WorldWideScience

Sample records for breakeven

  1. CELSS scenario analysis: Breakeven calculations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, R. M.

    1980-01-01

    A model of the relative mass requirements of food production components in a controlled ecological life support system (CELSS) based on regenerative concepts is described. Included are a discussion of model scope, structure, and example calculations. Computer programs for cultivar and breakeven calculations are also included.

  2. BREAKEVEN DETERMINATION IN ENTREPRENEURIAL DECISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severian\tVlăduț\tIACOB

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship has remote origins and is powered by entrepreneur’s action in response to meeting the needs and aspirations that they have. Putting into practice the ambitions of entrepreneurs is done by demonstrating personal skills in taking advantage of opportunities and / or ideas in business. To launch and maintain market businesses, entrepreneurs need not only the flair and ideas, but also a strong entrepreneurial education. On the one hand, it enables them to understand changes in the competitive environment, on the other hand, to find solutions to support the business. The faster and more robust decisions of entrepreneurs are, the greater will be their chances of success in the business arena. Moreover, in the era of information technology, entrepreneurial decision is inconceivable without recourse to calculations from the use of mathematical models or without the use of various simulation techniques. By developing this material is intended to show that the mathematical model of breakeven is a useful and efficient tool in the entrepreneur decision to start a business.

  3. Breakeven Prices for Photovoltaics on Supermarkets in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, S.; Clark, N.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2013-03-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) breakeven price is the PV system price at which the cost of PV-generated electricity equals the cost of electricity purchased from the grid. This point is also called 'grid parity' and can be expressed as dollars per watt ($/W) of installed PV system capacity. Achieving the PV breakeven price depends on many factors, including the solar resource, local electricity prices, customer load profile, PV incentives, and financing. In the United States, where these factors vary substantially across regions, breakeven prices vary substantially across regions as well. In this study, we estimate current and future breakeven prices for PV systems installed on supermarkets in the United States. We also evaluate key drivers of current and future commercial PV breakeven prices by region. The results suggest that breakeven prices for PV systems installed on supermarkets vary significantly across the United States. Non-technical factors -- including electricity rates, rate structures, incentives, and the availability of system financing -- drive break-even prices more than technical factors like solar resource or system orientation. In 2020 (where we assume higher electricity prices and lower PV incentives), under base-case assumptions, we estimate that about 17% of supermarkets will be in utility territories where breakeven conditions exist at a PV system price of $3/W; this increases to 79% at $1.25/W (the DOE SunShot Initiative's commercial PV price target for 2020). These percentages increase to 26% and 91%, respectively, when rate structures favorable to PV are used.

  4. Break-even Analyses for Random Production and Demand Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcus Schweitzer

    2002-01-01

    Break-even analyses are often used as controlling instruments. Typically, they are applied to support decision processes or to gain information for the control of profits and sales. Firstly, the study gives an overview of the basic accounting systems. Secondly, the study shows possible ways of performing break-even analyses for a single-stage, make-to-order production in the case of random production and demand structures. To model these structures, queueing systems are employed. As a general result, we see that break-even analyses must always be performed taking into account an existing planning system. Under practical aspects, GI/G/1 systems turn out to map complex real situations realistically. From the examples given it can be concluded that one achieves different results compared with using a deterministic model even in the case of a simple, random effects approach. In particular, it is shown that stochastic modelling in general is helpful in avoiding incorrect decisions.

  5. BREAK-EVEN IN THE DECISION MAKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Mihaela IONESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Integrated in a competitive environment, the companies are forced to know better their costs, to determine as precisely as possible the sales prices and the profit margins achievable per product. When the entrepreneurs initiate a new business, invest in a new project or when they supervise the current work, the study of breakeven allows minimizing of the risks and the uncertainties, and also allows measuring the performance of the projects. Break-Even is an indicator that allows the company management to set minimal commercial targets to meet the expenses of the enterprise or that sets the degree of utilization of production capacities in relation to a desired level of profit. It highlights the correlations between the dynamic of production, implicit of income and the dynamic of costs, grouped into variable costs and fixed costs. Used in a prospective fashion, Break-Even allows planning and optimizing of the enterprise's sales and costs, not only short-term but also medium and long term.

  6. BREAK-EVEN POINT IN SUGAR-BEET PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilija Nedić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available World sugar consumption has been recording a steady growth in the past 70 years and, according to all relevant estimates, it will continue to grow also in the next decade, which puts sugar in the category of the most significant foods and commodities in the world. Of the total world sugar production, around 77% is derived from sugar cane and 23% from sugar beet. Brazil has been the world leader in sugar production for a long period of time, producing white sugar from sugar cane only, whereas the leader in the production of sugar derived from sugar beet is the EU-28. When the Republic of Croatia joined the EU, the Croatian sugar industry became part of the single European sugar market, so the break-even point was used in the research to determine the competitiveness level of the Croatian sugar beet production. Based on the expected selling price of sugar beet amounting to EUR 34 per ton of standard quality sugar beet, and using the break-even method, it was determined that the quantity required to cover total costs in sugar beet production in the Republic of Croatia amounts to 55.26 tons per hectare of payable sugar beet, standard quality, i.e. 8.84 tons of polarized sugar per hectare. As the average sugar beet production in the Republic of Croatia, expressed in the equivalent of polarized sugar, amounts to 7.8 tons per hectare, it is obvious that an average Croatian producer of sugar beet, without income from subsidies, operates at a loss.

  7. Core Function Changes from a Breakeven Core to a TRU Burner Core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 600MWe sodium cooled fast reactor named as KALIMER-600 has been developed with a single enrichment fuel. This reactor is a pool-type reactor with a 1,523MW thermal power. The core is loaded with a ternary metallic fuel of 15 w/o TRU enriched TRU-U- 10Zr and it is designed to have breakeven breeding characteristics (CR∼1.0). However, a new demand is how to solve a spent fuel disposal problem because nuclear spent fuel storages shall become full by 2016 year. Therefore, a TRU burner concept which can burn out spent fuel actively is needed instead of a breakeven reactor concept. After all spent fuels from LWRs are burned, another issue may be that a TRU burner can not be operated in a breakeven mode any more. In order to overcome this problem, a new concept, a core function change is proposed in this paper. A reactor will operate as a TRU burner at first and then, will play the role of a breakeven core without any core layout change which does not need TRU supply. Since the nuclear conceptual design of a breakeven core - KALIMER-600 is already finished, TRU burner concepts are based on the KALIMER-600 breakeven core and its safety parameters are asked to be compatible with those of the KALIMER- 600 breakeven core

  8. Breakeven prices for recording of indicator traits to reduce the environmental impact of milk production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Helen Hansen; Thomasen, Jørn Rind; Sørensen, Anders Christian;

    2015-01-01

    A breeding scheme using genomic selection and an indicator trait for environmental impact (EI) was studied to find the most effective recording strategy in terms of annual monetary genetic gain and breakeven price for the recording of indicator traits. The breakeven price shows the investment space...... milking) or small scale (residual feed intake and total enteric methane measured in a respiration chamber). In the scenario with stayability, the genetic gain in EI was over 11% higher than it was in NoIT. The breakeven price of recording stayability was €8 per record. Stayability is easy to record in the...... breath of the cow was used as indicator trait. The breakeven price for this indicator trait was €29 per record in the reference population. Ideally the recording of a specific indicator trait for EI would take place when: (i) the genetic correlation between the IT and EI is high; and (ii) the number of...

  9. BREAK-EVEN ANALYSIS (BEA IN EGG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Deže

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A conducted research analyzes two systems of egg production, the conventional, commercial egg production and the egg production with a higher nutritive value - PUFA n-3 enriched eggs. Financial result of eggs production with PUFA n-3 is significantly higher than that of the conventional production - profitability of the conventional production was 19.29% and the one with PUFA n-3 enriched eggs 36.10%. It is, therefore, important to evaluate the efficiency of the use of capital based on the profitability of capital that is in the conventional egg production 23.9%, and in the production of PUFA n-3 enriched eggs 56.1%. According to the results of investigation, it is necessary to produce 258 eggs in the conventional egg production, whereas in the production of enrichments eggs with PUFA n-3 breakeven point (BEP is lower and amounts 204 eggs per laying hen per year. A higher cover rate with a difference of 10% (42.99±53.07 confirms that the production of enrichments eggs with PUFA n-3 is economically more efficient.

  10. Nationwide Analysis of U.S. Commercial Building Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Breakeven Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The commercial sector offers strong potential for solar photovoltaics (PV) owing to abundant available roof space suitable for PV and the opportunity to offset the sector's substantial retail electricity purchases. This report evaluated the breakeven price of PV for 15 different building types and various financing options by calculating electricity savings based on detailed rate structures for most U.S. utility territories (representing approximately two thirds of U.S. commercial customers). We find that at current capital costs, an estimated 1/3 of U.S. commercial customers break even in the cash scenario and approximately 2/3 break even in the loan scenario. Variation in retail rates is a stronger driver of breakeven prices than is variation in building load or solar generation profiles. At the building level, variation in the average breakeven price is largely driven by the ability for a PV system to reduce demand charges.

  11. Precision Agriculture Equipment Ownership versus Custom Hire: A Break-even Land Area Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gandonou, Jean-Marc; Dillon, Carl; Shearer, Scott; Stombaugh, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Identifying the least-cost strategy of obtaining a technology is important. This study determined the break-even cropped area necessary to economically justify the purchase of Precision Agriculture (PA) equipment versus the custom hiring of the PA services. The results suggest that a commercial Kentucky grain farmers would purchase the PA equipment.

  12. Energy analysis and break-even distance for transportation for biofuels in comparison to fossil fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present analysis various forms fuel from biomass and fossil sources, their mass and energy densities, and their break-even transportation distances to transport them effectively were analyzed. This study gives an insight on how many times more energy spent on transporting the fuels to differe...

  13. Break-Even Income Analysis of Pharmacy Graduates Compared to High School and College Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A; Dickey, Susan E

    2016-04-25

    Objective. To project the net cumulative income break-even point between practicing pharmacists and those who enter the workforce directly after high school graduation or after obtaining a bachelor's degree. Methods. Markov modeling and break-even analysis were conducted. Estimated costs of education were used in calculating net early career earnings of high school graduates, bachelor's degree holders, pharmacists without residency training, and pharmacists with residency training. Results. Models indicate that over the first 10 years of a pharmacist's career, they accumulate net earnings of $716 345 to $1 064 840, depending on cost of obtaining the PharmD degree and career path followed. In the break-even analysis, all pharmacy career tracks surpassed net cumulative earnings of high school graduates by age 33 and bachelor's degree holders by age 34. Conclusion. Regardless of the chosen pharmacy career track and the typical cost of obtaining a PharmD degree, the model under study assumptions demonstrates that pharmacy education has a positive financial return on investment, with a projected break-even point of less than 10 years upon career entry. PMID:27170815

  14. Break-Even Income Analysis of Pharmacy Graduates Compared to High School and College Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A.; Dickey, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To project the net cumulative income break-even point between practicing pharmacists and those who enter the workforce directly after high school graduation or after obtaining a bachelor’s degree. Methods. Markov modeling and break-even analysis were conducted. Estimated costs of education were used in calculating net early career earnings of high school graduates, bachelor’s degree holders, pharmacists without residency training, and pharmacists with residency training. Results. Models indicate that over the first 10 years of a pharmacist’s career, they accumulate net earnings of $716 345 to $1 064 840, depending on cost of obtaining the PharmD degree and career path followed. In the break-even analysis, all pharmacy career tracks surpassed net cumulative earnings of high school graduates by age 33 and bachelor’s degree holders by age 34. Conclusion. Regardless of the chosen pharmacy career track and the typical cost of obtaining a PharmD degree, the model under study assumptions demonstrates that pharmacy education has a positive financial return on investment, with a projected break-even point of less than 10 years upon career entry.

  15. Real Return Bonds, Inflation Expectations, and the Break-Even Inflation Rate

    OpenAIRE

    Christensen, Ian; Frédéric Dion; Christopher Reid

    2004-01-01

    According to the Fisher hypothesis, the gap between Canadian nominal and Real Return Bond yields (or break-even inflation rate) should be a good measure of inflation expectations. The authors find that this measure was higher, on average, and more variable than survey measures of inflation expectations between 1992 and 2003. They examine whether risk premiums and distortions embedded in this interest rate gap can account for these facts. Their results indicate that distortions were likely an ...

  16. CORN PRICE EFFECTS ON COST OF GAIN FOR FEEDLOT CATTLE: IMPLICATIONS FOR BREAKEVEN BUDGETING

    OpenAIRE

    Anderson, John D.; Trapp, James N.

    2000-01-01

    Elasticities calculated from an econometric model of cost of gain (COG) for cattle in feedlots indicate that COG is considerably less responsive to corn price changes than breakeven budgets assume. This difference in elasticities can lead to substantial errors in COG estimates obtained from budgeting. Size of error will depend upon the initial corn price and the magnitude of corn price change. Given average corn price levels and month-to-month changes, the error in budget-based net revenue pr...

  17. Tritium Burn-up Depth and Tritium Break-Even Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Cheng-Yue; DENG Bai-Quan; HUANG Jin-Hua; YAN Jian-Cheng

    2006-01-01

    @@ Similarly to but quite different from the xenon poisoning effects resulting from fission-produced iodine during the restart-up process of a fission reactor, we introduce a completely new concept of the tritium burn-up depth and tritium break-even time in the fusion energy research area. To show what the least required amount of tritium storage is used to start up a fusion reactor and how long a time the fusion reactor needs to be operated for achieving the tritium break-even during the initial start-up phase due to the finite tritium breeding time that is dependent on the tritium breeder, specific structure of breeding zone, layout of coolant flow pipe, tritium recovery scheme, extraction process, the tritium retention of reactor components, unrecoverable tritium fraction in breeder, leakage to the inertial gas container, and the natural decay etc., we describe this new phenomenon and answer this problem by setting up and by solving a set of equations, which express a dynamic subsystem model of the tritium inventory evolution in a fusion experimental breeder (FEB). It is found that the tritium burn-up depth is 317g and the tritium break-even time is approximately 240 full power days for FEB designed detail configuration and it is also found that after one-year operation, the tritium storage reaches 1.18kg that is more than theleast required amount of tritium storage to start up three of FEB-like fusion reactors.

  18. Energy farming in Dutch desiccation abatement areas. Effects on break-even biomass price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measures in Dutch nature areas to combat desiccation of nature areas often have effects on surrounding agricultural lands, or buffer areas. Generally, these soils become moister, which can lead to lower yields for most common crops. Cultivation of the flooding-tolerant energy crop willow may be an alternative. In this study, the performance of willow production is compared to that of grass for roughage, in buffer areas as well as in a hydrologically optimal situation. Financial consequences are evaluated by calculating the biomass price that makes willow equally competitive to grass (break-even). The effect of high groundwater tables on yields of both crops is estimated using the agro-hydrological model SWAP. The calculated price that gives break-even between willow and grass is lower on wet soils than in a hydrologically optimal situation. At a groundwater table class of II, a groundwater situation quite common in buffer areas, this break-even price is 20% lower. The physical yield of willow is lower than its optimum, but grass yields decrease stronger, making willow more competitive. The biomass price in a hydrologically optimal situation, as calculated in this study, is comparable to values found in other studies. However, this comparison is complicated by differences in assumptions in the cost calculations, and by the fact that grass as roughage has less value added than food crops such as potatoes and wheat. This study contains considerable uncertainties with respect to the data used and the methodology. A sensitivity analysis shows that several parameters with a strong influence on the biomass price have low uncertainties. An uncertain value with strong influence is the optimal willow yield, which could not be estimated on practical data. Methodological limitations of the study, both in the economic comparison between willow and grass and in the yield estimations, are also discussed. 50 refs

  19. ESTABLISHMENT FOR BREAKEVEN POINT IN ORGANIC FARMS WHOSE SURFACE IS LESS THAN 5 HECTARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anișoara CHIHAIA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic agriculture is economically viable, respond the exigencies demand for healthy food and high quality is an agriculture which guarantees the protection and enhancement of natural resources in the long term and forward them unaltered future generations. The paper aims to establish breakeven in organic farm with surface less than five hectares farm which benefits from substantial financial compensation. We considered that the relevant calculation method is the calculation of profitability using gross margin calculating for each type of activity on the farm. In the absence of this support the activity in ecological system production would not be profitable one.

  20. Possibilities for breakeven and ignition of D-3He fusion fuel in a near term tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent realization that the moon contains a large amount of the isotope 3He has rekindled interest in the D-3He fuel cycle. In this study we consider the feasibility of investigating D-3He reactor plasma conditions in a tokamak of the NET/INTOR class. We have found that, depending on the energy confinement scaling law, energy breakeven may be achieved without significant modification to the NET design. The best results are for the more optimistic ASDEX H-mode scaling law. Kaye-Goldston scaling with a modest improvement due to the H-mode is more pessimistic and makes achieving breakeven more difficult. Significant improvement in Q (ratio of the fusion power to the injected power), or the ignition margin, can be achieved by taking advantage of the much reduced neutron production of the D-3He fuel cycle. Removal of the tritium producing blanket and replacing the inboard neutron shield by a thinner shield optimized for the neutron spectrum in D-3He allows the plasma to be increased without changing the magnetic field at the toroidal field magnet. This allows the plasma to achieve higher beta and Q values up to about 3. The implications of D-3He operation for fast ion loss, neutron shielding, heat loads on the first wall and divertor, plasma refuelling, changes to the poloidal field coil system, and pumping of the helium from the vacuum chamber are considered in the report. (orig.)

  1. Breakeven analysis of computed tomography (Based on utilization of whole body C.T. scanner of SNU hospital)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The C.T. scanner, an important tool for image-based diagnostics, is one of the costliest types of medical equipment. At present, there are in Korea a total of 66 units installed, and more units will be added in the future. For the fact the price of the C.T. scanner as well as scanning charge for using the equipment is very high as compared to those of the other kinds of medical equipment. The break-even analysis of computed tomography is considered fundamental as well as essential both to rational hospital management and keeping the charge for its use at an optimum level in consideration of the patient's medical expense burden. Even if pursuit of profits is not the role objective of a hospital, it cannot be denied that a break-even analysis provides an important factor for the decision making process in hospital management. The present study has the purpose of finding the ways and means to help rationalize hospital operation and improve its earning power through break-even analysis of C.T. scanner operation. For this purpose the total cost of the GE 8800 Whole Body C. T. Scanner installed at the Seoul National University Hospital was computed, and the records of its operation were analyzed. The expenses for its operation were divided into direct and indirect expenses depending on whether generation of the cost was recognized in the C. T. room or not, and the actual cost was computed for each of these accounting units

  2. Analysis of Reactor Deployment Scenarios with Introduction of SFR Breakeven Reactors and Burners Using DANESS Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young In; Hahn, Do Hee; Won, Byung Chool; Lee, Dong Uk

    2008-01-15

    Using the DANESS code newly employed for future scenario analysis, reactor deployment scenarios with the introduction of sodium cooled fast reactors(SFRs) having different conversion ratios in the existing PWRs dominant nuclear fleet have been analyzed to find the SFR deployment strategy for replacing PWRs with the view of a spent fuel reduction and an efficient uranium utilization through its reuse in a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Descriptions of the DANESS code and how to use are briefly given from the viewpoint of its first application. The use of SFRs and recycling of TRUs by reusing PWR spent fuel leads to the substantial reduction of the amount of PWR spent fuel and environmental burden by decreasing radiotoxicity of high level waste, and a significant improvement on the natural uranium resources utilization. A continuous deployment of burners effectively decreases the amount of PWR spent fuel accumulation, thus lightening the burden for PWR spent fuel management. An introduction of breakeven reactors effectively reduces the uranium demand through producing excess TRU during the operation, thus contributing to a sustainable nuclear power development. With SFR introduction starting in 2040, PWRs will remain as a main power reactor type till 2100 and SFRs will be in support of waste minimization and fuel utilization.

  3. Areva - 2013 annual results: breakeven free operating cash flow objective reached despite a difficult environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Areva group reached a major milestone in 2013 in turning performance around by meeting a key objective of its Action 2016 plan: the return to breakeven of free operating cash flow. For the first time since 2005, cash generated by the Group's operations allowed it to fully fund strategic capital expenditures essential to the group's profitable growth. To achieve this result, Areva built on robust growth in nuclear operations, on contributions from its cost reduction plan and on strict management of capital spending. However, two projects launched in the previous decade (OL3 and a power plant modernization) and the Renewable Energies business impacted negatively the group's 2013 net income. On the Renewable Energies market, in a situation marked by a reduction of capital spending by customers, AREVA anticipated the consolidation required in the sector by implementing industrial partnerships such as the joint venture project with Gamesa, which aims to create a European champion in offshore wind. Similar initiatives were undertaken in solar energy and energy storage. The Group continues to implement the Action 2016 plan to pursue its recovery. While the economic environment remains uncertain and projects launched in the previous decade remain a burden, the Group forecasts further performance improvement and significant growth in cash flow generation by the end of the plan

  4. Heat generation above break-even from laser-induced fusion in ultra-dense deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous results from laser-induced processes in ultra-dense deuterium D(0) give conclusive evidence for ejection of neutral massive particles with energy >10 MeV u−1. Such particles can only be formed from nuclear processes like nuclear fusion at the low laser intensity used. Heat generation is of interest for future fusion energy applications and has now been measured by a small copper (Cu) cylinder surrounding the laser target. The temperature rise of the Cu cylinder is measured with an NTC resistor during around 5000 laser shots per measured point. No heating in the apparatus or the gas feed is normally used. The fusion process is suboptimal relative to previously published studies by a factor of around 10. The small neutral particles HN(0) of ultra-dense hydrogen (size of a few pm) escape with a substantial fraction of the energy. Heat loss to the D2 gas (at <1 mbar pressure) is measured and compensated for under various conditions. Heat release of a few W is observed, at up to 50% higher energy than the total laser input thus a gain of 1.5. This is uniquely high for the use of deuterium as fusion fuel. With a slightly different setup, a thermal gain of 2 is reached, thus clearly above break-even for all neutronicity values possible. Also including the large kinetic energy which is directly measured for MeV particles leaving through a small opening gives a gain of 2.3. Taking into account the lower efficiency now due to the suboptimal fusion process, previous studies indicate a gain of at least 20 during long periods

  5. Heat generation above break-even from laser-induced fusion in ultra-dense deuterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Holmlid

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous results from laser-induced processes in ultra-dense deuterium D(0 give conclusive evidence for ejection of neutral massive particles with energy >10 MeV u−1. Such particles can only be formed from nuclear processes like nuclear fusion at the low laser intensity used. Heat generation is of interest for future fusion energy applications and has now been measured by a small copper (Cu cylinder surrounding the laser target. The temperature rise of the Cu cylinder is measured with an NTC resistor during around 5000 laser shots per measured point. No heating in the apparatus or the gas feed is normally used. The fusion process is suboptimal relative to previously published studies by a factor of around 10. The small neutral particles HN(0 of ultra-dense hydrogen (size of a few pm escape with a substantial fraction of the energy. Heat loss to the D2 gas (at <1 mbar pressure is measured and compensated for under various conditions. Heat release of a few W is observed, at up to 50% higher energy than the total laser input thus a gain of 1.5. This is uniquely high for the use of deuterium as fusion fuel. With a slightly different setup, a thermal gain of 2 is reached, thus clearly above break-even for all neutronicity values possible. Also including the large kinetic energy which is directly measured for MeV particles leaving through a small opening gives a gain of 2.3. Taking into account the lower efficiency now due to the suboptimal fusion process, previous studies indicate a gain of at least 20 during long periods.

  6. Preliminary safety analysis for key design features of KALIMER with breakeven core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAERI is currently developing the conceptual design of a Liquid Metal Reactor, KALIMER (Korea Advanced Liquid MEtal Reactor) under the Long-term Nuclear R and D Program. KALIMER addresses key issues regarding future nuclear power plants such as plant safety, economics, proliferation, and waste. In this report, descriptions of safety design features and safety analyses results for selected ATWS accidents for the breakeven core KALIMER are presented. First, the basic approach to achieve the safety goal is introduced in Chapter 1, and the safety evaluation procedure for the KALIMER design is described in Chapter 2. It includes event selection, event categorization, description of design basis events, and beyond design basis events.In Chapter 3, results of inherent safety evaluations for the KALIMER conceptual design are presented. The KALIMER core and plant system are designed to assure benign performance during a selected set of events without either reactor control or protection system intervention. Safety analyses for the postulated anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) have been performed to investigate the KALIMER system response to the events. In Chapter 4, the design of the KALIMER containment dome and the results of its performance analyses are presented. The design of the existing containment and the KALIMER containment dome are compared in this chapter. Procedure of the containment performance analysis and the analysis results are described along with the accident scenario and source terms. Finally, a simple methodology is introduced to investigate the core energetics behavior during HCDA in Chapter 5. Sensitivity analyses have been performed for the KALIMER core behavior during super-prompt critical excursions, using mathematical formulations developed in the framework of the Modified Bethe-Tait method. Work energy potential was then calculated based on the isentropic fuel expansion model

  7. Safety analysis for key design features of KALIMER with breakeven core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAERI is currently developing the conceptual design of a liquid metal reactor, KALIMER (Korea Advanced Liquid MEtal Reactor) under the Long-term nuclear R and D Program. In this report, key safety design features are described and safety analyses results for typical ATWS accidents in the KALIMER design with breakeven core are presented. First, the basic approach to achieve the safety goal is introduced in chapter 1, and the event categorization and acceptance criteria for the KALIMER safety analysis are described in chapter 2. In chapter 3, results of inherent safety evaluations for the KALIMER conceptual design are presented. Safety analyses for the postulated anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) have been performed using the SSC-K code to investigate the KALIMER system response to the events. They are categorized as Bounding Events (BEs) because of their low probability of occurrence. In chapter 4, the performance analysis results of the KALIMER containment dome are described along with the HCDA accident scenario and source terms. The major containment parameters of peak pressure and peak temperature have been calculated using the CONTAIN-LMR code. Radiological consequence has been evaluated by the MACCS code. Finally, a simple methodology is introduced to investigate the core energetics behavior during HCDA in chapter 5. Sensitivity analyses have been performed for the KALIMER core behavior during super-prompt critical excursions, using SCHAMBETA code developed in the framework of the modified bethe-tait method. Work energy potentials based arising from the sodium expansion as well as the isentropic fuel expansion are then calculated to evaluate the structural integrity of the reactor vessel, reactor internals and primary coolant system of KALIMER

  8. Switching to biomass co-firing in European coal power plants: Estimating the biomass and CO 2 breakeven prices

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the cost of biomass co-firing in European coal power stations. We propose a tractable and original method, that enables us to get expressions of biomass and CO2 breakeven points for co-firing in different types of coal plants. We call them carbon switching price and biomass switching price. They correspond to carbon and biomass prices that make coal plants equally attractive under co-firing or classical conditions (i.e. when coal is the only input). The carbon switchin...

  9. Biomass for electricity in the EU-27: Potential demand, CO2 abatements and breakeven prices for co-firing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyses the potential of biomass-based electricity in the EU-27 countries, and interactions with climate policy and the EU ETS. We estimate the potential biomass demand from the existing power plants, and we match our estimates with the potential biomass supply in Europe. Furthermore, we compute the CO2 abatement associated with the co-firing opportunities in European coal plants. We find that the biomass demand from the power sector may be very high compared with potential supply. We also identify that co-firing can produce high volumes of CO2 abatements, which may be two times larger than that of the coal-to-gas fuel switching. We also compute biomass and CO2 breakeven prices for co-firing. Results indicate that biomass-based electricity remains profitable with high biomass prices, when the carbon price is high: a Euros 16–24 (25–35, respectively) biomass price (per MWhprim) for a Euros 20 (50, respectively) carbon price. Hence, the carbon price appears as an important driver, which can make profitable a high share of the potential biomass demand from the power sector, even with high biomass prices. This aims to gain insights on how biomass market may be impacted by the EU ETS and others climate policies. - Highlights: • Technical potential of biomass (demand and CO2 abatement) in European electricity. • Calculation for co-firing and biomass power plants; comparison with potential biomass supply in EU-27 countries. • Calculation of biomass and CO2 breakeven prices for co-firing. • Potential demand is 8–148% of potential supply (up to 80% of demand from co-firing). • High potential abatement from co-firing (up to 365 Mt/yr); Profitable co-firing with €16-24 (25–35) biomass price for €20 (50) CO2 price

  10. A Core design study on the fuel displacement options for an effective transition between breakeven and TRU burning fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A core design study to convert a breakeven core into a TRU burner is performed for a 600 MWe rated fast reactor. No change in the core and subassembly layouts is assumed, which only allows geometry variations within the fuel rods. Investigated alternatives are to use variable cladding thicknesses, smearing fraction adjustments and annular fuel rod concepts with a central liner of a variable diameter consisting of void, Zr, B4C, Al, W, etc. The variable cladding thickness concept could not be employed due to too high a clad inner wall temperature. A smearing fraction adjustment below a typical fraction of 75% leads to a moderate TRU burning and reduced sodium void worth, but to a relatively high burnup swing. Placing a central non-fuel rod with the fuel arranged in an annular ring affects the core performance and reactivity coefficients, depending on whether it is a moderator or an absorber. In general, candidate materials of high atomic numbers contribute to large positive sodium void worths, but enhanced negative expansion effects. Among the light elements, vanadium reveals a favourable performance with a comparable TRU burning and a reduced sodium void worth, suggesting this material can be regarded as a solid substitute for sodium. (authors)

  11. Analysis of economic break-even point of the biogas utilization for electrical power conversion: case study in a swine terminated unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aimed to develop a study to estimate the break-even point in financial units of the electrical power generation using biogas from swine wastes. The analyzed biodigester is a continuous tubular model with brick concrete duct and plastic covering with a gasometer, and where the waste of 2,300 fattening pigs are deposited daily. The initial investment estimate for the installation was R$ 51,537.17. The system annual costs were R$ 5,708.20, for maintenance, R$ 4,390.40 for depreciation and R$ 1,366.77 for interests. It was noticed that with an average of consumption of 17.1 kW.hour-1 the system presents an annual loss of R$ 1,592.14 because the consumption of 27.85 kW.hour-1 is the minimum that should be consumed to achieve a corresponded financial break-even point of R$ 15,054.40.year-1. It was concluded that the correct technical dimensioning greatly influences on the economic results. (author)

  12. Evaluation and Control of Break-Even Time of Nonvolatile Static Random Access Memory Based on Spin-Transistor Architecture with Spin-Transfer-Torque Magnetic Tunnel Junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuto, Yusuke; Yamamoto, Shuu'ichirou; Sugahara, Satoshi

    2012-04-01

    The energy performance of a nonvolatile static random access memory (NV-SRAM) cell for power gating applications was quantitatively analyzed for the first time using the performance index of break-even time (BET). The NV-SRAM cell is based on spin-transistor architecture using ordinary metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) and spin-transfer-torque magnetic tunnel junctions (STT-MTJs), whose circuit representation of spin-transistor is referred to as a pseudo-spin-MOSFET (PS-MOSFET). The cell is configured with a standard six-transistor SRAM cell and two PS-MOSFETs. The NV-SRAM cell basically has a short BET of submicroseconds. Although the write (store) operation to the STT-MTJs causes an increase in the BET, it can be successfully reduced by the proposed power-aware bias-control for the PS-MOSFETs.

  13. Breakeven point for energetic viability for the culture of Jatropha; Produtividade minima para a viabilidade energetica da cultura do pinhao-manso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diotto, Adriano V.; Paulino, Janaina; Romanelli, Thiago L.; Flumgnan, Danilton L.; Folegatti, Marcos V. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: avdiotto@usp.br

    2012-11-01

    Due to diversity of plants that can be used to produce biofuel, Jatropha is being increasingly studied and some answers have yet to be given by the research to ensure its use as a plant producing energy. The energy balance is a methodology that takes into account all the energy input in the production system, either through direct consumption of fuel for tractors, for example, or indirectly as the added energy to fabricate the tractor Itself. Therefore, we tried to use the energy balance methodology to evaluate the minimum yield necessary to crop the Jatropha to have energetic viability in production, in other words, to have output energy greater than input energy. We evaluated four years of cultivation in a property located in Charqueada-SP. The feasibility breakeven point was 2.36 mg ha{sup -1}. The factors that most influenced the energy input to the system were the crop inputs (64.3%), followed by fuel consumption (39.7%), depreciation of machinery (3.1%) and labor which accounted for only 1.9%. (author)

  14. Comparison of radiation dose, workflow, patient comfort and financial break-even of standard digital radiography and a novel biplanar low-dose X-ray system for upright full-length lower limb and whole spine radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare the radiation dose, workflow, patient comfort, and financial break-even of a standard digital radiography and a biplanar low-dose X-ray system. A standard digital radiography system (Ysio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) was compared with a biplanar X-ray unit (EOS, EOS imaging, Paris, France) consisting of two X-ray tubes and slot-scanning detectors, arranged at an angle of 90 allowing simultaneous vertical biplanar linear scanning in the upright patient position. We compared data of standing full-length lower limb radiographs and whole spine radiographs of both X-ray systems. Dose-area product was significantly lower for radiographs of the biplanar X-ray system than for the standard digital radiography system (e.g. whole spine radiographs; standard digital radiography system: 392.2 ± 231.7 cGy*cm2 versus biplanar X-ray system: 158.4 ± 103.8 cGy*cm2). The mean examination time was significantly shorter for biplanar radiographs compared with standard digital radiographs (e.g. whole spine radiographs: 449 s vs 248 s). Patients' comfort regarding noise was significantly higher for the standard digital radiography system. The financial break-even point was 2,602 radiographs/year for the standard digital radiography system compared with 4,077 radiographs/year for the biplanar X-ray unit. The biplanar X-ray unit reduces radiation exposure and increases subjective noise exposure to patients. The biplanar X-ray unit demands a higher number of examinations per year for the financial break-even point, despite the lower labour cost per examination due to the shorter examination time. (orig.)

  15. Studies of breakeven prices and electricity supply potentials of nuclear fusion by a long-term world energy and environment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to social demand, this paper investigates the breakeven price (BP) and potential electricity supply of nuclear fusion energy in the 21st century by means of a world energy and environment model. We set the following objectives in this paper: (i) to reveal the economics of the introduction conditions of nuclear fusion; (ii) to know when tokamak-type nuclear fusion reactors are expected to be introduced cost-effectively into future energy systems; (iii) to estimate the share in 2100 of electricity produced by the presently designed reactors that could be economically selected in the year. The model can give in detail the energy and environment technologies and price-induced energy saving, and can illustrate optimal energy supply structures by minimizing the costs of total discounted energy systems at a discount rate of 5%. The following parameters of nuclear fusion were considered: cost of electricity (COE) in the nuclear fusion introduction year, annual COE reduction rates, regional introduction year, and regional nuclear fusion capacity projection. The investigations are carried out for three nuclear fusion projections one of which includes tritium breeding constraints, four future CO2 concentration constraints, and technological assumptions on fossil fuels, nuclear fission, CO2 sequestration, and anonymous innovative technologies. It is concluded that: (1) the BPs are from 65 to 125 mill kW-1 h-1 depending on the introduction year of nuclear fusion under the 550 ppmv CO2 concentration constraints; those of a business-as-usual (BAU) case are from 51 to 68 mill kW-1h-1. Uncertainties resulting from the CO2 concentration constraints and the technological options influenced the BPs by plus/minus some 10-30 mill kW-1h-1, (2) tokamak-type nuclear fusion reactors (as presently designed, with a COE range around 70-130 mill kW-1h-1) would be favourably introduced into energy systems after 2060 based on the economic criteria under the 450 and 550 ppmv CO2

  16. Studies of breakeven prices and electricity supply potentials of nuclear fusion by a long-term world energy and environment model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokimatsu, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Konishi, S.; Fujino, J.; Ogawa, Y.; Okano, K.; Nishio, S.; Yoshida, T.; Hiwatari, R.; Yamaji, K.

    2002-11-01

    In response to social demand, this paper investigates the breakeven price (BP) and potential electricity supply of nuclear fusion energy in the 21st century by means of a world energy and environment model. We set the following objectives in this paper: (i) to reveal the economics of the introduction conditions of nuclear fusion; (ii) to know when tokamak-type nuclear fusion reactors are expected to be introduced cost-effectively into future energy systems; (iii) to estimate the share in 2100 of electricity produced by the presently designed reactors that could be economically selected in the year. The model can give in detail the energy and environment technologies and price-induced energy saving, and can illustrate optimal energy supply structures by minimizing the costs of total discounted energy systems at a discount rate of 5%. The following parameters of nuclear fusion were considered: cost of electricity (COE) in the nuclear fusion introduction year, annual COE reduction rates, regional introduction year, and regional nuclear fusion capacity projection. The investigations are carried out for three nuclear fusion projections one of which includes tritium breeding constraints, four future CO2 concentration constraints, and technological assumptions on fossil fuels, nuclear fission, CO2 sequestration, and anonymous innovative technologies. It is concluded that: (1) the BPs are from 65 to 125 mill kW-1 h-1 depending on the introduction year of nuclear fusion under the 550 ppmv CO2 concentration constraints; those of a business-as-usual (BAU) case are from 51 to 68 mill kW-1h-1. Uncertainties resulting from the CO2 concentration constraints and the technological options influenced the BPs by plus/minus some 10 30 mill kW-1h-1, (2) tokamak-type nuclear fusion reactors (as presently designed, with a COE range around 70 130 mill kW-1h-1) would be favourably introduced into energy systems after 2060 based on the economic criteria under the 450 and 550 ppmv CO2

  17. Analysis of economic break-even point of the biogas utilization for electrical power conversion: case study in a swine terminated unit; Analise do ponto de equilibrio economico da utilizacao do biogas para conversao em energia eletrica: estudo de caso em unidade de terminacao de suinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervi, Ricardo Ghantous; Pinotti, Elvio Brasil [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Registro, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias do Vale do Ribeira], e-mails: rghantous@registro.unesp.br, epinotti@registro.unesp.br; Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutsui; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial], e-mails: maura@fca.unesp.br, osmar@fca.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    This work aimed to develop a study to estimate the break-even point in financial units of the electrical power generation using biogas from swine wastes. The analyzed biodigester is a continuous tubular model with brick concrete duct and plastic covering with a gasometer, and where the waste of 2,300 fattening pigs are deposited daily. The initial investment estimate for the installation was R$ 51,537.17. The system annual costs were R$ 5,708.20, for maintenance, R$ 4,390.40 for depreciation and R$ 1,366.77 for interests. It was noticed that with an average of consumption of 17.1 kW.hour{sup -1} the system presents an annual loss of R$ 1,592.14 because the consumption of 27.85 kW.hour{sup -1} is the minimum that should be consumed to achieve a corresponded financial break-even point of R$ 15,054.40.year{sup -1}. It was concluded that the correct technical dimensioning greatly influences on the economic results. (author)

  18. MOOCs盈亏平衡点的人均成本预测分析——基于edX和Coursera平台%Prediction and Analysis of the Per Capita Cost when MOOCs Reaches Break-even Point—Based on the Platforms of edX and Coursera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王力

    2016-01-01

    大规模在线开放课程(MOOCs)因其免费性得到广泛关注,但其本身是有成本的.根据国内外学者研究成果,提出一系列假设,构建出一套计算模型,对MOOCs达到盈亏平衡点时的人均成本进行预测分析.基于预测结果,对MOOCs的商业潜力、降低教育成本潜力和促进教育公平潜力进行分析.%Massive Open Online Courses(MOOCs) is widely concerned because it's free of charge,but itself has cost.According to the re-search results of scholars at home and abroad,this paper puts forward a series of assumptions,and constructs a set of calculation models to fore-cast the per capita cost when MOOCs reaches break-even point.Based on the forecast results,it analyzes MOOCs commercial potential,the po-tential to reduce the cost of education as well as the potential promote the fairness of education.

  19. THE BREAKEVEN POINT GIVEN LIMIT COST USING BIOMASS CHP PLANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula VOICU

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Biomass is a renewable source, non-fossil, from which can be obtained fuels, which can be used in power generation systems. The main difference of fossil fuels is the availability biomass in nature and that it is in continue "reproduction". The use its enable the use of materials that could be destined destruction, as a source of energy "renewable", though result with many ecological values. In this paper we will study, applying a calculation model in view optimal sizing of the cogeneration plant based on biomass, biomass cost limit for the net present value is zero. It will consider that in cogeneration systems and in heating peak systems using biomass. After applying the mathematical model for limit value of biomass cost will determine the nominal optimal coefficient of cogeneration, for which discounted net revenue value is zero. Optimal sizing of CHP plants based on using biomass will be given by optimum coefficient of cogeneration determined following the application of the proposed mathematical model.

  20. BREAK-EVEN POINT IN SUGAR-BEET PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ilija Nedić

    2015-01-01

    World sugar consumption has been recording a steady growth in the past 70 years and, according to all relevant estimates, it will continue to grow also in the next decade, which puts sugar in the category of the most significant foods and commodities in the world. Of the total world sugar production, around 77% is derived from sugar cane and 23% from sugar beet. Brazil has been the world leader in sugar production for a long period of time, producing white sugar from sugar cane only, whereas ...

  1. Tank Riser Pit Decontamination System (Pit Viper) Return on Investment and Break-Even Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study assessed the cost benefit of Pit Viper deployment for 80 tank farm pits between October 1, 2003 and September 30, 2012 under the technical baseline for applicable double-shell tank (DST) and single-shell tank (SST) projects. After this assessment had been completed, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Richland Operations Office (RL) and Office of River Protection (ORP) published the Hanford Performance Management Plan (August 2003), which accelerated the schedule for SST retrieval. Then, DOE/CH2M HILL contract modification M064 (October 2002) and The Integrated Mission Acceleration Plan (March 2003) further accelerated SST retrieval and closure schedules. Twenty-six to 40 tanks must be retrieved by 2006. Thus the schedule for SST pit entries is accelerated and the number of SST pit entries is increased. This study estimates the return on investment (ROI) and the number of pits where Pit Viper deployment would break even or save money over current manual practices. The results of the analysis indicate a positive return on the federal investment for deployment of the Pit Viper provided it is used on a sufficient number of pits

  2. Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burch, Jay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ong, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  3. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  4. Break-even analysis for the storage of PV in power distribution grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nykamp, Stefan; Bakker, Vincent; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerard J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy systems poses major challenges on distribution grid operators. Because of the strong growth rates of the installation of photovoltaic (PV) and wind generators, huge needs for reinforcements in grids are expected. Next to conventional reinforcements (with additiona

  5. The Break-Even Point: When Medical Advances Are Less Important Than Improving the Fidelity With Which They Are Delivered

    OpenAIRE

    Woolf, Steven H.; Johnson, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    Society invests billions of dollars in the development of new drugs and technologies but comparatively little in the fidelity of health care, that is, improving systems to ensure the delivery of care to all patients in need. Using mathematical arguments and a nomogram, we demonstrate that technological advances must yield dramatic, often unrealistic increases in efficacy to do more good than could be accomplished by improving fidelity. In 2 examples (the development of anti-platelet agents an...

  6. A decision-making tool to determine economic feasibility and break-even prices for artisan cheese operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durham, Catherine A; Bouma, Andrea; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth

    2015-12-01

    Artisan cheese makers lack access to valid economic data to help them evaluate business opportunities and make important business decisions such as determining cheese pricing structure. The objective of this study was to utilize an economic model to evaluate the net present value (NPV), internal rate of return, and payback period for artisan cheese production at different annual production volumes. The model was also used to determine the minimum retail price necessary to ensure positive NPV for 5 different cheese types produced at 4 different production volumes. Milk type, cheese yield, and aging time all affected variable costs. However, aged cheeses required additional investment for aging space (which needs to be larger for longer aging times), as did lower yield cheeses (by requiring larger-volume equipment for pasteurization and milk handling). As the volume of milk required increased, switching from vat pasteurization to high-temperature, short-time pasteurization was necessary for low-yield cheeses before being required for high-yield cheeses, which causes an additional increase in investment costs. Because of these differences, high-moisture, fresh cow milk cheeses can be sold for about half the price of hard, aged goat milk cheeses at the largest production volume or for about two-thirds the price at the lowest production volume examined. For example, for the given model assumptions, at an annual production of 13,608kg of cheese (30,000 lb), a fresh cow milk mozzarella should be sold at a minimum retail price of $27.29/kg ($12.38/lb), whereas a goat milk Gouda needs a minimum retail price of $49.54/kg ($22.47/lb). Artisan cheese makers should carefully evaluate annual production volumes. Although larger production volumes decrease average fixed cost and improve production efficiency, production can reach volumes where it becomes necessary to sell through distributors. Because distributors might pay as little as 35% of retail price, the retail price needs to be higher to compensate. An artisan cheese company that has not achieved the recognition needed to achieve a premium price may not find distribution through distributors profitable. PMID:26476951

  7. The price of fuel oil for power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study establishes a break-even analysis model for fuel oil generation. The authors calculate the break-even points of the international fuel oil prices for the existing coal-fired power plants, the nuclear power plants and the newly-built coal/oil-fired power plants

  8. Economic feasibility of producing sweet sorghum as an ethanol feedstock in the southeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the feasibility of producing sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) as an ethanol feedstock in the southeastern United States through representative counties in Mississippi. We construct enterprise budgets along with estimates of transportation costs to estimate sweet sorghum producers' breakeven costs for producing and delivering sweet sorghum biomass. This breakeven cost for the sweet sorghum producer is used to estimate breakeven costs for the ethanol producer based on wholesale ethanol price, production costs, and transportation and marketing costs. Stochastic models are developed to estimate profits for sweet sorghum and competing crops in two representative counties in Mississippi, with sweet sorghum consistently yielding losses in both counties. -- Highlights: → We examine the economic feasibility of sweet sorghum as an ethanol feedstock. → We construct enterprise budgets along with estimates of transportation costs. → We estimate breakeven costs for producing and delivering sweet sorghum biomass. → Stochastic models determine profits for sweet sorghum in two Mississippi counties.

  9. ANALISIS BIAYA-VOLUME-LABA UNTUK PERENCANAAN LABA OPERASI

    OpenAIRE

    Engelwati Gani

    2013-01-01

    This study conducted cost-volume-profit analysis of the company. A maximum profit can be obtained by analyzing sales volume and product mix to be sold. So that, the cost-volume-profit analysis can be used as a planning strategy of the companys operations profit. To do so, semivariable costs must be separated into variable and static costs. After that the breakeven point can be calculated. By knowing the breakeven point, operations profit planning expected can be made. Research use...

  10. The Effect of Using Break-Even-Point in Planning, Controlling, and Decision Making in the Industrial Jordanian Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Nabil Alnasser; Osama Samih Shaban; Ziad Al-Zubi

    2014-01-01

    This research study aimed to figure out the effect of using breakeven point in planning, controlling, and in the decision-making process, in the Jordanian industrial companies. This research study shed the light on the reality of the use of the breakeven point in the planning, controlling and decision-making in industrial companies in Jordan. The study sample of the study was formed out of 54 employees in the accounting departments in the Jordanian industrial companies. The study found out th...

  11. Economics of photovoltaics in the commercial, institutional, and industrial sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, A.J.

    1980-04-01

    The application is described of a model which computes system break-even capital costs, array break-even capital costs and profits from photovoltaic investments in the industrial, commercial and institutional sectors. Several tax and accounting combinations are described and utilized. Results indicate that, at rates of return usually found in the industrial and commercial sectors, photovoltaic investments will not be attractive when the costs of those investments are based on the Department of Energy's cost goals for 1986.

  12. Introduction condition of a tokamak fusion power plant as an advanced technology in world energy scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study reveals the following two introduction conditions of a tokamak fusion power plant in a long term world energy scenario. The first condition is the electric breakeven condition, which is required for the fusion energy to be recognized as a suitable candidate of an alternative energy source in the long term world energy scenario. As for the plasma performance (normalized beta value βN, confinement improvement factor for H-mode HH, the ratio of plasma density to Greenwald density limit fnGW), the electric breakeven condition requires the simultaneous achievement of 1.2NGWtmax=16 T, thermal efficiency ηe=30%, and current drive power PNBIN∼1.8, HH∼1.0, and fnGW∼0.9, which correspond to the ITER reference operation parameters, have a strong potential to achieve the electric breakeven condition. The second condition is the economic breakeven condition, which is required to be selected as an alternative energy source. By using a long term world energy and environment model, the potential of the fusion energy in the long term world energy scenario is being investigated. Under the constraint of 550 ppm CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, a breakeven price for introduction of the fusion energy in the year 2050 is estimated from 65mill/kWh to 135mill/kWh, which is considered as the economic breakeven condition in the present study. Under the conditions of Btmax=16T, ηe=40%, plant availability 60%, and a radial build with/without CS coil, the economic breakeven condition requires βN∼2.5 for 135mill/kWh of higher breakeven price case and βN∼6.0 for 65mill/kWh of lower breakeven price case. Finally, the demonstration of steady state operation with βN∼3.0 in the ITER project leads to the prospect to achieve the upper region of breakeven price in the world energy scenario. (author)

  13. Examining the economic feasibility of miscanthus in Ontario: An application to the greenhouse industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent policies, such as the Green Energy Act in the Canadian province of Ontario, have placed increasing emphasis on the development of renewable energy sources. One source that has received considerable attention in Europe, but very little in Canada, is the energy crop miscanthus. This study examines the economic feasibility of miscanthus from a Canadian perspective. A net present value approach is used to determine the breakeven price of miscanthus production in Ontario. Based on assumptions specific to Ontario regarding miscanthus production, input costs, and opportunity costs associated with alternative land use, the breakeven price is estimated to be $88.02/t. To account for uncertainty inherent in the imposed assumptions, sensitivity analysis is conducted on various life cycle factors, yield, and cost components. The results of this analysis indicate a range of breakeven prices from $77.79 to $105.08/t. These results are then applied to Ontario's greenhouse industry, where the cost of energy derived from miscanthus is found to be competitive with the costs of current non-renewable energy sources. - Highlights: ► We estimate a breakeven price of $88.02/t for miscanthus production in Ontario. ► Sensitivity analysis indicates a range of breakeven prices of $77.79/t–$105.08/t. ► We convert these prices to a cost/GJ of energy for the greenhouse industry. ► We find miscanthus to be competitive with costs of non-renewable energy sources.

  14. Annual progress report on fusion plasma theory task III: auxiliary heating in tokamaks and tandem mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research we have accomplished during the past year has focussed on ICRF coupling, heating and breakeven studies for tokamaks and ECRF fundamental second harmonic heating in tandem mirrors. The studies have included ICRF Fokker-Planck heating and breakeven studies for large tokamaks such as JET, fundamental work on a new wave power absorption and conservation relation for ICRF in inhomogeneous plasmas, a formulation and code development for ICRF waveguide coupling in tokamak edge regions. ECRF ray tracing studies have been carried out for fundamental and second harmonic propagation, absorption and whistler microinstabilities in tandem mirror plug and barrier regions of Phaedrus, TMX-U and TASKA. The two-dimensional velocity space, time dependent Fokker-Planck heating studies have concentrated on D-T breakeven scenarios for fundamental minority deuterium and second harmonic tritium regimes

  15. Safety Aspects of Thorium Fuel in Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conclusions: ● Thorium fuel significantly reduces void positive reactivity insertion − ~2$ reduction for the ARR burner design (oxide fuel); − ~6$ reduction for the ARR breakeven design (nitride Th vs. U metal). ● ~ 1m$/K more negative Doppler for the Th breakeven design. ● Effects on transients need to be assessed (underway). ● Larger blankets, higher fuel manufacturing/reprocessing and larger reactivity swing in Th-breakeven. ● Comparable long-term capability to withstand double-fault accidents. → Thorium can be appealing for TRU burning and/or decreasing void reactivity keeping a simple design (e.g. axially homogeneous). ● Very high sources requiring remote fuel manufacturing for all cases (U and Th). ● Long term options with substantial developments/additional costs when full actinide recycle is pursued in U and for all cases in Th

  16. (MAL)practice of nuclear power economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear cost evaluations traditionally use the cost of concurrent coal-fired electricity as their benchmark, but these comparisons are now moot because cash-poor utilities aren't shopping for new power plants. A breakeven capital-cost ratio measures the capital cost handicap that a nuclear plant can stand and still break even with coal power by means of its fuel savings. Although different regions have different breakeven ratios, primarily due to variations in coal prices, a national average breakeven ratio can be placed between 1.2 and 1.4, meaning that nuclear plants could stand between a 20 and 40% higher capital cost and still end up with equal lifetime generating cost. The nuclear promoter's failure to represent costs competently and candidly show that there is a need for independent analysis of the economic and other consequences of major public investments. 24 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  17. Analysis of diffusion paths for photovoltaic technology based on experience curves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper assesses the prospects for diffusion of photovoltaic (PV) technology for electricity generation in grid-connected systems. The analysis begins with the calculation of the break-even price of PV systems and modules, which is the price that can assure commercial viability without incentives or subsidies. The calculated average break-even price of PV systems for building-integrated applications is about US dollars 3.2/Wp but can go up to about US dollars 4.5/Wp in areas with very good solar irradiation and if a low real discount rate is applied. These are higher values than the break-even prices estimated in the literature to date. PV system break-even prices for intermediate load generation in utility-owned systems are also calculated, their average being about US dollars 1/Wp The methodology of experience curves is used to predict what would be the different levels of cumulative world PV shipments required to reach the calculated break-even prices of PV systems, assuming different trends in the relationship between price and the increase in cumulative shipments. The years in which the break-even levels of cumulative shipments could be theoretically obtained are then calculated by considering different market growth rates. Photovoltaics could enter the niche of building-integrated applications without incentives in the first years of the next decade, provided that the PR is 80% and the average annual world market growth rate is at least 15%. The final part of the paper analyzes the niche markets or applications that seem promising for the diffusion of photovoltaics in the next few years (Author)

  18. Economic Viability of Metallic Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Fuel in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, S K.; Ko, W. I.; Yoon Hee Lee

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates whether SFR metallic nuclear fuel can be economical. To make this determination, the cost of SFCF (SFR fuel cycle facilities) was estimated, and the break-even point of the manufacturing cost of SFR metallic nuclear fuel for direct disposal option was then calculated. As a result of the cost estimation, the levelized unit cost (LUC) for SFCF was calculated to be 5,311 $/kgHM, and the break-even point was calculated to be $5,267/kgHM. Therefore, the cost difference between...

  19. Wind system value analysis for electric utilities: A comparison of four methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, J.; Percival, D.; Flaim, T.; Sullivan, R. L.

    1981-11-01

    The only known effort that used more than a single methodology for the value analysis of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) to a specific utility is discussed. The WECS utility value analysis methodologies of Aerospace Corp., JBF Scientific Corp., and the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) are discussed. Results of the application of these three methodologies were found for two large utilities. Break-even values (the amount a utility can pay for a wind turbine over its lifetime and still breakeven economically) were found to be from $1600 to $2400 per kW of wind capacity in 1980 dollars. The reasons for variation in the results are discussed.

  20. Power beaming providing a space power infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper, based on two levels of technology maturity, applied the power beaming concept to four panned satellite constellations. The analysis shows that with currently available technology, power beaming can provide mass savings to constellations in orbits ranging from low-Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit. Two constellations, space surveillance and tracking system and space-based radar, can be supported with current technology. The other two constellations, space-based laser array and boost surveillance and tracking system, will require power and transmission system improvements before their breakeven specific mass is achieved. A doubling of SP-100 conversion efficiency from 10 to 20% would meet or exceed breakeven for these constellations

  1. Economic analysis of novel synergistic biofuel (H2Bioil) processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast-pyrolysis based processes can be built on small-scale and have higher process carbon and energy efficiency as compared to other options. H2Bioil is a novel process based on biomass fast-hydropyrolysis and subsequent hydrodeoxygenation (HDO) and can potentially provide high yields of high energy density liquid fuel at relatively low hydrogen consumption. This paper contains a comprehensive financial analysis of the H2Bioil process with hydrogen derived from different sources. Three different carbon tax scenarios are analyzed: no carbon tax, $55/metric ton carbon tax and $110/metric ton carbon tax. The break-even crude oil price for a delivered biomass cost of $94/metric ton when hydrogen is derived from coal, natural gas or nuclear energy ranges from $103 to $116/bbl for no carbon tax and even lower ($99-$111/bbl) for the carbon tax scenarios. This break-even crude oil price compares favorably with the literature estimated prices of fuels from alternate biochemical and thermochemical routes. The impact of the chosen carbon tax is found to be limited relative to the impact of the H2 source on the H2Bioil break-even price. The economic robustness of the processes for hydrogen derived from coal, natural gas, or nuclear energy is seen by an estimated break-even crude oil price of $114-$126/bbl when biomass cost is increased to $121/metric ton. (orig.)

  2. Income Contingent Loans: Conceptual and Applied Framework for the Small College.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamson, George; And Others

    This document presents a conceptual model and applied framework for the small college to implement income contingent loans. Results of a Pay-As-You-Earn (PAYE) questionnaire indicate the utilization potential and attractiveness of the model. Further discussion concerns some prospects, the break-even tax rate, liquidity, the accumulation of debt…

  3. A Low-Subsidy Problem in Public Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fethke, Gary

    2011-01-01

    With an exogenous public subsidy and a break-even restriction on university net revenue, tuition discrimination supports a quasi-efficient departure from marginal-cost pricing. In contrast, when the legislature and university interact in their subsidy and tuition decisions, the public subsidy becomes endogenous. With an endogenous public subsidy,…

  4. RISK MANAGEMENT TOOLS IN PRECISION AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Powers, Laura; Dillon, Carl R.; Isaacs, Steven G.; Shearer, Scott A.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop economic, risk management decision aids for precision agriculture practitioners to identify temporal risk spatially from production. Break-even analysis, coefficient of variation and a mean variance framework are used to identify risk. An interpretation of the resulting risk maps will also be presented.

  5. Integrating Residential Photovoltaics With Power Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    Report finds rooftop solar-cell arrays feed excess power to electric-utility grid for fee are potentially attractive large-scale application of photovoltaic technology. Presents assessment of breakeven costs of these arrays under variety of technological and economic assumptions.

  6. Learning Efficacy and Cost-Effectiveness of Print versus e-Book Instructional Material in an Introductory Financial Accounting Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annand, David

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the concurrent development of paper-based and e-book versions of a textbook and related instructional material used in an introductory-level financial accounting course. Break-even analysis is used to compare costs of the two media. A study conducted with 109 students is also used to evaluate the two media with respect to…

  7. [Microeconomics of introduction of a PET system based on the revised Japanese National Insurance reimbursement system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Katsumi; Kosuda, Shigeru; Kusano, Shoichi; Nagata, Masayoshi

    2003-11-01

    It is crucial to evaluate an annual balance before-hand when an institution installs a PET system because the revised Japanese national insurance reimbursement system set the cost of a FDG PET study as 75,000 yen. A break-even point was calculated in an 8-hour or a 24-hour operation of a PET system, based on the total costs reported. The break-even points were as follows: 13.4, 17.7, 22.1 studies per day for the 1 cyclotron-1 PET camera, 1 cyclotron-2 PET cameras, 1 cyclotron-3 PET cameras system, respectively, in an ordinary PET system operation of 8 hours. The break-even points were 19.9, 25.5, 31.2 studies per day for the 1 cyclotron-1 PET camera, 1 cyclotron-2 PET cameras, 1 cyclotron-3 PET cameras system, respectively, in a full PET system operation of 24 hours. The results indicate no profit would accrue in an ordinary PET system operation of 8 hours. The annual profit and break-even point for the total cost including the initial investment would be respectively 530 million yen and 2.8 years in a 24-hour operation with 1 cyclotron-3 PET cameras system. PMID:14733110

  8. Economic evaluation of fast breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to clarify discrepancies between different contributions to INFCE SG-5A concerning economic assessments of FBRs an independent evaluation is performed with assumptions typical for the current views in Europe and USA. As a result bounding cases are shown for the influence of the natural uranium price on the permitted FBR-capital cost premium for break-even with LWRs

  9. Microeconomics of introduction of a PET system based on the revised Japanese national insurance reimbursement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is crucial to evaluate an annual balance beforehand when an institution installs a PET system because the revised Japanese national insurance reimbursement system set the cost of a FDG PET study as 75,000 yen. A break-even point was calculated in an 8-hour or a 24-hour operation of a PET system, based on the total costs reported. The break-even points were as follows: 13.4, 17.7, 22.1 studies per day for the 1 cyclotron-1 PET camera, 1 cyclotron-2 PET cameras, 1 cyclotron-3 PET cameras system, respectively, in an ordinary PET system operation of 8 hours. The break-even points were 19.9, 25.5, 31.2 studies per day for the 1 cyclotron-1 PET camera, 1 cyclotron-2 PET cameras, 1 cyclotron-3 PET cameras system, respectively, in a full PET system operation of 24 hours. The results indicate no profit would accrue in an ordinary PET system operation of 8 hours. The annual profit and break-even point for the total cost including the initial investment would be respectively 530 million yen and 2.8 years in a 24-hour operation with 1 cyclotron-3 PET cameras system. (author)

  10. Tasuvusanalüüs / Vambola Raudsepp

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Raudsepp, Vambola

    2002-01-01

    Ilmunud ka: Buhgalterskije Novosti nr. 1, lk. 33-35. Tasuvusanalüüsist (break-even analysis) kui meetodist toodangu mahu ja müügikäibe leidmiseks, mille puhul uuritakse seoseid ettevõtte kulude struktuuri, toodangumahu ja kasumi vahel

  11. Finanční analýza podniku KORADO, a. s.

    OpenAIRE

    Palaščak, Boris

    2009-01-01

    External financial analysis of manufacturing company KORADO, a.s. within the range of years from 2002 to 2008. Instruments of financial analysis are applied sush as horizontal and vertical analysis, activity ratios, liquidity ratios, rentability ratios, or break-even point analysis. Bankruptcy prediction models are applied as well including EVA model.

  12. Measurement and analysis of the radiation losses in DAMAVAND Tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation losses play an important role on reaching to break-even conditions in Tokamaks. In this paper the results of measurement by a bolometer in Damavand Tokamak have been presented and analyzed. Meanwhile, we have explained our future research program on the base of last modifications in the control system of the DAMAVAND.

  13. Residential customer-sited photovoltaics markets 1999

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearly three years ago, the authors published the paper, Niche Markets for Grid Connected Photovoltaics. The paper identified target market niches for Customer-Sited Photovoltaics (CSPV), on a state-by-state basis for the US. The paper demonstrated cost-effective, grid-connected, domestic markets existed and identified those showing the most near-term promise. Many financial and policy attributes effecting the economics of CSPV have changed since the previous paper was published. Incorporating these policy changes into the analysis expands the CSPV market from a niche status to an era of significance. The number of states with break-even turnkey costs (BTC) above four dollars per watt expanded from five to fifteen. The top five state market values are now above a break-even cost of seven dollars per watt, a value at which the domestic CSPV market moves beyond a break-even status to consumer savings or industry profit, depending on system price. Emissions mitigation values were also included in the paper, but did not significantly effect the break-even market value results. The paper presents the details of the data, analysis, and results

  14. Practice Makes Poorer: Practice Gambling Modes and Their Effects on Real-Play in Simulated Roulette

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarz, Jana; Delfabbro, Paul; King, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of free-play modes on gambling behaviour in computer-based roulette. Eighty participants were randomly allocated to one of four pre-exposure conditions: no exposure (control group), a loss condition, a break-even and a profit condition in which the return to player was greater than 100%. Behavioural…

  15. Techno-economic analysis of fuel cell auxiliary power units as alternative to idling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Semant; Chen, Hsieh-Yeh; Schwank, Johannes

    This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of fuel-cell-based auxiliary power units (APUs), with emphasis on applications in the trucking industry and the military. The APU system is intended to reduce the need for discretionary idling of diesel engines or gas turbines. The analysis considers the options for on-board fuel processing of diesel and compares the two leading fuel cell contenders for automotive APU applications: proton exchange membrane fuel cell and solid oxide fuel cell. As options for on-board diesel reforming, partial oxidation and auto-thermal reforming are considered. Finally, using estimated and projected efficiency data, fuel consumption patterns, capital investment, and operating costs of fuel-cell APUs, an economic evaluation of diesel-based APUs is presented, with emphasis on break-even periods as a function of fuel cost, investment cost, idling time, and idling efficiency. The analysis shows that within the range of parameters studied, there are many conditions where deployment of an SOFC-based APU is economically viable. Our analysis indicates that at an APU system cost of 100 kW -1, the economic break-even period is within 1 year for almost the entire range of conditions. At 500 kW -1 investment cost, a 2-year break-even period is possible except for the lowest end of the fuel consumption range considered. However, if the APU investment cost is 3000 kW -1, break-even would only be possible at the highest fuel consumption scenarios. For Abram tanks, even at typical land delivered fuel costs, a 2-year break-even period is possible for APU investment costs as high as 1100 kW -1.

  16. The uranium market and its characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled as shown. Numerical data are indicated in parenthesis. General characteristics of the uranium market, (enrichment plant variables, fuel requirements of a 1000 MWe power plant); demand pattern (enrichment cost relationships), supply pattern; uranium price analysis, production cost (relationship between future uranium requirements and discovery rates necessary), market break-even cost (break-even uranium cost as a function of fossil fuel prices), market value (theoretical and actual supply - demand balance in uranium market, relationship between U3O8 price and world production); geographic and economic distribution of producers and consumers (world resources of uranium, relationship between U308 world production capacity and annual requirements in 1990). (U.K.)

  17. Fusion plasma theory. Task III. Auxiliary heating in tokamaks and tandem mirrors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research we have accomplished with this contract has focused on ICRF coupling, heating and breakeven studies for tokamaks and ECRF fundamental and second harmonic heating in tandem mirrors. The highlights include reviewed publication of ICRF Fokker-Planck heating and breakeven studies with international collaboration with the JET group, fundamental work on a differential equation for wave fields and a new wave power absorption and conservation relation for ICRF in inhomogeneous plasmas and a formulation and code development of slab matrix and differential equation solutions for ICRF waveguide coupling in tokamak edge regions. ECRF ray tracing studies have been carried out, and a reviewed paper published for fundamental and second harmonic propagation, absorption and whistler microinstabilities in tandem mirror plug and barrier regions of Phaedrus, TMX-U and TASKA

  18. Ignition in near term D-3He tokamak reactors: Appendix B

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The prospects for achieving breakeven and ignition in near term ETR type tokamaks under D/He-3 relevant conditions are considered. Using present scaling laws for beta in the first stability regime, it is found that CIT may be close to breakeven with the presently planned toroidal magnetic field system, if the ASDEX H-mode scaling law is used. With Kaye-Goldston scaling, Q = .22 can be attained, but this requires an excessive amount of rf heating power. Larger devices, such as NET/INTOR, can ignite with ASDEX H-mode scaling with an increase of the toroidal field by 20% and removal of the blanket and reduction of the inboard shield to that required for D/He-3. 5 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs

  19. The marketing of high-tech innovation: research and teaching as a multidisciplinary communication task

    OpenAIRE

    Hasenauer, Rainer; Fi8lo, Peter; Störi, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    Economically successful high-tech innovation is one of the driving forces for global welfare. Like innovation half-life, break-even time to market or technology acceptance, effective multidisciplinary communication between engineering and marketing is a critical success factor. This paper aims to show the requirements of multidisciplinary communication in B2B marketing of high-tech innovation and methodical approaches in research and academic education: 1. Requirements in high-tech innovat...

  20. Home loan profitability optimisation in the financial industry / by Sias Heyns

    OpenAIRE

    Heyns, Sias

    2007-01-01

    Product profitability needs to remain a competitive advantage to a bank's home loan product. Ever changing customer needs and even more demanding customers today enforce reasons to investigate the profitability of home loans. Other aspects to consider includes transfer pricing, ROA, cost to deliver product to market areas (marketing and distribution cost) and break-even period. Banks are facing immense challenges to achieve sustainable profitability. Historically low interest rates are compre...

  1. Management Aspects of Production Cost Accounting in Horse Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    G. S. Klychova; A. R. Zakirova; Z. R. Zakirov; G. R. Valieva

    2015-01-01

    The particular management accounting lines are considered in the present paper, based on the state and currentpractice of production cost accounting study and calculation of production cost of horse breeding in the analyzedcompanies, to help the enterprise management in making reasonable decisions regarding maintenance of costmanagement in the given industry. The criteria of breakeven point, marginal income, and safety edge can beused for production planning, decision-making on pricing for pr...

  2. Photovoltaics: New opportunities for utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    This publication presents information on photovoltaics. The following topics are discussed: Residential Photovoltaics: The New England Experience Builds Confidence in PV; Austin's 300-kW Photovoltaic Power Station: Evaluating the Breakeven Costs; Residential Photovoltaics: The Lessons Learned; Photovoltaics for Electric Utility Use; Least-Cost Planning: The Environmental Link; Photovoltaics in the Distribution System; Photovoltaic Systems for the Rural Consumer; The Issues of Utility-Intertied Photovoltaics; and Photovoltaics for Large-Scale Use: Costs Ready to Drop Again.

  3. The sequence of stages of enterprise cost management in volatile market conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svidlo Anna Igorevna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the formulated hypotheses and assumptions determined by the sequence of steps in the process and content management costs. This allows you to create a knowledge base of research, to identify ways of cost management company-by-synthesis area break-even and balanced scorecard, which in turn makes it possible to create a strategy of cost management company.

  4. 続・魚類養殖業--ブリ類およびマダイの経営分析

    OpenAIRE

    小野, 征一郎

    2013-01-01

    The Report of the Statistical Survey on Fishery Management, published by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, was used to analyze the business performance of the fish aquaculture industry, specifically the yellowtail and red sea bream aquaculture industries, from 2005 to 2011. Focusing on corporate businesses, the core economic entities of the industry, profitability analysis, break-even point analysis (the ultimate index), and solvency analysis were performed. In addition, pr...

  5. Background information and technical basis for assessment of environmental implications of magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains background information for assessing the potential environmental implications of fusion-based central electric power stations. It was developed as part of an environmental review of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program. Transition of the program from demonstration of purely scientific feasibility (breakeven conditions) to exploration of engineering feasibility suggests that formal program environmental review under the National Environmental Policy Act is timely. This report is the principal reference upon which an environmental impact statement on magnetic fusion will be based

  6. Computer applications in radiology business management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation focuses on two areas of prime importance to radiology business management: financial/accounting applications and computer networking. The business management portion is an overview of accounts receivable management, financial reporting, management reporting, budgeting and forecasting (including cost/benefit analysis and break-even analysis), and personal and/or financial tax planning. The networking portion focuses on telecommunications and considers satellite facilities, electronic claims submission, and national database networking. Both numeric and graphic summaries are demonstrated in the presentation

  7. Analisis Strategi Bisnis NPV, IRR, PI dan DPB Pada Golden Restaurant Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriswanto

    2011-04-01

    sales to 90% per year and provide a significant positive NPV and IRR of almost 20% which is higher than the original expectation of 15% and reach breakeven point within 4 to 7 years. From the results of this analysis also shows the business is sensitive to increased sales, operating expenses and cost of sales. In addition to inflation and economic conditions affect the performance of sensitive business.

  8. Design, Fabrication, and Operation of Innovative Microalgae Culture Experiments for the Purpose of Producing Fuels: Final Report, Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    A conceptual design was developed for a 1000-acre (water surface) algae culture facility for the production of fuels. The system is modeled after the shallow raceway system with mixing foils that is now being operated at the University of Hawaii. A computer economic model was created to calculate the discounted breakeven price of algae or fuels produced by the culture facility. A sensitivity analysis was done to estimate the impact of changes in important biological, engineering, and financial parameters on product price.

  9. Fusion in a magnetically-shielded-grid inertial electrostatic confinement device

    OpenAIRE

    Hedditch, John; Bowden-Reid, Richard; Khachan, Joe

    2015-01-01

    Theory for a gridded inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion system is presented that shows a net energy gain is possible if the grid is magnetically shielded from ion impact. A simplified grid geometry is studied, consisting of two negatively-biased coaxial current-carrying rings, oriented such that their opposing magnetic fields produce a spindle cusp. Our analysis indicates that better than break-even performance is possible even in a deuterium-deuterium system at bench-top scales....

  10. Expectation and reliance:one principle or two?

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, David

    2015-01-01

    Elementary mathematics are used in this paper to clarify the ‘losing contract problem’ which continues to confuse courts addressing the quantification of damages for breach of contract. The distinction between gross receipts and net profits is analysed in a way which allows the coherent identification of the claimant’s expectation in all contracts, be they profitable, break-even or losing contracts.

  11. Estimating maximum land use change potential from a regional biofuel industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The maximum amount of land for growing switchgrass for ethanol is estimated for a region in the southeastern U.S. Breakeven capacities are calculated for land in row crops, hay, pasture and marginal land. Characteristics of land categories inform potential land use change impacts as well as switchgrass profitability. Variable yields within and across land categories are translated into distributions of switchgrass net revenue. Breakeven curves are generated for a range of switchgrass prices. These curves provide upper bounds for further analysis of actual switchgrass adoption in context of broader economic forces and possible policy mechanisms to minimize environmental impacts. A farm-gate price of $55 Mg−1 is estimated for half of marginal and pasturelands to break even with switchgrass. At this price, only 20% of land in hay and a small fraction of row crop hectares break even. Half of hay and row crops hectares break even at approximately $90 Mg−1 and $100 Mg−1, respectively. At $60 Mg−1, sufficient land area can profitably produce switchgrass for ethanol to displace approximately 10% of gasoline consumed in Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina; however, this price only indicates breakeven capacity implying that higher prices may be necessary to realize 10% displacement. - Highlights: • The potential for switchgrass is assessed for a region of the southeastern U.S. • Profitability for switchgrass is variable within and between land types. • Switchgrass breaks even on half of marginal and pastureland at $55 Mg−1. • Row crops and hay require more than $90 Mg−1 to break even on half the land area. • Breakeven capacity suggests the extent for land use change impacts

  12. Development of Basic Key Technologies for Gen IV SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technical specifications such as power capacity, type of core, clad alloy, clad barrier material, number of loops, type of SG tube have been evaluated and a optimal design concept has been identified to satisfy the technology goals of Generation IV nuclear systems. The concept for breakeven design is featured by the heat capacity of 1,200 MWe, enrichment-separated core, 2-loop, double-walled SG tube, and a long-life sensor system for in-service inspection

  13. Financial and Economic Analysis of Producing Commercial Tomatoes for Fresh Market in the Georgia

    OpenAIRE

    Fonsah, Esendugue; Hudgins, Joel

    2007-01-01

    This study examines the financial and economic viability of producing commercial tomatoes for the fresh market in Georgia. Historical data on yields, prices received by growers, and actual production input prices were collected and used to develop an enterprise budget. Specifically, the study was aimed at analyzing profit margins and break-even conditions, and presents various operating scenarios under a risk-rated return framework. Analysis of enterprise cost and return estimates indicated t...

  14. Preheat effects on microballoon laser fusion implosions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nonequilibrium hydroburn simulations of early laser-driven compression experiments indicate that low energy photons from the vicinity of the ablation surface are preheating the microballoon-pushers, thereby severely limiting the compressions achieved (similar degradation may result from 1 to 4 percent energy deposition by superthermal electrons). This implies an 8- to 27-fold increase in the energy requirements for breakeven, unless radiative preheat can be drastically reduced by, say, the use of composite ablator-pushers. (auth)

  15. Fast breeder - at what uranium price

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taking into account a conceivable range of major uncertainties based on recently published data, the required natural uranium price for LWR-FBR power cost break-even is assessed to be between 60-400 Pound/1bU308. The dominating uncertainties are capital costs, fuel burn-up and reprocessing costs for the FBR, while the uncertainties for the LWR are comparatively negligible. (author)

  16. EMP Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    KUNTAY, Isık

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel fusion scheme, called EMP Fusion, which has the promise of achieving breakeven and realizing commercial fusion power. The method is based on harnessing the power of an electromagnetic pulse generated by the now well-developed flux compression technology. The electromagnetic pulse acts as a means of both heating up the plasma and confining the plasma, eliminating intermediate steps. The EMP Fusion device is simpler compared to other fusion devices and this reduces...

  17. Long-term Competitive Balance under UEFA Financial Fair Play Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Sass

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the long-term development of competitive balance in a professional team sports league with win-maximizing clubs facing a strict break-even constraint as imposed by UEFA's new Financial Fair Play Regulations. A classical model of professional team sports leagues is employed to calculate seasonal competitive balance, which solely depends on the market size of clubs. In the multi-period version of the model, a market size function, which captures the empirical fact that a clu...

  18. An economic analysis of the use of recirculating aquaculture systems in the production of Tilapia

    OpenAIRE

    Appiah-Kubi, Frank

    2012-01-01

    An economic analysis of tilapia production was conducted using a recirculating aquaculture system facility, situated at the Norwegian University of Life Science (UMB). The goals were; (1) to evaluate and estimate the operational cost involved and from this, estimate the breakeven cost, (2) identify and describe the constraints unique to the RAS, (3) to perform financial feasibility of a (hypothetical) scale-up production, and (4) to conduct sensitivity analysis on some variables to highlight ...

  19. Estimation of Total Fusion Reactivity and Contribution from Suprathermal Tail using 3-parameter Dagum Ion Speed Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Majumdar, Rudrodip; Das, Debraj

    2016-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion reactivity is a pivotal quantity in the studies pertaining to fusion energy production, fusion ignition and energy break-even analysis in both inertially and magnetically confined systems. Although nuclear fusion reactivity and thereafter the power density of a magnetic confinement fusion reactor and the fulfillment of the ignition criterion are quantitatively determined by assuming the ion speed distribution to be Maxwellian, a significant population of suprathermal ions...

  20. Podnikatelský plán na založení restaurace

    OpenAIRE

    Homolková, Renata

    2010-01-01

    The subject of this bachelor thesis is creation of business plan on restaurant in Ceske Budejovice. The thesis is divided into two parts -- theoretical and practical. The theoretical part is about basic terms, general description and structure of business concept. The theoretical part also summarizes methods for assesing the investment anvantages and the analysis of break-even point. In practical part there is written the complete business plan of Rennie's restaurant which is planned to be op...

  1. A Note on the Equivalence between the Normal and the Lognormal Implied Volatility : A Model Free Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Cyril Grunspan

    2011-01-01

    First, we show that implied normal volatility is intimately linked with the incomplete Gamma function. Then, we deduce an expansion on implied normal volatility in terms of the time-value of a European call option. Then, we formulate an equivalence between the implied normal volatility and the lognormal implied volatility with any strike and any model. This generalizes a known result for the SABR model. Finally, we adress the issue of the "breakeven move" of a delta-hedged portfolio.

  2. The impact of future carbon prices on CCS investment for power generation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) in China is currently discussed extensively but few in-depth analyses focusing on economics are observed. In this study, we answer two related questions about the development of CCS and power generation technologies in China: (1) what is the breakeven carbon-dioxide price to justify CCS installation investment for Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) and pulverized coal (PC) power plants, and, (2) what are the risks associated with investment for CCS. To answer these questions, we build a net present value model for IGCC and PC plants with capacity of 600 MW, with assumptions best representing the current technologies in China. Then, we run a sensitivity analysis of capital costs and fuel costs to reveal their impact on the carbon price, and analyze the risk on investment return caused by the carbon price volatility. Our study shows that in China, a breakeven carbon price of $61/tonne is required to justify investment on CCS for PC plants, and $72/tonne for IGCC plants. In this analysis, we also advise investors on the impact of capital and fuel costs on the carbon price and suggest optimal timing for CCS investment. - Highlights: ► We collect data on CCS and power generation which best represents technologies and costs in China. ► We model power plants' net present value to find the breakeven carbon prices. ► IGCC needs $72 per tonne to breakeven while PC requires $61 in China. ► Capital and fuel costs impact the carbon prices noticeably. ► We also examine the sensitivity, impact on return and time for investment

  3. Economic evaluation of fissile fuel production using resistive magnet tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of resistive magnet tokamaks to fissile fuel production has been studied. Resistive magnets offer potential advantages over superconducting magnets in terms of robustness, less technology development required and possibility of demountable joints. Optimization studies within conservatively specified constraints for a compact machine result in a major radius of 3.81 m and 618 MW fusion power and a blanket space envelope of 0.35 m inboard and 0.75 m outboard. This machine is called the Resistive magnet Tokamak Fusion Breeder (RTFB). A computer code was developed to estimate the cost of the resistive magnet tokamak breeder. This code scales from STARFIRE values where appropriate and calculates costs of other systems directly. The estimated cost of the RTFB is $3.01 B in 1984 dollars. The cost of electricity on the same basis as STARFIRE is 42.4 mills/kWhre vs 44.9 mills/kWhre for STARFIRE (this does not include the fuel value or fuel cycle costs for the RTFB). The breakeven cost of U3O8 is $150/lb when compared to a PWR on the once through uranium fuel cycle with no inflation and escalation. On the same basis, the breakeven cost for superconducting tokamak and tandem mirror fusion breeders is $160/lb and $175/lb. Thus, the RTFB appears to be competitive in breakeven U3O8 cost with superconducting magnet fusion breeders and offers the potential advantages of resistive magnet technology

  4. Economic Viability of Metallic Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Fuel in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates whether SFR metallic nuclear fuel can be economical. To make this determination, the cost of SFCF (SFR fuel cycle facilities was estimated, and the break-even point of the manufacturing cost of SFR metallic nuclear fuel for direct disposal option was then calculated. As a result of the cost estimation, the levelized unit cost (LUC for SFCF was calculated to be 5,311 $/kgHM, and the break-even point was calculated to be $5,267/kgHM. Therefore, the cost difference between LUC and the break-even point is not only small but is also within the relevant range of the uncertainty level of Class 3 in accordance with a generic cost estimate classification matrix of AACE (the Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering. This means it is very difficult to judge the economical feasibility of SFR metallic nuclear fuel because as of today there are no commercial facilities in Korea or the world. The economic feasibility of SFR metallic nuclear fuel, however, will be enhanced if the mass production of SFCF becomes possible in the future.

  5. A comparison of fusion breeder/fission client and fission breeder/fission client systems for electrical energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A parametric study that evaluated the economic performance of breeder/client systems is described. The linkage of the breeders to the clients was modelled using the stockpile approach to determine the system doubling time. Since the actual capital costs of the breeders are uncertain, a precise prediction of the cost of a breeder was not attempted. Instead, the breakeven capital cost of a breeder relative to the capital cost of a client reactor was established by equating the cost of electricity from the breeder/client system to the cost of a system consisting of clients alone. Specific results are presented for two breeder/client systems. The first consisted of an LMFBR with LWR clients. The second consisted of a DT fusion reactor (with a 238U fission suppressed blanket) with LWR clients. The economics of each system was studied as a function of the cost of fissile fuel from a conventional source. Generally, the LMFBR/LWR system achieved relatively small breakeven capital cost ratios; the maximum ratio computed was 2.2 (achieved at approximately triple current conventional fissile material cost). The DTFR/LWR system attained a maximum breakeven capital cost ratio of 4.5 (achieved at the highest plasma quality (ignited device) and triple conventional fissile cost)

  6. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2014-01-01

    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged on the U.S. market. These units have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine what actual in use energy consumption of a HPWH may be in different regions of the U.S., annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the U.S. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  7. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burch, Jay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ong, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged on the U.S. market, and they have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine the actual energy consumption of a HPWH in different U.S. regions, annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the United States. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  8. Pricing offshore wind power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Offshore wind offers a very large clean power resource, but electricity from the first US offshore wind contracts is costlier than current regional wholesale electricity prices. To better understand the factors that drive these costs, we develop a pro-forma cash flow model to calculate two results: the levelized cost of energy, and the breakeven price required for financial viability. We then determine input values based on our analysis of capital markets and of 35 operating and planned projects in Europe, China, and the United States. The model is run for a range of inputs appropriate to US policies, electricity markets, and capital markets to assess how changes in policy incentives, project inputs, and financial structure affect the breakeven price of offshore wind power. The model and documentation are made publicly available. - Highlights: → We calculate the Breakeven Price (BP) required to deploy offshore wind plants. → We determine values for cost drivers and review incentives structures in the US. → We develop 3 scenarios using today's technology but varying in industry experience. → BP differs widely by Cost Scenario; relative policy effectiveness varies by stage. → The low-range BP is below regional market values in the Northeast United States.

  9. Comparative analysis of thorium and uranium fuel for transuranic recycle in a sodium cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Thorium as support fertile material for TRU transmutation in Fast Reactors. • Comparative analysis of Th and U based breakeven and burner Fast Reactors. • Thorium fosters significant advantages in terms of safety parameters. • Inherent safety is investigated through quasi-static reactivity and energy balances. • Th use in low-CR Fast Reactors does not reduce fuel decay heat and neutron sources. - Abstract: The present paper compares the reactor physics and transmutation performance of sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (FRs) for TRansUranic (TRU) burning with thorium (Th) or uranium (U) as fertile materials. The 1000 MWt Toshiba-Westinghouse Advanced Recycling Reactor (ARR) conceptual core has been used as benchmark for the comparison. Both burner and breakeven configurations sustained or started with a TRU supply, and assuming full actinide homogeneous recycle strategy, have been developed. State-of-the-art core physics tools have been employed to establish fuel inventory and reactor physics performances for equilibrium and transition cycles. Results show that Th fosters large improvements in the reactivity coefficients associated with coolant expansion and voiding, which enhances safety margins and, for a burner design, can be traded for maximizing the TRU burning rate. A trade-off of Th compared to U is the significantly larger fuel inventory required to achieve a breakeven design, which entails additional blankets at the detriment of core compactness as well as fuel manufacturing and separation requirements. The gamma field generated by the progeny of U-232 in the U bred from Th challenges fuel handling and manufacturing, but in case of full recycle, the high contents of Am and Cm in the transmutation fuel impose remote fuel operations regardless of the presence of U-232

  10. Economic analysis of locust beans processing and marketing in ilorin, kwara state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O. Farayola

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to estimate the economic analysis of locust bean processing and marketing in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. Primary data was used and purposive sampling technique was adopted to select the respondents used for the study. A total number of 60 respondents were interviewed. The data collected were analyzed using inferential statistical tool such as regression analysis. Budgetary analysis technique was also used to analyze the profitability of locust bean processing and marketing in the study area. Majority of the processors and marketers are making profits; 68.3% operate above breakeven point while 26.7% operate at breakeven point and the rest 5% was below the breakeven point, this indicates that they neither profit nor lost. The regression analysis result shows that quantity processed, family size and years of experience in processing are significant at 1%, 5% and 10% respectively while education level and stall rent is negative and significant at 1% and 5% respectively. F- Test also explained that independent variables are jointly significant at 1% probability level with an adjusted R2 of 78.9%. The overall rate of return on investment indicates that average rate of return is 0.5 (50%, which is positive. It is therefore concluded that profit made by the processors and marketers can be improved on by increasing the quantity of locust bean being processed through adoption of newly discovered method of processing and improved method of preservation, packaging and marketing of the product to international standard by reducing the odour of the product without the loss of essential nutrients and palability in order to generate foreign exchange. Also, rules and regulations against cutting of economic trees for alternative uses should be enforced to maximize their values.

  11. 'Action 2016': AREVA's strategic action plan to improve performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On December 12, 2011, Luc Oursel, Executive Officer of AREVA, and Pierre Aubouin, Chief Financial Executive Officer, presented the group's 'Action 2016' strategic action plan based on an in-depth analysis of the market's outlook. This document makes, first, a Detailed presentation of the 'Action 2016' plan and then presents the group's financial outlook: - Full-year 2011 immediate accounting consequences of the new market environment: operating losses expected in 2011; - 2012-2013 transition period Objective: self-finance capex in cumulative terms; - 2014-2016: safe growth and cash generation, free operating cash flow at break-even beginning in 2013, above euro 1 bn per year beginning in 2015

  12. Strategic planning for Galaxy Pod Hostel

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Ívar Róbertsson 1985; Mikael Ingason 1995

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy Pod Hostel was established in May of 2015 and began offering accommodation in December of the same year. Before the strategic planning for the hostel began, the hostel had hopes of achieving its break-even point of its operation at the end of the 2016 summer, but as the strategic planning process progressed that goal became less of a reality. The purpose of the strategic planning then became to find out why the hostel is not operating at its fullest potential and what changes need to o...

  13. Economic considerations in magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In considering the financial aspects of MRI imaging, the authors try to incorporate the consequences of the acquisition of the hardware, as well as the problems of the ongoing operations. In many ways, an MRI facility, when isolated, has the characteristics of a new venture capital project. Many risks have not been determined, and some can only be approximated from their experience in other diagnostic imaging fields. The exercise of developing a break-even analysis is an essential component of decision making under the restructured financial system resulting from diagnosis-related groups. Moreover, since current payment for an investigational device is limited to cost recovery, careful documentation is needed for reimbursement

  14. Progress in inertial fusion research at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Inertial Confinement Fusion Program is reviewed. Experiments using the Helios CO2 laser system delivering up to 6kJ on target are described. Because breakeven energy estimates for laser drivers of 1 μm and above have risen and there is a need for CO2 experiments in the tens-of-kJ regime as soon as practical, a first phase of Antares construction is now directed toward completion of two of the six original modules in 1983. These modules are designed to deliver 40kJ of CO2 laser light on target. (author)

  15. On the ignition of the ITER machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study on a simple model of the ITER machine (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) shows that this machine, as presently designed, might not be able to reach either ignition or power breakeven. The large cost and the long time frame of the ITER program, on the other hand, do not allow for any doubt that the machine must reach its stated goal of ignition. Consequently, as long as these doubts persist, and cannot easily be dissipated, the ITER program should be put on hold, and fusion alternative concepts should be pursued. (author)

  16. Energetic and economic viability of olive stone recovery as a renewable energy source: a Southern Italy case study

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Parenti; Piernicola Masella; Lorenzo Guerrini; Antonio Guiso; Paolo Spugnoli

    2014-01-01

    The recovery of olive stones for biofuel is becoming increasingly widespread in olive milling plants. In this study we look at the economic and energetic benefits of using a de-stoner machine in a small-to-medium sized oil milling plant. The performance of the olive stone recovery system was evaluated over a full olive oil production season. The energetic viability of the de-stoner was assessed using a Life Cycle Assessment approach, and the break-even point was achieved when about 56 tons of...

  17. Geothermal loan guaranty cash flow model: description and users' manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keimig, M.A.; Rosenberg, J.I.; Entingh, D.J.

    1980-11-01

    This is the users guide for the Geothermal Loan Guaranty Cash Flow Model (GCFM). GCFM is a Fortran code which designs and costs geothermal fields and electric power plants. It contains a financial analysis module which performs life cycle costing analysis taking into account various types of taxes, costs and financial structures. The financial module includes a discounted cash flow feature which calculates a levelized breakeven price for each run. The user's guide contains descriptions of the data requirements and instructions for using the model.

  18. Life cycle assessment of resource recovery from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Vadenbo, Carl; Boldrin, Alessio;

    2015-01-01

    breakeven points beyond which the burdens of the recovery processes outweigh the environmental benefits from valorising metals and mineral aggregates. Experimental data for the quantity and quality of individual material fractions were used as a basis for LCA modelling. For the aggregates, three disposal...... routes were compared: landfilling, road sub-base and aggregate in concrete, while specific leaching data were used as the basis for evaluating toxic impacts. The recovery and recycling of aluminium, ferrous, stainless steel and copper scrap were considered, and the importance of aluminium scrap quality...

  19. Turboelectric Aircraft Drive Key Performance Parameters and Functional Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Ralph H.; Brown, Gerald V.; Felder, James L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose specific power and efficiency as the key performance parameters for a turboelectric aircraft power system and investigate their impact on the overall aircraft. Key functional requirements are identified that impact the power system design. Breguet range equations for a base aircraft and a turboelectric aircraft are found. The benefits and costs that may result from the turboelectric system are enumerated. A break-even analysis is conducted to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency that can preserve the range, initial weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the base aircraft.

  20. Route Selection by Tankers(Dirty) at the Suez Canal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Risto Laulajainen

    2007-01-01

    <正>The Suez Canal,attached route alternatives with traffic flows and areas are described and theoretical break-even points derived. Logistically,route selection depends on relative distances,the level of spot rates and canal dues,the sensitivity to change growing with rising rate levels.The connection is diluted by the canal /pipeline owners’ price differentiation and the charterers’ capital costs;interest on cargo and change of its value during transit.Ship-owners are largely neutral to route choice as long as rates and main cost items are directly related to distance.

  1. Fusion energy in an inertial electrostatic confinement device using a magnetically shielded grid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Theory for a gridded inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion system is presented, which shows a net energy gain is possible if the grid is magnetically shielded from ion impact. A simplified grid geometry is studied, consisting of two negatively biased coaxial current-carrying rings, oriented such that their opposing magnetic fields produce a spindle cusp. Our analysis indicates that better than break-even performance is possible even in a deuterium-deuterium system at bench-top scales. The proposed device has the unusual property that it can avoid both the cusp losses of traditional magnetic fusion systems and the grid losses of traditional IEC configurations

  2. THE ANALYSIS OF PROFITABILITY INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of profitability indicators is an activity that should preoccupy all companies. Profitabilitydoes not mean only obtaining profit. A company is competitive if the ownership equity grows (the shareholders’money, the company has a profit that is comparable to that of other companies from the same area of activity,has a positive cash flow and the employees are satisfied with their salaries. Multiple indicators are used tomeasure performance: profit, commercial, economic, financial, investment rate of return, breakeven point,economic value added, net operating result.

  3. Review on Recent Developments in Laser Driven Inertial Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    M. Ghoranneviss; Salar Elahi, A.

    2014-01-01

    Discovery of the laser in 1960 hopes were based on using its very high energy concentration within very short pulses of time and very small volumes for energy generation from nuclear fusion as “Inertial Fusion Energy” (IFE), parallel to the efforts to produce energy from “Magnetic Confinement Fusion” (MCF), by burning deuterium-tritium (DT) in high temperature plasmas to helium. Over the years the fusion gain was increased by a number of magnitudes and has reached nearly break-even after nume...

  4. Engineering analysis of requirements for a muon-catalyzed fusion electrical-generating system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engineering analyses have been conducted to investigate baseline requirements for the muon catalysis efficiency necessary (fusions per muon) to render a muon-catalyzed fusion, electrical power-generating station feasible. Catalysis efficiency requirements are examined in terms of energy break-even (scientific, engineering, commercial) definitions and the efficiencies of various components in the overall system. Benefits associated with recycling the scattered portions of the muon-producing accelerator beam, accelerator thermal energy loss, and various thermal losses in the system are addressed. These engineering analyses delineate technical areas where research and development may be needed to improve overall economic viability of muon-catalyzed fusion

  5. Progress in inertial fusion research at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Paper No. IAEA-CN-38/B-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Inertial Confinement Fusion Program is reviewed. Experiments using the Helios CO2 laser system delivering up to 6 kJ on target are described. Because breakeven energy estimates for laser drivers of 1 μm and above have risen and there is a need for CO2 experiments in the tens-of-kilojoule regime as soon as practical, a first phase of Antares construction is now directed toward completion of two of the six original modules in 1983. These modules are designed to deliver 40 kJ of CO2 laser light on target

  6. Evolutionary Stages of e-Tailors and Retailers: Firm Value Determinants Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae K.; Heegoo Kang; Hoe K. Lee; Lee, Han S.

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the evolutionary stages of pure e-tailers, click & mortar (C&M) and brick & mortar (B&M) retailers for three points of time: June 1999, June 2000, and June 2001. To evaluate the dynamic stages of e-tailing business as an innovative venture, we propose four stages: exploration, breakeven, growth, and maturity. The stages are measured by the impact of revenue and income on the firm value, and a regression model is adopted to formulate the model. To empirically examine the stages...

  7. Long-Run Impact of Corn-Based Ethanol on the Grain, Oilseed, and Livestock Sectors: A Preliminary Assessment, The

    OpenAIRE

    Amani Elobeid; Simla Tokgoz; Dermot J. Hayes; Bruce A. Babcock; Chad E. Hart

    2006-01-01

    The ongoing growth of corn-based ethanol production raises some fundamental questions about what impact continued growth will have on U.S. and world agriculture. Estimates of the long-run potential for ethanol production can be made by calculating the corn price at which the incentive to expand ethanol production disappears. Under current ethanol tax policy, if the prices of crude oil, natural gas, and distillers grains stay at current levels, then the break-even corn price is $4.05 per bushe...

  8. Inertial confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews the present status of the available key technologies for implosion experiments as regards the energy driver, pellet fabrication, diagnostics of dense and hot plasmas, and numerical simulations. It is shown that the development of the necessary conditions is well advanced so that it is now possible to proceed to the next step in the achievement of ignition and break-even. Various design studies for inertial confinement fusion reactors are also reviewed; from these studies it has become clear that inertial confinement fusion and magnetic confinement fusion are technologically complementary systems for future fusion reactors. (author). 172 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  9. The design study of the JT-60SU device. No. 1. Objectives and outline of JT-60SU program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research in JT-60 tokamak made significant progresses in achievement of break-even condition on Oct., 1996 and contribution to ITER physics R and D. The Atomic Energy Commission of Japan defined 3rd phase basic program of fusion research and development on June 1992 in which advanced and supplementary researches for the experimental reactor are promoted as well as the experimental reactor program to achieve ignition and long burn. The JT-60SU is designed to address these advanced and supplementary researches by modifying JT-60U. In this report, objectives and outline of JT-60SU are described. (author)

  10. Fast reactor core concepts to improve transmutation efficiency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fast Reactor (FR) core concepts to improve transmutation efficiency were conducted. A heterogeneous MA loaded core was designed based on the 1000MWe-ABR breakeven core. The heterogeneous MA loaded core with Zr-H loaded moderated targets had a better transmutation performance than the MA homogeneous loaded core. The annular pellet rod design was proposed as one of the possible design options for the MA target. It was shown that using annular pellet MA rods mitigates the self-shielding effect in the moderated target so as to enhance the transmutation rate

  11. Influence of four-end HTM (high temperature membrane) parameters on the thermodynamic and economic characteristics of a supercritical power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An oxy-type power plant was analyzed in this paper, equipped with a hard-coal-fired pulverized fuel boiler, a steam turbine, a CO2 capture unit and an ASU (air separation unit) with a four-end-type high-temperature membrane. The gross electrical power of the plant is 600 MW; the live and reheated steam parameters are 650 °C/30 MPa and 670 °C/6 MPa, respectively. In this paper, computations were performed for three air compressor pressure ratios (β = 15; 20; 30) and a range of oxygen recovery rate (50% ≤ R ≤ ∼99%). The net efficiency of the oxy-type plant reached 38.7% compared to 46.5% for the reference plant. The equation to calculate a membrane area was derived in this paper. The defining dependence relationship between the R and β was also derived. The total investment costs for the ASU and the entire plant was determined as a function of R and β. Similarly, the break-even price of electricity and its individual components were determined. The break-even price for R ≈ 98% and β = 15 is 1.73 EUR/MWh higher than for the reference plant (63.14 EUR/MWh). In the conducted risk analysis, a Monte Carlo method was used. With a probability of 50%, the break-even price for the oxy-type and reference plants are ≤67.05 EUR/MWh and ≤69.98 EUR/MWh, respectively. - Highlights: • Analysis of a power plant with a “four-end” HTM for oxygen production was made. • The equation to calculate the HT membrane area was derived in this paper. • Break-even price of electricity of analyzed and reference plants were determined. • Risk analysis of the analyzed and reference plants was made. • Comparison of all results for the analyzed and reference plants were made

  12. Value Chain Analysis and Financial Viability of Agro-Processing Industries in Himachal Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, K. D.; Pathania, M.S.; Lal, Harbans

    2010-01-01

    The paper has studied the structure and extent of value addition in different agro-processing units in Himachal Pradesh. It has also examined the financial viability of agro-processing industries in the state. The break-even analysis has shown enough leverage for processing units to stay in the business even at low capacity utilization. The extent of value addition has been about 53 per cent in the processing sector. The maximum value addition has been observed in fruits/vegetable processing ...

  13. Fundamentals for remote structural health monitoring of wind turbine blades - a preproject. Annex A. Cost-benefit for embedded sensors in large wind turbine blades

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.G.; Lading, Lars

    2002-01-01

    This report contains the results of a cost-benefit analysis for the use of embed-ded sensors for damage detection in large wind turbine blades - structural health monitoring - (in connection with remote surveillance) of large wind turbine placedoff-shore. The total operating costs of a three......-bladed 2MW turbine placed offshore either without sensors or with sensors are compared. The price of a structural health monitoring system of a price of 100 000 DKK (per tur-bine) results in a break-eventime of about 3 years. For a price of 300 000 DKK the break-even time is about 8 years. However, the...

  14. The Economic Benefits of Child Safety Seat Misuse Reduction Programs and Design Improvements for Children in Rear Seats

    OpenAIRE

    Zaloshnja, E.; Miller, T R

    2007-01-01

    This study finds that the break-even point for child safety seat misuse reduction programs and vehicle and seat design improvements is $121 a year per child seat in use, annual misuse reduction program cost is $6, and Lower Anchors and Tethers for Children (LATCH) cost $13 annually per seat in use (in 2004 dollars). To estimate societal injury cost savings we compared tow-away crash outcomes for children ages 0–4, traveling in child seats in the back of passenger vehicles in 1984–1986 vs. 199...

  15. Developments in production of synthetic fuels out of Estonian shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarna, Indrek

    2010-09-15

    Estonia is still the world leader in utilization of oil shale. Enefit has cooperated with Outotec to develop a new generation of solid heat carrier technology - Enefit280, which is more efficient, environmentally friendlier and has higher unit capacity. Breakeven price of oil produced in Enefit280 process is competitive with conventional oils. The new technology has advantages that allow easy adaptation to other oil shales around the world. Hydrotreated shale oil liquids have similar properties to crude oil cuts. Design for a shale oil hydrotreater unit can use process concepts, hardware components, and catalysts commercially proven in petroleum refining services.

  16. Focusing experiments with light ion diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of recent experimental and theoretical work at Sandia Laboratories on magnetically insulated single stage ion diodes for inertial confinement fusion experiments is presented. The production, focusing, and numerical simulation of a 0.5 TW annular proton beam using the Proto I dual transmission line generator is described. The modular magnetically insulated ion diode for the Hydra generator is also described along with recent experimental results. A brief description of how an array of modular diodes similar to the Hydra magnetically insulated diode could be used on the EBFA I generator for breakeven fusion experiments is presented

  17. Sun adds steps to strategy for increased income

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Co. Inc. has spelled out a new strategic program designed to boost operating income by about $150 million/year starting next year. At the same time, the company reported a third quarter 1992 loss of $320 million due to writedowns associated with implementation of the new strategy and other activities. Operating income for the quarter was $22 million, compared with breakeven in the 1991 third quarter. The key to Sun's new strategy is hinged to growth in its value added business lines: chemicals, lubricants, and transportation, along with branded gasoline marketing in the U.S. Northeast

  18. The physics and engineering of Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcator C-Mod is a new tokamak under construction at M.I.T. that promises to play an important and flexible role in the international fusion research effort. The physics and engineering features of the tokamak are described, giving an overview of the machine and plasma configurations. On the basis of empirical scaling laws, we predict the plasma confinement performance to be near DT equivalent breakeven. The planned experimental program is addressed to many of the vital physics questions still uncertain in high-performance tokamak plasma behaviour as well as to the investigation of innovative approaches to tokamak improvement. 17 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs

  19. Calculation of profitability in computer tomography (CT)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The comments do not refer to a specific type of whole body computer tomography which made it necessary to base the calculations on mean values with regard to both initial costs and operating costs. The calculation of the receipts was based on the resulting costs, mean long-term utilization of the unit and on a reasonable period of amortization. The model calculation indicates that the break-even point is reached with 1,920 annual examinations and a five-year amortization period. (orig.) 891 MG/orig. 892 MB

  20. Customer sited PV -- U.S. Markets developed from state policies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The customer-sited PV market in the United States depends on state policies emerging from electric utility industry restructuring. These policies, most of which have appeared since 1996, reduce both the first cost and improve operating benefits. This analysis determines the breakeven turnkey cost of a PV system, from the customer ownership perspective, on a state by state basis. The results of this work are used by industry to target high-value markets and by policy makers to identify options which will result in the greatest economic and market development. Still intangible external PV benefits, such as environmental value, are also analyzed and gauged against existing/potential policy actions

  1. Amorphous silicon batch process cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the development of baseline manufacturing cost data to assist PVMaT monitoring teams in assessing current and future subcontracts, which an emphasis on commercialization and production. A process for the manufacture of a single-junction, large-area, a Si module was modeled using an existing Research Triangle Institute (RTI) computer model. The model estimates a required, or breakeven, price for the module based on its production process and the financial structure of the company operating the process. Sufficient detail on cost drivers is presented so the relationship of the process features and business characteristics can be related to the estimated required price

  2. Fusion energy in an inertial electrostatic confinement device using a magnetically shielded grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedditch, John, E-mail: john.hedditch@sydney.edu.au; Bowden-Reid, Richard, E-mail: rbow3948@physics.usyd.edu.au; Khachan, Joe, E-mail: joe.khachan@sydney.edu.au [School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Whales 2006 (Australia)

    2015-10-15

    Theory for a gridded inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion system is presented, which shows a net energy gain is possible if the grid is magnetically shielded from ion impact. A simplified grid geometry is studied, consisting of two negatively biased coaxial current-carrying rings, oriented such that their opposing magnetic fields produce a spindle cusp. Our analysis indicates that better than break-even performance is possible even in a deuterium-deuterium system at bench-top scales. The proposed device has the unusual property that it can avoid both the cusp losses of traditional magnetic fusion systems and the grid losses of traditional IEC configurations.

  3. Potential benefits of thermal energy storage in the proposed Twin Cities district heating-cogeneration system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, C.F.

    1979-10-01

    A new, large, cogeneration-district heating system has been proposed for the Twin Cities area, using hot water in a closed-loop system. The proposed system, as described by Studsvik Energiteknik AB of Sweden, does not employ thermal energy storage (TES). Four cases have been developed, describing system configurations which would employ TES, to evaluate the potential benefits of incorporating annual-cycle TES into the Twin Cities system. The potential benefits are found to be substantial, confirming results of earlier, generic studies of aquifer TES. The reference (Studsvik) system employs oil-fired boilers to supplement cogenerated heat, for handling peak loads and providing standby reserve. TES can serve the same function, with net energy savings in spite of heat losses during storage, by making it possible to operate the cogeneration equipment at higher capacity factors. Coal replaces oil as the fuel consumed. Energy savings of the reference system are impressive; energy savings with TES are 2 to 22% better. Capital cost requirements for boilers, cogeneration equipment, and pipelines are reduced by $66 to $258 million. The breakeven capital cost of TES is estimated to range from $43 to $76 per kilowatt peak thermal input to or withdrawal from aquifer TES. A factor in evaluating the breakeven operating cost of TES is the $14 to $31 million per year saving in cost of fuel. Abatement of air pollution and thermal pollution are concomitant benefits.

  4. Fuel: a computer program for systematic estimation of nuclear fuel cycle cost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A computer program FUEL was developed that calculates the fuel cycle cost in chronological order. The results are also given for every component of the cost such as: uranium, enrichment, fabrication cost, etc. The logic of the program is described. The fuel cost is divided into two main components: the depreciation which is the difference between the initial and final investment in the fuel and the carrying charges which include investment return, insurance and taxes. FUEL has been run on IBM 370/135 DOS/VS system for a PWR reactor rated at 620MWe net, with technical data from a typical Westinghouse reactor, and economic assumption updated to the beginning of 1975. The data and assumptions are summarized in Table 1. Two typical problems of the nuclear fuel cycle were analyzed: tails enrichment that yields a minimum nuclear fuel cycle cost and economic break-even point for reprocessing. With the data presented in the work the optimum tails enrichment is 0.20% (which is the toll tails enrichment used today); the break-even point for reprocessing is at 81 $/KguU (this cost does not include shipping and reconversion costs). (B.G.)

  5. The economics of heat mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A generalized economic model was developed to predict the break-even price of HDR generated electricity. Important parameters include: resource quality-average geothermal gradient (degrees C/km) and well depth, reservoir performance-effective productivity, flow, impedance, and lifetime (thermal drawdown rate), cost components-drilling, reservoir formation, and power plant costs, and economic factors-discount and interest rates, taxes, etc. Detailed cost correlations based on historical data and results of other studies are presented for drilling, stimulation, and power plant costs. Under a reasonable set of assumptions regarding reservoir impedance, accessible rock volumes and surface areas, and mass flow rates (to limit thermal drawdown rates to about 10 degrees C per year), predictions for HDR-produced electricity from a 50 MWe U.S.-based power plant result in competitive break-even prices in the range of 5 to 9 cents/kWhe (constant 1989 $) for resources having average gradients above 50 degrees C/km. Lower gradient areas require improved reservoir performance and/or lower well drilling costs. In this paper, these generalized model results are compared to the results of several published economic assessments

  6. U.S. reference paper on the potential and limitations of uranium to meet the anticipated needs of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A framework is provided to analyze the interrelationship between uranium availability and the deployment of fast breeder and converter reactors. Included are models which can be used to estimate the uranium price for economic parity between breeders and converters, the dates for economical commercialization of fast breeders, and the effect of breeder deployment on uranium availability. Factors such as energy demand, resources and economics which are dominant in decisions as to potential breeder commercialization are discussed. Included are examples which show that breeder breakeven introduction date could fall between the year 2000 and well beyond 2025. A principal conclusion is that the break-even introduction date is very sensitive to uncertainty in the estimate of increase in capital costs of the breeder relative to the LWR, the estimates of power demand, and the estimate of the uranium resource base available at less than $130/kg (e.g. consideration of the IUREP estimates of speculative resources which if available doubles or triples the resource base)

  7. Sludge digestion instead of aerobic stabilisation - a cost benefit analysis based on experiences in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretzschel, Oliver; Schmitt, Theo G; Hansen, Joachim; Siekmann, Klaus; Jakob, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    As a consequence of a worldwide increase of energy costs, the efficient use of sewage sludge as a renewable energy resource must be considered, even for smaller wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) with design capacities between 10,000 and 50,000 population equivalent (PE). To find the lower limit for an economical conversion of an aerobic stabilisation plant into an anaerobic stabilisation plant, we derived cost functions for specific capital costs and operating cost savings. With these tools, it is possible to evaluate if it would be promising to further investigate refitting aerobic plants into plants that produce biogas. By comparing capital costs with operation cost savings, a break-even point for process conversion could be determined. The break-even point varies depending on project specific constraints and assumptions related to future energy and operation costs and variable interest rates. A 5% increase of energy and operation costs leads to a cost efficient conversion for plants above 7,500 PE. A conversion of WWTPs results in different positive effects on energy generation and plant operations: increased efficiency, energy savings, and on-site renewable power generation by digester gas which can be used in the plant. Also, the optimisation of energy efficiency results in a reduction of primary energy consumption. PMID:24473316

  8. Framework of pricing a revolver loan in the case of dependent defaults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Yuan-rui; YAO Xiang-hua; ZHANG Xue-yu

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the main characteristics of correlative clients and the revolver loan and reduced form models for the correlative clients A and B in real-life. This is done by decomposing the default intensity into specific default intensity and homogenous default intensity. We also use a mathematical formula of the default joint distribution function and the marginal distribution function in the physical measure to deduce the martingale measure. The modeling idea on pricing the revolver loan with client A is presented by applying reduced form model. Through calculating the cost and income fund flows under the martingale measure, the framework of a "break-even" pricing model is established. The conclusion is that the interest rate of a revolver loan for client A on the "break-even" point is not related to the maximum authorized amount and the drawdown amount at that time under some assumptions, but only rests with credit rating and homogenous default intensity of client A and B as well as loan term of client A.

  9. Economic and thermal feasibility of multi stage flash desalination plant with brine–feed mixing and cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improving the performance of MSF (multi stage flash) desalination plants is a major challenge for desalination industry. High feed temperature in summer shortens the evaporation range of MSF plants and limits their yield. Installing a cooler at the feed intake expands the evaporation range of MSF plants and increases their yield. Adding a cooler and a mixing chamber increases the capital and operational costs of MSF plants. This paper presents thermal and economic analysis of installing a feed cooler at the plant intake. The profit of selling the additionally produced water must cover the cost of the cooling system. The selling prices for a reasonable breakeven depend on the selected cooling temperature. The cost of installing coolers capable of maintaining feed–brine mixture temperatures of 18–20 °C shows breakeven selling prices of 0.5–0.9 $/m3. These prices fall within the current range of potable water selling prices. - Highlights: • Thermo-economic analysis for MSF plant with brine mixing and cooling is presented. • Analysis is based on first and second laws of thermodynamics. • The profit gained from producing additional water covers the cooling cost. • The suggested modification is a promising technique for plants in hot climates

  10. The optimal vertical structure in the electricity industry when the incumbent has a cost advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies how the vertical structure of the electricity industry affects the social welfare when the incumbent has a cost advantage in generation relative to the entrants. The model consists of a generation sector and a transmission sector. In the generation sector the incumbent and entrants compete in a Cournot fashion taking as given the access charge to the transmission network set in advance by the regulator to maximize the social welfare. Two vertical structures, integration and separation, are considered. Under vertical separation the transmission network is established as an organization independent of every generator, whereas under vertical integration it is a part of the incumbent's organization. The optimal vertical structure is shown to depend on the number of entrants. If the number of entrants is smaller than a certain threshold, vertical separation is superior in welfare to vertical integration, and vice versa. This is because the choice of vertical structure produces a trade-off in the effects on competition promotion and production efficiency. If a break-even constraint is imposed in the transmission sector, however, vertical integration is shown to be always superior in welfare. - Highlights: • We examine the optimal vertical structure in the electricity industry. • We model a generation sector in which the incumbent has a cost advantage. • A trade-off between production efficiency and competition promotion occurs. • The optimal vertical structure depends on the number of entrants. • Vertical integration is always superior if a break-even constraint is imposed

  11. Coastdown in light water reactors as a fuel management strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improved uranium utilization by means of extended burnup via routine end-of-cycle coastdown has been analyzed, with a specific focus on pressurided water reactors. Both computer and simple analytic models have been developed to determine the optimal coastdown length. Coastdown has been compared with the use of higher fuel-enrichment to achieve comparable burnup values. Temperature and Power coastdown modes were analyzed and changes in the plant thermodynamic efficiency determined. Effects on fuel integrity due to coastdown were examined using a fuel reliability code (SPEAR). Finally the effects on coastdown duration of major parameters involved in charaterizing reactor operation and the economic enviroment were examined. It was found that natural uranium savings up to 7% could be achieved in a typical application by the use of routine pre-planned coast down up to the economic optimun. If coastdown is carried out all the way up to the economic breakeven point yellowcake savings sum up to 16%. Coastdown is substantially more effective than increasing enrichment to extend cycle length without coastdown. Thermodynamic efficiency does not change appreciably during coastdown, a circumstance which greatly simplifies modeling. Coastdown was found to have no statistically significant effect on predicted fuel failure rates. Finally, simple back-of-the evenlope analytic models were found to give an excellent estimate of coastdown duration to both the optimum and breakeven points, and to correctly track the functional behavior induced by all major variables

  12. Business administration of PET facilities. A cost analysis of three facilities utilizing delivery FDG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PET (positron emission tomography) has been proved to be a powerful imaging tool in clinical oncology. The number of PET facilities in Japan has remarkably increased over the last decade. Furthermore, the approval of delivery fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in 2005 resulted in a tremendous expansion of the PET institutions without a cyclotron facility. The aim of this study was to conduct a cost analysis of PET institutions that utilized delivery FDG. Three PET facilities using delivery FDG were investigated about the costs for PET service. Fixed costs included depreciation costs for construction and medical equipments such as positron camera. Variable costs consisted of costs for medical materials including delivery FDG. The break-even point was analyzed in each of three institutions. In the three hospitals (A, B and C), the annual number of PET scan was 1,591, 1,637 and 914, while cost per scan was accounted as 110,262 yen, 111,091 yen, and 134,192 yen, respectively. The break-even point was calculated to be 2,583, 2,679 and 2,081, respectively. PET facilities utilizing delivery FDG seemed to have difficulty in business administration. Such a situation suggests the possibility that the current supply of PET facilities might exceed actual demand for the service. The efficiency of resource allocation should be taken into consideration in the future health service researches on PET. (author)

  13. Safety Aspects of Thorium Fuel in Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    While detrimental to the breeding performance, use of thorium (Th) in Fast Reactors (FRs) has certain positive aspects: in principle, it has better thermal properties and irradiation performance than uranium (U)-based fuels, and it increases the potential burning rate of legacy transuranic waste for a burner design. The impact of thorium on the top-level operational and safety characteristics of a sodium-cooled transuranic-burner FR design is the focus of this paper. Different fuel cycle burning schemes are considered, including the development of a breakeven design to cover the long-term transition to a self-sufficient cycle. For completeness, a comparison with the counterpart U-based cores is also given. Reactivity feedback coefficients and other parameters are employed to predict the impact on the reactor passive-safety features of the various fuel cycle options. Reactivity decomposition techniques are employed to show the key contributors to the reactivity effects of the different fuels. The results show significant safety improvements fostered by implementing thorium fuel, with notable reductions in the reactivity insertion in case of core voiding, ~2$ for the burner designs and ~6$ for the breakeven design (which shows overall negative voids), while preserving a relatively simple core configuration. (author)

  14. The Economic Feasibility of Conventional and Organic Farm Production in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Pažek

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was the comparison of economic feasibility of most common conventional and organic farm production in Slovenia. The methodology of an integrated deterministic technologic-economic simulation system KARSIM 1.0 (DSM application for cost analysis and decision-making support on farms is described in this article. The direct simulation model result is an individual conventional or organic farm product enterprise budget. The DSM consists of 148 deterministic production simulation models that enable different types of costs and financial feasibility calculations for conventional and organic production and food processing. The developed simulation model enables economical evaluation of some most important economic parameters (breakeven price, breakeven yield, financial result, total revenue and coefficient of economics. In conventional farming system the most suitable farm product is potato (Ke = 1.52, followed by milk and maize production (Ke = 1.10, wheat production (Ke = 1.06 and suckling cows production (Ke = 1.02. The husked spelt production is in conventional farming system economically infeasible (Ke= 0.82. In organic farming system the most feasible farm product is husked spelt (Ke = 1.56, followed by potato (Ke = 1.15, milk (Ke = 1.04 and suckling cows production (Ke = 1.03. Maize (Ke = 0.90 and wheat production (Ke = 0.83 are economically infeasible.

  15. HVDC power transmission technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauth, R.L.; Tatro, P.J.; Railing, B.D. [New England Power Service Co., Westborough, MA (United States); Johnson, B.K.; Stewart, J.R. [Power Technologies, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States); Fink, J.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an assessment of the national utility system`s needs for electric transmission during the period 1995-2020 that could be met by future reduced-cost HVDC systems. The assessment was to include an economic evaluation of HVDC as a means for meeting those needs as well as a comparison with competing technologies such as ac transmission with and without Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers. The role of force commutated dc converters was to be assumed where appropriate. The assessment begins by identifying the general needs for transmission in the U.S. in the context of a future deregulated power industry. The possible roles for direct current transmission are then postulated in terms of representative scenarios. A few of the scenarios are illustrated with the help of actual U.S. system examples. non-traditional applications as well as traditional applications such as long lines and asynchronous interconnections are discussed. The classical ``break-even distance`` concept for comparing HVDC and ac lines is used to assess the selected scenarios. The impact of reduced-cost converters is reflected in terms of the break-even distance. This report presents a comprehensive review of the functional benefits of HVDC transmission and updated cost data for both ac and dc system components. It also provides some provocative thoughts on how direct current transmission might be applied to better utilize and expand our nation`s increasingly stressed transmission assets.

  16. Should we drill in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge? An economic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides model-based estimates of the value of oil in Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). The best estimate of economically recoverable oil in the federal portion of ANWR is 7.06 billion barrels of oil, a quantity roughly equal to US consumption in 2005. The oil is worth $374 billion ($2005), but would cost $123 billion to extract and bring to market. The difference, $251 billion, would generate social benefits through industry rents of $90 billion as well as state and federal tax revenues of $37 billion and $124 billion, respectively. A contribution of the paper is the decomposition of the benefits between industry rents and tax revenue for a range of price and quantity scenarios. But drilling and development in ANWR would also bring about environmental costs. These costs would consist largely of lost nonuse values for the protected status of ANWR's natural environment. Rather than estimate these costs and conduct a benefit-cost analysis, we calculate the costs that would generate a breakeven result. We find that the average breakeven willingness to accept compensation to allow drilling in ANWR ranges from $582 to $1782 per person, with a mean estimate of $1141. (author)

  17. Should we drill in the Arctic National Wildlife Refuge? An economic perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides model-based estimates of the value of oil in Alaska's Arctic National Wildlife Refuge (ANWR). The best estimate of economically recoverable oil in the federal portion of ANWR is 7.06 billion barrels of oil, a quantity roughly equal to US consumption in 2005. The oil is worth $374 billion ($2005), but would cost $123 billion to extract and bring to market. The difference, $251 billion, would generate social benefits through industry rents of $90 billion as well as state and federal tax revenues of $37 billion and $124 billion, respectively. A contribution of the paper is the decomposition of the benefits between industry rents and tax revenue for a range of price and quantity scenarios. But drilling and development in ANWR would also bring about environmental costs. These costs would consist largely of lost nonuse values for the protected status of ANWR's natural environment. Rather than estimate these costs and conduct a benefit-cost analysis, we calculate the costs that would generate a breakeven result. We find that the average breakeven willingness to accept compensation to allow drilling in ANWR ranges from $582 to $1782 per person, with a mean estimate of $1141

  18. Production of Smokeless Briquette Charcoals from Wet Cake Waste of Ethanol Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walairat Uttamaprakrom

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of this research was to investigate proximate analysis and heating value of wet cake waste from ethanol industry to be used as alternative fuels by carbonization at 400, 450, 500 and 550 degrees, vary times 30, 45, 60 and 90 minutes in oxygen-limited conditions. The maximum yields and fixed carbon volume were observed to be evolving at 500c, 60 minutes. At condition has 1.17% moisture, 34.42% ash, 16.57% volatile matter and 47.84% fixed carbon respectively.Then bring wet cake waste to briquette charcoals by hot and cold compressed for utilization in industry and commercial. Found that heating value of hot and cold compressed were 20,257.25 KJ/kg and 24,790.21 KJ/kg,which are higher heating value after carbonization.There are also cost-benefit and cost-effectiveness analysis, hot compressed cost 0.17 baht/piece, total production at breakeven 704,225 pieces and payback period of 0.18 years, while cold compressed cost 0.3175 baht/piece, total production at breakeven 341,297 pieces and payback period of 0.17 years.

  19. The cogeneration potential of the sugar industry in Vietnam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vietnam produces about 15 million tons of sugarcane per year and about five mt of bagasse. There is the potential for cogeneration using bagasse, which can also help overcome power shortages in the country. This paper analyses the potential for cogeneration from the sugar industry in Vietnam under three different scenarios and finds that between 100 and 300 megawatts of power-generating capacity could be supported by the bagasse generated from sugar mills, depending on the technology considered for sugar mills and cogeneration and the possibility of renovation of the existing mills. The paper also assesses the expense of cogeneration and finds it to be a cost-effective option for all types of sugar mill. It is found that the cost savings from cogeneration would more than offset the cost of introducing cogeneration in sugar mills with inefficient cane processing technologies. Sugar mills with modern technologies would have a significant amount of excess power and most of these plants would break-even if they sold excess power at around 4.5 cents per kilowatt hour. The break-even cost and the average production cost are sensitive to the investment cost assumptions. The paper thus suggests that cogeneration from the sugar industry is an attractive option for investors in existing mills or new sugar mills alike. (Author)

  20. A survey of economic indices of plastic wastes recycling industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Hassanpour

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous small recycling units of plastic wastes have been currently constructed heedless to study of economic indices in Iran. Pay attention to the prominent performance of the industrial sector for economic development and its priority for fortifying other sectors to implement job opportunities, survey of the economic indices beckon the stakeholders and industries owners. The main objective of this study was a survey of economic indices in small recycling unit of plastic wastes. Therefore, the practice of computing the economic indices was performed using empirical equations, professional experiences and observations in site of the industry in terms of sustainability performance. Current study had shown the indices values such as value-added percent, profit, annual income, breakeven point, value-added, output value, data value, variable cost of good unit and production costs were found 62%, $ 366558, $ 364292.6, $ 100.34, $ 423451.25, $ 255335.75, $ 678787, $ 389.65 and $ 314494.4 respectively. The breakeven point about 15.93%, the time of return on investment about 1.12 (13.7 months were represented that this industry slightly needs long time to afford the employed capital and starts making a profit.

  1. A study on economic viability of life extension of nuclear power plants in Korea : a case study of Kori no.1 unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study would assess the viability of life extension of nuclear power plants, specially Kori no.1 unit, as an economical electric source in the present long-term expansion planning of generating units in Korea. For the purpose of this study, replacement power cost would be evaluated by using probabilistic simulation method, and then break-even refurbishment costs would be calculated by means of levelized generation cost comparison, and compared with reference cost to assess the economic viability of Kori no.1 unit life extension. Under the baseline scenario, break-even overnight refurbishment cost range is appeared as from about 800/kWe in the case of replacing PWR-1000MWe to 2,000/kWe in the case of replacing coal-700MWe, being about 1.4 sim 3.5 times of reference cost. Therefore, absent major technological breakthroughs making present generating options obsolete, life extension of Kori no.1 unit should be the most economical option in the present expansion planning of generating unite in Korea

  2. The influence of economic parameters on the optimal values of the design variables of a combined cycle plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents the analysis of the influence of fuel price variation on the optimal values of the design variables of the steam part of a combined cycle plant. The investigated system was a power plant with a triple-pressure heat recovery steam generator and extraction-condensation steam turbine. Fourteen design variables for the steam part were identified. The variables that were optimised were the pressure levels of the working medium in the steam part of the system, and characteristic differences of temperatures in the heat recovery steam generator. Thanks to the development of an optimising programme, based on the genetic algorithms theory, it was possible to find an optimal solution. The indices of economic efficiency, in the form of the break-even price of electricity, were chosen as the objective function in the optimisations. The results of economic optimisations were compared with the results of the optimisation, where the electric efficiency was the objective function. This paper includes an analysis of the sensitivity of the economic objective function to failures in the adherence of the optimal values of decision variables. This analysis allowed the selection of variables such that a failure results in the highest increase of the break-even price of electricity. (author)

  3. Sustainable Cost Models for mHealth at Scale: Modeling Program Data from m4RH Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily R Mangone

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that mobile phone health interventions ("mHealth" can improve health behaviors and outcomes and are critically important in low-resource, low-access settings. However, the majority of mHealth programs in developing countries fail to reach scale. One reason may be the challenge of developing financially sustainable programs. The goal of this paper is to explore strategies for mHealth program sustainability and develop cost-recovery models for program implementers using 2014 operational program data from Mobile for Reproductive Health (m4RH, a national text-message (SMS based health communication service in Tanzania.We delineated 2014 m4RH program costs and considered three strategies for cost-recovery for the m4RH program: user pay-for-service, SMS cost reduction, and strategic partnerships. These inputs were used to develop four different cost-recovery scenarios. The four scenarios leveraged strategic partnerships to reduce per-SMS program costs and create per-SMS program revenue and varied the structure for user financial contribution. Finally, we conducted break-even and uncertainty analyses to evaluate the costs and revenues of these models at the 2014 user volume (125,320 and at any possible break-even volume.In three of four scenarios, costs exceeded revenue by $94,596, $34,443, and $84,571 at the 2014 user volume. However, these costs represented large reductions (54%, 83%, and 58%, respectively from the 2014 program cost of $203,475. Scenario four, in which the lowest per-SMS rate ($0.01 per SMS was negotiated and users paid for all m4RH SMS sent or received, achieved a $5,660 profit at the 2014 user volume. A Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis demonstrated that break-even points were driven by user volume rather than variations in program costs.These results reveal that breaking even was only probable when all SMS costs were transferred to users and the lowest per-SMS cost was negotiated with telecom partners

  4. Are State-Sponsored New Radiation Therapy Facilities Economically Viable in Low- and Middle-Income Countries?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Niloy R., E-mail: nrdatta@yahoo.com [Centre for Radiation Oncology, KSA-KSB, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau (Switzerland); Samiei, Massoud [Consultant, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Bodis, Stephan [Centre for Radiation Oncology, KSA-KSB, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau, Switzerland and Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: The economic viability of establishing a state-funded radiation therapy (RT) infrastructure in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in accordance with the World Bank definition has been assessed through computation of a return on investment (ROI). Methods and Materials: Of the 139 LMICs, 100 were evaluated according to their RT facilities, gross national income (GNI) per capita, and employment/population ratio. The assumption was an investment of US$5 million for a basic RT center able to treat 1000 patients annually. The national breakeven points and percentage of ROI (%ROI) were calculated according to the GNI per capita and patient survival rates of 10% to 50% at 2 years. It was assumed that 50% of these patients would be of working age and that, if employed and able to work after treatment, they would contribute to the country's GNI for at least 2 years. The cumulative GNI after attaining the breakeven point until the end of the 15-year lifespan of the teletherapy unit was calculated to estimate the %ROI. The recurring and overhead costs were assumed to vary from 5.5% to 15% of the capital investment. Results: The %ROI was dependent on the GNI per capita, employment/population ratio and 2-year patient survival (all P<.001). Accordingly, none of the low-income countries would attain an ROI. If 50% of the patients survived for 2 years, the %ROI in the lower-middle and upper-middle income countries could range from 0% to 159.9% and 11.2% to 844.7%, respectively. Patient user fees to offset recurring and overhead costs could vary from “nil” to US$750, depending on state subsidies. Conclusions: Countries with a greater GNI per capita, higher employment/population ratio, and better survival could achieve a faster breakeven point, resulting in a higher %ROI. Additional factors such as user fees have also been considered. These can be tailored to the patient's ability to pay to cover the recurring costs. Certain pragmatic steps that could

  5. Are State-Sponsored New Radiation Therapy Facilities Economically Viable in Low- and Middle-Income Countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The economic viability of establishing a state-funded radiation therapy (RT) infrastructure in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in accordance with the World Bank definition has been assessed through computation of a return on investment (ROI). Methods and Materials: Of the 139 LMICs, 100 were evaluated according to their RT facilities, gross national income (GNI) per capita, and employment/population ratio. The assumption was an investment of US$5 million for a basic RT center able to treat 1000 patients annually. The national breakeven points and percentage of ROI (%ROI) were calculated according to the GNI per capita and patient survival rates of 10% to 50% at 2 years. It was assumed that 50% of these patients would be of working age and that, if employed and able to work after treatment, they would contribute to the country's GNI for at least 2 years. The cumulative GNI after attaining the breakeven point until the end of the 15-year lifespan of the teletherapy unit was calculated to estimate the %ROI. The recurring and overhead costs were assumed to vary from 5.5% to 15% of the capital investment. Results: The %ROI was dependent on the GNI per capita, employment/population ratio and 2-year patient survival (all P<.001). Accordingly, none of the low-income countries would attain an ROI. If 50% of the patients survived for 2 years, the %ROI in the lower-middle and upper-middle income countries could range from 0% to 159.9% and 11.2% to 844.7%, respectively. Patient user fees to offset recurring and overhead costs could vary from “nil” to US$750, depending on state subsidies. Conclusions: Countries with a greater GNI per capita, higher employment/population ratio, and better survival could achieve a faster breakeven point, resulting in a higher %ROI. Additional factors such as user fees have also been considered. These can be tailored to the patient's ability to pay to cover the recurring costs. Certain pragmatic steps that could

  6. The economic feasibility of sugar beet biofuel production in central North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the financial feasibility of producing ethanol biofuel from sugar beets in central North Dakota. Under the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007, biofuel from sugar beets uniquely qualifies as an 'advanced biofuel'. EISA mandates production of 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels annually by 2022. A stochastic simulation financial model was calibrated with irrigated sugar beet data from central North Dakota to determine economic feasibility and risks of production for 0.038 hm3y-1 (or 10 MGY (Million Gallon per Year) and 0.076 hm3y-1 (or 20 MGY) ethanol plants. Study results indicate that feedstock costs, which include sugar beets and beet molasses, account for more than 70 percent of total production expenses. The estimated breakeven ethanol price for the 0.076 hm3y-1 plant is $400 m-3 ($1.52 per gallon) and $450 m-3 ($1.71 per gallon) for the 0.038 hm3y-1 plant. Breakeven prices for feedstocks are also estimated and show that the 0.076 hm3y-1 plant can tolerate greater ethanol and feedstock price risks than the 0.038 hm3y-1 plant. Our results also show that one of the most important factors that affect investment success is the price of ethanol. At an ethanol price of $484.21 m-3 ($1.84 per gallon), and assuming other factors remain unchanged, the estimated net present value (NPV) for the 0.076 hm3y-1 plant is $41.54 million. By comparison, the estimated NPV for the 0.038 hm3y-1 plant is only $8.30 million. Other factors such as changes in prices of co-products and utilities have a relatively minor effect on investment viability. -- Highlights: → Sugar beets and beet molasses costs account for more than 70 percent of total production expenses. → The estimated breakeven ethanol prices for the 0.076 hm3y-1 and 0.038 hm3y-1ethanol plants are $400 m-3 and $450 m-3 respectively. → The price of ethanol will be one of the most important factors for determining the future feasibility of a sugar-beet-based ethanol plant in North

  7. Minimum size Q = 1 and ignited spherical tokamak devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors find minimum sized Spherical Tokamak (ST) configurations capable of Q∼1 (scientific break-even) and ignition. For Q∼1 cases, the authors normalize their models to the JET device. They find comparable plasma power balance performance in an ST configuration of major radius ∼0.7 m, using both global and 3/2 D plasma transport modeling. For ignited plasma, they first normalize the plasma modeling to the ITER device. They find similar ignited plasma performance capabilities in an ST configuration of major radius 1.2 m. These are much smaller size plasmas than the standard tokamak counterparts, indicating a potentially easier path towards commercial applications. Also, they find that the quantity IA is not a good figure-of-merit for comparing performance of widely different tokamak configurations

  8. Partnerships between Medical Centres and General Hospitals Providing Normal Care Standards in Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, F; Maleika, A; Poeschl, J; Domschke, C; Seitz, H; Beuter-Winkler, P; Sohn, C

    2012-10-01

    Hospital managers and the heads of medical departments are nowadays being faced with ever increasing demands. It is becoming difficult for some small hospitals to find highly experienced or even experienced medical staff, to provide specific health-care services at break-even prices and to maintain their position in competition with other hospitals. On the other hand, large hospitals are facing enormous pressure in the investment and costs fields. Cooperation could provide a solution for these problems. For an optimal strategic exploitation of the hospitals, their direction could be placed in the hands of a joint medical director. However, the directorship of two hospitals is associated both with opportunities and with risks. The present article illustrates the widely differing aspects of the cooperation between a medical centre and a general hospital providing standard care from both a theoretical point of view and on the basis of practical experience with an actual cooperation of this type in Heidelberg. PMID:25308978

  9. Fuel rhoR measurements by secondary nuclear fusion reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The authors report the first measurements of the fuel density-radius product rhoR by secondary nuclear fusion reactions in deuterium fuel. If the fuel rhoR is smaller than the range of the primary reaction products of T and /sup 3/He and the reaction time is much shorter than the hydrodynamic time scale, the number ratios of secondary to primary reactions are given by R/sub DT//R/sub DD/ = 0.99 rhoR and R/sub DHe//R/sub DD/ = 0.14 rhoR for spatially uniform duel. The advantage of the secondary reaction method compared with the knock-on method is its applicability to the near break-even compression. The advantage of the secondary reaction method compared with the neutron activation method is not a requirement of high-Z tracer gas, such as Br or Kr, which might degrade compression and heating of the fuel

  10. Feasibility study of a hybrid subcritical fission system driven by Plasma-Focus fusion neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A model of a subcritical cascade driven by a Plasma Focus device is presented. • Optimum parameters to achieve given levels of neutron amplification are produced. • Monte Carlo calculations for spherical shells of enriched Uranium were performed. • Break-even conditions can be achieved with Plasma Focus of tens of kJ. - Abstract: A feasibility analysis of a hybrid fusion–fission system consisting of a two-stage spherical subcritical cascade driven by a Plasma Focus device is presented. The analysis is based on the one-group neutron diffusion equation, which was appropriately cast to assess the neutronic amplification of a spherical configuration. A design chart was produced to estimate the optimum dimensions of the fissile shells required to achieve different levels of neutron amplification. It is found that cascades driven by Plasma Focus of tens of kJ are feasible. The results were corroborated by means of Monte Carlo calculations

  11. A generalized analysis of solar space heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J. A.

    A life-cycle model is developed for solar space heating within the United States. The model consists of an analytical relationship among five dimensionless parameters that include all pertinent technical, climatological, solar, operating and economic factors that influence the performance of a solar space heating system. An important optimum condition presented is the break-even metered cost of conventional fuel at which the cost of the solar system is equal to that of a conventional heating system. The effect of Federal (1980) and State (1979) income tax credits on these costs is determined. A parameter that includes both solar availability and solar system utilization is derived and plotted on a map of the U.S. This parameter shows the most favorable present locations for solar space heating application to be in the Central and Mountain States. The data employed are related to the rehabilitated solar data recently made available by the National Climatic Center.

  12. Assessment of research directions for high voltage direct current power systems. Quarterly technical progress report, October 1, 1978--December 31, 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, W.F.

    1979-01-01

    Two Priority One activities have received major attention during this reporting period. Application credits for HVDC systems imbedded in ac links are expected to evolve out of a system study wherein dc is introduced into a system where the breakeven criterion is not satisfied. Alternative benefits of the dc link will be quantified in an attempt to develop an expanded economic basis for HVDC systems. HVDC circuit breaker development is being examined, as there appears to be a relationship between the acceptance of multiterminal dc systems and the availability of a dc breaker. At the present time there is a large technical gap between laboratory status and field availability. Further investigation of dc interruption techniques is recommended, together with the establishment of operating criteria and design specifications. A variety of other HVDC activities was undertaken, including proposal review, contract progress report assessment, inverter commutation with series capacitor assistance, and conference planning.

  13. Cost reductions in absorption chillers. Final report, June 1984-May 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, R.W.

    1986-05-01

    Absorption chillers have great difficulty competing with the electric-driven compression alternative, due in part to modest operating efficiencies and largely to high first costs. This project is an assessment of the possibility of lowering the costs of absorption chillers dramatically by the use of low material intensity in the design of a new generation of these machines. Breakeven costs for absorption chillers, their heat exchangers and heat exchanger materials were established which will allow commercial success. Polymeric and metallic materials appropriate to particular components and which meet the cost goals were identified. A subset of these materials were tested and ordered by success in tolerating conditions and materials found in absorption chiller applications. Conceptual designs which indicate the practicality of the low material intensity approach were developed. The work reported here indicates that there is a high probability that this apporach will be successful.

  14. Development of variable-shaft-speed alternator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbart, G.; Fullwood, R.

    1982-02-01

    A variable shaft speed alternator (VSSA) consists of an ordinary unmodified 1-1/2 Hp wound-rotor motor, with polyphase excitation controlled by solid state switching and a hybrid of analog and digital circuitry. This circuitry senses both shaft speed and line phase resulting in logic levels which control the current flow in each rotor coil. A first order polynomial was found using the least-squares regression method which accurately expressed the relationship among shaft speed, excitation power, and output power, VSSA torque was inferred from observations to be proportional to output power. Efficiency for converting mechanical power to electrical was inferred over a range of shaft speeds. A break-even speed below which no net power is produced was observed to be 0.375 of the synchronous speed for all output power levels. Similar behavior was observed with power fed to the power network (grid). Additional measurements involved VSSA performance at various power factors.

  15. Mirror Fusion Test Facility: an intermediate device to a mirror fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) now under construction at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory represents more than an order-of-magnitude step from earlier magnetic-mirror experiments toward a future mirror fusion reactor. In fact, when the device begins operating in 1986, the Lawson criteria of ntau = 1014 cm-3.s will almost be achieved for D-T equivalent operation, thus signifying scientific breakeven. Major steps have been taken to develop MFTF-B technologies for tandem mirrors. Steady-state, high-field, superconducting magnets at reactor-revelant scales are used in the machine. The 30-s beam pulses, ECRH, and ICRH will also introduce steady-state technologies in those systems

  16. Low Cost Mechanical Aid for Rice Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Ganesh C.; Hansen, Gunner K.

    A small engine-powered harvesting aid for small area rice farmers was developed. The machine was a modified brush cutter. The original cutter blade was replaced by a 25 cm diameter circular saw blade. A metal plate and rubber guard assembly was fitted behind the blade on the handle to guide the cut stalk to the left side. The machine performed well in the field conditions with a field capacity of 0.51 ha day-1 consuming 0.25 L of fuel in an hour. It was 7.8 times faster than manual harvesting though the field loss was around 2.3% as against 1% in manual harvesting. The break-even area was 1 ha and the payback period for the investment was one year. The machine should be affordable to low income farmers in developing countries and women would also be able to taste the fruits of mechanization.

  17. Estimating effect of planting soybean on profit and loss of soil nitrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    15N isotope tracing technique was used to estimate the effect of planting soybean on the profit and loss of soil nitrogen. Results showed that the nitrogen harvest rate of soybean was quite high and 70.4% ∼ 88.6% of total nitrogen was transported to seeds, which led to the loss of soil nitrogen; and the average loss of soil nitrogen were 39.2 kg/hm2 for straw returning and 49.2 kg/hm2 for no straw returning treatments, respectively. A significant linear correlation was found between nitrogen fixation rate and the profit/loss of soil nitrogen. The loss of soil nitrogen was less with higher nitrogen fixation rate, which would reach the breakeven point of the profit and loss of soil nitrogen when nitrogen fixation rate was 71.5% for straw returning treatment, and 80.9% for no straw returning treatment. (authors)

  18. Preliminary design of the TFTR tritium remote control and monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) is the first experimental device built at Princeton University Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) capable of producing a significant amount of fusion energy. The mission of TFTR is to reach a program goal of long standing: the production of fusion power equal to the plasma-heating input at multi-megawatt levels. To attain this scientific breakeven goal, TFTR must use tritium, a radioactive isotope of hydrogen, as the fuel for the fusion reaction. Since TFTR will be the first fusion test reactor to use tritium as a fuel, safe and effective handling of tritium is an important part of the fusion program as a whole. This paper reviews the development of a preliminary design for the Tritium REmote Control And Monitoring System (TRECAMS) that will provide computer control and monitoring of the tritium handling equipment at TFTR

  19. Scale-up and economic analysis of biodiesel production from municipal primary sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkiewicz, Magdalena; Torres, Carmen M; Jiménez, Laureano; Font, Josep; Bengoa, Christophe

    2016-08-01

    Municipal wastewater sludge is a promising lipid feedstock for biodiesel production, but the need to eliminate the high water content before lipid extraction is the main limitation for scaling up. This study evaluates the economic feasibility of biodiesel production directly from liquid primary sludge based on experimental data at laboratory scale. Computational tools were used for the modelling of the process scale-up and the different configurations of lipid extraction to optimise this step, as it is the most expensive. The operational variables with a major influence in the cost were the extraction time and the amount of solvent. The optimised extraction process had a break-even price of biodiesel of 1232 $/t, being economically competitive with the current cost of fossil diesel. The proposed biodiesel production process from waste sludge eliminates the expensive step of sludge drying, lowering the biodiesel price. PMID:27131292

  20. Energetic and economic viability of olive stone recovery as a renewable energy source: a Southern Italy case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Parenti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of olive stones for biofuel is becoming increasingly widespread in olive milling plants. In this study we look at the economic and energetic benefits of using a de-stoner machine in a small-to-medium sized oil milling plant. The performance of the olive stone recovery system was evaluated over a full olive oil production season. The energetic viability of the de-stoner was assessed using a Life Cycle Assessment approach, and the break-even point was achieved when about 56 tons of olives had been processed, which is less than the annual production of the mill in question. Similarly, in economic terms, the machine covered its costs after about a quarter of its technical life.

  1. Advanced SFR Concept Design Studies at KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advanced SFR design concepts have been developed which satisfy the Gen IV technology goals at KAERI. Two types of reactor core were developed for breakeven and TRU burner and both cores do not have blankets to enhance proliferation resistance. The Advanced SFR is a pool-type reactor that improves system safety through slow system transients. The heat transport system adopts two double wall tube Steam Generators and a passive Residual Heat Removal System PDRC. To secure the economic competitiveness of an SFR, the diameter of the reactor vessel of the Advanced SFR is designed to be 14.5 m, which is a very compact size compared to other designs. Also, various R and D activities have been performed in order to prepare some analysis tools and to support the development of design concepts. (author)

  2. Bring your own devices (BYOD) survival guide

    CERN Document Server

    Keyes, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The BYOD RevolutionWhat's in It for the Organization? So, What Can Go Wrong? Mobile Device Management Consumerization of IT Business as UsualMaking a Financial Case for BYOD Supporting BYOD Cost-Benefit Analysis Break-Even Analysis Estimating ROI for an IT Project Earned-Value Management Rapid Economic Justification Value Measuring Methodology      Step 1: Develop a Decision Framework           Task 1-Identify and Define Value Structure           Task 2-Identify and Define Risk Structure           Task 3-Identify and Define Cost Structure           Task 4-Begin Documentation      Step 2: Alter

  3. Configuration and layout of the tandem mirror Fusion Power Demonstrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have been performed during the past year to determine the configuration of a tandem mirror Fusion Power Demonstrator (FPD) machine capable of producing 1750 MW of fusion power. The FPD is seen as the next logical step after the Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B (MFTF-B) toward operation of a power reactor. The design of the FPD machine allows a phased construction: Phase I, a hydrogen or deuterium checkout machine; Phase 2, a DT breakeven machine; Phase 3, development of the Phase 2 machine to provide net power and act as a reactor demonstrator. These phases are essential to the development of remote handling equipment and the design of components that will ultimately be remotely handled. Phasing also permits more modes funding early in the program with some costs committed only after reaching major milestones

  4. Influence of the Selected Parameters on the Effectiveness of IGCC System Integrated With CCS Installation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skorek-Osikowska Anna

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the basic input data and modelling results of IGCC system with membrane CO2 capture installation and without capture. The models were built using commercial software (Aspen and GateCycle and with the use of authors’ own computational codes. The main parameters of the systems were calculated, such as gross and net power, auxiliary power of individual installations and efficiencies. The models were used for the economic and ecological analysis of the systems. The Break Even Point method of analysis was used. The calculations took into account the EU emissions trading scheme. Sensitivity analysis on the influence of selected quantities on break-even price of electricity was performed

  5. Switchgrass as a fuel stock for electric power generation in Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examined the economic feasibility of switchgrass production and utilization for electric power production in Tennessee. Economic feasibility of switchgrass utilization as a feedstock for electric power generation is related to location of production area, electric facility location, production and transport costs, and harvesting method. Analysis of the feasibility of biomass includes the internalizing of environmental costs of SO2 and CO2 into the coal price. A final comparison of the costs of using biomass plus a 12.5 cent/kilowatt hour subsidy is also examined. Finally, the cost savings of a reorganization of harvesting methods is evaluated and the impacts this reorganization might have on the breakeven cost of biomass is compared to the current harvesting methods. (author)

  6. The Efficiency Analysis and A Market Decision Model on Equipment Maintenance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents and analyses the internal and external efficiencies of equipment maintenance, and presents that the objective of maintenance is the maximum external efficiency. It defines generalized reliability degree of equipment and deduces the correspondent calculating method. It overcomes the defect that traditional calculating method of reliability degree has, which only considers the factor of time not function, therefore we establish a market decision model of equipment maintenance based on it. This model can determine the marginal efficiency of maintenance investment and critical value of generalized reliability degree when it reaches break-even point. After combining the equipment maintenance with economical benefit of enterprise and marketing situation of products, an optimal maintenance strategy will be got. It provides a new method for scientific and rational decisions of equipment maintenance.``

  7. Investment Timing and Capacity Choice for Small-Scale Wind PowerUnder Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleten, Stein-Erik; Maribu, Karl Magnus

    2004-11-28

    This paper presents a method for evaluation of investments in small-scale wind power under uncertainty. It is assumed that the price of electricity is uncertain and that an owner of a property with wind resources has a deferrable opportunity to invest in one wind power turbine within a capacity range. The model evaluates investment in a set of projects with different capacity. It is assumed that the owner substitutes own electricity load with electricity from the wind mill and sells excess electricity back to the grid on an hourly basis. The problem for the owner is to find the price levels at which it is optimal to invest, and in which capacity to invest. The results suggests it is optimal to wait for significantly higher prices than the net present value break-even. Optimal scale and timing depend on the expected price growth rate and the uncertainty in the future prices.

  8. Mobile Biomass Pelletizing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Mason

    2009-04-16

    This grant project examines multiple aspects of the pelletizing process to determine the feasibility of pelletizing biomass using a mobile form factor system. These aspects are: the automatic adjustment of the die height in a rotary-style pellet mill, the construction of the die head to allow the use of ceramic materials for extreme wear, integrating a heat exchanger network into the entire process from drying to cooling, the use of superheated steam for adjusting the moisture content to optimum, the economics of using diesel power to operate the system; a break-even analysis of estimated fixed operating costs vs. tons per hour capacity. Initial development work has created a viable mechanical model. The overall analysis of this model suggests that pelletizing can be economically done using a mobile platform.

  9. The prerequisite for competition in the restructured wholesale Saudi electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protection of customers against monopoly is the first and main objective of the Saudi Electricity and Co-generation Regulatory Authority (ECRA). The second important objective, as recommended by the present study, is regulating natural monopoly businesses [Saudi electricity national grid (SENG) and Saudi electricity distribution (SED)] in addition to promoting real competition in competitive businesses [power supply providers (PSPs) and customer service providers (CSPs)]. Another four main objectives of ECRA are to promote the efficient use of energy and natural resources, to ensure a reasonable rate of return for PSPs and CSPs and at the same time to be fair to end-users, to ensure reasonable charges to SENG and SED services to be adequate for them to run the organization in a break-even manner and to maintain the system's security and reliability. The present paper discusses the way to improve and restructure the Saudi electricity market. (author)

  10. Compared economic and energy analysis of natural gas transport chains with on-shore pipelines, off-shore pipelines and by liquefaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Montellanico, P.; Maineri, M.

    1985-01-01

    The report is relative to a detailed computer code which allows to state, starting from the physical data of the gas to be transported just as the throughput and the distance to be travelled over, in one hand the technical characteristics of the most economic pipeline and in the other hand the least gross energy requirement for pipeline construction and operation. The programme deals with on-shore pipelines as well as off-shore pipelines including compressor platforms. The analyses comparison is made in order to establish what are the practical possibilities to spare energy in the gas transportation sector. Both economic and energy analyses are then applied to LNG seaborne transportation. As a result it is possible to recover a part of the liquefaction energy for electricity production with very high efficiency. Finally the various transportation chains are compared in order to find out the economic break-even points. 68 refs.

  11. Development of enriched Gd-155 and Gd-157 burnable poison designs for a PWR core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a genetic algorithm developed by the authors was applied to design the optimal enriched Gd-155 and Gd-157 burnable poisons in a reference PWR TMI-1 core. The CASMO-4/TABLES/SIMULATE-3 package calculated the neutronic performance of the enriched UO2/Gd2O3 fuel pin configurations. These configurations included different fractions of neutron absorbing isotopes Gd-155 and Gd-157, and 100 w/o enriched Gd-155 designs. Fuel cost analysis was performed to evaluate the economical benefits of these optimized enriched gadolinium designs. The break-even point for unit Gd-155 enrichment cost was determined to be around ∼$30/gram-Gd-155 with current unit cost scenario. The projected savings were 3.13% in gross and 2.08% in net compared to total fuel cycle cost of a reference TMI-1 core loading, if all of the 68 feed assemblies would be replaced with the optimized designs

  12. Economic analysis of wind-powered farmhouse and farm building heating systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stafford, R.W.; Greeb, F.J.; Smith, M.F.; Des Chenes, C.; Weaver, N.L.

    1981-01-01

    The study evaluated the break-even values of wind energy for selected farmhouses and farm buildings focusing on the effects of thermal storage on the use of WECS production and value. Farmhouse structural models include three types derived from a national survey - an older, a more modern, and a passive solar structure. The eight farm building applications that were analyzed include: poultry-layers, poultry-brooding/layers, poultry-broilers, poultry-turkeys, swine-farrowing, swine-growing/finishing, dairy, and lambing. These farm buildings represent the spectrum of animal types, heating energy use, and major contributions to national agricultural economic values. All energy analyses were based on hour-by-hour computations which allowed for growth of animals, sensible and latent heat production, and ventilation requirements. Hourly or three-hourly weather data obtained from the National Climatic Center was used for the nine chosen analysis sites, located throughout the United States and corresponding to regional agricultural production centers.

  13. System interconnection studies using WASP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to describe the application of WASP as a modelling tool for determining the development of two electric systems with interconnections. A case study has been carried out to determine the possibilities of transfer of baseload energy between Turkey and a neighboring country. The objective of this case study is to determine the amount of energy that can be transferred, variations of Loss Probability (LOLP) and unserved energy, and the cost of additional generation with interconnection. The break-even cost will be determined to obtain the minimum charge rate at which TEAS (Turkish Electricity Generation-Transmission Corp.) needs to sell the energy in order to recover the costs. The minimum charge rate for both capacity and energy will be estimated without considering extra capacity additions, except for the ones needed by the Turkish system alone. (author). 2 figs, 3 tabs

  14. An economic evaluation of photovoltaic grid connected systems (PVGCS) in Flanders for companies: A generic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper an economic evaluation of photovoltaic grid connected systems (PVGCS) for companies situated in Flanders (Belgium) is conducted by using a generic Excel model. The model is unique in that it includes the dimension of taxation. This inclusion is required, otherwise the fiscal benefit of using solar panels is not accounted for. The model uses the cash flow projection method. This technique allows the calculation of the following classical evaluation criteria: net present value, internal rate of return, payback period, discounted payback period, profitability index, yield unit cost, yield unit revenue and break-even turnkey cost. Their outcome makes it possible to answer the question whether installing a PVGCS in Flanders is a responsible financial investment for companies. Furthermore, the paper estimates whether the corporate environment is ready for a subsidy legislation change. This change has recently been announced and as such it is possible to gauge whether the current market situation is profitable given future legislation. (author)

  15. Bio-economic evaluation of tank raised Tilapia rendalli (Boulenger, 1896 fed on varying dietary protein levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgers Makwinja

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was designed to determine the effects of varying dietary protein levels in feed on bioeconomic aspect of tank raised Tilapia rendalli production in Malawi. T. rendalli of average body weights (23 g were randomly stocked into 5 m3 experimental tanks at stocking density of 5 fish/m3. The experimental diets containing 25, 30 and 35% CP were formulated. Higher significant (P < 0.05 average weight gain, feed conversion ratio, break-even price, break even yield, net return were recorded in fish fed on the diet containing 35% CP. However, gross margin profit ratio was the lowest in the diet containing 35% CP. The significance of the study findings is that higher inclusion of protein in feed produce better growth and high overall net return, hence need to use high dietary protein level in this case, 35%.

  16. Thermal power systems small power systems applications project. Volume 2: Detailed report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, A. T.

    1979-01-01

    Small power system technology as applied to power plants up to 10 MW in size was considered. Markets for small power systems were characterized and cost goals were established for the project. Candidate power plant system design concepts were selected for evaluation and preliminary performance and cost assessments were made. Breakeven capital costs were determined for leading contenders among the candidate systems. The potential use of small power systems in providing part of the demand for pumping power by the extensive aqueduct system of California, was studied. Criteria and methodologies were developed for the ranking of candidate power plant system design concepts. Experimental power plant concepts of 1 MW rating were studied to define a power plant configuration for subsequent detail design construction, testing and evaluation. Site selection criteria and ground rules were developed.

  17. Supply-based dynamic Ramsey pricing: Avoiding water shortages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saǧlam, Yiǧit

    2015-01-01

    In many countries, current water-pricing policies are dictated by the sole objective of financial breaking even. This results in large withdrawals, which are not sustainable in the long run, hence not optimal. In this paper, we derive the optimal dynamic pricing policy, which targets efficient distribution while breaking even through a rebate scheme. Using data from Turkey, we estimate the demand for water by user groups. We carry out simulations to compare the effects of the current and optimal pricing policies on the frequency and severity of shortages. We find that, under the policy of break-even prices, the supplier runs into a shortage every 8 years. In contrast, if the prices were to set optimally, shortages would be practically nonexistent over the next century.

  18. Wind system value analysis for electric utilities - A comparison of four methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, J.; Percival, D.; Flaim, T.; Sullivan, R. L.

    1982-05-01

    A comparison and suggestions for improvements in the SERI-H, SERI Weibull, AERO, and JBF value models for estimation of the economic worth of wind energy conversion systems (WECS) to utilities are made. The simulations comprise projections for operations with and without WECS, fuel, operation, and maintenance costs, base load and generating capacity, reliability, estimated WECS performance, wind resource, fuel escalation rates, and scenarios with pumped hydro storage. The Weibull curve was found to be good in the SERI-H model only for considering winds above cut-in. Reasonable agreement was found at the 5% peak load penetration level for all models. Installing 635 MW of WECS was determined to replace from 126-177.9 MW of conventional utility generator capacity. The breakeven value for Mod 2 installation was determined at $1620/kW for use in southern California and $1850-2470/kW in Michigan.

  19. Parametric economic analysis of natural gas reburn technologies. Topical report, June 1991-June 1992

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents a parametric economic analysis of natural gas reburn technologies used for control of nitrogen oxides emissions in coal-fired utility boilers. It is a competitive assessment of the economics of gas reburn performed in the context of regulatory requirements and competing conventional technologies. The reburn technologies examined are basic gas reburn, reburn with sorbent injection and advanced gas reburn. The analysis determined the levelized costs of these technologies in $/ton of NOx removed with respect to a gas-coal price differential in $/MMBtu of energy input. For those niches in which reburn was less economical, a breakeven capital cost analysis was carried out to determine the R ampersand D goals which would make reburn more cost competitive

  20. A Competitive Evaluation of Urban Energy Systems from viewpoints of Energy Conservation and Mitigating Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Hideharu; Tomioka, Hajime; Tsuji, Kiichiro

    Although various energy system alternatives for business, commercial and residential customers have been recently developed in order to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emission, it is important to evaluate competitive characteristics among such new energy system alternatives quantitatively, in consideration of tradeoff relation among economic cost, energy consumption and CO2 emission. In this paper, using multi-objective optimization model for urban energy system planning, two competitive evaluations are performed. One is the break-even cost analysis for introducing more efficient, but more expensive energy equipment, such as photovoltaic system and fuel cell system. The other is that we evaluate the competitiveness of a certain energy system from a viewpoint of whole urban area because there are multiple alternatives for attaining same target of reducing CO2 emission or energy consumption.

  1. A NEW PROCESS DEVELOPED FOR SEPARATION OF LIGNIN FROM AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE PRETREATMENT SOLUTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, S.; Gorensek, M.; Milliken, C.

    2010-12-14

    A method is described for separating lignin from liquid solutions resulting from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials such as switchgrass with ammonium hydroxide. The method involves a sequence of steps including acidification, evaporation, and precipitation or centrifugation that are performed under defined conditions, and results in a relatively pure, solid lignin product. The method is tested on ammonium hydroxide solutions containing lignin extracted from switchgrass. Experimental results show that the method is capable of recovering between 66-95% of dissolved lignin as a precipitated solid. Cost estimates of pilot-scale and industrial-scale expressions of the process indicate that breakeven lignin prices of $2.36/kg and $0.78/kg, respectively, may be obtainable with this recovery method.

  2. Solar thermal cost goals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelstein, R. B.

    1981-01-01

    Setting of goals for a research, development and demonstration program is critical in measuring its progress and ensuring its success. The development of cost goals for the DOE Solar Thermal Program by the Solar Thermal Cost Goals Committee (STCGC), led by the Solar Energy Research Institute, is described. The objective of the STCGC is to determine a consistent set of time-related cost and performance goals for concentrating collector systems based on market value and intermediae goals based on attainable cost levels. Accomplishments thus far include: definition of cost goals and their function in program planning, delineation of competing energy system costs, development of a breakeven costing methodology for assessing market value, determination of attainable costs for solar thermal systems, setting financial and economic parameters, and calculation of market value as a function of each competing fuel type, application, and region.

  3. Preconceptual design of the light ion beam fusion target development facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The light ion fusion target development facility (TDF) is to be built in the 1990's, following the successful operation of PBFA-II. While PBFA-II is a pulsed power driver system that is expected to drive ICF targets to breakeven conditions, the target development facility driver is large enough to ignite high yield targets. The TDF is the first light ion facility that must be designed to withstand the environment created by high yield targets. A target chamber with a fatigue lifetime of 15,000 shots at 200 MJ and 200 additional shots at 800 MJ using conservative ASME guidelines has been designed. Alternative design features to reduce the induced radioactivity in the chamber are discussed

  4. The importance of health co-benefits in macroeconomic assessments of UK Greenhouse Gas emission reduction strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Henning Tarp; Keogh-Brown, Marcus R.; Smith, Richard D.;

    2013-01-01

    We employ a single-country dynamically-recursive Computable General Equilibrium model to make health-focussed macroeconomic assessments of three contingent UK Greenhouse Gas (GHG) mitigation strategies, designed to achieve 2030 emission targets as suggested by the UK Committee on Climate Change...... are included; our household energy efficiency strategy is likely to breakeven only over the long term after the investment programme has ceased (beyond our 20 year time horizon). We conclude that UK policy makers will, most likely, have to adopt elements which involve initial net societal costs in order...... to achieve future emission targets and longer-term benefits from GHG reduction. Cost-effectiveness of GHG strategies is likely to require technological mitigation interventions and/or demand-constraining interventions with important health co-benefits and other efficiency-enhancing policies that promote...

  5. Status of the NIF Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, E

    2007-04-30

    Ground was broken for the National Ignition Facility, a stadium-sized complex, in 1997. When complete, the project will contain a 192-beam, 1.8-megajoule, 500-terawatt laser system adjoining a 10-meter-diameter target chamber with room for nearly 100 experimental diagnostics. NIF's beams will compress and heat small capsules containing a mixture of hydrogen isotopes of deuterium and tritium. These targets will undergo nuclear fusion, producing more energy than the energy in the laser pulse and achieving scientific breakeven. NIF experiments will allow scientists to study physical processes at temperatures approaching 100 million degrees Kelvin and 100 billion times atmospheric pressure--conditions that exist naturally only in the interior of stars and in nuclear weapon detonations.

  6. Fusion: the power source of the future Inertial Confinement Option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Among the various energy options opened to man, fusion appears particularly attractive since fuel is plentiful, cheap, and universally available, the reaction is self quenching, produces in itself no radioactive wastes and radiation hazards are minimum. However, creating on earth conditions emulating the sun is not as easy task. Two significantly different approaches to obtaining the necessary conditions are being actively pursued and both have shown encouraging progress in the past few years. Magnetic confinement will be discussed in the next paper. Inertial confinement fusion is progressing towards scientific breakeven in the 1980's. High yield targets have been successfully imploded proving the feasibility of thermonuclear burn. High densities have recently been achieved using glass lasers as drivers. Power plants using fusion sources are being studied and could become operational in the early 2000's

  7. A comparison of economic evaluation models as applied to geothermal energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziman, G. M.; Rosenberg, L. S.

    1983-01-01

    Several cost estimation and financial cash flow models have been applied to a series of geothermal case studies. In order to draw conclusions about relative performance and applicability of these models to geothermal projects, the consistency of results was assessed. The model outputs of principal interest in this study were net present value, internal rate of return, or levelized breakeven price. The models used were VENVAL, a venture analysis model; the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPC Model); the Alternative Power Systems Economic Analysis Model (APSEAM); the Geothermal Loan Guarantee Cash Flow Model (GCFM); and the GEOCOST and GEOCITY geothermal models. The case studies to which the models were applied include a geothermal reservoir at Heber, CA; a geothermal eletric power plant to be located at the Heber site; an alcohol fuels production facility to be built at Raft River, ID; and a direct-use, district heating system in Susanville, CA.

  8. Numerical simulation of strong proton rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recent calculations suggest the possibility of achieving a Lawson breakeven condition by the magnetic compression of proton rings to field reversal. A physical model and computer code RING developed to study equilibria of strong proton rings and their behavior under an adiabatic increase in the external magnetic field are described. Ring ion motion is followed using a volume-weighted finite-size particle-in-cell method. Because of the very short electron time scale, the electrons are simulated by a simple fluid model using Ohm's law. Quasineutrality, current neutralization in the r-z plane, cylindrical symmetry and a magneto-static model are assumed. Preliminary results indicate that (a) equilibria tend to be intermediate between the long layer and bicycle tire cases; and (b) compression past field reversal on the axis is possible within the framework of this model. Some aspects of the formation and injection of proton rings have also been studied with this code. (author)

  9. Mapping the value of commercial PV applications in the US -- Accounting for externalities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In previous publications, the authors reported on the geographical distribution of the economic feasibility of customer-owned commercial PV systems in the US. The results showed that several regions in the country were near or above economic breakeven. However, the authors noted that these results only reflected business as usual assumptions. They did not account for existing or prospective external value elements that could, depending on the application, considerably increase PV's feasibility threshold. In this paper, the authors look at the individual and combined impact of the following value elements: (1) Replacement Value, (2) enhanced load management value, (3) emergency value and (4) environmental value. They show that accounting for these elements could significantly increase the size of cost-effective niche markets for customer-owned commercial PV installation

  10. Assessment of the dry process fuel sodium-cooled fast reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Gyu Hong; Choi, Hang Bok

    2004-04-01

    The feasibility of using dry-processed oxide fuel in a Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) was analyzed for the equilibrium fuel cycle of two reference cores: Hybrid BN-600 benchmark core with a enlarged lattice pitch and modified BN-600 core. The dry process technology assumed in this study based on the molten-salt process, which was developed by Russian scientists for recycling oxide fuels. The core calculation was performed by the REBUS-3 code and the reactor characteristics such as the transuranic enrichment, breeding ratio, peak linear power, burnup reactivity swing, etc. were calculated for the equilibrium core under a fixed fuel management scheme. The results showed that a self-sustainable breakeven core was achievable without blanket fuels when the fuel volume fraction was {approx}50% and most of the fission products were removed.

  11. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Cameroon. Assessing costs and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new momentum is underway to account for emissions from 'avoided deforestation and degradation' at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This paper assesses the feasibility of one of the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) mechanisms currently discussed, namely that of 'Compensated Reduction', in the case of Cameroon. Here we assess the differential revenues that a farmer could get from 1 ha of land out of two alternative land-uses: shifting cultivation, the traditional land-use pattern in southern Cameroon, or carbon credits as compensation for the conservation of primary forest. It is found that a break-even price of USD 2.85/t of carbon dioxide equivalent would level shifting cultivation with 'Compensated Reduction'. This result suggests that at current carbon prices, and independently form variations in the discount rate, it could already be more profitable to preserve the primary forest rather than to log it in order to grow crops. (author)

  12. Estimation of Total Fusion Reactivity and Contribution from Suprathermal Tail using 3-parameter Dagum Ion Speed Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Majumdar, Rudrodip

    2016-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion reactivity is a pivotal quantity in the studies pertaining to fusion energy production, fusion ignition and energy break-even analysis in both inertially and magnetically confined systems. Although nuclear fusion reactivity and thereafter the power density of a magnetic confinement fusion reactor and the fulfillment of the ignition criterion are quantitatively determined by assuming the ion speed distribution to be Maxwellian, a significant population of suprathermal ions,with energy greater than the quasi-Maxwellian background plasma temperature, is generated by the fusion reactions and auxiliary heating in the fusion devices. In the current work 3-parameter Dagum speed distribution has been introduced to include the effect of suprathermal ion population in the calculation of total fusion reactivity. The extent of enhancement in the fusion reactivity, at different back-ground temperatures of the fusion fuel plasma, due to the suprathermal ion population has also been discussed.

  13. Simple economic evaluation and applications experiments for photovoltaic systems for remote sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, M. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A simple evaluation of the cost effectiveness of photovoltaic systems is presented. The evaluation is based on a calculation of breakeven costs of photovoltaics (PV) arrays with the levelized costs of two alternative energy sources (1) extension of the utility grid and (2) diesel generators. A selected number of PV applications experiments that are in progress in remote areas of the US are summarized. These applications experiments range from a 23 watt insect survey trap to a 100 kW PV system for a national park complex. It is concluded that PV systems for remote areas are now cost effective in remote small applications with commercially available technology and will be cost competitive for intermediate scale systems (approx. 10 kW) in the 1980s if the DOE 1986 Commercial Readiness Goals are achieved.

  14. Techno-economics of micro-hydro projects for decentralized power supply in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of a techno-economic feasibility evaluation of few micro-hydropower (MHP) projects being planned and implemented for decentralized power supply for remote locations in India are presented. The capital cost of such projects (including cost of power evacuation and distribution system), cost per unit of rated capacity, and relative cost of different sub-systems of MHP projects in the capacity range of 10-100 kW have been analysed. Unit cost of delivered electricity for these MHP projects has been estimated. Measures of financial performance for one of the MHP projects have also been determined. Breakeven values for useful life, plant load factor, and unit cost of electricity to the user have also been estimated for the same project

  15. Thermodynamic and economic analysis of a gas turbine combined cycle plant with oxy-combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotowicz, Janusz; Job, Marcin

    2013-12-01

    This paper presents a gas turbine combined cycle plant with oxy-combustion and carbon dioxide capture. A gas turbine part of the unit with the operating parameters is presented. The methodology and results of optimization by the means of a genetic algorithm for the steam parts in three variants of the plant are shown. The variants of the plant differ by the heat recovery steam generator (HRSG) construction: the singlepressure HRSG (1P), the double-pressure HRSG with reheating (2PR), and the triple-pressure HRSG with reheating (3PR). For obtained results in all variants an economic evaluation was performed. The break-even prices of electricity were determined and the sensitivity analysis to the most significant economic factors were performed.

  16. Economic analysis of bedside ultrasonography (US) implementation in an Internal Medicine department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Americo; Francesconi, Andrea; Giannuzzi, Rosangela; Berardi, Silvia; Sbraccia, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    The economic crisis, the growing healthcare demand, and Defensive Medicine wastefulness, strongly recommend the restructuring of the entire medical network. New health technology, such as bedside ultrasonography, might successfully integrate the clinical approach optimizing the use of limited resources, especially in a person-oriented vision of medicine. Bedside ultrasonography is a safe and reliable technique, with worldwide expanding employment in various clinical settings, being considered as "the stethoscope of the 21st century". However, at present, bedside ultrasonography lacks economic analysis. We performed a Cost-Benefit Analysis "ex ante", with a break-even point computing, of bedside ultrasonography implementation in an Internal Medicine department in the mid-term. Number and kind estimation of bedside ultrasonographic studies were obtained by a retrospective study, whose data results were applied to the next 3-year period (foresight study). All 1980 foreseen bedside examinations, with prevailing multiorgan ultrasonographic studies, were considered to calculate direct and indirect costs, while specific and generic revenues were considered only after the first semester. Physician professional training, equipment purchase and working time represented the main fixed and variable cost items. DRG increase/appropriateness, hospitalization stay shortening and reduction of traditional ultrasonography examination requests mainly impacted on calculated revenues. The break-even point, i.e. the volume of activity at which revenues exactly equal total incurred costs, was calculated to be 734 US examinations, corresponding to € 81,998 and the time considered necessary to reach it resulting 406 days. Our economic analysis clearly shows that bedside ultrasonography implementation in clinical daily management of an Internal Medicine department can produce consistent savings, or economic profit according to managerial choices (i.e., considering public or private targets

  17. Evaluation of economical introduction of nuclear fusion based on a long-term world energy and environment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debates about whether or not to invest heavily in nuclear fusion as a future innovative energy option have been made within the context of energy technology development strategies. The time frame by which nuclear fusion could become competitive in the energy market has not been adequately studied, nor has roles of the nuclear fusion in energy systems and the environment. The present study has two objectives. One is to reveal the conditions under which nuclear fusion could be introduced economically (hereafter, we refer to such introductory conditions as breakeven prices) in future energy systems. The other objective is to evaluate the future roles of nuclear fusion in energy systems and in the environment. Here we chose two roles that nuclear fusion will take on when breakeven prices are achieved: i) reduction of annual global total energy systems cost, and ii) mitigation of carbon tax (shadow price of carbon) under CO2 constraints. Future uncertainties are key issues in evaluating nuclear fusion. Here we treated the following uncertainties: energy demand scenarios, introduction time frame for nuclear fusion, capacity projections of nuclear fusion, CO2 target in 2100. From our investigations, we conclude that the presently designed nuclear fusion reactors may be ready for economical introduction into energy systems beginning around 2050-2060, and we can confirm that the favorable introduction of the reactors would reduce both the annual energy systems cost and the carbon tax (the shadow price of carbon) under a CO2 concentration constraint; however, latter introduction of them decreases the cost and the tax less than five times. Earlier introduction of nuclear fusion reactors are desirable for energy systems and environment. (author)

  18. Battery sizing for serial plug-in hybrid electric vehicles: A model-based economic analysis for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The battery size of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is decisive for the electrical range of the vehicle and crucial for the cost-effectiveness of this particular vehicle concept. Based on the energy consumption of a conventional reference car and a PHEV, we introduce a comprehensive total cost of ownership model for the average car user in Germany for both vehicle types. The model takes into account the purchase price, fixed annual costs and variable operating costs. The amortization time of a PHEV also depends on the recharging strategy (once a day, once a night, after each trip), the battery size, and the battery costs. We find that PHEVs with a 4 kWh battery and at current lithium-ion battery prices reach the break-even point after about 6 years (5 years when using the lower night-time electricity tariffs). With higher battery capacities the amortization time becomes significantly longer. Even for the small battery size and assuming the EU-15 electricity mix, a PHEV is found to emit only around 60% of the CO2 emissions of a comparable conventional car. Thus, with the PHEV concept a cost-effective introduction of electric mobility and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions per vehicle can be reached. - Highlights: → Total cost of ownership of a PHEV and a conventional car are compared for the average German car user.→ PHEVs with a 4 kWh battery reach the break-even after 5-6 years at current Li-Ion battery prices.→ Even with a small battery, PHEVs emit about 40% less CO2 emissions than the average conventional car.

  19. Do home energy management systems make sense? Assessing their overall lifecycle impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ever-increasing body of research explores the effectiveness of Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS) in achieving energy savings in households. To date, however, the overall life cycle impact of the HEMS itself has not been taken into account. Thus, no assessment has been made whether the amount of energy saved (esaved) outweighs the energy needed for production, use and disposal (einvested). Therefore, an eco-cost and a Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) method were used to analyze three distinct types of HEMS. Based on the literature, six scenarios were developed in order to find the break-even point, where einvested=esaved. The results show that the overall impact is dependent on the type of HEMS, and that if the duration of use is short and the achieved savings are small, the benefits do not always outweigh the environmental costs. Care should be taken not to develop HEMS with unnecessarily elaborate parts or functionalities and that their own electricity consumption is minimized. The paper concludes by discussing the implication for polices concerning the implementation of smart meters and HEMS and their design. - Highlights: • We conducted a lifecycle assessment of three Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS). • We developed six scenarios to find the breakeven point where einvested=esaved. • All three HEMS can achieve net energy savings over the course of five years. • Within the scenarios, it can take up to two years to achieve net energy savings. • No HEMS achieve a positive return on investment within five years in all scenarios

  20. Current and future financial competitiveness of electricity and heat from energy crops: A case study from Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been demonstrated that Miscanthus and willow energy-crop cultivation could be economically competitive with current agricultural land uses at a farm-gate biomass price ranging from Euro 70 to Euro 130 t-1 dry matter [Styles, D., Thorne, F., Jones, M.B., in review. Energy crops in Ireland: An economic comparison of willow and Miscanthus production with conventional farming systems. Biomass and Bioenergy, May 2006]. This paper uses the same farm-gate prices to calculate the economic competitiveness of energy crop electricity and heat production, using a net-present-value (NPV) approach (20-year period, 5% discount rate). Direct and gasified co-firing of willow wood with coal would result in electricity generation 30% or 37% more expensive than coal generation, at current coal and CO2 allowance prices and a farm-gate biomass cost of Euro 100 t-1. 'Break-even' CO2 allowance prices are Euro 33 and Euro 37 t-1, respectively. However, co-firing of Miscanthus with peat is close to economic competitiveness, and would require a CO2 allowance price of Euro 16 t-1 to break-even (against a current price of Euro 12 t-1). NPV analyses indicate that wood heat is significantly cheaper than oil, gas or electric heat, excluding existing wood-boiler installation subsidies. Discounted annual savings range from Euro 143 compared with gas to Euro 722 compared with electric heating at the domestic scale and from Euro 3454 to Euro 11,222 at the commercial scale. Inclusion of available subsidies improves the comparative economics of domestic wood heat substantially. The economic advantage of wood heat is robust to variation in fuel prices, discount rates and heat loads. The greatest obstacles to energy-crop utilisation include: (i) a reluctance to consider long-term economics; (ii) possible competition from cheaper sources of biomass; (iii) the need for a spatially coordinated supply and utilisation network

  1. Role of nuclear fusion in future energy systems and the environment under future uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debates about whether or not to invest heavily in nuclear fusion as a future innovative energy option have been made within the context of energy technology development strategies. This is because the prospects for nuclear fusion are quite uncertain and the investments therefore carry the risk of quite large regrets, even though investment is needed in order to develop the technology. The timeframe by which nuclear fusion could become competitive in the energy market has not been adequately studied, nor has roles of the nuclear fusion in energy systems and the environment. The present study has two objectives. One is to reveal the conditions under which nuclear fusion could be introduced economically (hereafter, we refer to such introductory conditions as breakeven prices) in future energy systems. The other objective is to evaluate the future roles of nuclear fusion in energy systems and in the environment. Here we identify three roles that nuclear fusion will take on when breakeven prices are achieved: (i) a portion of the electricity market in 2100, (ii) reduction of annual global total energy systems cost, and (iii) mitigation of carbon tax (shadow price of carbon) under CO2 constraints. Future uncertainties are key issues in evaluating nuclear fusion. Here we treated the following uncertainties: energy demand scenarios, introduction timeframe for nuclear fusion, capacity projections of nuclear fusion, CO2 target in 2100, capacity utilization ratio of options in energy/environment technologies, and utility discount rates. From our investigations, we conclude that the presently designed nuclear fusion reactors may be ready for economical introduction into energy systems beginning around 2050-2060, and we can confirm that the favorable introduction of the reactors would reduce both the annual energy systems cost and the carbon tax (the shadow price of carbon) under a CO2 concentration constraint

  2. THE ECONOMICS OF REPROCESSING vs. DIRECT DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report assesses the economics of reprocessing versus direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The breakeven uranium price at which reprocessing spent nuclear fuel from existing light-water reactors (LWRs) and recycling the resulting plutonium and uranium in LWRs would become economic is assessed, using central estimates of the costs of different elements of the nuclear fuel cycle (and other fuel cycle input parameters), for a wide range of range of potential reprocessing prices. Sensitivity analysis is performed, showing that the conclusions reached are robust across a wide range of input parameters. The contribution of direct disposal or reprocessing and recycling to electricity cost is also assessed. The choice of particular central estimates and ranges for the input parameters of the fuel cycle model is justified through a review of the relevant literature. The impact of different fuel cycle approaches on the volume needed for geologic repositories is briefly discussed, as are the issues surrounding the possibility of performing separations and transmutation on spent nuclear fuel to reduce the need for additional repositories. A similar analysis is then performed of the breakeven uranium price at which deploying fast neutron breeder reactors would become competitive compared with a once-through fuel cycle in LWRs, for a range of possible differences in capital cost between LWRs and fast neutron reactors. Sensitivity analysis is again provided, as are an analysis of the contribution to electricity cost, and a justification of the choices of central estimates and ranges for the input parameters. The equations used in the economic model are derived and explained in an appendix. Another appendix assesses the quantities of uranium likely to be recoverable worldwide in the future at a range of different possible future prices

  3. Measuring the Company Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available According to the logics of the efficient capital investment, the management of the investment of the saving capital in the company’s assets must conclude, on the end of the financial year, with a plus ofreal value (NPV > 0. From this point of view, in this paper we suggest the usage of an investment valuationmodel for the assessment of the company managerial and technological performance. Supposing the book value is a proxy of the just value (of assets and operational results and supposing the capital cost iscorrectly estimated, we evaluate the company’s performance both by the net present value model, and also by the company’s ability to create a surplus of the invested capital (NPV >0.Our paper also aims to identify the performance of the financial breakeven point (for which NPV is at least equal to zero as the minimum acceptable level for the company’s activity. Under this critical sales point, the company goes through the undervaluation of shareholders fortune even if the company’s sales are greater than accounting breakeven point. The performance’s activity level is one which the managers recover and surpass the cost of capital, cost which stand for the normal activity benchmark.The risks of applying of our suggested model we support go down to the confidence of accounting data and of the cost of capital estimating. In spite all of this, the usage of a sensitivity analysis to search anaverage NPV would leads to the company’s performance valuation within investment logic with a high information power.

  4. Measuring the Company Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ion Stancu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the logics of the efficient capital investment, the management of the investment of the saving capital in the company’s assets must conclude, on the end of the financial year, with a plus of real value (NPV > 0. From this point of view, in this paper we suggest the usage of an investment valuation model for the assessment of the company managerial and technological performance. Supposing the book value is a proxy of the just value (of assets and operational results and supposing the capital cost is correctly estimated, we evaluate the company’s performance both by the net present value model, and also by the company’s ability to create a surplus of the invested capital (NPV >0. Our paper also aims to identify the performance of the financial breakeven point (for which NPV is at least equal to zero as the minimum acceptable level for the company’s activity. Under this critical sales point, the company goes through the undervaluation of shareholders fortune even if the company’s sales are greater than accounting breakeven point. The performance’s activity level is one which the managers recover and surpass the cost of capital, cost which stand for the normal activity benchmark. The risks of applying of our suggested model we support go down to the confidence of accounting data and of the cost of capital estimating. In spite all of this, the usage of a sensitivity analysis to search an average NPV would leads to the company’s performance valuation within investment logic with a high information power.

  5. Battery sizing for serial plug-in hybrid electric vehicles: A model-based economic analysis for Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ernst, Christian-Simon, E-mail: ernst@ika.rwth-aachen.de [Institute for Automotive Engineering (ika), RWTH Aachen University, Steinbachstrasse 7, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Hackbarth, Andre; Madlener, Reinhard [Institute for Future Energy Consumer Needs and Behavior (FCN), School of Business and Economics/E.ON Energy Research Center, RWTH Aachen University, Mathieustrasse 6, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Lunz, Benedikt; Uwe Sauer, Dirk [Institute for Power Generation and Storage Systems (PGS), E.ON Energy Research Center, RWTH Aachen University, Mathieustrasse 6, 52074 Aachen (Germany); Eckstein, Lutz [Institute for Automotive Engineering (ika), RWTH Aachen University, Steinbachstrasse 7, 52074 Aachen (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    The battery size of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is decisive for the electrical range of the vehicle and crucial for the cost-effectiveness of this particular vehicle concept. Based on the energy consumption of a conventional reference car and a PHEV, we introduce a comprehensive total cost of ownership model for the average car user in Germany for both vehicle types. The model takes into account the purchase price, fixed annual costs and variable operating costs. The amortization time of a PHEV also depends on the recharging strategy (once a day, once a night, after each trip), the battery size, and the battery costs. We find that PHEVs with a 4 kWh battery and at current lithium-ion battery prices reach the break-even point after about 6 years (5 years when using the lower night-time electricity tariffs). With higher battery capacities the amortization time becomes significantly longer. Even for the small battery size and assuming the EU-15 electricity mix, a PHEV is found to emit only around 60% of the CO{sub 2} emissions of a comparable conventional car. Thus, with the PHEV concept a cost-effective introduction of electric mobility and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions per vehicle can be reached. - Highlights: > Total cost of ownership of a PHEV and a conventional car are compared for the average German car user. > PHEVs with a 4 kWh battery reach the break-even after 5-6 years at current Li-Ion battery prices.> Even with a small battery, PHEVs emit about 40% less CO{sub 2} emissions than the average conventional car.

  6. ANALYSIS OF INTERCOMMUNICATION OF FINANCIAL RESULTS OF ACTIVITY AND INDEXES OF ESTIMATION OF THE FINANCIAL STATE OF A COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudnikov A. G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The system of indicators characterizing the financial condition of a commercial organization, the major thing is profitability of its operations as the ratio of profit on sales and revenues, the ratio of profit before tax and the average annual value of total assets, the ratio of net profit and the average value of all assets, net income and average equity. Great practical importance for the efficient management of resources economic entity is marginal analysis, but it requires, in our opinion, improvement. In the academic literature on management analysis it is recommended to determine the relative value of the stock of financial strength ratio of the absolute value of the stock of financial strength and actual revenue; financial headroom suggested determined by the difference between the actual value of revenue and earnings, the corresponding break-even point. The relative value of the stock of financial strength should be determined, in our opinion, the ratio of the absolute value of the stock of financial strength and the amount of revenue in the break-even point. Recommended in textbooks relative value of the stock of financial strength is a share of stock of financial strength in the actual revenue. The method of rating the financial condition of commercial organizations (credit scoring of the American economist D. Durant return on total assets is also a priority index, largely determining the solvency and liquidity of the balance sheet, the financial stability of the business entity. However, in practice the profitability of the invested capital is not always characterized by an optimal investment

  7. Technical and economic feasibility of utilizing apple pomace as a boiler feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargent, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Apple pomace or presscake, was evaluated for suitability as a boiler feedstock for Michigan firms processing apple juice. Based upon the physical and chemical characteristics of pomace, handling/direct combustion systems were selected to conform with operating parameters typical of the industry. Fresh pomace flow rates of 29,030 and 88,998 kg/day (64,000 and 194,000 lb/day) were considered as representative of small and large processors, respectively, and the material was assumed to be dried to 15% moisture content (wet basis) prior to storage and combustion. Boilers utilizing pile-burning, fluidized-bed-combustion, and suspension-firing technologies were sized for each flow rate, resulting in energy production of 2930 and 8790 kW (10 and 30 million Btu/h), respectively. A life-cycle cost analysis was performed giving Average Annual Costs for the three handling/combustion system combinations (based on the Uniform Capital Recovery factor). An investment loan at 16% interest with a 5-year payback period was assumed. The break-even period for annual costs was calculated by anticipated savings incurred through reduction of fossil-fuel costs during a 5-month processing season. Large processors, producing more than 88,998 kg pomace/day, could economically convert to a suspension-fired system substituting for fuel oil, with break-even occurring after 4 months of operation of pomace per year. Small processors, producing less than 29,030 kg/day, could not currently convert to pomace combustion systems given these economic circumstances. A doubling of electrical-utility costs and changes in interest rates from 10 to 20% per year had only slight effects on the recovery of Average Annual Costs. Increases in fossil-fuel prices and the necessity to pay for pomace disposal reduced the cost-recovery period for all systems, making some systems feasible for small processors. 39 references, 13 figures, 10 tables.

  8. Current and future financial competitiveness of electricity and heat from energy crops: A case study from Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been demonstrated that Miscanthus and willow energy-crop cultivation could be economically competitive with current agricultural land uses at a farm-gate biomass price ranging from EUR70 to EUR130 t-1 dry matter [Styles, D., Thorne, F., Jones, M.B., in review. Energy crops in Ireland: An economic comparison of willow and Miscanthus production with conventional farming systems. Biomass and Bioenergy, May 2006]. This paper uses the same farm-gate prices to calculate the economic competitiveness of energy crop electricity and heat production, using a net-present-value (NPV) approach (20-year period, 5% discount rate). Direct and gasified co-firing of willow wood with coal would result in electricity generation 30% or 37% more expensive than coal generation, at current coal and CO2 allowance prices and a farm-gate biomass cost of EUR100 t-1. 'Break-even' CO2 allowance prices are EUR33 and EUR37 t-1, respectively. However, co-firing of Miscanthus with peat is close to economic competitiveness, and would require a CO2 allowance price of EUR16 t-1 to break-even (against a current price of EUR12 t-1). NPV analyses indicate that wood heat is significantly cheaper than oil, gas or electric heat, excluding existing wood-boiler installation subsidies. Discounted annual savings range from EUR143 compared with gas to EUR722 compared with electric heating at the domestic scale and from EUR3454 to EUR11,222 at the commercial scale. Inclusion of available subsidies improves the comparative economics of domestic wood heat substantially. The economic advantage of wood heat is robust to variation in fuel prices, discount rates and heat loads. The greatest obstacles to energy-crop utilisation include: (i) a reluctance to consider long-term economics; (ii) possible competition from cheaper sources of biomass; (iii) the need for a spatially coordinated supply and utilisation network. (author)

  9. Profit and loss analysis for an intensive care unit (ICU in Japan: a tool for strategic management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe Toshikazu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate cost estimate and a profit and loss analysis are necessary for health care practice. We performed an actual financial analysis for an intensive care unit (ICU of a university hospital in Japan, and tried to discuss the health care policy and resource allocation decisions that have an impact on critical intensive care. Methods The costs were estimated by a department level activity based costing method, and the profit and loss analysis was based on a break-even point analysis. The data used included the monthly number of patients, the revenue, and the direct and indirect costs of the ICU in 2003. Results The results of this analysis showed that the total costs of US$ 2,678,052 of the ICU were mainly incurred due to direct costs of 88.8%. On the other hand, the actual annual total patient days in the ICU were 1,549 which resulted in revenues of US$ 2,295,044. However, it was determined that the ICU required at least 1,986 patient days within one fiscal year based on a break-even point analysis. As a result, an annual deficit of US$ 383,008 has occurred in the ICU. Conclusion These methods are useful for determining the profits or losses for the ICU practice, and how to evaluate and to improve it. In this study, the results indicate that most ICUs in Japanese hospitals may not be profitable at the present time. As a result, in order to increase the income to make up for this deficit, an increase of 437 patient days in the ICU in one fiscal year is needed, and the number of patients admitted to the ICU should thus be increased without increasing the number of beds or staff members. Increasing the number of patients referred from cooperating hospitals and clinics therefore appears to be the best strategy for achieving these goals.

  10. Muon-catalyzed fusion-an energy production perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear fission reaction can be catalyzed in a suitable fusion fuel by muons, which can temporarily form very tightly bound mu-molecules. Muons can be produced by the decay of negative pions, which, in turn, have been produced by an accelerated beam of light ions impinging on a target. Muon-catalyzed fusion is appropriately called cold fusion because the nuclear fusion also occurs at room temperature. For practical fusion energy generation, it appears to be necessary to have a fuel mixture of deuterium and tritium at about liquid density and at a temperature of the order of 1000 K. The current status of muon-catalyzed fusion is limited to demonstrations of scientific breakeven by showing that it is possible to sustain an energy balance between muon production and catalyzed fusion. Conceptually, a muon-catalyzed fusion reactor is seen to be an energy amplifier that increases by fusion reactions that energy invested in nuclear pion-muon beams. The physical quantity that determines this balance is Xμ, the number of fusion reactions each muon can catalyze before it is lost. Showing the feasibility of useful power production is equivalent to showing that Xμ can exceed a sufficiently large number, which is estimated to be ∼104 if standard technology is used or ∼103 if more advanced physics and technology can be developed. Since a muon can be produced with current technology for an expenditure of ∼5000 MeV and 17.6 MeV is produced per fusion event, it follows that Xμ ∼ 250 would be a significant demonstration of scientific breakeven. Therefore, the energy cost of producing muons must be reduced substantially before muon-catalyzed fusion reactors could seriously be considered. The physics of muon-catalyzed fusion is summarized and discussed. Muon catalysis is surveyed for the following systems: proton-deuteron, deuteron-deuteron, deuteron-triton, and non-hydrogen elements. 95 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs

  11. THE ECONOMICS OF REPROCESSING vs DIRECT DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Bunn; Steve Fetter; John P. Holdren; Bob van der Zwaan

    2003-07-01

    This report assesses the economics of reprocessing versus direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The breakeven uranium price at which reprocessing spent nuclear fuel from existing light-water reactors (LWRs) and recycling the resulting plutonium and uranium in LWRs would become economic is assessed, using central estimates of the costs of different elements of the nuclear fuel cycle (and other fuel cycle input parameters), for a wide range of range of potential reprocessing prices. Sensitivity analysis is performed, showing that the conclusions reached are robust across a wide range of input parameters. The contribution of direct disposal or reprocessing and recycling to electricity cost is also assessed. The choice of particular central estimates and ranges for the input parameters of the fuel cycle model is justified through a review of the relevant literature. The impact of different fuel cycle approaches on the volume needed for geologic repositories is briefly discussed, as are the issues surrounding the possibility of performing separations and transmutation on spent nuclear fuel to reduce the need for additional repositories. A similar analysis is then performed of the breakeven uranium price at which deploying fast neutron breeder reactors would become competitive compared with a once-through fuel cycle in LWRs, for a range of possible differences in capital cost between LWRs and fast neutron reactors. Sensitivity analysis is again provided, as are an analysis of the contribution to electricity cost, and a justification of the choices of central estimates and ranges for the input parameters. The equations used in the economic model are derived and explained in an appendix. Another appendix assesses the quantities of uranium likely to be recoverable worldwide in the future at a range of different possible future prices.

  12. Can savings induced by off-patent drugs balance the increase of pharmaceutical expense associated with the high ageing rate of the italian population?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Russo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The predicted ageing rate of the Italian population is one of the highest worldwide and this condition is expected to produce a growing increase in pharmaceutical expenditure. The objective of this study was to assess whether or not off-patent drugs could counterbalance the economic effects generated by the aging of the Italian population in the next ten years.

    Methods: On the basis of the predicted ageing rate of the Italian population for the period 2008-2018, the average annual cumulative increase of pharmaceutical expenditure and potential savings generated by the future loss of patent coverage have been considered in order to identify the year of the Breakeven Point.

    Results: The economic effect induced by the progressive ageing of population produces an average of 0.94% cumulative increase in local pharmaceutical expenditure per year, corresponding to an incremental pharmaceutical expenditure of about € 116 millions per year. A number of 509 brands (103 active substances will lose their patent coverage in the next 10 years. Considering both the present legislation and a level of price reduction, after patent expiration, corresponding to 40%, it is predicted that the Breakeven Point will be achieved at the end of 2011.

    Conclusions: In this study, a long term balance between the predictable increase of pharmaceutical expenditure induced by the ageing of Italian population and savings produced by future off-patent drugs was not established. In order to assure the future sustainability of pharmaceutical expenditure, this study supports the need for the development of new health policy strategies.

  13. Economic analysis of two nuclear fuel cycle options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We model equilibrium material flows processes on two nuclear fuel cycle options. • Monte Carlo simulation was used to get the statistical results with deviations. • We set the time frame to schematically describe the fuel cycle processes. • We determined all component costs separately discounted to the base year. - Abstract: There are two major nuclear fuel cycle options in the world: the once-through cycle (OTC) option and the closed fuel cycle (CFC) option which consists of the thermal reactor recycle (TRR) and the fast reactor recycle (FRR). Presently, the TRR option has been industrially implemented in some European countries while the FRR option is still under development internationally. In this paper, the economic analysis of OTC and TRR options was carried out using levelized fuel cycle cost (LFCC). The two options were analyzed by calculating the equilibrium material flows as well as the economic costs of the overall fuel cycle components. The LFCCs of the two options were obtained as follows: OTC $5.94 ± 0.67 mills/kW h and TRR $6.13 ± 0.55 mills/kW h. Taking all uncertainties into considerations, the two options’ costs were in the same range. In addition, the sensitivity analysis was made to figure out the breakeven uranium price ($112/kgHM), at which uranium price from OTC was economically competitive to TRR option slightly. Under the most possible international circumstance, it indicates a decreasing breakeven uranium price in future, which means TRR option would be more economical than OTC option

  14. Learning from the Sun. Analysis of the use of experience curves for energy policy purposes. The case of photovoltaic power. Final report of the Photex project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the 1990s energy policy scientists have started to explore the possibilities of using the experience curve approach for energy policy making. The concept of the experience curve is simple, at least in principle. It states that, for every doubling of cumulative produced capacity of a product or technology, the cost for making it declines with a fixed percentage (learning rate). Historical statistical analysis can be used to define this percentage. Extrapolating the trend thus found, into the future will then give relevant information about future cost developments and will also give information how much 'learning money' will be needed to get to the break-even point. The Photex project used the development of solar PV as a case to further explore this approach, and also to deduce lessons for PV policy. Other aims were to look at learning rates of the different components of PV-systems and to combine the experience curve analyses with bottom-up engineering studies. The main conclusion with regard to the use of experience curves for energy policy making is that this is an interesting approach, but that such an analysis should be done with much care. For the historical analysis the availability of reliable and firm data is essential. As cost data often are not available, price data could be used as a proxy, as long as sufficient long time ranges are used. Also, the analyst should take care he considers the right learning system boundaries. Furthermore the number of years to be included in the statistical analysis should at least be 10 years and this period sample should not over-represent stable price periods or periods of steep price decline. If possible, data uncertainties should be taken into account as well. An interesting finding was that, at least in the case of PV, the learning rate is not a constant, but can vary over time. In the case of PV it improved from 20% to 23%. Extrapolations into the future should take uncertainties into account and always be

  15. The Mercury Laser System-A scaleable average-power laser for fusion and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nestled in a valley between the whitecaps of the Pacific and the snowcapped crests of the Sierra Nevada, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is home to the nearly complete National Ignition Facility (NIF). The purpose of NIF is to create a miniature star-on demand. An enormous amount of laser light energy (1.8 MJ in a pulse that is 20 ns in duration) will be focused into a small gold cylinder approximately the size of a pencil eraser. Centered in the gold cylinder (or hohlraum) will be a nearly perfect sphere filled with a complex mixture of hydrogen gas isotopes that is similar to the atmosphere of our Sun. During experiments, the laser light will hit the inside of the gold cylinder, heating the metal until it emits X-rays (similar to how your electric stove coil emits visible red light when heated). The X-rays will be used to compress the hydrogen-like gas with such pressure that the gas atoms will combine or 'fuse' together, producing the next heavier element (helium) and releasing energy in the form of energetic particles. 2010 will mark the first credible attempt at this world-changing event: the achievement of fusion energy 'break-even' on Earth using NIF, the world's largest laser NIF is anticipated to eventually perform this immense technological accomplishment once per week, with the capability of firing up to six shots per day - eliminating the need for continued underground testing of our nation's nuclear stockpile, in addition to opening up new realms of science. But what about the day after NIF achieves ignition? Although NIF will achieve fusion energy break-even and gain, the facility is not designed to harness the enormous potential of fusion for energy generation. A fusion power plant, as opposed to a world-class engineering research facility, would require that the laser deliver drive pulses nearly 100,000 times more frequently - a rate closer to 10 shots per second as opposed to several shots per day.

  16. Feasibility study of Large-scale helium GFR employing coated particle fuel. Design study of hexagonal matrix-block fuel assembly cores. Annual report of JFY2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas-cooled fast reactor has been taken an interest as a future nuclear reactor power source; we JNC have designed large-scale (1124MW electric power), high-temperature (850degC) with high thermodynamic efficiency (around 47%), helium-cooled fast reactors as a part of feasibility study. Hexagonal-block fuel assembly configuration has been considered as a candidate, where a number of coated particles packed in a SiC matrix are cooled indirectly by ascending flow in penetrating tubes. This manuscript describes, as an annual report of JFY2004, technical keys for enhancing core neutronics/thermal-hydraulics performances of the hex-block concepts and the best-to-date core designs. Technical keys for enhancing are from neutronics viewpoints (radial peaking factor, assembly layout and configuration), thermal-hydraulic viewpoints (heat transfer and film temperature rise, thermal conductivity and fuel-matrix temperature rise, core pressure drop, and coolant temperature), and neutronics/and/thermal-hydraulics combinational viewpoints (effective fuel volume fraction, local temperature decrees for increasing Doppler effects). Two issues (reducing contacting heat resistance in a matrix, and lowering core inflow temperature under depressurization transient) are selected from quantitative pre-evaluations; then are applied to select the reference core designs for achieving reduced Pu fissile inventory and improved average discharge burnup. Two reference cores are designed; one is 'breeding' core, which achieves high breeding ratio and high discharge burnup, the other is 'break-even' core, which brings much higher discharge burnup with a breeding ratio of around unity. [Reference core designs (2400MW thermal/1124MW electric outputs)] Core equiv. diameter/Height/Outermost diameter: 5.42m/1.00m/7.49m. Average Discharge Burnup (Seed region average): 121 GWd/t/123 GWd/t. (Entire core average): 69 GWd/t/89 GWd/t. Breeding Ratio: 1.11/1.03. Initial Pu fissile quantity: 7.0 ton/GWe/7.0 ton

  17. An analysis of the investment risk related to the integration of a supercritical coal-fired combined heat and power plant with an absorption installation for CO2 separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Two variants of a CHP plant – with and without integration with CCS were analyzed. • For the CHP plant main investment risk factors were identified. • For two variants risk analyses based on Monte Carlo method have been carried out. • For evaluation of the investment risk four indices were defined and calculated. - Abstract: For two variants of a supercritical coal-fired combined heat and power plant a thermodynamic, economic and risk analyses were carried out. The first variant consists of a unit working without realization of CO2 capture process. The second one is the unit integrated with a chemical absorption CO2 capture installation. In this variant the heat required for the desorption process is supplied with steam extracted from the steam turbine. The developed model of the CHP plant allowed to obtain main operation characteristics for annual change of load. For the two analyzed variants the characteristics of the amount of produced electricity (gross and net), generated heat and consumed chemical energy of fuel, as a function of the cogeneration unit operation time per year, were determined. In the next stage of calculations these characteristics were required to carry out the economic and risk analysis. Economic performances were evaluated in terms of the break-even price of electricity. The performed analysis proves that both investment projects will achieve the same economic effect, i.e. 85.26 €/MW h, if the price of emissions allowances reaches the value of 47.88 €/MgCO2. In this case, the potentially better variant of the system may be indicated based on the result of the risk analysis. In order to perform the risk analysis the main technical and economic risk factors concerning implementation of this technology were identified. The risk analysis was conducted with the use of Monte Carlo method. Based on the determined cumulative probability curves of obtaining specified values of the break-even price of electricity, it was

  18. Cattle producers' economic incentives for preventing bovine brucellosis under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Trenton W; Peck, Dannele E; Ritten, John P

    2012-12-01

    Cattle in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem occasionally contract bovine brucellosis from free-ranging elk and bison. Cattle producers use a variety of brucellosis prevention activities to reduce their herds' risk of contracting brucellosis, such as: (1) having state agency personnel haze elk off private land, (2) fencing haystacks, (3) administering adult booster vaccination, (4) spaying heifers, (5) altering the winter-feeding schedule of cattle, (6) hiring riders to prevent cattle-elk commingling, and (7) delaying grazing on high-risk allotments. Their brucellosis prevention decisions are complicated, however, by several sources of uncertainty, including the following: a cattle herd's baseline risk of contracting brucellosis, the inherent randomness of brucellosis outbreaks, the cost of implementing prevention activities, and the activities' effectiveness. This study eliminates one source of uncertainty by estimating the cost of implementing brucellosis prevention activities on a representative cow/calf-long yearling operation in the southern GYE. It then reports the minimum level of effectiveness each prevention activity must achieve to justify investment by a risk-neutral producer. Individual producers face different levels of baseline risk, however, and the US government's brucellosis-response policy is constantly evolving. We therefore estimate breakeven levels of effectiveness for a range of baseline risks and government policies. Producers, animal health experts, and policymakers can use this study's results to determine which brucellosis prevention activities are unlikely to generate sufficient expected benefits to cover their cost of implementation. Results also demonstrate the influence of government policy on producers' incentives to prevent brucellosis. Policies that increase the magnitude of economic loss a producer incurs when their herd contracts brucellosis subsequently decrease prevention activities' breakeven levels of effectiveness, and

  19. Advanced SFR concept design studies at KAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Advanced SFR design concepts have been proposed and evaluated against the design requirements to satisfy the Gen IV technology goals. Two types of conceptual core designs, Breakeven and TRU burner cores were developed. Breakeven core is 1,200 MWe and does not have blankets to enhance the proliferation resistance. According to the current study, TRU burning rate increases linearly with the rated core powers from 600 MWe to 1,200 MWe. Considering 1) the realistic size of an SFR demonstration reactor for the long-term R and D plan with the goal of a demonstration SFR construction by 2028, and 2) the availability of a KALIMER-600 reactor system design that was developed in the last R and D phase, a TRU burner of 600 MWe was selected. The heat transport system of Advanced SFR was designed to be a pool type to enhance system safety through slow system transients, where primary sodium is contained in a reactor vessel. The heat transport system is composed of Primary Heat Transport System (PHTS), Intermediate Heat Transport System (IHTS), Steam Generating System (SGS) and Residual Heat Removal System (RHRS). The heat transport system was established through trade studies in order to enhance the safety and to improve the economics and performance of the KALIMER-600 design. Trade studies were performed for the number of IHTS loops, the number of PHTS pumps, Steam Generator (SG) design concepts, energy conversion system concepts, cover gas operation methods, and an improved concept of safety-graded passive decay heat removal system. From the study, the heat transport system of Advanced SFR has design features such as two IHTS loops, a Rankine cycle energy conversion system, two double-wall straight tube type SGs, and a passive decay heat removal system. In order to secure the economic competitiveness of an SFR, several concepts were implemented in the mechanical structural design without losing the reactor safety level. The material of reactor vessel and internal

  20. A comparative thermodynamic, economic and risk analysis concerning implementation of oxy-combustion power plants integrated with cryogenic and hybrid air separation units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Mathematical model of an integrated oxy-combustion power plant. • Comparison of a hybrid membrane–cryogenic oxygen generation plant with a cryogenic plant. • Thermodynamic analysis of the modeled cases of the plant. • Comparative economic analysis of the power plant with cryogenic and hybrid ASU. • Comparative risk analysis using a Monte Carlo method and sensitivity analysis. - Abstract: This paper presents a comparison of two types of oxy-combustion power plant that differ from each other in terms of the method of oxygen separation. For the purpose of the analysis, detailed thermodynamic models of oxy-fuel power plants with gross power of approximately 460 MW were built. In the first variant (Case 1), the plant is integrated with a cryogenic air separation unit (ASU). In the second variant (Case 2), the plant is integrated with a hybrid membrane–cryogenic installation. The models were built and optimized using the GateCycle, Aspen Plus and Aspen Custom Modeller software packages and with the use of our own computational codes. The results of the thermodynamic evaluation of the systems, which primarily uses indicators such as the auxiliary power and efficiencies of the whole system and of the individual components that constitute the unit, are presented. Better plant performance is observed for Case 2, which has a net efficiency of electricity generation that is 1.1 percentage points greater than that of Case 1. For the selected structure of the system, an economic analysis of the solutions was made. This analysis accounts for different scenarios of the functioning of the Emission Trading Scheme and includes detailed estimates of the investment costs in both cases. As an indicator of profitability, the break-even price of electricity was used primarily. The results of the analysis for the assumptions made are presented in this paper. A system with a hybrid air separation unit has slightly better economic performance. The break-even price

  1. An economic analysis of mobile pyrolysis for northern New Mexico forests.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Patrick D.; Brown, Alexander L.; Mowry, Curtis Dale; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III

    2011-12-01

    In the interest of providing an economically sensible use for the copious small-diameter wood in Northern New Mexico, an economic study is performed focused on mobile pyrolysis. Mobile pyrolysis was selected for the study because transportation costs limit the viability of a dedicated pyrolysis plant, and the relative simplicity of pyrolysis compared to other technology solutions lends itself to mobile reactor design. A bench-scale pyrolysis system was used to study the wood pyrolysis process and to obtain performance data that was otherwise unavailable under conditions theorized to be optimal given the regional problem. Pyrolysis can convert wood to three main products: fixed gases, liquid pyrolysis oil and char. The fixed gases are useful as low-quality fuel, and may have sufficient chemical energy to power a mobile system, eliminating the need for an external power source. The majority of the energy content of the pyrolysis gas is associated with carbon monoxide, followed by light hydrocarbons. The liquids are well characterized in the historical literature, and have slightly lower heating values comparable to the feedstock. They consist of water and a mix of hundreds of hydrocarbons, and are acidic. They are also unstable, increasing in viscosity with time stored. Up to 60% of the biomass in bench-scale testing was converted to liquids. Lower ({approx}550 C) furnace temperatures are preferred because of the decreased propensity for deposits and the high liquid yields. A mobile pyrolysis system would be designed with low maintenance requirements, should be able to access wilderness areas, and should not require more than one or two people to operate the system. The techno-economic analysis assesses fixed and variable costs. It suggests that the economy of scale is an important factor, as higher throughput directly leads to improved system economic viability. Labor and capital equipment are the driving factors in the viability of the system. The break-even

  2. Down Selection of the Design Options for an Advanced Gen IV SFR Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Lee, D. U.; Kim, Y. I.; Won, B. C.; Hahn, Do Hee

    2008-11-15

    Several design concepts for incorporating those concepts into a Generation IV SFR reactor concept were proposed, based on the KALIMER-600 design developed previously by KAERI. Those concepts were suggested to define capacity, conversion ratio, cladding material, number of loops for a heat transport system and turbine type. This report addresses the main results and progress achieved this year in each research and development work for specifying each concept finally next year. The capacity of a breakeven core was defined to be 1200 MWe taking into account a TRU inventory and a discharge burnup from the viewpoint of fuel utilization. For the breakeven core specification, an enrichment split core configuration having the advantage of better neutronic economics and simpler fuel fabrication, has been selected and its core design is being carried out. Total twenty specimens for the first and second candidate alloys were designed and manufactured to develop a new cladding alloy. For those alloy specimens, a mechanical performance was evaluated and a microscopic structure has been observed. A candidate for a new cladding alloy will finally be determined following the evaluation of the third candidate alloy next year. In terms of less component units per loop and a smaller installation space, a two-loop heat transport system was selected and its detailed configuration is being developed. For defining a steam generator concept, a double walled tube type was selected from the viewpoint of reliability, economics and manufacture capability of a steam generator. A steam generator type will finally be determined to be either a straight tube type or a helical tube type, judging advances achieved in future development of the steam generator concepts. A Rankine cycle concept established well was given preference as a reference concept for BOP. A S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle concept newly developed as an advanced concept needs a long-term R and D work and experimental verification to

  3. Essays concerning the cellulosic biofuel industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosburg, Alicia Sue

    Despite market-based incentives and mandated production, the U.S. cellulosic biofuel industry has been slow to develop. This dissertation explores the economic factors that have limited industry development along with important economic tradeoffs that will be encountered with commercial-scale production. The first essay provides an overview of the policies, potential, and challenges of the biofuel industry, with a focus on cellulosic biofuel. The second essay considers the economics of cellulosic biofuel production. Breakeven models of the local feedstock supply system and biofuel refining process are constructed to develop the Biofuel Breakeven (BioBreak) program, a stochastic, Excel-based program that evaluates the feasibility of local biofuel and biomass markets under various policy and market scenarios. An application of the BioBreak program is presented using expected market conditions for 14 local cellulosic biofuel markets that vary by feedstock and location. The economic costs of biofuel production identified from the BioBreak application are higher than frequently anticipated and raise questions about the potential of cellulosic ethanol as a sustainable and economical substitute for conventional fuels. Program results also are extended using life-cycle analysis to evaluate the cost of reducing GHG emissions by substituting cellulosic ethanol for conventional fuel. The third essay takes a closer look at the economic trade-offs within the biorefinery industry and feedstock production processes. A long-run biomass production through bioenergy conversion cost model is developed that incorporates heterogeneity of biomass suppliers within and between local markets. The model builds on previous literature by treating biomass as a non-commoditized feedstock and relaxes the common assumption of fixed biomass density and price within local markets. An empirical application is provided for switchgrass-based ethanol production within U.S. crop reporting districts

  4. Integrating renewables in distribution grids. Storage, regulation and the interaction of different stakeholders in future grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nykamp, S.

    2013-10-18

    In recent years, the transition of the power supply chain towards a sustainable system based on 'green' electricity generation out of renewable energy sources (RES-E) has become a main challenge for grid operators and further stakeholders in the power system. To enable the evaluation of new concepts for the integration of RES-E, first the feed-in characteristics of photovoltaic, wind and biomass generators located in a distribution grid area and based on numerous measured feed-in data are studied in this thesis. The achieved insights from the feed-in profiles can be used for the dimensioning of grid assets. Furthermore, the results are useful for the evaluation of congestion management or for the dimensioning of storage assets in distribution grids. The latter aspect is analyzed in detail such that suitable storage characteristics for an introduction in the grid are determined. An economic approach is presented to derive break-even points for storage assets as a substitute to conventional reinforcements. For a case study from a real world low voltage grid with reinforcement needs, these break-even points are determined and the main influencing parameters are evaluated. A further important question in this context concerns the role DSOs (distribution system operators) may play with the operation of decentralized storage assets since several stakeholders may be interested in using the flexibility provided by these assets. This unclear responsibility also applies to the steering of adjustable consumption devices such as electric heat pumps or electric cars. For decentralized storage assets as well as heat pump appliances, optimal operation modes based on the optimization objectives for a DSO and a trader are derived. It is shown based on real world data that choosing a 'copperplate' scenario is not only technically insufficient for a global balance of the consumption and generation. It may even be harmful for the society from a welfare economic

  5. Expanding ART for treatment and prevention of HIV in South Africa: estimated cost and cost-effectiveness 2011-2050.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Granich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral Treatment (ART significantly reduces HIV transmission. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of the impact of expanded ART in South Africa. METHODS: We model a best case scenario of 90% annual HIV testing coverage in adults 15-49 years old and four ART eligibility scenarios: CD4 count <200 cells/mm(3 (current practice, CD4 count <350, CD4 count <500, all CD4 levels. 2011-2050 outcomes include deaths, disability adjusted life years (DALYs, HIV infections, cost, and cost per DALY averted. Service and ART costs reflect South African data and international generic prices. ART reduces transmission by 92%. We conducted sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: Expanding ART to CD4 count <350 cells/mm(3 prevents an estimated 265,000 (17% and 1.3 million (15% new HIV infections over 5 and 40 years, respectively. Cumulative deaths decline 15%, from 12.5 to 10.6 million; DALYs by 14% from 109 to 93 million over 40 years. Costs drop $504 million over 5 years and $3.9 billion over 40 years with breakeven by 2013. Compared with the current scenario, expanding to <500 prevents an additional 585,000 and 3 million new HIV infections over 5 and 40 years, respectively. Expanding to all CD4 levels decreases HIV infections by 3.3 million (45% and costs by $10 billion over 40 years, with breakeven by 2023. By 2050, using higher ART and monitoring costs, all CD4 levels saves $0.6 billion versus current; other ART scenarios cost $9-194 per DALY averted. If ART reduces transmission by 99%, savings from all CD4 levels reach $17.5 billion. Sensitivity analyses suggest that poor retention and predominant acute phase transmission reduce DALYs averted by 26% and savings by 7%. CONCLUSION: Increasing the provision of ART to <350 cells/mm3 may significantly reduce costs while reducing the HIV burden. Feasibility including HIV testing and ART uptake, retention, and adherence should be evaluated.

  6. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Blended Versus Face-to-Face Delivery of Evidence-Based Medicine to Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklen, Peter; Rivers, George; Foo, Jonathan; Ooi, Ying Ying; Reeves, Scott; Walsh, Kieran; Ilic, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Background Blended learning describes a combination of teaching methods, often utilizing digital technologies. Research suggests that learner outcomes can be improved through some blended learning formats. However, the cost-effectiveness of delivering blended learning is unclear. Objective This study aimed to determine the cost-effectiveness of a face-to-face learning and blended learning approach for evidence-based medicine training within a medical program. Methods The economic evaluation was conducted as part of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing the evidence-based medicine (EBM) competency of medical students who participated in two different modes of education delivery. In the traditional face-to-face method, students received ten 2-hour classes. In the blended learning approach, students received the same total face-to-face hours but with different activities and additional online and mobile learning. Online activities utilized YouTube and a library guide indexing electronic databases, guides, and books. Mobile learning involved self-directed interactions with patients in their regular clinical placements. The attribution and differentiation of costs between the interventions within the RCT was measured in conjunction with measured outcomes of effectiveness. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated comparing the ongoing operation costs of each method with the level of EBM proficiency achieved. Present value analysis was used to calculate the break-even point considering the transition cost and the difference in ongoing operation cost. Results The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio indicated that it costs 24% less to educate a student to the same level of EBM competency via the blended learning approach used in the study, when excluding transition costs. The sunk cost of approximately AUD $40,000 to transition to the blended model exceeds any savings from using the approach within the first year of its implementation; however, a

  7. Economic evaluation of small-scale photovoltaic hybrid systems for mini-grid applications in far north Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comparison between photovoltaic hybrid systems (PVHS), standalone photovoltaic (PV) and standalone diesel generator options is performed using the net present value (NPV) technique. A typical village mini-grid energy demand of 7.08 kWh/day is considered in the computation of energy costs and breakeven grid distances. A first sensitivity analysis is conducted using remote diesel prices of 0.8 EUR/l, 0.98 EUR/l, 1.12 EUR/l, 1.28 EUR/l with a PV module cost of 7.5 EUR/Wp. A second sensitivity analysis is also done using PV module costs of 5.25 EUR/Wp, 6 EUR/Wp, 6.75 EUR/Wp, 7.5 EUR/Wp with a diesel price of 1.12 EUR/l. The energy cost for the diesel option was found to be 0.812 EUR/kWh at a diesel fuel price of 1.12 EUR/l. The sensitivity analyses showed that minimum energy costs were attained in PVHS at renewable energy fractions in the range 82.6-95.3%. In the second sensitivity analysis the energy costs and breakeven grid distances were found to be in the ranges 0.692-0.785 EUR/kWh and 5.1-5.9 km respectively. For a PV module cost of 5.25 EUR/Wp, the lowest energy cost for the PVHS option was 0.692 EUR/kWh at a final renewable energy fraction of 95.3% with the diesel generator hours being 37 h compared to 2075 h in the standalone diesel generator option. Consequently, a 30% reduction in custom duties and taxes on imported PV modules and sub-systems would increase the use of small-scale and climate friendly PV mini-grids in remote areas of far north Cameroon that have an annual insolation of at least 5.55 kWh/m2/day. (author)

  8. SWRO浓盐水回收工艺改进及经济效益评估%Process Improvement and Economy Evaluation of SWRO Brine Recycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高振

    2014-01-01

    According to the operation data of Dagang Newspring Desalting Plant since it was built up,considering the features of the intake water,a new improving project was proposed.The SWRO brine was returned to the intake side in order to improve the intake water quality in the project.Then the mainly affecting factor was analyzed to the projection,the BEP (break-even point) was found according to intake water conductivity,and the economy benefits of the projection were evaluated.%针对天津大港新泉海水淡化有限公司运行以来遇到的取水特点,以数年来运营数据进行参考,提出了在上游排污期间将SWRO浓盐水回流至取水段的改良方案,并对该方案的主要影响因素进行了分析,找出了以电导率为依据的盈亏平衡点,并对该方案的经济效益进行了评估.

  9. Fast liner proposal. [Magnetic implosions of cylindrical liners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, A.R.; Freeman, B.L.; Gerwin, R.A.; Jarboe, T.R.; Krakowski, R.A.; Malone, R.C.; Marshall, J.; Miller, R.L.; Suydam, B.

    1977-08-01

    This is a proposal to study, both theoretically and experimentally, the possibility of making a fusion reactor by magnetically imploding a cylindrical metallic shell on a prepared plasma. The approach is characterized by the following features: (1) the nonrotating liner would be driven by an axial current, (2) the plasma would also carry an axial current that provides an azimuthal magnetic field for thermal insulation in both the radial and longitudinal directions, (3) solid end plugs would be utilized to prevent axial loss of particles, and (4) liner speeds would be in the 10/sup 6/ cm/s range. The preliminary calculations indicate (1) that the energetics are favorable (energy inputs of about 10 MJ might produce a machine in the break-even regime), (2) that radiation and heat losses could be made tolerable, (3) that alpha-particle heating could be made very effective, and (4) that Taylor instabilities in a fast liner might be harmless because of the large viscosities at high pressures. A preliminary conceptual design of the sort of fusion reactor that might result from such an approach is discussed, as are some of the relevant reactor scaling arguments.

  10. Fast liner proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is a proposal to study, both theoretically and experimentally, the possibility of making a fusion reactor by magnetically imploding a cylindrical metallic shell on a prepared plasma. The approach is characterized by the following features: (1) the nonrotating liner would be driven by an axial current, (2) the plasma would also carry an axial current that provides an azimuthal magnetic field for thermal insulation in both the radial and longitudinal directions, (3) solid end plugs would be utilized to prevent axial loss of particles, and (4) liner speeds would be in the 106 cm/s range. The preliminary calculations indicate (1) that the energetics are favorable (energy inputs of about 10 MJ might produce a machine in the break-even regime), (2) that radiation and heat losses could be made tolerable, (3) that alpha-particle heating could be made very effective, and (4) that Taylor instabilities in a fast liner might be harmless because of the large viscosities at high pressures. A preliminary conceptual design of the sort of fusion reactor that might result from such an approach is discussed, as are some of the relevant reactor scaling arguments

  11. Proceedings of 'workshop on Pb-alloy cooled fast reactor'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of 'Workshop on Pb-Alloy Cooled Fast Reactor', held in Taejeon, Korea on May 6, 2003, is to enhance the basic knowledge in this area by facilitating the exchange of information and discussions about problematic area of design aspects. There were five presentations from three different countries and about 25 participants gathered during the workshop. The topics covered in the workshop include benefits and drawbacks of Pb-alloy and Sodium coolant, two Pb-alloy cooled 900 MWt reactor designs using both B4C rods and NSTs, BREST-300 breakeven reactor and transmutation effectiveness of LLFPs in the typical thermal/fast neutron systems. The generic conclusion for the Pb-alloy cooled fast reactor from this workshop is as follows: 1) It has a potential to satisfy the goals established for the Generation-IV reactor concepts, so it has a bright future. 2) As a fast neutron system with a moderate breeding or a conversion, it is flexible in its roles and has superior safety characteristics over sodium coolant because of Pb-alloy's chemical inertness with water/air and high boiling temperature

  12. Assessment of the greenhouse gas emissions from cogeneration and trigeneration systems. Part II: Analysis techniques and application cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper provides a set of specific examples to show the effectiveness of the trigeneration CO2 emission reduction (TCO2ER) indicator proposed in the companion paper (Part I: Models and indicators) to assess the greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction from cogeneration and trigeneration systems. Specific break-even analyses are developed by introducing further indicators, with the aim of assessing the conditions for which different types of combined systems and conventional separate production systems are equivalent in terms of GHG emissions. The various emission indicators are evaluated and discussed for a number of relevant application cases concerning cogeneration and trigeneration solutions with different types of equipment. Scenario analyses are carried out to assess the possible emission reduction benefits from extended diffusion of cogeneration and trigeneration in regions characterized by different energy generation frameworks. The results strongly depend on the available technologies for combined production, on the composition of the energy generation mix, and on the trend towards upgrading the various generation systems. The numerical outcomes indicate that cogeneration and trigeneration solutions could bring significant benefits in countries with prevailing electricity production from fossil fuels, quantified by the use of the proposed indicators

  13. DYNAMICS OF MAIN PROFITABILITY INDICATORS IN DISTRIBUTION OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS OF THE COMPANY EL CASIO COM SRL-SLOBOZIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu MUNTEANU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The return of distribution companies is related to the performance of activity based management, which can be expressed through a system of indicators reflecting their activity. This paper aims to analyse the company EL CASIO COM SRL Slobozia, active in the distribution field of food and agricultural products in Ialomita and Calarasi counties. We analysed the economic indicators between 1999-2009 from which resulted the main elements influencing the company’s revenue and profitability. The analysed period revealed that the break-even was achieved in 2003 with 5 employees, a revenue of 1899, 16 thousand lei whereas the expenses amounted 1732 thousand lei and labour productivity was set at 379, 8 thousand lei/ worker. The resulted trend after presenting and interpreting the exponential function Y=3,862·X10,5480866·X 21,239971is given based on the changes of income level (Y, from the factors of influence, represented by the amount of equity (x 1 and labour used (x 2. The multiple correlation ratios (rx 1x 2 = 0, 9505, confirm the influence intensity of the two factors upon the trends in revenue growth. As result we can see trends in revenue growth with amplification factors of influence

  14. RF H and CD systems for DEMO - Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of driving a sufficient amount of plasma current with an appropriate radial current density profile is considered as one of the key challenges for a tokamak fusion power plant in steady state operation. Furthermore, efficient heating to enable transition to regime of enhanced confinement and to achieve breakeven plasma temperatures as well as MHD control and plasma breakdown assistance are required. In the framework of the EFDA Power Plant Physics and Technology (PPPT) activities, the ability of the Electron cyclotron (EC), Ion Cyclotron (IC) and Lower Hybrid (LH) systems to fulfil these requirements, was studied for a demonstration fusion power plant (DEMO). As boundary condition, a 1D description of the plasma for a pulsed DEMO based on system code studies combined with transport analysis was developed. The predicted 1D plasma parameters were used to calculate the current drive (CD) efficiency of each system and eventually optimised it. As an example, the EC current drive efficiency could be increased strongly by top launch compared to equatorial launch at least by a factor of two. For the IC system, two possible windows of operation for standard and higher frequencies were highlighted, whereby again top launch leads to higher CD-efficiencies. The efficiencies predicted for DEMO for the RF current drive systems will be presented. Finally, gaps in the feasibility of RF systems under DEMO relevant conditions will be identified

  15. Markets and economics of mixed waste paper as a boiler fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed waste paper (MWP) is the second largest component of the municipal solid waste steam disposal of in Washington State. Recent state legislation has mandated source separation of recycled material including MWP. The quantity collected will soon saturate both domestic and foreign markets. An alternative market could be as a fuel in existing combustors. The use of MWP as a fuel requires environmental and economic acceptance by potential users. MWP was analyzed for heavy metal concentrations and elemental composition and found to be similar to existing solid and fossil fuels burned in existing boilers. Existing regulations, however, may classify MWP as a municipal solid waste, thus increasing the capital and administrative costs of using this fuel. The cost of processing MWP into a fluff and a pellet was determined. Three existing facilities were studied to determine the capital and operating costs for them to use MWP fuel. In all cases, the cost of processing and transporting the fuel was greater than the break-even price that could be paid by the potential users

  16. Low-temperature waste-heat recovery in the food and paper industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foell, W.K.; Lund, D.; Mitchell, J.W.; Ray, D.; Stevenson, R.; TenWolde, A.

    1980-11-01

    The potential of low-temperature waste-heat recovery technology is examined. An examination of barriers to impede waste-heat recovery is made and research programs are identified. Extensive information and data are presented in the following chapters: Waste Heat Recovery in the Wisconsin Food Industry; Waste Heat Recovery in the Wisconsin Pulp and Paper Industry; Industries' Economic Analysis of Energy Conservation Projects; Industrial Waste Heat Recovery (selection of heat-recovery heat exchangers for industrial applications, simplified procedure for selection of heat recovery heat exchangers for industrial applications, selection of heat pumps for industrial applications); Institutional Aspects of Industrial Energy Conservation (economic motivation for energy conservation and the industrial response, intrafirm idea channels and their sources, evaluation and approval of plant improvement projects, reported barriers to adopting waste heat recovery projects and recommendations for government involvement, and the final chapter is a summary with major conclusions given. Additional information is given in two appendices on the potential waste heat recovery in a cheese plant (calculation) and conditions for optimum exchanger size and break-even fuel cost. (MCW)

  17. Budgetary Control and Service Charge Management Performance in Real Estate Sector: An Empirical Study of the Motivational Aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Enoch Okpala

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Most Real Estate Property Management Companies (PMC in most cases struggles with service charge funds (SCF to provide amenities for tenants living in their serviced apartments after budget has been carefully prepared and approved and payments made by occupants. This paper investigated the effect of motivational aspect of budgetary control on the service charge management performance in PMCs in Nigeria. The sample frame consists of 4 major PMC with 380 staff stratified into two groups - group 1 (Luxurious and group 2 (commercial. The sample size is made up of 95 staff representing 25% of the frame selected at random. Data was collected through structured questionnaire and analyzed. Z-test was used for hypotheses confirmation. Findings proved that budgetary control has significant influence on workers motivation which leads to savings in the service charge expenditure but not effectively employed in the subsector hence the inefficiency in Service charge expenditure (SCE management. The study recommended that budgetary control should be intensified to motivate employees to embark on service cost minimization to gain savings or at least achieve a state of breakeven. This will promote tenancy relationship in the managed estates and the achievement of PMC financial objective.

  18. Economic Analysis of Different Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Il Ko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An economic analysis has been performed to compare four nuclear fuel cycle options: a once-through cycle (OT, DUPIC recycling, thermal recycling using MOX fuel in a pressurized water reactor (PWR-MOX, and sodium fast reactor recycling employing pyroprocessing (Pyro-SFR. This comparison was made to suggest an economic competitive fuel cycle for the Republic of Korea. The fuel cycle cost (FCC has been calculated based on the equilibrium material flows integrated with the unit cost of the fuel cycle components. The levelized fuel cycle costs (LFCC have been derived in terms of mills/kWh for a fair comparison among the FCCs, and the results are as follows: OT 7.35 mills/kWh, DUPIC 9.06 mills/kWh, PUREX-MOX 8.94 mills/kWh, and Pyro-SFR 7.70 mills/kWh. Due to unavoidable uncertainties, a cost range has been applied to each unit cost, and an uncertainty study has been performed accordingly. A sensitivity analysis has also been carried out to obtain the break-even uranium price (215$/kgU for the Pyro-SFR against the OT, which demonstrates that the deployment of the Pyro-SFR may be economical in the foreseeable future. The influence of pyrotechniques on the LFCC has also been studied to determine at which level the potential advantages of Pyro-SFR can be realized.

  19. Economic assessment of solar and conventional biomass gasification technologies: Financial and policy implications under feedstock and product gas price uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four configurations of a novel solar-heated biomass gasification facility and one configuration of conventional biomass gasification are analyzed through financial and policy scenarios. The purpose of this study is to determine the potential financial position for varying configurations of a novel technology, as compared to the current state-of-the-art gasification technology. Through the use of project finance and policy scenario development, we assess the baseline breakeven syngas price (normalized against natural gas prices and based upon annual feedstock consumption), the sensitivity of major cost components for the novel facilities, and the implications of policy levers on the economic feasibility of the solar facilities. Findings show that certain solar configurations may compete with conventional facilities on a straightforward economic basis. However, with renewable energy policy levers in place the solar technologies become increasingly attractive options. - Highlights: • We model four solar and one conventional biomass gasification systems. • We assess economic feasibility of these systems with and without policy incentives. • Solar facilities compete with the conventional system in certain scenarios. • Feedstock costs are the largest contributor to system cost sensitivity. • Policy incentives create an economically favorable scenario for solar facilities

  20. Evaluation of economical introduction of nuclear fusion based on a long-term world energy and environment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates economical introduction of nuclear fusion energy in the context of world energy supply and CO2 concentration. A long-term (during 21st century), 10 regional worldwide allocation energy/environment model Linealized Dynamic New Earth model is used for this study. Following nuclear fusion technological data are taken into consideration; cost of electricity (COE) and COE reduction rate, maximum regional plant capacity constraints, and regional introduction year. We simulated under atmospheric CO2 concentration 550 parts per million (ppm) targeted at year 2100 scenario. Result indicates that according to the cost bases for varieties of technologies from energy mining to energy generation of the LDNE model, the present-design tokamak-type reactors can be economically selected around 2050 to 2060 under 550-ppmv CO2 concentration constraint, and are not under all BAU (Business-As-Usual). It is revealed that breakeven prices of fusion reactors is increased by plus/minus some 10 to 30 mill/kWh under a 650-ppmv. (author)

  1. Jet joint undertaking. Annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of the Report starts with this section which includes a brief general introduction, provides an overview of the planning of the Report and sets the background to the Project. This is followed by a section on JET and the Euratom and International Fusion Programmes which summarises the main features of the JET apparatus and its experimental programme and explains the position of the Project in the overall Euratom programme. In addition, it explains how JET relates to other large fusion devices throughout the world and holds a pre-eminent position in fusion research. The next section reports on the technical status of the machine. This is followed by a section on the results of JET operations in 1987 which sets out the various operating conditions in terms of ohmic heating, radio-frequency (RF) heating, neutral beam (NB) heating and various combined scenarios in different magnetic field configurations; The overall global and local behaviour observed; and the progress towards breakeven situations. This section concludes with a discussion of future scientific prospects

  2. The KALIMER-600 Reactor Core Design Concept with Varying Fuel Cladding Thickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) has developed a 600MWe sodium cooled fast reactor, the KALIMER-600 reactor core concept using single enrichment fuel. This reactor core concept is characterized by the following design targets : 1) Breakeven breeding (or fissile-self-sufficient) without any blanket, 2) Small burnup reactivity swing (23 n/cm2). In the previous design, the single enrichment fuel concept was achieved by using the special fuel assembly designs where non-fuel rods (i.e., ZrH1.8, B4C, and dummy rods) were used. In particular, the moderator rods (ZrH1.8) were used to reduce the sodium void worth and the fuel Doppler coefficient. But it has been known that this hydride moderator possesses relatively poor irradiation behavior at high temperature. In this paper, a new core design concept for use of single enrichment fuel is described. In this concept, the power flattening is achieved by using the core region wise cladding thicknesses but all non-fuel rods are removed to simplify the fuel assembly design

  3. Costs and Benefits Associated with the MRSA Search and Destroy Policy in a Hospital in the Region Kennemerland, The Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Souverein

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the costs and benefits of the MRSA Search and Destroy (S&D policy between 2008 and 2013 in the Kennemer Gasthuis, a 400 bed teaching hospital in the region Kennemerland, the Netherlands.A patient registration database was used to retrospectively calculate costs, including screening, isolation, follow-up, contact tracing, cleaning, treatment, deployment of extra healthcare workers, salary for an infection control practitioner (ICP and service of isolation rooms. The estimated benefits (costs and lives when no MRSA S&D was applied were based on a varying MRSA prevalence rate (up to 50%.When no MRSA S&D policy was applied, the additional costs and deaths due to MRSA bacteraemia were estimated to be € 1,388,907 and 33 respectively (at a MRSA prevalence rate of 50%. Currently, the total costs were estimated to be € 290,672 (€ 48,445 annually and a MRSA prevalence rate of 17.3% was considered as break-even point. Between 2008 and 2013, a total of 576 high risk patients were screened for MRSA carriage, of whom 19 (3.3% were found to be MRSA positive. Forty-nine patients (72.1% were found unexpectedly.Application of the MRSA S&D policy saves lives and money, although the high rate of unexpected MRSA cases is alarming.

  4. Uranium production economics in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review of the economics of production of uranium in Australia provides a detailed description of eleven important uranium deposits including capital and production costs estimates and supply curves. For each mine a detailed assessment has been made of its potential production capacity to the year 2000. Socio-economic factors that play an all-too-important role in the Australian uranium industry are extensively reviewed to provide an insight into the factors affecting Australia's ability to supply. The study is based on a detailed computer-based economic engineering model where all major costs such as labor, consumables and capital recovery charges are analyzed for each mine, and levellised break-even prices determined. It is argued that at the present low market prices, the three on-going operations are profitable, and at least three other deposits could be brought to viable production, given the necessary Government approval. Several other deposits appear to be marginal at the set Australian export floor price of US$26 per pound. Annual production could be raised from about 6,000 tonnes of U3O8 to 16,000 tonnes by the turn of century, with the development of three additional deposits. It is concluded that, if Australian producers were allowed to compete freely on the international market, annual production would pass the 10,000 tonne/annum mark between 1995 and 2000. 35 figs., 38 tabs., 81 refs

  5. The role of energy storage in accessing remote wind resources in the Midwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Replacing current generation with wind energy would help reduce the emissions associated with fossil fuel electricity generation. However, integrating wind into the electricity grid is not without cost. Wind power output is highly variable and average capacity factors from wind farms are often much lower than conventional generators. Further, the best wind resources with highest capacity factors are often located far away from load centers and accessing them therefore requires transmission investments. Energy storage capacity could be an alternative to some of the required transmission investment, thereby reducing capital costs for accessing remote wind farms. This work focuses on the trade-offs between energy storage and transmission. In a case study of a 200 MW wind farm in North Dakota to deliver power to Illinois, we estimate the size of transmission and energy storage capacity that yields the lowest average cost of generating and delivering electricity ($/MW h) from this farm. We find that transmission costs must be at least $600/MW-km and energy storage must cost at most $100/kW h in order for this application of energy storage to be economical. - Highlights: • We evaluate the break-even cost of energy storage to replace transmission. • We focus on a wind farm in North Dakota that must deliver power to Illinois. • Energy storage capital costs must be less than $100/kW h. • Transmission capital costs must be greater than $600/MW-km

  6. Economic significance of Q for mirror reactors: combinations of Q and M which look promising

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This term Q is the ratio of the fusion powder produced to the power input. It is a driven device. Q is truly the success parameter for mirrors--widely discussed but not succinctly specified as to required value. The problem is that Q can be treated as a subjective parameter--there are many milestone Qs; for scientific demonstration, for breakeven power, etc. Yet for a successful reactor, there is only one Q and that is the Q which produces mirror fusion power at the busbar that is less than the cost of delivered power in mills/kwhr by other means. We call this Q/sub PRACTICAL/ and believe there is a convincing argument that says this Q/sub PRACTICAL/ can be about 5.0 even assuming modest efficiencies for system components. A direct convertor is necessary. If the direct convertor were deleted, a Q/sub PRACTICAL/ of approximately 7.5 would be required. If we wish to soften the value of Q further, then the technical logic for the fusion fission hybrid is very powerful. With the hybrid a Q/sub PRACTICAL/ of 1.5 to 2.0 appears to be a very reasonable value. The key in being able to specify values of Q/sub PRACTICAL/ lies in economically comparing the capital cost of fusion power to the sum of the capital cost and the present value of all the fuel costs for the competitive fuel intensive plants

  7. Implications of increased ethanol production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The implications of increased ethanol production in Canada, assuming a 10% market penetration of a 10% ethanol/gasoline blend, are evaluated. Issues considered in the analysis include the provision of new markets for agricultural products, environmental sustainability, energy security, contribution to global warming, potential government cost (subsidies), alternative options to ethanol, energy efficiency, impacts on soil and water of ethanol crop production, and acceptance by fuel marketers. An economic analysis confirms that ethanol production from a stand-alone plant is not economic at current energy values. However, integration of ethanol production with a feedlot lowers the break-even price of ethanol by about 35 cents/l, and even further reductions could be achieved as technology to utilize lignocellulosic feedstock is commercialized. Ethanol production could have a positive impact on farm income, increasing cash receipts to grain farmers up to $53 million. The environmental impact of ethanol production from grain would be similar to that from crop production in general. Some concerns about ethanol/gasoline blends from the fuel industry have been reduced as those blends are now becoming recommended in some automotive warranties. However, the concerns of the larger fuel distributors are a serious constraint on an expansion of ethanol use. The economics of ethanol use could be improved by extending the federal excise tax exemption now available for pure alcohol fuels to the alcohol portion of alcohol/gasoline blends. 9 refs., 10 tabs

  8. Potential effects of emission taxes on CO2 emissions in the OECD and LDCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of existing optimization models, which represent the energy systems of the OECD and LDCs (less developed countries excluding centrally planned economies) with a time horizon to 2020, has been applied to derive first-order estimates of the techno-economic potential for emission reduction. The driving force for the introduction of reduction measures is a scheme of taxes levied on the emission of six pollutants, including the greenhouse gases CO2 and methane. The tax levels introduced are based on taxes discussed by the Swedish government: they are the break-even point to test which measures are cost-effective and which emission levels can be reached at these costs. The regional models include the following alternatives: (i) reduction of final energy demand by supplying the requested services by other means (i.e., conservation); (ii) substitution of new fuels for polluting fuels; (iii) introduction of clean technologies for the same purposes; (iv) additions of pollution-reduction technologies. Alternative scenarios with emission taxes are compared with a base scenario without taxes related to pollutant emissions. The results indicate that an increase in CO2 emissions in the OECD and LDC regions of 47% over the next 30 yr in the base scenario would be changed to stable levels to 2010 by tax-induced measures. Thereafter, energy-consumption growth in the LDCs reverses this trend. (author)

  9. Customer based distributed generation: Economics and policy issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a model for finding distributed generation systems that maximizes the economic benefits for buildings with electricity, heat and cooling loads. Important factors for profitability are identified using simulated data for a standard health care and office building in California. Under the assumed time of use (TOU) prices demand charges are critical factors for the profitability. Systems with lower reliability than promised can infer large losses to the developer. The outage risk is a diversifiable risk hence demands charges should not be a barrier to distributed generation adoption in a well functioning market. In a variety of natural gas and electricity price scenarios the optimal decision is to install distributed generation units with heat recovery and absorption cooling. The benefit maximizing solution reduces building carbon emissions in most scenarios. Low natural gas price scenarios have the highest carbon emissions. An introduction of a carbon tax can further reduce emissions. Small photovoltaic systems gets profitable at prices around 2.4 $/W and larger systems from prices around 1.8-2 $/W if they are analyzed independently from gas fueled generators. In competition with natural gas fueled equipment both the break-even cost and the installed capacity is reduced in both buildings. It is possible to find a profitable solution for real discount rates up to 20 percent under the base case solution for the health care building. High discount rates favor small less capital intensive base load generation systems with heat recovery. (Author)

  10. Evaluating alternative offering strategies for wind producers in a pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Out-of-sample analysis allows comparing diverse offers using real-world data. → Offering the best production forecast is not optimal for a wind producer. → Stochastic programming offers lead to maximum expected profit. → Offering the best production forecast is not generally optimal for risk control. → Stochastic programming offers lead to the best tradeoff profit versus risk. -- Abstract: As wind power technology matures and reaches break-even cost, wind producers find it increasingly attractive to participate in pool markets instead of being paid feed-in tariffs. The key issue is then how a wind producer should offer in the pool markets to achieve maximum profit while controlling the variability of such profit. This paper compares two families of offering strategies based, respectively, on a naive use of wind production forecasts and on stochastic programming models. These strategies are compared through a comprehensive out-of-sample chronological analysis based on real-world data. A number of relevant conclusions are then duly drawn.

  11. Continuous melting of phosphate laser glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A revolution in optical glass technology is continuous melting of large and high-homogeneous glass, which means, for example, variation of refractive index is less than 1x10-6 within one glass block. Difference between one part and another part is only 0.000001. How to make these high-quality glass? Such kind of homogeneity is necessary for laser glass. This particular manufacturing technology is the melting apparatus, using a large stirrer to get whole homogeneity and removing striae with a small stirrer. With this double mixer pot, the authors achieved to make homogeneous laser glass successfully. But next coming laser after 100KJ NOVA of LLNL, to achieve breakeven, will be megajoule laser apparatus. The quantity of glass necessary for this apparatus was 4,000 pcs. Osaka University is now using 300pcs, so 10 times more pieces are needed and it's going to be 150ton of glass. In this paper the author derived an equation between the glass volume of a slab and the volume of stirring chamber in continuous melting furnace and proved the equation can be applied to get 10-6 homogeneity for glasses

  12. Assessment of Seasonal Energy Efficiency Strategies of a Double Skin Façade in a Monsoon Climate Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choongwan Koo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As climate change and global warming have become two of the most significant environmental issues today, the double-skin façade (DSF is getting considerable attention as an energy-efficient passive design. This study is aimed at assessing the seasonal energy efficiency strategies of a DSF targeting library facilities in the climate region with hot summers and cold winters. Toward this end, this study was conducted in four steps: (i establishment of seasonal energy-efficient strategies; (ii application of seasonal energy-efficient strategies; (iii analysis of energy saving effect by season; and (iv life cycle cost and life cycle CO2 analyses for selecting an optimal DSF. Results show that a shaft box DSF energy model (EMS #2, which applied winter strategies, was optimal with an energy saving rate of 4.13%, while a multi-story DSF energy model (EMM #5, which applied summer strategies, was optimal with an energy saving rate of 12.67%. In terms of savings to investment ratio (SIR40 and breakeven point (BEP40, the multi-story DSF (3.20; 9 years was superior. The results of this study can be used for (i seasonal energy efficiency strategies of a DSF in East Asian monsoon climates, and (ii as a guideline for the application of a DSF both in existing and new buildings.

  13. Predicting the Benefits of Banana Bunchy Top Virus Exclusion from Commercial Plantations in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David C.; Liu, Shuang; Edwards, Jacqueline; Villalta, Oscar N.; Aurambout, Jean-Philippe; Kriticos, Darren J.; Drenth, Andre; De Barro, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Benefit cost analysis is a tried and tested analytical framework that can clearly communicate likely net changes in producer welfare from investment decisions to diverse stakeholder audiences. However, in a plant biosecurity context, it is often difficult to predict policy benefits over time due to complex biophysical interactions between invasive species, their hosts, and the environment. In this paper, we demonstrate how a break-even style benefit cost analysis remains highly relevant to biosecurity decision-makers using the example of banana bunchy top virus, a plant pathogen targeted for eradication from banana growing regions of Australia. We develop an analytical approach using a stratified diffusion spread model to simulate the likely benefits of exclusion of this virus from commercial banana plantations over time relative to a nil management scenario in which no surveillance or containment activities take place. Using Monte Carlo simulation to generate a range of possible future incursion scenarios, we predict the exclusion benefits of the disease will avoid Aus$15.9-27.0 million in annual losses for the banana industry. For these exclusion benefits to be reduced to zero would require a bunchy top re-establishment event in commercial banana plantations three years in every four. Sensitivity analysis indicates that exclusion benefits can be greatly enhanced through improvements in disease surveillance and incursion response. PMID:22879960

  14. Ecological footprint analysis on the traditional rice-fish agricultural area: a case study of Qingtian County, Zhejiang Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao Wenjun; Min Qingwen; Cheng Shengkui; Zhang Dan; Sun Yehong

    2009-01-01

    Qingtian County of Zhejiang Province, China has maintained the traditional rice-fish agriculture for about 2,000 years and formed exceptional cultural heritage based on this kind of production mode, so it was selected by FAO as a pilot site for the rice-fish agricultural heritage systems in 2005.This research has applied the indicators of ecological footprint and biocapacity to monitor the environmental conditions of Qingtian County, aiming to find the impact that the traditional agricultural production mode and the local inhabitants lifestyle have placed on the local environmental conditions as well as the role they have played in maintaining ecological balance, cultural inheritance and regional sustainable development.Results show that Qingtian County is characterized by a nearly breakeven total ecological balance, as opposed to Zhejiang Province, the world and other agricultural regions.However, compared with another rice-fish agricultural region, Congjiang County which enjoys a considerable ecologtcal reserve, Qingtian County has consumed a greater amount of environmental resources.Specifically about half of the ecological footprint of Qingtian County can be attributed to the cropland (50.8%) while the CO2, area only accounts for 11.2%, which is dramatically different from that of the modern industrialized regions.And a vast of percentage of energy is caused by the combustion of fuelwood which not only requires the land to absorb the CO2 emission it has generated but also occupies the forest where it has been chopped.

  15. Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COC Oko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design analysis of a photovoltaic (PV system to power the CAD/CAM Laboratory at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Port Harcourt. Life cycle cost and break-even point analyses are also carried out to assess the economic viability of the system. The unit cost of electricity for the designed PV system is high compared to the current unit cost of the municipally supplied electricity, but will be competitive with lowering cost of PV system components and favourable government policies on renewable energy. The approach and data provided are useful for designing solar systems in the area. The automated MS Excel spreadsheet developed could be used for the design and economic analyses of PV system in any other geographical region once the input data are sorted. Since about 90% of businesses in Nigeria currently own diesel generators, it is expected that future work should be devoted to the optimum combination of PV-Battery-Diesel system in electricity generation for optimum economic benefits to the country. Keywords: photovoltaic system design, renewable energy technology, solar energy economics

  16. Long-term sustainability of bio-components production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souček Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Biofuels play an increasingly important role in motor fuel market. The list of biofuels (bio-components in accordance with EU legislations contains a number of substances not widely used in the market. Traditionally these include: fatty acid methyl esters (FAME, in the Czech Republic methyl ether of rape seed oil and bioethanol (also ethyl terc. buthyl ether ETBE, based on bioethanol. The availability and possible utilizations of bio-component fuels in Czech Republic and Serbia are discussed. Additional attention is paid on the identification of the possibilities to improve effectiveness of rape seeds cultivation and utilization of by-products from FAME production (utilization of sew, rape-meal and glycerol which will allow fulfilment of the sustainability criteria for the first generation biofuels. The new approaches on renewable co-processing are commented. The concept of 3E (emissions, energy demand, and economics is introduced specifying three main attributes for effective production of FAME production in accordance with legal compliances. Bio-components price change is analyzed in comparison to the price of motor fuels, identifying possible (speculative crude price break-even point at the level of 149-176 USD/bbl at which point bio-fuels would become economically cost effective for the use by refiners.

  17. Economic analysis of a volume reduction/polyethylene solidification system for low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory to determine the economic feasibility of a fluidized bed volume reduction/polyethylene solidification system for low-level radioactive wastes. These results are compared with the ''null'' alternative of no volume reduction and solidification of aqueous waste streams in hydraulic cement. The economic analysis employed a levelized revenue requirement (LRR) technique conducted over a ten year period. An interactive computer program was written to conduct the LRR calculations. Both of the treatment/solidification options were considered for a number of scenarios including type of plant (BWR or PWR) and transportation distance to the disposal site. If current trends in the escalation rates of cost components continue, the volume reduction/polyethylene solidification option will be cost effective for both BWRs and PWRs. Data indicate that a minimum net annual savings of $0.8 million per year (for a PWR shipping its waste 750 miles) and a maximum net annual savings of $9 million per year (for a BWR shipping its waste 2500 miles) can be achieved. A sensitivity analysis was performed for the burial cost escalation rate, which indicated that variation of this factor will impact the total levelized revenue requirement. The burial cost escalation rate which yields a break-even condition was determined for each scenario considered. 11 refs., 8 figs., 39 tabs

  18. Performance analysis of the 840 MWt PRISM reference burner core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The General Electric PRISM (Power Reactor, Innovative Small Module) is a modular, pool-type sodium-cooled fast reactor employing innovative, passive features to provide an extremely high level of public safety. A PRISM power block consists of two 840 MWt reactor modules, each with a vessel diameter of 9.15 m (30 ft), tied to a turbine generator and producing 622 MWe. A full-size plant consists of three power blocks producing 1866 MWe of electrical power. Two core configurations have been analyzed. The reference is a 'burner' core (conversion ratio of 0.8) and the alternative is a breakeven' core (plutonium consumption balanced by plutonium generation). The core nuclear designs are largely governed by passive safety and reactivity control issues. The key features employed to produce the desired passive safety characteristics are: a small core with a tight restraint system, the use of metallic U-Pu-Zr fuel, control rod withdrawal limiters (rod stops) and gas expansion modules (GEMs). A passive reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (RVACS) assures safety-grade decay heat removal. This paper summarizes the operational and safety performance of the 840 MWt PRISM modular reactor, with emphasis on the reference burner core. (author)

  19. Fusion plasma physics during half a century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given on the potentialities of fusion energy with respect to energy production and related environmental problems, the various approaches to controlled thermonuclear fusion, the main problem areas of research, the historical development, the present state of investigations, and future perspectives. This article also presents a personal memorandum of the author. Thereby special reference will be given to part of the research conducted at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, merely to identify its place within the general historical development. Considerable progress has been made in fusion research during the last decades. In large tokamak experiments temperatures above the ignition limit of about 108 K have been reached under break-even conditions where the fusion power generation is comparable to the energy loss. A power producing fusion reactor could in principle be realized already today, but it would not become technically and economically efficient. The future international research programme has therefore to be conducted along broad lines, with necessary ingredients of basis research and new ideas, and also within lines of magnetic confinement being alternative to that of tokamaks

  20. Assessment of research directions for high-voltage direct-current power systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, W F

    1982-09-01

    High voltage direct current (HVDC) power transmission continues to be an emerging technology nearly thirty years after its introduction into modern power systems. To date its use has been restricted to either specialized applications having identifiable economic advantages (e.g., breakeven distance) or, rarely, applications where decoupling is needed. Only recently have the operational advantages (e.g., power modulation) of HVDC been realized on operating systems. A research project whose objective was to identify hardware developments and, where appropriate, system applications which can exemplify cost and operational advantages of integrated ac/dc power systems is discussed. The three principal tasks undertaken were: assessment of equipment developments; quantification of operational advantages; and interaction with system planners. Interest in HVDC power transmission has increased markedly over the past several years, and many new systems are now being investigated. The dissemination of information about HVDC, including specifically the symposium undertaken for Task 3, is a critical factor in fostering an understanding of this important adjunct to ac power transmission.

  1. Assessment of research directions for high voltage direct current power systems. Quarterly technical progress report, January 1-March 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, W.F.

    1979-05-01

    The two Priority One activities have continued to receive major attention during this reporting period. Application credits for HVDC systems inbedded in ac links are expected to evolve out of a system study wherein dc is introduced into a system where the breakeven criterion is not satisfied. Alternative benefits of the dc link will be quantified in an attempt to develop an expanded economic basis for HVDC systems. Discussions have been initiated with system planners at American Electric Power Service Corporation to see if this type of study could be of benefit to them. Discussions will also be explored with system planners from other utilities. HVDC circuit breaker development is being examined. There is a clearly definable relationship between the exploration acceptance of multiterminal dc systems and the availability of a dc breaker. Further investigation of dc interruption techniques is recommended, together with the establishment of operating criteria and design specifications. Additionally, a definitive system study wherein the operating parameters of the breaker are examined should be undertaken. It is believed that the key relationship exists between breaker speed of operation, control coordination among terminals, and ac system stability.

  2. Technoeconomic analysis of jet fuel production from hydrolysis, decarboxylation, and reforming of camelina oil

    KAUST Repository

    Natelson, Robert H.

    2015-04-01

    The commercial production of jet fuel from camelina oil via hydrolysis, decarboxylation, and reforming was simulated. The refinery was modeled as being close to the farms for reduced camelina transport cost. A refinery with annual nameplate capacity of 76,000 cubic meters hydrocarbons was modeled. Assuming average camelina production conditions and oil extraction modeling from the literature, the cost of oil was 0.31$kg-1. To accommodate one harvest per year, a refinery with 1 year oil storage capacity was designed, with the total refinery costing 283 million dollars in 2014 USD. Assuming co-products are sold at predicted values, the jet fuel break-even selling price was 0.80$kg-1. The model presents baseline technoeconomic data that can be used for more comprehensive financial and risk modeling of camelina jet fuel production. Decarboxylation was compared to the commercially proven hydrotreating process. The model illustrated the importance of refinery location relative to farms and hydrogen production site.

  3. Economic Aspect of HVDC Transmission System for Indonesia Consideration in Nuclear Power Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a country with hundreds million people, Indonesia needs to generate large scale power and distribute it to thorough country to improve gross domestic product of the population. In the power transmission domain, the High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission system should be considered for the next decades concerning any technical and economical problems with HVAC transmission. HVDC transmission system is the answer for the Indonesian condition. This system can connect the high energy potential regions to the high energy demand regions. HVDC is the most efficient to transport energy from one region to another one region. Dismantling and removing assets costs are included to the estimated for capital costs, while the environmental and property costs are the costs of securing designations and resource consents, and valuation and legal advice for the HVDC investment. Although converter terminals are expensive however, for long transmissions HVDC system can compensate the costs over breakeven distance through very efficient transmission system. Efficiency of HVDC is appearing from conductor wire, supporting tower, low energy loses and free space used by route of the transmission line. HVDC system is also free from some problem, concerning stability, inductive and capacitive load components, phase differences and frequency system. In the economic aspect the HVDC capital costs for the transmission options comprise estimates of the cost to design, purchase and construct new HVDC transmission components. While operating and maintenance costs of HVDC assets comprise the costs for replacement the old existing overhead transmission lines, underground and submarine cables, and HVDC converter station components. (author)

  4. Fusion plasma physics during half a century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, Bo

    1999-08-01

    A review is given on the potentialities of fusion energy with respect to energy production and related environmental problems, the various approaches to controlled thermonuclear fusion, the main problem areas of research, the historical development, the present state of investigations, and future perspectives. This article also presents a personal memorandum of the author. Thereby special reference will be given to part of the research conducted at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, merely to identify its place within the general historical development. Considerable progress has been made in fusion research during the last decades. In large tokamak experiments temperatures above the ignition limit of about 10{sup 8} K have been reached under break-even conditions where the fusion power generation is comparable to the energy loss. A power producing fusion reactor could in principle be realized already today, but it would not become technically and economically efficient. The future international research programme has therefore to be conducted along broad lines, with necessary ingredients of basis research and new ideas, and also within lines of magnetic confinement being alternative to that of tokamaks.

  5. The State of the Kenyan Cotton Growing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Josphat Igadwa Mwasiagi; HUANG Xiu-bao; WANG Xin-hou; J O Wagala

    2007-01-01

    From the early 1960s to late 1980s, the Kenyan cotton growing industry played a vital role in the Kenyan economy in terms of provision of employment and creation of wealth in the rural areas. It also played a central role in the textile industry which was thriving during the above mentioned period. Over the years, cotton production in Kenya has fallen steadily, such that by the year 2000, the country experienced a severe cotton fiber deficit. This study was undertaken to investigate the trend of the cotton growing industry in Kenya. Selected aspects of the industry like cost of production, cotton seed distribution, the operation of cotton gins and the quality of cotton lint were considered.Kohonen Self Organizing Maps (SOM) and K-means clustering techniques were used in data analysis. The results of this study show that Kenyan cotton farmers produced seed cotton at a break-even price of US$ 0.31 per kilogram, while the price offered was US $ 0.29 per kilogram.c

  6. Plasma theory and computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in this area is reported in five sections: (1) Magnetohydrodynamic theory. The nonlinear behavior of MHD instabilities to tokamaks was studied numerically. Linear stability was also investigated, using combinations of exact and approximate methods. Two-dimensional tokamak equilibrium codes were used to ascertain the effect of an iron core transformer, and a three-dimensional equilibrium code was developed to study finite beta effects in the ELMO Bumpy Torus. (2) Kinetic theory. Numerical methods were derived to solve the drift kinetic equation, initially to study neoclassical diffusion and dissipative trapped electron instabilities in tokamaks. A parallel effort has extended the linear theory of these instabilities into experimentally relevant regimes and derived shear stabilization criteria for them. The theory of neutral beam injection into tokamaks was expanded and compared successfully with experiment. Finite-beta and electric-field effects on particle orbits in the EBT were studied. (3) Plasma modeling. One-dimensional tokamak transport codes were improved and used to study neutral beam injection and impurity effects. (4) Plasma engineering. Plasma characteristics required for break-even conditions in F-BX and TCT were determined. Prospects for burning advanced fuels such as D-D and D-6Li were studied. The power balance in EBT was studied, using a zero-dimensional point model. (5) Data handling. The ORMAK data system was improved, and initial work on the EBT system was completed. (U.S.)

  7. Commercial nuclear waste management--cost as a function of strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design parameters and operating conditions are rapidly being set for components of the nuclear waste management system. An opportunity exists to perform system economic optimization studies that could provide insight into the functional relationships among system parts, design decisions, and alternate technologies. The interrelationships among these components are complex, and the results of optimization studies are sensitive to specific assumptions, plant designs, and the particular data base used. Certain conclusions can, however, be reached that are relatively independent of uncertainties, and limits can be placed on others to bracket the uncertainties. Several options and alternatives are open to waste management planners, and the value of the optimization study is to identify which combination leads to minimum cost without compromising licensibility, health, and safety. This paper discusses an economic comparison of various alternatives and option and combinations thereof, with the intent of identifying limits in the cost base that lead to break-even situation among selected alternatives and options. If the repository is to be designed to accept optimized canisters, the consolidation option is favored if consolidation and collection costs are less than $30/kg U, assuming consolidation occurs at the reactor site. If consolidation occurs at the repository, consolidation is favored if consolidation and collection costs are less than $14/kg U. Consolidation costs in the literature vary from $20 to $25/kg U. For the conditions specified and the data used in the calculation, the choice of whether to consolidate or not depends upon where consolidation occurs

  8. Multiple criteria decision making with life cycle assessment for material selection of composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Milani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of interdisciplinary approaches in today’s modern engineering, current efforts in optimal design of composites include seeking material selection protocols that can (1 simultaneously consider a series of mechanical/electrical/chemical cost criteria over a set of alternative material options, and (2 closely take into account environmental aspects of final products including recycling and end-of-life disposal options. In this paper, in addition to a review of some recent experimental and methodological advances in the above areas, a new application of multiple criteria decision making (MCDM is presented to deal with decision conflicts often seen among design criteria in composite material selection with the help of life cycle assessment (LCA. To show the application, an illustrative case study on a plastic gear material selection is conducted where the cost, mechanical and thermal properties along with environmental impact criteria are to be satisfied simultaneously. A pure plastic gear is compared to a Polyethylene terephthalate (PET/aluminum-powder composite alternative. Results suggest that simple MCDM models, including a signal-to-noise measure adapted to MCDM in the same case study, can be used to explore both trade-offs and design break-even points in large decision spaces as the decision maker’s perspective over environmental, material performance and cost attributes change during the design process. More advanced topics including the account of material data uncertainties are addressed.

  9. Economic impact of fuel properties on turbine powered business aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, F. D.

    1984-01-01

    The principal objective was to estimate the economic impact on the turbine-powered business aviation fleet of potential changes in the composition and properties of aviation fuel. Secondary objectives include estimation of the sensitivity of costs to specific fuel properties, and an assessment of the directions in which further research should be directed. The study was based on the published characteristics of typical and specific modern aircraft in three classes; heavy jet, light jet, and turboprop. Missions of these aircraft were simulated by computer methods for each aircraft for several range and payload combinations, and assumed atmospheric temperatures ranging from nominal to extremely cold. Five fuels were selected for comparison with the reference fuel, nominal Jet A. An overview of the data, the mathematic models, the data reduction and analysis procedure, and the results of the study are given. The direct operating costs of the study fuels are compared with that of the reference fuel in the 1990 time-frame, and the anticipated fleet costs and fuel break-even costs are estimated.

  10. Demonstration tokamak fusion power plant for early realization of net electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A demonstration tokamak fusion power plant Demo-CREST is proposed as the device for early realization of net electric power generation by fusion energy. The plasma configuration for Demo-CREST is optimized to satisfy the electric breakeven condition (the condition for net electric power, Penet = 0 MW) with the plasma performance of the ITER reference operation mode. This optimization method is considered to be suitable for the design of a demonstration power plant for early realization of net electric power generation, because the demonstration power plant has to ensure the net electric generation. Plasma performance should also be more reliably achieved than in past design studies. For the plasma performance planned in the present ITER programme, net electric power from 0 to 500 MW is possible with Demo-CREST under the following engineering conditions: maximum magnetic field 16 T, thermal efficiency 30%, NBI system efficiency 50% and NBI current drive power restricted to 200 MW. By replacing the blanket system with one of higher thermal efficiency, a net electric power of about 1000 MW is also possible so that the performance of the commercial plant with Demo-CREST can also be studied from the economic point of view. The development path from the experimental reactor 'ITER' to the commercial plant 'CREST' through the demonstration power plant 'Demo-CREST' is proposed as an example of the fast track concept. (author)

  11. Intrathecal Morphine Infusion Therapy in Management of Chronic Pain: Present and Future Implementation in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Jung; Moon, Jee Youn; Park, Keun Suk; Yoo, Yong Jae

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Intrathecal morphine pump (ITMP) infusion therapy is efficient in managing malignant and nonmalignant chronic pain refractory to standard treatment. However, the high cost of an ITMP is the greatest barrier for starting a patient on ITMP infusion therapy. Using the revised Korean reimbursement guidelines, we investigated the cost effectiveness of ITMP infusion therapy and conducted a patient survey. Materials and Methods A retrospective chart review of 12 patients who underwent ITMP implantation was performed. Morphine dose escalation rates were calculated, and numeric rating scale (NRS) scores were compared before and after ITMP implantation. We surveyed patients who were already using an ITMP as well as those who were candidates for an ITMP. All survey data were collected through in-person interviews over 3 months. Data on the cost of medical treatment were collected and projected over time. Results The NRS score decreased during the follow-up period. The median morphine dose increased by 36.9% over the first year, and the median time required to reach a financial break-even point was 24.2 months. Patients were more satisfied with the efficacy of ITMP infusion therapy than with conventional therapy. The expected cost of ITMP implantation was KRW 4000000–5000000 in more than half of ITMP candidates scheduled to undergo implantation. Conclusion The high cost of initiating ITMP infusion therapy is challenging; however, the present results may encourage more patients to consider ITMP therapy. PMID:26847303

  12. Pre-design and life cycle cost analysis of a hybrid power system for rural and remote communities in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Sayed Shah Danish

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In view of the present situation of the Afghanistan electricity sector, the photovoltaic and diesel generator stand-alone hybrid power system is increasingly attractive for application in rural and remote communities. Thousands of rural communities in Afghanistan depend solely on traditional kerosene for illumination and rarely have access to electricity sources such as DC battery for radio and other small appliances. This study is conducted to offer real-life solution to this problem. The hybrid system is investigated to meet the domestic load demand that is estimated based on the communities’ electricity consumption culture. At first, customary pre-design is pursued. Afterwards, the break-even point and net present value algorithms are applied for economic analysis. That makes this study differ from the previous academic literature. The concepts developed in this study are targeted for a cost-effective hybrid system, which is appropriate for rural and remote residents’ lifestyle change and improvement. Based on the academic research methods, overall analysis procedures can fit as an analogy, especially for developing countries.

  13. Lifecycle analysis of different urban transport options for Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Once again, sustained high oil prices are forcing policy makers in oil importing countries to consider alternatives to oil products as transportation fuels. Unlike in the past, advancements in technology, relative success of some experiments and increased familiarity among and acceptance by the public of some alternatives indicate a higher likelihood of success. In particular, natural gas offers a couple of the best options as compressed natural gas (CNG) and chemical conversion of natural gas into diesel (gas-to-liquids, GTL). These options are likely to be most attractive in countries that have cheap access to natural gas. We compare lifetime costs of several individual transportation options for Bangladesh, an oil importer with natural gas reserves. The results are then used to inform the natural gas policy debate in the country. Assuming a natural gas price of $1.5 per million Btu, both the CNG and GTL options are competitive with conventional gasoline/diesel cars if the oil price stays higher than $35-40 per barrel. If natural gas price increases after new upstream developments, CNG becomes less attractive while GTL remains competitive up to $2.5 if capital costs of GTL facilities decline as expected. Under a government policy push (lower discounting), the breakeven price of oil falls to $30-35 per barrel

  14. Lifecycle analysis of different urban transport options for Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Once again, sustained high oil prices are forcing policy makers in oil importing countries to consider alternatives to oil products as transportation fuels. Unlike in the past, advancements in technology, relative success of some experiments and increased familiarity among and acceptance by the public of some alternatives indicate a higher likelihood of success. In particular, natural gas offers a couple of the best options as compressed natural gas (CNG) and chemical conversion of natural gas into diesel (gas-to-liquids, GTL). These options are likely to be most attractive in countries that have cheap access to natural gas. We compare lifetime costs of several individual transportation options for Bangladesh, an oil importer with natural gas reserves. The results are then used to inform the natural gas policy debate in the country. Assuming a natural gas price of 1.5 per million Btu, both the CNG and GTL options are competitive with conventional gasoline/diesel cars if the oil price stays higher than 35-40 per barrel. If natural gas price increases after new upstream developments, CNG becomes less attractive while GTL remains competitive up to 2.5 if capital costs of GTL facilities decline as expected. Under a government policy push (lower discounting), the breakeven price of oil falls to 30-35 per barrel. (author)

  15. Lifecycle analysis of different urban transport options for Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Ijaz [Department of Petroleum and Mineral Resources Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Guelen, Guercan [Center for Energy Economics, Bureau of Economic Geology, University of Texas at Austin, 1801 Allen Pkwy, Houston, TX 77019 (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Once again, sustained high oil prices are forcing policy makers in oil importing countries to consider alternatives to oil products as transportation fuels. Unlike in the past, advancements in technology, relative success of some experiments and increased familiarity among and acceptance by the public of some alternatives indicate a higher likelihood of success. In particular, natural gas offers a couple of the best options as compressed natural gas (CNG) and chemical conversion of natural gas into diesel (gas-to-liquids, GTL). These options are likely to be most attractive in countries that have cheap access to natural gas. We compare lifetime costs of several individual transportation options for Bangladesh, an oil importer with natural gas reserves. The results are then used to inform the natural gas policy debate in the country. Assuming a natural gas price of 1.5 per million Btu, both the CNG and GTL options are competitive with conventional gasoline/diesel cars if the oil price stays higher than 35-40 per barrel. If natural gas price increases after new upstream developments, CNG becomes less attractive while GTL remains competitive up to 2.5 if capital costs of GTL facilities decline as expected. Under a government policy push (lower discounting), the breakeven price of oil falls to 30-35 per barrel. (author)

  16. Impacts of Vehicle Weight Reduction via Material Substitution on Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Jarod C.; Sullivan, John L.; Burnham, Andrew; Elgowainy, Amgad

    2015-10-20

    This study examines the vehicle-cycle impacts associated with substituting lightweight materials for those currently found in light-duty passenger vehicles. We determine part-based energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission ratios by collecting material substitution data from both the literature and automotive experts and evaluating that alongside known mass-based energy use and GHG emission ratios associated with material pair substitutions. Several vehicle parts, along with full vehicle systems, are examined for lightweighting via material substitution to observe the associated impact on GHG emissions. Results are contextualized by additionally examining fuel-cycle GHG reductions associated with mass reductions relative to the baseline vehicle during the use phase and also determining material pair breakeven driving distances for GHG emissions. The findings show that, while material substitution is useful in reducing vehicle weight, it often increases vehicle-cycle GHGs depending upon the material substitution pair. However, for a vehicle’s total life cycle, fuel economy benefits are greater than the increased burdens associated with the vehicle manufacturing cycle, resulting in a net total life-cycle GHG benefit. The vehicle cycle will become increasingly important in total vehicle life-cycle GHGs, since fuel-cycle GHGs will be gradually reduced as automakers ramp up vehicle efficiency to meet fuel economy standards.

  17. A bio-economic approach to analyze the role of alternative seeding-harvesting schedules, water quality, stocking density and duration of cultivation in semi-intensive production of shrimp in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Estrada-Pérez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We used a bio-economic model to analyze the role that alternative seeding-harvesting schedules, temperature, dissolved oxygen, stocking density, and duration of cultivation play in the economic performance of semi-intensive shrimp cultivation in Mexico. The highest production was predicted for the May-August schedule (1130-2300 kg ha-1, while the lowest yields were obtained for the March-June schedule (949-1300 kg ha-1. The highest net revenues were projected for the August-November schedule (US$354-1444 ha-1, while the lowest was projected for the May-August schedule (US$330-923 ha-1. The highest annual net revenues were predicted for the combination of the March-June and August-November schedules (US$1432-2562 ha-1. Sensitivity analysis indicated temperature and dissolved oxygen were the most important factors determining net revenues in March-June schedule. For the May-August and August-November schedules, stocking density was the most important factor. Duration of cultivation was the least sensitive variable. Break-even production analysis confirmed that the combination of the March-June and August-November schedules were more efficient from an economic perspective. We recommend test some ponds with higher stocking density in the March-June and August-November schedules, and in the latter case, seeding in June or July rather than August.

  18. Neural Network Based Model for Predicting Housing Market Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed Khalafallah

    2008-01-01

    The United States real estate market is currently facing its worst hit in two decades due to the slowdown of housing sales. The most affected by this decline are real estate investors and home develop-ers who are currently struggling to break-even financially on their investments. For these investors, it is of utmost importance to evaluate the current status of the market and predict its performance over the short-term in order to make appropriate financial decisions. This paper presents the development of artificial neu-ral network based models to support real estate investors and home developers in this critical task. The pa-per describes the decision variables, design methodology, and the implementation of these models. The models utilize historical market performance data sets to train the artificial neural networks in order to pre-dict unforeseen future performances. An application example is analyzed to demonstrate the model capabili-ties in analyzing and predicting the market performance. The model testing and validation showed that the error in prediction is in the range between -2% and +2%.

  19. Intermodal Freight Transport on the Right Track? Environmental and economic performances and their trade-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation aims to evaluate environmental and economic performances of an intermodal freight transport system and to estimate the trade-off between CO2 emissions, which is presented as an indicator of environmental performance, and freight costs, which indicate the economic performance of the intermodal freight system. The truck-only system is always regarded as the counterpart of the intermodal freight system in this dissertation. To examine the environmental performance of the intermodal freight system, CO2 emissions generated from all the processes in the intermodal chain, such as pre-haulage and post-haulage, long distance haulage, and transshipment, are estimated considering different sources that generate electricity and transmission loss of electricity (Chapters 3 and 4). To examine the economic performance of the system, two approaches are considered: (1) finding the intermodal breakeven distance for which the intermodal system is more competitive than the truck-only system (Chapter 5); (2) examining the economies of scale in the intermodal network and finding the route/system choice that minimizes the total freight transportation costs (Chapter 6). Finally, this dissertation attempts to find the trade-off between CO2 emissions (representing the environmental performance) and freight transportation cost (representing the economic performance) (Chapter 7)

  20. Novel reactors and energy synergetics status 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recession, increasing energy costs, recent studies like NASAP and INFCE, recent innovations and new developments have resulted in a new situation in the energy field. Even near term nuclear power R and D planning requires thus concurrent studies of spallation (accelerator) and fusion/fission hybrid breeding. A first overview of these and other novel reactors is presented. It is now realized more than before that the energy production must be based on optimal synergetics based on symbiotic systems that include a larger variety of energy sources, even if we restrict us, as in this report, to nuclear power. A central factor is the considerations associated with the constraints of fuel supplies, of enriched fissile fuels, of U and Th and of fusile fuels (T). This report emphasizes the inherent characteristics of various energy producing machines and symbiotic systems in this respect including the status, national programmes, environmental impacts and their expected break-even U-prices as reported in the literature. (Author)

  1. Use of isotopically modified erbium to improve fuel cycle economics in IRIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IRIS is a 335 MWe PWR with integral primary circuit. Its design is compatible with long cycles, up to 4 years. Advanced fuel management techniques are employed to support this objective; among others, novel use of burnable absorbers is considered. Erbium is one absorber that is currently utilized in PWRs. It has several desirable properties, notably, it is a resonant absorber, thus making the reactivity feedback coefficients more negative. However, it also has a non-trivial residual reactivity penalty, due primarily to its isotope 166Er. This paper examines the improvement in core neutronics and cycle economics that could be achieved if isotopically modified erbium (with reduced 166Er fraction and increased 167Er fraction) is employed as burnable absorber, instead of natural erbium, thus eliminating or reducing the reactivity penalty. The core performance with modified erbium absorber remains otherwise similar to that employing natural erbium burnable absorber. The gain in reactivity may be used to extend the cycle, or, the 235U enrichment may be reduced (for the same cycle length) with a corresponding saving in the uranium enrichment cost. This gain has been employed to estimate the breakeven cost of producing the modified erbium through Laser Isotope Separation (LIS). A model to evaluate LIS economics is being developed and will serve as a basis for further studies. Preliminary analysis indicates that this approach may result in an overall reduction of the fuel cycle cost.(author)

  2. Progress in JT-60 innovative technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review report provides the synthetic archives of innovative technologies in 20-year facility developments for the large tokamak experimental device JT-60, first founded as the major magnetic fusion device in the Second Basic Program for Fusion Research and Development of Japan. Manufacture of JT-60 was started in 1978, and the first plasma was achieved on April 8, 1985. In 1989-1991, the vacuum vessel and poloidal field coils were entirely reconfigured to improve the plasma performance. The major original mission of the JT-60 project, a breakeven condition for a D-T equivalent plasma, was finally attained in 1996. After this, JT-60, as a leading device for magnetic fusion research in the world, continues to challenge many experimental issues, which has been achieved by collaboration of innovative facility developments and experimental improvements. In addition, at this time to start the ITER construction phase in 2005, this review is expected to contribute the construction and operation activities for the next generation tokamak by providing the basic ideas in facility developments. We classified a tremendous number of development items into the selected sections for this review. Since the authors have been in charge of each development activity of their own, the contents are full of essential stories, points, and keywords in spite of its compact handbook size. We believe this review could provide highly sophisticated, informative ideas matured in JT-60 technological developments. (author)

  3. A Physics Exploratory Experiment on Plasma Liner Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Knapp, Charles E.; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Siemon, Richard E.; Turchi, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Momentum flux for imploding a target plasma in magnetized target fusion (MTF) may be delivered by an array of plasma guns launching plasma jets that would merge to form an imploding plasma shell (liner). In this paper, we examine what would be a worthwhile experiment to do in order to explore the dynamics of merging plasma jets to form a plasma liner as a first step in establishing an experimental database for plasma-jets driven magnetized target fusion (PJETS-MTF). Using past experience in fusion energy research as a model, we envisage a four-phase program to advance the art of PJETS-MTF to fusion breakeven Q is approximately 1). The experiment (PLX (Plasma Liner Physics Exploratory Experiment)) described in this paper serves as Phase I of this four-phase program. The logic underlying the selection of the experimental parameters is presented. The experiment consists of using twelve plasma guns arranged in a circle, launching plasma jets towards the center of a vacuum chamber. The velocity of the plasma jets chosen is 200 km/s, and each jet is to carry a mass of 0.2 mg - 0.4 mg. A candidate plasma accelerator for launching these jets consists of a coaxial plasma gun of the Marshall type.

  4. Molten-salt reactors for efficient nuclear fuel utilization without plutonium separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development studies of molten-salt reactors (MSRs) for special purposes have been under way since 1947 and for possible application as possible commercial nuclear electric power generators since 1956. For the latter, the previous emphasis has been on breeding performance and low fissile inventory to help limit the demand on nonrenewable natural resources (uranium) in an expanding nuclear economy; little or no thought has been given to alternative uses of nuclear fuels such as proliferation of nuclear explosives. As a consequence, the conceptual designs that evolved (e.g., the ORNL reference design MSBR) all favored enriched 233U as fuel with an on-site chemical processing facility from which portions of that fuel could be diverted fairly easily. With the current interest in limiting the proliferation potential of nuclear electric power systems, a redirected study of MSRs was undertaken in an effort to identify conceptual systems that would be attractive in this situation. It appears that practical proliferation-resistant MSRs could be designed and built, and the report describes a particularly attractive break-even breeder that includes an on-site chemical reprocessing facility within the reactor primary containment

  5. Possibility of particle-beam-pumped Ar-Xe laser as an inertial confinement fusion driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fission-product-beam pumped Ar-Xe laser as a candidate of the driver for a hybrid fission-fusion reactor is studied. Such hybrid reactor can reduce the power requirements for the laser driver. These Ar-Xe lasers have been realized as reactor pumped lasers (RPL) with pulsed reactors. However, high power RPL experiments often face the problem of premature termination of laser output power with respect to the pumping power. Several reasons, including temperature effects, outgassing of impurities from walls have been discussed. Two experiments, elucidating the influence of water vapor impurities in the lasing gas mixture and laser threshold, and the effects of temperature rise in the laser gas on laser output have been performed at the Munich Tandem accelerator, using 100 MeV 32S9+ beams, thus simulating RPL experiments at a pumping power density of ∼ 100 W/cm3. Using these experimental and theoretical results, these RPL-oscillations can be stabilized with high instinctive efficiency. Laser-gas-purification systems and breakeven conditions and related requirements on the hybrid reactor using RPL driver schematically discussed. (author)

  6. Inertial confinement fusion experiments with OMEGA-A 30-kJ, 60-beam UV laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) experimental program supports the US inertial confinement fusion (ICF) effort by investigating the requirements for attaining ignition using direct drive targets. The primary tool for this research is OMEGA, a 60-beam, 351-nm, Nd:glass laser with an on-target energy capability in excess of 30 kJ. The laser is designed to ultimately achieve an irradiation uniformity of ∝1% on direct-drive capsules with shaped laser pulses (dynamic range >400:1). In addition, OMEGA provides unique capabilities for irradiating indirect-drive targets. This paper reports on a number of recent laser enhancements, including a new design for distributed phase plates (DPPs), two-dimensional smoothing by spectral dispersion (2-D SSD), distributed polarization rotators (DPRs) and laser pulse shaping. A variety of spherical implosion, planar-target, and indirect-drive experiments attest to the versatility of the OMEGA laser. A key result is the highest thermonuclear yield (1014 neutrons) and yield efficiency (1% of scientific breakeven) ever attained in laser fusion experiments. (orig.)

  7. Status of design and procurement activities in JT-60SA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JT-60SA experiment is one of the three projects to be undertaken in Japan as part of the Broader Approach Agreement, conducted jointly by Europe and Japan, and complementing the construction of ITER in Europe. It is a fully superconducting tokamak capable of confining break-even equivalent deuterium plasmas with equilibria covering high plasma shaping with a low aspect ratio at a maximum plasma current of Ip = 5.5 MA. In late 2007 the BA Parties, prompted by cost concerns, asked the JT-60SA Team to carry out a re-baselining effort with the purpose to fit in the original budget while aiming to retain the machine mission, performance, and experimental flexibility. Subsequently the Integrated Project Team has undertaken a machine re-optimization followed by engineering design activities aimed to reduce costs while maintaining the machine radius and plasma current. This effort led the Parties to the approval of the new design in late 2008 and hence final design and procurement activities have commenced. The paper will describe the process leading to the re-baselining, the resulting final design and technical solutions and the present status of procurement activities.

  8. Considerations for decision-making on distributed power generation in rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy resources for rural electrification are variable and widely dispersed, such that a solution for one region might not be appropriate for another. This study evaluates the feasibility of renewable energy technologies, centralized grid extension and local coal-fired power for rural areas that currently do not have sufficient access to electricity. The renewable power generation options considered are solar photovoltaic and wind power, with battery storage or fossil fuel generator backup. New local coal-fired power, as well as extension of the grid from an existing centralized power system, are considered to compare the impacts of scale and traditional approaches to power generation. A case study for a rural area in Northwestern China demonstrates the complexity of energy decision-making when faced with low peak demands and non-ideal renewable resource availability. Economic factors, including cost of electricity generation, breakeven grid extension distance, capacity shortage fraction (the ratio of the annual capacity shortage to the annual electric load) and land use are evaluated. - Highlights: • Considerations include technical and non-technical factors for energy decisions. • Coal and renewable power are compared based on cost and availability of resources. • Key factors for renewable power generation are capacity shortage and availability of resources. • Rural China case study evaluates the viability of distributed wind or solar power relative to coal

  9. Spectroscopic studies in JT-60

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper summarizes the spectroscopic studies in JT-60 which was constructed to explore the break-even plasma. The content is as follows; (1) In order to study impurity behaviors in the JT-60 plasma, a spectroscopic diagnostic system, which is capable of measuring many spectra of impurity ions and their spatial distributions, has been developed. (2) A Rowland-type grazing incidence monochromator has been absolutely calibrated with a branching ratio method. And multi-channel spectrometers have been absolutely calibrated in the wavelength region of 275-1250A using synchrotron radiation. (3) The transport coefficients (D, cv) for impurity have been measured by observing the time evolutions of line intensities of titanium in ohmically heated and neutral beam heated discharges. (4) Impurity contents have been measured in limited discharges and diverted discharges with different materials for the first wall, namely metallic wall and graphite wall. (5) For the Lyman-α line of TiXXII, the intensity ratio of its fine structure components (1 2S1/2 - 2 2P1/2,3/2) has been measured in discharges with various heating modes. (6) Energy levels and oscillator strengths have been calculated for MoXV-XL. (J.P.N.)

  10. Generation of transport correction factor through the comparison of reactivity coefficients by transport and diffusion theory calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this report is to generate the transport correction factor to come close to the accuracy of the transport theory by using the result of diffusion theory calculation which mainly used in the core design of liquid metal reactor. The objective cores of this research are the BN-600 reactor proposed as IAEA CRP Benchmark core, the BFS-73-1 critical experiment in Russia IPPE, KALIMER-150 and KALIMER-600 Breakeven cores. For these cores, the feedback reactivity coefficients are calculated by using the K-CORE code system based on transport and diffusion theory, on and after they are compared with each other, and the transport correction factors are produced based on those results. According to the differences between the transport and diffusion calculation results, the values of the K-CORE code system show higher trends than those of other country participants and the measurement results. Through the update of nuclear data libraries and the comparison analysis of more numbers of experiments meaningful in statistical analysis, more accurate verification and improvement will be carried out. The result of this study will be utilized as the basic data for the development of reactivity coefficients analysis system, and will improve the credit of reactivity coefficients calculation in core design

  11. A method for taking into account environmental impacts in the economic evaluation of energy systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Decisions to produce and consume useful forms of energy will better reflect society's desire for environmental quality by internalizing the external costs of production. Internalization of external environmental costs may significantly affect decisions regarding selection of the type of the energy system for a particular application, as well as the design and operation of the system. In the present work, main classes of economic approaches for environmental protection are presented and critically reviewed. A procedure is proposed in order to take into consideration the environmental impacts in the economic analysis of energy systems. The analytical formulation of the procedure is followed by a numerical example. Application of the method reveals the critical values of environmental penalties that result in a break-even operation of the particular system. Also, it is shown that the proposed procedure can be used as a proxy method to calculate environmental externalities for a particular system in a given environment. In addition, by assessing the unit cost of reducing pollutants by abatement technologies, the method can turn into a useful tool at the hands of those seeking for a sound basis to set environmental charges and incentives. If, on the other hand, the environmental and social cost of a pollutant is known, then the method can be used to reveal the type and level of the incentive that the national economy would be willing to provide. 17 refs, 3 figs, 2 tabs

  12. Valuation of nuclear reactor spent fuel using the HP 67/97 programmable calculator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Note applies the spent fuel valuation procedure of R-2239-DOE to a programmable hand calculator (the Hewlett-Packard 67/97). A modest degree of flexibility enables the program user to examine the impact on spent fuel value of variations in almost 30 parameters (e.g., yellowcake price, reprocessing cost, timing of recycle, U-236 composition, etc.). This program can be used to calculate: the present discounted value (PDV) of 1 kg of spent fuel placed in interim storage and permanently disposed at some future time; the PDV of 1 kg of spent fuel placed in interim storage and reprocessed and recycled into an LWR (or LMFBR) at some future time; the reprocessing (or yellowcake) cost that yields a net zero spent fuel value (i.e., the breakeven cost) in any future year; the contribution to spent fuel value of its uranium and plutonium components; and the enrichment plant feed/product ratio and SWU requirements as a function of product, tails, and feed enrichment

  13. The cost of carbon abatement through community forest management in Nepal Himalaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karky, Bhaskar Singh [Economic Analysis Division, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, GPO Box 3226, Kathmandu (Nepal); Skutsch, Margaret [Centro de Investigaciones en Geographia Ambiental, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelia (Mexico); University of Twente, PO Box 217 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2010-01-15

    This paper estimates the economic returns to carbon abatement through biological sequestration in community managed forest under future REDD policy, and compares these for three possible management scenarios. For the estimation, the research relies on forest inventory data together with other socio-economic and resources use data collected from forest users in three sites of Nepal Himalaya. The paper estimates the incremental carbon from forest enhancement on a yearly basis over a five-year period using the value of 1 and 5 per tCO{sub 2} for conservative analysis. The results based on the three sites indicate that community forest management may be one of the least cost ways to abate carbon with a break-even price under Scenario 2 which ranges from 0.55 to 3.70 per tCO{sub 2}. However, bringing community forests into the carbon market may entail high opportunity costs as forests provide numerous non-monetary benefits to the local population, who regard these as the main incentive for conservation and management. An important finding of the research is that if forest resources use by local communities is not permitted, then carbon trading will not be attractive to them as revenue from carbon will not cover the cost foregone by not harvesting forest resources. (author)

  14. Project Icarus: Nuclear Fusion Propulsion Concept Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanic, M.

    Project Icarus will use nuclear fusion as the primary propulsion, since achieving breakeven is imminent within the next decade. Therefore, fusion technology provides confidence in further development and fairly high technological maturity by the time the Icarus mission would be plausible. Currently there are numerous (over 2 dozen) different fusion approaches that are simultaneously being developed around the World and it is difficult to predict which of the concepts is going to be the most successful one. This study tried to estimate current technological maturity and possible technological extrapolation of fusion approaches for which appropriate data could be found. Figures of merit that were assessed include: current technological state, mass and volume estimates, possible gain values, main advantages and disadvantages of the concept and an attempt to extrapolate current technological state for the next decade or two. Analysis suggests that Magnetic Confinement Fusion (MCF) concepts are not likely to deliver sufficient performance due to size, mass, gain and large technological barriers of the concept. However, ICF and PJMIF did show potential for delivering necessary performance, assuming appropriate techno- logical advances. This paper is a submission of the Project Icarus Study Group.

  15. Developing Public Policy Options for Access to Drinking Water in Peripheral, Disaster and Polluted Rural Areas: A Case Study on Environment-Friendly and Conventional Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Mălina Petrescu-Mag

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral, disaster and polluted rural areas (PDP rural areas are generally perceived as a “Cinderella” of water public policy measures, deepening the rural-urban cleavage in terms of opportunities for a decent life. The main goal of the study is to develop public policy options regarding the supply of safe drinking water in Romanian PDP rural areas. The main instrument to achieve it is an ex-ante policy analysis of three solutions: a conventional technology, based on chlorine, a green technology using an advanced oxidation process with bio-filter (O3BioFilter, and “do nothing”. Environment protection, social equity, technical performance, economic efficiency and political feasibility were the criteria selected for analysis, within a focus-group. Several qualitative and quantitative methods were used: evaluation matrix, weighted cost-effectiveness and break-even point. The results of the first two indicate that the O3BioFilter has the best score, but not much higher than the conventional alternative (10% higher, revealing a possible path-dependency to familiar technologies. This analysis is not a ready-made solution valid in any case, nor a direct indication of “the best choice”, but a decision tool in the adoption and implementation of sustainable water public policies.

  16. Assessment of the Dry Processed Oxide Fuel in Liquid Metal Fast Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Gyu Hong; Choi, Hang Bok

    2005-09-15

    The neutronic feasibility of the dry process oxide fuel was assessed for the sodium-cooled and lead-cooled fast reactors (SFR and LFR, respectively), which were recommended as Generation-IV (Gen-IV) reactor systems by the Gen-IV international forum. The reactor analysis was performed for the equilibrium fuel cycle of two core configurations: Hybrid BN-600 benchmark core with an enlarged lattice pitch and a modified BN-600 core. The dry process technology assumed in this study is the molten-salt process, which was developed by Russian scientists for recycling oxide fuels. The core calculation was performed by the REBUS-3 code and the reactor characteristics such as the transuranic (TRU) enrichment, breeding ratio, peak linear power, burnup reactivity swing, etc. were calculated for the equilibrium core under a fixed fuel management scheme. The results showed that a fissile self-sustainable breakeven core was achievable without blanket fuels when the fuel volume fraction was {approx}50% and most of the fission products were removed. If the design criteria used in this study is proved to be acceptable through a detailed physics design and thermal hydraulic analysis in the future, it is practically possible to construct an equilibrium fuel cycle of the SFR and LFR systems based on the oxide fuel by utilizing the dry process technology.

  17. Feasibility of sustaining the upland conversion program by establishing a domestic carbon market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To sustain the upland conversion program (UCP) in China after the government compensation expires, we suggest an establishment of a domestic carbon market where forest carbon from the UCP can be traded. Taking southwest China's Yunnan Province as an example, we explored the feasibility of switching the UCP to a carbon offset project. The breakeven carbon price which is equivalent to the opportunity cost of agricultural cultivation was estimated and then compared with the carbon price in the  international market. We found that it is feasible to change the UCP to a carbon offset project if the duration is longer than 10 years at a discount rate of 7%, and if the recent bid price (147.2 Yuan-t1) for Chinese carbon offset project prevails. The feasibility is better for converted land with lower productivity when the project duration is given. For a given site index, the feasibility is lower as pro-ject length is reduced. The results of sensitivity analysis show that the feasibility will be enhanced as the discount rate increases;however, the changes in the price of agricultural products and the amount of sequestered carbon have insignificant effects on the choice of sites and project duration.

  18. Intercomparison of UAV, Aircraft and Satellite Remote Sensing Platforms for Precision Viticulture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Matese

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Precision Viticulture is experiencing substantial growth thanks to the availability of improved and cost-effective instruments and methodologies for data acquisition and analysis, such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV, that demonstrated to compete with traditional acquisition platforms, such as satellite and aircraft, due to low operational costs, high operational flexibility and high spatial resolution of imagery. In order to optimize the use of these technologies for precision viticulture, their technical, scientific and economic performances need to be assessed. The aim of this work is to compare NDVI surveys performed with UAV, aircraft and satellite, to assess the capability of each platform to represent the intra-vineyard vegetation spatial variability. NDVI images of two Italian vineyards were acquired simultaneously from different multi-spectral sensors onboard the three platforms, and a spatial statistical framework was used to assess their degree of similarity. Moreover, the pros and cons of each technique were also assessed performing a cost analysis as a function of the scale of application. Results indicate that the different platforms provide comparable results in vineyards characterized by coarse vegetation gradients and large vegetation clusters. On the contrary, in more heterogeneous vineyards, low-resolution images fail in representing part of the intra-vineyard variability. The cost analysis showed that the adoption of UAV platform is advantageous for small areas and that a break-even point exists above five hectares; above such threshold, airborne and then satellite have lower imagery cost.

  19. Fusion reactor development using high power particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper outlines major applications of the ion source/accelerator to fusion research and also addresses the present status and future plans for accelerator development. Applications of ion sources/accelerators for fusion research are discussed first, focusing on plasma heating, plasma current drive, plasma current profile control, and plasma diagnostics. The present status and future plan of ion sources/accelerators development are then described focusing on the features of existing and future tokamak equipment. Positive-ion-based NBI systems of 100 keV class have contributed to obtaining high temperature plasmas whose parameters are close to the fusion break-even condition. For the next tokamak fusion devices, a MeV class high power neutral beam injector, which will be used to obtain a steady state burning plasma, is considered to become the primary heating and current drive system. Development of such a system is a key to realize nuclear fusion reactor. It will be entirely indebted to the development of a MeV class high current negative deuterium ion source/accelerator. (N.K.)

  20. Financial competitiveness of organic agriculture on a global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, David W; Reganold, John P

    2015-06-16

    To promote global food and ecosystem security, several innovative farming systems have been identified that better balance multiple sustainability goals. The most rapidly growing and contentious of these systems is organic agriculture. Whether organic agriculture can continue to expand will likely be determined by whether it is economically competitive with conventional agriculture. Here, we examined the financial performance of organic and conventional agriculture by conducting a meta-analysis of a global dataset spanning 55 crops grown on five continents. When organic premiums were not applied, benefit/cost ratios (-8 to -7%) and net present values (-27 to -23%) of organic agriculture were significantly lower than conventional agriculture. However, when actual premiums were applied, organic agriculture was significantly more profitable (22-35%) and had higher benefit/cost ratios (20-24%) than conventional agriculture. Although premiums were 29-32%, breakeven premiums necessary for organic profits to match conventional profits were only 5-7%, even with organic yields being 10-18% lower. Total costs were not significantly different, but labor costs were significantly higher (7-13%) with organic farming practices. Studies in our meta-analysis accounted for neither environmental costs (negative externalities) nor ecosystem services from good farming practices, which likely favor organic agriculture. With only 1% of the global agricultural land in organic production, our findings suggest that organic agriculture can continue to expand even if premiums decline. Furthermore, with their multiple sustainability benefits, organic farming systems can contribute a larger share in feeding the world. PMID:26034271

  1. Cost accounting in plateletpheresis: comparison of two techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R A; Gloster, E S; Pindyck, J

    1980-01-01

    Cost comparison of two comparably effective techniques of plateletpheresis, a manual method and an automated discontinuous flow centrifugation technique, is presented using a hypothetical model. The former procedure costs $62.48 per pheresis for disposables and labour as opposed to $78.32 per pheresis for disposables and labour for the latter. The annual volume of plateletpheresis at which the accumulated costs equal the total charges, i.e. the 'break-even' point, is calculated and found to be 63.7 for the automated technique and 10.9 for the manual method, if the charge for each is $200.00. For the manual method at a current charge of $80.00, the break even point is 85.8. The assumptions underlying this hypothetical model are examined, and the effects of deviation from these assumptions are analyzed in terms of the break even point. Cost accounting of plateletpheresis is shown to be dependent upon the choice of approach to allocation of costs, the assumptions of the cost accounting model, and the selection of an appropriate charge. PMID:7379466

  2. Application of parametric weight and cost estimating relationships to future transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltramo, M. N.; Morris, M. A.; Anderson, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    A model comprised of system level weight and cost estimating relationships for transport aircraft is presented. In order to determine the production cost of future aircraft its weight is first estimated based on performance parameters, and then the cost is estimated as a function of weight. For initial evaluation CERs were applied to actual system weights of six aircraft (3 military and 3 commercial) with mean empty weights ranging from 30,000 to 300,000 lb. The resulting cost estimates were compared with actual costs. The average absolute error was only 4.3%. Then the model was applied to five aircraft still in the design phase (Boeing 757, 767 and 777, and BAC HS146-100 and HS146-200). While the estimates for the 757 and 767 are within 2 to 3 percent of their assumed break-even costs, it is recognized that these are very sensitive to the validity of the estimated weights, inflation factor, the amount assumed for nonrecurring costs, etc., and it is suggested that the model may be used in conjunction with other information such as RDT&E cost estimates and market forecasts. The model will help NASA evaluate new technologies and production costs of future aircraft.

  3. Biomass gasifier projects for decentralized power supply in India: A financial evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of a techno-economic evaluation of biomass gasifier based projects for decentralized power supply for remote locations in India are presented. Contributions of different components of diesel engine generator (DG) sets, dual fuel (DF) engine generator sets and 100% producer gas (HPG) engine generator sets to their capital costs as well as to the levelized unit cost of electricity (LUCE) delivered by the same have been analyzed. LUCE delivered to the consumers has been estimated to be varying in the range of Rs. 13.14-24.49/kWh (US$ 0.30-0.55/kWh) for DF BGPP. LUCE increases significantly if BGPP is operated at part loads. Presently available 40kW capacity HPG systems in India are expected to be financially competitive with a DG set of equivalent capacity beyond a break-even diesel price of Rs. 34.70/l. It is expected to be financially more attractive than an equivalent capacity DF BGPP for diesel prices of more than Rs. 44.29/l. In certain specific conditions operating two smaller capacity systems has been found to be attractive as against a single larger capacity system

  4. Thermal power systems, small power systems application project. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, A. T.

    1979-01-01

    Current small power system technology as applied to power plants up to 10 MWe in size was assessed. Markets for small power systems were characterized and cost goals were established. Candidate power plant system design concepts were selected for evaluation and preliminary performance and cost assessments were made. Economic studies were conducted and breakeven capital costs were determined for leading contenders among the candidate systems. An application study was made of the potential use of small power systems in providing part of the demand for pumping power by the extensive aqueduct system of California, estimated to be 1000 MWe by 1985. Criteria and methodologies were developed for application to the ranking of candidate power plant system design concepts. Experimental power plants concepts of 1 MWe rating were studied leading toward the definition of a power plant configuration for subsequent detail design, construction, testing and evaluation as Engineering Experiment No. 1 (EE No. 1). Site selection criteria and ground rules for the solicitation of EE No. 1 site participation proposals by DOE were developed.

  5. Thermal power systems: Small Power Systems Applications Project. Volume II. Detailed report. Annual technical report, fiscal year 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-15

    Small Power Systems Applications activities for FY 1978 are reported. Studies were conducted to address current small power system technology as applied to power plants up to 10 MWe in size. Markets for small power systems were characterized and cost goals were established for the project. Candidate power plant system design concepts were selected for evaluation and preliminary performance and cost assessments were made. Economic studies were conducted at JPL and under contract to Burns and McDonnell. Breakeven capital costs were determined for leading contenders among the candidate systems. An applications study was made of the potential use of small power systems in providing part of the demand for pumping power by the extensive aqueduct system of California, estimated to be 1000 MWe by 1985. Criteria and methodologies were developed for application to the ranking of candidate power plant system design concepts. Experimental power plants concepts of 1 MWe rating were studied by three contractors as a Phase I effort leading toward the definition of a power plant configuration for subsequent detail design, construction, testing and evaluation as Engineering Experiment No. 1 (EE No. 1). Site selection criteria and ground rules for the solicitation of EE No. 1 site participation proposals by DOE were developed.

  6. Staged Z-pinch for Fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, Frank; Rahman, Hafiz; Ney, Paul; Darling, Tim; McKee, Erik; Covington, Aaron; Beg, Farhat; Valenzuela, Julio; Narkis, Jeff; Presura, Radu

    2015-11-01

    The Staged Z-pinch (SZP) is configured as a plasma shell imploding onto an uniform, plasma fill (50:50 Deuterium:Tritium); the pinch is pre-magnetized, with an axial Bz field. Gas-puff experiments, at the University of California, Irvine, 1.25 MA, 1.25 μs, and 50 kJ, demonstrated that the implosion was stable, as primary (DD) and secondary (DT) neutrons were produced at peak compression. Subsequent analysis accounts for the stability and neutron yield, indicating that the SZP implosion is magneto-inertial, shock-driven, with magneto-sonic shocks in the liner and ordinary (sonic) shocks in the target. The shock waves preheat the target, as a stable, current-carrying, shock front forms at the interface. Near-term, the SZP team will test pinch loads on the 1 MA, 130 ns, 100 kJ University of Nevada, Reno, Nevada Terawatt, Zebra Facility. This paper details the context and our specific plans for the upcoming experiments, as well as our recent simulations predicting breakeven fusion on existing devices. Funded by the US Department of Energy, ARPA-E, Control Number 1184-1527.

  7. Financial Risk Study of the Construction Sector SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta BARBUTA-MISU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance given to the problem of capital structure comes from the influence of debts on return on equity and the financial risk induced by debts. This paper is actually an analysis of the evolution of financial risk on the construction sector during 2001 – 2011 on a sample of 11 enterprises in the Galati County – Romania. To carry out this study were used two methods, rely on breakeven point and leverage effect. The study of aggregate data reveal a low fluctuating trend of financial risk, which shows that by the end of 2008 the effects of the economic and financial crisis still have not felt as much as is shown starting with 2009. The conclusion that emerges in this study is that the world crisis produced major effects on construction sector, but they could be seen a little bit later before the onset of it. The effects are disastrous for economy (lack of work, offs of staff etc., which is why the government began to seek solutions to relaunch this sector.

  8. Thermal Power Systems, Small Power Systems Applications Project. Annual technical report. Volume I. Executive summary, Fiscal Year 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-15

    This report is a summary of the SPSA Annual Technical Report. It covers Small Power Systems Applications activities for FY 1978. Studies were conducted to address current small power system technology as applied to power plants up to 10 MWe in size. Markets for small power systems were characterized and cost goals were established for the project. Candidate power plant system design concepts were selected for evaluation and preliminary performance and cost assessments were made. Economic studies were conducted at JPL and under contract to Burns and McDonnell. Breakeven capital costs were determined for leading contenders among the candidate systems. An applications study was made of the potential use of small power systems in providing part of the demand for pumping power by the extensive aqueduct system of California, estimated to be 1000 MWe by 1985. Criteria and methodologies were developed for application to the ranking of candidate power plant system design concepts. Experimental power plants concepts of 1 MWe rating were studied by three contractors as a Phase I effort leading toward the definition of a power plant configuration for subsequent detail design, construction, testing, and evaluation as Engineering Experiment No. 1 (EE No. 1). Site selection criteria and ground rules for the solicitation of EE No. 1 site participation proposals by DOE were developed.

  9. Return on Investment for Digital Behavioral Counseling in Patients With Prediabetes and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Su, MS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction We calculated the health and economic impacts of participation in a digital behavioral counseling service that is designed to promote a healthful diet and physical activity for cardiovascular disease prevention in adults with prediabetes and cardiovascular disease risk factors (Prevent, Omada Health, San Francisco, California. This program enhances the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Diabetes Prevention Recognition Program. Participants completed a 16-week core program followed by an ongoing maintenance program. Methods Analysis was conducted for 2 populations meeting criteria for lifestyle intervention: 1 prediabetes (n = 1,663, and 2 high cardiovascular disease risk (n = 2,152. The Markov-based model simulated clinical and economic outcomes related to obesity and diabetes annually over 10 years for the 2 defined populations. Comparisons were made between participants and propensity-matched controls from the community. Results The return-on-investment break-even point was 3 years in both populations. Simulated return on investment for the population with prediabetes was $9 and $1,565 at years 3 and 5, respectively. Simulated return on investment for the population with cardiovascular disease risk was $96 and $1,512 at years 3 and 5, respectively. Results suggest that program participation reduces diabetes incidence by 30% to 33% and stroke by 11% to 16% over 5 years. Conclusion Digital Behavioral Counseling provides significant health benefits to patients with prediabetes and cardiovascular disease and a positive return on investment.

  10. Economic justification of nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electric utility industry generally uses the revenue requirements method to compare alternative investment and financing decisions. Westinghouse has developed a present-worth generating cost model to assess the potential economic values of PLEX projects undertaken for nuclear power plants. This model evaluates all significant benefits and costs based on actual data provided by the utility and measured in discounted revenue requirement differentials between PLEX and a reference plan (nuclear plant replacement with a nuclear- or coal-fired plant of the same capacity). The ratio of the benefits of a PLEX program to its costs are calculated. The paper shows that a program that extends the life of the plant by 20 yr has a break-even cost of approximately $1100 per kW(electric) if the outage time to make the replacements (time in excess of normal planned outages) is 24 months. The allowed expense decreases rapidly if the PLEX program requires longer outage times, but is substantial at even 36 or 48 months. The results benefit-to-cost ratio for PLEX is at least 4.0. The ratio would be much higher if additional benefits from availability, efficiency improvements, and reduction in O and M costs were included. The results of the PLEX economic evaluations performed by Westinghouse clearly indicate that nuclear plant life extension is the most economical alternative to building new generating capacities

  11. Investigation of Optimum Parameters for Mechanical Properties of Ecofriendly Molded Plant Fibre Polymer Matrix Composite by Experimental Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.BENJAMIN LAZARUS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibre composites are mainly price-driven commodity composites, which have useable structural properties at relatively low cost. The manufacture of such types of composites are environmentally sustainable alternative to conventional composites made of glass, carbon and aramid fibres which are considered critical because of the growing environmental consciousness. Fibres derived from plants are renewable and have low levels of embodied energy compared to synthetic fibres. Therefore this research work explains the development of natural fibre composite, [9] to attain the optimum mechanical property parameters which are equivalent and better to the traditional reinforcing fibres such as glass and carbon. The research work illustrates the manufacture and tested values of one such composite manufactured from a plant fibre which is used as green manuring plant called Crotalaria juncea. Retted fibres after alkali treatment [17] is taken and plate preparation is done using polyester resin mixed with random orientation of the fibre of lengths 20,30,40 and 50mm to a weight of 21,28,31,35,42 and 45 grams as the first part. In the second part of the work woven orientation of biaxial, biaxially stitched and unidirectional mat in 2 layer and 3 layer separately and they are mixed with polyester resin and plates are prepared. Both the stages are tested for mechanical properties [10,16] such that the breakeven value of each property is analyzed, and the results acquired derive the usefulness of the material for required application.

  12. Bury or burn North America MSW? LCAs provide answers for climate impacts & carbon neutral power potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jeffrey

    2010-10-15

    This study uses life cycle assessment (LCA) to compare climate impacts of landfill (LF) and waste-to-energy (WTE) for disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW). To avoid possibly arbitrary assumptions about landfill gas (LFG) capture rates, the study develops a crossover function for LFG capture that indicates the capture rate at which LF and WTE breakeven for climate impacts. Above the crossover rate LF is better for the climate; below WTE is superior. Base case and sensitivity analyses show how this crossover rate is affected by waste composition, electricity conversion efficiency, heat capture, scrap metal recovery, greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of displaced power, and LCA time horizon. In general, crossover rates are in the 50% to 70% range. Notable exceptions include much higher crossover when WTE has high heat recovery, and much lower crossover for low carbon displaced power. The study also compares GHG emissions for electricity generated by WTE, captured LF methane, coal and natural gas, and concludes that none are carbon neutral. Further, the study tentatively suggests that MSW is a particularly carbon intensive fuel due to GHGs avoidable when readily recyclable materials in MSW are used in manufacturing new products rather than used to generate electricity. PMID:20866062

  13. Energy implications of glass-container recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L L; Mintz, M M [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This report addresses the question of whether glass-container recycling actually saves energy. Glass-container production in 1991 was 10{sup 7} tons, with cullet making up about 30% of the input to manufacture. Two-thirds of the cullet is postconsumer waste; the remainder is in-house scrap (rejects). Most of the glass recycled is made into new containers. Total primary energy consumption includes direct process-energy use by the industry (adjusted to account for the efficiency of fuel production) plus fuel and raw-material transportation and production energies; the grand total for 1991 is estimated to be about 168 {times} 10{sup 12} Btu. The total primary energy use decreases as the percent of glass recycled rises, but the maximum energy saved is only about 13%. If distance to the landfill is kept fixed and that to the recovery facility multiplied by about eight, to 100 mi, a break-even point is reached, and recycling saves no energy. Previous work has shown that to save energy when using glass bottles, reuse is the clear choice. Recycling of glass does not save much energy or valuable raw material and does not reduce air or water pollution significantly. The most important impacts are the small reduction of waste sent to the landfill and increased production rates at glass plants.

  14. Advances of energy drivers at Osaka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The energy driver development at the Institute of Laser Engineering (ILE), Osaka University, comprises three fields; glass, laser, carbon dioxide laser, and relativistic electron beam. The development of reliable glass lasers has been the main program at ILE. The GEKKO 12 module program was carried out in the fiscal years from 1977 to 1979 in order to develop various laser components and subsystems which are necessary to construct a 20 kJ GEKKO 12 glass laser. The measured gain coefficient of the 200 mm disk amplifier was 0.10/cm corresponding to the αD product of 4.0. The expected peak output power of the system was 2 TW at 0.1 ns and 0.9 kJ at 1 ns. The recent advances in coating techniques will enable to operate this system over 1.3 kJ per beam at 3 ns. Carbon dioxide lasers have been developed as efficient high energy lasers to study the wave length scaling of implosion process. The design and construction of the 10 kJ LEKKO 8 laser system are in progress. Relativistic electron beam machines, being the most cost-effective driver, have been studied to control pulsed power and to investigate electron beam plasma interaction. As the future plans of ILE, the construction of a 100 kJ energy driver from 1958 to 1987 for scientific break-even experiments is considered. (Kato, T.)

  15. The revolution of shale oils in the United States. The business model is being tested

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report proposes an overview of LTO (Light Tight Oil or shale oil) production in the USA, and examines the consequences of oil price fall on its future level. The first part gives an assessment of five years of this revolution which follows the shale gas revolution. It addresses the most remarkable evolutions: spectacular development of production, decrease of oil imports, increase of oil product exports, and a move towards oil independence. The second part highlights some peculiarities of shale oils and of the resulting business model which is much different from the Exploration/Production model for conventional oil. It analyses the LTO economy and breakeven prices required for a continued investment. Technological advances which are at the basis of this revolution are addressed, and expected improvements on a short or medium term are described. The main financial indicators are then presented as the financial situation of LTO producers is a crucial factor for future investment levels. The last chapter reports the study of the impact of price decrease on capital expenditures (CAPEX) of American producers, and on the drilling activity. It seems that LTO production will resist to price decrease

  16. 'Cold' fusion: A demonstration of the light and dark sides of science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Controlled nuclear fusion has long held the promise of being the solution to the world's energy needs. Achieving the very high pressure and temperature conditions necessary both to initiate and to sustain the fusion reactions has not been easy or inexpensive. The best systems today have still not reached energy 'break-even.' Further, extracting the energy from these reactors will be another enormous problem. Thus, the prospect of obtaining energy from fusion produced in a simple, ambient pressure and near-ambient temperature electrochemical cell became one the most exciting areas of science. Unfortunately, that process has suffered from the absence of 'controlled reproducibility,' and is now discredited by the majority of the scientific community. Certainly the hope of unlimited, inexpensive energy has disappeared. This presentation describes the apparent chemistry involved in electrolytic cold fusion, points out the experimental difficulties and the alternate explanations for the observed phenomena, and attempts to assess, in general terms, the current status of this research. Because of the special nature of this research, and the excitement it has caused in the media, the talk also describes the 'scientific sociology' that has been displayed

  17. EBT-P proposed reference design report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the proposed reference design for the EBT-P proof-of-principle test device. The device described is a result of broad studies by many participating organizations from industry and from Department of Energy-sponsored fusion research groups, some working together and some in competitive studies, but all with the goal of defining a device at minimum cost and with maximum probability of meeting its goals. This design work is based upon advances in experimental and theoretical understanding of EBT achieved at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The strategy adopted permits an initial test and validation of the key scaling properties of the ELMO Bumpy Torus concept, with a degree of built-in flexibility to extend the performance parameters toward the condition for containing a fusion reactor plasma. This will lead the way, then, to determination of a later power break-even demonstration and an eventual fusion reactor that can exploit the special high power-density and steady-state properties of the EBT concept

  18. Methods of Optimisation of the Structure of the Dealing Bank with a Limited Base of Counter-Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak Sergіy M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers methods of assessment of optimal parameters of the dealing bank service with a limited base of counter-agents. The methods are based on the mathematical model of micro-structure of the inter-bank currency market. The key parameters of the infrastructure of the dealing service within the framework of the model are: number of authorised traders, contingent of counter-agents, quotation policy, main parameters of the currency market – spread and volatility of quotations and the resulting indicators of efficiency of the dealing service – profit and probability of breakeven operation. The methods allow identification of optimal parameters of the infrastructure of the dealing bank service based on indicators of dynamics of currency risks and market environment of the bank. On the basis of the developed mathematical model the article develops methods of planning calculations of parameters of the infrastructure of the dealing bank service, which are required for ensuring a necessary level of efficiency with set parameters of the currency market. Application of the said methods gives a possibility to assess indicators of operation of the bank’s front office depending on its scale.

  19. Thermodynamic, ecological and economic aspects of the use of the gas turbine for heat supply to the stripping process in a supercritical CHP plant integrated with a carbon capture installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Variants of integration of CHP plant with CCS and gas turbine unit were analyzed. • The simulations of operation of plants under changing load were realized. • Conditions of competitiveness for all solutions were identified. • Integration can be profitable if prices of allowance will reach values >60 €/MgCO2. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of thermodynamic and economic analyses for eight variants of a combined heat and power (CHP) plant fuelled with coal working under supercritical steam parameters and integrated with a CO2 capture installation and a gas turbine system. The motivation behind using a gas turbine in the system was to generate steam to supply heat for the stripping process that occurs in the separation installation to regenerate the sorbent. Additional analyses were conducted for the reference case, a CHP unit in which the CO2 separation process was not conducted, to enable an economic evaluation of the integration of a CHP unit with a CO2 separation installation according to the variants proposed. The break-even price of electricity and avoided emission costs were used to evaluate the respective solutions. In this paper, the results of the sensitivity analysis of the economic evaluation indicators in terms of the change in the annual operation time, price of emission allowance and heat demand rate for the realization of the stripping process for all cases are presented

  20. Optimum Currency Area Criteria in the Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovan Rankov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Creation of a monetary union in any region, regardless of the structure and level of development among countries, carries along certain costs and benefits. This paper explains Mundell’s concept of Optimum Currency Area and criteria that are needed to achieve it. Viewed through the prism of these criteria the EMU is currently far from achieving the OCA confirming the current crisis in Greece and other PIIGS countries. The example of Greece and shortcomings that contributed to its current crisis represents the biggest cost and a break-even point for the future of the monetary union. However, it is encouraging that Greece is not alone in its problems, since various funds for help have been established in a relatively short period of time. The reason for this is certainly a huge cost if any country should leave the union and the spillover effect that it would cause. Certainly serious transformations can be expected and the result should be a stronger union with better control from supra-national level.

  1. Assessing the Feasibility of Managed Aquifer Recharge for Irrigation under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arshad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Additional storage of water is a potential option to meet future water supply goals. Financial comparisons are needed to improve decision making about whether to store water in surface reservoirs or below ground, using managed aquifer recharge (MAR. In some places, the results of cost-benefit analysis show that MAR is financially superior to surface storage. However, uncertainty often exists as to whether MAR systems will remain operationally effective and profitable in the future, because the profitability of MAR is dependent on many uncertain technical and financial variables. This paper introduces a method to assess the financial feasibility of MAR under uncertainty. We assess such uncertainties by identification of cross-over points in break-even analysis. Cross-over points are the thresholds where MAR and surface storage have equal financial returns. Such thresholds can be interpreted as a set of minimum requirements beyond which an investment in MAR may no longer be worthwhile. Checking that these thresholds are satisfied can improve confidence in decision making. Our suggested approach can also be used to identify areas that may not be suitable for MAR, thereby avoiding expensive hydrogeological and geophysical investigations.

  2. West European magnetic confinement fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a technical assessment and review of the West European program in magnetic confinement fusion by a panel of US scientists and engineers active in fusion research. Findings are based on the scientific and technical literature, on laboratory reports and preprints, and on the personal experiences and collaborations of the panel members. Concerned primarily with developments during the past 10 years, from 1979 to 1989, the report assesses West European fusion research in seven technical areas: tokamak experiments; magnetic confinement technology and engineering; fusion nuclear technology; alternate concepts; theory; fusion computations; and program organization. The main conclusion emerging from the analysis is that West European fusion research has attained a position of leadership in the international fusion program. This distinction reflects in large measure the remarkable achievements of the Joint European Torus (JET). However, West European fusion prominence extends beyond tokamak experimental physics: the program has demonstrated a breadth of skill in fusion science and technology that is not excelled in the international effort. It is expected that the West European primacy in central areas of confinement physics will be maintained or even increased during the early 1990s. The program's maturity and commitment kindle expectations of dramatic West European advances toward the fusion energy goal. For example, achievement of fusion breakeven is expected first in JET, before 1995

  3. Analytical evaluation of the signal and noise propagation in x-ray differential phase-contrast computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raupach, Rainer; Flohr, Thomas G, E-mail: rainer.raupach@siemens.com [Siemens AG Healthcare Sector, H IM CT R and D PA, Siemensstrasse 1, D-91301 Forchheim (Germany)

    2011-04-07

    We analyze the signal and noise propagation of differential phase-contrast computed tomography (PCT) compared with conventional attenuation-based computed tomography (CT) from a theoretical point of view. This work focuses on grating-based differential phase-contrast imaging. A mathematical framework is derived that is able to analytically predict the relative performance of both imaging techniques in the sense of the relative contrast-to-noise ratio for the contrast of any two materials. Two fundamentally different properties of PCT compared with CT are identified. First, the noise power spectra show qualitatively different characteristics implying a resolution-dependent performance ratio. The break-even point is derived analytically as a function of system parameters such as geometry and visibility. A superior performance of PCT compared with CT can only be achieved at a sufficiently high spatial resolution. Second, due to periodicity of phase information which is non-ambiguous only in a bounded interval statistical phase wrapping can occur. This effect causes a collapse of information propagation for low signals which limits the applicability of phase-contrast imaging at low dose.

  4. Quality aspects of thermal coal marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australia's thermal coal industry is under increasing competition. A successful marketing strategy must distinguish the product from that of Australian competitors, leaving the buyer in no doubt as to its value. The marketing of thermal coal is a very different experience and encompasses an interesting commercial and technical mix. The technical merits of a coal may be effectively used to prepare the way for a sale. However, once the technical hurdle is passed (i.e. the coal is classified as acceptable), the three factors which influence the sale are price, price and price. The other aspect of marketing is that marketing, especially technical market support, must realize that the buyer often has no experience in using the coals purchased. This is particularly true with thermal coals. Virtually no thought is given as to how the coal performs or how much is used. Consequently, it is not uncommon for cheap, low quality coals to be purchased, even though it is not the choice that will result in the lowest power generation cost when all other factors are taken into consideration. The author has developed a model which allows to differentiate between coals for a range of properties relative to the use of the coal, so that a coal company can calculate the break-even price in term of cost per kWh of electricity generated and enable a more valid cost comparison between coals to be made

  5. On-Orbit Asset Management System, September 1995. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-10

    Declining budgets have prompted the need to decrease launch cost, increase satellite lifetime, and accomplish more with each satellite. This study evaluates an OOAMS system for its ability to lengthen lifetime of on-orbit assets, decrease the number of satellites required to perform a mission, increase responsiveness, and provide increased mission capability/tactical advantage. Lifetime analysis suggest that the larger satellite systems (NASA and military communication systems, surveillance satellites and earth observing satellites) would benefit most from a nuclear bimodal OOAMS. Evaluation of satellite constellations indicate that a modest reduction in the number of satellites could be realized using OOAMS if the thermal restart capability was at least ten. An OOAMS could improve the responsiveness (launching of new assets) using on-orbit reconstitution of assets. A top level utility assessment was done to address system cost issues relating to funding profiles, first unit cost, and break-even analysis. From mission capture and orbital lifetime criteria, the recommended minimum orbital altitude is 900 km. The on-orbit thermal restart capability should be increased from five to ten. Analysis of total impulse vs propellant consumed for selected missions suggests that total impulse be increased from 40 million to 48 million Newton-seconds.

  6. Review on Recent Developments in Laser Driven Inertial Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghoranneviss

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of the laser in 1960 hopes were based on using its very high energy concentration within very short pulses of time and very small volumes for energy generation from nuclear fusion as “Inertial Fusion Energy” (IFE, parallel to the efforts to produce energy from “Magnetic Confinement Fusion” (MCF, by burning deuterium-tritium (DT in high temperature plasmas to helium. Over the years the fusion gain was increased by a number of magnitudes and has reached nearly break-even after numerous difficulties in physics and technology had been solved. After briefly summarizing laser driven IFE, we report how the recently developed lasers with pulses of petawatt power and picosecond duration may open new alternatives for IFE with the goal to possibly ignite solid or low compressed DT fuel thereby creating a simplified reactor scheme. Ultrahigh acceleration of plasma blocks after irradiation of picosecond (PS laser pulses of around terawatt (TW power in the range of 1020 cm/s2 was discovered by Sauerbrey (1996 as measured by Doppler effect where the laser intensity was up to about 1018 W/cm2. This is several orders of magnitude higher than acceleration by irradiation based on thermal interaction of lasers has produced.

  7. Multi-factor Analysis Model for Improving Profit Management Using Excel in Shellfish Farming Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuming; ZHAO; Changlin; LIU; Xiujuan; SHAN; Jin; YU

    2013-01-01

    By using a farm’s data in Yantai City and the theory of Cost-Volume-Profit analysis and the financial management methods,this paper construct a multi-factor analysis model for improving profit management using Excel 2007 in Shellfish farming projects and describes the procedures to construct a multi-factor analysis model.The model can quickly calculate the profit,improve the level of profit management,find out the breakeven point and enhance the decision-making efficiency of businesses etc.It is also a thought of the application to offer suggestions for government decisions and economic decisions for corporations as a simple analysis tool.While effort has been exerted to construct a four-variable model,some equally important variables may not be discussed sufficiently due to limitation of the paper’s space and the authors’knowledge.All variables can be listed in EXCEL 2007 and can be associated in a logical way to manage the profit of shellfish farming projects more efficiently and more practically.

  8. THE RETURN RATES ANALYSIS IN THE AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BUMBESCU SORINA SIMONA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The major objective of each organization is carrying out a profitable activity and for this reason the profitability analysis and the factors that can influence it are importants elements in funding the strategic options, invtestitii policy. Based on previous studies regarding the entities profitability, in this article is developed a synthetic theoretical framework about the role of the accounting information in profitability determination, the general framework of the profitability, the rate of return analysis and last but not least is presented a case study about the rates of return analysis at an agriculture entity. The developed research leads to two major categories of tangible results; on the one hand it is realised a qualitative theoretical synthesis regarding the way of analysing the profitability using the rates of return and the breakeven, and on the other hand, it is ilustrated the calculation of the rates of return at an agriculture entity being highlight the benefical financial impact of the European funds on the increasing of the organisation profitability.

  9. Teleradiology: economic analysis of CT investigations of a small hospital

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: to evaluate, discuss and compare economic aspects of teleradiological applications in CT examinations in a small hospital. Scenario (1): CT examination by an extern institution including transport of a patient. Szenario (2): External consultation of an internal CT examination (teleradiology according to ROeV). Scenario (3): Complete in-house radiology department. To evaluate economic aspects of teleradiology service providers. Materials and methods: costs have been separated into fixed and variable costs in a model. Total costs of 500 CT examinations per year have been calculated for the three scenarios. A break-even analysis has been performed to determine the necessary/minimal number of CTs per year for economical advantages. The number of CT consultations for teleradiology service providers to make profit has been calculated. Results: scenario (1): this is the most cost-effective scenario for 500 CTs per year, but most time-consuming. Beyond 548 CTs per year using a single slice CT and 965 CTs per year using a multislice CT the teleradiology scenario [scenario (2)] is most cost-effective. Beyond 1065 CTs per year an in-house radiology department [scenario (3)] is economically reasonable. On the basis of 30 Euros per CT consultation a teleradiology service providing system will be profitable starting from 322 CT consultations per year. Conclusion: teleradiology applications are economically reasonable in a wide range in small hospitals. CT teleradiology services can also be provided on a cost-effective basis at a reachable number of consultations. (orig.)

  10. An economic assessment of the use of short-rotation coppice woody biomass to heat greenhouses in southern Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study explores the economic feasibility of fossil fuel substitution with biomass from short-rotation willow plantations as an option for greenhouse heating in southern Ontario, Canada. We assess the net displacement value of fossil fuel biomass combustion systems with an integrated purpose-grown biomass production enterprise. Key project parameters include greenhouse size, heating requirements, boiler capital costs and biomass establishment and management costs. Several metrics have been used to examine feasibility including net present value, internal rate of return, payback period, and the minimum or break-even prices for natural gas and heating oil for which the biomass substitution operations become financially attractive. Depending on certain key assumptions, internal rates of return ranged from 11-14% for displacing heating oil to 0-4% for displacing natural gas with woody biomass. The biomass heating projects have payback periods of 10 to >22 years for substituting heating oil and 18 to >22 years for replacing a natural gas. Sensitivity analyses indicate that fossil fuel price and efficiency of the boiler heating system are critical elements in the analyses and research on methods to improve growth and yield and reduce silviculture costs could have a large beneficial impact on the feasibility of this type of bioenergy enterprise. (author)

  11. Thermal energy storage systems using fluidized bed heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weast, T.; Shannon, L.

    1980-01-01

    A rotary cement kiln and an electric arc furnace were chosen for evaluation to determine the applicability of a fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHX) for thermal energy storage (TES). Multistage shallow bed FBHX's operating with high temperature differences were identified as the most suitable for TES applications. Analysis of the two selected conceptual systems included establishing a plant process flow configuration, an operational scenario, a preliminary FBHX/TES design, and parametric analysis. A computer model was developed to determine the effects of the number of stages, gas temperatures, gas flows, bed materials, charge and discharge time, and parasitic power required for operation. The maximum national energy conservation potential of the cement plant application with TES is 15.4 million barrels of oil or 3.9 million tons of coal per year. For the electric arc furnance application the maximum national conservation potential with TES is 4.5 million barrels of oil or 1.1 million tons of coal per year. Present time of day utility rates are near the breakeven point required for the TES system. Escalation of on-peak energy due to critical fuel shortages could make the FBHX/TES applications economically attractive in the future.

  12. Economic Situation of Fish Farming in Southeastern Coast of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Mihai Petrea

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture industry, like most other industries, has a very powerfull correlation with the economical domain. Being an economic activity that generates profit, practicing fish farming aims profit maximization. The present study gives information regarding the economical indicators and also makes a cost structure analysis of five groups of fish farms from Southeastern Coast of the Black Sea: homestead fish farms, small scale fish farms, middle scale fish farms, big scale fish farms and floating cages. The fish farms were classified in this way by their production capacity. In order to collect data, the most representative fish farms for each group were selected and face to face interviews were made for every one of them. Data related to their source of financing, initial investment, labour costs, selling prices, feed costs and other operational costs were collected, arranged, structured and analyzed and a series of economic indicators as gross production value, gross margin, breakeven quantity, specific investment, profit, profitability ratio, rate of return or labour productivity were calculated. As a result, it was observed that fish production capacity has a big influence over the rate of return, middle scale fish farms being the most profitable, followed closely by small scale fish farms.

  13. Magnetic-confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongena, J.; Koch, R.; Wolf, R.; Zohm, H.

    2016-05-01

    Our modern society requires environmentally friendly solutions for energy production. Energy can be released not only from the fission of heavy nuclei but also from the fusion of light nuclei. Nuclear fusion is an important option for a clean and safe solution for our long-term energy needs. The extremely high temperatures required for the fusion reaction are routinely realized in several magnetic-fusion machines. Since the early 1990s, up to 16 MW of fusion power has been released in pulses of a few seconds, corresponding to a power multiplication close to break-even. Our understanding of the very complex behaviour of a magnetized plasma at temperatures between 150 and 200 million °C surrounded by cold walls has also advanced substantially. This steady progress has resulted in the construction of ITER, a fusion device with a planned fusion power output of 500 MW in pulses of 400 s. ITER should provide answers to remaining important questions on the integration of physics and technology, through a full-size demonstration of a tenfold power multiplication, and on nuclear safety aspects. Here we review the basic physics underlying magnetic fusion: past achievements, present efforts and the prospects for future production of electrical energy. We also discuss questions related to the safety, waste management and decommissioning of a future fusion power plant.

  14. The effect of retrofitting Portuguese fossil fuel power plants with CCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A map of mainland Portugal with potential CO2 source-sink matching was created. ► Four existing Portuguese power plants were simulated with and without CCS. ► Effect of CCS retrofit on performance and costs at each power plant was studied. ► The incremental COE was estimated at around 46 $/MW h for NGCC plants. ► The incremental COE was estimated at around 61 $/MW h for PC plants. -- Abstract: This work assesses the retrofit potential of existing Portuguese fossil fuel power plants with post-combustion CO2 capture and storage (CCS) technology. The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was used to provide a systematic techno-economic analysis of the cost of emission control equipment, the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, and other key parameters which may change when CCS is implemented at a fossil fuel power plant. The results indicate that CCS requires a large capital investment and significantly increases the levelized cost of electricity. However, the economic viability of CCS increases with higher CO2 prices. The breakeven CO2 price for plants with and without CCS was estimated at $85–$140/t of CO2 depending on the technical parameters of the individual plants.

  15. WABASH RIVER IMPPCCT, INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doug Strickland

    2001-09-28

    demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Ltd., plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. During the reporting period work was furthered to support the development of capital and operating cost estimates associated with the installation of liquid or gas phase methanol synthesis technology in a Commercial Embodiment Plant (CEP) utilizing the six cases previously defined. In addition, continued development of the plant economic model was accomplished by providing combined cycle performance data. Performance and emission estimates for gas turbine combined cycles was based on revised methanol purge gas information. The economic model was used to evaluate project returns with various market conditions and plant configurations and was refined to correct earlier flaws. Updated power price projections were obtained and incorporated in the model. Sensitivity studies show that break-even methanol prices which provide a 12% return are 47-54 cents/gallon for plant scenarios using $1.25/MM Btu coal, and about 40 cents/gallon for most of the scenarios with $0.50/MM Btu petroleum coke as the fuel source. One exception is a high power price and production case which could be economically attractive at 30 cents/gallon methanol. This case was explored in more detail, but includes power costs predicated on natural gas prices at the 95th percentile of expected price distributions. In this case, the breakeven methanol price is highly sensitive to the required project return rate, payback period, and plant on-line time. These sensitivities result mainly from the high capital investment required for the CEP facility ({approx}$500MM for a single train IGCC-methanol synthesis plant). Finally, during the reporting period the Defense Contractor Audit Agency successfully executed an accounting audit of Global Energy Inc. for data accumulated over the first year of the IMPPCCT project under the Cooperative Agreement.

  16. Cost structure and profitability of Assaf dairy sheep farms in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milán, M J; Frendi, F; González-González, R; Caja, G

    2014-01-01

    Twenty dairy sheep farms of Assaf breed, located in the Spanish autonomous community of Castilla y León and included in a group receiving technical support, were used to study their production cost structure and to assess their economic profitability during 2009. On average, farms had 89.2±38.0 ha (own, 38%), 592±63 ewes, yielded 185.9±21.1×10(3) L/yr (i.e., 316±15 L/ewe), and were attended by 2.3±0.2 annual working units (family, 72%). Total annual income was €194.4±23.0×10(3)/yr (€1.0=$1.3) from milk (78.6%), lamb (13.2%), culled ewes (0.5%), and other sales (0.8%, wool and manure), and completed with the European Union sheep subsidy (6.9%). Total costs were €185.9±19.0×10(3)/yr to attend to feeding (61.6%), labor (18.2%), equipment maintenance and depreciation (7.6%), finances (3.0%), animal health (2.5%), energy, water and milking supplies (2.2%), milk recording (0.5%), and other costs (4.4%; assurances, shearing, association fees, and so on). Mean dairy sheep farm profit was €8.5±5.8×10(3)/yr (€7.4±8.3/ewe) on average, and varied between -€40.6 and €81.1/ewe among farms. Only 60% of farms were able to pay all costs, the rest had negative balances. Nevertheless, net margin was €31.0±6.5×10(3)/yr on average, varying between €0.6 and €108.4×10(3)/yr among farms. In this case, without including the opportunity costs, all farms had positive balances. Total annual cost (TAC; €/ewe) and total annual income (TAI; €/ewe) depended on milk yield (MY; L/ewe) and were TAC=161.6 + 0.502 MY (R(2)=0.50), and TAI=78.13 + 0.790 MY (R(2)=0.88), respectively, with the break-even point being 291 L/ewe. Conversely, farm TAC (€/yr) and farm TAI (€/yr) were also predicted as a function of the number of ewes (NOE) per flock, as TAC=18,401 + 282.8 NOE (R(2)=0.89) and TAI=330.9 NOE (R(2)=0.98), with the break-even point being 383 ewes/flock. Finally, according to the increasing trend expected for agricultural commodity prices, it was

  17. Análise da sensibilidade da metodologia dos centros de custos mediante a introdução de tecnologias em um sistema de produção de cria Analysis of the methodology sensibility of cost centers facing the introduction of technologies in a cow-calf production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pedroso Oaigen

    2009-06-01

    , improved pasture for primiparous cows and half lot of secundiparous cows (IPS and protein supplementation for replacement heifers (PSS. All technologies were used to increase the pregnancy rate in this system (TPS. Data on biological performance was obtained from a bibliographic review on production indicators and cost and economic values were obtained from market. The inputs of the model were: herd structure, production costs and production technology. The outputs of the model were: operational cost (OC; expenditure cost (EC; production costs per center (PCC; unitary cost per calf (UCC; cost per weaned kilo (WC/kg; annual cost per cow (ACC; financial break-even (FBE, operational margin (OM, pregnancy rate (PT, calf crop (CC, productivity/cow (P/C, number of weaned calves (NWC, calves break-even (CBE and total production in kilos (TP/kg. The use of the cost center methodology was sensitive in identifying variations in the technical economic indicators and in the costs of each productive center. The introduction of EWS, IPS and PSS showed in the increase of technical indicators and in the operational margin, presented a straight relation with the changing in the cost centers, proving the sensibility of the costs methodology in relation to the impact in TPS.

  18. Thermodynamic and economic analysis of the different variants of a coal-fired, 460 MW power plant using oxy-combustion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    allow a significant reduction of the auxiliary power of the considered unit. In consequence, the efficiency decrease was reduced by approximately 3.5% points. An economic analysis of the different structures of the oxy-fuel system and the reference air-fired power plant was also conducted using a newly developed computational algorithm built in the Excel environment. The algorithm uses a Break Even Point (BEP) method, focusing mainly on determining a break-even price of electricity. It was found that about the profitability of this investment will mainly decide the price of emission allowances. For the assumptions made, the oxy-combustion power plant will be economically comparable with a reference plant without carbon dioxide capture when the price of allowances would be between 34 and 41 €/tonne. A sensitivity analysis concerning the influence of selected components of the cash flows on the break-even price of electricity was also performed. The main results of the calculations are presented in the paper

  19. Waiting for the Next Train? An Assessment of the Emerging Canadian LNG Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    its proposed LNG income tax act to enhance competitiveness and financial viability. On the federal side, applications to export LNG are granted by the National Energy Board without restrictions and the environmental assessment process was simplified in 2012. In addition, First Nations are cooperative overall and 8 of them (out of 20 impacted by LNG projects) have already signed revenue-sharing agreements with proponents. However, the development of projects has been slowed by uncertainties regarding the economics of the projects and difficulties in signing sales agreements. For a typical BC LNG plant, the break-even Asian sale price has been estimated at $11.8/mmbtu by CEDIGAZ in the base case scenario, which corresponds to a JCC price of $81/bbl for oil-indexed contracts with a 14.5% oil slope. The low case break-even price is $8.6/mmbtu while the high case price is $16.1/mmbtu. Considering oil long term price trend, Canadian projects should be profitable but will probably remain less competitive than US-produced LNG indexed to the Henry Hub price. Based on six objective criteria, CEDIGAZ has identified a group of four front-runner projects which, as of February 2015, stand the best chances to succeed: Pacific Northwest LNG, Goldboro LNG, LNG Canada and Douglas Channel LNG. The second group is composed of seven projects, dubbed challengers which are less advanced, but still have some chances to succeed. The third and last group contains the projects with the least chance of success as things currently stand

  20. Can the US shale revolution be duplicated in Europe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past decade, the rapid increase in shale gas and shale oil production in the United States has profoundly changed energy markets in North America, and has led to a significant decrease in American natural gas prices. The possible existence of large shale deposits in Europe, mainly in France, Poland and the United Kingdom, has fostered speculation on whether the 'shale revolution', and its accompanying macro-economic impacts, could be duplicated in Europe. However, a number of uncertainties, notably geological, technological and regulatory, make this possibility unclear. We present a techno-economic model, SHERPA (Shale Exploitation and Recovery Projection and Analysis), to analyze the main determinants of the profitability of shale wells and plays. We calibrate our model using production data from the leading American shale plays. We use SHERPA to estimate three shale gas production scenarios exploring different sets of geological and technical hypotheses for the largest potential holder of shale gas deposits in Europe, France. Even considering that the geology of the potential French shale deposits is favorable to commercial extraction, we find that under assumptions calibrated on U.S. production data, natural gas could be produced at a high breakeven price of $8.6 per MMBtu, and over a 45 year time-frame have a net present value of $19.6 billion - less than 1% of 2012 French GDP. However, the specificities of the European context, notably high deposit depth and stricter environmental regulations, could increase drilling costs and further decrease this low profitability. We find that a 40% premium over American drilling costs would make shale gas extraction uneconomical. Absent extreme well productivity, it appears very difficult for shale gas extraction to have an impact on European energy markets comparable to the American shale revolution. (author)

  1. Biomass fuelled trigeneration system in selected buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We model a commercial building scale biomass fuelled trigeneration plant. → It is economically feasible to use willow chips, miscanthus and rice husk as the fuel to operate the trigeneration system. → The efficiency of TG is much higher than that of PO, but is lower than that of the combined heat and power (CHP) configuration. → The breakeven electricity selling price (BESP) of the TG system is better than that of the PO option with the CHP option producing the cheapest electricity. -- Abstract: Many buildings require simultaneous electricity, heating and cooling. Biomass is one of the renewable energy sources which is not intermittent, location-dependent or very difficult to store. If grown sustainably, biomass can be considered to be CO2 neutral. A trigeneration system consisting of an internal combustion (IC) engine integrated with biomass gasification may offer a combination for delivering heat, electricity and cooling cleanly and economically. The producer gas generated by the gasifier is used to provide electricity for building use via the IC engine. The waste heat is recovered from the engine cooling system and exhaust gases to supply hot water to space heating, excess heat is also used to drive an absorption cooling system. The proposed system is designed to meet the energy requirements for selected commercial buildings and district heating/cooling applications. This work focuses on the modeling and simulation of a commercial building scale trigeneration plant fuelled by a biomass downdraft gasifier. In order to use both energy and financial resources most efficiently, technical and economic analyses were carried out, using the ECLIPSE process simulation package. The study also looks at the impact of different biomass feedstock (willow, rice husk and miscanthus) on the performance of a trigeneration plant.

  2. Activity-based cost analysis of hepatic tumor ablation using CT-guided high-dose rate brachytherapy or CT-guided radiofrequency ablation in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyse and compare the costs of hepatic tumor ablation with computed tomography (CT)-guided high-dose rate brachytherapy (CT-HDRBT) and CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (CT-RFA) as two alternative minimally invasive treatment options of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). An activity based process model was created determining working steps and required staff of CT-RFA and CT-HDRBT. Prorated costs of equipment use (purchase, depreciation, and maintenance), costs of staff, and expenditure for disposables were identified in a sample of 20 patients (10 treated by CT-RFA and 10 by CT-HDRBT) and compared. A sensitivity and break even analysis was performed to analyse the dependence of costs on the number of patients treated annually with both methods. Costs of CT-RFA were nearly stable with mean overall costs of approximately 1909 €, 1847 €, 1816 € and 1801 € per patient when treating 25, 50, 100 or 200 patients annually, as the main factor influencing the costs of this procedure was the single-use RFA probe. Mean costs of CT-HDRBT decreased significantly per patient ablation with a rising number of patients treated annually, with prorated costs of 3442 €, 1962 €, 1222 € and 852 € when treating 25, 50, 100 or 200 patients, due to low costs of single-use disposables compared to high annual fix-costs which proportionally decreased per patient with a higher number of patients treated annually. A break-even between both methods was reached when treating at least 55 patients annually. Although CT-HDRBT is a more complex procedure with more staff involved, it can be performed at lower costs per patient from the perspective of the medical provider when treating more than 55 patients compared to CT-RFA, mainly due to lower costs for disposables and a decreasing percentage of fixed costs with an increasing number of treatments

  3. The learning potential of photovoltaics: implications for energy policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article examines the prospects for cost reductions of flat panel photovoltaic (PV) electricity. Current PV production cost ranges are presented, in terms of cost per peak W and cost per kWh, for single crystalline and multi-crystalline silicon, as well as for thin-film technologies. Possible decreases of these costs are assessed, as expected based on learning curves. The cumulative production needed to reach 'breakeven' (at which PV is competitive with conventional alternatives) is estimated for a range of values of the learning curve parameter. The cost of this cumulative production is calculated, and the question is posed whether and how the 'cost cap' can be bridged, the latter being the difference between what this cumulative production will cost and what it would cost if it could be produced at a currently competitive level. We also estimate how much PV could gain if external costs (due to environmental and health damage) of energy were internalised, for example by an energy tax. The conclusions are: (1) mainly due its high costs, PV electricity is unlikely to play a major role in global energy supply and carbon emissions abatement before 2020, (2) extrapolating past learning curves, one can expect its costs to decrease significantly, so that a considerable PV electricity share world-wide could materialise after 2020, (3) niche-market applications, e.g. using stand-alone systems in remote areas, are crucial for continuing 'the ride along the learning curve', (4) damage costs of conventional (fossil) power sources are considerable, and they could provide an important part of the rationale behind major policy efforts to encourage increased use of PV. The costs involved with such policies would be elevated, but a considerable share of these costs could be justified by the fact that conventional power damage costs constitute a significant fraction of the cost gap, although probably not enough to close it

  4. Fusion research at Culham site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the many targets on the Finnish Nuclear Society (ATS) excursion to England was the Culham fusion research site. The site has divided into two parts. One of them is UKAEA Fusion with small scale fusion reactors and 200 employees. UKAEA has 3 fusion reactors at Culham site. One of is the START (Small Tight Aspect Ratio Tokamak) which was operational since 1991 but is today already out of operation. UKAEA has been operating a JET-like tokamak fusion reactor COMPASS-D since 1989. The latest of three reactors is MAST (Mega Amp Spherical Tokamak), which is still under construction. The first plasma will take place in the end of 1998. Another part of Culham site is JET (Joint European Torus), an all-European fusion undertaking with 350 employees. 150 of them are from various European countries and the rest 200 are employed by UKAEA. JET is the biggest fusion reactor ever and it represents the latest step in world wide fusion programme. In October 1997 JET achieved a world record in fusion power and energy. JET produced 16,1 MW power for 1 s and totally 21,7 MJ energy. This is the closest attempt to achieve break-even conditions. The next step in world wide fusion programme will be international ITER-reactor. This undertaking has some financial problems, since United States has taken distance to magnetic fusion research and moved closer to inertial fusion with funding of US Department of Defence. The planned reactor, however, is physically twice as big as JET. The step after this phase will be DEMO, which is purposed to produce fusion energy. According to our hosts in Culham this phase is 40 years ahead. (author)

  5. Economic analysis of cloud-based desktop virtualization implementation at a hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Sooyoung

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cloud-based desktop virtualization infrastructure (VDI is known as providing simplified management of application and desktop, efficient management of physical resources, and rapid service deployment, as well as connection to the computer environment at anytime, anywhere with anydevice. However, the economic validity of investing in the adoption of the system at a hospital has not been established. Methods This study computed the actual investment cost of the hospital-wide VDI implementation at the 910-bed Seoul National University Bundang Hospital in Korea and the resulting effects (i.e., reductions in PC errors and difficulties, application and operating system update time, and account management time. Return on investment (ROI, net present value (NPV, and internal rate of return (IRR indexes used for corporate investment decision-making were used for the economic analysis of VDI implementation. Results The results of five-year cost-benefit analysis given for 400 Virtual Machines (VMs; i.e., 1,100 users in the case of SNUBH showed that the break-even point was reached in the fourth year of the investment. At that point, the ROI was 122.6%, the NPV was approximately US$192,000, and the IRR showed an investment validity of 10.8%. From our sensitivity analysis to changing the number of VMs (in terms of number of users, the greater the number of adopted VMs was the more investable the system was. Conclusions This study confirms that the emerging VDI can have an economic impact on hospital information system (HIS operation and utilization in a tertiary hospital setting.

  6. Optimal planning of co-firing alternative fuels with coal in a power plant by grey nonlinear mixed integer programming model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Andi Setiady; Chang, Ni-Bin

    2008-07-01

    Energy supply and use is of fundamental importance to society. Although the interactions between energy and environment were originally local in character, they have now widened to cover regional and global issues, such as acid rain and the greenhouse effect. It is for this reason that there is a need for covering the direct and indirect economic and environmental impacts of energy acquisition, transport, production and use. In this paper, particular attention is directed to ways of resolving conflict between economic and environmental goals by encouraging a power plant to consider co-firing biomass and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with coal simultaneously. It aims at reducing the emission level of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) in an uncertain environment, using the power plant in Michigan City, Indiana as an example. To assess the uncertainty by a comparative way both deterministic and grey nonlinear mixed integer programming (MIP) models were developed to minimize the net operating cost with respect to possible fuel combinations. It aims at generating the optimal portfolio of alternative fuels while maintaining the same electricity generation simultaneously. To ease the solution procedure stepwise relaxation algorithm was developed for solving the grey nonlinear MIP model. Breakeven alternative fuel value can be identified in the post-optimization stage for decision-making. Research findings show that the inclusion of RDF does not exhibit comparative advantage in terms of the net cost, albeit relatively lower air pollution impact. Yet it can be sustained by a charge system, subsidy program, or emission credit as the price of coal increases over time. PMID:17395362

  7. Simulation of heating-compressed fast-ignition cores by peta-watt laser-generated electrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, unique particle-in-cell simulations to understand the relativistic electron beam thermalization and subsequent heating of highly compressed plasmas are reported. The simulations yield heated core parameters in good agreement with the GEKKO-PW experimental measurements, given reasonable assumptions of laser-to-electron coupling efficiency and the distribution function of laser-produced electrons. The classical range of the hot electrons exceeds the mass density-core diameter product L by a factor of several. Anomalous stopping appears to be present and is created by the growth and saturation of an electromagnetic filamentation mode that generates a strong back-EMF impeding hot electrons on the injection side of the density maxima. This methodology is then applied to the design of experiments for the ZR machine coupled to the Z-Beamlet/PW laser. Sandia National Laboratories is also developing a combination of experimental and theoretical capabilities useful for the study of pulsed-power-driven fast ignition physics. In preparation for these fast ignition experiments, the theory group at Sandia is modeling various aspects of fast ignition physics. Numerical simulations of laser/plasma interaction, electron transport, and ion generation are being performed using the LSP code. LASNEX simulations of the compression of deuterium/tritium fuel in various reentrant cone geometries are being performed. Analytic and numerical modeling has been performed to determine the conditions required for fast ignition breakeven scaling. These results indicate that to achieve fusion energy output equal to the deposited energy in the core will require about 5% of the laser energy needed for ignition and might be an achievable goal with an upgraded Z-beamlet laser in short pulse mode. (authors)

  8. Selection and evaluation of nuclear fuel cycle strategies. Technical and economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The original choices of thermal reactors and fuel cycles were largely determined by specific national circumstances and by experience and facilities acquired from defence-related programmes. These led to the development of LWRs in the USA and to the natural uranium/gas/graphite system in the United Kingdom and France, while Canada selected the HWR. Most countries with nuclear power programmes saw the plutonium-fuelled fast reactor, with its breeding potential, as the means to ensure that exhaustion of economic uranium resources would not prematurely curtail the contribution of nuclear power to world energy supplies. Fuel reprocessing was essential to this fuel cycle or indeed to other recycling options to make better use of the available uranium; it was also favoured for waste management reasons. Early expectations of nuclear power growth suggested that a transition from thermal to fast reactors would occur during the present century but the urgency has been reduced by world economic recession, slower increases in nuclear capacity and the continued availability of supplies of low-priced uranium. Reprocessing costs have risen and economics of scale favour large plants, which are therefore most likely to be built in countries with substantial thermal reactor capacities; these countries will be able to provide reprocessing services to others. As the ultimate strategic need for fast reactors has not been reduced by this slowdown it is important to continue the development and demonstration of fast-reactor technology and the associated fuel cycles. Uncertainties in future fuel prices mean that it could be advantageous to introduce fast reactors as soon as they become an economic, although not necessarily the most economic, choice. Notably, fast reactors may be installed initially when and where they become economic compared to coal-fired generation, in order to lay the foundation for more rapid expansion when economic break-even with thermal reactors occurs. (author)

  9. ENGINEERING EVALUATION OF HOT-GAS DESULFURIZATION WITH SULFUR RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    G.W. ROBERTS; J.W. PORTZER; S.C. KOZUP; S.K. GANGWAL

    1998-05-31

    Engineering evaluations and economic comparisons of two hot-gas desulfurization (HGD) processes with elemental sulfur recovery, being developed by Research Triangle Institute, are presented. In the first process, known as the Direct Sulfur Recovery Process (DSRP), the SO{sub 2} tail gas from air regeneration of zinc-based HGD sorbent is catalytically reduced to elemental sulfur with high selectivity using a small slipstream of coal gas. DSRP is a highly efficient first-generation process, promising sulfur recoveries as high as 99% in a single reaction stage. In the second process, known as the Advanced Hot Gas Process (AHGP), the zinc-based HGD sorbent is modified with iron so that the iron portion of the sorbent can be regenerated using SO{sub 2} . This is followed by air regeneration to fully regenerate the sorbent and provide the required SO{sub 2} for iron regeneration. This second-generation process uses less coal gas than DSRP. Commercial embodiments of both processes were developed. Process simulations with mass and energy balances were conducted using ASPEN Plus. Results show that AHGP is a more complex process to operate and may require more labor cost than the DSRP. Also capital costs for the AHGP are higher than those for the DSRP. However, annual operating costs for the AHGP appear to be considerably less than those for the DSRP with a potential break-even point between the two processes after just 2 years of operation for an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) power plant using 3 to 5 wt% sulfur coal. Thus, despite its complexity, the potential savings with the AHGP encourage further development and scaleup of this advanced process.

  10. Gov'tal FY 1987 draft budget for N-energy set at 360 billion yen, up 0.8 %

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The governmental draft budget for nuclear energy was approved on December 30. The total provided is 360,222 million yen, an increase of 0.8 % over the previous year. This is made up of general account, 183,308 million yen (1.4 % down) and special account for power resources development (related only to nuclear power) 175,914 million yen (up 3.2 %). The amount from the general account is reduced for the first time in three years. This decrease is due mainly to completion of the energy break-even plasma testing device for nuclear fusion research. The special account primarily represents the tax for promoting power source development, a kind of special purpose tax from the electric power companies, based on generated electricity, and from this, subsidies are paid to local municipalities for promotion of siting for power sources and for the cost of survey and research on the development of oil alternative power sources. The special account for power resources development consists of the power sources siting account, 68,114 million yen (up 4.5 %) and the power sources diversification account, 108,800 million yen (up 2.4 %). Nuclear energy budgets sought by the Science and Technology Agency, the Ministry of International Trade and Industry, and other government agencies are shown in Table. STA and MITI have both requested slightly less than in the preceding year from the general accout, but both asked for higher amounts from the special account than in the preceding year. The high rise in the amount sougt by other agencies is attributed to the increase in the cost of eradication of melon flies. (Nogami, K.)

  11. Potential effects of emission taxes on CO2 emissions in OECD and LDC countries. Working paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of existing optimization models representing the energy systems of the OECD and LDC countries (the LDC region covers all less developed countries excluding centrally planned economies) with a time horizon up to 2020 was applied to derive first-order estimates of the techno-economic potential for emission reduction. The driving force for the introduction of reduction measures was a scheme of taxes levied on the emissions of 6 relevant pollutants-including the greenhouse gases CO2 and methane. The tax levels introduced are based on the taxes discussed by the Swedish government administration; they are the break-even point to test which measures are cost-effective and which emission levels can be reached at these costs. The regional models offer the choice between the following alternatives as response to increases in expenditures caused by emission taxes: (*) Reduction of final energy demand by supplying the requested services by other means (i.e., conservation). (*) Substitution of 'dirty' fuels by fuels entailing less pollution. (*) Introduction of 'clean' technologies for the same purposes (e.g., a combined cycle based on coal gasification is a much cleaner process for electricity generation from coal than conventional coal power plants). (*) For SO2 and NOx emissions pollution reduction technologies (i.e., scrubbers and catalysts) can be added to existing technologies in order to reduce emissions. Alternative scenarios with emission taxes are compared to a base scenario without taxes related to pollutant emissions. The results indicate that an increase in CO2 emissions in the OECD and LDC regions of 47% over the next 30 years in the base scenario would be changed into stabilization up to 2010 by measures induced by the tax levels introduced. Thereafter, however, energy consumption growth in the LDC area, in conjunction with the exhaustion of economically viable emission reduction measures, reverse this trend: CO2 emissions start to increase again after 2010

  12. Is it economically feasible for farmers to grow their own fuel? A study of Camelina sativa produced in the western United States as an on-farm biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper models the economic feasibility of growing the oilseed crop Camelina sativa (“camelina”) in the western United States to produce value-added protein feed supplement and an SVO-based biofuel. Modeled in eastern Colorado, this study demonstrates that camelina can be grown profitably both as a commodity and as an energy biofuel. These findings, along with the stochastic crop rotation budget and profitability sensitivity analysis, reflect unique contributions to the literature. The study's stochastic break-even analysis demonstrates a 0.51 probability of growing camelina profitably when diesel prices reach 1.15 $ L−1. Results also show that the sale of camelina meal has the greatest impact on profitability. Yet once the price of diesel fuel exceeds 0.90 $ L−1, the farmer generates more revenue from the ability to offset diesel fuel purchases than the revenues generated from the sale of camelina meal. A risk analysis using second degree stochastic dominance demonstrates that a risk-averse farmer would choose to grow camelina if the price of diesel equals or exceeds 1.31 $ L−1. The article concludes that camelina can offset on-farm diesel use, making it economically feasible for farmers to grow their own fuel. As a result, camelina production may increase farm income, diversify rural economic development, and contribute to the attainment of energy policy goals. -- Highlights: •This is a stochastic budget analysis of growing camelina as SVO-based biofuel. •Results demonstrate economic feasibility for producers to grow their own fuel. •Camelina production can diversify regional and national energy portfolios. •Camelina production can contribute to on-farm energy independence

  13. Terrorism risks and cost-benefit analysis of aviation security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mark G; Mueller, John

    2013-05-01

    We evaluate, for the U.S. case, the costs and benefits of three security measures designed to reduce the likelihood of a direct replication of the 9/11 terrorist attacks. To do so, we assess risk reduction, losses, and security costs in the context of the full set of security layers. The three measures evaluated are installed physical secondary barriers (IPSB) to restrict access to the hardened cockpit door during door transitions, the Federal Air Marshal Service (FAMS), and the Federal Flight Deck Officer (FFDO) Program. In the process, we examine an alternate policy measure: doubling the budget of the FFDO program to $44 million per year, installing IPSBs in all U.S. aircraft at a cost of $13.5 million per year, and reducing funding for FAMS by 75% to $300 million per year. A break-even cost-benefit analysis then finds the minimum probability of an otherwise successful attack required for the benefit of each security measures to equal its cost. We find that the IPSB is costeffective if the annual attack probability of an otherwise successful attack exceeds 0.5% or one attack every 200 years. The FFDO program is costeffective if the annual attack probability exceeds 2%. On the other hand, more than two otherwise successful attacks per year are required for FAMS to be costeffective. A policy that includes IPSBs, an increased budget for FFDOs, and a reduced budget for FAMS may be a viable policy alternative, potentially saving hundreds of millions of dollars per year with consequences for security that are, at most, negligible. PMID:23035984

  14. Engineering Design Evolution of the JT-60SA Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The JT-60SA experiment is one of the three projects to be undertaken in Japan as part of the Broader Approach Agreement, conducted jointly by Europe and Japan, and complementing the construction of ITER in Europe. The mission of JT-60SA is to contribute to the early realization of fusion energy by addressing key physics issues for ITER and DEMO. It is a fully superconducting tokamak capable of confining break-even equivalent deuterium plasmas. The Tokamak has been designed to pursue full non-inductive steady-state operations at high values of the plasma pressure exceeding the no-wall ideal MHD stability limits. For this purpose, JT-60SA has been designed to realize plasma equilibrium covering relatively high plasma shaping with a low aspect ratio A∼2.5 at a maximum plasma current of Ip =5.5 MA. In late 2007 the BA Parties, prompted by cost concerns, asked the JT-60SA Team to carry out a re-baselining effort with the purpose to fit in the original budget while aiming to retain the machine mission, performance, and experimental flexibility. Subsequently, along 2008, the Integrated Project Team has undertaken a machine re-optimisation followed by engineering design activities aimed to reduce costs while maintaining the machine radius and plasma current. This effort led the Parties to the approval of the new design in late 2008 and hence procurement activities have commenced. The paper will describe the new baseline and the process that lead to its optimisation. (author)

  15. On the electrification of road transport - Learning rates and price forecasts for hybrid-electric and battery-electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) and battery-electric vehicles (BEVs) are currently more expensive than conventional passenger cars but may become cheaper due to technological learning. Here, we obtain insight into the prospects of future price decline by establishing ex-post learning rates for HEVs and ex-ante price forecasts for HEVs and BEVs. Since 1997, HEVs have shown a robust decline in their price and price differential at learning rates of 7±2% and 23±5%, respectively. By 2010, HEVs were only 31±22 €2010 kW−1 more expensive than conventional cars. Mass-produced BEVs are currently introduced into the market at prices of 479±171 €2010 kW−1, which is 285±213 €2010 kW−1 and 316±209 €2010 kW−1 more expensive than HEVs and conventional cars. Our forecast suggests that price breakeven with these vehicles may only be achieved by 2026 and 2032, when 50 and 80 million BEVs, respectively, would have been produced worldwide. We estimate that BEVs may require until then global learning investments of 100–150 billion € which is less than the global subsidies for fossil fuel consumption paid in 2009. These findings suggest that HEVs, including plug-in HEVs, could become the dominant vehicle technology in the next two decades, while BEVs may require long-term policy support. - Highlights: ► Learning rates for hybrid-electric and battery-electric vehicles. ► Prices and price differentials of hybrid-electric vehicles show a robust decline. ► Battery-electric vehicles may require policy support for decades.

  16. Feasibility study of fuel grade ethanol plant for Alcohol Fuels of Mississippi, Inc. , Vicksburg, Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    The results are presented of a feasibility study performed to determine the technical and economic viability of constructing an alcohol plant utilizing the N.Y.U. continuous acid hydrolysis process to convert wood wastes to fuel grade alcohol. The following is a summary of the results: (1) The proposed site in the Vicksburg Industrial Foundation Corporation Industrial Park is adequate from all standpoints, for all plant capacities envisioned. (2) Local hardwood sawmills can provide adequate feedstock for the facility. The price per dry ton varies between $5 and $15. (3) Sale of fuel ethanol would be made primarily through local distributors and an adequate market exists for the plant output. (4) With minor modifications to the preparation facilities, other waste cellulose materials can also be utilized. (5) There are no anticipated major environmental, health, safety or socioeconomic risks related to the construction and operation of the proposed facility. (6) The discounted cash flow and rate of return analysis indicated that the smallest capacity unit which should be built is the 16 million gallon per year plant, utilizing cogeneration. This facility has a 3.24 year payback. (7) The 25 million gallon per year plant utilizing cogeneration is an extremely attractive venture, with a zero interest break-even point of 1.87 years, and with a discounted rate of return of 73.6%. (8) While the smaller plant capacities are unattractive from a budgetary viewpoint, a prudent policy would dictate that a one million gallon per year plant be built first, as a demonstration facility. This volume contains process flowsheets and maps of the proposed site.

  17. A comparison of circulating fluidised bed combustion and gasification power plant technologies for processing mixtures of coal, biomass and plastic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIlveen-Wright, D.R.; Huang, Y.; McMullan, J.T. [NICERT, University of Ulster at Jordanstown, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Pinto, F.; Franco, C.; Gulyurtlu, I. [INETI-DEECA, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Armesto, L.; Cabanillas, A. [CIEMAT, Avda Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Caballero, M.A.; Aznar, M.P. [Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, Centro Politecnico Superior, Maria de Luna, University of Saragossa, 50018 Saragossa (Spain)

    2006-09-15

    Environmental regulations concerning emission limitations from the use of fossil fuels in large combustion plants have stimulated interest in biomass for electricity generation. The main objective of the present study was to examine the technical and economic viability of using combustion and gasification of coal mixed with biomass and plastic wastes, with the aim of developing an environmentally acceptable process to decrease their amounts in the waste stream through energy recovery. Mixtures of a high ash coal with biomass and/or plastic using fluidised bed technologies (combustion and gasification) were considered. Experiments were carried out in laboratory and pilot plant fluidised bed systems on the combustion and air/catalyst and air/steam gasification of these feedstocks and the data obtained were used in the techno-economic analyses. The experimental results were used in simulations of medium to large-scale circulating fluidised bed (CFB) power generation plants. Techno-economic analysis of the modelled CFB combustion systems showed efficiencies of around 40.5% (and around 46.5% for the modelled CFB gasification systems) when fuelled solely by coal, which were only minimally affected by co-firing with up to 20% biomass and/or wastes. Specific investments were found to be around $2150/kWe to $2400/kWe ($1350/kWe to $1450/kWe) and break-even electricity selling prices to be around $68/MWh to $78/MWh ($49/MWh to $54/MWh). Their emissions were found to be within the emission limit values of the large combustion plant directive. Fluidised bed technologies were found to be very suitable for co-firing coal and biomass and/or plastic waste and to offer good options for the replacement of obsolete or polluting power plants. (author)

  18. Evaluation of measures of the German Ministry of Economics (BMWi) in support of enhanced use of renewable energy technologies (1994 - 1998). Final report; Evaluierung der Foerderung von Massnahmen zur Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien durch das Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft (1994 - 1998). Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, J.; Gruber, E.; Mannsbart, W.

    1999-01-01

    The document presents an analysis of a governmental support programme for enhanced use of renewable energy technologies, installed for the period from 1994 to 1998. The '100 million Deutschmark programme' financed by the German Federal Ministry of Economics (BMWi) was intended to boost applications of renewable energy technologies in the residential and commercial sector. The objectives of the programme were to improve market penetration of renewable energy technologies, eg. by inducing a decline in costs, so as to bring those generation technologies closer to the break-even point of economic efficiency, or make them achieve economic efficiency on a broader basis through more widespread applications. The evaluation presented in the document was to show the programme's achievements with respect to the following aspects and criteria: Comparison with other governmental programmes, in particular those of Land governments. Indirect effects on employment, imports and exports, or in terms of incentives for technological enhancements. Assessment of direct effects on the marketing situation and the technologies. The conclusions drawn were to include recommendations for a successor programme. (orig./CB) [German] Vom Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft (BMWi) wurde die Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien durch Investitionszuschuesse fuer private Haushalte und Unternehmen von 1994 bis 1998 in einem '100-Millionen-DM-Programm' gefoerdert. Es war als Breitenprogramm ausgelegt, sollte die Nachfrage staerken und Marktimpulse in Form von Kostendegressionen geben, so dass die erneuerbaren Energien der Wirtschaftlichkeit naeher kommen oder sie erreichen. Die vorliegende Evaluation sollte den Erfolg des Programmes durch Aussagen zu den nachstehenden Themenschwerpunkten analysieren: - Vergleich des Foerderprogramms mit anderen Programmen, insbesondere denjenigen auf Laenderebene. - Die indirekten Wirkungen auf Arbeitsplaetze, Import und Export, Anstoss fuer technische

  19. Turbulent corona in a dense Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the author considers the convection which arises due to the MHD interchange instability of a superheated skin layer in a Z-pinch. The increase in size of the Z-pinch corona resulting from this process is a likely explanation for several unexpected results reported from experiments on Angara-5. This high-voltage high-current device has in recent experiments revealed intense evaporation of plasma from the surface of a Z-pinch, probably giving rise to recapture of the current of this low-density plasma. In these experiments an electric current of magnitude J ∼ 3 MA passed through a polyethylene rod of diameter OE 0 = 2 mm and height h ∼ 5 mm for a time ∼ 80 ns. After a time ∼ 50 ns the discharge gap was filled with plasma with a density ne ≥ 1019 cm-3 out to distances of 5-10 mm from the discharge axis. These experiments were partly aimed at verifying the basic hypotheses of the proposal for producing ignition of thermonuclear field in the constrictions of Z-pinches in already existing devices, with a resulting energy yield greater than breakeven. The phenomenon observed, according to Sasorov, can interfere with the high compression in the constrictions of a Z-pinch which is necessary to implement the ideas of Yan'kov. In the present work he discusses the mechanism for turbulent spreading of the superheated skin layer of a Z-pinch, which enables one to understand some of the unexpected results of these experiments

  20. Appraisals Generate Specific Configurations of Facial Muscle Movements in a Gambling Task: Evidence for the Component Process Model of Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentsch, Kornelia; Grandjean, Didier; Scherer, Klaus R.

    2015-01-01

    Scherer’s Component Process Model provides a theoretical framework for research on the production mechanism of emotion and facial emotional expression. The model predicts that appraisal results drive facial expressions, which unfold sequentially and cumulatively over time. In two experiments, we examined facial muscle activity changes (via facial electromyography recordings over the corrugator, cheek, and frontalis regions) in response to events in a gambling task. These events were experimentally manipulated feedback stimuli which presented simultaneous information directly affecting goal conduciveness (gambling outcome: win, loss, or break-even) and power appraisals (Experiment 1 and 2), as well as control appraisal (Experiment 2). We repeatedly found main effects of goal conduciveness (starting ~600 ms), and power appraisals (starting ~800 ms after feedback onset). Control appraisal main effects were inconclusive. Interaction effects of goal conduciveness and power appraisals were obtained in both experiments (Experiment 1: over the corrugator and cheek regions; Experiment 2: over the frontalis region) suggesting amplified goal conduciveness effects when power was high in contrast to invariant goal conduciveness effects when power was low. Also an interaction of goal conduciveness and control appraisals was found over the cheek region, showing differential goal conduciveness effects when control was high and invariant effects when control was low. These interaction effects suggest that the appraisal of having sufficient control or power affects facial responses towards gambling outcomes. The result pattern suggests that corrugator and frontalis regions are primarily related to cognitive operations that process motivational pertinence, whereas the cheek region would be more influenced by coping implications. Our results provide first evidence demonstrating that cognitive-evaluative mechanisms related to goal conduciveness, control, and power appraisals affect

  1. Reference-dependent electric vehicle production strategy considering subsidies and consumer trade-offs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we extend previous reference-dependence newsvendor research by incorporating both consumer trade-offs and government subsidies to evaluate the relevant influences on the optimal electric vehicle (EV) production decisions. We present the properties of the model, derive the closed-form solutions for the model given the relevant constraints, and use numerical experiments to illustrate the results. We find that subsidies, loss aversion, the performance of both EVs and internal combustion engine-powered vehicles (ICEVs), and the coefficient of variation of demand are significant factors influencing the optimal production quantity and the expected utilities of EV production. The high selling price and other high costs of ICEVs help offset the influence of loss aversion, whereas the high costs of EV enhance loss aversion. Our study enriches the literature on subsidies for EVs by establishing a behavioral model to incorporate the decision bias in terms of loss aversion at the firm level. These findings provide guiding principles for both policymakers and EV managers for making better strategies to promote EVs in the early immature market. - Highlights: • The performance of both electric vehicles (EVs) and internal combustion engine-power vehicles (ICEVs) influences the EV production decisions. • A loss averse EV manager produces less and obtains less the expected utility than a risk neutral one. • Subsidies help decrease the EV breakeven quantity, increase the optimal quantity, offset the influence of loss aversion. • Subsidies should be adjusted according to the performance of both EVs and the ICEVs, demand heterogeneity, and local conditions. • The high ICEVs costs help offset the influence of loss aversion, whereas the high EV costs enhance loss aversion

  2. Options for rural electrification in Arua District, Uganda

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study proposed a power generation system suitable for rural area application. The electrification options were proposed for secondary schools, health centres, households and trading centre loads using solar PV system, diesel fired generators, biogas co-fired diesel generators and grid extension. The study is based on simulation, modeling and optimization of renewable energy system. Designs for the options considered were based on the electricity demand and environmental conditions of Arua district. From the designs, capital costs for each option were determined. This was used in carrying out simulations in HOMER computer program to come up with the most cost effective options. Sensitivity analysis was carried out to determine the effects of variation in costs such as diesel price and capital cost of solar PV system.Based on simulation results, it has been found that the trading centre, with 500 kW of electrical demand, must be electrified using the grid extension. The breakeven grid distance is 75.1 km. Grid extension become cost effective compared to diesel generators and solar PV system within this distance. The load at household level ranges from as low as 16 W to 5 kW. For 103 W peak load, the most cost effective option was solar PV system. The second best option was biogas co-fired diesel generator. For schools and health centres with load of up to 15 kW, biogas co-fired generator is the best compared to the total cost of 18 kW diesel fired generator which is higher. Therefore, where biogas cannot be generated, diesel generators should be used. Based on the amount of pollutants produced, a biogas co-fired diesel generator is the best option. (full text)

  3. The system-wide economics of a carbon dioxide capture, utilization, and storage network: Texas Gulf Coast with pure CO2-EOR flood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This letter compares several bounding cases for understanding the economic viability of capturing large quantities of anthropogenic CO2 from coal-fired power generators within the Electric Reliability Council of Texas electric grid and using it for pure CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in the onshore coastal region of Texas along the Gulf of Mexico. All captured CO2 in excess of that needed for EOR is sequestered in saline formations at the same geographic locations as the oil reservoirs but at a different depth. We analyze the extraction of oil from the same set of ten reservoirs within 20- and five-year time frames to describe how the scale of the carbon dioxide capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) network changes to meet the rate of CO2 demand for oil recovery. Our analysis shows that there is a negative system-wide net present value (NPV) for all modeled scenarios. The system comes close to breakeven economics when capturing CO2 from three coal-fired power plants to produce oil via CO2-EOR over 20 years and assuming no CO2 emissions penalty. The NPV drops when we consider a larger network to produce oil more quickly (21 coal-fired generators with CO2 capture to produce 80% of the oil within five years). Upon applying a CO2 emissions penalty of 60$2009/tCO2 to fossil fuel emissions to ensure that coal-fired power plants with CO2 capture remain in baseload operation, the system economics drop significantly. We show near profitability for the cash flow of the EOR operations only; however, this situation requires relatively cheap electricity prices during operation. (letter)

  4. Identifying potentially cost effective chronic care programs for people with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L M G Steuten

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available L M G Steuten1, K M M Lemmens2, A P Nieboer2, H JM Vrijhoef31Maastricht University Medical Centre, School for Care and Public Health Research, Department of Health, Organisation, Policy and Economics, Maastricht, The Netherlands; 2Erasmus University Medical Centre, Institute of Health Policy and Management, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 3Maastricht University Medical Centre, School for Care and Public Health Research, Department of Integrated Care, Maastricht, The NetherlandsObjective: To review published evidence regarding the cost effectiveness of multi-component COPD programs and to illustrate how potentially cost effective programs can be identified.Methods: Systematic search of Medline and Cochrane databases for evaluations of multi-component disease management or chronic care programs for adults with COPD, describing process, intermediate, and end results of care. Data were independently extracted by two reviewers and descriptively summarized.Results: Twenty articles describing 17 unique COPD programs were included. There is little evidence for significant improvements in process and intermediate outcomes, except for increased provision of patient self-management education and improved disease-specific knowledge. Overall, the COPD programs generate end results equivalent to usual care, but programs containing ≥3 components show lower relative risks for hospitalization. There is limited scope for programs to break-even or save money.Conclusion: Identifying cost effective multi-component COPD programs remains a challenge due to scarce methodologically sound studies that demonstrate significant improvements on process, intermediate and end results of care. Estimations of potential cost effectiveness of specific programs illustrated in this paper can, in the absence of ‘perfect data’, support timely decision-making regarding these programs. Nevertheless, well-designed health economic studies are needed to decrease the current decision

  5. Field Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Miscible Flooding in the Lansing-Kansas City Formation, Central Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Richard Pancake; JyunSyung Tsau; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2010-03-07

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and three production wells. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide was injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide was injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. By March 7,2010, 8,736 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Production from wells to the northwest of the pilot region indicates that oil displaced from carbon dioxide injection was produced from Colliver A7, Colliver A3, Colliver A14 and Graham A4 located on adjacent leases. About 19,166 bbl of incremental oil were estimated to have been produced from these wells as of March 7, 2010. There is evidence of a directional permeability trend toward the NW through the pilot region. The majority of the injected carbon dioxide remains in the pilot region, which has been maintained at a pressure at or above the minimum miscibility pressure. Estimated oil recovery attributed to the CO2 flood is 27,902 bbl which is equivalent to a gross CO2 utilization of 4.8 MCF/bbl. The pilot project is not economic.

  6. Fusion energy from the Moon for the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulcinski, G. L.; Cameron, E. N.; Santarius, J. F.; Sviatoslavsky, I. N.; Wittenberg, L. J.; Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown in this paper that the D-He-3 fusion fuel cycle is not only credible from a physics standpoint, but that its breakeven and ignition characteristics could be developed on roughly the same time schedule as the DT cycle. It was also shown that the extremely low fraction of power in neutrons, the lack of significant radioactivity in the reactants, and the potential for very high conversion efficiencies, can result in definite advantages for the D-He-3 cycle with respect to DT fusion and fission reactors in the twenty-first century. More specifically, the D-He-3 cycle can accomplish the following: (1) eliminate the need for deep geologic waste burial facilities and the wastes can qualify for Class A, near-surface land burial; (2) allow 'inherently safe' reactors to be built that, under the worst conceivable accident, cannot cause a civilian fatality or result in a significant (greater than 100 mrem) exposure to a member of the public; (3) reduce the radiation damage levels to a point where no scheduled replacement of reactor structural components is required, i.e., full reactor lifetimes (approximately 30 FPY) can be credibly claimed; (4) increase the reliability and availability of fusion reactors compared to DT systems because of the greatly reduced radioactivity, the low neutron damage, and the elimination of T breeding; and (5) greatly reduce the capital costs of fusion power plants (compared to DT systems) by as much as 50 percent and present the potential for a significant reduction on the COE. The concepts presented in this paper tie together two of the most ambitious high-technology endeavors of the twentieth century: the development of controlled thermonuclear fusion for civilian power applications and the utilization of outer space for the benefit of mankind on Earth.

  7. Spherical pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This is essentially a review article covering several years of work on the spherical pinch (SP) concept of plasma formation and containment. Central to this concept is the creation of a hot plasma in the center of a sphere, plasma which is then compressed by strong imploding shock waves launched from the periphery of the vessel. The experimental program, which started with the classical cylindrical theta-pinch and continued with the inductive spherical pinch, has taken a turn, in recent times, with the discovery of the scaling laws governing spherical pinch experiments, which prescribe that high gas pressures are required for achieving fusion break-even conditions. As a consequence, energy deposition in present spherical pinch devices is done through resistive, rather than inductive, discharges. In a pilot experimental program of modest initial condenser bank energy (∼ 1 KJ), we find that the instantaneous energy deposition in the central plasma can lead to temperatures of the order of 2 KeV, in agreement with the prediction of the Braginskii resistivity for such a plasma, and with the relation to the velocity of the diverging shock wave generated by the sudden deposition of energy into this plasma. Moreover, when the imploding shock waves contain the central plasma, we find the containment time to be as long as 5.4 μsec and the plasma to be stable. In discharges in deuterium, neutrons are emitted close to 107 per shot. From the experimental parameters of the plasma, one can derive a particle density for the shocked gas equal to 3.21 x 1019 cm-3, a plasma temperature equal to 730 eV and a product ntau = 1.73 x 1014 cm-3 sec

  8. The quest for a z-pinch based fusion energy source--a historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ever since 1958, when Oscar Anderson observed copious neutrons emanating from a 'magnetically self-constricted column of deuterium plasma', scientists have attempted to develop the simple linear pinch into a fusion power source. After all, simple calculations show that if one can pass a current of slightly less than 2 million amperes through a stable D-T plasma, then one could achieve not just thermonuclear break-even, but thermonuclear gain. Moreover, several reactor studies have shown that a simple linear pinch could be the basis for a very attractive fusion system. The problem is, of course, that the seemingly simple act of passing 2 MA through a stable pinch has proven to be quite difficult to accomplish. The pinch tends to disrupt due to instabilities, either by the m=0 (sausage) or m=1 (kink) modes. Curtailing the growth of these instabilities has been the primary thrust of z-pinch fusion research, and over the years a wide variety of formation techniques have been tried. The early pinches were driven by relatively slow capacitive discharges and were formed by imploding a plasma column. The advent of fast pulsed power technology brought on a whole new repertoire of formation techniques, including: fast implosions, laser or field-enhanced breakdown in a uniform volume of gas, a discharge inside a small capillary, a frozen deuterium fiber isolated by vacuum, and staged concepts in which one pinch implodes upon another. And although none of these have yet to be successful, some have come tantalizingly close. This paper will review the history of this four-decade long quest for fusion power

  9. The quest for a z-pinch based fusion energy source emdash a historical perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ever since 1958, when Oscar Anderson observed copious neutrons emanating from a open-quotes magnetically self-constricted column of deuterium plasma,close quotes scientists have attempted to develop the simple linear pinch into a fusion power source. After all, simple calculations show that if one can pass a current of slightly less than 2 million amperes through a stable D-T plasma, then one could achieve not just thermonuclear break-even, but thermonuclear gain. Moreover, several reactor studies have shown that a simple linear pinch could be the basis for a very attractive fusion system. The problem is, of course, that the seemingly simple act of passing 2 MA through a stable pinch has proven to be quite difficult to accomplish. The pinch tends to disrupt due to instabilities, either by the m=0 (sausage) or m=1 (kink) modes. Curtailing the growth of these instabilities has been the primary thrust of z-pinch fusion research, and over the years a wide variety of formation techniques have been tried. The early pinches were driven by relatively slow capacitive discharges and were formed by imploding a plasma column. The advent of fast pulsed power technology brought on a whole new repertoire of formation techniques, including: fast implosions, laser or field-enhanced breakdown in a uniform volume of gas, a discharge inside a small capillary, a frozen deuterium fiber isolated by vacuum, and staged concepts in which one pinch implodes upon another. And although none of these have yet to be successful, some have come tantalizingly close. This paper will review the history of this four-decade long quest for fusion power. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  10. Building an imaging center: laying the foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, M Shane; Geise, Jon D; Reed, Mary A

    2005-01-01

    In Spring 2003, Central Louisiana Imaging, Inc. (CLII), an 11-member radiology group, decided to create a properly configured freestanding imaging center. Before moving forward with the project, CLII conducted extensive market research and learned the following: CLII's ability to draw patients from a broad geography (central Louisiana) would work in its favor While the defined market was shrinking slightly and made up of middle-income households, the population was fairly well insured and aging at a rate comparable to the nation. Given an aging population and advances in technology, market demand for imaging was projected to grow despite the shrinking population. There were opportunities to differentiate on quality technology, service offering, and customer service; the sophistication and positioning of competitors is more important than the sheer number of competitors. CLII's relationship with key referring physicians was likely portable and would translate into volume within the new center. The group measured each potential service or modality against 5 evaluation criteria to determine whether a market opportunity existed: demographic fit, projected market demand, competitive positioning, "anchor service," and synergy with CLII's strategy. Once the market opportunity was confirmed and the service offering was set, CLII completed a 5-year proforma in order to project cash flows, capital costs, and the anticipated return on investment. CLII opened the imaging center in September 2004. Ten months into opeations, the center was a measurable success. The levels, and break-even by month 4, volumes are currently at year 2 levels, and the center recently added nuclear medicine and its second magnetic resonance imaging system-11 months ahead of schedule. PMID:16187609

  11. Applied Study of Price Discrimination Implemented on a Two-Path Route Expressway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Jing

    2006-01-01

    This study aims at implementing price discrimination to get maximum revenue on a two-path route expressway, focusing on the problems which occur in traffic forecasting when applying a "profit-maximizing" toll designed to maximize revenue for a certain toll road in Japan. A break-even discussion is inevitable in the process of planning a certain toll road. According to the theory of transportation economics, market segmentation price discrimination is supposed to be efficient in the transportation market to increase the revenue of fixed facilities. In the model, a bypass and an adjacent expressway form a two-path route section. Two different toll levels are implemented for the bypass: one is for through traffic, and the other is for inside-inside and inside-outside traffics. This two-path route plus two-toll-level system thus causes difficulty in traffic assignment that is based on the minimum route searching method. In the study, a rational approach of adjusting the through traffic is implemented to predict the traffic flow as well as revenue on two parallel routes with different toll levels. The approximate calculation method that fixes the split rate of the passing through traffic flow is applied to solve the two-path route plus two-toll-level problem since passing through traffic is price elastic. Market segmentation pricing, which gives two toll levels in a toll road, is proved to be practical for increasing revenue. The results are also verified to be rational by using the survey data of Meishin Expressway.

  12. Overview of engineering design, manufacturing and assembly of JT-60SA machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JT-60SA experiment is one of the three projects to be undertaken in Japan as part of the Broader Approach Agreement, conducted jointly by Europe and Japan, and complementing the construction of ITER in Europe. The JT-60SA device is a fully superconducting tokamak capable of confining break-even equivalent deuterium plasmas with equilibria covering high plasma shaping with a low aspect ratio at a maximum plasma current of Ip = 5.5 MA. This makes JT-60SA capable to support and complement ITER in all the major areas of fusion plasma development necessary to decide DEMO reactor construction. After a complex start-up phase due to the necessity to carry out a re-baselining effort with the purpose to fit in the original budget while aiming to retain the machine mission, performance, and experimental flexibility, in 2009 detailed design could start. With the majority of time-critical industrial contracts in place, in 2012, it was possible to establish a credible time plan, and now, the project is progressing on schedule towards the first plasma in March 2019. After careful and focused R and D and qualification tests, the procurement of the major components and plant is now well advanced in manufacturing design and/or fabrication. In the meantime the disassembly of the JT-60U machine has been completed and the engineering of the JT-60SA assembly process has been developed. The actual assembly of JT-60SA started in January 2013 with the installation of the cryostat base. The paper gives an overview of the present status of the engineering design, manufacturing and assembly of the JT-60SA machine

  13. EBT-II conceptual design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dandl, R. A.; Baity, Jr., F. W.; Ballou, J. K.

    1978-09-01

    The proposed EBT-II will use 48 superconducting coils to provide the required steady-state, cyclotron resonant, toroidal magnetic field of 4.3 T for electron cyclotron heating (ECH) with microwaves at 120 GHz. The peak design fields are 7.8 T in the coil, 6.0 T in the coil throat, and 3.0 T in the cavity midplane. Bulk ECH will be provided by eight 120-GHz, 200-kW cw gyrotrons, and provisions have been made for an additional 800 kW of cw profile heating in the range of 70 to 90 GHz. The torus major radius and mean coil radius are 520 cm and 28 cm respectively, yielding a mechanical aspect ratio of approximately 20. The basic device parameters of microwave frequency and power, magnetic field, and size should allow experiments that penetrate well into the collisionless regime and thus provide a definitive test of neoclassical scaling. This scaling test will be pushed further by using a built-in provision which permits changing the effective aspect ratio by varying the current through 96 copper toroidal aspect ratio enhancement (ARE) coils (2 per microwave cavity). Phase 1 of the experiment will be the study of transport and aspect ratio scaling of basic device parameters for comparison with results from EBT-I and EBT-Scale (EBT-S). Under optimum conditions, we project n tau approximately 10/sup 13/ sec/cm/sup 3/ with T/sub i/ and T/sub e/ approximately 3 to 8 keV. Phase 2 will center on the addition of 1 MW of neutral beam heating for direct heating of ions in conjunction with microwave heating of electrons so as to permit control of the ambipolar potential. With this added heating power, it appears possible to attain near-breakeven conditions in a hydrogen plasma at ..beta.. approximately equal to 10%.

  14. Is control through utilization a cost effective Prosopis juliflora management strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakie, Tewodros T; Hoag, Dana; Evangelista, Paul H; Luizza, Matthew; Laituri, Melinda

    2016-03-01

    The invasive tree Prosopis juliflora is known to cause negative impacts on invaded ranges. High P. juliflora eradication costs have swayed developing countries to follow a new and less expensive approach known as control through utilization. However, the net benefits of this new approach have not been thoroughly evaluated. Our objective was to assess the economic feasibility of selected P. juliflora eradication and utilization approaches that are currently practiced in one of the severely affected developing countries, Ethiopia. The selected approaches include converting P. juliflora infested lands into irrigated farms (conversion), charcoal production, and seed flour production. We estimate the costs and revenues of the selected P. juliflora eradication and utilization approaches by interviewing 19 enterprise owners. We assess the economic feasibility of the enterprises by performing enterprise, break-even, investment, sensitivity, and risk analyses. Our results show that conversion to irrigated cotton is economically profitable, with Net Present Value (NPV) of 5234 US$/ha over 10 years and an interest rate of 10% per year. Conversion greatly reduces the spread of P. juliflora on farmlands. Managing P. juliflora infested lands for charcoal production with a four-year harvest cycle is profitable, with NPV of 805 US$/ha. However, the production process needs vigilant regulation to protect native plants from exploitation and caution should be taken to prevent charcoal production sites from becoming potential seed sources. Though flour from P. juliflora pods can reduce invasions by destroying viable seeds, flour enterprises in Ethiopia are unprofitable. Conversion and charcoal production can be undertaken with small investment costs, while flour production requires high investment costs. Introducing new changes in the production and management steps of P. juliflora flour might be considered to make the enterprise profitable. Our study shows that control

  15. Cost model for geothermal wells applied to the Cerro Prieto geothermal field case, BC Abstract; Modelo de costeo de pozos geotermicos aplicado para el caso del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaca Serrano, Jaime M.E [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: jaime.vaca@cfe.gob.mx

    2008-01-15

    A project for drilling geothermal wells to produce electrical energy can be defined as a sequence of plans to get steam or geothermal fluids to satisfy a previously known demand, and, under the best possible conditions, to obtain payment. This paper presents a cost model for nine wells drilled at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field in 2005 and 2006 to supply steam to the power plants operating in the field. The cost model is based on the well cost, the initial steam production, the annual decline of steam, the drilling schedule and the break-even point for each well. The model shows the cost of steam by the ton and the sale price needed to determine the discount rate and the investment return time. [Spanish] Un proyecto de perforacion de pozos geotermicos puede definirse como una secuencia o sucesion de planes para obtener vapor o fluidos geotermicos destinados a satisfacer una demanda previamente determinada, que se emplearan principalmente para generar energia electrica, bajo las mejores condiciones para obtener un pago. Este trabajo presenta un modelo de costeo para nueve pozos en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, que fueron perforados entre 2005 y 2006 como parte del suministro de vapor para las plantas generadoras que operan en este campo. El modelo de costeo se basa en el costo por pozo, la produccion inicial de vapor, la declinacion anual de vapor, los intereses de las obras de perforacion y el punto de equilibrio para cada pozo. Los resultados permiten conocer el costo de la tonelada de vapor y el precio de venta para determinar la tasa de descuento y el tiempo de retorno de la inversion.

  16. Carbon prices and CCS investment: A comparative study between the European Union and China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon Capture and Storage is considered as a key option for climate change mitigation; policy makers and investors need to know when CCS becomes economically attractive. Integrating CCS in a power plant adds significant costs which can be offset by a sufficient CO2 price. However, most markets have failed: currently, the weak carbon price threatens CCS deployment in the European Union (EU). In China, a carbon regulation is appearing and CCS encounters a rising interest. This study investigates two questions: how much is the extra-cost of a CCS plant in the EU in comparison with China? Second, what is the CO2 price beyond which CCS plants become more profitable than reference plants in the EU and in China? To address these issues, I conducted a literature review on public studies about CCS costs. To objectively assess the profitability of CCS plants, I constructed a net present value model to calculate the Levelised Cost of Electricity and the breakeven CO2 price. CCS plants become the most profitable plant type beyond 115 €/tCO2 in the EU vs. 45 €/tCO2 in China (offshore transport and storage costs). I advise on the optimal plant type choice depending on the CO2 price in both countries. - Highlights: • I develop a method to objectively update and compare CCS costs in the EU and China. • To represent investment choices, intra and inter CO2 switching prices are required. • EU CCS plants are profitable for a CO2 price higher than 115 €/t (offshore storage). • Chinese CCS plants are profitable beyond 45 €/tCO2 (35 €/tCO2 with onshore storage). • With 2030 projections, CCS (coal) plants are profitable in China but not in the EU

  17. A neutronic analysis of the dry processed nitride fuel in a sodium-cooled fast reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Gyu Hong; Choi, Hang Bok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Nitride fuel is being considered as an alternative to oxide fuel for fast reactors owing to its high thermal conductivity. Because the nitride fuel is composed of one nitrogen atom per one heavy metal atom instead of two for the oxide fuel, it leads to a hardened neutron spectrum and consequently to a higher breeding ratio. In addition, the nitride fuel has other excellent characteristics such as a high material density (13.5 g/cm{sup 3}), high melting temperature ({approx}2,800 .deg. C), no interaction with a sodiumbond, good compatibility with the cladding material, etc. Recently, researches on the nitride fuel such as the fuel fabrication process and irradiation test have been actively carried out in the U.S., Russia, Japan, etc. In this study, the neutronic feasibility of the dry process nitride fuel cycle is assessed for a sodium-cooled fast reactor (SFR), which was recommended as one of the Generation-IV (Gen-IV) reactor systems by the Gen-IV international forum. The reactor analysis is performed for two core configurations: Hybrid BN-600 benchmark core with an enlarged lattice pitch (Case 1) and a modified BN-600 core (Case 2). Both cores are composed of two core regions and set as a breakeven core without blankets, which avoids the separation process of transuranic (TRU) elements from the spent fuel and the supply of additional fissile material. In this study, the reactor characteristics such as the TRU enrichment, breeding ratio, peak linear power, burnup reactivity swing, etc. are obtained for the equilibrium core under a fixed fuel management scheme.

  18. Particle and energy balances in tokamak plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Computational and experimental studies on particle and energy balances in tokamak plasmas are described. Firstly, concerning the modeling of tokamak plasmas, the particle balance considering diffusion and recycling, and the energy balance considering transport and energy losses due to impurities are discussed. Production mechanisms of gaseous and metallic impurities, which play important role in tokamak plasmas, are also discussed from a viewpoint of plasma-wall interactions. Scaling laws of density, temperature and energy confinement time are shown on the basis of recent data. Secondarily, tokamak plasmas are simulated with the above model, and anomalous diffusion and electron thermal conduction are indicated. Characteristics of a future tokamak plasma are also simulated. Stationary impurity density distributions and related energy losses, such as bremsstrahlung, ionization and excitation, are calculated taking into account diffusion and ionization processes. Edge cooling by oxygen impurities is described quantitatively compared with experiments. Permissible impurity levels of carbon, oxygen and iron in future large tokamaks are estimated. Thirdly, experimental studies on surface cleaning methods of the first wall are described; discharge cleaning in JFT-2, baking effect on the outgassing rates of wall materials, surface treatment of high-temperature molybdenum by oxygen and hydrogen gases, and in-situ coating of molybdenum by a coaxial magnetron sputter method. Lastly, problems in future large tokamaks aiming at break-even or self-ignited plasma are discussed quantitatively, such as trapped particle instabilities, impurities and additional heating. It is predicted that new conceptions will be necessary to overcome the problems and attain the fusion goal. (auth.)

  19. Economic value of in vitro fertilization in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mandrik O

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Olena Mandrik,1 Saskia Knies,1,2 Johan L Severens1,3 1Institute of Health Policy and Management, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, 2National Health Care Institute, Diemen, 3iMTA Institute of Medical Technology Assessment, Erasmus University, Rotterdam, the Netherlands Background: An economic value calculation was performed to estimate the lifetime net present value of in vitro fertilization (IVF in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. Methods: Net lifetime tax revenues were used to represent governmental benefits accruing from a hypothetical cohort of an IVF population born in 2009 using the methodology of generational accounting. Governmental expenses related to this population included social benefits, education and health care, unemployment support, and pensions. Where available, country-specific data referencing official sources were applied. Results: The average health care cost needed to achieve one additional birth from the governmental perspective varied from $2,599 in Ukraine to $5,509 in Belarus. The net present value from the population born using IVF was positive in all countries: for Ukraine ($9,839, Belarus ($21,702, and Kazakhstan ($2,295. The break-even costs of drugs and supplies per IVF procedure is expected to be $3,870, $8,530, and $1,780, respectively. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses based on 5,000 simulations show that the average net present value per person remains positive: $1,894±$7,619, $27,925±$12,407, and $17,229±$24,637 in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, respectively. Conclusion: Financing IVF may represent a good investment in terms of governmental financial returns, even in lower-income countries with state-financed health care systems such as Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. Keywords: in vitro fertilization, economic value of life, developing countries

  20. A Distributed Model of Oilseed Biorefining, via Integrated Industrial Ecology Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrell, Jeremy C.

    As the demand for direct petroleum substitutes increases, biorefineries are poised to become centers for conversion of biomass into fuels, energy, and biomaterials. A distributed model offers reduced transportation, tailored process technology to available feedstock, and increased local resilience. Oilseeds are capable of producing a wide variety of useful products additive to food, feed, and fuel needs. Biodiesel manufacturing technology lends itself to smaller-scale distributed facilities able to process diverse feedstocks and meet demand of critical diesel fuel for basic municipal services, safety, sanitation, infrastructure repair, and food production. Integrating biodiesel refining facilities as tenants of eco-industrial parks presents a novel approach for synergistic energy and material exchanges whereby environmental and economic metrics can be significantly improved upon compared to stand alone models. This research is based on the Catawba County NC EcoComplex and the oilseed crushing and biodiesel processing facilities (capacity-433 tons biodiesel per year) located within. Technical and environmental analyses of the biorefinery components as well as agronomic and economic models are presented. The life cycle assessment for the two optimal biodiesel feedstocks, soybeans and used cooking oil, resulted in fossil energy ratios of 7.19 and 12.1 with carbon intensity values of 12.51 gCO2-eq/MJ and 7.93 gCO2-eq/MJ, respectively within the industrial ecology system. Economic modeling resulted in a biodiesel conversion cost of 1.43 per liter of fuel produced with used cooking oil, requiring a subsidy of 0.58 per liter to reach the break-even point. As subsidies continue significant fluctuation, metrics other than operating costs are required to justify small-scale biofuel projects.

  1. The feasibility of applying geopressured-geothermal resources to direct uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunis, B.C.; Negus-de Wys, J.; Plum, M.M. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Lienau, P.J. (Oregon Inst. of Tech., Klamath Falls, OR (United States). Geo-Heat Center); Spencer, F.J. (International Management Services (United States)); Nitschke, G.F. (Nitschke (George F.) (United States))

    1991-09-01

    This study concludes that direct use technologies, especially desalinated water production, can contribute significantly to the value added process and the overall economic viability in developing a geopressured resource. Although agriculture and aquaculture applications are marginal projects when they are the only use of a geopressured well, the small margin of profitability can contribute to improving the overall economics of the direct use development. The added complexity from a technical and management aspect may add to the overall risk and unpredictability of the project. Six combination of direct uses received economic evaluation that resulted in 15% discounted payback periods ranging from 4 to over 10 years. Many other combinations are possible depending on the resource and market variables. Selection of appropriate technologies and sizes of applications will be established by the developer that engages in geopressured resource utilization. Currently, many areas of the country where geopressured resources are located also have surplus electrical capacity and generation, thus power utilities have been selling power for less than 2 cents per kWH, well below a reasonable breakeven value for geopressured produced electricity. However, when the energy demand of the integrated geopressured facility is large enough to install power generation equipment, operating expenses can be reduced by not paying the 10 to 12 cents per kWH utility rate. The study includes an analysis of a geothermal turbine unit installed with a desalination and an agriculture/aquaculture facility, taking advantage of the cascading energy values. Results suggest that this scenario becomes profitable only where the market price for electricity exceeds five cents per kWH.

  2. Optimization of green roofs for air pollution mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, C.; Talbot, B.; Bulkley, J.; Adiaens, P. [Michigan State Univ., Lansing, MI (United States)

    2005-07-01

    The quantifiable economic benefits of green roofs must be demonstrated if they are to succeed in North America. This paper presented the results of a study examining potential nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) uptake of green roofs in the metropolitan areas of Detroit, and Chicago with both traditional sedums and Nicotiana tabacum. The aim of the study was to present green roofs as a pollution abatement technology to aid in closing the cost gap that currently hinders market penetration of green roofs. Values from experiments exploring the uptake potential of 217 plant taxa were used to determine uptake capacities at an urban scale. Roof area estimates were then used to determine potential uptake capacity by covering various percentages of the area with vegetated roofs. Values were compared with annual emissions of both metropolitan areas. Results showed that greening 10 per cent of the roof areas aided in the uptake of NO{sub x} ranges between 0.25 and nearly 16 per cent. If green roofs are considered an abatement technology, a combination of cap-and-trade could allow the tonnes taken up by a green roof to be traded on the open market. While a green roof ignoring the benefit of air pollution uptake would generally break even between 39 and 40 years based upon investment of energy savings, the incorporation of air credits into the system reduced the time for return on investment to 36 years with sedum planted on the roof. If a plant with a higher uptake such as tobacco were placed on the roof, the break-even point was only 15 years. It was concluded that by expanding the number of contaminants with established emission markets, and expanding the variety of plants on green roofs, the economic benefits of green roofs could increase dramatically. 12 refs., 5 tabs., 6 figs.

  3. Meeting the quest for spatial efficiency: progress and prospects of extensive aquaculture within offshore wind farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, B. H.; Krause, G.; Michler-Cieluch, T.; Brenner, M.; Buchholz, C. M.; Busch, J. A.; Fisch, R.; Geisen, M.; Zielinski, O.

    2008-09-01

    Along the German North Sea coast, the observed high spatial competition of stakeholders has encouraged the idea of integrating open ocean aquaculture in conjunction with offshore wind farms beyond the 12 miles zone. The article provides an overview on the current state of transdisciplinary research on a potential implementation of such a multifunctional use concept on a showcase basis, covering biological, technical, economic and social/policy aspects as well as private-public partnerships and the relevant institutional bodies. We show that the cultivation of seaweeds and blue mussels is biologically and technically feasible in a high-energy environment using modified cultivation strategies. The point of departure of our multi-use concept was that the solid groundings of wind turbines could serve as attachment points for the aquaculture installations and become the key to the successful commercial cultivation of any offshore aquatic organism. However, spaces in between the turbines are also attractive for farming projects, since public access is restricted and thus the cultivation site protected from outside influences. An economic analysis of different operation scenarios indicates that the market price and the annual settlement success of juvenile mussels are the main factors that determine the breakeven point. Social and policy science research reveals that the integration of relevant actors into the development of a multi-use concept for a wind farm-mariculture interaction is a complex and controversial issue. Combining knowledge and experience of wind farm planners as well as mussel fishermen and mariculturists within the framework of national and EU policies is probably the most important component for designing and developing an effective offshore co-management regime to limit the consumption of ocean space.

  4. Doctors and nurses benefit from interprofessional online education in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flytkjær Vibeke

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benefits of online learning in the health sector have been demonstrated in previous studies. We examined the potential benefits of a joint web-based curriculum on atopic eczema for health personnel. Methods Enrolled doctors and nurses had access to the curriculum for 8 weeks. After the course learners completed a questionnaire. Two dermatologists rated the quality of the submitted homework assignments. Based on data from the project's budget and the Norwegian Medical Association, we estimated the saved travel expenses. Results Eighty-eight learners (46 doctors registered for the course. We received 55 questionnaires (response rate 63%. Twenty-seven learners (31%; 16 doctors, 11 nurses; χ2 = 0.03; P = 0.87 used the discussion forum. We found no significant differences in the total questionnaire scores between doctors and nurses. The homework assignments were given an average score of 3.6 for doctors and 3.5 for nurses (P = 0.8 by rater 1. Rater 2 scored 3.9 and 3.6 for doctors and nurses respectively (P = 0.2. The break-even between travel/hotel expenses and course development costs occurred at 135 saved travel refund applications. Conclusions Doctors and nurses were equally satisfied with a joint web-based course on atopic eczema. The use of an online discussion forum was limited but similar between doctors and nurses. There were no significant differences in the quality of submitted homework assignments. The cost of developing the course was 716 841 NOK and the first 86 learners saved 455 198 NOK in travel expenses.

  5. Uncertainty, irreversibility, and investment in second-generation biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Tanner Joseph

    The present study formalizes and quantifies the importance of uncertainty for investment in a corn-stover based cellulosic biofuel plant. Using a real options model we recover prices of gasoline that would trigger entry into the market and calculate the portion of that entry trigger price required to cover cost and the portion that corresponds to risk premium. We then discuss the effect of managerial flexibility on the entry risk premium and the prices of gasoline that would trigger mothballing, reactivation, and exit. Results show that the risk premium required by plants to enter the second-generation biofuel market is likely to be substantial. The analysis also reveals that a break-even approach (which ignores the portion of entry price composed of risk premium), and the traditional Marshallian approach (which ignores the portion of entry price composed of both the risk premium and the drift rate), would significantly underestimate the gasoline entry trigger price and the magnitude of that underestimation increases as both volatility and mean of gasoline prices increase. Results also uncover a great deal of hysteresis (i.e. a range of gasoline prices for which there is neither entry nor exit in the market) in entry/exit behavior by plants. Hysteresis increases as gasoline prices become more volatile. Hysteresis suggests that, at the industry level, positive (negative) demand shocks will have a significant impact on prices (production) and a limited impact on production (prices). In combination all of these results suggest that policies supporting second generation biofuels may have fallen short of their targets because of their failure to alleviate uncertainty.

  6. World progress toward fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will describe the progress in fusion science and technology from a world perspective. The paper will cover the current technical status, including the understanding of fusion's economic, environmental, and safety characteristics. Fusion experiments are approaching the energy breakeven condition. An energy gain (Q) of 30 percent has been achieved in magnetic confinement experiments. In addition, temperatures required for an ignited plasma (Ti = 32 KeV) and energy confinements about 75 percent of that required for ignition have been achieved in separate experiments. Two major facilities have started the experimental campaign to extend these results and achieve or exceed Q = 1 plasma conditions by 1990. Inertial confinement fusion experiments are also approaching thermonuclear conditions and have achieved a compression factor 100-200 times liquid D-T. Because of this progress, the emphasis in fusion research is turning toward questions of engineering feasibility. Leaders of the major fusion R and D programs in the European Community (EC), Japan, the United States, and the U.S.S.R. have agreed on the major steps that are needed to reach the point at which a practical fusion system can be designed. The United States is preparing for an experiment to address the last unexplored scientific issue, the physics of an ignited plasma, during the late 1990's. The EC, Japan, U.S.S.R., and the United States have joined together under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to jointly design and prepare the validating R and D for an international facility, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), to address all the remaining scientific issues and to explore the engineering technology of fusion around the turn of the century. In addition, a network of international agreements have been concluded between these major parties and a number of smaller fusion programs, to cooperate on resolving a complete spectrum of fusion science and

  7. The economic performance of combined heat and power from biogas produced from manure in Sweden – A comparison of different CHP technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Interest in biogas from manure is increasing rapidly due to its climate benefits. ► Farm-scale production of CHP from manure-based biogas is not profitable in Sweden. ► Minor changes in energy prices or suggested production subsidies will make it profitable. ► Profitability is also affected by efficiency of scale and introduction of thermophilic conditions. -- Abstract: Interest in the generation of biogas from agricultural residues is increasing rapidly due to its climate benefits. In this study, an evaluation of the economic feasibility of various technologies, also on different scales, for the production of combined heat and power from manure-based biogas in Sweden is presented. The overall conclusion is that such production is not profitable under current conditions. Thus, the gap between the calculated biogas production cost and the acceptable cost for break-even must be bridged by, for example, different policy instruments. In general, efficiency of scale favors large-scale plants compared to individual farm-scale ones. However, a large, centralized biogas plant, using manure from numerous farms, is not always more cost efficient than a large, farm-scale plant treating manure from a few neighboring farms. The utilization of the produced heat, electricity prices, and political incentives, all have a significant impact on the economic outcome, whereas the value of the digestate as fertilizer is currently having a minor impact. Utilization of heat is, however, often limited by the lack of local heat sinks, in which case the implementation of a biogas process operating under thermophilic conditions could increase the profitability due to a more efficient utilization of reactor volume by using more process heat. The results from this study could be utilized by policy makers when implementing policy instruments considering biogas production from manure as well as companies involved in production and utilization of biogas.

  8. Evaluation of Intersection Traffic Control Measures through Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaithambi, Gowri; Sivanandan, R.

    2015-12-01

    Modeling traffic flow is stochastic in nature due to randomness in variables such as vehicle arrivals and speeds. Due to this and due to complex vehicular interactions and their manoeuvres, it is extremely difficult to model the traffic flow through analytical methods. To study this type of complex traffic system and vehicle interactions, simulation is considered as an effective tool. Application of homogeneous traffic models to heterogeneous traffic may not be able to capture the complex manoeuvres and interactions in such flows. Hence, a microscopic simulation model for heterogeneous traffic is developed using object oriented concepts. This simulation model acts as a tool for evaluating various control measures at signalized intersections. The present study focuses on the evaluation of Right Turn Lane (RTL) and Channelised Left Turn Lane (CLTL). A sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate RTL and CLTL by varying the approach volumes, turn proportions and turn lane lengths. RTL is found to be advantageous only up to certain approach volumes and right-turn proportions, beyond which it is counter-productive. CLTL is found to be advantageous for lower approach volumes for all turn proportions, signifying the benefits of CLTL. It is counter-productive for higher approach volume and lower turn proportions. This study pinpoints the break-even points for various scenarios. The developed simulation model can be used as an appropriate intersection lane control tool for enhancing the efficiency of flow at intersections. This model can also be employed for scenario analysis and can be valuable to field traffic engineers in implementing vehicle-type based and lane-based traffic control measures.

  9. Digital vs conventional radiography: cost and revenue analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this study was to analyse and compare the operating and investment costs of two radiographic systems, a conventional and a digital one, and to evaluate the cost/revenue ratio of the two systems. The radiological activity over 1 year for chest and skeletal exams was evaluated: 13,401 chest and 7,124 skeletal exams were considered. The following parameters of variable costs were evaluated: the difference between variable proportional costs of the two technologies, the effective variable cost of any size film, including the chemicals, and for different sizes of digital film, variable costs of chest plus skeletal exams performed with the two techniques. Afterwards the economical effect was considered taking into account depreciation during a time of utilization ranging between 8 and 4 years. In the second part of the analysis the total cost and the revenues of the two technologies were determined. The comparison between the digital and conventional systems has shown the following aspects: 1. Digital radiography system has a much higher investment cost in comparison with the conventional one. 2. Operating costs of digital equipment are higher or lower depending on the film size used. Evaluating chest X-ray we reach a breakeven point after 1 year and 10,000 exams only if displayed over 8 x 10-in. film and after 30,000 if displayed over a 11 x 14-in. film. 3. The total cost (variable cost, technology cost, labour cost) of digital technology is lower than that of the conventional system by 20 % on average using 8 x 10-in. film size. 4. Digital technology also allows lesser film waste and lesser film per exam (orig.)

  10. Dynamic analysis of once-through and closed fuel cycle economics using Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sungyeol, E-mail: csy@kaeri.re.kr; Lee, Hyo Jik, E-mail: hyojik@kaeri.re.kr; Ko, Won Il, E-mail: nwiko@kaeri.re.kr

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • Dynamic behavior of system costs, both reactor and fuel cycle costs, is analyzed. • Relative economics of once-through and closed fuel cycles is explored. • Probabilistic approaches are adopted for levelized electricity generation costs. • Main cost drivers for cost gaps between once-through and closed cycles are identified. - Abstract: Although no consensus about the best approach to manage spent fuels has been achieved, economics is one of the major criteria for assessing and selecting acceptable management options. This study compares the reactor and fuel cycle costs of the closed system associated with sodium-cooled fast reactors and pyroprocessing versus the once-through system. We specifically investigated the fuel cycle transition cases of the Republic of Korea from 2013 to 2100. The results revealed that the closed system (34.00 mills/kWh as a mean value) could be more expensive than the once-through system (32.75 mills/kWh). In contrast, the once-through fuel cycle costs (8.31 mills/kWh), excluding reactor costs, were projected to be greater than the closed fuel cycle costs (7.77 mills/kWh) because of the increased costs of interim storage estimated by the Korean government and the limited contribution of backend fuel cycle components to the discounted costs. The capital cost of sodium-cooled fast reactor is the largest component contributing to the cost gap between the two systems. Among fuel cycle components, pyroprocessing has the largest uncertainty contribution to the cost gap. We also calculated the breakeven unit costs of SFR capital cost and PWR spent fuel pyroprocessing cost.

  11. Fusion energy from the Moon for the twenty-first century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown in this paper that the D-He-3 fusion fuel cycle is not only credible from a physics standpoint, but that its breakeven and ignition characteristics could be developed on roughly the same time schedule as the DT cycle. It was also shown that the extremely low fraction of power in neutrons, the lack of significant radioactivity in the reactants, and the potential for very high conversion efficiencies, can result in definite advantages for the D-He-3 cycle with respect to DT fusion and fission reactors in the twenty-first century. More specifically, the D-He-3 cycle can accomplish the following: (1) eliminate the need for deep geologic waste burial facilities and the wastes can qualify for Class A, near-surface land burial; (2) allow inherently safe reactors to be built that, under the worst conceivable accident, cannot cause a civilian fatality or result in a significant (greater than 100 mrem) exposure to a member of the public; (3) reduce the radiation damage levels to a point where no scheduled replacement of reactor structural components is required, i.e., full reactor lifetimes (approximately 30 FPY) can be credibly claimed; (4) increase the reliability and availability of fusion reactors compared to DT systems because of the greatly reduced radioactivity, the low neutron damage, and the elimination of T breeding; and (5) greatly reduce the capital costs of fusion power plants (compared to DT systems) by as much as 50 percent and present the potential for a significant reduction on the COE. The concepts presented in this paper tie together two of the most ambitious high-technology endeavors of the twentieth century: the development of controlled thermonuclear fusion for civilian power applications and the utilization of outer space for the benefit of mankind on Earth

  12. Fusion energy from the Moon for the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulcinski, G. L.; Cameron, E. N.; Santarius, J. F.; Sviatoslavsky, I. N.; Wittenberg, L. J.; Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1992-09-01

    It is shown in this paper that the D-He-3 fusion fuel cycle is not only credible from a physics standpoint, but that its breakeven and ignition characteristics could be developed on roughly the same time schedule as the DT cycle. It was also shown that the extremely low fraction of power in neutrons, the lack of significant radioactivity in the reactants, and the potential for very high conversion efficiencies, can result in definite advantages for the D-He-3 cycle with respect to DT fusion and fission reactors in the twenty-first century. More specifically, the D-He-3 cycle can accomplish the following: (1) eliminate the need for deep geologic waste burial facilities and the wastes can qualify for Class A, near-surface land burial; (2) allow 'inherently safe' reactors to be built that, under the worst conceivable accident, cannot cause a civilian fatality or result in a significant (greater than 100 mrem) exposure to a member of the public; (3) reduce the radiation damage levels to a point where no scheduled replacement of reactor structural components is required, i.e., full reactor lifetimes (approximately 30 FPY) can be credibly claimed; (4) increase the reliability and availability of fusion reactors compared to DT systems because of the greatly reduced radioactivity, the low neutron damage, and the elimination of T breeding; and (5) greatly reduce the capital costs of fusion power plants (compared to DT systems) by as much as 50 percent and present the potential for a significant reduction on the COE. The concepts presented in this paper tie together two of the most ambitious high-technology endeavors of the twentieth century: the development of controlled thermonuclear fusion for civilian power applications and the utilization of outer space for the benefit of mankind on Earth.

  13. A techno-economic analysis of the application of continuous staged-combustion and flameless oxidation to the combustor design in gas turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of NOx reduction technologies upon a gas turbine power station has been investigated using the ECLIPSE process simulator. Technical, environmental and economic assessments were performed, based upon a model of the simple cycle gas turbine, fuelled by natural gas. The technologies assessed were: a) selective catalytic reduction (SCR); b) continuous staged air combustion (COSTAIR); and c) flameless oxidation method (FLOX). The SCR method produced a 90% reduction of NOx emissions, at an additional penalty to the electricity cost of 0.19-0.20 p/kWh, over the base case of simple cycle with standard combustor. The COSTAIR method reduced 80.4% of NOx emissions, at an additional electricity cost of 0.03-0.04 p/kWh, over the base case; but 0.16-0.17 p/kWh less than the SCR method at a slightly higher level of NOx emissions. The FLOX method generated 92.3% less of NOx emissions, at an additional electricity cost of 0.08-0.11 p/kWh, over the base case; but 0.09-0.11 p/kWh less than the SCR method at a lower level of NOx emissions. A sensitivity analysis of the Break-Even Selling Price (BESP) of electricity and the Specific Investment (SI) versus the cost of different burner systems shows that the SCR system had the highest values for BESP and SI; and the COSTAIR system had the lowest. The results show that the use of these non-standard burners could offer an effective method of reducing NOx emissions considerably for simple cycle gas turbine power plants with minimal effect on system capital cost and electricity selling price, and were also cheaper than using SCR. (author)

  14. Preliminary analysis of surface mining options for Naval Oil Shale Reserve 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-20

    The study was undertaken to determine the economic viability of surface mining to exploit the reserves. It is based on resource information already developed for NOSR 1 and conceptual designs of mining systems compatible with this resource. Environmental considerations as they relate to surface mining have been addressed qualitatively. The conclusions on economic viability were based primarily on mining costs projected from other industries using surface mining. An analysis of surface mining for the NOSR 1 resource was performed based on its particular overburden thickness, oil shale thickness, oil shale grade, and topography. This evaluation considered reclamation of the surface as part of its design and cost estimate. The capital costs for mining 25 GPT and 30 GPT shale and the operating costs for mining 25 GPT, 30 GPT, and 35 GPT shale are presented. The relationship between operating cost and stripping ratio, and the break-even stripping ratio (BESR) for surface mining to be competitive with room-and-pillar mining, are shown. Identification of potential environmental impacts shows that environmental control procedures for surface mining are more difficult to implement than those for underground mining. The following three areas are of prime concern: maintenance of air quality standards by disruption, movement, and placement of large quantities of overburden; disruption or cutting of aquifers during the mining process which affect area water supplies; and potential mineral leaching from spent shales into the aquifers. Although it is an operational benefit to place spent shale in the open pit, leaching of the spent shales and contamination of the water is detrimental. It is therefore concluded that surface mining on NOSR 1 currently is neither economically desirable nor environmentally safe. Stringent mitigation measures would have to be implemented to overcome some of the potential environmental hazards.

  15. Economic feasibility of thermal energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habeebullah, B.A. [Faculty of Engineering, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2007-07-01

    This paper investigates the economic feasibility of both building an ice thermal storage and structure a time of rate tariff for the unique air conditioning (A/C) plant of the Grand Holy Mosque of Makkah, Saudi Arabia. The features of the building are unique where the air-conditioned 39,300 m{sup 2} zone is open to the atmosphere and the worshippers fully occupy the building five times a day, in addition hundreds of thousands of worshippers attend the blessed weekend's prayer at noontime, which escalates the peak electricity load. For economic analysis, the objective function is the daily electricity bill that includes the operation cost and the capital investment of the ice storage system. The operation cost is function of the energy imported for operating the plant in which the tariff structure, number of operating hours and the ambient temperature are parameters. The capital recovery factor is calculated for 10% interest rate and payback period of 10 years. Full and partial load storage scenarios are considered. The results showed that with the current fixed electricity rate (0.07 $/kWh), there is no gain in introducing ice storage systems for both storage schemes. Combining energy storage and an incentive time structured rate showed reasonable daily bill savings. For base tariff of 0.07 $/kWh during daytime operation and 0.016 $/kWh for off-peak period, savings were achieved for full load storage scenario. Different tariff structure is discussed and the break-even nighttime rate was determined (varies between 0.008 and 0.03 $/kWh). Partial load storage scenario showed to be unattractive where the savings for the base structured tariff was insignificant. (author)

  16. Four-color laser irradiation system for laser-plasma interaction experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, D.M.; Henesian, M.A.; Wilcox, R.B. [and others

    1996-06-01

    Since 1986, optical smoothing of the laser irradiance on targets for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) has gained increasing attention. Optical smoothing can significantly reduce wavefront aberrations that produce nonuniformities in the energy distribution of the focal spot. Hot spots in the laser irradiance can induce local self focusing of the light, producing filamentation of the plasma. Filamentation can have detrimental consequences on the hydrodynamics of an ICF plasma, and can affect the growth of parametric instabilities, as well as add to the complexity of the study of such instabilities as stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). As experiments approach and exceed breakeven (i.e., where driver energy = fusion yield), the likelihood of significant excitation of these processes increases. As a result, the authors are including a scheme for implementing optical-beam smoothing for target experiments in the baseline design for the proposed next-generation ICF facility--the National Ignition Facility (NIF). To verify the efficacy of this design for the suppression of parametric instabilites in NIF-like indirect-drive targets, the authors successfully modified a Nova beamline to simulate the proposed NIF conditions. In this article, they discuss the laser science associated with a four-color target campaign on Nova to test the effect of f-number (ratio of focal length to beam diameter) and temporal smoothing on the scaling of SBS with a four-segment interaction beam using NIF-like parameters. The results of the target series associated with the four-color configuration are discussed elsewhere.

  17. Economic potential of demand response at household level—Are Central-European market conditions sufficient?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to show the economic potential of demand response (DR) on household level at Central European market conditions. Thereby, required economic benefits for consumers' participation, the realistic load shifting potential at household level and the estimation of essential intelligent infrastructure costs are discussed. The core of this paper builds a case-study applying spot market-oriented load shifting from the supplier's point of view by using Austrian electricity market data, household load profiles as well as a heat pump and e-car charging load profile. It is demonstrated which cost savings for suppliers can be derived from such load shifting procedure at household level. Furthermore, upper cost limits for intelligent infrastructure in order to break-even are derived. Results suggest to take a critical look at European discussions on DR implementation on household level, showing that at Central European market conditions the potential for DR at household level is restricted to significant loads and hence, the applied load shifting strategy is only beneficial with application to heat pumps. In contrast, the frequently discussed shifting of conventional household devices' loads (such as washing machines) economically does not add up. - Highlights: • Calculation of economic potential of domestic DR at Central European market conditions. • Model and case-study of spot market-oriented load shifting from supplier's perspective. • Derivation of supplier's cost savings and upper cost limits for ICT infrastructure. • Results show economic potential of domestic DR to be restricted to significant loads. • Shifting of washing machines economically does not pay off in contrast to heat pumps

  18. A comparison of circulating fluidised bed combustion and gasification power plant technologies for processing mixtures of coal, biomass and plastic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental regulations concerning emission limitations from the use of fossil fuels in large combustion plants have stimulated interest in biomass for electricity generation. The main objective of the present study was to examine the technical and economic viability of using combustion and gasification of coal mixed with biomass and plastic wastes, with the aim of developing an environmentally acceptable process to decrease their amounts in the waste stream through energy recovery. Mixtures of a high ash coal with biomass and/or plastic using fluidised bed technologies (combustion and gasification) were considered. Experiments were carried out in laboratory and pilot plant fluidised bed systems on the combustion and air/catalyst and air/steam gasification of these feedstocks and the data obtained were used in the techno-economic analyses. The experimental results were used in simulations of medium to large-scale circulating fluidised bed (CFB) power generation plants. Techno-economic analysis of the modelled CFB combustion systems showed efficiencies of around 40.5% (and around 46.5% for the modelled CFB gasification systems) when fuelled solely by coal, which were only minimally affected by co-firing with up to 20% biomass and/or wastes. Specific investments were found to be around $2150/kWe to $2400/kWe ($1350/kWe to $1450/kWe) and break-even electricity selling prices to be around $68/MWh to $78/MWh ($49/MWh to $54/MWh). Their emissions were found to be within the emission limit values of the large combustion plant directive. Fluidised bed technologies were found to be very suitable for co-firing coal and biomass and/or plastic waste and to offer good options for the replacement of obsolete or polluting power plants. (author)

  19. Stationary gas turbines of all performance classes in a flexible power supply operation; Stationaere Gasturbinen. Gasturbinen aller Leistungsklassen im flexiblen Netzbetrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the 8th VDI conference from 20th to 21st November, 2012, at the Electoral Palace Mainz (Mainz, Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Introduction of the twin-shaft industrial gas turbine SGT-300 (C. Engelbert); (2) The new 6 MW gas turbine for the power generation (Michael Blaswich); (3) Successful increase of the breakeven performance of the SGT5-2000E based on the Si3D blading (S. Kliesch); (4) Advanced Condition Monitoring at E.ON (T. Burridge-Oakland); (5) Experiences from 10 years of monitoring at gas turbine power plants (D. Therkon); (6) Operating experience with GE's Intercooled LMS100 (B. Mehmetli); (7) First long-term experience with the operational flexibility of the SGT5-8000H (C. Scholz); (8) Plant concept and operational concept with small gas turbines for the heat production and power generation meeting the demands in line with market conditions (D. Seibt); (9) Operational experiences with remote diagnostic services in the power range up to 25 MW (H. Berghaus); (10) European regulations having an influence on design and operation of gas turbines - An overview (M. Zelinger); (11) Future concepts for fuel flexibility - Experience with hydrogen-based fuels (R. Lachner); (12) Requirements from functional safety to gas turbines - Importance and benefit for gas turbine development (G. Weber); (13) Standard for the procurement of gas turbines: ISO 19859 Gas turbine applications - requirements for power generation (I. Rattmann); (14) Future projects for fuel flexibility in the test phase: Natural gas / hydrogen co-firing (G. Fruechtel); (15) Measures for the reduction of emissions at Siemens V64.3 gas turbines (K. Jordan); (16) Flexible operation of the SGT5-4000F by fuel transfers in a wide load range (J. Meisl); (17) Technical features of the GT26 gas turbine to improve the flexibility of the combined cycle system KA26 (W. Reiter).

  20. The system-wide economics of a carbon dioxide capture, utilization, and storage network: Texas Gulf Coast with pure CO2-EOR flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Carey W.; Gülen, Gürcan; Cohen, Stuart M.; Nuñez-Lopez, Vanessa

    2013-09-01

    This letter compares several bounding cases for understanding the economic viability of capturing large quantities of anthropogenic CO2 from coal-fired power generators within the Electric Reliability Council of Texas electric grid and using it for pure CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in the onshore coastal region of Texas along the Gulf of Mexico. All captured CO2 in excess of that needed for EOR is sequestered in saline formations at the same geographic locations as the oil reservoirs but at a different depth. We analyze the extraction of oil from the same set of ten reservoirs within 20- and five-year time frames to describe how the scale of the carbon dioxide capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) network changes to meet the rate of CO2 demand for oil recovery. Our analysis shows that there is a negative system-wide net present value (NPV) for all modeled scenarios. The system comes close to breakeven economics when capturing CO2 from three coal-fired power plants to produce oil via CO2-EOR over 20 years and assuming no CO2 emissions penalty. The NPV drops when we consider a larger network to produce oil more quickly (21 coal-fired generators with CO2 capture to produce 80% of the oil within five years). Upon applying a CO2 emissions penalty of 602009/tCO2 to fossil fuel emissions to ensure that coal-fired power plants with CO2 capture remain in baseload operation, the system economics drop significantly. We show near profitability for the cash flow of the EOR operations only; however, this situation requires relatively cheap electricity prices during operation.

  1. Biomass fuelled trigeneration system in selected buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Y., E-mail: y.huang@ulster.ac.u [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, BT37 0QB (United Kingdom); Wang, Y.D. [The Sir Joseph Swan Institute for Energy Research, Newcastle University, Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom); Rezvani, S.; McIlveen-Wright, D.R.; Anderson, M.; Hewitt, N.J. [Centre for Sustainable Technologies, School of Built Environment, University of Ulster, Newtownabbey, BT37 0QB (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    Highlights: {yields} We model a commercial building scale biomass fuelled trigeneration plant. {yields} It is economically feasible to use willow chips, miscanthus and rice husk as the fuel to operate the trigeneration system. {yields} The efficiency of TG is much higher than that of PO, but is lower than that of the combined heat and power (CHP) configuration. {yields} The breakeven electricity selling price (BESP) of the TG system is better than that of the PO option with the CHP option producing the cheapest electricity. -- Abstract: Many buildings require simultaneous electricity, heating and cooling. Biomass is one of the renewable energy sources which is not intermittent, location-dependent or very difficult to store. If grown sustainably, biomass can be considered to be CO{sub 2} neutral. A trigeneration system consisting of an internal combustion (IC) engine integrated with biomass gasification may offer a combination for delivering heat, electricity and cooling cleanly and economically. The producer gas generated by the gasifier is used to provide electricity for building use via the IC engine. The waste heat is recovered from the engine cooling system and exhaust gases to supply hot water to space heating, excess heat is also used to drive an absorption cooling system. The proposed system is designed to meet the energy requirements for selected commercial buildings and district heating/cooling applications. This work focuses on the modeling and simulation of a commercial building scale trigeneration plant fuelled by a biomass downdraft gasifier. In order to use both energy and financial resources most efficiently, technical and economic analyses were carried out, using the ECLIPSE process simulation package. The study also looks at the impact of different biomass feedstock (willow, rice husk and miscanthus) on the performance of a trigeneration plant.

  2. The spherical pinch experiment: Generation of laser driven converging blast wave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The interaction of laser radiation with matter has been studied extensively due to its wide variety of applications. Laser fluid interaction implies remarkable phenomena such as energy deposition, cavity formation, bubble formation etc. On the other hand optical break-down of the gas under the action of intense laser pulse precede many interesting processes like plasma expansion, formation of shock wave, detachment of shock wave from the plasma and others. In the latter case, shock wave propagation assumes central importance in plasma fusion scheme like Spherical Pinch. In Spherical Pinch the preformed hot plasma produced at the center of a spherical vessel is confined and compressed by imploding shock wave fired from the cell periphery, in such a way, in principle, that the plasma breakeven condition may be satisfied. With out laser facility of energy up to 20 Joules (7 ns FWHM) at 1.06 μm wavelength in each of the two beams, the authors are performing some experiments on converging motion of the shock wave launched from the periphery of the spherical glass cell. These laser beams from axially opposite directions irradiate a glass cell over a wide solid angle in such a way so that quasi-spherically symmetric convergent shock wave is generated from the evaporation of aluminium layer coated over the internal surface of the glass cell. The authors plan to present the experimental results on the temporal evolution of inwardly converging shock wave consistently followed by frame camera Imacon 792/LC and interference holographic technique, and its comparison with the theoretical results. Apart from this, some experimental results on the dynamics of converging shock wave generated in the same way in water would also be presented

  3. Economic Analysis of Pyro-SFR Fuel Cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, based on the material flow the economics of Pyro-SFR has been estimated. These are mainly two methodologies to perform nuclear fuel cycle cost study which is based on the material flow calculations. One is equilibrium model and the other is dynamic model. Equilibrium model focus on the batch study with the assumptions that the whole system is in a steady state and mass flow as well as the electricity production all through the fuel cycle is in equilibrium state, which calculates the electricity production within a certain period and associated material flow with reference to unit cost in order to obtain the cost of electricity. Dynamic model takes the time factor into consideration to simulate the actual cases. Compared with the dynamic analysis model, the outcome of equilibrium model is more theoretical comparisons, especially with regard to the large uncertainty of the development of the pyro-technology evaluated. In this study equilibrium model was built to calculate the material flow on a batch basis. With the unit cost being determined, the cost of each step of fuel cycle could be obtained, so does the FMC. Due to the unavoidable uncertainty with certain unit costs, evaluated cost range and uncertainty study are applied. Sensitivity analysis has also been performed to obtain the breakeven uranium price for Pyro-SFR against PWR-O T. Economics of Pyro-SFR fuel cycle scenario has been calculated and compared by employing equilibrium model. The LFCC were obtained, Pyro-SFR 7.68 mills/kWh. The Uranium price is the dominant driver of LFCC. Pyro-techniques also weight considerably in Pyro-SFR scenario. On consideration of the current unavoidable uncertainties introduced by certain cost data, cost range and triangle techniques were used to perform the uncertainty study which indicates that the gap between Pyro-SFR and PWR-O T fuel cycle scenario is relatively small

  4. Economic analysis of a supercritical coal-fired CHP plant integrated with an absorption carbon capture installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy investments in Poland are currently focused on supercritical coal-fired unit technology. It is likely, that in the future, these units are to be integrated with carbon capture and storage (CCS) installations, which enable a significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. A significant share of the energy market in Poland is constituted by coal-fired combined heat and power (CHP) plants. The integration of these units with CCS installation can be economically inefficient. However, the lack of such integration enhances the investment risk due to the possibility of appearing on the market in the near future high prices of emission allowances. The aforementioned factors and additional favorable conditions for the development of cogeneration can cause one to consider investing in large supercritical CHP plants. This paper presents the results of an economic analysis aimed at comparing three cases of CHP plants, one without an integrated CCS installation and two with such installations. The same steam cycle structure for all variants was adopted. The cases of integrated CHP plants differ from each other in the manner in which they recover heat. For the evaluation of the respective solutions, the break-even price of electricity and avoided emission cost were used. - Highlights: • The simulations of operation of CHP plants under changing load have been realized. • For analyzed cases sensitivity analyses of economic indices have been conducted. • Conditions of competitiveness for integration with CCS units have been identified. • Integration can be profitable if prices of allowance will reach high values, exceeding 50 €/MgCO2. • Others important factors are the investment costs and operation and maintenance costs

  5. MODELLING CO2 EMISSIONS IMPACTS ON CROATIAN POWER SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Pašičko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's electrical energy landscape is characterized by new challenges such as deregulation, liberalization of energy markets, increased competition, growing demands on security of supply, price insecurities, and demand to cut CO2 emissions. All mentioned challenges are calling for consideration of various options (like nuclear, coal, gas or renewable scenarios and for better understanding of energy systems modelling in order to optimize proper energy mix. Existing models are not sufficient any more and planners will need to think differently in order to face these challenges. European emission trading scheme (EU ETS started in 2005 and it has great influence on power system short term and long term planning. Croatia is obliged to establish a national scheme for trading of greenhouse gas emission allowances from the year 2010, which will be focused on monitoring and reporting only until accession to EU when it will be linked with EU ETS. Thus, for Croatian power system it is very important to analyze possible impacts of CO2 emissions. Analysis presented in this paper was done by two different models: mathematical model, based on short run marginal costs (SRMC, relevant for fuel switch in existing power plant and merit order change and long run marginal costs (LRMC, relevant for new investment decisions; and electricity market simulation model PLEXOS, which was used for modelling Croatian power system during development of the Croatian energy strategy in 2008. Results of the analysis show important impacts that emission trading has on Croatian power system, such as influence of emission price rise on price of electricity and on emission quantity, and changes in power plants output that appear with emission price rise. Breakeven point after which gas power plant becomes more competitive than coal is 62 €/tCO2 for SRMC and 40 €/tCO2 for LRMC. With CO2 prices above 31 €/tCO2 wind is more competitive than gas or coal, which emphasizes

  6. A techno-economic assessment of biomass fuelled trigeneration system integrated with organic Rankine cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biomass fuelled trigeneration is the term given to the system which is the on-site generation of electricity, heat and cooling simultaneously, using biomass as the fuel source. As a form of the renewable energy sources biomass is not intermittent, location-dependent or very difficult to store. If grown sustainably, biomass can be considered to be CO2 neutral. Biomass, therefore, would be a promising option for the future to contribute both to the reduction of greenhouse gases and to the solution of replacing fossil fuels in power plants. For a wide range of commercial buildings, biomass trigeneration offers an economical solution of providing power, heat and cooling which is more environmentally friendly than conventional methods. This work focuses on the modelling, simulation and techno-economic analysis of small scale biomass trigeneration applications. The Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) integrated with conventional combustion provides electricity for building use. The waste heat recovered from the ORC system and exhaust gases is used to supply hot water to space heating and excess heat is also used to drive an absorption cooling system. In order to use energy resources most efficiently, the proposed process is modelled and simulated using the ECLIPSE process simulation package. Based on the results achieved, the key technical and environmental issues have been examined. The study also investigates the impact of different biomass feedstock on the performance of trigeneration plant, biomass ash content ranges from 0.57 to 14.26% ash and a range of moisture content 10.6–33.51%. The calorific value across the biomass sources ranges between 16.56 and 17.97 MJ/kg daf. Finally, an economic evaluation of the system is performed along with sensitivity analyses such as capital investments, plant load factors and fuel costs. The results show that the maximum efficiencies and the best breakeven electricity selling price for the cases considered in this study are as follows

  7. Development of basic key technologies for Gen IV SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yeongil; Kim, Sungoh; Choi, Sukgi; and others

    2012-04-15

    The advanced concepts, for the breakeven reactor(1,200MWe) and TRU burner(600MWe), were defined to satisfy the technology goals of Generation IV nuclear systems. Based on the advanced design concepts, a conceptual design of the demonstration SFR has been developed using the available licensing technology. The conceptual core design has been developed for the TRU burner in which an initial core is fueled with less than 20wt% enriched U235, and finally transformed to a self-recycled TRU core. The passive decay heat removal circuit ensuring reactor safety even in case of loss of emergency power has been developed and minimization of a reactor vessel and simplification of reactor internals have been conducted in the conceptual design. For development of advanced technologies, control logics for various power levels and the optimal design concept of heat exchanger applicable to supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle as an energy conversion system was developed. A novel under-sodium waveguide sensor and a prototype under-sodium inspection system have been developed for under-sodium viewing of in-vessel structures submerged in an opaque liquid sodium. The fabrication technology of fuel slugs using the advanced fuel slug casting system was developed, and U-Zr alloy fuel rods were fabricated and examined. And a HT{sub 9} cladding tube was manufactured using the developed cladding tube fabrication technology. For development of basic technologies, the cross section adjustment code ATCROSS and the MATRA-LMR code with HCFs have been developed to reduce core design uncertainties. The SIE ASME-NH computer program to evaluate high temperature structural design for 60 years design life, and the safety analysis code MARS-LMR with thermal-hydraulic and reactivity feedback models have been developed and validated. In addition, the sodium impurity measurement and control technology, the sodium water reaction event propagation model to predict the sodium leak propagation in a steam

  8. Process assessment of small scale low temperature methanol synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    analysis. The presented study is an attempt to compile most of these efforts in order to guide future work to get cheaper low cost investment. From our study the interesting configuration to the next development is D configuration with methanol yield 112 ton/day and capital cost with 526.4 106 IDR. The configuration of D with non-discounted and discounted rate had the break-even point approximately six and eight years

  9. Exploring the Perspectives of Alternative Fuels Production. Towards alternative fuels with zero, or negative greenhouse gas emissions, considering coal, biomass and carbon capture and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this report it is shown that future improvements in the production process of Fischer-Tropsch fuels can reduce costs and produce CO2 neutral gasoline and diesel. Major benefits lie in the improvement of the overall temperature profile of the plant at higher temperatures and carbon capture and storage. Based on literature studies, it was found that future technologies can operate at higher temperatures, and thus a better integration of heating and cooling. It was found that the future model of a CBTL (Coal and Biomass To Liquids) plant can produce liquids at a break-even oil price (BEOP) of 58.60 USD/barrel at 100% coal, with similar greenhouse gas emissions compared to liquids produced by conventional means today. However, once biomass is introduced at a ratio of 33% - 67% biomass, a CBTL plant becomes neutral in terms of GHG emissions. The BEOP for this neutral scenario is 69.60 USD/barrel. Looking at the 100% biomass scenario, the BEOP becomes 82.77 USD/barrel. The greenhouse gas emissions at this point are negative, meaning that more CO2 is captured during the process than is needed to grow biomass. This in effect makes a CBTL plant a carbon sink. By introducing future technologies and improvements, such as membrane technology for CCS (Carbon dioxide Capture and Storage), higher FTS (Fischer-Tropsch Synthesis) catalyst selectivities and an overall better temperature profile, the BEOP for the 100% coal scenario drops from 58.60 to 45.27 USD/barrel. The BEOP for the neutral scenario drops from 69.60 to 57.99 USD/barrel. The BEOP for the 100% biomass scenario drops from 82.77 to 69.07 USD/barrel. For the neutral scenario, the BEOP drops from 69.60 to 57.99 USD/barrel. If one assumes that a BEOP of 60 USD/barrel is economically reasonable, one can calculate the level of a carbon tax, once a carbon tax regime is imposed. For SOTA (state-of-the-art) 100% coal, FS (Future Scenario) 100%, FS 50% coal and FS 33% coal, there is no need for a carbon tax to reach 60 USD

  10. Deficit subsurface drip irrigation of cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment in arid west Texas, United States of America, grew cotton with subsurface drip irrigation providing four basic levels of water resource and three row widths (1.02 m, 0.76 m, and approximately 0.38 m). The former two row-width treatments contained three planting configurations (a full pattern and two skip patterns). In all, there were seven row-width-pattern configurations, each of which had four water levels, for a total of 28 treatments. Where farmers do not have enough water with which to irrigate their crops, they may choose: (1) to reduce their planted area and apply more water (up to the full water requirement) on this portion of their land; or (2) plant the entire area, whereby they apply a quantity of irrigation water that only partially meets consumptive use requirements. The purpose of this study was to develop mathematical characterizations for yield as a function of water resource for various popular row width/patterns, and then to use these equations in crop budget models to determine economically optimum scenarios for local cotton growers. The full cotton production budgets were based on a 405-ha farm. The assumed water resource varied from scarcely any to enough, with proper management, to supply the majority of crop water needs. In almost all scenarios, it was economically sound to stretch the water resource over the entire farm, rather than to try to maximize yield on portions of the farm. A break-even economic water resource between covering the entire farm irrigating only portions of it was about 2.0 mm/day. Ultra-narrow-row treatments significantly exceeded the treatments with traditional row widths at all four water levels. The highest yield of lint was 1 833 kg/ha. Applying large portions of the moisture requirement as pre-planting irrigation enabled yields of 600-900 kg/ha of lint for the full pattern width treatments on the smallest water treatment, which applied 36 mm of in-season irrigation. The skip-row patterns did not yield

  11. Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration in the Powder River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2010-06-01

    effectively sequester over 86,000 tons (78,200 Mg) of CO2 per acre while recovering methane to offset costs. The cost to separate CO2 from flue gas was identified as the major cost driver associated with CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams. Improvements in separations technology alone are unlikely to drive costs low enough for CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams in the Powder River Basin to become economically viable. Breakthroughs in separations technology could aid the economics, but in the Powder River Basin, they cannot achieve the necessary cost reductions for breakeven economics without incentives.

  12. Report of improved performance in Talbot–Lau phase-contrast computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: Many expectations have been raised since the use of conventional x-ray tubes on grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging. Despite a reported increase in contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in many publications, there is doubt on whether phase-contrast computed tomography (CT) is advantageous in clinical CT scanners in vivo. The aim of this paper is to contribute to this discussion by analyzing the performance of a phase-contrast CT laboratory setup. Methods: A phase-contrast CT performance analysis was done. Projection images of a phantom were recorded, and image slices were reconstructed using standard filtered back projection methods. The resulting image slices were analyzed by determining the CNRs in the attenuation and phase image. These results were compared to analytically calculated expectations according to the already published phase-contrast CT performance analysis by Raupach and Flohr [Med. Phys. 39, 4761–4774 (2012)]. There, a severe mistake was found leading to wrong predictions of the performance of phase-contrast CT. The error was corrected and with the new formulae, the experimentally obtained results matched the analytical calculations. Results: The squared ratios of the phase-contrast CNR and the attenuation CNR obtained in the authors’ experiment are five- to ten-fold higher than predicted by Raupach and Flohr [Med. Phys. 39, 4761–4774 (2012)]. The effective lateral spatial coherence length deduced outnumbers the already optimistic assumption of Raupach and Flohr [Med. Phys. 39, 4761–4774 (2012)] by a factor of 3. Conclusions: The authors’ results indicate that the assumptions made in former performance analyses are pessimistic. The break-even point, when phase-contrast CT outperforms attenuation CT, is within reach even with realistic, nonperfect gratings. Further improvements to state-of-the-art clinical CT scanners, like increasing the spatial resolution, could change the balance in favor of phase-contrast computed tomography

  13. Industrial production of fusion energy will be the next step

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Controlled Fusion may provide mankind with an inexhaustible source of energy. Several highly attractive features are intrinsic to this way of energy production: a high safety level due to the impossibility of non-controlled reaction; low original and induced activities of the fuel, waste and construction materials, the possibility to place power stations close to megalopolises, and negligible terrorist opportunities at fusion enterprises. More than fifty years have been spent by researchers in many countries before the International Fusion Community decided this year to build the first International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor - ITER - in Cadarache (France). The reason for such a long development is the very complicated behaviour of high-temperature plasma - a special state of matter that allows nuclei of hydrogen to react, setting free a huge amount of energy due to mass loss. Basic and applied research in high-temperature plasma has influenced a significant number of areas in Science and Technology. There are two approaches to Controlled Fusion based on magnetic and inertial confinement. The magnetic confinement approach at present seems to be closer to the fusion energy production stage. The idea of the tokamak device invented at the Kurchatov Institute fifty years ago turned out to be very productive and allowed us to realize the fusion of Deuterium and Tritium under conditions very close to breakeven. We know a lot about the tokamak plasma today. However, new advances are foreseen to be achieved in contemporary and future experiments. The main activity is shifting now to the problem of plasma-wall interaction, low activation materials and technologies activating resources in an industrial reactor, which would be of commercial interest. Intensive work in this field is foreseen, and the Fast Track Programme formulated by the European Union emphasizes the necessity of promptly solving basic problems of fusion energy production. After the construction of

  14. D-Cluster Converter Foil for Laser-Accelerated Deuteron Beams: Towards Deuteron-Beam-Driven Fast Ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miley, George H.

    2012-10-24

    at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in CA within a year. This will usher in the technology development Phase of ICF after years of research aimed at achieving breakeven experiment. Methods to achieve the high energy gain needed for a competitive power plant will then be a key developmental issue, and our D-cluster target for Fast Ignition (FI) is expected to meet that need.

  15. Genomic testing interacts with reproductive surplus in reducing genetic lag and increasing economic net return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjortø, L; Ettema, J F; Kargo, M; Sørensen, A C

    2015-01-01

    genomic tests are used most efficiently to decrease genetic lag when the genomic information is used more than once in the lifetime of an animal and when as many selection decisions as possible are based on genomic information. However, all breakeven prices were lower than or equal to €50, which is the current price of low-density chip genotyping in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden, so in the vast majority of cases, it is not profitable to genotype routinely for management purposes under the present price assumptions. PMID:25465627

  16. Medical economics of whole-body FDG PET in patients suspected of having non-small cell lung carcinoma. Reassessment based on the revised Japanese national insurance reimbursement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focusing on the savings expected from the revised Japanese national insurance reimbursement system in the management of patients suspected of having non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), cost-effectiveness was assessed using decision tree sensitivity analysis on the basis of the 2 competing strategies of whole-body FDG PET (WB-PET) and conventional imaging (CI). A WB-PET strategy that models dependence upon chest FDG PET scan, WB-PET scan, and brain MR imaging with contrast was designed. The cost of a FDG PET examination was updated and determined to be US$625.00. The CI strategy involves a combination of conventional examinations, such as abdominal CT with contrast, brain MR imaging with contrast, and a whole-body bone scan. A simulation of 1,000 patients suspected of having NSCLC (Stages I to IV) was created for each strategy using a decision tree and baselines of other relevant variables cited from published data. By using the WB-PET strategy in place of the CI strategy for the management of patients suspected of having NSCLC in hospitals with an NSCLC prevalence of 75%, the cost saving (CS) for each patient would be US$697.69 for an M1 prevalence of 20% and US$683.52 for an M1 prevalence of 40%, but the CS gradually decreases as the NSCLC prevalence increases. The break-even point requires less than an 80% prevalence in order for the WB-PET strategy to gain life expectancy (LE) per patient. By using the WB-PET strategy in place of the CI strategy for the management of patients suspected of having NSCLC in hospitals with an NSCLC prevalence of 75%, the gain in LE for each patient would be 0.04 years (11.06 vs. 11.02 years) for an M1 prevalence of 20% and 0.10 years (10.13 vs. 10.03 years) for an M1 prevalence of 40%. The maximum cost of a PET study without losing LE would be US$1322.68 per patient for prevalences of 75% NSCLC and 20% M1 disease. The present study quantitatively showed WB-PET, employed in place of CI for managing NSCLC patients, to be cost

  17. Process assessment of small scale low temperature methanol synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriyana, Susanto, Herri; Subagjo

    2015-12-01

    analysis. The presented study is an attempt to compile most of these efforts in order to guide future work to get cheaper low cost investment. From our study the interesting configuration to the next development is D configuration with methanol yield 112 ton/day and capital cost with 526.4 106 IDR. The configuration of D with non-discounted and discounted rate had the break-even point approximately six and eight years.

  18. Horizontal drilling assessment in Western Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first horizontal well was drilled in Saskatchewan in 1987. Since then, the number of horizontal wells drilled has escalated rapidly, averaging approximately 500 per year since 1993. When combined with horizontal wells drilled in Alberta, the major Canadian oil-producing province, the total number drilled in 1995 was 978. This total exceeds the National Energy Board (NEB) projected maximum of 816 wells per year. The NEB projections were based on a break-even point for the drilling of horizontal wells of a return of CDN $285,000 using a discount rate of 15%. This corresponded to a cumulative production from each individual well of some 11,000 m3. The introduction of a royalty-free production volume of 12,000 m3 per horizontal well in Saskatchewan was instrumental in stimulating the rapid expansion in the use of horizontal wells and helping Canada to exceed the forecasted drilling level. Within Saskatchewan, daily production from 1964 active horizontal wells is in excess of 20,000 m3. Comparative analysis indicates that the average daily production per well has increased from approximately by 40% with the advent of horizontal wells. In total production terms, provincial production has increased from 11.7 million cubic metres in 1989 to 20.9 million m3 in 1996. This represents an increase of almost 79% based primarily on the extensive use of horizontal wells. In 1996, horizontal wells produced 36% of the province's oil from 12% of the active wells. In the southeastern producing areas of Saskatchewan, the Williston Basin, declining oil-production has jumped 100%, with horizontal wells accounting for approximately 50% of total regional production. Pay zones in this areas, as in most of the province, tend to be relatively thin, with net pay frequently less that 5 m. The modest investment of some CDN $5 million in government research funding 10 years ago to stimulate the development of horizontal wells, combined with a favourable royalty structure, has been at least

  19. Factors affecting commercial application of embryo technologies in New Zealand: a modelling approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeaton, D C; Harris, B L; Xu, Z Z; Vivanco, W H

    2003-01-15

    New reproductive technologies include sexed sperm and embryo-based technologies. The technology of sperm sexing, for various reasons, is not available in New Zealand and its use has not been modelled. Embryo technologies are however already in use on a limited scale and various scenarios for their use in both the dairy and beef industries in New Zealand have been modelled. This review briefly discusses the various technologies available and some of their potential strengths and weaknesses. In the dairy industry, modelling has been used to simulate the production of breeding bulls for large breeding companies and the production of replacement heifers in dairy herds. For the beef industry, similar modelling has been carried out to determine the opportunities for more efficient beef production. All the models confirmed that at current levels of performance, embryo-based reproductive technologies are usually not profitable in New Zealand except in niche market situations where the returns from the resulting offspring are significantly greater than can be obtained from natural mating or artificial insemination (AI) reproduction systems. This is confirmed by the low uptake of these technologies in this country to date. Even if performance lifts to levels similar to AI, profitability is likely to occur only if the costs of pregnancies to embryo-based reproductive technologies can occur at prices less than two to four times greater than AI or natural mating. This break-even requirement depends on the returns that can be achieved and the advantages that can be captured by the technology over and above those available from AI or natural mating. Two new uses for reproductive technologies in dairy cattle could be the proliferation of novel or rare genotypes from gene discovery programs and improving the female reproductive rate for optimal marker assisted selection. In both these uses the technology is not at present competing with AI or natural mating. The challenge exists

  20. Combating desertification - fuel oil from jatropha plants in Africa: a systematic approach applied by a GTZ-supported project in Mali, West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -subsidized situation in which all investments are financed by agricultural bank credits, an internal rate of return (IRR) of about 26% is achieved. The break-even analysis shows that the system becomes economically viable when the oil press is used at 25% of its capacity. (author)

  1. Economic feasibility of biochar application to soils in temperate climate regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Gerhard; Bücker, Jannis; Gunczy, Stefan; Kitzler, Barbara; Klinglmüller, Michaela; Kloss, Stefanie; Watzinger, Andrea; Wimmer, Bernhard; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Zehetner, Franz

    2014-05-01

    The findings that fertility improvements in tropical soils have been successfully mediated by biochar applications have caused wide-spread interest to use biochar as a soil amendment also for soils in temperate climate regions. But these soils in intensively cultivated regions are not always as acidic or sandy as the tropical Ferralsols where biochar is most effective. Therefore it is not self-evident that different soil characteristics allow biochar to display the same benefits if site-specific demands for the optimal organic soil amendment are not considered. This study pursued the objective to study the extent of benefits that biochar could provide for crops on two typical Austrian agricultural soils in a two-year field experiment. An economic evaluation assessed the local biochar production costs and compared them with the value of the observed biochar benefits. From a business economic viewpoint, currently high costs of biochar are not balanced by only moderate increases in crop yields and thus agricultural revenues. Improved water retention due to biochar, however, might justify biochar as an adaptation measure to global warming, especially when considering beside business economic aspects also overall economic aspects. When not assuming total crop failures but only increased soil fertility, even an inclusion of avoided social (=societal) costs by sequestering carbon and thereby helping to mitigate climate change do not economically justify the application of biochar. Price of biochar would need to decrease by at least 40 % to achieve a break-even from the overall economic viewpoint (if optimistic assumptions about the social value of sequestered carbon are applied; at pessimistic assumptions price for biochar must decrease even more in order to break even). When applying an alternative type of soil treatment of using modified biochar but avoiding additional N-fertilization, a similar picture arises: Social benefits due to avoided N-fertilization and

  2. Development of basic key technologies for Gen IV SFR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The advanced concepts, for the breakeven reactor(1,200MWe) and TRU burner(600MWe), were defined to satisfy the technology goals of Generation IV nuclear systems. Based on the advanced design concepts, a conceptual design of the demonstration SFR has been developed using the available licensing technology. The conceptual core design has been developed for the TRU burner in which an initial core is fueled with less than 20wt% enriched U235, and finally transformed to a self-recycled TRU core. The passive decay heat removal circuit ensuring reactor safety even in case of loss of emergency power has been developed and minimization of a reactor vessel and simplification of reactor internals have been conducted in the conceptual design. For development of advanced technologies, control logics for various power levels and the optimal design concept of heat exchanger applicable to supercritical CO2 Brayton cycle as an energy conversion system was developed. A novel under-sodium waveguide sensor and a prototype under-sodium inspection system have been developed for under-sodium viewing of in-vessel structures submerged in an opaque liquid sodium. The fabrication technology of fuel slugs using the advanced fuel slug casting system was developed, and U-Zr alloy fuel rods were fabricated and examined. And a HT9 cladding tube was manufactured using the developed cladding tube fabrication technology. For development of basic technologies, the cross section adjustment code ATCROSS and the MATRA-LMR code with HCFs have been developed to reduce core design uncertainties. The SIE ASME-NH computer program to evaluate high temperature structural design for 60 years design life, and the safety analysis code MARS-LMR with thermal-hydraulic and reactivity feedback models have been developed and validated. In addition, the sodium impurity measurement and control technology, the sodium water reaction event propagation model to predict the sodium leak propagation in a steam generator, and

  3. Valuation of investments in natural resources using contingent-claim framework with application to bituminous coal developments in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As Brennan and Schwartz [Brennan M, Schwartz E. Evaluating natural resource investment. Journal of Business 1985;58:135-57] point out in their pioneering work, the valuation of natural resources projects is particularly difficult due to the high degree of uncertainty in output prices of resources. In general, there are two competing procedures to evaluate risky projects in natural resources developments. One is decision analytic, based on traditional discounted cash flow and stochastic dynamic programming [Fleten SE, Maribu KM, Wangensteen I. Optimal investment strategies in decentralized renewable power generation under uncertainty. Energy 2007;32:803-15; Smith J, McCardle K. Valuing oil properties: integrating option pricing and decision analysis approaches. Operations Research 1998;46(2):198-217; Szklo AS, Carneiro JTG, Machado G. Break-even price for upstream activities in Brazil: evaluation of the opportunity cost of oil production delay in a non-mature sedimentary production region. Energy 2008;33:589-600], and the other is contingent claims analysis, based on the no-arbitrage theory of financial markets [Brennan M, Schwartz E. Evaluating natural resource investment. Journal of Business 1985;58:135-57; Emhjellen M, Alaouze CM. A comparison of discounted cash flow and modern asset pricing methods - project selection and policy implications. Energy Policy 2003;31:1213-20; Laughton D. The management of flexibility in the upstream petroleum industry. The Energy Journal 1998;19:83-114; Paddock L, Siegel D, Smith J. Option valuation of claims on real assets: the case of offshore petroleum leases. Quarterly Journal of Economics 1988;103(3):479-508; Schwartz ES. Valuing long-term commodity assets. Journal of Energy Finance and Development 1998;3(2):85-99; Sezgen O, Goldman CA, Krishnarao P. Option value of electricity demand response. Energy 2007;32:108-19]. In this paper, we use the second approach to develop a new model, and the main contributions are providing a

  4. Risk-informed ranking of engineering projects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Refurbishment planning requires prudent investment decisions with respect to the various systems and components at the station. These decisions are influenced by many factors, including engineering, safety, regulatory, economic, and political constraints. From an engineering perspective, the concept of cost-benefit analysis is a common way to allocate capital among various projects. Naturally, the 'best' or optimal project should have the lowest cost and the highest benefit. In the context of risk-informed decision making (RIDM), a process that has been widely embraced by the global nuclear community, the costs and benefits must further be 'weighted' by probabilities to estimate the underlying risk associated with the various planning alternatives. The main purpose of this study is to illustrate how risk and reliability information can be integrated into the refurbishment planning process to facilitate more objective and transparent investment decisions. The methodology is based on the concept of generation risk assessment (GRA) which provides a systematic approach for balancing investment costs with the reduction in overall financial risk. In addition to reliability predictions, the model provides estimates for the level of risk reduction associated with each system/project and also the break-even point for investment. This information is vital for project ranking, and helps to address the key question of whether capital investment should be made in the most risk critical systems, or in systems that reduce the overall risk the most. The application of the proposed methodology requires only basic information regarding the current reliability of each engineering system, which should be readily available from plant records and routine condition assessments. Because the methodology can be readily implemented in a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet, all plausible (e.g., bounding) planning scenarios, with or without investment, can also be generated quickly and easily, while

  5. The Mercury Laser System-A scaleable average-power laser for fusion and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbers, C A; Moses, E I

    2008-03-26

    Nestled in a valley between the whitecaps of the Pacific and the snowcapped crests of the Sierra Nevada, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is home to the nearly complete National Ignition Facility (NIF). The purpose of NIF is to create a miniature star-on demand. An enormous amount of laser light energy (1.8 MJ in a pulse that is 20 ns in duration) will be focused into a small gold cylinder approximately the size of a pencil eraser. Centered in the gold cylinder (or hohlraum) will be a nearly perfect sphere filled with a complex mixture of hydrogen gas isotopes that is similar to the atmosphere of our Sun. During experiments, the laser light will hit the inside of the gold cylinder, heating the metal until it emits X-rays (similar to how your electric stove coil emits visible red light when heated). The X-rays will be used to compress the hydrogen-like gas with such pressure that the gas atoms will combine or 'fuse' together, producing the next heavier element (helium) and releasing energy in the form of energetic particles. 2010 will mark the first credible attempt at this world-changing event: the achievement of fusion energy 'break-even' on Earth using NIF, the world's largest laser! NIF is anticipated to eventually perform this immense technological accomplishment once per week, with the capability of firing up to six shots per day - eliminating the need for continued underground testing of our nation's nuclear stockpile, in addition to opening up new realms of science. But what about the day after NIF achieves ignition? Although NIF will achieve fusion energy break-even and gain, the facility is not designed to harness the enormous potential of fusion for energy generation. A fusion power plant, as opposed to a world-class engineering research facility, would require that the laser deliver drive pulses nearly 100,000 times more frequently - a rate closer to 10 shots per second as opposed to several shots per day.

  6. Process assessment of small scale low temperature methanol synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriyana [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Jenderal Achmad Yani Univerity (Indonesia); Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Industrial Technology, InstitutTeknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Susanto, Herri, E-mail: herri@che.itb.ac.id; Subagjo [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Industrial Technology, InstitutTeknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    balance and economic analysis. The presented study is an attempt to compile most of these efforts in order to guide future work to get cheaper low cost investment. From our study the interesting configuration to the next development is D configuration with methanol yield 112 ton/day and capital cost with 526.4 10{sup 6} IDR. The configuration of D with non-discounted and discounted rate had the break-even point approximately six and eight years.

  7. Estimation of Evapotranspiration of Forest-Grass Vegetation on Loess Hilly Area in Yuxi%豫西黄土丘陵区林草植被蒸散量估算研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘增进; 柴红敏; 李宝萍

    2012-01-01

    采用积温法、Penman公式法和水量平衡法分别估算了三门峡、洛阳、郑州、济源4地市的植被蒸散量,采用蒸散比系数K值法计算了乔木林、灌木林和草类植被的设计蒸散量。结果表明,估算结果与乔木林、灌木林和草类植被生长对水分的需求有较显著的一致性和较好的适用性。通过植被耗水与降水的盈亏分析,给出了4地市不同植被类型的水分亏缺量,多年月平均降水量基本满足灌木林和草类植被耗水需求,多年年平均降水量基本满足乔木林耗水需求,但上半年(1—6月)表现为缺水,对乔木林的生长发育有较大的影响。%The vegetation evapotranspiration of Sanmenxia city,Luoyang city,Zhengzhou city and Jiyuan city were respectively calculated by cumulative temperature method,Penman method and water balance method,and the design evapotranspiration for high-forest,shrub forest and grass vegetation were respectively calculated by K value-evapotranspiration ratio coefficient method(Sanmenxia city: 0.5;Luoyang city and Zhengzhou city: 0.55;Jiyuan city: 0.6).The results showed obvious consistency and good applicability between estimation and water demand of high-forest,shrub forest and grass vegetation growth.And the breakeven analysis for vegetation water consumption and precipitation presented the water deficit values for different vegetation in the four cities.The annual monthly average rainfall could meet the water demand for shrub forest and grass vegetation growth generally;and the mean annual precipitation could meet the water demand for high-forest growth generally,but the water deficit existed during January to June,which could affect the growth and development of high-forest considerably.

  8. Studies on development of pressure measurement methods for a large fusion experimental device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the studies on development of the pressure measurement methods, which are necessary to develop and confirm the particle control method for a long-pulse break-even plasma. We first developed a new type of hot cathode ionization gauge with spherical symmetry to measure the neutral gas pressure in a high magnetic field. The gauge has a linear relation between the ion current and the pressure ranging from 10-4 to 1 Pa for N2 and Ar. The changes in the sensitivity are small; within + 20% in a field of 0 - 1.2 T. Then we describe a new method for using a Penning gauge to measure pressure in high magnetic fields. The intensity of the Hα and Hβ Balmer lines emitted from a Penning discharge is a function only of the discharge ion current: their intensity is independent of anode voltage and magnetic fields from 0.1 to 2.0 T. The light intensity is proportional to the ion current below ∼ 0.1 Pa. In addition, we demonstrated the possibility of the partial pressure measurement with the light emitted from the Penning discharge. The line intensities are individually linear to the partial pressure in the gas mixture of H2 and He. Next we have constructed the fast pressure monitoring system with the newly developed gauges. The gauge are used to monitor the pressure near the JT-60 plasma. The response time is fast (less than 10 ms) because of the Penning discharge which is sustained by the confining magnetic field of the plasma. Finally, the usefulness of the fast response gauge is demonstrated. The outgassing mechanisms are studied in the JT-60 tokamak. Large amounts of gases are abruptly released during the disruption of the plasma. The disruptions of 1 MA plasmas outgas a surface area of ∼10 m2. The gases of 30-80 Pam3 are released within 30 ms. Then three quarters of them return to the wall. This return of the gases to the wall clearly reveals the wall pumping of the graphite first wall. (author)

  9. Process designs and cost estimates for a medium Btu gasification plant using a wood feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desrosiers, R. E.

    1979-02-01

    A gasification plant to effect the conversion of wood to medium-Btu gas has been designed. The Purox gasifier and associated equipment were selected as a prototype, since this system is nearer to commercialization than others considered. The object was to determine the cost of those processing steps common to all gasification schemes and to identify specific research areas. A detailed flowsheet and mass-balance are presented. Capital investment statements for three plant sizes (400, 800, 1,600 oven-dry tons per day) are included along with manufacturing costs for each of these plants at three feedstock prices: $10, $20, $30 per green ton (or $20, $40, $60 per dry ton). The design incorporates a front-end handling system, package cryogenic oxygen plant, the Purox gasifier, a gas-cleaning train consisting of a spray scrubber, ionizing wet scrubber, and condenser, and a wastewater treatment facility including a cooling tower and a package activated sludge unit. Cost figures for package units were obtained from suppliers and used for the oxygen and wastewater treatment plants. The gasifier is fed with wood chips at 20% moisture (wet basis). For each pound of wood, 0.32 lb of oxygen are required, and 1.11 lb of gas are produced. The heating value of the gas product is 300 Btu/scf. For each Btu of energy input (feed + process energy) to the plant, 0.91 Btu exists with the product gas. Total capital investments required for the plants considered are $9, $15, and $24 million (1978) respectively. In each case, the oxygen plant represents about 50% of the total investment. For feedstock prices from $10 to $30 per green ton ($1.11 to $3.33 per MM Btu), break-even costs of fuel gas range from $3 to $7 per MM Btu. At $30/ton, the feedstock cost represents approximately 72% of the total product cost for the largest plant size; at $10/ton, it represents only 47% of product cost.

  10. Particulate filter behaviour of a Diesel engine fueled with biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiesel is an alternative and renewable fuel made from plant and animal fat or cooked oil through a transesterification process to produce a short chain ester (generally methyl ester). Biodiesel fuels have been worldwide studied in Diesel engines and they were found to be compatible in blends with Diesel fuel to well operate in modern Common Rail engines. Also throughout the world the diffusion of biofuels is being promoted in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the environmental impact of transport, and to increase security of supply. To meet the current exhaust emission regulations, after-treatment devices are necessary; in particular Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) are essential to reduce particulate emissions of Diesel engines. A critical requirement for the implementation of DPF on a modern Biodiesel powered engine is the determination of Break-even Temperature (BET) which is defined as the temperature at which particulate deposition on the filter is balanced by particulate oxidation on the filter. To fit within the exhaust temperature range of the exhaust line and to require a minimum of active regeneration during the engine running, the BET needs to occur at sufficiently low temperatures. In this paper, the results of an experimental campaign on a modern, electronic controlled fuel injection Diesel engine are shown. The engine was fuelled either with petroleum ultralow sulphur fuel or with Biodiesel: BET was evaluated for both fuels. Results show that on average, the BET is lower for biodiesel than for diesel fuel. The final goal was to characterize the regeneration process of the DPF device depending on the adopted fuel, taking into account the different combustion process and the different nature of the particulate matter. Overall the results suggest significant benefits for the use of biodiesel in engines equipped with DPFs. - Highlights: ► We compare Diesel Particulate Trap (DPF) performance with Biodiesel and Diesel fuel. ► The Break

  11. Field Study of Drilling Bits Performance Optimization Using a Computer Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriji, A. Boniface

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the major problems facing drilling operations is the performance of the drilling Bits. The ability of the Bit to crush the rock and the removal of the crushed rock from the wellbore effectively. It is necessary to understand the fundamental difference in Bit design for different rock textures because many variables tend to affect Bit optimization, particularly the type of formations, economics and Bit selection. However, the cost of drilling a well has a considerable effect on the selection and the design of a particular Bit, therefore this paper focuses on the development of a model that will predict future Bit performance and optimization for actual well design and construction. The variables to optimize Bit performance provide means of handling cost estimation hence the model becomes more realistic and dynamic in its application. The input variables and control factors for this model are stretched to minimize cost and maximize performance. The cost per foot and the break even calculations were done using data from the reference well X14 and also the evaluation well X35 from a field-X in the Niger Delta region. A Visual Basic dot Net program model was developed, tested and validated with the real field data to know its accuracy. The model interface shows the detailed application of the Bits in validating the data to provide the equivalent results for the five different Bits. Each set of the Bit record was ran separately on the software and the results for each application developed for comparison. In the software, data application were grouped into two distinct methods namely; rentals method and historical method. Under the rentals method, data were uploaded into the software and ran to generate results while the historical method was basically used for model prediction. The breakeven analysis provided a technique for calculating the performance required for an alternative Bit type to match the cost per foot of the current Bit. Based on

  12. Fusion-fission hybrid studies in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systems and conceptual design studies have been carried out on the following three hybrid types: (1) The fission-suppressed hybrid, which maximizes fissile material produced (Pu or 233U) per unit of total nuclear power by suppressing the fission process and multiplying neutrons by (n,2n) reactions in materials like beryllium. (2) The fast-fission hybrid, which maximizes fissile material produced per unit of fusion power by maximizing fission of 238U (Pu is produced) in which twice the fissile atoms per unit of fusion power (but only a third per unit of nuclear power) are made. (3) The power hybrid, which amplifies power in the blanket for power production but does not produce fuel to sell. A series of studies led to a reference design of a fission-suppressed breeder that used liquid-lithium cooling of beryllium balls with thorium snap rings. Another series of studies considered a fission-suppressed, helium-cooled, molten-salt breeder design. Safety improvements for use in fast-fission designs were also identified. Low-burnup metal balls, which can be drained out of the blanket to passively cooled holding tanks, would be used in several of the above design concepts. Blanket designs not requiring reprocessing, called direct enrichment, were also studied. Breeding blanket designs for tokamak and tandem-mirror configurations were based on liquid-lithium, water, and helium cooling. Solid (U, Th, LiA102, Li2O) and liquid breeders (Li, LiF+ThF4) were considered. Studies indicate that as the predicted cost of the fission-suppressed fusion plant drops from twice a light-water reactor's (LWR) cost, the calculated breakeven price of uranium from the fusion breeder drops from $100/pound. A fusion plant costing 1.5 times an LWR is calculated to produce fuel at an equivalent price of $70/pound. An overall conclusion is that the deployment of fusion technology can cap the price of uranium. 18 refs, 12 figs, 4 tabs

  13. Studies on the production of building material grade slag from hazardous-waste incineration plants; Untersuchungen zur Herstellung einer Schlacke mit Baustoffqualitaet aus Sondermuellverbrennungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, J.; Herbel, J.D.; Pasel, C. [Duisburg Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachgebiet Abfalltechnik

    1998-09-01

    In an attempt to restore the competitive power of hazardous-waste incineration within the present legal framework, plant operators have in some cases lowered disposal prices below the break-even point; in this respect there is no further room for improvement. One approach towards a new marketable solution could be to use rotary kilns not only for disposal but also as production plants. This could be achieved by means of input control and loading materials. If, for example, the slag remaining after combustion could be made to meet building material specifications, thus providing a marketable product, then rotary kilns would be able to serve as production plants for a secondary raw material. If it should prove possible in the course of manufacturing campaigns to develop slags from hazardous-waste incineration plants to a marketable product, then operators will thus have complied to the demand of the Law on Recycling and Waste Management for waste avoidance and that of the Emission Control Law for residue recycling. Targeted use of suitable loading materials for quality improvement could enable operators of hazardous-waste incineration plants to secure a new strategic position on the market as building material manufacturers and utilise existing plant capacities. [Deutsch] Um die Sonderabfallverbrennung im Rahmen der rechtlichen Vorgaben wieder konkurrenzfaehig zu machen, haben die Anlagenbetreiber die Entsorgungspreise teilweise unter die Grenze der Kostendeckung zurueckgenommen; hier besteht kein Spielraum mehr. Ein neuer, marktgerechter Ansatz koennte sich dann ergeben, wenn die Drehrohroefen statt als Beseitigungsaggregate durch Inputsteuerung und Zuschlaege eventuell auch als Produktionsanlagen einzusetzen waeren. Wenn z.B. die Schlacke, als Rueckstand aus der Verbrennung, als ein im Baustoffmarkt absetzbares Produkt nach Qualitaetskriterien gezielt hergestellt wuerde, koennte der Drehrohrofen als Produktionsanlage fuer einen Sekundaerrohstoff betrieben werden

  14. Recent TFTR results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    TFTR experiments have emphasized the optimization of high performance plasmas as well as studies of transport in high temperature plasmas. The recent installation of carbon composite tiles on the main bumper limiter has allowed operation with up to 32 MW of neutral beam injection without degradation of plasma performance by large bursts of carbon impurities (''carbon blooms''). Plasma parameters have been extended to Ti(0) ∼ 35 keV, Te(0) ∼ 12 keV, ne(0) ∼ 1.2 x 1020 m-3, producing D-D reaction rates of 8.8 x 1016 reactions per second. The fusion parameter ne(0)τETi(0) in supershot plasmas is an increasing function of heating power up to an MHD stability limit, reaching values of ∼4.4 x 1020 m-3 sec keV. Peaked-density-profile hot-ion plasmas with the edge characteristics of the H-mode have been produced in a circular cross-section limiter configuration with ne(0)τETi(0) values characteristic of supershots. Reduced transport is also observed in the core of high-density ICRF-heated plasmas when the density profile is peaked. At the highest performance, the central plasma pressure in TFTR reaches reactor level values of 6.5 atmospheres. In these regimes, MHD instabilities with m/n = 1/1, 2/1, 3/2 and 4/3 are often observed concurrent with a degradation in performance. High βp plasmas with εβp ≅ 1.6 and β/(I/aB) ≅ 4.7 (%mT/MA) have demonstrated confinement enhancement over the low-mode confinement time with τE/τL ∼ 3.5 and a bootstrap current of about 65% of the total plasma current. The best TFTR supershots in deuterium plasmas have QDD = 1.9 x 10-3, corresponding to an equivalent QDT ∼ 0.31 in a 50/50 D/T plasma. Performance enhancements extrapolate to D-T plasma performance near the breakeven regime, QDT ∼ 0.5 - 0.7, that would produce ∼ 15 - 25 MW of fusion power. Lower Q (∼ 0.3) plasmas at higher temperatures are expected to produce alpha particle betas suitable for testing collective alpha instability theories. 19 refs, 9 figs, 4

  15. Weighing the costs: Implementing the SLMTA programme in Zimbabwe using internal versus external facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Shumba

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2010, the Zimbabwe Ministry of Health and Child Welfare (MoHCW adopted the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA programme as a tool for laboratory quality systems strengthening.Objectives: To evaluate the financial costs of SLMTA implementation using two models (external facilitators; and internal local or MoHCW facilitators from the perspective of the implementing partner and to estimate resources needed to scale up the programme nationally in all 10 provinces.Methods: The average expenditure per laboratory was calculated based on accounting records; calculations included implementing partner expenses but excluded in-kind contributions and salaries of local facilitators and trainees. We also estimated theoretical financial costs, keeping all contextual variables constant across the two models. Resource needs for future national expansion were estimated based on a two-phase implementation plan, in which 12 laboratories in each of five provinces would implement SLMTA per phase; for the internal facilitator model, 20 facilitators would be trained at the beginning of each phase.Results: The average expenditure to implement SLMTA in 11 laboratories using external facilitators was approximately US$5800 per laboratory; expenditure in 19 laboratories using internal facilitators was approximately $6000 per laboratory. The theoretical financial cost of implementing a 12-laboratory SLMTA cohort keeping all contextual variables constant would be approximately $58 000 using external facilitators; or $15 000 using internal facilitators, plus $86 000 to train 20 facilitators. The financial cost for subsequent SLMTA cohorts using the previously-trained internal facilitators would be approximately $15 000, yielding a break-even point of 2 cohorts, at $116 000 for either model. Estimated resources required for national implementation in 120 laboratories would therefore be $580 000 using external facilitators ($58

  16. Report of improved performance in Talbot–Lau phase-contrast computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.weber@fau.de; Pelzer, Georg; Rieger, Jens; Ritter, André; Anton, Gisela [Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics (ECAP), Radiation and Detector Physics Group, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Many expectations have been raised since the use of conventional x-ray tubes on grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging. Despite a reported increase in contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in many publications, there is doubt on whether phase-contrast computed tomography (CT) is advantageous in clinical CT scanners in vivo. The aim of this paper is to contribute to this discussion by analyzing the performance of a phase-contrast CT laboratory setup. Methods: A phase-contrast CT performance analysis was done. Projection images of a phantom were recorded, and image slices were reconstructed using standard filtered back projection methods. The resulting image slices were analyzed by determining the CNRs in the attenuation and phase image. These results were compared to analytically calculated expectations according to the already published phase-contrast CT performance analysis by Raupach and Flohr [Med. Phys. 39, 4761–4774 (2012)]. There, a severe mistake was found leading to wrong predictions of the performance of phase-contrast CT. The error was corrected and with the new formulae, the experimentally obtained results matched the analytical calculations. Results: The squared ratios of the phase-contrast CNR and the attenuation CNR obtained in the authors’ experiment are five- to ten-fold higher than predicted by Raupach and Flohr [Med. Phys. 39, 4761–4774 (2012)]. The effective lateral spatial coherence length deduced outnumbers the already optimistic assumption of Raupach and Flohr [Med. Phys. 39, 4761–4774 (2012)] by a factor of 3. Conclusions: The authors’ results indicate that the assumptions made in former performance analyses are pessimistic. The break-even point, when phase-contrast CT outperforms attenuation CT, is within reach even with realistic, nonperfect gratings. Further improvements to state-of-the-art clinical CT scanners, like increasing the spatial resolution, could change the balance in favor of phase-contrast computed tomography

  17. Valuation of investments in natural resources using contingent-claim framework with application to bituminous coal developments in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As Brennan and Schwartz [Brennan M, Schwartz E. Evaluating natural resource investment. Journal of Business 1985;58:135-57] point out in their pioneering work, the valuation of natural resources projects is particularly difficult due to the high degree of uncertainty in output prices of resources. In general, there are two competing procedures to evaluate risky projects in natural resources developments. One is decision analytic, based on traditional discounted cash flow and stochastic dynamic programming [Fleten SE, Maribu KM, Wangensteen I. Optimal investment strategies in decentralized renewable power generation under uncertainty. Energy 2007;32:803-15; Smith J, McCardle K. Valuing oil properties: integrating option pricing and decision analysis approaches. Operations Research 1998;46(2):198-217; Szklo AS, Carneiro JTG, Machado G. Break-even price for upstream activities in Brazil: evaluation of the opportunity cost of oil production delay in a non-mature sedimentary production region. Energy 2008;33:589-600], and the other is contingent claims analysis, based on the no-arbitrage theory of financial markets [Brennan M, Schwartz E. Evaluating natural resource investment. Journal of Business 1985;58:135-57; Emhjellen M, Alaouze CM. A comparison of discounted cash flow and modern asset pricing methods - project selection and policy implications. Energy Policy 2003;31:1213-20; Laughton D. The management of flexibility in the upstream petroleum industry. The Energy Journal 1998;19:83-114; Paddock L, Siegel D, Smith J. Option valuation of claims on real assets: the case of offshore petroleum leases. Quarterly Journal of Economics 1988;103(3):479-508; Schwartz ES. Valuing long-term commodity assets. Journal of Energy Finance and Development 1998;3(2):85-99; Sezgen O, Goldman CA, Krishnarao P. Option value of electricity demand response. Energy 2007;32:108-19]. In this paper, we use the second approach to develop a new model, and the main contributions are providing a

  18. Economic evaluation of stall stocking density of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, Albert; Dechassa, Hailegziabher; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-05-01

    An increase in stall stocking density (SSD), as measured by the number of lactating cows per stall in a freestall barn, reduces cow performance, such as milk yield and fertility, but may increase farm profitability. Our objectives were to calculate effects of varying SSD on profit per stall for a range of effects on cow performances and external farm factors and store results in regression metamodels. The literature on quantified effects of SSD on cow performance that directly affects cash flow was found to be weak. We assumed effects of SSD on milk yield, probability of conception, and probability of culling. External farm factors were probability of insemination, feed price, and milk price. A herd budget-simulation model was used which mimics the performance of cows in a herd and calculates profit per stall per year and other results. The SSD varied from 100 (no overstocking) to 150% (severe overstocking) in steps of 10%. Sensitivity analyses for effects of SSD on cow performance and effects of external farm factors were performed. Three regression metamodels were developed. The first metamodel accurately predicted profitability at 100% SSD for all variations in the external farm factors. Optimal SSD varied from 100 to 150% SSD, depending on the combination of inputs, and was very sensitive to changes in the size of the milk loss and milk and feed prices. Average optimal SSD of all 2,187 combinations of inputs was 120% SSD and average maximum increase in profit was $99/stall per year. Of the 2,187 combinations of inputs, 18% were ascending (maximum increase in profit >150% SSD), 33% were descending (maximum profit at 100% SSD), and 50% had a maximum increase in profit between 100 and 150% SSD. The second metamodel accurately captured changes in profit for all combinations of biological and external inputs and SSD. A third metamodel captured breakeven daily milk losses which would result in the same profit as at 100% SSD given the same external farm factors. In

  19. Simulation of off-grid generation options for remote villages in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Off-grid generation options have been simulated for remote villages in Cameroon using a load of 110 kWh/day and 12 kWp. The energy costs of proposed options were simulated using HOMER, a typical village load profile, the solar resource of Garoua and the flow of river Mungo. For a 40% increase in the cost of imported power system components, the cost of energy was found to be 0.296 EUR/kWh for a micro-hydro hybrid system comprising a 14 kW micro-hydro generator, a 15 kW LPG generator and 36 kWh of battery storage. The cost of energy for photovoltaic (PV) hybrid systems made up of an 18 kWp PV generator, a 15 kW LPG generator and 72 kWh of battery storage was also found to be 0.576 EUR/kWh for remote petrol price of 1 EUR/l and LPG price of 0.70 EUR/m3. The micro-hydro hybrid system proved to be the cheapest option for villages located in the southern parts of Cameroon with a flow rate of at least 200l/s, while the PV hybrid system was the cheapest option for villages in the northern parts of Cameroon with an insolation level of at least 5.55 kWh/m2/day. For a single-wire grid extension cost of 5000 EUR/km, operation and maintenance costs of 125 EUR/yr/km and a local grid power price of 0.1 EUR/kWh, the breakeven grid extension distances were found to be 15.4 km for micro-hydro/LPG generator systems and 37.4 km for PV/LPG generator systems respectively. These results could be used in Cameroon's National Energy Action Plan for the provision of energy services in the key sectors involved in the fight against poverty. (author)

  20. Impact of different national biomass policies on investment costs of biomass district heating plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    The BIO-COST project - co-ordinated by E.V.A. - was funded by the European Commission's THERMIE Type B Programme. The objective of BIO-COST was to analyse the impact of national biomass policies on the investment costs of biomass district heating (DH) plants. The European comparison should help identifying measures to reduce investment costs for biomass DH plants and/or components down to a 'best practice' level. The investigation is based on the comparison of 20 biomass DH plants by country, with Denmark and Sweden having mainly high energy taxes as driver, while Austria and France rely mainly on subsidy systems. The results of BIO-COST show, that governmental policies can have a big impact especially on grid and buildings costs, effecting of course the overall costs of the plant enormously. Emission standards have their effects especially on the costs for technical equipment, however, this fact was not reflected in the BIO-COST data. The results do not show a clear advantage of either the energy tax approach or the subsidy approach: The French subsidy approach leads to fairly low cost levels compared to the Danish tax approach, while the Swedish tax approach seems to yield the lowest cost level. On the other hand the Austrian subsidy approach seems to intercrease investment costs. In principle both the tax as the subsidy approach can lead to the same effect: a project is calculated in such a way, that it just meets economic breakeven. This is typically the case when the project is not carried out by a private enterprise but by an operator aiming at enhanced public welfare (e.g. co-operative, municipality). In this case a subsidy model might yield more possibilities to encourage an economically efficient development, than a tax. Instead of giving subsidies as a fixed percentage of investments they could be adjusted to the actual needs of the project as proven by a standardised calculation. Of course this can create the incentive to expect higher

  1. 引入担保机构破解中小企业融资难:基于期权策略的机制设计%A Solution to SMEs Financing Difficulty by the Introduction of Guarantee Institutions:Mechanism Design Based on Option Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛世杰; 周远游; 刘莉亚

    2016-01-01

    SMEs financing difficulty is a problem that needs to be solved urgently. This paper points out that the introduction of policy-related guarantee institutions is an ef-ficient solution to SMEs financing difficulty.It firstly builds a three-party theoretical mod-el connected with policy-related guarantee institutions,commercial banks and SMEs,and creatively copes with the matching of risks and revenues through options combination strategy.Then it employs numerical simulation methods to analyze the feasibility of the guarantee of SMEs loans by policy-related guarantee institutions in the aspects like scenar-io analysis and breakeven calculation.It arrives at the following conclusion that in most ca-ses,it is feasible that policy-related guarantee institutions provide the guarantee of SMEs loans.In addition,it also shows that under marketized guarantee industry,SMEs finan-cing costs significantly decrease compared with current constraints.It argues that based on the accelerated advance of marketization orientation in guarantee industry,the guarantee of SMEs loans by policy-related guarantee institutions under options combination mechanism is a solution to SMEs financing difficulty.%中小企业融资难是当前亟待解决的问题。文章认为引入政策性担保机构是解决中小企业融资难问题的有效方法。文章首先构建了政策性担保、银行和中小企业的三方理论模型,并创新性地通过期权组合策略来解决风险收益匹配问题,同时利用数值模拟方法,从情景分析和盈亏平衡点测算等方面对政策性担保机构为中小企业贷款提供担保进行了可行性分析。结果表明:在大多数情况下,政策性担保机构对中小企业贷款提供担保是可行的;此外,文章还发现:在担保行业市场化的条件下,中小企业的融资成本相比现行约束条件下的情形有了显著降低。文章认为:在加快推进担保行业市场化导向的基础上,

  2. Eligibility of the Ambidexter nuclear complex for a generation IV nuclear power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the international workshop on Generation IV Nuclear Power systems, held in Crystal City, Virginia on January 27-28, 2000, attended government officials from nine nations reached a consensus view on the next generation technologies that are more proliferation-resistant, safe and economical and that should be developed in concert with future nuclear fuel cycles. Indeed, more than 90% of present nuclear power plants in the world are subject to the water-cooled reactor technology that is inherently bound by these compulsory requirements. Aiming at a long-term substitute for the conventional nuclear technologies, the innovative concept of the AMBIDEXTER (Advanced Molten-salt Break-even Inherently-safe Dual-missioning EXperimental and TEst Reactor) nuclear complex has been proposed for design development. The purpose of this paper is to review and discuss its design features particularly in respect of the eligibility for a Generation IV nuclear power system. Taking advantages of utilizing the liquefied fuel that continuously circulates in the reactor system, the integral and passive system concept embodies the design principle that the heat and radioactive materials generated by nuclear reactions should be separated as early as possible from their birth-place and be transported as effectively as possible to the termini of their life in the complex. All the reactor equipment including the core, heat exchangers and recirculation jet pumps are deployed in the reactor vessel. The intermediate heat transport system ensures physical separation between the reactor system and the energy conversion systems. Small size piping connections on the reactor vessel periphery are provided for delivering about 10% of the irradiated fuel salt flow to the chemical processing units. The composition of 7LiF-BeF2-ThF4-233UF4 fuel material was optimized for the core design to simultaneously satisfy the criticality and the conversion ratio requirements for the self

  3. 名义账户制下我国社会养老保险设计研究%Research on the Design of Social Pension Insurance of China under the National Account System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振军

    2015-01-01

    本文采用名义账户制就我国社会养老保险进行了设计研究,并根据设计方案构建了个人账户资金支付模型,在对相关参数取值的基础上就名义账户制下我国社会养老保险的待遇标准和财务收支状况进行了测算分析。分析结果表明:名义账户制下我国社会养老保险设计方案在降低了工作单位投保费率的同时提升了社会养老保险的待遇标准,在收支相抵的情况下还有一定的基金积累,并且资金结余率完全能够自动调节社会养老保险的短期财政平衡。鉴于我国社会养老保险在转制中存在着较高的成本风险,且名义账户制能够有效减缓社会养老保险在体制转型中的各种风险影响。本文试图为我国社会养老保险的成功转型提供一些理论研究和实证分析的建议,以利于我国社会养老保险的可持续发展。%We research on the design of social pension insurance system of China used notional account in this paper ,and constructed personal account funds paid model according to the design of social pension insurance ,calculated the standard of treatment and financial status of China’s social pension insurance system based on the values of the relevant parameters under the notional account. The results showed that:scheme designed of China’s social pension insurance to reduce the workplace insurance rates while improving the standard of treatment of social pension insurance under the notional account ,there is a certain break-even accumulation funds,and fund balance rates are able to automatically adjust the rates of short-term finan-cial balance of social pension insurance. In view of China’s social pension insurance has a higher risk in the restructuring costs,and the notional account system can effectively reduce the impact of social pension insurance risks in the transformation system. We are trying to provide some suggestions theoretical and empirical

  4. Integration of nuclear energy into oil sands projects - HTR2008-58239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    support further study. A single 500 MWth PBMR reactor is able to supply high-pressure steam for a 40, 000 to 60, 000 bpd Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) plant, whereas the CANDU and ACR reactors are unable to produce sufficient steam pressures to be practical in that application. The CANDU, ACR and PBMR reactors have potential for supplying heat and electricity for surface mining operations. The primary environmental benefit of nuclear energy in this application is to reduce CO2 emissions by up to 3.1 million metric tons per year for each 100, 000 barrel per day (bpd) bitumen production SAGD facility, or 2.0 million metric tons per year for the replacement of 700 MWe of grid electricity with a nuclear power plant. Should carbon emissions be priced, the economic advantages of nuclear energy would be dramatically improved such that with a $50/ton CO2e at the releases expected for typical projects using natural gas, breakeven gas prices for nuclear drop to less than $3.50/MMBtu, well below the current natural gas price of $10/MMBtu for SAGD steam production. (authors)

  5. Three essays in transportation energy and environmental policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiamiri, Sara

    Concerns about climate change, dependence on oil, and unstable gasoline prices have led to significant efforts by policymakers to cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and oil consumption. The transportation sector is one of the principle emitters of CO2 in the US. It accounts for two-thirds of total U.S. oil consumption and is almost entirely dependent on oil. Within the transportation sector, the light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet is the main culprit. It is responsible for more than 65 percent of the oil used and for more than 60 percent of total GHG emissions. If a significant fraction of the LDV fleet is gradually replaced by more fuel-efficient technologies, meaningful reductions in GHG emissions and oil consumption will be achieved. This dissertation investigates the potential benefits and impacts of deploying more fuel-efficient vehicles in the LDV fleet. Findings can inform decisions surrounding the development and deployment of the next generation of LDVs. The first essay uses data on 2003 and 2006 model gasoline-powered passenger cars, light trucks and sport utility vehicles to investigate the implicit private cost of improving vehicle fuel efficiencies through reducing other desired attributes such as weight (that is valued for its perceived effect on personal safety) and horsepower. Breakeven gasoline prices that would justify the estimated implicit costs were also calculated. It is found that to justify higher fuel efficiency standards from a consumer perspective, either the external benefits need to be very large or technological advances will need to greatly reduce fuel efficiency costs. The second essay estimates the private benefits and societal impacts of electric vehicles. The findings from the analysis contribute to policy deliberations on how to incentivize the purchase and production of these vehicles. A spreadsheet model was developed to estimate the private benefits and societal impacts of purchasing and utilizing three electric vehicle

  6. Towards worldwide harmonization of radioecology networks: IUR initiates the 'FORUM' - Towards worldwide harmonization of radioecology networks: an initiative of the International Union of Radioecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechignac, F. [International Union of Radioecology (IUR) and Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Direction General, Centre of Cadarache, Bldg 229, BP 1, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance cedex (France); Bollhoefer, A. [South Pacific Environmental Radioactivity Association (SPERA) and Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist, Department of the Environment, Darwin, NT 0810 (Australia); Frogg, K.E.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Higley, K. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Health Physics, Oregon State University, 100 Radiation Center, Corvallis, OR 97331-5902 (United States); Hinton, T. [Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Centre of Cadarache, BP 1, 13115 St Paul-lez- Durance cedex (France); Kapustka, L. [LK Consultancy, P.O. Box 373, Turner Valley, Alberta (Canada); Kuhne, W. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Leonard, K.S. [Cefas, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, Suffolk, NR33 0HT (United Kingdom); Masson, O. [Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Centre of Cadarache, Bldg 153, BP 1, 13115 St Paul-lez- Durance cedex (France); Nanba, K. [Institute of Environmental Radioactivity, Fukushima University, 1 Kanayagawa, Fukushima, Fukushima 960- 1296 (Japan); Smith, G. [GMS Abingdon Ltd, Tamarisk, Radley Road, Abingdon, OX14 3PP (United Kingdom); Smith, K. [RadEcol Consulting Ltd, Fell View, Middletown, Cumbria, CA22 2UG (United Kingdom); Vandenhove, H. [SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Institute of Environment Health and Safety, Radiological Impact and Performance Assessment, Boeretang, 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Yankovich, T. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, Vienna International Centre, PO Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Yoshida, S. [Fukushima Project Headquarters, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 263-8555, Chiba-shi (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Many specialized networks have been designed in the past years to meet specific radioecological objectives, whether regional or sectorial (purpose-oriented). Regional networks deal with an array of radioecological issues related to their territories, such as waste problems, environmental modelling, prevention of impacts, regulation, etc- In Europe, a network of excellence in radioecology has been set up in order to design a strategic research agenda. It is currently being expected to become part of a European platform for radiation protection. Sectorial networks are more problem-oriented, often with wider international representativeness, but restricted to one specific issue like waste, low-level atmospheric contamination, etc. Other kind of sectorial networks result from international agreements for wide environment surveillance. IUR, founded on its large and long-existing international representation, with a current membership spread in nearly 60 countries worldwide, has now identified the need to bridge all such regional and/or sectorial networks together in order to promote the emergence of a worldwide coordinated development process for radioecology. This is especially warranted at a breakeven period where nuclear industry is starting, or expected, to spread beyond the small historical club of nuclearized countries in response to growing energetic demands throughout the world. Furthermore, with more than 30 years of existence, IUR with its dedicated task groups has a long tradition of promoting recommendations on the scientific needs to advance radioecology. In consequence, the construction of a process for worldwide international harmonization of R and D programmes and efforts is becoming highly desirable. This harmonization process would have the objectives to optimize efficiency, avoid duplications, optimize efficient exploitation of existing infrastructures, support harmonised and coherent regulatory developments, help the development of well informed

  7. Electricity and fluid fuels from biomass and coal using advanced technologies: a cost comparison for developing country applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    prospectively lower than with present-day coal-fuelled steam electric power generation using flue gas desulphurization, while sulphur emissions would be much lower. Assuming costs for plantation-grown biomass based on commercial plantation practice in Brazil, it is shown that the break-even coal price is lower that the cost of coal projected by the World Bank for many developing countries for the year 2005. For fluid fuels, a comparison is made between biomass and coal as feedstocks for the production of methanol and H2. These fuels are the energy carriers of choice for vehicles based on fuel cell technologies. Fuel cell technology for transport applications is rapidly advancing, and fuel cell buses have already been demonstrated and will be available commercially before 2000; fuel cells could be available for automotive applications in the period 2005-2010. The main attractions of fuel cell vehicles for developing countries are their favourable emissions characteristics (zero or near-zero pollutant emissions without the need for control technologies), their high fuel economy (energy requirements per kilometre are just one third to one half those for internal combustion engine vehicles) and their energy supply diversity advantages (natural gas, biomass and coal can be used at fuel costs per kilometre that are prospectively competitive with costs for petroleum). As in the case of power generation, it is shown that methanol and H2 derived from plantation-grown biomass have good prospects for being competitive with coal-derived methanol and H2 in many regions, assuming biomass prices based on Brazilian experience with commercial plantations and World Bank projections of coal prices for developing countries. (author)

  8. Retrospect and prospects of edible oil and bio-diesel in Pakistan - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Globally resources of petro-fuels are diminishing at a rapid rate. Efforts are underway to develop sources of bio-fuels. Out of the known sources of bio-fuels, Jatropha is one of the most promising option. The purpose of this study was to evaluate primarily the regional and global experiences to assess the potential of Jatropha farming in Pakistan and to conduct a comparative economic analysis of alternate feasible options e.g. production of oilseeds, which are also being imported in large quantities. Temporal analysis (1950-09) for edible oil consumption, production and imports is made. Projections for edible oil are worked out up to 2030. As there have been large variations in yield of Jatropha reported by various studies conducted in India and other countries, therefore most reliable data have been selected for analysis to assess the prospects in Pakistan. Comparative economic analysis is made in terms of oil contents, number of crops per year, yield and gross returns of oilseed crops and Jatropha. Analysis shows that increase in production of edible oil over the time is negligible against the large increase in requirement resulted in higher production gap being filled through imports. Projections made for edible oils illustrated that production gap is going to be wider, which is currently 1.86 million tonnes (mt) and projected to be 3.4 mt by 2030. Jatropha seed production analysis of water-yield functions revealed that yield varies from 1.1 t ha/sup -1/ in drought or dry spells to 12.75 t ha/sup -1/ with full irrigation in favorable environments. Benefit-cost analysis shows that break-even point can be achieved in fourth year of plantation of Jatropha. The projected consumption in Pakistan for petro-fuel for 2025 is 35.1 mt, which is almost double of the current consumption. Thus, the target projections for replacement of petro-fuel with bio-diesel will be 3.51 mt for which 3.5 mha of land is required, as Jatropha has to be grown in marginal areas with

  9. Assessment of the potential of biomethane produced from the French municipal sludge. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To achieve the goals of renewable energy production by 23% in 2020 and by 32% in 2030 (Law project on energy transition), the French Government is committed to strongly support all the local renewable energy sectors and in particular the anaerobic digestion. This sector can recycle organic waste into renewable energy while respecting local needs and issues. The objective of this study is to consider the potential of biomethane injectable into the gas grid from Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) sludge in 2020 and in 2050. Wastewater is all sewage from the population but also industrial and commercial activities. The wastewater treatment can be achieved collectively in a wastewater treatment plant or individually (independent sanitation). The organic pollution in wastewater is usually expressed in Population Equivalent. Metropolitan France has 19,521 active wastewater treatment plants (data from portal sanitation, 2014) out of which 85 currently have an anaerobic digestion plant on site for sludge treatment. The entire theoretical methanogenic potential from all the sludge WWTP is 2.13 TWh/year. To estimate the wastewater treatment plants liable to digest sludge, the approach used in this study is to determine the breakeven points of an anaerobic digestion plant installed on different sectors-types of wastewater treatment. The different ways of biogas recovery are sized and compared. It is considered that a case is profitable if its internal rate of return is at least 10 % (compared to a reference case). This approach is characterized by: - A literature review of technical and economic characteristics of the various treatments found at a WWTP including anaerobic digestion and biogas recovery associated, - A return of experience and collect of opinions from various experts in the field of sanitation, - A technical and economic analysis of the various defined cases in relation to a reference case (without anaerobic digestion plant). According to the technical and

  10. Fusion in a staged Z-pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, F. J.; Rahman, H. U.; Ney, P.; Valenzuela, J.; Beg, F.; McKee, E.; Darling, T.

    2016-03-01

    . Instability develops at the interface, as the plasma decelerates, which promotes the formation of target-hot spots. Early experiments provide evidence for the magneto-inertial implosion [8, 9, 10]. Studies underway are designed to verify these predictions on the National Terawatt Facility, Zebra Generator, located at the University of Nevada, Reno. Simulations for an unmagnetized, silver-plasma liner imploding onto a deuterium-tritium plasma target, driven by a 200 TW generator, predict fusion beyond break-even, with a 200 MJ yield in an ignited plasma, with an engineering gain factor of, G = Efusion/Estored˜20.

  11. 不同目标条件下收费公路规制效应的比较%Comparison of toll road regulation effects under different goal conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊建强; 徐海成

    2014-01-01

    为了比较不同目标条件下的规制措施对收费公路经济变量的影响,应用福利经济学和规制经济学基本理论,构建了不同目标条件下的收费公路规制模型,通过仿真计算,比较了5种不同规制模型中主要经济变量的差异。分析结果表明:无规制前提下追求社会福利最大化目标容易导致企业亏损;收支均衡前提下追求社会福利最大化目标会使通行费价格提高;无规制前提下追求利润最大化的目标会导致收费公路通行能力下降,社会福利水平减小;交通量规制和通行成本规制前提下追求利润最大化目标既有助于提高社会福利水平,同时也有利于增加企业利润。收费公路的社会福利最大化目标和企业利润最大化目标难以同时实现,但是政府规制前提下的特许经营模式有利于协调两大目标之间的差异。%In order to compare the influences of regulation measures on the economic variables of toll roads under different goals,the regulation models of toll roads under different goals were built by using the basic theories of welfare economics and regulation economics, and the differences of maj or economic variables in five different regulation models were compared by simulation calculation.Analysis result shows that it is easy to lead to business losses under the objective of social welfare maximization with no regulation.The toll price will increase under the objective of social welfare maximization with a breakeven on the finance of toll road.The road capacity and social welfare will decrease under the obj ective of profit maximization with no regulation.It is helpful to increase not only social welfare but also corporate profit under the objective of profit maximization with traffic volume regulation and travel cost regulation.The obj ectives of social welfare maximization and profit maximization are difficult to be achieved at the same time,but it is helpful

  12. MAIZE COSTS AND PROFITABILITY ACCORDING TO SOIL MANAGEMENT AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION CUSTOS E RENTABILIDADE DO MILHO EM FUNÇÃO DO MANEJO DO SOLO E DA ADUBAÇÃO NITROGENADA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Gonçalves Vilela

    2009-12-01

    8. The total operating cost (TOC, gross revenue (GR, operating profit (OP, profitability index (PI, break-even yield, and break-even price were estimated. It was concluded that the no-tillage system, after 11 years of management, associated with nitrogen fertilization promotes positive PI and OP, being useful to farmers.

    KEY-WORDS: Zea mays; production cost; no-tillage; conventional tillage.

    Práticas agronômicas que ajudem o agricultor a elevar a produtividade e diminuir os custos de produção devem ser estudadas para garantir a sustentabilidade agrícola. Assim, o objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar, economicamente, o efeito do manejo do solo e do nitrogênio, na cultura do milho. Os tratamentos foram constituídos pela combinação de 3 manejos do solo (grade pesada + grade niveladora, escarificador + grade niveladora e plantio direto e 5 épocas de aplicação de nitrogênio (testemunha sem N; 120 kg ha-1 logo após a semeadura (S; 120 kg ha-1 no estádio V6; 30 kg ha-1 (S + 90 kg ha-1 em V6; 30 kg ha-1

  13. Modeling, Analysis, and Control of Demand Response Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, Johanna L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    variability in response. We find that, in general, baseline model error is large. Though some facilities exhibit real DR variability, most observed variability results from baseline model error. In some cases, however, aggregations of C&I facilities exhibit real DR variability, which could create challenges for power system operation. These results have implications for DR program design and deployment. Emerging DR paradigms focus on faster timescale DR. Here, we investigate methods to coordinate aggregations of residential thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs), including air conditioners and refrigerators, to manage frequency and energy imbalances in power systems. We focus on opportunities to centrally control loads with high accuracy but low requirements for sensing and communications infrastructure. Specifically, we compare cases when measured load state information (e.g., power consumption and temperature) is 1) available in real time; 2) available, but not in real time; and 3) not available. We develop Markov Chain models to describe the temperature state evolution of heterogeneous populations of TCLs, and use Kalman filtering for both state and joint parameter/state estimation. We present a look-ahead proportional controller to broadcast control signals to all TCLs, which always remain in their temperature dead-band. Simulations indicate that it is possible to achieve power tracking RMS errors in the range of 0.26–9.3% of steady state aggregated power consumption. Results depend upon the information available for system identification, state estimation, and control. We find that, depending upon the performance required, TCLs may not need to provide state information to the central controller in real time or at all. We also estimate the size of the TCL potential resource; potential revenue from participation in markets; and break-even costs associated with deploying DR-enabling technologies. We find that current TCL energy storage capacity in California is 8–11

  14. Phase 1A Final Report for the AREVA Team Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrell, Mike E. [AREVA Federal Services LLC, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2015-03-19

    In response to the Department of Energy (DOE) funded initiative to develop and deploy lead fuel assemblies (LFAs) of Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuel (EATF) into a US reactor within 10 years, AREVA put together a team to develop promising technologies for improved fuel performance during off normal operations. This team consisted of the University of Florida (UF) and the University of Wisconsin (UW), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), Duke Energy and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). This team brought broad experience and expertise to bear on EATF development. AREVA has been designing; manufacturing and testing nuclear fuel for over 50 years and is one of the 3 large international companies supplying fuel to the nuclear industry. The university and National Laboratory team members brought expertise in nuclear fuel concepts and materials development. Duke and TVA brought practical utility operating experience. This report documents the results from the initial “discovery phase” where the team explored options for EATF concepts that provide enhanced accident tolerance for both Design Basis (DB) and Beyond Design Basis Events (BDB). The main driver for the concepts under development were that they could be implemented in a 10 year time frame and be economically viable and acceptable to the nuclear fuel marketplace. The economics of fuel design make this DOE funded project very important to the nuclear industry. Even incremental changes to an existing fuel design can cost in the range of $100M to implement through to LFAs. If this money is invested evenly over 10 years then it can take the fuel vendor several decades after the start of the project to recover their initial investment and reach a breakeven point on the initial investment. Step or radical changes to a fuel assembly design can cost upwards of $500M and will take even longer for the fuel vendor to recover their investment. With the projected lifetimes of the current generation of nuclear power