extrusion was performed in an extruder. Formulations were developed containing 0 and 20% of cassava meal. The fiber analysis was performed based on the Adolfo Lutz Institute methodology, the texture was analyzed in a texturometer, and the sensory analysis by affective testing was used to determine its acceptability. The formulation with cassava residue had an increase of over 10% in the fiber content. The formulations have showed a significant difference (p < 0.05 in texture, and in the sensory analysis, in which cereals with cassava residue had an average of 7.54 of acceptability – the most accepted formulation.

  12. Effect of Pseudocereal-Based Breakfast Meals on the First and Second Meal Glucose Tolerance in Healthy and Diabetic Subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shreef G.N. Gabrial

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Many studies have indicated that the incidence of serious diabetic complications may be reduced through strict glycemic control. A low glycemic index diet is one tool to improve insulin resistance and improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM. AIM: The objective was to study the effect of pseudocereals-based breakfasts (quinoa and buckwheat on glucose variations at first meal (breakfast and second meal (standardised lunch in healthy and diabetic subjects. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Twelve healthy subjects and 12 patients with Type 2 DM (not- insulin dependent were recruited in the study. Subjects were provided with quinoa and buckwheat breakfast meals. A standardised lunch was provided 4 h after breakfast. Postprandial blood glucose response after breakfast and the second meal effect was measured in healthy and diabetic subjects. Incremental area under the curve (IAUC values for glucose was measured in response to the breakfast and lunch. The glycemic index of the 2 pseudocereals-based test breakfasts was determined. A white wheat bread (WWB was served as a reference breakfast meal. RESULTS: In post-breakfast analyses, healthy subjects showed that buckwheat meal had significantly lower IAUC values for blood glucose compared to WWB reference meal (P < 0.001 while quinoa meal showed no significance. In diabetic subjects, buckwheat and quinoa meals had significantly lower IAUC values for blood glucose compared to WWB reference meal (P < 0.001 and P < 0.05 respectively. Blood glucose concentrations started to decline gradually for the quinoa and buckwheat but not for WWB in all healthy and diabetic subjects and returned to near-fasting baseline levels by 210 min. Post-lunch analyses indicated higher IAUC for the two breakfast types in healthy and diabetic subjects. In addition, the quinoa and buckwheat breakfast meals were followed by a significantly flatter blood glucose response to the second meal for the period between 270

  13. Effect of Pseudocereal-Based Breakfast Meals on the First and Second Meal Glucose Tolerance in Healthy and Diabetic Subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrial, Shreef G N; Shakib, Marie-Christine R; Gabrial, Gamal N

    2016-12-15

    Many studies have indicated that the incidence of serious diabetic complications may be reduced through strict glycemic control. A low glycemic index diet is one tool to improve insulin resistance and improve glycemic control in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The objective was to study the effect of pseudocereals-based breakfasts (quinoa and buckwheat) on glucose variations at first meal (breakfast) and second meal (standardised lunch) in healthy and diabetic subjects. Twelve healthy subjects and 12 patients with Type 2 DM (not- insulin dependent) were recruited in the study. Subjects were provided with quinoa and buckwheat breakfast meals. A standardised lunch was provided 4 h after breakfast. Postprandial blood glucose response after breakfast and the second meal effect was measured in healthy and diabetic subjects. Incremental area under the curve (IAUC) values for glucose was measured in response to the breakfast and lunch. The glycemic index of the 2 pseudocereals-based test breakfasts was determined. A white wheat bread (WWB) was served as a reference breakfast meal. In post-breakfast analyses, healthy subjects showed that buckwheat meal had significantly lower IAUC values for blood glucose compared to WWB reference meal (P concentrations started to decline gradually for the quinoa and buckwheat but not for WWB in all healthy and diabetic subjects and returned to near-fasting baseline levels by 210 min. Post-lunch analyses indicated higher IAUC for the two breakfast types in healthy and diabetic subjects. In addition, the quinoa and buckwheat breakfast meals were followed by a significantly flatter blood glucose response to the second meal for the period between 270 and 330 min. At the end of the second meal period, values were below or near-fasting baseline levels in the breakfast period. The blood glucose concentration after consuming quinoa meal showed a high peak at 30 min similar to that of WWB reference meal. This peak resulted in a high glycemic

  14. Enhancement of select foods at breakfast and lunch increases energy intakes of nursing home residents with low meal intakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellanos, Victoria H; Marra, Melissa Ventura; Johnson, Paulette

    2009-03-01

    Nursing facilities often provide enhanced or fortified foods as part of a "food-first" approach to increasing nutrient intakes in residents with inadequate intakes or who are experiencing weight loss. The study objective was to determine whether energy and protein enhancement of a small number of menu items would result in increased three-meal (breakfast, lunch, and supper) calorie and protein intakes in long-term care residents. A randomized cross-over design was used to compare investigator-weighed food intakes under three menu conditions: control (no meals enhanced); lunch only enhanced; and both breakfast and lunch enhanced. Two breakfast foods (juice and hot cereal) and two lunch foods (soup and potato side dish) were chosen for enhancement. Participants were 33 nursing home residents from a facility in South Florida (average age=87.3 years). Repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to test the effects of the within-subjects factor (control, lunch enhanced, breakfast and lunch enhanced conditions), the between-subjects factor (smaller vs bigger eater), and the interaction on intakes (gram, kilocalories, and protein). Results revealed that bigger eaters consumed considerably more calories when breakfast foods, but not lunch foods, were enhanced. Smaller eaters achieved an increase in energy intake when either breakfast or lunch was enhanced. Overall daily protein intakes were not substantially increased by food enhancement. These data suggest that for an enhanced food program to be most effective for smaller eaters, who are at greatest risk for undernutrition and weight loss, it should include several enhanced foods at more than one meal.

  15. Effects of oatmeal and corn flakes cereal breakfasts on satiety, gastric emptying, glucose, and appetite-related hormones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geliebter, Allan; Grillot, Charlotte L; Aviram-Friedman, Roni; Haq, Sakeena; Yahav, Eric; Hashim, Sami A

    2015-01-01

    The extent to which different types of breakfasts affect appetite and food intake is unclear. To assess the satiety effects of a high-fiber cereal, we compared oatmeal, isocaloric corn flakes, and water. Thirty-six subjects (18 lean, 18 overweight) were assigned to three conditions in a randomized sequence on different days. Ratings of hunger and fullness were obtained concurrently with blood samples for measuring concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, leptin, and acetaminophen (gastric emptying tracer). Appetite was assessed by calculating the area under the curve (AUC) for fullness and hunger, and by measuring food intake of an ad libitum lunch meal at 180 min. Lunch meal intake was lowest after consuming oatmeal (p oatmeal. At 180 min, blood glucose was lowest after the corn flakes (p = 0.0001). Insulin AUC was greater for both cereals than water (p oatmeal (p = 0.046), reflecting slower gastric emptying. Satiety was greater and ad libitum test meal intake lower after consuming oatmeal than after corn flakes, especially in the overweight subjects. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Consumption of ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) among Malaysian children and association with socio-demographics and nutrient intakes – findings from the MyBreakfast study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Nurliyana, Abdul Razak; Norimah, A. Karim; Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B.; Tan, Sue Yee; Appukutty, Mahenderan; Hopkins, Sinead; Thielecke, Frank; Ong, Moi Kim; Ning, Celia; Tee, E. Siong

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: The association between different types of breakfast meals and nutrient intakes has been studied to a lesser extent. Objective: This study compared nutrient intakes at breakfast and throughout the day between Malaysian children who consumed ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) and those who did not. Methods: Anthropometric and dietary data for 1955 children aged 6–12 years from the MyBreakfast study were used in the analysis. Results: Overall, 18% of the children consumed RTEC at breakfast on at least one of the recall days. RTEC consumption was associated with younger age, urban areas, higher income and education level of parents. Among consumers, RTEC contributed 10% and 15% to daily intakes of calcium and iron respectively and ≥20% to daily intakes of vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin and niacin. RTEC consumers had significantly higher mean intakes of vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, calcium, iron and sugar but lower intakes of fat and sodium than non-RTEC consumers at breakfast and for the total day. Conclusion: Consumption of fortified RTEC at breakfast was associated with lower fat and sodium intakes and higher intakes of several micronutrients both at breakfast and for the total day. However, total sugar intakes appeared to be higher. PMID:28469545

  17. Consumption of ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) among Malaysian children and association with socio-demographics and nutrient intakes - findings from the MyBreakfast study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohd Nasir, Mohd Taib; Nurliyana, Abdul Razak; Norimah, A Karim; Jan Mohamed, Hamid Jan B; Tan, Sue Yee; Appukutty, Mahenderan; Hopkins, Sinead; Thielecke, Frank; Ong, Moi Kim; Ning, Celia; Tee, E Siong

    2017-01-01

    Background : The association between different types of breakfast meals and nutrient intakes has been studied to a lesser extent. Objective : This study compared nutrient intakes at breakfast and throughout the day between Malaysian children who consumed ready-to-eat cereals (RTEC) and those who did not. Methods : Anthropometric and dietary data for 1955 children aged 6-12 years from the MyBreakfast study were used in the analysis. Results : Overall, 18% of the children consumed RTEC at breakfast on at least one of the recall days. RTEC consumption was associated with younger age, urban areas, higher income and education level of parents. Among consumers, RTEC contributed 10% and 15% to daily intakes of calcium and iron respectively and ≥20% to daily intakes of vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin and niacin. RTEC consumers had significantly higher mean intakes of vitamin C, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, calcium, iron and sugar but lower intakes of fat and sodium than non-RTEC consumers at breakfast and for the total day. Conclusion : Consumption of fortified RTEC at breakfast was associated with lower fat and sodium intakes and higher intakes of several micronutrients both at breakfast and for the total day. However, total sugar intakes appeared to be higher.

  18. Changes on image texture features of breakfast flakes cereals during water absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Wenceslao T; Quevedo, Roberto A; Aguilera, José M

    2013-02-01

    Normally breakfast cereal flakes are consumed by pouring them into a bowl and covering them with fresh or cold milk. During this process the liquid uptake causes changes in the surface and internal matrix of breakfast cereals that influence texture and integrity. Some breakfast cereal as flakes have a translucent structure that could provide information about the solid matrix and air cells and how they change during liquid absorption. The objective of the study was to assess the image texture changes of corn flakes and frosted flakes during water absorption at 5, 15 and 25 °C, employing 11 image feature textures extracted from grey-level co-occurrence matrix and grey-level run length matrix (at three directions) and to relate the fractal dimension (FD) of images with rupture force (RF) reduction during soaking of both flakes at 5 °C. The most relevant result from principal component analysis calculated with a matrix of 54 (soaking times) × 22 (texture features), shows that it was possible to distinguish an isolated group consisting of different soaking times at the same water temperature in each breakfast cereal flakes evaluated, corroborating that superficial liquid imbibition is important during the liquid absorption process when flakes are soaked. Furthermore, standardized FD could be related to RF in the period when samples tend to search for an equilibrium state.

  19. The nutritional quality of South African ready-to-eat breakfast cereals

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of nutrition information. Data collection took place in March 2016. The information on the front, back and side panels of each package was recorded. ...... Maschkowski G, Hartmann M, Hoffman J. Health-related on-pack communication and nutritional value of ready-to-eat breakfast cereals evaluated against five ...

  20. Significance of Ochratoxin A in Breakfast Cereals from the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyun Jung; Ryu, Dojin

    2015-11-04

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) has been found in all major cereal grains including oat, wheat, and barley worldwide and considered as a potential concern in food safety. A total of 489 samples of corn-, rice-, wheat-, and oat-based breakfast cereal were collected from U.S. retail marketplaces over a two-year period, and OTA was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Overall, 205 samples (42%) were contaminated with OTA in the range from 0.10 to 9.30 ng/g. The levels OTA were mostly below of the European Commission Regulation (3 ng/g) except in 16 samples of oat-based cereals. The incidence of OTA was highest in oat-based breakfast cereals (70%, 142/203), followed by wheat-based (32%, 38/117), corn-based (15%, 15/103), and rice-based breakfast cereals (15%, 10/66). On the basis of the incidence and concentration of OTA, oats and oat-based products may need greater attention in further surveillance programs and development of intervention strategies to reduce health risks in consumers.

  1. Effects of Two Dietary Fibers as Part of Ready-to-Eat Cereal (RTEC Breakfasts on Perceived Appetite and Gut Hormones in Overweight Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Lafond

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The effects of an enzyme-hydrolyzed arabinoxylan from wheat (AXOS versus an intact arabinoxylan from flax (FLAX added to a ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC on the postprandial appetitive, hormonal, and metabolic responses in overweight women (BMI 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 were evaluated. Subsequent meal energy intake was also assessed. Two randomized, double-blind, crossover design studies were completed. For trial 1, the participants consumed the following RTEC breakfast, matched for total weight and varied in energy content: low-fiber (LF, 4 g; high-fiber (HF, 15 g as either AXOS or FLAX. For trial 2, the participants consumed LF, HF-AXOS, and HF-FLAX RTECs but also consumed another LF breakfast that was isocaloric (LF-iso to that of the HF breakfasts. Perceived appetite and blood samples (trial 2 only were assessed before and after breakfast. An ad libitum lunch was offered 4 h post-breakfast. No differences in postprandial appetite responses were observed among any breakfasts in either trial. The HF-AXOS and HF-FLAX led to increased postprandial GLP-1 and peptide YY (PYY concentrations vs. LF-iso. No differences were observed in lunch meal energy intake among breakfast meals in either trial. Collectively, these data suggest that 15 g of low molecular weight fiber added to RTECs did not affect perceived appetite or subsequent energy intake despite differences in satiety hormone signaling in overweight females.

  2. Metabolic profiles from two different breakfast meals characterized by (1)H NMR-based metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rådjursöga, Millie; Karlsson, Göran B; Lindqvist, Helen M; Pedersen, Anders; Persson, Cecilia; Pinto, Rui Climaco; Ellegård, Lars; Winkvist, Anna

    2017-09-15

    It is challenging to measure dietary exposure with techniques that are both accurate and applicable to free-living individuals. We performed a cross-over intervention, with 24 healthy individuals, to capture the acute metabolic response of a cereal breakfast (CB) and an egg and ham breakfast (EHB). Fasting and postprandial urine samples were analyzed using (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy and multivariate data analysis. Metabolic profiles were distinguished in relation to ingestion of either CB or EHB. Phosphocreatine/creatine and citrate were identified at higher concentrations after consumption of EHB. Beverage consumption (i.e., tea or coffee) could clearly be seen in the data. 2-furoylglycine and 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furoic acid - potential biomarkers for coffee consumption were identified at higher concentrations in coffee drinkers. Thus (1)H NMR urine metabolomics is applicable in the characterization of acute metabolic fingerprints from meal consumption and in the identification of metabolites that may serve as potential biomarkers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Voluntary fortification of breakfast cereals with folic acid: contribution to dietary intake in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Japar, Devina; Chandra-Hioe, Maria V; Shrestha, Ashok; Arcot, Jayashree

    2016-01-01

    Ready-to-eat breakfast cereals have been voluntarily fortified with folic acid since 1995, with the purpose of reducing the prevalence of neural tube defects in utero. Using data from the recent Australian Health Survey, this study aimed to estimate folate intake from one serving of breakfast cereals (median amount). Various commercial brands were purchased in 2002 (n = 19) and in 2014 (n = 14); folate was determined by microbiological assay and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC). Total folate (μg/100 g) in 2002 and 2014 selections were 144-633 and 147-564, respectively, and mostly comparable to nutrition labels. Folic acid (2014 selection) using HPLC, ranged from 85 to 411 μg/100 g. Intake of 51 g cereals/serving by individuals ≥ 2 years could contribute 75-288 μg dietary folate equivalent. It seems that folic acid intake among children (2-3 years) exceeds the recommended dietary intake, when certain brands of breakfast cereals are consumed. Accordingly, the benefits and potential detrimental effects of the voluntary fortification need to be further explored.

  4. Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Anne C; Ostman, Elin M; Holst, Jens J; Björck, Inger M E

    2008-04-01

    Low-glycemic index (GI) foods and foods rich in whole grain are associated with reduced risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We studied the effect of cereal-based bread evening meals (50 g available starch), varying in GI and content of indigestible carbohydrates, on glucose tolerance and related variables after a subsequent standardized breakfast in healthy subjects (n = 15). At breakfast, blood was sampled for 3 h for analysis of blood glucose, serum insulin, serum FFA, serum triacylglycerides, plasma glucagon, plasma gastric-inhibitory peptide, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), serum interleukin (IL)-6, serum IL-8, and plasma adiponectin. Satiety was subjectively rated after breakfast and the gastric emptying rate (GER) was determined using paracetamol as a marker. Breath hydrogen was measured as an indicator of colonic fermentation. Evening meals with barley kernel based bread (ordinary, high-amylose- or beta-glucan-rich genotypes) or an evening meal with white wheat flour bread (WWB) enriched with a mixture of barley fiber and resistant starch improved glucose tolerance at the subsequent breakfast compared with unsupplemented WWB (P carbohydrates of the evening meal may affect glycemic excursions and related metabolic risk variables at breakfast through a mechanism involving colonic fermentation. The results provide evidence for a link between gut microbial metabolism and key factors associated with insulin resistance.

  5. Breakfast Eating Pattern and Ready-to-Eat Cereals Consumption among Schoolchildren in Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Hui-Chin; Abdul Jalil, Siti Nurain; Ruzita, Abd Talib

    2015-01-01

    Studies from the West have demonstrated that ready-to-eat cereals (RTECs) are a common form of breakfast and more likely to be consumed by children. This study aimed to investigate the breakfast eating pattern and RTECs consumption among schoolchildren in Kuala Lumpur. In this cross-sectional study, a total of 382 schoolchildren, aged 10 and 11 years old, were recruited from seven randomly selected primary schools in Kuala Lumpur. Information on socio-demographics, breakfast eating patterns, and perceptions of RTECs and dietary intake (24-hour dietary recalls) were obtained. Among the respondents, only 22% of them consumed breakfast on a regular basis. The most commonly eaten food by children at breakfast was bread (27.2%), followed by biscuits (22.2%) and RTECs (20.5%). The majority of them (93%) reported that they consumed RTECs sometimes during the week. Chocolate RTECs (34.1%), corn flake RTECs (30.3%), and RTECs coated with honey (25.1%) were the most popular RTECs chosen by children. Respondents who consumed RTECs showed a significantly higher intake in calories, carbohydrate, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B3, folate, vitamin C, calcium, iron, and fibre (P < 0.05), compared to those who skipped breakfast and those who had breakfast foods other than RTECs. The lower levels of breakfast consumption among schoolchildren in Kuala Lumpur need serious attention. RTEC is a nutritious food which is well accepted by a majority of the schoolchildren in Kuala Lumpur. Nutrition intervention should be conducted in the future to include a well-balanced breakfast with the utilisation of RTECs for schoolchildren.

  6. Breakfast Eating Pattern and Ready-to-Eat Cereals Consumption among Schoolchildren in Kuala Lumpur

    Science.gov (United States)

    KOO, Hui-Chin; ABDUL JALIL, Siti Nurain; Ruzita, ABD TALIB

    2015-01-01

    Background: Studies from the West have demonstrated that ready-to-eat cereals (RTECs) are a common form of breakfast and more likely to be consumed by children. This study aimed to investigate the breakfast eating pattern and RTECs consumption among schoolchildren in Kuala Lumpur. Methods: In this cross-sectional study, a total of 382 schoolchildren, aged 10 and 11 years old, were recruited from seven randomly selected primary schools in Kuala Lumpur. Information on socio-demographics, breakfast eating patterns, and perceptions of RTECs and dietary intake (24-hour dietary recalls) were obtained. Results: Among the respondents, only 22% of them consumed breakfast on a regular basis. The most commonly eaten food by children at breakfast was bread (27.2%), followed by biscuits (22.2%) and RTECs (20.5%). The majority of them (93%) reported that they consumed RTECs sometimes during the week. Chocolate RTECs (34.1%), corn flake RTECs (30.3%), and RTECs coated with honey (25.1%) were the most popular RTECs chosen by children. Respondents who consumed RTECs showed a significantly higher intake in calories, carbohydrate, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B3, folate, vitamin C, calcium, iron, and fibre (P skipped breakfast and those who had breakfast foods other than RTECs. Conclusion: The lower levels of breakfast consumption among schoolchildren in Kuala Lumpur need serious attention. RTEC is a nutritious food which is well accepted by a majority of the schoolchildren in Kuala Lumpur. Nutrition intervention should be conducted in the future to include a well-balanced breakfast with the utilisation of RTECs for schoolchildren. PMID:25892948

  7. Social inequality in breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequency among adolescents: a cross-sectional study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meilstrup, Charlotte; Pagh Pedersen, Trine; Holstein, Bjørn Evald

    Abstract Purpose: Regular meal habits facilitate healthy dietary habits and especially low breakfast frequency shows associations with risk of overweight among adolescents. Studies on social inequality in meal frequencies among children and adolescents are limited, and especially studies of lunch...... in School-aged Children in 2010. The study includes schoolchildren in three age groups, 11-, 13-, and 15-year olds from a random sample of schools, participation rate 86.3%, n=4922. Socioeconomic position was measured by parents’ occupational social class. Breakfast, lunch and evening meal consumption were...... inequalities in adolescent meal frequencies. Adolescents from lower socioeconomic position are more likely to have low breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequencies. It is essential to consider socioeconomic position when promoting regular meal habits among adolescents....

  8. Potential importance of low-sodium bread and breakfast cereal to a reduced sodium diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daugirdas, John T

    2013-01-01

    Purchasing data suggest that bread and cereal products are responsible for approximately 18% of normal daily unrestricted sodium intake; this percentage may be substantially higher in subjects attempting to follow a reduced sodium diet by avoiding added salt and salty sauces and meats. Substituting with low-sodium bread would be expected to result in a sodium intake reduction of 0.6 g/day or higher, depending on the amount of bread normally eaten. Many cold breakfast cereals typically contain 0.2 to 0.3 g of sodium per serving. A number of zero-sodium or low-sodium cold cereal options are commercially available, and many hot cereals are available in forms that contain no sodium. Because bread and breakfast cereals are not commonly thought of as being salty foods, substituting these with low-sodium alternatives might help achieve additional substantial sodium intake reduction without much disruption of the diet. Copyright © 2013 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The most important meal of the day: why children skip breakfast and what can be done about it.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Lisa Wilhelm

    2013-09-01

    We all experience that morning rush to get somewhere - to work, to school, or to complete a number of important errands before we reach those final destinations. Many adults skip meals for a variety of reasons. Children and teenagers are no different. Eating behaviors can promote or diminish healthy nutrition. A child consuming breakfast with family members on a regular basis is ideal but not always realistic. More and more children have two working parents who are rushing out to work in the morning, have limited income or a lack of healthy options at home, or possess a lack of education on the benefits of breakfast. Evidence shows that breakfast consumption reduces weight gain by improving satiety and decreasing binge eating later in the day. High-fiber cereals (ie, > 2 g per serving) and whole-grain products improve satiety and decrease binge eating at lunch or after school. The total dietary fiber intake should equal age plus 5 g for young children and up to 14 g/1,000 calories for adolescents. In the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Growth and Health Study, 2,379 white and black females aged 9 to 19 years were followed on an annual basis. The more frequently breakfast was consumed was associated with a higher calcium and fiber intake and, consequently, a lower body mass index. This article focuses on the NHLBI guidelines for cardiovascular risk reduction in children and adolescents, including practical suggestions about breakfast meal planning and food choices. These recommendations offer real-time dietary suggestions and practical advice for patients' families. Copyright 2013, SLACK Incorporated.

  10. Reduced energy intake at breakfast is not compensated for at lunch if a high-insoluble-fiber cereal replaces a low-fiber cereal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamedani, Atyeh; Akhavan, Tina; Samra, Rania Abou; Anderson, G Harvey

    2009-05-01

    In cohort studies, insoluble fiber has been associated with a reduced risk of obesity and diabetes; however, compared with soluble fiber, its role in the regulation of short-term food intake (FI) and satiety has received little attention. Our aim was to compare the effects of a high-insoluble-fiber (HF) cereal with a low-fiber (LF) cereal on FI, subjective appetite (SA), and plasma glucose (PG) in healthy individuals. Males and females (n = 32) were randomly assigned to consume 60 g of either HF (26 g insoluble fiber, 120 kcal) or LF (1 g fiber, 217 kcal) breakfast cereal. Pre- and postlunch SA and PG were measured regularly for 4 h, and ad libitum FI was measured at 3 h. The prelunch SA area under the curve did not differ between the 2 cereals, but when expressed as change in appetite per kilocalorie of cereal, HF suppressed SA more than did LF (-17.6 +/- 1.8 compared with -10.0 +/- 1.1 mm . min . kcal(-)(1), respectively; P breakfast cereal contributes to a cumulative reduction in breakfast and lunch energy intake, possibly due to its high satiety value per kilocalorie. A short-term benefit of the HF cereal, compared with LF cereal, was lower PG concentration before and immediately after lunch.

  11. Regular consumption of a cereal breakfast. Effects on mood and body image satisfaction in adult non-obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lattimore, Paul; Walton, Jenny; Bartlett, Sarah; Hackett, Allan; Stevenson, Leonard

    2010-12-01

    Breakfast has psychological and nutritional benefits due to physiological mechanisms and expectations about health impact. Beliefs people hold about calories in food can adversely affect mood and body-image satisfaction and such adverse reactions can be predicted by body mass index. The objectives were to test the effect of consuming isocaloric breakfasts, appearing different in calorie content, on appetite, mood and body-image satisfaction, and to assess impact on daily nutrient intake. One-hundred-and-twenty-three women were randomly assigned to eat a cereal or muffin breakfast which "appeared" different in calorie content while unaware they were isocaloric. Participants estimated calories of breakfast, appetite, mood, and body-image satisfaction on a daily basis for seven-days. The cereal breakfast was perceived to be lower in calories, made participants fuller, happier, relaxed, and more satisfied about weight and body compared to the muffin breakfast. Differences in estimated daily fibre and micronutrient intake were compatible with the design. Breakfasts were isocaloric yet the cereal breakfast was rated lower in calories and produced more positive psychological reactions. This evidence indicates the power of perceptions of foods to influence important attributes of health and well-being which could be valuable in dietary interventions where mood and body image satisfaction affect outcome. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Ultrahigh-viscosity hydroxypropylmethylcellulose blunts postprandial glucose after a breakfast meal in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dow, Shireen; Pritchett, Kelly L; Hawk, Susan; Herrington, Stefanie J; Gee, David L

    2012-04-01

    To determine the effects of two water-soluble dietary fibers, ultrahigh-viscosity hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (UHV-HPMC, nonfermentable) and psyllium fiber (fermentable), on postprandial glucose and second meal effects. In a single-blind crossover design, 12 healthy adult subjects were given standardized, premeasured breakfast and lunch meals with either 4 g of the fiber supplements or a placebo. Blood glucose was measured with a continuous blood glucose monitoring system (DexCom Seven Plus, San Diego, CA). Subjects consuming UHV-HPMC had significantly (p breakfast than those receiving a placebo. Subjects consuming psyllium also tended to have lower glucose levels than the placebo group. Peak glucose concentration following breakfast was significantly (p concentration between treatments following the second meal (lunch) were detected, suggesting no residual effect from the fiber supplements. Supplementation with viscous water-soluble fibers may be an effective means of reducing the glycemic response of a meal in healthy adults.

  13. Product Differentiation and Brand Competition in the Italian Breakfast Cereal Market: a Distance Metric Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Sckokai

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This article employs a nation-wide sample of supermarket scanner data to study product and brand competition in the Italian breakfast cereal market. A modified Almost Ideal Demand System (AIDS, that includes Distance Metrics (DMs as proposed by Pinkse, Slade and Brett (2002, is estimated to study demand responses, substitution patterns, own-price and cross-price elasticities. Estimation results provide evidence of some degree of brand loyalty, while consumers do not seem loyal to the product type. Elasticity estimates point out the presence of patterns of substitution within products sharing the same brand and similar nutritional characteristics.

  14. Comparison of nutritional qualities and antioxidant properties of ready-to-eat fruit-enriched corn based breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhavya, S N; Prakash, J

    2012-12-01

    The study aimed to analyse the nutritional quality, antioxidant components and activity of three varieties of corn based ready-to- eat (RTE) breakfast cereals (BFC) enriched with strawberry, banana and mango. Fruit-enriched corn based breakfast cereals manufactured in India were purchased and ground to obtain homogeneous samples for analysis. The contents of moisture, protein, total fat, dietary fibre, iron, phosphorous, calcium, vitamin C, total carotene, thiamine, riboflavin, in vitro digestible protein, bioaccessible calcium and iron, and digestible starch fractions were determined. The antioxidant components namely, polyphenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activity in different extracts were also determined using total antioxidant, free radical scavenging (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and reducing power assays. The protein and dietary fibre contents in all samples ranged between 4.0-4.6 and 6.4-7.6 g/ 100g respectively. Total iron and vitamin C ranged between 10.7-13.3 mg and 33.2-43.6 mg/100g respectively. Cereals with mango had high total carotene in comparison with other samples. In vitro digestible protein of the processed cereals was low, while bioaccessible calcium (50.2-59.5%) and iron (8.5-15.1%) levels were high due to low oxalates and phytic acid contents. The starch profiles of the breakfast cereals showed high rapidly available glucose and starch digestibility index. Fruit-enriched breakfast cereals showed high polyphenol content in methanol extract (48.6-71.3 mg/100g) and high total antioxidant activity in aqueous extracts. Free radical scavenging and reducing power assay showed high activity in 80% methanol extract. Fruit-enriched breakfast cereals have the potential to be a good source of iron, dietary fibre, vitamin C and total carotene. The fruit-enriched cereals also had high bioaccessible iron and antioxidant activity.

  15. Finite element simulation of the compression behaviour of airy breakfast cereals

    KAUST Repository

    Mamlouk, Hedi

    2013-07-01

    In this paper we are concerned by the fragmentation study of five breakfast cereals from the market exhibiting differences in shape, formulation and texture. The experimental part of the study encompasses compression testing and fragment size evaluation using 2D image analysis. Structural information about the airy structure is then determined using X-ray tomography and related 3D image analysis. The numerical part has the ambition of assessing the fragmentation process using a damage-based mechanical model that simulates solid material rupture events as onset and growth of damage up to brittle failure. The model is based on a finite element scheme in which direct information of the 3D airy structure is encoded in the solid meshing. The force-displacement signature well shows competition between bending and compression driven failure depending on cereal shape. Our results show also large dispersion in the porous structure that affects significantly the result of the fragmentation. The numerical model is able to simulate the result of fragmentation at the cost of identifying two mechanical parameters, namely Young\\'s modulus and critical stress. These two quantities are proved to be product dependent and display a large range of variation. Industrial relevance The design of new food product becomes more and more based on functionality criteria. In a typical chewing process the need to understand the deformation mechanisms leading to fragmentation helps in understanding the role of the structure and, in turn, the processing conditions for building new transformed products. There is an increasing industrial demand in that sense especially knowing that some of the cereal products can be designed to meet these criteria for specific populations (old people with dental problems, infant feeding). Our work is, within this context, an attempt to set a numerical and experimental framework for studying the fragmentation of five selected breakfast cereals from the market.

  16. Breakfast Cereal Consumption Moderates the Association Between Body Composition and Body Esteem in Young Women but not in Young Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Holly-Anne; Marcinow, Michelle; Hicks, Rachel; Buchholz, Andrea C

    2014-12-01

    To explore the role of breakfast cereal consumption on the relationships among BMI, percent fat mass (%FM), and body esteem in young adults. Weight, height, and %FM (by air displacement plethysmography) were measured in 29 males (aged 25.1 ± 4.0 years) and 28 females (aged 24.6 ± 4.0 years). Body esteem was measured using the Body Esteem Scale for Adolescents and Adults (BESAA). Three-day food records classified participants as breakfast cereal consumers (n = 27, any amount of ready-to-eat or cooked cereal consumed at breakfast) versus nonconsumers (n = 30, no cereal consumed at breakfast). The %FM was significantly (P ≤ 0.05) inversely correlated with weight esteem (r = -0.769), appearance esteem (r = -0.723), and external attribution (r = -0.620) in female noncereal consumers. BMI was similarly correlated with BESAA scores. These relationships were not significant in female cereal consumers (all r body esteem (all r body esteem in young adult women and may be useful for improving body esteem without focusing on weight loss.

  17. Child-targeted TV advertising and preschoolers' consumption of high-sugar breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longacre, Meghan R; Drake, Keith M; Titus, Linda J; Harris, Jennifer; Cleveland, Lauren P; Langeloh, Gail; Hendricks, Kristy; Dalton, Madeline A

    2017-01-01

    Breakfast cereals represent the most highly advertised packaged food on child-targeted television, and most ads are for cereals high in sugar. This study examined whether children's TV exposure to child-targeted, high-sugar breakfast cereal (SBC) ads was associated with their consumption of those SBC brands. Parents of 3- to 5-year-old children were recruited from pediatric and Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics in Southern New Hampshire, USA, and completed a cross-sectional survey between April-December 2013. Parents reported their child's consumption of SBC brands; whether their child had watched any of 11 kids' channels in the past week; their child's TV viewing time; and socio-demographics. Children's exposure to child-targeted SBC TV ads was calculated by combining TV channel and viewing time with advertising data for SBC ads aired on kids' TV channels during the same timeframe. Five hundred forty-eight parents completed surveys; 52.7% had an annual household income of $50,000 or less. Children's mean age was 4.4 years, 51.6% were female, and 72.5% were non-Hispanic white. In the past week, 56.9% (N = 312) of children ate SBCs advertised on kids' channels. Overall, 40.6% of children were exposed to child-targeted SBC TV ads in the past week. In fully adjusted analyses, the number of SBC brands children consumed was positively associated with their exposure to child-targeted SBC ads. Children consumed 14% (RR = 1.14, 95% CI: 1.02, 1.27) more SBC brands for every 10 SBC ads seen in the past 7 days. Exposure to child-targeted SBC TV advertising is positively associated with SBC brand consumption among preschool-aged children. These findings support recommendations to limit the marketing of high-sugar foods to young children. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Acute effect of oatmeal on subjective measures of appetite and satiety compared to a ready-to-eat breakfast cereal: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, Candida J; Johnson, William D; Martin, Corby K; Xie, Wenting; O'Shea, Marianne; Kurilich, Anne; Bordenave, Nicolas; Andler, Stephanie; van Klinken, B Jan Willem; Chu, Yi-Fang; Greenway, Frank L

    2013-01-01

    The physicochemical properties of soluble oat fiber (β-glucan) affect viscosity-dependent mechanisms that influence satiety. The objective of this study was to compare the satiety impact of oatmeal with the most widely sold ready-to-eat breakfast cereal (RTEC) when either was consumed as a breakfast meal. Forty-eight healthy individuals ≥18 years of age were enrolled in a randomized crossover trial. Following an overnight fast, subjects consumed either oatmeal or RTEC in random order at least a week apart. The breakfasts were isocaloric and contained 363 kcal (250 kcal cereal, 113 kcal milk). Visual analogue scales measuring appetite and satiety were completed before breakfast and throughout the morning. The content and physicochemical properties of oat β-glucan were determined. Appetite and satiety responses were analyzed by area under the curve (AUC). Physicochemical properties were analyzed using t tests. Oatmeal, higher in fiber and protein but lower in sugar than the RTEC, resulted in greater increase in fullness (AUC: p = 0.005 [120 minute: p = 0.0408, 180 minute: p = 0.0061, 240 minute: p = 0.0102]) and greater reduction in hunger (AUC: p = 0.0009 [120 minute: p = 0.0197, 180 minute: p = 0.0003, 240 minute: p = 0.0036]), desire to eat (AUC: p = 0.0002 [120 minute: p = 0.0168, 180 minute: p Oatmeal had higher β-glucan content, higher molecular weight (p Oatmeal improves appetite control and increases satiety. The effects may be attributed to the viscosity and hydration properties of its β-glucan content.

  19. Differential roles of breakfast only (one meal per day) and a bigger breakfast with a small dinner (two meals per day) in mice fed a high-fat diet with regard to induced obesity and lipid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuse, Yuta; Hirao, Akiko; Kuroda, Hiroaki; Otsuka, Makiko; Tahara, Yu; Shibata, Shigenobu

    2012-05-15

    Recent studies on humans and rodents have suggested that the timing of food intake plays an important role in circadian regulation and metabolic health. Consumption of high-fat foods during the inactive period or at the end of the awake period results in weight gain and metabolic syndrome in rodents. However, the distinct effects of breakfast size and the breakfast/dinner size ratio on metabolic health have not yet been fully examined in mice. We examined whether the parameters of metabolic syndrome were differentially affected in mice that consumed a large meal at the beginning of the awake period (breakfast; one meal group) and a relatively smaller meal at end of the awake period (dinner; two meals group). The mice of each group were provided equal food volume per day. Mice on one meal exhibited an increase in body weight gain, hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, and a decrease of gene expression associated with β-oxidation in adipose tissue and liver compared with those on two meals. The circadian expression pattern of the Clock gene in mice on one meal was disturbed compared with those on two meals. In conclusion, a bigger breakfast with a smaller dinner (two meals per day) but not breakfast only (one meal per day) helps control body weight and fat accumulation in mice on a high-fat meals schedule. The findings of this study suggest that dietary recommendations for weight reduction and/or maintenance should include information on the timing and quantity of dietary intake.

  20. The Effects of Television Advertising on Children: Parent-Child Communication in Supermarket Breakfast Cereal Selection. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkin, Charles K.

    In this study, naturalistic patterns of parent-child interaction were unobtrusively observed in supermarkets to describe characteristics of breakfast cereal selection by 516 family units. The interaction sequence was summarized into five dimensions: initiating party, tone of initial message, type of response, type of consequence, and references to…

  1. Screening for gestational diabetes: examining a breakfast meal test ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Layman's summary: It is necessary to screen for the development of diabetes during pregnancy. The standard test with 75 g of glucose is unpalatable and is sometimes replaced by a meal test. However, when this meal test is provided by the women themselves without standardisation, the sugar and starch quantities are too ...

  2. More than just a meal: Breakfast club attendance and children’s social relationships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret (Greta Anne Defeyter

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The health benefits of school food have been widely promoted in recent years while the social opportunities that surround eating occasions at school have received little attention. Breakfast clubs, which take place at the start of the school day, offer a unique opportunity for children to consume a breakfast meal on their school premises in the company of their peers. Alternatively, after school clubs, which take place on school premises at the end of the school day, whilst also providing children with social opportunities tend to focus on sports engagement and skill development. The aim of the current paper is to investigate whether attendance at breakfast clubs and after school clubs has an impact on children’s friendship quality and experiences of peer victimization. Breakfast club attendees, after-school club attendees and non-attendees completed the Friendship Qualities Scale (FQS and the Multidimensional Peer Victimization Scale (MPVS at two time points. Time 1 data were collected two months after the introduction of school clubs. Time 2 data were then collected on the same measures again six months later. Results of the analyses of Time 1 data showed no significant differences between groups on any of the measures at Time 1. However, at Time 2 breakfast club attendees showed improved levels of friendship quality compared to the other two groups. Moreover, analysis of the MPVS data at Time 2 showed that children who attended breakfast club or after school club experienced a decline in victimization across time. The current findings suggest that breakfast club attendance facilitates the quality of children’s relationships with their best friend over time. Additionally, attendance at a breakfast or after school club was associated with a reduction in victimization over time. The results have implications for utilization of breakfast and after school clubs to aid children’s social relationships in school over time.

  3. Enhancement by Copper(II) of the voltammetric signal of vitamin B2 applied to its determination in breakfast cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadara, Rashid O; Fogg, Arnold G; Haggett, Barry G D; Birch, Brian J

    2009-02-11

    Addition of copper(II) to breakfast cereal samples was shown to significantly enhance the analytical signal obtained by electrochemical reduction of vitamin B(2) using linear sweep voltammetry on disposable carbon electrodes. The enhancement was observed only when dissolved oxygen was present. In model solutions the analytical signal was linear in the concentration range 6-150 ng/mL with a calculated limit of detection of 5 ng/mL (S/N = 3). This compared favorably with earlier work using a similar measurement approach--but in the absence of copper--in which the limit of detection was calculated to be 900 ng/mL. The effects of potential interferents commonly found in cereals were examined. In addition to signal attenuation by both sugar and starch (already reported), folic acid was found to increase (+6%) and iron to decrease (-11%) the analytical signal when present in the maximum concentration ratios, with respect to vitamin B(2), that are normally found in breakfast cereals. Nevertheless, the simplicity of the approach was potentially attractive for near-line quality control applications in manufacturing. The utility of the measurement approach was demonstrated by the addition of excess copper(II) sulfate to determine vitamin B(2) in aqueous extracts of breakfast cereals. The results agreed well with those provided by the cereal manufacturer who used an established HPLC method.

  4. Textural characteristics of ready-to-eat breakfast cereals produced from different types of cereal and with varying water addition during extrusion process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žaneta Ugarčić-Hardi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Textural characteristics of ready-to-eat breakfast cereals were evaluated in order to determine the influence of wheat, corn and rice flour, as well as a varying water addition during the extrusion process. Extruded breakfast cereal balls were made of wheat semolina in combination with wheat, corn or rice flour. Three different levels of water addition (21 %, 23 % and 27 % were used during the extrusion process. Samples were prepared with and without surface sugar coating. Sensory and instrumental assessments (TA.XT Plus were used to evaluate textural attributes of dry samples and samples during immersion in milk. Weibull equation was used for nonlinear estimation of experimental data obtained for milk absorption and crispiness as a function of time. Crispiness of dry extruded balls without coating was much higher than for samples with coating. The highest values for crispness were observed for wheat extruded balls and the lowest for samples with corn flour addition. Increasing water addition during the extrusion process significantly increased crispness of ready-to-eat breakfast cereals. The rate of milk absorption and loss of crispiness were significantly higher for samples without coating than for samples with coating.

  5. Screening for gestational diabetes: examining a breakfast meal test

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    If a meal test is to be used instead of the formal OGTT a carefully measured, prepared, palatable, readily available product would need to be sourced and provided. Layman's summary: It is necessary to screen for the development of diabetes during pregnancy. The standard test with 75 g of glucose is unpalatable and is ...

  6. The contribution of the USDA school breakfast and lunch program meals to student daily dietary intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen Weber Cullen

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the United States, the National School Breakfast (SBP and School Lunch Program (NSLP meals are provided for free or at a reduced price to eligible children, and are a nutrition safety net for low income children. Consuming both meals could provide 58% of daily intake. This paper evaluates the contribution of SBP and NSLP meals to the dietary intakes of 5–18 year old children participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES from 2007 through 2012. The participants completed 24-hour dietary recalls. Least-square means and standard errors of the mean for energy and food group intakes for the total day and by school meal, and the percent of daily energy and food groups contributed by school meals were computed by analysis of covariance, with BMI, ethnicity, sex, age and poverty level as covariates. Of the 7800 participating children aged 5–18 years in the entire dataset, 448 consumed both SBP-NSLP meals on a weekday. Almost one-half (47% of the day's energy intake was provided by the two school meals. For the major food groups, the contribution of school meals ranged from between 40.6% for vegetables to 77.1% for milk. Overall, these results provide important information on contribution of the SBP and NSLP meals to low income children's daily dietary intake.

  7. The contribution of the USDA school breakfast and lunch program meals to student daily dietary intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cullen, Karen Weber; Chen, Tzu-An

    2017-03-01

    In the United States, the National School Breakfast (SBP) and School Lunch Program (NSLP) meals are provided for free or at a reduced price to eligible children, and are a nutrition safety net for low income children. Consuming both meals could provide 58% of daily intake. This paper evaluates the contribution of SBP and NSLP meals to the dietary intakes of 5-18 year old children participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES) from 2007 through 2012. The participants completed 24-hour dietary recalls. Least-square means and standard errors of the mean for energy and food group intakes for the total day and by school meal, and the percent of daily energy and food groups contributed by school meals were computed by analysis of covariance, with BMI, ethnicity, sex, age and poverty level as covariates. Of the 7800 participating children aged 5-18 years in the entire dataset, 448 consumed both SBP-NSLP meals on a weekday. Almost one-half (47%) of the day's energy intake was provided by the two school meals. For the major food groups, the contribution of school meals ranged from between 40.6% for vegetables to 77.1% for milk. Overall, these results provide important information on contribution of the SBP and NSLP meals to low income children's daily dietary intake.

  8. Digestibility of carbohydrates from rice-, oat- and wheat-based ready-to-eat breakfast cereals in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighenti, F; Casiraghi, M C; Ciappellano, S; Crovetti, R; Testolin, G

    1994-09-01

    To study the effect of the presence and quality of dietary fibre in ready-to-eat (RTE) breakfast cereals on completeness of carbohydrate digestion in children and on starch susceptibility to alpha-amylase in vitro. A controlled intervention study. Eight 3-8-year-old healthy children. Completeness of digestion was evaluated by assessing the amount of carbohydrates apparently fermented into the colon using the breath-H2 technique after consumption in random order, of five breakfast tests containing boiled rice (either alone or supplemented with 3 g of lactulose) as reference food, or RTE cereals based on rice (low-fibre), wheat (high insoluble fibre) and oats (high-soluble fibre). The potential glycaemic impact of the products was estimated in vitro by assessing starch susceptibility to alpha-amylolysis using an enzymatic-dialysis method. Compared to boiled rice and to rice-based RTE cereal, wheat- and oat-based RTE cereals both significantly (P oats; mean +/- SEM), calculated using the excess H2 in breath after lactulose as standard. All products showed similar in vitro digestibility, resulting in estimated glycaemic indexes of 117.5 (24.0) for rice, and 105.7 (14.1) for oats-based, 128.4 (17.6) for wheat-based, and 129.8 (16.6) [mean 95% CI)] for rice-based RTE cereals. Results suggest that the presence of fibre in RTE breakfast cereals, in particular soluble fibre, increases colonic fermentation in children whereas it seems not to affect glucose availability.

  9. Commercial breakfast cereals available in Mexican markets and their contribution in dietary fiber, β-glucans and protein quality by rat bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falcón-Villa, María R; Barrón-Hoyos, Jesús M; Cinco-Moroyoqui, Francisco J

    2014-09-01

    The beneficial effect of dietary fiber (DF) consumption has long been recognized. The global economy and open market trade policies have increased the availability of food products in Mexican markets, resulting in a wide variety of ready-to-eat commercial breakfast cereals classified as 'high fiber'. This research was aimed to evaluate the total dietary fiber contents, its fractions (soluble and insoluble) and β-glucan in 13 commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals, as well as to evaluate their protein quality by rat bioassays. Commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals had 7.42-39.82% insoluble dietary fiber, 2.53-12.85% soluble dietary fiber, and 0.45-4.96% β-glucan. These ready-to-eat commercial 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals differed significantly in their total dietary fiber, their soluble and insoluble DF fractions, and also in their β-glucan contents. When supplied as experimental diets, in 14-day rat feeding trials, the 'high-fiber' breakfast cereals showed an adverse effect on the % N digestibility but protein utilization, as measured as net protein ratio (NPR), was not significantly affected. The consumption of these commercial breakfast cereals, especially those made of oats as the basic ingredient, is highly recommended, since these products, being a concentrated source of dietary fiber, do not affect their protein quality.

  10. A comparison of the nutritional quality of organic and conventional ready-to-eat breakfast cereals based on NuVal scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodbury, Nancy J; George, Valerie A

    2014-07-01

    To identify whether there were differences in nutritional quality between organic and conventional ready-to-eat breakfast cereals of similar types, based on NuVal scores. The current descriptive study analysed NuVal scores for 829 ready-to-eat breakfast cereals and eighteen different cereal types. ANOVA was used to compare the mean NuVal scores of 723 conventional cereals with those of 106 organic cereals. Ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (n 829) with NuVal scores. Not applicable. There was no significant difference in NuVal scores between conventional (mean 28·4 (sd 13·4)) and organic (mean 30·6 (sd 13·2)) cereal types. Consumers who choose the organic version of a ready-to-eat breakfast cereal believing that nutritional quality is superior may not be making a valid assumption. Public health nutrition educators must help consumers understand that organic cereals are not necessarily more nutritious and their consumption could result in excessive intake of undesirable nutrients, such as fat, sugar and sodium.

  11. Differential roles of breakfast only (one meal per day and a bigger breakfast with a small dinner (two meals per day in mice fed a high-fat diet with regard to induced obesity and lipid metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuse Yuta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent studies on humans and rodents have suggested that the timing of food intake plays an important role in circadian regulation and metabolic health. Consumption of high-fat foods during the inactive period or at the end of the awake period results in weight gain and metabolic syndrome in rodents. However, the distinct effects of breakfast size and the breakfast/dinner size ratio on metabolic health have not yet been fully examined in mice. Methods We examined whether the parameters of metabolic syndrome were differentially affected in mice that consumed a large meal at the beginning of the awake period (breakfast; one meal group and a relatively smaller meal at end of the awake period (dinner; two meals group. The mice of each group were provided equal food volume per day. Results Mice on one meal exhibited an increase in body weight gain, hyperinsulinemia, hyperleptinemia, and a decrease of gene expression associated with β-oxidation in adipose tissue and liver compared with those on two meals. The circadian expression pattern of the Clock gene in mice on one meal was disturbed compared with those on two meals. Conclusions In conclusion, a bigger breakfast with a smaller dinner (two meals per day but not breakfast only (one meal per day helps control body weight and fat accumulation in mice on a high-fat meals schedule. The findings of this study suggest that dietary recommendations for weight reduction and/or maintenance should include information on the timing and quantity of dietary intake.

  12. Single-compound and cumulative risk assessment of mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children from Lisbon region, Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assunção, Ricardo; Vasco, Elsa; Nunes, Baltazar; Loureiro, Susana; Martins, Carla; Alvito, Paula

    2015-12-01

    Humans can be exposed to multiple chemicals, but current risk assessment is usually carried out on one chemical at a time. Mycotoxins are commonly found in a variety of foods including those intended to consumption by children namely breakfast cereals. The present study aims to perform, the risk assessment of single and multiple mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children (1-3 years old) from Lisbon region, Portugal. Daily exposure of children to ochratoxin A, fumonisins and trichothecenes showed no health risks to the children population considering individual mycotoxins, while exposure to aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) suggested a potential health concern for the high percentiles of intake (P90, P95 and P99). The combined exposure to fumonisins and trichothecenes are not expected to be of health concern. The combined margin of exposure (MoET) for the aflatoxins group could constitute a potential health concern and AFB1 was the main contributor for MoET. Legal limits and control strategies regarding the presence of multiple mycotoxins in foodstuffs is an urgent need. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first time a cumulative risk assessment was performed on multiple mycotoxins present in breakfast cereals consumed by children. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Not just for poor kids: The impact of universal free school breakfast on meal participation and student outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leos-Urbel, Jacob; Schwartz, Amy Ellen; Weinstein, Meryle; Corcoran, Sean

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the impact of the implementation of a universal free school breakfast policy on meals program participation, attendance, and academic achievement. In 2003, New York City made school breakfast free for all students regardless of income, while increasing the price of lunch for those ineligible for meal subsidies. Using a difference-indifference estimation strategy, we derive plausibly causal estimates of the policy’s impact by exploiting within and between group variation in school meal pricing before and after the policy change. Our estimates suggest that the policy resulted in small increases in breakfast participation both for students who experienced a decrease in the price of breakfast and for free-lunch eligible students who experienced no price change. The latter suggests that universal provision may alter behavior through mechanisms other than price, highlighting the potential merits of universal provision over targeted services. We find limited evidence of policy impacts on academic outcomes. PMID:24465073

  14. Ingestion of micronutrient fortified breakfast cereal has no influence on immune function in healthy children: A randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sha Wei

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigated the influence of 2-months ingestion of an "immune" nutrient fortified breakfast cereal on immune function and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI in healthy children during the winter season. Methods Subjects included 73 children (N = 42 males, N = 31 females ranging in age from 7 to 13 years (mean ± SD age, 9.9 ± 1.7 years, and 65 completed all phases of the study. Subjects were randomized to one of three groups--low, moderate, or high fortification--with breakfast cereals administered in double blinded fashion. The "medium" fortified cereal contained B-complex vitamins, vitamins A and C, iron, zinc, and calcium, with the addition of vitamin E and higher amounts of vitamins A and C, and zinc in the "high" group. Immune measures included delayed-typed hypersensitivity, global IgG antibody response over four weeks to pneumococcal vaccination, salivary IgA concentration, natural killer cell activity, and granulocyte phagocytosis and oxidative burst activity. Subjects under parental supervision filled in a daily log using URTI symptoms codes. Results Subjects ingested 3337 ± 851 g cereal during the 2-month study, which represented 14% of total diet energy intake and 20-85% of selected vitamins and minerals. Despite significant increases in nutrient intake, URTI rates and pre- to- post-study changes in all immune function measures did not differ between groups. Conclusions Data from this study indicate that ingestion of breakfast cereal fortified with a micronutrient blend for two winter months by healthy, growing children does not significantly influence biomarkers for immune function or URTI rates.

  15. Ingestion of micronutrient fortified breakfast cereal has no influence on immune function in healthy children: A randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background This study investigated the influence of 2-months ingestion of an "immune" nutrient fortified breakfast cereal on immune function and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in healthy children during the winter season. Methods Subjects included 73 children (N = 42 males, N = 31 females) ranging in age from 7 to 13 years (mean ± SD age, 9.9 ± 1.7 years), and 65 completed all phases of the study. Subjects were randomized to one of three groups--low, moderate, or high fortification--with breakfast cereals administered in double blinded fashion. The "medium" fortified cereal contained B-complex vitamins, vitamins A and C, iron, zinc, and calcium, with the addition of vitamin E and higher amounts of vitamins A and C, and zinc in the "high" group. Immune measures included delayed-typed hypersensitivity, global IgG antibody response over four weeks to pneumococcal vaccination, salivary IgA concentration, natural killer cell activity, and granulocyte phagocytosis and oxidative burst activity. Subjects under parental supervision filled in a daily log using URTI symptoms codes. Results Subjects ingested 3337 ± 851 g cereal during the 2-month study, which represented 14% of total diet energy intake and 20-85% of selected vitamins and minerals. Despite significant increases in nutrient intake, URTI rates and pre- to- post-study changes in all immune function measures did not differ between groups. Conclusions Data from this study indicate that ingestion of breakfast cereal fortified with a micronutrient blend for two winter months by healthy, growing children does not significantly influence biomarkers for immune function or URTI rates. PMID:21510864

  16. Ingestion of micronutrient fortified breakfast cereal has no influence on immune function in healthy children: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieman, David C; Henson, Dru A; Sha, Wei

    2011-04-21

    This study investigated the influence of 2-months ingestion of an "immune" nutrient fortified breakfast cereal on immune function and upper respiratory tract infection (URTI) in healthy children during the winter season. Subjects included 73 children (N=42 males, N=31 females) ranging in age from 7 to 13 years (mean±SD age, 9.9±1.7 years), and 65 completed all phases of the study. Subjects were randomized to one of three groups--low, moderate, or high fortification--with breakfast cereals administered in double blinded fashion. The "medium" fortified cereal contained B-complex vitamins, vitamins A and C, iron, zinc, and calcium, with the addition of vitamin E and higher amounts of vitamins A and C, and zinc in the "high" group. Immune measures included delayed-typed hypersensitivity, global IgG antibody response over four weeks to pneumococcal vaccination, salivary IgA concentration, natural killer cell activity, and granulocyte phagocytosis and oxidative burst activity. Subjects under parental supervision filled in a daily log using URTI symptoms codes. Subjects ingested 3337±851 g cereal during the 2-month study, which represented 14% of total diet energy intake and 20-85% of selected vitamins and minerals. Despite significant increases in nutrient intake, URTI rates and pre- to- post-study changes in all immune function measures did not differ between groups. Data from this study indicate that ingestion of breakfast cereal fortified with a micronutrient blend for two winter months by healthy, growing children does not significantly influence biomarkers for immune function or URTI rates.

  17. Hydration kinetics of direct expanded tef flour breakfast cereals in water and milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, W K

    2014-01-01

    Hydration kinetics of tef flour breakfast cereals extruded at barrel temperatures of 110, 130, and 150°C was investigated by hydrating them in water and whole milk at 25°C (±1°C). The normalized Weibull model described the rehydration characteristics of the extrudates in water and milk adequately (R2 = 0.98–0.99). Water absorption rate was significantly (P Hydration rate and equilibrium moisture content were higher for samples hydrated in water than those in milk. In view of the values of the shape parameter β, the hydration process is predominantly controlled by diffusion (β = 0.40–0.51) for samples extruded at 110°C whereas external resistance to mass transfer dominated (β = 0.60–0.73) those extruded using 150 and 130°C. Extrudates processed at 130 and 150°C exhibited better hydration characteristics. Thus, these temperature ranges could be used to produce extruded products from tef. PMID:24804063

  18. The effect of breakfast cereal consumption on adolescents' cognitive performance and mood

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Defeyter, Margaret A; Russo, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of breakfast consumption on cognitive performance and mood in adolescents, and any interaction that breakfast consumption might have with cognitive load...

  19. Mood and the macro-nutrient composition of breakfast and the mid-day meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, David; Brock, Helen

    2010-12-01

    Six hundred and eighty-six individuals were approached at mid-day after they had chosen a meal in a cafeteria. They were asked to rate their mood during the morning and list what they had eaten that morning. Both males and females who had eaten breakfast rather than fasting reported that they had been happier and more relaxed during the morning. The macro-nutrient compositions of breakfast and lunch were calculated and related to mood during the morning. In males, but not females, the consumption of more carbohydrate in the morning was associated with feeling happy rather than sad and relaxed rather than stressed. Further examination demonstrated that in males the amount of fat, protein and total energy consumed was not associated with mood; that is there was a selective relationship between carbohydrate intake and mood. It was not possible to establish whether the nature of breakfast influenced mood or the pre-existing mood influenced the choice of breakfast although both explanations are plausible. In females, however, there was no relationship between carbohydrate intake and mood, possibly a reflection of the smaller amounts consumed. The suggestion that mood during the morning might influence food choice at mid-day was considered but no association was found. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Determination of the in vivo prebiotic potential of a maize-based whole grain breakfast cereal: a human feeding study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho-Wells, Andrew L; Helmolz, Kathrin; Nodet, Cecelia; Molzer, Christine; Leonard, Clare; McKevith, Brigid; Thielecke, Frank; Jackson, Kim G; Tuohy, Kieran M

    2010-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an inverse relationship between risk of CVD and intake of whole grain (WG)-rich food. Regular consumption of breakfast cereals can provide not only an increase in dietary WG but also improvements to cardiovascular health. Various mechanisms have been proposed, including prebiotic modulation of the colonic microbiota. In the present study, the prebiotic activity of a maize-derived WG cereal (WGM) was evaluated in a double-blind, placebo-controlled human feeding study (n 32). For a period of 21 d, healthy men and women, mean age 32 (sd 8) years and BMI 23·3 (sd 0·58) kg/m2, consumed either 48 g/d WG cereal (WGM) or 48 g placebo cereal (non-whole grain (NWG)) in a crossover fashion. Faecal samples were collected at five points during the study on days 0, 21, 42, 63 and 84 (representing at baseline, after both treatments and both wash-out periods). Faecal bacteriology was assessed using fluorescence in situ hybridisation with 16S rRNA oligonucleotide probes specific for Bacteroides spp., Bifidobacterium spp., Clostridium histolyticum/perfringens subgroup, Lactobacillus-Enterococcus subgroup and total bacteria. After 21 d consumption of WGM, mean group levels of faecal bifidobacteria increased significantly compared with the control cereal (P = 0·001). After a 3-week wash-out period, bifidobacterial levels returned to pre-intervention levels. No statistically significant changes were observed in serum lipids, glucose or measures of faecal output. In conclusion, this WG maize-enriched breakfast cereal mediated a bifidogenic modulation of the gut microbiota, indicating a possible prebiotic mode of action.

  1. Ingesting breakfast meals of different glycaemic load does not alter cognition and satiety in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brindal, E; Baird, D; Danthiir, V; Wilson, C; Bowen, J; Slater, A; Noakes, M

    2012-10-01

    The effect of Glycaemic Index (GI) and Load (GL) of breakfasts on satiety and aspects of cognitive function in children is inconclusive. We aimed to assess if isocaloric breakfasts differing in GL (by replacing high-GI carbohydrate foods with dairy protein foods) acutely alter cognitive function and satiety in 10- to 12-year-old children. A total of 39 children, aged 11.6±0.7 years with body mass index 18.9±3.0 kg/m² (Mean±s.e.) participated in a randomised crossover trial of three isocaloric breakfasts (1.3 MJ): high GL (HGL: 7 g protein, 9 g fat, 50 g carbohydrate, GL 33); medium GL (MGL: 14 g protein, 9 g fat, 45 g carbohydrate, GL 24) and low GL (LGL: 18 g protein, 10 g fat, 38 g carbohydrate, GL 18). Blood glucose was recorded using a continuous glucose monitor. Subjective hunger and cognitive performance were measured before and hourly after consuming the test breakfast via a computer-delivered battery. Ad libitum intake at a buffet lunch meal was measured at 3 h at the end of testing. Incremental area under the glucose curve (iAUC) was significantly different with HGL>MGL>LGL (PBreakfast GL did not significantly alter changes in cognitive function or self-reported satiety throughout testing. Energy intake at lunch was not significantly different between treatments (HGL 2943±168 kJ; MGL 2949±166 kJ; LGL 2993±191 kJ). Reducing breakfast GL by replacing carbohydrate with protein does not alter satiety or cognition over 3 h in 10- to 12-year-old children.

  2. Breakfast trends in children and adolescents: frequency and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexy, Ute; Wicher, Meike; Kersting, Mathilde

    2010-11-01

    Although breakfast is important for obesity prevention and dietary quality, breakfast skipping is a common behaviour. Knowledge of changes in breakfast habits may provide potential behaviour targets for intervention programmes. The present study describes the actual data on trends in breakfast habits and composition. A total of 7800 3 d dietary records of 1081 participants aged 2-18 years collected between 1986 and 2007 in the DONALD (Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed) Study were analysed using mixed linear models. Breakfast was eaten at 78 % of all record days; regular breakfast (breakfast was eaten on all three recorded weekdays) was eaten in 75 % of records. During the study period, the number of records with regular breakfast decreased significantly in 6-12- and 13-18-year-olds (P = 0·0084 and 0·0350, respectively). Of all breakfast meals, 62 % were bread meals and 21 % were ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC) meals. RTEC meals nearly doubled from the youngest to the oldest age group (P breakfast including grain, dairy and fruit/vegetables. In the DONALD Study sample, a negative age and time trend in breakfast consumption was verified. Interventions regarding breakfast habits should be aimed at adolescents and should focus on fruit/vegetables.

  3. The effect of breakfast cereal consumption on adolescents’ cognitive performance and mood

    OpenAIRE

    Defeyter, Margaret Anne; Russo, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of breakfast consumption on cognitive performance and mood in adolescents, and any interaction that breakfast consumption might have with cognitive load. The rationale for this approach was that the beneficial effects of any intervention with regard to cognitive function may be more readily apparent when more demands are placed on the system. Furthermore, as skipping breakfast is particularly prevalent within this age group, thus, we ...

  4. Processing and characterization of extruded breakfast meal formulated with broken rice and bean flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vânia Carvalho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop an extruded breakfast product containing broken rice and split old beans and to verify the influence of the extrusion process on their physicochemical, technological, and sensory characteristic. The final product had a protein content of 9.9 g.100 g-1, and therefore it can be considered a good source of proteins for children and teenagers. The dietary fiber content of the final edible product was 3.71 g.100 g-1. Therefore, the breakfast meal may be considered as a source of dietary fiber according to Brazilian law . As for the technological properties, the extruded product presented an expansion index of 8.89 and apparent density of 0.25 g.cm-3. With regard to the sensory analysis, the acceptance average was ranked between 6.8 and 7.7, corresponding to the categories "liked slightly" and "liked very much". With regard to purchase intention, 79% of the panelists said they would certainly or possibly purchase the product. Broken rice and split old beans are interesting alternatives for the elaboration of extruded breakfast products presenting good nutritional, technological, and sensory qualities.

  5. Performance of a five category front-of-pack labelling system - the 5-colour nutrition label - to differentiate nutritional quality of breakfast cereals in France.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Julia, Chantal; Kesse-Guyot, Emmanuelle; Ducrot, Pauline; Péneau, Sandrine; Touvier, Mathilde; Méjean, Caroline; Hercberg, Serge

    2015-02-25

    Breakfast cereals exhibit a wide variability in nutritional quality, and differences are not easily grasped by consumers. A simplified nutritional information system might contribute to help consumers make healthier food choices. A five-category colour label based on the Food Standards Agency Nutrient profiling system (FSA score) has been proposed in France to be implemented on the front-of-pack of foods (the five-colour nutrition label - 5-CNL). Objectives were to evaluate the ability of the 5-CNL to discriminate nutritional quality between types of breakfast cereals, within a category and in equivalent products, as well as its ability to change through product reformulation. Nutritional information was collected through an Internet and supermarket research for N = 433 breakfast cereals (N = 380 complete data included in the analyses). Breakfast cereals were categorized according to common attributes in terms of processing and/or ingredients used. The FSA score and 5-CNL category allocation were computed for each cereal. Nutrient content and FSA score were compared across types of cereals. Distribution within the 5-CNL categories was assessed across types of cereals and for equivalent products. Impact of reformulation (reduction of 5 and 10% in simple sugar, saturated fat and sodium) on the 5-CNL category allocation was compared to original allocation with Bapkhar's tests of homogeneity of marginal distribution. Variability in nutritional quality of breakfast cereals was high, as reflected by the FSA score (range -7- 22 for a theoretical range of -15-40) and the 5-CNL (all five categories represented). The 5-CNL allowed for discrimination across types of cereals, within categories of breakfast cereals and for equivalent products (at least 3 categories of the 5-CNL represented). Reformulation scenarios allowed for significant change in 5-CNL allocation: 5% reduction in sugar lead to a modification of the label for 4.21% of products while a reduction of 10

  6. The effect of breakfast cereal consumption on adolescents' cognitive performance and mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defeyter, Margaret A; Russo, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of breakfast consumption on cognitive performance and mood in adolescents, and any interaction that breakfast consumption might have with cognitive load. The rationale for this approach was that the beneficial effects of any intervention with regard to cognitive function may be more readily apparent when more demands are placed on the system. Furthermore, as skipping breakfast is particularly prevalent within this age group, thus, we focused on adolescents who habitually skip breakfast. Cognitive load was modulated by varying the level of difficulty of a series of cognitive tasks tapping memory, attention, and executive functions. Mood measured with Bond-Lader scales (1974) as well as measures of thirst, hunger, and satiety were recorded at each test session both at baseline and after the completion of each test battery. Forty adolescents (mean age = 14:2) participated in this within-subjects design study. According to treatment, all participants were tested before and after the intake of a low Glycaemic index breakfast (i.e., a 35 g portion of AllBran and 125 ml semi-skimmed milk) and before and after no breakfast consumption. Assessment time had two levels: 8.00 am (baseline) and 10.45 am. The orders of cognitive load tasks were counterbalanced. Overall it appeared that following breakfast participants felt more alert, satiated, and content. Following breakfast consumption, there was evidence for improved cognitive performance across the school morning compared to breakfast omission in some tasks (e.g., Hard Word Recall, Serial 3's and Serial 7's). However, whilst participants performance on the hard version of each cognitive task was significantly poorer compared to the corresponding easy version, there was limited evidence to support the hypothesis that the effect of breakfast was greater in the more demanding versions of the tasks.

  7. The effect of breakfast cereal consumption on adolescents’ cognitive performance and mood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Anne Defeyter

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of breakfast consumption on cognitive performance and mood in adolescents, and any interaction that breakfast consumption might have with cognitive load. The rationale for this approach was that the beneficial effects of any intervention with regard to cognitive function may be more readily apparent when more demands are placed on the system. Furthermore, as skipping breakfast is particularly prevalent within this age group, thus, we focused on adolescents who habitually skip breakfast. Cognitive load was modulated by varying the level of difficulty of a series of cognitive tasks tapping memory, attention and executive functions. Mood measured with Bond-Lader scales (1974 as well as measures of thirst, hunger and satiety were recorded at each test session both at baseline and after the completion of each test battery. Forty adolescents (mean age = 14:2 participated in this within-subjects design study. According to treatment, all participants were tested before and after the intake of a low Glycaemic index breakfast (i.e. a 35g portion of AllBran and 125ml semi-skimmed milk and before and after no breakfast consumption. Assessment time had two levels: 8.00am (baseline and 10.45am. The orders of cognitive load tasks were counterbalanced. Overall it appeared that following breakfast participants felt more alert, satiated and content. Following breakfast consumption, there was evidence for improved cognitive performance across the school morning compared to breakfast omission in some tasks (e.g. Hard Word Recall, Serial 3’s and Serial 7’s. However, whilst participants performance on the hard version of each cognitive task was significantly poorer compared to the corresponding easy version, there was limited evidence to support the hypothesis that the effect of breakfast was greater in the more demanding versions of the tasks.

  8. The effect of breakfast cereal consumption on adolescents' cognitive performance and mood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defeyter, Margaret A.; Russo, Riccardo

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of breakfast consumption on cognitive performance and mood in adolescents, and any interaction that breakfast consumption might have with cognitive load. The rationale for this approach was that the beneficial effects of any intervention with regard to cognitive function may be more readily apparent when more demands are placed on the system. Furthermore, as skipping breakfast is particularly prevalent within this age group, thus, we focused on adolescents who habitually skip breakfast. Cognitive load was modulated by varying the level of difficulty of a series of cognitive tasks tapping memory, attention, and executive functions. Mood measured with Bond–Lader scales (1974) as well as measures of thirst, hunger, and satiety were recorded at each test session both at baseline and after the completion of each test battery. Forty adolescents (mean age = 14:2) participated in this within-subjects design study. According to treatment, all participants were tested before and after the intake of a low Glycaemic index breakfast (i.e., a 35 g portion of AllBran and 125 ml semi-skimmed milk) and before and after no breakfast consumption. Assessment time had two levels: 8.00 am (baseline) and 10.45 am. The orders of cognitive load tasks were counterbalanced. Overall it appeared that following breakfast participants felt more alert, satiated, and content. Following breakfast consumption, there was evidence for improved cognitive performance across the school morning compared to breakfast omission in some tasks (e.g., Hard Word Recall, Serial 3's and Serial 7's). However, whilst participants performance on the hard version of each cognitive task was significantly poorer compared to the corresponding easy version, there was limited evidence to support the hypothesis that the effect of breakfast was greater in the more demanding versions of the tasks. PMID:24312043

  9. Nutritional quality and child-oriented marketing of breakfast cereals in Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soo, J; Letona, P; Chacon, V; Barnoya, J; Roberto, C A

    2016-01-01

    Food marketing has been implicated as an important driver of obesity. However, few studies have examined food marketing in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). This study documents the prevalence of advertising on cereal boxes in Guatemala and examines associations between various marketing strategies and nutritional quality. One box from all available cereals was purchased from a supermarket located in an urban area in Guatemala City, Guatemala. A content analysis was performed to document child-oriented marketing practices, product claims and health-evoking images. The Nutrient Profile Model (NPM) was used to calculate an overall nutrition score for each cereal (the higher the score, the lower the nutritional quality). In all, 106 cereals were purchased, and half of the cereals featured child-oriented marketing (54, 50.9%). Cereals had a mean (±s.d.) of 5.10±2.83 product claims per cereal, and most cereals (102, 96.2%) contained health-evoking images. Child-oriented cereals had, on average, higher NPM scores (13.0±0.55 versus 7.90±0.74, PGuatemala, cereals targeting children were generally of poor nutritional quality. Cereals displaying health claims were also not healthier than those without such claims. Our findings support the need for regulations restricting the use of child-oriented marketing and health claims for certain products.

  10. Influence of two breakfast meals differing in glycemic load on satiety, hunger, and energy intake in preschool children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganji Vijay

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glycemic load (GL is the product of glycemic index of a food and amount of available carbohydrate in that food divided by 100. GL represents quality and quantity of dietary carbohydrate. Little is known about the role of GL in hunger, satiety, and food intake in preschool children. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of two breakfast meals differing in GL on hunger, satiety, and subsequent food intake at lunch in preschool children aged 4-6 y. Methods Twenty three subjects consumed low-GL (LGL and high-GL (HGL breakfast meals according to a randomized crossover design followed by an ad libitum lunch 4 h after consumption of breakfast. Children were asked to consume meals until they are full. Each treatment was repeated twice in non-consecutive days and data were averaged. Results Children in LGL group consumed significantly lower amounts of GL, total carbohydrate, energy, energy density, and dietary fiber and higher amounts of protein and fat at the breakfast compared to those in HGL group. Prior to lunch, children were hungrier in the HGL intervention group compared to the LGL intervention group (P Conclusions Decreased hunger in children prior to lunch in LGL group is likely due to higher protein and fat content of LGL breakfast. Diets that are low in GL can be recommended as part of healthy diet for preschool children.

  11. Prevalence of consumption and nutritional content of breakfast meal among adolescents from the Brazilian National Dietary Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jaqueline L; Castro, Michelle A de; Hopkins, Sinead; Gugger, Carolyn; Fisberg, Regina M; Fisberg, Mauro

    2017-11-06

    To estimate the prevalence of breakfast consumption and describe the foods and nutrients consumed at this meal and throughout the day by Brazilian adolescents. A total of 7276 adolescents aged 10-19 years were evaluated in the Brazilian National Dietary Survey 2008-9, a population-based cross-sectional study. Individuals' information was collected at home. Dietary data were obtained by two food records. Breakfast was defined as the first eating occasion of the day that occurred between 6 and 9:59am. Differences between breakfast consumers, occasional consumers, and skippers were tested through Pearson's chi-squared test or F-test of regression analysis. Breakfast was consumed by 93% of adolescents and it was associated with age, income, geographic region and household area. The most frequently consumed foods at breakfast were white bread, coffee, butter/margarine, refined cookies and crackers, and whole milk. The mean daily intakes of total energy, sugar, and calcium were higher among occasional consumers and skippers. Breakfast consumers had higher intake of vitamins B12, C, and D. Breakfast contributed more to total intake of calcium, phosphorus, thiamin, riboflavin, and vitamins A, B6, and D (17-32%), trans fat and sodium (about 30%) and less to folate, vitamin C, iron, zinc, and fiber (8-12%) and energy intake (16%). Although the prevalence of breakfast consumption among Brazilian adolescents was high, the overall nutritional quality of this meal is suboptimal, highlighting the need to support adolescents and their families to make more nutrient-dense food choices. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda.

  12. Extruded Flaxseed Meal Enhances the Nutritional Quality of Cereal-based Products

    OpenAIRE

    Giacomino, S.; Peñas, Elena; Ferreyra, V.; Pellegrino, N.; Fournier, M; Apro, Nicolás; Olivera Carrión, Margarita; Frías, Juana

    2013-01-01

    Human consumption of flaxseed is increasing due to its health benefit properties and extrusion processes can enhance its nutritional quality. Extruded flaxseed meal (EFM) obtained in a pilot plant was characterized and incorporated in flour mixes and cereal-based bars to demonstrate its nutritious usefulness. Amino acid content was not affected by extrusion and, despite lysine was the limitating amino acid, the chemical score (CS) was 83 %. Thiamin and riboflavin decreased slightly as consequ...

  13. Effect of whey on blood glucose and insulin responses to composite breakfast and lunch meals in type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frid, Anders H; Nilsson, Mikael; Holst, Jens Juul; Björck, Inger M E

    2005-07-01

    Whey proteins have insulinotropic effects and reduce the postprandial glycemia in healthy subjects. The mechanism is not known, but insulinogenic amino acids and the incretin hormones seem to be involved. The aim was to evaluate whether supplementation of meals with a high glycemic index (GI) with whey proteins may increase insulin secretion and improve blood glucose control in type 2 diabetic subjects. Fourteen diet-treated subjects with type 2 diabetes were served a high-GI breakfast (white bread) and subsequent high-GI lunch (mashed potatoes with meatballs). The breakfast and lunch meals were supplemented with whey on one day; whey was exchanged for lean ham and lactose on another day. Venous blood samples were drawn before and during 4 h after breakfast and 3 h after lunch for the measurement of blood glucose, serum insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). The insulin responses were higher after both breakfast (31%) and lunch (57%) when whey was included in the meal than when whey was not included. After lunch, the blood glucose response was significantly reduced [-21%; 120 min area under the curve (AUC)] after whey ingestion. Postprandial GIP responses were higher after whey ingestion, whereas no differences were found in GLP-1 between the reference and test meals. It can be concluded that the addition of whey to meals with rapidly digested and absorbed carbohydrates stimulates insulin release and reduces postprandial blood glucose excursion after a lunch meal consisting of mashed potatoes and meatballs in type 2 diabetic subjects.

  14. evaluation of the quality of malted acha-soy breakfast cereal flour

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MRS. HELEN O. AGU

    with storage time. Sensory evaluation was conducted on gruel (thin porridge) made from. ASC products. There were significant differences (p<0.05) in aroma, flavour, texture and overall acceptability amongst the products. A general decrease existed in the mean scores of the breakfast gruel in all the parameters monitored ...

  15. Robust modelling of heat-induced reactions in an industrial food production process exemplified by acrylamide generation in breakfast cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bo Boye Busk; Lennox, Martin; Granby, Kit

    2008-01-01

    Data from an industrial case study of breakfast cereal production indicated that the generated amounts of acrylamide are greatly dependent upon the combined effects of temperature and heating time in a roasting step process. Two approaches to obtain process models for acrylamide generation were...... tested. The first applied a pathway-based model. The second developed a simpler more robust model based on the integrated effects of time and temperature, where the generation of acrylamide was crudely fitted to an exponentially rising function. The development of the two models highlighted a number...... the importance of robustness in the developed models. The correlations obtained for predicting acrylamide generation in the case study present a useful tool for food processing industry to minimize acrylamide generation. In the present case it was possible by lowering process temperature and prolonging residence...

  16. Associations of meal frequency and breakfast with obesity and metabolic syndrome traits in adolescents of Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jääskeläinen, A; Schwab, U; Kolehmainen, M; Pirkola, J; Järvelin, M-R; Laitinen, J

    2013-10-01

    Breakfast consumption and meal frequencies have been linked to the risk of obesity in youth but their associations with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in young populations are yet to be studied. We examined associations of three meal patterns on weekdays--five meals including breakfast, ≤four meals including breakfast and ≤four meals without breakfast--with overweight/obesity and MetS components in Finnish adolescents. A population-based sample of 16-year-old boys and girls (n = 6247) from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1986 was used. Adolescents were clinically examined and dietary data were collected using self-administered questionnaires. Overweight/obesity and MetS features were defined according to the International Obesity Task Force cut-offs and the International Diabetes Federation MetS paediatric criteria and their associations with meal patterns assessed using logistic regression, adjusted separately for early life factors (birth size, maternal health) and later childhood factors (health behaviours, weight status, parental education). After adjustment for early life factors, the adolescents who ate five meals/day were at lower risk for overweight/obesity (OR [95% CI] for boys: 0.47 [0.34, 0.65]; girls: 0.57 [0.41, 0.79]), abdominal obesity (OR [95% CI] for boys: 0.32 [0.22, 0.48]; girls: 0.54 [0.39, 0.75]) and hypertriglyceridaemia (boys only). Adjusting for later childhood factors, the five-meal-a-day pattern was associated with decreased odds of overweight/obesity (OR [95% CI] for boys: 0.41 [0.29, 0.58]; girls: 0.63 [0.45, 0.89]) and abdominal obesity in boys (OR 0.32, 95% CI 0.16, 0.63). Among 16-year-olds, the five-meal-a-day pattern was robustly associated with reduced risks of overweight/obesity in both genders and abdominal obesity in boys. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Glycemic Index of Breakfast on Energy Intake at Subsequent Meal among Healthy People: A Meta-Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Feng-Hua; Li, Chunxiao; Zhang, Yan-Jie; Wong, Stephen Heung-Sang; Wang, Lin

    2016-01-04

    Meals with low glycemic index (GI) may suppress short-term appetite and reduce subsequent food intake compared with high-GI meals. However, no meta-analysis has been conducted to synthesize the evidence. This meta-analytic study was conducted to assess the effect of high- and low-GI breakfast on subsequent short-term food intake. Trials were identified through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials, and manual searches of bibliographies until May 2015. Randomized controlled and cross-over trials comparing the effect of low- with high-GI breakfast on subsequent energy intake among healthy people were included. Nine studies consisting of 11 trials met the inclusion criteria. Only one trial was classified with high methodological quality. A total of 183 participants were involved in the trials. The meta-analytic results revealed no difference in breakfast GI (high-GI vs. low-GI) on subsequent short-term energy intake. In conclusion, it seems that breakfast GI has no effect on short-term energy intake among healthy people. However, high quality studies are still warranted to provide more concrete evidence.

  18. Effect of Glycemic Index of Breakfast on Energy Intake at Subsequent Meal among Healthy People: A Meta-Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Hua Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Meals with low glycemic index (GI may suppress short-term appetite and reduce subsequent food intake compared with high-GI meals. However, no meta-analysis has been conducted to synthesize the evidence. This meta-analytic study was conducted to assess the effect of high- and low-GI breakfast on subsequent short-term food intake. Trials were identified through MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled trials, and manual searches of bibliographies until May 2015. Randomized controlled and cross-over trials comparing the effect of low- with high-GI breakfast on subsequent energy intake among healthy people were included. Nine studies consisting of 11 trials met the inclusion criteria. Only one trial was classified with high methodological quality. A total of 183 participants were involved in the trials. The meta-analytic results revealed no difference in breakfast GI (high-GI vs. low-GI on subsequent short-term energy intake. In conclusion, it seems that breakfast GI has no effect on short-term energy intake among healthy people. However, high quality studies are still warranted to provide more concrete evidence.

  19. Utilization of soy residue (okara in breakfast cereals development. UTILIZAÇÃO DE RESÍDUO DE SOJA (OKARA NO DESENVOLVIMENTO DE UM CEREAL MATINAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. C. SANTOS

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a breakfast cereals with soy residue (okara. From a standard formulation, oat base, similar to the ones of the market, four other formulations were carried with different concentrations of soy residue (25%, 50%, 75% and 100% as substitute for the oat. The five samples were submitted to sensory analysis and chemical composition. Despite the samples not differ significantly (p<0,05 among themselves in the acceptance test, the results obtained in chemical composition allow to suggest that the sample containing 100% of soy residue can be a good source of fibres and vegetable protein due to the high concentration of these components in relation to the other samples.

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a viabilidade de utilização do resíduo de soja (okara no desenvolvimento de um produto do tipo cereal matinal. A partir de uma formulação padrão, a base de aveia, similar a de mercado, outras 4 formulações foram elaboradas contendo resíduo de soja em diferentes concentrações (25%, 50%, 75% e 100% em substituição à aveia. As 5 amostras foram analisadas sensorialmente e avaliadas quanto a sua composição centesimal. Apesar das amostras não diferirem significativamente (p<0,05 entre si quanto à aceitação sensorial, os resultados obtidos na composição centesimal sugerem que a amostra contendo 100% de resíduo de soja pode ser uma boa fonte de fibras e de proteína vegetal por apresentar maiores concentrações desses componentes em relação às demais amostras.

  20. Evaluation of breakfast cereals with the current nutrition facts panel (NFP) and the Food and Drug Administration's NFP proposal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Vallejo, Claudia; Lavins, Bethany D

    2016-04-01

    To compare judgements of nutrition and judgement accuracy when evaluating cereals with the current US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) nutrition facts panel (NFP) and two new proposed NFP based on FDA guidelines. A between-subjects design randomly assigned participants to three NFP conditions (current NFP label and two modified NFP based on FDA proposals). Participants viewed breakfast cereals, and rated each on nutritional quality and on the likelihood of purchasing and consuming it. Participants provided demographic information and responses to questionnaires assessing nutrition/obesity knowledge, concern for healthy eating and nutrient importance. USA. Two hundred and thirteen adults who completed an online survey (66·2 % female, mean age 37·31 (sd 12·56) years). Judged nutrition quality of cereals was positively correlated with protein, fibre and potassium and negatively correlated with sugars and sodium. This pattern appeared when using the current NFP or the modified versions. Highlighted nutrients in modified NFP formats did not affect their perceived importance. Accuracy of the nutrition quality judgements was measured in relationship to an objectively defined nutrition score, NuVal®. Nutrition judgement accuracy was highest under the current NFP (Spearman's ρ=0·76 for the current NFP; 0·64 and 0·72 for the other formats). Regression analysis showed that nutrition judgement accuracy increased significantly (adjusted R 2=0·13) with obesity knowledge (β=0·27), age (β=0·15) and current NFP (β=0·13). The current NFP is equally or more effective in conveying nutritional information compared with NFP formats based on the FDA proposal.

  1. Effect of whey on blood glucose and insulin responses to composite breakfast and lunch meals in type 2 diabetic subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frid, Anders H; Nilsson, Mikael; Holst, Jens Juul

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Whey proteins have insulinotropic effects and reduce the postprandial glycemia in healthy subjects. The mechanism is not known, but insulinogenic amino acids and the incretin hormones seem to be involved. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to evaluate whether supplementation of meals with a high ...... insulin release and reduces postprandial blood glucose excursion after a lunch meal consisting of mashed potatoes and meatballs in type 2 diabetic subjects....... glycemic index (GI) with whey proteins may increase insulin secretion and improve blood glucose control in type 2 diabetic subjects. DESIGN: Fourteen diet-treated subjects with type 2 diabetes were served a high-GI breakfast (white bread) and subsequent high-GI lunch (mashed potatoes with meatballs......). The breakfast and lunch meals were supplemented with whey on one day; whey was exchanged for lean ham and lactose on another day. Venous blood samples were drawn before and during 4 h after breakfast and 3 h after lunch for the measurement of blood glucose, serum insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic...

  2. Breakfast, midday meals and academic achievement in rural primary schools in Uganda: implications for education and school health policy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hedwig Acham

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Underachievement in schools is a global problem and is especially prevalent in developing countries. Indicators of educational performance show that Uganda has done remarkably well on education access-related targets since the introduction of universal primary education in 1997. However, educational outcomes remain disappointing. The absence of school feeding schemes, one of the leading causes of scholastic underachievement, has not been given attention by the Ugandan authorities. Instead, as a national policy, parents are expected to provide meals even though many, especially in the rural areas, cannot afford to provide even the minimal daily bowl of maize porridge.To assess and demonstrate the effect of breakfast and midday meal consumption on academic achievement of schoolchildren.We assessed household characteristics, feeding patterns and academic achievement of 645 schoolchildren (aged 9–15 years in Kumi district, eastern Uganda, in 2006–2007, using a modified cluster sampling design which involved only grade 1 schools (34 in total and pupils of grade four. Household questionnaires and school records were used to collect information on socio-demographic factors, feeding patterns and school attendance. Academic achievement was assessed using unstandardized techniques, specifically designed for this study.Underachievement (the proportion below a score of 120.0 points was high (68.4%; in addition, significantly higher achievement and better feeding patterns were observed among children from the less poor households (p<0.05. Achievement was significantly associated with consumption of breakfast and a midday meal, particularly for boys (p<0.05, and a greater likelihood of scoring well was observed for better nourished children (all OR values>1.0.We observed that underachievement was relatively high; inadequate patterns of meal consumption, particularly for the most poor, significantly higher scores among children from ‘less poor

  3. Comparable effects of breakfast meals varying in protein source on appetite and subsequent energy intake in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dougkas, Anestis; Östman, Elin

    2017-02-27

    The satiating effect of animal vs plant proteins remains unknown. The present study examined the effects of breakfasts containing animal proteins [milk (AP)], a blend of plant proteins [oat, pea and potato (VP)] or 50:50 mixture of the two (MP) compared with a carbohydrate-rich meal (CHO) on appetite, energy intake (EI) and metabolic measures. A total of 28 males [mean age 27.4 (±SD 4.2) years, BMI 23.4 (±2.1) kg/m(2)] consumed three isoenergetic (1674 kJ) rice puddings matched for energy density and macronutrient content as breakfast (25% E from protein) in a single-blind, randomised, cross over design. Appetite ratings and blood samples were collected and assessed at baseline and every 30 and 60 min, respectively, until an ad libitum test meal was served 3.5 h later. Free-living appetite was recorded hourly and EI in weighed food records for the remainder of the day. No differences in subjective appetite ratings were observed after consumption of the AP, VP and MP. Furthermore, there were no differences between the AP, VP, MP and CHO breakfasts in ad libitum EI and self-reported EI during the remainder of the day. Although insulin metabolism was not affected, CHO induced a higher glucose response (P = 0.001) and total amino acids concentration was in the order of AP = MP > VP > CHO breakfast (P = 0.001). Manipulating the protein source of foods consumed as breakfast, elicited comparable effects on appetite and EI at both laboratory and free-living environment in healthy men.

  4. Breakfast and lunch meal skipping patterns among fourth-grade children from selected public schools in urban, suburban, and rural maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Susan M; Bronner, Yvonne; Welch, Claudette; Dewberry-Moore, Natalie; Paige, David M

    2004-03-01

    The objective of this study was to describe breakfast and lunch consumption patterns of fourth-grade students from selected public schools in Maryland and how they differ by geographic location. Data were collected from a sample of 540 fourth-grade public school children (46% male, 62% white; mean age=9 years) from three geographically distinct regions of Maryland (30% rural, 30% suburban, and 40% urban). Data on breakfast and lunch consumption were collected using an in-classroom questionnaire. chi(2) tests were used to compare skipping meal behavior by geographic location. Twenty percent of fourth-grade students reported skipping breakfast and/or lunch at least three times per week. Urban students were more than twice as likely to skip breakfast and to eat school-prepared meals compared with suburban and rural students. Dietitians in all regions need to explore new ways to encourage regular meal consumption among students in their schools.

  5. Extruded flaxseed meal enhances the nutritional quality of cereal-based products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomino, S; Peñas, E; Ferreyra, V; Pellegrino, N; Fournier, M; Apro, N; Carrión, M Olivera; Frias, J

    2013-06-01

    Human consumption of flaxseed is increasing due to its health benefit properties and extrusion processes can enhance its nutritional quality. Extruded flaxseed meal (EFM) obtained in a pilot plant was characterized and incorporated in flour mixes and cereal-based bars to demonstrate its nutritious usefulness. Amino acid content was not affected by extrusion and, despite lysine was the limitating amino acid, the chemical score (CS) was 83 %. Thiamin and riboflavin decreased slightly as consequence of extrusion, phytic acid did not change and trypsin inhibitor activity was undetectable. Proximate composition and nutritional quality determined by biological and chemical indexes were compared among EFM, flour mixes (FM) and cereal bars (CB). They presented high protein levels (26, 20 and 17 %, respectively), good biological value (BV) (80, 79 and 65, respectively), acceptable true protein digestibility (TD) (73, 79 and 78, respectively), and high dietary fiber (33, 20.5 and 18 %, respectively). The ratio of ω6:ω3 for CB was within the WHO/FAO recommendations. These results open a new venue for the usefulsess of nutritious/healthy extruded flaxseed flours into ready-to-eat cereal-based products with improved nutritional quality.

  6. Instant Oatmeal Increases Satiety and Reduces Energy Intake Compared to a Ready-to-Eat Oat-Based Breakfast Cereal: A Randomized Crossover Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, Candida J; Johnson, William D; Martin, Corby K; Han, Hongmei; Chu, Yi-Fang; Bordenave, Nicolas; van Klinken, B Jan Willem; O'Shea, Marianne; Greenway, Frank L

    2016-01-01

    Foods that enhance satiety can help consumers to resist environmental cues to eat and help adherence to calorie restriction. The objective of this study was to compare the effect of 2 oat-based breakfast cereals on appetite, satiety, and food intake. Forty-eight healthy individuals, 18 years of age or older, were enrolled in a randomized, crossover trial. Subjects consumed isocaloric servings of either oatmeal or an oat-based ready-to-eat breakfast cereal (RTEC) in random order at least a week apart. Visual analogue scales measuring appetite and satiety were completed before breakfast and throughout the morning. Lunch was served 4 hours after breakfast. The physicochemical properties of oat soluble fiber (β-glucan) were determined. Appetite and satiety responses were analyzed by area under the curve. Food intake and β-glucan properties were analyzed using t tests. Oatmeal increased fullness (p = 0.001) and reduced hunger (p = 0.005), desire to eat (p = 0.001), and prospective intake (p = 0.006) more than the RTEC. Energy intake at lunch was lower after eating oatmeal compared to the RTEC (p = 0.012). Oatmeal had higher viscosity (p = 0.03), β-glucan content, molecular weight (p Oatmeal suppresses appetite, increases satiety, and reduces energy intake compared to the RTEC. The physicochemical properties of β-glucan and sufficient hydration of oats are important factors affecting satiety and subsequent energy intake.

  7. Differential roles of breakfast and supper in rats of a daily three-meal schedule upon circadian regulation and physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tao; Sun, Lu; ZhuGe, Fen; Guo, Xichao; Zhao, Zhining; Tang, Ruiqi; Chen, Qinping; Chen, Lin; Kato, Hisanori; Fu, Zhengwei

    2011-12-01

    The timing of meals has been suggested to play an important role in circadian regulation and metabolic health. Three meals a day is a well-established human feeding habit, which in today's lifestyle may or may not be followed. The aim of this study was to test whether the absence of breakfast or supper significantly affects the circadian system and physiological function. The authors developed a rat model for their daily three meals study, whereby animals were divided into three groups (three meals, TM; no first meal, NF; no last meal, NL) all fed with the same amount of food every day. Rats in the NF group displayed significantly decreased levels of plasma triglyceride (TG), total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), and glucose in the activity phase, accompanied by delayed circadian phases of hepatic peripheral clock and downstream metabolic genes. Rats in the NL group showed lower concentration of plasma TC, HDL-C, and glucose in the rest phase, plus reduced adipose tissue accumulation and body weight gain. Real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis indicated an attenuated rhythm in the food-entraining pathway, including down-regulated expression of the clock genes Per2, Bmal1, and Rev-erbα, which may further contribute to the delayed and decreased expression of FAS in lipogenesis in this group. Our findings are consistent with the conclusion that the daily first meal determines the circadian phasing of peripheral clocks, such as in the liver, whereas the daily last meal tightly couples to lipid metabolism and adipose tissue accumulation, which suggests differential physiological effects and function of the respective meal timings.

  8. Breakfast, midday meals and academic achievement in rural primary schools in Uganda: implications for education and school health policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acham, Hedwig; Kikafunda, Joyce K; Malde, Marian K; Oldewage-Theron, Wilna H; Egal, Abdulkadir A

    2012-01-01

    Underachievement in schools is a global problem and is especially prevalent in developing countries. Indicators of educational performance show that Uganda has done remarkably well on education access-related targets since the introduction of universal primary education in 1997. However, educational outcomes remain disappointing. The absence of school feeding schemes, one of the leading causes of scholastic underachievement, has not been given attention by the Ugandan authorities. Instead, as a national policy, parents are expected to provide meals even though many, especially in the rural areas, cannot afford to provide even the minimal daily bowl of maize porridge. To assess and demonstrate the effect of breakfast and midday meal consumption on academic achievement of schoolchildren. We assessed household characteristics, feeding patterns and academic achievement of 645 schoolchildren (aged 9-15 years) in Kumi district, eastern Uganda, in 2006-2007, using a modified cluster sampling design which involved only grade 1 schools (34 in total) and pupils of grade four. Household questionnaires and school records were used to collect information on socio-demographic factors, feeding patterns and school attendance. Academic achievement was assessed using unstandardized techniques, specifically designed for this study. Underachievement (the proportion below a score of 120.0 points) was high (68.4%); in addition, significantly higher achievement and better feeding patterns were observed among children from the less poor households (pbreakfast and a midday meal, particularly for boys (p1.0). We observed that underachievement was relatively high; inadequate patterns of meal consumption, particularly for the most poor, significantly higher scores among children from 'less poor' households and a significant association between academic achievement and breakfast and midday meal consumption.

  9. Meat and bone meal as nitrogen and phosphorus supplier to cereals and oilseed rape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nogalska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of meat and bone meal (MBM on cultivation of winter triticale, winter oilseed rape, winter wheat and maize. The average annual yields and protein yield achieved in crop rotation were studied. The field trials were carried out in north-eastern Poland in 2006–2010. The factor was dose of MBM: 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 t ha-1 year-1 or 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 t ha-1 every other year. The four-year experiment has proven that MBM is a valuable nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer in cultivation of cereals and oilseed rape. By amendment of the tested meal into the soil it produced crop yield and protein yield similar to that achieved by mineral fertilization. However, the crude fat yield of rape was significantly higher under the influence of all the MBM doses. The yield-stimulating effect of MBM did not depend on the frequency of its application; therefore it is more convenient to apply it once every two years. Increasing MBM from 1.5 to 2.5 t ha-1 did not significantly increase any of the four crop yields, therefore for soils that had satisfactory nutrients content, 1 or 1.5 t ha-1 MBM is enough and increasing MBM will only increase economic burden for farmers and environmental risks.

  10. Breakfast and the diets of Australian adults: an analysis of data from the 1995 National Nutrition Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Peter

    2005-02-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the nutrients provided to Australian adults by the breakfast meal and to compare the food and nutrient intakes and health of regular breakfast eaters and breakfast skippers. The Australian Bureau of Statistics was commissioned to undertake additional analysis of data collected in the 1995 Australian National Nutrition Survey (NNS). The survey included 24-h recalls, physical measurements and a food habits questionnaire collected during the period February 1995-March 1996, with a nationally representative sample of 10,851 Australians aged 19 years and older. The median nutrient intakes at breakfast and the proportion of the daily total contributed by breakfast were calculated. Differences between regular breakfast eaters and breakfast skippers in terms of nutrient intake, body mass index and health status were compared using Student t-tests. The findings show the typical Australian breakfast was low in fat, high in carbohydrate and a good source of thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, calcium and magnesium. In the NNS regular breakfast eaters had more adequate diets overall, particularly those aged 65+ years. People who did not eat breakfast cereal were much more likely to have inadequate nutrient intakes, especially of thiamin, riboflavin, calcium, magnesium and iron. Regular breakfast eaters were more likely to rate their health as excellent or good than those who skip breakfast, but there was no difference between the fat intake or the body mass index of regular breakfast eaters compared with breakfast skippers. Regular breakfast consumption is associated with better diets for adults overall.

  11. Nutrient Intake, Diet Quality, and Weight Measures in Breakfast Patterns Consumed by Children Compared with Breakfast Skippers: NHANES 2001-2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol E. O'Neil

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Most studies showing that children consuming breakfast have better nutrient intakes, diet quality, and lower weight than breakfast skippers have the incorrect premise that breakfast meals are homogeneous. The purpose of this study was to classify breakfast meals into patterns and determine the association of the breakfast patterns with daily and breakfast nutrient intakes, diet quality, and weight. Data from children (2-18 years of age; N = 14,200 participating in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001-2008 were used. Intake was determined from one day 24-hour dietary recalls. Diet quality was measured using the Healthy Eating Index-2005 (HEI-2005. Body mass index (BMI z-scores were determined. Twelve patterns (including No Breakfast [~19% of population], explaining 63% of the variance in energy from breakfast, were examined. Covariate adjusted general linear models were used to compare outcome variables of consumers of different patterns with breakfast skippers. The p value was Bonferroni corrected (< 0.05/12 = < 0.0042. Consumers of the Eggs/Grain/Meat, Poultry, Fish (MPF/Fruit Juice (FJ and MPF/Grain/FJ patterns showed higher daily intakes of saturated fats, solid fats, and sodium and lower daily intakes of added sugars than breakfast skippers. Consumers of most breakfast patterns showed higher daily intakes of some nutrients of public health concern (dietary fiber, vitamin D, calcium, and potassium; however, those consuming the Grain or MPF/Grain/FJ pattern did not. Consumers of the Grain/Lower Fat Milk (LFM/Sweets/FJ, Presweetened (PS Ready-to-eat Cereal (RTEC/LFM, RTEC/LFM, Cooked Cereal/Milk/FJ, and Whole Fruit patterns had higher total HEI-2005 scores than breakfast skippers; those consuming the MPF/Grain/FJ pattern had lower diet quality than breakfast skippers. Consumption of the Grain/LFM/Sweets/FJ, PSRTEC/whole milk, Soft Drinks/FJ/Grain/Potatoes, RTEC/whole milk, and Cooked Cereal/Milk/FJ patterns was associated

  12. Fruit and vegetable intake is associated with frequency of breakfast, lunch and evening meal: cross-sectional study of 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedersen Trine

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Frequency of eating breakfast, lunch and evening meal as a determinant of fruit and vegetable intake among young people is little studied. We investigated whether irregular meal consumption was associated with fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents. We used separate analyses, and special emphasis was on the potentially modifying effect of sex and age. Methods Data were from the Danish contribution to the international collaborative Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC in 2002. We used a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional design to study schoolchildren aged 11, 13 and 15 years (n = 3913 selected from a random sample of schools in Denmark. Fruit intake and vegetable intake were measured by a food frequency questionnaire and analyses were conducted using multivariate logistic regression. Results Overall, statistically significant associations were found between irregular breakfast, lunch and evening meal consumption and low frequency of fruit intake and vegetable intake (breakfast: fruit OR = 1.42, vegetables OR = 1.48; lunch: fruit OR = 1.68, vegetables OR = 1.83; evening meal: vegetables OR = 1.70. No association was found for irregular evening meal consumption and low frequency of fruit intake. Analyses stratified by sex showed that the associations between irregular breakfast consumption and both fruit and vegetable intake remained statistically significant only among girls. When analyses were stratified by both sex and age, different patterns appeared. Overall, skipping meals seemed to be a less serious risk factor for low frequency of fruit and vegetable intake among younger participants compared with those who were older. This was especially evident for skipping breakfast. The same tendency was also seen for skipping lunch and evening meal, although the age pattern varied between boys and girls and between fruit and vegetable intake. Conclusion Our results showed that irregular breakfast, lunch and

  13. Fruit and vegetable intake is associated with frequency of breakfast, lunch and evening meal: cross-sectional study of 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Meilstrup, Charlotte; Holstein, Bjørn E; Rasmussen, Mette

    2012-02-06

    Frequency of eating breakfast, lunch and evening meal as a determinant of fruit and vegetable intake among young people is little studied. We investigated whether irregular meal consumption was associated with fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents. We used separate analyses, and special emphasis was on the potentially modifying effect of sex and age. Data were from the Danish contribution to the international collaborative Health Behavior in School-Aged Children Study (HBSC) in 2002. We used a questionnaire-based, cross-sectional design to study schoolchildren aged 11, 13 and 15 years (n = 3913) selected from a random sample of schools in Denmark. Fruit intake and vegetable intake were measured by a food frequency questionnaire and analyses were conducted using multivariate logistic regression. Overall, statistically significant associations were found between irregular breakfast, lunch and evening meal consumption and low frequency of fruit intake and vegetable intake (breakfast: fruit OR = 1.42, vegetables OR = 1.48; lunch: fruit OR = 1.68, vegetables OR = 1.83; evening meal: vegetables OR = 1.70). No association was found for irregular evening meal consumption and low frequency of fruit intake. Analyses stratified by sex showed that the associations between irregular breakfast consumption and both fruit and vegetable intake remained statistically significant only among girls. When analyses were stratified by both sex and age, different patterns appeared. Overall, skipping meals seemed to be a less serious risk factor for low frequency of fruit and vegetable intake among younger participants compared with those who were older. This was especially evident for skipping breakfast. The same tendency was also seen for skipping lunch and evening meal, although the age pattern varied between boys and girls and between fruit and vegetable intake. Our results showed that irregular breakfast, lunch and evening meal consumption among adolescents was associated with a

  14. Fruit and vegetable intake is associated with frequency of breakfast, lunch and evening meal: cross-sectional study of 11-, 13-, and 15-year-olds

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen Trine; Meilstrup Charlotte; Holstein Bjørn E; Rasmussen Mette

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Frequency of eating breakfast, lunch and evening meal as a determinant of fruit and vegetable intake among young people is little studied. We investigated whether irregular meal consumption was associated with fruit and vegetable intake among adolescents. We used separate analyses, and special emphasis was on the potentially modifying effect of sex and age. Methods Data were from the Danish contribution to the international collaborative Health Behavior in School-Aged Chil...

  15. Including indigestible carbohydrates in the evening meal of healthy subjects improves glucose tolerance, lowers inflammatory markers, and increases satiety after a subsequent standardized breakfast

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Anne C; Ostman, Elin M; Holst, Jens Juul

    2008-01-01

    tolerance and related variables after a subsequent standardized breakfast in healthy subjects (n = 15). At breakfast, blood was sampled for 3 h for analysis of blood glucose, serum insulin, serum FFA, serum triacylglycerides, plasma glucagon, plasma gastric-inhibitory peptide, plasma glucagon-like peptide-1...... (GLP-1), serum interleukin (IL)-6, serum IL-8, and plasma adiponectin. Satiety was subjectively rated after breakfast and the gastric emptying rate (GER) was determined using paracetamol as a marker. Breath hydrogen was measured as an indicator of colonic fermentation. Evening meals with barley kernel......-kernel bread compared with WWB. Breath hydrogen correlated positively with satiety (r = 0.27; P metabolic risk variables at breakfast...

  16. Meat and bone meal as nitrogen fertilizer to cereals in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. JENG

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Meat and bone meal (MBM contains appreciable amounts of nitrogen (N, phosphorus and calcium making it interesting as fertilizer to various crops. The effect of Norwegian MBM as N fertilizer has been evaluated in pot and field experiments. The soils used in the pot experiment were peat and a sand/peat mixture, both low in content of plant nutrients. The field experiment was carried out on a silt loam. In the pot experiment increasing amounts of MBM gave significantly increased yields, although there was a partly N immobilisation shortly after seeding the soil based on peat organic matter. In the field experiment there was no period of N immobilisation and good N effect was found also for small amounts of MBM (Total N 50 kg ha-1. At total N 100 kg ha-1 there were no significant differences in grain yield of spring wheat between the treatments with MBM, mineral N fertilizer, and combination of MBM and mineral N fertilizer (N 50 kg ha-1 from each. The results indicate that the relative N efficiency of MBM compared to mineral fertilizer is 80% or higher, if MBM is applied to cereals in spring.;

  17. An Evaluation of the Effects of the Australian Food and Health Dialogue Targets on the Sodium Content of Bread, Breakfast Cereals and Processed Meats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen Trevena

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Australian Food and Health Dialogue set sodium reduction targets for three food categories (breads, ready-to-eat breakfast cereals and processed meats to be achieved by December, 2013. Sodium levels for 1849 relevant packaged foods on the shelves of Australian supermarkets between 2010 and 2013 were examined. Changes in mean sodium content were assessed by linear mixed models, and the significance of differences in the proportion of products meeting targets was determined using chi-squared or McNemar’s tests. The mean sodium level of bread products fell from 454 to 415 mg/100 g (9% lower, p < 0.001, and the proportion reaching target rose from 42% to 67% (p < 0.005. The mean sodium content of breakfast cereals also fell substantially from 316 to 237 mg/100 g (25% lower, p < 0.001 over the study period. The decline in mean sodium content of bacon/ham/cured meats from 1215 to 1114 mg/100 g (8% lower, p = 0.001 was smaller, but associated with a rise in the proportion meeting the target from 28% to 47%. Declines in mean sodium content did not appreciably differ between companies that did and did not make public commitments to the targets. These data show that the Australian food industry can reduce salt levels of processed foods and provide a strong case for broadening and strengthening of the Food and Health Dialogue (FHD process.

  18. Postprandial insulin and glucose levels are reduced in healthy subjects when a standardised breakfast meal is supplemented with a filtered sugarcane molasses concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Timothy P; Wright, Alison G; Clifton, Peter M; Ilag, Leodevico L

    2016-12-01

    A phytochemical- and mineral-rich filtered sugarcane molasses concentrate (FMC), when added to carbohydrate-containing foods as a functional ingredient, lowers postprandial blood glucose and insulin responses. We hypothesised that this beneficial effect would also occur if FMC was administered as an oral supplement taken before a meal. This study measured the postprandial glucose and insulin responses elicited by different doses of FMC administered immediately prior to a standard breakfast to healthy subjects. Each subject was given three or five breakfast meals once, on different days. The composition of the meals was identical, except for the addition of either placebo syrup (test meal 1) or increasing doses of FMC (test meals 2-5). The plasma glucose concentration curves were similar for the five test meals. Plasma insulin curves were lowered in a dose-dependent manner. Stratifying subjects based on age, BMI and insulin resistance showed greater effects of low doses of FMC on lowering insulin responses in those subjects with potentially greater insulin resistance. When insulin response is standardised to amount of carbohydrate in the meal/dose combination, the reduction in response is linear and inversely proportional to the FMC dose. FMC shows promise as an agent that can reduce insulin responses and lessen the load on the pancreatic beta cells.

  19. Co-Ingestion of Whey Protein with a Carbohydrate-Rich Breakfast Does Not Affect Glycemia, Insulinemia or Subjective Appetite Following a Subsequent Meal in Healthy Males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dean M. Allerton

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We aimed to assess postprandial metabolic and appetite responses to a mixed-macronutrient lunch following prior addition of whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast. Ten healthy males (age: 24 ± 1 years; body mass index (BMI: 24.5 ± 0.7 kg/m2 completed three trials in a non-isocaloric, crossover design. A carbohydrate-rich breakfast (93 g carbohydrate; 1799 kJ was consumed with (CHO + WP or without (CHO 20 g whey protein isolate (373 kJ, or breakfast was omitted (NB. At 180 min, participants consumed a mixed-macronutrient lunch meal. Venous blood was sampled at 15 min intervals following each meal and every 30 min thereafter, while subjective appetite sensations were collected every 30 min throughout. Post-breakfast insulinemia was greater after CHO + WP (time-averaged area under the curve (AUC0––180 min: 193.1 ± 26.3 pmol/L, compared to CHO (154.7 ± 18.5 pmol/L and NB (46.1 ± 8.0 pmol/L; p < 0.05, with no difference in post-breakfast (0–180 min glycemia (CHO + WP, 3.8 ± 0.2 mmol/L; CHO, 4.2 ± 0.2 mmol/L; NB, 4.2 ± 0.1 mmol/L; p = 0.247. There were no post-lunch (0–180 min effects of condition on glycemia (p = 0.492, insulinemia (p = 0.338 or subjective appetite (p > 0.05. Adding whey protein to a carbohydrate-rich breakfast enhanced the acute postprandial insulin response, without influencing metabolic or appetite responses following a subsequent mixed-macronutrient meal.

  20. Older Adults Have Delayed Amino Acid Absorption after a High Protein Mixed Breakfast Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milan, A M; D'Souza, R F; Pundir, S; Pileggi, C A; Thorstensen, E B; Barnett, M P G; Markworth, J F; Cameron-Smith, D; Mitchell, C J

    2015-10-01

    To measure the postprandial plasma amino acid appearance in younger and older adults following a high protein mixed meal. Cross-sectional study. Clinical research setting. Healthy men and women aged 60-75 (n=15) years, and young controls aged 20-25 years (n=15) matched for body mass index and insulin sensitivity based on the homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance. High protein mixed meal of complete food products. Circulating amino acid concentrations were determined hourly before and for 5 hours after meal ingestion. There was no difference between cohorts in postprandial appearance of non-essential amino acids, or area under the curve of any individual amino acid or amino acid class. However, older adults had higher baseline concentrations of aspartic acid, glutamic acid, glycine, ornithine, threonine and tyrosine and lower baseline concentrations of hydroxyproline, isoleucine, leucine, methionine and valine compared to younger adults. Younger adults showed peak essential (EAA) and branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) concentrations at 1 hour post meal while older adults' peak EAA and BCAA concentration was at 3 hours. Similarly, peak total amino acid concentrations were at 3 hours in older adults. Older adults digested and absorbed the protein within a mixed meal more slowly than younger adults. Delayed absorption of AA following a mixed meal of complete food products may suppress or delay protein synthesis in senescent muscle.

  1. Effects of cereal breakfasts on postprandial glucose, appetite regulation and voluntary energy intake at a subsequent standardized lunch; focusing on rye products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björck Inger ME

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rye products have been demonstrated to lower the acute insulin demand, induce a low and prolonged blood glucose response (high Glycemic Profile, GP and reduce subclinical inflammation. These products may therefore contribute to a lowered risk of obesity, type 2 diabetes and cardio vascular disease. The objective of the present paper was to evaluate the mechanism for a reduced postprandial insulin demand with rye products, and to explore possible appetite regulating properties. Methods 10 healthy subjects were served breakfast meals (50 g of available starch with endosperm- or whole grain rye breads, with and without lactic acid, boiled whole grain rye- (RK or wheat (WK kernels, or white wheat bread reference (WWB in random order in a cross-over design. Plasma concentrations of glucose, ghrelin, serum insulin, free fatty acids, adiponectin, breath hydrogen excretion (H2, and subjective satiety was evaluated during the postprandial phase. 270 min after the breakfast, an ad lib lunch buffet was served and the voluntary energy intake (EI was registered. Results All rye products and WK induced lower insulinemic indices (II than WWB. A lower incremental insulin peak following breakfast correlated with a lower EI at lunch (r = 0.38. A low II was related to improved satiety in the early postprandial phase (fullness AUC 0-60 min, r = -0.36. RK induced a higher GP compared to WWB and WK. A higher GP was related to a lowered desire to eat before lunch (AUC 210-270 and to a lower concentration of ghrelin in the late postprandial phase after breakfast (270 min, r = -0.29 and -0.29, which in turn was related to a lower voluntary EI (r = 0.43 and 0.33. The RK breakfast improved satiety in the early postprandial phase (0-60 min compared to WWB, and induced a lower EI at lunch (-16%. A high content of indigestible carbohydrates in the breakfast products was related to improved satiety (0-60 min, r = 0.68 for fullness, and a higher breath H2

  2. Health-related on-pack communication and nutritional value of ready-to-eat breakfast cereals evaluated against five nutrient profiling schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maschkowski, Gesa; Hartmann, Monika; Hoffmann, Julia

    2014-11-19

    There is an ongoing debate regarding health-related on-pack information appearing on products with low nutritional quality. The purpose of the study was to contribute to this discussion by examining the relationship between health-related on-pack information and the overall nutritional value of highly processed ready-to-eat breakfast cereals (RTECs). Maximum variation sampling was used to select 128 highly processed RTECs in Germany in 2010. In 2012, two additional samples were collected in Norway (n =38) and Germany (n =73) to allow for comparisons of products from countries with different regulations concerning nutrient profiles. All products were evaluated against five nutrient profiling models from government-related agencies. Mann-Whitney U Tests and Chi-square statistics was used to compare the nutrient profiles of different product categories. Logistic regression analysis was conducted to identify on-pack information on German products predicting a satisfactory nutritional profile. The majority of RTECs displayed health-related information on the packaging, but only 4-36% of German products met the criteria of the different nutrient profiles. The rate was lower for cereals marketed to children, Norwegian cereals performed better (36-64%). Health-related on-pack information was not consistently related to the nutrient profiles. The following on-pack criteria predicted a satisfactory nutrient profile on RTECs of the German 2010 sample: i) cereals not marketed to children, ii) clean labelling (free-from claims) and possibly organic labelling and whole grain claims. Our results suggest that the implementation of a mandatory nutrient profiling scheme for products with health-related on-pack information could contribute to a consistent relationship between health-related information on RTECs and the overall nutritional value of the product. Improvements should also consider the provision of a simple nutritional labelling scheme on the front of the packaging

  3. An evaluation of the effects of the Australian Food and Health Dialogue targets on the sodium content of bread, breakfast cereals and processed meats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevena, Helen; Neal, Bruce; Dunford, Elizabeth; Wu, Jason H Y

    2014-09-19

    The Australian Food and Health Dialogue set sodium reduction targets for three food categories (breads, ready-to-eat breakfast cereals and processed meats) to be achieved by December, 2013. Sodium levels for 1849 relevant packaged foods on the shelves of Australian supermarkets between 2010 and 2013 were examined. Changes in mean sodium content were assessed by linear mixed models, and the significance of differences in the proportion of products meeting targets was determined using chi-squared or McNemar's tests. The mean sodium level of bread products fell from 454 to 415 mg/100 g (9% lower, p food industry can reduce salt levels of processed foods and provide a strong case for broadening and strengthening of the Food and Health Dialogue (FHD) process.

  4. Make Time for Breakfast

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is a perfect time to enjoy fruits and vegetables children need for optimal health. Try fresh seasonal fruit alone or in cereal, add frozen fruits to yogurt or toss chopped vegetables into an omelet. Pack your breakfast to go. ...

  5. Are breakfast consumption patterns associated with weight status and nutrient adequacy in African-American children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Brandy M; O'Neil, Carol E; Keast, Debra R; Cho, Susan; Nicklas, Theresa A

    2009-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to assess whether weight status, nutrient intake and dietary adequacy were associated with breakfast consumption patterns. A representative sample of the US population was used in a secondary analysis of nutrient intake/diet quality and weight status by breakfast consumption patterns. The 1999-2002 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). The study sample included African-American (AA) children aged 1-12 years (n 1389). Forty-five per cent of children aged 1-5 years and 38 % of those aged 6-12 years consumed ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC) at breakfast; while 7.4 % and 16.9 % in those age groups skipped breakfast, respectively. The lowest mean BMI (P breakfast compared with other consumption groups. RTEC breakfast consumers had the highest mean intakes of vitamins A, B6 and B12, thiamine, riboflavin, niacin, folate, Ca, Fe and Zn (P breakfast consumers also had the highest intake of carbohydrates and total sugars, and the lowest intakes of total fat (P breakfast was associated with improved weight and nutrient adequacy in AA children. AA children in all breakfast categories still had mean intakes of most nutrients below recommended levels. The implications are that consuming a breakfast meal should be encouraged in these children, and that RTEC at breakfast provides important nutrients and may help promote a healthy weight.

  6. Evaluation of gastric processing and duodenal digestion of starch in six cereal meals on the associated glycaemic response using an adult fasted dynamic gastric model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballance, Simon; Sahlstrøm, Stefan; Lea, Per; Nagy, Nina E; Andersen, Petter V; Dessev, Tzvetelin; Hull, Sarah; Vardakou, Maria; Faulks, Richard

    2013-03-01

    To identify the key parameters involved in cereal starch digestion and associated glycaemic response by the utilisation of a dynamic gastro-duodenal digestion model. Potential plasma glucose loading curves for each meal were calculated and fitted to an exponential function. The area under the curve (AUC) from 0 to 120 min and total digestible starch was used to calculate an in vitro glycaemic index (GI) value normalised against white bread. Microscopy was additionally used to examine cereal samples collected in vitro at different stages of gastric and duodenal digestion. Where in vivo GI data were available (4 out of 6 cereal meals) no significant difference was observed between these values and the corresponding calculated in vitro GI value. It is possible to simulate an in vivo glycaemic response for cereals when the gastric emptying rate (duodenal loading) and kinetics of digestible starch hydrolysis in the duodenum are known.

  7. Effect of commercial breakfast fibre cereals compared with corn flakes on postprandial blood glucose, gastric emptying and satiety in healthy subjects: a randomized blinded crossover trial

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    Almér Lars-Olof

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dietary fibre food intake is related to a reduced risk of developing diabetes mellitus. However, the mechanism of this effect is still not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of commercial fibre cereals on the rate of gastric emptying, postprandial glucose response and satiety in healthy subjects. Methods Gastric emptying rate (GER was measured by standardized real time ultrasonography. Twelve healthy subjects were assessed using a randomized crossover blinded trial. The subjects were examined after an 8 hour fast and after assessment of normal fasting blood glucose level. Satiety scores were estimated and blood glucose measurements were taken before and at 0, 20, 30, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 min after the end of the meal. GER was calculated as the percentage change in the antral cross-sectional area 15 and 90 min after ingestion of sour milk with corn flakes (GER1, cereal bran flakes (GER2 or wholemeal oat flakes (GER3. Results The median value was, respectively, 42% for GER1, 33 % for GER2 and 51% for GER3. The difference between the GER after ingestion of bran flakes compared to wholemeal oat flakes was statistically significant (p = 0.023. The postprandial delta blood glucose level was statistically significantly lower at 40 min (p = 0.045 and 120 min (p = 0.023 after the cereal bran flakes meal. There was no statistical significance between the areas under the curve (AUCs of the cereals as far as blood glucose and satiety were concerned. Conclusion The result of this study demonstrates that the intake of either bran flakes or wholemeal oat flakes has no effect on the total postprandial blood glucose response or satiety when compared to corn flakes. However, the study does show that the intake of cereal bran flakes slows the GER when compared to oat flakes and corn flakes, probably due to a higher fibre content. Since these products do not differ in terms of glucose response and satiety on healthy

  8. Electronic Cereal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frentrup, Julie R.; Phillips, Donald B.

    1996-01-01

    Describes activities that use Froot Loops breakfast cereal to help students master the concepts of valence electrons and chemical bonding and the implications of the duet and octet rules. Involves students working in groups to create electron dot structures for various compounds. (JRH)

  9. Postprandial Glycemic and Insulinemic Responses to Common Breakfast Beverages Consumed with a Standard Meal in Adults Who Are Overweight and Obese

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    Jia Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Breakfast beverages with different nutrient compositions may affect postprandial glycemic control differently. We assessed the effects of consuming (1 common breakfast beverages (water, sugar-sweetened coffee, reduced-energy orange juice (OJ, and low-fat milk (LFM; and (2 fat-free, low-fat, and whole milk with breakfast on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin responses in adults who were overweight/obese. Forty-six subjects (33F/13M, body mass index: 32.5 ± 0.7 kg/m2, age: 50 ± 1 years, mean ± SEMs consumed a standard sandwich with one of the six beverages on separate mornings in randomized order. The test beverages (except water each contained 12 g digestible carbohydrate. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured from blood obtained pre- and post-meal at 30-min intervals for 4 h and incremental areas under the curve (AUC were computed. We found (1 among different beverage types, glucose AUC was higher for coffee versus water, OJ, and LFM. Insulin AUC was higher for coffee and LFM versus OJ and water; (2 Glucose AUCs were not different among water and milks while insulin AUC was higher for milks versus water. In conclusion, consumption of water, reduced-energy OJ, or milk (irrespective of fat content with a meal may be preferable to consuming sugar-sweetened coffee for glucose control in middle-aged adults who are overweight and obese.

  10. Postprandial Glycemic and Insulinemic Responses to Common Breakfast Beverages Consumed with a Standard Meal in Adults Who Are Overweight and Obese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Janle, Elsa; Campbell, Wayne W

    2017-01-04

    Breakfast beverages with different nutrient compositions may affect postprandial glycemic control differently. We assessed the effects of consuming (1) common breakfast beverages (water, sugar-sweetened coffee, reduced-energy orange juice (OJ), and low-fat milk (LFM)); and (2) fat-free, low-fat, and whole milk with breakfast on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin responses in adults who were overweight/obese. Forty-six subjects (33F/13M, body mass index: 32.5 ± 0.7 kg/m², age: 50 ± 1 years, mean ± SEMs) consumed a standard sandwich with one of the six beverages on separate mornings in randomized order. The test beverages (except water) each contained 12 g digestible carbohydrate. Plasma glucose and insulin concentrations were measured from blood obtained pre- and post-meal at 30-min intervals for 4 h and incremental areas under the curve (AUC) were computed. We found (1) among different beverage types, glucose AUC was higher for coffee versus water, OJ, and LFM. Insulin AUC was higher for coffee and LFM versus OJ and water; (2) Glucose AUCs were not different among water and milks while insulin AUC was higher for milks versus water. In conclusion, consumption of water, reduced-energy OJ, or milk (irrespective of fat content) with a meal may be preferable to consuming sugar-sweetened coffee for glucose control in middle-aged adults who are overweight and obese.

  11. Recognizing and overcoming analytical error in the use of ICP-MS for the determination of cadmium in breakfast cereal and dietary supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Karen E; Vetter, Thomas W

    2013-05-01

    The potential effect of spectral interference on the accurate measurement of the cadmium (Cd) mass fraction in fortified breakfast cereal and a variety of dietary supplement materials using inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometry was studied. The materials were two new standard reference materials (SRMs)--SRM 3233 Fortified Breakfast Cereal and SRM 3532 Calcium Dietary Supplement--as well as several existing materials--SRM 3258 Bitter Orange Fruit, SRM 3259 Bitter Orange Extract, SRM 3260 Bitter Orange-containing Solid Oral Dosage Form, and SRM 3280 Multivitamin/Multielement Tablets. Samples were prepared for analysis using the method of isotope dilution and measured using various operating and sample introduction configurations including standard mode, collision cell with kinetic energy discrimination mode, and standard mode with sample introduction via a desolvating nebulizer system. Three isotope pairs, (112)Cd/(111)Cd, (113)Cd/(111)Cd, and (114)Cd/(111)Cd, were measured. Cadmium mass fraction results for the unseparated samples of each material, measured using the three instrument configurations and isotope pairs, were compared to the results obtained after the matrix was removed via chemical separation using anion exchange chromatography. In four of the six materials studied, measurements using the standard mode with sample introduction via the desolvating nebulizer gave results for the unseparated samples quantified with the (112)Cd/(111)Cd isotope pair that showed a positive bias relative to the matrix-separated samples, which indicated a persistent inference at m/z112 with this configuration. Use of the standard mode, without the desolvating nebulizer, also gave results that showed a positive bias for the unseparated samples quantified with the (112)Cd/(111)Cd isotope pair in three of the materials studied. Collision cell/kinetic energy discrimination mode, however, was very effective for reducing spectral interference for Cd in all of the

  12. Fluoride content of several breakfast cereals and snacks found in Brazil Conteúdo de flúor em diversos cereais matinais e salgadinhos encontrados no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Eid da Silva Cardoso

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Breakfast cereals and snacks are foodstuffs highly appreciated by children, and the possibility that they contain substantial amounts of fluoride, associated with their widespread consume, may make them important contributors to the total daily fluoride intake. The aim of this study was to analyze the fluoride content on several breakfast cereals (A and snacks (B purchased in Brazil. The analysis were made after HMDS-facilitated diffusion (Taves using the ion-specific electrode (9609. Mean fluoride concentrations ± SD (range, unit mg F/g were: A= 0.76 ± 0.60 (0.08-1.86, n=15 and B= 0.32 ± 0.09 (0.22-0.55, n=18. Our results suggest that the total amount of fluoride available in some products may contribute to the total daily fluoride intake. The product labels should provide information on their fluoride content to prevent fluorosis at the age of risk.Cereais matinais e salgadinhos são guloseimas altamente apreciadas pelas crianças, e a possibilidade de conterem quantidades substanciais de flúor, associada ao seu indiscriminado consumo, pode torná-los importantes contribuintes para a ingestão diária total de flúor. O objetivo deste estudo foi analisar o conteúdo de flúor em diversos cereais matinais (A e salgadinhos (B adquiridos no Brasil. As análises foram feitas após difusão facilitada por HMDS (Taves, usando o eletrodo íon específico (9609. As concentrações médias de flúor ± SD (amplitude, unidade mg F/g foram: A= 0,76 ± 0,60 (0,08-1,86, n=15 e B= 0,32 ± 0,09 (0,22-0,55, n=18. Nossos resultados sugerem que a quantidade de flúor presente em alguns produtos pode contribuir com a ingestão diária total de flúor. Os rótulos dos produtos deveriam informar seu conteúdo de flúor para prevenir fluorose no período de risco.

  13. Effects of whole grain rye crisp bread for breakfast on appetite and energy intake in a subsequent meal: two randomised controlled trails with different amounts of test foods and breakfast energy content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Tina; Åman, Per; Landberg, Rikard

    2014-03-25

    Fibre-rich rye products have been shown to have superior effects on self-reported appetite compared to white wheat bread and some studies have shown lower energy intake after subsequent meal. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of whole grain rye crisp bread (RB) versus refined wheat bread (WB) on appetite in two studies using different portion sizes and total energy intakes. Two randomised cross-over pre-load studies were conducted in 20 and 21 subjects, respectively. Appetite was rated by visual analogue scale (VAS) for 4 h. In both studies, participants were 39 ± 14 years old and had BMI 23 ± 3. The studies differed in terms of energy content of the breakfasts and proportion of energy from the treatment product as well as amount of test products. Differences between treatments within the two studies were evaluated using mixed models with repeated measures appropriate for cross-over designs. In Study one, hunger and desire to eat were significantly lower (P Whole grain rye crisp bread caused lower self-reported hunger, higher fullness and less desire to eat compared to refined wheat bread. It also led to a lower energy intake after an ad libitum lunch. Results were stronger and/or more consistent when the test meal portion was smaller and accounted for a larger proportion of the total energy intake of the breakfast.

  14. Breakfast habits of adolescents in for South African populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, A R; Walker, B F; Jones, J; Ncongwane, J

    1982-10-01

    Breakfast habits by using questionnaires, were established in a total of 4717 South African pupils of 16 to 18 yr. In the groups of rural and urban Black, Indian, European-African-Malay, and white pupils studied, respective proportions who had no solid breakfast (both sexes combined) were approximately 21, 19, 13, 13, and 14%. Proportions who had only porridge or bread (or toast) plus drink were 77, 73, 61, 71, and 56%. Such breakfast provided ranges of means of 223 to 345 kcal, 9 to 14 g protein, 7 to 18 g fat, 51 to 185 mg calcium, and 3.2 to 5.1 mg iron. Proportions who had a cooked breakfast (including egg, meat, fish), eaten with or without a cereal food, were 1, 4, 17, 8, and 29%. Such meals contributed means of 495 to 704 kcal, 11 to 26 g protein, 24 to 39 g fat, 110 to 225 mg calcium, and 3.9 to 5.5 mg iron. In the South African groups studied, the issue of breakfast or no breakfast had no clear-cut bearing on weight, height, class position, or frequency of absence from school. The degree by which, in a given community, nutrition in general and breakfast in particular, regulates health and/or academic performance, needs proper research in prospective studies.

  15. Prospective study of ready-to-eat breakfast cereal consumption and cognitive decline among elderly men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wengreen, H; Nelson, C; Munger, R G; Corcoran, C

    2011-03-01

    To examine associations between frequency of ready-to-eat-cereal (RTEC) consumption and cognitive function among elderly men and women of the Cache County Study on Memory Health and Aging in Utah. A population-based prospective cohort study established in Cache County, Utah in 1995. 3831 men and women > 65 years of age who were living in Cache County, Utah in 1995. Diet was assessed using a 142-item food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Cognitive function was assessed using an adapted version of the Modified Mini-Mental State examination (3MS) at baseline and three subsequent interviews over 11 years. RTEC consumption was defined as daily, weekly, or infrequent use. In multivariable models, more frequent RTEC consumption was not associated with a cognitive benefit. Those consuming RTEC weekly but less than daily scored higher on their baseline 3MS than did those consuming RTEC more or less frequently (91.7, 90.6, 90.6, respectively; p-value cognitive performance at baseline and over 11 years of follow-up compared to those who consumed cereal more or less frequently. RTEC is a nutrient dense food, but should not replace the consumption of other healthy foods in the diets' of elderly people. Associations between RTEC consumption, dietary patterns, and cognitive function deserve further study.

  16. Breakfast consumption in schoolchildren

    OpenAIRE

    Đurđević, Tamara

    2016-01-01

    Regular consumption of meals is one of the healthy eating habits. As recommended by the experts we should have 3 to 5 meals a day, of which the breakfast is a very important one. The purpose of the research part of the thesis was to find out what kind of habits and attitudes schoolchildren have of breakfast, what is the role of parents, teachers and the peers, and which factors are the ones that stimulate and inhibit primary school children when eating breakfast. We used the qualitative re...

  17. Effects of a brown beans evening meal on metabolic risk markers and appetite regulating hormones at a subsequent standardized breakfast: a randomized cross-over study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Anne; Johansson, Elin; Ekström, Linda; Björck, Inger

    2013-01-01

    Dietary prevention strategies are increasingly recognized as essential to combat the current epidemic of obesity and related metabolic disorders. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential prebiotic effects of indigestible carbohydrates in Swedish brown beans (Phaseolus vulgaris var. nanus) in relation to cardiometabolic risk markers and appetite regulating hormones. Brown beans, or white wheat bread (WWB, reference product) were provided as evening meals to 16 healthy young adults in a randomised crossover design. Glucose, insulin, appetite regulatory hormones, GLP-1, GLP-2, appetite sensations, and markers of inflammation were measured at a following standardised breakfast, that is at 11 to 14 h post the evening meals. Additionally, colonic fermentation activity was estimated from measurement of plasma short chain fatty acids (SCFA, including also branched chain fatty acids) and breath hydrogen (H2) excretion. An evening meal of brown beans, in comparison with WWB, lowered blood glucose (-15%, pbreakfast. Breath H2 (141%, pimportant measures of cardiometabolic risk and appetite regulatory hormones, within a time frame of 11-14 h, in comparison to a WWB evening meal. Concentrations of plasma SCFA and H2 were increased, indicating involvement of colonic fermentation. Indigestible colonic substrates from brown beans may provide a preventive tool in relation to obesity and the metabolic syndrome. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01706042.

  18. Impact of Breakfast Skipping and Breakfast Choice on the Nutrient Intake and Body Mass Index of Australian Children

    OpenAIRE

    Flavia Fayet-Moore; Jean Kim; Nilani Sritharan; Peter Petocz

    2016-01-01

    Recent data on breakfast consumption among Australian children are limited. This study examined the impact of breakfast skipping and breakfast type (cereal or non-cereal) on nutrient intakes, likelihood of meeting nutrient targets and anthropometric measures. A secondary analysis of two 24-h recall data from the 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey was conducted (2–16 years; n = 4487) to identify (a) breakfast skippers and (b) breakfast consumers, with br...

  19. Impact of Breakfast Skipping and Breakfast Choice on the Nutrient Intake and Body Mass Index of Australian Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayet-Moore, Flavia; Kim, Jean; Sritharan, Nilani; Petocz, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Recent data on breakfast consumption among Australian children are limited. This study examined the impact of breakfast skipping and breakfast type (cereal or non-cereal) on nutrient intakes, likelihood of meeting nutrient targets and anthropometric measures. A secondary analysis of two 24-h recall data from the 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey was conducted (2–16 years; n = 4487) to identify (a) breakfast skippers and (b) breakfast consumers, with breakfast consumers further sub-divided into (i) non-cereal and (ii) cereal consumers. Only 4% skipped breakfast and 59% of skippers were 14–16 years. Breakfast consumers had significantly higher intakes of calcium and folate, and significantly lower intakes of total fat than breakfast skippers. Cereal consumers were more likely to meet targets and consume significantly higher fibre, calcium, iron, had significantly higher intakes of folate, total sugars and carbohydrate, and significantly lower intakes of total fat and sodium than non-cereal consumers. The prevalence of overweight was lower among breakfast consumers compared to skippers, and among cereal consumers compared to-cereal consumers (p Breakfast and particularly breakfast cereal consumption contributes important nutrients to children’s diets. PMID:27517957

  20. Impact of Breakfast Skipping and Breakfast Choice on the Nutrient Intake and Body Mass Index of Australian Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia Fayet-Moore

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Recent data on breakfast consumption among Australian children are limited. This study examined the impact of breakfast skipping and breakfast type (cereal or non-cereal on nutrient intakes, likelihood of meeting nutrient targets and anthropometric measures. A secondary analysis of two 24-h recall data from the 2007 Australian National Children’s Nutrition and Physical Activity Survey was conducted (2–16 years; n = 4487 to identify (a breakfast skippers and (b breakfast consumers, with breakfast consumers further sub-divided into (i non-cereal and (ii cereal consumers. Only 4% skipped breakfast and 59% of skippers were 14–16 years. Breakfast consumers had significantly higher intakes of calcium and folate, and significantly lower intakes of total fat than breakfast skippers. Cereal consumers were more likely to meet targets and consume significantly higher fibre, calcium, iron, had significantly higher intakes of folate, total sugars and carbohydrate, and significantly lower intakes of total fat and sodium than non-cereal consumers. The prevalence of overweight was lower among breakfast consumers compared to skippers, and among cereal consumers compared to-cereal consumers (p < 0.001, while no significant differences were observed for mean body mass index (BMI, BMI z-score, waist circumference and physical activity level across the categories. Breakfast and particularly breakfast cereal consumption contributes important nutrients to children’s diets.

  1. Evaluation of the in vitro glycemic index of a fiber-rich extruded breakfast cereal produced with organic passion fruit fiber and corn flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Gabriela Vernaza Leoro

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the influence of process parameters and Passion Fruit Fiber (PFF addition on the Glycemic Index (GI of an extruded breakfast cereal. A 2³ Central Composite Rotational Design (CCRD was used, with the following independent variables: raw material moisture content (18-28%, 2nd and 3rd barrel zone temperatures (120-160 ºC, and PFF (0-30%. Raw materials (organic corn flour and organic PFF were characterized as to their proximate composition, particle size, and in vitro GI. The extrudates were characterized as to their in vitro GI. The Response Surface Methodology (RSM and Principal Component Analysis (PCA were used to analyze the results. Corn flour and PFF presented 8.55 and 7.63% protein, 2.61 and 0.60% fat, 0.52 and 6.17% ash, 78.77 and 78.86% carbohydrates (3 and 64% total dietary fiber, respectively. The corn flour particle size distribution was homogeneous, while PFF presented a heterogeneous particle size distribution. Corn flour and PFF presented values of GI of 48 and 45, respectively. When using RSM, no effect of the variables was observed in the GI of the extrudates (average value of 48.41, but PCA showed that the GI tended to be lower when processing at lower temperatures (158 ºC. When compared to white bread, the extrudates showed a reduction of the GI of up to 50%, and could be considered an interesting alternative in weight and glycemia control diets.

  2. Hypocholesterolemic and prebiotic effects of a whole-grain oat-based Granola breakfast cereal in a cardio-metabolic ‘at risk’ population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael L. Connolly

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RTC have confirmed the hypocholesterolaemic effect of oats and oat based fibers. However the mechanisms by which oats or oat fractions lower cholesterol is not totally clear. Recognizing the important role of the gut microbiome in metabolism and metabolic disease risk, we examined the impact of whole grain oat Granola (WGO on the human gut microbiota and cardio-metabolic risk factors using a randomized crossover dietary intervention in at risk individuals (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01925365. We randomized 32 individuals at risk of developing cardio-metabolic disease by virtue of mild hypercholesterolaemia or glucose intolerance, into two groups consuming either 45 g of WGO or non-whole grain (NWG breakfast cereals daily for two 6-week intervention periods separated by a 4-week wash out period in a randomized, controlled, crossover, double-blinded design. Confirming the cholesterol lowering effect of WGO, we observed a significant time by treatment interaction, for total cholesterol (TC (P = 0.0001 and LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C (P=0.02 compared to NWG. A significant time by treatment interaction was also observed for the relative abundance of fecal bifidobacteria (P = 0.0001, lactobacilli (P = 0.001 and total bacterial count (P = 0.008, which were all elevated after consumption of WGO. Daily consumption of WGO resulted in a prebiotic effect on the human gut microbiota composition and significant reductions in TC and LDL-C concentrations. Prebiotic modulation of the human gut microbiota may thus constitute a previously unrecognized mechanism contributing to the hypocholesterolaemic effects of whole grain oat Granola.

  3. Breakfast: a multidisciplinary approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background The role of breakfast as an essential part of an healthy diet has been only recently promoted even if breakfast practices were known since the Middle Age. The growing scientific evidences on this topic are extremely sector-based nevertheless breakfast could be regarded from different point of views and from different expertises. This approach, that take into account history, sociology, anthropology, medicine, psychology and pedagogy, is useful to better understand the value of this meal in our culture. The aim of this paper was to analyse breakfast-related issues based on a multidisciplinary approach with input by specialists from different fields of learning. Discussion Breakfast is now recommended as part of a diet because it is associated with healthier macro- and micronutrient intakes, body mass index and lifestyle. Moreover recent studies showed that breakfast improves cognitive function, intuitive perception and academic performance. Research demonstrates the importance of providing breakfast not only to children but in adults and elderly too. Although the important role breakfast plays in maintaining the health, epidemiological data from industrialised countries reveal that many individuals either eat a nutritionally unhealthy breakfast or skip it completely. Summary The historical, bio-psychological and educational value of breakfast in our culture is extremely important and should be recognized and stressed by the scientific community. Efforts should be done to promote this practice for the individual health and well-being. PMID:23842429

  4. Breakfast: a multidisciplinary approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Affinita, Antonio; Catalani, Loredana; Cecchetto, Giovanna; De Lorenzo, Gianfranco; Dilillo, Dario; Donegani, Giorgio; Fransos, Lucia; Lucidi, Fabio; Mameli, Chiara; Manna, Elisa; Marconi, Paolo; Mele, Giuseppe; Minestroni, Laura; Montanari, Massimo; Morcellini, Mario; Rovera, Giuseppe; Rotilio, Giuseppe; Sachet, Marco; Zuccotti, Gian Vincenzo

    2013-07-10

    The role of breakfast as an essential part of an healthy diet has been only recently promoted even if breakfast practices were known since the Middle Age. The growing scientific evidences on this topic are extremely sector-based nevertheless breakfast could be regarded from different point of views and from different expertises. This approach, that take into account history, sociology, anthropology, medicine, psychology and pedagogy, is useful to better understand the value of this meal in our culture. The aim of this paper was to analyse breakfast-related issues based on a multidisciplinary approach with input by specialists from different fields of learning. Breakfast is now recommended as part of a diet because it is associated with healthier macro- and micronutrient intakes, body mass index and lifestyle. Moreover recent studies showed that breakfast improves cognitive function, intuitive perception and academic performance. Research demonstrates the importance of providing breakfast not only to children but in adults and elderly too. Although the important role breakfast plays in maintaining the health, epidemiological data from industrialised countries reveal that many individuals either eat a nutritionally unhealthy breakfast or skip it completely. The historical, bio-psychological and educational value of breakfast in our culture is extremely important and should be recognized and stressed by the scientific community. Efforts should be done to promote this practice for the individual health and well-being.

  5. Effects of a brown beans evening meal on metabolic risk markers and appetite regulating hormones at a subsequent standardized breakfast: a randomized cross-over study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Nilsson

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dietary prevention strategies are increasingly recognized as essential to combat the current epidemic of obesity and related metabolic disorders. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the potential prebiotic effects of indigestible carbohydrates in Swedish brown beans (Phaseolus vulgaris var. nanus in relation to cardiometabolic risk markers and appetite regulating hormones. METHODS: Brown beans, or white wheat bread (WWB, reference product were provided as evening meals to 16 healthy young adults in a randomised crossover design. Glucose, insulin, appetite regulatory hormones, GLP-1, GLP-2, appetite sensations, and markers of inflammation were measured at a following standardised breakfast, that is at 11 to 14 h post the evening meals. Additionally, colonic fermentation activity was estimated from measurement of plasma short chain fatty acids (SCFA, including also branched chain fatty acids and breath hydrogen (H2 excretion. RESULTS: An evening meal of brown beans, in comparison with WWB, lowered blood glucose (-15%, p<0.01- and insulin (-16%, p<0.05 responses, increased satiety hormones (PYY 51%, p<0.001, suppressed hunger hormones (ghrelin -14%, p<0.05, and hunger sensations (-15%, p = 0.05, increased GLP-2 concentrations (8.4%, p<0.05 and suppressed inflammatory markers (IL-6 -35%, and IL-18 -8.3%, p<0.05 at a subsequent standardised breakfast. Breath H2 (141%, p<0.01, propionate (16%, p<0.05, and isobutyrate (18%, P<0.001 were significantly increased after brown beans compared to after WWB, indicating a higher colonic fermentative activity after brown beans. CONCLUSIONS: An evening meal with brown beans beneficially affected important measures of cardiometabolic risk and appetite regulatory hormones, within a time frame of 11-14 h, in comparison to a WWB evening meal. Concentrations of plasma SCFA and H2 were increased, indicating involvement of colonic fermentation. Indigestible colonic substrates from brown

  6. Breakfast Blitz: An Innovative Nutrition Education Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towery, Pamela C.; Nix, Elizabeth S.; Norman, Bilinda

    2014-01-01

    Childhood overweight and obesity are major problems in the United States, with important consequences for our nation's health and economy. Breakfast is considered the most important meal of the day, yet children, adolescents, and adults skip breakfast on a routine basis. This habit of breakfast skipping is related to weight gain, higher body…

  7. Breakfast Habits among School Children in Selected Communities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breakfast is considered the most important meal of the day, yet many people skip breakfast. Studies indicate that school age children who regularly skip breakfast are not likely to concentrate in class, thus affecting school performance. This study determined the breakfast habits and nutrient contributions of the ...

  8. Replacing American Breakfast Foods with Ready-To-Eat (RTE Cereals Increases Consumption of Key Food Groups and Nutrients among US Children and Adults: Results of an NHANES Modeling Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin D. Rehm

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Replacing the typical American breakfast with ready-to-eat cereals (RTECs may improve diet quality. Our goal was to assess the impact of RTECs on diet quality measures for different age groups, using substitution modeling. Dietary intakes came from the 2007–2010 National Health and Examination Surveys (NHANES; n = 18,112. All breakfast foods, excluding beverages, were replaced on a per calorie basis, with frequency-weighted and age/race specific RTECs. Model 1 replaced foods with RTECs alone; Model 2 replaced foods with RTECs and milk. Diet quality measures were based on desirable food groups and nutrients, Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010 scores, and estimated diet costs. Model 1 diets were significantly higher in whole grains (+84.6%, fiber (+14.3%, vitamin D (+14.0%, iron (+54.5% and folic acid (+104.6%, as compared to observed diets. Model 2 diets were additionally higher in dairy (+15.8%, calcium (+11.3% and potassium (+3.95%. In Model 1, added sugar increased (+5.0%, but solid fats declined (−10.9%. Energy from solid fats and added sugars declined (−3.2% in both models. Model 2 offered higher diet quality (57.1 vs. 54.6, p-value < 0.01 at a lower cost ($6.70 vs. $6.92; p < 0.01, compared to observed diets. Substitution modeling of NHANES data can assess the nutritional and economic impact of dietary guidance.

  9. Replacing American Breakfast Foods with Ready-To-Eat (RTE) Cereals Increases Consumption of Key Food Groups and Nutrients among US Children and Adults: Results of an NHANES Modeling Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehm, Colin D; Drewnowski, Adam

    2017-09-13

    Replacing the typical American breakfast with ready-to-eat cereals (RTECs) may improve diet quality. Our goal was to assess the impact of RTECs on diet quality measures for different age groups, using substitution modeling. Dietary intakes came from the 2007-2010 National Health and Examination Surveys (NHANES; n = 18,112). All breakfast foods, excluding beverages, were replaced on a per calorie basis, with frequency-weighted and age/race specific RTECs. Model 1 replaced foods with RTECs alone; Model 2 replaced foods with RTECs and milk. Diet quality measures were based on desirable food groups and nutrients, Healthy Eating Index (HEI)-2010 scores, and estimated diet costs. Model 1 diets were significantly higher in whole grains (+84.6%), fiber (+14.3%), vitamin D (+14.0%), iron (+54.5%) and folic acid (+104.6%), as compared to observed diets. Model 2 diets were additionally higher in dairy (+15.8%), calcium (+11.3%) and potassium (+3.95%). In Model 1, added sugar increased (+5.0%), but solid fats declined (-10.9%). Energy from solid fats and added sugars declined (-3.2%) in both models. Model 2 offered higher diet quality (57.1 vs. 54.6, p-value < 0.01) at a lower cost ($6.70 vs. $6.92; p < 0.01), compared to observed diets. Substitution modeling of NHANES data can assess the nutritional and economic impact of dietary guidance.

  10. Breakfast quality and its relationship to the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents in Guadalajara (Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Morales, I; Aguilar Vilas, Ma V; Mateos Vega, C J; Martínez Para, Ma C

    2011-01-01

    Many young people today skip the first meal of the day in order to lose weight. To study the impact of breakfast quality and skipping breakfast on the BMI and on the prevalence of overweight and obesity. A nutritional study was carried out on a population of 467 secondary school students (12-17 years of age) in Guadalajara, Spain based on seven-day food journal and food frequency questionnaires. Sociodemographic data were also collected. Anthropometric measurements of weight and adiposity (BMI, percentage body fat) were also taken. Boys aged 15-17 ate the highest proportion of full breakfasts (18.18%), compared with 4.34% for girls the same age. Inverse relationships were recorded between breakfast energy intake and the BMI (-0.1132) and between the BMI and calcium, fibre, dairy product, and cereal intake. There was practically no correlation between protein intake and the BMI. Subjects who did not eat dairy products and those who ate cooked breakfasts had the highest BMIs. Skipping breakfast was not an effective way to lose weight, and weight was inversely related to breakfast quality.

  11. Extracting Iron from Cereal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, David A.

    1992-01-01

    Describes an activity in which students can investigate and evaluate the amount of iron found in most fortified breakfast cereals or cream of wheat. Includes a list of necessary materials, safety precautions, experimental procedure, disposal protocol, and nutritional explanation, utilization, and variations. (JJK)

  12. Beneficial effects of a higher-protein breakfast on the appetitive, hormonal, and neural signals controlling energy intake regulation in overweight/obese, “breakfast-skipping,” late-adolescent girls123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortinau, Laura C; Douglas, Steve M; Hoertel, Heather A

    2013-01-01

    Background: Breakfast skipping is a common dietary habit practiced among adolescents and is strongly associated with obesity. Objective: The objective was to examine whether a high-protein (HP) compared with a normal-protein (NP) breakfast leads to daily improvements in appetite, satiety, food motivation and reward, and evening snacking in overweight or obese breakfast-skipping girls. Design: A randomized crossover design was incorporated in which 20 girls [mean ± SEM age: 19 ± 1 y; body mass index (in kg/m2): 28.6 ± 0.7] consumed 350-kcal NP (13 g protein) cereal-based breakfasts, consumed 350-kcal HP egg- and beef-rich (35 g protein) breakfasts, or continued breakfast skipping (BS) for 6 d. On day 7, a 10-h testing day was completed that included appetite and satiety questionnaires, blood sampling, predinner food cue–stimulated functional magnetic resonance imaging brain scans, ad libitum dinner, and evening snacking. Results: The consumption of breakfast reduced daily hunger compared with BS with no differences between meals. Breakfast increased daily fullness compared with BS, with the HP breakfast eliciting greater increases than did the NP breakfast. HP, but not NP, reduced daily ghrelin and increased daily peptide YY concentrations compared with BS. Both meals reduced predinner amygdala, hippocampal, and midfrontal corticolimbic activation compared with BS. HP led to additional reductions in hippocampal and parahippocampal activation compared with NP. HP, but not NP, reduced evening snacking of high-fat foods compared with BS. Conclusions: Breakfast led to beneficial alterations in the appetitive, hormonal, and neural signals that control food intake regulation. Only the HP breakfast led to further alterations in these signals and reduced evening snacking compared with BS, although no differences in daily energy intake were observed. These data suggest that the addition of breakfast, particularly one rich in protein, might be a useful strategy to

  13. The Effects of Breakfast and Breakfast Composition on Cognition in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review123

    OpenAIRE

    Adolphus, Katie; Lawton, Clare L.; Champ, Claire L; Dye, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Breakfast is thought to be beneficial for cognitive and academic performance in school children. However, breakfast is the most frequently skipped meal, especially among adolescents. The aim of the current article was to systematically review the evidence from intervention studies for the effects of breakfast on cognitive performance in children and adolescents. The effects of breakfast were evaluated by cognitive domain and breakfast manipulation. A total of 45 studies reported in 43 article...

  14. The role of meal viscosity and oat β-glucan characteristics in human appetite control: a randomized crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebello, Candida J; Chu, Yi-Fang; Johnson, William D; Martin, Corby K; Han, Hongmei; Bordenave, Nicolas; Shi, Yuhui; O'Shea, Marianne; Greenway, Frank L

    2014-05-28

    Foods that enhance satiety can help consumers to resist environmental cues to eat, and improve the nutritional quality of their diets. Viscosity generated by oat β-glucan, influences gastrointestinal mechanisms that mediate satiety. Differences in the source, processing treatments, and interactions with other constituents in the food matrix affect the amount, solubility, molecular weight, and structure of the β-glucan in products, which in turn influences the viscosity. This study examined the effect of two types of oatmeal and an oat-based ready-to-eat breakfast cereal (RTEC) on appetite, and assessed differences in meal viscosity and β-glucan characteristics among the cereals. Forty-eight individuals were enrolled in a randomized crossover trial. Subjects consumed isocaloric breakfast meals containing instant oatmeal (IO), old-fashioned oatmeal (SO) or RTEC in random order at least a week apart. Each breakfast meal contained 218 kcal (150 kcal cereal, and 68 kcal milk) Visual analogue scales measuring appetite were completed before breakfast, and over four hours, following the meal. Starch digestion kinetics, meal viscosities, and β-glucan characteristics for each meal were determined. Appetite responses were analyzed by area under the curve. Mixed models were used to analyze response changes over time. IO increased fullness (p = 0.04), suppressed desire to eat (p = 0.01) and reduced prospective intake (p viscosity, and larger hydration spheres than the RTEC, and IO had greater viscosity after oral and initial gastric digestion (initial viscosity) than the RTEC. IO and SO improved appetite control over four hours compared to RTEC. Initial viscosity of oatmeal may be especially important for reducing appetite.

  15. The Effects of Breakfast and Breakfast Composition on Cognition in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphus, Katie; Lawton, Clare L; Champ, Claire L; Dye, Louise

    2016-05-01

    Breakfast is thought to be beneficial for cognitive and academic performance in school children. However, breakfast is the most frequently skipped meal, especially among adolescents. The aim of the current article was to systematically review the evidence from intervention studies for the effects of breakfast on cognitive performance in children and adolescents. The effects of breakfast were evaluated by cognitive domain and breakfast manipulation. A total of 45 studies reported in 43 articles were included in the review. Most studies considered the acute effect of a single breakfast (n = 34). The acute studies looked at breakfast compared with no breakfast (n = 24) and/or comparisons of breakfast type (n = 15). The effects of chronic school breakfast program interventions were evaluated in 11 studies. The findings suggest that breakfast consumption relative to fasting has a short-term (same morning) positive domain-specific effect on cognition. Tasks requiring attention, executive function, and memory were facilitated more reliably by breakfast consumption relative to fasting, with effects more apparent in undernourished children. Firm conclusions cannot be made about the acute effects of breakfast composition and the effects of chronic breakfast interventions because there are too few studies and these largely report inconsistent findings. This review also highlights methodologic limitations of the existing research. These include a lack of research on adolescents, few naturalistic breakfast manipulations or testing environments, small samples, and insensitive cognitive tests. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Postprandial Glycemic and Insulinemic Responses to Common Breakfast Beverages Consumed with a Standard Meal in Adults Who Are Overweight and Obese

    OpenAIRE

    Jia Li; Elsa Janle; Campbell, Wayne W

    2017-01-01

    Breakfast beverages with different nutrient compositions may affect postprandial glycemic control differently. We assessed the effects of consuming (1) common breakfast beverages (water, sugar-sweetened coffee, reduced-energy orange juice (OJ), and low-fat milk (LFM)); and (2) fat-free, low-fat, and whole milk with breakfast on postprandial plasma glucose and insulin responses in adults who were overweight/obese. Forty-six subjects (33F/13M, body mass index: 32.5 ± 0.7 kg/m2, age: 50 ± 1 year...

  17. PROSPECTIVE STUDY OF READY-TO-EAT BREAKFAST CEREAL CONSUMPTION AND COGNITIVE DECLINE AMONG ELDERLY MEN AND WOMEN IN CACHE COUNTY, UTAH, STUDY ON MEMORY, HEALTH, AND AGING

    Science.gov (United States)

    WENGREEN, H.; NELSON, C.; MUNGER, R.G.; CORCORAN, C.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between frequency of ready-to-eat-cereal (RTEC) consumption and cognitive function among elderly men and women of the Cache County Study on Memory and Aging in Utah. Design A population-based prospective cohort study established in Cache County, Utah in 1995. Setting and Participants 3831 men and women > 65 years of age who were living in Cache County, Utah in 1995. Measurement Diet was assessed using a 142-item food frequency questionnaire at baseline. Cognitive function was assessed using an adapted version of the Modified Mini-Mental State examination (3MS) at baseline and three subsequent interviews over 11 years. RTEC consumption was defined as daily, weekly, or infrequent use. Results In multivariable models, more frequent RTEC consumption was not associated with a cognitive benefit. Those consuming RTEC weekly but less than daily scored higher on their baseline 3MS than did those consuming RTEC more or less frequently (91.7, 90.6, 90.6, respectively; p-value <0.001). This association was maintained across 11 years of observation such that those consuming RTEC weekly but less than daily declined on average 3.96 points compared to an average 5.13 and 4.57 point decline for those consuming cereal more or less frequently (p-value = 0.0009). Conclusion Those consuming RTEC at least daily had poorer cognitive performance at baseline and over 11 years of follow-up compared to those who consumed cereal more or less frequently. RTEC is a nutrient dense food, but should not replace the consumption of other healthy foods in the diets’ of elderly people. Associations between RTEC consumption, dietary patterns, and cognitive function deserve further study. PMID:21369668

  18. Improving Effect of the Acute Administration of Dietary Fiber-Enriched Cereals on Blood Glucose Levels and Gut Hormone Secretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Ky; Oh, Tae Jung; Kim, Lee-Kyung; Cho, Young Min

    2016-02-01

    Dietary fiber improves hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes through its physicochemical properties and possible modulation of gut hormone secretion, such as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1). We assessed the effect of dietary fiber-enriched cereal flakes (DC) on postprandial hyperglycemia and gut hormone secretion in patients with type 2 diabetes. Thirteen participants ate isocaloric meals based on either DC or conventional cereal flakes (CC) in a crossover design. DC or CC was provided for dinner, night snack on day 1 and breakfast on day 2, followed by a high-fat lunch. On day 2, the levels of plasma glucose, GLP-1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP), and insulin were measured. Compared to CC, DC intake exhibited a lower post-breakfast 2-hours glucose level (198.5±12.8 vs. 245.9±15.2 mg/dL, Pdiabetes (ClinicalTrials.gov. NCT 01997281).

  19. Estudo da composição química de flocos de cereais com ênfase nos teores de fenilalanina Study on the chemical composition of breakfast cereals with emphasis on their phenylalanine contents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Maria LANFER MARQUEZ

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudada a composição química e o teor de fenilalanina em 13 tipos de flocos de cereais produzidos no país e disponíveis no comércio de São Paulo. Todos os produtos contêm elevado teor de carboidratos totais, superior a 77%, fornecendo no mínimo 345 kcal/100g. Os seus teores protéicos (Nx5,7 são variáveis e se situam entre 3,8 e 7,3%. Os teores de fenilalanina variam entre 224 e 451 mg/100g de produto, sendo os valores mais baixos encontrados nos cereais com o menor teor protéico, que correspondem aos flocos de milho com maior concentração de açúcar. Através da análise de aminoácidos, foram encontrados em média 5,96g de fenilalanina/100g de aminoácidos recuperados. As diferenças em torno desta média não foram estatisticamente significativas e mostraram-se independentes do cereal que deu origem aos produtos. Houve correlação linear entre o teor de nitrogênio (micro-Kjeldahl e a concentração de fenilalanina nas amostras (coef. correl. 0,9887 o que permite estimar o teor de fenilalanina unicamente a partir da análise de nitrogênio, adotando o teor de 5,96g de fenilalanina/100g aminoácidos. Os cálculos resultaram nos teores de fenilalanina dos 13 produtos, que não diferiram estatisticamente dos obtidos pela análise de aminoácidos.The chemical composition and the amount of phenylalanine in 13 types of breakfast cereals produced in Brazil and marketed in São Paulo were studied. All products showed high amounts of carbohydrates, higher than 77%, supplying a minimum of 345 kcal/100g. The protein contents (Nx5.7 ranged from 3.8 to 7.3%. The phenylalanine levels varied between 224 and 451 mg/100g of the products and the lowest levels were detected in cereals with a reduced protein content, corresponding to cereal flakes with high sugar contents. The amino acid analysis revealed that phenylalanine accounted for 5.96±0.12 g/100g recovered amino acids, with no significant statistical differences among the 13

  20. Explaining the Positive Relationship Between Fourth-Grade Children's Body Mass Index and Energy Intake at School-Provided Meals (Breakfast and Lunch)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guinn, Caroline H.; Baxter, Suzanne D.; Royer, Julie A.; Hitchcock, David B.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A 2010 publication showed a positive relationship between children's body mass index (BMI) and energy intake at school-provided meals (as assessed by direct meal observations). To help explain that relationship, we investigated 7 outcome variables concerning aspects of school-provided meals: energy content of items selected, number of…

  1. Breakfast out

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Laurier

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The generation that I grew up with had breakfast in. It was not that we were refusing to go out into public spaces for our breakfast, it was the fact that there were almost no cafes or bars open in the early morning.

  2. Effect of cooking on the total antioxidant capacity and phenolic profile of some whole-meal African cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    N'Dri, Denis; Mazzeo, Teresa; Zaupa, Maria; Ferracane, Rosalia; Fogliano, Vincenzo; Pellegrini, Nicoletta

    2013-01-15

    At present, sorghum, fonio and millet are not placed as important commodities in the North American and European food basket, but their importance as ingredients in multigrain and gluten-free cereal products is highlighted. Therefore in this study the phenolic profile (evaluated by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry), total phenolic content (assessed by Folin-Ciocalteu assay) and total antioxidant capacity were measured in three African whole grains, i.e. sorghum (Sorghum bicolor ssp. bicolor), fonio (Digitaria exilis) and pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum L.), before and after a cooking procedure. After the cooking process, soluble phenolic acids increased significantly in sorghum, whereas bound ones and anthocyanins decreased significantly. In millet the cooking process significantly enhanced soluble phenolic acids without affecting those bound, whereas in fonio a slight but significant decrease in almost all soluble phenolic acids was observed along with a significant increase in bound ones. Finally, the cooking process negatively affected both total phenolic content and total antioxidant capacity. This is one of the few reports dealing with the antioxidant compounds of these three African whole grains in which the effect of cooking was also evaluated. The data suggested that, to improve their antioxidant properties, specific cultivars should be selected and the cooking procedures carefully considered. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Low glycemic index breakfasts and reduced food intake in preadolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Janet M; Henry, C Jeya K; Simonite, Vanessa

    2003-11-01

    Recent reports have suggested that a low glycemic index (GI) diet may have a role in the management of obesity through its ability to increase the satiety value of food and modulate appetite. To date, no long-term clinical trials have examined the effect of dietary GI on body weight regulation. The majority of evidence comes from single-day studies, most of which have been conducted in adults. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 3 test breakfasts-low-GI, low-GI with 10% added sucrose, and high-GI-on ad libitum lunch intake, appetite, and satiety and to compare these with baseline values when habitual breakfast was consumed. A 3-way crossover study using block randomization of breakfast type was conducted in a school that already ran a breakfast club. A total of 37 children aged 9 to 12 years (15 boys and 22 girls) completed the study. The proportion of nonoverweight to overweight/obese children was 70:30. Children were divided into 5 groups, and a rolling program was devised whereby, week by week, each group would randomly receive 1 of 3 test breakfasts for 3 consecutive days, with a minimum of 5 weeks between the test breakfasts. Participants acted as their own control. The 3 test breakfasts were devised to match the energy and nutritional content of an individual's habitual breakfast as far as possible. All test breakfasts were composed of fruit juice, cereal, and milk with/without bread and margarine; foods with an appropriate GI value were selected. After each test breakfast, children were instructed not to eat or drink anything until lunchtime, except water and a small serving of fruit supplying approximately 10 g of carbohydrate, which was provided. Breakfast palatability, satiation after breakfast, and satiety before lunch were measured using rating scales based on previously used tools. Lunch was a buffet-style meal, and children were allowed free access to a range of foods. Lunch was served in the school hall where the rest of the

  4. The relationship of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in young adults. NHANES 1999-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    The goal of this study was to examine the association between breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight /obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome. Three breakfast groups were identified (breakfast skippers, ready-to-eat-cereal ...

  5. The effect of dairy and nondairy beverages consumed with high glycemic cereal on subjective appetite, food intake, and postprandial glycemia in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, Marron; Huot, Pedro S P; Lee, Ying Ti; Vien, Shirley; Luhovyy, Bohdan L; Anderson, G Harvey

    2017-11-01

    The objective was to compare the effect of dairy and nondairy beverages when consumed with carbohydrate at breakfast on subjective appetite, food intake (FI), and postprandial glycemia (PPG) in healthy young adults. Twenty-six healthy males and females (13 males and 13 females; 23.0 ± 2.6 years; BMI: 22.3 ± 1.5 kg/m(2)) participated in a randomized crossover study. They consumed nonisocaloric amounts (250 mL) of almond beverage, soy beverage, 1% fat milk, yogurt beverage, and water (control) with cereal and 120 min later, an ad libitum meal. Subjective appetite, PPG, and insulin were measured at baseline and at intervals before and after the meal at which FI was measured. Post-treatment blood glucose was lowest following soy beverage compared with all treatments but was not different from milk (p = 0.0002). There were no differences between any other treatments. However, over the first hour, PPG for all treatments was 27% lower compared with water (p beverage led to the highest insulin concentrations post-treatment (p beverage (p beverages consumed with a high glycemic cereal at breakfast increased satiety and decreased FI compared with water with cereal. Despite higher carbohydrate content, all beverages led to similar or lower PPG than the water breakfast, but dairy beverages increased insulin more than nondairy beverages.

  6. Food glycemic index, as given in glycemic index tables, is a significant determinant of glycemic responses elicited by composite breakfast meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolever, Thomas M S; Yang, Ming; Zeng, Xiao Yi; Atkinson, Fiona; Brand-Miller, Janette C

    2006-06-01

    Recent studies have concluded that the carbohydrate content and glycemic index (GI) of individual foods do not predict the glycemic and insulinemic effects of mixed meals. We hypothesized that these conclusions may be unwarranted because of methodologic considerations. The aim was to ascertain whether the GI and carbohydrate content of individual foods influence glucose and insulin responses elicited by realistic mixed meals in normal subjects. With the use of a crossover design, we determined the glucose and insulin responses of 6 test meals in 16 subjects in Sydney and the glucose responses of 8 test meals in 10 subjects in Toronto and then the results were pooled. The 14 different test meals varied in energy (220-450 kcal), protein (0-18 g), fat (0-18 g), and available carbohydrate (16-79 g) content and in GI (35-100; values were rounded). The glucose and insulin responses of the Sydney test meals varied over a 3-fold range (P responses of the Toronto test meals varied over a 2.4-fold range (P responses were not related to the fat or protein content of the test meal. Carbohydrate content (P = 0.002) and GI (P = 0.022) alone were related to glucose responses; together they accounted for 88% of the variation in the glycemic response (P response was significantly related to the glucose response (r = 0.94, P = 0.005). When properly applied in realistic settings, GI is a significant determinant of the glycemic effect of mixed meals in normal subjects. For mixed meals within the broad range of nutrient composition that we tested, carbohydrate content and GI together explained approximately 90% of the variation in the mean glycemic response, with protein and fat having negligible effects.

  7. The Effects of Breakfast and Breakfast Composition on Cognition in Children and Adolescents: A Systematic Review123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champ, Claire L

    2016-01-01

    Breakfast is thought to be beneficial for cognitive and academic performance in school children. However, breakfast is the most frequently skipped meal, especially among adolescents. The aim of the current article was to systematically review the evidence from intervention studies for the effects of breakfast on cognitive performance in children and adolescents. The effects of breakfast were evaluated by cognitive domain and breakfast manipulation. A total of 45 studies reported in 43 articles were included in the review. Most studies considered the acute effect of a single breakfast (n = 34). The acute studies looked at breakfast compared with no breakfast (n = 24) and/or comparisons of breakfast type (n = 15). The effects of chronic school breakfast program interventions were evaluated in 11 studies. The findings suggest that breakfast consumption relative to fasting has a short-term (same morning) positive domain-specific effect on cognition. Tasks requiring attention, executive function, and memory were facilitated more reliably by breakfast consumption relative to fasting, with effects more apparent in undernourished children. Firm conclusions cannot be made about the acute effects of breakfast composition and the effects of chronic breakfast interventions because there are too few studies and these largely report inconsistent findings. This review also highlights methodologic limitations of the existing research. These include a lack of research on adolescents, few naturalistic breakfast manipulations or testing environments, small samples, and insensitive cognitive tests. PMID:27184287

  8. Breakfast consumption affects adequacy of total daily intake in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklas, T A; Bao, W; Webber, L S; Berenson, G S

    1993-08-01

    Breakfast consumption patterns were assessed for 467 10-year-old children (59% white, 50% girls), who were interviewed in 1984-1985 or in 1987-1988. Consumption patterns were then related to mean daily nutrient intake patterns. More whites (56%) and more girls (46%) ate breakfast at home, whereas more blacks (58%) and more boys (49%) ate breakfast at school. Results indicated that 16% of all children skipped breakfast; the highest percentage was in black girls (24%). Breakfast consumption made a significant contribution to the child's mean daily nutrient intake. The average total energy intake was significantly lower for children who did not consume breakfast (mean = 1,821 kcal) and for children who consumed breakfast at home (mean = 2,098 kcal) compared with children who consumed breakfast at school (mean = 2,326 kcal). A similar pattern was noted for macronutrient contribution. Percentage of total energy from fat was lower in children who did not eat breakfast (34%) compared with those who did (37% to 39%), yet percentage of energy from carbohydrate was higher (53%) in children who did not eat breakfast. Children who skipped breakfast did not make up the differences in dietary intakes at other meals. A higher percentage of children who did not consume breakfast compared with those who ate breakfast did not meet two thirds of the Recommended Dietary Allowance for vitamins and minerals. These data confirm the importance of breakfast to overall dietary quality and adequacy in school-age children.

  9. Environmental and cognitive correlates of adolescent breakfast consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeJong, Cara S; van Lenthe, Frank J; van der Horst, Klazine; Oenema, Anke

    2009-04-01

    This study aimed to identify cognitive and environmental correlates of daily adolescent breakfast consumption. Adolescents (n=1089) aged 12-15 years in schools in Rotterdam, The Netherlands, completed a questionnaire measuring daily breakfast consumption, individual cognitions, and home environmental factors during the 2005-2006 school year. Multilevel logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the association between the environmental variables, cognitions and everyday breakfast consumption. Additionally, mediation of the effect of the environmental variables through the individual cognitions on breakfast consumption was explored. Attitude, perceived behavioral control, modeling by friends and parents, and intention were associated with daily breakfast consumption. Political (breakfast rules), physical (available breakfast products), and socio-cultural (having breakfast with a parent, having the evening meal with a parent, eating the evening meal in front of the TV) environments were also associated with daily breakfast consumption. Associations of the environmental factors were partly mediated by the individual cognitions. Individual cognitions and a supportive home environment are associated with adolescent breakfast consumption. Since parents primarily shape the home environment, interventions aimed at improving adolescent breakfast consumption should target the parent as well as the adolescent.

  10. Rye-Based Evening Meals Favorably Affected Glucose Regulation and Appetite Variables at the Following Breakfast; A Randomized Controlled Study in Healthy Subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonna C Sandberg

    Full Text Available Whole grain has shown potential to prevent obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Possible mechanism could be related to colonic fermentation of specific indigestible carbohydrates, i.e. dietary fiber (DF. The aim of this study was to investigate effects on cardiometabolic risk factors and appetite regulation the next day when ingesting rye kernel bread rich in DF as an evening meal.Whole grain rye kernel test bread (RKB or a white wheat flour based bread (reference product, WWB was provided as late evening meals to healthy young adults in a randomized cross-over design. The test products RKB and WWB were provided in two priming settings: as a single evening meal or as three consecutive evening meals prior to the experimental days. Test variables were measured in the morning, 10.5-13.5 hours after ingestion of RKB or WWB. The postprandial phase was analyzed for measures of glucose metabolism, inflammatory markers, appetite regulating hormones and short chain fatty acids (SCFA in blood, hydrogen excretion in breath and subjective appetite ratings.With the exception of serum CRP, no significant differences in test variables were observed depending on length of priming (P>0.05. The RKB evening meal increased plasma concentrations of PYY (0-120 min, P<0.001, GLP-1 (0-90 min, P<0.05 and fasting SCFA (acetate and butyrate, P<0.05, propionate, P = 0.05, compared to WWB. Moreover, RKB decreased blood glucose (0-120 min, P = 0.001, serum insulin response (0-120 min, P<0.05 and fasting FFA concentrations (P<0.05. Additionally, RKB improved subjective appetite ratings during the whole experimental period (P<0.05, and increased breath hydrogen excretion (P<0.001, indicating increased colonic fermentation activity.The results indicate that RKB evening meal has an anti-diabetic potential and that the increased release of satiety hormones and improvements of appetite sensation could be beneficial in preventing obesity. These effects could

  11. Effects of Ready-to-Eat-Cereals on Key Nutritional and Health Outcomes : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Priebe, Marion G.; McMonagle, Jolene R.

    2016-01-01

    Background In many countries breakfast cereals are an important component of breakfast. This systematic review assesses the contribution of consumption of ready-to eat cereal (RTEC) to the recommended nutrient intake. Furthermore, the effects of RTEC consumption on key health parameters are

  12. The effect of breakfast on appetite regulation, energy balance and exercise performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, David J; James, Lewis J

    2016-08-01

    The belief that breakfast is the most important meal of day has been derived from cross-sectional studies that have associated breakfast consumption with a lower BMI. This suggests that breakfast omission either leads to an increase in energy intake or a reduction in energy expenditure over the remainder of the day, resulting in a state of positive energy balance. However, observational studies do not imply causality. A number of intervention studies have been conducted, enabling more precise determination of breakfast manipulation on indices of energy balance. This review will examine the results from these studies in adults, attempting to identify causal links between breakfast and energy balance, as well as determining whether consumption of breakfast influences exercise performance. Despite the associations in the literature, intervention studies have generally found a reduction in total daily energy intake when breakfast is omitted from the daily meal pattern. Moreover, whilst consumption of breakfast supresses appetite during the morning, this effect appears to be transient as the first meal consumed after breakfast seems to offset appetite to a similar extent, independent of breakfast. Whether breakfast affects energy expenditure is less clear. Whilst breakfast does not seem to affect basal metabolism, breakfast omission may reduce free-living physical activity and endurance exercise performance throughout the day. In conclusion, the available research suggests breakfast omission may influence energy expenditure more strongly than energy intake. Longer term intervention studies are required to confirm this relationship, and determine the impact of these variables on weight management.

  13. The effect of health education programs for parents about breakfast on students' breakfast and their academic achievement in the north of Jordan

    OpenAIRE

    Mariam M. Kawafheh; Falastine R. Hamdan; Shalabia El-Sayed Abozeid; Hani Nawafleh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Breakfast is often said to be the most important meal of the day, there is a significant evidence of positive academic effects due to breakfast consumption. Objectives: The purpose of this study is to examine whether the health education intervention about breakfast for parents leads to improvement in students' breakfast intake and their academic achievements, it also aims at investigating the effect of students' gender and class on their performance. Methods: The sample of the st...

  14. Breakfast Eating Habits among Medical Students | Ackuaku-Dogbe ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Breakfast is often thought to be the most important meal of the day as it is known to provide energy for the brain and improve learning. It is also known to contribute significantly to the total daily energy and nutrient intake. Skipping breakfast may affect performance during the rest of the day. Aim: To determine the ...

  15. Association between breakfast skipping and adiposity status among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Association between breakfast skipping and adiposity status among civil servants in the Tamale metropolis. V Mogre, JA Atibilla, BNA Kandoh. Abstract. Breakfast meal contributes at least 25% of the daily requirements of an individual making it crucial for healthy growth and development. The aim of this study was to assess ...

  16. Cooking breakfast after a brain injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annick N. Tanguay

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Acquired brain injury (ABI often compromises the ability to carry out instrumental activities of daily living such as cooking. ABI patients’ difficulties with executive functions and memory result in less independent and efficient meal preparation. Accurately assessing safety and proficiency in cooking is essential for successful community reintegration following ABI, but in vivo assessment of cooking by clinicians is time-consuming, costly, and difficult to standardize. Accordingly, we examined the usefulness of a computerized meal preparation task (the Breakfast Task; Craik & Bialystok, 2006 as an indicator of real life meal preparation skills. Twenty-two ABI patients and 22 age-matched controls completed the Breakfast Task and the Rehabilitation Activities of Daily Living Survey (RADLS; Salmon, 2003. Patients also prepared actual meals, and were rated by members of the clinical team. As expected, the ABI patients had significant difficulty on all aspects of the Breakfast Task (failing to have all their foods ready at the same time, over- and under-cooking foods, setting fewer places at the table, and so on relative to controls. Surprisingly, however, patients’ Breakfast Task performance was not correlated with their in vivo meal preparation. These results indicate caution when endeavoring to replace traditional evaluation methods with computerized tasks for the sake of expediency.

  17. Cereal Killers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saks, Judith Brody

    1995-01-01

    Advocates of the federally subsidized school breakfast program see a strong link between nutrition and learning. However, some opponents believe that the breakfast program is an intrusion into family life and is not cost-effective for a school district. School board members on both sides of the issue discuss the reasons for their stand. (MLF)

  18. Análise das propriedades mecânicas de cereais matinais com diferentes fontes de amido durante o processo de absorção de leite Analysis of mechanical properties of breakfast cereals during process of milk absorption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katiuchia Pereira Takeuchi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Cereais matinais são produtos extrusados, tradicionalmente consumidos com leite e o principal componente é o amido. A característica de crocância destes produtos está associada a frescor e qualidade do produto e a sua perda é uma das causas de rejeição de consumo. Mudanças indesejáveis na textura podem ocorrer quando os cereais são expostos a determinadas condições ambientais ou quando imersos em meio líquido. A estrutura física dos cereais tem uma grande influência na difusão do líquido, pois sua alta porosidade e higroscopicidade implicam em aumento da difusividade da umidade e conseqüente aumento da atividade de água, ganhando umidade rapidamente e perdendo sua textura quebradiça desejável, tornando-se amolecido. Neste trabalho, o comportamento de três cereais matinais comerciais foi analisado e os coeficientes de difusão foram determinados, além do estudo da alteração da textura destes produtos, através das propriedades mecânicas, em relação ao tempo de imersão em leite. A variação dos valores de atividade de água em equilíbrio com as amostras em relação ao tempo de imersão foram avaliadas com o intuito de quantificar o tempo crítico e a atividade de água correspondente em que os cereais matinais comerciais perdem a crocância.Breakfast cereals are products extrudate, starch-based, which traditionally are consumed with milk. The crispness of these products has been associated to the freshness and quality and their loss has been one of the causes of rejection by consumers. Undesirable textural changes may occur when these cereals are exposed to the atmospheric environment or are soaked in liquid medium. The physical structure of these cereals has a great influence in the moisture diffusion, therefore their high porosity and hygroscopic behavior imply in increase of the diffusivity of the milk and increase of the water activity, gaining moisture quickly and loosing their desirable brittle texture

  19. The relationship of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumption with nutrient intake and weight status in children and adolescents: the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh-Taskar, Priya R; Nicklas, Theresa A; O'Neil, Carol E; Keast, Debra R; Radcliffe, John D; Cho, Susan

    2010-06-01

    National data comparing nutrient intakes and anthropometric measures in children/adolescents in the United States who skip breakfast or consume different types of breakfasts are limited. To examine the relationship between breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with nutrient intake, nutrient adequacy, and adiposity status. Children aged 9 to 13 years (n=4,320) and adolescents aged 14 to 18 years (n=5,339). Cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006. Breakfast consumption was self-reported. A 24-hour dietary recall was used to assess nutrient intakes. Mean adequacy ratio (MAR) for micronutrients and anthropometric indexes were evaluated. Covariate-adjusted sample-weighted means were compared using analysis of variance and Bonferroni's correction for multiple comparisons among breakfast skippers (breakfast skippers), ready-to-eat (RTE) cereal consumers, and other breakfast (other breakfast) consumers. Twenty percent of children and 31.5% of adolescents were breakfast skippers; 35.9% of children and 25.4% of adolescents consumed RTE cereal. In children/adolescents, RTE cereal consumers had lower intakes of total fat and cholesterol and higher intakes of total carbohydrate, dietary fiber, and several micronutrients (Pbreakfast skippers and other breakfast consumers. RTE cereal consumers had the highest MAR for micronutrients, and MAR was the lowest for breakfast skippers (Pbreakfast skippers had higher body mass index-for-age z scores (Pbreakfast consumers. Prevalence of obesity (body mass index > or = 95th percentile) was higher in breakfast skippers than RTE cereal consumers (Pbreakfast consumers than RTE cereal consumers only in adolescents (Pbreakfast skippers or other breakfast consumers in US children/adolescents. 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of the macronutrient composition of breakfast on satiety and cognitive function in undergraduate students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emilien, Christine H; West, Robert; Hollis, James H

    2016-07-05

    It is believed that breakfast is an important meal due to its effect on appetite control and cognitive performance, yet little evidence exists to support this hypothesis. Using a crossover design, 33 healthy undergraduates (aged 22 ± 2 years with a BMI of 23.5 ± 1.7 kg/m(2)) were randomized one of four breakfast treatments: no breakfast, a low-protein breakfast containing no animal protein, a high-carbohydrate/low-protein breakfast containing animal protein or a low-carbohydrate/high-protein breakfast. After an overnight fast, participants reported to the laboratory and baseline appetite questionnaires and cognitive tests were completed. A baseline blood sample was also collected. These measures were repeated at regular intervals throughout the test session. An ad libitum lunch meal was provided 240 min after breakfast, and the amount eaten recorded. Diet diaries and hourly appetite questionnaires were completed for the rest of the day. The no-breakfast treatment had a marked effect on appetite before lunch (p breakfast treatment (p breakfast was eaten. However, food intake over the entire test day was lowest for the no-breakfast treatment (p breakfast (p breakfast on mood or cognitive performance. These results suggest that changing the macronutrient content of breakfast influences the glycemic response, but has no effect on the appetitive or cognitive performance measures used in this present study.

  1. Breakfast eating habits among medical students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ackuaku-Dogbe, E M; Abaidoo, B

    2014-06-01

    Breakfast is often thought to be the most important meal of the day as it is known to provide energy for the brain and improve learning. It is also known to contribute significantly to the total daily energy and nutrient intake. Skipping breakfast may affect performance during the rest of the day. To determine the level of breakfast skipping among medical students and its effect on their attention span and level of fatigue during clinical sessions. A descriptive cross-sectional study of breakfast eating habits among medical students at the University of Ghana Medical School, Korle Bu-Accra. The University of Ghana Medical School, Korle Bu-Accra. Questionnaires were distributed to second year (pre-clinical) medical students studying the basic sciences and clinical students in ophthalmology to be self-administered. Interview data was captured and analyzed using SPSS version 17.0. The total number of pre-clinical students recruited was 154 and clinical students 163 bringing to a total of 317 students made up of 203 males and 114 females (M: F=1.8:1). The overall breakfast skipping among the students was 71.92%. The prevalence among the pre-clinical students was 76.62% and clinical students 67.48%. Generally, breakfast skipping was significantly related to fatigue and poor attention during clinical sessions. This study suggests that the medical students, both pre-clinical and clinical, skip breakfast and this may affect their studies adversely.

  2. Vitamin B2 (riboflavin content in cereal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soňa Škrovánková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin B2 (riboflavin is a water-soluble essential vitamin. Nowadays an increased risk for riboflavin deficiency may be seen in people on special diets (diabetes mellitus, smokers or heavy alcohol drinkers. In the Czech diet the main sources of the vitamin intake are milk and dairy products followed by cereals and meat. Cereals are good source of this vitamin as it is widely and regularly consumed in different forms. Analyses of the vitamin B2 content in different types of cereal products (flours, breads, pastries, breakfast cereals, cooked pasta of Czech origin using HPLC with reversed phase and UV detection were done. The vitamin B2 content of chosen cereal products decreased in this progression: enriched wholemeal breakfast cereals (the best source of the vitamin, enriched wheat flours, breads – rye and wholemeal wheat breads, whole wheat and spelt flours, wheat bread, cooked whole wheat and rye spaghetti, wheat and multigrain pastries and finally scoured wheat flours.

  3. Comparison of Conventional and Microwave Assisted Heating on Carbohydrate Content, Antioxidant Capacity and Postprandial Glycemic Response in Oat Meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Harasym

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Minimally processed cereal breakfast products from whole grain entered the market due to consumer demand of more nutritional food with more controlled sugar release. However, the subsequent processing of such products with different cooking methods in the consumer’s kitchen may lead to significant differentiation of their nutritional value. Therefore, the evaluation of the impact of frequently used cooking methods on a final quality of breakfast cereals meal is needed. The present study investigates how the two different methods of heating, conventional and microwave (MW assisted, affect the carbohydrate content, profile and resulting glycemic index of so prepared food as well as the antioxidant activity of meals. Two products available on the market—oat bran and flakes—were used. The highest starch content in fluid phase of oatmeal was detected in samples heated for 3 min with microwaves, regardless the type. The lowest starch content was obtained for 5 min MW heated flakes sample. The total content of glucose was about 1.5 times lower in bran vs. flakes oatmeal. The highest β-glucan content in fluid fraction was also observed for bran meal but its release was independent of applied conditions.

  4. Eating ready-to-eat cereal for breakfast is positively associated with daily nutrient intake, but not weight, in Mexican-American children and adolescents: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2002

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ready-to-eat cereal (RTEC) has been associated with improved nutrient intake and weight status, but intake has not been studied in Mexican-American (MA) children. The objective of this study was to assess whether nutrient intake, mean adequacy ratio (MAR), and weight were associated with classificat...

  5. Breakfast quality differences among children and adolescents in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barić, Irena Colić; Satalić, Zvonimir

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish nutrient intake from breakfast in children and adolescents in Croatia (n = 1190). A quantified FFQ method was used. The results showed that 1.7% of subjects skip breakfast. Energy intake from breakfast was 26% RDA. Adolescents obtained significantly more energy from carbohydrates and less from fat than children. Children had significantly higher cholesterol and significantly lower dietary fiber intake than adolescents. Intakes of almost all examined micronutrients differed significantly according to age. Milk and dairy products were major energy contributors in children's breakfast whereas most of the adolescents' energy came from cereal products. Breakfasts containing at least one dairy food, one cereal food and fruit/fruit juice were consumed by 13.7% and 21.9% of children and adolescents respectively. A total of 33.3% and 47.6% of subjects respectively consumed milk every day while 15.9% and 10.4% did not consume milk for breakfast at all. Subjects with BMI > 85th percentile had significantly higher energy intake while those with BMI breakfast at schools would improve dietary habits of this population.

  6. The combination of daily breakfast consumption and optimal breakfast choices in childhood is an important public health message.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papoutsou, Stalo; Briassoulis, George; Hadjigeorgiou, Charalambos; Savva, Savvas C; Solea, Tonia; Hebestreit, Antje; Pala, Valeria; Sieri, Sabina; Kourides, Yiannis; Kafatos, Anthony; Tornaritis, Michael

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the association of breakfast consumption with children's diet quality and cardiometabolic risk factors. Study sample consisted of 1558 children aged 4-8 years from Cyprus. Breakfast frequency was assessed through a parental questionnaire. Body mass index (BMI), BMI z-scores, waist circumference, blood lipid profile and blood pressure were examined in relation to breakfast frequency consumption. Habitual breakfast consumers' daily nutrient intake was assessed through a 24-Hour Dietary Recall, according to their breakfast choices. Girls who have breakfast on a daily basis had lower mean BMI and BMI z-score; they were also less likely of having abnormal levels of serum triglycerides, atheromatic index (total cholesterol to high density lipoprotein-cholesterol ratio) and diastolic blood pressure after controlling for several confounding factors. Within regular breakfast consumers, of both boys and girls, those having ready to eat cereals had a superior nutrient intake profile. Daily breakfast consumption along with good breakfast choices is an important public health message for Cypriot children.

  7. Meal frequencies in early adolescence predict meal frequencies in late adolescence and early adulthood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht

    2013-01-01

    Health and risk behaviours tend to be maintained from adolescence into adulthood. There is little knowledge on whether meal frequencies in adolescence are maintained into adulthood. We investigated whether breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequencies in early adolescence predicted meal frequencies...... in late adolescence and in early adulthood. Further, the modifying effect of gender and adolescent family structure were investigated....

  8. Breakfast frequency and quality may affect glycemia and appetite in adults and children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Mark A; Erickson, Elizabeth; McKee, Patricia; Schrankler, Karilyn; Raatz, Susan K; Lytle, Leslie A; Pellegrini, Anthony D

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies of breakfast frequency in children and adults suggest an inverse (protective) association between the frequency of eating breakfast and the risk for obesity and chronic diseases such as type 2 diabetes. More prospective studies with stronger designs are needed, as are experimental studies on this topic. In addition, above and beyond breakfast frequency, the roles of dietary quality and composition need to be studied in the context of eating or skipping breakfast. Experimental studies are also necessary to rigorously test causality and biological mechanisms. Therefore, we conducted 2 pilot experimental studies to examine some of the effects of breakfast skipping and breakfast composition on blood glucose and appetite in children and adults. Our results suggest that breakfast frequency and quality may be related in causal ways to appetite controls and blood sugar control, supporting the hypothesis that the breakfast meal and its quality may have important causal implications for the risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  9. Skipping breakfast and associated factors among Brazilian adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemeyre França de Paula FIUZA

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the prevalence and factors associated with breakfast skipping among adolescents. Methods Cross-sectional study, with adolescents aged 10-17 years, evaluated between 2009 and 2011, belonging to a cohort study in the Central-West region of Brazil. Breakfast skipping was considered as not having breakfast every day. Demographic, socioeconomic, and lifestyle factors were evaluated through a questionnaire. Anthropometric assessment included measurement of weight and height, which were used to classify weight status using body mass index. Poisson regression was used to assess the association of breakfast skipping with demographic and socioeconomic variables, lifestyle factors, and weight status. Results Among 1,716 Brazilian adolescents evaluated, 36.2% reported not consuming breakfast every day, with the highest prevalence among girls (p=0.03. After adjusting for age and economic class, breakfast skipping was associated with not consuming breakfast with parents and morning shift at school, in both genders, and with obesity only in boys. Lifestyle factors such as alcohol consumption, physical activity, diet quality, and smoking were not associated with skipping breakfast. Conclusion The omission of breakfast was observed in more than a third of adolescents, being associated with demographic and lifestyle factors. In the public health perspective, the importance of encouraging the consumption of this meal is highlighted, with actions involving the school environment and the family.

  10. Effect of breakfast composition on cognitive processes in elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Caroline R; Taylor, Holly A; Kanarek, Robin B; Samuel, Priscilla

    2005-08-07

    The relationship between breakfast composition and cognitive performance was examined in elementary school children. Two experiments compared the effects of two common U.S. breakfast foods and no breakfast on children's cognition. Using a within-participant design, once a week for 3 weeks, children consumed one of two breakfasts or no breakfast and then completed a battery of cognitive tests. The two breakfasts were instant oatmeal and ready-to-eat cereal, which were similar in energy, but differed in macronutrient composition, processing characteristics, effects on digestion and metabolism, and glycemic score. Results with 9 to 11 year-olds replicated previous findings showing that breakfast intake enhances cognitive performance, particularly on tasks requiring processing of a complex visual display. The results extend previous findings by showing differential effects of breakfast type. Boys and girls showed enhanced spatial memory and girls showed improved short-term memory after consuming oatmeal. Results with 6 to 8 year-olds also showed effects of breakfast type. Younger children had better spatial memory and better auditory attention and girls exhibited better short-term memory after consuming oatmeal. Due to compositional differences in protein and fiber content, glycemic scores, and rate of digestion, oatmeal may provide a slower and more sustained energy source and consequently result in cognitive enhancement compared to low-fiber high glycemic ready-to-eat cereal. These results have important practical implications, suggesting the importance of what children consume for breakfast before school.

  11. The intake and quality of breakfast consumption in adolescents ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2014-10-03

    Oct 3, 2014 ... smoking or binge drinking, and eating breakfast regularly, decline ..... Milk*. Ready-to-eat cereal. Maize porridge. Other cooked porridge**. Fresh fruit. Egg. * Only included for servings of 100 ml or more. ** Made up of cooked ..... a significant contribution to micronutrient intake of South African adults.

  12. Exploring the reasons why school students eat or skip breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALBashtawy, Mohammed

    2015-07-01

    Breakfast is considered to be the most important meal of the day. It provides the essential nutrients needed for the day's activities. To determine the prevalence of breakfast consumption and to assess the nutritional status of students aged 12-18 years. A school-based study carried out between September and October 2014 involved 1,303 school students from grades 7 to 12, aged 12 to 18 years, who completed a questionnaire on breakfast consumption. The chi-square test was used. An odds ratio and 95% confidence interval determined the predictive factors for skipping breakfast. The prevalence of breakfast consumption was 52.3%, statistically decreasing with age. Adjusted logistic regression analysis reflected a statistically high consumption among 12-15 year olds, those with highly educated mothers and those with low family income. For the target groups at risk, a community and school-based health education programme, conducted by school nurses and other healthcare providers, would be beneficial.

  13. Breakfast habits among school children in selected communities in the eastern region of Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Intiful, F D; Lartey, A

    2014-06-01

    Breakfast is considered the most important meal of the day, yet many people skip breakfast. Studies indicate that school age children who regularly skip breakfast are not likely to concentrate in class, thus affecting school performance. This study determined the breakfast habits and nutrient contributions of the breakfast meal to the days' nutrient intake. A cross sectional study was conducted among school children (n=359) between the ages of 6-19 years in Manya Krobo in the Eastern Region of Ghana. Questionnaires were used to collect information on background characteristics and breakfast consumption habits. The 24-hour dietary recall method was used to obtain information on the children's food intake. T-test was used to compare differences between means of variables of breakfast consumers and skippers. About 85.5% of the children had breakfast on the day of interview. More boys (87.8%) consumed breakfast compared to the girls (83.1%). For those who skipped breakfast, lack of food at home or lack of no money (36.5%) was the main reason. Breakfast consumers had significantly higher energy and nutrient intakes than those who skipped breakfast (energy 2259 verses 1360 kcal, p-0.039; vitamin A 1534 verses 662 ug/RE, p=0.001; iron 22.9 verses 13.9 mg, p=0.017, zinc 9.9 verses 5.6 mg, p=0.034). The breakfast meal contributed between 32-41% of the day's energy intake, and between 30-47% of micronutrient intake. Encouraging breakfast consumption among school children is a way to ensure that they meet their daily nutrient and energy intakes.

  14. Breakfast habits, nutritional status, body weight, and academic performance in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rampersaud, Gail C; Pereira, Mark A; Girard, Beverly L; Adams, Judi; Metzl, Jordan D

    2005-05-01

    Breakfast has been labeled the most important meal of the day, but are there data to support this claim? We summarized the results of 47 studies examining the association of breakfast consumption with nutritional adequacy (nine studies), body weight (16 studies), and academic performance (22 studies) in children and adolescents. Breakfast skipping is highly prevalent in the United States and Europe (10% to 30%), depending on age group, population, and definition. Although the quality of breakfast was variable within and between studies, children who reported eating breakfast on a consistent basis tended to have superior nutritional profiles than their breakfast-skipping peers. Breakfast eaters generally consumed more daily calories yet were less likely to be overweight, although not all studies associated breakfast skipping with overweight. Evidence suggests that breakfast consumption may improve cognitive function related to memory, test grades, and school attendance. Breakfast as part of a healthful diet and lifestyle can positively impact children's health and well-being. Parents should be encouraged to provide breakfast for their children or explore the availability of a school breakfast program. We advocate consumption of a healthful breakfast on a daily basis consisting of a variety of foods, especially high-fiber and nutrient-rich whole grains, fruits, and dairy products.

  15. Effects of breakfast with different calorigenic amounts on blood glucose, insulin and glucagon levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Su-xia; Fu, Yun-xing; Wang, Hui-ming; Giang, Sylvia

    2003-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the relationship between breakfast and serum glucose, insulin and glucagon concentrations in order to establish a model breakfast appropriate for Chinese. Twenty-four volunteers were randomly assigned to four study groups: high carbohydrate breakfast, high fat and protein breakfast, the typical breakfast and fasting. Each subject had serum and urine samples collected while fasting and at 1,2 and 3.5 hours following the meal. The concentration of serum glucose, insulin and glucagon was measured. The levels of serum glucose in group A, B and C differed significantly at 1 and 2 hour after meal compared to those at fasting (Pbreakfast in group A, B and C (Pconcentration to various extents. We found that a breakfast rich in carbohydrates could maintain proper blood glucose level.

  16. The effect of breakfast type and frequency of consumption on glycemic response in overweight/obese late adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwattar, A Y; Thyfault, J P; Leidy, H J

    2015-08-01

    The primary aim was to examine the daily glycemic response to normal-protein (NP) vs higher-protein (HP) breakfasts in overweight adolescents who habitually skip breakfast (H-BS). The secondary aim examined whether the glycemic response to these meals differed in H-BS vs habitual breakfast consumers (H-BC). Thirty-five girls (age: 19 ± 1 year; body mass index: 28.4 ± 0.7 kg/m(2)) participated in the semi-randomized crossover-design study. The participants were grouped according to habitual breakfast frequency. H-BS (n = 20) continued to skip breakfast (BS) or consumed a NP (12 g protein) or HP (32 g protein) breakfast for 3 days, whereas the H-BC (n = 15) completed the NP and HP breakfast conditions for 3 days. On day 4 of each pattern, an 8 h testing day was completed. The respective breakfast and a standard lunch meal were provided, and plasma was collected to assess morning, afternoon, and total glucose and insulin area under the curves (AUC). In H-BS, the addition of a HP breakfast increased total glucose AUC vs BS (P breakfast increased total insulin AUC vs BS (P breakfast reduced morning, afternoon and total glucose AUCs vs NP (all, P breakfasts (both, Pbreakfasts were observed and were influenced by the frequency of habitual breakfast consumption in overweight adolescents.

  17. Losing weight without dieting. Use of commercial foods as meal replacements for lunch produces an extended energy deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitsky, David A; Pacanowski, Carly

    2011-10-01

    High-protein liquid meal replacements have proven to be effective in reducing caloric intake and body weight. Recently, substituting high fiber breakfast cereals for the more expensive high-protein drinks has been found to be equally effective to reduce weight. The following study tested the hypothesis that the mechanism responsible for the reduced intake was not the dietary composition of the meal replacement, but the controlled portion sized meals. Seventeen volunteers ate all of their meals and snacks from foods provided by the research unit from Monday to Friday for five consecutive weeks. For the first week, all participants selected their food from a buffet where each food was weighed before and after eating. For the next two weeks, half of the group selected their lunch by choosing one food from a selection of six commercially available portion controlled foods. They could eat as much as they wished at other meals or snacks. For final weeks four and five, the conditions were reversed for the two groups. Consuming the portion controlled lunches resulted in about a 250 kcal reduction in energy intake. More importantly, no sign of caloric compensation was evident across the 10 days of testing, an observation substantiated by a significant loss of body weight. The results suggest that the mere substitution of one smaller portioned meal each day is sufficient to cause reduction in daily energy intake and a significant amount of weight. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Breakfast: a multidisciplinary approach

    OpenAIRE

    Affinita, Antonio; Catalani, Loredana; Cecchetto, Giovanna; De Lorenzo, Gianfranco; Dilillo, Dario; Donegani, Giorgio; Fransos, Lucia; Lucidi, Fabio; Mameli, Chiara; Manna, Elisa; Marconi, Paolo; Mele, Giuseppe; Minestroni, Laura; Montanari, Massimo; Morcellini, Mario

    2013-01-01

    Background The role of breakfast as an essential part of an healthy diet has been only recently promoted even if breakfast practices were known since the Middle Age. The growing scientific evidences on this topic are extremely sector-based nevertheless breakfast could be regarded from different point of views and from different expertises. This approach, that take into account history, sociology, anthropology, medicine, psychology and pedagogy, is useful to better understand the value of this...

  19. Breakfast and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cueto, S

    2001-12-01

    Evidence suggests that the effect of fasting on performance is not uniform, but it is dependent on the basal nutritional status of the subject. Breakfast consumption has a short-term effect in improving selected learning skills, especially work memory. School breakfast programmes have a positive effect on the nutritional status of children, on school attendance and probably on dropout rates. The effect of breakfast consumption on school performance depends on the interaction between the programme, student characteristics (malnutrition) and school organisation. Unless the school setting guarantees a minimum quality standard, the benefits of breakfast consumption will not be evident in performance in complex areas like language or maths.

  20. Eating breakfast together as a family: mealtime experiences and associations with dietary intake among adolescents in rural Minnesota, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; Wang, Qi; Berge, Jerica M; Shanafelt, Amy; Nanney, Marilyn S

    2016-06-01

    Although existing evidence links breakfast frequency to better dietary quality, little is known specifically in regard to the benefits associated with eating breakfast together with one's family. The present study describes the prevalence and experience of having family meals at breakfast among rural families and examines associations between meal frequency and adolescent diet quality. Data were drawn from Project BreakFAST, a group-randomized trial aimed at increasing school breakfast participation in rural Minnesota high schools, USA. Linear mixed models were used to examine associations between student reports of family breakfast frequency and Healthy Eating Index 2010 (HEI-2010) scores while accounting for clustering within schools, demographics and household food security. Adolescent students from sixteen schools completed online surveys, height and weight measurements, and dietary recalls at baseline in 2012-2014. The sample included 827 adolescents (55·1 % girls) in grades 9-10 who reported eating breakfast on at most three days per school week. On average, adolescents reported eating breakfast with their family 1·3 (sd 1·9) times in the past week. Family breakfast meals occurred most frequently in the homes of adolescents who reported a race other than white (P=0·002) or Hispanic ethnicity (P=0·02). Family breakfast frequency was directly associated with adolescent involvement in preparing breakfast meals (Pimportance, interactions and structure. Family breakfast frequency was unrelated to most diet quality markers. Family meals may be one important context of opportunity for promoting healthy food patterns at breakfast. Additional research is needed to better inform and evaluate strategies.

  1. 40 CFR 406.90 - Applicability; description of the ready-to-eat cereal subcategory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... other materials (whole grain wheat, rice, corn grits, oat flour, sugar, and minor ingredients) to produce various breakfast cereals normally available for human consumption without cooking. ...-to-eat cereal subcategory. 406.90 Section 406.90 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION...

  2. 21 CFR 137.285 - Degerminated yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated yellow corn meal. 137.285 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.285 Degerminated yellow corn meal. Degerminated yellow corn meal, degermed yellow corn meal, conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.265 for...

  3. 21 CFR 137.265 - Degerminated white corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Degerminated white corn meal. 137.265 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.265 Degerminated white corn meal. (a) Degerminated white corn meal, degermed white corn meal, is the food prepared by grinding cleaned white corn and removing bran...

  4. Breakfast habits of 1,202 northern Italian children admitted to a summer sport school. Breakfast skipping is associated with overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanelli, Maurizio; Iovane, Brunella; Bernardini, Anna; Chiari, Giovanni; Errico, Maria Katrin; Gelmetti, Chiara; Corchia, Matteo; Ruggerini, Anna; Volta, Elio; Rossetti, Stefano

    2005-09-01

    Very little is known about the differences in breakfast of children performing physical activity in the morning. This paper analyzed the breakfast habits of 747 boys and 455 girls, distributed in 2 homogeneous age groups, 6-10 and 11-14 year-old, participating in a Summer Sport School. Children were asked whether, when, where, how and with whom they consumed breakfast; who prepared meals; what they ate and drank; what they did during breakfast. Weight, height and BMI were recorded. Seventy-eight percent of children usually had breakfast, but 22% reported skipping breakfast. In the non-breakfast consumer subjects, 27.5% were overweight and 9.6% obese vs 9.1 and 4.5% respectively in breakfast eaters. Bakery products (76%) and milk (71%) were the most frequently consumed foods. Only 15% of parents encouraged their children to consume additional foods at breakfast before exercising, and 42% of children believed that this extra nutrition was unnecessary. In 80% of cases, the chief decision-maker for breakfast was the mother, the father played little part (1%). During breakfast, 48% of children ate and drank in silence, 26% played with brothers and sisters, 18% watched television and only 8% talked with parents. A high prevalence of over-weight and obesity was found among non-breakfast consumer children. Breakfast omission in children exercising conflicts with their increased energy requirements and may be connected to the trend of parents and children to under-estimate the importance of breakfast for nutritional balance and for environment promotion of physical performance.

  5. The role of breakfast in nutrient intake of urban schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitra, Uma; Reddy, C Radha

    2007-01-01

    To ascertain the breakfast habits of 10-15-year-old schoolchildren and to assess the quality of this meal as well as its relationship to the food consumption pattern for the full day. Cross-sectional survey. Eight hundred and two schoolchildren, boys and girls, aged 10-15 years, belonging to different urban schools located in Secunderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India. The breakfast eating patterns of the children were studied and their impact on growth was assessed, using dietary recalls and anthropometric measurements. Only 42.8% of the children ate breakfast regularly. Over half of the children skipped breakfast, ranging from daily to once in two weeks. The energy and protein composition of breakfasts eaten by the children indicated that those who did not skip breakfast met one-quarter to one-third of their total daily energy and protein requirements. Mean nutrient intakes calculated from 24-hour recalls revealed that the children's diets were inadequate compared with the recommended values for energy and protein. The inadequate energy intake was reflected in a high incidence of malnutrition in both boys and girls; 40.3% of the boys and 32.1% of the girls studied were found to be underweight. Protein intake was also inadequate among boys and girls, although a higher percentage of children met their protein requirements. Over half of the schoolchildren studied skipped breakfast frequently, the main reason being getting up late. Children who consumed breakfast had higher daily intakes of energy and protein than children who skipped breakfast. These data confirm the importance of breakfast to overall dietary quality and adequacy in school-aged children.

  6. Breakfast and behavior in morning tasks: Facts or fads?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edefonti, Valeria; Bravi, Francesca; Ferraroni, Monica

    2017-12-15

    Most of the studies investigating the effects of breakfast on cognitive performance have compared performance in subjects who have or have not consumed this meal. However, characteristics of breakfast itself may influence mental abilities. Moreover, as far as the positive effects of having breakfast is more evident, research may focus on the specific characteristics of an adequate breakfast. To update an existing systematic review, published at the beginning of 2014, on the role of nutrient composition and/or energy intake at breakfast on the accomplishment of school-related tasks and cognition, we carried out a systematic review of the literature through PUBMED database. From the literature search, we identified 39 papers, of which 2 were eligible according to our inclusion criteria. Both the selected papers concerned randomized crossover studies on the acute effect of breakfast carried out in a school setting in the United Kingdom. Both studies compared 2 iso-energetic breakfasts with a similar macronutrient composition; however, the alternative breakfasts were meant to differ in terms of glycemic index or glycemic load. The effects of breakfast composition were investigated on memory, attention, and information processing in both studies. However, different tests and subdomains were considered. Studies on these issues are still inconsistent and quantitatively insufficient to draw firm conclusions. While the hypothesis of a better mental performance with breakfast>20% daily energy intake still needs confirmation, there does appear to be extra evidence that a lower postprandial glycemic response is beneficial to mental performance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Wake Up to School Breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trotter, Andrew

    1992-01-01

    Nationally, only 49 percent of schools offering federally subsidized lunches take part in the breakfast program. Research indicates a connection between breakfast and learning. For many children, eating breakfast at home is not an option. Lists some of the unfounded concerns about breakfast programs that school officials raise, and provides…

  8. Social inequalities in young children's meal skipping behaviors: The Generation R Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.I. Wijtzes (Anne); W. Jansen (Wilma); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); O.H. Franco (Oscar); A. Hofman (Albert); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank); H. Raat (Hein)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Regular meal consumption is considered an important aspect of a healthy diet. While ample evidence shows social inequalities in breakfast skipping among adolescents, little is known about social inequalities in breakfast skipping and skipping of other meals among young

  9. [Current model of breakfast for different age groups: children, a adolescents and adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, C; Cuadrado, C; Carbajal, A; Moreiras, O

    1998-01-01

    The objective of the present work is to assess the current breakfast model in different age groups: children between the ages of 6 and 12 years (n = 54); adolescents between the ages of 13 and 17 years (n = 174); and adults, older than 18 years of age (n = 252). For this a questionnaire has been designed that follows the standards of that used for a similar study by our team in 1984 on a sample of 1350 individuals. The modified and amplified questionnaire included open and closed questions about: the omission of breakfast and its causes, foods that are a part of breakfast, the most frequent types and the variations, the role of the second breakfast, the number of fasting hours since dinner, the time spent of breakfast, and the subjective opinion regarding the importance or not of having breakfast. 98.95% answer yes to the question do you have breakfast, but only 9% eats a nutritionally correct breakfast, one defined as that breakfast that supplies 20% of the total energy and includes foods from at least four different groups. All the children included some form of milk product in their breakfast. The adolescents consumed the lowest proportion of cereals (19.4%) and the highest proportion of pastries (24.2%). The percentage of adults who drink coffee with milk (57%) and sugar (37.7%) is significantly higher than that it the other two groups. Bread (37.7%), pastries (28.3%) and cookies (26.1%) are the solid foods eaten most by the adults. The children spend the longest time on breakfast. 35.9% of the sample varies their breakfast, 43.1% never does, and 21% does so sometimes. The average time elapsed between dinner and breakfast is 10.5 +/- 1.2 hours. It is advisable to have a more nutritionally balanced breakfast, including different foods from at least four groups, and including a greater variety in the menus.

  10. Cecil Cereal's Supermarket Search. Teacher's Guide [and] Student Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Cynthia

    The document presents objectives, teaching methods, activities, and work sheets for a unit on choosing breakfast cereal. The unit is intended to be used as an integral part of the fifth grade health program. Activities take place in a classroom learning center and can be completed in approximately four to six hours of classroom time. Objectives…

  11. Development of a scale to measure 9-11-year-olds' attitudes towards breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tapper, K; Murphy, S; Lynch, R; Clark, R; Moore, G F; Moore, L

    2008-04-01

    Development and validation of a questionnaire to measure children's attitudes towards breakfast. A pilot study was used to select questionnaire items and assess test-retest reliability. The questionnaire was then administered to a larger sample of children together with a dietary recall questionnaire. Randomly selected subsets of these children also completed a dietary recall interview or their parents were asked to complete a questionnaire relating to their child's breakfast eating habits. Primary schools in south, west and north Wales, UK. A total of 2495 children (199 in pilot testing, 2382 in the main study) in years 5 and 6 (aged 9-11 years). The 13-item scale showed good construct validity, high internal reliability and acceptable test-retest reliability. Boys displayed more positive attitudes towards breakfast than girls but differences between the two age groups did not reach statistical significance. Children who did not skip breakfast displayed more positive attitudes than children who skipped breakfast. In addition, more positive attitudes towards breakfast were significantly correlated with consumption of a greater number of 'healthy' foods for breakfast (i.e., fruit, bread, cereal, milk products), consumption of fewer 'unhealthy' foods for breakfast (i.e., sweet items, crisps) and parental perceptions that their child usually ate a healthy breakfast. The breakfast attitudes questionnaire is a robust measure that is relatively quick to administer and simple to score. These qualities make it ideal for use where validity at the individual level is important or where more time-consuming dietary measures are not feasible.

  12. The relationship between breakfast habits and plasma cholesterol levels in schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnicow, K

    1991-02-01

    The relationship between breakfast habits and plasma total cholesterol (TC) levels was examined in a sample of 530 US schoolchildren ages 9-19. Based on response to a 124-item food checklist, subjects' usual breakfast habits were classified into one of six discrete categories: 1) Skipper, 2) Ready-to-Eat (RTE) cereal with Fiber, 3) Traditional Breakfast, 4) Chips or Sweets, 5) Other RTE, or 6) Mixed Breakfasts. Breakfast skippers, controlling for age, gender, and body mass index, had significantly (p less than 0.05) higher TC levels, 172 mg/dl, than breakfast consumers, 160 mg/dl. Among breakfast eaters, the mean TC of the "Fiber RTE" group was significantly lower (p less than 0.01) than all other breakfast consumers. Usual skippers were less likely to believe in the importance and benefits of breakfast as well as the need to eat foods high in fiber. These findings suggest that encouraging chronic breakfast skippers to modify their dietary habits may improve their nutritional status and possibly reduce their risk for future heart disease.

  13. Relationship between attendance at breakfast and school achievement among nursing students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Yen; Liao, Jenny C

    2002-03-01

    This survey by correlation study with partial qualitative design examined the effect of attendance at breakfast with school achievement in 710 first-year nursing students at a nursing institute in Northern Taiwan. Dietary attendance cards were scanned by computer before each meal. Since the school is located at a geographically isolated suburban area, this program was compulsory for all first-year nursing students and was included in the tuition fee. Comparison of attendance at breakfast over the four-month semester (from September 1999 to January 2000) and final semester class ranking showed a lower attending rate of breakfast (attendance at breakfast equal to or under 60% of mean times in a 4-month semester) was significantly associated with lower scores on tests in six individual classes and a class rank; while a higher frequency of breakfast attendance (attendance at breakfast equal to or over 85% of mean times in a 4-month semester) was significantly associated with higher scores on tests in six individual classes and a higher class rank (p breakfast and practicing health promotion behaviors, the Chinese Health Promoting Scale was used. We also found that those who skipped breakfast frequently had more negative health promotion behaviors than those who attended breakfast more regularly (p breakfast. The research outcome supports the importance of breakfast in school achievement.

  14. Can the provision of breakfast benefit school performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantham-McGregor, Sally

    2005-06-01

    Studies of an association between school performance (enrollment, attendance, achievement, classroom behavior, and school drop-out) and nutritional status are discussed and the evidence of an effect of school meals evaluated. Many studies have shown associations between hunger, poor dietary intakes, stunting, underweight, and poor school performance after controlling for socioeconomic conditions. However, it remains possible that unmeasured socioeconomic variables could explain the relationship. Rigorous short-term studies of missing breakfast have generally found detrimental effects on children's cognition whereas studies of providing breakfast have shown benefits particularly in malnourished children. Classroom conditions may modify the effects of breakfast on behavior. There are extremely few longer term studies of the effects of giving school meals. Nearly all involved breakfast and very few had randomized controlled designs. Studies comparing participants with non-participants or comparing matched schools have found benefits (but bias due to self-selection) of receiving breakfast; inadequate matching of schools also remains possible. One longer term randomized controlled trial found benefits associated with attendance and arithmetic performance. In conclusion, most studies of giving breakfast have found benefits to school performance but many had serious design problems, were short-term, and were not conducted in the poorest countries. In order to advise policy makers correctly, there is an urgent need to run long-term randomized controlled trials of giving school meals in poor countries and to determine the effects of age and nutrition status of the children, the quality of the school, and the timing of the meal. The special needs of orphans should also be considered.

  15. A high-protein breakfast prevents body fat gain, through reductions in daily intake and hunger, in "Breakfast skipping" adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidy, Heather J; Hoertel, Heather A; Douglas, Steve M; Higgins, Kelly A; Shafer, Rebecca S

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether the daily consumption of normal-protein (NP) vs. high-protein (HP) breakfast meals improves appetite control, food intake, and body composition in "breakfast skipping" young people with overweight/obesity. Fifty-seven adolescents (age: 19 ± 1 years; BMI: 29.7 ± 4.6 kg m(-2)) completed a 12-week randomized controlled trial in which the adolescents consumed either a 1,464 kJ NP breakfast (13 g protein) or a HP breakfast (35 g protein) or continued to skip breakfast (CON). Pre- and post-study appetite, food intake, body weight, and body composition were assessed. Time-by-group interactions (P breakfast improved indices of weight management as illustrated by the prevention of body fat gain, voluntary reductions in daily intake, and reductions in daily hunger in breakfast skipping adolescents with overweight/obesity. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  16. College and University Students' Breakfast Consumption Patterns: Behaviours, Beliefs, Motivations and Personal and Environmental Influences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Gwen E.; Melton, Christina L.; Hammond, Gail K.

    1998-01-01

    This qualitative study was designed to identify the beliefs, motivations and personal and environmental influences shaping breakfast consumption patterns of a group of college and university students. Twenty-eight women and 28 men participated in individual interviews where they discussed their usual breakfast habits and their beliefs about this meal. Most of the participants always or usually ate breakfast. Weekday breakfasts were consistent, convenient and included a small number of foods, while weekend breakfasts were more varied and sometimes included richer foods that required more preparation time. Breakfast was believed to be an important meal, providing energy and increasing productivity during the morning. The marked similarities in participants' beliefs and practices demonstrated the strong definition that breakfast has within mass North American culture. However, there were variations between individuals, with specific practices being influenced by personal food preferences, time availability, health beliefs and concerns, food availability, and the physical and social environment. Nutrition intervention programs encouraging regular consumption of a healthy breakfast should recognize the factors that relate to commonalities and differences in students' breakfast eating habits and help participants identify strategies that would work for their particular situation.

  17. Symposium overview: Do we all eat breakfast and is it important?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Marcello; Agostoni, Carlo; Shamir, Raanan

    2010-02-01

    Besides genetic and environmental factors, the breakfast meal and the frequency in which it is eaten may influence appetite control, dietary intake and composition, and chronic disease risk. Breakfast skipping may lead to up-regulation of appetite, possibly leading to weight gain over time and deleterious changes in risk factors for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Breakfast skipping has also been linked to poorer overall diet quality. Regular breakfast consumption, on the other hand, may reduce the risk of chronic diseases due to the potential impact on the composition of the overall diet, and is also associated with improved learning abilities and better school performance in children. Considering the trend to skip, or to have nutritionally inadequate breakfast, suggestions to promote and support breakfast in children and adolescents will be considered.

  18. Methodological Challenges in Studies Examining the Effects of Breakfast on Cognitive Performance and Appetite in Children and Adolescents

    OpenAIRE

    Adolphus, K; Bellissimo, N; Lawton, CL; Ford, NA; Rains, TM; Totosy de Zepetnek, J; Dye, L

    2017-01-01

    Breakfast is purported to confer a number of benefits on diet quality, health, appetite regulation, and cognitive performance. However, new evidence has challenged the long-held belief that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. This review aims to provide a comprehensive discussion of the key methodological challenges and considerations in studies assessing the effect of breakfast on cognitive performance and appetite control, along with recommendations for future research. This re...

  19. Breakfast skipping and breakfast type are associated with daily nutrient intakes and metabolic syndrome in Korean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sang-Jin; Lee, Yoonna; Lee, Seokhwa; Choi, Kyungran

    2015-06-01

    Emerging evidence shows that eating breakfast and breakfast types may be associated with health outcomes and dietary intakes in various populations. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between breakfast types in Korean adults with their daily nutrient intakes and health outcomes. A total of 11,801 20- to 64-year-old adults (age 42.9 ± 11.8 yrs [mean ± standard error of the mean]; male 41.1%, female 58.9%) in 2007-2009 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey data were divided into 5 groups based on breakfast types in a 24-hr dietary recall: rice with 3 or more side dishes (Rice3+, 35.3%), rice with 0-2 side dishes (Rice0-2, 34.73%), noodles (1.56%), bread and cereal (6.56%), and breakfast skipping (21.63%). Daily nutrient intakes and the risk of metabolic syndrome were compared among five groups. Compared with Korean Recommended Nutrient Intake levels, the breakfast-skipping group showed the lowest intake level in most nutrients, whereas the Rice3+ group showed the highest. Fat intake was higher in the bread and noodle groups than in the other groups. When compared with the Rice3+ group, the odds ratios for the risk of obesity and metabolic syndrome were increased in the breakfast skipping, Rice0-2, and noodle groups after controlling for confounding variables. The rice-based breakfast group showed better nutritional status and health outcomes when eating with 3 or more side dishes. Nutrition education is needed to emphasize both the potential advantage of the rice-based, traditional Korean diet in terms of nutritional content and the importance of food diversity.

  20. Selective effects of acute exercise and breakfast interventions on mood and motivation to eat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lluch, A; Hubert, P; King, N A; Blundell, J E

    2000-02-01

    The effects of exercise and breakfast manipulations on mood and motivation to eat were assessed in 11 healthy females who were regular exercisers and habitual breakfast eaters. The study involved a two by two repeated-measures design, with exercise (or no exercise) and a high-energy breakfast (or low-energy breakfast) as the repeated measures. The exercise or no-exercise session (0800 h) was followed by consumption of the low- or high-energy breakfast (0900 h). An ad libitum lunch test meal was provided 4 hours after the beginning of the exercise session (1200 h). Mood and motivation to eat were continuously tracked from 0800 until 1700 h by an electronic appetite ratings system (EARS). In general, morning subjective mood states (e.g., contentment) were significantly lower in the low-energy breakfast condition, but exercise reversed this effect. Exercise also significantly decreased feelings of lethargy, independent of the breakfast condition. Desire-to-eat and fullness ratings were significantly increased in the low-energy breakfast and high-energy breakfast conditions, respectively. Impairments of mood disappeared in the afternoon after consumption of an ad libitum lunch. In these healthy young adults, the condition inducing the largest energy deficit (exercise and low-energy breakfast) was not associated with the lowest mental states.

  1. Consuming pork proteins at breakfast reduces the feeling of hunger before lunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinert, Lene; Kehlet, Ursula; Aaslyng, Margit Dall

    2012-10-01

    This study investigated the effect of pork proteins consumed at breakfast on the subsequent feeling of hunger until the evening meal. The study involved 136 students at a local boarding school, which meant that the study could be carried out in the test persons' normal environment. All students consumed the control breakfast on one of the two test days, and then half the students consumed the medium-protein breakfast and the other half the high-protein breakfast on the other test day, thereby acting as his/her own control. It was clearly shown that consuming a medium- or high-protein breakfast decreased the hunger ratings until lunch (4 h) compared with a control breakfast. A dose-response relationship related to the amount of proteins consumed at breakfast was observed, the high-protein breakfast leading to feelings of being less hungry compared with consuming a medium-protein breakfast. However, there was no direct link between hunger ratings and actual energy intake at lunch. The self-reported snacking during the whole day showed no clear relationship with the type of breakfast consumed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Olive oil and walnut breakfasts reduce the postprandial inflammatory response in mononuclear cells compared with a butter breakfast in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Gómez, Yolanda; López-Miranda, José; Blanco-Colio, Luis M; Marín, Carmen; Pérez-Martínez, Pablo; Ruano, Juan; Paniagua, Juan A; Rodríguez, Fernando; Egido, Jesús; Pérez-Jiménez, Francisco

    2009-06-01

    Inflammation is crucial in all stages of atherosclerosis, and few studies have investigated the effect of dietary fat on markers of inflammation related to this disease during the postprandial period. To evaluate the chronic effects of dietary fat on the postprandial expression of proinflammatory genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in healthy subjects. 20 healthy men followed three different diets for 4 weeks each, according to a randomized crossover design: Western diet: 15% protein, 47% carbohydrates (CHO), 38% fat (22% saturated fatty acid (SFA)); Mediterranean diet: 15% protein, 47% CHO, 38% fat (24% monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA)); CHO-rich and n-3 diet: 15% protein, 55% CHO, butter breakfast: 35% SFA; olive oil breakfast: 36% MUFA; walnut breakfast: 16% PUFA, 4% alpha-linolenic acid (LNA). The butter breakfast induced a higher increase in tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha messenger RNA (mRNA) expression than the olive oil or walnut breakfasts (P=0.014) in PBMCs. Moreover, we found a higher postprandial response in the mRNA of interleukin (IL)-6 with the intake of butter and olive oil breakfasts than with the walnut breakfast (P=0.025) in these cells. However, the effects of the three fatty breakfasts on the plasma concentrations of these proinflammatory parameters showed no significant differences (P=N.S.). Consumption of a butter-enriched meal elicits greater postprandial expression of proinflammatory cytokine mRNA in PBMCs, compared to the olive oil and walnut breakfasts.

  3. A good-quality breakfast is associated with better mental health in adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Sullivan, Therese A; Robinson, Monique; Kendall, Garth E; Miller, Margaret; Jacoby, Peter; Silburn, Sven R; Oddy, Wendy H

    2009-02-01

    Breakfast consumption has been associated with better mental health in adulthood, but the relationship between breakfast and mental health in adolescence is less well known. The aims of the present study were to evaluate breakfast quality in a cohort of adolescents and to investigate associations with mental health. Cross-sectional population-based study. Breakfast quality was assessed by intake of core food groups at breakfast, as determined from 3 d food diaries. Mental health was assessed using the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL), with higher scores representing poorer behaviour. The Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) Study, Perth, Western Australia. Eight hundred and thirty-six males and females aged between 13 and 15 years. Mean mental health score as assessed by the CBCL was 45.24 (sd 11.29). A high-quality breakfast consisting of at least three food groups was consumed by 11 % of adolescents, while 7 % of adolescents did not consume any items from core food groups on average over the 3 d period. The two most common core food groups consumed at breakfast in this population were dairy products followed by breads and cereals. For every additional food group eaten at breakfast, the associated total mental health score decreased by 1.66 (95 % CI -2.74, -0.59) after adjustment for potential confounding factors, representing an improvement in mental health score. These findings support the concept that breakfast quality is an important component in the complex interaction between lifestyle factors and mental health in early adolescence.

  4. Breakfast size is related to body mass index for men, but not women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Lillian M; Worsley, Anthony

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of self-reported breakfast size, daily eating, and other health habits on body mass index (BMI). We hypothesized that a consumption of a substantial breakfast compared with skipping or small breakfasts would be associated with lower BMI. Three independent, cross-sectional, screening surveys were conducted by Sydney Adventist Hospital in 1976, 1986, and 2005 in the surrounding community. The archived survey forms of 384 men and 338 women in 1976, 244 men and 229 women in 1986, and 270 men and 62 women in 2005 were randomly selected. Body mass index was determined from height and weight measured by hospital staff. The reported amount consumed at breakfast was one of several eating habits that predicted BMI for men but not women. It explained 5% to 6% of the variance in male BMI in all 3 years examined. As the reported breakfast amount increased, men's BMI decreased. Lifestyle confounders including vegetarianism and physical activity did not affect this relationship. However, the consumption of breakfast was significantly positively associated with consumption of cereals, bread, fruit, and spreads, while coffee consumption was significantly associated with smaller breakfasts or breakfast skipping. The consumption of relatively large breakfasts may influence BMI in men, and its promotion may help reduce the prevalence of obesity in Australia and elsewhere. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Breakfast and Snacks: Associations with Cognitive Failures, Minor Injuries, Accidents and Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Chaplin

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available One strategy for examining effects of nutrients on cognitive function is to initially investigate foods that contain many different nutrients. If effects are demonstrated with these foods then further studies can address the role of specific nutrients. Breakfast foods (e.g., cereals, dairy products and fruit provide many important nutrients and consumption of breakfast has been shown to be associated with beneficial effects on cognitive function. Isolating effects of specific constituents of breakfast has proved more difficult and it is still unclear what impact breakfast has on real-life performance. The present study provided initial information on associations between breakfast consumption and cognitive failures and accidents. A second aim was to examine associations between consumption of snacks which are often perceived as being unhealthy (chocolate, crisps and biscuits. A sample of over 800 nurses took part in the study. The results showed that frequency of breakfast consumption (varied breakfasts: 62% cereal was associated with lower stress, fewer cognitive failures, injuries and accidents at work. In contrast, snacking on crisps, chocolate and biscuits was associated with higher stress, more cognitive failures and more injuries outside of work. Further research requires intervention studies to provide a clearer profile of causality and underlying mechanisms.

  6. Breakfast and snacks: associations with cognitive failures, minor injuries, accidents and stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaplin, Katherine; Smith, Andrew P

    2011-05-01

    One strategy for examining effects of nutrients on cognitive function is to initially investigate foods that contain many different nutrients. If effects are demonstrated with these foods then further studies can address the role of specific nutrients. Breakfast foods (e.g., cereals, dairy products and fruit) provide many important nutrients and consumption of breakfast has been shown to be associated with beneficial effects on cognitive function. Isolating effects of specific constituents of breakfast has proved more difficult and it is still unclear what impact breakfast has on real-life performance. The present study provided initial information on associations between breakfast consumption and cognitive failures and accidents. A second aim was to examine associations between consumption of snacks which are often perceived as being unhealthy (chocolate, crisps and biscuits). A sample of over 800 nurses took part in the study. The results showed that frequency of breakfast consumption (varied breakfasts: 62% cereal) was associated with lower stress, fewer cognitive failures, injuries and accidents at work. In contrast, snacking on crisps, chocolate and biscuits was associated with higher stress, more cognitive failures and more injuries outside of work. Further research requires intervention studies to provide a clearer profile of causality and underlying mechanisms.

  7. Is lack of breakfast contributing to nutrient deficits and poor nutritional indicators among adolescent girls?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeyakumar, Angeline; Ghugre, Padmini

    2017-09-01

    Breakfast is considered the first and most important meal of the day. Missing the first meal may result in significant nutritional deficits, if not compensated in subsequent meals. To describe the nutrient intake through breakfast and to study its association with nutritional indicators among adolescent girls. A cross-sectional study among adolescent girls ( n = 565) 16-18 years was carried out in urban slums of Pune, Maharashtra, India. Haemoglobin was assessed by cyanmethemoglobin method. Nutritional status was assessed through anthropometry and three 24-hours diet recall. Z scores, independent sample test, and linear logistic regression were used to assess undernutrition, to compare means of nutrient intake and to associate nutrient intake with nutritional status, respectively. Almost 50% did not consume solid food for breakfast and 99% of the participants consumed inadequate breakfast (breakfast emerged: I (bakery products + beverage) and II (traditional breakfast + beverage). Although the mean energy intake of type II breakfast (235±100.55 kcal) and the mean micronutrient intake was significantly higher than type I (micronutrients: vitamin C and folate ( p = 0.001), iron ( p = 0.01)) it did not meet the adequacy norms for breakfast. Among nutritional indicators breakfast intake was not directly associated with body mass index. However, mean intake of nutrients such as energy, protein and iron through the day were significantly lesser ( p = 0.001, p = 0.01 and p = 0.01 respectively) among anaemic adolescents. Linear regression showed significant association between energy, fat intake and BAZ scores. Compensating dietary deficits that arise in the first meal would directly address the day's nutrient deficit. The results highlight the need for a food-based approach to address undernutrition among adolescent girls in resource-poor settings.

  8. Evaluating the Intervention-Based Evidence Surrounding the Causal Role of Breakfast on Markers of Weight Management, with Specific Focus on Breakfast Composition and Size1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leidy, Heather J; Gwin, Jess A; Roenfeldt, Connor A; Zino, Adam Z; Shafer, Rebecca S

    2016-01-01

    Nutritional strategies are vitally needed to aid in the management of obesity. Cross-sectional and epidemiologic studies consistently demonstrate that breakfast consumption is strongly associated with a healthy body weight. However, the intervention-based long-term evidence supporting a causal role of breakfast consumption is quite limited and appears to be influenced by several key dietary factors, such as dietary protein, fiber, and energy content. This article provides a comprehensive review of the intervention-based literature that examines the effects of breakfast consumption on markers of weight management and daily food intake. In addition, specific focus on the composition and size (i.e., energy content) of the breakfast meal is included. Overall, there is limited evidence supporting (or refuting) the daily consumption of breakfast for body weight management and daily food intake. In terms of whether the type of breakfast influences these outcomes, there is accumulating evidence supporting the consumption of increased dietary protein and fiber content at breakfast, as well as the consumption of more energy during the morning hours. However, the majority of the studies that manipulated breakfast composition and content did not control for habitual breakfast behaviors, nor did these studies include a breakfast-skipping control arm. Thus, it is unclear whether the addition of these types of breakfast plays a causal role in weight management. Future research, including large randomized controlled trials of longer-term (i.e., ≥6 mo) duration with a focus on key dietary factors, is critical to begin to assess whether breakfast recommendations are appropriate for the prevention and/or treatment of obesity. PMID:27184285

  9. [Factors related to breakfast eating behavior among elementary school children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haruki, Toshi; Kawabata, Tetsuro

    2005-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify factors related to eating breakfast among elementary school children. The subjects were 196 fifth-grade pupils from two elementary schools in Osaka Prefecture. The main survey items were as follows: Number of eating breakfast days in the last week, appetite for breakfast, sleeping habits, knowledge on food, attitude related to eating breakfast, self-esteem, social skills, and eating behavior of family members. The Rosenberg Scale was used to measure global self-esteem and the Pope Scale for estimation of family-related self-esteem. Social skills were assessed using the scale developed by Shimada et al., which consists of subscales for pro-social skills, withdrawal behavior, and aggressive behavior. The main results were as follows: (1) The percentages of children who ate breakfast everyday in the last week were 78.3% for boys and 70.2% for girls, who no significant difference between the sexes. (2) The children who ate breakfast everyday in the last week (everyday-eating group) had more appetite for breakfast and went to bed earlier than the children who one or more days without eating (lack-of-eating group). (3) Compared with the lack-of-eating group, the everyday-eating group showed higher scores in family-related self-esteem and pro-social skills, and lower scores for aggressive behavior. (4) Regarding knowledge on food except influence of sugar for health, there were no differences between the everyday-eating and lack-of-eating groups. However, the former included more children who thought that eating every breakfast was very important, compared with the latter. (5) Children who expressed the following answers were more abundant in the everyday-eating group than in the lack-of-eating group: (1) Family members prepare breakfast every day; (2) They ate breakfast with family members everyday in the last week; (3) They often talk with family members during meals and snacks. From the above results, the following are suggested

  10. Breakfast frequency among adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Damsgaard, Mogens Trab

    2016-01-01

    , quality of family communication and family support. Further, analyses suggested that the associations were more pronounced among girls, immigrants and adolescents from other family structure than traditional. The study highlights the importance of the family setting in promoting regular breakfast......OBJECTIVE: To investigate (i) associations between adolescents' frequency of breakfast and family functioning (close relations to parents, quality of family communication and family support) and (ii) if any observed associations between breakfast frequency and family functioning vary...... by sociodemographic factors. DESIGN: School-based cross-sectional study. Students completed a web-based questionnaire. Associations were estimated by multilevel multivariate logistic regression. SETTING: Danish arm of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study, 2014. SUBJECTS: Adolescents aged 13 and 15 years...

  11. Effect of meal environment on diet quality rating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodruff, Sarah J; Hanning, Rhona M

    2009-01-01

    Family meals have been associated with improved dietary quality in children and adolescents, and yet very little is known about family meals beyond their frequency. Specific aspects of the breakfast, lunch, and dinner meal environments were described and compared, and the associations with overall diet quality were investigated. Data on food intake and meal environments were obtained in northern Ontario, southern Ontario, and Nova Scotia grades six, seven, and eight classrooms over the 2005 to 2006 school year. Specific aspects of the meal environments described were where the meal was consumed, with whom participants consumed each meal, who prepared the meal, and where the food was originally purchased. Diet quality was assessed using the Canadian version of the Healthy Eating Index. Cluster K-means procedures were used to classify into groups observations about the four meal environment variables. Three, eight, and six clusters of meal environments were identified for breakfast, lunch, and dinner, respectively. Diet quality was negatively associated with consuming/ purchasing meals outside the home, and with skipping breakfast, lunch, and/or dinner. Results have immediate relevance for family-based and/or school programs and policies aimed at educating and feeding children and adolescents.

  12. Exergetic analysis of breakfast cereal production in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The exergy analysis revealed that the roller dryer was responsible for most of the inefficiency (over 65.94%) followed by the wet mixer (27.40%). Suggestions for energy saving which will help in the reducing the high expenditure on energy and thus improve the profit margin were provided. Keywords : Energy, Exergy ...

  13. Physical and functional properties of breakfast cereals from maize ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results revealed the following ranges of physical and functional properties; pH (4.70- 6.56), bulk density (0.29 - 0.71g/ml), water absorption capacity (68.31- 76.39%), oil absorption capacity (0.87- 1.32%), foam capacity (2.48- 3.49%), viscosity (19.73-31.08%), gelation temperature (121-157°C), emulsification capacity ...

  14. Family Meals

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Late for the Flu Vaccine? Eating Disorders Arrhythmias Family Meals KidsHealth > For Parents > Family Meals Print A ... even more important as kids get older. Making Family Meals Happen It can be a big challenge ...

  15. Feedback: Breakfast of Champions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Justman, Jeffrey J.

    Feedback is an important skill that people need to learn in life. Feedback is crucial in a public speaking class to improve speaking skills. Providing and receiving feedback is what champions feed on to be successful, thus feedback is called the "Breakfast of Champions." Feedback builds speakers' confidence. Providing in-depth feedback…

  16. Family correlates of breakfast consumption among children and adolescents. A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Natalie; Biddle, Stuart J H; Gorely, Trish

    2009-02-01

    Regular breakfast consumption can have a multitude of positive health benefits, yet young people are more likely to skip breakfast than any other meal. Given the evidence that dietary behaviours established in childhood and adolescence track into adulthood along with evidence that breakfast skipping increases with age, identifying correlates of children's and adolescent's breakfast behaviours is imperative. The family environment is an important influence on the dietary behaviours of young people, and therefore we systematically reviewed the literature on family correlates of children and adolescent's breakfast consumption. From the 24 papers reviewed, 6 studied children and 19 studied adolescents. Few studies have examined the same specific family correlates of breakfast consumption, limiting the possibilities of drawing strong or consistent conclusions. Research in this area is relatively new and this review has identified areas for further investigation. Parental breakfast eating and living in two-parent families were the correlates supported by the greatest amount of evidence in association with adolescent's breakfast consumption. The results suggest that parents should be encouraged to be positive role models to their children by targeting their own dietary behaviours and that family structure should be considered when designing programmes to promote healthy breakfast behaviours.

  17. Lignan Content in Cereals, Buckwheat and Derived Foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Durazzo

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Cereal foods are a fundamental part of a balanced diet and several studies have assigned to wholemeal cereal products a protective role in human health, due to their content of bioactive compounds. Within the phytochemicals, lignans are of increasing interest for their potential anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities. The aim of this work is to contribute to the updating of food lignan databases by providing the profile and the amount of lignans in cereals, buckwheat and several cereal based foods commonly consumed in human diets. Values were taken from published papers. Items were divided in different groups, namely grains, brans and flours, bread, cereal staple foods, breakfast cereals and other cereal products, and values for secoisolariciresinol, matairesinol, pinoresinol, lariciresinol are given. For example, the total average values for the mentioned lignans in grains ranged between 23 μg/100 g and 401 μg/100 g dry weight. The contribution of each single lignan molecule to the total value of lignans appears to be different for every cereal species. Lignan content and typology in processed foods depends on the raw materials used, their degree of refinement and on processing conditions.

  18. Evidence for a second meal cognitive effect: glycaemic responses to high and low glycaemic index evening meals are associated with cognition the following morning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamport, Daniel Joseph; Hoyle, Emily; Lawton, Clare L; Mansfield, Michael W; Dye, Louise

    2011-03-01

    Low glycaemic index (GI) foods consumed at breakfast can enhance memory in comparison to high-GI foods; however, the impact of evening meal GI manipulations on cognition the following morning remains unexplored. Fourteen healthy males consumed a high-GI evening meal or a low-GI evening meal in a counterbalanced order on two separate evenings. Memory and attention were assessed before and after a high-GI breakfast the following morning. The high-GI evening meal elicited significantly higher evening glycaemic responses than the low-GI evening meal. Verbal recall was better the morning following the high-GI evening meal compared to after the low-GI evening meal. In summary, the GI of the evening meal was associated with memory performance the next day, suggesting a second meal cognitive effect. The present findings imply that an overnight fast may not be sufficient to control for previous nutritional consumption.

  19. School-based intervention to promote eating daily and healthy breakfast: a survey and a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eilat-Adar, S; Koren-Morag, N; Siman-Tov, M; Livne, I; Altmen, H

    2011-02-01

    The recent rapid increase in childhood obesity rates suggests that a consideration of the role of the schools in addressing this problem is necessary. 'Fits me' program functions to promote eating daily and healthy breakfast among elementary school children. Separate children groups were sampled each year by clusters from seven regions around Israel. They filled a self-administered questionnaire at the beginning of 2003, before the program started, and in 2003-2005, after the program. A separate sample was collected in 2006 in a case-control structure. The answer to the question: 'what do you eat for breakfast?' considered as a healthy breakfast if it included one of the following food items: A sandwich (not including chocolate, jam or butter), cereals, vegetable, fruit, egg and dairy product. As compared with 2003 before the program, more children reported eating daily breakfast over the years (51-65% before and until 2005, respectively, P for trendhealthy breakfast, in 2006 in the intervention (n=417) vs controls (n=572), adjusted for sex and age were OR=1.53 (95% CI: 1.15-2.04). However, only a third of 75% of the children who ate a healthy breakfast in the intervention group estimated that they were eating a healthy breakfast. After implementation an educational program to promote daily and healthy breakfast eating, the goal of a healthier breakfast was achieved. However, one should strive to define an exact definition of a healthy breakfast.

  20. Descriptive study about nutritious habits on breakfast and lunch of Viladecans (Barcelona adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Adela Amat Huerta

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Feeding during childhood and preadolescence has a great importance on the adult projection quality of life. Breakfast is all a food, very necessary for the physical and intellectual development of children, but it is the ingestion that is most omitted. It has much more importance of what we give him. Objectives: To know the nourishing habits in breakfast and lunch in the preadolescence. Design: An observational, descriptive study was chosen, with a study sample of 270 scholars aged between 9 and 13.Results: We could observe that 73% of the study participants have breakfast every day and 4,1% of them never have breakfast. Among these that never have breakfast, there are more girls (5’4%. The reason for not having breakfast is the lack of time (48.2%, and for not having lunch the lack of hunger (24.1%. The most frequent foods on breakfast are milk (82,2% and cocoa (54,8%, and sandwiches on lunch. Conclusions: Girls represent the group that less have breakfast every day. There are few of them who follow the basic triad: milk, cereal, and fruit.

  1. Relationship between Breakfast Consumption and Self-Efficacy, outcome Expectations, Evaluation and Knowledge in Elementary Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sadr Hashemi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The breakfast is the most important meal of the day that its regular consumption is effective on individuals' physical, psychological and social health. Given the high prevalence of irregular consumption of breakfast among students, this study has been designed to investigate breakfast consumption behavior and its related factors within social cognitive theory framework.Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 360 primary school students female (52.3% and 154 male (47.7% who were out schools of Isfahan using cluster-random sampling The data were collected in a self-reporting form by researcher made questionnaire with a significant reliability and validity The data were analyzed by SPSS software using independent t-test, one way ANOVA, Pearson correlation coefficient, and multiple regression analysis.Results: The average breakfast consumption (in a week score of 2.4 with a standard deviation of 1.7. The 10.5% of students were eating breakfast every day. There was a significant relationship between breakfast consumption and self-efficacy, outcome expectation and outcome evaluation. There was an inverse relationship between students' age, and economic situation and breakfast consumption. The results of multiple regression test showed that there is a significant relationship between self-efficacy (0.145 beta, type of school (0.631 beta, and student age (0.402 beta and having breakfast and it predicted 24.3% of breakfast consumption variance.Conclusion: The results of this study showed that eating breakfast is not desirable in students. Self-efficacy is a predictor of breakfast consumption in students. Therefore, educational intervention seems necessary to increase self-efficacy and breakfast consumption rate.

  2. The effect of breakfast composition and energy contribution on cognitive and academic performance: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edefonti, Valeria; Rosato, Valentina; Parpinel, Maria; Nebbia, Gabriella; Fiorica, Lorenzo; Fossali, Emilio; Ferraroni, Monica; Decarli, Adriano; Agostoni, Carlo

    2014-08-01

    Most studies that assess the effects of breakfast on subsequent mental abilities compared performance in subjects who had or had not consumed this meal. However, characteristics of breakfast itself may induce metabolic and hormonal alterations of the gastrointestinal tract and potentially modify cognitive performance. Moreover, as far as the evidence on the positive effects of having breakfast is becoming more robust, interest may shift to the specific characteristics of an adequate breakfast. The objective was to summarize existing evidence on the role of nutrient composition or energy intake at breakfast on the accomplishment of school-related tasks and cognition. We conducted a systematic review of the literature through the PubMed database. From the literature search, we identified 102 articles, 15 of which met the inclusion criteria. Of these, 3 studies provided information on the relation between cognitive and academic performance and energy intake at breakfast, 11 provided the same information for the macronutrient composition of breakfast, and 1 investigated both the aspects. Eleven studies considered breakfast meals differing in glycemic index/load. Selected studies were generally carried out in well-nourished children and adults of both sexes from general education. They were mostly experimental studies of short duration and had a limited number of subjects. Cognitive and academic performance was investigated by looking at multiple domains, including memory, attention, reasoning, learning, and verbal and math abilities, with a variety of test batteries scheduled at different time points in the morning. Breakfast options differed in terms of included foods and place and time of administration. There is insufficient quantity and consistency among studies to draw firm conclusions. However, whereas the hypothesis of a better and more sustained performance with a breakfast providing >20% daily energy intake still needs substantiation, there does appear to be

  3. Classifying Cereal Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    The DSQ includes questions about cereal intake and allows respondents up to two responses on which cereals they consume. We classified each cereal reported first by hot or cold, and then along four dimensions: density of added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium.

  4. Meal frequencies in early adolescence predict meal frequencies in late adolescence and early adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht; Rasmussen, Mette

    2013-05-04

    Health and risk behaviours tend to be maintained from adolescence into adulthood. There is little knowledge on whether meal frequencies in adolescence are maintained into adulthood. We investigated whether breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequencies in early adolescence predicted meal frequencies in late adolescence and in early adulthood. Further, the modifying effect of gender and adolescent family structure were investigated. National representative sample of 15-year-olds in Denmark with 4 and 12 year follow-up studies with measurement of breakfast, lunch and evening meal frequencies. A total of 561 persons completed questionnaires at age 15 years (baseline 1990, n=847, response rate 84.6%), age 19 years (n=729, response rate 73.2%) and age 27 years (n=614, response rate 61.6%). Low meal frequencies at age 15 years was a significant predictor for having low meal frequencies at age 19 years (odds ratio (OR, 95% CI)) varying between 2.11, 1.33-3.34 and 7.48, 3.64-15.41). Also, low meal frequencies at age 19 years predicted low meal frequencies at age 27 years (OR varying between 2.26, 1.30-3.91 and 4.38, 2.36-8.13). Significant predictions over the full study period were seen for low breakfast frequency and low lunch frequency (OR varying between 1.78, 1.13-2.81 and 2.58, 1.31-5.07). Analyses stratified by gender showed the same patterns (OR varying between 1.88, 1.13-3.14 and 8.30, 2.85-24.16). However, the observed predictions were not statistical significant among men between age 15 and 27 years. Analyses stratified by adolescent family structure revealed different lunch predictions in strata. Having low meal frequencies in early adolescence predicted low meal frequencies in late adolescence and early adulthood. We propose that promotion of regular meals become a prioritised issue within health education.

  5. Trends from 2002 to 2010 in Daily Breakfast Consumption and its Socio-Demographic Correlates in Adolescents across 31 Countries Participating in the HBSC Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lazzeri, Giacomo; Ahluwalia, Namanjeet; Niclasen, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    Breakfast is often considered the most important meal of the day and children and adolescents can benefit from breakfast consumption in several ways. The purpose of the present study was to describe trends in daily breakfast consumption (DBC) among adolescents across 31 countries participating...... to motivate adolescents to consume DBC. Comparing patterns across HBSC countries can make an important contribution to understanding regional /global trends and to monitoring strategies and development of health promotion programs....

  6. Typical breakfast food consumption and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in a large sample of Italian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    di Giuseppe, R; Di Castelnuovo, A; Melegari, C; De Lucia, F; Santimone, I; Sciarretta, A; Barisciano, P; Persichillo, M; De Curtis, A; Zito, F; Krogh, V; Donati, M B; de Gaetano, G; Iacoviello, L

    2012-04-01

    The overall consumption of foods most frequently consumed in a typical Italian breakfast might be associated with a better cardiovascular risk profile in Italian adults. 18,177 subjects (53,2% women), aged ≥ 35 yrs, randomly selected from the Moli-sani Project population were studied. The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) FFQ was used for dietary assessment. To derive breakfast pattern, an "a priori" approach was used: firstly, foods typical of the Italian breakfast were selected: milk, coffee, tea, yogurt, crispbread/rusks, breakfast cereals, brioche, biscuits, honey, sugar and jam. The breakfast score was obtained adding the amounts of all selected foods, expressed in grams/day, previously standardized to mean zero and standard deviation 1. Subjects showing a higher breakfast score appeared to be younger, more frequently women or smokers, with higher social status but less likely practicing physical activity. After multivariable analyses, subjects with a higher breakfast food consumption had a lower risk to have high body mass index, abdominal obesity, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol (P food breakfast score also showed a better physical healthy status score, a lower risk of metabolic syndrome (OR = 0.63; 0.55-0.72 95% CI) and of future CVD (P typical Italian breakfast foods positively affects CVD risk profile in an adult Italian population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The influence on cognition of the interaction between the macro-nutrient content of breakfast and glucose tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabb, Samantha; Benton, David

    2006-01-30

    Previously it has been found that both missing breakfast and having poorer glucose tolerance were associated with better memory. The present study therefore examined the impact of eight breakfasts, in a factorial design, that contained either high or low levels of carbohydrate, fat or protein. The meals were designed to vary the rate of release of glucose into the blood stream. Memory, reaction times and vigilance were assessed 30, 75 and 120 min following breakfast. Using fasting blood glucose levels as a measure of glucose tolerance, better memory was found to be associated with better glucose tolerance and the consumption of meals that more slowly release glucose into the blood. The effects of the meals on reaction times and vigilance were opposite to those with memory in that higher levels of blood glucose tended to be associated with better performance. It was concluded that individual differences in glucose tolerance interact with the glycaemic load of a meal to influence cognitive functioning.

  8. [Analysis of factors affecting breakfast skipping by male students undergoing hard training for sports].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Hiromichi; Miyazaki, Michinori; Mizuta, Yoshimi; Matsuki, Hideaki; Okazaki, Isao

    2002-09-01

    The purpose of this survey was to find factors affecting breakfast skip rates for male students participating in sports, and to determine how to improve their nutrition. The survey was conducted on 86 male students (58 who played sports and 28 who did not). A questionnaire was supplied to all, containing questions concerning daily food eating behavior. The student's answers were evaluated according to the guidelines of the Ministry of Health and Welfare. In addition, blood pressure, body mass index, and serum levels of uric acid, triglycerides and ferritin were measured in all subjects. The breakfast skip rate was 36% for the sports club affiliation group, and 46.4% for the non-affiliation group. Students who were not supplied with meals from their mothers or dormitory food service had more irregular meal times, skipped breakfast more, and drank less milk and miso soup often than the students supplied with meals. Students playing sports, but not supplied with meals, had a lower evaluation regarding eating habits and higher serum levels of serum uric acid and ferritin, compared to the students supplied with meals. The eating habits of male students are affected by whether they receive meals or not. It is considered that the higher levels of serum uric acid and ferritin in the students not supplied with meals is due to their irregular eating habits and heavy exercise. It is suggested that nutritional guidance is needed for such students.

  9. Breakfast glycaemic response in patients with type 2 diabetes: effects of bedtime dietary carbohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsen, M; Arvidsson Lenner, R; Lönnroth, P; Smith, U

    1999-09-01

    Bedtime carbohydrate (CHO) intake in patients with type-2 diabetes may improve glucose tolerance at breakfast the next morning. We examined the 'overnight second-meal effect' of bedtime supplements containing 'rapid' or 'slow' CHOs. Randomized cross-over study with three test-periods, each consisting of two days on a standardized diet, followed by a breakfast tolerance test on the third morning. The Lundberg Laboratory for Diabetes Research, Sahlgrenska University Hospital, Göteborg, Sweden. Sixteen patients with type 2 diabetes on oral agents and/or diet. Two different bedtime (22.00 h) CHO supplements (0.46 g available CHO/kg body weight) were compared to a starch-free placebo ('normal' food regimen). The CHOs were provided as uncooked cornstarch (slow-release CHOs) or white bread (rapid CHOs). On the mornings after different bedtime meals we found similar fasting glucose, insulin, free fatty acid and lactate levels. However, the glycaemic response after breakfast was 21% less after uncooked cornstarch compared to placebo ingestion at bedtime (406 +/- 46 vs 511 +/- 61 mmol min l(-1), P bedtime meal providing uncooked cornstarch improved breakfast tolerance the next morning while, in contrast, this was not found following a bedtime meal of white bread. The results are consistent, therefore, with the concept that an increased intake of slowly digestible carbohydrates exert an overnight second-meal effect in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  10. Effect of Sugar versus Mixed Breakfast on Metabolic and Neurofunctional Responses in Healthy Individuals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paini, Stefano; Caumo, Andrea; Macrì, Concetta; Andreoni, Luca; Sterlicchio, Michele

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of glucose and diverse breakfasts on glucose increment and ghrelin suppression and cognitive processing of sensory information assessed by frontal P300 evoked potentials. In a randomized crossover design, 12 healthy individuals (6M/6F; BMI 22.2 ± 0.4 kg/m2; 27 ± 1.3 years, mean ± SEM) underwent 50 g OGTT (A) and 3 breakfasts (B1: milk and cereals; B2: milk, apple, and chocolate cream-filled sponge cake; B3: milk, apple, bread, and hazelnut chocolate cream) to assess plasma glucose-, insulin-, and ghrelin excursions. An electroencephalography was performed before and 100 min after consumption of each load to measure the latency of frontal P300 evoked potentials as index of cognitive performance. Breakfasts B1 and B2 exhibited significantly lower glycemic and insulinemic responses as compared to A. Breakfast B3 exhibited significantly lower glycemic, but not insulinemic response, as compared to A. Final plasma ghrelin inhibition was more pronounced, albeit not significantly, in all breakfasts with respect to A. P300 latency tended to decrease following each of the three breakfasts, but B3 was the only breakfast capable to elicit a statistically significant reduction in P300 latency with respect to A (p cognitive performance. Such amelioration was correlated with the 2-hour final inhibition of plasma ghrelin concentration (r = 0.61, p = 0.01). PMID:28706955

  11. Effect of Sugar versus Mixed Breakfast on Metabolic and Neurofunctional Responses in Healthy Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Codella, Roberto; Benedini, Stefano; Paini, Stefano; Caumo, Andrea; Adamo, Michela; Terruzzi, Ileana; Ferrulli, Anna; Macrì, Concetta; Andreoni, Luca; Sterlicchio, Michele; Luzi, Livio

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of glucose and diverse breakfasts on glucose increment and ghrelin suppression and cognitive processing of sensory information assessed by frontal P300 evoked potentials. In a randomized crossover design, 12 healthy individuals (6M/6F; BMI 22.2 ± 0.4 kg/m(2); 27 ± 1.3 years, mean ± SEM) underwent 50 g OGTT (A) and 3 breakfasts (B1: milk and cereals; B2: milk, apple, and chocolate cream-filled sponge cake; B3: milk, apple, bread, and hazelnut chocolate cream) to assess plasma glucose-, insulin-, and ghrelin excursions. An electroencephalography was performed before and 100 min after consumption of each load to measure the latency of frontal P300 evoked potentials as index of cognitive performance. Breakfasts B1 and B2 exhibited significantly lower glycemic and insulinemic responses as compared to A. Breakfast B3 exhibited significantly lower glycemic, but not insulinemic response, as compared to A. Final plasma ghrelin inhibition was more pronounced, albeit not significantly, in all breakfasts with respect to A. P300 latency tended to decrease following each of the three breakfasts, but B3 was the only breakfast capable to elicit a statistically significant reduction in P300 latency with respect to A (p concentration (r = 0.61, p = 0.01).

  12. Processing and characterization of extruded breakfast meal formulated with broken rice and bean flour Processamento e caracterização de refeição matinal extrusada formulada com farinha de grãos quebrados de arroz e feijão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vânia Carvalho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop an extruded breakfast product containing broken rice and split old beans and to verify the influence of the extrusion process on their physicochemical, technological, and sensory characteristic. The final product had a protein content of 9.9 g.100 g-1, and therefore it can be considered a good source of proteins for children and teenagers. The dietary fiber content of the final edible product was 3.71 g.100 g-1. Therefore, the breakfast meal may be considered as a source of dietary fiber according to Brazilian law . As for the technological properties, the extruded product presented an expansion index of 8.89 and apparent density of 0.25 g.cm-3. With regard to the sensory analysis, the acceptance average was ranked between 6.8 and 7.7, corresponding to the categories "liked slightly" and "liked very much". With regard to purchase intention, 79% of the panelists said they would certainly or possibly purchase the product. Broken rice and split old beans are interesting alternatives for the elaboration of extruded breakfast products presenting good nutritional, technological, and sensory qualities.O objetivo deste trabalho foi elaborar um produto matinal extrusado de quirera de arroz e bandinha de feijão, além de verificar a influência do processo de extrusão nas suas características físico-químicas, nutricionais, tecnológicas e sensoriais. O produto final apresentou teor considerável de proteínas (9,9 g.100 g-1, podendo ser considerado uma boa fonte desse nutriente para crianças e adolescentes. Para a fibra alimentar, observou-se teor de 3,71 g.100 g-1 do produto pronto para o consumo. Dessa forma, o floco matinal de arroz e feijão pode receber a alegação de alimento fonte de fibras, de acordo com a legislação brasileira. Com relação às propriedades tecnológicas, o extrusado estudado apresentou índice de expansão de 8,89 e densidade aparente de 0,25 g.cm-3. Quanto à an

  13. Oxalate content of cereals and cereal products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siener, Roswitha; Hönow, Ruth; Voss, Susanne; Seidler, Ana; Hesse, Albrecht

    2006-04-19

    Detailed knowledge of food oxalate content is of essential importance for dietary treatment of recurrent calcium oxalate urolithiasis. Dietary oxalate can contribute considerably to the amount of urinary oxalate excretion. Because cereal foods play an important role in daily nutrition, the soluble and total oxalate contents of various types of cereal grains, milling products, bread, pastries, and pasta were analyzed using an HPLC-enzyme-reactor method. A high total oxalate content (>50 mg/100 g) was found in whole grain wheat species Triticum durum (76.6 mg/100 g), Triticum sativum (71.2 mg/100 g), and Triticum aestivum (53.3 mg/100 g). Total oxalate content was comparably high in whole grain products of T. aestivum, that is, wheat flakes and flour, as well as in whole grain products of T. durum, that is, couscous, bulgur, and pasta. The highest oxalate content was demonstrated for wheat bran (457.4 mg/100 g). The higher oxalate content in whole grain than in refined grain cereals suggests that oxalic acid is primarily located in the outer layers of cereal grains. Cereals and cereal products contribute to the daily oxalate intake to a considerable extent. Vegetarian diets may contain high amounts of oxalate when whole grain wheat and wheat products are ingested. Recommendations for prevention of recurrence of calcium oxalate stone disease have to take into account the oxalate content of these foodstuffs.

  14. Glycemic index predicts individual glucose responses after self-selected breakfasts in free-living, abdominally obese adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochan, Angela M; Wolever, Thomas M S; Chetty, V Tony; Anand, Sonia S; Gerstein, Hertzel C; Sharma, Arya M

    2012-01-01

    The degree to which an individual's glycemic response to a meal is determined by the glycemic index (GI) and other components of the meal remains unclear, especially when meals are not consumed in a highly controlled research setting. To address this question, we analyzed data collected during the run-in period of a clinical trial. Free-living, nondiabetic adults (n = 57) aged 53.9 ± 9.8 y (mean ± SD) with a BMI of 33.9 ± 5.3 kg/m(2) and waist circumference of 109 ± 11 cm underwent a 75-g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and, on a separate day, wore a continuous glucose-monitoring system (CGMS) for 24 h during which time they recorded all foods consumed. The protein, fat, and available carbohydrate (avCHO) content and GI of the breakfast meals were calculated from the food records and the incremental areas under the glycemic response curves (iAUC) for 2 h after breakfast (iAUC(breakfast)) were calculated from CGMS data. Values for iAUC(breakfast), avCHO, fat, fiber, and BMI were normalized by log-transformation. The ability of participant characteristics and breakfast composition to predict individual iAUC(breakfast) responses was determined using step-wise multiple linear regression. A total of 56% of the variation in iAUC(breakfast) was explained by GI (30%; P fat, protein, dietary fiber, age, sex, and BMI were not significant. We concluded that, in free-living, abdominally obese adults, GI is a significant determinant of individual glycemic responses elicited by self-selected breakfast meals. In this study, GI was a more important determinant of glycemic response than carbohydrate intake.

  15. Methodological Challenges in Studies Examining the Effects of Breakfast on Cognitive Performance and Appetite in Children and Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphus, Katie; Bellissimo, Nick; Lawton, Clare L; Ford, Nikki A; Rains, Tia M; Totosy de Zepetnek, Julia; Dye, Louise

    2017-01-01

    Breakfast is purported to confer a number of benefits on diet quality, health, appetite regulation, and cognitive performance. However, new evidence has challenged the long-held belief that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. This review aims to provide a comprehensive discussion of the key methodological challenges and considerations in studies assessing the effect of breakfast on cognitive performance and appetite control, along with recommendations for future research. This review focuses on the myriad challenges involved in studying children and adolescents specifically. Key methodological challenges and considerations include study design and location, sampling and sample section, choice of objective cognitive tests, choice of objective and subjective appetite measures, merits of providing a fixed breakfast compared with ad libitum, assessment and definition of habitual breakfast consumption, transparency of treatment condition, difficulty of isolating the direct effects of breakfast consumption, untangling acute and chronic effects, and influence of confounding variables. These methodological challenges have hampered a clear substantiation of the potential positive effects of breakfast on cognition and appetite control and contributed to the debate questioning the notion that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Methodological Challenges in Studies Examining the Effects of Breakfast on Cognitive Performance and Appetite in Children and Adolescents123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellissimo, Nick; Ford, Nikki A; Rains, Tia M

    2017-01-01

    Breakfast is purported to confer a number of benefits on diet quality, health, appetite regulation, and cognitive performance. However, new evidence has challenged the long-held belief that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. This review aims to provide a comprehensive discussion of the key methodological challenges and considerations in studies assessing the effect of breakfast on cognitive performance and appetite control, along with recommendations for future research. This review focuses on the myriad challenges involved in studying children and adolescents specifically. Key methodological challenges and considerations include study design and location, sampling and sample section, choice of objective cognitive tests, choice of objective and subjective appetite measures, merits of providing a fixed breakfast compared with ad libitum, assessment and definition of habitual breakfast consumption, transparency of treatment condition, difficulty of isolating the direct effects of breakfast consumption, untangling acute and chronic effects, and influence of confounding variables. These methodological challenges have hampered a clear substantiation of the potential positive effects of breakfast on cognition and appetite control and contributed to the debate questioning the notion that breakfast is the most important meal of the day. PMID:28096143

  17. The importance of breakfast in meeting daily recommended calcium intake in a group of schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, R M; Requejo, A M; López-Sobaler, A M; Andrés, P; Quintas, M E; Navia, B; Izquierdo, M; Rivas, T

    1998-02-01

    To evaluate the breakfast intake of calcium and milk products and to determine whether these correlate with total intake of both calcium and milk products. Food taken at breakfast and throughout the day was recorded using a 7 consecutive day food record in 200 schoolchildren aged between 9 and 13 years. 65.3% of boys and 80.5% of girls showed intakes of calcium which were lower than recommended. Milk products were the foods most frequently included in breakfast (95.5% of subjects included them in this meal). A relationship was seen between energy provided by breakfast and the quantities of milk products (r = 0.5735) and calcium (r = 0.6908) taken at this meal. A relationship was also seen between energy provided by breakfast and daily intake of milk products (r = 0.4633) and calcium (r = 0.4954). The percentage of intakes of calcium lower than those recommended decreased when breakfast provided > or = 20% of total energy intake, and when the consumption of milk products at breakfast was greater than the 50th percentile (200 ml). Subjects with breakfast milk product intakes > or = 200 ml showed higher intakes of the same over the rest of the day (233.3 +/-140.4 g) than did those who took lesser quantities of these foods at breakfast (161.5 +/- 100.6 g). Further, those who took > or = 25% of the recommended intake of calcium at breakfast showed greater intakes of the same over the rest of the day (600.4 +/- 213.8 mg compared to 510.8 +/- 200.7 mg in subjects with lower calcium intakes). The intake of milk products (r = 0.7587) and calcium (r = 0.7223) at breakfast correlates with the consumption of these foods in the whole diet. However, the total daily intake of milk products and calcium does not depend solely on breakfast intake. Subjects with the greatest intakes at breakfast also showed greater intakes over the rest of the day (r = 0.3953 for milk products and r = 0.4122 for calcium).

  18. A typical working-day breakfast among children, adolescents and adults belonging to the middle and upper socio-economic classes in Mumbai, India - challenges and implications for dietary change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivaramakrishnan, Malathi; Kamath, Vidya

    2012-11-01

    Breakfast has been linked to several aspects of health, yet breakfast skipping is rampant across the globe. Studies in India have focused mostly on children. Hence the present study examined breakfast behaviour across different age and gender groups. Cross-sectional sample, purposive sampling. Nutrient intakes of the participants derived from 24 h dietary recall and 3 d breakfast record data were compared with RDA values prescribed by the Indian Council of Medical Research using Student's t test, with P breakfast meal and that of the day's diet were the main outcome measures. Eighty-one per cent of the participants had a nutritionally inadequate breakfast. Intakes of Fe and dietary fibre were notably low. Consumption of just milk or milk plus a milk food-based drink among schoolchildren (49 %) and increased breakfast skipping among adolescents (37 %) were seen. The study identifies both irregularities and/or nutritional inadequacies with respect to the breakfast meal. Age- and gender-specific challenges in breakfast behaviour need to be addressed. Development of 'nutrient-dense' breakfast foods that can be prepared easily, school breakfast programmes and education on the importance of breakfast are the needs of the hour.

  19. Future cereal starch bioengineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blennow, Andreas; Jensen, Susanne Langgård; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana

    2013-01-01

    additives. New approaches for starch bioengineering are needed. In this review, we discuss cereal starch from a combined universal bioresource point of view. The combination of new biotechniques and clean technology methods can be implemented to replace, for example, chemical modification. The recently...... released cereal genomes and the exploding advancement in whole genome sequencing now pave the road for identifying new genes to be exploited to generate a multitude of completely new starch functionalities directly in the cereal grain, converting cereal crops to production plants. Newly released genome...

  20. Glycaemic index and glycaemic load of breakfast predict cognitive function and mood in school children: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micha, Renata; Rogers, Peter J; Nelson, Michael

    2011-11-01

    The macronutrient composition of a breakfast that could facilitate performance after an overnight fast remains unclear. As glucose is the brain's major energy source, the interest is in investigating meals differing in their blood glucose-raising potential. Findings vary due to unaccounted differences in glucoregulation, arousal and cortisol secretion. We investigated the effects of meals differing in glycaemic index (GI) and glycaemic load (GL) on cognition and mood in school children. A total of seventy-four school children were matched and randomly allocated either to the high-GL or low-GL group. Within each GL group, children received high-GI and low-GI breakfasts. Cognitive function (CF) and mood were measured 95-140 min after breakfast. Blood glucose and salivary cortisol were measured at baseline, before and after the CF tests. Repeated-measures ANOVA was used to identify differences in CF, mood, glucose and cortisol levels between the breakfasts. Low-GI meals predicted feeling more alert and happy, and less nervous and thirsty (P mood, glucose and cortisol levels were considered, low-GI meals predicted better declarative-verbal memory (P = 0·03), and high-GI meals better vigilance (P learning, and of potential value in informing government education policies relating to dietary recommendations and implementation concerning breakfast.

  1. A cross-cultural study of cereal foods' quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Grunert, Klaus G.; Costa, Ana I. A.

    Cereal foods' production and use show substantial heterogeneity across Europe. For a category central in most EU diets, cereal foods' quality perception is, nevertheless, surprisingly understudied. With this in mind, 357 Danish, Lithuanian and Portuguese citizens were inquired about the importance...... counterparts. Nevertheless, respondents in all three samples found expected quality dimensions to be much more important than both extrinsic and intrinsic cues across almost all product categories. Dimensions and cues like taste and country-of-origin were the most relevant to Lithuanians, while taste, label...... information and price were the most important for Danes. The cues and dimensions Portuguese found relevant were fairly different and more category-dependent. Cues like store type for bread, brand for breakfast cereals, pasta and vodka, country-of-origin for vodka, and price for cookies, pasta and vodka were...

  2. A cross-cultural study of cereal food quality perception

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krutulyte, Rasa; Costa, Ana I. A.; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2009-01-01

    Cereal food production and use show substantial heterogeneity across Europe. For a category central in most EU diets, cereal food quality perception is, nevertheless, surprisingly understudied. With this in mind, 357 Danish, Lithuanian and Portuguese citizens were interviewed about the importance...... counterparts. Nevertheless, respondents in all three samples found expected quality dimensions to be much more important than both extrinsic and intrinsic cues across almost all product categories. Dimensions and cues like taste and country-of-origin were the most relevant to Lithuanians, while taste, label...... information and price were the most important for Danes. The cues and dimensions Portuguese found relevant were fairly different and more category-dependent. Cues like store type for bread, brand for breakfast cereals, pasta and vodka, country-of-origin (CoO) for vodka, and price for cookies, pasta and vodka...

  3. Effect of Sugar versus Mixed Breakfast on Metabolic and Neurofunctional Responses in Healthy Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Codella; Stefano Benedini; Stefano Paini; Andrea Caumo; Michela Adamo; Ileana Terruzzi; Anna Ferrulli; Concetta Macrì; Luca Andreoni; Michele Sterlicchio; Livio Luzi

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effects of glucose and diverse breakfasts on glucose increment and ghrelin suppression and cognitive processing of sensory information assessed by frontal P300 evoked potentials. In a randomized crossover design, 12 healthy individuals (6M/6F; BMI 22.2???0.4?kg/m2; 27???1.3 years, mean???SEM) underwent 50?g OGTT (A) and 3 breakfasts (B1: milk and cereals; B2: milk, apple, and chocolate cream-filled sponge cake; B3: milk, apple, bread, and hazelnut chocolate cream) to asses...

  4. Breakfast habits and heath perceptions in South-eastern Spanish adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soriano-Ayala Encarnación

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The principal aims of this study are to describe breakfast consumption patterns of south-eastern Spanish adolescents, examine the relationship between breakfast consumption and feelings of well-being and fitness and compare breakfast behaviour between men and women to identify if there is a gender gap. Design: A cross-sectional research with cluster sampling in two primary schools and seven secondary schools. The instrument used was a modified version of the Kidscreen-27 questionnaire. Sample: 2,125 students aged between 10 and 19 years old from different nationalities, mainly Romanian, Moroccan and Spanish. Results: The study identifies some youngsters who skip breakfast and no have no food intake over the course of the morning. About 35% of the teenagers skip daily breakfast before they leave for school, and a worrying 1,8% do not eat any food during the whole morning. Questionnaire outcomes also expresses that the amount of biscuits ingested increased as the number of times that adolescents have breakfast at home decreases. There are significant gender differences, women it less foods than men. Differences are especially significant in case of milk, bread or cereals and butter or oil. Finally, chisquare contrast analysis show students that have breakfast before leaving to school perceive better feelings about how well and fit they are than those student who do not have breakfast daily. Conclusions. Findings supports the need for further enhance health education programs focused on breakfast habits, especially with women. This study is part of the project “Education for Cross-cultural Health in Immigrant and Native Adolescents from Almeria: Analysis and intervention for optimization and improvement” supported by the National R+D Plan of the Ministry of Economy and Finance (Ref: EDU2011-26887

  5. The breakfast effect: dogs (Canis familiaris) search more accurately when they are less hungry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Holly C; Bender, Charlotte

    2012-11-01

    We investigated whether the consumption of a morning meal (breakfast) by dogs (Canis familiaris) would affect search accuracy on a working memory task following the exertion of self-control. Dogs were tested either 30 or 90 min after consuming half of their daily resting energy requirements (RER). During testing dogs were initially required to sit still for 10 min before searching for hidden food in a visible displacement task. We found that 30 min following the consumption of breakfast, and 10 min after the behavioral inhibition task, dogs searched more accurately than they did in a fasted state. Similar differences were not observed when dogs were tested 90 min after meal consumption. This pattern of behavior suggests that breakfast enhanced search accuracy following a behavioral inhibition task by providing energy for cognitive processes, and that search accuracy decreased as a function of energy depletion. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. [Nutritional analysis of breakfast on rising and mid-morning snack in a college population].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durá Travé, T

    2013-01-01

    To carry out a descriptive study on the breakfast model in a college population and to analyze the energy and nutrients provided, in connection with established nutritional requirements. Registry of food intake for breakfast (on rising and mid-morning snack) of a school day in a sample of 740 college students (286 men and 454 women) with ages ranging 19-24 years. Gender, age, weight, height, and body mass index, and type of residence were collected from each interviewee. Percentages intakes of nutrients have been calculated in proportion to established dietary recommendations (%IR). 93.2% had breakfast on rising and 83.8% took a mid-morning snack daily, and 53.5% do both intakes. The most common foods were dairy products (92.6%), cereals (58.8%) and sweet food (57.9%) at breakfast, and cereals (46.6%), fruits (40.7%) and sausages (34.9%) at mid-morning. The %IR of the calorie intake was 24.4% in males and 24.6% in females (n.s.). The %IR of the cholesterol intake was 38.2% in males and 23.9% in females (p breakfast. This breakfast model differs from the prototype of a healthy diet through an excessive consumption of sweet foods (early breakfast) and meat and derivatives (snack). Half of interviewee did not a mid-morning snack and the morning caloric intake was below recommended. In the case of university students concerned about the potentially negative effect it may have on academic performance. Copyright © AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  7. Rye kernel breakfast increases satiety in the afternoon - an effect of food structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredriksson Helena

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The structure of whole grain cereals is maintained to varying degrees during processing and preparation of foods. Food structure can influence metabolism, including perceived hunger and satiety. A diet that enhances satiety per calorie may help to prevent excessive calorie intake. The objective of this work was to compare subjective appetite ratings after consumption of intact and milled rye kernels. Methods Two studies were performed using a randomized, cross-over design. Ratings for appetite (hunger, satiety and desire to eat were registered during an 8-h period after consumption of whole and milled rye kernels prepared as breads (study 1, n = 24 and porridges (study 2, n = 20. Sifted wheat bread was used as reference in both study parts and the products were eaten in iso-caloric portions with standardized additional breakfast foods. Breads and porridges were analyzed to determine whether structure (whole vs. milled kernels effected dietary fibre content and composition after preparation of the products. Statistical evaluation of the appetite ratings after intake of the different breakfasts was done by paired t-tests for morning and afternoon ratings separately, with subjects as random effect and type of breakfast and time points as fixed effects. Results All rye breakfasts resulted in higher satiety ratings in the morning and afternoon compared with the iso-caloric reference breakfast with sifted wheat bread. Rye bread with milled or whole kernels affected appetite equally, so no effect of structure was observed. In contrast, after consumption of the rye kernel breakfast, satiety was increased and hunger suppressed in the afternoon compared with the milled rye kernel porridge breakfast. This effect could be related to structural differences alone, because the products were equal in nutritional content including dietary fibre content and composition. Conclusions The study demonstrates that small changes in diet composition

  8. Breakfast Skipping, Extreme Commutes, and the Sex Composition at Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Bhashkar; Seeskin, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of literature has shown that environmental exposures in the period around conception can affect the sex ratio at birth through selective attrition that favors the survival of female conceptuses. Glucose availability is considered a key indicator of the fetal environment, and its absence as a result of meal skipping may inhibit male survival. We hypothesize that breakfast skipping during pregnancy may lead to a reduction in the fraction of male births. Using time use data from the United States we show that women with commute times of 90 minutes or longer are 20 percentage points more likely to skip breakfast. Using U.S. census data we show that women with commute times of 90 minutes or longer are 1.2 percentage points less likely to have a male child under the age of 2. Under some assumptions, this implies that routinely skipping breakfast around the time of conception leads to a 6 percentage point reduction in the probability of a male child. Skipping breakfast during pregnancy may therefore constitute a poor environment for fetal health more generally.

  9. Copper bioavailability from breakfasts containing tea : influence of the addition of milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaquero, M.P.; Veldhuizen, M.; Dokkum, W. van; Hamer, C.J.A. van den; Schaafsma, G.

    1994-01-01

    The influence of drinking tea on copper bioavailability is unclear, particularly when tea is consumed with food. A breakfast meal containing white bread, margarine, strawberry jam, cheese and tea, with or without milk, was digested in; vitro and the dialysis of copper investigated. Reference

  10. Back-to-School Health Tips: Breakfast & Lunch | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Back-to-School Health Tips Back-to-School Health Tips: Breakfast & Lunch Past Issues / Fall 2013 ... to eating too many calories. Pay attention to hunger and fullness cues before, during, and after meals. ...

  11. Breakfast skippers display a disrupted cortisol rhythm and elevated blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chronic stress and over-activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may link breakfast skipping and poor cardiometabolic health. Missing the first major meal of the day in rodents prolongs elevated circulating corticosterone at a time when it’s normally decreasing. To extend these fi...

  12. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Breakfast Clubs According to Parents, Children, and School Staff in the North East of England, UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Pamela Louise; Russo, Riccardo; Defeyter, Margaret Anne

    2015-01-01

    The provision of school breakfast has become increasingly popular in the UK in recent years. However, UK-based studies highlighting the views of parents, children, and school staff on school breakfast clubs are lacking. The current study set out to address this dearth in the literature by investigating the views of these key user and stakeholder groups on breakfast clubs within the North East of England. Fourteen parents, 21 children, and 17 school staff were recruited from four primary schools where breakfast clubs were available on site. Parents and school staff took part in semistructured interviews and children participated in focus groups, through which the advantages and disadvantages of breakfast clubs were discussed. Thematic analysis revealed that breakfast clubs provided children with a settled and enjoyable start to the school day. As well as providing children with a healthy and varied breakfast meal and unique opportunities for social interaction, breakfast clubs were recognized as an integral part of the school system that offered support to parents, particularly those who worked and relied on breakfast clubs as a means of affordable and reliable childcare. The few disadvantages identified related to practical issues such as a lack of adherence to school food standards, breakfast club staff missing class preparation time and concerns that some children were being excluded from participating in breakfast clubs particularly due to costs associated with attendance. The findings are discussed in relation to the School Food Plan, and areas for further investigation are proposed.

  13. The advantages and disadvantages of breakfast clubs according to parents, children and school staff in the North East of England, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Louise Graham

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The provision of school breakfast has become increasingly popular in the UK in recent years. However, UK based studies highlighting the views of parents, children and school staff on school breakfast clubs are lacking. The current study set out to address this dearth in the literature by investigating the views of these key user and stakeholder groups on breakfast clubs within the North East of England. Fourteen parents, 21 children and 17 school staff were recruited from 4 primary schools where breakfast clubs were available on site. Parents and school staff took part in semi-structured interviews and children participated in focus groups, through which the advantages and disadvantages of breakfast clubs were discussed. Thematic analysis revealed that breakfast clubs provided children with a settled and enjoyable start to the school day. As well as providing children with a healthy and varied breakfast meal and unique opportunities for social interaction, breakfast clubs were recognized as an integral part of the school system that offered support to parents, particularly those who worked and relied on breakfast clubs as a means of affordable and reliable childcare. The few disadvantages identified related to practical issues such as a lack of adherence to school food standards, breakfast club staff missing class preparation time and concerns that some children were being excluded from participating in breakfast clubs particularly due to costs associated with attendance. The findings are discussed in relation to the School Food Plan and areas for further investigation are proposed.

  14. The Advantages and Disadvantages of Breakfast Clubs According to Parents, Children, and School Staff in the North East of England, UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Pamela Louise; Russo, Riccardo; Defeyter, Margaret Anne

    2015-01-01

    The provision of school breakfast has become increasingly popular in the UK in recent years. However, UK-based studies highlighting the views of parents, children, and school staff on school breakfast clubs are lacking. The current study set out to address this dearth in the literature by investigating the views of these key user and stakeholder groups on breakfast clubs within the North East of England. Fourteen parents, 21 children, and 17 school staff were recruited from four primary schools where breakfast clubs were available on site. Parents and school staff took part in semistructured interviews and children participated in focus groups, through which the advantages and disadvantages of breakfast clubs were discussed. Thematic analysis revealed that breakfast clubs provided children with a settled and enjoyable start to the school day. As well as providing children with a healthy and varied breakfast meal and unique opportunities for social interaction, breakfast clubs were recognized as an integral part of the school system that offered support to parents, particularly those who worked and relied on breakfast clubs as a means of affordable and reliable childcare. The few disadvantages identified related to practical issues such as a lack of adherence to school food standards, breakfast club staff missing class preparation time and concerns that some children were being excluded from participating in breakfast clubs particularly due to costs associated with attendance. The findings are discussed in relation to the School Food Plan, and areas for further investigation are proposed. PMID:26097840

  15. Ready-to-Eat Cereal Consumption Patterns: The Relationship to Nutrient Intake, Whole Grain Intake, and Body Mass Index in an Older American Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M. Albertson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the relationship between ready-to-eat (RTE breakfast cereal consumption patterns and body mass index (BMI, nutrient intake, and whole grain intake in an older American population. Design. A cross-sectional survey of US households, collected by the NPD Group via the National Eating Trends (NET survey. Main outcome measures include BMI, nutrient intake, and whole grain intake. Subjects/Setting. The sample included 1759 participants age 55 and older, which was divided into approximate quartiles based on intake of RTE breakfast cereal for the 2-week period (0 servings, 1–3 servings, 4–7 servings, and ≥8 servings. Results. In the multivariate linear regression analysis adjusted for energy and age; intake of dietary fiber, whole grains, and the majority of micronutrients examined were found to be positively associated with frequent RTE cereal consumption. The proportion of participants consuming less than the Estimated Average Requirement (EAR was lower for the highest quartile of RTE cereal consumers compared to nonconsumers, for the majority of vitamins and minerals examined. Significant differences in BMI between RTE breakfast cereal intake groups were found for men. Conclusion. Results suggest that ready-to-eat breakfast cereals may contribute to the nutritional quality of the diets of older Americans. Prospective studies and experimental trials are needed to better evaluate the role of RTE cereal consumption in energy balance.

  16. A survey of breakfast-skipping and inadequate breakfast-eating among young schoolchildren in Nova Scotia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, L

    1993-01-01

    The prevalence of breakfast-skipping and inadequate breakfast-eating among schoolchildren in Nova Scotia was determined by surveying 2,500 children in Grades 1 to 3 in 25 randomly selected schools. Breakfast-skipping was measured on two occasions using a validated survey instrument administered by videotaped child entertainers. 4.8% of children came to school without eating or drinking anything on the morning of testing. Breakfast omission was significantly related to grade with 6.1% of Grade 1 children skipping breakfast compared with 3.2% in Grade 3. Boys were significantly more likely to skip breakfast than girls but the absolute differences were small. 86% of children consumed a breakfast including two food groups; 56% three food groups. Adequacy of consumption was poorer in lower grades but did not vary by other sociodemographic variables. Breakfast omission in Nova Scotia children attending Grades 1, 2 or 3 does not warrant a provincial public health response.

  17. Easy Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The woman pictured below is sitting down to a nutritious, easily-prepared meal similar to those consumed by Apollo astronauts. The appetizing dishes shown were created simply by adding water to the contents of a Mountain House* Easy Meal package of freeze dried food. The Easy Meal line is produced by Oregon Freeze Dry Foods, Inc., Albany, Oreaon, a pioneer in freeze drying technology and a company long associated with NASA in developing suitable preparations for use on manned spacecraft. Designed to provide nutritionally balanced, attractive hot meals for senior adults, Easy Meal is an offshoot of a 1975-77 demonstration project managed by Johnson Space Center and called Meal System for the Elderly. The project sought ways to help the estimated 3.5 million elderly Americans who are unable to take advantage of existing meal programs. Such services are provided by federal, state and local agencies, but they are not available to many who live in rural areas, or others who are handicapped, temporarily ill or homebound for other reasons. Oregon Freeze Dry Foods was a participant in that multi-agency cooperative project. With its Easy Meal assortment of convenience foods pictured above left, the company is making commercially available meal packages similar to those distributed in the Meal System for the Elderly program. In the freeze drying process, water is extracted from freshly-cooked foods by dehydration at very low temperatures, as low as 50 I degrees below zero. Flavor is locked in by packaging the dried food in pouches which block out moisture and oxygen, the principal causes of food deterioration; thus the food can be stored for long periods without refrigeration. Meals are reconstituted by adding hot or cold water, depending on the type of food, and they are table ready in five to 10 minutes. Oregon Freeze Dry Foods offers five different meal packages and plans to expand the line.

  18. Eating breakfast and dinner together as a family: Associations with sociodemographic characteristics and implications for diet quality and weight status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Nicole; MacLehose, Rich; Fulkerson, Jayne A.; Berge, Jerica M.; Story, Mary; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2013-01-01

    Background Research has shown that adolescents who frequently share evening meals with their families experience more positive health outcomes, including diets of higher nutritional quality. However, little is known about families eating together at breakfast. Objectives This study examined sociodemographic differences in family meal frequencies in a population-based adolescent sample. Additionally, this study examined associations of family breakfast meal frequency with dietary quality and weight status. Design Cross-sectional data from EAT 2010 (Eating and Activity in Teens) included anthropometric assessments and classroom-administered surveys completed in 2009-2010. Participants/setting Participants included 2,793 middle and high school students (53.2% girls, mean age=14.4 years) from Minneapolis/St. Paul, MN, public schools. Main outcome measures Usual dietary intake was self-reported on a food frequency questionnaire. Height and weight were measured. Statistical analyses performed Regression models adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics, family dinner frequency, family functioning, and family cohesion were used to examine associations of family breakfast frequency with dietary quality and weight status. Results On average, adolescents reported having family breakfast meals 1.5 times (SD=2.1) and family dinner meals 4.1 times (SD=2.6) in the past week. There were racial/ethnic differences in family breakfast frequency, with the highest frequencies reported by adolescents of Black, Hispanic, Native American, and mixed race/ethnicity. Family breakfast frequency was also positively associated with male sex; younger age; and living in a two-parent household. Family breakfast frequency was associated with several markers of better diet quality (such as higher intake of fruit, whole grains, and fiber) and lower risk for overweight/obesity. For example, adolescents who reported seven family breakfasts in the past week consumed an average of 0.37 additional

  19. Within-person comparison of eating behaviors, time of eating, and dietary intake on days with and without breakfast: NHANES 2005–2010123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ashima K; Graubard, Barry I

    2015-01-01

    Background: Breakfast omission is known to be associated with lower 24-h energy intake. However, little is known about downstream eating behaviors subsequent to skipping breakfast in free-living individuals. Objective: We replicated the traditional crossover design of nutrition studies in a naturalistic setting to compare within-person differences in self-reported eating behaviors, energy intake, and other dietary characteristics of individuals on a day that included breakfast with a day that omitted breakfast. Design: We used cross-sectional dietary data for 2132 adult respondents who reported breakfast in only one of 2 dietary recalls in the NHANES 2005–2010. Dietary outcomes examined included meal- and snack-eating behaviors, clock time of eating episodes, and intakes of energy, macronutrients, and food groups. Regression methods accounted for replicate diet measurements, covariates, and survey-design characteristics. Results: The breakfast meal provided a mean of 508 kcal in men and 374 kcal in women, but differences in 24-h energy intakes between the breakfast and no-breakfast day were 247 and 187 kcal, respectively. Energy intakes at the lunch meal were higher on the no-breakfast day (202 kcal in men and 121 kcal in women), and the reported time of lunch was ∼35 min earlier. The energy contribution of dinner or its reported time did not differ. A higher number of energy-adjusted servings of fruit and whole grains were reported on the breakfast day, but the energy and macronutrient density of reported foods were not different. Conclusions: In free-living American adults, the eating time for lunch was earlier, and the lunch meal provided more energy on the no-breakfast day than on the breakfast day. Although the quality of dietary selections reflected in the energy and macronutrient density of a day’s intake did not differ between the breakfast and the no-breakfast day, breakfast skippers may need encouragement to consume fruit and whole grains at other

  20. "GIOCAMPUS" - An effective school-based intervention for breakfast promotion and overweight risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanelli, Maurizio; Monti, Giorgia; Volta, Elio; Finestrella, Viviana; Gkliati, Dimitra; Cangelosi, Marta; Caragnulo, Roberto; Vitale, Marco; Ingrosso, Lisa; Scazzina, Francesca

    2014-01-23

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of a campaign promoting breakfast in primary school-children from the city of Parma, Italy, where 22 % of peer school-children had reported in 2005 to  skip breakfast. Two groups of children were interviewed by a multiple choice questionnaire on their breakfast habits. Group 1 counted only the children who  underwent the intensive campaign (n. 341), and  Group 2 a number of matched peers who did not attend any breakfast-promoting program (n. 291). Children who did not eat breakfast were found to be more numerous in Group 2 (17.5 %) than in  Group 1 (8.0 %; p=0.0001). In the Group 2 the percentage of  overweight (18.4 %) was higher compared to Group 1 patients (11.7 %; p=0.022). No significant difference in obesity percentage (8.9 vs 5.0 %; p=0.071).  Seventy five percent of children in Group I and the 25% of children in Group 2 (p=0.031) had one or two parents who had reported to skip routinely breakfast. Children with one or both parents used to skip breakfast had a greater odds ratio of 3.04  and  3 respectively of skipping breakfast compared to the children  with parents who had regularly  breakfast (p=0.0002). Compared to the children tested in 2005,  children admitted to   the Giocampus program showed: a significant decrease in breakfasting (22 vs 8 %; p=0.0001), a significant decrease in overweight (18.5 vs 11.7 %; p=0.003) but not in obesity (7.5 vs 5.0 %; p=0.138) status; a significant increase in consumption of cereals (p=0.0001) and fruit (p=0.0001). In conclusion, an intensive breakfast-centred strategy seems to be effective in breakfast promotion and in overweight risk decrease.

  1. Correlates of irregular family meal patterns among 11-year-old children from the Pro Children study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totland, Torunn Holm; Knudsen, Markus Dines; Paulsen, Mari Mohn; Bjelland, Mona; Van't Veer, Pieter; Brug, Johannes; Klepp, Knut Inge; Andersen, Lene Frost

    2017-01-01

    Background: The importance of family meals to the consumption of healthful food choices has been stated in recent reviews. However, little information is available on barriers that interfere with regular family meal patterns during childhood. Objective: Describe family meal patterns among 11-year-old children across Europe and identify correlates of irregular family breakfast and dinner consumption. Design: Cross-sectional survey involving samples of 13,305 children from nine European countries in 2003. Results: The proportions of children who regularly ate family breakfast and dinner were 62% and 90%, respectively. Correlates of irregular family breakfasts and dinners were less vegetable consumption, and irregular family breakfasts were associated with more television viewing. Social differences in the consumption of family breakfasts were observed. Discussion: Strengths of this study are the large sample size and validated research method. Limitations are the cross-sectional design and self-reported data. Conclusion: The majority of 11-year-old children regularly ate breakfast and dinner with their families. Less vegetable consumption and more television viewing were associated with irregular family breakfasts and dinners, respectively. Social differences were observed in the regularity of family breakfasts. Promoting family meals across social class may lead to healthier eating and activity habits, sustainable at the population Level.

  2. Differences in meal patterns and timing with regard to central obesity in the ANIBES ('Anthropometric data, macronutrients and micronutrients intake, practice of physical activity, socioeconomic data and lifestyles in Spain') Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aparicio, Aránzazu; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Elena E; Aranceta-Bartrina, Javier; Gil, Ángel; González-Gross, Marcela; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Varela-Moreiras, Gregorio; Ortega, Rosa Maria

    2017-09-01

    To study the association of meal patterns and timing with central obesity to identify the best dietary strategies to deal with the increasing obesity prevalence. A cross-sectional study performed on data from a representative sample of the Spanish population. Height and waist circumference were measured using standardized procedures and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) was calculated. The sample was divided into those without central obesity (WHtRmacronutrients and micronutrients intake, practice of physical activity, socioeconomic data and lifestyles in Spain') Study. Adults aged 18-64 years (n 1655; 798 men and 857 women). A higher percentage of people ate more than four meals daily in the group without central obesity and those with central obesity more frequently skipped the mid-afternoon snack than those without. Breakfasts containing >25 % of total energy intake and lunches containing >35 % of total energy intake were associated with increased likelihood of central obesity (OR=1·874, 95 % CI 1·019, 3·448; P15 % of total energy were associated with decreased likelihood of central obesity (OR=0·477, 95 % CI 0·313, 0·727; P<0·001 and OR=0·650, 95 % CI 0·453, 0·932; P<0·05, respectively). The variety of cereals, wholegrain cereals and dairy was higher in the population without central obesity. Our results suggest that 'what and when we eat' should be considered dietary strategies to reduce central obesity.

  3. Cereal Crops Research Unit

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The mission of the Cereal Crops Research Unit is to 1) conduct basic research to identify and understand the biological processes affecting the growth, development...

  4. Maternal and best friends' influences on meal-skipping behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Natalie; Williams, Lauren; Crawford, David; Ball, Kylie

    2012-09-01

    Skipping meals is particularly common during adolescence and can have a detrimental effect on multiple aspects of adolescent health. Understanding the correlates of meal-skipping behaviours is important for the design of nutrition interventions. The present study examined maternal and best friends' influences on adolescent meal-skipping behaviours. Frequency of skipping breakfast, lunch and dinner was assessed using a Web-based survey completed by 3001 adolescent boys and girls from years 7 and 9 of secondary schools in Victoria, Australia. Perceived best friend and maternal meal skipping, modelling of healthy eating (eating healthy food, limiting junk food, eating fruit and vegetables) and weight watching were assessed. Best friend and maternal factors were differentially associated with meal-skipping behaviours. For example, boys and girls who perceived that their best friend often skipped meals were more likely to skip lunch (OR = 2·01, 95 % CI 1·33, 3·04 and OR = 1·93, 95 % CI 1·41, 2·65; P skipped meals were more likely to skip breakfast (OR = 1·48, 95 % CI 1·01, 2·15; P skipping behaviour. The involvement of mothers may be particularly important in such efforts. Encouraging a peer subculture that promotes regular consumption of meals and educates adolescents on the detrimental impact of meal-skipping behaviour on health may also offer a promising nutrition promotion strategy.

  5. Diversifying cereal production

    OpenAIRE

    Borgen, Anders

    2007-01-01

    Modern cereal production has reached a stage of homogeneity, where both environment, nutrition and culinary quality suffers. In order to increase cereal diversity, projects have started investigating heritage varieties, and varieties and species with exotic traits. Well performing varieties and landraces will be used as they are, or will be used as genetic donors in a participatory breeding programme developing composite cross population focussing on disease resistance or special quality traits.

  6. Phosphoproteomics in cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pingfang

    2015-01-01

    Cereals are the most important crop plant supplying staple food throughout the world. The economic importance and continued breeding of crop plants such as rice, maize, wheat, or barley require a detailed scientific understanding of adaptive and developmental processes. Protein phosphorylation is one of the most important regulatory posttranslational modifications and its analysis allows deriving functional and regulatory principles in plants. This minireview summarizes the current knowledge of phosphoproteomic studies in cereals.

  7. Breakfast consumption has no effect on neuropsychological functioning in children: a repeated-measures clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iovino, Isabella; Stuff, Janice; Liu, Yan; Brewton, Christie; Dovi, Allison; Kleinman, Ronald; Nicklas, Theresa

    2016-09-01

    Although many studies have investigated the relation between breakfast consumption and various domains of cognitive functioning within children, some of the reported findings are inconsistent. We sought to determine the short-term effects of a breakfast meal on the neuropsychological functioning of healthy school-aged children after an overnight fast. The study was conducted in a clinical research center with the use of a counterbalanced repeated-measures design among children who either consumed breakfast or were fasting. The administered neuropsychological tests included measures of attention, impulsivity, short-term memory, cognitive processing speed, and verbal learning. The sample consisted of children aged 8-10 y (n = 128), of whom 52% were female, 38% were African American, 31% were Hispanic, 28% were white, and 3% were of another race/ethnicity. There were no significant (P ≥ 0.004) differences between breakfast meal consumption and fasting for any of the neuropsychological measures administered. Breakfast consumption had no short-term effect on neuropsychological functioning in healthy school-aged children. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01943604. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  8. [Relation between the breakfast quality and the academic performance in adolescents of Guadalajara (Castilla-La Mancha)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández Morales, I; Aguilar Vilas, Ma V; Mateos Vega, C J; Martínez Para, Ma C

    2008-01-01

    To study the relationship between the breakfast quality and skipping it on academic performance of a population of adolescents. A nutritional study on the breakfast quality has been performed in a population of adolescents from Guadalajara (467 young people; age: 12-17 years) by means of questionnaires of seven-day consumption frequency. Besides, we have collected socio-demographic data and academic scores of these people. Most of the students interviewed take a deficient breakfast since only 4.88% have a complete breakfast. The girls aged 15-17 years are those taking the poorest quality breakfast since 8.33% of them skip this meal. 68.29% take breakfasts which quality may be improved. The breakfast quality is directly related with the mean score obtained during the course 2003-04. This relationship is not so clear-cut when the different mandatory subjects in the different academic orientations are considered since it depends on the type of subject (comprehension, memory, concentration, physical activity...). The population studied consumes a poor breakfast, which may affect the academic outcomes, especially those for certain subjects.

  9. The effect of using isomaltulose (Palatinose™) to modulate the glycaemic properties of breakfast on the cognitive performance of children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Hayley; Benton, David

    2015-09-01

    Although previous research has associated the glycaemic load (GL) of a meal with cognitive functioning, typically the macro-nutrient composition of the meals has differed, raising a question as to whether the response was to GL or to the energy, nutrients or particular foods consumed. Therefore, the present study contrasted two breakfasts that offered identical levels of energy and macro-nutrients, although they differed in GL. Using a repeated-measures, double-blind design, 75 children aged 5-11 years, from socially deprived backgrounds, attended a school breakfast club and on two occasions, at least a week apart, they consumed a meal sweetened with either isomaltulose (Palatinose™) (GL 31.6) or glucose (GL 59.8). Immediate and delayed verbal memory, spatial memory, sustained attention, reaction times, speed of information processing and mood were assessed 1 and 3 h after eating. The nature of the meals did not influence any measure of cognition or mood after an hour; however, after 3 h, children's memory and mood improved after the lower-GL breakfast. If children had eaten the lower-GL meal on the second day of testing, they were able to process information faster and had better spatial memory later in the morning. Towards the end of a morning in school, having consumed a lower-GL breakfast resulted in better mood and aspects of cognitive functioning.

  10. Breakfast, blood glucose, and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, D; Parker, P Y

    1998-04-01

    This article compares the findings of three studies that explored the role of increased blood glucose in improving memory function for subjects who ate breakfast. An initial improvement in memory function for these subjects was found to correlate with blood glucose concentrations. In subsequent studies, morning fasting was found to adversely affect the ability to recall a word list and a story read aloud, as well as recall items while counting backwards. Failure to eat breakfast did not affect performance on an intelligence test. It was concluded that breakfast consumption preferentially influences tasks requiring aspects of memory. In the case of both word list recall and memory while counting backwards, the decline in performance associated with not eating breakfast was reversed by the consumption of a glucose-supplemented drink. Although a morning fast also affected the ability to recall a story read aloud, the glucose drink did not reverse this decline. It appears that breakfast consumption influences cognition via several mechanisms, including an increase in blood glucose.

  11. Relationship between skipping breakfast and bone mineral density in young Japanese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuroda, Tatsuhiko; Onoe, Yoshiko; Yoshikata, Remi; Ohta, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    BACK GROUND AND AIMS: It is well known that insufficient nutrient intake leads to poor bone status. To find a simple evaluation method for prevention of nutrition intake disorder, a cross-sectional study with 275 healthy Japanese female students aged 19-25 was conducted. Anthropometric parameters, bone mineral density (BMD) at lumbar and total hip, bone metabolic markers and physical activity were measured in study participants and the frequency of skipping meals (breakfast, lunch, supper), and absolute values for nutrient intakes were assessed using a Diet History Questionnaire. The frequency of skipping breakfast significantly correlate to total energy intake (ρ= -0.276, pskipping breakfast (b= -0.018, p=0.048) were independent risk factors for lower total hip BMD by multiple regression analysis. The total hip BMD in participants who skipped breakfast three or more times was significantly lower than in those who did not skip breakfast (p=0.007). In conclusion, managing the frequency of skipping breakfast and reducing it to <3 times per week may be beneficial for the maintenance of bone health in younger women.

  12. Correlates of meal skipping in young adults: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pendergast, Felicity J; Livingstone, Katherine M; Worsley, Anthony; McNaughton, Sarah A

    2016-12-01

    Meal skipping rates may be highest during young adulthood, a period of transition and development. Although these dietary behaviours may increase future risk of chronic disease, limited research has investigated correlates of meal skipping in young adults. A systematic literature search was conducted to identify studies that investigated correlates of meal skipping behaviours in young adults (aged 18-30 years). EBSCO host, MEDLINE Complete, Global Health, Scopus, EMBASE, Web of Science and Informit platforms were searched for eligible articles. Correlates were defined as any factor that was either associated with meal skipping or was self-reported by the participant to have an influence on meal skipping. Randomised controlled trials, prospective cohort studies, case-control studies, nested case-control studies, cross-sectional studies, and longitudinal studies were eligible for inclusion. Three-hundred and thirty-one articles were identified, 141 full-text articles assessed for eligibility, resulting in 35 included studies. Multiple methodological and reporting weaknesses were apparent in the reviewed studies with 28 of the 35 studies scoring a negative rating in the risk of bias assessment. Meal skipping (any meal), defined as the skipping of any meal throughout the day, was reported in 12 studies with prevalence ranging between 5 and 83%. The remaining 25 studies identified specific meals and their skipping rates, with breakfast the most frequently skipped meal 14-88% compared to lunch 8-57% and dinner 4-57%. Lack of time was consistently reported as an important correlate of meal skipping, compared with correlates such as cost and weight control, while sex was the most commonly reported associated correlate. Breakfast skipping was more common among men while lunch or dinner skipping being more common among women. This review is the first to examine potential correlates of meal skipping in young adults. Future research would benefit from stronger design and

  13. Skipping breakfast: longitudinal associations with cardiometabolic risk factors in the Childhood Determinants of Adult Health Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kylie J; Gall, Seana L; McNaughton, Sarah A; Blizzard, Leigh; Dwyer, Terence; Venn, Alison J

    2010-12-01

    The long-term effects of skipping breakfast on cardiometabolic health are not well understood. The objective was to examine longitudinal associations of breakfast skipping in childhood and adulthood with cardiometabolic risk factors in adulthood. In 1985, a national sample of 9-15-y-old Australian children reported whether they usually ate breakfast before school. During follow-up in 2004-2006, 2184 participants (26-36 y of age) completed a meal-frequency chart for the previous day. Skipping breakfast was defined as not eating between 0600 and 0900. Participants were classified into 4 groups: skipped breakfast in neither childhood nor adulthood (n = 1359), skipped breakfast only in childhood (n = 224), skipped breakfast only in adulthood (n = 515), and skipped breakfast in both childhood and adulthood (n = 86). Diet quality was assessed, waist circumference was measured, and blood samples were taken after a 12-h fast (n = 1730). Differences in mean waist circumference and blood glucose, insulin, and lipid concentrations were calculated by linear regression. After adjustment for age, sex, and sociodemographic and lifestyle factors, participants who skipped breakfast in both childhood and adulthood had a larger waist circumference (mean difference: 4.63 cm; 95% CI: 1.72, 7.53 cm) and higher fasting insulin (mean difference: 2.02 mU/L; 95% CI: 0.75, 3.29 mU/L), total cholesterol (mean difference: 0.40 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.13, 0.68 mmol/L), and LDL cholesterol (mean difference: 0.40 mmol/L; 95% CI: 0.16, 0.64 mmol/L) concentrations than did those who ate breakfast at both time points. Additional adjustments for diet quality and waist circumference attenuated the associations with cardiometabolic variables, but the differences remained significant. Skipping breakfast over a long period may have detrimental effects on cardiometabolic health. Promoting the benefits of eating breakfast could be a simple and important public health message.

  14. Female breakfast skippers display a disrupted cortisol rhythm and elevated blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witbracht, Megan; Keim, Nancy L; Forester, Shavawn; Widaman, Adrianne; Laugero, Kevin

    2015-03-01

    Chronic stress and over-activity in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis may link breakfast skipping and poor cardiometabolic health. Missing the first major meal of the day in rodents prolongs elevated circulating corticosterone at a time when it's normally decreasing. To extend these findings to humans, we hypothesized that habitual breakfast skippers would display a similar pattern of circulating cortisol and alterations in meal and stress-induced cortisol reactions. Normal weight to obese women aged 18-45 years old who were strictly defined as either breakfast skippers (n=30) or breakfast eaters (n=35) were invited to participate in our study. Normal breakfast habits were maintained for the entire study period and each participant attended 4 lab visits. Over the first 2 lab visits, body composition, fasting clinical chemistries, and self-reports of chronic stress were assessed. On each of 2 additional days (lab visits 3 and 4), salivary free cortisol was measured at home upon waking and at bedtime, and in the lab in response to a standard lunch, ad libitum afternoon snack buffet, and stress and control (relaxation) tasks. The order of the control and stress test visits was randomized. While body weight, body composition, HOMA-IR, total and HDL cholesterol did not statistically differ (p>0.05), both diastolic and systolic blood pressure was elevated (p<0.01) and LDL cholesterol was lower (p=0.04) in the breakfast skipper group. Compared to the breakfast eaters and on the control task visit only, breakfast skippers had higher circulating cortisol from arrival to midafternoon (p<0.01) and during the snack buffet (p<0.05). Furthermore, the lunch-induced cortisol reaction was larger in the 'skippers' (p=0.03). On both stress and control visit days, the diurnal cortisol amplitude was significantly (p=0.02) blunted in breakfast skippers. Self-reports of chronic stress did not differ between the groups. These data indicate that habitually skipping breakfast is

  15. 21 CFR 163.112 - Breakfast cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breakfast cocoa. 163.112 Section 163.112 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.112 Breakfast cocoa. (a) Description. (1) Breakfast cocoa is the food prepared by pulverizing the material remaining after part of the...

  16. School Breakfast Program and School Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyers, Alan; And Others

    Children who participate in the School Breakfast Program show significant improvement in academic performance and tardiness rates, and a trend toward improvement in absenteeism. The School Breakfast Program was created by Congress in 1966 to provide a breakfast on school days for low income children who would otherwise have none. Children…

  17. Impacts of the Primary School Free Breakfast Initiative on socio-economic inequalities in breakfast consumption among 9-11-year-old schoolchildren in Wales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Graham F; Murphy, Simon; Chaplin, Katherine; Lyons, Ronan A; Atkinson, Mark; Moore, Laurence

    2014-06-01

    Universal interventions may widen or narrow inequalities if disproportionately effective among higher or lower socio-economic groups. The present paper examines impacts of the Primary School Free Breakfast Initiative in Wales on inequalities in children's dietary behaviours and cognitive functioning. Cluster-randomised controlled trial. Responses were linked to free school meal (FSM) entitlement via the Secure Anonymised Information Linkage databank. Impacts on inequalities were evaluated using weighted school-level regression models with interaction terms for intervention × whole-school percentage FSM entitlement and intervention × aggregated individual FSM entitlement. Individual-level regression models included interaction terms for intervention × individual FSM entitlement. Fifty-five intervention and fifty-six wait-list control primary schools. Approximately 4500 children completed measures of dietary behaviours and cognitive tests at baseline and 12-month follow-up. School-level models indicated that children in intervention schools ate a greater number of healthy items for breakfast than children in control schools (b = 0·25; 95 % CI 0·07, 0·44), with larger increases observed in more deprived schools (interaction term b = 1·76; 95 % CI 0·36, 3·16). An interaction between intervention and household-level deprivation was not significant. Despite no main effects on breakfast skipping, a significant interaction was observed, indicating declines in breakfast skipping in more deprived schools (interaction term b = -0·07; 95 % CI -0·15, -0·00) and households (OR = 0·67; 95 % CI 0·46, 0·98). No significant influence on inequality was observed for the remaining outcomes. Universal breakfast provision may reduce socio-economic inequalities in consumption of healthy breakfast items and breakfast skipping. There was no evidence of intervention-generated inequalities in any outcomes.

  18. Breakfast Skipping and Its Associated Factors among Undergraduates in a Public University in Kuala Lumpur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moy, F M; Johari, S; Ismail, Y; Mahad, R; Tie, F H; Wan Ismail, Wm A

    2009-09-01

    An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted in a public university in Kuala Lumpur among a random sample of 2665 undergraduates. The objective was to study the prevalence of breakfast skipping and its associated factors. Data collection was conducted via a self-administered pre-tested questionnaire. There were 43.5% male respondents, with Malays being the majority (58.3%). The prevalence of breakfast skipping was 29.2 (95% CI: 27.3 - 30.3)%. The factors significantly associated with breakfast skipping (pstudents from the Sabah and Sarawak indigenous communities (OR: 2.13; 1.37 - 3.33) were more likely to skip breakfast compared to their Chinese counterparts. Respondents who stayed in their own houses were also less likely to skip breakfast compared to those staying in hostel with meals catered (OR: 2.32; 1.39 - 3.84), hostel with cafeteria (OR: 2.92; 1.74 - 4.91) or in rented houses (OR: 2.08; 1.25 - 3.46). Respondents majoring in Arts and Economics had 1.40 (1.07 - 1.82) times risk of breakfast skipping compared to those majoring in Life Sciences. Those who skipped dinner too had twice the odds (1.47 - 2.77) of breakfast skipping. In conclusion the prevalence of breakfast skipping among the undergraduates of this university was moderately high. Health awareness campaigns or introduction of healthy eating guidelines should be initiated for the undergraduates as well as food caterers in campus. The policy and pricing of catered food in campus should also be reviewed.

  19. Breakfast with glycomacropeptide compared with amino acids suppresses plasma ghrelin levels in individuals with phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLeod, Erin L; Clayton, Murray K; van Calcar, Sandra C; Ney, Denise M

    2010-08-01

    Phenylketonuria (PKU) requires a lifelong low-phenylalanine (phe) diet where protein needs are met by consumption of a phe-free amino acid (AA) formula; complaints of persistent hunger are common. Foods made with glycomacropeptide (GMP), an intact protein that contains minimal phe and may promote satiety, provide an alternative to AA formula. The objective was to assess the ability of a GMP breakfast to promote satiety and affect plasma concentrations of AAs, insulin, and the appetite stimulating hormone ghrelin in those with PKU, when compared to an AA-based breakfast. Eleven PKU subjects (8 adults and 3 boys ages 11-14) served as their own controls in an inpatient metabolic study with two 4-day treatments: an AA-based diet followed by a diet replacing all AA formula with GMP foods. Plasma concentrations of AAs, insulin and ghrelin were obtained before and/or 180 min after breakfast. Satiety was assessed using a visual analog scale before, immediately after and 150 min after breakfast. Postprandial ghrelin concentration was significantly lower (p=0.03) with GMP compared to an AA-based breakfast, with no difference in fasting ghrelin. Lower postprandial ghrelin concentrations were associated with greater feelings of fullness after breakfast suggesting greater satiety with GMP compared to AAs. Postprandial concentrations of insulin and total plasma AAs were higher after a GMP breakfast compared to an AA-based breakfast consistent with slower absorption and less degradation of AAs from GMP. These results show sustained ghrelin suppression, and suggest greater satiety with ingestion of a meal containing GMP compared with AAs. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The effect of using isomaltulose (Palatinose?) to modulate the glycaemic properties of breakfast on the cognitive performance of children

    OpenAIRE

    Young, Hayley; Benton, David

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Although previous research has associated the glycaemic load (GL) of a meal with cognitive functioning, typically the macro-nutrient composition of the meals has differed, raising a question as to whether the response was to GL or to the energy, nutrients or particular foods consumed. Therefore, the present study contrasted two breakfasts that offered identical levels of energy and macro-nutrients, although they differed in GL. Methods Using a repeated-measures, double-blind design, 7...

  1. How accurate are parental responses concerning their fourth-grade children's school-meal participation, and what is the relationship between children's body mass index and school-meal participation based on parental responses?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxton-Aiken, Amy E; Baxter, Suzanne Domel; Tebbs, Joshua M; Finney, Christopher J; Guinn, Caroline H; Royer, Julie A

    2012-03-19

    This article investigated (1) parental response accuracy of fourth-grade children's school-meal participation and whether accuracy differed by children's body mass index (BMI), sex, and race, and (2) the relationship between BMI and school-meal participation (based on parental responses). Data were from four cross-sectional studies conducted from fall 1999 to spring 2003 with fourth-grade children from 13 schools total. Consent forms asked parents to report children's usual school-meal participation. As two studies' consent forms did not ask about lunch participation, complete data were available for breakfast on 1,496 children (51% Black; 49% boys) and for lunch on 785 children (46% Black; 48% boys). Researchers compiled nametag records (during meal observations) of meal participation on randomly selected days during children's fourth-grade school year for breakfast (average nametag days across studies: 7-35) and for lunch (average nametag days across studies: 4-10) and categorized participation as "usually" (≥ 50% of days) or "not usually" (school-meal participation, marginal regression was used with BMI as the dependent variable; independent variables were breakfast participation, lunch participation, age, sex, race, and study. Concerning breakfast participation and lunch participation, 74% and 92% of parents provided accurate responses, respectively. Parental response accuracy was better for older children for breakfast and lunch participation, and for Black than White children for lunch participation. Usual school-meal participation was significantly related to children's BMI but in opposite directions -- positively for breakfast and inversely for lunch. Parental response accuracy of children's school-meal participation was moderately high; however, disparate effects for children's age and race warrant caution when relying on parental responses. The BMI results, which showed a relationship between school-meal participation (based on parental responses) and

  2. Adolescents' unhealthy eating habits are associated with meal skipping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Paulo Rogério Melo; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Monteiro, Luana Silva; Ferreira, Márcia Gonçalves; Gonçalves-Silva, Regina Maria Veras; Pereira, Rosangela Alves

    2017-10-01

    Meal consumption and diet quality are important for healthy development during adolescence. The aim of this study was to determine the association between meal habits and diet quality in Brazilian adolescents. A school-based, cross-sectional study was conducted in 2008 with a probabilistic sample of adolescents ages 14 to 19 y (N = 1139) from high schools in central-western Brazil. Consumption of breakfast, morning snack, lunch, afternoon snack, and dinner was assessed to evaluate adolescents' meal profile. The Brazilian Healthy Eating Index-Revised (BHEI-R) was calculated to evaluate diet quality. The association between meal profile and BHEI-R (global estimates and components) was assessed using multivariate linear regression models. Diet was characterized by unhealthy eating: a low consumption of fruits, vegetables, and milk/dairy, and a high consumption of fats and sodium. An unsatisfactory meal profile was observed in 14% of adolescents, whereas daily consumption of breakfast, lunch, and dinner was reported by 47%, 78%, and 52% of adolescents, respectively. Meal profile was positively associated with diet quality. Daily consumption of breakfast was associated with higher BHEI-R scores, lower sodium intake, and greater consumption of fruits and milk/dairy. Daily consumption of lunch was associated with greater consumption of vegetables and "meats, eggs, and legumes," whereas consumption of dinner was associated with an increased consumption of "whole fruits." This study showed a parallelism between daily consumption of meals with healthier eating and greater adherence to traditional Brazilian food habits. Skipping meals was associated with a low-quality diet, especially concerning to the low consumption of fruits and vegetables and a high intake of sodium and calories from solid fats, added sugars, and alcoholic beverages. Therefore, the adoption of regular meal habits may help adolescents improve their diet quality. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All

  3. The relationship of breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome in young adults. The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES): 1999-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshmukh-Taskar, Priya; Nicklas, Theresa A; Radcliffe, John D; O'Neil, Carol E; Liu, Yan

    2013-11-01

    To examine the association between breakfast skipping and type of breakfast consumed with overweight/obesity, abdominal obesity, other cardiometabolic risk factors and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Cross-sectional. Three breakfast groups were identified, breakfast skippers (BS), ready-to-eat-cereal (RTEC) consumers and other breakfast (OB) consumers, using a 24 h dietary recall. Risk factors were compared between the breakfast groups using covariate-adjusted statistical procedures. The 1999–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, USA. Young adults (20–39 years of age). Among these young adults (n 5316), 23.8% were BS, 16.5% were RTEC consumers and 59.7% were OB consumers. Relative to the BS, the RTEC consumers were 31%, 39%, 37%, 28%, 23%, 40% and 42% less likely to be overweight/obese or have abdominal obesity, elevated blood pressure, elevated serum total cholesterol, elevated serum LDL-cholesterol, reduced serum HDL-cholesterol or elevated serum insulin, respectively. Relative to the OB consumers, the BS were 1.24, 1.26 and 1.44 times more likely to have elevated serum total cholesterol, elevated serum LDL-cholesterol or reduced serum HDL-cholesterol, respectively. Relative to the OB consumers, the RTEC consumers were 22%, 31% and 24% less likely to be overweight/ obese or have abdominal obesity or elevated blood pressure, respectively. No difference was seen in the prevalence of the MetS by breakfast skipping or type of breakfast consumed. Results suggest that consumption of breakfast, especially that included an RTEC, was associated with an improved cardiometabolic risk profile in U.S. young adults. Additional studies are needed to determine the nature of these relationships.

  4. Effect of Sugar versus Mixed Breakfast on Metabolic and Neurofunctional Responses in Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Codella

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the effects of glucose and diverse breakfasts on glucose increment and ghrelin suppression and cognitive processing of sensory information assessed by frontal P300 evoked potentials. In a randomized crossover design, 12 healthy individuals (6M/6F; BMI 22.2 ± 0.4 kg/m2; 27 ± 1.3 years, mean ± SEM underwent 50 g OGTT (A and 3 breakfasts (B1: milk and cereals; B2: milk, apple, and chocolate cream-filled sponge cake; B3: milk, apple, bread, and hazelnut chocolate cream to assess plasma glucose-, insulin-, and ghrelin excursions. An electroencephalography was performed before and 100 min after consumption of each load to measure the latency of frontal P300 evoked potentials as index of cognitive performance. Breakfasts B1 and B2 exhibited significantly lower glycemic and insulinemic responses as compared to A. Breakfast B3 exhibited significantly lower glycemic, but not insulinemic response, as compared to A. Final plasma ghrelin inhibition was more pronounced, albeit not significantly, in all breakfasts with respect to A. P300 latency tended to decrease following each of the three breakfasts, but B3 was the only breakfast capable to elicit a statistically significant reduction in P300 latency with respect to A (p<0.01, suggesting ameliorated cognitive performance. Such amelioration was correlated with the 2-hour final inhibition of plasma ghrelin concentration (r=0.61, p=0.01.

  5. Zinc biofortification of cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmgren, Michael; Clemens, Stephan; Williams, Lorraine E.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of biofortification is to develop plants that have an increased content of bioavailable nutrients in their edible parts. Cereals serve as the main staple food for a large proportion of the world population but have the shortcoming, from a nutrition perspective, of being low in zinc...... and other essential nutrients. Major bottlenecks in plant biofortification appear to be the root-shoot barrier and - in cereals - the process of grain filling. New findings demonstrate that the root-shoot distribution of zinc is controlled mainly by heavy metal transporting P1B-ATPases and the metal...

  6. 21 CFR 137.270 - Self-rising white corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-rising white corn meal. 137.270 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.270 Self-rising white corn meal. (a) Self-rising white corn meal is an intimate mixture of white corn meal, sodium bicarbonate, and one or both of the acid-reacting...

  7. 21 CFR 137.290 - Self-rising yellow corn meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Self-rising yellow corn meal. 137.290 Section 137... Cereal Flours and Related Products § 137.290 Self-rising yellow corn meal. Self-rising yellow corn meal conforms to the definition and standard of identity prescribed by § 137.270 for self-rising white corn meal...

  8. Christmas Morning, Breakfast, Horace Pippin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braunlin-Jones, Heather

    2004-01-01

    This brief article describes the life and the art of Horace Pippin. It focuses on one work called "Christmas Morning, Breakfast" that is part of a series of works based on Pippin's childhood memories. The painting depicts a very modest room, including exposed wallboards where chunks of plaster have fallen off. The room is very tidy, but…

  9. Regular Breakfast Consumption and its Predictors Based on the Social Cognitive Theory in Female Students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nooshin Salimi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Despite associating regular breakfast consumption habits with a range of health benefits, the rate of skipping the meal is high. The present study was conducted to determine the factors associated with breakfast consumption among female students of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences based on the Social Cognitive Theory (SCT. Materials and Methods: The present cross-sectional study was carried out on 423 female students in different faculties of Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. Participants were selected through multistage random sampling. The frequency of breakfast consumption and SCT variables, including knowledge, hope, outcome expectancies, observational learning, social support and self-efficacy, was measured using a self-administered questionnaire. Data were analyzed in SPSS-16 using the chi-square test, the correlation test and the linear regression analysis. Results: 24% of the students stated that they always ate breakfast. 10% of the students skipped breakfast. On average, the students ate breakfast 4.2 times a week. Self-efficacy (p<0.001 and social support (p<0.001 were good predictors of breakfast consumption in the students. These two variables were able to predict 64% of the variance in breakfast habits. Conclusion: The results show that self-efficacy and social support should be targeted in the design of interventions intending to increase breakfast consumption among female university students.

  10. The role of breakfast and a mid-morning snack on the ability of children to concentrate at school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, David; Jarvis, Megan

    2007-02-28

    The effect on the ability of children to attend to their school work, of the size of breakfast and whether a mid-morning snack had been consumed, was considered. Nine year old children were studied for four days. They reported what they had eaten for breakfast and days when they either had or had not eaten a mid-morning snack were contrasted. For an hour in the late morning, while performing individual work, activity sampling was used to establish the time spent on task. Those who had eaten a small breakfast, on average 61 kcal, spent significantly less time attending to their work than those who had eaten larger meals. The adverse effect of a small breakfast was reversed by the consumption of a mid-morning snack.

  11. Breakfast replacement with a low-glycaemic response liquid formula in patients with type 2 diabetes : a randomised clinical trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stenvers, Dirk J; Schouten, Lydia J; Jurgens, Jordy; Endert, Erik; Kalsbeek, A.; Fliers, Eric; Bisschop, Peter H

    2014-01-01

    Low-glycaemic index diets reduce glycated Hb (HbA1c) in patients with type 2 diabetes, but require intensive dietary support. Using a liquid meal replacement with a low glycaemic response (GR) may be an alternative dietary approach. In the present study, we investigated whether breakfast replacement

  12. Hyperphosphorylation of cereal starch

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carciofi, Massimiliano; Shaik, Shahnoor Sultana; Jensen, Susanne Langgård

    2011-01-01

    Plant starch is naturally phosphorylated at a fraction of the C6 and the C3 hydroxyl groups during its biosynthesis in plastids. Starch phosphate esters are important in starch metabolism and they also generate specific industrial functionality. Cereal grains starch contains little starch bound...

  13. Silo para cereales. Bandholm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Editorial, Equipo

    1960-09-01

    Full Text Available El silo de Bandholm, para cereales, construido en la isla de Lolland, tiene una capacidad de 13 a 14.000 toneladas. Esta estructura se ha subdividido en células individuales de unas 400 toneladas de capacidad cada una. La obra ha sido proyectada y construida por Christiani & Nielsen.

  14. Cereal bran fractionation: processing techniques for the recovery of functional components and their applications to the food industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukoulis, Christos; Aprea, Eugenio

    2012-04-01

    Bran is the outer part of cereal grains that is separated during the cereals de-hulling and milling processes. It was considered in the past a by-product of cereal industry employed mainly as animal feed. Cereal bran, being particularly rich in different functional biopolymers, bio-active compounds and essential fatty acids, attracted the interest of pharmaceutical and food industry. Furthermore, the peculiar techno-functional properties of brans together with their particular physiological and nutritional aspects have led to a great interest in their incorporation as main or secondary components in different groups of food products including bakery and confectionery products, breakfast cereals and extruded foodstuffs, emulsions and functional dairy products and pasta products. In the first part of the present work the main fractionation processes, bran fractions properties and their physicochemical and technological properties are briefly reviewed. In the second part, relevant applications, with emphasis on patents, in food industry are reviewed as well.

  15. Breakfast consumption determinants among female high school students of Yazd Province based on Pender's Health Promotion Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrabbeik, Akram; Mahmoodabad, Seyed Saeed Mazloomy; Khosravi, Hassan Mozaffari; Fallahzadeh, Hossein

    2017-08-01

    Despite the importance of breakfast, especially for students, unfortunately, this meal is usually ignored in daily routine. The aim of this study was to identify determinants among female high school students of Yazd province based on the Pender Health Promotion Model. This was a cross-sectional study conducted to examine 200 female high school students of Yazd, selected by cluster sampling method in 2016. A researcher-made questionnaire, based on Pender's Health Promotion Model, was used as a data collection tool. A panel of experts and Cronbach's alpha coefficient were used to confirm the questionnaire validity and reliability. In order to analyze descriptive data, SPSS version 22 was used. AMOS software (v.23) was employed for path analysis. Direct impact of activity -related affect (0.300), interpersonal influences (0.276), and perceived barriers to eating breakfast (-0.223) were approved at significance level pbreakfast consumption. These components determined 33% of breakfast consumption. By planning to create a positive feeling in students to have breakfast, to involve family and friends to encourage students to eat breakfast, to reduce barriers to have breakfast by increasing students' self-efficacy, the behavior of having breakfast among students can be improved.

  16. The School Breakfast Program strengthens household food security among low-income households with elementary school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartfeld, Judith S; Ahn, Hong-Min

    2011-03-01

    The School Breakfast Program is an important component of the nutritional safety net and has been linked to positive changes in meal patterns and nutritional outcomes. By offering a breakfast, which for low-income children is available either at no cost or reduced price, the program also has the potential to increase household food security. This study examined the relationship between availability of the School Breakfast Program and household food security among low-income third-grade students by using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Survey-Kindergarten Cohort. The primary sample included 3010 students. Availability of school breakfast was assessed by surveys of school administrators. Food security was assessed by parents' reports by using the standard 18-item food security scale and considering 2 different food security thresholds. A probit model was estimated to measure the relationship between school breakfast availability and household food security while controlling for a range of other characteristics. Access to school breakfast reduced the risk of marginal food insecurity but not the risk of food insecurity at the standard threshold. That is, the program appeared beneficial in offsetting food-related concerns among at-risk families, although not necessarily in alleviating food insecurity once hardships had crossed the food insecurity threshold. Increasing the availability of school breakfast may be an effective strategy to maintain food security among low-income households with elementary school children.

  17. Classifying Cereal Data (Earlier Methods)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The DSQ includes questions about cereal intake and allows respondents up to two responses on which cereals they consume. We classified each cereal reported first by hot or cold, and then along four dimensions: density of added sugars, whole grains, fiber, and calcium.

  18. Sex differences in adolescents' glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to high and low glycaemic index breakfasts: a randomised control trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Simon B; Dring, Karah J; Morris, John G; Cousins, Ben E W; Nute, Maria L; Nevill, Mary E

    2017-02-01

    During puberty young people undergo significant hormonal changes which affect metabolism and, subsequently, health. Evidence suggests there is a period of transient pubertal insulin resistance, with this effect greater in girls than boys. However, the response to everyday high and low glycaemic index (GI) meals remains unknown. Following ethical approval, forty adolescents consumed a high GI or low GI breakfast, in a randomised cross-over design. Capillary blood samples were taken during a 2-h postprandial period, examining the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses. Maturity offset and homoeostatic model assessment (HOMA) were also calculated. The glycaemic response to the breakfasts was similar between boys and girls, as shown by similar peak blood glucose concentrations and incremental AUC (IAUC) following both high and low GI breakfasts (all P>0·05). Girls exhibited a higher peak plasma insulin concentration 30 min post-breakfast following both high GI (P=0·043, g=0·69) and low GI (P=0·010, g=0·84) breakfasts, as well as a greater IAUC following high GI (P=0·041, g=0·66) and low GI (P=0·041, g=0·66) breakfasts. HOMA was positively correlated with the insulinaemic responses (all P<0·0005) and maturity offset (P=0·037). The findings of the present study suggest that pubertal insulin resistance affects the postprandial insulinaemic responses to both high and low GI meals. Specifically, girls exhibit a greater insulinaemic response than boys to both meals, despite similar glycaemic responses. This study is the first to report the glycaemic and insulinaemic responses to everyday meals in boys and girls, supporting the recommendation for young people to base their diet on low GI carbohydrates.

  19. The effects of breakfast on short-term cognitive function among Chinese white-collar workers: protocol for a three-phase crossover study

    OpenAIRE

    Zhenchuang Tang; Na Zhang; Ailing Liu; Dechun Luan; Yong Zhao; Chao Song; Guansheng Ma

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background As the first meal of the day, breakfast plays an important role in supplying energy and nutrients, which are critical to working and learning activities. A three-phase crossover study was designed to investigate the effects of breakfast on cognitive function among Chinese white-collar workers. The planned study protocol is presented. Methods A total of 264 participants aged 25–45 years will be recruited from Shenyang and Chongqing. Self-administered questionnaires will be ...

  20. The effects of breakfast on short-term cognitive function among Chinese white-collar workers: protocol for a three-phase crossover study

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Zhenchuang; Zhang, Na; Liu, AiLing; Luan, Dechun; Zhao, Yong; Song, Chao; Ma, Guansheng

    2017-01-01

    Background As the first meal of the day, breakfast plays an important role in supplying energy and nutrients, which are critical to working and learning activities. A three-phase crossover study was designed to investigate the effects of breakfast on cognitive function among Chinese white-collar workers. The planned study protocol is presented. Methods A total of 264 participants aged 25?45 years will be recruited from Shenyang and Chongqing. Self-administered questionnaires will be used to c...

  1. The effect of eating speed at breakfast on appetite hormone responses and daily food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Meena; Crisp, Kelli; Adams-Huet, Beverley; Dart, Lyn; Bouza, Brooke; Franklin, Brian; Phillips, Melody

    2015-01-01

    The effect of eating speed at a meal on appetite gut hormone responses and future food consumption is not clear. This study examined the effect of eating speed at breakfast on postprandial gut hormone responses, subjective appetite, and daily food consumption. Twenty-five participants [68% men; age, 25.9 (8.1) years; body mass index, 25.0 (3.2) kg/m] were recruited. Each participant consumed the same breakfast at a slow (30 minutes) and fast (10 minutes) speed, on 2 separate days, in a randomized crossover design. Blood samples were collected in the fasting state and 3 hours postprandially during each eating condition. Appetite was assessed over the same period using visual analog scales. Blood concentrations of orexigenic hormone, ghrelin, and anorexigenic hormones, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and peptide YY (PYY), were determined. Daily food intake was measured, by food recall, after the slow and fast breakfast. Mixed-model repeated-measures analysis showed no eating condition or eating condition by time interaction effect on ghrelin, GLP-1, PYY, hunger, or fullness. Significant eating speed by time interaction effect on desire to eat was found (P=0.007). Desire to eat was lower at 60 minutes (P=0.007) after breakfast began during the slow versus fast eating condition. Eating speed at breakfast did not affect daily energy and macronutrient intake. Eating speed at breakfast did not affect postprandial ghrelin, GLP-1, PYY, hunger, and fullness values or daily energy and macronutrient intake. Desire to eat was lower at 60 minutes in the slow versus fast eating condition, but this result could not be explained by the changes in meal-related hormones measured in the study.

  2. Application of the theory of reasoned action to promoting breakfast consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Zahra; Gharlipour Gharghani, Zabihollah; Mansoori, Anahita; Aghamolaei, Teamur; Mohammadi Nasrabadi, Maryam

    2015-01-01

    Breakfast is the most important daily meal, but neglected more than other meals by children and adolescents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of an educational intervention, based on the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) to increase breakfast consumption among school children in Bandar Abbas, Iran. In this quasi experimental study which was conducted in 2012, 88 students of four secondary schools in Bandar Abbas, south of Iran, were enrolled. Multi-stage cluster sampling was performed with random allocation of interventional and control groups. The study tool was a questionnaire which was filled by the students before and two months after the educational intervention. For data analysis, statistical tests including paired-samples t-test, independent samples t-test, Wilcoxon test, and Mann-Whitney test were used through SPSS v.18 software. The result of the study showed that application of TRA significantly increased scores of behavior of breakfast consumption (pbreakfast consumption. Applying this theory for designing interventions to increase breakfast eating is recommended.

  3. Meal patterns of malaysian adults: findings from the Malaysian adults nutrition survey (MANS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan Abdul Manan, W M; Nur Firdaus, I; Safiah, M Y; Siti Haslinda, M D; Poh, B K; Norimah, A K; Azmi, M Y; Tahir, A; Mirnalini, K; Zalilah, M S; Fatimah, S; Siti Norazlin, M M; Fasiah, W

    2012-08-01

    Meal patterns have received little attention in nutrition studies. The aim of this study is to present the findings on general meal patterns of Malaysian adults. The Malaysian Adults Nutrition Survey (MANS), carried out in 2002 and 2003, involved 6,928 adults selected by stratified random sampling from all households by zone in Peninsular Malaysia, Sabah and Sarawak. In general, the results showed that most respondents (74.16%) ate three meals per day; 89.20% of the respondents consumed breakfast, while 88.57% consumed lunch and 91.97% consumed dinner with no significant difference in terms of sex. In Peninsular Malaysia, the Northern Zone had the highest number of people consuming breakfast compared to other zones. Meanwhile, the population in Sarawak had the largest proportion of people consuming lunch and dinner, but the smallest proportion of people consuming breakfast. A significantly higher number of the rural population consumed breakfast and lunch than urbanites; however there was no significant difference in dinner consumption. Generally, breakfast consumption increased with age whereby significant difference existed between the 18 to 19 years age group and the age group of 30 years and older. Lunch intake among the age groups showed no significant difference. In contrast, dinner consumption was significantly lower among the 18 to 19 years age group compared to all other age groups. Comparison among the ethnic groups showed that the Indian population had the lowest percentage of having breakfast and lunch while the Orang Asli had the lowest percentage of consuming dinner. However, the Orang Asli recorded the highest percentage for taking breakfast and lunch while the Chinese had the highest percentage of taking dinner. Considering that Malaysian adults consumed their conventional breakfast, lunch and dinner, these findings indicatethat Malaysians are maintaining their traditional meal patterns.

  4. Dietary protein intake by meal type in adults aged 51 years and over: WWEIA, NHANES 2011-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evenly distributing daily protein intake at meals has been suggested to improve muscle mass among older adults. The aim of this research is to evaluate protein intake and its distribution across three meal types (breakfast, lunch, and dinner). Nationally representative dietary intake data of adult...

  5. Meal mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Kügler, Jens; Olsen, Nina Veflen

    2013-01-01

    probabilities are subjected to multiple correspondence analysis and mapped into low-dimensional space. In a third step, the principal coordinates representing meal centres and side components in the correspondence analysis solution are subjected to cluster analysis to identify distinct groups of compatible...

  6. Making Breakfast Kid-Pleasing at Home or School.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neifert, Marianne

    1993-01-01

    Research consistently shows links between eating breakfast and learning. Many resources, including the National School Breakfast Program, are available to help parents who cannot provide breakfast at home. The article offers suggestions to help parents make creative, child-pleasing breakfasts and become active in planning school breakfasts. (SM)

  7. Nutritional, Economic, and Environmental Costs of Milk Waste in a Classroom School Breakfast Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blondin, Stacy A; Cash, Sean B; Goldberg, Jeanne P; Griffin, Timothy S; Economos, Christina D

    2017-04-01

    To measure fluid milk waste in a US School Breakfast in the Classroom Program and estimate its nutritional, economic, and environmental effects. Fluid milk waste was directly measured on 60 elementary school classroom days in a medium-sized, urban district. The US Department of Agriculture nutrition database, district cost data, and carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions and water footprint estimates for fluid milk were used to calculate the associated nutritional, economic, and environmental costs. Of the total milk offered to School Breakfast Program participants, 45% was wasted. A considerably smaller portion of served milk was wasted (26%). The amount of milk wasted translated into 27% of vitamin D and 41% of calcium required of School Breakfast Program meals. The economic and environmental costs amounted to an estimated $274 782 (16% of the district's total annual School Breakfast Program food expenditures), 644 893 kilograms of CO2e, and 192 260 155 liters of water over the school year in the district. These substantial effects of milk waste undermine the School Breakfast Program's capacity to ensure short- and long-term food security and federal food waste reduction targets. Interventions that reduce waste are urgently needed.

  8. Depicted serving size: cereal packaging pictures exaggerate serving sizes and promote overserving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tal, Aner; Niemann, Stina; Wansink, Brian

    2017-02-06

    Extensive work has focused on the effects of nutrition label information on consumer behavior on the one hand, and on the effects of packaging graphics on the other hand. However, little work has examined how serving suggestion depictions - graphics relating to serving size - influence the quantity consumers serve themselves. The current work examines the prevalence of exaggerated serving size depictions on product packaging (study 1) and its effects on food serving in the context of cereal (study 2). Study 1 was an observational field survey of cereal packaging. Study 2 was a mixed experimental cross-sectional design conducted at a U.S. university, with 51 student participants. Study 1 coded 158 US breakfast cereals and compared the serving sizes depicted on the front of the box with the suggested serving size stated on the nutrition facts panel. Study 2 measured the amount of cereal poured from exaggerated or accurate serving size depictions. Study 1 compared average servings via t-tests. Study 2 used a mixed model with cereal type as the repeated measure and a compound symmetry covariance matrix. Study 1 demonstrated that portion size depictions on the front of 158 cereal boxes were 64.7% larger (221 vs. 134 calories) than the recommended portions on nutrition facts panels of those cereals. Study 2 showed that boxes that depicted exaggerated serving sizes led people to pour 17.8% more cereal compared to pouring from modified boxes that depicted a single-size portion of cereal matching suggested serving size. This was 42% over the suggested serving size. Biases in depicted serving size depicted on cereal packaging are prevalent in the marketplace. Such biases may lead to overserving, which may consequently lead to overeating. Companies should depict the recommended serving sizes, or otherwise indicate that the depicted portion represents an exaggerated serving size.

  9. Depicted serving size: cereal packaging pictures exaggerate serving sizes and promote overserving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aner Tal

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extensive work has focused on the effects of nutrition label information on consumer behavior on the one hand, and on the effects of packaging graphics on the other hand. However, little work has examined how serving suggestion depictions - graphics relating to serving size - influence the quantity consumers serve themselves. The current work examines the prevalence of exaggerated serving size depictions on product packaging (study 1 and its effects on food serving in the context of cereal (study 2. Methods Study 1 was an observational field survey of cereal packaging. Study 2 was a mixed experimental cross-sectional design conducted at a U.S. university, with 51 student participants. Study 1 coded 158 US breakfast cereals and compared the serving sizes depicted on the front of the box with the suggested serving size stated on the nutrition facts panel. Study 2 measured the amount of cereal poured from exaggerated or accurate serving size depictions. Study 1 compared average servings via t-tests. Study 2 used a mixed model with cereal type as the repeated measure and a compound symmetry covariance matrix. Results Study 1 demonstrated that portion size depictions on the front of 158 cereal boxes were 64.7% larger (221 vs. 134 calories than the recommended portions on nutrition facts panels of those cereals. Study 2 showed that boxes that depicted exaggerated serving sizes led people to pour 17.8% more cereal compared to pouring from modified boxes that depicted a single-size portion of cereal matching suggested serving size. This was 42% over the suggested serving size. Conclusions Biases in depicted serving size depicted on cereal packaging are prevalent in the marketplace. Such biases may lead to overserving, which may consequently lead to overeating. Companies should depict the recommended serving sizes, or otherwise indicate that the depicted portion represents an exaggerated serving size.

  10. The Effects of Breakfast and Breakfast Composition on Cognition in Adults

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Galioto, Rachel; Spitznagel, Mary Beth

    2016-01-01

    .... The purpose of the current review is to integrate the results of the literature examining the cognitive effects of breakfast and breakfast composition in adults with the use of a flexible definition...

  11. Examining Predictors of Breakfast Skipping and Breakfast Program Use among Secondary School Students in the Compass Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godin, Katelyn M.; Patte, Karen A.; Leatherdale, Scott T.

    2018-01-01

    Background: Many Canadian schools offer breakfast programs; however, students' engagement in these programs is low, while breakfast skipping is highly prevalent among youth. This study examined whether the availability of breakfast programs supports adolescents' regular breakfast eating, and identified characteristics of breakfast skippers who are…

  12. Nutritional Intervention and Breakfast Behavior of Kindergartens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yongqing; Cai, Chunsheng; Li, Jian; Sun, Wenjie

    2016-03-01

    To examine the effect of nutritional education on children's breakfast patterns. A kindergarten based nutrition intervention was started in September 2001 among 8 kindergartens in Hefei with a total of 2,012 children aged 4-6 years and their parent pairs. Monthly nutrition education sessions were held over two semesters in kindergartens part of the intervention arm. The approach in education and the content of other activities were uniform across all the kindergartens. A validated questionnaire was used to record breakfast behavior over 7 days including at least one weekend. The parents recorded the children's breakfast pattern (frequency, time, and food selection) at baseline, middle, and end of the study. After intervention, there were significant differences at the final stage, but none at the baseline before intervention. There were changes not only in breakfast frequency, but also in the breakfast selection. The breakfast pattern of Chinese children can be modified through nutrition education after a long term intervention.

  13. Breakfast Composition in Junior High School Students

    OpenAIRE

    Sheila Devi; Aly Diana; Setiawan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Adolescence is a time of rapid development that requires higher nutrient intake levels than in adulthood. However the habit of skipping breakfast has become very popular among adolescents. Skipping breakfast has negative effects such as difficulty in concentrating, growth impairment and decrease academic performance. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the breakfast composisition of early adolescents in Jatinangor, Sumedang, Indonesia. Methods: A cross sectional st...

  14. The Effect of Breakfast Prior to Morning Exercise on Cognitive Performance, Mood and Appetite Later in the Day in Habitually Active Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veasey, Rachel C; Haskell-Ramsay, Crystal F; Kennedy, David O; Tiplady, Brian; Stevenson, Emma J

    2015-07-14

    Pre-exercise nutritional practices for active females exercising for mood, cognitive and appetite benefits are not well established. Results from an initial field pilot study showed that higher energy intake at breakfast was associated with lower fatigue and higher overall mood and alertness post-exercise (all p cognitive tasks, mood and appetite visual analogue scales (VAS) and were administered a cereal breakfast (providing 118 or 236 kcal) or no breakfast. After 45 min, they completed a 30 min run at 65% heart rate reserve (HRR). Parameters were re-assessed immediately after exercise, then hourly until lunch (~1240 h), immediately post-lunch and at 1500 and 1900 h via a mobile phone. Breakfast enhanced feelings of relaxation before lunch (p 0.40), though breakfast was detrimental for working memory mid-afternoon (p = 0.019, d = 0.37) and mental fatigue and tension later in the day (all p 0.038). Breakfast was also beneficial for appetite control before lunch irrespective of size (all p 0.43). These data provide information on pre-exercise nutritional practices for active females and suggest that a small breakfast eaten prior to exercise can benefit post-exercise mood and subjective appetite ratings.

  15. The Effect of Breakfast Prior to Morning Exercise on Cognitive Performance, Mood and Appetite Later in the Day in Habitually Active Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel C. Veasey

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Pre-exercise nutritional practices for active females exercising for mood, cognitive and appetite benefits are not well established. Results from an initial field pilot study showed that higher energy intake at breakfast was associated with lower fatigue and higher overall mood and alertness post-exercise (all p < 0.05. In a follow-up, randomised, controlled trial, 24 active women completed three trials in a balanced, cross-over design. At 0815 h participants completed baseline cognitive tasks, mood and appetite visual analogue scales (VAS and were administered a cereal breakfast (providing 118 or 236 kcal or no breakfast. After 45 min, they completed a 30 min run at 65% heart rate reserve (HRR. Parameters were re-assessed immediately after exercise, then hourly until lunch (~1240 h, immediately post-lunch and at 1500 and 1900 h via a mobile phone. Breakfast enhanced feelings of relaxation before lunch (p < 0.05, d > 0.40, though breakfast was detrimental for working memory mid-afternoon (p = 0.019, d = 0.37 and mental fatigue and tension later in the day (all p < 0.05, d > 0.038. Breakfast was also beneficial for appetite control before lunch irrespective of size (all p < 0.05, d > 0.43. These data provide information on pre-exercise nutritional practices for active females and suggest that a small breakfast eaten prior to exercise can benefit post-exercise mood and subjective appetite ratings.

  16. How to Define Family Meals in "Shokuiku" (Food and Nutrition Education).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takimoto, Hidemi; Sarukura, Nobuko; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko

    2015-01-01

    The Japanese government has set 11 targets to promote "Shokuiku." However, among the 11 targets, only two targets (frequency of shared family meals and the proportion of breakfast skipping in children and young men) are quantitative goals. The increase in children eating alone is often lamented in the popular media, but the methodology for identifying the status of family meals ("Kyoshoku"), or how the responses should be validated, is rarely discussed. In the current review, we attempt to clarify how a family meal and survey responses are defined, by searching literature published after 2009, using the following keywords: "family meals" or "shared meals," in the PubMed database for English. For literature published in Japanese, we searched the Igakuchuo-Zassi Database and Google Scholar for relevant studies. In the English literature, questions were likely to focus on whether a dinner or any meal was eaten together with family members living together, while Japanese literature was more focused on "breakfast or dinner" eaten together with family members. The response options varied across different studies, such as the number of family meals a week, or the number of days (per week) these family meals were eaten. We found it quite difficult to compare across the studies, as there is no standardized definition or response options for "family meals." Further studies are needed in order to develop a standardized method to assess the current status of "family meals."

  17. Does school breakfast benefit children's educational performance?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernald, L; Ani, C C; Grantham-mcgregor, S

    1997-09-01

    This article reviews several research studies on the impact of the lack of breakfast among students. Recent data reveal that about 20% of Nigerian children were wasted or had weight-for-height measurements under the 5th percentile of the US National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) standard. In Ghana, 41% of children were underweight or had a weight-for-age under -2 standard deviations of the NCHS standards. In Tanzania, about 34% of children were underweight. Many more students in Africa are attending school, but many are leaving primary school early or failing secondary school examinations. It is argued that poor nutritional status affects children's ability to learn. Research reveals several hypotheses about how breakfast affects children's cognition, behavior, and school performance. Children may not attend school at all due to the inability to purchase food to eat at school, or insufficient food resources at home to provide sufficient energy to walk long distances to school. In four studies, two in the USA and the others in Peru and Jamaica, findings reveal that when undernourished children missed breakfast, they performed worse in tests of cognition. Adequately nourished children's performance was unaffected by missing breakfast. A study in four Jamaican schools found that children had more creative ideas when they received a breakfast for 2 weeks than when they did not receive breakfast. Two Swedish studies found that children with a high-calorie breakfast improved in cognition compared to those receiving a low-calorie breakfast. One study found that children in well-equipped classrooms paid more attention in class after having breakfast. Children in overcrowded classes and poorly equipped schools were less likely to pay attention after breakfast. Long-term effects are less well studied, but findings clearly support the benefits of breakfast.

  18. 40-year trends in meal and snack eating behaviors of American adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ashima K; Graubard, Barry I

    2015-01-01

    Understanding changes in profiles of eating behaviors over time may provide insights into contributors to upward trajectories of obesity in the US population. Yet little is known about whether or not characteristics of meal and snack eating behaviors reported by adult Americans have changed over time. To examine time trends in the distribution of day's intake into individual meal and snack behaviors and related attributes in the US adult population. The study was observational with cross-sectional data from national surveys fielded over 40 years. Nationally representative dietary data from nine National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted from 1971-1974 to 2009-2010 (N=62,298 participants aged 20-74 years) were used to describe eating behaviors. The respondent-labeled eating behaviors examined included main meals (breakfast, lunch, and dinner), and snacks (before breakfast, between breakfast and lunch, between lunch and dinner, after dinner, or other). For each eating behavior, percent of reporters, relative contribution to 24-hour energy intake, the clock time of report, and intermeal/snack intervals were examined. Multivariable logistic and linear regression methods for analysis of complex survey data adjusted for characteristics of respondents in each survey. Over the 40-year span examined reports of each individual named main meal (or all three main meals) declined, but reports of only two out of three meals or the same meal more than once increased; the percentage of 24-hour energy from snacks reported between lunch and dinner or snacks that displaced meals increased; clock times of breakfast and lunch were later, and intervals between dinner and after-dinner snack were shorter. Changes in several snack reporting behaviors (eg, report of any snack or ≥2 snacks), were significant in women only. Several meal and snack eating behaviors of American adults changed over time, with a greater change in snack behaviors of women relative to men

  19. [Analysis of knowledge about healthy breakfast and its relation to life style habits and academic performance in compulsory secondary students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Córdoba Caro, Luis Gonzalo; Luengo Pérez, Luis Miguel; García Preciado, Ventura

    2014-05-01

    The main objective of the study is to analyze whether students of Compulsory Secondary Education (ESO) of Badajoz city known foods that are part of a healthy breakfast. It also intends to see the relationship of this knowledge with lifestyle habits and academic performance. A representative sample of 1197 secondary students in the city of Badajoz (Spain) (50.1% female) was calculated their Body Mass Index (BMI) and were asked to fill in a questionnaire, previously validated in a pilot study, which included sociodemographic items as well as others related with life style habits. They were also asked to choose among a series of food, which of them were a part of a healthy breakfast. 49.2% of adolescents know foods which are a part of a healthy breakfast. Very low correlations were obtained between all the variables analyzed and knowledge of foods that make up a healthy breakfast. However, within a few variables are significant differences (P<.05) between subgroups, such as families of students with low cultural level of aided schools, repeaters, without reading habit, passing lot of time with friends, who have been on a diet, make less than 3 meals a day and spend less than 10minutes for breakfast and know the amount of fruit that should be consumed daily. Life style habits of adolescents are not related to the knowledge about the foods that are part of a healthy breakfast. Copyright © 2013 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  20. Meal Module, Tray Pack 36-Persons

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-08-27

    17.50 7.8 0.19 20 Potatoes in 8940-01-152-6821 5.50 7.6 0.19 18 Butter Sauce Green Beans 8915-01-150-2861 7.99 5.0 0.19 25 Apple Dessert 8940-01-147-7855...CUSHIONED HOT SAUCE 8. BOXES OF PEANUT BUTTER PACKETS 9. BOX OF COFFEE PACKETS 10. BOX OF CREAMER PACKETS Figure 10. Meal Module, Tray Pack, 36...listed Condiments (Table A-3) as listed Breakfast 2 Fruit Cocktail w/Syrup 8915-00-286-5482 S Beef Stew 8940-01-009-7993 Mixed Vegetables 8915-01-173-2858

  1. Breakfast eating among Brazilian adolescents: Analysis of the National Dietary Survey 2008-2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luana Silva MONTEIRO

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: To characterize breakfast eating among Brazilian adolescents. Methods: Food intake was estimated based on a 1-day food record of adolescents aged 10-19 years, according to the first National Diet Survey (2008-2009. Breakfast was considered as the first meal of the day eaten between 4 and 11 am. Results: Ninety-three percent of adolescents reported eating breakfast. This meal contributed to 17.7% of the daily energy intake. The most commonly consumed food groups were: coffee and tea, breads, butter/margarine, milk, cakes and cookies, packaged snacks, corn-based dishes, cheese, processed meats, and fruit juice. In the Northern region there was a higher frequency of coffee and tea and roots and tubers intake and lower frequency of milk intake than that in the other regions in the country. In the Northeastern region, the intake of corn and eggs was high; in the Southern region, there was high intake of processed meats and fruits. Adolescents from families in the first income quartile reported higher intake of coffee and tea, packaged snacks, corn, and roots and tubers intake, and lower intake of milk and dairy products. Adolescents from families in the highest income quartile reported higher intake of milk, fruit juice, cheese, and sugar-added beverages. Conclusion: In Brazil, the contribution of breakfast to daily energy intake among adolescents is low. The nutritional quality of breakfast improved with increased income. The three most frequently consumed items were coffee and tea, breads, and butter/margarine.

  2. Social Inequalities in Young Children's Meal Skipping Behaviors: The Generation R Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wijtzes, Anne I; Jansen, Wilma; Jaddoe, Vincent W V; Franco, Oscar H; Hofman, Albert; van Lenthe, Frank J; Raat, Hein

    2015-01-01

    Regular meal consumption is considered an important aspect of a healthy diet. While ample evidence shows social inequalities in breakfast skipping among adolescents, little is known about social inequalities in breakfast skipping and skipping of other meals among young school-aged children. Such information is crucial in targeting interventions aimed to promote a healthy diet in children. We examined data from 4704 ethnically diverse children participating in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Information on family socioeconomic position (SEP), ethnic background, and meal skipping behaviors was assessed by parent-reported questionnaire when the child was 6 years old. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the associations of family SEP (educational level, household income, employment status, family composition) and ethnic background with meal skipping behaviors, using high SEP children and native Dutch children as reference groups. Meal skipping prevalence ranged from 3% (dinner) to 11% (lunch). The prevalence of meal skipping was higher among low SEP children and ethnic minority children. Maternal educational level was independently associated with breakfast skipping ([low maternal educational level] OR: 2.21; 95% CI: 1.24,3.94). Paternal educational level was independently associated with lunch skipping ([low paternal educational level] OR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.06,2.20) and dinner skipping ([mid-high paternal educational level] OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.20,0.76). Household income was independently associated with breakfast skipping ([low income] OR: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.40,4.22) and dinner skipping ([low income] OR: 2.44; 95% CI: 1.22,4.91). In general, ethnic minority children were more likely to skip breakfast, lunch, and dinner compared with native Dutch children. Adjustment for family SEP attenuated the associations of ethnic minority background with meal skipping behaviors considerably

  3. Social Inequalities in Young Children's Meal Skipping Behaviors: The Generation R Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne I Wijtzes

    Full Text Available Regular meal consumption is considered an important aspect of a healthy diet. While ample evidence shows social inequalities in breakfast skipping among adolescents, little is known about social inequalities in breakfast skipping and skipping of other meals among young school-aged children. Such information is crucial in targeting interventions aimed to promote a healthy diet in children.We examined data from 4704 ethnically diverse children participating in the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study in Rotterdam, the Netherlands. Information on family socioeconomic position (SEP, ethnic background, and meal skipping behaviors was assessed by parent-reported questionnaire when the child was 6 years old. Multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to assess the associations of family SEP (educational level, household income, employment status, family composition and ethnic background with meal skipping behaviors, using high SEP children and native Dutch children as reference groups.Meal skipping prevalence ranged from 3% (dinner to 11% (lunch. The prevalence of meal skipping was higher among low SEP children and ethnic minority children. Maternal educational level was independently associated with breakfast skipping ([low maternal educational level] OR: 2.21; 95% CI: 1.24,3.94. Paternal educational level was independently associated with lunch skipping ([low paternal educational level] OR: 1.53; 95% CI: 1.06,2.20 and dinner skipping ([mid-high paternal educational level] OR: 0.39; 95% CI: 0.20,0.76. Household income was independently associated with breakfast skipping ([low income] OR: 2.43, 95% CI: 1.40,4.22 and dinner skipping ([low income] OR: 2.44; 95% CI: 1.22,4.91. In general, ethnic minority children were more likely to skip breakfast, lunch, and dinner compared with native Dutch children. Adjustment for family SEP attenuated the associations of ethnic minority background with meal skipping behaviors

  4. How accurate are parental responses concerning their fourth-grade children's school-meal participation, and what is the relationship between children's body mass index and school-meal participation based on parental responses?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paxton-Aiken Amy E

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This article investigated (1 parental response accuracy of fourth-grade children's school-meal participation and whether accuracy differed by children's body mass index (BMI, sex, and race, and (2 the relationship between BMI and school-meal participation (based on parental responses. Methods Data were from four cross-sectional studies conducted from fall 1999 to spring 2003 with fourth-grade children from 13 schools total. Consent forms asked parents to report children's usual school-meal participation. As two studies' consent forms did not ask about lunch participation, complete data were available for breakfast on 1,496 children (51% Black; 49% boys and for lunch on 785 children (46% Black; 48% boys. Researchers compiled nametag records (during meal observations of meal participation on randomly selected days during children's fourth-grade school year for breakfast (average nametag days across studies: 7-35 and for lunch (average nametag days across studies: 4-10 and categorized participation as "usually" (≥ 50% of days or "not usually" ( Results Concerning breakfast participation and lunch participation, 74% and 92% of parents provided accurate responses, respectively. Parental response accuracy was better for older children for breakfast and lunch participation, and for Black than White children for lunch participation. Usual school-meal participation was significantly related to children's BMI but in opposite directions -- positively for breakfast and inversely for lunch. Conclusions Parental response accuracy of children's school-meal participation was moderately high; however, disparate effects for children's age and race warrant caution when relying on parental responses. The BMI results, which showed a relationship between school-meal participation (based on parental responses and childhood obesity, conflict with results from a recent article that used data from the same four studies and found no significant

  5. Winter cereal canopy effect on cereal and interseeded legume productivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interseeding red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) or alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) into winter cereals in the North Central USA can provide forage and a green manure crop. We hypothesize that winter cereal canopy traits such as leaf area index (LAI) and whole plant dry matter (DM) influence interseeded...

  6. The Hospitable Meal Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Justesen, Lise; Overgaard, Svend Skafte

    2017-01-01

    This article presents an analytical model that aims to conceptualize how meal experiences are framed when taking into account a dynamic understanding of hospitality: the meal model is named The Hospitable Meal Model. The idea behind The Hospitable Meal Model is to present a conceptual model...... that can serve as a frame for developing hospitable meal competencies among professionals working within the area of institutional foodservices as well as a conceptual model for analysing meal experiences. The Hospitable Meal Model transcends and transforms existing meal models by presenting a more open......-ended approach towards meal experiences. The underlying purpose of The Hospitable Meal Model is to provide the basis for creating value for the individuals involved in institutional meal services. The Hospitable Meal Model was developed on the basis of an empirical study on hospital meal experiences explored...

  7. Crispy in the french breakfast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Drouard

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Bien qu’il y ait eu du croquant et du croustillant dans l’alimentation des Français avant l’époque contemporaine (pain, gâteaux, fruits frais ou secs sa place a augmenté récemment à la suite des changements intervenus dans le petit déjeuner. Le but de cet article est d’analyser historiquement la pénétration et la diffusion du croquant et du croustillant dans le petit déjeuner français. Celle ci s’est faite d’abord dans les villes sous l’influence de modèles étrangers et principalement Anglo-Saxons qui font une place importante au croustillant. Les partisans des nouveaux petits déjeuners à base de lait, de céréales et de fruits ne cherchaient pas seulement à promouvoir le végétarisme mais aussi à lutter contre la « dégénérescence » qui menaçait à leurs yeux la société moderne. Après avoir rappelé la naissance du petit déjeuner français, on étudiera le rôle des modèles étrangers dans l’évolution de la consommation d’aliments croustillants.Though crispy items were present in French food before the contemporary period (what with bread, cakes, fresh or dried fruits, they have recently played a more important part as breakfast underwent a series of changes. The aim of this article is to make an historical analysis of the emergence and spread of crispy food in the French breakfast. The influence of foreign and more especially Anglo-Saxon models contributed to increasing its importance. Those who advocated these new breakfasts at the beginning of the XXth century were convinced to fight also against “degeneracy” which they thought was a threat to modern society. I shall first briefly explain how the French breakfast was born, then I shall focus on the influence and impact of foreign models.

  8. Breakfast benefits for children and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vingerhoeds, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    This literature review aimed to give some insight in the benefits of breakfast for children and adolescents, with a focus on overweight, food intake and cognition. In addition, we explored the magnitude of skipping breakfast in the Netherlands and factors associated with this behaviour.

  9. Breakfast Composition in Junior High School Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Devi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adolescence is a time of rapid development that requires higher nutrient intake levels than in adulthood. However the habit of skipping breakfast has become very popular among adolescents. Skipping breakfast has negative effects such as difficulty in concentrating, growth impairment and decrease academic performance. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the breakfast composisition of early adolescents in Jatinangor, Sumedang, Indonesia. Methods: A cross sectional study with non-probability sampling method, was conducted in a junior high school Jatinangor during the month of July 2013. Ninety six participants were included in this study. All the participants underwent an interview about the food intake for breakfast in seven days using eating pattern recall guidelines. Results: Overall, 37% of the respondents skipped breakfast. The mean of total calories among the adolescents who consumed breakfast was 286.06 (187.89 kcal. The amount of carbohydrate, fat and protein consumed was 29.23 (19.93 gram, 13.93 (13.29 gram and 8.78 (6.11 gram accordingly. The main reason for adolescent to skip breakfast was lack of time. Conclusions: Majority of the respondents have their breakfast before they go to school. Overall, the total calories comsumed is sufficient however the amount of protein consumed is low.

  10. Nutrition and Learning: The Breakfast Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Annette; And Others

    A pilot study examined the effects of improved breakfast nutrition on students' academic achievement. Participants were 142 intermediate school children who usually ate breakfast in school. All children were given the Gates-MacGinitie Reading Tests, Form 1, Levels A-D, and were ranked according to their total reading scores. The experimental and…

  11. Teachers' Perceptions of the School Breakfast Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragno, Mary B.

    Noting that there is a relationship between hunger and the ability to learn, this study examines teacher opinions of the impact of a school breakfast program on student success. A survey, focusing on grades 1 through 3, was completed by 188 elementary teachers in 100 Connecticut schools in which breakfast programs had been implemented. Respondents…

  12. Breakfasts that release glucose at different speeds interact with previous alcohol intake to influence cognition and mood before and after lunch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benton, David; Nabb, Samantha

    2004-10-01

    Alcohol consumption and the glycemic load (GL) of a meal interact to influence both mood and memory. The authors compared the effects of eating a high GL lunch on mood and memory after consumption of a breakfast high in either rapidly (RAG) or slowly (SAG) available glucose. When less than 4.5 g of alcohol had been drunk the previous evening, the eating of a high RAG meal was associated with better memory later in the morning. In contrast, after more than 4.5 g of alcohol had been drunk the previous evening, the SAG meal resulted in better memory. After lunch, if more than 4.5 g alcohol had been drunk the previous evening, the RAG breakfast, but neither the SAG meal nor fasting, resulted in a more confused feeling. Copyright 2004 APA.

  13. Determination of deoxynivalenol in cereals and cereal products by immunoaffinity column cleanup with liquid chromatography: interlaboratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Susan J; Chan, Danny; Brereton, Paul; Damant, Andrew; Wood, Roger

    2005-01-01

    An interlaboratory study was performed on behalf of the UK Food Standards Agency to evaluate the effectiveness of an immunoaffinity column cleanup liquid chromatographic (LC) method for the determination of deoxynivalenol in a variety of cereals and cereal products at proposed European regulatory limits. The test portion was extracted with water. The sample extract was filtered a applied to an immunoaffinity column. After being washed with water, the deoxynivalenol was eluted with acetonitrile or methanol. Deoxynivalenol was quantitated by reversed-phase LC with UV determination. Samples of artificially contaminated wheat-flour, rice flour, oat flour, polenta, and wheat based breakfast cereal, naturally contaminated wheat flour, and blank (very low level) samples of each matrix were sent to 13 collaborators in 7 European countries. Participants were asked to spike test portions of all samples at a range of deoxynivalenol concentrations equivalent to 200-2000 ng/g deoxynivalenol. Average recoveries ranged from 78 to 87%. Based on results for 6 artificially contaminated samples (blind duplicates), the relative standard deviation for repeatability (RSDr) ranged from 3.1 to 14.1%, and the relative standard deviation for reproducibility (RSDR) ranged from 11.5 to 26.3%. The method showed acceptable within-laboratory and between-laboratory precision for all 5 matrixes, as evidenced by HorRat values < 1.3.

  14. Diet, breakfast, and academic performance in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, R E; Hall, S; Green, H; Korzec-Ramirez, D; Patton, K; Pagano, M E; Murphy, J M

    2002-01-01

    To determine whether nutrient intake and academic and psychosocial functioning improve after the start of a universal-free school breakfast program (USBP). Information was gathered from 97 inner city students prior to the start of a USBP and again after the program had been in place for 6 months. Students who had total energy intakes of breakfast at school than children who were not at nutritional risk. Six months after the start of the free school breakfast programs, students who decreased their nutritional risk showed significantly greater: improvements in attendance and school breakfast participation, decreases in hunger, and improvements in math grades and behavior than children who did not decrease their nutritional risk. Participation in a school breakfast program enhanced daily nutrient intake and improvements in nutrient intake were associated with significant improvements in student academic performance and psychosocial functioning and decreases in hunger. Copyright 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

  15. Diet, Breakfast, and Academic Performance in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, R.E.; Hall, S.; Green, H.; Korzec-Ramirez, D.; Patton, K.; Pagano, M.E.; Murphy, J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether nutrient intake and academic and psychosocial functioning improve after the start of a universal-free school breakfast program (USBP). Methods Information was gathered from 97 inner city students prior to the start of a USBP and again after the program had been in place for 6 months. Students who had total energy intakes of school, more behavior problems, and were less likely to eat breakfast at school than children who were not at nutritional risk. Six months after the start of the free school breakfast programs, students who decreased their nutritional risk showed significantly greater: improvements in attendance and school breakfast participation, decreases in hunger, and improvements in math grades and behavior than children who did not decrease their nutritional risk. Conclusion Participation in a school breakfast program enhanced daily nutrient intake and improvements in nutrient intake were associated with significant improvements in student academic performance and psychosocial functioning and decreases in hunger. PMID:12428078

  16. Impact of breakfast skipping compared with dinner skipping on regulation of energy balance and metabolic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nas, Alessa; Mirza, Nora; Hägele, Franziska; Kahlhöfer, Julia; Keller, Judith; Rising, Russell; Kufer, Thomas A; Bosy-Westphal, Anja

    2017-06-01

    Background: Meal skipping has become an increasing trend of the modern lifestyle that may lead to obesity and type 2 diabetes.Objective: We investigated whether the timing of meal skipping impacts these risks by affecting circadian regulation of energy balance, glucose metabolism, and postprandial inflammatory responses.Design: In a randomized controlled crossover trial, 17 participants [body mass index (in kg/m(2)): 23.7 ± 4.6] underwent 3 isocaloric 24-h interventions (55%, 30%, and 15% carbohydrate, fat, and protein, respectively): a breakfast skipping day (BSD) and a dinner skipping day (DSD) separated by a conventional 3-meal-structure day (control). Energy and macronutrient balance was measured in a respiration chamber. Postprandial glucose, insulin, and inflammatory responses in leukocytes as well as 24-h glycemia and insulin secretion were analyzed.Results: When compared with the 3-meal control, 24-h energy expenditure was higher on both skipping days (BSD: +41 kcal/d; DSD: +91 kcal/d; both P energy expenditure. In contrast, higher postprandial insulin concentrations and increased fat oxidation with breakfast skipping suggest the development of metabolic inflexibility in response to prolonged fasting that may in the long term lead to low-grade inflammation and impaired glucose homeostasis. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02635139. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  17. Carbohydrate-rich breakfast attenuates glycaemic, insulinaemic and ghrelin response to ad libitum lunch relative to morning fasting in lean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Enhad A; Richardson, Judith D; Tsintzas, Kostas; Thompson, Dylan; Betts, James A

    2015-07-14

    Breakfast omission is associated with obesity and CVD/diabetes, but the acute effects of extended morning fasting upon subsequent energy intake and metabolic/hormonal responses have received less attention. In a randomised cross-over design, thirty-five lean men (n 14) and women (n 21) extended their overnight fast or ingested a typical carbohydrate-rich breakfast in quantities relative to RMR (i.e. 1963 (sd 238) kJ), before an ad libitum lunch 3 h later. Blood samples were obtained hourly throughout the day until 3 h post-lunch, with subjective appetite measures assessed. Lunch intake was greater following extended fasting (640 (sd 1042) kJ, Pbreakfast, with total intake lower than the breakfast trial (3887 (sd 1326) v. 5213 (sd 1590) kJ, Pconcentrations of peptide tyrosine-tyrosine and leptin were greater during the afternoon following breakfast (both Pconcentrations were suppressed by the ad libitum lunch in the breakfast trial, remaining greater than the morning fasting trial throughout the afternoon (all Pconcentrations were greater during the afternoon in the morning fasting trial (all PBreakfast increased some anorectic hormones during the afternoon but paradoxically abolished ghrelin suppression by the second meal. Extending morning fasting until lunch altered subsequent metabolic and hormonal responses but without greater appetite during the afternoon. The present study clarifies the impact of acute breakfast omission and adds novel insights into second-meal metabolism.

  18. Tryptophan-enriched cereal intake improves nocturnal sleep, melatonin, serotonin, and total antioxidant capacity levels and mood in elderly humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo, R; Matito, S; Cubero, J; Paredes, S D; Franco, L; Rivero, M; Rodríguez, A B; Barriga, C

    2013-08-01

    Melatonin and serotonin rhythms, which exhibit a close association with the endogenous circadian component of sleep, are attenuated with increasing age. This decrease seems to be linked to sleep alterations in the elderly. Chrononutrition is a field of chronobiology that establishes the principle of consuming foodstuffs at times of the day when they are more useful for health, improving, therefore, biorhythms and physical performance. Our aim was to analyze whether the consumption of cereals enriched with tryptophan, the precursor of both serotonin and melatonin, may help in the reconsolidation of the sleep/wake cycle and counteract depression and anxiety in 35 middle-aged/elderly (aged 55-75 year) volunteers in a simple blind assay. Data were collected for 3 weeks according to the following schedule: The control week participants consumed standard cereals (22.5 mg tryptophan in 30 g cereals per dose) at breakfast and dinner; for the treatment week, cereals enriched with a higher dose of tryptophan (60 mg tryptophan in 30 g cereals per dose) were eaten at both breakfast and dinner; the posttreatment week volunteers consumed their usual diet. Each participant wore a wrist actimeter that logged activity during the whole experiment. Urine was collected to analyze melatonin and serotonin urinary metabolites and to measure total antioxidant capacity. The consumption of cereals containing the higher dose in tryptophan increased sleep efficiency, actual sleep time, immobile time, and decreased total nocturnal activity, sleep fragmentation index, and sleep latency. Urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin, 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid levels, and urinary total antioxidant capacity also increased respectively after tryptophan-enriched cereal ingestion as well as improving anxiety and depression symptoms. Cereals enriched with tryptophan may be useful as a chrononutrition tool for alterations in the sleep/wake cycle due to age.

  19. In situ ruminal crude protein degradability of by-products from cereals, oilseeds and animal origin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Habib, G.; Khan, N.A.; Ali, M.; Bezabih, M.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a database on in situ ruminal crude protein (CP) degradability characteristics of by-products from cereal grains, oilseeds and animal origin commonly fed to ruminants in Pakistan and South Asian Countries. The oilseed by-products were soybean meal, sunflower

  20. Traditional Cereal Food as Container of Probiotic Bacteria “Lb. rhamnosus GG”: Optimization by Response Surface Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Asma Gharbi Yahyaoui; Taroub Bouzaiene; Fathia Aouidi; Abdelkarim Aydi; Moktar Hamdi

    2017-01-01

    This research paper aims at optimizing three parameters involved in solid state fermentation (SSF) using Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) to improve a traditional cereal food “Bsissa” in order to elaborate a new probiotic fermented breakfast cereal. A Box-Behnken experimental design was used and the optimal fermentation conditions were liquid to solid ratio: 1.2 (vw−1), fermentation time: 12 h, and sucrose concentration: 10.48 g (100 g DM)−1. Under these conditions, the viable LGG cells, the ...

  1. Effects of a free school breakfast programme on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, and nutrition: a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maddison Ralph

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approximately 55,000 children in New Zealand do not eat breakfast on any given day. Regular breakfast skipping has been associated with poor diets, higher body mass index, and adverse effects on children's behaviour and academic performance. Research suggests that regular breakfast consumption can improve academic performance, nutrition and behaviour. This paper describes the protocol for a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial of a free school breakfast programme. The aim of the trial is to determine the effects of the breakfast intervention on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, dietary habits and food security. Methods/Design Sixteen primary schools in the North Island of New Zealand will be randomised in a sequential stepped wedge design to a free before-school breakfast programme consisting of non-sugar coated breakfast cereal, milk products, and/or toast and spreads. Four hundred children aged 5-13 years (approximately 25 per school will be recruited. Data collection will be undertaken once each school term over the 2010 school year (February to December. The primary trial outcome is school attendance, defined as the proportion of students achieving an attendance rate of 95% or higher. Secondary outcomes are academic achievement (literacy, numeracy, self-reported grades, sense of belonging at school, psychosocial function, dietary habits, and food security. A concurrent process evaluation seeks information on parents', schools' and providers' perspectives of the breakfast programme. Discussion This randomised controlled trial will provide robust evidence of the effects of a school breakfast programme on students' attendance, achievement and nutrition. Furthermore the study provides an excellent example of the feasibility and value of the stepped wedge trial design in evaluating pragmatic public health intervention programmes. Trial Registration Number Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry

  2. Effects of a free school breakfast programme on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, and nutrition: a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Turley, Maria; Gorton, Delvina; Jiang, Yannan; Michie, Jo; Maddison, Ralph; Hattie, John

    2010-11-29

    Approximately 55,000 children in New Zealand do not eat breakfast on any given day. Regular breakfast skipping has been associated with poor diets, higher body mass index, and adverse effects on children's behaviour and academic performance. Research suggests that regular breakfast consumption can improve academic performance, nutrition and behaviour. This paper describes the protocol for a stepped wedge cluster randomised trial of a free school breakfast programme. The aim of the trial is to determine the effects of the breakfast intervention on school attendance, achievement, psychosocial function, dietary habits and food security. Sixteen primary schools in the North Island of New Zealand will be randomised in a sequential stepped wedge design to a free before-school breakfast programme consisting of non-sugar coated breakfast cereal, milk products, and/or toast and spreads. Four hundred children aged 5-13 years (approximately 25 per school) will be recruited. Data collection will be undertaken once each school term over the 2010 school year (February to December). The primary trial outcome is school attendance, defined as the proportion of students achieving an attendance rate of 95% or higher. Secondary outcomes are academic achievement (literacy, numeracy, self-reported grades), sense of belonging at school, psychosocial function, dietary habits, and food security. A concurrent process evaluation seeks information on parents', schools' and providers' perspectives of the breakfast programme. This randomised controlled trial will provide robust evidence of the effects of a school breakfast programme on students' attendance, achievement and nutrition. Furthermore the study provides an excellent example of the feasibility and value of the stepped wedge trial design in evaluating pragmatic public health intervention programmes. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry (ANZCTR) - ACTRN12609000854235.

  3. Breakfast consumption pattern of some Ahamdu Bello University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Breakfast consumption pattern of some Ahamdu Bello University students and nutrient composition of commonly consumed breakfast foods. ... A healthful breakfast food choices by students may be an important strategy for improving the nutritional quality of their dietary intake. Keywords: Students, Breakfast, Food, Nutrient ...

  4. The Relation between Breakfast Skipping and School Performance in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boschloo, Annemarie; Ouwehand, Carolijn; Dekker, Sanne; Lee, Nikki; de Groot, Renate; Krabbendam, Lydia; Jolles, Jelle

    2012-01-01

    Breakfast skipping is common in adolescents, but research on the effects of breakfast skipping on school performance is scarce. This current cross-sectional survey study of 605 adolescents aged 11-18 years investigated whether adolescents who habitually skip breakfast have lower end-of-term grades than adolescents who eat breakfast daily.…

  5. Influence of high-carbohydrate mixed meals with different glycemic indexes on substrate utilization during subsequent exercise in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Emma J; Williams, Clyde; Mash, Laura E; Phillips, Beth; Nute, Maria L

    2006-08-01

    Few data exist on the metabolic responses to mixed meals with different glycemic indexes and their effects on substrate metabolism during exercise in women. We examined the effects of preexercise mixed meals providing carbohydrates with high (HGI) or low glycemic index (LGI) on substrate utilization during rest and exercise in women. Eight healthy, active, eumenorrheic women [aged 18.6 +/- 0.9 y; body mass: 59.9 +/- 7.1 kg; maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2)max): 48.7 +/- 1.1 mL . kg(-1) . min(-1)] completed 2 trials. On each occasion, subjects were provided with a test breakfast 3 h before performing a 60-min run at 65% VO(2)max on a motorized treadmill. Both breakfasts provided 2 g carbohydrate/kg body mass and were isoenergetic. The calculated GIs of the meals were 78 (HGI) and 44 (LGI). Peak plasma glucose and serum insulin concentrations were greater after the HGI breakfast than after the LGI breakfast (P fat oxidation was greater in the LGI trial than in the HGI trial (P glucose or serum insulin were observed during exercise. Altering the GI of the carbohydrate within a meal significantly changes the postprandial hyperglycemic and hyperinsulinemic responses in women. A LGI preexercise meal resulted in a higher rate of fat oxidation during exercise than did an HGI meal.

  6. Changes in children's meal orders following healthy menu modifications at a regional U.S. restaurant chain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Mueller, Megan P; Sliwa, Sarah; Dolan, Peter R; Harelick, Linda; Roberts, Susan B; Washburn, Kyle; Economos, Christina D

    2015-05-01

    To examine changes in children's meal orders, price, and revenue following the implementation of a healthier children's menu in a full-service restaurant chain. In April 2012, the healthier menu was implemented, featuring more meals meeting nutrition standards, healthy side dishes by default, and removal of French fries and soda (which could be substituted). Orders (n = 352,192) were analyzed before (September 2011 to March 2012; PRE) and after (September 2012 to March 2013; POST) implementation. Children's meal prices increased by $0.79 for breakfasts and $0.19 for non-breakfast meals from PRE to POST. Revenue continued to increase post-implementation. Orders of healthy meals, strawberry and vegetable sides, milk, and juice increased, and orders of French fries and soda decreased (P menu modifications were accompanied by healthier ordering patterns, without removing choice or reducing revenue, suggesting that they can improve child nutrition while restaurants remain competitive. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  7. Nutritional assessment of a jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hettiaratchi, U P K; Ekanayake, S; Welihinda, J

    2011-06-01

    The mature jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) is consumed in Sri Lanka either as a main meal or a meal accompaniment. However, there is no scientific data on the nutrient compositions of cooked jackfruit meals. Thus, the objective of the study was to carry out a nutritional assessment of a composite jackfruit breakfast meal comprising seeds and flesh. A jackfruit meal comprising of flesh (80% available carbohydrate) and seeds (20% available carbohydrate) was included in the study. The study was carried out in a random cross over design. Setting University of Sri Jayewardenepura. Study participants Healthy individuals (n=10, age: 20-30 yrs). The macronutrient contents, rapidly and slowly available glucose (SAG) contents, water solubility index of the jackfruit meal were determined according to standard methods. The GI of the meal was calculated according to FAO/WHO guidelines. The moisture content of the boiled jackfruit flesh was high (82% FW). Jack seeds contained 4.7% protein (FW), 11.1% total dietary fibre (FW) and 8% resistant starch (FW). Jackfruit meal elicited a GI of 75. The Glycaemic Load (GL) of the normal serving size of the meal is medium. The slowly available glucose (SAG) percentage of jackfruit meal (30%) was twice that of the standard. The boiled jackfruit flesh contained disintegrated starch granules while seeds contained intact swollen and disintegrated granules. The jackfruit seeds are a good source of starch (22%) and dietary fibre. The meal is categorized as a low GI meal. The low GI could be dueto the collective contributions from dietary fibre, slowly available glucose and un-gelatinised (intact) starch granules in the seeds.

  8. Effects of eating frequency, snacking, and breakfast skipping on energy regulation: symposium overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrory, Megan A; Campbell, Wayne W

    2011-01-01

    The ASN hosted a symposium entitled "Eating Patterns and Energy Balance: A Look at Eating Frequency, Snacking, and Breakfast Omission" at the Experimental Biology 2009 annual meeting on April 19, 2009, in New Orleans, LA. The symposium was chaired by Megan McCrory and co-chaired by Wayne Campbell, both from Purdue University. The goal of the symposium was to bring together experts to provide an overview of research on the potential role of eating patterns in the development of overweight and obesity. Studies on eating frequency, snacking, and breakfast skipping were highlighted. In particular, evidence both for and against their roles were discussed, methodological issues that underlie controversies were addressed, and suggested future directions for research were outlined. Appetite regulation and hormonal effects were also reviewed. Megan McCrory introduced the session then discussed studies on eating frequency and energy regulation in free-living adults consuming self-selected diets. Heather Leidy summarized the state of the research on eating frequency and energy regulation in adults from controlled feedings studies. Didier Chapelot discussed various usages of "snack" and argued for a physiological basis to distinguish snacks from meals. Mark Pereira presented information on the effects of breakfast skipping and the macronutrient composition of breakfast in energy regulation and mood. A panel discussion/question and answer session ended the symposium. The symposium was videotaped and can be viewed at www.nutrition.org.

  9. Associations between meal patterns, binge eating, and weight for Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cachelin, Fary M; Thomas, Colleen; Vela, Alyssa; Gil-Rivas, Virginia

    2017-01-01

    Establishing a regular pattern of eating is a core element of treatment for binge eating, yet no research to date has examined meal patterns of Latina women. Compare eating patterns of Latinas who binge eat and those who do not, and examine associations between meal patterns and binge episodes, associated distress and concerns, and body mass index (BMI). One-hundred fifty-five Latinas [65 Binge Eating Disorder (BED), 22 Bulimia Nervosa (BN), 68 with no eating disorder] were assessed with the Eating Disorder Examination. There were no significant differences in eating patterns between groups. Breakfast was the least and dinner the most consumed meal. For the BED group: greater frequency of lunch consumption was associated with higher BMI while more frequent evening snacking was associated with lower BMI and with less weight importance; more frequent breakfast consumption, mid-morning snack consumption and total meals were associated with greater distress regarding binge eating. For the BN group, evening snack frequency was associated with less dietary restriction and more weight and shape concern; total snack frequency was associated with more weight concern. Regular meal eaters reported more episodes of binge eating than those who did not eat meals regularly. Associations with meal patterns differed by eating disorder diagnosis. Study findings mostly are not consistent with results from prior research on primarily White women. CBT treatments may need to be tailored to address the association between binge eating and regular meal consumption for Latinas. Culturally, appropriate modifications that address traditional eating patterns should be considered. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. (Int J Eat Disord 2017; 50:32-39). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. The effect of the interaction between glucose tolerance and breakfasts varying in carbohydrate and fibre on mood and cognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabb, Samantha L; Benton, David

    2006-01-01

    As a glucose containing drink has been reported to improve memory, and missing breakfast has been reported to adversely influence memory late in the morning, meals designed to differ in their ability to release glucose into the blood stream were contrasted. Using a factorial design, breakfasts containing 15, 30 or 50 g of carbohydrate and 1.5, 6 or 13 g of fibre were compared. The glucose tolerance of participants proved to be an important factor. Those with better tolerance reported better mood. Those eating breakfasts containing greater amounts of carbohydrate reported feeling tired rather than energetic. The amount of carbohydrate did not negatively affect memory in those with better glucose tolerance, however, the consumption of more carbohydrate resulted in more forgetting in those with poorer glucose tolerance. The effect with reactions times differed from memory in that a greater intake of carbohydrate resulted in faster responses later in the morning.

  11. Effects of Ready-to-Eat-Cereals on Key Nutritional and Health Outcomes: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priebe, Marion G; McMonagle, Jolene R

    2016-01-01

    In many countries breakfast cereals are an important component of breakfast. This systematic review assesses the contribution of consumption of ready-to eat cereal (RTEC) to the recommended nutrient intake. Furthermore, the effects of RTEC consumption on key health parameters are investigated as well as health promoting properties of RTEC. The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, MEDLINE, EMBASE and CINAHL have been searched up till 16th of June 2015. Randomized controlled trials were excluded if RTEC were used during hypocaloric diets, if RTEC were eaten at other times than breakfast and if breakfasts included other products than RTEC, milk and fruit. Observational studies were excluded when "breakfast cereals" were not defined or their definition included cooked cereals. From cross-sectional studies only data concerning energy and nutrient intake as well as micronutrient status were used. From 4727 identified citations 64 publications met the inclusion criteria of which 32 were cross-sectional studies, eight prospective studies and 24 randomized controlled trials. Consumption of RTEC is associated with a healthier dietary pattern, concerning intake of carbohydrates, dietary fiber, fat and micronutrients, however total sugar intake is higher. Persons consuming RTEC frequently (≥ 5 times/week) have a lower risk of inadequate micronutrient intake especially for vitamin A, calcium, folate, vitamin B 6, magnesium and zinc. Evidence from prospective studies suggests that whole grain RTEC may have beneficial effects on hypertension and type 2 diabetes. Consumption of RTEC with soluble fiber helps to reduce LDL cholesterol in hypercholesterolemic men and RTEC fortified with folate can reduce plasma homocysteine. One of the review's strengths is its thorough ex/inclusion of studies. Limitations are that results of observational studies were based on self-reported data and that many studies were funded by food-industry. Consumption of RTEC, especially of fiber

  12. Barriers and Advantages to Student Participation in the School Breakfast Program Based on the Social Ecological Model: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Neyman, Stephanie M.; Warren, Cynthia A.

    2016-01-01

    Participation in school meals is a preventive measure against childhood hunger. Participation in the School Breakfast Program (SBP) continues to lag behind that of the National School Lunch Program. The purpose of this literature review was to investigate the barriers and advantages to student participation in the SBP. Using the adaptable…

  13. School Breakfast-Club Program Changes and Youth Eating Breakfast during the School Week in the COMPASS Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leatherdale, Scott T.; Stefanczyk, Jennifer M.; Kirkpatrick, Sharon I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Despite the importance of breakfast consumption, breakfast skipping is common among Canadian youth. This study examines how changes to school-based breakfast programs are associated with breakfast-skipping behavior. Methods: Using school-level longitudinal data from Year 1 (Y[subscript 1]: 2012-2013) and Year 2 (Y[subscript 2]:…

  14. Effect of breakfast glycemic index on metabolic responses during rest and exercise in overweight and non-overweight adolescent girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, J K; Stevenson, E J; Tolfrey, K

    2012-04-01

    The metabolic responses to mixed breakfast meals with different glycemic indexes (GI) and their effects on substrate metabolism during exercise in adolescent girls have not been examined. The interaction with weight status also warrants investigation. This study investigated the effect of mixed breakfast meals containing high GI (HGI) or low GI (LGI) carbohydrates on metabolic responses and fat oxidation during rest and exercise in overweight (OW) and non-overweight (NO) adolescent girls. A total of 8 OW and 12 NO adolescent girls consumed an isoenergetic HGI (GI=73) or LGI (GI=44) breakfast 120 min before completing a 30-min treadmill walk at 50% \\[Vdot]O(2peak). Peak blood glucose concentration was higher for HGI compared with LGI in OW (P=0.023), but not NO (P>0.05) girls. Blood glucose total area under the curve (TAUC) was 13% higher in HGI compared with LGI in OW (P=0.006), but only 4% higher in NO (P=0.072) girls. Plasma insulin data were log(e) transformed (lninsulin). Plasma lninsulin concentrations were not different between HGI and LGI (P>0.05). Peak plasma lninsulin concentration (P=0.016) and TAUC (P=0.001) were greater in OW than NO girls. Fat oxidation during postprandial rest and exercise was not different between breakfasts (P>0.05). The elevated glycemic response in HGI compared with LGI was more pronounced in OW girls, suggesting a reduced ability to cope with the metabolic demands of the HGI, but not LGI, breakfast. Manipulation of breakfast GI did not alter fat oxidation during rest or subsequent moderate intensity exercise in OW and NO adolescent girls.

  15. Factors Associated with School Meal Participation and the Relationship between Different Participation Measures. Final Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Quinn; Hulsey, Lara; Ponza, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This report investigates three important aspects of National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and School Breakfast Program (SBP) participation using recently collected data on a large, nationally representative sample of students certified for free and reduced-price meals during the 2005-2006 school year. First, we examine the factors that influence…

  16. 26 CFR 1.119-1 - Meals and lodging furnished for the convenience of the employer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... examples: Example 1. A waitress who works from 7 a.m. to 4 p.m. is furnished without charge two meals a work day. The employer encourages the waitress to have her breakfast on his business premises before... lunch on such premises. Since the waitress is a food service employee and works during the normal...

  17. Could light meal jeopardize laboratory coagulation tests?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Lippi, Giuseppe; Danese, Elisa; Gelati, Matteo; Montagnana, Martina; Picheth, Geraldo; Guidi, Gian Cesare

    2014-01-01

    Presently the necessity of fasting time for coagulation tests is not standardized. Our hypothesis is that this can harm patient safety. This study is aimed at evaluating whether a light meal (i.e. breakfast) can jeopardize laboratory coagulation tests. A blood sample was firstly collected from 17 fasting volunteers (12 h). Immediately after blood collection, the volunteers consumed a light meal. Then samples were collected at 1, 2 and 4 h after the meal. Coagulation tests included: activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), prothrombin time (PT), fibrinogen (Fbg), antithrombin III (AT), protein C (PC) and protein S (PS). Differences between samples were assessed by Wilcoxon ranked-pairs test. The level of statistical significance was set at P coagulation tests had significant variation after comparison with RCV. A light meal does not influence the laboratory coagulation tests we assessed, but we suggest that the laboratory quality managers standardize the fasting time for all blood tests at 12 hours, to completely metabolize the lipids intake.

  18. School Breakfast Program and School Performance

    OpenAIRE

    J Gordon Millichap

    1989-01-01

    The effects of participation in the school breakfast program by low income children on academic achievement and rates of absence and tardiness are reported from the Department of Pediatrics, Boston City Hospital, Boston, MA.

  19. Breakfast and cognition: an integrative summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitt, E; Mathews, R

    1998-04-01

    In this supplement, the papers presented at the International Symposium on Breakfast and Performance in Napa, CA in 1995 are summarized and integrated with data published since that time. In particular, the focus is on issues of research design, measurements, mechanisms, potential effect modifiers (eg, age), and relevance for public policy. No definitive conclusions can be drawn from the existing data on either the long- and short-term benefits of breakfast on cognition and school learning or the mechanisms that mediate this relation. The pooled data suggest that omitting breakfast interferes with cognition and learning, an effect that is more pronounced in nutritionally at-risk children than in well-nourished children. At the very least, breakfast consumption improves school attendance and enhances the quality of the students' diets.

  20. Analysis of salt content in meals in kindergarten facilities in Novi Sad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trajković-Pavlović, Ljiljana; Martinov-Cvejin, Mirjana; Novaković, Budimka; Bijelović, Sanja; Torović, Ljilja

    2010-01-01

    Investigations have brought evidence that salt intake is positively related to systolic blood pressure and that children with higher blood pressure are more susceptible to hypertension in adulthood. In developed countries the main source of salt is processed food. The aim of this paper was to determine total sodium chloride (NaCl) in average daily meal (breakfast, snack and dinner) and in each of three meals children receive in kindergarten. From kindergarten, in the meal time, 88 samples of daily meals (breakfast, snacks and dinner) offered to children aged 4-6 years were taken. Standardized laboratory methods were applied to determine proteins, fats, ash and water in order to calculate energy value of meal. The titrimetric method with AgNO3, and K2CrO4 as indicator, was applied in order to determine chloride ion. Content of NaCl was calculated as %NaCl = mlAgNO3 x 0.05844 x 5 x 100/g tested portion. NaCl content in total daily meal and each meal and in 100 kcal of each meal was calculated using descriptive statistical method. Student's t-test was applied to determine statistical differences of NaCl amount among meals. NaCl content in average daily meal was 5.2 +/- 1.7 g (CV 31.7%), in breakfast 1.5 +/- 0.6 g (CV 37.5%), in dinner 3.5 +/- 1.6 g (CV 46.1%) and in snack 0.3 +/- 0.4 g (CV 163.3%). NaCl content per 100 kcal of breakfast was 0.4 +/- 0.1 g (CV 29.5%), dinner 0.7 +/- 0.2 g (CV 27.8%) and snack 0.13 +/- 0.19 g (CV 145.8%). The difference of NaCl content among meals was statistically significant (p < 0.01). Children in kindergarten, through three meals, received NaCl in a quantity that exceeded internationally established population nutrient goal for daily salt intake. The main source of NaCl was dinner, a meal that is cooked at place.

  1. Analysis of salt content in meals in kindergarten facilities in Novi Sad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijelović Sanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Investigations have brought evidence that salt intake is positively related to systolic blood pressure and that children with higher blood pressure are more susceptible to hypertension in adulthood. In developed countries the main source of salt is processed food. Objective The aim of this paper was to determine total sodium chloride (NaCl in average daily meal (breakfast, snack and dinner and in each of three meals children receive in kindergarten. Methods. From kindergarten, in the meal time, 88 samples of daily meals ( breakfast, snacks and dinner offered to children aged 4-6 years were taken. Standardized laboratory methods were applied to determine proteins, fats, ash and water in order to calculate energy value of meal. The titrimetric method with AgNO3, and K2CrO4 as indicator, was applied in order to determine chloride ion. Content of NaCl was calculated as %NaCl = mlAgNO3 × 0.05844 × 5 × 100/g tested portion. NaCl content in total daily meal and each meal and in 100 kcal of each meal was calculated using descriptive statistical method. Student’s t-test was applied to determine statistical differences of NaCl amount among meals. Results. NaCl content in average daily meal was 5.2±1.7 g (CV 31.7%, in breakfast 1.5±0.6 g (CV 37.5%, in dinner 3.5±1.6 g (CV 46.1% and in snack 0.3±0.4 g (CV 163.3%. NaCl content per 100 kcal of breakfast was 0.4±0.1 g (CV 29.5%, dinner 0.7±0.2 g (CV 27.8% and snack 0.13±0.19 g (CV 145.8%. The difference of NaCl content among meals was statistically significant (p<0.01. Conclusion. Children in kindergarten, through three meals, received NaCl in a quantity that exceeded internationally established population nutrient goal for daily salt intake. The main source of NaCl was dinner, a meal that is cooked at place.

  2. Determination of total dietary fiber of intact cereal food products by near-infrared reflectance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archibald, D D; Kays, S E

    2000-10-01

    Near-infrared reflectance spectra of cereal food products were acquired with a commercial dual-diode-array (Si, InGaAs) spectrometer customized to allow rapid acquisition of scans of intact breakfast cereals, snack foods, whole grains, and milled products. Substantial gains in the performance of multivariate calibration models generated from these data were obtained by a computational strategy that systematically analyzed the performance of various spectral windows. The calibration model based on 137 cereal food products determined the total dietary fiber (TDF) content of a test set of 45 intact diverse cereal food products with root-mean-squared error of cross-validation of between 1.8 and 2.0% TDF, relative to the laborious enzymatic-gravimetric reference method. The calibration performance is adequate to estimate TDF over the range of values found in diverse types of cereal food products (0.7-50.1%). The method requires no sample preparation and is relatively unaffected by specimen moisture content.

  3. Breakfast consumption determinants among female high school students of Yazd Province based on Pender’s Health Promotion Model

    OpenAIRE

    Mehrabbeik, Akram; Mahmoodabad, Seyed Saeed Mazloomy; Khosravi, Hassan Mozaffari; Fallahzadeh, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Background and Aim Despite the importance of breakfast, especially for students, unfortunately, this meal is usually ignored in daily routine. The aim of this study was to identify determinants among female high school students of Yazd province based on the Pender Health Promotion Model. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted to examine 200 female high school students of Yazd, selected by cluster sampling method in 2016. A researcher-made questionnaire, based on Pender’s Health Pr...

  4. Ukrainian cereals and oilseeds trade

    OpenAIRE

    Б. В. Духницький; Т. В. Сіліфонов

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To analyze peculiarities of Ukrainian cereals and oilseeds trade, the situation on the world market, and determine future prospects of its development. Methods. Analysis and synthesis, comparative evaluation, graphic procedure. Results. The role and place of Ukraine in a total grain supply to the world market was determined. Ukraine is a world’s top ten grain producer. Among domestic agricultural products, cereals, oilseeds and sunflower oil are in the highest demand in the w...

  5. Whole grain rye breakfast - sustained satiety during three weeks of regular consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaksson, Hanna; Tillander, Isabella; Andersson, Roger; Olsson, Johan; Fredriksson, Helena; Webb, Dominic-Luc; Åman, Per

    2012-02-01

    Whole grain rye products have previously been shown to increase feelings of satiety for up to 8h after intake under standardized conditions. This study was set out to investigate the sustainability of the satiating effect after regular consumption of breakfast meals with whole grain rye porridge or refined wheat bread. The study was randomized, cross-over and double-blind. Healthy subjects (n=24) were randomly assigned to daily consumption of iso-caloric standardized breakfast meals with whole grain rye porridge or refined wheat bread for two 3-wk phases, separated by a wash out of 3-4weeks. Each intervention phase had 3 scheduled visit days (days 1, 8 and 22) when appetite ratings (hunger, satiety and desire to eat) were registered for 24h at standardized conditions. Orocecal transit time (salicylazosulfapyridine/sulfapyridine method) and breath hydrogen as an indicator of colonic fermentation were measured at day 8 of each 3-wk phase in a subgroup (n=16). To investigate effects of breakfast on free-living food intake, 3-day weighed food diaries were self-registered during both intervention phases. Whole grain rye porridge breakfast resulted in higher ratings of satiety and lower hunger and desire to eat during 4h post consumption compared to refined wheat bread breakfast (psustained throughout the 3-wk study phases. Unlike previous studies, the effects did not persist into the afternoon (4-8h). The orocecal transit times after consumption of both breakfasts were similar and in the range of 5-6h. The rye porridge resulted in high levels of breath hydrogen 4-8h after intake, showing extensive colonic fermentation. This was however not related to any changes in appetite during this time-period. There were no significant differences in self-reported macronutrient- and energy intake between diets. This study shows that the satiating effect of rye persists after repeated daily consumption for up to three weeks. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01117363. Copyright

  6. Effects of different proportion of carbohydrate in breakfast on postprandial glucose excursion in normal glucose tolerance and impaired glucose regulation subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Xin; Wang, Chun; Lifang, Lv; Chen, Dawei; Yang, Yanzhi; Liu, Guanjian; Wen, Hu; Chen, Lihong; He, Liping; Li, Xiujun; Tian, Haoming; Jia, Weiping; Ran, Xingwu

    2013-07-01

    The variability of postprandial plasma glucose is an independent risk factor for diabetes. The type and amount of carbohydrate may be important determinants of glycemic control. The aim of the study was to compare the effects of different proportions of carbohydrate in breakfast on postprandial blood glucose fluctuations in impaired glucose regulation (IGR) and normal glucose tolerance (NGT) subjects. This is a cross-sectional study of two groups including 55 subjects with IGR and 78 individuals with NGT. Their recorded breakfast was sorted into low-carbohydrate (LC) (carbohydrate 65%) meals according to the proportion of carbohydrate. Glucose concentrations were continuously measured with a continuous glucose monitoring system, and parameters such as the incremental area under the curve (iAUC) of glucose and postprandial glucose excursion (PPGE) were calculated to evaluate postprandial glucose fluctuations. The postprandial fluctuations of glucose increased gradually with increased proportions of carbohydrate in breakfast in both IGR and NGT subjects. For the MC and HC meals, iAUC, PPGE, postprandial glucose spike (PGS), and mean blood glucose were significantly greater than those in the NGT group (Pglucose concentrations decreased to baseline after the MC and HC meals in the IGR group were significantly longer than those in the NGT group (Pglucose concentrations, SD, and PPGE (Pglucose excursions in the NGT and IGR subjects. In the IGR subjects, a HC meal should be avoided and a LC meal should be recommended to prevent development of diabetes.

  7. The causal role of breakfast in energy balance and health: a randomized controlled trial in lean adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betts, James A; Richardson, Judith D; Chowdhury, Enhad A; Holman, Geoffrey D; Tsintzas, Kostas; Thompson, Dylan

    2014-08-01

    Popular beliefs that breakfast is the most important meal of the day are grounded in cross-sectional observations that link breakfast to health, the causal nature of which remains to be explored under real-life conditions. The aim was to conduct a randomized controlled trial examining causal links between breakfast habits and all components of energy balance in free-living humans. The Bath Breakfast Project is a randomized controlled trial with repeated-measures at baseline and follow-up in a cohort in southwest England aged 21-60 y with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-derived fat mass indexes ≤11 kg/m² in women (n = 21) and ≤7.5 kg/m² in men (n = 12). Components of energy balance (resting metabolic rate, physical activity thermogenesis, energy intake) and 24-h glycemic responses were measured under free-living conditions with random allocation to daily breakfast (≥700 kcal before 1100) or extended fasting (0 kcal until 1200) for 6 wk, with baseline and follow-up measures of health markers (eg, hematology/biopsies). Contrary to popular belief, there was no metabolic adaptation to breakfast (eg, resting metabolic rate stable within 11 kcal/d), with limited subsequent suppression of appetite (energy intake remained 539 kcal/d greater than after fasting; 95% CI: 157, 920 kcal/d). Rather, physical activity thermogenesis was markedly higher with breakfast than with fasting (442 kcal/d; 95% CI: 34, 851 kcal/d). Body mass and adiposity did not differ between treatments at baseline or follow-up and neither did adipose tissue glucose uptake or systemic indexes of cardiovascular health. Continuously measured glycemia was more variable during the afternoon and evening with fasting than with breakfast by the final week of the intervention (CV: 3.9%; 95% CI: 0.1%, 7.8%). Daily breakfast is causally linked to higher physical activity thermogenesis in lean adults, with greater overall dietary energy intake but no change in resting metabolism. Cardiovascular health

  8. The effects of breakfast on short-term cognitive function among Chinese white-collar workers: protocol for a three-phase crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Zhenchuang; Zhang, Na; Liu, Ailing; Luan, Dechun; Zhao, Yong; Song, Chao; Ma, Guansheng

    2017-01-18

    As the first meal of the day, breakfast plays an important role in supplying energy and nutrients, which are critical to working and learning activities. A three-phase crossover study was designed to investigate the effects of breakfast on cognitive function among Chinese white-collar workers. The planned study protocol is presented. A total of 264 participants aged 25-45 years will be recruited from Shenyang and Chongqing. Self-administered questionnaires will be used to collect information on age, gender, marital status, education level, occupation, smoking habits, drinking habits, and breakfast behaviours. The participants will be randomly assigned to 3 equal-sized groups (Groups A, B, and C) and will be provided with a nutrition-adequate breakfast, a nutrition-inadequate breakfast, or no breakfast, respectively. Each participant will receive the breakfast treatment on the basis of assignment to one of three sequences (ABC/BCA/CAB). Each participant will complete a battery of cognitive tests assessing short-term memory, attention, and working memory 120 minutes after breakfast. Mood will be measured through a self-administered questionnaire assessing the dimensions of positive and negative frames of mind. Additionally, fasting blood glucose and postprandial 2-hour blood glucose levels will be tested with a blood-glucose meter (Roche ACCU-CHEK®-Performa). All the participants will take all the tests in three successive weeks, and the order of presentation will be counter-balanced across groups. The present study will be the first investigation of the effect of breakfast food type and quality on cognitive function amongst white-collar workers in China. We predict that a nutrition-adequate breakfast, compared with a nutrition-inadequate breakfast and no breakfast, will significantly improve short-term cognitive function. The results of this study should provide scientific evidence of the effect of breakfast quality on cognitive function and provide scientific

  9. The effects of breakfast on short-term cognitive function among Chinese white-collar workers: protocol for a three-phase crossover study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenchuang Tang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the first meal of the day, breakfast plays an important role in supplying energy and nutrients, which are critical to working and learning activities. A three-phase crossover study was designed to investigate the effects of breakfast on cognitive function among Chinese white-collar workers. The planned study protocol is presented. Methods A total of 264 participants aged 25–45 years will be recruited from Shenyang and Chongqing. Self-administered questionnaires will be used to collect information on age, gender, marital status, education level, occupation, smoking habits, drinking habits, and breakfast behaviours. The participants will be randomly assigned to 3 equal-sized groups (Groups A, B, and C and will be provided with a nutrition-adequate breakfast, a nutrition-inadequate breakfast, or no breakfast, respectively. Each participant will receive the breakfast treatment on the basis of assignment to one of three sequences (ABC/BCA/CAB. Each participant will complete a battery of cognitive tests assessing short-term memory, attention, and working memory 120 minutes after breakfast. Mood will be measured through a self-administered questionnaire assessing the dimensions of positive and negative frames of mind. Additionally, fasting blood glucose and postprandial 2-hour blood glucose levels will be tested with a blood-glucose meter (Roche ACCU-CHEK®-Performa. All the participants will take all the tests in three successive weeks, and the order of presentation will be counter-balanced across groups. Discussion The present study will be the first investigation of the effect of breakfast food type and quality on cognitive function amongst white-collar workers in China. We predict that a nutrition-adequate breakfast, compared with a nutrition-inadequate breakfast and no breakfast, will significantly improve short-term cognitive function. The results of this study should provide scientific evidence of the effect of

  10. Effect of breakfast timing on the cognitive functions of elementary school students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaisman, N; Voet, H; Akivis, A; Vakil, E

    1996-10-01

    To study the effect of breakfast timing on selected cognitive functions of elementary school students. A 2-week randomized control intervention trial. Five elementary schools. The subjects comprised 569 children, 51% of them boys, aged 11 to 13 years; the children were in grades 5 through 6 (17 classes). The subjects lived in different areas and had different socioeconomic backgrounds. Each subject was tested twice, by 2 versions of the Rey Auditory-Verbal Learning Test, 2 alternative forms of the logical memory subtest of the revised Wechsler Memory Scale, and 2 versions of the Benton Visual Retention Test. On the first test, before any nutritional intervention, the subjects were asked to complete a questionnaire about their food intake on the day of testing. Two thirds of the subjects received 200 ml of 3%-fat milk and 30 g of sugared cornflakes for the next 14 days, and all the subjects were reexamined on the 15th day. Scoring on the different tests was compared with baseline scores. After 15 days, children who ate breakfast at school scored notably higher on most of the test modules than did children who ate breakfast at home and children who did not at breakfast. Our results indicate that routinely eating breakfast 2 hours prior to being tested does not improve cognitive functions in 11- to 13-year-old elementary school students, but food supplementation 30 minutes prior to taking a test notably improves scoring. We suggest further studies on the relationship between meal content, feeding time, and scholastic performance.

  11. Psychological effects of snacks and altered meal frequency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanarek, R

    1997-04-01

    Over the past two decades, substantial research has been conducted to investigate the idea that alterations in short-term nutritional intake play a role in influencing cognitive behaviour and mood. A portion of this research has examined specifically the effect of meal intake on the performance of mental tasks and subjective feelings of mood. Results of this research indicate that a number of variables including the timing and nutritional composition of the meal, nutritional status, habitual patterns of feeding behaviour, beliefs about food, and the nature of the mental tasks, can influence the effects of meals on cognitive behaviour. For example, studies have demonstrated that breakfast intake generally is associated with an improvement in cognitive performance later in the morning, while lunch intake is associated with an impairment in mid-afternoon performance on mental tasks and more negative reports of mood. Intake of nutrients late in the afternoon appears to have a positive effect on subsequent performance on tasks involving sustained attention or memory. Although research has provided insights into the role of meal intake on cognitive behaviour and mood, there are a number of factors which remain to be studied. These include the interaction of age, gender, activity level, meal composition, personality factors, stress with the effects of meals on cognitive behaviour. Additionally, more work is needed on the time-course of short-term nutrient effects, and the effects of chronic changes in meal intake on behaviour.

  12. Meal Frequency and Timing Are Associated with Changes in Body Mass Index in Adventist Health Study 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahleova, Hana; Lloren, Jan Irene; Mashchak, Andrew; Hill, Martin; Fraser, Gary E

    2017-09-01

    Background: Scientific evidence for the optimal number, timing, and size of meals is lacking.Objective: We investigated the relation between meal frequency and timing and changes in body mass index (BMI) in the Adventist Health Study 2 (AHS-2), a relatively healthy North American cohort.Methods: The analysis used data from 50,660 adult members aged ≥30 y of Seventh-day Adventist churches in the United States and Canada (mean ± SD follow-up: 7.42 ± 1.23 y). The number of meals per day, length of overnight fast, consumption of breakfast, and timing of the largest meal were exposure variables. The primary outcome was change in BMI per year. Linear regression analyses (stratified on baseline BMI) were adjusted for important demographic and lifestyle factors.Results: Subjects who ate 1 or 2 meals/d had a reduction in BMI per year (in kg · m(-2) · y(-1)) (-0.035; 95% CI: -0.065, -0.004 and -0.029; 95% CI: -0.041, -0.017, respectively) compared with those who ate 3 meals/d. On the other hand, eating >3 meals/d (snacking) was associated with a relative increase in BMI (P Breakfast eaters (-0.029; 95% CI: -0.047, -0.012; P breakfast skippers. Relative to subjects who ate their largest meal at dinner, those who consumed breakfast as the largest meal experienced a significant decrease in BMI (-0.038; 95% CI: -0.048, -0.028), and those who consumed a big lunch experienced a smaller but still significant decrease in BMI than did those who ate their largest meal at dinner.Conclusions: Our results suggest that in relatively healthy adults, eating less frequently, no snacking, consuming breakfast, and eating the largest meal in the morning may be effective methods for preventing long-term weight gain. Eating breakfast and lunch 5-6 h apart and making the overnight fast last 18-19 h may be a useful practical strategy. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  13. Breakfast glycaemic index and cognitive function in adolescent school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Simon B; Bandelow, Stephan; Nute, Maria L; Morris, John G; Nevill, Mary E

    2012-06-01

    It has been suggested that a low-glycaemic index (GI) breakfast may be beneficial for some elements of cognitive function (e.g. memory and attention), but the effects are not clear, especially in adolescents. Thus, the aim of the present study was to examine the effects of a low-GI breakfast, a high-GI breakfast and breakfast omission on cognitive function in adolescents. A total of fifty-two adolescents aged 12-14 years were recruited to participate in the study. Participants consumed a low-GI breakfast, a high-GI breakfast or omitted breakfast. A battery of cognitive function tests was completed 30 and 120 min following breakfast consumption and capillary blood samples were taken during the 120 min postprandial period. The findings show that there was a greater improvement in response times following a low-GI breakfast, compared with breakfast omission on the Stroop (P = 0·009) and Flanker (P = 0·041) tasks, and compared with a high-GI breakfast on the Sternberg paradigm (P = 0·013). Furthermore, accuracy on all three tests was better maintained on the low-GI trial compared with the high-GI (Stroop: P = 0·039; Sternberg: P = 0·018; Flanker: P = 0·014) and breakfast omission (Stroop: P breakfast, participants displayed a lower glycaemic response (P breakfast, but there was no difference in the insulinaemic response (P = 0·063) between the high- and low-GI breakfasts. Therefore, we conclude that a low-GI breakfast is most beneficial for adolescents' cognitive function, compared with a high-GI breakfast or breakfast omission.

  14. The Effects of Breakfast and Breakfast Composition on Cognition in Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galioto, Rachel; Spitznagel, Mary Beth

    2016-05-01

    Extensive literature has addressed the acute cognitive effects of breaking a fast. Recent reviews in this line of work have synthesized available research on the cognitive consequences of fasting compared with nutrient intake and the cognitive effects of macronutrient consumption. These largely have been inconclusive, possibly in part because of selection criteria limiting the scope of studies covered. The purpose of the current review is to integrate the results of the literature examining the cognitive effects of breakfast and breakfast composition in adults with the use of a flexible definition of breakfast, specifically, any caloric intake after a fasting period of ≥8 h. This review includes 38 studies that examine the acute cognitive impact of breakfast and 16 studies that examine the effects of breakfast composition. Results suggest that healthy adults show a small but robust advantage for memory (particularly delayed recall) from consuming breakfast. Largely equivocal results emerge for attention and motor and executive function; there were no effects from breakfast on language. Regarding breakfast composition, a smaller number of studies and widely disparate methodology addressing this question preclude definitive conclusions about the effects of cognition. A subset of this literature examines these questions in the context of glucoregulation; the findings emphasize the importance of considering differences in glucoregulation in research designs, even among healthy cohorts. The limitations of this literature include methodologic differences, such as the use of different tests to measure cognitive constructs, as well as the effects of timing in test administration. © 2016 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. The Effects of Breakfast and Breakfast Composition on Cognition in Adults123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitznagel, Mary Beth

    2016-01-01

    Extensive literature has addressed the acute cognitive effects of breaking a fast. Recent reviews in this line of work have synthesized available research on the cognitive consequences of fasting compared with nutrient intake and the cognitive effects of macronutrient consumption. These largely have been inconclusive, possibly in part because of selection criteria limiting the scope of studies covered. The purpose of the current review is to integrate the results of the literature examining the cognitive effects of breakfast and breakfast composition in adults with the use of a flexible definition of breakfast, specifically, any caloric intake after a fasting period of ≥8 h. This review includes 38 studies that examine the acute cognitive impact of breakfast and 16 studies that examine the effects of breakfast composition. Results suggest that healthy adults show a small but robust advantage for memory (particularly delayed recall) from consuming breakfast. Largely equivocal results emerge for attention and motor and executive function; there were no effects from breakfast on language. Regarding breakfast composition, a smaller number of studies and widely disparate methodology addressing this question preclude definitive conclusions about the effects of cognition. A subset of this literature examines these questions in the context of glucoregulation; the findings emphasize the importance of considering differences in glucoregulation in research designs, even among healthy cohorts. The limitations of this literature include methodologic differences, such as the use of different tests to measure cognitive constructs, as well as the effects of timing in test administration. PMID:27184286

  16. Kiwifruit Non-Sugar Components Reduce Glycaemic Response to Co-Ingested Cereal in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Mishra

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Kiwifruit (KF effects on the human glycaemic response to co-ingested wheat cereal were determined. Participants (n = 20 consumed four meals in random order, all being made to 40 g of the same available carbohydrate, by adding kiwifruit sugars (KF sug; glucose, fructose, sucrose 2:2:1 to meals not containing KF. The meals were flaked wheat biscuit (WB+KFsug, WB+KF, WB+guar gum+KFsug, WB+guar gum+KF, that was ingested after fasting overnight. Blood glucose was monitored 3 h and hunger measured at 180 min post-meal using a visual analogue scale. KF and guar reduced postprandial blood glucose response amplitude, and prevented subsequent hypoglycaemia that occurred with WB+KFsug. The area between the blood glucose response curve and baseline from 0 to 180 min was not significantly different between meals, 0–120 min areas were significantly reduced by KF and/or guar. Area from 120 to 180 min was positive for KF, guar, and KF+guar, while the area for the WB meal was negative. Hunger at 180 min was significantly reduced by KF and/or guar when compared with WB. We conclude that KF components other than available carbohydrate may improve the glycaemic response profile to co-ingested cereal food.

  17. Association between fruits and vegetables intake and frequency of breakfast and snacks consumption: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, Giacomo; Pammolli, Andrea; Azzolini, Elena; Simi, Rita; Meoni, Veronica; de Wet, Daniel Rudolph; Giacchi, Mariano Vincenzo

    2013-08-27

    There are very few studies on the frequency of breakfast and snack consumption and its relation to fruit and vegetable intake. This study aims to fill that gap by exploring the relation between irregular breakfast habits and snack consumption and fruit and vegetable intake in Tuscan adolescents. Separate analyses were conducted with an emphasis on the potentially modifying factors of sex and age. Data was obtained from the 2010 Tuscan sample of the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children (HBSC) study. The HBSC study is a cross-sectional survey of 11-, 13- and 15-year-old students (n = 3291), selected from a random sample of schools. Multivariate logistic regression was used for analyzing the food-frequency questionnaire. A significant relation was found between low fruit and vegetable intake and irregular breakfast habits. Similarly, low fruit intake was associated with irregular snack consumption, whereas vegetable intake did not prove to be directly related to irregular snack consumption. Different patterns emerged when gender and age were considered as modifying factors in the analyses. A statistically significant relation emerged only among female students for irregular breakfast habits and fruit and vegetable intake. Generally, older female participants with irregular breakfast habits demonstrated a higher risk of low fruit and vegetable intake. Age pattern varied between genders, and between fruit and vegetable consumption. Results suggest that for those adolescents who have an irregular consumption of breakfast and snacks, fruit intake occurs with a lower frequency. Lower vegetable consumption was associated with irregular breakfast consumption. Gender and age were shown to be moderators and this indicated the importance of analyzing fruit and vegetable intake and meal types separately. This study also confirmed that health-promotion campaigns that aim to promote regular meal consumption and consumption of fruits and vegetables need to take into account

  18. [Wholegrain cereals and sanitary benefits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Rosa M; Aparicio Vizuete, Aránzazu; Jiménez Ortega, Ana Isabel; Rodríguez Rodríguez, Elena

    2015-07-18

    Dietary guidelines indicate that to get a proper nutrition is recommended eating 3 or more servings per day of whole grain. However, the recommendation is little known in the Spanish population, and almost the entire population doesn't fulfill it. Therefore, the aim of this review is to analyze the nutritional and health benefits associated with the consumption of whole grain cereals and the potential benefits related to the meeting of this guideline. Literature search regarding the topic. Whole grain cereals are rich in carbohydrates, fiber, vitamins and minerals, and its contribution to the average diet helps to achieve current recommended intakes and nutritional goals, so its consumption in the recommended amount supposes a nutritional benefit. Moreover, several studies indicate that increased consumption of whole grain cereal is associated with protection against various chronic degenerative diseases (cardiovascular, diabetes, cancer and metabolic syndrome), assisting in the maintenance of digestive health and body weight. These results may be due to the contribution of nutrients, fiber and phytochemicals of these foods, as well as the displacement of the diet of other products with a less desirable nutritional profile, taking into account the composition of the average Spanish diet. In fact, the consumption of whole grain cereals has been linked with a possible improvement in the intestinal microbiota and antioxidant protection. In spite of these advantages, cereal consumption is looked with suspicion by many individuals, especially those concerned about weight control and additional benefits associated to consumption of whole grain cereals are not known. Whole grain cereals should be daily consumed in amounts of 3 or more servings/day, to achieve the nutritional and health benefits described in numerous investigations. More outreach is needed to ensure that the guideline is known and it's applied. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA

  19. Evolution of Gluten Content in Cereal-Based Gluten-Free Products: An Overview from 1998 to 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante, María Ángeles; Fernández-Gil, María Pilar; Churruca, Itziar; Miranda, Jonatan; Lasa, Arrate; Navarro, Virginia; Simón, Edurne

    2017-01-03

    The treatment of Celiac disease consists in a strict lifelong gluten-free (GF) diet. As the ingestion of small amounts can have damaging complications, there has been an ongoing discussion regarding the safe threshold for dietary residual gluten. The aim was to analyze the evolution of gluten content in cereal-based GF foodstuffs (n = 3141) from 1998 to 2016 measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) technique. Eight categories were defined: flours, breakfast cereals/bars, bakery, pasta, breads, dough, snacks, and yeasts, and these were divided into GF labeled-foods (GF-L) or reportedly GF foodstuffs, but not certified (GF-NC). Gluten-detection was decreased over time in line with the evolving European regulations about food information and gluten content claims. This decline started sooner in GF-L products than in GF-NC. As a whole, gluten was detected in 371 samples, with breakfast cereals/bars being the most contaminated group. Snacks and yeasts changed from being high gluten-detected samples to being totally GF over the years. The downside is that, of contaminated samples, those in the low levels of gluten detection range have decreased while flour samples containing over 100 mg/kg gluten have risen in the 2013-2016 period. Obtained data confirm that GF cereal-based foods are becoming safer but gluten control must be maintained.

  20. Evolution of Gluten Content in Cereal-Based Gluten-Free Products: An Overview from 1998 to 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Ángeles Bustamante

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The treatment of Celiac disease consists in a strict lifelong gluten-free (GF diet. As the ingestion of small amounts can have damaging complications, there has been an ongoing discussion regarding the safe threshold for dietary residual gluten. The aim was to analyze the evolution of gluten content in cereal-based GF foodstuffs (n = 3141 from 1998 to 2016 measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA technique. Eight categories were defined: flours, breakfast cereals/bars, bakery, pasta, breads, dough, snacks, and yeasts, and these were divided into GF labeled-foods (GF-L or reportedly GF foodstuffs, but not certified (GF-NC. Gluten-detection was decreased over time in line with the evolving European regulations about food information and gluten content claims. This decline started sooner in GF-L products than in GF-NC. As a whole, gluten was detected in 371 samples, with breakfast cereals/bars being the most contaminated group. Snacks and yeasts changed from being high gluten-detected samples to being totally GF over the years. The downside is that, of contaminated samples, those in the low levels of gluten detection range have decreased while flour samples containing over 100 mg/kg gluten have risen in the 2013–2016 period. Obtained data confirm that GF cereal-based foods are becoming safer but gluten control must be maintained.

  1. Effects of tryptophan-rich breakfast and light exposure during the daytime on melatonin secretion at night.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushige, Haruna; Fukuda, Yumi; Tanaka, Mizuho; Inami, Kaoru; Wada, Kai; Tsumura, Yuki; Kondo, Masayuki; Harada, Tetsuo; Wakamura, Tomoko; Morita, Takeshi

    2014-11-19

    The purpose of the present study is to investigate effects of tryptophan intake and light exposure on melatonin secretion and sleep by modifying tryptophan ingestion at breakfast and light exposure during the daytime, and measuring sleep quality (by using actigraphy and the OSA sleep inventory) and melatonin secretion at night. Thirty three male University students (mean ± SD age: 22 ± 3.1 years) completed the experiments lasting 5 days and 4 nights. The subjects were randomly divided into four groups: Poor*Dim (n = 10), meaning a tryptophan-poor breakfast (55 mg/meal) in the morning and dim light environment (breakfast (476 mg/meal) and dim light environment; Poor*Bright (n = 9), tryptophan-poor breakfast and bright light environment (>5,000 lx); and Rich*Bright (n = 7), tryptophan-rich breakfast and bright light. Saliva melatonin concentrations on the fourth day were significantly lower than on the first day in the Poor*Dim group, whereas they were higher on the fourth day in the Rich*Bright group. Creatinine-adjusted melatonin in urine showed the same direction as saliva melatonin concentrations. These results indicate that the combination of a tryptophan-rich breakfast and bright light exposure during the daytime could promote melatonin secretion at night; further, the observations that the Rich*Bright group had higher melatonin concentrations than the Rich*Dim group, despite no significant differences being observed between the Poor*Dim and Rich*Dim groups nor the Poor*Bright and Rich*Bright groups, suggest that bright light exposure in the daytime is an important contributor to raised melatonin levels in the evening. This study is the first to report the quantitative effects of changed tryptophan intake at breakfast combined with daytime light exposure on melatonin secretion and sleep quality. Evening saliva melatonin secretion changed significantly and indicated that a tryptophan-rich breakfast and bright light exposure during the daytime

  2. Competitiveness of organically grown cereals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Jánský

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The contribution is aimed at the assessment of recommended crop management practices of chosen cereals for organic farming. To increase competitiveness, these practices are modified depending on soil and climatic conditions, and on a way of production use. Furthermore, impacts of the recommended crop management practices on economics of growing chosen cereals are evaluated and compared with economic results obtained under conventional farming. It is assumed that achieved results will contribute to the increase in proportion of arable crops in the Czech Republic where organic production offer does not meet current demands.When evaluating results of growing individual cereal species in a selective set of organic farms, triticale, spelt and spring barley (in this ranking can be considered as profitable crops. Moreover, triticale and spelt have even higher gross margin under organic farming than under conventional farming (by 62 % in triticale. Oat brings losses, however, it is important for livestock production. Winter wheat seems to be also unprofitable since less grain is produced at lower imputs per hectare and only part of it is produced in quality “bio”, i.e. marketed for higher prices. Rye also brings losses under organic farming, particularly due to lower yields, similarly to the other mentioned cereals. Special cereal species that are still neglected in organic farming systems are of potential use. Durum wheat has vitreous kernels with a high content of quality gluten which is used for pasta production. It can be grown in the maize production area on fertile soils only.

  3. Nutritive content of college meals. III. Mineral elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, M A; Page, L

    1977-03-01

    Two samples, each consisting of two breakfasts, two lunches, and two dinners as offered to college students, were collected for seven consecutive days from each fifty colleges. The composited meals for each college were analyzed for five major mineral elements--calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, sodium, and potassium--and five trace mineral elements--iron, chromium, copper, manganese, and zinc. On a per-person-per-day basis, the meals met or exceeded the recommended dietary allowances for nineteen-to-twenty-two-year-old men and women for calcium and phosphorus. Meals from most of the colleges were below the allowance for magnesium, over nine-tenths were short in zinc, and about three-fifths were below the allowance for iron for females but in only one college for males. Average ratios for mineral element to mineral element are reported.

  4. Changes in dietary pattern in 15 year old adolescents following a 4 month dietary intervention with school breakfast--a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ask, Anne S; Hernes, Sigrunn; Aarek, Ingebjørg; Johannessen, Gaute; Haugen, Margaretha

    2006-12-07

    Few studies on impact of meals served in school have been published. However, implications of school meals are an actual issue of both public and political concern in several countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate if breakfast served in a lower secondary school could improve dietary habits and school performance among the students. All students in 10th grade in a lower secondary school, consisting of two school classes, were invited to participate in a controlled study. The students in one class were offered a free breakfast at the beginning of each school day for 4 months, while the students in the second class were controls. Both classes were educated in the importance of healthy eating, and a data program enabling them to evaluate dietary intake was introduced. The students answered two questionnaires, one on school performance and one short food frequency questionnaire, four weeks before study start and one week after. Body weight and height were measured by the school nurse at the beginning and end of the study. Because of few students in each group, non-parametrical statistic analyses were used. All students in the intervention group had breakfast at school during the intervention. One week after the intervention the students in the class who received breakfast had returned to their normal breakfast pattern. In the control group the frequency of a lunch intake had increase, as compared to before study start (p school performance following school breakfast was not found, but the males in the intervention group reported a significant increase in school contentment (p school class served breakfast for 4 months, dietary intake changed to a more healthy profile and weight gain was reduced.

  5. Detection of Salivary Insulin Following Low versus High Carbohydrate Meals in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Étienne Myette-Côté

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing non-invasive alternatives to monitor insulin levels in humans holds potential practical value for identifying individuals with, or at risk of developing, insulin resistance. The aims of this study were: (1 to determine if saliva insulin can be used to delineate between low and high postprandial insulin levels following the ingestion of mixed breakfast meals; and (2 to determine if expected differences in postprandial hyperinsulinemia between young lean and young overweight/obese participants could be detected in saliva. Sixteen individuals (n = 8 classified as normal weight (NW; BMI 20.0–24.9 kg/m2, and n = 8 classified as overweight/obese (OO; BMI ≥ 28.0 kg/m2 completed two isocaloric mixed-meal tolerance tests following an overnight fast, consisting of a low-carbohydrate (LC breakfast or a high-carbohydrate (HC breakfast. Blood and saliva samples were collected at regular intervals for two hours postprandially. In both groups, plasma and saliva insulin total area under the curve (AUC and incremental AUC (iAUC were significantly higher after the HC as compared to the LC meal (all p ≤ 0.005. Insulin AUC and iAUC in both plasma and saliva were higher in OO than in NW after the HC meal (all p ≤ 0.02 but only plasma and saliva total AUC were higher in OO after the LC meal (both p ≤ 0.01. Plasma insulin AUC was significantly correlated with salivary insulin AUC in LC (r = 0.821; p < 0.001 and HC (r = 0.882; p < 0.001. These findings indicate that saliva could potentially be used to delineate between low and high insulin levels following mixed breakfast meals.

  6. Marketing sugary cereals to children in the digital age: a content analysis of 17 child-targeted websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheyne, Andrew D; Dorfman, Lori; Bukofzer, Eliana; Harris, Jennifer L

    2013-01-01

    The Institute of Medicine has warned of the harm of food marketing to children from television to new media channels such as the Internet. The authors identified and analyzed the techniques used to engage children on websites from cereal companies--the third largest food marketer to children. The authors found that top breakfast cereal manufacturers maintain child-oriented websites, using strategies unique to the Internet to capture and maintain children's attention. These include branded engagement techniques such as advergames, videos, site registration, and viral marketing, including inviting friends to join the site. The authors found 3 progressive levels of telepresence on child-targeted cereal websites: sites with more than 1 engaging feature, multiple techniques present on individual pages, and the construction of a virtual world. Using Internet traffic data, the authors confirm that these techniques work: cereal marketers reach children online with lengthier and more sophisticated engagements than are possible with traditional, passive media such as television advertisements or product packaging. Despite the cereal manufacturer's self-regulatory pledge to improve their marketing to children, their marketing practices exploit children's susceptibility to advertising by almost exclusively promoting high-sugar cereals using deeply engaging techniques.

  7. Main meal frequency measures in the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Trine Pagh; Holstein, Bjørn E; Laursen, Bjarne

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To estimate agreement between questionnaire-based frequency measures from the Health Behaviour in School-aged Children study (HBSC) and 7-day 24-h recall measures of breakfast, lunch and evening meals among 11-15-year-olds, and examine whether disagreement between the two methods varied...... for the breakfast measure: per cent agreement 0.70-0.87, kappa 0.43-0.65. Fair agreement for the lunch measure: per cent agreement 0.53-0.84, kappa 0.26-0.54. High per cent agreement for the evening meal measure (0.83-0.95) but poor kappa agreement (0.14-0.19). Being immigrant predicted disagreement between the two...... methods for week day breakfast OR (95 % CI) 2.17 (1.16-4.04) and lunch 2.44 (1.33-4.48). CONCLUSIONS: We found good to moderate agreement between frequency and 7-day 24-h recall measures for breakfast, a fair agreement for lunch and for evening meal the two agreement methods provided different results...

  8. Educational nutrition messaging at breakfast reduces snack intake and influences snack preferences in adult men and women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, Jamie I; Gaines, Brianna L; Kubas, Gabrielle C; Mitchell, Charlayne F; Russell, Sarah L

    2017-10-01

    Breakfast skipping is associated with increased risk of weight gain and obesity in young adults, possibly due to increased snacking later in the day. Recent research suggests that providing and animal versus a plant source of protein at breakfast can reduce snack intake later in the day. In addition, providing nutrition information via a nutrition label, front-of-pack information, or via text messaging has been shown to help individuals make healthier food choices. The objective of this study was to determine if educational nutrition messaging and protein source influenced snack intake 2 h following the breakfast meal. Participants (n = 33) were randomly assigned to one of two groups: educational nutrition messaging (EM; n = 16) or no messaging (NM; n = 17) group. The study was conducted using a randomized, cross-over design in which each participant received each of two breakfast beverages, whey protein- (WP) and pea protein (PP)- based. Appetite was assessed at 0, 15, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min after each test breakfast using visual analog scales. Participants were then provided with a selection of healthy and unhealthy snacks for 60 min. There was no effect of protein source on appetite or snack intake. However, participants presented with EM had reduced snack intake over the snacking period compared to NM (P = 0.058) and, of the snacks consumed, the EM group consumed a higher percentage of healthy versus unhealthy snacks compared to NM (P snack intake, but EM may help play a role in reducing snack intake between meals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. breakfast skipping and academic / social development of pupils in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abasiama Akpan

    . Hypothesis 2. There is no significant relationship between breakfast skipping and social development of the pupils. Table 3: Pearson Moment Product Correlation Co-efficient test of relationship between skipping of breakfast and social ...

  10. Association of breakfast intake with cardiometabolic risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Shafiee

    2013-11-01

    Conclusions: skipping breakfast is associated with increased risk of MetS and other cardiometabooic factors in children and adolescents. Promoting the benefit of eating breakfast could be a simple and important implication to prevent these risk factors.

  11. Irregular eating of meals in adolescence and the metabolic syndrome in adulthood: results from a 27-year prospective cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wennberg, Maria; Gustafsson, Per E; Wennberg, Patrik; Hammarström, Anne

    2016-03-01

    The objective was to investigate whether irregular eating of meals in adolescence predicts the metabolic syndrome and its components in adulthood, and if any specific meal is of particular importance. Prospective cohort study with 27 years of follow-up. Information on meals (breakfast, school lunch and dinner with family), lifestyle (alcohol consumption, smoking habits, physical activity, consumption of sweets and pastries) at age 16 years was assessed from questionnaires, and presence or not of the metabolic syndrome and its components were defined at age 43 years in 889 participants (82·1% of total cohort). Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios and confidence intervals. The Northern Swedish Cohort; all school-leavers of the 9th grade in the town Luleå in 1981. Adolescents (age 16 years). Irregular eating of meals at age 16 years was associated with higher prevalence of the metabolic syndrome at age 43 years (OR=1·74; 95% CI 1·12, 2·71), but this was explained by concurrent unhealthy lifestyle at age 16 years. Poor breakfast at age 16 years was the only meal associated with the metabolic syndrome at age 43 years, independent of other meals, BMI (kg/m2) and lifestyle at age 16 years (OR=1·67; 95% CI 1·00, 2·80). Irregular eating of meals in adolescence predicted the metabolic syndrome in adulthood, but not independently of BMI and lifestyle in adolescence. Poor breakfast in adolescence was the only specific meal associated with future metabolic syndrome, even after adjustments. Breakfast eating should be encouraged in adolescence.

  12. Impact of food and different meal types on the pharmacokinetics of rilpivirine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crauwels, Herta M; van Heeswijk, Rolf P G; Buelens, Annemie; Stevens, Marita; Boven, Katia; Hoetelmans, Richard M W

    2013-08-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the impact of food and different meal types on the pharmacokinetics of rilpivirine, a nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor. In this open-label, randomized, crossover study, healthy volunteers received a single, oral 75 mg dose of rilpivirine either with a normal-fat breakfast (reference), under fasting conditions, with a high-fat breakfast, or with a protein-rich nutritional drink. Pharmacokinetic parameters were determined by non-compartmental methods and analyzed using a linear mixed-effects model. Safety was assessed throughout. The least-squares mean ratio for area under the plasma concentration-time curve to last timepoint was 0.57 (90% confidence interval [CI]: 0.46-0.72) under fasting conditions compared to dosing with a normal-fat breakfast. With a high-fat breakfast or only a protein-rich nutritional drink, the corresponding values were 0.92 (90% CI: 0.80-1.07) and 0.50 (90% CI: 0.41-0.61), respectively, compared to dosing with a normal-fat breakfast. Under all conditions, rilpivirine was generally safe and well tolerated. Administration of rilpivirine under fasting conditions or with only a protein-rich nutritional drink substantially lowered the oral bioavailability when compared to administration with a normal-fat breakfast. Rilpivirine bioavailability was similar when administered with a high-fat or normal-fat breakfast. Rilpivirine should always be taken with a meal to ensure adequate bioavailability. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. Ukrainian cereals and oilseeds trade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Б. В. Духницький

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To analyze peculiarities of Ukrainian cereals and oilseeds trade, the situation on the world market, and determine future prospects of its development. Methods. Analysis and synthesis, comparative evaluation, graphic procedure. Results. The role and place of Ukraine in a total grain supply to the world market was determined. Ukraine is a world’s top ten grain producer. Among domestic agricultural products, cereals, oilseeds and sunflower oil are in the highest demand in the world. In recent years, our state has reinforced its status as one of the leading exporters of cereals. The commodity pattern of cereals and oilseeds export was analyzed with specifying most in-demand positions and the main countries purchasing these pro­ducts. According to the results of 2015, Ukraine obtained the highest foreign currency revenue from export of corn, wheat and barley (in grain structure including soybeans and rapeseed (among oil crops. Key domestic and multinational operators are the main exporters of cereals and oilseeds in Ukraine and still hold their leading position. It was found a significant excess of import price of seeds as compared with export price of crops grown in Ukraine. Assortment of maize and sunflower seeds offered by major companies-producers in Ukraine was studied. Main trends of the world grain market development are considered. Conclusions. It was established that Ukraine is one of the major exporters of cereals and oilseeds. However, volatility of their prices significantly affects the export revenue that was decreasing even with increasing export quantities in kind. The dependence of domestic grain industry development on high-quality imported seed of maize and sunflower hybrids was recorded. It is expected that in the years to come Ukraine will maintain its strong positions in the world’s grain market.

  14. Advances in the identification of adulterated cereals and cereal products

    Science.gov (United States)

    This book chapter addresses the most common occurrences of adulteration in the cereal grains, the regulations in place by countries (such as the United States, United Kingdom, Italy, India, and the European Union), and the methodologies by which detection and quantification of the contaminant are ma...

  15. THE PSYCHOBIOLOGY OF MEALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WOODS, SC; STRUBBE, JH; Woods, Stephen C.

    Meals are considered as bouts of behavior that, although necessary for supplying nutrients to the body, result in undesirable perturbations of homeostatically controlled parameters. If the environment dictates that an animal mainly eat very large meals, these meal-associated perturbations become

  16. Different Psychosocial Factors Are Associated With Different Intention and Self-Efficacy Toward Eating Breakfast Among Japanese Breakfast Skippers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakade, Makiko; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Imai, Eri; Tsuboyama-Kasaoka, Nobuyo; Nishi, Nobuo; Takimoto, Hidemi

    2017-03-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted among 7593 adults to clarify lifestyle and psychosocial characteristics of breakfast skippers with different intention and self-efficacy toward eating breakfast. Data were obtained from Japan's national survey in 2009. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed to examine the characteristics of each breakfast skipper (having intention and self-efficacy toward eating breakfast [IS], having intention but not self-efficacy [INS], and not having intention to eat breakfast [NI]) compared with breakfast eaters. IS men were less likely to demonstrate understanding of healthy eating. INS and NI men were more likely to eat alone. INS and NI women were less likely to demonstrate understanding of healthy eating. NI men and women were less likely to report weight management behavior. Current smoking and being sleep-deprived were commonly associated with breakfast skipping in both sexes. Our results suggested the need for approaches considering type of breakfast skippers (eg, different intention and self-efficacy).

  17. The relation between breakfast skipping and school performance in Adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boschloo, A.M.; Ouwehand, C.; Dekker, S.J.; Lee, N.C.; de Groot, R.H.M.; Krabbendam, A.C.; Jolles, J.

    2012-01-01

    Breakfast skipping is common in adolescents, but research on the effects of breakfast skipping on school performance is scarce. This current cross-sectional survey study of 605 adolescents aged 11-18 years investigated whether adolescents who habitually skip breakfast have lower end-of-term grades

  18. Effect of three breakfast interventions on blood glucose during low-intensity exercise performed on a treadmill

    OpenAIRE

    Paula Guedes Cocate; João Carlos Bouzas Marins

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate blood glucose (BG) response during a low-intensity activity, preceded by the consumption of three different types of breakfast (BF). Fifteen Physical Education male students of mean age of 22.7 ± 2 years were evaluated. Three BF interventions were carried out on different days :fasting; BF1: cookie, juice, apple, cereal bar or BF2: 400 mL carbohydrate drink) 60 minutes before jogging/walking for 1 hour at 50-60% of maximum calculated HR (heart rate)....

  19. Exposure assessment to ochratoxin A in Catalonia (Spain) based on the consumption of cereals, nuts, coffee, wine, and beer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronel, M B; Marín, S; Cano-Sancho, G; Ramos, A J; Sanchis, V

    2012-01-01

    Ochratoxin A (OTA) was analysed in composite samples of cereal-based baby foods, beer, breakfast cereals (corn- and rice and wheat-based), loaf bread, peanuts and pistachios. Foodstuffs were collected in hypermarkets and supermarkets from 12 cities in the Spanish region of Catalonia, and composite samples were prepared for analysis involving liquid-liquid extraction, followed by immunoaffinity column clean-up and HPLC with fluorescence detection. Consumption data for the selected foodstuffs were collected by means of a food-frequency questionnaire. The studied population was grouped by age in infants, children, adolescents and adults; and exposure to OTA through the specified foodstuffs, and through wine and coffee, was assessed. Exposure assessment was done through deterministic and probabilistic modelling of the contamination and consumption data. OTA occurrence and mean of positive samples (ng g(-1) or ng ml(-1), for beer) were the following: 8.7% and 0.233 in baby foods; 88.7% and 0.022 in beer; 2.8% and 0.728 in corn-based breakfast cereals; 25% and 0.293 in wheat-based breakfast cereals; 12.9% and 0.283 in loaf bread; 41.7% and 0.241 in peanuts; and 2.9% and 0.228 in pistachios. The median estimated daily intake of OTA through the foodstuffs by each age group were below the latest provisional tolerable daily intakes (PTDIs) of 17 and 14 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1) recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) in 2006 and the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) in 2007, respectively, ranging from 1% and 2% of those values in adolescents and children, to 3% and 11% in adults and infants.

  20. Away-from-home meals: Prevalence and characteristics in a metropolis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartira Mendes Gorgulho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to characterize away-from-home meals. Methods: This population-based, cross-sectional study measured dietary intake by administering 24-hour recalls by telephone. Away-from-home breakfast, lunch, and dinner were described and characterized according to the foods that contribute most to the intake of energy, fat, sodium, and added sugar per meal. Results: f the 834 respondents, 24% had had at least one meal away from home. The average energy intake per away-from-home meal was 628 kcal (±101 kcal, about 35% of the average daily intake for this population. Meals contained both healthy foods, such as rice, beans, and fish, and unhealthy foods, such as soft drinks, snacks, sandwiches, and pizza. Conclusion: Individuals who ate away from home had worse diets. However, the presence of healthy foods indicates a possibility of improvement if purposeful programmatic actions are taken.

  1. Antioxidant Properties of Whole Grain Cereals

    OpenAIRE

    Čukelj, Nikolina; Novotny, Dubravka; Ćurić, Duška

    2010-01-01

    Cereals have a long history of use by humans. Cereals and cereal products are staple foods, and are important source of energy, carbohydrate, protein, fibre, vitamins (E, B) and minerals (Zn, Mg, Fe) in both developed and developing countries. The health aspects of whole grain cereals have long been known, but the antioxidant profile of whole grains has only recently been introduced to the antioxidant research community where mostly fruits and vegetables are in focus. In vitro experiments con...

  2. Short-term effect of macronutrient composition and glycemic index of a yoghurt breakfast on satiety and mood in healthy young men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probst, Anna; Humpeler, Susanne; Heinzl, Harald; Blasche, Gerhard; Ekmekcioglu, Cem

    2012-01-01

    Promoting satiety and repressing appetite is one major goal in the dietetic therapy of obesity. In the past, several studies investigated the effect of different macronutrients, especially protein and carbohydrates, on short- and long-term satiety in humans. This paper aims to directly compare the effect of protein, rolled oats (low glycemic index), sugar or cornflakes (high glycemic index), and walnuts (high amount of omega-3 fatty acids) as ingredients of a yoghurt breakfast on short-term hunger and satiety in one setting. A second objective was to study the effect of these yoghurt breakfasts on mental state. 14 healthy male volunteers participated in this randomized, controlled, cross-over design study. After consuming the different test meals, volunteers repeatedly completed 2 questionnaires over a total of 3 h. The protein meal showed the highest satiety scores and the controls (low-calorie yoghurt) the lowest. The other test meals were not different among each other. Regarding mental state (mood, fatigue, and calmness), no significant difference between the test meals and the low-calorie control was observed. The glycemic index does not seem to modify satiety in this short-term setting. The similar mental state between low- and high-calorie breakfasts deserves further investigations. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  3. HB 2578--Relating to the School Meals Program. Testimony, 79th Texas State Legislature (April 26, 2005)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagert, Celia

    2005-01-01

    The Center for Public Policy Priorities supports HB 2574. Why encourage school districts to offer free meals to all students? The link between adequate nutrition and improved academic performance creates a clear incentive for Texas to increase participation in the school breakfast and lunch programs, particularly among low-income children.…

  4. Learning through school meals?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benn, Jette; Carlsson, Monica Susanne

    2014-01-01

    This article is based on a qualitative multiple case study aimed at ealuating the effects of free school meal intervention on pupils' learning, and on the learning environment i schools. The study was conducted at four schools, each offereing free school meals for 20 weeks. At each school...... individual and focus Group interviws were conducted with students in grade 5-7 and grades 8-9- Furthermor, students were obserede during lunch breaks, and interviews were conducted with the class teacher, headmaster and/or the person responsible for school meals. The pupose of the article is to explore...... the lelarning potentials of school meals. The corss-case analysis focuses on the involved actors' perceptions of the school meal project and the meals, including Places Places, times and contexts, and the pupils' concepts and competencies in relation to food, meals and Health, as well as their involvement...

  5. 9 CFR 319.143 - Breakfast sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Breakfast sausage. 319.143 Section 319.143 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY... CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Sausage Generally: Fresh Sausage § 319.143...

  6. On the Importance of Processing Conditions for the Nutritional Characteristics of Homogenized Composite Meals Intended for Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elin Östman

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional quality of infant food is an important consideration in the effort to prevent a further increase in the rate of childhood obesity. We hypothesized that the canning of composite infant meals would lead to elevated contents of carboxymethyl-lysine (CML and favor high glycemic and insulinemic responses compared with milder heat treatment conditions. We have compared composite infant pasta Bolognese meals that were either conventionally canned (CANPBol, or prepared by microwave cooking (MWPBol. A meal where the pasta and Bolognese sauce were separate during microwave cooking (MWP_CANBol was also included. The infant meals were tested at breakfast in healthy adults using white wheat bread (WWB as reference. A standardized lunch meal was served at 240 min and blood was collected from fasting to 360 min after breakfast. The 2-h glucose response (iAUC was lower following the test meals than with WWB. The insulin response was lower after the MWP_CANBol (−47%, p = 0.0000 but markedly higher after CANPBol (+40%, p = 0.0019, compared with WWB. A combined measure of the glucose and insulin responses (ISIcomposite revealed that MWP_CANBol resulted in 94% better insulin sensitivity than CANPBol. Additionally, the separate processing of the meal components in MWP_CANBol resulted in 39% lower CML levels than the CANPBol. It was therefore concluded that intake of commercially canned composite infant meals leads to reduced postprandial insulin sensitivity and increased exposure to oxidative stress promoting agents.

  7. On the Importance of Processing Conditions for the Nutritional Characteristics of Homogenized Composite Meals Intended for Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östman, Elin; Forslund, Anna; Tareke, Eden; Björck, Inger

    2016-06-03

    The nutritional quality of infant food is an important consideration in the effort to prevent a further increase in the rate of childhood obesity. We hypothesized that the canning of composite infant meals would lead to elevated contents of carboxymethyl-lysine (CML) and favor high glycemic and insulinemic responses compared with milder heat treatment conditions. We have compared composite infant pasta Bolognese meals that were either conventionally canned (CANPBol), or prepared by microwave cooking (MWPBol). A meal where the pasta and Bolognese sauce were separate during microwave cooking (MWP_CANBol) was also included. The infant meals were tested at breakfast in healthy adults using white wheat bread (WWB) as reference. A standardized lunch meal was served at 240 min and blood was collected from fasting to 360 min after breakfast. The 2-h glucose response (iAUC) was lower following the test meals than with WWB. The insulin response was lower after the MWP_CANBol (-47%, p = 0.0000) but markedly higher after CANPBol (+40%, p = 0.0019), compared with WWB. A combined measure of the glucose and insulin responses (ISIcomposite) revealed that MWP_CANBol resulted in 94% better insulin sensitivity than CANPBol. Additionally, the separate processing of the meal components in MWP_CANBol resulted in 39% lower CML levels than the CANPBol. It was therefore concluded that intake of commercially canned composite infant meals leads to reduced postprandial insulin sensitivity and increased exposure to oxidative stress promoting agents.

  8. Breakfast consumption and cognitive function in adolescent schoolchildren.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Simon B; Bandelow, Stephan; Nevill, Mary E

    2011-07-06

    This study examined the effects of breakfast consumption on cognitive function, mood and blood glucose concentration in adolescent schoolchildren. With the institution's ethical advisory committee approval, 96 adolescents (12 to 15 years old) completed two randomly assigned trials (one following breakfast consumption and one following breakfast omission), scheduled 7 days apart. Cognitive function tests (visual search test, Stroop test and Sternberg paradigm), a mood questionnaire and a finger prick blood sample (in a subgroup of 60 participants) were completed immediately following breakfast and 120 min after the baseline measures. Following breakfast consumption, accuracy on the more complex level of the visual search test was higher than following breakfast omission (p=0.021). Similarly, accuracy on the Stroop test was better maintained across the morning following breakfast consumption when compared to breakfast omission (p=0.022). Furthermore, responses on the Sternberg paradigm were quicker later in the morning following breakfast consumption, particularly on the more complex levels (p=0.012). Breakfast consumption also produced higher self-report energy and fullness, lower self-report tiredness and hunger and higher blood glucose concentrations (all pbreakfast consumption enhances cognitive function in an adolescent population when compared to breakfast omission. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Exercise Increases 24-h Fat Oxidation Only When It Is Performed Before Breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwayama, Kaito; Kurihara, Reiko; Nabekura, Yoshiharu; Kawabuchi, Ryosuke; Park, Insung; Kobayashi, Masashi; Ogata, Hitomi; Kayaba, Momoko; Satoh, Makoto; Tokuyama, Kumpei

    2015-12-01

    As part of the growing lifestyle diversity in modern society, there is wide variation in the time of day individuals choose to exercise. Recent surveys in the US and Japan have reported that on weekdays, more people exercise in the evening, with fewer individuals exercising in the morning or afternoon. Exercise performed in the post-prandial state has little effect on accumulated fat oxidation over 24 h (24-h fat oxidation) when energy intake is matched to energy expenditure (energy-balanced condition). The present study explored the possibility that exercise increases 24-h fat oxidation only when performed in a post-absorptive state, i.e. before breakfast. Indirect calorimetry using a metabolic chamber was performed in 10 young, non-obese men over 24 h. Subjects remained sedentary (control) or performed 60-min exercise before breakfast (morning), after lunch (afternoon), or after dinner (evening) at 50% of VO2max. All trials were designed to be energy balanced over 24 h. Time course of energy and substrate balance relative to the start of calorimetry were estimated from the differences between input (meal consumption) and output (oxidation). Fat oxidation over 24 h was increased only when exercise was performed before breakfast (control, 456 ± 61; morning, 717 ± 64; afternoon, 446 ± 57; and evening, 432 ± 44 kcal/day). Fat oxidation over 24 h was negatively correlated with the magnitude of the transient deficit in energy and carbohydrate. Under energy-balanced conditions, 24-h fat oxidation was increased by exercise only when performed before breakfast. Transient carbohydrate deficits, i.e., glycogen depletion, observed after morning exercise may have contributed to increased 24-h fat oxidation.

  10. School staff, parent and student perceptions of a Breakfast in the Classroom model during initial implementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folta, Sara C; Carmichael Djang, Holly; Halmo, Megan; Metayer, Nesly; Blondin, Stacy A; Smith, Kathleen S; Economos, Christina D

    2016-06-01

    To understand perspectives of stakeholders during initial district-wide implementation of a Breakfast in the Classroom (BIC) model of the School Breakfast Program. Qualitative data were collected from twenty-nine focus groups and twenty interviews with stakeholders in a school district early in the process of implementing a BIC model of the School Breakfast Program. Ten elementary schools within a large, urban school district in the USA that served predominantly low-income, racial/ethnic minority students. Purposively selected stakeholders in elementary schools that had implemented BIC for 3-6 months: students (n 85), parents/guardians (n 86), classroom teachers (n 44), cafeteria managers (n 10) and principals (n 10). Four primary themes emerged, which were interpreted based on the Diffusion of Innovations model. School staff had changed their perceptions of both the relative disadvantages and costs related to time and effort of BIC over time; the majority of each stakeholder group expressed an appreciation for BIC; student breakfast consumption varied from day to day, related to compatibility of foods with child preferences; and stakeholders held mixed and various impressions of BIC's potential impacts. The study underscores the importance of engaging school staff and parents in discussions of BIC programming prior to its initiation to pre-emptively address concerns related to cost, relative disadvantages and compatibility with child preferences and school routines/workflow. Effectively communicating with stakeholders about positive impacts and nutritional value of the meals may improve support for BIC. These findings provide new information to policy makers, districts and practitioners that can be used to improve implementation efforts, model delivery and outcomes.

  11. Breakfast Macronutrient Composition Influences Thermic Effect of Feeding and Fat Oxidation in Young Women Who Habitually Skip Breakfast

    OpenAIRE

    Brianna L. Neumann; Amy Dunn; Dallas Johnson; Adams, J. D.; Baum, Jamie I.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if breakfast macronutrient composition improved thermic effect of feeding (TEF) and appetite after a one-week adaptation in young women who habitually skip breakfast. A randomized, controlled study was conducted in females (24.1 ± 2 years), who skip breakfast (≥5 times/week). Participants were placed into one of three groups for eight days (n = 8 per group): breakfast skipping (SKP; no breakfast), carbohydrate (CHO; 351 kcal; 59 g CHO, 10 g PRO, 8 g ...

  12. Detection methods for mycotoxins in cereal grains and cereal products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pascale Michelangelo N.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Analytical methods for mycotoxins in cereals and cereal-based products require three major steps, including extraction, clean-up (to eliminate interferences from the extract and concentrate the analyte, and detection/determination of the toxin (by using suitable analytical instruments/technologies. Clean-up is essential for the analysis of mycotoxins at trace levels, and involves the use of solid phase extraction and multifunctional (e.g. MycoSep® or immunoaffinity columns. Different chromatographic methods are commonly used for quantitative determination of mycotoxins, including gas-chromatography (GC coupled with electron capture, flame ionization or mass spectrometry (MS detectors (mainly for type-A trichothecenes, and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC coupled with ultraviolet, diode array, fluorescence or MS detectors. The choice of method depends on the matrix and the mycotoxin to be analyzed. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS is spreading rapidly as a promising technique for simultaneous screening, identification and quantitative determination of a large number of mycotoxins. In addition, commercial immunometric assays, such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA, are frequently used for screening purposes as well. Recently, a variety of emerging methods have been proposed for the analysis of mycotoxins in cereals based on novel technologies, including immunochromatography (i.e. lateral flow devices, fluorescence polarization immunoassays (FPIA, infrared spectroscopy (FT-NIR, molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs and optical biosensors.

  13. Efeito do contributo energético do pequeno-almoço no perfil nutricional e ingestão energética em estudantes universitários Portugueses : Trabalho de Investigação : Effect of breakfast contribution to nutrient profile and energy intake among Portuguese university students

    OpenAIRE

    Abreu, Sandra Marlene Ribeiro de

    2009-01-01

    Thesis abstract: Backgroud: The unbalanced dietary found in university students possibly reflects the social and academic pressures they face in this new environment. The omission of meals, including breakfast is often found in young adults. The consumption of breakfast has been associated with a better nutritional profile, a better academic performance, a decrease risk of chronic diseases and obesity, making it an important vehicle for health promotion. Aim: analyse the contribution of break...

  14. Breakfast quality and its relationship to the prevalence of overweight and obesity in adolescents in Guadalajara (Spain) Calidad del desayuno en adolescentes de Guadalajara (España) y su relación con la prevalencia del sobrepeso y obesidad

    OpenAIRE

    I. Fernández Morales; Mª V. Aguilar Vilas; C. J. Mateos Vega; Mª C. Martínez Para

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Many young people today skip the first meal of the day in order to lose weight. Objective: To study the impact of breakfast quality and skipping breakfast on the BMI and on the prevalence of overweight and obesity. Method: A nutritional study was carried out on a population of 467 secondary school students (12-17 years of age) in Guadalajara, Spain based on seven-day food journal and food frequency questionnaires. Sociodemographic data were also collected. Anthropometric measure...

  15. Changes in dietary pattern in 15 year old adolescents following a 4 month dietary intervention with school breakfast – a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aarek Ingebjørg

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies on impact of meals served in school have been published. However, implications of school meals are an actual issue of both public and political concern in several countries. The objective of this study was to evaluate if breakfast served in a lower secondary school could improve dietary habits and school performance among the students. Methods All students in 10th grade in a lower secondary school, consisting of two school classes, were invited to participate in a controlled study. The students in one class were offered a free breakfast at the beginning of each school day for 4 months, while the students in the second class were controls. Both classes were educated in the importance of healthy eating, and a data program enabling them to evaluate dietary intake was introduced. The students answered two questionnaires, one on school performance and one short food frequency questionnaire, four weeks before study start and one week after. Body weight and height were measured by the school nurse at the beginning and end of the study. Because of few students in each group, non-parametrical statistic analyses were used. Results All students in the intervention group had breakfast at school during the intervention. One week after the intervention the students in the class who received breakfast had returned to their normal breakfast pattern. In the control group the frequency of a lunch intake had increase, as compared to before study start (p Conclusion In a lower secondary school class served breakfast for 4 months, dietary intake changed to a more healthy profile and weight gain was reduced.

  16. Breakfast Macronutrient Composition Influences Thermic Effect of Feeding and Fat Oxidation in Young Women Who Habitually Skip Breakfast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Brianna L; Dunn, Amy; Johnson, Dallas; Adams, J D; Baum, Jamie I

    2016-08-10

    The purpose of this study was to determine if breakfast macronutrient composition improved thermic effect of feeding (TEF) and appetite after a one-week adaptation in young women who habitually skip breakfast. A randomized, controlled study was conducted in females (24.1 ± 2 years), who skip breakfast (≥5 times/week). Participants were placed into one of three groups for eight days (n = 8 per group): breakfast skipping (SKP; no breakfast), carbohydrate (CHO; 351 kcal; 59 g CHO, 10 g PRO, 8 g fat) or protein (PRO; 350 kcal; 39 g CHO, 30 g PRO, 8 g fat). On days 1 (D1) and 8 (D8), TEF, substrate oxidation, appetite and blood glucose were measured. PRO had higher (p breakfast on appetite response. In addition, CHO had a significant increase (p breakfast for 8 days increased TEF compared to CHO and SKP, while consumption of CHO for one week increased PP hunger response.

  17. 40-year trends in meal and snack eating behaviors of American adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Ashima K.; Graubard, Barry I.

    2014-01-01

    Background Understanding of changes in profiles of eating behaviors over time may provide insights into contributors to upward trajectories of obesity in the United States population. Yet, little is known about whether characteristics of meal and snack eating behaviors reported by adult Americans have changed over time. Objective This study examined time trends in the distribution of day’s intake into individual meal and snack behaviors and related attributes in the United States adult population. Design The study was observational with cross-sectional data from national surveys fielded over 40 years. Participant/setting Nationally representative dietary data from nine National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys conducted from 1971–74 to 2009–2010 (n=62298; age 20–74 years) were used to describe eating behaviors. Outcomes examined The respondent-labeled eating behaviors examined included main meals (breakfast, lunch, and dinner), and snacks (before breakfast, between breakfast and lunch, between lunch and dinner, after dinner, or other). For each eating behavior, percent of reporters; relative contribution to 24-hour energy intake; the clock time of report; and intermeal/snack intervals were examined. Statistical Analysis Multivariable logistic and linear regression methods for analysis of complex survey data adjusted for characteristics of respondents in each survey. Results Over the 40-year span examined: 1) reports of each individual named main meal (or all three main meals) declined, but reports of only two out of three meals or the same meal more than once increased; 2) the percentage of 24-hour energy from snacks reported between lunch and dinner or snacks that displaced meals increased; 3) clock times of breakfast and lunch were later, and intervals between dinner and after dinner snack were shorter. Changes in several snack reporting behaviors (e.g., report of any snack or ≥2 snacks), were significant in women only. Conclusions Several meal

  18. Microbiological Spoilage of Cereal Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Frederick K.; Johnson, Billie L.

    A wide range of cereal products, including bakery items, refrigerated dough, fresh pasta products, dried cereal products, snack foods, and bakery mixes, are manufactured for food consumption. These products are subject to physical, chemical, and microbiological spoilage that affects the taste, aroma, leavening, appearance, and overall quality of the end consumer product. Microorganisms are ubiquitous in nature and have the potential for causing food spoilage and foodborne disease. However, compared to other categories of food products, bakery products rarely cause food poisoning. The heat that is applied during baking or frying usually eliminates pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms, and low moisture contributes to product stability. Nevertheless, microbiological spoilage of these products occurs, resulting in substantial economic losses.

  19. Sweets, snacking habits, and skipping meals in children and adolescents on intensive insulin treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Øverby, N C; Margeirsdottir, H D; Brunborg, C; Dahl-Jørgensen, K; Andersen, L F

    2008-08-01

    To examine the association between skipping meals and snacking events and dietary and clinical characteristics in children and adolescents using modern insulin treatment. Dietary intake was recorded for 4 d in food diaries in 655 young diabetic patients. Number of meals and snacking events was recorded in a separated questionnaire, while clinical data were obtained from case record forms. Skipping meals refer to consuming a main meal (e.g., breakfast) five times a week or less. Modern insulin treatment may favor a more flexible lifestyle. This study shows that there are fewer young diabetic patients who skip meals than non-diabetic controls (p skipping meals among young diabetic patients was associated with negative characteristics such as having suboptimal hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) (OR 4.7, p = 0.02), higher low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels (OR 4.0, p skipping meals. Having more than two snacking events during the day was associated with higher HbA1c, higher intake of added sugar and sweets, and spending more hours in front of the TV or personal computer. In general, fewer children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes skip meals compared with healthy peers. Those who skip meals and have more snacking events have poorer glycemic control and less healthy dietary and leisure habits.

  20. Meals offered and served in US public schools: do they meet nutrient standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crepinsek, Mary Kay; Gordon, Anne R; McKinney, Patricia M; Condon, Elizabeth M; Wilson, Ander

    2009-02-01

    Concerns about the diets of school-aged children and new nutrition recommendations for the US population have increased interest in the nutritional quality of meals available through the National School Lunch Program and School Breakfast Program. This article updates national estimates of the food energy and nutrient content of school meals and compares these estimates to federal nutrient standards established under the 1995 School Meals Initiative for Healthy Children. Data were collected as part of the third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study, a nationally representative cross-sectional study fielded during school year 2004-2005. Menu and recipe data for a typical school week were collected in a mail survey with telephone assistance. Nutrient information for common commercially prepared food items was obtained from manufacturers, to supplement the Food and Nutrient Database for Dietary Studies used to analyze the data. Analyses were conducted for meals offered and meals served to (selected by) children. Samples of 130 public school districts that offered federally subsidized school meals, and 398 schools within those districts, participated in the study. Foodservice managers in each school completed a menu survey. Descriptive tabulations present weighted means, proportions, and standard errors for elementary, middle, and high schools, and for all schools combined. Most schools offered and served meals that met the standards for protein, vitamins, and minerals. Fewer than one third of schools met the standards for energy from fat or saturated fat in the average lunch, whereas three fourths or more met the fat standards in school breakfasts. For both meals, average levels of sodium were high and fiber was low relative to Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005 recommendations. For school meals to meet nutrient standards and promote eating behaviors consistent with the Dietary Guidelines, future policy, practice, and research should focus on reducing levels of

  1. Relationship of dietary factors with dialyzable iron and in vitro iron bioavailability in the meals of farm women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Anamika; Bains, Kiran; Kaur, Hapreet

    2016-04-01

    Sixty rural women with age varying between 25 and 35 were selected randomly to determine the role of dietary factors on bioavailability of iron in their diets. Food samples of selected subjects were collected for three major meals i.e. breakfast, lunch and dinner for three consecutive days. The samples were analyzed for meal constituents associated with iron absorption as well as for total and dialyzable iron. Based on dietary characteristics, the diets of the farm women were in the class of intermediate diets as per FAO/WHO classification with iron bioavailability of 8.11 %. The statistical analysis revealed that the meal constituents which were found to influence iron absorption positively were ascorbic acid and β-carotene in breakfast and only β-carotene in dinner. The meal constituents which affected iron absorption negatively were zinc and calcium in breakfast as well as lunch and phytates and NDF in dinner, however, polyphenols present in the meals of the subjects did not show any relationship with iron absorption.

  2. Breakfast clubs: Starting the day in a positive way

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pamela Louise Graham

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Breakfast clubs are widely promoted as having a beneficial impact on children’s behavior at the start of the school day, which can be conducive to their learning within the classroom. However, the few available studies that have considered the impact of breakfast club attendance on children’s behavior have yielded mixed results and no studies to date have directly observed children’s behavior within the breakfast club setting. Using a combination of real-time observation and filmed breakfast club footage, the aim of the current study was to: 1 devise a set of observational criteria appropriate for use in the breakfast club setting; 2 investigate the occurrence of both positive and negative behaviors. A sample of 30 children aged between 3 and 11 years were recruited from three, opportunistically sampled primary school breakfast clubs in the North East of England, UK. The behaviors they displayed within the breakfast club setting on two separate days were observed and coded for subsequent analysis. Results of the investigation showed that children’s behavior could be classified into three positive and three negative behavioral categories. Using these categories to code children’s behavior as they engaged in breakfast club showed that children displayed more positive than negative behaviors within the breakfast club setting and this was the case regardless of the type of activity (i.e. quiet or boisterous children were involved in. Findings are discussed in relation to breakfast club policy, implementation and evaluation.

  3. Breakfast Clubs: Starting the Day in a Positive Way.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Pamela Louise; Russo, Riccardo; Defeyter, Margaret Anne

    2015-01-01

    Breakfast clubs are widely promoted as having a beneficial impact on children's behavior at the start of the school day, which can be conducive to their learning within the classroom. However, the few available studies that have considered the impact of breakfast club attendance on children's behavior have yielded mixed results and no studies to date have directly observed children's behavior within the breakfast club setting. Using a combination of real-time observation and filmed breakfast club footage, the aims of the current study were to: (1) devise a set of observational criteria appropriate for use in the breakfast club setting; (2) investigate the occurrence of both positive and negative behaviors. A sample of 30 children aged between 3 and 11 years were recruited from 3, opportunistically sampled primary school breakfast clubs in the North East of England, UK. The behaviors they displayed within the breakfast club setting on two separate days were observed and coded for subsequent analysis. Results of the investigation showed that children's behavior could be classified into three positive and three negative behavioral categories. Using these categories to code children's behavior as they engaged in breakfast club showed that children displayed more positive than negative behaviors within the breakfast club setting and this was the case regardless of the type of activity (i.e., quiet or boisterous) children were involved in. Findings are discussed in relation to breakfast club policy, implementation, and evaluation.

  4. Whole Grains, Legumes, and the Subsequent Meal Effect: Implications for Blood Glucose Control and the Role of Fermentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janine A. Higgins

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Whole grains and legumes are known to reduce postprandial glycemia and, in some instances, insulinemia. However, the subsequent meal effect of ingesting whole grains and legumes is less well known. That is, inclusion of whole grains or legumes at breakfast decreases postprandial glycemia at lunch and/or dinner on the same day whereas consumption of a whole grain or lentil dinner reduces glycemia at breakfast the following morning. This effect is lost upon milling, processing, and cooking at high temperatures. The subsequent meal effect has important implications for the control of day-long blood glucose, and may be partly responsible for the reduction in diabetes incidence associated with increased whole grain and legume intake. This paper describes the subsequent meal effect and explores the role of acute glycemia, presence of resistant starch, and fermentation of indigestible carbohydrate as the mechanisms responsible for this effect.

  5. Breakfast and the achievement gap among urban minority youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basch, Charles E

    2011-10-01

    To outline the prevalence and disparities of breakfast consumption among school-aged urban minority youth, causal pathways through which skipping breakfast adversely affects academic achievement, and proven or promising approaches for schools to increase breakfast consumption. Literature review. On any given day a substantial proportion of American youth do not eat breakfast. On an average day, less than half (∼46%) of children participating in free or reduced-price lunch also participated in the School Breakfast Program for which they were also eligible. In a large study of 9-year-olds, 77% of White girls and 57% of Black girls consumed breakfast on all 3 days assessed; by age 19, the respective rates were 32% and 22%. Neuroscience research has identified the processes by which dietary behavior influences neuronal activity and synaptic plasticity, both of which influence cognitive functions. Participation in School Breakfast Programs has also been associated with reduced absenteeism. Universal School Breakfast Programs and allowing youth to eat breakfast in the classroom (vs cafeteria) are approaches that have been shown to increase participation. Skipping breakfast is highly and disproportionately prevalent among school-aged urban minority youth, has a negative impact on academic achievement by adversely affecting cognition and absenteeism, and effective practices are available for schools to address this problem. Despite wide availability, the majority of American youth do not participate in School Breakfast Programs. High-quality universal breakfast programs that allow students to eat breakfast in the classroom are especially needed for youth who are not likely to get good nutrition the rest of the day. © 2011, American School Health Association.

  6. Effects of meals and meal times on uptake of lead from the gastrointestinal tract in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, H M; Hilburn, M E; Blair, J A

    1985-07-01

    Twenty three adults ingested 203Pb as lead acetate on the 12th hour of a 19 h fast. Retention measured 7 days later in a whole-body counter was 61% and whole-body turnover rates suggested that initial uptake had been considerably greater. Balanced meals eaten with 203Pb reduced lead uptake to 4% and the influence of the food lasted for up to 3 h. The effects of phytate, ethylene-diaminetetra acetate (EDTA), caffeine, alcohol, glucose, a liquid meal and a light snack were tested separately with intermediate results. The effect of a meal was probably largely due to its content of calcium and phosphate salts but lead uptake was probably further reduced by phytate which is plentiful in whole cereals and it was probably increased by a factor in milk. Uptake with skimmed milk was the same as with whole milk and we suggested that the factor was not fat. Comestibles with low mineral and phytate contents reduced lead uptake by intermediate amounts, possibly by stimulation of digestive secretions. The avid uptake of lead during a fast, the large reduction of lead uptake with meals and the likelihood of variations in gastric-emptying rates and dietary habits may be major causes of variation in body burdens of lead in the population.

  7. Occurrence of spray drift for different crop types: cereal, cereal stubble and grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Schampheleire, M; Nuyttens, D; Dekeyser, D; Verboven, P; Spanoghe, P

    2008-01-01

    Pesticide spray drift is affected by 4 main factors: weather conditions, spray application technique, physicochemical properties of the spray Liquid and surrounding characteristics. This research studied the importance of crop type being sprayed for drift occurrence. Drift experiments were performed over cereals, cereal stubbles and grassland according to the international standard ISO 22866. From the results it was found that drift occurrence in cereals and cereal stubbles was lower than drift occurrence in grassland. The differences between cereals and cereal stubbles were significant only at low wind speed.

  8. The food and meal pattern in the urban African population of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In terms of recommendations, insufficient dairy products and vegetables and fruits were consumed, while requirements for intakes of cereals and components of the meat and fat groups were met. Supper emerged as the main meal of the day, contributing most of the energy and was consumed by 89 pc of respondents.

  9. Maternal Sociodemographic Characteristics and Behaviors as Correlates of Preadolescent's Breakfast Habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Reem A; Abdel Razeq, Nadin M; Alnuaimi, Karimeh M; Alzoubi, Fatmeh A

    2017-08-09

    To explore factors affecting skipping breakfast rate, and to identify its perceived reasons among preadolescent students and their mothers in Jordan. Using cluster stratified sampling, preadolescent (10-11years) students (N=1915) and their mothers (N=1299) from 26 public and private schools completed a self-reported questionnaire. Breakfast skipping and its related habits were described. Children's and mothers' perceptions of regular breakfast eating and sociodemographic factors were analyzed in relation to breakfast skipping in children. Although the majority of both children and mothers perceived breakfast as very important, 23% of the children and mothers reported skipping breakfast. Male students skipped breakfast more than female students. Students whose mothers had a low level of education and students with a low value of breakfast consumption had a higher likelihood of skipping breakfast. Mothers' high value of breakfast and encouragement of children to eat breakfast were directly related to an increase in children's perceived importance of breakfast consumption. Preadolescents' and mothers' perceptions of the importance of breakfast and mothers' encouragement to eat breakfast were significant predictors of breakfast consumption among students. The high prevalence of breakfast skipping among students, and knowledge about association between mothers' perceived importance of breakfast consumption and encouragement highlighted the pivotal role of mothers in preadolescent's breakfast consumption. The findings suggest that health care providers, including school health practitioners, are recommended to assess children's and mothers' perceived value of breakfast and to include mothers in health promotion interventions on breakfast consumption. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  10. Physical properties and microstructural changes during soaking of individual corn and quinoa breakfast flakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Wenceslao T; de la Llera, Andrés A; Condori, Juan L; Aguilera, José M

    2011-04-01

    The importance of breakfast cereal flakes (BCF) in Western diets deserves an understanding of changes in their mechanical properties and microstructure that occur during soaking in a liquid (that is, milk or water) prior to consumption. The maximum rupture force (RF) of 2 types of breakfast flaked products (BFP)--corn flakes (CF) and quinoa flakes (QF)--were measured directly while immersed in milk with 2% of fat content (milk 2%) or distilled water for different periods of time between 5 and 300 s. Under similar soaking conditions, QF presented higher RF values than CF. Soaked flakes were freeze-dried and their cross section and surface examined by scanning electron microscopy. Three consecutive periods (fast, gradual, and slow reduction of RF) were associated with changes in the microstructure of flakes. These changes were more pronounced in distilled water than in milk 2%, probably because the fat and other solids in milk become deposited on the flakes' surface hindering liquid infiltration. Structural and textural modifications were primarily ascribable to the plasticizing effect of water that softened the carbohydrate/protein matrix, inducing partial collapse of the porous structure and eventually disintegration of the whole piece through deep cracks.

  11. Effects of Dietary Protein and Fiber at Breakfast on Appetite, ad Libitum Energy Intake at Lunch, and Neural Responses to Visual Food Stimuli in Overweight Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Drew Sayer

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing either protein or fiber at mealtimes has relatively modest effects on ingestive behavior. Whether protein and fiber have additive or interactive effects on ingestive behavior is not known. Fifteen overweight adults (5 female, 10 male; BMI: 27.1 ± 0.2 kg/m2; aged 26 ± 1 year consumed four breakfast meals in a randomized crossover manner (normal protein (12 g + normal fiber (2 g, normal protein (12 g + high fiber (8 g, high protein (25 g + normal fiber (2 g, high protein (25 g + high fiber (8 g. The amount of protein and fiber consumed at breakfast did not influence postprandial appetite or ad libitum energy intake at lunch. In the fasting-state, visual food stimuli elicited significant responses in the bilateral insula and amygdala and left orbitofrontal cortex. Contrary to our hypotheses, postprandial right insula responses were lower after consuming normal protein vs. high protein breakfasts. Postprandial responses in other a priori brain regions were not significantly influenced by protein or fiber intake at breakfast. In conclusion, these data do not support increasing dietary protein and fiber at breakfast as effective strategies for modulating neural reward processing and acute ingestive behavior in overweight adults.

  12. Two meals with different carbohydrate, fat and protein contents render equivalent postprandial plasma levels of calprotectin, cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, Bodil; Darwiche, Gassan; Roth, Bodil; Höglund, Peter

    2016-11-01

    The aim was to compare postprandial plasma levels of calprotectin, cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin between a control breakfast and a moderately low-carbohydrate test breakfast, given randomly after 10-h fast. Blood samples were collected before and repeatedly after the meal. Plasma calprotectin, cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin were analyzed. The total area under the curve (tAUC) and change in AUC from baseline (dAUC) were calculated. Ratios between the test and control values were calculated to investigate equivalence. Healthy volunteers (8 men and 12 women; 46.0 ± 14.5 years) were included. tAUCs of cortisol and triglycerides did not differ between the breakfasts (p = 0.158 versus p = 0.579). Cortisol dAUCs were decreased and triglyceride dAUCs were increased after both breakfasts, with no differences between the breakfasts (p = 0.933 versus p = 0.277). Calprotectin and zonulin levels were unaffected. The meals were bioequivalent for cortisol, triglycerides and zonulin, but not for calprotectin.

  13. Human exposure to mycotoxins and their masked forms through cereal-based foods in Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Boevre, Marthe; Jacxsens, Liesbeth; Lachat, Carl; Eeckhout, Mia; Di Mavungu, José Diana; Audenaert, Kris; Maene, Peter; Haesaert, Geert; Kolsteren, Patrick; De Meulenaer, Bruno; De Saeger, Sarah

    2013-04-26

    In the present study, a quantitative dietary exposure assessment of mycotoxins and their masked forms was conducted on a national representative sample of the Belgian population using the contamination data of cereal-based foods. Cereal-based food products (n=174) were analysed for the occurrence of deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, zearalenone, α-zearalenol, β-zearalenol, T-2-toxin, HT-2-toxin, and their respective masked forms, including, deoxynivalenol-3-glucoside, zearalenone-4-glucoside, α-zearalenol-4-glucoside, β-zearalenol-4-glucoside and zearalenone-4-sulfate. Fibre-enriched bread, bran-enriched bread, breakfast cereals, popcorn and oatmeal were collected in Belgian supermarkets according to a structured sampling plan and analysed during the period from April 2010 to October 2011. The habitual intake of these food groups was estimated from a national representative food intake survey. According to a probabilistic exposure analysis, the mean (and P95) mycotoxin intake for the sum of the deoxynivalenol-equivalents, zearalenone-equivalents, and the sum of HT-2-and T-2-toxin for all cereal-based foods was 0.1162 (0.4047, P95), 0.0447 (0.1568, P95) and 0.0258 (0.0924, P95) μg kg(-1)body weight day(-1), respectively. These values were below the tolerable daily intake (TDI) levels for deoxynivalenol, zearalenone and the sum of T-2 and HT-2 toxin (1.0, 0.25 and 0.1 μg kg(-1)body weight day(-1), respectively). The absolute level exceeding the TDI for all cereal-based foods was calculated, and recorded 0.85%, 2.75% and 4.11% of the Belgian population, respectively. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Does breakfast make a difference in school?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollitt, E

    1995-10-01

    This article reviews selectively the literature on the effects of breakfast on cognition and school performance. The focus is on studies published in refereed journals after 1978 that tested those effects on well-nourished and nutritionally at-risk children. In at-risk subjects (defined by clinical history and anthropometry), a morning and overnight fast had adverse effects on cognition, particularly the speed of information retrieval in working memory. Contradictions in the data from different studies prevent definitive conclusions on whether well-nourished children experience similar functional deficits. Nonetheless, available information suggests that brain function is sensitive to short-term variations in the availability of nutrient supplies. Moreover, well-conducted evaluations suggest that the availability of feeding programs in public schools throughout the academic year increases the probability that children will eat breakfast and improve their educational status.

  15. Impact of the 2010 US Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act on School Breakfast and Lunch Participation Rates Between 2008 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaudrin, Nicole; Lloyd, Kristen; Yedidia, Michael J; Todd, Michael; Ohri-Vachaspati, Punam

    2017-11-21

    To evaluate National School Lunch Program (NSLP) and School Breakfast Program (SBP) participation over a 7-year period before and after the implementation of the 2010 Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act (HHFKA), which required healthier school lunch options beginning in school year (SY) 2012-2013 and healthier school breakfast options beginning in SY2013-2014. Data were gathered from low-income, high-minority public schools in 4 New Jersey cities. We conducted longitudinal analyses of annual average daily participation (ADP) in school meals among enrolled students overall and among those eligible for free or reduced-price meals. We used linear mixed models to compare NSLP and SBP participation rates from SY2008-2009 to SY2014-2015. NSLP participation rates among students overall differed little across years (from 70% to 72%). SBP rates among enrolled students were stable from the beginning of the study period to SY2013-2014 and then increased from 52% to 59%. Among students eligible for free or reduced-price meals, the ADP was lowest in SY2012-2013 (when the HHFKA was implemented) before rebounding. The HHFKA did not have a negative impact on school meal participation over time. Public Health Implications. The HHFKA-strengthened nutrition standards have not affected school meal participation rates. With time, students are likely to accept healthier options. (Am J Public Health. Published online ahead of print November 21, 2017: e1-e3. doi:10.2105/AJPH.2017.304102).

  16. Parental food-related behaviors and family meal frequencies: associations in Norwegian dyads of parents and preadolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melbye, Elisabeth L; Øgaard, Torvald; Øverby, Nina C; Hansen, Håvard

    2013-09-10

    Frequent family meals are associated with healthy dietary behaviors and other desirable outcomes in children and adolescents. Therefore, increased knowledge about factors that may increase the occurrence of family meals is warranted. The present study has its focus on the home food environment, and aims to explore potential associations between parent-reported feeding behaviors and child-reported family meal frequencies. Cross-sectional surveys were performed among 10-12-year-olds and their parents recruited from eighteen schools in southwest Norway. The child questionnaire included measures of family meal frequencies (breakfast, dinner and supper). The parent questionnaire included measures of parental feeding behaviors adapted from the Comprehensive Feeding Practices Questionnaire. A series of multiple linear regression analyses were conducted to examine the relationships between parental feeding behaviors and the frequency of family meals. The frequency of family breakfasts was associated with three parental feeding variables; home environment (β=.11, pfamily dinners and suppers was associated with one parental feeding variable; home environment (β=.11, penvironment variable was the most important correlate of child-reported family meal frequencies in this study. Although further research is needed, our findings support the evident influence of parents and the home food environment on child and adolescent eating behavior, which in the present study was measured as the frequency of shared family meals.

  17. Undergraduate Breakfast, Career Workshop, and Awards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Undergraduate students can enjoy a hearty breakfast and learn about how to prepare for a wide variety of careers in physics outside of academia. Topics of this interactive workshop will include planning and self-assessment, inventorying transferable skills, finding out more about career opportunities, and successfully applying for jobs. Immediately following the workshop, top presenters from the Undergraduate Research/SPS sessions will be recognized. All presenters in the undergraduate sessions will receive certificates acknowledging their scientific accomplishments.

  18. Acute and second-meal effects of almond form in impaired glucose tolerant adults: a randomized crossover trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Considine Robert V

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nut consumption may reduce the risk of developing type 2 diabetes. The aim of the current study was to measure the acute and second-meal effects of morning almond consumption and determine the contribution of different nut fractions. Methods Fourteen impaired glucose tolerant (IGT adults participated in a randomized, 5-arm, crossover design study where whole almonds (WA, almond butter (AB, defatted almond flour (AF, almond oil (AO or no almonds (vehicle - V were incorporated into a 75 g available carbohydrate-matched breakfast meal. Postprandial concentrations of blood glucose, insulin, non-esterified free fatty acids (NEFA, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 and appetitive sensations were assessed after treatment breakfasts and a standard lunch. Results WA significantly attenuated second-meal and daylong blood glucose incremental area under the curve (AUCI and provided the greatest daylong feeling of fullness. AB and AO decreased blood glucose AUCI in the morning period and daylong blood glucose AUCI was attenuated with AO. WA and AO elicited a greater second-meal insulin response, particularly in the early postprandial phase, and concurrently suppressed the second-meal NEFA response. GLP-1 concentrations did not vary significantly between treatments. Conclusions Inclusion of almonds in the breakfast meal decreased blood glucose concentrations and increased satiety both acutely and after a second-meal in adults with IGT. The lipid component of almonds is likely responsible for the immediate post-ingestive response, although it cannot explain the differential second-meal response to AB versus WA and AO.

  19. Meals for the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    The aim of Skylab's multi-agency cooperative project was to make simple but nutritious space meals available to handicapped and otherwise homebound senior adults, unable to take advantage of existing meal programs sponsored by federal, state and private organizations. As a spinoff of Meal Systems for the Elderly, commercial food processing firms are now producing astronaut type meals for public distribution. Company offers variety of freeze dried foods which are reconstituted by addition of water, and "retort pouch" meals which need no reconstitution, only heating. The retort pouch is an innovative flexible package that combines the advantage of boil-in bag and metal can. Foods retain their flavor, minerals and vitamins can be stored without refrigeration and are lightweight for easy transportation.

  20. Association of breakfast intake with cardiometabolic risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafiee, Gita; Kelishadi, Roya; Qorbani, Mostafa; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeil; Taheri, Majzobeh; Ardalan, Gelayol; Taslimi, Mahnaz; Poursafa, Parinaz; Heshmat, Ramin; Larijani, Bagher

    2013-01-01

    this study aimed to evaluate the association of breakfast intake with cardiometabolic risk factors in a nationally-representative sample of Iranian pediatrics. the study participants considered of 5,625 school students aged 10-18 years, studied in the third survey of the national school-based surveillance system (CASPIAN-III). They were classified into three groups based on the number of days they ate breakfast: "regular breakfast eater" (6-7days/week), "often breakfast eater" (3-5days/week), and "seldom breakfast eater" (0-2 days/week). Metabolic syndrome (MetS) was defined based on the Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III) criteria modified for the pediatric age group. Moreover, high total cholesterol, high low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) and generalized obesity were included as other cardiometabolic risk factors. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate the association between the breakfast intake category and cardiometabolic risk factors. the number of subjects classified as "regular", "often" and "seldom" breakfast eaters were 2,653(47.3%), 1,327(23.7%) and 1,624(29.0%), respectively. The average of triglycerides (TG), LDL-C, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and body mass index (BMI) were higher in the "seldom breakfast eater" group (P for trendbreakfast eaters had an increased risk of obesity, elevated TG and LDL-C, as well as low HDL-C compared to "regular breakfast eaters". The risk of MetS was significantly increased in subjects who seldom ate breakfast (OR 1.96, 95% CI 1.18-3.27). skipping breakfast is associated with increased risk of MetS and other cardiometabooic factors in children and adolescents. Promoting the benefit of eating breakfast could be a simple and important implication to prevent these risk factors. Copyright © 2013 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Interval between insulin injection and breakfast in diabetes.

    OpenAIRE

    Sackey, A H; Jefferson, I G

    1994-01-01

    The relationship between the insulin-breakfast interval, postprandial increase in blood glucose, and glycaemic control was studied in 58 children with diabetes. Patients recorded insulin-breakfast intervals in a home diary over a seven day period, and during a 24 hour period at the weekend provided eight serial capillary dried blood spots for glucose analysis. The highest mean blood glucose value occurred two hours after breakfast and showed a significant correlation with fructosamine concent...

  2. Breakfast habits affect overall nutrient profiles in adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthys, C; De Henauw, S; Bellemans, M; De Maeyer, M; De Backer, G

    2007-04-01

    To describe breakfast consumption patterns, on a nutrient and food item level, in Belgian adolescents. A 7-day estimated food record was administered in a cross-sectional survey. Secondary schools in Ghent, Belgium. A total of 341 adolescents (13-18 years old), multistage clustered sampling. The energy contribution of breakfast to daily energy intake was on average 15.7% in boys and 14.9% in girls. Significantly more overweight girls and significantly more girls following vocational training were categorised as eating a low-quality breakfast. In boys, the energy contribution of polysaccharides was significantly higher in consumers of good-quality breakfasts. The intake of all selected micronutrients was significantly higher in consumers of good-quality breakfasts. In girls, the total energy intake and the proportional intake of proteins and polysaccharides were significantly higher in consumers of good-quality breakfasts, while the proportional contribution of total fat, monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids was significantly lower in these girls. The intake of all micronutrients was significantly higher in girls consuming a good-quality breakfast. In all adolescents, consumers of a good-quality breakfast had significantly higher intakes of bread, fruit, vegetables, milk and milk products, and fruit juice, while intake of soft drinks was significantly lower than in consumers of low-quality breakfasts. Consumers of a good-quality breakfast had a better overall dietary pattern - on a nutrient and food group level - than consumers of a low-quality breakfast. A daily breakfast, including whole-grain products, fruit and (semi-) skimmed milk products or an alternative source of calcium, is recommended.

  3. Cognitive function at rest and during exercise following breakfast omission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komiyama, Takaaki; Sudo, Mizuki; Okuda, Naoki; Yasuno, Tetsuhiko; Kiyonaga, Akira; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Higaki, Yasuki; Ando, Soichi

    2016-04-01

    It has been suggested that breakfast omission, as opposed to breakfast consumption, has the detrimental effects on cognitive function. However, the effects of acute exercise following breakfast omission on cognitive function are poorly understood, particularly during exercise. The purpose of this study was to examine the interactive effects of breakfast and exercise on cognitive function. Ten participants completed cognitive tasks at rest and during exercise in the breakfast consumption or omission conditions. Blood glucose concentration was measured immediately after each cognitive task. We used cognitive tasks to assess working memory [Spatial Delayed Response (DR) task] and executive function [Go/No-Go (GNG) task]. The participants cycled ergometer for 30 min while keeping their heart rate at 140 beats·min(-1). Accuracy of the GNG task was lower at rest in the breakfast omission condition than that in the breakfast consumption condition (Go trial: P=0.012; No-Go trial: P=0.028). However, exercise improved accuracy of the Go trial in the breakfast omission condition (P=0.013). Reaction time in the Go trial decreased during exercise relative to rest in both conditions (P=0.002), and the degree of decreases in reaction time was not different between conditions (P=0.448). Exercise and breakfast did not affect the accuracy of the Spatial DR task. The present results indicate that breakfast omission impairs executive function, but acute exercise improved executive function even after breakfast omission. It appears that beneficial effects of acute exercise on cognitive function are intact following breakfast omission. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The impact of breakfast in metabolic and digestive health

    OpenAIRE

    Kamada, Ikuko; Truman, Laurence; Bold, Justine; Mortimore, Denise

    2011-01-01

    Aim The purpose of this study is to explore whether the types and quality of breakfast could influence energy levels (blood glucose levels) and propose ideal breakfast models. Background It is widely considered that a regular breakfast provides a number of health benefits; however, there is no general scientific agreement regarding what kind of food should be consumed. Evidence supports the importance of balancing blood glucose levels by low glycaemic index/load (L-GI/L) and increased protein...

  5. Breakfast consumption and cognitive function in adolescent school children

    OpenAIRE

    Cooper, SB; Bandelow, S; Nevill, ME

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of breakfast consumption on cognitive function, mood and blood glucose concentration in adolescent schoolchildren. With the institution's ethical advisory committee approval, 96 adolescents (12 to 15 years old) completed two randomly assigned trials (one following breakfast consumption and one following breakfast omission), scheduled 7 days apart. Cognitive function tests (visual search test, Stroop test and Sternberg paradigm), a mood questionnaire and a finge...

  6. Family meal traditions. Comparing reported childhood food habits to current food habits among university students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Backer, Charlotte J S

    2013-10-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate if reported childhood food habits predict the food habits of students at present. Questions addressed are: does the memory of childhood family meals promote commensality among students? Does the memory of (grand)parents' cooking influence students' cooking? And, is there still a gender difference in passing on everyday cooking skills? Using a cross-sectional survey, 104 students were asked about their current eating and cooking habits, and their eating habits and the cooking behavior of their (grand)parents during their childhood. Results show that frequencies in reported childhood family meals predict frequencies of students' commensality at present. The effects appear for breakfast and dinner, and stay within the same meal: recalled childhood family breakfasts predict current breakfast commensality, recalled childhood family dinners predict current dinner commensality. In terms of recalled cookery of (grand)parents and the use of family recipes a matrilineal dominance can be observed. Mothers are most influential, and maternal grandmothers outscore paternal grandmothers. Yet, fathers' childhood cooking did not pass unnoticed either. They seem to influence male students' cookery. Overall, in a life-stage of transgression students appear to maintain recalled childhood food rituals. Suggestions are discussed to further validate these results. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Ultrasound assessment of gastric emptying after breakfast in healthy preschool children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sümpelmann, Anne E; Sümpelmann, Robert; Lorenz, Michael; Eberwien, Ilona; Dennhardt, Nils; Boethig, Dietmar; Russo, Sebastian G

    2017-08-01

    measurements, gastric antral area correlated with fasting time, and the mean gastric emptying time was lower than 4 hours after breakfast. These results support a more liberal perioperative fasting regimen after a light meal or breakfast in routine pediatric anesthesia. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Colonic fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates contributes to the second-meal effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brighenti, Furio; Benini, Luigi; Del Rio, Daniele; Casiraghi, Cristina; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Scazzina, Francesca; Jenkins, David J A; Vantini, Italo

    2006-04-01

    Low postprandial blood glucose is associated with low risk of metabolic diseases. A meal's ability to diminish the glucose response to carbohydrates eaten during the following meal is known as the "second-meal effect" (SME). The reduced glycemia elicited by low-glycemic-index (LGI) foods consumed during the first meal has been suggested as the main mechanism for SME. However, LGI foods often increase colonic fermentation because of the presence of fiber and resistant starch. The objective was to study the SME of greater fermentation of high-glycemic-index (HGI) and LGI carbohydrates eaten during a previous meal. Ten healthy volunteers ate 3 breakfast test meals consisting of sponge cakes made with rapidly digestible, nonfermentable amylopectin starch plus cellulose (HGI meal), amylopectin starch plus the fermentable disaccharide lactulose (HGI-Lac meal), or slowly digestible, partly fermentable amylose starch plus cellulose (LGI meal). Five hours later, subjects were fed the same standard lunch containing 93 g available carbohydrates. Blood was collected for measurement of glucose, insulin, and nonesterified fatty acids (NEFAs). Breath hydrogen was measured as a marker of colonic fermentation. Postlunch gastric emptying was measured by using ultrasonography. Both the HGI-Lac and LGI meals improved glucose tolerance at lunch. In the case of the HGI-Lac meal, this effect was concomitant with low NEFA concentrations and delayed gastric emptying. Fermentable carbohydrates, independent of their effect on a food's glycemic index, have the potential to regulate postprandial responses to a second meal by reducing NEFA competition for glucose disposal and, to a minor extent, by affecting intestinal motility.

  9. Acculturation, meal frequency, eating-out, and body weight in Korean Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Soo-Kyung

    2008-01-01

    Consuming regular meals has been studied in relation to better health, while higher regularity of eating-out has been linked to obesity. This study examined whether acculturation was associated with regularity of meals, eating-out, and overweight in Korean Americans. Pre-tested questionnaires were mailed to a U.S. national sample with Korean American surnames, and 55% of the deliverable sample responded, producing 356 usable questionnaires. Acculturation was measured using a two-culture matrix model and Gordon's theoretical work, and showed there were three distinct groups (acculturated, bicultural, and traditional). Only 36% reported that they regularly ate three meals a day. Breakfast was the least frequent meal of the day with 43% reporting eating breakfast everyday. More than half (58%) reported that they usually eat out or get take-out food at least once a week. After controlling for age, sex, income, education, and working status, higher acculturation was related to greater regularity of eating-out, but not meal regularity. A total of 28% of men and 6% of women were overweight (BMI>25), and there were significant and positive relationships between body weight status and acculturation in men but not women. However, no significant relationships between frequency of meals and eating-out and overweight status were present. This study did not find significant relationships of meal regularity and eating-out with body weight, however, given the positive relationship between acculturation and eating-out among the subjects and the well-established relationship between eating-out and obesity, nutrition education about skipping meals and eating-for Korean Americans may be useful to prevent such relationships from developing.

  10. An examination of the demographic predictors of adolescent breakfast consumption, content, and context

    OpenAIRE

    Mullan, Barbara; Wong, Cara; Kothe, Emily; O’Moore, Kathleen; Pickles, Kristen; Sainsbury, Kirby

    2014-01-01

    Background Breakfast consumption is important to health; however, adolescents often skip breakfast, and an increased understanding of the breakfast consumption patterns of adolescents is needed. The purpose of this study was to identify the predictors of breakfast eating, including the content and context, in an adolescent sample from Australia and England. Methods Four-hundred and eighty-one students completed an online questionnaire measuring breakfast skipping, and breakfast content (what ...

  11. Associations between eating meals, watching TV while eating meals and weight status among children, ages 10-12 years in eight European countries: the ENERGY cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vik, Frøydis N; Bjørnarå, Helga Birgit; Overby, Nina C; Lien, Nanna; Androutsos, Odysseas; Maes, Lea; Jan, Natasa; Kovacs, Eva; Moreno, Luis A; Dössegger, Alain; Manios, Yannis; Brug, Johannes; Bere, Elling

    2013-05-15

    To assess the association of eating meals, and never watching TV while eating meals, with weight status among children, ages 10-12 years across Europe. 7915 children (mean age: 11.5 years) in eight European countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, Spain and Switzerland) completed a questionnaire at school. Data on meals eaten the day before questionnaire administration and the frequency of eating meals while watching TV were collected. Height and weight of the children were objectively assessed. Multinomial and binary regression analyses were conducted to test associations of eating meals (adjusted for gender and ethnicity) and never watching TV while eating meals (adjusted for gender, ethnicity and total TV time) with overweight/obesity, and to test for country- and socio-demographic differences. The proportions of children reporting eating breakfast, lunch and dinner were 85%, 96%, and 93% respectively, and 55%, 46% and 32% reported to never watch TV at breakfast, lunch and dinner respectively. The children who ate breakfast (OR = 0.6 (95% CI 0.5-0.7)) and dinner (OR = 0.4 (95% CI 0.3-0.5)), had lower odds of being overweight compared to those who did not. The children who never watched TV at lunch (OR = 0.7 (95% CI 0.7-0.8)) and dinner (OR = 0.8 (95% CI 0.7-0.9)) had lower odds of being overweight compared to those who watched TV at the respective meals. The odds of being overweight was lower for children who ate breakfast and dinner compared to those who did not eat the respective meals. The odds of being overweight was lower for children who reported to never watch TV at lunch and dinner compared to those who did. A focus towards meal frequency and watching TV during meals in longitudinal and interventions studies in prevention of overweight and obesity, may contribute to a better understanding of causality.

  12. Associations between eating meals, watching TV while eating meals and weight status among children, ages 10–12 years in eight European countries: the ENERGY cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background To assess the association of eating meals, and never watching TV while eating meals, with weight status among children, ages 10–12 years across Europe. Methods 7915 children (mean age: 11.5 years) in eight European countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, Spain and Switzerland) completed a questionnaire at school. Data on meals eaten the day before questionnaire administration and the frequency of eating meals while watching TV were collected. Height and weight of the children were objectively assessed. Multinomial and binary regression analyses were conducted to test associations of eating meals (adjusted for gender and ethnicity) and never watching TV while eating meals (adjusted for gender, ethnicity and total TV time) with overweight/obesity, and to test for country- and socio-demographic differences. Results The proportions of children reporting eating breakfast, lunch and dinner were 85%, 96%, and 93% respectively, and 55%, 46% and 32% reported to never watch TV at breakfast, lunch and dinner respectively. The children who ate breakfast (OR = 0.6 (95% CI 0.5-0.7)) and dinner (OR = 0.4 (95% CI 0.3-0.5)), had lower odds of being overweight compared to those who did not. The children who never watched TV at lunch (OR = 0.7 (95% CI 0.7-0.8)) and dinner (OR = 0.8 (95% CI 0.7-0.9)) had lower odds of being overweight compared to those who watched TV at the respective meals. Conclusions The odds of being overweight was lower for children who ate breakfast and dinner compared to those who did not eat the respective meals. The odds of being overweight was lower for children who reported to never watch TV at lunch and dinner compared to those who did. A focus towards meal frequency and watching TV during meals in longitudinal and interventions studies in prevention of overweight and obesity, may contribute to a better understanding of causality. PMID:23675988

  13. soya meal or cottonseed meal on broiler production.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of meals of sweat potato and cassava varieties formulated with soya meal or cottonseed meal on broiler ... Growing and finishing chickens consumed more of the soyabean- supplemented diets than diets containing cottonseed meal as ..... sweet potato and a protein supplement to broiler and crossbred poultry. Papua ...