WorldWideScience

Sample records for breakeven

  1. BREAKEVEN DETERMINATION IN ENTREPRENEURIAL DECISION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Severian\tVlăduț\tIACOB

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Entrepreneurship has remote origins and is powered by entrepreneur’s action in response to meeting the needs and aspirations that they have. Putting into practice the ambitions of entrepreneurs is done by demonstrating personal skills in taking advantage of opportunities and / or ideas in business. To launch and maintain market businesses, entrepreneurs need not only the flair and ideas, but also a strong entrepreneurial education. On the one hand, it enables them to understand changes in the competitive environment, on the other hand, to find solutions to support the business. The faster and more robust decisions of entrepreneurs are, the greater will be their chances of success in the business arena. Moreover, in the era of information technology, entrepreneurial decision is inconceivable without recourse to calculations from the use of mathematical models or without the use of various simulation techniques. By developing this material is intended to show that the mathematical model of breakeven is a useful and efficient tool in the entrepreneur decision to start a business.

  2. Breakeven Prices for Photovoltaics on Supermarkets in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ong, S.; Clark, N.; Denholm, P.; Margolis, R.

    2013-03-01

    The photovoltaic (PV) breakeven price is the PV system price at which the cost of PV-generated electricity equals the cost of electricity purchased from the grid. This point is also called 'grid parity' and can be expressed as dollars per watt ($/W) of installed PV system capacity. Achieving the PV breakeven price depends on many factors, including the solar resource, local electricity prices, customer load profile, PV incentives, and financing. In the United States, where these factors vary substantially across regions, breakeven prices vary substantially across regions as well. In this study, we estimate current and future breakeven prices for PV systems installed on supermarkets in the United States. We also evaluate key drivers of current and future commercial PV breakeven prices by region. The results suggest that breakeven prices for PV systems installed on supermarkets vary significantly across the United States. Non-technical factors -- including electricity rates, rate structures, incentives, and the availability of system financing -- drive break-even prices more than technical factors like solar resource or system orientation. In 2020 (where we assume higher electricity prices and lower PV incentives), under base-case assumptions, we estimate that about 17% of supermarkets will be in utility territories where breakeven conditions exist at a PV system price of $3/W; this increases to 79% at $1.25/W (the DOE SunShot Initiative's commercial PV price target for 2020). These percentages increase to 26% and 91%, respectively, when rate structures favorable to PV are used.

  3. Break-even Analyses for Random Production and Demand Processes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Marcus Schweitzer

    2002-01-01

    Break-even analyses are often used as controlling instruments. Typically, they are applied to support decision processes or to gain information for the control of profits and sales. Firstly, the study gives an overview of the basic accounting systems. Secondly, the study shows possible ways of performing break-even analyses for a single-stage, make-to-order production in the case of random production and demand structures. To model these structures, queueing systems are employed. As a general result, we see that break-even analyses must always be performed taking into account an existing planning system. Under practical aspects, GI/G/1 systems turn out to map complex real situations realistically. From the examples given it can be concluded that one achieves different results compared with using a deterministic model even in the case of a simple, random effects approach. In particular, it is shown that stochastic modelling in general is helpful in avoiding incorrect decisions.

  4. BREAK-EVEN IN THE DECISION MAKING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Mihaela IONESCU

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Integrated in a competitive environment, the companies are forced to know better their costs, to determine as precisely as possible the sales prices and the profit margins achievable per product. When the entrepreneurs initiate a new business, invest in a new project or when they supervise the current work, the study of breakeven allows minimizing of the risks and the uncertainties, and also allows measuring the performance of the projects. Break-Even is an indicator that allows the company management to set minimal commercial targets to meet the expenses of the enterprise or that sets the degree of utilization of production capacities in relation to a desired level of profit. It highlights the correlations between the dynamic of production, implicit of income and the dynamic of costs, grouped into variable costs and fixed costs. Used in a prospective fashion, Break-Even allows planning and optimizing of the enterprise's sales and costs, not only short-term but also medium and long term.

  5. Break-even maturity as a guide to financial distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Ellis

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available During the recent crisis, lags in the transmission mechanism of economic shocks, together with monetary and fiscal policy, made it difficult to assess the evolving dynamics of creditworthiness. As such, developments in financial markets became a key guide for investors and policymakers in determining the degree of financial distress that borrowers faced, providing a real-time update of market participants’ views. However, simple measures of borrowing costs such as secondary market yields typically ignore differences in debt maturities and hence refinancing risks. This paper describes a new indicator of financial distress – the break-even maturity – that combines these factors. Using financial market data for euro area countries, the break-even maturity is shown to provide an alternative perspective on the absolute and relative risks associated with different borrowers that is distinct from the standard metrics gleaned from bond yields or credit-default swaps. As such, while break-even maturities are ultimately theoretical constructs, they can offer a valuable alternative perspective on how the financing pressures facing distressed borrowers are evolving in real-time.

  6. Break-Even Cost for Residential Photovoltaics in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R. M.; Ong, S.; Roberts, B.

    2009-12-01

    Grid parity--or break-even cost--for photovoltaic (PV) technology is defined as the point where the cost of PV-generated electricity equals the cost of electricity purchased from the grid. Break-even cost is expressed in $/W of an installed system. Achieving break-even cost is a function of many variables. Consequently, break-even costs vary by location and time for a country, such as the United States, with a diverse set of resources, electricity prices, and other variables. In this report, we analyze PV break-even costs for U.S. residential customers. We evaluate some key drivers of grid parity both regionally and over time. We also examine the impact of moving from flat to time-of-use (TOU) rates, and we evaluate individual components of the break-even cost, including effect of rate structure and various incentives. Finally, we examine how PV markets might evolve on a regional basis considering the sensitivity of the break-even cost to four major drivers: technical performance, financing parameters, electricity prices and rates, and policies. We find that local incentives rather than ?technical? parameters are in general the key drivers of the break-even cost of PV. Additionally, this analysis provides insight about the potential viability of PV markets.

  7. BREAK-EVEN POINT IN SUGAR-BEET PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilija Nedić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available World sugar consumption has been recording a steady growth in the past 70 years and, according to all relevant estimates, it will continue to grow also in the next decade, which puts sugar in the category of the most significant foods and commodities in the world. Of the total world sugar production, around 77% is derived from sugar cane and 23% from sugar beet. Brazil has been the world leader in sugar production for a long period of time, producing white sugar from sugar cane only, whereas the leader in the production of sugar derived from sugar beet is the EU-28. When the Republic of Croatia joined the EU, the Croatian sugar industry became part of the single European sugar market, so the break-even point was used in the research to determine the competitiveness level of the Croatian sugar beet production. Based on the expected selling price of sugar beet amounting to EUR 34 per ton of standard quality sugar beet, and using the break-even method, it was determined that the quantity required to cover total costs in sugar beet production in the Republic of Croatia amounts to 55.26 tons per hectare of payable sugar beet, standard quality, i.e. 8.84 tons of polarized sugar per hectare. As the average sugar beet production in the Republic of Croatia, expressed in the equivalent of polarized sugar, amounts to 7.8 tons per hectare, it is obvious that an average Croatian producer of sugar beet, without income from subsidies, operates at a loss.

  8. BREAK-EVEN ANALYSIS (BEA IN EGG PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Deže

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available A conducted research analyzes two systems of egg production, the conventional, commercial egg production and the egg production with a higher nutritive value - PUFA n-3 enriched eggs. Financial result of eggs production with PUFA n-3 is significantly higher than that of the conventional production - profitability of the conventional production was 19.29% and the one with PUFA n-3 enriched eggs 36.10%. It is, therefore, important to evaluate the efficiency of the use of capital based on the profitability of capital that is in the conventional egg production 23.9%, and in the production of PUFA n-3 enriched eggs 56.1%. According to the results of investigation, it is necessary to produce 258 eggs in the conventional egg production, whereas in the production of enrichments eggs with PUFA n-3 breakeven point (BEP is lower and amounts 204 eggs per laying hen per year. A higher cover rate with a difference of 10% (42.99±53.07 confirms that the production of enrichments eggs with PUFA n-3 is economically more efficient.

  9. Nationwide Analysis of U.S. Commercial Building Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Breakeven Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gagnon, Pieter [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Denholm, Paul [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The commercial sector offers strong potential for solar photovoltaics (PV) owing to abundant available roof space suitable for PV and the opportunity to offset the sector's substantial retail electricity purchases. This report evaluated the breakeven price of PV for 15 different building types and various financing options by calculating electricity savings based on detailed rate structures for most U.S. utility territories (representing approximately two thirds of U.S. commercial customers). We find that at current capital costs, an estimated 1/3 of U.S. commercial customers break even in the cash scenario and approximately 2/3 break even in the loan scenario. Variation in retail rates is a stronger driver of breakeven prices than is variation in building load or solar generation profiles. At the building level, variation in the average breakeven price is largely driven by the ability for a PV system to reduce demand charges.

  10. Breakeven prices for recording of indicator traits to reduce the environmental impact of milk production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Axelsson, Helen Hansen; Thomasen, Jørn Rind; Sørensen, Anders Christian;

    2015-01-01

    A breeding scheme using genomic selection and an indicator trait for environmental impact (EI) was studied to find the most effective recording strategy in terms of annual monetary genetic gain and breakeven price for the recording of indicator traits. The breakeven price shows the investment space...... for developing a recording system for an indicator trait. The breeding goal consisted of three traits – milk production, functional trait and environmental impact – with economic values of €83, €82 and €−83, respectively. The first scenario included only breeding goal traits and no indicator traits (No...

  11. Precision Agriculture Equipment Ownership versus Custom Hire: A Break-even Land Area Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gandonou, Jean-Marc; Dillon, Carl; Shearer, Scott; Stombaugh, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Identifying the least-cost strategy of obtaining a technology is important. This study determined the break-even cropped area necessary to economically justify the purchase of Precision Agriculture (PA) equipment versus the custom hiring of the PA services. The results suggest that a commercial Kentucky grain farmers would purchase the PA equipment.

  12. Energy analysis and break-even distance for transportation for biofuels in comparison to fossil fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the present analysis various forms fuel from biomass and fossil sources, their mass and energy densities, and their break-even transportation distances to transport them effectively were analyzed. This study gives an insight on how many times more energy spent on transporting the fuels to differe...

  13. Tritium Burn-up Depth and Tritium Break-Even Time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Cheng-Yue; DENG Bai-Quan; HUANG Jin-Hua; YAN Jian-Cheng

    2006-01-01

    @@ Similarly to but quite different from the xenon poisoning effects resulting from fission-produced iodine during the restart-up process of a fission reactor, we introduce a completely new concept of the tritium burn-up depth and tritium break-even time in the fusion energy research area. To show what the least required amount of tritium storage is used to start up a fusion reactor and how long a time the fusion reactor needs to be operated for achieving the tritium break-even during the initial start-up phase due to the finite tritium breeding time that is dependent on the tritium breeder, specific structure of breeding zone, layout of coolant flow pipe, tritium recovery scheme, extraction process, the tritium retention of reactor components, unrecoverable tritium fraction in breeder, leakage to the inertial gas container, and the natural decay etc., we describe this new phenomenon and answer this problem by setting up and by solving a set of equations, which express a dynamic subsystem model of the tritium inventory evolution in a fusion experimental breeder (FEB). It is found that the tritium burn-up depth is 317g and the tritium break-even time is approximately 240 full power days for FEB designed detail configuration and it is also found that after one-year operation, the tritium storage reaches 1.18kg that is more than theleast required amount of tritium storage to start up three of FEB-like fusion reactors.

  14. ESTABLISHMENT FOR BREAKEVEN POINT IN ORGANIC FARMS WHOSE SURFACE IS LESS THAN 5 HECTARES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anișoara CHIHAIA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Organic agriculture is economically viable, respond the exigencies demand for healthy food and high quality is an agriculture which guarantees the protection and enhancement of natural resources in the long term and forward them unaltered future generations. The paper aims to establish breakeven in organic farm with surface less than five hectares farm which benefits from substantial financial compensation. We considered that the relevant calculation method is the calculation of profitability using gross margin calculating for each type of activity on the farm. In the absence of this support the activity in ecological system production would not be profitable one.

  15. Possibilities for breakeven and ignition of D-3He fusion fuel in a near term tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recent realization that the moon contains a large amount of the isotope 3He has rekindled interest in the D-3He fuel cycle. In this study we consider the feasibility of investigating D-3He reactor plasma conditions in a tokamak of the NET/INTOR class. We have found that, depending on the energy confinement scaling law, energy breakeven may be achieved without significant modification to the NET design. The best results are for the more optimistic ASDEX H-mode scaling law. Kaye-Goldston scaling with a modest improvement due to the H-mode is more pessimistic and makes achieving breakeven more difficult. Significant improvement in Q (ratio of the fusion power to the injected power), or the ignition margin, can be achieved by taking advantage of the much reduced neutron production of the D-3He fuel cycle. Removal of the tritium producing blanket and replacing the inboard neutron shield by a thinner shield optimized for the neutron spectrum in D-3He allows the plasma to be increased without changing the magnetic field at the toroidal field magnet. This allows the plasma to achieve higher beta and Q values up to about 3. The implications of D-3He operation for fast ion loss, neutron shielding, heat loads on the first wall and divertor, plasma refuelling, changes to the poloidal field coil system, and pumping of the helium from the vacuum chamber are considered in the report. (orig.)

  16. Class and Homework Problems: The Break-Even Radius of Insulation Computed Using Excel Solver and WolframAlpha

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, Greg

    2014-01-01

    A problem that illustrates two ways of computing the break-even radius of insulation is outlined. The problem is suitable for students who are taking an introductory module in heat transfer or transport phenomena and who have some previous knowledge of the numerical solution of non- linear algebraic equations. The potential for computer algebra,…

  17. Analysis of Reactor Deployment Scenarios with Introduction of SFR Breakeven Reactors and Burners Using DANESS Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young In; Hahn, Do Hee; Won, Byung Chool; Lee, Dong Uk

    2008-01-15

    Using the DANESS code newly employed for future scenario analysis, reactor deployment scenarios with the introduction of sodium cooled fast reactors(SFRs) having different conversion ratios in the existing PWRs dominant nuclear fleet have been analyzed to find the SFR deployment strategy for replacing PWRs with the view of a spent fuel reduction and an efficient uranium utilization through its reuse in a closed nuclear fuel cycle. Descriptions of the DANESS code and how to use are briefly given from the viewpoint of its first application. The use of SFRs and recycling of TRUs by reusing PWR spent fuel leads to the substantial reduction of the amount of PWR spent fuel and environmental burden by decreasing radiotoxicity of high level waste, and a significant improvement on the natural uranium resources utilization. A continuous deployment of burners effectively decreases the amount of PWR spent fuel accumulation, thus lightening the burden for PWR spent fuel management. An introduction of breakeven reactors effectively reduces the uranium demand through producing excess TRU during the operation, thus contributing to a sustainable nuclear power development. With SFR introduction starting in 2040, PWRs will remain as a main power reactor type till 2100 and SFRs will be in support of waste minimization and fuel utilization.

  18. Areva - 2013 annual results: breakeven free operating cash flow objective reached despite a difficult environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Areva group reached a major milestone in 2013 in turning performance around by meeting a key objective of its Action 2016 plan: the return to breakeven of free operating cash flow. For the first time since 2005, cash generated by the Group's operations allowed it to fully fund strategic capital expenditures essential to the group's profitable growth. To achieve this result, Areva built on robust growth in nuclear operations, on contributions from its cost reduction plan and on strict management of capital spending. However, two projects launched in the previous decade (OL3 and a power plant modernization) and the Renewable Energies business impacted negatively the group's 2013 net income. On the Renewable Energies market, in a situation marked by a reduction of capital spending by customers, AREVA anticipated the consolidation required in the sector by implementing industrial partnerships such as the joint venture project with Gamesa, which aims to create a European champion in offshore wind. Similar initiatives were undertaken in solar energy and energy storage. The Group continues to implement the Action 2016 plan to pursue its recovery. While the economic environment remains uncertain and projects launched in the previous decade remain a burden, the Group forecasts further performance improvement and significant growth in cash flow generation by the end of the plan

  19. Preliminary safety analysis for key design features of KALIMER with breakeven core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAERI is currently developing the conceptual design of a Liquid Metal Reactor, KALIMER (Korea Advanced Liquid MEtal Reactor) under the Long-term Nuclear R and D Program. KALIMER addresses key issues regarding future nuclear power plants such as plant safety, economics, proliferation, and waste. In this report, descriptions of safety design features and safety analyses results for selected ATWS accidents for the breakeven core KALIMER are presented. First, the basic approach to achieve the safety goal is introduced in Chapter 1, and the safety evaluation procedure for the KALIMER design is described in Chapter 2. It includes event selection, event categorization, description of design basis events, and beyond design basis events.In Chapter 3, results of inherent safety evaluations for the KALIMER conceptual design are presented. The KALIMER core and plant system are designed to assure benign performance during a selected set of events without either reactor control or protection system intervention. Safety analyses for the postulated anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) have been performed to investigate the KALIMER system response to the events. In Chapter 4, the design of the KALIMER containment dome and the results of its performance analyses are presented. The design of the existing containment and the KALIMER containment dome are compared in this chapter. Procedure of the containment performance analysis and the analysis results are described along with the accident scenario and source terms. Finally, a simple methodology is introduced to investigate the core energetics behavior during HCDA in Chapter 5. Sensitivity analyses have been performed for the KALIMER core behavior during super-prompt critical excursions, using mathematical formulations developed in the framework of the Modified Bethe-Tait method. Work energy potential was then calculated based on the isentropic fuel expansion model

  20. Safety analysis for key design features of KALIMER with breakeven core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KAERI is currently developing the conceptual design of a liquid metal reactor, KALIMER (Korea Advanced Liquid MEtal Reactor) under the Long-term nuclear R and D Program. In this report, key safety design features are described and safety analyses results for typical ATWS accidents in the KALIMER design with breakeven core are presented. First, the basic approach to achieve the safety goal is introduced in chapter 1, and the event categorization and acceptance criteria for the KALIMER safety analysis are described in chapter 2. In chapter 3, results of inherent safety evaluations for the KALIMER conceptual design are presented. Safety analyses for the postulated anticipated transient without scram (ATWS) have been performed using the SSC-K code to investigate the KALIMER system response to the events. They are categorized as Bounding Events (BEs) because of their low probability of occurrence. In chapter 4, the performance analysis results of the KALIMER containment dome are described along with the HCDA accident scenario and source terms. The major containment parameters of peak pressure and peak temperature have been calculated using the CONTAIN-LMR code. Radiological consequence has been evaluated by the MACCS code. Finally, a simple methodology is introduced to investigate the core energetics behavior during HCDA in chapter 5. Sensitivity analyses have been performed for the KALIMER core behavior during super-prompt critical excursions, using SCHAMBETA code developed in the framework of the modified bethe-tait method. Work energy potentials based arising from the sodium expansion as well as the isentropic fuel expansion are then calculated to evaluate the structural integrity of the reactor vessel, reactor internals and primary coolant system of KALIMER

  1. Heat generation above break-even from laser-induced fusion in ultra-dense deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous results from laser-induced processes in ultra-dense deuterium D(0) give conclusive evidence for ejection of neutral massive particles with energy >10 MeV u−1. Such particles can only be formed from nuclear processes like nuclear fusion at the low laser intensity used. Heat generation is of interest for future fusion energy applications and has now been measured by a small copper (Cu) cylinder surrounding the laser target. The temperature rise of the Cu cylinder is measured with an NTC resistor during around 5000 laser shots per measured point. No heating in the apparatus or the gas feed is normally used. The fusion process is suboptimal relative to previously published studies by a factor of around 10. The small neutral particles HN(0) of ultra-dense hydrogen (size of a few pm) escape with a substantial fraction of the energy. Heat loss to the D2 gas (at <1 mbar pressure) is measured and compensated for under various conditions. Heat release of a few W is observed, at up to 50% higher energy than the total laser input thus a gain of 1.5. This is uniquely high for the use of deuterium as fusion fuel. With a slightly different setup, a thermal gain of 2 is reached, thus clearly above break-even for all neutronicity values possible. Also including the large kinetic energy which is directly measured for MeV particles leaving through a small opening gives a gain of 2.3. Taking into account the lower efficiency now due to the suboptimal fusion process, previous studies indicate a gain of at least 20 during long periods

  2. Heat generation above break-even from laser-induced fusion in ultra-dense deuterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leif Holmlid

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Previous results from laser-induced processes in ultra-dense deuterium D(0 give conclusive evidence for ejection of neutral massive particles with energy >10 MeV u−1. Such particles can only be formed from nuclear processes like nuclear fusion at the low laser intensity used. Heat generation is of interest for future fusion energy applications and has now been measured by a small copper (Cu cylinder surrounding the laser target. The temperature rise of the Cu cylinder is measured with an NTC resistor during around 5000 laser shots per measured point. No heating in the apparatus or the gas feed is normally used. The fusion process is suboptimal relative to previously published studies by a factor of around 10. The small neutral particles HN(0 of ultra-dense hydrogen (size of a few pm escape with a substantial fraction of the energy. Heat loss to the D2 gas (at <1 mbar pressure is measured and compensated for under various conditions. Heat release of a few W is observed, at up to 50% higher energy than the total laser input thus a gain of 1.5. This is uniquely high for the use of deuterium as fusion fuel. With a slightly different setup, a thermal gain of 2 is reached, thus clearly above break-even for all neutronicity values possible. Also including the large kinetic energy which is directly measured for MeV particles leaving through a small opening gives a gain of 2.3. Taking into account the lower efficiency now due to the suboptimal fusion process, previous studies indicate a gain of at least 20 during long periods.

  3. Switching to biomass co-firing in European coal power plants: Estimating the biomass and CO 2 breakeven prices

    OpenAIRE

    Bertrand, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the cost of biomass co-firing in European coal power stations. We propose a tractable and original method, that enables us to get expressions of biomass and CO2 breakeven points for co-firing in different types of coal plants. We call them carbon switching price and biomass switching price. They correspond to carbon and biomass prices that make coal plants equally attractive under co-firing or classical conditions (i.e. when coal is the only input). The carbon switchin...

  4. Analysis of economic break-even point of the biogas utilization for electrical power conversion: case study in a swine terminated unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aimed to develop a study to estimate the break-even point in financial units of the electrical power generation using biogas from swine wastes. The analyzed biodigester is a continuous tubular model with brick concrete duct and plastic covering with a gasometer, and where the waste of 2,300 fattening pigs are deposited daily. The initial investment estimate for the installation was R$ 51,537.17. The system annual costs were R$ 5,708.20, for maintenance, R$ 4,390.40 for depreciation and R$ 1,366.77 for interests. It was noticed that with an average of consumption of 17.1 kW.hour-1 the system presents an annual loss of R$ 1,592.14 because the consumption of 27.85 kW.hour-1 is the minimum that should be consumed to achieve a corresponded financial break-even point of R$ 15,054.40.year-1. It was concluded that the correct technical dimensioning greatly influences on the economic results. (author)

  5. Breakeven point for energetic viability for the culture of Jatropha; Produtividade minima para a viabilidade energetica da cultura do pinhao-manso

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diotto, Adriano V.; Paulino, Janaina; Romanelli, Thiago L.; Flumgnan, Danilton L.; Folegatti, Marcos V. [Escola Superior de Agricultura Luiz de Queiroz (ESALQ/USP), Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: avdiotto@usp.br

    2012-11-01

    Due to diversity of plants that can be used to produce biofuel, Jatropha is being increasingly studied and some answers have yet to be given by the research to ensure its use as a plant producing energy. The energy balance is a methodology that takes into account all the energy input in the production system, either through direct consumption of fuel for tractors, for example, or indirectly as the added energy to fabricate the tractor Itself. Therefore, we tried to use the energy balance methodology to evaluate the minimum yield necessary to crop the Jatropha to have energetic viability in production, in other words, to have output energy greater than input energy. We evaluated four years of cultivation in a property located in Charqueada-SP. The feasibility breakeven point was 2.36 mg ha{sup -1}. The factors that most influenced the energy input to the system were the crop inputs (64.3%), followed by fuel consumption (39.7%), depreciation of machinery (3.1%) and labor which accounted for only 1.9%. (author)

  6. Comparison of radiation dose, workflow, patient comfort and financial break-even of standard digital radiography and a novel biplanar low-dose X-ray system for upright full-length lower limb and whole spine radiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dietrich, Tobias J.; Pfirrmann, Christian W.A.; Pankalla, Katja; Buck, Florian M. [Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Radiology, Zurich (Switzerland); University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Schwab, Alexander [University of Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Orthopedic University Hospital Balgrist, Department of Finances, Zurich (Switzerland)

    2013-07-15

    To compare the radiation dose, workflow, patient comfort, and financial break-even of a standard digital radiography and a biplanar low-dose X-ray system. A standard digital radiography system (Ysio, Siemens Healthcare, Erlangen, Germany) was compared with a biplanar X-ray unit (EOS, EOS imaging, Paris, France) consisting of two X-ray tubes and slot-scanning detectors, arranged at an angle of 90 allowing simultaneous vertical biplanar linear scanning in the upright patient position. We compared data of standing full-length lower limb radiographs and whole spine radiographs of both X-ray systems. Dose-area product was significantly lower for radiographs of the biplanar X-ray system than for the standard digital radiography system (e.g. whole spine radiographs; standard digital radiography system: 392.2 {+-} 231.7 cGy*cm{sup 2} versus biplanar X-ray system: 158.4 {+-} 103.8 cGy*cm{sup 2}). The mean examination time was significantly shorter for biplanar radiographs compared with standard digital radiographs (e.g. whole spine radiographs: 449 s vs 248 s). Patients' comfort regarding noise was significantly higher for the standard digital radiography system. The financial break-even point was 2,602 radiographs/year for the standard digital radiography system compared with 4,077 radiographs/year for the biplanar X-ray unit. The biplanar X-ray unit reduces radiation exposure and increases subjective noise exposure to patients. The biplanar X-ray unit demands a higher number of examinations per year for the financial break-even point, despite the lower labour cost per examination due to the shorter examination time. (orig.)

  7. Studies of breakeven prices and electricity supply potentials of nuclear fusion by a long-term world energy and environment model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokimatsu, K.; Asaoka, Y.; Konishi, S.; Fujino, J.; Ogawa, Y.; Okano, K.; Nishio, S.; Yoshida, T.; Hiwatari, R.; Yamaji, K.

    2002-11-01

    In response to social demand, this paper investigates the breakeven price (BP) and potential electricity supply of nuclear fusion energy in the 21st century by means of a world energy and environment model. We set the following objectives in this paper: (i) to reveal the economics of the introduction conditions of nuclear fusion; (ii) to know when tokamak-type nuclear fusion reactors are expected to be introduced cost-effectively into future energy systems; (iii) to estimate the share in 2100 of electricity produced by the presently designed reactors that could be economically selected in the year. The model can give in detail the energy and environment technologies and price-induced energy saving, and can illustrate optimal energy supply structures by minimizing the costs of total discounted energy systems at a discount rate of 5%. The following parameters of nuclear fusion were considered: cost of electricity (COE) in the nuclear fusion introduction year, annual COE reduction rates, regional introduction year, and regional nuclear fusion capacity projection. The investigations are carried out for three nuclear fusion projections one of which includes tritium breeding constraints, four future CO2 concentration constraints, and technological assumptions on fossil fuels, nuclear fission, CO2 sequestration, and anonymous innovative technologies. It is concluded that: (1) the BPs are from 65 to 125 mill kW-1 h-1 depending on the introduction year of nuclear fusion under the 550 ppmv CO2 concentration constraints; those of a business-as-usual (BAU) case are from 51 to 68 mill kW-1h-1. Uncertainties resulting from the CO2 concentration constraints and the technological options influenced the BPs by plus/minus some 10 30 mill kW-1h-1, (2) tokamak-type nuclear fusion reactors (as presently designed, with a COE range around 70 130 mill kW-1h-1) would be favourably introduced into energy systems after 2060 based on the economic criteria under the 450 and 550 ppmv CO2

  8. Studies of breakeven prices and electricity supply potentials of nuclear fusion by a long-term world energy and environment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In response to social demand, this paper investigates the breakeven price (BP) and potential electricity supply of nuclear fusion energy in the 21st century by means of a world energy and environment model. We set the following objectives in this paper: (i) to reveal the economics of the introduction conditions of nuclear fusion; (ii) to know when tokamak-type nuclear fusion reactors are expected to be introduced cost-effectively into future energy systems; (iii) to estimate the share in 2100 of electricity produced by the presently designed reactors that could be economically selected in the year. The model can give in detail the energy and environment technologies and price-induced energy saving, and can illustrate optimal energy supply structures by minimizing the costs of total discounted energy systems at a discount rate of 5%. The following parameters of nuclear fusion were considered: cost of electricity (COE) in the nuclear fusion introduction year, annual COE reduction rates, regional introduction year, and regional nuclear fusion capacity projection. The investigations are carried out for three nuclear fusion projections one of which includes tritium breeding constraints, four future CO2 concentration constraints, and technological assumptions on fossil fuels, nuclear fission, CO2 sequestration, and anonymous innovative technologies. It is concluded that: (1) the BPs are from 65 to 125 mill kW-1 h-1 depending on the introduction year of nuclear fusion under the 550 ppmv CO2 concentration constraints; those of a business-as-usual (BAU) case are from 51 to 68 mill kW-1h-1. Uncertainties resulting from the CO2 concentration constraints and the technological options influenced the BPs by plus/minus some 10-30 mill kW-1h-1, (2) tokamak-type nuclear fusion reactors (as presently designed, with a COE range around 70-130 mill kW-1h-1) would be favourably introduced into energy systems after 2060 based on the economic criteria under the 450 and 550 ppmv CO2

  9. Analysis of economic break-even point of the biogas utilization for electrical power conversion: case study in a swine terminated unit; Analise do ponto de equilibrio economico da utilizacao do biogas para conversao em energia eletrica: estudo de caso em unidade de terminacao de suinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervi, Ricardo Ghantous; Pinotti, Elvio Brasil [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Registro, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias do Vale do Ribeira], e-mails: rghantous@registro.unesp.br, epinotti@registro.unesp.br; Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutsui; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial], e-mails: maura@fca.unesp.br, osmar@fca.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    This work aimed to develop a study to estimate the break-even point in financial units of the electrical power generation using biogas from swine wastes. The analyzed biodigester is a continuous tubular model with brick concrete duct and plastic covering with a gasometer, and where the waste of 2,300 fattening pigs are deposited daily. The initial investment estimate for the installation was R$ 51,537.17. The system annual costs were R$ 5,708.20, for maintenance, R$ 4,390.40 for depreciation and R$ 1,366.77 for interests. It was noticed that with an average of consumption of 17.1 kW.hour{sup -1} the system presents an annual loss of R$ 1,592.14 because the consumption of 27.85 kW.hour{sup -1} is the minimum that should be consumed to achieve a corresponded financial break-even point of R$ 15,054.40.year{sup -1}. It was concluded that the correct technical dimensioning greatly influences on the economic results. (author)

  10. MOOCs盈亏平衡点的人均成本预测分析——基于edX和Coursera平台%Prediction and Analysis of the Per Capita Cost when MOOCs Reaches Break-even Point—Based on the Platforms of edX and Coursera

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王力

    2016-01-01

    大规模在线开放课程(MOOCs)因其免费性得到广泛关注,但其本身是有成本的.根据国内外学者研究成果,提出一系列假设,构建出一套计算模型,对MOOCs达到盈亏平衡点时的人均成本进行预测分析.基于预测结果,对MOOCs的商业潜力、降低教育成本潜力和促进教育公平潜力进行分析.%Massive Open Online Courses(MOOCs) is widely concerned because it's free of charge,but itself has cost.According to the re-search results of scholars at home and abroad,this paper puts forward a series of assumptions,and constructs a set of calculation models to fore-cast the per capita cost when MOOCs reaches break-even point.Based on the forecast results,it analyzes MOOCs commercial potential,the po-tential to reduce the cost of education as well as the potential promote the fairness of education.

  11. BREAK-EVEN POINT IN SUGAR-BEET PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ilija Nedić

    2015-01-01

    World sugar consumption has been recording a steady growth in the past 70 years and, according to all relevant estimates, it will continue to grow also in the next decade, which puts sugar in the category of the most significant foods and commodities in the world. Of the total world sugar production, around 77% is derived from sugar cane and 23% from sugar beet. Brazil has been the world leader in sugar production for a long period of time, producing white sugar from sugar cane only, whereas ...

  12. Break-even analysis for the storage of PV in power distribution grids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nykamp, Stefan; Bakker, Vincent; Molderink, Albert; Hurink, Johann L.; Smit, Gerard J.M.

    2013-01-01

    The integration of renewable energy systems poses major challenges on distribution grid operators. Because of the strong growth rates of the installation of photovoltaic (PV) and wind generators, huge needs for reinforcements in grids are expected. Next to conventional reinforcements (with additiona

  13. A Break-Even Analysis of Optimum Faculty Assignment for Ambulatory Primary Care Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xakellis, George C.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    A computer simulation was developed to estimate the number of medical residents one or two faculty teachers could supervise in a university-based primary medical care teaching clinic. With no non-teaching tasks, it was shown that two teachers could supervise 11 residents, while one teacher was able to supervise only three residents under similar…

  14. Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burch, Jay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ong, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  15. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  16. The Break-Even Point: When Medical Advances Are Less Important Than Improving the Fidelity With Which They Are Delivered

    OpenAIRE

    Woolf, Steven H.; Johnson, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    Society invests billions of dollars in the development of new drugs and technologies but comparatively little in the fidelity of health care, that is, improving systems to ensure the delivery of care to all patients in need. Using mathematical arguments and a nomogram, we demonstrate that technological advances must yield dramatic, often unrealistic increases in efficacy to do more good than could be accomplished by improving fidelity. In 2 examples (the development of anti-platelet agents an...

  17. Study of Techno-Economic of Corn Sheller Type MPJ-01-TEP-2014 Design of Study Program Agricultural Engineering Program, University of Andalas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    - Mislaini

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to evaluate the performance of the machine corn sheller and perform basic cost analysis and break-even point. Sheller was done on three varieties of maize in Padang and surrounding areas. Corn used is corn that has a moisture content (17-20% with three repetitions. Based on research, capacity sheller machine Maxpro NK 99 varieties obtained 80.49 kg / h with the cost of Rp.120,88 / kg and breakeven 38135.59 kg / year. Pioner 24 varieties of working capacity of 67.52 kg / h with the basic cost of Rp 114.48 / kg and the breakeven point at 66399.66 kg / year, and the work capacity of NK Maxpro 22 varieties of 55.40 kg / h with a cost of Rp. 139.53 / kg with a breakeven point 40186.26 kg / year.

  18. Economic feasibility of producing sweet sorghum as an ethanol feedstock in the southeastern United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the feasibility of producing sweet sorghum (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench) as an ethanol feedstock in the southeastern United States through representative counties in Mississippi. We construct enterprise budgets along with estimates of transportation costs to estimate sweet sorghum producers' breakeven costs for producing and delivering sweet sorghum biomass. This breakeven cost for the sweet sorghum producer is used to estimate breakeven costs for the ethanol producer based on wholesale ethanol price, production costs, and transportation and marketing costs. Stochastic models are developed to estimate profits for sweet sorghum and competing crops in two representative counties in Mississippi, with sweet sorghum consistently yielding losses in both counties. -- Highlights: → We examine the economic feasibility of sweet sorghum as an ethanol feedstock. → We construct enterprise budgets along with estimates of transportation costs. → We estimate breakeven costs for producing and delivering sweet sorghum biomass. → Stochastic models determine profits for sweet sorghum in two Mississippi counties.

  19. Do inflation-linked bonds contain information about future inflation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Valentim Machado Vicente

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available There is a widespread belief that inflation-linked bonds are a direct source of information about inflation expectations. In this paper we address this issue by analyzing the relationship between break-even inflation (the difference between nominal and real yields and future inflation. The dataset is extracted from Brazilian Treasury bonds covering the period from April 2005 to April 2011. We find that break-even inflation is an unbiased forecast only of the 3-month and 6-month ahead inflation. For medium horizons (12 and 18 months, break-even inflation has weak explanatory power of future inflation. Over long horizons (24 and 30 months, we report a significant, but counterintuitive, negative relationship between the break-even and realized inflation rates.

  20. Economics of photovoltaics in the commercial, institutional, and industrial sectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cox, A.J.

    1980-04-01

    The application is described of a model which computes system break-even capital costs, array break-even capital costs and profits from photovoltaic investments in the industrial, commercial and institutional sectors. Several tax and accounting combinations are described and utilized. Results indicate that, at rates of return usually found in the industrial and commercial sectors, photovoltaic investments will not be attractive when the costs of those investments are based on the Department of Energy's cost goals for 1986.

  1. The Effect of Using Break-Even-Point in Planning, Controlling, and Decision Making in the Industrial Jordanian Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Nabil Alnasser; Osama Samih Shaban; Ziad Al-Zubi

    2014-01-01

    This research study aimed to figure out the effect of using breakeven point in planning, controlling, and in the decision-making process, in the Jordanian industrial companies. This research study shed the light on the reality of the use of the breakeven point in the planning, controlling and decision-making in industrial companies in Jordan. The study sample of the study was formed out of 54 employees in the accounting departments in the Jordanian industrial companies. The study found out th...

  2. Introduction condition of a tokamak fusion power plant as an advanced technology in world energy scenario

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study reveals the following two introduction conditions of a tokamak fusion power plant in a long term world energy scenario. The first condition is the electric breakeven condition, which is required for the fusion energy to be recognized as a suitable candidate of an alternative energy source in the long term world energy scenario. As for the plasma performance (normalized beta value βN, confinement improvement factor for H-mode HH, the ratio of plasma density to Greenwald density limit fnGW), the electric breakeven condition requires the simultaneous achievement of 1.2NGWtmax=16 T, thermal efficiency ηe=30%, and current drive power PNBIN∼1.8, HH∼1.0, and fnGW∼0.9, which correspond to the ITER reference operation parameters, have a strong potential to achieve the electric breakeven condition. The second condition is the economic breakeven condition, which is required to be selected as an alternative energy source. By using a long term world energy and environment model, the potential of the fusion energy in the long term world energy scenario is being investigated. Under the constraint of 550 ppm CO2 concentration in the atmosphere, a breakeven price for introduction of the fusion energy in the year 2050 is estimated from 65mill/kWh to 135mill/kWh, which is considered as the economic breakeven condition in the present study. Under the conditions of Btmax=16T, ηe=40%, plant availability 60%, and a radial build with/without CS coil, the economic breakeven condition requires βN∼2.5 for 135mill/kWh of higher breakeven price case and βN∼6.0 for 65mill/kWh of lower breakeven price case. Finally, the demonstration of steady state operation with βN∼3.0 in the ITER project leads to the prospect to achieve the upper region of breakeven price in the world energy scenario. (author)

  3. Annual progress report on fusion plasma theory task III: auxiliary heating in tokamaks and tandem mirrors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research we have accomplished during the past year has focussed on ICRF coupling, heating and breakeven studies for tokamaks and ECRF fundamental second harmonic heating in tandem mirrors. The studies have included ICRF Fokker-Planck heating and breakeven studies for large tokamaks such as JET, fundamental work on a new wave power absorption and conservation relation for ICRF in inhomogeneous plasmas, a formulation and code development for ICRF waveguide coupling in tokamak edge regions. ECRF ray tracing studies have been carried out for fundamental and second harmonic propagation, absorption and whistler microinstabilities in tandem mirror plug and barrier regions of Phaedrus, TMX-U and TASKA. The two-dimensional velocity space, time dependent Fokker-Planck heating studies have concentrated on D-T breakeven scenarios for fundamental minority deuterium and second harmonic tritium regimes

  4. (MAL)practice of nuclear power economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear cost evaluations traditionally use the cost of concurrent coal-fired electricity as their benchmark, but these comparisons are now moot because cash-poor utilities aren't shopping for new power plants. A breakeven capital-cost ratio measures the capital cost handicap that a nuclear plant can stand and still break even with coal power by means of its fuel savings. Although different regions have different breakeven ratios, primarily due to variations in coal prices, a national average breakeven ratio can be placed between 1.2 and 1.4, meaning that nuclear plants could stand between a 20 and 40% higher capital cost and still end up with equal lifetime generating cost. The nuclear promoter's failure to represent costs competently and candidly show that there is a need for independent analysis of the economic and other consequences of major public investments. 24 references, 3 figures, 2 tables

  5. Economic evaluation of a photovoltaic (PV) power generation system with battery; Battery wo heiyoshita taiyoko hatsuden system no keizaiseihyoka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomikura, S.; Kaya, Y. [Keio University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-01-30

    To improve the correlation characteristics between unstable output of PV system and demand, and to improve its economical value, use of battery was investigated. In this study, at first, solution of constrained optimization problem was derived in the case when the demand and PV output were defined by the continuous function, to obtain the break-even cost of PV system. To investigate the charge from PV in daytime or the charge from base power source at night, peak, middle and base power sources were considered. Finally, break-even cost of the PV system with battery was calculated as a trial using a multiple time zone model having PV and usual three power sources. As a result, the difference ranging from 25000 to 29000 yen in the break-even costs between PV and PV with battery was provided, which was considered to be a pure increase of the value using battery. 10 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  6. Economic Viability of Metallic Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Fuel in Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, S.K.; Ko, W. I.; Yoon Hee Lee

    2013-01-01

    This paper evaluates whether SFR metallic nuclear fuel can be economical. To make this determination, the cost of SFCF (SFR fuel cycle facilities) was estimated, and the break-even point of the manufacturing cost of SFR metallic nuclear fuel for direct disposal option was then calculated. As a result of the cost estimation, the levelized unit cost (LUC) for SFCF was calculated to be 5,311 $/kgHM, and the break-even point was calculated to be $5,267/kgHM. Therefore, the cost difference between...

  7. Power beaming providing a space power infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper, based on two levels of technology maturity, applied the power beaming concept to four panned satellite constellations. The analysis shows that with currently available technology, power beaming can provide mass savings to constellations in orbits ranging from low-Earth orbit to geosynchronous orbit. Two constellations, space surveillance and tracking system and space-based radar, can be supported with current technology. The other two constellations, space-based laser array and boost surveillance and tracking system, will require power and transmission system improvements before their breakeven specific mass is achieved. A doubling of SP-100 conversion efficiency from 10 to 20% would meet or exceed breakeven for these constellations

  8. Integrating Residential Photovoltaics With Power Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, C. S.

    1985-01-01

    Report finds rooftop solar-cell arrays feed excess power to electric-utility grid for fee are potentially attractive large-scale application of photovoltaic technology. Presents assessment of breakeven costs of these arrays under variety of technological and economic assumptions.

  9. Cost of the meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus search and destroy policy in a Dutch university hospital

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nulens, E; Broex, E; Ament, A; Deurenberg, R H; Smeets, E; Scheres, J; van Tiel, F H; Gordts, B; Stobberingh, E E

    2008-01-01

    Costs related to a search and destroy policy and treatment for Staphylococcus aureus bacteraemia in the University Hospital Maastricht were calculated for the period 2000 and 2004. The financial cost-benefit break-even point of the search and destroy policy was determined by modelling. On average 22

  10. [Microeconomics of introduction of a PET system based on the revised Japanese National Insurance reimbursement system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abe, Katsumi; Kosuda, Shigeru; Kusano, Shoichi; Nagata, Masayoshi

    2003-11-01

    It is crucial to evaluate an annual balance before-hand when an institution installs a PET system because the revised Japanese national insurance reimbursement system set the cost of a FDG PET study as 75,000 yen. A break-even point was calculated in an 8-hour or a 24-hour operation of a PET system, based on the total costs reported. The break-even points were as follows: 13.4, 17.7, 22.1 studies per day for the 1 cyclotron-1 PET camera, 1 cyclotron-2 PET cameras, 1 cyclotron-3 PET cameras system, respectively, in an ordinary PET system operation of 8 hours. The break-even points were 19.9, 25.5, 31.2 studies per day for the 1 cyclotron-1 PET camera, 1 cyclotron-2 PET cameras, 1 cyclotron-3 PET cameras system, respectively, in a full PET system operation of 24 hours. The results indicate no profit would accrue in an ordinary PET system operation of 8 hours. The annual profit and break-even point for the total cost including the initial investment would be respectively 530 million yen and 2.8 years in a 24-hour operation with 1 cyclotron-3 PET cameras system. PMID:14733110

  11. A Low-Subsidy Problem in Public Higher Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fethke, Gary

    2011-01-01

    With an exogenous public subsidy and a break-even restriction on university net revenue, tuition discrimination supports a quasi-efficient departure from marginal-cost pricing. In contrast, when the legislature and university interact in their subsidy and tuition decisions, the public subsidy becomes endogenous. With an endogenous public subsidy,…

  12. Microeconomics of introduction of a PET system based on the revised Japanese national insurance reimbursement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is crucial to evaluate an annual balance beforehand when an institution installs a PET system because the revised Japanese national insurance reimbursement system set the cost of a FDG PET study as 75,000 yen. A break-even point was calculated in an 8-hour or a 24-hour operation of a PET system, based on the total costs reported. The break-even points were as follows: 13.4, 17.7, 22.1 studies per day for the 1 cyclotron-1 PET camera, 1 cyclotron-2 PET cameras, 1 cyclotron-3 PET cameras system, respectively, in an ordinary PET system operation of 8 hours. The break-even points were 19.9, 25.5, 31.2 studies per day for the 1 cyclotron-1 PET camera, 1 cyclotron-2 PET cameras, 1 cyclotron-3 PET cameras system, respectively, in a full PET system operation of 24 hours. The results indicate no profit would accrue in an ordinary PET system operation of 8 hours. The annual profit and break-even point for the total cost including the initial investment would be respectively 530 million yen and 2.8 years in a 24-hour operation with 1 cyclotron-3 PET cameras system. (author)

  13. 77 FR 33859 - Carbon Dioxide Fire Suppression Systems on Commercial Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    .... Environmental Protection Agency FR Federal Register FSS IMO's International Code for Fire Systems Safety IMO... vessels and the issuance of structural fire protection regulations for small passenger vessels; 46 U.S.C.... The breakeven analysis of the NPRM (which included all new and existing fire suppression systems...

  14. Learning Efficacy and Cost-Effectiveness of Print versus e-Book Instructional Material in an Introductory Financial Accounting Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annand, David

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the concurrent development of paper-based and e-book versions of a textbook and related instructional material used in an introductory-level financial accounting course. Break-even analysis is used to compare costs of the two media. A study conducted with 109 students is also used to evaluate the two media with respect to…

  15. RISK MANAGEMENT TOOLS IN PRECISION AGRICULTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Powers, Laura; Dillon, Carl R.; Isaacs, Steven G.; Shearer, Scott A.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project is to develop economic, risk management decision aids for precision agriculture practitioners to identify temporal risk spatially from production. Break-even analysis, coefficient of variation and a mean variance framework are used to identify risk. An interpretation of the resulting risk maps will also be presented.

  16. Techno-economic analysis of fuel cell auxiliary power units as alternative to idling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Semant; Chen, Hsieh-Yeh; Schwank, Johannes

    This paper presents a techno-economic analysis of fuel-cell-based auxiliary power units (APUs), with emphasis on applications in the trucking industry and the military. The APU system is intended to reduce the need for discretionary idling of diesel engines or gas turbines. The analysis considers the options for on-board fuel processing of diesel and compares the two leading fuel cell contenders for automotive APU applications: proton exchange membrane fuel cell and solid oxide fuel cell. As options for on-board diesel reforming, partial oxidation and auto-thermal reforming are considered. Finally, using estimated and projected efficiency data, fuel consumption patterns, capital investment, and operating costs of fuel-cell APUs, an economic evaluation of diesel-based APUs is presented, with emphasis on break-even periods as a function of fuel cost, investment cost, idling time, and idling efficiency. The analysis shows that within the range of parameters studied, there are many conditions where deployment of an SOFC-based APU is economically viable. Our analysis indicates that at an APU system cost of 100 kW -1, the economic break-even period is within 1 year for almost the entire range of conditions. At 500 kW -1 investment cost, a 2-year break-even period is possible except for the lowest end of the fuel consumption range considered. However, if the APU investment cost is 3000 kW -1, break-even would only be possible at the highest fuel consumption scenarios. For Abram tanks, even at typical land delivered fuel costs, a 2-year break-even period is possible for APU investment costs as high as 1100 kW -1.

  17. The uranium market and its characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The subject is covered in sections, entitled as shown. Numerical data are indicated in parenthesis. General characteristics of the uranium market, (enrichment plant variables, fuel requirements of a 1000 MWe power plant); demand pattern (enrichment cost relationships), supply pattern; uranium price analysis, production cost (relationship between future uranium requirements and discovery rates necessary), market break-even cost (break-even uranium cost as a function of fossil fuel prices), market value (theoretical and actual supply - demand balance in uranium market, relationship between U3O8 price and world production); geographic and economic distribution of producers and consumers (world resources of uranium, relationship between U308 world production capacity and annual requirements in 1990). (U.K.)

  18. The influence of selected parameters on the efficiency and economic charactersistics of the oxy-type coal unit with a membrane-cryogenic oxygen separator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kotowicz Janusz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a 600 MW oxy-type coal unit with a pulverized bed boiler and a membrane-cryogenic oxygen separator and carbon capture installation was analyzed. A membrane-cryogenic oxygen separation installation consists of a membrane module and two cryogenic distillation columns. In this system oxygen is produced with the purity equal to 95%. Installation of carbon capture was based on the physical separation method and allows to reduce the CO2 emission by 90%. In this work the influence of the main parameter of the membrane process – the selectivity coefficient, on the efficiency of the coal unit was presented. The economic analysis with the use of the break-even point method was carried out. The economic calculations were realized in view of the break-even price of electricity depending on a coal unit availability.

  19. Fusion plasma theory. Task III. Auxiliary heating in tokamaks and tandem mirrors. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research we have accomplished with this contract has focused on ICRF coupling, heating and breakeven studies for tokamaks and ECRF fundamental and second harmonic heating in tandem mirrors. The highlights include reviewed publication of ICRF Fokker-Planck heating and breakeven studies with international collaboration with the JET group, fundamental work on a differential equation for wave fields and a new wave power absorption and conservation relation for ICRF in inhomogeneous plasmas and a formulation and code development of slab matrix and differential equation solutions for ICRF waveguide coupling in tokamak edge regions. ECRF ray tracing studies have been carried out, and a reviewed paper published for fundamental and second harmonic propagation, absorption and whistler microinstabilities in tandem mirror plug and barrier regions of Phaedrus, TMX-U and TASKA

  20. Applied research on energy storage and conversion for photovoltaic and wind energy systems. Volume III. Wind conversion systems with energy storage. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The variability of energy output inherent in wind energy conversion systems (WECS) has led to the investigation of energy storage as a means of managing the available energy when immediate, direct use is not possible or desirable. This portion of the General Electric study was directed at an evaluation of those energy storage technologies deemed best suited for use in conjunction with a wind energy conversion system in utility, residential and intermediate applications. Break-even cost goals are developed for several storage technologies in each application. These break-even costs are then compared with cost projections presented in Volume I of this report to show technologies and time frames of potential economic viability. The report summarizes the investigations performed and presents the results, conclusions and recommendations pertaining to use of energy storage with wind energy conversion systems.

  1. The marketing of high-tech innovation: research and teaching as a multidisciplinary communication task

    OpenAIRE

    Hasenauer, Rainer; Fi8lo, Peter; Störi, Herbert

    2013-01-01

    Economically successful high-tech innovation is one of the driving forces for global welfare. Like innovation half-life, break-even time to market or technology acceptance, effective multidisciplinary communication between engineering and marketing is a critical success factor. This paper aims to show the requirements of multidisciplinary communication in B2B marketing of high-tech innovation and methodical approaches in research and academic education: 1. Requirements in high-tech innovat...

  2. Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study

    OpenAIRE

    COC Oko; E.O Diemuodeke; E.O Omunakwe; E Nnamdi

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the design analysis of a photovoltaic (PV) system to power the CAD/CAM Laboratory at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Port Harcourt. Life cycle cost and break-even point analyses are also carried out to assess the economic viability of the system. The unit cost of electricity for the designed PV system is high compared to the current unit cost of the municipally supplied electricity, but will be competitive with lowering cost of PV system components ...

  3. Management Aspects of Production Cost Accounting in Horse Breeding

    OpenAIRE

    G. S. Klychova; A. R. Zakirova; Z. R. Zakirov; G. R. Valieva

    2015-01-01

    The particular management accounting lines are considered in the present paper, based on the state and currentpractice of production cost accounting study and calculation of production cost of horse breeding in the analyzedcompanies, to help the enterprise management in making reasonable decisions regarding maintenance of costmanagement in the given industry. The criteria of breakeven point, marginal income, and safety edge can beused for production planning, decision-making on pricing for pr...

  4. 続・魚類養殖業--ブリ類およびマダイの経営分析

    OpenAIRE

    小野, 征一郎

    2013-01-01

    The Report of the Statistical Survey on Fishery Management, published by the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, was used to analyze the business performance of the fish aquaculture industry, specifically the yellowtail and red sea bream aquaculture industries, from 2005 to 2011. Focusing on corporate businesses, the core economic entities of the industry, profitability analysis, break-even point analysis (the ultimate index), and solvency analysis were performed. In addition, pr...

  5. Background information and technical basis for assessment of environmental implications of magnetic fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report contains background information for assessing the potential environmental implications of fusion-based central electric power stations. It was developed as part of an environmental review of the Magnetic Fusion Energy Program. Transition of the program from demonstration of purely scientific feasibility (breakeven conditions) to exploration of engineering feasibility suggests that formal program environmental review under the National Environmental Policy Act is timely. This report is the principal reference upon which an environmental impact statement on magnetic fusion will be based

  6. An economic analysis of the use of recirculating aquaculture systems in the production of Tilapia

    OpenAIRE

    Appiah-Kubi, Frank

    2012-01-01

    An economic analysis of tilapia production was conducted using a recirculating aquaculture system facility, situated at the Norwegian University of Life Science (UMB). The goals were; (1) to evaluate and estimate the operational cost involved and from this, estimate the breakeven cost, (2) identify and describe the constraints unique to the RAS, (3) to perform financial feasibility of a (hypothetical) scale-up production, and (4) to conduct sensitivity analysis on some variables to highlight ...

  7. Computer applications in radiology business management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation focuses on two areas of prime importance to radiology business management: financial/accounting applications and computer networking. The business management portion is an overview of accounts receivable management, financial reporting, management reporting, budgeting and forecasting (including cost/benefit analysis and break-even analysis), and personal and/or financial tax planning. The networking portion focuses on telecommunications and considers satellite facilities, electronic claims submission, and national database networking. Both numeric and graphic summaries are demonstrated in the presentation

  8. Analisis Strategi Bisnis NPV, IRR, PI dan DPB Pada Golden Restaurant Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriswanto

    2011-04-01

    sales to 90% per year and provide a significant positive NPV and IRR of almost 20% which is higher than the original expectation of 15% and reach breakeven point within 4 to 7 years. From the results of this analysis also shows the business is sensitive to increased sales, operating expenses and cost of sales. In addition to inflation and economic conditions affect the performance of sensitive business.

  9. Long-term Competitive Balance under UEFA Financial Fair Play Regulations

    OpenAIRE

    Markus Sass

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes the long-term development of competitive balance in a professional team sports league with win-maximizing clubs facing a strict break-even constraint as imposed by UEFA's new Financial Fair Play Regulations. A classical model of professional team sports leagues is employed to calculate seasonal competitive balance, which solely depends on the market size of clubs. In the multi-period version of the model, a market size function, which captures the empirical fact that a clu...

  10. Financial consequences of the sales variation

    OpenAIRE

    Burja, Camelia

    2008-01-01

    The risk represents a continuously presence within the economical environment specific for one market economy, being an essential element for substantiating the economic decisions. The paper presents many analysis models for the operating risk based on studying the breakeven point, the positioning index and the elasticity coefficient. The analysis conclusions are stronger through studying the factors which influence the elasticity coefficient extend. The analysis is illustrated by an adequate...

  11. Design, Fabrication, and Operation of Innovative Microalgae Culture Experiments for the Purpose of Producing Fuels: Final Report, Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-01-01

    A conceptual design was developed for a 1000-acre (water surface) algae culture facility for the production of fuels. The system is modeled after the shallow raceway system with mixing foils that is now being operated at the University of Hawaii. A computer economic model was created to calculate the discounted breakeven price of algae or fuels produced by the culture facility. A sensitivity analysis was done to estimate the impact of changes in important biological, engineering, and financial parameters on product price.

  12. Photovoltaics: New opportunities for utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-07-01

    This publication presents information on photovoltaics. The following topics are discussed: Residential Photovoltaics: The New England Experience Builds Confidence in PV; Austin's 300-kW Photovoltaic Power Station: Evaluating the Breakeven Costs; Residential Photovoltaics: The Lessons Learned; Photovoltaics for Electric Utility Use; Least-Cost Planning: The Environmental Link; Photovoltaics in the Distribution System; Photovoltaic Systems for the Rural Consumer; The Issues of Utility-Intertied Photovoltaics; and Photovoltaics for Large-Scale Use: Costs Ready to Drop Again.

  13. The sequence of stages of enterprise cost management in volatile market conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svidlo Anna Igorevna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the formulated hypotheses and assumptions determined by the sequence of steps in the process and content management costs. This allows you to create a knowledge base of research, to identify ways of cost management company-by-synthesis area break-even and balanced scorecard, which in turn makes it possible to create a strategy of cost management company.

  14. Home loan profitability optimisation in the financial industry / by Sias Heyns

    OpenAIRE

    Heyns, Sias

    2007-01-01

    Product profitability needs to remain a competitive advantage to a bank's home loan product. Ever changing customer needs and even more demanding customers today enforce reasons to investigate the profitability of home loans. Other aspects to consider includes transfer pricing, ROA, cost to deliver product to market areas (marketing and distribution cost) and break-even period. Banks are facing immense challenges to achieve sustainable profitability. Historically low interest rates are compre...

  15. Estimation of Total Fusion Reactivity and Contribution from Suprathermal Tail using 3-parameter Dagum Ion Speed Distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Majumdar, Rudrodip; Das, Debraj

    2016-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion reactivity is a pivotal quantity in the studies pertaining to fusion energy production, fusion ignition and energy break-even analysis in both inertially and magnetically confined systems. Although nuclear fusion reactivity and thereafter the power density of a magnetic confinement fusion reactor and the fulfillment of the ignition criterion are quantitatively determined by assuming the ion speed distribution to be Maxwellian, a significant population of suprathermal ions...

  16. EMP Fusion

    OpenAIRE

    KUNTAY, Isık

    2010-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel fusion scheme, called EMP Fusion, which has the promise of achieving breakeven and realizing commercial fusion power. The method is based on harnessing the power of an electromagnetic pulse generated by the now well-developed flux compression technology. The electromagnetic pulse acts as a means of both heating up the plasma and confining the plasma, eliminating intermediate steps. The EMP Fusion device is simpler compared to other fusion devices and this reduces...

  17. Economic evaluation of fissile fuel production using resistive magnet tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The application of resistive magnet tokamaks to fissile fuel production has been studied. Resistive magnets offer potential advantages over superconducting magnets in terms of robustness, less technology development required and possibility of demountable joints. Optimization studies within conservatively specified constraints for a compact machine result in a major radius of 3.81 m and 618 MW fusion power and a blanket space envelope of 0.35 m inboard and 0.75 m outboard. This machine is called the Resistive magnet Tokamak Fusion Breeder (RTFB). A computer code was developed to estimate the cost of the resistive magnet tokamak breeder. This code scales from STARFIRE values where appropriate and calculates costs of other systems directly. The estimated cost of the RTFB is $3.01 B in 1984 dollars. The cost of electricity on the same basis as STARFIRE is 42.4 mills/kWhre vs 44.9 mills/kWhre for STARFIRE (this does not include the fuel value or fuel cycle costs for the RTFB). The breakeven cost of U3O8 is $150/lb when compared to a PWR on the once through uranium fuel cycle with no inflation and escalation. On the same basis, the breakeven cost for superconducting tokamak and tandem mirror fusion breeders is $160/lb and $175/lb. Thus, the RTFB appears to be competitive in breakeven U3O8 cost with superconducting magnet fusion breeders and offers the potential advantages of resistive magnet technology

  18. Economic Viability of Metallic Sodium-Cooled Fast Reactor Fuel in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Kim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper evaluates whether SFR metallic nuclear fuel can be economical. To make this determination, the cost of SFCF (SFR fuel cycle facilities was estimated, and the break-even point of the manufacturing cost of SFR metallic nuclear fuel for direct disposal option was then calculated. As a result of the cost estimation, the levelized unit cost (LUC for SFCF was calculated to be 5,311 $/kgHM, and the break-even point was calculated to be $5,267/kgHM. Therefore, the cost difference between LUC and the break-even point is not only small but is also within the relevant range of the uncertainty level of Class 3 in accordance with a generic cost estimate classification matrix of AACE (the Association for the Advancement of Cost Engineering. This means it is very difficult to judge the economical feasibility of SFR metallic nuclear fuel because as of today there are no commercial facilities in Korea or the world. The economic feasibility of SFR metallic nuclear fuel, however, will be enhanced if the mass production of SFCF becomes possible in the future.

  19. Assessment of the potential of solar thermal small power systems in small utilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steitz, P.; Mayo, L. G.; Perkins, S. P., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    The potential economic benefit of small solar thermal electric power systems to small municipal and rural electric utilities is assessed. Five different solar thermal small power system configurations were considered in three different solar thermal technologies. The configurations included: (1) 1 MW, 2 MW, and 10 MW parabolic dish concentrators with a 15 kW heat engine mounted at the focal point of each dish, these systems utilized advanced battery energy storage; (2) a 10 MW system with variable slat concentrators and central steam Rankine energy conversion, this system utilized sensible thermal energy storage; and (3) a 50 MW central receiver system consisting of a field of heliostats concentrating energy on a tower-mounted receiver and a central steam Rankine conversion system, this system also utilized sensible thermal storage. The results are summarized in terms of break-even capital costs. The break-even capital cost was defined as the solar thermal plant capital cost which would have to be achieved in order for the solar thermal plants to penetrate 10 percent of the reference small utility generation mix by the year 2000. The calculated break-even capital costs are presented.

  20. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2014-01-01

    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged on the U.S. market. These units have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine what actual in use energy consumption of a HPWH may be in different regions of the U.S., annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the U.S. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  1. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burch, Jay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ong, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged on the U.S. market, and they have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine the actual energy consumption of a HPWH in different U.S. regions, annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the United States. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  2. Economic analysis of locust beans processing and marketing in ilorin, kwara state, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.O. Farayola

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to estimate the economic analysis of locust bean processing and marketing in Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. Primary data was used and purposive sampling technique was adopted to select the respondents used for the study. A total number of 60 respondents were interviewed. The data collected were analyzed using inferential statistical tool such as regression analysis. Budgetary analysis technique was also used to analyze the profitability of locust bean processing and marketing in the study area. Majority of the processors and marketers are making profits; 68.3% operate above breakeven point while 26.7% operate at breakeven point and the rest 5% was below the breakeven point, this indicates that they neither profit nor lost. The regression analysis result shows that quantity processed, family size and years of experience in processing are significant at 1%, 5% and 10% respectively while education level and stall rent is negative and significant at 1% and 5% respectively. F- Test also explained that independent variables are jointly significant at 1% probability level with an adjusted R2 of 78.9%. The overall rate of return on investment indicates that average rate of return is 0.5 (50%, which is positive. It is therefore concluded that profit made by the processors and marketers can be improved on by increasing the quantity of locust bean being processed through adoption of newly discovered method of processing and improved method of preservation, packaging and marketing of the product to international standard by reducing the odour of the product without the loss of essential nutrients and palability in order to generate foreign exchange. Also, rules and regulations against cutting of economic trees for alternative uses should be enforced to maximize their values.

  3. Comparative analysis of thorium and uranium fuel for transuranic recycle in a sodium cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Thorium as support fertile material for TRU transmutation in Fast Reactors. • Comparative analysis of Th and U based breakeven and burner Fast Reactors. • Thorium fosters significant advantages in terms of safety parameters. • Inherent safety is investigated through quasi-static reactivity and energy balances. • Th use in low-CR Fast Reactors does not reduce fuel decay heat and neutron sources. - Abstract: The present paper compares the reactor physics and transmutation performance of sodium-cooled Fast Reactors (FRs) for TRansUranic (TRU) burning with thorium (Th) or uranium (U) as fertile materials. The 1000 MWt Toshiba-Westinghouse Advanced Recycling Reactor (ARR) conceptual core has been used as benchmark for the comparison. Both burner and breakeven configurations sustained or started with a TRU supply, and assuming full actinide homogeneous recycle strategy, have been developed. State-of-the-art core physics tools have been employed to establish fuel inventory and reactor physics performances for equilibrium and transition cycles. Results show that Th fosters large improvements in the reactivity coefficients associated with coolant expansion and voiding, which enhances safety margins and, for a burner design, can be traded for maximizing the TRU burning rate. A trade-off of Th compared to U is the significantly larger fuel inventory required to achieve a breakeven design, which entails additional blankets at the detriment of core compactness as well as fuel manufacturing and separation requirements. The gamma field generated by the progeny of U-232 in the U bred from Th challenges fuel handling and manufacturing, but in case of full recycle, the high contents of Am and Cm in the transmutation fuel impose remote fuel operations regardless of the presence of U-232

  4. The Mercury Laser Advances Laser Technology for Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbers, C A; Caird, J; Moses, E

    2009-01-21

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory is on target to demonstrate 'breakeven' - creating as much fusion-energy output as laser-energy input. NIF will compress a tiny sphere of hydrogen isotopes with 1.8 MJ of laser light in a 20-ns pulse, packing the isotopes so tightly that they fuse together, producing helium nuclei and releasing energy in the form of energetic particles. The achievement of breakeven will culminate an enormous effort by thousands of scientists and engineers, not only at Livermore but around the world, during the past several decades. But what about the day after NIF achieves breakeven? NIF is a world-class engineering research facility, but if laser fusion is ever to generate power for civilian consumption, the laser will have to deliver pulses nearly 100,000 times faster than NIF - a rate of perhaps 10 shots per second as opposed to NIF's several shots a day. The Mercury laser (named after the Roman messenger god) is intended to lead the way to a 10-shots-per-second, electrically-efficient, driver laser for commercial laser fusion. While the Mercury laser will generate only a small fraction of the peak power of NIF (1/30,000), Mercury operates at higher average power. The design of Mercury takes full advantage of the technology advances manifest in its behemoth cousin (Table 1). One significant difference is that, unlike the flashlamp-pumped NIF, Mercury is pumped by highly efficient laser diodes. Mercury is a prototype laser capable of scaling in aperture and energy to a NIF-like beamline, with greater electrical efficiency, while still running at a repetition rate 100,000 times greater.

  5. 'Action 2016': AREVA's strategic action plan to improve performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On December 12, 2011, Luc Oursel, Executive Officer of AREVA, and Pierre Aubouin, Chief Financial Executive Officer, presented the group's 'Action 2016' strategic action plan based on an in-depth analysis of the market's outlook. This document makes, first, a Detailed presentation of the 'Action 2016' plan and then presents the group's financial outlook: - Full-year 2011 immediate accounting consequences of the new market environment: operating losses expected in 2011; - 2012-2013 transition period Objective: self-finance capex in cumulative terms; - 2014-2016: safe growth and cash generation, free operating cash flow at break-even beginning in 2013, above euro 1 bn per year beginning in 2015

  6. On the ignition of the ITER machine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study on a simple model of the ITER machine (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) shows that this machine, as presently designed, might not be able to reach either ignition or power breakeven. The large cost and the long time frame of the ITER program, on the other hand, do not allow for any doubt that the machine must reach its stated goal of ignition. Consequently, as long as these doubts persist, and cannot easily be dissipated, the ITER program should be put on hold, and fusion alternative concepts should be pursued. (author)

  7. The Economic Benefits of Child Safety Seat Misuse Reduction Programs and Design Improvements for Children in Rear Seats

    OpenAIRE

    Zaloshnja, E.; Miller, T R

    2007-01-01

    This study finds that the break-even point for child safety seat misuse reduction programs and vehicle and seat design improvements is $121 a year per child seat in use, annual misuse reduction program cost is $6, and Lower Anchors and Tethers for Children (LATCH) cost $13 annually per seat in use (in 2004 dollars). To estimate societal injury cost savings we compared tow-away crash outcomes for children ages 0–4, traveling in child seats in the back of passenger vehicles in 1984–1986 vs. 199...

  8. Progress in inertial fusion research at the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory. Paper No. IAEA-CN-38/B-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Inertial Confinement Fusion Program is reviewed. Experiments using the Helios CO2 laser system delivering up to 6 kJ on target are described. Because breakeven energy estimates for laser drivers of 1 μm and above have risen and there is a need for CO2 experiments in the tens-of-kilojoule regime as soon as practical, a first phase of Antares construction is now directed toward completion of two of the six original modules in 1983. These modules are designed to deliver 40 kJ of CO2 laser light on target

  9. Evolutionary Stages of e-Tailors and Retailers: Firm Value Determinants Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Jae K.; Heegoo Kang; Hoe K. Lee; Lee, Han S.

    2002-01-01

    We have studied the evolutionary stages of pure e-tailers, click & mortar (C&M) and brick & mortar (B&M) retailers for three points of time: June 1999, June 2000, and June 2001. To evaluate the dynamic stages of e-tailing business as an innovative venture, we propose four stages: exploration, breakeven, growth, and maturity. The stages are measured by the impact of revenue and income on the firm value, and a regression model is adopted to formulate the model. To empirically examine the stages...

  10. Amorphous silicon batch process cost analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the development of baseline manufacturing cost data to assist PVMaT monitoring teams in assessing current and future subcontracts, which an emphasis on commercialization and production. A process for the manufacture of a single-junction, large-area, a Si module was modeled using an existing Research Triangle Institute (RTI) computer model. The model estimates a required, or breakeven, price for the module based on its production process and the financial structure of the company operating the process. Sufficient detail on cost drivers is presented so the relationship of the process features and business characteristics can be related to the estimated required price

  11. The physics and engineering of Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alcator C-Mod is a new tokamak under construction at M.I.T. that promises to play an important and flexible role in the international fusion research effort. The physics and engineering features of the tokamak are described, giving an overview of the machine and plasma configurations. On the basis of empirical scaling laws, we predict the plasma confinement performance to be near DT equivalent breakeven. The planned experimental program is addressed to many of the vital physics questions still uncertain in high-performance tokamak plasma behaviour as well as to the investigation of innovative approaches to tokamak improvement. 17 refs., 17 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Inertial confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews the present status of the available key technologies for implosion experiments as regards the energy driver, pellet fabrication, diagnostics of dense and hot plasmas, and numerical simulations. It is shown that the development of the necessary conditions is well advanced so that it is now possible to proceed to the next step in the achievement of ignition and break-even. Various design studies for inertial confinement fusion reactors are also reviewed; from these studies it has become clear that inertial confinement fusion and magnetic confinement fusion are technologically complementary systems for future fusion reactors. (author). 172 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  13. Route Selection by Tankers(Dirty) at the Suez Canal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Risto Laulajainen

    2007-01-01

    <正>The Suez Canal,attached route alternatives with traffic flows and areas are described and theoretical break-even points derived. Logistically,route selection depends on relative distances,the level of spot rates and canal dues,the sensitivity to change growing with rising rate levels.The connection is diluted by the canal /pipeline owners’ price differentiation and the charterers’ capital costs;interest on cargo and change of its value during transit.Ship-owners are largely neutral to route choice as long as rates and main cost items are directly related to distance.

  14. Key Performance Parameter Driven Technology Goals for Electric Machines and Power Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowman, Cheryl; Jansen, Ralph; Brown, Gerald; Duffy, Kirsten; Trudell, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Transitioning aviation to low carbon propulsion is one of the crucial strategic research thrust and is a driver in the search for alternative propulsion system for advanced aircraft configurations. This work requires multidisciplinary skills coming from multiple entities. The feasibility of scaling up various electric drive system technologies to meet the requirements of a large commercial transport is discussed in terms of key parameters. Functional requirements are identified that impact the power system design. A breakeven analysis is presented to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency that can preserve the range, initial weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the base aircraft.

  15. Turboelectric Aircraft Drive Key Performance Parameters and Functional Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansen, Ralph H.; Brown, Gerald V.; Felder, James L.; Duffy, Kirsten P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to propose specific power and efficiency as the key performance parameters for a turboelectric aircraft power system and investigate their impact on the overall aircraft. Key functional requirements are identified that impact the power system design. Breguet range equations for a base aircraft and a turboelectric aircraft are found. The benefits and costs that may result from the turboelectric system are enumerated. A break-even analysis is conducted to find the minimum allowable electric drive specific power and efficiency that can preserve the range, initial weight, operating empty weight, and payload weight of the base aircraft.

  16. Progress in inertial fusion research at Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Inertial Confinement Fusion Program is reviewed. Experiments using the Helios CO2 laser system delivering up to 6kJ on target are described. Because breakeven energy estimates for laser drivers of 1 μm and above have risen and there is a need for CO2 experiments in the tens-of-kJ regime as soon as practical, a first phase of Antares construction is now directed toward completion of two of the six original modules in 1983. These modules are designed to deliver 40kJ of CO2 laser light on target. (author)

  17. Developments in production of synthetic fuels out of Estonian shale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aarna, Indrek

    2010-09-15

    Estonia is still the world leader in utilization of oil shale. Enefit has cooperated with Outotec to develop a new generation of solid heat carrier technology - Enefit280, which is more efficient, environmentally friendlier and has higher unit capacity. Breakeven price of oil produced in Enefit280 process is competitive with conventional oils. The new technology has advantages that allow easy adaptation to other oil shales around the world. Hydrotreated shale oil liquids have similar properties to crude oil cuts. Design for a shale oil hydrotreater unit can use process concepts, hardware components, and catalysts commercially proven in petroleum refining services.

  18. Genomic testing interacts with reproductive surplus in reducing genetic lag and increasing economic net return

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortø, Line; Ettema, Jehan Frans; Kargo, Morten;

    2015-01-01

    the hypothesis by combining the results of 2 stochastic simulation programs, SimHerd and ADAM. SimHerd estimates the economic effect of different strategies for use of sexed semen and beef semen at 3 levels of reproductive performance in a dairy herd. Besides simulating the operational return, SimHerd also...... of an animal and when as many selection decisions as possible are based on genomic information. However, all breakeven prices were lower than or equal to €50, which is the current price of low-density chip genotyping in Denmark, Finland, and Sweden, so in the vast majority of cases, it is not profitable...

  19. Strategic planning for Galaxy Pod Hostel

    OpenAIRE

    Anton Ívar Róbertsson 1985; Mikael Ingason 1995

    2016-01-01

    Galaxy Pod Hostel was established in May of 2015 and began offering accommodation in December of the same year. Before the strategic planning for the hostel began, the hostel had hopes of achieving its break-even point of its operation at the end of the 2016 summer, but as the strategic planning process progressed that goal became less of a reality. The purpose of the strategic planning then became to find out why the hostel is not operating at its fullest potential and what changes need to o...

  20. Fusion energy in an inertial electrostatic confinement device using a magnetically shielded grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hedditch, John, E-mail: john.hedditch@sydney.edu.au; Bowden-Reid, Richard, E-mail: rbow3948@physics.usyd.edu.au; Khachan, Joe, E-mail: joe.khachan@sydney.edu.au [School of Physics, The University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Whales 2006 (Australia)

    2015-10-15

    Theory for a gridded inertial electrostatic confinement (IEC) fusion system is presented, which shows a net energy gain is possible if the grid is magnetically shielded from ion impact. A simplified grid geometry is studied, consisting of two negatively biased coaxial current-carrying rings, oriented such that their opposing magnetic fields produce a spindle cusp. Our analysis indicates that better than break-even performance is possible even in a deuterium-deuterium system at bench-top scales. The proposed device has the unusual property that it can avoid both the cusp losses of traditional magnetic fusion systems and the grid losses of traditional IEC configurations.

  1. Fast reactor core concepts to improve transmutation efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujimura, Koji; Kawashima, Katsuyuki [Hitachi Research Laboratory, Hitachi, Ltd., 7-1-1, Omika-cho, Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki, 319-1221 Japan (Japan); Itooka, Satoshi [Hitachi-GE Nuclear Energy, Ltd., 3-1-1, Saiwai-cho, Hitachi-shi, Ibaraki, 317-0073 Japan (Japan)

    2015-12-31

    Fast Reactor (FR) core concepts to improve transmutation efficiency were conducted. A heterogeneous MA loaded core was designed based on the 1000MWe-ABR breakeven core. The heterogeneous MA loaded core with Zr-H loaded moderated targets had a better transmutation performance than the MA homogeneous loaded core. The annular pellet rod design was proposed as one of the possible design options for the MA target. It was shown that using annular pellet MA rods mitigates the self-shielding effect in the moderated target so as to enhance the transmutation rate.

  2. Geothermal loan guaranty cash flow model: description and users' manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keimig, M.A.; Rosenberg, J.I.; Entingh, D.J.

    1980-11-01

    This is the users guide for the Geothermal Loan Guaranty Cash Flow Model (GCFM). GCFM is a Fortran code which designs and costs geothermal fields and electric power plants. It contains a financial analysis module which performs life cycle costing analysis taking into account various types of taxes, costs and financial structures. The financial module includes a discounted cash flow feature which calculates a levelized breakeven price for each run. The user's guide contains descriptions of the data requirements and instructions for using the model.

  3. Energetic and economic viability of olive stone recovery as a renewable energy source: a Southern Italy case study

    OpenAIRE

    Alessandro Parenti; Piernicola Masella; Lorenzo Guerrini; Antonio Guiso; Paolo Spugnoli

    2014-01-01

    The recovery of olive stones for biofuel is becoming increasingly widespread in olive milling plants. In this study we look at the economic and energetic benefits of using a de-stoner machine in a small-to-medium sized oil milling plant. The performance of the olive stone recovery system was evaluated over a full olive oil production season. The energetic viability of the de-stoner was assessed using a Life Cycle Assessment approach, and the break-even point was achieved when about 56 tons of...

  4. Focusing experiments with light ion diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of recent experimental and theoretical work at Sandia Laboratories on magnetically insulated single stage ion diodes for inertial confinement fusion experiments is presented. The production, focusing, and numerical simulation of a 0.5 TW annular proton beam using the Proto I dual transmission line generator is described. The modular magnetically insulated ion diode for the Hydra generator is also described along with recent experimental results. A brief description of how an array of modular diodes similar to the Hydra magnetically insulated diode could be used on the EBFA I generator for breakeven fusion experiments is presented

  5. Sun adds steps to strategy for increased income

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Co. Inc. has spelled out a new strategic program designed to boost operating income by about $150 million/year starting next year. At the same time, the company reported a third quarter 1992 loss of $320 million due to writedowns associated with implementation of the new strategy and other activities. Operating income for the quarter was $22 million, compared with breakeven in the 1991 third quarter. The key to Sun's new strategy is hinged to growth in its value added business lines: chemicals, lubricants, and transportation, along with branded gasoline marketing in the U.S. Northeast

  6. Value Chain Analysis and Financial Viability of Agro-Processing Industries in Himachal Pradesh

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, K. D.; Pathania, M.S.; Lal, Harbans

    2010-01-01

    The paper has studied the structure and extent of value addition in different agro-processing units in Himachal Pradesh. It has also examined the financial viability of agro-processing industries in the state. The break-even analysis has shown enough leverage for processing units to stay in the business even at low capacity utilization. The extent of value addition has been about 53 per cent in the processing sector. The maximum value addition has been observed in fruits/vegetable processing ...

  7. THE ANALYSIS OF PROFITABILITY INDICATORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUCIU GHEORGHE

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of profitability indicators is an activity that should preoccupy all companies. Profitabilitydoes not mean only obtaining profit. A company is competitive if the ownership equity grows (the shareholders’money, the company has a profit that is comparable to that of other companies from the same area of activity,has a positive cash flow and the employees are satisfied with their salaries. Multiple indicators are used tomeasure performance: profit, commercial, economic, financial, investment rate of return, breakeven point,economic value added, net operating result.

  8. Buying Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madding, Robert P.

    1981-01-01

    The cost of thermographic information obtained by contracting for a service is compared to that of buying equipment and doing the work in-house. A breakeven analysis method is used to find the number of days per year an instrument must be used to justify buying it. Life-cycle costing techniques are used to find the equivalent annual cost of various classes of thermographic instruments. Results indicate that a full-time person earning 20,000 annually must use a 30,000 instrument at least 73 days per year if thermography can otherwise be contracted for $675 per day. By devoting a person to thermography part-time, the number of inspection days for this case can be reduced to about 28. Further in-house advantage can be gained by considering investment tax credits, salvage value and, to some extent, accelerated depreciation. Techniques for finding the breakeven number of inspection days for other costs are developed. A nomogram is included for rapid comparisons.

  9. Coastdown in light water reactors as a fuel management strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improved uranium utilization by means of extended burnup via routine end-of-cycle coastdown has been analyzed, with a specific focus on pressurided water reactors. Both computer and simple analytic models have been developed to determine the optimal coastdown length. Coastdown has been compared with the use of higher fuel-enrichment to achieve comparable burnup values. Temperature and Power coastdown modes were analyzed and changes in the plant thermodynamic efficiency determined. Effects on fuel integrity due to coastdown were examined using a fuel reliability code (SPEAR). Finally the effects on coastdown duration of major parameters involved in charaterizing reactor operation and the economic enviroment were examined. It was found that natural uranium savings up to 7% could be achieved in a typical application by the use of routine pre-planned coast down up to the economic optimun. If coastdown is carried out all the way up to the economic breakeven point yellowcake savings sum up to 16%. Coastdown is substantially more effective than increasing enrichment to extend cycle length without coastdown. Thermodynamic efficiency does not change appreciably during coastdown, a circumstance which greatly simplifies modeling. Coastdown was found to have no statistically significant effect on predicted fuel failure rates. Finally, simple back-of-the evenlope analytic models were found to give an excellent estimate of coastdown duration to both the optimum and breakeven points, and to correctly track the functional behavior induced by all major variables

  10. The optimal vertical structure in the electricity industry when the incumbent has a cost advantage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies how the vertical structure of the electricity industry affects the social welfare when the incumbent has a cost advantage in generation relative to the entrants. The model consists of a generation sector and a transmission sector. In the generation sector the incumbent and entrants compete in a Cournot fashion taking as given the access charge to the transmission network set in advance by the regulator to maximize the social welfare. Two vertical structures, integration and separation, are considered. Under vertical separation the transmission network is established as an organization independent of every generator, whereas under vertical integration it is a part of the incumbent's organization. The optimal vertical structure is shown to depend on the number of entrants. If the number of entrants is smaller than a certain threshold, vertical separation is superior in welfare to vertical integration, and vice versa. This is because the choice of vertical structure produces a trade-off in the effects on competition promotion and production efficiency. If a break-even constraint is imposed in the transmission sector, however, vertical integration is shown to be always superior in welfare. - Highlights: • We examine the optimal vertical structure in the electricity industry. • We model a generation sector in which the incumbent has a cost advantage. • A trade-off between production efficiency and competition promotion occurs. • The optimal vertical structure depends on the number of entrants. • Vertical integration is always superior if a break-even constraint is imposed

  11. The value of residential photovoltaic systems: A comprehensive assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, C. S.

    1983-01-01

    Utility-interactive photovoltaic (PV) arrays on residential rooftops appear to be a potentially attractive, large-scale application of PV technology. Results of a comprehensive assessment of the value (i.e., break-even cost) of utility-grid connected residential photovoltaic power systems under a variety of technological and economic assumptions are presented. A wide range of allowable PV system costs are calculated for small (4.34 kW (p) sub ac) residential PV systems in various locales across the United States. Primary factor in this variation are differences in local weather conditions, utility-specific electric generation capacity, fuel types, and customer-load profiles that effect purchase and sell-back rates, and non-uniform state tax considerations. Additional results from this analysis are: locations having the highest insolation values are not necessary the most economically attractive sites; residential PV systems connected in parallel to the utility demonstrate high percentages of energy sold back to the grid, and owner financial and tax assumptions cause large variations in break-even costs. Significant cost reduction and aggressive resolution of potential institutional impediments (e.g., liability, standards, metering, and technical integration) are required for a residential PV marker to become a major electric-grid-connected energy-generation source.

  12. Economic and thermal feasibility of multi stage flash desalination plant with brine–feed mixing and cooling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Improving the performance of MSF (multi stage flash) desalination plants is a major challenge for desalination industry. High feed temperature in summer shortens the evaporation range of MSF plants and limits their yield. Installing a cooler at the feed intake expands the evaporation range of MSF plants and increases their yield. Adding a cooler and a mixing chamber increases the capital and operational costs of MSF plants. This paper presents thermal and economic analysis of installing a feed cooler at the plant intake. The profit of selling the additionally produced water must cover the cost of the cooling system. The selling prices for a reasonable breakeven depend on the selected cooling temperature. The cost of installing coolers capable of maintaining feed–brine mixture temperatures of 18–20 °C shows breakeven selling prices of 0.5–0.9 $/m3. These prices fall within the current range of potable water selling prices. - Highlights: • Thermo-economic analysis for MSF plant with brine mixing and cooling is presented. • Analysis is based on first and second laws of thermodynamics. • The profit gained from producing additional water covers the cooling cost. • The suggested modification is a promising technique for plants in hot climates

  13. A survey of economic indices of plastic wastes recycling industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malek Hassanpour

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Numerous small recycling units of plastic wastes have been currently constructed heedless to study of economic indices in Iran. Pay attention to the prominent performance of the industrial sector for economic development and its priority for fortifying other sectors to implement job opportunities, survey of the economic indices beckon the stakeholders and industries owners. The main objective of this study was a survey of economic indices in small recycling unit of plastic wastes. Therefore, the practice of computing the economic indices was performed using empirical equations, professional experiences and observations in site of the industry in terms of sustainability performance. Current study had shown the indices values such as value-added percent, profit, annual income, breakeven point, value-added, output value, data value, variable cost of good unit and production costs were found 62%, $ 366558, $ 364292.6, $ 100.34, $ 423451.25, $ 255335.75, $ 678787, $ 389.65 and $ 314494.4 respectively. The breakeven point about 15.93%, the time of return on investment about 1.12 (13.7 months were represented that this industry slightly needs long time to afford the employed capital and starts making a profit.

  14. Framework of pricing a revolver loan in the case of dependent defaults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAN Yuan-rui; YAO Xiang-hua; ZHANG Xue-yu

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we analyze the main characteristics of correlative clients and the revolver loan and reduced form models for the correlative clients A and B in real-life. This is done by decomposing the default intensity into specific default intensity and homogenous default intensity. We also use a mathematical formula of the default joint distribution function and the marginal distribution function in the physical measure to deduce the martingale measure. The modeling idea on pricing the revolver loan with client A is presented by applying reduced form model. Through calculating the cost and income fund flows under the martingale measure, the framework of a "break-even" pricing model is established. The conclusion is that the interest rate of a revolver loan for client A on the "break-even" point is not related to the maximum authorized amount and the drawdown amount at that time under some assumptions, but only rests with credit rating and homogenous default intensity of client A and B as well as loan term of client A.

  15. Analyse économique de la production de purée de tomate à petite échelle au Bénin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dossou, J.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic Study of Small Scale Tomato Paste Production in Benin. Economic study of tomato paste was performed for two localities (Ketou and Dogbo of high production of tomato in Benin. For a plant capacity of 10 tons of raw tomatoes per year, with tomato juice concentrated at 13% Natural Tomato Soluble Solids (NTSS and 20.69% of material balance, the production cost of a glass-jar of 275 g (net weight is 204.87 F and the profi tability at 15.54% at Ketou. In this locality, the break-even point is estimated at 471.08 kg of paste or 2.28 T of fresh tomato. On the other hand, at Dogbo where the production cost was higher (218.34 F, the profi tability is estimated at 8.4% and the break-even point at 683.65 kg of paste or 3.3 T of fresh tomato. In conditions of good management, the two units are profi table from the fi rst year. Optimisation of energy use in dehydration of tomato juice will enhance interest in small scale tomato paste production in Benin.

  16. Business administration of PET facilities. A cost analysis of three facilities utilizing delivery FDG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PET (positron emission tomography) has been proved to be a powerful imaging tool in clinical oncology. The number of PET facilities in Japan has remarkably increased over the last decade. Furthermore, the approval of delivery fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) in 2005 resulted in a tremendous expansion of the PET institutions without a cyclotron facility. The aim of this study was to conduct a cost analysis of PET institutions that utilized delivery FDG. Three PET facilities using delivery FDG were investigated about the costs for PET service. Fixed costs included depreciation costs for construction and medical equipments such as positron camera. Variable costs consisted of costs for medical materials including delivery FDG. The break-even point was analyzed in each of three institutions. In the three hospitals (A, B and C), the annual number of PET scan was 1,591, 1,637 and 914, while cost per scan was accounted as 110,262 yen, 111,091 yen, and 134,192 yen, respectively. The break-even point was calculated to be 2,583, 2,679 and 2,081, respectively. PET facilities utilizing delivery FDG seemed to have difficulty in business administration. Such a situation suggests the possibility that the current supply of PET facilities might exceed actual demand for the service. The efficiency of resource allocation should be taken into consideration in the future health service researches on PET. (author)

  17. A study on economic viability of life extension of nuclear power plants in Korea : a case study of Kori no.1 unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study would assess the viability of life extension of nuclear power plants, specially Kori no.1 unit, as an economical electric source in the present long-term expansion planning of generating units in Korea. For the purpose of this study, replacement power cost would be evaluated by using probabilistic simulation method, and then break-even refurbishment costs would be calculated by means of levelized generation cost comparison, and compared with reference cost to assess the economic viability of Kori no.1 unit life extension. Under the baseline scenario, break-even overnight refurbishment cost range is appeared as from about 800/kWe in the case of replacing PWR-1000MWe to 2,000/kWe in the case of replacing coal-700MWe, being about 1.4 sim 3.5 times of reference cost. Therefore, absent major technological breakthroughs making present generating options obsolete, life extension of Kori no.1 unit should be the most economical option in the present expansion planning of generating unite in Korea

  18. The Economic Feasibility of Conventional and Organic Farm Production in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karmen Pažek

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was the comparison of economic feasibility of most common conventional and organic farm production in Slovenia. The methodology of an integrated deterministic technologic-economic simulation system KARSIM 1.0 (DSM application for cost analysis and decision-making support on farms is described in this article. The direct simulation model result is an individual conventional or organic farm product enterprise budget. The DSM consists of 148 deterministic production simulation models that enable different types of costs and financial feasibility calculations for conventional and organic production and food processing. The developed simulation model enables economical evaluation of some most important economic parameters (breakeven price, breakeven yield, financial result, total revenue and coefficient of economics. In conventional farming system the most suitable farm product is potato (Ke = 1.52, followed by milk and maize production (Ke = 1.10, wheat production (Ke = 1.06 and suckling cows production (Ke = 1.02. The husked spelt production is in conventional farming system economically infeasible (Ke= 0.82. In organic farming system the most feasible farm product is husked spelt (Ke = 1.56, followed by potato (Ke = 1.15, milk (Ke = 1.04 and suckling cows production (Ke = 1.03. Maize (Ke = 0.90 and wheat production (Ke = 0.83 are economically infeasible.

  19. U.S. reference paper on the potential and limitations of uranium to meet the anticipated needs of nuclear energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A framework is provided to analyze the interrelationship between uranium availability and the deployment of fast breeder and converter reactors. Included are models which can be used to estimate the uranium price for economic parity between breeders and converters, the dates for economical commercialization of fast breeders, and the effect of breeder deployment on uranium availability. Factors such as energy demand, resources and economics which are dominant in decisions as to potential breeder commercialization are discussed. Included are examples which show that breeder breakeven introduction date could fall between the year 2000 and well beyond 2025. A principal conclusion is that the break-even introduction date is very sensitive to uncertainty in the estimate of increase in capital costs of the breeder relative to the LWR, the estimates of power demand, and the estimate of the uranium resource base available at less than $130/kg (e.g. consideration of the IUREP estimates of speculative resources which if available doubles or triples the resource base)

  20. HVDC power transmission technology assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hauth, R.L.; Tatro, P.J.; Railing, B.D. [New England Power Service Co., Westborough, MA (United States); Johnson, B.K.; Stewart, J.R. [Power Technologies, Inc., Schenectady, NY (United States); Fink, J.L.

    1997-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop an assessment of the national utility system`s needs for electric transmission during the period 1995-2020 that could be met by future reduced-cost HVDC systems. The assessment was to include an economic evaluation of HVDC as a means for meeting those needs as well as a comparison with competing technologies such as ac transmission with and without Flexible AC Transmission System (FACTS) controllers. The role of force commutated dc converters was to be assumed where appropriate. The assessment begins by identifying the general needs for transmission in the U.S. in the context of a future deregulated power industry. The possible roles for direct current transmission are then postulated in terms of representative scenarios. A few of the scenarios are illustrated with the help of actual U.S. system examples. non-traditional applications as well as traditional applications such as long lines and asynchronous interconnections are discussed. The classical ``break-even distance`` concept for comparing HVDC and ac lines is used to assess the selected scenarios. The impact of reduced-cost converters is reflected in terms of the break-even distance. This report presents a comprehensive review of the functional benefits of HVDC transmission and updated cost data for both ac and dc system components. It also provides some provocative thoughts on how direct current transmission might be applied to better utilize and expand our nation`s increasingly stressed transmission assets.

  1. Are State-Sponsored New Radiation Therapy Facilities Economically Viable in Low- and Middle-Income Countries?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Datta, Niloy R., E-mail: nrdatta@yahoo.com [Centre for Radiation Oncology, KSA-KSB, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau (Switzerland); Samiei, Massoud [Consultant, International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Vienna (Austria); Bodis, Stephan [Centre for Radiation Oncology, KSA-KSB, Kantonsspital Aarau, Aarau, Switzerland and Department of Radiation Oncology, University Hospital Zurich (Switzerland)

    2015-10-01

    Purpose: The economic viability of establishing a state-funded radiation therapy (RT) infrastructure in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in accordance with the World Bank definition has been assessed through computation of a return on investment (ROI). Methods and Materials: Of the 139 LMICs, 100 were evaluated according to their RT facilities, gross national income (GNI) per capita, and employment/population ratio. The assumption was an investment of US$5 million for a basic RT center able to treat 1000 patients annually. The national breakeven points and percentage of ROI (%ROI) were calculated according to the GNI per capita and patient survival rates of 10% to 50% at 2 years. It was assumed that 50% of these patients would be of working age and that, if employed and able to work after treatment, they would contribute to the country's GNI for at least 2 years. The cumulative GNI after attaining the breakeven point until the end of the 15-year lifespan of the teletherapy unit was calculated to estimate the %ROI. The recurring and overhead costs were assumed to vary from 5.5% to 15% of the capital investment. Results: The %ROI was dependent on the GNI per capita, employment/population ratio and 2-year patient survival (all P<.001). Accordingly, none of the low-income countries would attain an ROI. If 50% of the patients survived for 2 years, the %ROI in the lower-middle and upper-middle income countries could range from 0% to 159.9% and 11.2% to 844.7%, respectively. Patient user fees to offset recurring and overhead costs could vary from “nil” to US$750, depending on state subsidies. Conclusions: Countries with a greater GNI per capita, higher employment/population ratio, and better survival could achieve a faster breakeven point, resulting in a higher %ROI. Additional factors such as user fees have also been considered. These can be tailored to the patient's ability to pay to cover the recurring costs. Certain pragmatic steps that could

  2. The economic feasibility of sugar beet biofuel production in central North Dakota

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the financial feasibility of producing ethanol biofuel from sugar beets in central North Dakota. Under the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007, biofuel from sugar beets uniquely qualifies as an 'advanced biofuel'. EISA mandates production of 21 billion gallons of advanced biofuels annually by 2022. A stochastic simulation financial model was calibrated with irrigated sugar beet data from central North Dakota to determine economic feasibility and risks of production for 0.038 hm3y-1 (or 10 MGY (Million Gallon per Year) and 0.076 hm3y-1 (or 20 MGY) ethanol plants. Study results indicate that feedstock costs, which include sugar beets and beet molasses, account for more than 70 percent of total production expenses. The estimated breakeven ethanol price for the 0.076 hm3y-1 plant is $400 m-3 ($1.52 per gallon) and $450 m-3 ($1.71 per gallon) for the 0.038 hm3y-1 plant. Breakeven prices for feedstocks are also estimated and show that the 0.076 hm3y-1 plant can tolerate greater ethanol and feedstock price risks than the 0.038 hm3y-1 plant. Our results also show that one of the most important factors that affect investment success is the price of ethanol. At an ethanol price of $484.21 m-3 ($1.84 per gallon), and assuming other factors remain unchanged, the estimated net present value (NPV) for the 0.076 hm3y-1 plant is $41.54 million. By comparison, the estimated NPV for the 0.038 hm3y-1 plant is only $8.30 million. Other factors such as changes in prices of co-products and utilities have a relatively minor effect on investment viability. -- Highlights: → Sugar beets and beet molasses costs account for more than 70 percent of total production expenses. → The estimated breakeven ethanol prices for the 0.076 hm3y-1 and 0.038 hm3y-1ethanol plants are $400 m-3 and $450 m-3 respectively. → The price of ethanol will be one of the most important factors for determining the future feasibility of a sugar-beet-based ethanol plant in North

  3. Are State-Sponsored New Radiation Therapy Facilities Economically Viable in Low- and Middle-Income Countries?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The economic viability of establishing a state-funded radiation therapy (RT) infrastructure in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) in accordance with the World Bank definition has been assessed through computation of a return on investment (ROI). Methods and Materials: Of the 139 LMICs, 100 were evaluated according to their RT facilities, gross national income (GNI) per capita, and employment/population ratio. The assumption was an investment of US$5 million for a basic RT center able to treat 1000 patients annually. The national breakeven points and percentage of ROI (%ROI) were calculated according to the GNI per capita and patient survival rates of 10% to 50% at 2 years. It was assumed that 50% of these patients would be of working age and that, if employed and able to work after treatment, they would contribute to the country's GNI for at least 2 years. The cumulative GNI after attaining the breakeven point until the end of the 15-year lifespan of the teletherapy unit was calculated to estimate the %ROI. The recurring and overhead costs were assumed to vary from 5.5% to 15% of the capital investment. Results: The %ROI was dependent on the GNI per capita, employment/population ratio and 2-year patient survival (all P<.001). Accordingly, none of the low-income countries would attain an ROI. If 50% of the patients survived for 2 years, the %ROI in the lower-middle and upper-middle income countries could range from 0% to 159.9% and 11.2% to 844.7%, respectively. Patient user fees to offset recurring and overhead costs could vary from “nil” to US$750, depending on state subsidies. Conclusions: Countries with a greater GNI per capita, higher employment/population ratio, and better survival could achieve a faster breakeven point, resulting in a higher %ROI. Additional factors such as user fees have also been considered. These can be tailored to the patient's ability to pay to cover the recurring costs. Certain pragmatic steps that could

  4. Sustainable Cost Models for mHealth at Scale: Modeling Program Data from m4RH Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily R Mangone

    Full Text Available There is increasing evidence that mobile phone health interventions ("mHealth" can improve health behaviors and outcomes and are critically important in low-resource, low-access settings. However, the majority of mHealth programs in developing countries fail to reach scale. One reason may be the challenge of developing financially sustainable programs. The goal of this paper is to explore strategies for mHealth program sustainability and develop cost-recovery models for program implementers using 2014 operational program data from Mobile for Reproductive Health (m4RH, a national text-message (SMS based health communication service in Tanzania.We delineated 2014 m4RH program costs and considered three strategies for cost-recovery for the m4RH program: user pay-for-service, SMS cost reduction, and strategic partnerships. These inputs were used to develop four different cost-recovery scenarios. The four scenarios leveraged strategic partnerships to reduce per-SMS program costs and create per-SMS program revenue and varied the structure for user financial contribution. Finally, we conducted break-even and uncertainty analyses to evaluate the costs and revenues of these models at the 2014 user volume (125,320 and at any possible break-even volume.In three of four scenarios, costs exceeded revenue by $94,596, $34,443, and $84,571 at the 2014 user volume. However, these costs represented large reductions (54%, 83%, and 58%, respectively from the 2014 program cost of $203,475. Scenario four, in which the lowest per-SMS rate ($0.01 per SMS was negotiated and users paid for all m4RH SMS sent or received, achieved a $5,660 profit at the 2014 user volume. A Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis demonstrated that break-even points were driven by user volume rather than variations in program costs.These results reveal that breaking even was only probable when all SMS costs were transferred to users and the lowest per-SMS cost was negotiated with telecom partners

  5. Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation in Cameroon. Assessing costs and benefits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new momentum is underway to account for emissions from 'avoided deforestation and degradation' at the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC). This paper assesses the feasibility of one of the Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) mechanisms currently discussed, namely that of 'Compensated Reduction', in the case of Cameroon. Here we assess the differential revenues that a farmer could get from 1 ha of land out of two alternative land-uses: shifting cultivation, the traditional land-use pattern in southern Cameroon, or carbon credits as compensation for the conservation of primary forest. It is found that a break-even price of USD 2.85/t of carbon dioxide equivalent would level shifting cultivation with 'Compensated Reduction'. This result suggests that at current carbon prices, and independently form variations in the discount rate, it could already be more profitable to preserve the primary forest rather than to log it in order to grow crops. (author)

  6. Bring your own devices (BYOD) survival guide

    CERN Document Server

    Keyes, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The BYOD RevolutionWhat's in It for the Organization? So, What Can Go Wrong? Mobile Device Management Consumerization of IT Business as UsualMaking a Financial Case for BYOD Supporting BYOD Cost-Benefit Analysis Break-Even Analysis Estimating ROI for an IT Project Earned-Value Management Rapid Economic Justification Value Measuring Methodology      Step 1: Develop a Decision Framework           Task 1-Identify and Define Value Structure           Task 2-Identify and Define Risk Structure           Task 3-Identify and Define Cost Structure           Task 4-Begin Documentation      Step 2: Alter

  7. Partnerships between Medical Centres and General Hospitals Providing Normal Care Standards in Gynaecology and Obstetrics in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schütz, F; Maleika, A; Poeschl, J; Domschke, C; Seitz, H; Beuter-Winkler, P; Sohn, C

    2012-10-01

    Hospital managers and the heads of medical departments are nowadays being faced with ever increasing demands. It is becoming difficult for some small hospitals to find highly experienced or even experienced medical staff, to provide specific health-care services at break-even prices and to maintain their position in competition with other hospitals. On the other hand, large hospitals are facing enormous pressure in the investment and costs fields. Cooperation could provide a solution for these problems. For an optimal strategic exploitation of the hospitals, their direction could be placed in the hands of a joint medical director. However, the directorship of two hospitals is associated both with opportunities and with risks. The present article illustrates the widely differing aspects of the cooperation between a medical centre and a general hospital providing standard care from both a theoretical point of view and on the basis of practical experience with an actual cooperation of this type in Heidelberg. PMID:25308978

  8. Simple economic evaluation and applications experiments for photovoltaic systems for remote sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, M. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A simple evaluation of the cost effectiveness of photovoltaic systems is presented. The evaluation is based on a calculation of breakeven costs of photovoltaics (PV) arrays with the levelized costs of two alternative energy sources (1) extension of the utility grid and (2) diesel generators. A selected number of PV applications experiments that are in progress in remote areas of the US are summarized. These applications experiments range from a 23 watt insect survey trap to a 100 kW PV system for a national park complex. It is concluded that PV systems for remote areas are now cost effective in remote small applications with commercially available technology and will be cost competitive for intermediate scale systems (approx. 10 kW) in the 1980s if the DOE 1986 Commercial Readiness Goals are achieved.

  9. Configuration and layout of the tandem mirror Fusion Power Demonstrator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have been performed during the past year to determine the configuration of a tandem mirror Fusion Power Demonstrator (FPD) machine capable of producing 1750 MW of fusion power. The FPD is seen as the next logical step after the Mirror Fusion Test Facility-B (MFTF-B) toward operation of a power reactor. The design of the FPD machine allows a phased construction: Phase I, a hydrogen or deuterium checkout machine; Phase 2, a DT breakeven machine; Phase 3, development of the Phase 2 machine to provide net power and act as a reactor demonstrator. These phases are essential to the development of remote handling equipment and the design of components that will ultimately be remotely handled. Phasing also permits more modes funding early in the program with some costs committed only after reaching major milestones

  10. BOOK-TAX DIFFERENCES E GERENCIAMENTO DE RESULTADOS NO MERCADO DE AÇÕES DO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Rovetta Passamani

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the relationship between book-tax differences (BTD and earnings management in firms listed on the BM&F Bovespa. The final sample consisted of 485 observations (firm-year and the analysis included the period from 2005 to 2009. Methodologically, two approaches were employed in this study: (i frequency distribution and (ii discretionary accruals – Modified Jones Model. The findings indicate a directly proportional relationship between BTD and discretionary accruals. There was evidence that the firms manage their earnings in the same direction of the observed signal of BTD, and seek to present the amount of BTD in level and variation around the breakeven and thus avoid a relationship with low earnings quality. Additionally, evidence indicate that the size of firm and the adoption of the tax basis transition are inversely related to the level of discretionary accruals.

  11. Cost reductions in absorption chillers. Final report, June 1984-May 1985

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, R.W.

    1986-05-01

    Absorption chillers have great difficulty competing with the electric-driven compression alternative, due in part to modest operating efficiencies and largely to high first costs. This project is an assessment of the possibility of lowering the costs of absorption chillers dramatically by the use of low material intensity in the design of a new generation of these machines. Breakeven costs for absorption chillers, their heat exchangers and heat exchanger materials were established which will allow commercial success. Polymeric and metallic materials appropriate to particular components and which meet the cost goals were identified. A subset of these materials were tested and ordered by success in tolerating conditions and materials found in absorption chiller applications. Conceptual designs which indicate the practicality of the low material intensity approach were developed. The work reported here indicates that there is a high probability that this apporach will be successful.

  12. [Costing nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markou, Pavlos

    2005-01-01

    To the Editor: Referring to a recent special report about the cost analysis of twenty-nine nuclear medicine procedures, I would like to clarify some basic aspects for determining costs of nuclear medicine procedure with various costing methodologies. Activity Based Costing (ABC) method, is a new approach in imaging services costing that can provide the most accurate cost data, but is difficult to perform in nuclear medicine diagnostic procedures. That is because ABC requires determining and analyzing all direct and indirect costs of each procedure, according all its activities. Traditional costing methods, like those for estimating incomes and expenses per procedure or fixed and variable costs per procedure, which are widely used in break-even point analysis and the method of ratio-of-costs-to-charges per procedure may be easily performed in nuclear medicine departments, to evaluate the variability and differences between costs and reimbursement - charges. PMID:15886748

  13. Feasibility study of a hybrid subcritical fission system driven by Plasma-Focus fusion neutrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • A model of a subcritical cascade driven by a Plasma Focus device is presented. • Optimum parameters to achieve given levels of neutron amplification are produced. • Monte Carlo calculations for spherical shells of enriched Uranium were performed. • Break-even conditions can be achieved with Plasma Focus of tens of kJ. - Abstract: A feasibility analysis of a hybrid fusion–fission system consisting of a two-stage spherical subcritical cascade driven by a Plasma Focus device is presented. The analysis is based on the one-group neutron diffusion equation, which was appropriately cast to assess the neutronic amplification of a spherical configuration. A design chart was produced to estimate the optimum dimensions of the fissile shells required to achieve different levels of neutron amplification. It is found that cascades driven by Plasma Focus of tens of kJ are feasible. The results were corroborated by means of Monte Carlo calculations

  14. Preliminary Neutronic Study of D2O-cooled High Conversion PWRs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikaru Hiruta; Gilles Youinou

    2013-10-01

    This paper presents a preliminary neutronics analysis of tight-pitch D2O-cooled high-conversion PWRs loaded with MOX fuel aiming at high Pu conversion and negative void coefficient. SCALE6.1 has been exclusively utilized for this study. The analyses are performed in two separate parts. The first part of this paper investigates the performance of axial and internal blankets and seeks break-even or near-breeder core even without the presence of radial blankets. The second part of this paper performs sensitivity and uncertainty analyses of integral parameters (keff and void coefficient) for selected systems in order to analyze the characters of this high-conversion PWR from different aspects.

  15. Economic analysis of wind-powered farmhouse and farm building heating systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stafford, R.W.; Greeb, F.J.; Smith, M.F.; Des Chenes, C.; Weaver, N.L.

    1981-01-01

    The study evaluated the break-even values of wind energy for selected farmhouses and farm buildings focusing on the effects of thermal storage on the use of WECS production and value. Farmhouse structural models include three types derived from a national survey - an older, a more modern, and a passive solar structure. The eight farm building applications that were analyzed include: poultry-layers, poultry-brooding/layers, poultry-broilers, poultry-turkeys, swine-farrowing, swine-growing/finishing, dairy, and lambing. These farm buildings represent the spectrum of animal types, heating energy use, and major contributions to national agricultural economic values. All energy analyses were based on hour-by-hour computations which allowed for growth of animals, sensible and latent heat production, and ventilation requirements. Hourly or three-hourly weather data obtained from the National Climatic Center was used for the nine chosen analysis sites, located throughout the United States and corresponding to regional agricultural production centers.

  16. 物流园区配送模式选择研究%A Research on the Selection of Logistics Park Distribution Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何金海

    2014-01-01

    基于物流园区基本的物流配送模式,构建了企业物流配送成本模型,并利用量本利分析方法给出了物流园区物流配送模式的选择模型,为物流园区规划建设及企业选择配送模式提供理论指导和建议。%The author of this article discusses the current logistics park distribution,finds out the existing problems and provides some theoretical guidance and suggestions for the design and con-struction of logistics park distribution modes,such as constructing a logistics park distribution cost model,and selecting the logistics park distribution mode based on Break-even analysis.

  17. Estimation of Total Fusion Reactivity and Contribution from Suprathermal Tail using 3-parameter Dagum Ion Speed Distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Majumdar, Rudrodip

    2016-01-01

    Thermonuclear fusion reactivity is a pivotal quantity in the studies pertaining to fusion energy production, fusion ignition and energy break-even analysis in both inertially and magnetically confined systems. Although nuclear fusion reactivity and thereafter the power density of a magnetic confinement fusion reactor and the fulfillment of the ignition criterion are quantitatively determined by assuming the ion speed distribution to be Maxwellian, a significant population of suprathermal ions,with energy greater than the quasi-Maxwellian background plasma temperature, is generated by the fusion reactions and auxiliary heating in the fusion devices. In the current work 3-parameter Dagum speed distribution has been introduced to include the effect of suprathermal ion population in the calculation of total fusion reactivity. The extent of enhancement in the fusion reactivity, at different back-ground temperatures of the fusion fuel plasma, due to the suprathermal ion population has also been discussed.

  18. A NEW PROCESS DEVELOPED FOR SEPARATION OF LIGNIN FROM AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE PRETREATMENT SOLUTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, S.; Gorensek, M.; Milliken, C.

    2010-12-14

    A method is described for separating lignin from liquid solutions resulting from the pretreatment of lignocellulosic materials such as switchgrass with ammonium hydroxide. The method involves a sequence of steps including acidification, evaporation, and precipitation or centrifugation that are performed under defined conditions, and results in a relatively pure, solid lignin product. The method is tested on ammonium hydroxide solutions containing lignin extracted from switchgrass. Experimental results show that the method is capable of recovering between 66-95% of dissolved lignin as a precipitated solid. Cost estimates of pilot-scale and industrial-scale expressions of the process indicate that breakeven lignin prices of $2.36/kg and $0.78/kg, respectively, may be obtainable with this recovery method.

  19. Scale-up and economic analysis of biodiesel production from municipal primary sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olkiewicz, Magdalena; Torres, Carmen M; Jiménez, Laureano; Font, Josep; Bengoa, Christophe

    2016-08-01

    Municipal wastewater sludge is a promising lipid feedstock for biodiesel production, but the need to eliminate the high water content before lipid extraction is the main limitation for scaling up. This study evaluates the economic feasibility of biodiesel production directly from liquid primary sludge based on experimental data at laboratory scale. Computational tools were used for the modelling of the process scale-up and the different configurations of lipid extraction to optimise this step, as it is the most expensive. The operational variables with a major influence in the cost were the extraction time and the amount of solvent. The optimised extraction process had a break-even price of biodiesel of 1232 $/t, being economically competitive with the current cost of fossil diesel. The proposed biodiesel production process from waste sludge eliminates the expensive step of sludge drying, lowering the biodiesel price. PMID:27131292

  20. 商用飞机项目盈亏平衡点快速分析法研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨彦

    2014-01-01

    盈亏平衡分析是商用飞机项目经济可行性论证的重要内容,本文基于参数法估算新型商用飞机项目的成本和收益,建立了一种适用于项目立项阶段、快速有效的评估商用飞机项目盈亏平衡点的方法,可为项目决策提供参考依据。%Break-even analysis is an important point of commercial airplane project economic feasibility study. In this paper, a method to esti mate aircraft project cost and revenue is established to make fast and effi cient break-even analysis. This method also provides the basis for the proj ect decision.

  1. Thermo-economic modeling of an indirectly coupled solid oxide fuel cell/gas turbine hybrid power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheddie, Denver F. [Center for Energy Studies, University of Trinidad and Tobago, Point Lisas Campus, Esperanza Road, Brechin Castle, Couva (Trinidad and Tobago); Tobago; Murray, Renique [Natural Gas Institute of the Americas, University of Trinidad and Tobago, Point Lisas Campus, Esperanza Road, Brechin Castle, Couva (Trinidad and Tobago); Tobago

    2010-12-15

    Power generation using gas turbine (GT) power plants operating on the Brayton cycle suffers from low efficiencies, resulting in poor fuel to power conversion. A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is proposed for integration into a 10 MW gas turbine power plant, operating at 30% efficiency, in order to improve system efficiencies and economics. The SOFC system is indirectly coupled to the gas turbine power plant, paying careful attention to minimize the disruption to the GT operation. A thermo-economic model is developed for the hybrid power plant, and predicts an optimized power output of 20.6 MW at 49.9% efficiency. The model also predicts a break-even per-unit energy cost of USD 4.65 cents kWh{sup -1} for the hybrid system based on futuristic mass generation SOFC costs. This shows that SOFCs may be indirectly integrated into existing GT power systems to improve their thermodynamic and economic performance. (author)

  2. Thermo-economic modeling of a solid oxide fuel cell/gas turbine power plant with semi-direct coupling and anode recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheddie, Denver F. [Center for Energy Studies, University of Trinidad and Tobago, Point Lisas Campus, Esperanza Road, Brechin Castle, Couva (Trinidad and Tobago); Tobago; Murray, Renique [Natural Gas Institute of the Americas, University of Trinidad and Tobago, Point Lisas Campus, Esperanza Road, Brechin Castle, Couva (Trinidad and Tobago); Tobago

    2010-10-15

    Power generation using gas turbine (GT) power plants operating on the Brayton cycle suffers from low efficiencies, resulting in poor fuel to power conversion. A solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) is proposed for integration into a 10 MW gas turbine power plant, operating at 30% efficiency in order to improve system efficiencies and economics. The SOFC system is semi-directly coupled to the gas turbine power plant, with careful attention paid to minimize the disruption to the GT operation. A thermo-economic model is developed for the hybrid power plant, and predicts an optimized power output of 21.6 MW at 49.2% efficiency. The model also predicts a breakeven per-unit energy cost of USD 4.70 cents /kWh for the hybrid system based on futuristic mass generation SOFC costs. Results show that SOFCs can be semi-directly integrated into existing GT power systems to improve their thermodynamic and economic performance. (author)

  3. Investment Timing and Capacity Choice for Small-Scale Wind PowerUnder Uncertainty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleten, Stein-Erik; Maribu, Karl Magnus

    2004-11-28

    This paper presents a method for evaluation of investments in small-scale wind power under uncertainty. It is assumed that the price of electricity is uncertain and that an owner of a property with wind resources has a deferrable opportunity to invest in one wind power turbine within a capacity range. The model evaluates investment in a set of projects with different capacity. It is assumed that the owner substitutes own electricity load with electricity from the wind mill and sells excess electricity back to the grid on an hourly basis. The problem for the owner is to find the price levels at which it is optimal to invest, and in which capacity to invest. The results suggests it is optimal to wait for significantly higher prices than the net present value break-even. Optimal scale and timing depend on the expected price growth rate and the uncertainty in the future prices.

  4. Bio-economic evaluation of tank raised Tilapia rendalli (Boulenger, 1896 fed on varying dietary protein levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodgers Makwinja

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was designed to determine the effects of varying dietary protein levels in feed on bioeconomic aspect of tank raised Tilapia rendalli production in Malawi. T. rendalli of average body weights (23 g were randomly stocked into 5 m3 experimental tanks at stocking density of 5 fish/m3. The experimental diets containing 25, 30 and 35% CP were formulated. Higher significant (P < 0.05 average weight gain, feed conversion ratio, break-even price, break even yield, net return were recorded in fish fed on the diet containing 35% CP. However, gross margin profit ratio was the lowest in the diet containing 35% CP. The significance of the study findings is that higher inclusion of protein in feed produce better growth and high overall net return, hence need to use high dietary protein level in this case, 35%.

  5. 'Action 2016': AREVA's strategic action plan to improve performance; 'Action 2016': le plan d'actions strategique d'AREVA pour ameliorer sa performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marie, Patricia; Floquet-Daubigeon, Fleur; Michaut, Maxime; De Scorbiac, Marie; Du Repaire, Philippine

    2011-12-12

    On December 12, 2011, Luc Oursel, Executive Officer of AREVA, and Pierre Aubouin, Chief Financial Executive Officer, presented the group's 'Action 2016' strategic action plan based on an in-depth analysis of the market's outlook. This document makes, first, a Detailed presentation of the 'Action 2016' plan and then presents the group's financial outlook: - Full-year 2011 immediate accounting consequences of the new market environment: operating losses expected in 2011; - 2012-2013 transition period Objective: self-finance capex in cumulative terms; - 2014-2016: safe growth and cash generation, free operating cash flow at break-even beginning in 2013, above euro 1 bn per year beginning in 2015

  6. An economic model for evaluating high-speed aircraft designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandervelden, Alexander J. M.

    1989-01-01

    A Class 1 method for determining whether further development of a new aircraft design is desirable from all viewpoints is presented. For the manufacturer the model gives an estimate of the total cost of research and development from the preliminary design to the first production aircraft. Using Wright's law of production, one can derive the average cost per aircraft produced for a given break-even number. The model will also provide the airline with a good estimate of the direct and indirect operating costs. From the viewpoint of the passenger, the model proposes a tradeoff between ticket price and cruise speed. Finally all of these viewpoints are combined in a Comparative Aircraft Seat-kilometer Economic Index.

  7. A comparison of economic evaluation models as applied to geothermal energy technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziman, G. M.; Rosenberg, L. S.

    1983-01-01

    Several cost estimation and financial cash flow models have been applied to a series of geothermal case studies. In order to draw conclusions about relative performance and applicability of these models to geothermal projects, the consistency of results was assessed. The model outputs of principal interest in this study were net present value, internal rate of return, or levelized breakeven price. The models used were VENVAL, a venture analysis model; the Geothermal Probabilistic Cost Model (GPC Model); the Alternative Power Systems Economic Analysis Model (APSEAM); the Geothermal Loan Guarantee Cash Flow Model (GCFM); and the GEOCOST and GEOCITY geothermal models. The case studies to which the models were applied include a geothermal reservoir at Heber, CA; a geothermal eletric power plant to be located at the Heber site; an alcohol fuels production facility to be built at Raft River, ID; and a direct-use, district heating system in Susanville, CA.

  8. Development of variable-shaft-speed alternator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothbart, G.; Fullwood, R.

    1982-02-01

    A variable shaft speed alternator (VSSA) consists of an ordinary unmodified 1-1/2 Hp wound-rotor motor, with polyphase excitation controlled by solid state switching and a hybrid of analog and digital circuitry. This circuitry senses both shaft speed and line phase resulting in logic levels which control the current flow in each rotor coil. A first order polynomial was found using the least-squares regression method which accurately expressed the relationship among shaft speed, excitation power, and output power, VSSA torque was inferred from observations to be proportional to output power. Efficiency for converting mechanical power to electrical was inferred over a range of shaft speeds. A break-even speed below which no net power is produced was observed to be 0.375 of the synchronous speed for all output power levels. Similar behavior was observed with power fed to the power network (grid). Additional measurements involved VSSA performance at various power factors.

  9. Mirror Fusion Test Facility: an intermediate device to a mirror fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Mirror Fusion Test Facility (MFTF-B) now under construction at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory represents more than an order-of-magnitude step from earlier magnetic-mirror experiments toward a future mirror fusion reactor. In fact, when the device begins operating in 1986, the Lawson criteria of ntau = 1014 cm-3.s will almost be achieved for D-T equivalent operation, thus signifying scientific breakeven. Major steps have been taken to develop MFTF-B technologies for tandem mirrors. Steady-state, high-field, superconducting magnets at reactor-revelant scales are used in the machine. The 30-s beam pulses, ECRH, and ICRH will also introduce steady-state technologies in those systems

  10. Low Cost Mechanical Aid for Rice Harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, Ganesh C.; Hansen, Gunner K.

    A small engine-powered harvesting aid for small area rice farmers was developed. The machine was a modified brush cutter. The original cutter blade was replaced by a 25 cm diameter circular saw blade. A metal plate and rubber guard assembly was fitted behind the blade on the handle to guide the cut stalk to the left side. The machine performed well in the field conditions with a field capacity of 0.51 ha day-1 consuming 0.25 L of fuel in an hour. It was 7.8 times faster than manual harvesting though the field loss was around 2.3% as against 1% in manual harvesting. The break-even area was 1 ha and the payback period for the investment was one year. The machine should be affordable to low income farmers in developing countries and women would also be able to taste the fruits of mechanization.

  11. Mobile Biomass Pelletizing System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas Mason

    2009-04-16

    This grant project examines multiple aspects of the pelletizing process to determine the feasibility of pelletizing biomass using a mobile form factor system. These aspects are: the automatic adjustment of the die height in a rotary-style pellet mill, the construction of the die head to allow the use of ceramic materials for extreme wear, integrating a heat exchanger network into the entire process from drying to cooling, the use of superheated steam for adjusting the moisture content to optimum, the economics of using diesel power to operate the system; a break-even analysis of estimated fixed operating costs vs. tons per hour capacity. Initial development work has created a viable mechanical model. The overall analysis of this model suggests that pelletizing can be economically done using a mobile platform.

  12. Instability Control in a Staged Z-pinch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WESSEL, Frank J

    2011-04-22

    A \\Staged Z-Pinch is a fusion-energy concept in which stored-electric energy is first converted into plasma-liner-kinetic energy, and then transferred to a coaxialtarget plasma [H. U. Rahman, F. J. Wessel, and N. Rostoker, Phys. Rev. Lett. 74, p. 714(1996)]. Proper choice of the liner and target materials, and their initial radii and mass densities, leads to dynamic stabilization, current amplification, and shock heating of the target. Simulations suggest that this configuration has merit as a alternative inertial-confinement-fusion concept, and may provide an energy release exceeding thermonuclear break-even, if tested on one of many newer pulsed power systems, for example those located at Sandia National Laboratories.

  13. The Efficiency Analysis and A Market Decision Model on Equipment Maintenance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents and analyses the internal and external efficiencies of equipment maintenance, and presents that the objective of maintenance is the maximum external efficiency. It defines generalized reliability degree of equipment and deduces the correspondent calculating method. It overcomes the defect that traditional calculating method of reliability degree has, which only considers the factor of time not function, therefore we establish a market decision model of equipment maintenance based on it. This model can determine the marginal efficiency of maintenance investment and critical value of generalized reliability degree when it reaches break-even point. After combining the equipment maintenance with economical benefit of enterprise and marketing situation of products, an optimal maintenance strategy will be got. It provides a new method for scientific and rational decisions of equipment maintenance.``

  14. Energetic and economic viability of olive stone recovery as a renewable energy source: a Southern Italy case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Parenti

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of olive stones for biofuel is becoming increasingly widespread in olive milling plants. In this study we look at the economic and energetic benefits of using a de-stoner machine in a small-to-medium sized oil milling plant. The performance of the olive stone recovery system was evaluated over a full olive oil production season. The energetic viability of the de-stoner was assessed using a Life Cycle Assessment approach, and the break-even point was achieved when about 56 tons of olives had been processed, which is less than the annual production of the mill in question. Similarly, in economic terms, the machine covered its costs after about a quarter of its technical life.

  15. Thermal power systems small power systems applications project. Volume 2: Detailed report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, A. T.

    1979-01-01

    Small power system technology as applied to power plants up to 10 MW in size was considered. Markets for small power systems were characterized and cost goals were established for the project. Candidate power plant system design concepts were selected for evaluation and preliminary performance and cost assessments were made. Breakeven capital costs were determined for leading contenders among the candidate systems. The potential use of small power systems in providing part of the demand for pumping power by the extensive aqueduct system of California, was studied. Criteria and methodologies were developed for the ranking of candidate power plant system design concepts. Experimental power plant concepts of 1 MW rating were studied to define a power plant configuration for subsequent detail design construction, testing and evaluation. Site selection criteria and ground rules were developed.

  16. A computational magnetohydrodynamic model of a gasdynamic fusion space propulsion system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlandt, Chad J. R.

    This work advances the gasdynamic mirror (GDM) fusion space propulsion system concept by testing the potential of an advanced aneutronic fusion fuel combination of proton-11boron and evaluating GDMs operating at less than breakeven being driven with nuclear electric reactors. Finding neither option to be a panacea, the author moves forward in developing an ideal 3-D magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) computational model for simulating concept GDMs. The challenges identified and remediated include Alfven wave-speeds a few percent the speed of light with characteristic lengths on the order of a centimeter, the extreme aspect ratio of GDM systems, massive background magnetic fields, and traveling waves along the length of the GDM. Due to the remaining physical challenges of modeling the GDM system, including a slow systemic relaxation time and localized radiation losses, the computational requirements of the full 3-D MHD model remains too computationally demanding, which suggests a future approach involving a hybrid of 1-D and 3-D models.

  17. A Competitive Evaluation of Urban Energy Systems from viewpoints of Energy Conservation and Mitigating Environmental Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugihara, Hideharu; Tomioka, Hajime; Tsuji, Kiichiro

    Although various energy system alternatives for business, commercial and residential customers have been recently developed in order to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emission, it is important to evaluate competitive characteristics among such new energy system alternatives quantitatively, in consideration of tradeoff relation among economic cost, energy consumption and CO2 emission. In this paper, using multi-objective optimization model for urban energy system planning, two competitive evaluations are performed. One is the break-even cost analysis for introducing more efficient, but more expensive energy equipment, such as photovoltaic system and fuel cell system. The other is that we evaluate the competitiveness of a certain energy system from a viewpoint of whole urban area because there are multiple alternatives for attaining same target of reducing CO2 emission or energy consumption.

  18. The stony way to renewable energy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    the reproduction of specific plant matter and its biodiversity impacts - especially regarding the material and energy chain from forests to harvested wood with its long lead times of reproduction. The historical (re-)expansion of forests in early industrialising countries known as the forest transition hypothesis...... was conditioned by the expansion of fossil fuel use (RCD 2009a). When wood use is grossly expanded in order to (re-)substitute wood for fossil energy, this can, therefore, become a threat against forests. And: it threatens climate policies, because the lower energy-efficiency of biomass(RCD2009b) creates a net...... carbon debt. It is, thus, a question of time-profiles to show, when rising CO2-sinks in forests reach a break-even point(Manomet Center 2009, Johanneum Research 2009). Also, it has to be taken into account that the probability of forests becoming carbon sources instead of sinks rises with expected levels...

  19. Profit and loss analysis for an intensive care unit (ICU in Japan: a tool for strategic management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abe Toshikazu

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accurate cost estimate and a profit and loss analysis are necessary for health care practice. We performed an actual financial analysis for an intensive care unit (ICU of a university hospital in Japan, and tried to discuss the health care policy and resource allocation decisions that have an impact on critical intensive care. Methods The costs were estimated by a department level activity based costing method, and the profit and loss analysis was based on a break-even point analysis. The data used included the monthly number of patients, the revenue, and the direct and indirect costs of the ICU in 2003. Results The results of this analysis showed that the total costs of US$ 2,678,052 of the ICU were mainly incurred due to direct costs of 88.8%. On the other hand, the actual annual total patient days in the ICU were 1,549 which resulted in revenues of US$ 2,295,044. However, it was determined that the ICU required at least 1,986 patient days within one fiscal year based on a break-even point analysis. As a result, an annual deficit of US$ 383,008 has occurred in the ICU. Conclusion These methods are useful for determining the profits or losses for the ICU practice, and how to evaluate and to improve it. In this study, the results indicate that most ICUs in Japanese hospitals may not be profitable at the present time. As a result, in order to increase the income to make up for this deficit, an increase of 437 patient days in the ICU in one fiscal year is needed, and the number of patients admitted to the ICU should thus be increased without increasing the number of beds or staff members. Increasing the number of patients referred from cooperating hospitals and clinics therefore appears to be the best strategy for achieving these goals.

  20. Economic analysis of bedside ultrasonography (US) implementation in an Internal Medicine department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testa, Americo; Francesconi, Andrea; Giannuzzi, Rosangela; Berardi, Silvia; Sbraccia, Paolo

    2015-12-01

    The economic crisis, the growing healthcare demand, and Defensive Medicine wastefulness, strongly recommend the restructuring of the entire medical network. New health technology, such as bedside ultrasonography, might successfully integrate the clinical approach optimizing the use of limited resources, especially in a person-oriented vision of medicine. Bedside ultrasonography is a safe and reliable technique, with worldwide expanding employment in various clinical settings, being considered as "the stethoscope of the 21st century". However, at present, bedside ultrasonography lacks economic analysis. We performed a Cost-Benefit Analysis "ex ante", with a break-even point computing, of bedside ultrasonography implementation in an Internal Medicine department in the mid-term. Number and kind estimation of bedside ultrasonographic studies were obtained by a retrospective study, whose data results were applied to the next 3-year period (foresight study). All 1980 foreseen bedside examinations, with prevailing multiorgan ultrasonographic studies, were considered to calculate direct and indirect costs, while specific and generic revenues were considered only after the first semester. Physician professional training, equipment purchase and working time represented the main fixed and variable cost items. DRG increase/appropriateness, hospitalization stay shortening and reduction of traditional ultrasonography examination requests mainly impacted on calculated revenues. The break-even point, i.e. the volume of activity at which revenues exactly equal total incurred costs, was calculated to be 734 US examinations, corresponding to € 81,998 and the time considered necessary to reach it resulting 406 days. Our economic analysis clearly shows that bedside ultrasonography implementation in clinical daily management of an Internal Medicine department can produce consistent savings, or economic profit according to managerial choices (i.e., considering public or private targets

  1. Evaluation of economical introduction of nuclear fusion based on a long-term world energy and environment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debates about whether or not to invest heavily in nuclear fusion as a future innovative energy option have been made within the context of energy technology development strategies. The time frame by which nuclear fusion could become competitive in the energy market has not been adequately studied, nor has roles of the nuclear fusion in energy systems and the environment. The present study has two objectives. One is to reveal the conditions under which nuclear fusion could be introduced economically (hereafter, we refer to such introductory conditions as breakeven prices) in future energy systems. The other objective is to evaluate the future roles of nuclear fusion in energy systems and in the environment. Here we chose two roles that nuclear fusion will take on when breakeven prices are achieved: i) reduction of annual global total energy systems cost, and ii) mitigation of carbon tax (shadow price of carbon) under CO2 constraints. Future uncertainties are key issues in evaluating nuclear fusion. Here we treated the following uncertainties: energy demand scenarios, introduction time frame for nuclear fusion, capacity projections of nuclear fusion, CO2 target in 2100. From our investigations, we conclude that the presently designed nuclear fusion reactors may be ready for economical introduction into energy systems beginning around 2050-2060, and we can confirm that the favorable introduction of the reactors would reduce both the annual energy systems cost and the carbon tax (the shadow price of carbon) under a CO2 concentration constraint; however, latter introduction of them decreases the cost and the tax less than five times. Earlier introduction of nuclear fusion reactors are desirable for energy systems and environment. (author)

  2. THE ECONOMICS OF REPROCESSING vs DIRECT DISPOSAL OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matthew Bunn; Steve Fetter; John P. Holdren; Bob van der Zwaan

    2003-07-01

    This report assesses the economics of reprocessing versus direct disposal of spent nuclear fuel. The breakeven uranium price at which reprocessing spent nuclear fuel from existing light-water reactors (LWRs) and recycling the resulting plutonium and uranium in LWRs would become economic is assessed, using central estimates of the costs of different elements of the nuclear fuel cycle (and other fuel cycle input parameters), for a wide range of range of potential reprocessing prices. Sensitivity analysis is performed, showing that the conclusions reached are robust across a wide range of input parameters. The contribution of direct disposal or reprocessing and recycling to electricity cost is also assessed. The choice of particular central estimates and ranges for the input parameters of the fuel cycle model is justified through a review of the relevant literature. The impact of different fuel cycle approaches on the volume needed for geologic repositories is briefly discussed, as are the issues surrounding the possibility of performing separations and transmutation on spent nuclear fuel to reduce the need for additional repositories. A similar analysis is then performed of the breakeven uranium price at which deploying fast neutron breeder reactors would become competitive compared with a once-through fuel cycle in LWRs, for a range of possible differences in capital cost between LWRs and fast neutron reactors. Sensitivity analysis is again provided, as are an analysis of the contribution to electricity cost, and a justification of the choices of central estimates and ranges for the input parameters. The equations used in the economic model are derived and explained in an appendix. Another appendix assesses the quantities of uranium likely to be recoverable worldwide in the future at a range of different possible future prices.

  3. Battery sizing for serial plug-in hybrid electric vehicles: A model-based economic analysis for Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The battery size of a Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHEV) is decisive for the electrical range of the vehicle and crucial for the cost-effectiveness of this particular vehicle concept. Based on the energy consumption of a conventional reference car and a PHEV, we introduce a comprehensive total cost of ownership model for the average car user in Germany for both vehicle types. The model takes into account the purchase price, fixed annual costs and variable operating costs. The amortization time of a PHEV also depends on the recharging strategy (once a day, once a night, after each trip), the battery size, and the battery costs. We find that PHEVs with a 4 kWh battery and at current lithium-ion battery prices reach the break-even point after about 6 years (5 years when using the lower night-time electricity tariffs). With higher battery capacities the amortization time becomes significantly longer. Even for the small battery size and assuming the EU-15 electricity mix, a PHEV is found to emit only around 60% of the CO2 emissions of a comparable conventional car. Thus, with the PHEV concept a cost-effective introduction of electric mobility and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions per vehicle can be reached. - Highlights: → Total cost of ownership of a PHEV and a conventional car are compared for the average German car user.→ PHEVs with a 4 kWh battery reach the break-even after 5-6 years at current Li-Ion battery prices.→ Even with a small battery, PHEVs emit about 40% less CO2 emissions than the average conventional car.

  4. Do home energy management systems make sense? Assessing their overall lifecycle impact

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An ever-increasing body of research explores the effectiveness of Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS) in achieving energy savings in households. To date, however, the overall life cycle impact of the HEMS itself has not been taken into account. Thus, no assessment has been made whether the amount of energy saved (esaved) outweighs the energy needed for production, use and disposal (einvested). Therefore, an eco-cost and a Cumulative Energy Demand (CED) method were used to analyze three distinct types of HEMS. Based on the literature, six scenarios were developed in order to find the break-even point, where einvested=esaved. The results show that the overall impact is dependent on the type of HEMS, and that if the duration of use is short and the achieved savings are small, the benefits do not always outweigh the environmental costs. Care should be taken not to develop HEMS with unnecessarily elaborate parts or functionalities and that their own electricity consumption is minimized. The paper concludes by discussing the implication for polices concerning the implementation of smart meters and HEMS and their design. - Highlights: • We conducted a lifecycle assessment of three Home Energy Management Systems (HEMS). • We developed six scenarios to find the breakeven point where einvested=esaved. • All three HEMS can achieve net energy savings over the course of five years. • Within the scenarios, it can take up to two years to achieve net energy savings. • No HEMS achieve a positive return on investment within five years in all scenarios

  5. ANALYSIS OF INTERCOMMUNICATION OF FINANCIAL RESULTS OF ACTIVITY AND INDEXES OF ESTIMATION OF THE FINANCIAL STATE OF A COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prudnikov A. G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The system of indicators characterizing the financial condition of a commercial organization, the major thing is profitability of its operations as the ratio of profit on sales and revenues, the ratio of profit before tax and the average annual value of total assets, the ratio of net profit and the average value of all assets, net income and average equity. Great practical importance for the efficient management of resources economic entity is marginal analysis, but it requires, in our opinion, improvement. In the academic literature on management analysis it is recommended to determine the relative value of the stock of financial strength ratio of the absolute value of the stock of financial strength and actual revenue; financial headroom suggested determined by the difference between the actual value of revenue and earnings, the corresponding break-even point. The relative value of the stock of financial strength should be determined, in our opinion, the ratio of the absolute value of the stock of financial strength and the amount of revenue in the break-even point. Recommended in textbooks relative value of the stock of financial strength is a share of stock of financial strength in the actual revenue. The method of rating the financial condition of commercial organizations (credit scoring of the American economist D. Durant return on total assets is also a priority index, largely determining the solvency and liquidity of the balance sheet, the financial stability of the business entity. However, in practice the profitability of the invested capital is not always characterized by an optimal investment

  6. Life cycle assessment of resource recovery from municipal solid waste incineration bottom ash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegrini, Elisa; Vadenbo, Carl; Boldrin, Alessio; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2015-03-15

    Bottom ash, the main solid output from municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI), has significant potential for the recovery of resources such as scrap metals and aggregates. The utilisation of these resources ideally enables natural resources to be saved. However, the quality of the recovered scrap metals may limit recycling potential, and the utilisation of aggregates may cause the release of toxic substances into the natural environment through leaching. A life cycle assessment (LCA) was applied to a full-scale MSWI bottom ash management and recovery system to identify environmental breakeven points beyond which the burdens of the recovery processes outweigh the environmental benefits from valorising metals and mineral aggregates. Experimental data for the quantity and quality of individual material fractions were used as a basis for LCA modelling. For the aggregates, three disposal routes were compared: landfilling, road sub-base and aggregate in concrete, while specific leaching data were used as the basis for evaluating toxic impacts. The recovery and recycling of aluminium, ferrous, stainless steel and copper scrap were considered, and the importance of aluminium scrap quality, choice of marginal energy technologies and substitution rates between primary and secondary aluminium, stainless steel and ferrous products, were assessed and discussed. The modelling resulted in burdens to toxic impacts associated with metal recycling and leaching from aggregates during utilisation, while large savings were obtained in terms of non-toxic impacts. However, by varying the substitution rate for aluminium recycling between 0.35 and 0.05 (on the basis of aluminium scrap and secondary aluminium alloy market value), it was found that the current recovery system might reach a breakeven point between the benefits of recycling and energy expended on sorting and upgrading the scrap. PMID:25555136

  7. Current and future financial competitiveness of electricity and heat from energy crops: A case study from Ireland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been demonstrated that Miscanthus and willow energy-crop cultivation could be economically competitive with current agricultural land uses at a farm-gate biomass price ranging from EUR70 to EUR130 t-1 dry matter [Styles, D., Thorne, F., Jones, M.B., in review. Energy crops in Ireland: An economic comparison of willow and Miscanthus production with conventional farming systems. Biomass and Bioenergy, May 2006]. This paper uses the same farm-gate prices to calculate the economic competitiveness of energy crop electricity and heat production, using a net-present-value (NPV) approach (20-year period, 5% discount rate). Direct and gasified co-firing of willow wood with coal would result in electricity generation 30% or 37% more expensive than coal generation, at current coal and CO2 allowance prices and a farm-gate biomass cost of EUR100 t-1. 'Break-even' CO2 allowance prices are EUR33 and EUR37 t-1, respectively. However, co-firing of Miscanthus with peat is close to economic competitiveness, and would require a CO2 allowance price of EUR16 t-1 to break-even (against a current price of EUR12 t-1). NPV analyses indicate that wood heat is significantly cheaper than oil, gas or electric heat, excluding existing wood-boiler installation subsidies. Discounted annual savings range from EUR143 compared with gas to EUR722 compared with electric heating at the domestic scale and from EUR3454 to EUR11,222 at the commercial scale. Inclusion of available subsidies improves the comparative economics of domestic wood heat substantially. The economic advantage of wood heat is robust to variation in fuel prices, discount rates and heat loads. The greatest obstacles to energy-crop utilisation include: (i) a reluctance to consider long-term economics; (ii) possible competition from cheaper sources of biomass; (iii) the need for a spatially coordinated supply and utilisation network. (author)

  8. Role of nuclear fusion in future energy systems and the environment under future uncertainties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debates about whether or not to invest heavily in nuclear fusion as a future innovative energy option have been made within the context of energy technology development strategies. This is because the prospects for nuclear fusion are quite uncertain and the investments therefore carry the risk of quite large regrets, even though investment is needed in order to develop the technology. The timeframe by which nuclear fusion could become competitive in the energy market has not been adequately studied, nor has roles of the nuclear fusion in energy systems and the environment. The present study has two objectives. One is to reveal the conditions under which nuclear fusion could be introduced economically (hereafter, we refer to such introductory conditions as breakeven prices) in future energy systems. The other objective is to evaluate the future roles of nuclear fusion in energy systems and in the environment. Here we identify three roles that nuclear fusion will take on when breakeven prices are achieved: (i) a portion of the electricity market in 2100, (ii) reduction of annual global total energy systems cost, and (iii) mitigation of carbon tax (shadow price of carbon) under CO2 constraints. Future uncertainties are key issues in evaluating nuclear fusion. Here we treated the following uncertainties: energy demand scenarios, introduction timeframe for nuclear fusion, capacity projections of nuclear fusion, CO2 target in 2100, capacity utilization ratio of options in energy/environment technologies, and utility discount rates. From our investigations, we conclude that the presently designed nuclear fusion reactors may be ready for economical introduction into energy systems beginning around 2050-2060, and we can confirm that the favorable introduction of the reactors would reduce both the annual energy systems cost and the carbon tax (the shadow price of carbon) under a CO2 concentration constraint

  9. Comparison of two different running models for the shock wave lithotripsy machine in Taipei City Hospital: self-support versus outsourcing cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chi-Yi; Chen, Shiou-Sheng; Chen, Li-Kuei

    2009-10-01

    To compare two different running models including self-support and outsourcing cooperation for the extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (SWL) machine in Taipei City Hospital, we made a retrospective study. Self-support means that the hospital has to buy an SWL machine and get all the payment from SWL. In outsourcing cooperation, the cooperative company provides an SWL machine and shares the payment with the hospital. Between January 2002 and December 2006, we used self-support for the SWL machine, and from January 2007 to December 2008, we used outsourcing cooperation. We used the method of full costing to calculate the cost of SWL, and the break-even point was the lowest number of treatment sessions of SWL to make balance of payments every month. Quality parameters including stone-free rate, retreatment rate, additional procedures and complication rate were evaluated. When outsourcing cooperation was used, there were significantly more treatment sessions of SWL every month than when utilizing self-support (36.3 +/- 5.1 vs. 48.1 +/- 8.4, P = 0.03). The cost of SWL for every treatment session was significantly higher using self-support than with outsourcing cooperation (25027.5 +/- 1789.8 NT$ vs. 21367.4 +/- 201.0 NT$). The break-even point was 28.3 (treatment sessions) for self-support, and 28.4 for outsourcing cooperation, when the hospital got 40% of the payment, which would decrease if the percentage increased. No significant differences were noticed for stone-free rate, retreatment rate, additional procedures and complication rate of SWL between the two running models. Besides, outsourcing cooperation had lower cost (every treatment session), but a greater number of treatment sessions of SWL every month than self-support.

  10. Technical and economic feasibility of utilizing apple pomace as a boiler feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sargent, S.A.

    1983-01-01

    Apple pomace or presscake, was evaluated for suitability as a boiler feedstock for Michigan firms processing apple juice. Based upon the physical and chemical characteristics of pomace, handling/direct combustion systems were selected to conform with operating parameters typical of the industry. Fresh pomace flow rates of 29,030 and 88,998 kg/day (64,000 and 194,000 lb/day) were considered as representative of small and large processors, respectively, and the material was assumed to be dried to 15% moisture content (wet basis) prior to storage and combustion. Boilers utilizing pile-burning, fluidized-bed-combustion, and suspension-firing technologies were sized for each flow rate, resulting in energy production of 2930 and 8790 kW (10 and 30 million Btu/h), respectively. A life-cycle cost analysis was performed giving Average Annual Costs for the three handling/combustion system combinations (based on the Uniform Capital Recovery factor). An investment loan at 16% interest with a 5-year payback period was assumed. The break-even period for annual costs was calculated by anticipated savings incurred through reduction of fossil-fuel costs during a 5-month processing season. Large processors, producing more than 88,998 kg pomace/day, could economically convert to a suspension-fired system substituting for fuel oil, with break-even occurring after 4 months of operation of pomace per year. Small processors, producing less than 29,030 kg/day, could not currently convert to pomace combustion systems given these economic circumstances. A doubling of electrical-utility costs and changes in interest rates from 10 to 20% per year had only slight effects on the recovery of Average Annual Costs. Increases in fossil-fuel prices and the necessity to pay for pomace disposal reduced the cost-recovery period for all systems, making some systems feasible for small processors. 39 references, 13 figures, 10 tables.

  11. Can savings induced by off-patent drugs balance the increase of pharmaceutical expense associated with the high ageing rate of the italian population?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierluigi Russo

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Background: The predicted ageing rate of the Italian population is one of the highest worldwide and this condition is expected to produce a growing increase in pharmaceutical expenditure. The objective of this study was to assess whether or not off-patent drugs could counterbalance the economic effects generated by the aging of the Italian population in the next ten years.

    Methods: On the basis of the predicted ageing rate of the Italian population for the period 2008-2018, the average annual cumulative increase of pharmaceutical expenditure and potential savings generated by the future loss of patent coverage have been considered in order to identify the year of the Breakeven Point.

    Results: The economic effect induced by the progressive ageing of population produces an average of 0.94% cumulative increase in local pharmaceutical expenditure per year, corresponding to an incremental pharmaceutical expenditure of about € 116 millions per year. A number of 509 brands (103 active substances will lose their patent coverage in the next 10 years. Considering both the present legislation and a level of price reduction, after patent expiration, corresponding to 40%, it is predicted that the Breakeven Point will be achieved at the end of 2011.

    Conclusions: In this study, a long term balance between the predictable increase of pharmaceutical expenditure induced by the ageing of Italian population and savings produced by future off-patent drugs was not established. In order to assure the future sustainability of pharmaceutical expenditure, this study supports the need for the development of new health policy strategies.

  12. Investigation of the Performance of D2O-Cooled High-Conversion Reactors for Fuel Cycle Calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hikaru Hiruta; Gilles Youinou

    2013-09-01

    This report presents FY13 activities for the analysis of D2O cooled tight-pitch High-Conversion PWRs (HCPWRs) with U-Pu and Th-U fueled cores aiming at break-even or near breeder conditions while retaining the negative void reactivity. The analyses are carried out from several aspects which could not be covered in FY12 activities. SCALE 6.1 code system is utilized, and a series of simple 3D fuel pin-cell models are developed in order to perform Monte Carlo based criticality and burnup calculations. The performance of U-Pu fueled cores with axial and internal blankets is analyzed in terms of their impact on the relative fissile Pu mass balance, initial Pu enrichment, and void coefficient. In FY12, Pu conversion performances of D2O-cooled HCPWRs fueled with MOX were evaluated with small sized axial/internal DU blankets (approximately 4cm of axial length) in order to ensure the negative void reactivity, which evidently limits the conversion performance of HCPWRs. In this fiscal year report, the axial sizes of DU blankets are extended up to 30 cm in order to evaluate the amount of DU necessary to reach break-even and/or breeding conditions. Several attempts are made in order to attain the milestone of the HCPWR designs (i.e., break-even condition and negative void reactivity) by modeling of HCPWRs under different conditions such as boiling of D2O coolant, MOX with different 235U enrichment, and different target burnups. A similar set of analyses are performed for Th-U fueled cores. Several promising characteristics of 233U over other fissile like 239Pu and 235U, most notably its higher fission neutrons per absorption in thermal and epithermal ranges combined with lower ___ in the fast range than 239Pu allows Th-U cores to be taller than MOX ones. Such an advantage results in 4% higher relative fissile mass balance than that of U-Pu fueled cores while retaining the negative void reactivity until the target burnup of 51 GWd/t. Several other distinctions between U-Pu and

  13. Switchgrass biomass to ethanol production economics: Field to fuel approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, Mohua

    Scope and Method of Study. Switchgrass has been proposed as a dedicated energy crop. The first essay determines switchgrass yield response to nitrogen fertilizer for a single annual harvest in July and for a single annual harvest in October based on a field experiments conducted at Stillwater, OK. Data were fitted to several functional forms to characterize both the July harvest and the October harvest response functions. Extending the harvest window to take advantage of reduction in harvest machinery investment costs has important biological consequences. The second essay determines the cost to deliver a ton of switchgrass biomass to a 2,000 tons per day plant located in Oklahoma. The model accounts for differences in yield and nitrogen fertilizer requirements across harvest months. The data were incorporated into a multi-region, multi-period, monthly time-step, mixed integer mathematical programming model that was constructed to determine the optimal strategy. Desirable feedstock properties, biomass to biofuel conversion rate, and investment required in plant differs depending on which conversion technology is used. The third essay determines the breakeven ethanol price for a cellulosic biorefinery. A comprehensive mathematical programming model that encompasses the chain from land acquisition to ethanol production was constructed and solved. Findings and Conclusions. The July and October harvest plateau yield of 4.36 and 5.49 tons per acre were achieved with an estimated annual nitrogen fertilizer application of 80 and 63 pounds per acre, respectively. Farm gate production costs were estimated to be 60 per ton for the July harvest and 50 per ton for the October harvest. Based on the model results, the strategy of extending harvest over many months is economically preferable to a strategy of harvesting only in peak yield harvest months. Restricting harvest to a two-month harvest season would increase the cost to deliver feedstock by 23 percent. For a capital

  14. The Mercury Laser System-A scaleable average-power laser for fusion and beyond

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nestled in a valley between the whitecaps of the Pacific and the snowcapped crests of the Sierra Nevada, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is home to the nearly complete National Ignition Facility (NIF). The purpose of NIF is to create a miniature star-on demand. An enormous amount of laser light energy (1.8 MJ in a pulse that is 20 ns in duration) will be focused into a small gold cylinder approximately the size of a pencil eraser. Centered in the gold cylinder (or hohlraum) will be a nearly perfect sphere filled with a complex mixture of hydrogen gas isotopes that is similar to the atmosphere of our Sun. During experiments, the laser light will hit the inside of the gold cylinder, heating the metal until it emits X-rays (similar to how your electric stove coil emits visible red light when heated). The X-rays will be used to compress the hydrogen-like gas with such pressure that the gas atoms will combine or 'fuse' together, producing the next heavier element (helium) and releasing energy in the form of energetic particles. 2010 will mark the first credible attempt at this world-changing event: the achievement of fusion energy 'break-even' on Earth using NIF, the world's largest laser NIF is anticipated to eventually perform this immense technological accomplishment once per week, with the capability of firing up to six shots per day - eliminating the need for continued underground testing of our nation's nuclear stockpile, in addition to opening up new realms of science. But what about the day after NIF achieves ignition? Although NIF will achieve fusion energy break-even and gain, the facility is not designed to harness the enormous potential of fusion for energy generation. A fusion power plant, as opposed to a world-class engineering research facility, would require that the laser deliver drive pulses nearly 100,000 times more frequently - a rate closer to 10 shots per second as opposed to several shots per day.

  15. Feasibility study of Large-scale helium GFR employing coated particle fuel. Design study of hexagonal matrix-block fuel assembly cores. Annual report of JFY2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gas-cooled fast reactor has been taken an interest as a future nuclear reactor power source; we JNC have designed large-scale (1124MW electric power), high-temperature (850degC) with high thermodynamic efficiency (around 47%), helium-cooled fast reactors as a part of feasibility study. Hexagonal-block fuel assembly configuration has been considered as a candidate, where a number of coated particles packed in a SiC matrix are cooled indirectly by ascending flow in penetrating tubes. This manuscript describes, as an annual report of JFY2004, technical keys for enhancing core neutronics/thermal-hydraulics performances of the hex-block concepts and the best-to-date core designs. Technical keys for enhancing are from neutronics viewpoints (radial peaking factor, assembly layout and configuration), thermal-hydraulic viewpoints (heat transfer and film temperature rise, thermal conductivity and fuel-matrix temperature rise, core pressure drop, and coolant temperature), and neutronics/and/thermal-hydraulics combinational viewpoints (effective fuel volume fraction, local temperature decrees for increasing Doppler effects). Two issues (reducing contacting heat resistance in a matrix, and lowering core inflow temperature under depressurization transient) are selected from quantitative pre-evaluations; then are applied to select the reference core designs for achieving reduced Pu fissile inventory and improved average discharge burnup. Two reference cores are designed; one is 'breeding' core, which achieves high breeding ratio and high discharge burnup, the other is 'break-even' core, which brings much higher discharge burnup with a breeding ratio of around unity. [Reference core designs (2400MW thermal/1124MW electric outputs)] Core equiv. diameter/Height/Outermost diameter: 5.42m/1.00m/7.49m. Average Discharge Burnup (Seed region average): 121 GWd/t/123 GWd/t. (Entire core average): 69 GWd/t/89 GWd/t. Breeding Ratio: 1.11/1.03. Initial Pu fissile quantity: 7.0 ton/GWe/7.0 ton

  16. Essays concerning the cellulosic biofuel industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosburg, Alicia Sue

    Despite market-based incentives and mandated production, the U.S. cellulosic biofuel industry has been slow to develop. This dissertation explores the economic factors that have limited industry development along with important economic tradeoffs that will be encountered with commercial-scale production. The first essay provides an overview of the policies, potential, and challenges of the biofuel industry, with a focus on cellulosic biofuel. The second essay considers the economics of cellulosic biofuel production. Breakeven models of the local feedstock supply system and biofuel refining process are constructed to develop the Biofuel Breakeven (BioBreak) program, a stochastic, Excel-based program that evaluates the feasibility of local biofuel and biomass markets under various policy and market scenarios. An application of the BioBreak program is presented using expected market conditions for 14 local cellulosic biofuel markets that vary by feedstock and location. The economic costs of biofuel production identified from the BioBreak application are higher than frequently anticipated and raise questions about the potential of cellulosic ethanol as a sustainable and economical substitute for conventional fuels. Program results also are extended using life-cycle analysis to evaluate the cost of reducing GHG emissions by substituting cellulosic ethanol for conventional fuel. The third essay takes a closer look at the economic trade-offs within the biorefinery industry and feedstock production processes. A long-run biomass production through bioenergy conversion cost model is developed that incorporates heterogeneity of biomass suppliers within and between local markets. The model builds on previous literature by treating biomass as a non-commoditized feedstock and relaxes the common assumption of fixed biomass density and price within local markets. An empirical application is provided for switchgrass-based ethanol production within U.S. crop reporting districts

  17. An economic analysis of mobile pyrolysis for northern New Mexico forests.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brady, Patrick D.; Brown, Alexander L.; Mowry, Curtis Dale; Borek, Theodore Thaddeus, III

    2011-12-01

    In the interest of providing an economically sensible use for the copious small-diameter wood in Northern New Mexico, an economic study is performed focused on mobile pyrolysis. Mobile pyrolysis was selected for the study because transportation costs limit the viability of a dedicated pyrolysis plant, and the relative simplicity of pyrolysis compared to other technology solutions lends itself to mobile reactor design. A bench-scale pyrolysis system was used to study the wood pyrolysis process and to obtain performance data that was otherwise unavailable under conditions theorized to be optimal given the regional problem. Pyrolysis can convert wood to three main products: fixed gases, liquid pyrolysis oil and char. The fixed gases are useful as low-quality fuel, and may have sufficient chemical energy to power a mobile system, eliminating the need for an external power source. The majority of the energy content of the pyrolysis gas is associated with carbon monoxide, followed by light hydrocarbons. The liquids are well characterized in the historical literature, and have slightly lower heating values comparable to the feedstock. They consist of water and a mix of hundreds of hydrocarbons, and are acidic. They are also unstable, increasing in viscosity with time stored. Up to 60% of the biomass in bench-scale testing was converted to liquids. Lower ({approx}550 C) furnace temperatures are preferred because of the decreased propensity for deposits and the high liquid yields. A mobile pyrolysis system would be designed with low maintenance requirements, should be able to access wilderness areas, and should not require more than one or two people to operate the system. The techno-economic analysis assesses fixed and variable costs. It suggests that the economy of scale is an important factor, as higher throughput directly leads to improved system economic viability. Labor and capital equipment are the driving factors in the viability of the system. The break-even

  18. Integrating renewables in distribution grids. Storage, regulation and the interaction of different stakeholders in future grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nykamp, S.

    2013-10-18

    In recent years, the transition of the power supply chain towards a sustainable system based on 'green' electricity generation out of renewable energy sources (RES-E) has become a main challenge for grid operators and further stakeholders in the power system. To enable the evaluation of new concepts for the integration of RES-E, first the feed-in characteristics of photovoltaic, wind and biomass generators located in a distribution grid area and based on numerous measured feed-in data are studied in this thesis. The achieved insights from the feed-in profiles can be used for the dimensioning of grid assets. Furthermore, the results are useful for the evaluation of congestion management or for the dimensioning of storage assets in distribution grids. The latter aspect is analyzed in detail such that suitable storage characteristics for an introduction in the grid are determined. An economic approach is presented to derive break-even points for storage assets as a substitute to conventional reinforcements. For a case study from a real world low voltage grid with reinforcement needs, these break-even points are determined and the main influencing parameters are evaluated. A further important question in this context concerns the role DSOs (distribution system operators) may play with the operation of decentralized storage assets since several stakeholders may be interested in using the flexibility provided by these assets. This unclear responsibility also applies to the steering of adjustable consumption devices such as electric heat pumps or electric cars. For decentralized storage assets as well as heat pump appliances, optimal operation modes based on the optimization objectives for a DSO and a trader are derived. It is shown based on real world data that choosing a 'copperplate' scenario is not only technically insufficient for a global balance of the consumption and generation. It may even be harmful for the society from a welfare economic

  19. A comparative thermodynamic, economic and risk analysis concerning implementation of oxy-combustion power plants integrated with cryogenic and hybrid air separation units

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Mathematical model of an integrated oxy-combustion power plant. • Comparison of a hybrid membrane–cryogenic oxygen generation plant with a cryogenic plant. • Thermodynamic analysis of the modeled cases of the plant. • Comparative economic analysis of the power plant with cryogenic and hybrid ASU. • Comparative risk analysis using a Monte Carlo method and sensitivity analysis. - Abstract: This paper presents a comparison of two types of oxy-combustion power plant that differ from each other in terms of the method of oxygen separation. For the purpose of the analysis, detailed thermodynamic models of oxy-fuel power plants with gross power of approximately 460 MW were built. In the first variant (Case 1), the plant is integrated with a cryogenic air separation unit (ASU). In the second variant (Case 2), the plant is integrated with a hybrid membrane–cryogenic installation. The models were built and optimized using the GateCycle, Aspen Plus and Aspen Custom Modeller software packages and with the use of our own computational codes. The results of the thermodynamic evaluation of the systems, which primarily uses indicators such as the auxiliary power and efficiencies of the whole system and of the individual components that constitute the unit, are presented. Better plant performance is observed for Case 2, which has a net efficiency of electricity generation that is 1.1 percentage points greater than that of Case 1. For the selected structure of the system, an economic analysis of the solutions was made. This analysis accounts for different scenarios of the functioning of the Emission Trading Scheme and includes detailed estimates of the investment costs in both cases. As an indicator of profitability, the break-even price of electricity was used primarily. The results of the analysis for the assumptions made are presented in this paper. A system with a hybrid air separation unit has slightly better economic performance. The break-even price

  20. A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of Blended Versus Face-to-Face Delivery of Evidence-Based Medicine to Medical Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklen, Peter; Rivers, George; Foo, Jonathan; Ooi, Ying Ying; Reeves, Scott; Walsh, Kieran; Ilic, Dragan

    2015-01-01

    Background Blended learning describes a combination of teaching methods, often utilizing digital technologies. Research suggests that learner outcomes can be improved through some blended learning formats. However, the cost-effectiveness of delivering blended learning is unclear. Objective This study aimed to determine the cost-effectiveness of a face-to-face learning and blended learning approach for evidence-based medicine training within a medical program. Methods The economic evaluation was conducted as part of a randomized controlled trial (RCT) comparing the evidence-based medicine (EBM) competency of medical students who participated in two different modes of education delivery. In the traditional face-to-face method, students received ten 2-hour classes. In the blended learning approach, students received the same total face-to-face hours but with different activities and additional online and mobile learning. Online activities utilized YouTube and a library guide indexing electronic databases, guides, and books. Mobile learning involved self-directed interactions with patients in their regular clinical placements. The attribution and differentiation of costs between the interventions within the RCT was measured in conjunction with measured outcomes of effectiveness. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was calculated comparing the ongoing operation costs of each method with the level of EBM proficiency achieved. Present value analysis was used to calculate the break-even point considering the transition cost and the difference in ongoing operation cost. Results The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio indicated that it costs 24% less to educate a student to the same level of EBM competency via the blended learning approach used in the study, when excluding transition costs. The sunk cost of approximately AUD $40,000 to transition to the blended model exceeds any savings from using the approach within the first year of its implementation; however, a

  1. Cattle producers' economic incentives for preventing bovine brucellosis under uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Trenton W; Peck, Dannele E; Ritten, John P

    2012-12-01

    Cattle in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem occasionally contract bovine brucellosis from free-ranging elk and bison. Cattle producers use a variety of brucellosis prevention activities to reduce their herds' risk of contracting brucellosis, such as: (1) having state agency personnel haze elk off private land, (2) fencing haystacks, (3) administering adult booster vaccination, (4) spaying heifers, (5) altering the winter-feeding schedule of cattle, (6) hiring riders to prevent cattle-elk commingling, and (7) delaying grazing on high-risk allotments. Their brucellosis prevention decisions are complicated, however, by several sources of uncertainty, including the following: a cattle herd's baseline risk of contracting brucellosis, the inherent randomness of brucellosis outbreaks, the cost of implementing prevention activities, and the activities' effectiveness. This study eliminates one source of uncertainty by estimating the cost of implementing brucellosis prevention activities on a representative cow/calf-long yearling operation in the southern GYE. It then reports the minimum level of effectiveness each prevention activity must achieve to justify investment by a risk-neutral producer. Individual producers face different levels of baseline risk, however, and the US government's brucellosis-response policy is constantly evolving. We therefore estimate breakeven levels of effectiveness for a range of baseline risks and government policies. Producers, animal health experts, and policymakers can use this study's results to determine which brucellosis prevention activities are unlikely to generate sufficient expected benefits to cover their cost of implementation. Results also demonstrate the influence of government policy on producers' incentives to prevent brucellosis. Policies that increase the magnitude of economic loss a producer incurs when their herd contracts brucellosis subsequently decrease prevention activities' breakeven levels of effectiveness, and

  2. Expanding ART for treatment and prevention of HIV in South Africa: estimated cost and cost-effectiveness 2011-2050.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reuben Granich

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antiretroviral Treatment (ART significantly reduces HIV transmission. We conducted a cost-effectiveness analysis of the impact of expanded ART in South Africa. METHODS: We model a best case scenario of 90% annual HIV testing coverage in adults 15-49 years old and four ART eligibility scenarios: CD4 count <200 cells/mm(3 (current practice, CD4 count <350, CD4 count <500, all CD4 levels. 2011-2050 outcomes include deaths, disability adjusted life years (DALYs, HIV infections, cost, and cost per DALY averted. Service and ART costs reflect South African data and international generic prices. ART reduces transmission by 92%. We conducted sensitivity analyses. RESULTS: Expanding ART to CD4 count <350 cells/mm(3 prevents an estimated 265,000 (17% and 1.3 million (15% new HIV infections over 5 and 40 years, respectively. Cumulative deaths decline 15%, from 12.5 to 10.6 million; DALYs by 14% from 109 to 93 million over 40 years. Costs drop $504 million over 5 years and $3.9 billion over 40 years with breakeven by 2013. Compared with the current scenario, expanding to <500 prevents an additional 585,000 and 3 million new HIV infections over 5 and 40 years, respectively. Expanding to all CD4 levels decreases HIV infections by 3.3 million (45% and costs by $10 billion over 40 years, with breakeven by 2023. By 2050, using higher ART and monitoring costs, all CD4 levels saves $0.6 billion versus current; other ART scenarios cost $9-194 per DALY averted. If ART reduces transmission by 99%, savings from all CD4 levels reach $17.5 billion. Sensitivity analyses suggest that poor retention and predominant acute phase transmission reduce DALYs averted by 26% and savings by 7%. CONCLUSION: Increasing the provision of ART to <350 cells/mm3 may significantly reduce costs while reducing the HIV burden. Feasibility including HIV testing and ART uptake, retention, and adherence should be evaluated.

  3. Down Selection of the Design Options for an Advanced Gen IV SFR Concept

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Yong Bum; Lee, D. U.; Kim, Y. I.; Won, B. C.; Hahn, Do Hee

    2008-11-15

    Several design concepts for incorporating those concepts into a Generation IV SFR reactor concept were proposed, based on the KALIMER-600 design developed previously by KAERI. Those concepts were suggested to define capacity, conversion ratio, cladding material, number of loops for a heat transport system and turbine type. This report addresses the main results and progress achieved this year in each research and development work for specifying each concept finally next year. The capacity of a breakeven core was defined to be 1200 MWe taking into account a TRU inventory and a discharge burnup from the viewpoint of fuel utilization. For the breakeven core specification, an enrichment split core configuration having the advantage of better neutronic economics and simpler fuel fabrication, has been selected and its core design is being carried out. Total twenty specimens for the first and second candidate alloys were designed and manufactured to develop a new cladding alloy. For those alloy specimens, a mechanical performance was evaluated and a microscopic structure has been observed. A candidate for a new cladding alloy will finally be determined following the evaluation of the third candidate alloy next year. In terms of less component units per loop and a smaller installation space, a two-loop heat transport system was selected and its detailed configuration is being developed. For defining a steam generator concept, a double walled tube type was selected from the viewpoint of reliability, economics and manufacture capability of a steam generator. A steam generator type will finally be determined to be either a straight tube type or a helical tube type, judging advances achieved in future development of the steam generator concepts. A Rankine cycle concept established well was given preference as a reference concept for BOP. A S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle concept newly developed as an advanced concept needs a long-term R and D work and experimental verification to

  4. Technoeconomic analysis of jet fuel production from hydrolysis, decarboxylation, and reforming of camelina oil

    KAUST Repository

    Natelson, Robert H.

    2015-04-01

    The commercial production of jet fuel from camelina oil via hydrolysis, decarboxylation, and reforming was simulated. The refinery was modeled as being close to the farms for reduced camelina transport cost. A refinery with annual nameplate capacity of 76,000 cubic meters hydrocarbons was modeled. Assuming average camelina production conditions and oil extraction modeling from the literature, the cost of oil was 0.31$kg-1. To accommodate one harvest per year, a refinery with 1 year oil storage capacity was designed, with the total refinery costing 283 million dollars in 2014 USD. Assuming co-products are sold at predicted values, the jet fuel break-even selling price was 0.80$kg-1. The model presents baseline technoeconomic data that can be used for more comprehensive financial and risk modeling of camelina jet fuel production. Decarboxylation was compared to the commercially proven hydrotreating process. The model illustrated the importance of refinery location relative to farms and hydrogen production site.

  5. Fast liner proposal. [Magnetic implosions of cylindrical liners

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherwood, A.R.; Freeman, B.L.; Gerwin, R.A.; Jarboe, T.R.; Krakowski, R.A.; Malone, R.C.; Marshall, J.; Miller, R.L.; Suydam, B.

    1977-08-01

    This is a proposal to study, both theoretically and experimentally, the possibility of making a fusion reactor by magnetically imploding a cylindrical metallic shell on a prepared plasma. The approach is characterized by the following features: (1) the nonrotating liner would be driven by an axial current, (2) the plasma would also carry an axial current that provides an azimuthal magnetic field for thermal insulation in both the radial and longitudinal directions, (3) solid end plugs would be utilized to prevent axial loss of particles, and (4) liner speeds would be in the 10/sup 6/ cm/s range. The preliminary calculations indicate (1) that the energetics are favorable (energy inputs of about 10 MJ might produce a machine in the break-even regime), (2) that radiation and heat losses could be made tolerable, (3) that alpha-particle heating could be made very effective, and (4) that Taylor instabilities in a fast liner might be harmless because of the large viscosities at high pressures. A preliminary conceptual design of the sort of fusion reactor that might result from such an approach is discussed, as are some of the relevant reactor scaling arguments.

  6. Analytical evaluation of the signal and noise propagation in x-ray differential phase-contrast computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach, Rainer; Flohr, Thomas G

    2011-04-01

    We analyze the signal and noise propagation of differential phase-contrast computed tomography (PCT) compared with conventional attenuation-based computed tomography (CT) from a theoretical point of view. This work focuses on grating-based differential phase-contrast imaging. A mathematical framework is derived that is able to analytically predict the relative performance of both imaging techniques in the sense of the relative contrast-to-noise ratio for the contrast of any two materials. Two fundamentally different properties of PCT compared with CT are identified. First, the noise power spectra show qualitatively different characteristics implying a resolution-dependent performance ratio. The break-even point is derived analytically as a function of system parameters such as geometry and visibility. A superior performance of PCT compared with CT can only be achieved at a sufficiently high spatial resolution. Second, due to periodicity of phase information which is non-ambiguous only in a bounded interval statistical phase wrapping can occur. This effect causes a collapse of information propagation for low signals which limits the applicability of phase-contrast imaging at low dose. PMID:21403187

  7. Molten-salt reactors for efficient nuclear fuel utilization without plutonium separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engel, J.R.; Grimes, W.R.; Rhoades, W.A.; Dearing, J.F.

    1978-08-01

    Research and development studies of molten-salt reactors (MSRs) for special purposes have been under way since 1947 and for possible application as possible commercial nuclear electric power generators since 1956. For the latter, the previous emphasis has been on breeding performance and low fissile inventory to help limit the demand on nonrenewable natural resources (uranium) in an expanding nuclear economy; little or no thought has been given to alternative uses of nuclear fuels such as proliferation of nuclear explosives. As a consequence, the conceptual designs that evolved (e.g., the ORNL reference design MSBR) all favored enriched /sup 233/U as fuel with an on-site chemical processing facility from which portions of that fuel could be diverted fairly easily. With the current interest in limiting the proliferation potential of nuclear electric power systems, a redirected study of MSRs was undertaken in an effort to identify conceptual systems that would be attractive in this situation. It appears that practical proliferation-resistant MSRs could be designed and built, and the report describes a particularly attractive break-even breeder that includes an on-site chemical reprocessing facility within the reactor primary containment.

  8. Molten-salt reactors for efficient nuclear fuel utilization without plutonium separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research and development studies of molten-salt reactors (MSRs) for special purposes have been under way since 1947 and for possible application as possible commercial nuclear electric power generators since 1956. For the latter, the previous emphasis has been on breeding performance and low fissile inventory to help limit the demand on nonrenewable natural resources (uranium) in an expanding nuclear economy; little or no thought has been given to alternative uses of nuclear fuels such as proliferation of nuclear explosives. As a consequence, the conceptual designs that evolved (e.g., the ORNL reference design MSBR) all favored enriched 233U as fuel with an on-site chemical processing facility from which portions of that fuel could be diverted fairly easily. With the current interest in limiting the proliferation potential of nuclear electric power systems, a redirected study of MSRs was undertaken in an effort to identify conceptual systems that would be attractive in this situation. It appears that practical proliferation-resistant MSRs could be designed and built, and the report describes a particularly attractive break-even breeder that includes an on-site chemical reprocessing facility within the reactor primary containment

  9. RF H and CD systems for DEMO - Challenges and opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of driving a sufficient amount of plasma current with an appropriate radial current density profile is considered as one of the key challenges for a tokamak fusion power plant in steady state operation. Furthermore, efficient heating to enable transition to regime of enhanced confinement and to achieve breakeven plasma temperatures as well as MHD control and plasma breakdown assistance are required. In the framework of the EFDA Power Plant Physics and Technology (PPPT) activities, the ability of the Electron cyclotron (EC), Ion Cyclotron (IC) and Lower Hybrid (LH) systems to fulfil these requirements, was studied for a demonstration fusion power plant (DEMO). As boundary condition, a 1D description of the plasma for a pulsed DEMO based on system code studies combined with transport analysis was developed. The predicted 1D plasma parameters were used to calculate the current drive (CD) efficiency of each system and eventually optimised it. As an example, the EC current drive efficiency could be increased strongly by top launch compared to equatorial launch at least by a factor of two. For the IC system, two possible windows of operation for standard and higher frequencies were highlighted, whereby again top launch leads to higher CD-efficiencies. The efficiencies predicted for DEMO for the RF current drive systems will be presented. Finally, gaps in the feasibility of RF systems under DEMO relevant conditions will be identified

  10. DYNAMICS OF MAIN PROFITABILITY INDICATORS IN DISTRIBUTION OF FOOD AND AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS OF THE COMPANY EL CASIO COM SRL-SLOBOZIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurentiu MUNTEANU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The return of distribution companies is related to the performance of activity based management, which can be expressed through a system of indicators reflecting their activity. This paper aims to analyse the company EL CASIO COM SRL Slobozia, active in the distribution field of food and agricultural products in Ialomita and Calarasi counties. We analysed the economic indicators between 1999-2009 from which resulted the main elements influencing the company’s revenue and profitability. The analysed period revealed that the break-even was achieved in 2003 with 5 employees, a revenue of 1899, 16 thousand lei whereas the expenses amounted 1732 thousand lei and labour productivity was set at 379, 8 thousand lei/ worker. The resulted trend after presenting and interpreting the exponential function Y=3,862·X10,5480866·X 21,239971is given based on the changes of income level (Y, from the factors of influence, represented by the amount of equity (x 1 and labour used (x 2. The multiple correlation ratios (rx 1x 2 = 0, 9505, confirm the influence intensity of the two factors upon the trends in revenue growth. As result we can see trends in revenue growth with amplification factors of influence

  11. Economic Analysis of Different Nuclear Fuel Cycle Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Won Il Ko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An economic analysis has been performed to compare four nuclear fuel cycle options: a once-through cycle (OT, DUPIC recycling, thermal recycling using MOX fuel in a pressurized water reactor (PWR-MOX, and sodium fast reactor recycling employing pyroprocessing (Pyro-SFR. This comparison was made to suggest an economic competitive fuel cycle for the Republic of Korea. The fuel cycle cost (FCC has been calculated based on the equilibrium material flows integrated with the unit cost of the fuel cycle components. The levelized fuel cycle costs (LFCC have been derived in terms of mills/kWh for a fair comparison among the FCCs, and the results are as follows: OT 7.35 mills/kWh, DUPIC 9.06 mills/kWh, PUREX-MOX 8.94 mills/kWh, and Pyro-SFR 7.70 mills/kWh. Due to unavoidable uncertainties, a cost range has been applied to each unit cost, and an uncertainty study has been performed accordingly. A sensitivity analysis has also been carried out to obtain the break-even uranium price (215$/kgU for the Pyro-SFR against the OT, which demonstrates that the deployment of the Pyro-SFR may be economical in the foreseeable future. The influence of pyrotechniques on the LFCC has also been studied to determine at which level the potential advantages of Pyro-SFR can be realized.

  12. Impacts of Vehicle Weight Reduction via Material Substitution on Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Jarod C; Sullivan, John L; Burnham, Andrew; Elgowainy, Amgad

    2015-10-20

    This study examines the vehicle-cycle and vehicle total life-cycle impacts of substituting lightweight materials into vehicles. We determine part-based greenhouse gas (GHG) emission ratios by collecting material substitution data and evaluating that alongside known mass-based GHG ratios (using and updating Argonne National Laboratory's GREET model) associated with material pair substitutions. Several vehicle parts are lightweighted via material substitution, using substitution ratios from a U.S. Department of Energy report, to determine GHG emissions. We then examine fuel-cycle GHG reductions from lightweighting. The fuel reduction value methodology is applied using FRV estimates of 0.15-0.25, and 0.25-0.5 L/(100km·100 kg), with and without powertrain adjustments, respectively. GHG breakeven values are derived for both driving distance and material substitution ratio. While material substitution can reduce vehicle weight, it often increases vehicle-cycle GHGs. It is likely that replacing steel (the dominant vehicle material) with wrought aluminum, carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CRFP), or magnesium will increase vehicle-cycle GHGs. However, lifetime fuel economy benefits often outweigh the vehicle-cycle, resulting in a net total life-cycle GHG benefit. This is the case for steel replaced by wrought aluminum in all assumed cases, and for CFRP and magnesium except for high substitution ratio and low FRV.

  13. Economic assessment of solar and conventional biomass gasification technologies: Financial and policy implications under feedstock and product gas price uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four configurations of a novel solar-heated biomass gasification facility and one configuration of conventional biomass gasification are analyzed through financial and policy scenarios. The purpose of this study is to determine the potential financial position for varying configurations of a novel technology, as compared to the current state-of-the-art gasification technology. Through the use of project finance and policy scenario development, we assess the baseline breakeven syngas price (normalized against natural gas prices and based upon annual feedstock consumption), the sensitivity of major cost components for the novel facilities, and the implications of policy levers on the economic feasibility of the solar facilities. Findings show that certain solar configurations may compete with conventional facilities on a straightforward economic basis. However, with renewable energy policy levers in place the solar technologies become increasingly attractive options. - Highlights: • We model four solar and one conventional biomass gasification systems. • We assess economic feasibility of these systems with and without policy incentives. • Solar facilities compete with the conventional system in certain scenarios. • Feedstock costs are the largest contributor to system cost sensitivity. • Policy incentives create an economically favorable scenario for solar facilities

  14. Evaluation of economical introduction of nuclear fusion based on a long-term world energy and environment model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigates economical introduction of nuclear fusion energy in the context of world energy supply and CO2 concentration. A long-term (during 21st century), 10 regional worldwide allocation energy/environment model Linealized Dynamic New Earth model is used for this study. Following nuclear fusion technological data are taken into consideration; cost of electricity (COE) and COE reduction rate, maximum regional plant capacity constraints, and regional introduction year. We simulated under atmospheric CO2 concentration 550 parts per million (ppm) targeted at year 2100 scenario. Result indicates that according to the cost bases for varieties of technologies from energy mining to energy generation of the LDNE model, the present-design tokamak-type reactors can be economically selected around 2050 to 2060 under 550-ppmv CO2 concentration constraint, and are not under all BAU (Business-As-Usual). It is revealed that breakeven prices of fusion reactors is increased by plus/minus some 10 to 30 mill/kWh under a 650-ppmv. (author)

  15. Markets and economics of mixed waste paper as a boiler fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mixed waste paper (MWP) is the second largest component of the municipal solid waste steam disposal of in Washington State. Recent state legislation has mandated source separation of recycled material including MWP. The quantity collected will soon saturate both domestic and foreign markets. An alternative market could be as a fuel in existing combustors. The use of MWP as a fuel requires environmental and economic acceptance by potential users. MWP was analyzed for heavy metal concentrations and elemental composition and found to be similar to existing solid and fossil fuels burned in existing boilers. Existing regulations, however, may classify MWP as a municipal solid waste, thus increasing the capital and administrative costs of using this fuel. The cost of processing MWP into a fluff and a pellet was determined. Three existing facilities were studied to determine the capital and operating costs for them to use MWP fuel. In all cases, the cost of processing and transporting the fuel was greater than the break-even price that could be paid by the potential users

  16. Jet joint undertaking. Annual report 1987

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first part of the Report starts with this section which includes a brief general introduction, provides an overview of the planning of the Report and sets the background to the Project. This is followed by a section on JET and the Euratom and International Fusion Programmes which summarises the main features of the JET apparatus and its experimental programme and explains the position of the Project in the overall Euratom programme. In addition, it explains how JET relates to other large fusion devices throughout the world and holds a pre-eminent position in fusion research. The next section reports on the technical status of the machine. This is followed by a section on the results of JET operations in 1987 which sets out the various operating conditions in terms of ohmic heating, radio-frequency (RF) heating, neutral beam (NB) heating and various combined scenarios in different magnetic field configurations; The overall global and local behaviour observed; and the progress towards breakeven situations. This section concludes with a discussion of future scientific prospects

  17. Lifecycle analysis of different urban transport options for Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, Ijaz [Department of Petroleum and Mineral Resources Engineering, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh); Guelen, Guercan [Center for Energy Economics, Bureau of Economic Geology, University of Texas at Austin, 1801 Allen Pkwy, Houston, TX 77019 (United States)

    2007-10-15

    Once again, sustained high oil prices are forcing policy makers in oil importing countries to consider alternatives to oil products as transportation fuels. Unlike in the past, advancements in technology, relative success of some experiments and increased familiarity among and acceptance by the public of some alternatives indicate a higher likelihood of success. In particular, natural gas offers a couple of the best options as compressed natural gas (CNG) and chemical conversion of natural gas into diesel (gas-to-liquids, GTL). These options are likely to be most attractive in countries that have cheap access to natural gas. We compare lifetime costs of several individual transportation options for Bangladesh, an oil importer with natural gas reserves. The results are then used to inform the natural gas policy debate in the country. Assuming a natural gas price of 1.5 per million Btu, both the CNG and GTL options are competitive with conventional gasoline/diesel cars if the oil price stays higher than 35-40 per barrel. If natural gas price increases after new upstream developments, CNG becomes less attractive while GTL remains competitive up to 2.5 if capital costs of GTL facilities decline as expected. Under a government policy push (lower discounting), the breakeven price of oil falls to 30-35 per barrel. (author)

  18. Economic value of in vitro fertilization in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandrik, Olena; Knies, Saskia; Severens, Johan L

    2015-01-01

    Background An economic value calculation was performed to estimate the lifetime net present value of in vitro fertilization (IVF) in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. Methods Net lifetime tax revenues were used to represent governmental benefits accruing from a hypothetical cohort of an IVF population born in 2009 using the methodology of generational accounting. Governmental expenses related to this population included social benefits, education and health care, unemployment support, and pensions. Where available, country-specific data referencing official sources were applied. Results The average health care cost needed to achieve one additional birth from the governmental perspective varied from $2,599 in Ukraine to $5,509 in Belarus. The net present value from the population born using IVF was positive in all countries: for Ukraine ($9,839), Belarus ($21,702), and Kazakhstan ($2,295). The break-even costs of drugs and supplies per IVF procedure is expected to be $3,870, $8,530, and $1,780, respectively. Probabilistic sensitivity analyses based on 5,000 simulations show that the average net present value per person remains positive: $1,894±$7,619, $27,925±$12,407, and $17,229±$24,637 in Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan, respectively. Conclusion Financing IVF may represent a good investment in terms of governmental financial returns, even in lower-income countries with state-financed health care systems such as Ukraine, Belarus, and Kazakhstan. PMID:26109873

  19. Multi-factor Analysis Model for Improving Profit Management Using Excel in Shellfish Farming Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhuming; ZHAO; Changlin; LIU; Xiujuan; SHAN; Jin; YU

    2013-01-01

    By using a farm’s data in Yantai City and the theory of Cost-Volume-Profit analysis and the financial management methods,this paper construct a multi-factor analysis model for improving profit management using Excel 2007 in Shellfish farming projects and describes the procedures to construct a multi-factor analysis model.The model can quickly calculate the profit,improve the level of profit management,find out the breakeven point and enhance the decision-making efficiency of businesses etc.It is also a thought of the application to offer suggestions for government decisions and economic decisions for corporations as a simple analysis tool.While effort has been exerted to construct a four-variable model,some equally important variables may not be discussed sufficiently due to limitation of the paper’s space and the authors’knowledge.All variables can be listed in EXCEL 2007 and can be associated in a logical way to manage the profit of shellfish farming projects more efficiently and more practically.

  20. Costs and Benefits Associated with the MRSA Search and Destroy Policy in a Hospital in the Region Kennemerland, The Netherlands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis Souverein

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the costs and benefits of the MRSA Search and Destroy (S&D policy between 2008 and 2013 in the Kennemer Gasthuis, a 400 bed teaching hospital in the region Kennemerland, the Netherlands.A patient registration database was used to retrospectively calculate costs, including screening, isolation, follow-up, contact tracing, cleaning, treatment, deployment of extra healthcare workers, salary for an infection control practitioner (ICP and service of isolation rooms. The estimated benefits (costs and lives when no MRSA S&D was applied were based on a varying MRSA prevalence rate (up to 50%.When no MRSA S&D policy was applied, the additional costs and deaths due to MRSA bacteraemia were estimated to be € 1,388,907 and 33 respectively (at a MRSA prevalence rate of 50%. Currently, the total costs were estimated to be € 290,672 (€ 48,445 annually and a MRSA prevalence rate of 17.3% was considered as break-even point. Between 2008 and 2013, a total of 576 high risk patients were screened for MRSA carriage, of whom 19 (3.3% were found to be MRSA positive. Forty-nine patients (72.1% were found unexpectedly.Application of the MRSA S&D policy saves lives and money, although the high rate of unexpected MRSA cases is alarming.

  1. Neural Network Based Model for Predicting Housing Market Performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed Khalafallah

    2008-01-01

    The United States real estate market is currently facing its worst hit in two decades due to the slowdown of housing sales. The most affected by this decline are real estate investors and home develop-ers who are currently struggling to break-even financially on their investments. For these investors, it is of utmost importance to evaluate the current status of the market and predict its performance over the short-term in order to make appropriate financial decisions. This paper presents the development of artificial neu-ral network based models to support real estate investors and home developers in this critical task. The pa-per describes the decision variables, design methodology, and the implementation of these models. The models utilize historical market performance data sets to train the artificial neural networks in order to pre-dict unforeseen future performances. An application example is analyzed to demonstrate the model capabili-ties in analyzing and predicting the market performance. The model testing and validation showed that the error in prediction is in the range between -2% and +2%.

  2. Uranium production economics in Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This review of the economics of production of uranium in Australia provides a detailed description of eleven important uranium deposits including capital and production costs estimates and supply curves. For each mine a detailed assessment has been made of its potential production capacity to the year 2000. Socio-economic factors that play an all-too-important role in the Australian uranium industry are extensively reviewed to provide an insight into the factors affecting Australia's ability to supply. The study is based on a detailed computer-based economic engineering model where all major costs such as labor, consumables and capital recovery charges are analyzed for each mine, and levellised break-even prices determined. It is argued that at the present low market prices, the three on-going operations are profitable, and at least three other deposits could be brought to viable production, given the necessary Government approval. Several other deposits appear to be marginal at the set Australian export floor price of US$26 per pound. Annual production could be raised from about 6,000 tonnes of U3O8 to 16,000 tonnes by the turn of century, with the development of three additional deposits. It is concluded that, if Australian producers were allowed to compete freely on the international market, annual production would pass the 10,000 tonne/annum mark between 1995 and 2000. 35 figs., 38 tabs., 81 refs

  3. The role of energy storage in accessing remote wind resources in the Midwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Replacing current generation with wind energy would help reduce the emissions associated with fossil fuel electricity generation. However, integrating wind into the electricity grid is not without cost. Wind power output is highly variable and average capacity factors from wind farms are often much lower than conventional generators. Further, the best wind resources with highest capacity factors are often located far away from load centers and accessing them therefore requires transmission investments. Energy storage capacity could be an alternative to some of the required transmission investment, thereby reducing capital costs for accessing remote wind farms. This work focuses on the trade-offs between energy storage and transmission. In a case study of a 200 MW wind farm in North Dakota to deliver power to Illinois, we estimate the size of transmission and energy storage capacity that yields the lowest average cost of generating and delivering electricity ($/MW h) from this farm. We find that transmission costs must be at least $600/MW-km and energy storage must cost at most $100/kW h in order for this application of energy storage to be economical. - Highlights: • We evaluate the break-even cost of energy storage to replace transmission. • We focus on a wind farm in North Dakota that must deliver power to Illinois. • Energy storage capital costs must be less than $100/kW h. • Transmission capital costs must be greater than $600/MW-km

  4. Economic significance of Q for mirror reactors: combinations of Q and M which look promising

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This term Q is the ratio of the fusion powder produced to the power input. It is a driven device. Q is truly the success parameter for mirrors--widely discussed but not succinctly specified as to required value. The problem is that Q can be treated as a subjective parameter--there are many milestone Qs; for scientific demonstration, for breakeven power, etc. Yet for a successful reactor, there is only one Q and that is the Q which produces mirror fusion power at the busbar that is less than the cost of delivered power in mills/kwhr by other means. We call this Q/sub PRACTICAL/ and believe there is a convincing argument that says this Q/sub PRACTICAL/ can be about 5.0 even assuming modest efficiencies for system components. A direct convertor is necessary. If the direct convertor were deleted, a Q/sub PRACTICAL/ of approximately 7.5 would be required. If we wish to soften the value of Q further, then the technical logic for the fusion fission hybrid is very powerful. With the hybrid a Q/sub PRACTICAL/ of 1.5 to 2.0 appears to be a very reasonable value. The key in being able to specify values of Q/sub PRACTICAL/ lies in economically comparing the capital cost of fusion power to the sum of the capital cost and the present value of all the fuel costs for the competitive fuel intensive plants

  5. Evaluating alternative offering strategies for wind producers in a pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Out-of-sample analysis allows comparing diverse offers using real-world data. → Offering the best production forecast is not optimal for a wind producer. → Stochastic programming offers lead to maximum expected profit. → Offering the best production forecast is not generally optimal for risk control. → Stochastic programming offers lead to the best tradeoff profit versus risk. -- Abstract: As wind power technology matures and reaches break-even cost, wind producers find it increasingly attractive to participate in pool markets instead of being paid feed-in tariffs. The key issue is then how a wind producer should offer in the pool markets to achieve maximum profit while controlling the variability of such profit. This paper compares two families of offering strategies based, respectively, on a naive use of wind production forecasts and on stochastic programming models. These strategies are compared through a comprehensive out-of-sample chronological analysis based on real-world data. A number of relevant conclusions are then duly drawn.

  6. Fusion plasma physics during half a century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given on the potentialities of fusion energy with respect to energy production and related environmental problems, the various approaches to controlled thermonuclear fusion, the main problem areas of research, the historical development, the present state of investigations, and future perspectives. This article also presents a personal memorandum of the author. Thereby special reference will be given to part of the research conducted at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, merely to identify its place within the general historical development. Considerable progress has been made in fusion research during the last decades. In large tokamak experiments temperatures above the ignition limit of about 108 K have been reached under break-even conditions where the fusion power generation is comparable to the energy loss. A power producing fusion reactor could in principle be realized already today, but it would not become technically and economically efficient. The future international research programme has therefore to be conducted along broad lines, with necessary ingredients of basis research and new ideas, and also within lines of magnetic confinement being alternative to that of tokamaks

  7. EBT-P proposed reference design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boch, A.L.

    1980-01-01

    This report describes the proposed reference design for the EBT-P proof-of-principle test device. The device described is a result of broad studies by many participating organizations from industry and from Department of Energy-sponsored fusion research groups, some working together and some in competitive studies, but all with the goal of defining a device at minimum cost and with maximum probability of meeting its goals. This design work is based upon advances in experimental and theoretical understanding of EBT achieved at Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The strategy adopted permits an initial test and validation of the key scaling properties of the ELMO Bumpy Torus concept, with a degree of built-in flexibility to extend the performance parameters toward the condition for containing a fusion reactor plasma. This will lead the way, then, to determination of a later power break-even demonstration and an eventual fusion reactor that can exploit the special high power-density and steady-state properties of the EBT concept.

  8. Plasma theory and computation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Progress in this area is reported in five sections: (1) Magnetohydrodynamic theory. The nonlinear behavior of MHD instabilities to tokamaks was studied numerically. Linear stability was also investigated, using combinations of exact and approximate methods. Two-dimensional tokamak equilibrium codes were used to ascertain the effect of an iron core transformer, and a three-dimensional equilibrium code was developed to study finite beta effects in the ELMO Bumpy Torus. (2) Kinetic theory. Numerical methods were derived to solve the drift kinetic equation, initially to study neoclassical diffusion and dissipative trapped electron instabilities in tokamaks. A parallel effort has extended the linear theory of these instabilities into experimentally relevant regimes and derived shear stabilization criteria for them. The theory of neutral beam injection into tokamaks was expanded and compared successfully with experiment. Finite-beta and electric-field effects on particle orbits in the EBT were studied. (3) Plasma modeling. One-dimensional tokamak transport codes were improved and used to study neutral beam injection and impurity effects. (4) Plasma engineering. Plasma characteristics required for break-even conditions in F-BX and TCT were determined. Prospects for burning advanced fuels such as D-D and D-6Li were studied. The power balance in EBT was studied, using a zero-dimensional point model. (5) Data handling. The ORMAK data system was improved, and initial work on the EBT system was completed. (U.S.)

  9. Commercial nuclear waste management--cost as a function of strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design parameters and operating conditions are rapidly being set for components of the nuclear waste management system. An opportunity exists to perform system economic optimization studies that could provide insight into the functional relationships among system parts, design decisions, and alternate technologies. The interrelationships among these components are complex, and the results of optimization studies are sensitive to specific assumptions, plant designs, and the particular data base used. Certain conclusions can, however, be reached that are relatively independent of uncertainties, and limits can be placed on others to bracket the uncertainties. Several options and alternatives are open to waste management planners, and the value of the optimization study is to identify which combination leads to minimum cost without compromising licensibility, health, and safety. This paper discusses an economic comparison of various alternatives and option and combinations thereof, with the intent of identifying limits in the cost base that lead to break-even situation among selected alternatives and options. If the repository is to be designed to accept optimized canisters, the consolidation option is favored if consolidation and collection costs are less than $30/kg U, assuming consolidation occurs at the reactor site. If consolidation occurs at the repository, consolidation is favored if consolidation and collection costs are less than $14/kg U. Consolidation costs in the literature vary from $20 to $25/kg U. For the conditions specified and the data used in the calculation, the choice of whether to consolidate or not depends upon where consolidation occurs

  10. Impacts of Vehicle Weight Reduction via Material Substitution on Life-Cycle Greenhouse Gas Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, Jarod C.; Sullivan, John L.; Burnham, Andrew; Elgowainy, Amgad

    2015-10-20

    This study examines the vehicle-cycle impacts associated with substituting lightweight materials for those currently found in light-duty passenger vehicles. We determine part-based energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emission ratios by collecting material substitution data from both the literature and automotive experts and evaluating that alongside known mass-based energy use and GHG emission ratios associated with material pair substitutions. Several vehicle parts, along with full vehicle systems, are examined for lightweighting via material substitution to observe the associated impact on GHG emissions. Results are contextualized by additionally examining fuel-cycle GHG reductions associated with mass reductions relative to the baseline vehicle during the use phase and also determining material pair breakeven driving distances for GHG emissions. The findings show that, while material substitution is useful in reducing vehicle weight, it often increases vehicle-cycle GHGs depending upon the material substitution pair. However, for a vehicle’s total life cycle, fuel economy benefits are greater than the increased burdens associated with the vehicle manufacturing cycle, resulting in a net total life-cycle GHG benefit. The vehicle cycle will become increasingly important in total vehicle life-cycle GHGs, since fuel-cycle GHGs will be gradually reduced as automakers ramp up vehicle efficiency to meet fuel economy standards.

  11. Economic impact of fuel properties on turbine powered business aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, F. D.

    1984-01-01

    The principal objective was to estimate the economic impact on the turbine-powered business aviation fleet of potential changes in the composition and properties of aviation fuel. Secondary objectives include estimation of the sensitivity of costs to specific fuel properties, and an assessment of the directions in which further research should be directed. The study was based on the published characteristics of typical and specific modern aircraft in three classes; heavy jet, light jet, and turboprop. Missions of these aircraft were simulated by computer methods for each aircraft for several range and payload combinations, and assumed atmospheric temperatures ranging from nominal to extremely cold. Five fuels were selected for comparison with the reference fuel, nominal Jet A. An overview of the data, the mathematic models, the data reduction and analysis procedure, and the results of the study are given. The direct operating costs of the study fuels are compared with that of the reference fuel in the 1990 time-frame, and the anticipated fleet costs and fuel break-even costs are estimated.

  12. 'Cold' fusion: A demonstration of the light and dark sides of science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Controlled nuclear fusion has long held the promise of being the solution to the world's energy needs. Achieving the very high pressure and temperature conditions necessary both to initiate and to sustain the fusion reactions has not been easy or inexpensive. The best systems today have still not reached energy 'break-even.' Further, extracting the energy from these reactors will be another enormous problem. Thus, the prospect of obtaining energy from fusion produced in a simple, ambient pressure and near-ambient temperature electrochemical cell became one the most exciting areas of science. Unfortunately, that process has suffered from the absence of 'controlled reproducibility,' and is now discredited by the majority of the scientific community. Certainly the hope of unlimited, inexpensive energy has disappeared. This presentation describes the apparent chemistry involved in electrolytic cold fusion, points out the experimental difficulties and the alternate explanations for the observed phenomena, and attempts to assess, in general terms, the current status of this research. Because of the special nature of this research, and the excitement it has caused in the media, the talk also describes the 'scientific sociology' that has been displayed

  13. Control of vegetable pests in Benin - Farmers' preferences for eco-friendly nets as an alternative to insecticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidogbéna, Faustin; Adégbidi, Anselme; Tossou, Rigobert; Assogba-Komlan, Françoise; Ngouajio, Mathieu; Martin, Thibaut; Simon, Serge; Parrot, Laurent; Zander, Kerstin K

    2015-01-01

    We investigated if eco-friendly nets (EFNs) are a viable and acceptable alternative to extremely high levels of insecticide use in vegetable production. Using a choice experiment, we found that vegetable producing farmers in Benin preferred all of the characteristics of EFNs except the higher labor requirements. The nets had been distributed in a trial phase for free but in the long run farmers would need to purchase the EFNs. The break-even point for investing in nets was found to vary with the lifespan of EFNs, their purchase price and potential health benefits from avoiding large quantities of insecticides. To break even the nets need to be used for at least two production cycles. To overcome risk-averse farmer's reluctance to adopt EFNs we propose a credit and warranty scheme along with the purchase of the nets. The study's findings can guide the implementation of EFNs in other African countries as part of integrated pest management with global benefits for the environment and human health.

  14. Ecological footprint analysis on the traditional rice-fish agricultural area: a case study of Qingtian County, Zhejiang Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiao Wenjun; Min Qingwen; Cheng Shengkui; Zhang Dan; Sun Yehong

    2009-01-01

    Qingtian County of Zhejiang Province, China has maintained the traditional rice-fish agriculture for about 2,000 years and formed exceptional cultural heritage based on this kind of production mode, so it was selected by FAO as a pilot site for the rice-fish agricultural heritage systems in 2005.This research has applied the indicators of ecological footprint and biocapacity to monitor the environmental conditions of Qingtian County, aiming to find the impact that the traditional agricultural production mode and the local inhabitants lifestyle have placed on the local environmental conditions as well as the role they have played in maintaining ecological balance, cultural inheritance and regional sustainable development.Results show that Qingtian County is characterized by a nearly breakeven total ecological balance, as opposed to Zhejiang Province, the world and other agricultural regions.However, compared with another rice-fish agricultural region, Congjiang County which enjoys a considerable ecologtcal reserve, Qingtian County has consumed a greater amount of environmental resources.Specifically about half of the ecological footprint of Qingtian County can be attributed to the cropland (50.8%) while the CO2, area only accounts for 11.2%, which is dramatically different from that of the modern industrialized regions.And a vast of percentage of energy is caused by the combustion of fuelwood which not only requires the land to absorb the CO2 emission it has generated but also occupies the forest where it has been chopped.

  15. A Physics Exploratory Experiment on Plasma Liner Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thio, Y. C. Francis; Knapp, Charles E.; Kirkpatrick, Ronald C.; Siemon, Richard E.; Turchi, Peter

    2002-01-01

    Momentum flux for imploding a target plasma in magnetized target fusion (MTF) may be delivered by an array of plasma guns launching plasma jets that would merge to form an imploding plasma shell (liner). In this paper, we examine what would be a worthwhile experiment to do in order to explore the dynamics of merging plasma jets to form a plasma liner as a first step in establishing an experimental database for plasma-jets driven magnetized target fusion (PJETS-MTF). Using past experience in fusion energy research as a model, we envisage a four-phase program to advance the art of PJETS-MTF to fusion breakeven Q is approximately 1). The experiment (PLX (Plasma Liner Physics Exploratory Experiment)) described in this paper serves as Phase I of this four-phase program. The logic underlying the selection of the experimental parameters is presented. The experiment consists of using twelve plasma guns arranged in a circle, launching plasma jets towards the center of a vacuum chamber. The velocity of the plasma jets chosen is 200 km/s, and each jet is to carry a mass of 0.2 mg - 0.4 mg. A candidate plasma accelerator for launching these jets consists of a coaxial plasma gun of the Marshall type.

  16. The State of the Kenyan Cotton Growing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Josphat Igadwa Mwasiagi; HUANG Xiu-bao; WANG Xin-hou; J O Wagala

    2007-01-01

    From the early 1960s to late 1980s, the Kenyan cotton growing industry played a vital role in the Kenyan economy in terms of provision of employment and creation of wealth in the rural areas. It also played a central role in the textile industry which was thriving during the above mentioned period. Over the years, cotton production in Kenya has fallen steadily, such that by the year 2000, the country experienced a severe cotton fiber deficit. This study was undertaken to investigate the trend of the cotton growing industry in Kenya. Selected aspects of the industry like cost of production, cotton seed distribution, the operation of cotton gins and the quality of cotton lint were considered.Kohonen Self Organizing Maps (SOM) and K-means clustering techniques were used in data analysis. The results of this study show that Kenyan cotton farmers produced seed cotton at a break-even price of US$ 0.31 per kilogram, while the price offered was US $ 0.29 per kilogram.c

  17. The revolution of shale oils in the United States. The business model is being tested

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report proposes an overview of LTO (Light Tight Oil or shale oil) production in the USA, and examines the consequences of oil price fall on its future level. The first part gives an assessment of five years of this revolution which follows the shale gas revolution. It addresses the most remarkable evolutions: spectacular development of production, decrease of oil imports, increase of oil product exports, and a move towards oil independence. The second part highlights some peculiarities of shale oils and of the resulting business model which is much different from the Exploration/Production model for conventional oil. It analyses the LTO economy and breakeven prices required for a continued investment. Technological advances which are at the basis of this revolution are addressed, and expected improvements on a short or medium term are described. The main financial indicators are then presented as the financial situation of LTO producers is a crucial factor for future investment levels. The last chapter reports the study of the impact of price decrease on capital expenditures (CAPEX) of American producers, and on the drilling activity. It seems that LTO production will resist to price decrease

  18. Investigation of Optimum Parameters for Mechanical Properties of Ecofriendly Molded Plant Fibre Polymer Matrix Composite by Experimental Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.BENJAMIN LAZARUS

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Natural fibre composites are mainly price-driven commodity composites, which have useable structural properties at relatively low cost. The manufacture of such types of composites are environmentally sustainable alternative to conventional composites made of glass, carbon and aramid fibres which are considered critical because of the growing environmental consciousness. Fibres derived from plants are renewable and have low levels of embodied energy compared to synthetic fibres. Therefore this research work explains the development of natural fibre composite, [9] to attain the optimum mechanical property parameters which are equivalent and better to the traditional reinforcing fibres such as glass and carbon. The research work illustrates the manufacture and tested values of one such composite manufactured from a plant fibre which is used as green manuring plant called Crotalaria juncea. Retted fibres after alkali treatment [17] is taken and plate preparation is done using polyester resin mixed with random orientation of the fibre of lengths 20,30,40 and 50mm to a weight of 21,28,31,35,42 and 45 grams as the first part. In the second part of the work woven orientation of biaxial, biaxially stitched and unidirectional mat in 2 layer and 3 layer separately and they are mixed with polyester resin and plates are prepared. Both the stages are tested for mechanical properties [10,16] such that the breakeven value of each property is analyzed, and the results acquired derive the usefulness of the material for required application.

  19. Economic Situation of Fish Farming in Southeastern Coast of the Black Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan Mihai Petrea

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Aquaculture industry, like most other industries, has a very powerfull correlation with the economical domain. Being an economic activity that generates profit, practicing fish farming aims profit maximization. The present study gives information regarding the economical indicators and also makes a cost structure analysis of five groups of fish farms from Southeastern Coast of the Black Sea: homestead fish farms, small scale fish farms, middle scale fish farms, big scale fish farms and floating cages. The fish farms were classified in this way by their production capacity. In order to collect data, the most representative fish farms for each group were selected and face to face interviews were made for every one of them. Data related to their source of financing, initial investment, labour costs, selling prices, feed costs and other operational costs were collected, arranged, structured and analyzed and a series of economic indicators as gross production value, gross margin, breakeven quantity, specific investment, profit, profitability ratio, rate of return or labour productivity were calculated. As a result, it was observed that fish production capacity has a big influence over the rate of return, middle scale fish farms being the most profitable, followed closely by small scale fish farms.

  20. ESTUDO DA RENTABILIDADE DE SISTEMAS DE PRODUÇÃO DE LEITE NO MUNICÍPIO DE NAZARENO, MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aurélio Lopes

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the profitability of dairy business of milk production systems in the Nazareno city, MG, Brasil. Besides identifying the components that exerted greatest influence on the final costs of the business we also estimated the breakeven point. The data utilized was coming from four production systems, collected monthly during the period of January to December 2004. The Custo Bovino Leite software processed the electronic data as well as the profitability analysis, taking into consideration the gross margin, net margin and the result (profit or loss as indicators of economic efficiency. The component items of the effective operational cost that exercised larger influence on the activity milk pan’s costs were, in decreasing order, feeding, labor, overall expenses, energy, health, milking, taxes and artificial insemination. In the economic analysis, two production systems presented positive net margin and the positive result, indicating that they have conditions to keep their produce in the long run, with possibility of expanding. The others systems presented a positive net margin and a negative result that indicates that these producers have been operating their milk activity at a loss. However there is a possibility of improving their gain in the medium term.

  1. Performance evaluation of linear algebra software in parallel architectures. [FPS, CDC, Cray, Burroughs, ICL, and TI computers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, T.L.

    1979-10-01

    Performance data of parallel computers on several of the problems of linear algebra using direct methods are provided. The computers considered include software pipeline, hardware pipeline, single-instruction multiple-data, and multiple-instruction multiple-data. Special features of each architecture are considered. Factors such as start-up time, scalar-vector break-even points, consistency in operation count, parallel steps required, and speed-up and efficiency of the hardware are discussed. A reasonably broad comparison is given for LU factorization without pivoting. A less extensive comparison is given for LU factorization with pivoting. Also various intracomputer comparisons are presented to show the performance of different implementations of a particcular algorithm as well as the performance of different algorithms for solving the same problem. Data were collected for the linear algebraic problems of matrix multiplication, regular sparse systems (including tridiagonal systems and dissection techniques), and random sparse systems. The eigenvalue problem is not addressed. 15 figures, 7 tables.

  2. Status of design and procurement activities in JT-60SA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The JT-60SA experiment is one of the three projects to be undertaken in Japan as part of the Broader Approach Agreement, conducted jointly by Europe and Japan, and complementing the construction of ITER in Europe. It is a fully superconducting tokamak capable of confining break-even equivalent deuterium plasmas with equilibria covering high plasma shaping with a low aspect ratio at a maximum plasma current of Ip = 5.5 MA. In late 2007 the BA Parties, prompted by cost concerns, asked the JT-60SA Team to carry out a re-baselining effort with the purpose to fit in the original budget while aiming to retain the machine mission, performance, and experimental flexibility. Subsequently the Integrated Project Team has undertaken a machine re-optimization followed by engineering design activities aimed to reduce costs while maintaining the machine radius and plasma current. This effort led the Parties to the approval of the new design in late 2008 and hence final design and procurement activities have commenced. The paper will describe the process leading to the re-baselining, the resulting final design and technical solutions and the present status of procurement activities.

  3. Multiple criteria decision making with life cycle assessment for material selection of composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Milani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available With the advancement of interdisciplinary approaches in today’s modern engineering, current efforts in optimal design of composites include seeking material selection protocols that can (1 simultaneously consider a series of mechanical/electrical/chemical cost criteria over a set of alternative material options, and (2 closely take into account environmental aspects of final products including recycling and end-of-life disposal options. In this paper, in addition to a review of some recent experimental and methodological advances in the above areas, a new application of multiple criteria decision making (MCDM is presented to deal with decision conflicts often seen among design criteria in composite material selection with the help of life cycle assessment (LCA. To show the application, an illustrative case study on a plastic gear material selection is conducted where the cost, mechanical and thermal properties along with environmental impact criteria are to be satisfied simultaneously. A pure plastic gear is compared to a Polyethylene terephthalate (PET/aluminum-powder composite alternative. Results suggest that simple MCDM models, including a signal-to-noise measure adapted to MCDM in the same case study, can be used to explore both trade-offs and design break-even points in large decision spaces as the decision maker’s perspective over environmental, material performance and cost attributes change during the design process. More advanced topics including the account of material data uncertainties are addressed.

  4. Considerations for decision-making on distributed power generation in rural areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy resources for rural electrification are variable and widely dispersed, such that a solution for one region might not be appropriate for another. This study evaluates the feasibility of renewable energy technologies, centralized grid extension and local coal-fired power for rural areas that currently do not have sufficient access to electricity. The renewable power generation options considered are solar photovoltaic and wind power, with battery storage or fossil fuel generator backup. New local coal-fired power, as well as extension of the grid from an existing centralized power system, are considered to compare the impacts of scale and traditional approaches to power generation. A case study for a rural area in Northwestern China demonstrates the complexity of energy decision-making when faced with low peak demands and non-ideal renewable resource availability. Economic factors, including cost of electricity generation, breakeven grid extension distance, capacity shortage fraction (the ratio of the annual capacity shortage to the annual electric load) and land use are evaluated. - Highlights: • Considerations include technical and non-technical factors for energy decisions. • Coal and renewable power are compared based on cost and availability of resources. • Key factors for renewable power generation are capacity shortage and availability of resources. • Rural China case study evaluates the viability of distributed wind or solar power relative to coal

  5. An economic assessment of the use of short-rotation coppice woody biomass to heat greenhouses in southern Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKenney, Daniel W.; Yemshanov, Denys; Fraleigh, Saul; Allen, Darren; Preto, Fernando [Natural Resources (Canada)

    2011-01-15

    This study explores the economic feasibility of fossil fuel substitution with biomass from short-rotation willow plantations as an option for greenhouse heating in southern Ontario, Canada. We assess the net displacement value of fossil fuel biomass combustion systems with an integrated purpose-grown biomass production enterprise. Key project parameters include greenhouse size, heating requirements, boiler capital costs and biomass establishment and management costs. Several metrics have been used to examine feasibility including net present value, internal rate of return, payback period, and the minimum or break-even prices for natural gas and heating oil for which the biomass substitution operations become financially attractive. Depending on certain key assumptions, internal rates of return ranged from 11-14% for displacing heating oil to 0-4% for displacing natural gas with woody biomass. The biomass heating projects have payback periods of 10 to >22 years for substituting heating oil and 18 to >22 years for replacing a natural gas. Sensitivity analyses indicate that fossil fuel price and efficiency of the boiler heating system are critical elements in the analyses and research on methods to improve growth and yield and reduce silviculture costs could have a large beneficial impact on the feasibility of this type of bioenergy enterprise. (author)

  6. Developing Public Policy Options for Access to Drinking Water in Peripheral, Disaster and Polluted Rural Areas: A Case Study on Environment-Friendly and Conventional Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruxandra Mălina Petrescu-Mag

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral, disaster and polluted rural areas (PDP rural areas are generally perceived as a “Cinderella” of water public policy measures, deepening the rural-urban cleavage in terms of opportunities for a decent life. The main goal of the study is to develop public policy options regarding the supply of safe drinking water in Romanian PDP rural areas. The main instrument to achieve it is an ex-ante policy analysis of three solutions: a conventional technology, based on chlorine, a green technology using an advanced oxidation process with bio-filter (O3BioFilter, and “do nothing”. Environment protection, social equity, technical performance, economic efficiency and political feasibility were the criteria selected for analysis, within a focus-group. Several qualitative and quantitative methods were used: evaluation matrix, weighted cost-effectiveness and break-even point. The results of the first two indicate that the O3BioFilter has the best score, but not much higher than the conventional alternative (10% higher, revealing a possible path-dependency to familiar technologies. This analysis is not a ready-made solution valid in any case, nor a direct indication of “the best choice”, but a decision tool in the adoption and implementation of sustainable water public policies.

  7. Valuation of nuclear reactor spent fuel using the HP 67/97 programmable calculator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Note applies the spent fuel valuation procedure of R-2239-DOE to a programmable hand calculator (the Hewlett-Packard 67/97). A modest degree of flexibility enables the program user to examine the impact on spent fuel value of variations in almost 30 parameters (e.g., yellowcake price, reprocessing cost, timing of recycle, U-236 composition, etc.). This program can be used to calculate: the present discounted value (PDV) of 1 kg of spent fuel placed in interim storage and permanently disposed at some future time; the PDV of 1 kg of spent fuel placed in interim storage and reprocessed and recycled into an LWR (or LMFBR) at some future time; the reprocessing (or yellowcake) cost that yields a net zero spent fuel value (i.e., the breakeven cost) in any future year; the contribution to spent fuel value of its uranium and plutonium components; and the enrichment plant feed/product ratio and SWU requirements as a function of product, tails, and feed enrichment

  8. Financial competitiveness of organic agriculture on a global scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowder, David W; Reganold, John P

    2015-06-16

    To promote global food and ecosystem security, several innovative farming systems have been identified that better balance multiple sustainability goals. The most rapidly growing and contentious of these systems is organic agriculture. Whether organic agriculture can continue to expand will likely be determined by whether it is economically competitive with conventional agriculture. Here, we examined the financial performance of organic and conventional agriculture by conducting a meta-analysis of a global dataset spanning 55 crops grown on five continents. When organic premiums were not applied, benefit/cost ratios (-8 to -7%) and net present values (-27 to -23%) of organic agriculture were significantly lower than conventional agriculture. However, when actual premiums were applied, organic agriculture was significantly more profitable (22-35%) and had higher benefit/cost ratios (20-24%) than conventional agriculture. Although premiums were 29-32%, breakeven premiums necessary for organic profits to match conventional profits were only 5-7%, even with organic yields being 10-18% lower. Total costs were not significantly different, but labor costs were significantly higher (7-13%) with organic farming practices. Studies in our meta-analysis accounted for neither environmental costs (negative externalities) nor ecosystem services from good farming practices, which likely favor organic agriculture. With only 1% of the global agricultural land in organic production, our findings suggest that organic agriculture can continue to expand even if premiums decline. Furthermore, with their multiple sustainability benefits, organic farming systems can contribute a larger share in feeding the world. PMID:26034271

  9. Environmental and Energetic Performance of the Biomass to Synthetic Natural Gas Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan H. Miedema

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A quarter of the total primary energy demand in the European Union is met by natural gas. Synthetic natural gas produced through biomass gasification can contribute to a more sustainable energy supply system. A chain analysis of the energetic performance of synthetic natural gas where the upstream, midstream and downstream part are included has not been found in literature. The energy performance of the possible large-scale application of synthetic natural gas is therefore unsure. A model was designed to analyse the performance of the biomass to synthetic natural gas chain and to estimate the effect of 1% synthetic natural gas in the energy system. A break-even distance is introduced to determine whether it is energetically feasible to apply pretreatment. Results show that torrefaction and pelleting are energetically unfeasible within the European Union. Emissions can be reduced with almost 70% compared to a fossil reference scenario. Over 1.2 Mha is required to fulfil 0.25% of the total primary energy demand in the European Union.

  10. Cost accounting in plateletpheresis: comparison of two techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, R A; Gloster, E S; Pindyck, J

    1980-01-01

    Cost comparison of two comparably effective techniques of plateletpheresis, a manual method and an automated discontinuous flow centrifugation technique, is presented using a hypothetical model. The former procedure costs $62.48 per pheresis for disposables and labour as opposed to $78.32 per pheresis for disposables and labour for the latter. The annual volume of plateletpheresis at which the accumulated costs equal the total charges, i.e. the 'break-even' point, is calculated and found to be 63.7 for the automated technique and 10.9 for the manual method, if the charge for each is $200.00. For the manual method at a current charge of $80.00, the break even point is 85.8. The assumptions underlying this hypothetical model are examined, and the effects of deviation from these assumptions are analyzed in terms of the break even point. Cost accounting of plateletpheresis is shown to be dependent upon the choice of approach to allocation of costs, the assumptions of the cost accounting model, and the selection of an appropriate charge. PMID:7379466

  11. Application of parametric weight and cost estimating relationships to future transport aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltramo, M. N.; Morris, M. A.; Anderson, J. L.

    1979-01-01

    A model comprised of system level weight and cost estimating relationships for transport aircraft is presented. In order to determine the production cost of future aircraft its weight is first estimated based on performance parameters, and then the cost is estimated as a function of weight. For initial evaluation CERs were applied to actual system weights of six aircraft (3 military and 3 commercial) with mean empty weights ranging from 30,000 to 300,000 lb. The resulting cost estimates were compared with actual costs. The average absolute error was only 4.3%. Then the model was applied to five aircraft still in the design phase (Boeing 757, 767 and 777, and BAC HS146-100 and HS146-200). While the estimates for the 757 and 767 are within 2 to 3 percent of their assumed break-even costs, it is recognized that these are very sensitive to the validity of the estimated weights, inflation factor, the amount assumed for nonrecurring costs, etc., and it is suggested that the model may be used in conjunction with other information such as RDT&E cost estimates and market forecasts. The model will help NASA evaluate new technologies and production costs of future aircraft.

  12. The use of health economics to guide drug development decisions: Determining optimal values for an RSV-vaccine in a model-based scenario-analytic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, J M; Rietveld, E; Moll, H A; Steyerberg, E W; Luytjes, W; Wilschut, J C; de Groot, R; Postma, M J

    2007-09-28

    Health-economic modelling is useful for assessing the clinical requirements and impact of new vaccines. In this study, we estimate the impact of potential vaccination for respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) of infants in the Netherlands. A decision analysis model was employed using seasonal data from a cohort of children (1996-1997 through 1999-2000) to assess hospitalisation, costs and impact of vaccination. Yearly, an estimated 3670 infants are hospitalised with RSV-infection in the Netherlands, vaccination protecting infants from 3 months of life onwards could prevent approximately 1000-3000 hospitalisations, depending on the effectiveness of the potential vaccine. Additionally, vaccination could prevent a major share of RSV-related costs. Comparison of the calculated break-even prices with the average price of recently introduced vaccines indicates that pricing for a potential RSV-vaccine most likely allows for only a single dose vaccination or several doses at a relatively low price per dose in order to achieve cost savings. However, if evidence on relevant RSV-related mortality would become available, higher pricing would be justified, while still remaining below accepted thresholds for cost-effectiveness.

  13. Optimum Currency Area Criteria in the Greece

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovan Rankov

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Creation of a monetary union in any region, regardless of the structure and level of development among countries, carries along certain costs and benefits. This paper explains Mundell’s concept of Optimum Currency Area and criteria that are needed to achieve it. Viewed through the prism of these criteria the EMU is currently far from achieving the OCA confirming the current crisis in Greece and other PIIGS countries. The example of Greece and shortcomings that contributed to its current crisis represents the biggest cost and a break-even point for the future of the monetary union. However, it is encouraging that Greece is not alone in its problems, since various funds for help have been established in a relatively short period of time. The reason for this is certainly a huge cost if any country should leave the union and the spillover effect that it would cause. Certainly serious transformations can be expected and the result should be a stronger union with better control from supra-national level.

  14. On-Orbit Asset Management System, September 1995. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-10

    Declining budgets have prompted the need to decrease launch cost, increase satellite lifetime, and accomplish more with each satellite. This study evaluates an OOAMS system for its ability to lengthen lifetime of on-orbit assets, decrease the number of satellites required to perform a mission, increase responsiveness, and provide increased mission capability/tactical advantage. Lifetime analysis suggest that the larger satellite systems (NASA and military communication systems, surveillance satellites and earth observing satellites) would benefit most from a nuclear bimodal OOAMS. Evaluation of satellite constellations indicate that a modest reduction in the number of satellites could be realized using OOAMS if the thermal restart capability was at least ten. An OOAMS could improve the responsiveness (launching of new assets) using on-orbit reconstitution of assets. A top level utility assessment was done to address system cost issues relating to funding profiles, first unit cost, and break-even analysis. From mission capture and orbital lifetime criteria, the recommended minimum orbital altitude is 900 km. The on-orbit thermal restart capability should be increased from five to ten. Analysis of total impulse vs propellant consumed for selected missions suggests that total impulse be increased from 40 million to 48 million Newton-seconds.

  15. Thermodynamic, ecological and economic aspects of the use of the gas turbine for heat supply to the stripping process in a supercritical CHP plant integrated with a carbon capture installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Variants of integration of CHP plant with CCS and gas turbine unit were analyzed. • The simulations of operation of plants under changing load were realized. • Conditions of competitiveness for all solutions were identified. • Integration can be profitable if prices of allowance will reach values >60 €/MgCO2. - Abstract: This paper presents the results of thermodynamic and economic analyses for eight variants of a combined heat and power (CHP) plant fuelled with coal working under supercritical steam parameters and integrated with a CO2 capture installation and a gas turbine system. The motivation behind using a gas turbine in the system was to generate steam to supply heat for the stripping process that occurs in the separation installation to regenerate the sorbent. Additional analyses were conducted for the reference case, a CHP unit in which the CO2 separation process was not conducted, to enable an economic evaluation of the integration of a CHP unit with a CO2 separation installation according to the variants proposed. The break-even price of electricity and avoided emission costs were used to evaluate the respective solutions. In this paper, the results of the sensitivity analysis of the economic evaluation indicators in terms of the change in the annual operation time, price of emission allowance and heat demand rate for the realization of the stripping process for all cases are presented

  16. Possibility of particle-beam-pumped Ar-Xe laser as an inertial confinement fusion driver

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fission-product-beam pumped Ar-Xe laser as a candidate of the driver for a hybrid fission-fusion reactor is studied. Such hybrid reactor can reduce the power requirements for the laser driver. These Ar-Xe lasers have been realized as reactor pumped lasers (RPL) with pulsed reactors. However, high power RPL experiments often face the problem of premature termination of laser output power with respect to the pumping power. Several reasons, including temperature effects, outgassing of impurities from walls have been discussed. Two experiments, elucidating the influence of water vapor impurities in the lasing gas mixture and laser threshold, and the effects of temperature rise in the laser gas on laser output have been performed at the Munich Tandem accelerator, using 100 MeV 32S9+ beams, thus simulating RPL experiments at a pumping power density of ∼ 100 W/cm3. Using these experimental and theoretical results, these RPL-oscillations can be stabilized with high instinctive efficiency. Laser-gas-purification systems and breakeven conditions and related requirements on the hybrid reactor using RPL driver schematically discussed. (author)

  17. The cost of carbon abatement through community forest management in Nepal Himalaya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karky, Bhaskar Singh [Economic Analysis Division, International Centre for Integrated Mountain Development, GPO Box 3226, Kathmandu (Nepal); Skutsch, Margaret [Centro de Investigaciones en Geographia Ambiental, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Morelia (Mexico); University of Twente, PO Box 217 7500 AE Enschede (Netherlands)

    2010-01-15

    This paper estimates the economic returns to carbon abatement through biological sequestration in community managed forest under future REDD policy, and compares these for three possible management scenarios. For the estimation, the research relies on forest inventory data together with other socio-economic and resources use data collected from forest users in three sites of Nepal Himalaya. The paper estimates the incremental carbon from forest enhancement on a yearly basis over a five-year period using the value of 1 and 5 per tCO{sub 2} for conservative analysis. The results based on the three sites indicate that community forest management may be one of the least cost ways to abate carbon with a break-even price under Scenario 2 which ranges from 0.55 to 3.70 per tCO{sub 2}. However, bringing community forests into the carbon market may entail high opportunity costs as forests provide numerous non-monetary benefits to the local population, who regard these as the main incentive for conservation and management. An important finding of the research is that if forest resources use by local communities is not permitted, then carbon trading will not be attractive to them as revenue from carbon will not cover the cost foregone by not harvesting forest resources. (author)

  18. SWRO浓盐水回收工艺改进及经济效益评估%Process Improvement and Economy Evaluation of SWRO Brine Recycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高振

    2014-01-01

    According to the operation data of Dagang Newspring Desalting Plant since it was built up,considering the features of the intake water,a new improving project was proposed.The SWRO brine was returned to the intake side in order to improve the intake water quality in the project.Then the mainly affecting factor was analyzed to the projection,the BEP (break-even point) was found according to intake water conductivity,and the economy benefits of the projection were evaluated.%针对天津大港新泉海水淡化有限公司运行以来遇到的取水特点,以数年来运营数据进行参考,提出了在上游排污期间将SWRO浓盐水回流至取水段的改良方案,并对该方案的主要影响因素进行了分析,找出了以电导率为依据的盈亏平衡点,并对该方案的经济效益进行了评估.

  19. Project Icarus: Nuclear Fusion Propulsion Concept Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanic, M.

    Project Icarus will use nuclear fusion as the primary propulsion, since achieving breakeven is imminent within the next decade. Therefore, fusion technology provides confidence in further development and fairly high technological maturity by the time the Icarus mission would be plausible. Currently there are numerous (over 2 dozen) different fusion approaches that are simultaneously being developed around the World and it is difficult to predict which of the concepts is going to be the most successful one. This study tried to estimate current technological maturity and possible technological extrapolation of fusion approaches for which appropriate data could be found. Figures of merit that were assessed include: current technological state, mass and volume estimates, possible gain values, main advantages and disadvantages of the concept and an attempt to extrapolate current technological state for the next decade or two. Analysis suggests that Magnetic Confinement Fusion (MCF) concepts are not likely to deliver sufficient performance due to size, mass, gain and large technological barriers of the concept. However, ICF and PJMIF did show potential for delivering necessary performance, assuming appropriate techno- logical advances. This paper is a submission of the Project Icarus Study Group.

  20. Formation of FRCs on the Pulsed High Density Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreason, Samuel; Slough, John

    2008-11-01

    The Pulsed High Density (PHD) experiment has been reassembled at a new facility with sufficient space to continue through the full acceleration and compression stages to reach breakeven. The intention here is to produce a large FRC, but remain in the kinetic regime where the FRC is stable and the transport sufficiently low that a Q > 1 plasma can be attained at moderate densities ˜ 10^23 m-3. During reassembly a more complete analysis of previous experimental results has been made. One of the issues in the early phase of the experiment was inefficient flux trapping during field reversal due to the large scale of the FRC source (0.4 m radius). The on-axis seed plasma was unable to diffuse out to the walls on a timescale commensurate with the introduction of bias fields. This resulted in more than half of the initial bias flux lost before sheath formation halted flux loss. An annular array of plasma sources has been constructed that solves this problem and greatly enhances the flux retention. Dynamic formation has been employed on PHD and analysis tools capable of interpreting the magnetic loop diagnostic array have been developed. Results with comparison to numerical models will be presented.

  1. Economic analysis of a volume reduction/polyethylene solidification system for low-level radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory to determine the economic feasibility of a fluidized bed volume reduction/polyethylene solidification system for low-level radioactive wastes. These results are compared with the ''null'' alternative of no volume reduction and solidification of aqueous waste streams in hydraulic cement. The economic analysis employed a levelized revenue requirement (LRR) technique conducted over a ten year period. An interactive computer program was written to conduct the LRR calculations. Both of the treatment/solidification options were considered for a number of scenarios including type of plant (BWR or PWR) and transportation distance to the disposal site. If current trends in the escalation rates of cost components continue, the volume reduction/polyethylene solidification option will be cost effective for both BWRs and PWRs. Data indicate that a minimum net annual savings of $0.8 million per year (for a PWR shipping its waste 750 miles) and a maximum net annual savings of $9 million per year (for a BWR shipping its waste 2500 miles) can be achieved. A sensitivity analysis was performed for the burial cost escalation rate, which indicated that variation of this factor will impact the total levelized revenue requirement. The burial cost escalation rate which yields a break-even condition was determined for each scenario considered. 11 refs., 8 figs., 39 tabs

  2. Lifecycle analysis of different urban transport options for Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Once again, sustained high oil prices are forcing policy makers in oil importing countries to consider alternatives to oil products as transportation fuels. Unlike in the past, advancements in technology, relative success of some experiments and increased familiarity among and acceptance by the public of some alternatives indicate a higher likelihood of success. In particular, natural gas offers a couple of the best options as compressed natural gas (CNG) and chemical conversion of natural gas into diesel (gas-to-liquids, GTL). These options are likely to be most attractive in countries that have cheap access to natural gas. We compare lifetime costs of several individual transportation options for Bangladesh, an oil importer with natural gas reserves. The results are then used to inform the natural gas policy debate in the country. Assuming a natural gas price of $1.5 per million Btu, both the CNG and GTL options are competitive with conventional gasoline/diesel cars if the oil price stays higher than $35-40 per barrel. If natural gas price increases after new upstream developments, CNG becomes less attractive while GTL remains competitive up to $2.5 if capital costs of GTL facilities decline as expected. Under a government policy push (lower discounting), the breakeven price of oil falls to $30-35 per barrel

  3. Lifecycle analysis of different urban transport options for Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Once again, sustained high oil prices are forcing policy makers in oil importing countries to consider alternatives to oil products as transportation fuels. Unlike in the past, advancements in technology, relative success of some experiments and increased familiarity among and acceptance by the public of some alternatives indicate a higher likelihood of success. In particular, natural gas offers a couple of the best options as compressed natural gas (CNG) and chemical conversion of natural gas into diesel (gas-to-liquids, GTL). These options are likely to be most attractive in countries that have cheap access to natural gas. We compare lifetime costs of several individual transportation options for Bangladesh, an oil importer with natural gas reserves. The results are then used to inform the natural gas policy debate in the country. Assuming a natural gas price of 1.5 per million Btu, both the CNG and GTL options are competitive with conventional gasoline/diesel cars if the oil price stays higher than 35-40 per barrel. If natural gas price increases after new upstream developments, CNG becomes less attractive while GTL remains competitive up to 2.5 if capital costs of GTL facilities decline as expected. Under a government policy push (lower discounting), the breakeven price of oil falls to 30-35 per barrel. (author)

  4. Intermodal Freight Transport on the Right Track? Environmental and economic performances and their trade-off

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This dissertation aims to evaluate environmental and economic performances of an intermodal freight transport system and to estimate the trade-off between CO2 emissions, which is presented as an indicator of environmental performance, and freight costs, which indicate the economic performance of the intermodal freight system. The truck-only system is always regarded as the counterpart of the intermodal freight system in this dissertation. To examine the environmental performance of the intermodal freight system, CO2 emissions generated from all the processes in the intermodal chain, such as pre-haulage and post-haulage, long distance haulage, and transshipment, are estimated considering different sources that generate electricity and transmission loss of electricity (Chapters 3 and 4). To examine the economic performance of the system, two approaches are considered: (1) finding the intermodal breakeven distance for which the intermodal system is more competitive than the truck-only system (Chapter 5); (2) examining the economies of scale in the intermodal network and finding the route/system choice that minimizes the total freight transportation costs (Chapter 6). Finally, this dissertation attempts to find the trade-off between CO2 emissions (representing the environmental performance) and freight transportation cost (representing the economic performance) (Chapter 7)

  5. Novel reactors and energy synergetics status 1982

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recession, increasing energy costs, recent studies like NASAP and INFCE, recent innovations and new developments have resulted in a new situation in the energy field. Even near term nuclear power R and D planning requires thus concurrent studies of spallation (accelerator) and fusion/fission hybrid breeding. A first overview of these and other novel reactors is presented. It is now realized more than before that the energy production must be based on optimal synergetics based on symbiotic systems that include a larger variety of energy sources, even if we restrict us, as in this report, to nuclear power. A central factor is the considerations associated with the constraints of fuel supplies, of enriched fissile fuels, of U and Th and of fusile fuels (T). This report emphasizes the inherent characteristics of various energy producing machines and symbiotic systems in this respect including the status, national programmes, environmental impacts and their expected break-even U-prices as reported in the literature. (Author)

  6. Magnetic-confinement fusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ongena, J.; Koch, R.; Wolf, R.; Zohm, H.

    2016-05-01

    Our modern society requires environmentally friendly solutions for energy production. Energy can be released not only from the fission of heavy nuclei but also from the fusion of light nuclei. Nuclear fusion is an important option for a clean and safe solution for our long-term energy needs. The extremely high temperatures required for the fusion reaction are routinely realized in several magnetic-fusion machines. Since the early 1990s, up to 16 MW of fusion power has been released in pulses of a few seconds, corresponding to a power multiplication close to break-even. Our understanding of the very complex behaviour of a magnetized plasma at temperatures between 150 and 200 million °C surrounded by cold walls has also advanced substantially. This steady progress has resulted in the construction of ITER, a fusion device with a planned fusion power output of 500 MW in pulses of 400 s. ITER should provide answers to remaining important questions on the integration of physics and technology, through a full-size demonstration of a tenfold power multiplication, and on nuclear safety aspects. Here we review the basic physics underlying magnetic fusion: past achievements, present efforts and the prospects for future production of electrical energy. We also discuss questions related to the safety, waste management and decommissioning of a future fusion power plant.

  7. Fusion plasma physics during half a century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehnert, Bo

    1999-08-01

    A review is given on the potentialities of fusion energy with respect to energy production and related environmental problems, the various approaches to controlled thermonuclear fusion, the main problem areas of research, the historical development, the present state of investigations, and future perspectives. This article also presents a personal memorandum of the author. Thereby special reference will be given to part of the research conducted at the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm, merely to identify its place within the general historical development. Considerable progress has been made in fusion research during the last decades. In large tokamak experiments temperatures above the ignition limit of about 10{sup 8} K have been reached under break-even conditions where the fusion power generation is comparable to the energy loss. A power producing fusion reactor could in principle be realized already today, but it would not become technically and economically efficient. The future international research programme has therefore to be conducted along broad lines, with necessary ingredients of basis research and new ideas, and also within lines of magnetic confinement being alternative to that of tokamaks.

  8. Review on Recent Developments in Laser Driven Inertial Fusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ghoranneviss

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Discovery of the laser in 1960 hopes were based on using its very high energy concentration within very short pulses of time and very small volumes for energy generation from nuclear fusion as “Inertial Fusion Energy” (IFE, parallel to the efforts to produce energy from “Magnetic Confinement Fusion” (MCF, by burning deuterium-tritium (DT in high temperature plasmas to helium. Over the years the fusion gain was increased by a number of magnitudes and has reached nearly break-even after numerous difficulties in physics and technology had been solved. After briefly summarizing laser driven IFE, we report how the recently developed lasers with pulses of petawatt power and picosecond duration may open new alternatives for IFE with the goal to possibly ignite solid or low compressed DT fuel thereby creating a simplified reactor scheme. Ultrahigh acceleration of plasma blocks after irradiation of picosecond (PS laser pulses of around terawatt (TW power in the range of 1020 cm/s2 was discovered by Sauerbrey (1996 as measured by Doppler effect where the laser intensity was up to about 1018 W/cm2. This is several orders of magnitude higher than acceleration by irradiation based on thermal interaction of lasers has produced.

  9. Design and Economic Analysis of a Photovoltaic System: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    COC Oko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design analysis of a photovoltaic (PV system to power the CAD/CAM Laboratory at the Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Port Harcourt. Life cycle cost and break-even point analyses are also carried out to assess the economic viability of the system. The unit cost of electricity for the designed PV system is high compared to the current unit cost of the municipally supplied electricity, but will be competitive with lowering cost of PV system components and favourable government policies on renewable energy. The approach and data provided are useful for designing solar systems in the area. The automated MS Excel spreadsheet developed could be used for the design and economic analyses of PV system in any other geographical region once the input data are sorted. Since about 90% of businesses in Nigeria currently own diesel generators, it is expected that future work should be devoted to the optimum combination of PV-Battery-Diesel system in electricity generation for optimum economic benefits to the country. Keywords: photovoltaic system design, renewable energy technology, solar energy economics

  10. Pre-design and life cycle cost analysis of a hybrid power system for rural and remote communities in Afghanistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mir Sayed Shah Danish

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In view of the present situation of the Afghanistan electricity sector, the photovoltaic and diesel generator stand-alone hybrid power system is increasingly attractive for application in rural and remote communities. Thousands of rural communities in Afghanistan depend solely on traditional kerosene for illumination and rarely have access to electricity sources such as DC battery for radio and other small appliances. This study is conducted to offer real-life solution to this problem. The hybrid system is investigated to meet the domestic load demand that is estimated based on the communities’ electricity consumption culture. At first, customary pre-design is pursued. Afterwards, the break-even point and net present value algorithms are applied for economic analysis. That makes this study differ from the previous academic literature. The concepts developed in this study are targeted for a cost-effective hybrid system, which is appropriate for rural and remote residents’ lifestyle change and improvement. Based on the academic research methods, overall analysis procedures can fit as an analogy, especially for developing countries.

  11. Feasibility of sustaining the upland conversion program by establishing a domestic carbon market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To sustain the upland conversion program (UCP) in China after the government compensation expires, we suggest an establishment of a domestic carbon market where forest carbon from the UCP can be traded. Taking southwest China's Yunnan Province as an example, we explored the feasibility of switching the UCP to a carbon offset project. The breakeven carbon price which is equivalent to the opportunity cost of agricultural cultivation was estimated and then compared with the carbon price in the  international market. We found that it is feasible to change the UCP to a carbon offset project if the duration is longer than 10 years at a discount rate of 7%, and if the recent bid price (147.2 Yuan-t1) for Chinese carbon offset project prevails. The feasibility is better for converted land with lower productivity when the project duration is given. For a given site index, the feasibility is lower as pro-ject length is reduced. The results of sensitivity analysis show that the feasibility will be enhanced as the discount rate increases;however, the changes in the price of agricultural products and the amount of sequestered carbon have insignificant effects on the choice of sites and project duration.

  12. Intercomparison of UAV, Aircraft and Satellite Remote Sensing Platforms for Precision Viticulture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Matese

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Precision Viticulture is experiencing substantial growth thanks to the availability of improved and cost-effective instruments and methodologies for data acquisition and analysis, such as Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV, that demonstrated to compete with traditional acquisition platforms, such as satellite and aircraft, due to low operational costs, high operational flexibility and high spatial resolution of imagery. In order to optimize the use of these technologies for precision viticulture, their technical, scientific and economic performances need to be assessed. The aim of this work is to compare NDVI surveys performed with UAV, aircraft and satellite, to assess the capability of each platform to represent the intra-vineyard vegetation spatial variability. NDVI images of two Italian vineyards were acquired simultaneously from different multi-spectral sensors onboard the three platforms, and a spatial statistical framework was used to assess their degree of similarity. Moreover, the pros and cons of each technique were also assessed performing a cost analysis as a function of the scale of application. Results indicate that the different platforms provide comparable results in vineyards characterized by coarse vegetation gradients and large vegetation clusters. On the contrary, in more heterogeneous vineyards, low-resolution images fail in representing part of the intra-vineyard variability. The cost analysis showed that the adoption of UAV platform is advantageous for small areas and that a break-even point exists above five hectares; above such threshold, airborne and then satellite have lower imagery cost.

  13. Assessment of Seasonal Energy Efficiency Strategies of a Double Skin Façade in a Monsoon Climate Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Choongwan Koo

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available As climate change and global warming have become two of the most significant environmental issues today, the double-skin façade (DSF is getting considerable attention as an energy-efficient passive design. This study is aimed at assessing the seasonal energy efficiency strategies of a DSF targeting library facilities in the climate region with hot summers and cold winters. Toward this end, this study was conducted in four steps: (i establishment of seasonal energy-efficient strategies; (ii application of seasonal energy-efficient strategies; (iii analysis of energy saving effect by season; and (iv life cycle cost and life cycle CO2 analyses for selecting an optimal DSF. Results show that a shaft box DSF energy model (EMS #2, which applied winter strategies, was optimal with an energy saving rate of 4.13%, while a multi-story DSF energy model (EMM #5, which applied summer strategies, was optimal with an energy saving rate of 12.67%. In terms of savings to investment ratio (SIR40 and breakeven point (BEP40, the multi-story DSF (3.20; 9 years was superior. The results of this study can be used for (i seasonal energy efficiency strategies of a DSF in East Asian monsoon climates, and (ii as a guideline for the application of a DSF both in existing and new buildings.

  14. Predicting the Benefits of Banana Bunchy Top Virus Exclusion from Commercial Plantations in Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, David C.; Liu, Shuang; Edwards, Jacqueline; Villalta, Oscar N.; Aurambout, Jean-Philippe; Kriticos, Darren J.; Drenth, Andre; De Barro, Paul J.

    2012-01-01

    Benefit cost analysis is a tried and tested analytical framework that can clearly communicate likely net changes in producer welfare from investment decisions to diverse stakeholder audiences. However, in a plant biosecurity context, it is often difficult to predict policy benefits over time due to complex biophysical interactions between invasive species, their hosts, and the environment. In this paper, we demonstrate how a break-even style benefit cost analysis remains highly relevant to biosecurity decision-makers using the example of banana bunchy top virus, a plant pathogen targeted for eradication from banana growing regions of Australia. We develop an analytical approach using a stratified diffusion spread model to simulate the likely benefits of exclusion of this virus from commercial banana plantations over time relative to a nil management scenario in which no surveillance or containment activities take place. Using Monte Carlo simulation to generate a range of possible future incursion scenarios, we predict the exclusion benefits of the disease will avoid Aus$15.9-27.0 million in annual losses for the banana industry. For these exclusion benefits to be reduced to zero would require a bunchy top re-establishment event in commercial banana plantations three years in every four. Sensitivity analysis indicates that exclusion benefits can be greatly enhanced through improvements in disease surveillance and incursion response. PMID:22879960

  15. Economic Aspect of HVDC Transmission System for Indonesia Consideration in Nuclear Power Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As a country with hundreds million people, Indonesia needs to generate large scale power and distribute it to thorough country to improve gross domestic product of the population. In the power transmission domain, the High Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) transmission system should be considered for the next decades concerning any technical and economical problems with HVAC transmission. HVDC transmission system is the answer for the Indonesian condition. This system can connect the high energy potential regions to the high energy demand regions. HVDC is the most efficient to transport energy from one region to another one region. Dismantling and removing assets costs are included to the estimated for capital costs, while the environmental and property costs are the costs of securing designations and resource consents, and valuation and legal advice for the HVDC investment. Although converter terminals are expensive however, for long transmissions HVDC system can compensate the costs over breakeven distance through very efficient transmission system. Efficiency of HVDC is appearing from conductor wire, supporting tower, low energy loses and free space used by route of the transmission line. HVDC system is also free from some problem, concerning stability, inductive and capacitive load components, phase differences and frequency system. In the economic aspect the HVDC capital costs for the transmission options comprise estimates of the cost to design, purchase and construct new HVDC transmission components. While operating and maintenance costs of HVDC assets comprise the costs for replacement the old existing overhead transmission lines, underground and submarine cables, and HVDC converter station components. (author)

  16. Principles and methods of managerial cost-accounting systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suver, J D; Cooper, J C

    1988-01-01

    An introduction to cost-accounting systems for pharmacy managers is provided; terms are defined and examples of specific applications are given. Cost-accounting systems determine, record, and report the resources consumed in providing services. An effective cost-accounting system must provide the information needed for both internal and external reports. In accounting terms, cost is the value given up to secure an asset. In determining how volumes of activity affect costs, fixed costs and variable costs are calculated; applications include pricing strategies, cost determinations, and break-even analysis. Also discussed are the concepts of direct and indirect costs, opportunity costs, and incremental and sunk costs. For most pharmacy department services, process costing, an accounting of intermediate outputs and homogeneous units, is used; in determining the full cost of providing a product or service (e.g., patient stay), job-order costing is used. Development of work-performance standards is necessary for monitoring productivity and determining product costs. In allocating pharmacy department costs, a ratio of costs to charges can be used; this method is convenient, but microcosting (specific identification of the costs of products) is more accurate. Pharmacy managers can use cost-accounting systems to evaluate the pharmacy's strategies, policies, and services and to improve budgets and reports.

  17. Thermal energy storage systems using fluidized bed heat exchangers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weast, T.; Shannon, L.

    1980-01-01

    A rotary cement kiln and an electric arc furnace were chosen for evaluation to determine the applicability of a fluid bed heat exchanger (FBHX) for thermal energy storage (TES). Multistage shallow bed FBHX's operating with high temperature differences were identified as the most suitable for TES applications. Analysis of the two selected conceptual systems included establishing a plant process flow configuration, an operational scenario, a preliminary FBHX/TES design, and parametric analysis. A computer model was developed to determine the effects of the number of stages, gas temperatures, gas flows, bed materials, charge and discharge time, and parasitic power required for operation. The maximum national energy conservation potential of the cement plant application with TES is 15.4 million barrels of oil or 3.9 million tons of coal per year. For the electric arc furnance application the maximum national conservation potential with TES is 4.5 million barrels of oil or 1.1 million tons of coal per year. Present time of day utility rates are near the breakeven point required for the TES system. Escalation of on-peak energy due to critical fuel shortages could make the FBHX/TES applications economically attractive in the future.

  18. A bio-economic approach to analyze the role of alternative seeding-harvesting schedules, water quality, stocking density and duration of cultivation in semi-intensive production of shrimp in Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Estrada-Pérez

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We used a bio-economic model to analyze the role that alternative seeding-harvesting schedules, temperature, dissolved oxygen, stocking density, and duration of cultivation play in the economic performance of semi-intensive shrimp cultivation in Mexico. The highest production was predicted for the May-August schedule (1130-2300 kg ha-1, while the lowest yields were obtained for the March-June schedule (949-1300 kg ha-1. The highest net revenues were projected for the August-November schedule (US$354-1444 ha-1, while the lowest was projected for the May-August schedule (US$330-923 ha-1. The highest annual net revenues were predicted for the combination of the March-June and August-November schedules (US$1432-2562 ha-1. Sensitivity analysis indicated temperature and dissolved oxygen were the most important factors determining net revenues in March-June schedule. For the May-August and August-November schedules, stocking density was the most important factor. Duration of cultivation was the least sensitive variable. Break-even production analysis confirmed that the combination of the March-June and August-November schedules were more efficient from an economic perspective. We recommend test some ponds with higher stocking density in the March-June and August-November schedules, and in the latter case, seeding in June or July rather than August.

  19. Analytical evaluation of the signal and noise propagation in x-ray differential phase-contrast computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raupach, Rainer; Flohr, Thomas G, E-mail: rainer.raupach@siemens.com [Siemens AG Healthcare Sector, H IM CT R and D PA, Siemensstrasse 1, D-91301 Forchheim (Germany)

    2011-04-07

    We analyze the signal and noise propagation of differential phase-contrast computed tomography (PCT) compared with conventional attenuation-based computed tomography (CT) from a theoretical point of view. This work focuses on grating-based differential phase-contrast imaging. A mathematical framework is derived that is able to analytically predict the relative performance of both imaging techniques in the sense of the relative contrast-to-noise ratio for the contrast of any two materials. Two fundamentally different properties of PCT compared with CT are identified. First, the noise power spectra show qualitatively different characteristics implying a resolution-dependent performance ratio. The break-even point is derived analytically as a function of system parameters such as geometry and visibility. A superior performance of PCT compared with CT can only be achieved at a sufficiently high spatial resolution. Second, due to periodicity of phase information which is non-ambiguous only in a bounded interval statistical phase wrapping can occur. This effect causes a collapse of information propagation for low signals which limits the applicability of phase-contrast imaging at low dose.

  20. Quality aspects of thermal coal marketing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Australia's thermal coal industry is under increasing competition. A successful marketing strategy must distinguish the product from that of Australian competitors, leaving the buyer in no doubt as to its value. The marketing of thermal coal is a very different experience and encompasses an interesting commercial and technical mix. The technical merits of a coal may be effectively used to prepare the way for a sale. However, once the technical hurdle is passed (i.e. the coal is classified as acceptable), the three factors which influence the sale are price, price and price. The other aspect of marketing is that marketing, especially technical market support, must realize that the buyer often has no experience in using the coals purchased. This is particularly true with thermal coals. Virtually no thought is given as to how the coal performs or how much is used. Consequently, it is not uncommon for cheap, low quality coals to be purchased, even though it is not the choice that will result in the lowest power generation cost when all other factors are taken into consideration. The author has developed a model which allows to differentiate between coals for a range of properties relative to the use of the coal, so that a coal company can calculate the break-even price in term of cost per kWh of electricity generated and enable a more valid cost comparison between coals to be made

  1. Siting is a constraint to realize environmental benefits from carbon capture and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekar, Ashok; Williams, Eric; Chester, Mikhail

    2014-10-01

    Carbon capture and storage (CCS) for coal power plants reduces onsite carbon dioxide emissions, but affects other air emissions on and offsite. This research assesses the net societal benefits and costs of Monoethanolamine (MEA) CCS, valuing changes in emissions of CO2, SO2, NOX, NH3 and particulate matter (PM), including those in the supply chain. Geographical variability and stochastic uncertainty for 407 coal power plant locations in the U.S. are analyzed. The results show that the net environmental benefits and costs of MEA CCS depend critically on location. For a few favorable sites of both power plant and upstream processes, CCS realizes a net benefit (benefit-cost ratio >1) if the social cost of carbon exceeds $51/ton. For much of the U.S. however, the social cost of carbon must be much higher to realize net benefits from CCS, up to a maximum of $910/ton. While the social costs of carbon are uncertain, typical estimates are in the range of $32-220 per ton, much lower than the breakeven value for many potential CCS locations. Increased impacts upstream from the power plant can dramatically change the social acceptability of CCS and needs further consideration and analysis.

  2. Thermal power systems, small power systems application project. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, A. T.

    1979-01-01

    Current small power system technology as applied to power plants up to 10 MWe in size was assessed. Markets for small power systems were characterized and cost goals were established. Candidate power plant system design concepts were selected for evaluation and preliminary performance and cost assessments were made. Economic studies were conducted and breakeven capital costs were determined for leading contenders among the candidate systems. An application study was made of the potential use of small power systems in providing part of the demand for pumping power by the extensive aqueduct system of California, estimated to be 1000 MWe by 1985. Criteria and methodologies were developed for application to the ranking of candidate power plant system design concepts. Experimental power plants concepts of 1 MWe rating were studied leading toward the definition of a power plant configuration for subsequent detail design, construction, testing and evaluation as Engineering Experiment No. 1 (EE No. 1). Site selection criteria and ground rules for the solicitation of EE No. 1 site participation proposals by DOE were developed.

  3. Thermal power systems: Small Power Systems Applications Project. Volume II. Detailed report. Annual technical report, fiscal year 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-15

    Small Power Systems Applications activities for FY 1978 are reported. Studies were conducted to address current small power system technology as applied to power plants up to 10 MWe in size. Markets for small power systems were characterized and cost goals were established for the project. Candidate power plant system design concepts were selected for evaluation and preliminary performance and cost assessments were made. Economic studies were conducted at JPL and under contract to Burns and McDonnell. Breakeven capital costs were determined for leading contenders among the candidate systems. An applications study was made of the potential use of small power systems in providing part of the demand for pumping power by the extensive aqueduct system of California, estimated to be 1000 MWe by 1985. Criteria and methodologies were developed for application to the ranking of candidate power plant system design concepts. Experimental power plants concepts of 1 MWe rating were studied by three contractors as a Phase I effort leading toward the definition of a power plant configuration for subsequent detail design, construction, testing and evaluation as Engineering Experiment No. 1 (EE No. 1). Site selection criteria and ground rules for the solicitation of EE No. 1 site participation proposals by DOE were developed.

  4. PROBLEMS AND PROSPECTS OF TRANSPORT TECHNOLOGY FOR VILLAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byshоv N. V.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Modern condition agricultural transport (a significant part of it about 70% is characterized by a strong deterioration of the rolling stock, the unsatisfactory state of the production base. More than 30% of vehicles operated outside the normative service life, the rest approaching to that state. In general, the provision of agrarian and industrial complex with agricultural vehicles is way below agrotechnical requirements. In the long term, farm machine engineering should focus on indicators of the technical level achieved by best samples of foreign agricultural machinery. Priority development is likely to receive the development of innovative technologies that provide a significant increase in productivity, efficiency and resource conservation in agriculture. To address the shortcomings of transport services agrarian and industrial complex we should improve transport technology with the use of transport logistics, expand and update the existing vehicle fleet, but due to the low solvency of agricultural companies and high prices for of automotive engineering, the problem of providing agricultural vehicles becomes most acute. Thus, the creation of new science-based solutions in technology and engineering for transportation farm produce in terms of Russia's AIC is the actual scientific and technical task that contributes significantly to the development of the country, as well as enhances the enjoyment of breakeven, competitive manufacturing

  5. Financial Risk Study of the Construction Sector SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicoleta BARBUTA-MISU

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The importance given to the problem of capital structure comes from the influence of debts on return on equity and the financial risk induced by debts. This paper is actually an analysis of the evolution of financial risk on the construction sector during 2001 – 2011 on a sample of 11 enterprises in the Galati County – Romania. To carry out this study were used two methods, rely on breakeven point and leverage effect. The study of aggregate data reveal a low fluctuating trend of financial risk, which shows that by the end of 2008 the effects of the economic and financial crisis still have not felt as much as is shown starting with 2009. The conclusion that emerges in this study is that the world crisis produced major effects on construction sector, but they could be seen a little bit later before the onset of it. The effects are disastrous for economy (lack of work, offs of staff etc., which is why the government began to seek solutions to relaunch this sector.

  6. Return on Investment for Digital Behavioral Counseling in Patients With Prediabetes and Cardiovascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenqing Su, MS

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction We calculated the health and economic impacts of participation in a digital behavioral counseling service that is designed to promote a healthful diet and physical activity for cardiovascular disease prevention in adults with prediabetes and cardiovascular disease risk factors (Prevent, Omada Health, San Francisco, California. This program enhances the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s Diabetes Prevention Recognition Program. Participants completed a 16-week core program followed by an ongoing maintenance program. Methods Analysis was conducted for 2 populations meeting criteria for lifestyle intervention: 1 prediabetes (n = 1,663, and 2 high cardiovascular disease risk (n = 2,152. The Markov-based model simulated clinical and economic outcomes related to obesity and diabetes annually over 10 years for the 2 defined populations. Comparisons were made between participants and propensity-matched controls from the community. Results The return-on-investment break-even point was 3 years in both populations. Simulated return on investment for the population with prediabetes was $9 and $1,565 at years 3 and 5, respectively. Simulated return on investment for the population with cardiovascular disease risk was $96 and $1,512 at years 3 and 5, respectively. Results suggest that program participation reduces diabetes incidence by 30% to 33% and stroke by 11% to 16% over 5 years. Conclusion Digital Behavioral Counseling provides significant health benefits to patients with prediabetes and cardiovascular disease and a positive return on investment.

  7. Economic justification of nuclear plant life extension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electric utility industry generally uses the revenue requirements method to compare alternative investment and financing decisions. Westinghouse has developed a present-worth generating cost model to assess the potential economic values of PLEX projects undertaken for nuclear power plants. This model evaluates all significant benefits and costs based on actual data provided by the utility and measured in discounted revenue requirement differentials between PLEX and a reference plan (nuclear plant replacement with a nuclear- or coal-fired plant of the same capacity). The ratio of the benefits of a PLEX program to its costs are calculated. The paper shows that a program that extends the life of the plant by 20 yr has a break-even cost of approximately $1100 per kW(electric) if the outage time to make the replacements (time in excess of normal planned outages) is 24 months. The allowed expense decreases rapidly if the PLEX program requires longer outage times, but is substantial at even 36 or 48 months. The results benefit-to-cost ratio for PLEX is at least 4.0. The ratio would be much higher if additional benefits from availability, efficiency improvements, and reduction in O and M costs were included. The results of the PLEX economic evaluations performed by Westinghouse clearly indicate that nuclear plant life extension is the most economical alternative to building new generating capacities

  8. Assessing the Feasibility of Managed Aquifer Recharge for Irrigation under Uncertainty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Arshad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Additional storage of water is a potential option to meet future water supply goals. Financial comparisons are needed to improve decision making about whether to store water in surface reservoirs or below ground, using managed aquifer recharge (MAR. In some places, the results of cost-benefit analysis show that MAR is financially superior to surface storage. However, uncertainty often exists as to whether MAR systems will remain operationally effective and profitable in the future, because the profitability of MAR is dependent on many uncertain technical and financial variables. This paper introduces a method to assess the financial feasibility of MAR under uncertainty. We assess such uncertainties by identification of cross-over points in break-even analysis. Cross-over points are the thresholds where MAR and surface storage have equal financial returns. Such thresholds can be interpreted as a set of minimum requirements beyond which an investment in MAR may no longer be worthwhile. Checking that these thresholds are satisfied can improve confidence in decision making. Our suggested approach can also be used to identify areas that may not be suitable for MAR, thereby avoiding expensive hydrogeological and geophysical investigations.

  9. Production costs and operative margins in electric energy generation from biogas. Full-scale case studies in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, C; Schievano, A; D'Imporzano, G; Adani, F

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe the economic sustainability of three different biogas full scale plants, fed with different organic matrices: energy crops (EC), manure, agro-industrial (Plants B and C) and organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) (Plant A). The plants were observed for one year and total annual biomass feeding, biomass composition and biomass cost (€ Mg(-1)), initial investment cost and plant electric power production were registered. The unit costs of biogas and electric energy (€ Sm(-3)biogas, € kWh(-1)EE) were differently distributed, depending on the type of feed and plant. Plant A showed high management/maintenance cost for OFMSW treatment (0.155 € Sm(-3)biogas, 45% of total cost), Plant B suffered high cost for EC supply (0.130 € Sm(-3)biogas, 49% of total cost) and Plant C showed higher impact on the total costs because of the depreciation charge (0.146 € Sm(-3)biogas, 41% of total costs). The breakeven point for the tariff of electric energy, calculated for the different cases, resulted in the range 120-170 € MWh(-1)EE, depending on fed materials and plant scale. EC had great impact on biomass supply costs and should be reduced, in favor of organic waste and residues; plant scale still heavily influences the production costs. The EU States should drive incentives in dependence of these factors, to further develop this still promising sector.

  10. Highly spin-polarized deuterium atoms from the UV dissociation of Deuterium Iodide

    CERN Document Server

    Sofikitis, D; Koumarianou, G; Jiang, H; Bougas, L; Samartzis, P C; Andreev, A; Rakitzis, T P

    2016-01-01

    Hyperpolarisation of deuterium (D) and tritium (T) nuclear spins increases the D-T fusion reaction rate by ~50%, thus lowering the breakeven limit for the achievement of self-sustained fusion, and controls the emission direction of the reaction products for improved reactor efficiency. However, the important D-D polarization-dependent fusion reaction has not yet been measured, due to the low density of conventional polarized deuterium beams of ~10$^{12}$ cm$^{-3}$, limited by collisions on the ms-timescale of production. Here we demonstrate that hyperpolarised D atoms are produced by the 270 nm photodissociation of deuterium iodide (DI), yielding ~60% nuclear D polarization after ~1.6 ns, ~10$^6$ times faster than conventional methods, allowing collision-limited densities of ~10$^{18}$ cm$^{-3}$. Such ultrahigh densities of polarized D atoms open the way for the study of high-signal polarized D-D reactions. We discuss the possibility of the production of high-density pulsed polarized beams, and of polarized D...

  11. Economics of a 75-MW(e) hot-dry-rock geothermal power station based upon the design of the Phase II reservoir at Fenton Hill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, H.; Drake, R.; Tester, J.; Zyvoloski, G.

    1982-02-01

    Based upon EE-2 and EE-3 drilling costs and the proposed Fenton Hill Phase II reservoir conditions the break-even cost of producing electricity is 4.4 cents per kWh at the bus bar. This cost is based upon a 9-well, 12-reservoir hot dry rock (HDR) system producing 75 MW(e) for 10 yr with only 20% drawdown, and an assumed annual finance charge of 17%. Only one-third of the total, potentially available heat was utilized; potential reuse of wells as well as thermal stress cracking and augmentation of heat transfer was ignored. Nearly half the bus bar cost is due to drilling expenses, which prompted a review of past costs for wells GT-2, EE-1, EE-2, and EE-3. Based on comparable depth and completion times it is shown that significant cost improvements have been accomplished in the last seven years. Despite these improvements it was assumed for this study that no further advancements in drilling technology would occur, and that even in commercially mature HDR systems, drilling problems would continue nearly unabated.

  12. Methods of Optimisation of the Structure of the Dealing Bank with a Limited Base of Counter-Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novak Sergіy M.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article considers methods of assessment of optimal parameters of the dealing bank service with a limited base of counter-agents. The methods are based on the mathematical model of micro-structure of the inter-bank currency market. The key parameters of the infrastructure of the dealing service within the framework of the model are: number of authorised traders, contingent of counter-agents, quotation policy, main parameters of the currency market – spread and volatility of quotations and the resulting indicators of efficiency of the dealing service – profit and probability of breakeven operation. The methods allow identification of optimal parameters of the infrastructure of the dealing bank service based on indicators of dynamics of currency risks and market environment of the bank. On the basis of the developed mathematical model the article develops methods of planning calculations of parameters of the infrastructure of the dealing bank service, which are required for ensuring a necessary level of efficiency with set parameters of the currency market. Application of the said methods gives a possibility to assess indicators of operation of the bank’s front office depending on its scale.

  13. Energy implications of glass-container recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaines, L L; Mintz, M M [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1994-03-01

    This report addresses the question of whether glass-container recycling actually saves energy. Glass-container production in 1991 was 10{sup 7} tons, with cullet making up about 30% of the input to manufacture. Two-thirds of the cullet is postconsumer waste; the remainder is in-house scrap (rejects). Most of the glass recycled is made into new containers. Total primary energy consumption includes direct process-energy use by the industry (adjusted to account for the efficiency of fuel production) plus fuel and raw-material transportation and production energies; the grand total for 1991 is estimated to be about 168 {times} 10{sup 12} Btu. The total primary energy use decreases as the percent of glass recycled rises, but the maximum energy saved is only about 13%. If distance to the landfill is kept fixed and that to the recovery facility multiplied by about eight, to 100 mi, a break-even point is reached, and recycling saves no energy. Previous work has shown that to save energy when using glass bottles, reuse is the clear choice. Recycling of glass does not save much energy or valuable raw material and does not reduce air or water pollution significantly. The most important impacts are the small reduction of waste sent to the landfill and increased production rates at glass plants.

  14. Bury or burn North America MSW? LCAs provide answers for climate impacts & carbon neutral power potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Jeffrey

    2010-10-15

    This study uses life cycle assessment (LCA) to compare climate impacts of landfill (LF) and waste-to-energy (WTE) for disposal of municipal solid waste (MSW). To avoid possibly arbitrary assumptions about landfill gas (LFG) capture rates, the study develops a crossover function for LFG capture that indicates the capture rate at which LF and WTE breakeven for climate impacts. Above the crossover rate LF is better for the climate; below WTE is superior. Base case and sensitivity analyses show how this crossover rate is affected by waste composition, electricity conversion efficiency, heat capture, scrap metal recovery, greenhouse gas (GHG) intensity of displaced power, and LCA time horizon. In general, crossover rates are in the 50% to 70% range. Notable exceptions include much higher crossover when WTE has high heat recovery, and much lower crossover for low carbon displaced power. The study also compares GHG emissions for electricity generated by WTE, captured LF methane, coal and natural gas, and concludes that none are carbon neutral. Further, the study tentatively suggests that MSW is a particularly carbon intensive fuel due to GHGs avoidable when readily recyclable materials in MSW are used in manufacturing new products rather than used to generate electricity. PMID:20866062

  15. Low-temperature waste-heat recovery in the food and paper industries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foell, W.K.; Lund, D.; Mitchell, J.W.; Ray, D.; Stevenson, R.; TenWolde, A.

    1980-11-01

    The potential of low-temperature waste-heat recovery technology is examined. An examination of barriers to impede waste-heat recovery is made and research programs are identified. Extensive information and data are presented in the following chapters: Waste Heat Recovery in the Wisconsin Food Industry; Waste Heat Recovery in the Wisconsin Pulp and Paper Industry; Industries' Economic Analysis of Energy Conservation Projects; Industrial Waste Heat Recovery (selection of heat-recovery heat exchangers for industrial applications, simplified procedure for selection of heat recovery heat exchangers for industrial applications, selection of heat pumps for industrial applications); Institutional Aspects of Industrial Energy Conservation (economic motivation for energy conservation and the industrial response, intrafirm idea channels and their sources, evaluation and approval of plant improvement projects, reported barriers to adopting waste heat recovery projects and recommendations for government involvement, and the final chapter is a summary with major conclusions given. Additional information is given in two appendices on the potential waste heat recovery in a cheese plant (calculation) and conditions for optimum exchanger size and break-even fuel cost. (MCW)

  16. West European magnetic confinement fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents a technical assessment and review of the West European program in magnetic confinement fusion by a panel of US scientists and engineers active in fusion research. Findings are based on the scientific and technical literature, on laboratory reports and preprints, and on the personal experiences and collaborations of the panel members. Concerned primarily with developments during the past 10 years, from 1979 to 1989, the report assesses West European fusion research in seven technical areas: tokamak experiments; magnetic confinement technology and engineering; fusion nuclear technology; alternate concepts; theory; fusion computations; and program organization. The main conclusion emerging from the analysis is that West European fusion research has attained a position of leadership in the international fusion program. This distinction reflects in large measure the remarkable achievements of the Joint European Torus (JET). However, West European fusion prominence extends beyond tokamak experimental physics: the program has demonstrated a breadth of skill in fusion science and technology that is not excelled in the international effort. It is expected that the West European primacy in central areas of confinement physics will be maintained or even increased during the early 1990s. The program's maturity and commitment kindle expectations of dramatic West European advances toward the fusion energy goal. For example, achievement of fusion breakeven is expected first in JET, before 1995

  17. Profitability analysis of beef cattle under extensive pasture in low-technology production system in the south of Minas Gerais State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aurélio Lopes

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to study the profitability of the beef cattle raising business of production systems with a complete production cycle (breeding, rearing and fattening under grazing regime of low technology in the region of Carrancas, south of the State of Minas Gerais. It was intended, to identify the components which exercised the greatest influence upon the final costs of the business, identify the break-even point and study the feasibility of the partnership in which the cattle raiser does posses any expenditure for pay of the worker who receives for the work of management of the animals in area to develop that livestock raising business. The data used was collected from the period of May of 2008 to September of 2009 (16 months. The profitability analysis was conducted by the software Custo Bovino Corte® (Beef Cattle Cost, taking into account the gross margin, net margin and the result (profit or loss as indicators of economic efficiency. The positive gross and net margins points out that the beef cattle business of complete cycle, under extensive grazing regime, developed in the studied production system, has conditions to survive on the short and long run; but on the long run, the stockman is decapitalizing, once the result was negative. The component items of the total cost which had most influence upon the costs of the business were, in a decreasing order: purchase of the animals, remuneration of the land, depreciation, remuneration on the invested capital, feeding and health.

  18. The effect of retrofitting Portuguese fossil fuel power plants with CCS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► A map of mainland Portugal with potential CO2 source-sink matching was created. ► Four existing Portuguese power plants were simulated with and without CCS. ► Effect of CCS retrofit on performance and costs at each power plant was studied. ► The incremental COE was estimated at around 46 $/MW h for NGCC plants. ► The incremental COE was estimated at around 61 $/MW h for PC plants. -- Abstract: This work assesses the retrofit potential of existing Portuguese fossil fuel power plants with post-combustion CO2 capture and storage (CCS) technology. The Integrated Environmental Control Model (IECM) was used to provide a systematic techno-economic analysis of the cost of emission control equipment, the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions, and other key parameters which may change when CCS is implemented at a fossil fuel power plant. The results indicate that CCS requires a large capital investment and significantly increases the levelized cost of electricity. However, the economic viability of CCS increases with higher CO2 prices. The breakeven CO2 price for plants with and without CCS was estimated at $85–$140/t of CO2 depending on the technical parameters of the individual plants.

  19. TRANSFORMATION OF THE DIRECT COSTING METHODOLOGY WITHIN THE KAIZEN’S CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moiseenko A. S.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the comparative analysis of the total cost accounting system and direct costing. There is a need of using the cash method in management accounting, its use in the calculation of one of the most important economic categories - marginal income. Correspondences of accounts reflecting the formation of marginal income by cash method and accrual method have been developed. Changes of the Regulations of Chart of Accounts using (especially accounts: 92 "Marginal profit (loss" and 99 "Gains and losses" are given. There are the cash method effect to the break-even analysis formulas and decision-making rules in the short term. The developed methods are tested on digital material of Ltd. "The first construction company" in Krasnodar and Ltd. "Signal" and "Promzhilstroy" in Timashevsk. It is concluded that the application of the cash method allows obtaining more figures that are reliable. Cash method contributes to make reasonable management decisions. The increasing complexity of economic reality makes very different demands on the organization management and its information support. It is necessary to review the terminology used, to assess its compliance with the spectrum of tasks, and adapt categorical apparatus to the needs of modern management systems

  20. Cost structure and profitability of Assaf dairy sheep farms in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milán, M J; Frendi, F; González-González, R; Caja, G

    2014-01-01

    Twenty dairy sheep farms of Assaf breed, located in the Spanish autonomous community of Castilla y León and included in a group receiving technical support, were used to study their production cost structure and to assess their economic profitability during 2009. On average, farms had 89.2±38.0 ha (own, 38%), 592±63 ewes, yielded 185.9±21.1×10(3) L/yr (i.e., 316±15 L/ewe), and were attended by 2.3±0.2 annual working units (family, 72%). Total annual income was €194.4±23.0×10(3)/yr (€1.0=$1.3) from milk (78.6%), lamb (13.2%), culled ewes (0.5%), and other sales (0.8%, wool and manure), and completed with the European Union sheep subsidy (6.9%). Total costs were €185.9±19.0×10(3)/yr to attend to feeding (61.6%), labor (18.2%), equipment maintenance and depreciation (7.6%), finances (3.0%), animal health (2.5%), energy, water and milking supplies (2.2%), milk recording (0.5%), and other costs (4.4%; assurances, shearing, association fees, and so on). Mean dairy sheep farm profit was €8.5±5.8×10(3)/yr (€7.4±8.3/ewe) on average, and varied between -€40.6 and €81.1/ewe among farms. Only 60% of farms were able to pay all costs, the rest had negative balances. Nevertheless, net margin was €31.0±6.5×10(3)/yr on average, varying between €0.6 and €108.4×10(3)/yr among farms. In this case, without including the opportunity costs, all farms had positive balances. Total annual cost (TAC; €/ewe) and total annual income (TAI; €/ewe) depended on milk yield (MY; L/ewe) and were TAC=161.6 + 0.502 MY (R(2)=0.50), and TAI=78.13 + 0.790 MY (R(2)=0.88), respectively, with the break-even point being 291 L/ewe. Conversely, farm TAC (€/yr) and farm TAI (€/yr) were also predicted as a function of the number of ewes (NOE) per flock, as TAC=18,401 + 282.8 NOE (R(2)=0.89) and TAI=330.9 NOE (R(2)=0.98), with the break-even point being 383 ewes/flock. Finally, according to the increasing trend expected for agricultural commodity prices, it was

  1. Efeito do tipo de sistema de criação nos resultados econômicos de sistemas de produção de leite na região de Lavras (MG Effect of the type of breeding system on the economical results of milk production systems in Lavras region (MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aurélio Lopes

    2004-10-01

    milk. In addition, the identification of the components that most influenced the final costs of the business and of the breakeven point were intended. The data utilized came from 16 production systems allocated in one of three types of breeding systems (grazing regimen, semi-feedlot and feedlot situated in Lavras region, being monthly collected from January 2002 to June 2003. The electronic data processing as well as the profitability analysis were accomplished by the "Custo Bovino Leite" software. The analyses of costs and profitability were performed by taking into consideration gross margin, net margin and the result (profit or loss as indicators of economical efficiency. The type of breeding system influenced the "weights'' of the component items of the effective operational cost of dairy business, these being different in each of the three levels studied. Managerial and technological efforts should be made in order to increase the daily average yield, which is very far from the breakeven point. In the economical analysis, for presenting positive net margin and negative result, in the three types of breeding systems, the conclusion is that milk farmers have conditions to produce in the middle-term. In the long-term, however, milk farmers have been losing money.

  2. Waiting for the Next Train? An Assessment of the Emerging Canadian LNG Industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    its proposed LNG income tax act to enhance competitiveness and financial viability. On the federal side, applications to export LNG are granted by the National Energy Board without restrictions and the environmental assessment process was simplified in 2012. In addition, First Nations are cooperative overall and 8 of them (out of 20 impacted by LNG projects) have already signed revenue-sharing agreements with proponents. However, the development of projects has been slowed by uncertainties regarding the economics of the projects and difficulties in signing sales agreements. For a typical BC LNG plant, the break-even Asian sale price has been estimated at $11.8/mmbtu by CEDIGAZ in the base case scenario, which corresponds to a JCC price of $81/bbl for oil-indexed contracts with a 14.5% oil slope. The low case break-even price is $8.6/mmbtu while the high case price is $16.1/mmbtu. Considering oil long term price trend, Canadian projects should be profitable but will probably remain less competitive than US-produced LNG indexed to the Henry Hub price. Based on six objective criteria, CEDIGAZ has identified a group of four front-runner projects which, as of February 2015, stand the best chances to succeed: Pacific Northwest LNG, Goldboro LNG, LNG Canada and Douglas Channel LNG. The second group is composed of seven projects, dubbed challengers which are less advanced, but still have some chances to succeed. The third and last group contains the projects with the least chance of success as things currently stand

  3. EFEITO DO TIPO DE SISTEMA DE CRIAÇÃO NOS RESULTADOS ECONÔMICOS DE SISTEMAS DE PRODUÇÃO DE LEITE NA REGIÃO DE LAVRAS (MG NOS ANOS 2004 E 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Silva Dias

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The profitability of the milk activity was studied in the region of Lavras, MG by analyzing the influence of the types of breeding system upon the cost production of milk. It was identified the components with major influence on the final cost of the activity and calculated the breakeven point. Monthly data from 17 production systems representing the grazing regimen, semi-feedlot and feedlot systems were used for the period of January 2004 to December 2005. It was considered the gross margin, the net (profit or loss as indicators of economical efficiency. The type of breeding system influenced the “weights’’ of the component items of the effective operational cost ofdairy business, these being different in each of the three levels studied. In the economical analysis, the feedlot and semi-feedlot presented showing that dairy is profitable in the long-term and that farmers are positive net margin. In the grazing regimen, the conclusion is that milk farmers have conditions to produce in the middle-term. in the long-term; however, milk farmers have been losing money.
    KEY-WORDS: Breakeven point, breeding system, dairy cattle, production cost, profitability analysis.

    Estudou-se a rentabilidade da atividade leiteira na região de Lavras/MG, analisando a influência do tipo de sistema de criação sobre o custo de produção do leite. Foram identificados os componentes com maior influência sobre os custos finais da atividade e calculado o ponto de equilíbrio. os dados, provenientes de dezessete sistemas de produção, representando os sistemas de criação em regime de pastejo, semiconfinado e confinado, foram coletados mensalmente, entre janeiro de 2004 e dezembro de 2005. Consideraramse a margem bruta, a margem líquida e o resultado (lucro ou prejuízo como indicadores de eficiência econômica. O tipo do sistema de criação influenciou o custo total de produção do leite e, portanto, a lucratividade e rentabilidade, sendo os

  4. WABASH RIVER IMPPCCT, INTEGRATED METHANOL AND POWER PRODUCTION FROM CLEAN COAL TECHNOLOGIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doug Strickland

    2001-09-28

    demonstration facility at the existing Wabash River Energy Ltd., plant in West Terre Haute, Indiana. During the reporting period work was furthered to support the development of capital and operating cost estimates associated with the installation of liquid or gas phase methanol synthesis technology in a Commercial Embodiment Plant (CEP) utilizing the six cases previously defined. In addition, continued development of the plant economic model was accomplished by providing combined cycle performance data. Performance and emission estimates for gas turbine combined cycles was based on revised methanol purge gas information. The economic model was used to evaluate project returns with various market conditions and plant configurations and was refined to correct earlier flaws. Updated power price projections were obtained and incorporated in the model. Sensitivity studies show that break-even methanol prices which provide a 12% return are 47-54 cents/gallon for plant scenarios using $1.25/MM Btu coal, and about 40 cents/gallon for most of the scenarios with $0.50/MM Btu petroleum coke as the fuel source. One exception is a high power price and production case which could be economically attractive at 30 cents/gallon methanol. This case was explored in more detail, but includes power costs predicated on natural gas prices at the 95th percentile of expected price distributions. In this case, the breakeven methanol price is highly sensitive to the required project return rate, payback period, and plant on-line time. These sensitivities result mainly from the high capital investment required for the CEP facility ({approx}$500MM for a single train IGCC-methanol synthesis plant). Finally, during the reporting period the Defense Contractor Audit Agency successfully executed an accounting audit of Global Energy Inc. for data accumulated over the first year of the IMPPCCT project under the Cooperative Agreement.

  5. Análise da sensibilidade da metodologia dos centros de custos mediante a introdução de tecnologias em um sistema de produção de cria Analysis of the methodology sensibility of cost centers facing the introduction of technologies in a cow-calf production system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Pedroso Oaigen

    2009-06-01

    , improved pasture for primiparous cows and half lot of secundiparous cows (IPS and protein supplementation for replacement heifers (PSS. All technologies were used to increase the pregnancy rate in this system (TPS. Data on biological performance was obtained from a bibliographic review on production indicators and cost and economic values were obtained from market. The inputs of the model were: herd structure, production costs and production technology. The outputs of the model were: operational cost (OC; expenditure cost (EC; production costs per center (PCC; unitary cost per calf (UCC; cost per weaned kilo (WC/kg; annual cost per cow (ACC; financial break-even (FBE, operational margin (OM, pregnancy rate (PT, calf crop (CC, productivity/cow (P/C, number of weaned calves (NWC, calves break-even (CBE and total production in kilos (TP/kg. The use of the cost center methodology was sensitive in identifying variations in the technical economic indicators and in the costs of each productive center. The introduction of EWS, IPS and PSS showed in the increase of technical indicators and in the operational margin, presented a straight relation with the changing in the cost centers, proving the sensibility of the costs methodology in relation to the impact in TPS.

  6. Can the US shale revolution be duplicated in Europe?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Over the past decade, the rapid increase in shale gas and shale oil production in the United States has profoundly changed energy markets in North America, and has led to a significant decrease in American natural gas prices. The possible existence of large shale deposits in Europe, mainly in France, Poland and the United Kingdom, has fostered speculation on whether the 'shale revolution', and its accompanying macro-economic impacts, could be duplicated in Europe. However, a number of uncertainties, notably geological, technological and regulatory, make this possibility unclear. We present a techno-economic model, SHERPA (Shale Exploitation and Recovery Projection and Analysis), to analyze the main determinants of the profitability of shale wells and plays. We calibrate our model using production data from the leading American shale plays. We use SHERPA to estimate three shale gas production scenarios exploring different sets of geological and technical hypotheses for the largest potential holder of shale gas deposits in Europe, France. Even considering that the geology of the potential French shale deposits is favorable to commercial extraction, we find that under assumptions calibrated on U.S. production data, natural gas could be produced at a high breakeven price of $8.6 per MMBtu, and over a 45 year time-frame have a net present value of $19.6 billion - less than 1% of 2012 French GDP. However, the specificities of the European context, notably high deposit depth and stricter environmental regulations, could increase drilling costs and further decrease this low profitability. We find that a 40% premium over American drilling costs would make shale gas extraction uneconomical. Absent extreme well productivity, it appears very difficult for shale gas extraction to have an impact on European energy markets comparable to the American shale revolution. (author)

  7. Extending the lifetime of a quantum bit with error correction in superconducting circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofek, Nissim; Petrenko, Andrei; Heeres, Reinier; Reinhold, Philip; Leghtas, Zaki; Vlastakis, Brian; Liu, Yehan; Frunzio, Luigi; Girvin, S. M.; Jiang, L.; Mirrahimi, Mazyar; Devoret, M. H.; Schoelkopf, R. J.

    2016-08-01

    Quantum error correction (QEC) can overcome the errors experienced by qubits and is therefore an essential component of a future quantum computer. To implement QEC, a qubit is redundantly encoded in a higher-dimensional space using quantum states with carefully tailored symmetry properties. Projective measurements of these parity-type observables provide error syndrome information, with which errors can be corrected via simple operations. The ‘break-even’ point of QEC—at which the lifetime of a qubit exceeds the lifetime of the constituents of the system—has so far remained out of reach. Although previous works have demonstrated elements of QEC, they primarily illustrate the signatures or scaling properties of QEC codes rather than test the capacity of the system to preserve a qubit over time. Here we demonstrate a QEC system that reaches the break-even point by suppressing the natural errors due to energy loss for a qubit logically encoded in superpositions of Schrödinger-cat states of a superconducting resonator. We implement a full QEC protocol by using real-time feedback to encode, monitor naturally occurring errors, decode and correct. As measured by full process tomography, without any post-selection, the corrected qubit lifetime is 320 microseconds, which is longer than the lifetime of any of the parts of the system: 20 times longer than the lifetime of the transmon, about 2.2 times longer than the lifetime of an uncorrected logical encoding and about 1.1 longer than the lifetime of the best physical qubit (the |0>f and |1>f Fock states of the resonator). Our results illustrate the benefit of using hardware-efficient qubit encodings rather than traditional QEC schemes. Furthermore, they advance the field of experimental error correction from confirming basic concepts to exploring the metrics that drive system performance and the challenges in realizing a fault-tolerant system.

  8. Uncertainty, irreversibility, and investment in second-generation biofuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Tanner Joseph

    The present study formalizes and quantifies the importance of uncertainty for investment in a corn-stover based cellulosic biofuel plant. Using a real options model we recover prices of gasoline that would trigger entry into the market and calculate the portion of that entry trigger price required to cover cost and the portion that corresponds to risk premium. We then discuss the effect of managerial flexibility on the entry risk premium and the prices of gasoline that would trigger mothballing, reactivation, and exit. Results show that the risk premium required by plants to enter the second-generation biofuel market is likely to be substantial. The analysis also reveals that a break-even approach (which ignores the portion of entry price composed of risk premium), and the traditional Marshallian approach (which ignores the portion of entry price composed of both the risk premium and the drift rate), would significantly underestimate the gasoline entry trigger price and the magnitude of that underestimation increases as both volatility and mean of gasoline prices increase. Results also uncover a great deal of hysteresis (i.e. a range of gasoline prices for which there is neither entry nor exit in the market) in entry/exit behavior by plants. Hysteresis increases as gasoline prices become more volatile. Hysteresis suggests that, at the industry level, positive (negative) demand shocks will have a significant impact on prices (production) and a limited impact on production (prices). In combination all of these results suggest that policies supporting second generation biofuels may have fallen short of their targets because of their failure to alleviate uncertainty.

  9. Life cycle assessment of central softening of very hard drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godskesen, B; Hauschild, M; Rygaard, M; Zambrano, K; Albrechtsen, H-J

    2012-08-30

    Many consumers prefer softened water due to convenience issues such as avoidance of removing limescale deposits from household appliances and surfaces, and to reduce consumption of cleaning agents and laundry detergents leading to lower household expenses. Even though central softening of drinking water entailed an increased use of energy, sand and chemicals at the waterworks, the distributed and softened drinking water supported a decrease in consumption of energy and chemical agents in the households along with a prolonged service life of household appliances which heat water. This study used Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) to quantify the environmental impacts of central softening of drinking water considering both the negative effects at the waterworks and the positive effects imposed by the changed water quality in the households. The LCA modeling considered central softening of drinking water from the initial hardness of the region of study (Copenhagen, Denmark) which is 362 mg/L as CaCO(3) to a final hardness as CaCO(3) of 254 (a softening depth of 108) mg/L or 145 (a softening depth of 217) mg/L. Our study showed that the consumer preference can be met together with reducing the impact on the environment and the resource consumption. Environmental impacts decreased by up to 3 mPET (milli Personal Equivalent Targeted) and the break-even point from where central softening becomes environmentally beneficial was reached at a softening depth of only 22 mg/L as CaCO(3). Both energy-related and chemically related environmental impacts were reduced as well as the consumption of resources. Based on scarcity criteria, nickel was identified as the most problematic non-renewable resource in the system, and savings of up to 8 mPR (milli Person Reserve) were found.

  10. On the role of a tape's aspect ratio in the hysteresis losses of round superconducting cables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stenvall, A [Electromagnetics, Tampere University of Technology, PO Box 692, FIN-33101 Tampere (Finland); Grilli, F; Vojenciak, M, E-mail: antti.stenvall@tut.fi [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Technical Physics, Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, D-76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2011-08-15

    Individual superconductors are made small to allow flexible manufacturing and low AC losses. When high currents are needed, several conductors are cabled together. These cables can be used to wind magnets or to transmit huge currents in electric power lines with very low losses. In DC use, the superconductor in these cables is lossless, but when the current or external magnetic field varies, AC losses arise in the cables. If a round cable is made of several flat tapes, the aspect ratio of the tape ({alpha} = width/thickness) plays an important role in the AC losses. Tapes with high {alpha} should be put as close to each other as possible in order to form a superconducting cylinder to reduce the hysteresis losses. However, if {alpha} is around 10, it is no longer evident what kind of configuration results in the lowest losses. When {alpha} approaches 1, the minimum losses are reached when the tapes do not interact at all. YBCO coated conductors have high {alpha}, but Bi-based conductors and MgB{sub 2} should not be forgotten. These can offer completely different values of {alpha} and thus show different behaviours under AC conditions. In this paper we study how the hysteresis losses of round cables are influenced by the tapes' aspect ratios. We investigate whether it is beneficial to pack the conductors tightly together or to let them operate individually, or whether an intermediate state is preferred. According to the results, there is a break-even {alpha} where the tight packing surpasses the individual operation, but the intermediate positioning can result in even lower losses in some cases.

  11. Building an imaging center: laying the foundation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foreman, M Shane; Geise, Jon D; Reed, Mary A

    2005-01-01

    In Spring 2003, Central Louisiana Imaging, Inc. (CLII), an 11-member radiology group, decided to create a properly configured freestanding imaging center. Before moving forward with the project, CLII conducted extensive market research and learned the following: CLII's ability to draw patients from a broad geography (central Louisiana) would work in its favor While the defined market was shrinking slightly and made up of middle-income households, the population was fairly well insured and aging at a rate comparable to the nation. Given an aging population and advances in technology, market demand for imaging was projected to grow despite the shrinking population. There were opportunities to differentiate on quality technology, service offering, and customer service; the sophistication and positioning of competitors is more important than the sheer number of competitors. CLII's relationship with key referring physicians was likely portable and would translate into volume within the new center. The group measured each potential service or modality against 5 evaluation criteria to determine whether a market opportunity existed: demographic fit, projected market demand, competitive positioning, "anchor service," and synergy with CLII's strategy. Once the market opportunity was confirmed and the service offering was set, CLII completed a 5-year proforma in order to project cash flows, capital costs, and the anticipated return on investment. CLII opened the imaging center in September 2004. Ten months into opeations, the center was a measurable success. The levels, and break-even by month 4, volumes are currently at year 2 levels, and the center recently added nuclear medicine and its second magnetic resonance imaging system-11 months ahead of schedule. PMID:16187609

  12. Four-color laser irradiation system for laser-plasma interaction experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennington, D.M.; Henesian, M.A.; Wilcox, R.B. [and others

    1996-06-01

    Since 1986, optical smoothing of the laser irradiance on targets for Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) has gained increasing attention. Optical smoothing can significantly reduce wavefront aberrations that produce nonuniformities in the energy distribution of the focal spot. Hot spots in the laser irradiance can induce local self focusing of the light, producing filamentation of the plasma. Filamentation can have detrimental consequences on the hydrodynamics of an ICF plasma, and can affect the growth of parametric instabilities, as well as add to the complexity of the study of such instabilities as stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). As experiments approach and exceed breakeven (i.e., where driver energy = fusion yield), the likelihood of significant excitation of these processes increases. As a result, the authors are including a scheme for implementing optical-beam smoothing for target experiments in the baseline design for the proposed next-generation ICF facility--the National Ignition Facility (NIF). To verify the efficacy of this design for the suppression of parametric instabilites in NIF-like indirect-drive targets, the authors successfully modified a Nova beamline to simulate the proposed NIF conditions. In this article, they discuss the laser science associated with a four-color target campaign on Nova to test the effect of f-number (ratio of focal length to beam diameter) and temporal smoothing on the scaling of SBS with a four-segment interaction beam using NIF-like parameters. The results of the target series associated with the four-color configuration are discussed elsewhere.

  13. Activity-based cost analysis of hepatic tumor ablation using CT-guided high-dose rate brachytherapy or CT-guided radiofrequency ablation in hepatocellular carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To analyse and compare the costs of hepatic tumor ablation with computed tomography (CT)-guided high-dose rate brachytherapy (CT-HDRBT) and CT-guided radiofrequency ablation (CT-RFA) as two alternative minimally invasive treatment options of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). An activity based process model was created determining working steps and required staff of CT-RFA and CT-HDRBT. Prorated costs of equipment use (purchase, depreciation, and maintenance), costs of staff, and expenditure for disposables were identified in a sample of 20 patients (10 treated by CT-RFA and 10 by CT-HDRBT) and compared. A sensitivity and break even analysis was performed to analyse the dependence of costs on the number of patients treated annually with both methods. Costs of CT-RFA were nearly stable with mean overall costs of approximately 1909 €, 1847 €, 1816 € and 1801 € per patient when treating 25, 50, 100 or 200 patients annually, as the main factor influencing the costs of this procedure was the single-use RFA probe. Mean costs of CT-HDRBT decreased significantly per patient ablation with a rising number of patients treated annually, with prorated costs of 3442 €, 1962 €, 1222 € and 852 € when treating 25, 50, 100 or 200 patients, due to low costs of single-use disposables compared to high annual fix-costs which proportionally decreased per patient with a higher number of patients treated annually. A break-even between both methods was reached when treating at least 55 patients annually. Although CT-HDRBT is a more complex procedure with more staff involved, it can be performed at lower costs per patient from the perspective of the medical provider when treating more than 55 patients compared to CT-RFA, mainly due to lower costs for disposables and a decreasing percentage of fixed costs with an increasing number of treatments

  14. The feasibility of applying geopressured-geothermal resources to direct uses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunis, B.C.; Negus-de Wys, J.; Plum, M.M. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Lienau, P.J. (Oregon Inst. of Tech., Klamath Falls, OR (United States). Geo-Heat Center); Spencer, F.J. (International Management Services (United States)); Nitschke, G.F. (Nitschke (George F.) (United States))

    1991-09-01

    This study concludes that direct use technologies, especially desalinated water production, can contribute significantly to the value added process and the overall economic viability in developing a geopressured resource. Although agriculture and aquaculture applications are marginal projects when they are the only use of a geopressured well, the small margin of profitability can contribute to improving the overall economics of the direct use development. The added complexity from a technical and management aspect may add to the overall risk and unpredictability of the project. Six combination of direct uses received economic evaluation that resulted in 15% discounted payback periods ranging from 4 to over 10 years. Many other combinations are possible depending on the resource and market variables. Selection of appropriate technologies and sizes of applications will be established by the developer that engages in geopressured resource utilization. Currently, many areas of the country where geopressured resources are located also have surplus electrical capacity and generation, thus power utilities have been selling power for less than 2 cents per kWH, well below a reasonable breakeven value for geopressured produced electricity. However, when the energy demand of the integrated geopressured facility is large enough to install power generation equipment, operating expenses can be reduced by not paying the 10 to 12 cents per kWH utility rate. The study includes an analysis of a geothermal turbine unit installed with a desalination and an agriculture/aquaculture facility, taking advantage of the cascading energy values. Results suggest that this scenario becomes profitable only where the market price for electricity exceeds five cents per kWH.

  15. An economic assessment of low carbon vehicles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Summerton, P. [Cambridge Econometrics CE, Cambridge (United Kingdom); Harrison, P. [European Climate Foundation ECF, Brussels (Belgium)] (eds.)

    2013-03-15

    The study aimed to analyse the economic impacts of decarbonizing light duty vehicles. As part of the study, the impacts of the European Commissions proposed 2020 CO2 regulation for cars and vans have been assessed. The analysis showed that a shift to low-carbon vehicles would increase spending on vehicle technology, therefore generating positive direct employment impacts, but potentially adding 1,000-1,100 euro to the capital cost of the average new car in 2020. However, these additional technology costs would be offset by fuel savings of around 400 euro per year, indicating an effective break-even point for drivers of approximately three years. At the EU level, the cost of running and maintaining the European car fleet would become 33-35 billion euro lower each year than in a 'do nothing scenario' by 2030, leading to positive economic impacts including indirect employment gains. Data on the cost of low carbon vehicle technologies has largely been sourced from the auto industry itself, with the study supported by a core working group including Nissan, GE, the European Association of Automotive Suppliers (CLEPA), and the European Storage Battery Manufacturers Association (Eurobat). Fuel price projections for the study were based on the IEA's World Energy Outlook, while technical modelling was carried out using the transport policy scoping tool SULTAN (developed by Ricardo-AEA for the European Commission) and the Road Vehicle Cost and Efficiency Calculation Framework, also developed by Ricardo-AEA. Macro-economic modelling was done using the E3ME model, which has previously been used for several European Commission and EU government impact assessments. This report focuses on efficient use of fossil fuels in internal combustion- and hybrid electric vehicles. It will be followed by a second report, which will focus on further reducing the use of fossil fuels by also substituting them with domestically produced energy carriers, such as electricity and

  16. Optimal planning of co-firing alternative fuels with coal in a power plant by grey nonlinear mixed integer programming model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ko, Andi Setiady; Chang, Ni-Bin

    2008-07-01

    Energy supply and use is of fundamental importance to society. Although the interactions between energy and environment were originally local in character, they have now widened to cover regional and global issues, such as acid rain and the greenhouse effect. It is for this reason that there is a need for covering the direct and indirect economic and environmental impacts of energy acquisition, transport, production and use. In this paper, particular attention is directed to ways of resolving conflict between economic and environmental goals by encouraging a power plant to consider co-firing biomass and refuse-derived fuel (RDF) with coal simultaneously. It aims at reducing the emission level of sulfur dioxide (SO(2)) in an uncertain environment, using the power plant in Michigan City, Indiana as an example. To assess the uncertainty by a comparative way both deterministic and grey nonlinear mixed integer programming (MIP) models were developed to minimize the net operating cost with respect to possible fuel combinations. It aims at generating the optimal portfolio of alternative fuels while maintaining the same electricity generation simultaneously. To ease the solution procedure stepwise relaxation algorithm was developed for solving the grey nonlinear MIP model. Breakeven alternative fuel value can be identified in the post-optimization stage for decision-making. Research findings show that the inclusion of RDF does not exhibit comparative advantage in terms of the net cost, albeit relatively lower air pollution impact. Yet it can be sustained by a charge system, subsidy program, or emission credit as the price of coal increases over time. PMID:17395362

  17. Selection and evaluation of nuclear fuel cycle strategies. Technical and economic aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The original choices of thermal reactors and fuel cycles were largely determined by specific national circumstances and by experience and facilities acquired from defence-related programmes. These led to the development of LWRs in the USA and to the natural uranium/gas/graphite system in the United Kingdom and France, while Canada selected the HWR. Most countries with nuclear power programmes saw the plutonium-fuelled fast reactor, with its breeding potential, as the means to ensure that exhaustion of economic uranium resources would not prematurely curtail the contribution of nuclear power to world energy supplies. Fuel reprocessing was essential to this fuel cycle or indeed to other recycling options to make better use of the available uranium; it was also favoured for waste management reasons. Early expectations of nuclear power growth suggested that a transition from thermal to fast reactors would occur during the present century but the urgency has been reduced by world economic recession, slower increases in nuclear capacity and the continued availability of supplies of low-priced uranium. Reprocessing costs have risen and economics of scale favour large plants, which are therefore most likely to be built in countries with substantial thermal reactor capacities; these countries will be able to provide reprocessing services to others. As the ultimate strategic need for fast reactors has not been reduced by this slowdown it is important to continue the development and demonstration of fast-reactor technology and the associated fuel cycles. Uncertainties in future fuel prices mean that it could be advantageous to introduce fast reactors as soon as they become an economic, although not necessarily the most economic, choice. Notably, fast reactors may be installed initially when and where they become economic compared to coal-fired generation, in order to lay the foundation for more rapid expansion when economic break-even with thermal reactors occurs. (author)

  18. On the electrification of road transport - Learning rates and price forecasts for hybrid-electric and battery-electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hybrid-electric vehicles (HEVs) and battery-electric vehicles (BEVs) are currently more expensive than conventional passenger cars but may become cheaper due to technological learning. Here, we obtain insight into the prospects of future price decline by establishing ex-post learning rates for HEVs and ex-ante price forecasts for HEVs and BEVs. Since 1997, HEVs have shown a robust decline in their price and price differential at learning rates of 7±2% and 23±5%, respectively. By 2010, HEVs were only 31±22 €2010 kW−1 more expensive than conventional cars. Mass-produced BEVs are currently introduced into the market at prices of 479±171 €2010 kW−1, which is 285±213 €2010 kW−1 and 316±209 €2010 kW−1 more expensive than HEVs and conventional cars. Our forecast suggests that price breakeven with these vehicles may only be achieved by 2026 and 2032, when 50 and 80 million BEVs, respectively, would have been produced worldwide. We estimate that BEVs may require until then global learning investments of 100–150 billion € which is less than the global subsidies for fossil fuel consumption paid in 2009. These findings suggest that HEVs, including plug-in HEVs, could become the dominant vehicle technology in the next two decades, while BEVs may require long-term policy support. - Highlights: ► Learning rates for hybrid-electric and battery-electric vehicles. ► Prices and price differentials of hybrid-electric vehicles show a robust decline. ► Battery-electric vehicles may require policy support for decades.

  19. A comparison of circulating fluidised bed combustion and gasification power plant technologies for processing mixtures of coal, biomass and plastic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McIlveen-Wright, D.R.; Huang, Y.; McMullan, J.T. [NICERT, University of Ulster at Jordanstown, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Pinto, F.; Franco, C.; Gulyurtlu, I. [INETI-DEECA, Estrada do Paco do Lumiar, 22, 1649-038 Lisboa (Portugal); Armesto, L.; Cabanillas, A. [CIEMAT, Avda Complutense, 22, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Caballero, M.A.; Aznar, M.P. [Chemical and Environmental Engineering Department, Centro Politecnico Superior, Maria de Luna, University of Saragossa, 50018 Saragossa (Spain)

    2006-09-15

    Environmental regulations concerning emission limitations from the use of fossil fuels in large combustion plants have stimulated interest in biomass for electricity generation. The main objective of the present study was to examine the technical and economic viability of using combustion and gasification of coal mixed with biomass and plastic wastes, with the aim of developing an environmentally acceptable process to decrease their amounts in the waste stream through energy recovery. Mixtures of a high ash coal with biomass and/or plastic using fluidised bed technologies (combustion and gasification) were considered. Experiments were carried out in laboratory and pilot plant fluidised bed systems on the combustion and air/catalyst and air/steam gasification of these feedstocks and the data obtained were used in the techno-economic analyses. The experimental results were used in simulations of medium to large-scale circulating fluidised bed (CFB) power generation plants. Techno-economic analysis of the modelled CFB combustion systems showed efficiencies of around 40.5% (and around 46.5% for the modelled CFB gasification systems) when fuelled solely by coal, which were only minimally affected by co-firing with up to 20% biomass and/or wastes. Specific investments were found to be around $2150/kWe to $2400/kWe ($1350/kWe to $1450/kWe) and break-even electricity selling prices to be around $68/MWh to $78/MWh ($49/MWh to $54/MWh). Their emissions were found to be within the emission limit values of the large combustion plant directive. Fluidised bed technologies were found to be very suitable for co-firing coal and biomass and/or plastic waste and to offer good options for the replacement of obsolete or polluting power plants. (author)

  20. Doctors and nurses benefit from interprofessional online education in dermatology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flytkjær Vibeke

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Benefits of online learning in the health sector have been demonstrated in previous studies. We examined the potential benefits of a joint web-based curriculum on atopic eczema for health personnel. Methods Enrolled doctors and nurses had access to the curriculum for 8 weeks. After the course learners completed a questionnaire. Two dermatologists rated the quality of the submitted homework assignments. Based on data from the project's budget and the Norwegian Medical Association, we estimated the saved travel expenses. Results Eighty-eight learners (46 doctors registered for the course. We received 55 questionnaires (response rate 63%. Twenty-seven learners (31%; 16 doctors, 11 nurses; χ2 = 0.03; P = 0.87 used the discussion forum. We found no significant differences in the total questionnaire scores between doctors and nurses. The homework assignments were given an average score of 3.6 for doctors and 3.5 for nurses (P = 0.8 by rater 1. Rater 2 scored 3.9 and 3.6 for doctors and nurses respectively (P = 0.2. The break-even between travel/hotel expenses and course development costs occurred at 135 saved travel refund applications. Conclusions Doctors and nurses were equally satisfied with a joint web-based course on atopic eczema. The use of an online discussion forum was limited but similar between doctors and nurses. There were no significant differences in the quality of submitted homework assignments. The cost of developing the course was 716 841 NOK and the first 86 learners saved 455 198 NOK in travel expenses.

  1. Evaluation of Intersection Traffic Control Measures through Simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asaithambi, Gowri; Sivanandan, R.

    2015-12-01

    Modeling traffic flow is stochastic in nature due to randomness in variables such as vehicle arrivals and speeds. Due to this and due to complex vehicular interactions and their manoeuvres, it is extremely difficult to model the traffic flow through analytical methods. To study this type of complex traffic system and vehicle interactions, simulation is considered as an effective tool. Application of homogeneous traffic models to heterogeneous traffic may not be able to capture the complex manoeuvres and interactions in such flows. Hence, a microscopic simulation model for heterogeneous traffic is developed using object oriented concepts. This simulation model acts as a tool for evaluating various control measures at signalized intersections. The present study focuses on the evaluation of Right Turn Lane (RTL) and Channelised Left Turn Lane (CLTL). A sensitivity analysis was performed to evaluate RTL and CLTL by varying the approach volumes, turn proportions and turn lane lengths. RTL is found to be advantageous only up to certain approach volumes and right-turn proportions, beyond which it is counter-productive. CLTL is found to be advantageous for lower approach volumes for all turn proportions, signifying the benefits of CLTL. It is counter-productive for higher approach volume and lower turn proportions. This study pinpoints the break-even points for various scenarios. The developed simulation model can be used as an appropriate intersection lane control tool for enhancing the efficiency of flow at intersections. This model can also be employed for scenario analysis and can be valuable to field traffic engineers in implementing vehicle-type based and lane-based traffic control measures.

  2. ANÁLISE ECONÔMICA, RENDIMENTOS DE CARCAÇA E DOS CORTES COMERCIAIS DE VACAS DE DESCARTE 5/8 HEREFORD 3/8 NELORE ABATIDAS EM DIFERENTES GRAUS DE ACABAMENTO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Nunes Vaz

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the effect of the fatness level on carcass and commercial cuts yields of 5/8 Hereford 3/8 Nellore cull cows, as well as to perform the economic analysis of the marketing of these cuts by the slaughterhouse industry. We used 42 adult cows, all with eight teeth at slaughter, and average live body weight of 530 kg. The experimental design was completely randomized. After slaughter, the carcasses were classified in relation to fat cover, and separated into fat 1 (absent, fat 2 (scarce, fat 3 (median and fat 4 (uniform, according to the “Sistema Nacional de Tipificação e Classificação de Carcaças Bovinas”. Body weights at origin were higher for cows of fat class 4 in relation to class 2 and 1, being 571.9, 517.6, and 488.1 kg, respectively, not differing from fat class 3 (536.6 kg. The hot carcass yields increased as a function of the increase of the degree of carcass finishing, with mean values of 44.4, 46.1, 47.9 and 47.8% for fat classes 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The cut of the rib is the cut with the largest increase in weight when the fat level increases. Considering the commercial cuts prices at the wholesale markets of São Paulo and Rio Grande do Sul, the industry could pay better prices for cows with fat 2 in relation to the other classes. The break-even point of the slaughterhouse industry would be R$ 6.21/kg of carcass for fat 2 cows, against R$ 6.02/kg, R$ 5.99/kg and R$ 5.98/kg, respectively, for fat 1, 3 and 4 cows.

  3. Dynamic analysis of once-through and closed fuel cycle economics using Monte Carlo simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sungyeol, E-mail: csy@kaeri.re.kr; Lee, Hyo Jik, E-mail: hyojik@kaeri.re.kr; Ko, Won Il, E-mail: nwiko@kaeri.re.kr

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • Dynamic behavior of system costs, both reactor and fuel cycle costs, is analyzed. • Relative economics of once-through and closed fuel cycles is explored. • Probabilistic approaches are adopted for levelized electricity generation costs. • Main cost drivers for cost gaps between once-through and closed cycles are identified. - Abstract: Although no consensus about the best approach to manage spent fuels has been achieved, economics is one of the major criteria for assessing and selecting acceptable management options. This study compares the reactor and fuel cycle costs of the closed system associated with sodium-cooled fast reactors and pyroprocessing versus the once-through system. We specifically investigated the fuel cycle transition cases of the Republic of Korea from 2013 to 2100. The results revealed that the closed system (34.00 mills/kWh as a mean value) could be more expensive than the once-through system (32.75 mills/kWh). In contrast, the once-through fuel cycle costs (8.31 mills/kWh), excluding reactor costs, were projected to be greater than the closed fuel cycle costs (7.77 mills/kWh) because of the increased costs of interim storage estimated by the Korean government and the limited contribution of backend fuel cycle components to the discounted costs. The capital cost of sodium-cooled fast reactor is the largest component contributing to the cost gap between the two systems. Among fuel cycle components, pyroprocessing has the largest uncertainty contribution to the cost gap. We also calculated the breakeven unit costs of SFR capital cost and PWR spent fuel pyroprocessing cost.

  4. Small power systems study. Volume. Study results. Technical summary report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitney, L.R.

    1978-05-31

    The Division of Solar Technology of the Department of Energy is currently examining the market potential of a number of dispersed solar energy systems, including the small (less than or equal to 10 MW/sub e/) solar thermal power system. Small fossil-fueled generating units in the United States utility system, (i.e., investor-owned, municipal, and cooperatives) have a current capacity of approximately 8000 MW/sub e/ or about 1.5 percent of the total US electrical capacity, and provide a large potential market for small solar thermal power systems. The Small Power Systems Study has as its objective the determination of conditions under which small (less than or equal to 10 MW/sub e/) solar thermal power units can provide cost-effective electrical power to a variety of users. Potential users, in addition to the utility systems; include Department of Defense installations and applications, remote mining and/or lumbering operations, and other industrial power systems with and without cogeneration. The first year's results on the Small Power Systems Study are summarized. The data base used and the breakeven cost analysis are discussed. Information on both small (less than or equal to 10 MW/sub e/) generating units and the utility systems using them is presented as well as data on fossil fuel costs, solar plant costs, and solar insolation values. The results of a survey of Department of Defense (DOD) worldwide electrical generating capacity at its military bases and on a potential DOD application are presented. Information on a potential small solar power system experiment in the interior of Alaska is given, and a limited amount of information on a remote application which would provide power or a large open pit copper mine is presented. Volume II of this Technical Summary Report contains an inventory, by state, of the small (less than or equal to 10 MW/sub e/) generating units in the US utility system. (WHK)

  5. Cost model for geothermal wells applied to the Cerro Prieto geothermal field case, BC Abstract; Modelo de costeo de pozos geotermicos aplicado para el caso del campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, BC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaca Serrano, Jaime M.E [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: jaime.vaca@cfe.gob.mx

    2008-01-15

    A project for drilling geothermal wells to produce electrical energy can be defined as a sequence of plans to get steam or geothermal fluids to satisfy a previously known demand, and, under the best possible conditions, to obtain payment. This paper presents a cost model for nine wells drilled at the Cerro Prieto geothermal field in 2005 and 2006 to supply steam to the power plants operating in the field. The cost model is based on the well cost, the initial steam production, the annual decline of steam, the drilling schedule and the break-even point for each well. The model shows the cost of steam by the ton and the sale price needed to determine the discount rate and the investment return time. [Spanish] Un proyecto de perforacion de pozos geotermicos puede definirse como una secuencia o sucesion de planes para obtener vapor o fluidos geotermicos destinados a satisfacer una demanda previamente determinada, que se emplearan principalmente para generar energia electrica, bajo las mejores condiciones para obtener un pago. Este trabajo presenta un modelo de costeo para nueve pozos en el campo geotermico de Cerro Prieto, que fueron perforados entre 2005 y 2006 como parte del suministro de vapor para las plantas generadoras que operan en este campo. El modelo de costeo se basa en el costo por pozo, la produccion inicial de vapor, la declinacion anual de vapor, los intereses de las obras de perforacion y el punto de equilibrio para cada pozo. Los resultados permiten conocer el costo de la tonelada de vapor y el precio de venta para determinar la tasa de descuento y el tiempo de retorno de la inversion.

  6. Fusion energy from the Moon for the twenty-first century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulcinski, G. L.; Cameron, E. N.; Santarius, J. F.; Sviatoslavsky, I. N.; Wittenberg, L. J.; Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1992-01-01

    It is shown in this paper that the D-He-3 fusion fuel cycle is not only credible from a physics standpoint, but that its breakeven and ignition characteristics could be developed on roughly the same time schedule as the DT cycle. It was also shown that the extremely low fraction of power in neutrons, the lack of significant radioactivity in the reactants, and the potential for very high conversion efficiencies, can result in definite advantages for the D-He-3 cycle with respect to DT fusion and fission reactors in the twenty-first century. More specifically, the D-He-3 cycle can accomplish the following: (1) eliminate the need for deep geologic waste burial facilities and the wastes can qualify for Class A, near-surface land burial; (2) allow 'inherently safe' reactors to be built that, under the worst conceivable accident, cannot cause a civilian fatality or result in a significant (greater than 100 mrem) exposure to a member of the public; (3) reduce the radiation damage levels to a point where no scheduled replacement of reactor structural components is required, i.e., full reactor lifetimes (approximately 30 FPY) can be credibly claimed; (4) increase the reliability and availability of fusion reactors compared to DT systems because of the greatly reduced radioactivity, the low neutron damage, and the elimination of T breeding; and (5) greatly reduce the capital costs of fusion power plants (compared to DT systems) by as much as 50 percent and present the potential for a significant reduction on the COE. The concepts presented in this paper tie together two of the most ambitious high-technology endeavors of the twentieth century: the development of controlled thermonuclear fusion for civilian power applications and the utilization of outer space for the benefit of mankind on Earth.

  7. Is control through utilization a cost effective Prosopis juliflora management strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakie, Tewodros T; Hoag, Dana; Evangelista, Paul H; Luizza, Matthew; Laituri, Melinda

    2016-03-01

    The invasive tree Prosopis juliflora is known to cause negative impacts on invaded ranges. High P. juliflora eradication costs have swayed developing countries to follow a new and less expensive approach known as control through utilization. However, the net benefits of this new approach have not been thoroughly evaluated. Our objective was to assess the economic feasibility of selected P. juliflora eradication and utilization approaches that are currently practiced in one of the severely affected developing countries, Ethiopia. The selected approaches include converting P. juliflora infested lands into irrigated farms (conversion), charcoal production, and seed flour production. We estimate the costs and revenues of the selected P. juliflora eradication and utilization approaches by interviewing 19 enterprise owners. We assess the economic feasibility of the enterprises by performing enterprise, break-even, investment, sensitivity, and risk analyses. Our results show that conversion to irrigated cotton is economically profitable, with Net Present Value (NPV) of 5234 US$/ha over 10 years and an interest rate of 10% per year. Conversion greatly reduces the spread of P. juliflora on farmlands. Managing P. juliflora infested lands for charcoal production with a four-year harvest cycle is profitable, with NPV of 805 US$/ha. However, the production process needs vigilant regulation to protect native plants from exploitation and caution should be taken to prevent charcoal production sites from becoming potential seed sources. Though flour from P. juliflora pods can reduce invasions by destroying viable seeds, flour enterprises in Ethiopia are unprofitable. Conversion and charcoal production can be undertaken with small investment costs, while flour production requires high investment costs. Introducing new changes in the production and management steps of P. juliflora flour might be considered to make the enterprise profitable. Our study shows that control

  8. Terrorism risks and cost-benefit analysis of aviation security.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Mark G; Mueller, John

    2013-05-01

    We evaluate, for the U.S. case, the costs and benefits of three security measures designed to reduce the likelihood of a direct replication of the 9/11 terrorist attacks. To do so, we assess risk reduction, losses, and security costs in the context of the full set of security layers. The three measures evaluated are installed physical secondary barriers (IPSB) to restrict access to the hardened cockpit door during door transitions, the Federal Air Marshal Service (FAMS), and the Federal Flight Deck Officer (FFDO) Program. In the process, we examine an alternate policy measure: doubling the budget of the FFDO program to $44 million per year, installing IPSBs in all U.S. aircraft at a cost of $13.5 million per year, and reducing funding for FAMS by 75% to $300 million per year. A break-even cost-benefit analysis then finds the minimum probability of an otherwise successful attack required for the benefit of each security measures to equal its cost. We find that the IPSB is costeffective if the annual attack probability of an otherwise successful attack exceeds 0.5% or one attack every 200 years. The FFDO program is costeffective if the annual attack probability exceeds 2%. On the other hand, more than two otherwise successful attacks per year are required for FAMS to be costeffective. A policy that includes IPSBs, an increased budget for FFDOs, and a reduced budget for FAMS may be a viable policy alternative, potentially saving hundreds of millions of dollars per year with consequences for security that are, at most, negligible.

  9. Economic analysis of cloud-based desktop virtualization implementation at a hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoo Sooyoung

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cloud-based desktop virtualization infrastructure (VDI is known as providing simplified management of application and desktop, efficient management of physical resources, and rapid service deployment, as well as connection to the computer environment at anytime, anywhere with anydevice. However, the economic validity of investing in the adoption of the system at a hospital has not been established. Methods This study computed the actual investment cost of the hospital-wide VDI implementation at the 910-bed Seoul National University Bundang Hospital in Korea and the resulting effects (i.e., reductions in PC errors and difficulties, application and operating system update time, and account management time. Return on investment (ROI, net present value (NPV, and internal rate of return (IRR indexes used for corporate investment decision-making were used for the economic analysis of VDI implementation. Results The results of five-year cost-benefit analysis given for 400 Virtual Machines (VMs; i.e., 1,100 users in the case of SNUBH showed that the break-even point was reached in the fourth year of the investment. At that point, the ROI was 122.6%, the NPV was approximately US$192,000, and the IRR showed an investment validity of 10.8%. From our sensitivity analysis to changing the number of VMs (in terms of number of users, the greater the number of adopted VMs was the more investable the system was. Conclusions This study confirms that the emerging VDI can have an economic impact on hospital information system (HIS operation and utilization in a tertiary hospital setting.

  10. Is control through utilization a cost effective Prosopis juliflora management strategy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakie, Tewodros T; Hoag, Dana; Evangelista, Paul H; Luizza, Matthew; Laituri, Melinda

    2016-03-01

    The invasive tree Prosopis juliflora is known to cause negative impacts on invaded ranges. High P. juliflora eradication costs have swayed developing countries to follow a new and less expensive approach known as control through utilization. However, the net benefits of this new approach have not been thoroughly evaluated. Our objective was to assess the economic feasibility of selected P. juliflora eradication and utilization approaches that are currently practiced in one of the severely affected developing countries, Ethiopia. The selected approaches include converting P. juliflora infested lands into irrigated farms (conversion), charcoal production, and seed flour production. We estimate the costs and revenues of the selected P. juliflora eradication and utilization approaches by interviewing 19 enterprise owners. We assess the economic feasibility of the enterprises by performing enterprise, break-even, investment, sensitivity, and risk analyses. Our results show that conversion to irrigated cotton is economically profitable, with Net Present Value (NPV) of 5234 US$/ha over 10 years and an interest rate of 10% per year. Conversion greatly reduces the spread of P. juliflora on farmlands. Managing P. juliflora infested lands for charcoal production with a four-year harvest cycle is profitable, with NPV of 805 US$/ha. However, the production process needs vigilant regulation to protect native plants from exploitation and caution should be taken to prevent charcoal production sites from becoming potential seed sources. Though flour from P. juliflora pods can reduce invasions by destroying viable seeds, flour enterprises in Ethiopia are unprofitable. Conversion and charcoal production can be undertaken with small investment costs, while flour production requires high investment costs. Introducing new changes in the production and management steps of P. juliflora flour might be considered to make the enterprise profitable. Our study shows that control

  11. Stationary gas turbines of all performance classes in a flexible power supply operation; Stationaere Gasturbinen. Gasturbinen aller Leistungsklassen im flexiblen Netzbetrieb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-07-01

    Within the 8th VDI conference from 20th to 21st November, 2012, at the Electoral Palace Mainz (Mainz, Federal Republic of Germany), the following lectures were held: (1) Introduction of the twin-shaft industrial gas turbine SGT-300 (C. Engelbert); (2) The new 6 MW gas turbine for the power generation (Michael Blaswich); (3) Successful increase of the breakeven performance of the SGT5-2000E based on the Si3D blading (S. Kliesch); (4) Advanced Condition Monitoring at E.ON (T. Burridge-Oakland); (5) Experiences from 10 years of monitoring at gas turbine power plants (D. Therkon); (6) Operating experience with GE's Intercooled LMS100 (B. Mehmetli); (7) First long-term experience with the operational flexibility of the SGT5-8000H (C. Scholz); (8) Plant concept and operational concept with small gas turbines for the heat production and power generation meeting the demands in line with market conditions (D. Seibt); (9) Operational experiences with remote diagnostic services in the power range up to 25 MW (H. Berghaus); (10) European regulations having an influence on design and operation of gas turbines - An overview (M. Zelinger); (11) Future concepts for fuel flexibility - Experience with hydrogen-based fuels (R. Lachner); (12) Requirements from functional safety to gas turbines - Importance and benefit for gas turbine development (G. Weber); (13) Standard for the procurement of gas turbines: ISO 19859 Gas turbine applications - requirements for power generation (I. Rattmann); (14) Future projects for fuel flexibility in the test phase: Natural gas / hydrogen co-firing (G. Fruechtel); (15) Measures for the reduction of emissions at Siemens V64.3 gas turbines (K. Jordan); (16) Flexible operation of the SGT5-4000F by fuel transfers in a wide load range (J. Meisl); (17) Technical features of the GT26 gas turbine to improve the flexibility of the combined cycle system KA26 (W. Reiter).

  12. The system-wide economics of a carbon dioxide capture, utilization, and storage network: Texas Gulf Coast with pure CO2-EOR flood

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Carey W.; Gülen, Gürcan; Cohen, Stuart M.; Nuñez-Lopez, Vanessa

    2013-09-01

    This letter compares several bounding cases for understanding the economic viability of capturing large quantities of anthropogenic CO2 from coal-fired power generators within the Electric Reliability Council of Texas electric grid and using it for pure CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in the onshore coastal region of Texas along the Gulf of Mexico. All captured CO2 in excess of that needed for EOR is sequestered in saline formations at the same geographic locations as the oil reservoirs but at a different depth. We analyze the extraction of oil from the same set of ten reservoirs within 20- and five-year time frames to describe how the scale of the carbon dioxide capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) network changes to meet the rate of CO2 demand for oil recovery. Our analysis shows that there is a negative system-wide net present value (NPV) for all modeled scenarios. The system comes close to breakeven economics when capturing CO2 from three coal-fired power plants to produce oil via CO2-EOR over 20 years and assuming no CO2 emissions penalty. The NPV drops when we consider a larger network to produce oil more quickly (21 coal-fired generators with CO2 capture to produce 80% of the oil within five years). Upon applying a CO2 emissions penalty of 602009/tCO2 to fossil fuel emissions to ensure that coal-fired power plants with CO2 capture remain in baseload operation, the system economics drop significantly. We show near profitability for the cash flow of the EOR operations only; however, this situation requires relatively cheap electricity prices during operation.

  13. Development and evaluation of a full-scale spray scrubber for ammonia recovery and production of nitrogen fertilizer at poultry facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlocon, Lara Jane S; Manuzon, Roderick B; Zhao, Lingying

    2015-01-01

    Significant ammonia emissions from animal facilities need to be controlled due to its negative impacts on human health and the environment. The use of acid spray scrubber is promising, as it simultaneously mitigates and recovers ammonia emission for fertilizer. Its low pressure drop contribution on axial fans makes it applicable on US farms. This study develops a full-scale acid spray scrubber to recover ammonia emissions from commercial poultry facilities and produce nitrogen fertilizer. The scrubber performance and economic feasibility were evaluated at a commercial poultry manure composting facility that released ammonia from exhaust fans with concentrations of 66-278 ppmv and total emission rate of 96,143 kg yr(-1). The scrubber consisted of 15 spray scrubber modules, each equipped with three full-cone nozzles that used dilute sulphuric acid as the medium. Each nozzle was operated at 0.59 MPa with a droplet size of 113 μm and liquid flow rate of 1.8 L min(-1). The scrubber was installed with a 1.3-m exhaust fan and field tested in four seasons. Results showed that the scrubber achieved high NH3 removal efficiencies (71-81%) and low pressure drop (<25 Pa). Estimated water and acid losses are 0.9 and 0.04 ml m(-3) air treated, respectively. Power consumption rate was between 89.48 and 107.48 kWh d(-1). The scrubber effluents containing 22-36% (m/v) ammonium sulphate are comparable to the commercial-grade nitrogen fertilizer. Preliminary economic analysis indicated that the break-even time is one year. This study demonstrates that acid spray scrubbers can economically and effectively recover NH3 from animal facilities for fertilizer.

  14. Assessment of the potential of solar thermal small power systems in small utilities. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steitz, P.; Mayo, L.G.; Perkins, S.P. Jr.

    1978-11-01

    This study involved an assessment of the potential economic benefit of small solar thermal electric power systems to small municipal and rural electric utilities. Five different solar thermal small power system configurations were considered in the study representing three different solar thermal technologies. The configurations included: (1) 1-MW, 2-MW, and 10-MW parabolic dish concentrators with a 15-kW heat engine mounted at the focal point of each dish. These systems utilized advanced battery energy storage. (2) A 10-MW system with variable slat concentrators and central steam Rankine energy conversion. This system utilized sensible thermal energy storage. (3) A 50-MW central receiver system consisting of a field of heliostats concentrating energy on a tower-mounted receiver and a central steam Rankine conversion system. This system also utilized sensible thermal storage. The approach used in determining the potential for solar thermal small power systems in the small utility market involved a comparison of the economics of power supply expansion plans for seven hypothetical small utilities through the year 2000 both with and without the solar thermal small power systems. Insolation typical of the Southwestern US was assumed. A comparison of the break-even capital costs with the range of plant costs estimated in this study yields the following conclusions: (1) The parabolic dish concentrator systems could be economically competitive with conventional generation if the lowest capital costs can be achieved. (2) The variable slat concentrator and central receiver systems would have to achieve lower costs than the lowest in the cost ranges generally assumed in the study to become economically competitive. (3) All of the solar thermal plant types are potentially more competitive in utilities which are heavily dependent upon oil.

  15. Reference-dependent electric vehicle production strategy considering subsidies and consumer trade-offs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we extend previous reference-dependence newsvendor research by incorporating both consumer trade-offs and government subsidies to evaluate the relevant influences on the optimal electric vehicle (EV) production decisions. We present the properties of the model, derive the closed-form solutions for the model given the relevant constraints, and use numerical experiments to illustrate the results. We find that subsidies, loss aversion, the performance of both EVs and internal combustion engine-powered vehicles (ICEVs), and the coefficient of variation of demand are significant factors influencing the optimal production quantity and the expected utilities of EV production. The high selling price and other high costs of ICEVs help offset the influence of loss aversion, whereas the high costs of EV enhance loss aversion. Our study enriches the literature on subsidies for EVs by establishing a behavioral model to incorporate the decision bias in terms of loss aversion at the firm level. These findings provide guiding principles for both policymakers and EV managers for making better strategies to promote EVs in the early immature market. - Highlights: • The performance of both electric vehicles (EVs) and internal combustion engine-power vehicles (ICEVs) influences the EV production decisions. • A loss averse EV manager produces less and obtains less the expected utility than a risk neutral one. • Subsidies help decrease the EV breakeven quantity, increase the optimal quantity, offset the influence of loss aversion. • Subsidies should be adjusted according to the performance of both EVs and the ICEVs, demand heterogeneity, and local conditions. • The high ICEVs costs help offset the influence of loss aversion, whereas the high EV costs enhance loss aversion

  16. Identifying potentially cost effective chronic care programs for people with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L M G Steuten

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available L M G Steuten1, K M M Lemmens2, A P Nieboer2, H JM Vrijhoef31Maastricht University Medical Centre, School for Care and Public Health Research, Department of Health, Organisation, Policy and Economics, Maastricht, The Netherlands; 2Erasmus University Medical Centre, Institute of Health Policy and Management, Rotterdam, The Netherlands; 3Maastricht University Medical Centre, School for Care and Public Health Research, Department of Integrated Care, Maastricht, The NetherlandsObjective: To review published evidence regarding the cost effectiveness of multi-component COPD programs and to illustrate how potentially cost effective programs can be identified.Methods: Systematic search of Medline and Cochrane databases for evaluations of multi-component disease management or chronic care programs for adults with COPD, describing process, intermediate, and end results of care. Data were independently extracted by two reviewers and descriptively summarized.Results: Twenty articles describing 17 unique COPD programs were included. There is little evidence for significant improvements in process and intermediate outcomes, except for increased provision of patient self-management education and improved disease-specific knowledge. Overall, the COPD programs generate end results equivalent to usual care, but programs containing ≥3 components show lower relative risks for hospitalization. There is limited scope for programs to break-even or save money.Conclusion: Identifying cost effective multi-component COPD programs remains a challenge due to scarce methodologically sound studies that demonstrate significant improvements on process, intermediate and end results of care. Estimations of potential cost effectiveness of specific programs illustrated in this paper can, in the absence of ‘perfect data’, support timely decision-making regarding these programs. Nevertheless, well-designed health economic studies are needed to decrease the current decision

  17. Product evaluation of Fischer-Tropsch derived fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marano, J.J.; Rogers, S. [Pittsburgh Energy Technology Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Choi, G.N. [Bechtel Corp., San Fransico, CA (United States); Kramer, S.J. [Amoco Oil Co., Naperville, IL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) of 1990 have placed stringent requirements on the quality of transportation fuels. Most petroleum refiners are scrambling to meet provisions of the Amendments to be implemented between 1995 and 2000. These requirements will also have significant implications for the production of alternative fuels. These have been examined for Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) derived fuels. This analysis was conducted in conjunction with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored project, Baseline Design/Economics for Advanced Fischer-Tropsch Technology, conducted by Bechtel and Amoco. The goal of this study was to develop a baseline design for indirect liquefaction of Illinois No. 6 coal using gasification, syngas conversion in slurry reactors with iron catalysts, and conventional refinery upgrading of the F-T derived hydrocarbon liquids. One alternative case using ZSM-5 upgrading technology was also considered. This study included complete capital and operating cost estimates for the processes. To perform economic analyses for the different design cases, the products from the liquefaction plant had to be valued relative to conventional transportation fuels. This task was accomplished by developing a Linear Programming (LP) model for a typical midwest refinery, and then feeding the F-T liquids to the refinery. In this way, the breakeven value determined for these materials is indicative of the price they could command if available in the marketplace. Inputs to the LP model include: refinery size, configuration, feedstocks, products, specifications, prices, and operating and capital recovery costs. The model was set up to be representative of conditions anticipated for the turn of the century. This required inclusion of fuel specifications from the CAAA of 1990 which have or will come into force by the year 2000.

  18. The system-wide economics of a carbon dioxide capture, utilization, and storage network: Texas Gulf Coast with pure CO2-EOR flood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This letter compares several bounding cases for understanding the economic viability of capturing large quantities of anthropogenic CO2 from coal-fired power generators within the Electric Reliability Council of Texas electric grid and using it for pure CO2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in the onshore coastal region of Texas along the Gulf of Mexico. All captured CO2 in excess of that needed for EOR is sequestered in saline formations at the same geographic locations as the oil reservoirs but at a different depth. We analyze the extraction of oil from the same set of ten reservoirs within 20- and five-year time frames to describe how the scale of the carbon dioxide capture, utilization, and storage (CCUS) network changes to meet the rate of CO2 demand for oil recovery. Our analysis shows that there is a negative system-wide net present value (NPV) for all modeled scenarios. The system comes close to breakeven economics when capturing CO2 from three coal-fired power plants to produce oil via CO2-EOR over 20 years and assuming no CO2 emissions penalty. The NPV drops when we consider a larger network to produce oil more quickly (21 coal-fired generators with CO2 capture to produce 80% of the oil within five years). Upon applying a CO2 emissions penalty of 60$2009/tCO2 to fossil fuel emissions to ensure that coal-fired power plants with CO2 capture remain in baseload operation, the system economics drop significantly. We show near profitability for the cash flow of the EOR operations only; however, this situation requires relatively cheap electricity prices during operation. (letter)

  19. Increasing the industrial potential of a region as a factor of improving the region’s competitiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidiya Viktorovna Shamray

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective to determine the factors of increasing the region competitiveness by defining the industrial potential of its enterprises. Methods in the research the systemic structural functional situational economic analysis was widely used as well as modelling of the economic entities functioning. The main modeling method used in this work is the model of breakeven point widely known and tested in many enterprises. The dependence proposed by the author is of analytical character. Results the article considers different approaches to the definition of competitiveness the effect of the factors is described. The industrial potential of the enterprises is presented as one of the factors of regional competitiveness. The difference is described between the competitive advantage in commercial and production activities. The author suggests a methodology allowing to evaluate the competitiveness of industrial enterprises through the performance of production capacity the possibility of making managerial decisions based on the results of its application the results of the model testing are present. The possibility of applying the model at the regional level is shown. Scientific novelty the article presents the authorrsquos method allowing to calculate the potential growth of the enterprises competitiveness using the output capacities as the difference between the maximum and actual values of capacity. Practical significance the use of models in the practice of the company allows to evaluate the enterprise competitiveness identifying the marginal productivity of the equipment. Once it has been reached the questions arise how long the company will remain competitive in achieving 100 capacity utilization selection of areas of extensive growth due to the fact that the limits of intensive growth have been achieved. Testing of the model was carried out at the Volgograd baking enterprises it showed a high accuracy of the calculation the deviation of calculated

  20. Are Clade Specific HIV Vaccines a Necessity? An Analysis Based on Mathematical Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimitrov, Dobromir; Kublin, James G; Ramsey, Scott; Corey, Lawrence

    2015-12-01

    As HIV-1 envelope immune responses are critical to vaccine related protection, most candidate HIV vaccines entering efficacy trials are based upon a clade specific design. This need for clade specific vaccine prototypes markedly reduces the implementation of potentially effective HIV vaccines. We utilized a mathematical model to determine the effectiveness of immediate roll-out of a non-clade matched vaccine with reduced efficacy compared to constructing clade specific vaccines, which would take considerable time to manufacture and test in safety and efficacy trials. We simulated the HIV epidemic in San Francisco (SF) and South Africa (SA) and projected effectiveness of three vaccination strategies: i) immediate intervention with a 20-40% vaccine efficacy (VE) non-matched vaccine, ii) delayed intervention by developing a 50% VE clade-specific vaccine, and iii) immediate intervention with a non-matched vaccine replaced by a clade-specific vaccine when developed. Immediate vaccination with a non-clade matched vaccine, even with reduced efficacy, would prevent thousands of new infections in SF and millions in SA over 30 years. Vaccination with 50% VE delayed for five years needs six and 12 years in SA to break-even with immediate 20 and 30% VE vaccination, respectively, while not able to surpass the impact of immediate 40% VE vaccination over 30 years. Replacing a 30% VE with a 50% VE vaccine after 5 years reduces the HIV acquisition by 5% compared to delayed vaccination. The immediate use of an HIV vaccine with reduced VE in high risk communities appears desirable over a short time line but higher VE should be the pursued to achieve strong long-term impact. Our analysis illustrates the importance of developing surrogate markers (correlates of protection) to allow bridging types of immunogenicity studies to support more rapid assessment of clade specific vaccines. PMID:26844286

  1. Is it economically feasible for farmers to grow their own fuel? A study of Camelina sativa produced in the western United States as an on-farm biofuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper models the economic feasibility of growing the oilseed crop Camelina sativa (“camelina”) in the western United States to produce value-added protein feed supplement and an SVO-based biofuel. Modeled in eastern Colorado, this study demonstrates that camelina can be grown profitably both as a commodity and as an energy biofuel. These findings, along with the stochastic crop rotation budget and profitability sensitivity analysis, reflect unique contributions to the literature. The study's stochastic break-even analysis demonstrates a 0.51 probability of growing camelina profitably when diesel prices reach 1.15 $ L−1. Results also show that the sale of camelina meal has the greatest impact on profitability. Yet once the price of diesel fuel exceeds 0.90 $ L−1, the farmer generates more revenue from the ability to offset diesel fuel purchases than the revenues generated from the sale of camelina meal. A risk analysis using second degree stochastic dominance demonstrates that a risk-averse farmer would choose to grow camelina if the price of diesel equals or exceeds 1.31 $ L−1. The article concludes that camelina can offset on-farm diesel use, making it economically feasible for farmers to grow their own fuel. As a result, camelina production may increase farm income, diversify rural economic development, and contribute to the attainment of energy policy goals. -- Highlights: •This is a stochastic budget analysis of growing camelina as SVO-based biofuel. •Results demonstrate economic feasibility for producers to grow their own fuel. •Camelina production can diversify regional and national energy portfolios. •Camelina production can contribute to on-farm energy independence

  2. Research on Business Model Innovations for Electric Vehicles:From the Perspective of Value Network%基于价值网络的电动汽车商业模式创新研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛奕曦; 陈翌; 孔德洋

    2014-01-01

    Business model innovation for electric vehicles (EVs) is an important way to promote the innovation diffusion of EVs. Consumer utility and profitability of business entities in the value network determines the sus-tainability of business models for EVs. So this paper adopts comparison and dynamic break-even analysis (BEP) methods to analyze the 'Shenzhen Model' from the perspective of economics. The results reveal that markup price between purchasing and charging, charging time and EV market penetration in the charging operational aspect are key factors of influencing the sustainability of the business model. Based on these, the profitability of each key actor is integrated to summarize and evaluate other domestic business models and some suggestions are proposed.%电动汽车商业模式是推动电动汽车技术创新扩散的重要途径,而商业模式价值网络中消费者效用和经营主体盈利性决定了该模式是否可持续。运用比较法和动态盈亏平衡分析法(BEP),从经济性视角重点对“深圳模式”进行剖析,发现充电运营环节的购电和充电差价、充电时间、充电需求量是影响商业模式可持续发展的关键参数。并以此为基础,对国内电动汽车商业模式中各主体的盈利能力进行考察和评价,总结存在的问题,并提出对策建议。

  3. Management Model of Pig Farms%生猪养殖场的经营管理模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱文辉

    2015-01-01

    为研究大型养猪场的经营管理,根据存栏数的平稳性特征,建立起小猪、种猪、肉猪流动的微分方程组;在此基础上,给出了稳定状态下的盈亏平衡点、选种比例、母猪存栏数和年利润等一系列计算公式;进一步,根据生猪价格变化的预测曲线,引入策略调节系数,并通过适当改变留种数量、配种时间、存栏规模等参数以提高盈利水平,确定养猪场的最佳经营策略。%To study the operation and management of large-scale pig farms, this paper establishes differential equations group of a pig, breed pig, pig flow according to the smooth characteristics herds. On this basis, the authors give the breakeven point in the steady state, the selection ratio, sow herds and annual profit and a se-ries of formulas; further, according to the prediction curve hog prices change, the paper introduces the policy adjustment factor, and by appropriately changing the amount of seed, breeding time, scale and other parame-ters to improve profitability to determine the best management strategy farms.

  4. EBT-II conceptual design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dandl, R. A.; Baity, Jr., F. W.; Ballou, J. K.

    1978-09-01

    The proposed EBT-II will use 48 superconducting coils to provide the required steady-state, cyclotron resonant, toroidal magnetic field of 4.3 T for electron cyclotron heating (ECH) with microwaves at 120 GHz. The peak design fields are 7.8 T in the coil, 6.0 T in the coil throat, and 3.0 T in the cavity midplane. Bulk ECH will be provided by eight 120-GHz, 200-kW cw gyrotrons, and provisions have been made for an additional 800 kW of cw profile heating in the range of 70 to 90 GHz. The torus major radius and mean coil radius are 520 cm and 28 cm respectively, yielding a mechanical aspect ratio of approximately 20. The basic device parameters of microwave frequency and power, magnetic field, and size should allow experiments that penetrate well into the collisionless regime and thus provide a definitive test of neoclassical scaling. This scaling test will be pushed further by using a built-in provision which permits changing the effective aspect ratio by varying the current through 96 copper toroidal aspect ratio enhancement (ARE) coils (2 per microwave cavity). Phase 1 of the experiment will be the study of transport and aspect ratio scaling of basic device parameters for comparison with results from EBT-I and EBT-Scale (EBT-S). Under optimum conditions, we project n tau approximately 10/sup 13/ sec/cm/sup 3/ with T/sub i/ and T/sub e/ approximately 3 to 8 keV. Phase 2 will center on the addition of 1 MW of neutral beam heating for direct heating of ions in conjunction with microwave heating of electrons so as to permit control of the ambipolar potential. With this added heating power, it appears possible to attain near-breakeven conditions in a hydrogen plasma at ..beta.. approximately equal to 10%.

  5. Appraisals Generate Specific Configurations of Facial Muscle Movements in a Gambling Task: Evidence for the Component Process Model of Emotion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gentsch, Kornelia; Grandjean, Didier; Scherer, Klaus R.

    2015-01-01

    Scherer’s Component Process Model provides a theoretical framework for research on the production mechanism of emotion and facial emotional expression. The model predicts that appraisal results drive facial expressions, which unfold sequentially and cumulatively over time. In two experiments, we examined facial muscle activity changes (via facial electromyography recordings over the corrugator, cheek, and frontalis regions) in response to events in a gambling task. These events were experimentally manipulated feedback stimuli which presented simultaneous information directly affecting goal conduciveness (gambling outcome: win, loss, or break-even) and power appraisals (Experiment 1 and 2), as well as control appraisal (Experiment 2). We repeatedly found main effects of goal conduciveness (starting ~600 ms), and power appraisals (starting ~800 ms after feedback onset). Control appraisal main effects were inconclusive. Interaction effects of goal conduciveness and power appraisals were obtained in both experiments (Experiment 1: over the corrugator and cheek regions; Experiment 2: over the frontalis region) suggesting amplified goal conduciveness effects when power was high in contrast to invariant goal conduciveness effects when power was low. Also an interaction of goal conduciveness and control appraisals was found over the cheek region, showing differential goal conduciveness effects when control was high and invariant effects when control was low. These interaction effects suggest that the appraisal of having sufficient control or power affects facial responses towards gambling outcomes. The result pattern suggests that corrugator and frontalis regions are primarily related to cognitive operations that process motivational pertinence, whereas the cheek region would be more influenced by coping implications. Our results provide first evidence demonstrating that cognitive-evaluative mechanisms related to goal conduciveness, control, and power appraisals affect

  6. Preliminary analysis of surface mining options for Naval Oil Shale Reserve 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-20

    The study was undertaken to determine the economic viability of surface mining to exploit the reserves. It is based on resource information already developed for NOSR 1 and conceptual designs of mining systems compatible with this resource. Environmental considerations as they relate to surface mining have been addressed qualitatively. The conclusions on economic viability were based primarily on mining costs projected from other industries using surface mining. An analysis of surface mining for the NOSR 1 resource was performed based on its particular overburden thickness, oil shale thickness, oil shale grade, and topography. This evaluation considered reclamation of the surface as part of its design and cost estimate. The capital costs for mining 25 GPT and 30 GPT shale and the operating costs for mining 25 GPT, 30 GPT, and 35 GPT shale are presented. The relationship between operating cost and stripping ratio, and the break-even stripping ratio (BESR) for surface mining to be competitive with room-and-pillar mining, are shown. Identification of potential environmental impacts shows that environmental control procedures for surface mining are more difficult to implement than those for underground mining. The following three areas are of prime concern: maintenance of air quality standards by disruption, movement, and placement of large quantities of overburden; disruption or cutting of aquifers during the mining process which affect area water supplies; and potential mineral leaching from spent shales into the aquifers. Although it is an operational benefit to place spent shale in the open pit, leaching of the spent shales and contamination of the water is detrimental. It is therefore concluded that surface mining on NOSR 1 currently is neither economically desirable nor environmentally safe. Stringent mitigation measures would have to be implemented to overcome some of the potential environmental hazards.

  7. Turbulent corona in a dense Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper the author considers the convection which arises due to the MHD interchange instability of a superheated skin layer in a Z-pinch. The increase in size of the Z-pinch corona resulting from this process is a likely explanation for several unexpected results reported from experiments on Angara-5. This high-voltage high-current device has in recent experiments revealed intense evaporation of plasma from the surface of a Z-pinch, probably giving rise to recapture of the current of this low-density plasma. In these experiments an electric current of magnitude J ∼ 3 MA passed through a polyethylene rod of diameter OE 0 = 2 mm and height h ∼ 5 mm for a time ∼ 80 ns. After a time ∼ 50 ns the discharge gap was filled with plasma with a density ne ≥ 1019 cm-3 out to distances of 5-10 mm from the discharge axis. These experiments were partly aimed at verifying the basic hypotheses of the proposal for producing ignition of thermonuclear field in the constrictions of Z-pinches in already existing devices, with a resulting energy yield greater than breakeven. The phenomenon observed, according to Sasorov, can interfere with the high compression in the constrictions of a Z-pinch which is necessary to implement the ideas of Yan'kov. In the present work he discusses the mechanism for turbulent spreading of the superheated skin layer of a Z-pinch, which enables one to understand some of the unexpected results of these experiments

  8. World progress toward fusion energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper will describe the progress in fusion science and technology from a world perspective. The paper will cover the current technical status, including the understanding of fusion's economic, environmental, and safety characteristics. Fusion experiments are approaching the energy breakeven condition. An energy gain (Q) of 30 percent has been achieved in magnetic confinement experiments. In addition, temperatures required for an ignited plasma (Ti = 32 KeV) and energy confinements about 75 percent of that required for ignition have been achieved in separate experiments. Two major facilities have started the experimental campaign to extend these results and achieve or exceed Q = 1 plasma conditions by 1990. Inertial confinement fusion experiments are also approaching thermonuclear conditions and have achieved a compression factor 100-200 times liquid D-T. Because of this progress, the emphasis in fusion research is turning toward questions of engineering feasibility. Leaders of the major fusion R and D programs in the European Community (EC), Japan, the United States, and the U.S.S.R. have agreed on the major steps that are needed to reach the point at which a practical fusion system can be designed. The United States is preparing for an experiment to address the last unexplored scientific issue, the physics of an ignited plasma, during the late 1990's. The EC, Japan, U.S.S.R., and the United States have joined together under the auspices of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) to jointly design and prepare the validating R and D for an international facility, the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER), to address all the remaining scientific issues and to explore the engineering technology of fusion around the turn of the century. In addition, a network of international agreements have been concluded between these major parties and a number of smaller fusion programs, to cooperate on resolving a complete spectrum of fusion science and

  9. Field Demonstration of Carbon Dioxide Miscible Flooding in the Lansing-Kansas City Formation, Central Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan Byrnes; G. Paul Willhite; Don Green; Richard Pancake; JyunSyung Tsau; W. Lynn Watney; John Doveton; Willard Guy; Rodney Reynolds; Dave Murfin; James Daniels; Russell Martin; William Flanders; Dave Vander Griend; Eric Mork; Paul Cantrell

    2010-03-07

    A pilot carbon dioxide miscible flood was initiated in the Lansing Kansas City C formation in the Hall Gurney Field, Russell County, Kansas. The reservoir zone is an oomoldic carbonate located at a depth of about 2900 feet. The pilot consists of one carbon dioxide injection well and three production wells. Continuous carbon dioxide injection began on December 2, 2003. By the end of June 2005, 16.19 MM lb of carbon dioxide was injected into the pilot area. Injection was converted to water on June 21, 2005 to reduce operating costs to a breakeven level with the expectation that sufficient carbon dioxide was injected to displace the oil bank to the production wells by water injection. By March 7,2010, 8,736 bbl of oil were produced from the pilot. Production from wells to the northwest of the pilot region indicates that oil displaced from carbon dioxide injection was produced from Colliver A7, Colliver A3, Colliver A14 and Graham A4 located on adjacent leases. About 19,166 bbl of incremental oil were estimated to have been produced from these wells as of March 7, 2010. There is evidence of a directional permeability trend toward the NW through the pilot region. The majority of the injected carbon dioxide remains in the pilot region, which has been maintained at a pressure at or above the minimum miscibility pressure. Estimated oil recovery attributed to the CO2 flood is 27,902 bbl which is equivalent to a gross CO2 utilization of 4.8 MCF/bbl. The pilot project is not economic.

  10. Evaluation of measures of the German Ministry of Economics (BMWi) in support of enhanced use of renewable energy technologies (1994 - 1998). Final report; Evaluierung der Foerderung von Massnahmen zur Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien durch das Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft (1994 - 1998). Endbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichert, J.; Gruber, E.; Mannsbart, W.

    1999-01-01

    The document presents an analysis of a governmental support programme for enhanced use of renewable energy technologies, installed for the period from 1994 to 1998. The '100 million Deutschmark programme' financed by the German Federal Ministry of Economics (BMWi) was intended to boost applications of renewable energy technologies in the residential and commercial sector. The objectives of the programme were to improve market penetration of renewable energy technologies, eg. by inducing a decline in costs, so as to bring those generation technologies closer to the break-even point of economic efficiency, or make them achieve economic efficiency on a broader basis through more widespread applications. The evaluation presented in the document was to show the programme's achievements with respect to the following aspects and criteria: Comparison with other governmental programmes, in particular those of Land governments. Indirect effects on employment, imports and exports, or in terms of incentives for technological enhancements. Assessment of direct effects on the marketing situation and the technologies. The conclusions drawn were to include recommendations for a successor programme. (orig./CB) [German] Vom Bundesministerium fuer Wirtschaft (BMWi) wurde die Nutzung erneuerbarer Energien durch Investitionszuschuesse fuer private Haushalte und Unternehmen von 1994 bis 1998 in einem '100-Millionen-DM-Programm' gefoerdert. Es war als Breitenprogramm ausgelegt, sollte die Nachfrage staerken und Marktimpulse in Form von Kostendegressionen geben, so dass die erneuerbaren Energien der Wirtschaftlichkeit naeher kommen oder sie erreichen. Die vorliegende Evaluation sollte den Erfolg des Programmes durch Aussagen zu den nachstehenden Themenschwerpunkten analysieren: - Vergleich des Foerderprogramms mit anderen Programmen, insbesondere denjenigen auf Laenderebene. - Die indirekten Wirkungen auf Arbeitsplaetze, Import und Export, Anstoss fuer technische

  11. The economic performance of combined heat and power from biogas produced from manure in Sweden – A comparison of different CHP technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Interest in biogas from manure is increasing rapidly due to its climate benefits. ► Farm-scale production of CHP from manure-based biogas is not profitable in Sweden. ► Minor changes in energy prices or suggested production subsidies will make it profitable. ► Profitability is also affected by efficiency of scale and introduction of thermophilic conditions. -- Abstract: Interest in the generation of biogas from agricultural residues is increasing rapidly due to its climate benefits. In this study, an evaluation of the economic feasibility of various technologies, also on different scales, for the production of combined heat and power from manure-based biogas in Sweden is presented. The overall conclusion is that such production is not profitable under current conditions. Thus, the gap between the calculated biogas production cost and the acceptable cost for break-even must be bridged by, for example, different policy instruments. In general, efficiency of scale favors large-scale plants compared to individual farm-scale ones. However, a large, centralized biogas plant, using manure from numerous farms, is not always more cost efficient than a large, farm-scale plant treating manure from a few neighboring farms. The utilization of the produced heat, electricity prices, and political incentives, all have a significant impact on the economic outcome, whereas the value of the digestate as fertilizer is currently having a minor impact. Utilization of heat is, however, often limited by the lack of local heat sinks, in which case the implementation of a biogas process operating under thermophilic conditions could increase the profitability due to a more efficient utilization of reactor volume by using more process heat. The results from this study could be utilized by policy makers when implementing policy instruments considering biogas production from manure as well as companies involved in production and utilization of biogas.

  12. Economic potential of demand response at household level—Are Central-European market conditions sufficient?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to show the economic potential of demand response (DR) on household level at Central European market conditions. Thereby, required economic benefits for consumers' participation, the realistic load shifting potential at household level and the estimation of essential intelligent infrastructure costs are discussed. The core of this paper builds a case-study applying spot market-oriented load shifting from the supplier's point of view by using Austrian electricity market data, household load profiles as well as a heat pump and e-car charging load profile. It is demonstrated which cost savings for suppliers can be derived from such load shifting procedure at household level. Furthermore, upper cost limits for intelligent infrastructure in order to break-even are derived. Results suggest to take a critical look at European discussions on DR implementation on household level, showing that at Central European market conditions the potential for DR at household level is restricted to significant loads and hence, the applied load shifting strategy is only beneficial with application to heat pumps. In contrast, the frequently discussed shifting of conventional household devices' loads (such as washing machines) economically does not add up. - Highlights: • Calculation of economic potential of domestic DR at Central European market conditions. • Model and case-study of spot market-oriented load shifting from supplier's perspective. • Derivation of supplier's cost savings and upper cost limits for ICT infrastructure. • Results show economic potential of domestic DR to be restricted to significant loads. • Shifting of washing machines economically does not pay off in contrast to heat pumps

  13. A comparison of circulating fluidised bed combustion and gasification power plant technologies for processing mixtures of coal, biomass and plastic waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental regulations concerning emission limitations from the use of fossil fuels in large combustion plants have stimulated interest in biomass for electricity generation. The main objective of the present study was to examine the technical and economic viability of using combustion and gasification of coal mixed with biomass and plastic wastes, with the aim of developing an environmentally acceptable process to decrease their amounts in the waste stream through energy recovery. Mixtures of a high ash coal with biomass and/or plastic using fluidised bed technologies (combustion and gasification) were considered. Experiments were carried out in laboratory and pilot plant fluidised bed systems on the combustion and air/catalyst and air/steam gasification of these feedstocks and the data obtained were used in the techno-economic analyses. The experimental results were used in simulations of medium to large-scale circulating fluidised bed (CFB) power generation plants. Techno-economic analysis of the modelled CFB combustion systems showed efficiencies of around 40.5% (and around 46.5% for the modelled CFB gasification systems) when fuelled solely by coal, which were only minimally affected by co-firing with up to 20% biomass and/or wastes. Specific investments were found to be around $2150/kWe to $2400/kWe ($1350/kWe to $1450/kWe) and break-even electricity selling prices to be around $68/MWh to $78/MWh ($49/MWh to $54/MWh). Their emissions were found to be within the emission limit values of the large combustion plant directive. Fluidised bed technologies were found to be very suitable for co-firing coal and biomass and/or plastic waste and to offer good options for the replacement of obsolete or polluting power plants. (author)

  14. Economic analysis of a supercritical coal-fired CHP plant integrated with an absorption carbon capture installation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Energy investments in Poland are currently focused on supercritical coal-fired unit technology. It is likely, that in the future, these units are to be integrated with carbon capture and storage (CCS) installations, which enable a significant reduction of greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. A significant share of the energy market in Poland is constituted by coal-fired combined heat and power (CHP) plants. The integration of these units with CCS installation can be economically inefficient. However, the lack of such integration enhances the investment risk due to the possibility of appearing on the market in the near future high prices of emission allowances. The aforementioned factors and additional favorable conditions for the development of cogeneration can cause one to consider investing in large supercritical CHP plants. This paper presents the results of an economic analysis aimed at comparing three cases of CHP plants, one without an integrated CCS installation and two with such installations. The same steam cycle structure for all variants was adopted. The cases of integrated CHP plants differ from each other in the manner in which they recover heat. For the evaluation of the respective solutions, the break-even price of electricity and avoided emission cost were used. - Highlights: • The simulations of operation of CHP plants under changing load have been realized. • For analyzed cases sensitivity analyses of economic indices have been conducted. • Conditions of competitiveness for integration with CCS units have been identified. • Integration can be profitable if prices of allowance will reach high values, exceeding 50 €/MgCO2. • Others important factors are the investment costs and operation and maintenance costs

  15. Meeting the quest for spatial efficiency: progress and prospects of extensive aquaculture within offshore wind farms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, B. H.; Krause, G.; Michler-Cieluch, T.; Brenner, M.; Buchholz, C. M.; Busch, J. A.; Fisch, R.; Geisen, M.; Zielinski, O.

    2008-09-01

    Along the German North Sea coast, the observed high spatial competition of stakeholders has encouraged the idea of integrating open ocean aquaculture in conjunction with offshore wind farms beyond the 12 miles zone. The article provides an overview on the current state of transdisciplinary research on a potential implementation of such a multifunctional use concept on a showcase basis, covering biological, technical, economic and social/policy aspects as well as private-public partnerships and the relevant institutional bodies. We show that the cultivation of seaweeds and blue mussels is biologically and technically feasible in a high-energy environment using modified cultivation strategies. The point of departure of our multi-use concept was that the solid groundings of wind turbines could serve as attachment points for the aquaculture installations and become the key to the successful commercial cultivation of any offshore aquatic organism. However, spaces in between the turbines are also attractive for farming projects, since public access is restricted and thus the cultivation site protected from outside influences. An economic analysis of different operation scenarios indicates that the market price and the annual settlement success of juvenile mussels are the main factors that determine the breakeven point. Social and policy science research reveals that the integration of relevant actors into the development of a multi-use concept for a wind farm-mariculture interaction is a complex and controversial issue. Combining knowledge and experience of wind farm planners as well as mussel fishermen and mariculturists within the framework of national and EU policies is probably the most important component for designing and developing an effective offshore co-management regime to limit the consumption of ocean space.

  16. An Evaluation of Economic Impact on Juvenile Landings of Cephalopods in Mumbai Waters, Northwest Coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar Sugumar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Economic assessment of juvenile landings of 5 dominant cephalopods at New Ferry Wharf (NFW landing centre, Mumbai was carried out during January to December, 2013. Dominant cephalopod fishery recorded include one species of squid, Uroteuthis (P duvaucelii, three species of cuttlefishes, Sepia elliptica, Sepia pharaonis, Sepiella inermis and a species of octopus, Cistopus indicus together contributing 98% of total cephalopod landings. Estimated total annual economic gain calculated using bioeconomic model was Rs. 33.22 crores with estimated biomass gain of 4995 t per annum, if juveniles are allowed to grow up to length at first maturity (Lm/Lmean. Among five species, C. indicus contribute maximum with 64.07 % of average juvenile catch followed by U. (P duvaucelii (26 %, S. elliptica (23.63 %, S. inermis (23.27 %, and S. pharaonis (12.85 %. On these resources, while in S. inermis, both LM equals Lmean indicates breakeven point for the species. The study revealed that peak spawning season of these species coincides with peak juvenile landings which may result in reduction of overall size range thus will lead to loss of fishery in economic as well as ecosystem regime. The study indicates the improvement of harvest biomass by 2.95 times which would result in generating additional revenue to the fishers by a margin of 3.71 times; if juveniles are allowed to grow up to Lm/ Lmean whichever is greater. Based on finding of present study management measures such as temporary fishing holidays at juveniles fishing grounds, feeding grounds and spawner abundance grounds which in turn allow these high valued species to contribute to the fishery with high economic gain and sustainable utilization of the resources may be adopted.

  17. Applied Study of Price Discrimination Implemented on a Two-Path Route Expressway

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHI Jing

    2006-01-01

    This study aims at implementing price discrimination to get maximum revenue on a two-path route expressway, focusing on the problems which occur in traffic forecasting when applying a "profit-maximizing" toll designed to maximize revenue for a certain toll road in Japan. A break-even discussion is inevitable in the process of planning a certain toll road. According to the theory of transportation economics, market segmentation price discrimination is supposed to be efficient in the transportation market to increase the revenue of fixed facilities. In the model, a bypass and an adjacent expressway form a two-path route section. Two different toll levels are implemented for the bypass: one is for through traffic, and the other is for inside-inside and inside-outside traffics. This two-path route plus two-toll-level system thus causes difficulty in traffic assignment that is based on the minimum route searching method. In the study, a rational approach of adjusting the through traffic is implemented to predict the traffic flow as well as revenue on two parallel routes with different toll levels. The approximate calculation method that fixes the split rate of the passing through traffic flow is applied to solve the two-path route plus two-toll-level problem since passing through traffic is price elastic. Market segmentation pricing, which gives two toll levels in a toll road, is proved to be practical for increasing revenue. The results are also verified to be rational by using the survey data of Meishin Expressway.

  18. Economic evaluation of stall stocking density of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, Albert; Dechassa, Hailegziabher; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-05-01

    An increase in stall stocking density (SSD), as measured by the number of lactating cows per stall in a freestall barn, reduces cow performance, such as milk yield and fertility, but may increase farm profitability. Our objectives were to calculate effects of varying SSD on profit per stall for a range of effects on cow performances and external farm factors and store results in regression metamodels. The literature on quantified effects of SSD on cow performance that directly affects cash flow was found to be weak. We assumed effects of SSD on milk yield, probability of conception, and probability of culling. External farm factors were probability of insemination, feed price, and milk price. A herd budget-simulation model was used which mimics the performance of cows in a herd and calculates profit per stall per year and other results. The SSD varied from 100 (no overstocking) to 150% (severe overstocking) in steps of 10%. Sensitivity analyses for effects of SSD on cow performance and effects of external farm factors were performed. Three regression metamodels were developed. The first metamodel accurately predicted profitability at 100% SSD for all variations in the external farm factors. Optimal SSD varied from 100 to 150% SSD, depending on the combination of inputs, and was very sensitive to changes in the size of the milk loss and milk and feed prices. Average optimal SSD of all 2,187 combinations of inputs was 120% SSD and average maximum increase in profit was $99/stall per year. Of the 2,187 combinations of inputs, 18% were ascending (maximum increase in profit >150% SSD), 33% were descending (maximum profit at 100% SSD), and 50% had a maximum increase in profit between 100 and 150% SSD. The second metamodel accurately captured changes in profit for all combinations of biological and external inputs and SSD. A third metamodel captured breakeven daily milk losses which would result in the same profit as at 100% SSD given the same external farm factors. In

  19. Assessment of health benefits and cost-effectiveness of 10-valent and 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccination in Kenyan children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Ayieko

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The GAVI Alliance supported 10-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV10 introduction in Kenya. We estimated the cost-effectiveness of introducing either PCV10 or the 13-valent vaccine (PCV13 from a societal perspective and explored the incremental impact of including indirect vaccine effects. METHODS: The costs and effects of pneumococcal vaccination among infants born in Kenya in 2010 were assessed using a decision analytic model comparing PCV10 or PCV13, in turn, with no vaccination. Direct vaccine effects were estimated as a reduction in the incidence of pneumococcal meningitis, sepsis, bacteraemic pneumonia and non-bacteraemic pneumonia. Pneumococcal disease incidence was extrapolated from a population-based hospital surveillance system in Kilifi and adjustments were made for variable access to care across Kenya. We used vaccine efficacy estimates from a trial in The Gambia and accounted for serotype distribution in Kilifi. We estimated indirect vaccine protection and serotype replacement by extrapolating from the USA. Multivariable sensitivity analysis was conducted using Monte Carlo simulation. We assumed a vaccine price of US$ 3.50 per dose. FINDINGS: The annual cost of delivering PCV10 was approximately US$14 million. We projected a 42.7% reduction in pneumococcal disease episodes leading to a US$1.97 million reduction in treatment costs and a 6.1% reduction in childhood mortality annually. In the base case analysis, costs per discounted DALY and per death averted by PCV10, amounted to US$ 59 (95% CI 26-103 and US$ 1,958 (95% CI 866-3,425, respectively. PCV13 introduction improved the cost-effectiveness ratios by approximately 20% and inclusion of indirect effects improved cost-effectiveness ratios by 43-56%. The break-even prices for introduction of PCV10 and PCV13 are US$ 0.41 and 0.51, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Introducing either PCV10 or PCV13 in Kenya is highly cost-effective from a societal perspective. Indirect

  20. The Moroccan solar plan. A comparative analysis of CSP and PV utilization until 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richts, Christoph

    2012-02-15

    generation are internalized. The weighted average extra costs of a feed-in tariff for the analyzed scenarios range between 0.4% - 8.1% of today's electricity price until break-even with conventional energy.

  1. MODELLING CO2 EMISSIONS IMPACTS ON CROATIAN POWER SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Pašičko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Today's electrical energy landscape is characterized by new challenges such as deregulation, liberalization of energy markets, increased competition, growing demands on security of supply, price insecurities, and demand to cut CO2 emissions. All mentioned challenges are calling for consideration of various options (like nuclear, coal, gas or renewable scenarios and for better understanding of energy systems modelling in order to optimize proper energy mix. Existing models are not sufficient any more and planners will need to think differently in order to face these challenges. European emission trading scheme (EU ETS started in 2005 and it has great influence on power system short term and long term planning. Croatia is obliged to establish a national scheme for trading of greenhouse gas emission allowances from the year 2010, which will be focused on monitoring and reporting only until accession to EU when it will be linked with EU ETS. Thus, for Croatian power system it is very important to analyze possible impacts of CO2 emissions. Analysis presented in this paper was done by two different models: mathematical model, based on short run marginal costs (SRMC, relevant for fuel switch in existing power plant and merit order change and long run marginal costs (LRMC, relevant for new investment decisions; and electricity market simulation model PLEXOS, which was used for modelling Croatian power system during development of the Croatian energy strategy in 2008. Results of the analysis show important impacts that emission trading has on Croatian power system, such as influence of emission price rise on price of electricity and on emission quantity, and changes in power plants output that appear with emission price rise. Breakeven point after which gas power plant becomes more competitive than coal is 62 €/tCO2 for SRMC and 40 €/tCO2 for LRMC. With CO2 prices above 31 €/tCO2 wind is more competitive than gas or coal, which emphasizes

  2. Weighing the costs: Implementing the SLMTA programme in Zimbabwe using internal versus external facilitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin Shumba

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: In 2010, the Zimbabwe Ministry of Health and Child Welfare (MoHCW adopted the Strengthening Laboratory Management Toward Accreditation (SLMTA programme as a tool for laboratory quality systems strengthening.Objectives: To evaluate the financial costs of SLMTA implementation using two models (external facilitators; and internal local or MoHCW facilitators from the perspective of the implementing partner and to estimate resources needed to scale up the programme nationally in all 10 provinces.Methods: The average expenditure per laboratory was calculated based on accounting records; calculations included implementing partner expenses but excluded in-kind contributions and salaries of local facilitators and trainees. We also estimated theoretical financial costs, keeping all contextual variables constant across the two models. Resource needs for future national expansion were estimated based on a two-phase implementation plan, in which 12 laboratories in each of five provinces would implement SLMTA per phase; for the internal facilitator model, 20 facilitators would be trained at the beginning of each phase.Results: The average expenditure to implement SLMTA in 11 laboratories using external facilitators was approximately US$5800 per laboratory; expenditure in 19 laboratories using internal facilitators was approximately $6000 per laboratory. The theoretical financial cost of implementing a 12-laboratory SLMTA cohort keeping all contextual variables constant would be approximately $58 000 using external facilitators; or $15 000 using internal facilitators, plus $86 000 to train 20 facilitators. The financial cost for subsequent SLMTA cohorts using the previously-trained internal facilitators would be approximately $15 000, yielding a break-even point of 2 cohorts, at $116 000 for either model. Estimated resources required for national implementation in 120 laboratories would therefore be $580 000 using external facilitators ($58

  3. Fog harvesting on the verge of economic competitiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiedemann, K. J.; Lummerich, A.

    2010-07-01

    be connected to a centralized water supply system within the next two decades. At the given water price and a given location, we calculate a break-even point after 8-9 years following the investment.

  4. Particulate filter behaviour of a Diesel engine fueled with biodiesel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biodiesel is an alternative and renewable fuel made from plant and animal fat or cooked oil through a transesterification process to produce a short chain ester (generally methyl ester). Biodiesel fuels have been worldwide studied in Diesel engines and they were found to be compatible in blends with Diesel fuel to well operate in modern Common Rail engines. Also throughout the world the diffusion of biofuels is being promoted in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and the environmental impact of transport, and to increase security of supply. To meet the current exhaust emission regulations, after-treatment devices are necessary; in particular Diesel Particulate Filters (DPFs) are essential to reduce particulate emissions of Diesel engines. A critical requirement for the implementation of DPF on a modern Biodiesel powered engine is the determination of Break-even Temperature (BET) which is defined as the temperature at which particulate deposition on the filter is balanced by particulate oxidation on the filter. To fit within the exhaust temperature range of the exhaust line and to require a minimum of active regeneration during the engine running, the BET needs to occur at sufficiently low temperatures. In this paper, the results of an experimental campaign on a modern, electronic controlled fuel injection Diesel engine are shown. The engine was fuelled either with petroleum ultralow sulphur fuel or with Biodiesel: BET was evaluated for both fuels. Results show that on average, the BET is lower for biodiesel than for diesel fuel. The final goal was to characterize the regeneration process of the DPF device depending on the adopted fuel, taking into account the different combustion process and the different nature of the particulate matter. Overall the results suggest significant benefits for the use of biodiesel in engines equipped with DPFs. - Highlights: ► We compare Diesel Particulate Trap (DPF) performance with Biodiesel and Diesel fuel. ► The Break

  5. RETHINKING THE ROLE OF CLINICAL TRIAL DATA IN INTERNATIONAL INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW: THE CASE FOR A PUBLIC GOODS APPROACH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichman, Jerome H

    2009-01-01

    health. Although liability rules are better than the status quo, they would not resolve the problem of treating a public good as proprietary. Governments should thus oversee and fund clinical trials as the public good that they are. Clinical tests should be awarded to the most qualified scientists through a competitive process, financed in part with the decrease in drug costs to governmental health care programs and in part with drug developers' contributions, selected to maximize social benefit, and made global via intergovernmental bodies to maximize social return. This would reduce the cost of redundant investigations to the global public health system, lower supply costs to drug consumers, and lower the breakeven point for investment in research to discover new drugs. PMID:20431702

  6. RETHINKING THE ROLE OF CLINICAL TRIAL DATA IN INTERNATIONAL INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY LAW: THE CASE FOR A PUBLIC GOODS APPROACH

    Science.gov (United States)

    REICHMAN, JEROME H.

    2009-01-01

    expense of public health. Although liability rules are better than the status quo, they would not resolve the problem of treating a public good as proprietary. Governments should thus oversee and fund clinical trials as the public good that they are. Clinical tests should be awarded to the most qualified scientists through a competitive process, financed in part with the decrease in drug costs to governmental health care programs and in part with drug developers’ contributions, selected to maximize social benefit, and made global via intergovernmental bodies to maximize social return. This would reduce the cost of redundant investigations to the global public health system, lower supply costs to drug consumers, and lower the breakeven point for investment in research to discover new drugs. PMID:20431702

  7. Field Study of Drilling Bits Performance Optimization Using a Computer Model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oriji, A. Boniface

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available One of the major problems facing drilling operations is the performance of the drilling Bits. The ability of the Bit to crush the rock and the removal of the crushed rock from the wellbore effectively. It is necessary to understand the fundamental difference in Bit design for different rock textures because many variables tend to affect Bit optimization, particularly the type of formations, economics and Bit selection. However, the cost of drilling a well has a considerable effect on the selection and the design of a particular Bit, therefore this paper focuses on the development of a model that will predict future Bit performance and optimization for actual well design and construction. The variables to optimize Bit performance provide means of handling cost estimation hence the model becomes more realistic and dynamic in its application. The input variables and control factors for this model are stretched to minimize cost and maximize performance. The cost per foot and the break even calculations were done using data from the reference well X14 and also the evaluation well X35 from a field-X in the Niger Delta region. A Visual Basic dot Net program model was developed, tested and validated with the real field data to know its accuracy. The model interface shows the detailed application of the Bits in validating the data to provide the equivalent results for the five different Bits. Each set of the Bit record was ran separately on the software and the results for each application developed for comparison. In the software, data application were grouped into two distinct methods namely; rentals method and historical method. Under the rentals method, data were uploaded into the software and ran to generate results while the historical method was basically used for model prediction. The breakeven analysis provided a technique for calculating the performance required for an alternative Bit type to match the cost per foot of the current Bit. Based on

  8. Statistical Analysis of Medical Equipment Achievements Based on Data Warehouse%基于数据仓库的医疗设备绩效统计分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍洪波; 何必仕; 吴斌; 徐哲

    2013-01-01

    Objective A data warehouse of medical imaging information was built to offer accurate data for expanding research of medical equipment achievements and improving modern management. Methods We built the data warehouse based on massive amounts of data accumulated for years by the radiology information system and picture archiving and communication system (RIS/pACS) of a grade three hospital so as to implement OLAp multidimensional data cube analysis and equipment exam quantity forecast. Results We realized data mining of equipment efifciency through the break-even model in order to provide intuitive and deep statistical chart data for the hospital leaders to assist decision-making. Conclusion The application of data warehouse and data mining used in analyzing medical equipment achievement could properly solve problems of achievement, price, risk and so on, furthermore, give full play to social and economic beneifts of medical equipment.%目的建立医院医疗影像信息数据库,为决策者深入研究医疗设备绩效、促进医院现代化管理提供准确数据。方法针对某三甲医院医疗影像信息系统(RIS/PACS)数年积累的海量数据,建立数据仓库,用于多维数据立方体OLAP分析及设备检查量预测。结果通过盈亏平衡模型实现设备效益数据挖掘,可为决策者提供各种直观的、深层的统计图表数据。结论将数据仓库和数据挖掘技术应用于医疗设备绩效分析中,可较好地解决医疗设备绩效、代价、风险等互相制约的问题,进而充分发挥医疗设备的社会效益和经济效益。

  9. Resultados econômicos de sistemas de produção de leite com diferentes níveis tecnológicos na região de Lavras MG nos anos 2004 e 2005 Economical results of milk production systems with different technological levels in the area of Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil in the years 2004 and 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aurélio Lopes

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a rentabilidade da atividade leiteira na região de Lavras/MG, analisando a influência do nível tecnológico sobre o custo de produção do leite. Foram identificados os componentes com maior influência sobre os custos finais da atividade e calculado o ponto de equilíbrio. Os dados, provenientes de 17 sistemas de produção, representando os níveis tecnológicos baixo, médio e alto, foram coletados mensalmente, entre janeiro de 2004 e dezembro de 2005. Considerou-se a margem bruta, a margem líquida e o resultado (lucro ou prejuízo como indicadores de eficiência econômica. O nível tecnológico influenciou os itens componentes do custo operacional efetivo da atividade leiteira, bem como o custo total de produção do leite - a lucratividade e rentabilidade. Os sistemas de produção com nível tecnológico médio apresentaram o menor custo total unitário. A margem líquida positiva nos três níveis tecnológicos indica que os pecuaristas conseguem produzir a médio prazo; e por apresentar resultado negativo, os pecuaristas que adotaram médio nível tecnológico, a longo prazo, estão se descapitalizando.The profitability of dairy farming was studied in the region of Lavras, MG by analyzing the influence of technological level on the milk production cost. The components with major influence on the final activity cost were identified, and the break-even was calculated. Monthly data from 17 production systems representing the low, medium and high technological levels were taken from January 2004 to December 2005. Gross margin and net margin (profit or loss were considered as indicators of economical efficiency. The technological level had impact on the effective operational cost of dairy farming as well as on the total costs of milk production - rentability and profitability. Production systems with medium technological level had the lowest total unitary cost. Positive net margin in the three technological levels shows that

  10. Controle gerencial e estudo da rentabilidade de sistemas de produção de leite na região de Lavras (MG Managerial control and profitability study of milk production systems in Lavras region (MG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Aurélio Lopes

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com esta pesquisa estudar a rentabilidade da atividade leiteira de sistemas de produção de leite na região de Lavras/MG. Pretendeu-se, ainda, identificar os componentes que exerceram maior influência sobre os custos finais da atividade e identificar o ponto de equilíbrio. Os dados utilizados foram provenientes de 16 sistemas de produção localizados na região de Lavras, coletados mensalmente durante o período de janeiro de 2002 a junho de 2003. O processamento eletrônico dos dados, bem como a análise de rentabilidade, foram realizados pelo software Custo Bovino Leite®, considerando a margem bruta, a margem líquida e o resultado (lucro ou prejuízo como indicadores de eficiência econômica. Os itens componentes do custo operacional efetivo que exerceram maior influência sobre os custos da atividade leiteira foram, em ordem decrescente, a alimentação, mão-de-obra, despesas diversas, energia, sanidade, ordenha, impostos e inseminação artificial. Na análise econômica, por apresentar margem líquida positiva e o resultado negativo, conclui-se que a atividade leiteira tem condições de produzir em médio prazo; e, em longo prazo, os pecuaristas estão se descapitalizando.The scope of this research was to study the profitability of dairy business of milk production systems in Lavras region (MG. In addition, to identify the components which most influence the final costs of the business and the breakeven point. The data utilized came from 16 production systems, situated in Lavras region, collected monthly during the period of January 2002 to June 2003. The data processing as well as the profitability analysis were accomplished by the Custo Bovino Leite software. The analyses of costs and profitability were performed by taking into consideration gross margin, net margin and the result (profit or loss as indicators of economic efficiency. The items component of the effective operational cost which most influenced the

  11. Resultados econômicos de sistemas de produção de leite com diferentes níveis tecnológicos na região de Lavras, MG Economic results of milk production systems with different technological levels in the area of Lavras, Minas Gerais, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Lopes

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Estudou-se a rentabilidade da atividade leiteira na região de Lavras, MG, analisando a influência do nível tecnológico sobre o custo de produção do leite. Foram identificados os componentes com maior influência sobre os custos finais da atividade e calculado o ponto de equilíbrio. Os dados, provenientes de 16 sistemas de produção, representando os níveis tecnológicos baixo, médio e alto, foram coletados mensalmente, entre janeiro de 2002 e junho de 2003. Consideraram-se a margem bruta, a margem líquida e o resultado (lucro ou prejuízo como indicadores de eficiência econômica. O nível tecnológico influenciou o custo total de produção do leite - lucratividade e rentabilidade. Os sistemas de produção com nível tecnológico baixo apresentaram o menor custo unitário. O nível tecnológico influenciou os itens componentes do custo operacional efetivo da atividade leiteira. A margem líquida positiva e a lucratividade negativa, nos três níveis tecnológicos, indicaram que os pecuaristas estarão se descapitalizando a longo prazo, mas não a médio prazo.The profitability of milk activity was studied in the region of Lavras, MG by analyzing the influence of the technological level on milk cost. The components with major influence on the final cost of the activity were identified and the breakeven point was calculated. Monthly data from 16 production systems representing the low, medium and high technological levels from January 2002 to June 2003 were used. The gross margin, net income and the profit or loss results for the period were used as indicators of economic efficiency. The technological level had impact on the total costs of the milk and consequently on its profitability. The low level production system showed the lowest costs. The technological level also had an impact on the operational cost of the activity. The analysis of the net income and losses observed during the period for the three technological levels

  12. Economic feasibility of biochar application to soils in temperate climate regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soja, Gerhard; Bücker, Jannis; Gunczy, Stefan; Kitzler, Barbara; Klinglmüller, Michaela; Kloss, Stefanie; Watzinger, Andrea; Wimmer, Bernhard; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Zehetner, Franz

    2014-05-01

    The findings that fertility improvements in tropical soils have been successfully mediated by biochar applications have caused wide-spread interest to use biochar as a soil amendment also for soils in temperate climate regions. But these soils in intensively cultivated regions are not always as acidic or sandy as the tropical Ferralsols where biochar is most effective. Therefore it is not self-evident that different soil characteristics allow biochar to display the same benefits if site-specific demands for the optimal organic soil amendment are not considered. This study pursued the objective to study the extent of benefits that biochar could provide for crops on two typical Austrian agricultural soils in a two-year field experiment. An economic evaluation assessed the local biochar production costs and compared them with the value of the observed biochar benefits. From a business economic viewpoint, currently high costs of biochar are not balanced by only moderate increases in crop yields and thus agricultural revenues. Improved water retention due to biochar, however, might justify biochar as an adaptation measure to global warming, especially when considering beside business economic aspects also overall economic aspects. When not assuming total crop failures but only increased soil fertility, even an inclusion of avoided social (=societal) costs by sequestering carbon and thereby helping to mitigate climate change do not economically justify the application of biochar. Price of biochar would need to decrease by at least 40 % to achieve a break-even from the overall economic viewpoint (if optimistic assumptions about the social value of sequestered carbon are applied; at pessimistic assumptions price for biochar must decrease even more in order to break even). When applying an alternative type of soil treatment of using modified biochar but avoiding additional N-fertilization, a similar picture arises: Social benefits due to avoided N-fertilization and

  13. Valuation of investments in natural resources using contingent-claim framework with application to bituminous coal developments in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As Brennan and Schwartz [Brennan M, Schwartz E. Evaluating natural resource investment. Journal of Business 1985;58:135-57] point out in their pioneering work, the valuation of natural resources projects is particularly difficult due to the high degree of uncertainty in output prices of resources. In general, there are two competing procedures to evaluate risky projects in natural resources developments. One is decision analytic, based on traditional discounted cash flow and stochastic dynamic programming [Fleten SE, Maribu KM, Wangensteen I. Optimal investment strategies in decentralized renewable power generation under uncertainty. Energy 2007;32:803-15; Smith J, McCardle K. Valuing oil properties: integrating option pricing and decision analysis approaches. Operations Research 1998;46(2):198-217; Szklo AS, Carneiro JTG, Machado G. Break-even price for upstream activities in Brazil: evaluation of the opportunity cost of oil production delay in a non-mature sedimentary production region. Energy 2008;33:589-600], and the other is contingent claims analysis, based on the no-arbitrage theory of financial markets [Brennan M, Schwartz E. Evaluating natural resource investment. Journal of Business 1985;58:135-57; Emhjellen M, Alaouze CM. A comparison of discounted cash flow and modern asset pricing methods - project selection and policy implications. Energy Policy 2003;31:1213-20; Laughton D. The management of flexibility in the upstream petroleum industry. The Energy Journal 1998;19:83-114; Paddock L, Siegel D, Smith J. Option valuation of claims on real assets: the case of offshore petroleum leases. Quarterly Journal of Economics 1988;103(3):479-508; Schwartz ES. Valuing long-term commodity assets. Journal of Energy Finance and Development 1998;3(2):85-99; Sezgen O, Goldman CA, Krishnarao P. Option value of electricity demand response. Energy 2007;32:108-19]. In this paper, we use the second approach to develop a new model, and the main contributions are providing a

  14. Valuation of investments in natural resources using contingent-claim framework with application to bituminous coal developments in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As Brennan and Schwartz [Brennan M, Schwartz E. Evaluating natural resource investment. Journal of Business 1985;58:135-57] point out in their pioneering work, the valuation of natural resources projects is particularly difficult due to the high degree of uncertainty in output prices of resources. In general, there are two competing procedures to evaluate risky projects in natural resources developments. One is decision analytic, based on traditional discounted cash flow and stochastic dynamic programming [Fleten SE, Maribu KM, Wangensteen I. Optimal investment strategies in decentralized renewable power generation under uncertainty. Energy 2007;32:803-15; Smith J, McCardle K. Valuing oil properties: integrating option pricing and decision analysis approaches. Operations Research 1998;46(2):198-217; Szklo AS, Carneiro JTG, Machado G. Break-even price for upstream activities in Brazil: evaluation of the opportunity cost of oil production delay in a non-mature sedimentary production region. Energy 2008;33:589-600], and the other is contingent claims analysis, based on the no-arbitrage theory of financial markets [Brennan M, Schwartz E. Evaluating natural resource investment. Journal of Business 1985;58:135-57; Emhjellen M, Alaouze CM. A comparison of discounted cash flow and modern asset pricing methods - project selection and policy implications. Energy Policy 2003;31:1213-20; Laughton D. The management of flexibility in the upstream petroleum industry. The Energy Journal 1998;19:83-114; Paddock L, Siegel D, Smith J. Option valuation of claims on real assets: the case of offshore petroleum leases. Quarterly Journal of Economics 1988;103(3):479-508; Schwartz ES. Valuing long-term commodity assets. Journal of Energy Finance and Development 1998;3(2):85-99; Sezgen O, Goldman CA, Krishnarao P. Option value of electricity demand response. Energy 2007;32:108-19]. In this paper, we use the second approach to develop a new model, and the main contributions are providing a

  15. D-Cluster Converter Foil for Laser-Accelerated Deuteron Beams: Towards Deuteron-Beam-Driven Fast Ignition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miley, George H.

    2012-10-24

    at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) in CA within a year. This will usher in the technology development Phase of ICF after years of research aimed at achieving breakeven experiment. Methods to achieve the high energy gain needed for a competitive power plant will then be a key developmental issue, and our D-cluster target for Fast Ignition (FI) is expected to meet that need.

  16. Process designs and cost estimates for a medium Btu gasification plant using a wood feedstock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desrosiers, R. E.

    1979-02-01

    A gasification plant to effect the conversion of wood to medium-Btu gas has been designed. The Purox gasifier and associated equipment were selected as a prototype, since this system is nearer to commercialization than others considered. The object was to determine the cost of those processing steps common to all gasification schemes and to identify specific research areas. A detailed flowsheet and mass-balance are presented. Capital investment statements for three plant sizes (400, 800, 1,600 oven-dry tons per day) are included along with manufacturing costs for each of these plants at three feedstock prices: $10, $20, $30 per green ton (or $20, $40, $60 per dry ton). The design incorporates a front-end handling system, package cryogenic oxygen plant, the Purox gasifier, a gas-cleaning train consisting of a spray scrubber, ionizing wet scrubber, and condenser, and a wastewater treatment facility including a cooling tower and a package activated sludge unit. Cost figures for package units were obtained from suppliers and used for the oxygen and wastewater treatment plants. The gasifier is fed with wood chips at 20% moisture (wet basis). For each pound of wood, 0.32 lb of oxygen are required, and 1.11 lb of gas are produced. The heating value of the gas product is 300 Btu/scf. For each Btu of energy input (feed + process energy) to the plant, 0.91 Btu exists with the product gas. Total capital investments required for the plants considered are $9, $15, and $24 million (1978) respectively. In each case, the oxygen plant represents about 50% of the total investment. For feedstock prices from $10 to $30 per green ton ($1.11 to $3.33 per MM Btu), break-even costs of fuel gas range from $3 to $7 per MM Btu. At $30/ton, the feedstock cost represents approximately 72% of the total product cost for the largest plant size; at $10/ton, it represents only 47% of product cost.

  17. Economic evaluation of stall stocking density of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vries, Albert; Dechassa, Hailegziabher; Hogeveen, Henk

    2016-05-01

    An increase in stall stocking density (SSD), as measured by the number of lactating cows per stall in a freestall barn, reduces cow performance, such as milk yield and fertility, but may increase farm profitability. Our objectives were to calculate effects of varying SSD on profit per stall for a range of effects on cow performances and external farm factors and store results in regression metamodels. The literature on quantified effects of SSD on cow performance that directly affects cash flow was found to be weak. We assumed effects of SSD on milk yield, probability of conception, and probability of culling. External farm factors were probability of insemination, feed price, and milk price. A herd budget-simulation model was used which mimics the performance of cows in a herd and calculates profit per stall per year and other results. The SSD varied from 100 (no overstocking) to 150% (severe overstocking) in steps of 10%. Sensitivity analyses for effects of SSD on cow performance and effects of external farm factors were performed. Three regression metamodels were developed. The first metamodel accurately predicted profitability at 100% SSD for all variations in the external farm factors. Optimal SSD varied from 100 to 150% SSD, depending on the combination of inputs, and was very sensitive to changes in the size of the milk loss and milk and feed prices. Average optimal SSD of all 2,187 combinations of inputs was 120% SSD and average maximum increase in profit was $99/stall per year. Of the 2,187 combinations of inputs, 18% were ascending (maximum increase in profit >150% SSD), 33% were descending (maximum profit at 100% SSD), and 50% had a maximum increase in profit between 100 and 150% SSD. The second metamodel accurately captured changes in profit for all combinations of biological and external inputs and SSD. A third metamodel captured breakeven daily milk losses which would result in the same profit as at 100% SSD given the same external farm factors. In

  18. Economic and emission accounting for acid-gas injection projects : an example from KeySpan Brazeau River, Alberta, Canada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sikora, R. [KeySpan Energy Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada); Wong, S.; Gunter, W.D. [Alberta Research Council, Edmonton, AB (Canada); Wichert, E. [Sogapro Engineering, Calgary, AB (Canada); McCulloch, M. [Pembina Inst., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    The Claus process has been used to treat the sour gas at the Brazeau River gas plant located 250 km southwest of Edmonton, Alberta since 1969, with a minimum sulphur requirement of 92.1 per cent. The process converts sulphur compounds to elemental sulphur, which can then be sold or stockpiled, while the residual carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is vented to the atmosphere. A SuperClaus sulphur recovery process can be added to the Claus process to convert even more residual sulphur that remains in the acid gas after having passed through the Claus beds. However, given the current low price of sulphur, the cost of sulphur recovery exceeds the value of the sulphur. Another option would be to inject the acid gas, CO{sub 2} and hydrogen sulphide (H{sub 2}S), into the Nisku Q Pool, a depleted gas reservoir. The economic merits and emission characteristics of the two options were compared on a life cycle basis, with particular reference to an AGI operation at the KeySpan Brazeau River gas plant, Alberta. AGI involves compressing the acid gas and injecting it into a suitable underground zone, similar to deep well disposal of produced water. Although the purpose of the AGI operations is to dispose of the H{sub 2}S, significant quantities of CO{sub 2} are being injected at the same time. The injection of acid gas into a depleted gas reservoir would eliminate sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emissions at the plant site, increase plant efficiency, lower capital and life-cycle costs, extend plant life and employment. The Brazeau River Acid-Gas Injection Project effectively deals with the proactive de-grandfathering of sulphur recovery gas plants and reduction of greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere. It was concluded that acid-gas injection at Brazeau is cost effective. The current scheme would generate a breakeven sulphur price of at least $15.5/t net of transportation cost. Obtaining CO{sub 2} credits for CO{sub 2} storage in acid-gas injection operation was shown to be feasible

  19. Feasibility of pico-hydro and photovoltaic hybrid power systems for remote villages in Cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nfah, E.M. [Laboratoire d' Automatique et d' Informatique Appliquee, I.U.T. Fotso Victor, P.O. Box 134, Bandjoun, University of Dschang (Cameroon); Ngundam, J.M. [Automation and Control Laboratory, School of Engineering, P.O. Box 8390, University of Yaounde I (Cameroon)

    2009-06-15

    Pico-hydro (pH) and photovoltaic (PV) hybrid systems incorporating a biogas generator have been simulated for remote villages in Cameroon using a load of 73 kWh/day and 8.3 kWp. Renewable energy systems were simulated using HOMER, the load profile of a hostel in Cameroon, the solar insolation of Garoua and the flow of river Mungo. For a 40% increase in the cost of imported power system components, the cost of energy was found to be either 0.352 EUR/kWh for a 5 kW pico-hydro generator with 72 kWh storage or 0.396 EUR/kWh for a 3 kWp photovoltaic generator with 36 kWh storage. These energy costs were obtained with a biomass resource cost of 25 EUR/tonne. The pH and PV hybrid systems both required the parallel operation of a 3.3 kW battery inverter with a 10 kW biogas generator. The pH/biogas/battery systems simulated for villages located in the south of Cameroon with a flow rate of at least 92 l/s produced lower energy costs than PV/biogas/battery systems simulated for villages in the north of Cameroon with an insolation level of at least 5.55 kWh/m{sup 2}/day. For a single-wire grid extension cost of 5000 EUR/km, operation and maintenance costs of 125 EUR/yr/km and a grid power price of 0.1 EUR/kWh, the breakeven grid extension distances were found to be 12.9 km for pH/biogas/battery systems and 15.2 km for PV/biogas/battery systems respectively. Investments in biogas based renewable energy systems could thus be considered in the National Energy Action Plan of Cameroon for the supply of energy to key sectors involved in poverty alleviation. (author)

  20. Medical economics of whole-body FDG PET in patients suspected of having non-small cell lung carcinoma. Reassessment based on the revised Japanese national insurance reimbursement system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Focusing on the savings expected from the revised Japanese national insurance reimbursement system in the management of patients suspected of having non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC), cost-effectiveness was assessed using decision tree sensitivity analysis on the basis of the 2 competing strategies of whole-body FDG PET (WB-PET) and conventional imaging (CI). A WB-PET strategy that models dependence upon chest FDG PET scan, WB-PET scan, and brain MR imaging with contrast was designed. The cost of a FDG PET examination was updated and determined to be US$625.00. The CI strategy involves a combination of conventional examinations, such as abdominal CT with contrast, brain MR imaging with contrast, and a whole-body bone scan. A simulation of 1,000 patients suspected of having NSCLC (Stages I to IV) was created for each strategy using a decision tree and baselines of other relevant variables cited from published data. By using the WB-PET strategy in place of the CI strategy for the management of patients suspected of having NSCLC in hospitals with an NSCLC prevalence of 75%, the cost saving (CS) for each patient would be US$697.69 for an M1 prevalence of 20% and US$683.52 for an M1 prevalence of 40%, but the CS gradually decreases as the NSCLC prevalence increases. The break-even point requires less than an 80% prevalence in order for the WB-PET strategy to gain life expectancy (LE) per patient. By using the WB-PET strategy in place of the CI strategy for the management of patients suspected of having NSCLC in hospitals with an NSCLC prevalence of 75%, the gain in LE for each patient would be 0.04 years (11.06 vs. 11.02 years) for an M1 prevalence of 20% and 0.10 years (10.13 vs. 10.03 years) for an M1 prevalence of 40%. The maximum cost of a PET study without losing LE would be US$1322.68 per patient for prevalences of 75% NSCLC and 20% M1 disease. The present study quantitatively showed WB-PET, employed in place of CI for managing NSCLC patients, to be cost

  1. Process assessment of small scale low temperature methanol synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendriyana, Susanto, Herri; Subagjo

    2015-12-01

    analysis. The presented study is an attempt to compile most of these efforts in order to guide future work to get cheaper low cost investment. From our study the interesting configuration to the next development is D configuration with methanol yield 112 ton/day and capital cost with 526.4 106 IDR. The configuration of D with non-discounted and discounted rate had the break-even point approximately six and eight years.

  2. Extreme Radiation Hardness and Space Qualification of AlGaN Optoelectronic Devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Ke-Xun; Balakrishnan, Kathik; Hultgren, Eric; Goebel, John; Bilenko, Yuri; Yang, Jinwei; Sun, Wenhong; Shatalov, Max; Hu, Xuhong

    2010-09-21

    Unprecedented radiation hardness and environment robustness are required in the new generation of high energy density physics (HEDP) experiments and deep space exploration. National Ignition Facility (NIF) break-even shots will have a neutron yield of 1015 or higher. The Europa Jupiter System Mission (EJSM) mission instruments will be irradiated with a total fluence of 1012 protons/cm2 during the space journey. In addition, large temperature variations and mechanical shocks are expected in these applications under extreme conditions. Hefty radiation and thermal shields are required for Si and GaAs based electronics and optoelectronics devices. However, for direct illumination and imaging applications, shielding is not a viable option. It is an urgent task to search for new semiconductor technologies and to develop radiation hard and environmentally robust optoelectronic devices. We will report on our latest systematic experimental studies on radiation hardness and space qualifications of AlGaN optoelectronic devices: Deep UV Light Emitting Diodes (DUV LEDs) and solarblind UV Photodiodes (PDs). For custom designed AlGaN DUV LEDs with a central emission wavelength of 255 nm, we have demonstrated its extreme radiation hardness up to 2x1012 protons/cm2 with 63.9 MeV proton beams. We have demonstrated an operation lifetime of over 26,000 hours in a nitrogen rich environment, and 23,000 hours of operation in vacuum without significant power drop and spectral shift. The DUV LEDs with multiple packaging styles have passed stringent space qualifications with 14 g random vibrations, and 21 cycles of 100K temperature cycles. The driving voltage, current, emission spectra and optical power (V-I-P) operation characteristics exhibited no significant changes after the space environmental tests. The DUV LEDs will be used for photoelectric charge management in space flights. For custom designed AlGaN UV photodiodes with a central response wavelength of 255 nm, we have demonstrated

  3. Process assessment of small scale low temperature methanol synthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendriyana [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Jenderal Achmad Yani Univerity (Indonesia); Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Industrial Technology, InstitutTeknologi Bandung (Indonesia); Susanto, Herri, E-mail: herri@che.itb.ac.id; Subagjo [Chemical Engineering Department, Faculty of Industrial Technology, InstitutTeknologi Bandung (Indonesia)

    2015-12-29

    balance and economic analysis. The presented study is an attempt to compile most of these efforts in order to guide future work to get cheaper low cost investment. From our study the interesting configuration to the next development is D configuration with methanol yield 112 ton/day and capital cost with 526.4 10{sup 6} IDR. The configuration of D with non-discounted and discounted rate had the break-even point approximately six and eight years.

  4. Deficit subsurface drip irrigation of cotton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment in arid west Texas, United States of America, grew cotton with subsurface drip irrigation providing four basic levels of water resource and three row widths (1.02 m, 0.76 m, and approximately 0.38 m). The former two row-width treatments contained three planting configurations (a full pattern and two skip patterns). In all, there were seven row-width-pattern configurations, each of which had four water levels, for a total of 28 treatments. Where farmers do not have enough water with which to irrigate their crops, they may choose: (1) to reduce their planted area and apply more water (up to the full water requirement) on this portion of their land; or (2) plant the entire area, whereby they apply a quantity of irrigation water that only partially meets consumptive use requirements. The purpose of this study was to develop mathematical characterizations for yield as a function of water resource for various popular row width/patterns, and then to use these equations in crop budget models to determine economically optimum scenarios for local cotton growers. The full cotton production budgets were based on a 405-ha farm. The assumed water resource varied from scarcely any to enough, with proper management, to supply the majority of crop water needs. In almost all scenarios, it was economically sound to stretch the water resource over the entire farm, rather than to try to maximize yield on portions of the farm. A break-even economic water resource between covering the entire farm irrigating only portions of it was about 2.0 mm/day. Ultra-narrow-row treatments significantly exceeded the treatments with traditional row widths at all four water levels. The highest yield of lint was 1 833 kg/ha. Applying large portions of the moisture requirement as pre-planting irrigation enabled yields of 600-900 kg/ha of lint for the full pattern width treatments on the smallest water treatment, which applied 36 mm of in-season irrigation. The skip-row patterns did not yield

  5. Combating desertification - fuel oil from jatropha plants in Africa: a systematic approach applied by a GTZ-supported project in Mali, West Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    -subsidized situation in which all investments are financed by agricultural bank credits, an internal rate of return (IRR) of about 26% is achieved. The break-even analysis shows that the system becomes economically viable when the oil press is used at 25% of its capacity. (author)

  6. Studies on the production of building material grade slag from hazardous-waste incineration plants; Untersuchungen zur Herstellung einer Schlacke mit Baustoffqualitaet aus Sondermuellverbrennungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reich, J.; Herbel, J.D.; Pasel, C. [Duisburg Univ. (Gesamthochschule) (Germany). Fachgebiet Abfalltechnik

    1998-09-01

    In an attempt to restore the competitive power of hazardous-waste incineration within the present legal framework, plant operators have in some cases lowered disposal prices below the break-even point; in this respect there is no further room for improvement. One approach towards a new marketable solution could be to use rotary kilns not only for disposal but also as production plants. This could be achieved by means of input control and loading materials. If, for example, the slag remaining after combustion could be made to meet building material specifications, thus providing a marketable product, then rotary kilns would be able to serve as production plants for a secondary raw material. If it should prove possible in the course of manufacturing campaigns to develop slags from hazardous-waste incineration plants to a marketable product, then operators will thus have complied to the demand of the Law on Recycling and Waste Management for waste avoidance and that of the Emission Control Law for residue recycling. Targeted use of suitable loading materials for quality improvement could enable operators of hazardous-waste incineration plants to secure a new strategic position on the market as building material manufacturers and utilise existing plant capacities. [Deutsch] Um die Sonderabfallverbrennung im Rahmen der rechtlichen Vorgaben wieder konkurrenzfaehig zu machen, haben die Anlagenbetreiber die Entsorgungspreise teilweise unter die Grenze der Kostendeckung zurueckgenommen; hier besteht kein Spielraum mehr. Ein neuer, marktgerechter Ansatz koennte sich dann ergeben, wenn die Drehrohroefen statt als Beseitigungsaggregate durch Inputsteuerung und Zuschlaege eventuell auch als Produktionsanlagen einzusetzen waeren. Wenn z.B. die Schlacke, als Rueckstand aus der Verbrennung, als ein im Baustoffmarkt absetzbares Produkt nach Qualitaetskriterien gezielt hergestellt wuerde, koennte der Drehrohrofen als Produktionsanlage fuer einen Sekundaerrohstoff betrieben werden

  7. Enhanced Coal Bed Methane Recovery and CO2 Sequestration in the Powder River Basin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric P. Robertson

    2010-06-01

    effectively sequester over 86,000 tons (78,200 Mg) of CO2 per acre while recovering methane to offset costs. The cost to separate CO2 from flue gas was identified as the major cost driver associated with CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams. Improvements in separations technology alone are unlikely to drive costs low enough for CO2 sequestration in unminable coal seams in the Powder River Basin to become economically viable. Breakthroughs in separations technology could aid the economics, but in the Powder River Basin, they cannot achieve the necessary cost reductions for breakeven economics without incentives.

  8. Thoughts on Doing Books for External Use of the Overseas Engineering Construction Enterprise%关于境外施工企业外账编制的一些思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛立智

    2009-01-01

    This paper probes into ways of doing books for external use by the overseas contractors. On the basis of expoun-cling the necessity and objective grounds for working out separate books for external use by the overseas contractor, it further discusses the relationship between the internal books and the external books, objectives and principles guiding such book doing, the layout, design and methodologies corresponding to various situations for the external accounts system. The article points out some noteworthy problems and specific solutions in the areas of monetary capital handling, breakeven balancing, payment of taxes and dues when doing books for external use. In the end of the paper, the writer explores such issues as normalization and standardization of accounting fundamentals for books oriented towards the externals and puts forth relevant suggestions. This article attempts to bring up and clarify some concepts and methodologies for working out books oriented to the outside so to increase "retm'ns on doing books for external use", decrease "risks of doing books for external use" and provide some valuable references for the overseas contractors in their engagement in external books.%主要针对境外施工企业编制问题进行探讨,在说明境外施工企业单独编制外账的必要性和其存在的客观依据的基础上,对内、外账的关系及其编制的目标和原则,外账体系的规划、设计及不同情况下的编制方法进行了论述,指出编制外账时在货币资金的处理、盈亏水平的把握、相关税费的缴纳等方面需要注意的问题以及解决的具体办法.最后就外账的会计基础工作规范化和标准化等问题进行了探讨并提出相应的建议.

  9. Fusion-fission hybrid studies in the United States of America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systems and conceptual design studies have been carried out on the following three hybrid types: (1) The fission-suppressed hybrid, which maximizes fissile material produced (Pu or 233U) per unit of total nuclear power by suppressing the fission process and multiplying neutrons by (n,2n) reactions in materials like beryllium. (2) The fast-fission hybrid, which maximizes fissile material produced per unit of fusion power by maximizing fission of 238U (Pu is produced) in which twice the fissile atoms per unit of fusion power (but only a third per unit of nuclear power) are made. (3) The power hybrid, which amplifies power in the blanket for power production but does not produce fuel to sell. A series of studies led to a reference design of a fission-suppressed breeder that used liquid-lithium cooling of beryllium balls with thorium snap rings. Another series of studies considered a fission-suppressed, helium-cooled, molten-salt breeder design. Safety improvements for use in fast-fission designs were also identified. Low-burnup metal balls, which can be drained out of the blanket to passively cooled holding tanks, would be used in several of the above design concepts. Blanket designs not requiring reprocessing, called direct enrichment, were also studied. Breeding blanket designs for tokamak and tandem-mirror configurations were based on liquid-lithium, water, and helium cooling. Solid (U, Th, LiA102, Li2O) and liquid breeders (Li, LiF+ThF4) were considered. Studies indicate that as the predicted cost of the fission-suppressed fusion plant drops from twice a light-water reactor's (LWR) cost, the calculated breakeven price of uranium from the fusion breeder drops from $100/pound. A fusion plant costing 1.5 times an LWR is calculated to produce fuel at an equivalent price of $70/pound. An overall conclusion is that the deployment of fusion technology can cap the price of uranium. 18 refs, 12 figs, 4 tabs

  10. Report of improved performance in Talbot–Lau phase-contrast computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, Thomas, E-mail: thomas.weber@fau.de; Pelzer, Georg; Rieger, Jens; Ritter, André; Anton, Gisela [Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics (ECAP), Radiation and Detector Physics Group, Erwin-Rommel-Str. 1, 91058 Erlangen (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Many expectations have been raised since the use of conventional x-ray tubes on grating-based x-ray phase-contrast imaging. Despite a reported increase in contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) in many publications, there is doubt on whether phase-contrast computed tomography (CT) is advantageous in clinical CT scanners in vivo. The aim of this paper is to contribute to this discussion by analyzing the performance of a phase-contrast CT laboratory setup. Methods: A phase-contrast CT performance analysis was done. Projection images of a phantom were recorded, and image slices were reconstructed using standard filtered back projection methods. The resulting image slices were analyzed by determining the CNRs in the attenuation and phase image. These results were compared to analytically calculated expectations according to the already published phase-contrast CT performance analysis by Raupach and Flohr [Med. Phys. 39, 4761–4774 (2012)]. There, a severe mistake was found leading to wrong predictions of the performance of phase-contrast CT. The error was corrected and with the new formulae, the experimentally obtained results matched the analytical calculations. Results: The squared ratios of the phase-contrast CNR and the attenuation CNR obtained in the authors’ experiment are five- to ten-fold higher than predicted by Raupach and Flohr [Med. Phys. 39, 4761–4774 (2012)]. The effective lateral spatial coherence length deduced outnumbers the already optimistic assumption of Raupach and Flohr [Med. Phys. 39, 4761–4774 (2012)] by a factor of 3. Conclusions: The authors’ results indicate that the assumptions made in former performance analyses are pessimistic. The break-even point, when phase-contrast CT outperforms attenuation CT, is within reach even with realistic, nonperfect gratings. Further improvements to state-of-the-art clinical CT scanners, like increasing the spatial resolution, could change the balance in favor of phase-contrast computed tomography

  11. The Mercury Laser System-A scaleable average-power laser for fusion and beyond

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebbers, C A; Moses, E I

    2008-03-26

    Nestled in a valley between the whitecaps of the Pacific and the snowcapped crests of the Sierra Nevada, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is home to the nearly complete National Ignition Facility (NIF). The purpose of NIF is to create a miniature star-on demand. An enormous amount of laser light energy (1.8 MJ in a pulse that is 20 ns in duration) will be focused into a small gold cylinder approximately the size of a pencil eraser. Centered in the gold cylinder (or hohlraum) will be a nearly perfect sphere filled with a complex mixture of hydrogen gas isotopes that is similar to the atmosphere of our Sun. During experiments, the laser light will hit the inside of the gold cylinder, heating the metal until it emits X-rays (similar to how your electric stove coil emits visible red light when heated). The X-rays will be used to compress the hydrogen-like gas with such pressure that the gas atoms will combine or 'fuse' together, producing the next heavier element (helium) and releasing energy in the form of energetic particles. 2010 will mark the first credible attempt at this world-changing event: the achievement of fusion energy 'break-even' on Earth using NIF, the world's largest laser! NIF is anticipated to eventually perform this immense technological accomplishment once per week, with the capability of firing up to six shots per day - eliminating the need for continued underground testing of our nation's nuclear stockpile, in addition to opening up new realms of science. But what about the day after NIF achieves ignition? Although NIF will achieve fusion energy break-even and gain, the facility is not designed to harness the enormous potential of fusion for energy generation. A fusion power plant, as opposed to a world-class engineering research facility, would require that the laser deliver drive pulses nearly 100,000 times more frequently - a rate closer to 10 shots per second as opposed to several shots per day.

  12. Estimation of Evapotranspiration of Forest-Grass Vegetation on Loess Hilly Area in Yuxi%豫西黄土丘陵区林草植被蒸散量估算研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘增进; 柴红敏; 李宝萍

    2012-01-01

    采用积温法、Penman公式法和水量平衡法分别估算了三门峡、洛阳、郑州、济源4地市的植被蒸散量,采用蒸散比系数K值法计算了乔木林、灌木林和草类植被的设计蒸散量。结果表明,估算结果与乔木林、灌木林和草类植被生长对水分的需求有较显著的一致性和较好的适用性。通过植被耗水与降水的盈亏分析,给出了4地市不同植被类型的水分亏缺量,多年月平均降水量基本满足灌木林和草类植被耗水需求,多年年平均降水量基本满足乔木林耗水需求,但上半年(1—6月)表现为缺水,对乔木林的生长发育有较大的影响。%The vegetation evapotranspiration of Sanmenxia city,Luoyang city,Zhengzhou city and Jiyuan city were respectively calculated by cumulative temperature method,Penman method and water balance method,and the design evapotranspiration for high-forest,shrub forest and grass vegetation were respectively calculated by K value-evapotranspiration ratio coefficient method(Sanmenxia city: 0.5;Luoyang city and Zhengzhou city: 0.55;Jiyuan city: 0.6).The results showed obvious consistency and good applicability between estimation and water demand of high-forest,shrub forest and grass vegetation growth.And the breakeven analysis for vegetation water consumption and precipitation presented the water deficit values for different vegetation in the four cities.The annual monthly average rainfall could meet the water demand for shrub forest and grass vegetation growth generally;and the mean annual precipitation could meet the water demand for high-forest growth generally,but the water deficit existed during January to June,which could affect the growth and development of high-forest considerably.

  13. Studies on development of pressure measurement methods for a large fusion experimental device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the studies on development of the pressure measurement methods, which are necessary to develop and confirm the particle control method for a long-pulse break-even plasma. We first developed a new type of hot cathode ionization gauge with spherical symmetry to measure the neutral gas pressure in a high magnetic field. The gauge has a linear relation between the ion current and the pressure ranging from 10-4 to 1 Pa for N2 and Ar. The changes in the sensitivity are small; within + 20% in a field of 0 - 1.2 T. Then we describe a new method for using a Penning gauge to measure pressure in high magnetic fields. The intensity of the Hα and Hβ Balmer lines emitted from a Penning discharge is a function only of the discharge ion current: their intensity is independent of anode voltage and magnetic fields from 0.1 to 2.0 T. The light intensity is proportional to the ion current below ∼ 0.1 Pa. In addition, we demonstrated the possibility of the partial pressure measurement with the light emitted from the Penning discharge. The line intensities are individually linear to the partial pressure in the gas mixture of H2 and He. Next we have constructed the fast pressure monitoring system with the newly developed gauges. The gauge are used to monitor the pressure near the JT-60 plasma. The response time is fast (less than 10 ms) because of the Penning discharge which is sustained by the confining magnetic field of the plasma. Finally, the usefulness of the fast response gauge is demonstrated. The outgassing mechanisms are studied in the JT-60 tokamak. Large amounts of gases are abruptly released during the disruption of the plasma. The disruptions of 1 MA plasmas outgas a surface area of ∼10 m2. The gases of 30-80 Pam3 are released within 30 ms. Then three quarters of them return to the wall. This return of the gases to the wall clearly reveals the wall pumping of the graphite first wall. (author)

  14. Economic benefits analysis of Citrus reticulata Blanco cv.Ougan in mountainous region%山地无籽瓯柑栽培经济效益分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐象华; 朱国华; 颜福花

    2014-01-01

    采用技术经济分析方法,研究了山地无籽瓯柑良种栽培的成本构成和各项经济指标。结果表明:在15 a一个生产周期中,其内部收益率为34.28%,投资回收期5.82 a,每公顷净现值299240元,设计产量或价格收益率的盈亏平衡点为52.88%。在影响无籽瓯柑良种栽培经济效果的诸因素中,以销售收入变动影响最大,其次为生产成本,从现实情况分析,其市场风险和政策风险是很小的。政府在无籽瓯柑产业资金扶持政策上,应重点考虑对基地建设的资金扶持,或扩大小额贷款范围、延迟还贷时间等政策措施,促进无籽瓯柑产业的发展。%The cost composition and economic indicators of Citrus reticulata Blanco cv .Ougan in mountainous region was analyzed by technical and economic analysis method .The results showed that the internal rate of return in 15-year production cycle was 34.28%, period for recovery of investment was 5.82 years, the net present value was 299 240 yuan· hm-2 , the break-even point of planned output or earnings price ratio was 52.88%.Among the influence factors on economic benefit of cultivation of improved Citrus reticulata Blanco cv.Ougan, the effect of sales revenue was the largest , the production cost took the second place .According to market in recent years , its market risk and policy risk were quite low.In order to promote the industry development of Citrus reticulata Blanco cv.Ougan, the government should make fund policies to build orchard , enlarge scope of small-amount loans , or delay the time of repay loans and so on .

  15. Assessment of the potential of biomethane produced from the French municipal sludge. Synthesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To achieve the goals of renewable energy production by 23% in 2020 and by 32% in 2030 (Law project on energy transition), the French Government is committed to strongly support all the local renewable energy sectors and in particular the anaerobic digestion. This sector can recycle organic waste into renewable energy while respecting local needs and issues. The objective of this study is to consider the potential of biomethane injectable into the gas grid from Waste Water Treatment Plant (WWTP) sludge in 2020 and in 2050. Wastewater is all sewage from the population but also industrial and commercial activities. The wastewater treatment can be achieved collectively in a wastewater treatment plant or individually (independent sanitation). The organic pollution in wastewater is usually expressed in Population Equivalent. Metropolitan France has 19,521 active wastewater treatment plants (data from portal sanitation, 2014) out of which 85 currently have an anaerobic digestion plant on site for sludge treatment. The entire theoretical methanogenic potential from all the sludge WWTP is 2.13 TWh/year. To estimate the wastewater treatment plants liable to digest sludge, the approach used in this study is to determine the breakeven points of an anaerobic digestion plant installed on different sectors-types of wastewater treatment. The different ways of biogas recovery are sized and compared. It is considered that a case is profitable if its internal rate of return is at least 10 % (compared to a reference case). This approach is characterized by: - A literature review of technical and economic characteristics of the various treatments found at a WWTP including anaerobic digestion and biogas recovery associated, - A return of experience and collect of opinions from various experts in the field of sanitation, - A technical and economic analysis of the various defined cases in relation to a reference case (without anaerobic digestion plant). According to the technical and

  16. Electricity and fluid fuels from biomass and coal using advanced technologies: a cost comparison for developing country applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    prospectively lower than with present-day coal-fuelled steam electric power generation using flue gas desulphurization, while sulphur emissions would be much lower. Assuming costs for plantation-grown biomass based on commercial plantation practice in Brazil, it is shown that the break-even coal price is lower that the cost of coal projected by the World Bank for many developing countries for the year 2005. For fluid fuels, a comparison is made between biomass and coal as feedstocks for the production of methanol and H2. These fuels are the energy carriers of choice for vehicles based on fuel cell technologies. Fuel cell technology for transport applications is rapidly advancing, and fuel cell buses have already been demonstrated and will be available commercially before 2000; fuel cells could be available for automotive applications in the period 2005-2010. The main attractions of fuel cell vehicles for developing countries are their favourable emissions characteristics (zero or near-zero pollutant emissions without the need for control technologies), their high fuel economy (energy requirements per kilometre are just one third to one half those for internal combustion engine vehicles) and their energy supply diversity advantages (natural gas, biomass and coal can be used at fuel costs per kilometre that are prospectively competitive with costs for petroleum). As in the case of power generation, it is shown that methanol and H2 derived from plantation-grown biomass have good prospects for being competitive with coal-derived methanol and H2 in many regions, assuming biomass prices based on Brazilian experience with commercial plantations and World Bank projections of coal prices for developing countries. (author)

  17. Retrospect and prospects of edible oil and bio-diesel in Pakistan - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Globally resources of petro-fuels are diminishing at a rapid rate. Efforts are underway to develop sources of bio-fuels. Out of the known sources of bio-fuels, Jatropha is one of the most promising option. The purpose of this study was to evaluate primarily the regional and global experiences to assess the potential of Jatropha farming in Pakistan and to conduct a comparative economic analysis of alternate feasible options e.g. production of oilseeds, which are also being imported in large quantities. Temporal analysis (1950-09) for edible oil consumption, production and imports is made. Projections for edible oil are worked out up to 2030. As there have been large variations in yield of Jatropha reported by various studies conducted in India and other countries, therefore most reliable data have been selected for analysis to assess the prospects in Pakistan. Comparative economic analysis is made in terms of oil contents, number of crops per year, yield and gross returns of oilseed crops and Jatropha. Analysis shows that increase in production of edible oil over the time is negligible against the large increase in requirement resulted in higher production gap being filled through imports. Projections made for edible oils illustrated that production gap is going to be wider, which is currently 1.86 million tonnes (mt) and projected to be 3.4 mt by 2030. Jatropha seed production analysis of water-yield functions revealed that yield varies from 1.1 t ha/sup -1/ in drought or dry spells to 12.75 t ha/sup -1/ with full irrigation in favorable environments. Benefit-cost analysis shows that break-even point can be achieved in fourth year of plantation of Jatropha. The projected consumption in Pakistan for petro-fuel for 2025 is 35.1 mt, which is almost double of the current consumption. Thus, the target projections for replacement of petro-fuel with bio-diesel will be 3.51 mt for which 3.5 mha of land is required, as Jatropha has to be grown in marginal areas with

  18. Three essays in transportation energy and environmental policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajiamiri, Sara

    Concerns about climate change, dependence on oil, and unstable gasoline prices have led to significant efforts by policymakers to cut greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and oil consumption. The transportation sector is one of the principle emitters of CO2 in the US. It accounts for two-thirds of total U.S. oil consumption and is almost entirely dependent on oil. Within the transportation sector, the light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet is the main culprit. It is responsible for more than 65 percent of the oil used and for more than 60 percent of total GHG emissions. If a significant fraction of the LDV fleet is gradually replaced by more fuel-efficient technologies, meaningful reductions in GHG emissions and oil consumption will be achieved. This dissertation investigates the potential benefits and impacts of deploying more fuel-efficient vehicles in the LDV fleet. Findings can inform decisions surrounding the development and deployment of the next generation of LDVs. The first essay uses data on 2003 and 2006 model gasoline-powered passenger cars, light trucks and sport utility vehicles to investigate the implicit private cost of improving vehicle fuel efficiencies through reducing other desired attributes such as weight (that is valued for its perceived effect on personal safety) and horsepower. Breakeven gasoline prices that would justify the estimated implicit costs were also calculated. It is found that to justify higher fuel efficiency standards from a consumer perspective, either the external benefits need to be very large or technological advances will need to greatly reduce fuel efficiency costs. The second essay estimates the private benefits and societal impacts of electric vehicles. The findings from the analysis contribute to policy deliberations on how to incentivize the purchase and production of these vehicles. A spreadsheet model was developed to estimate the private benefits and societal impacts of purchasing and utilizing three electric vehicle

  19. 引入担保机构破解中小企业融资难:基于期权策略的机制设计%A Solution to SMEs Financing Difficulty by the Introduction of Guarantee Institutions:Mechanism Design Based on Option Strategy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    盛世杰; 周远游; 刘莉亚

    2016-01-01

    SMEs financing difficulty is a problem that needs to be solved urgently. This paper points out that the introduction of policy-related guarantee institutions is an ef-ficient solution to SMEs financing difficulty.It firstly builds a three-party theoretical mod-el connected with policy-related guarantee institutions,commercial banks and SMEs,and creatively copes with the matching of risks and revenues through options combination strategy.Then it employs numerical simulation methods to analyze the feasibility of the guarantee of SMEs loans by policy-related guarantee institutions in the aspects like scenar-io analysis and breakeven calculation.It arrives at the following conclusion that in most ca-ses,it is feasible that policy-related guarantee institutions provide the guarantee of SMEs loans.In addition,it also shows that under marketized guarantee industry,SMEs finan-cing costs significantly decrease compared with current constraints.It argues that based on the accelerated advance of marketization orientation in guarantee industry,the guarantee of SMEs loans by policy-related guarantee institutions under options combination mechanism is a solution to SMEs financing difficulty.%中小企业融资难是当前亟待解决的问题。文章认为引入政策性担保机构是解决中小企业融资难问题的有效方法。文章首先构建了政策性担保、银行和中小企业的三方理论模型,并创新性地通过期权组合策略来解决风险收益匹配问题,同时利用数值模拟方法,从情景分析和盈亏平衡点测算等方面对政策性担保机构为中小企业贷款提供担保进行了可行性分析。结果表明:在大多数情况下,政策性担保机构对中小企业贷款提供担保是可行的;此外,文章还发现:在担保行业市场化的条件下,中小企业的融资成本相比现行约束条件下的情形有了显著降低。文章认为:在加快推进担保行业市场化导向的基础上,

  20. Integration of nuclear energy into oil sands projects - HTR2008-58239

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    support further study. A single 500 MWth PBMR reactor is able to supply high-pressure steam for a 40, 000 to 60, 000 bpd Steam Assisted Gravity Drainage (SAGD) plant, whereas the CANDU and ACR reactors are unable to produce sufficient steam pressures to be practical in that application. The CANDU, ACR and PBMR reactors have potential for supplying heat and electricity for surface mining operations. The primary environmental benefit of nuclear energy in this application is to reduce CO2 emissions by up to 3.1 million metric tons per year for each 100, 000 barrel per day (bpd) bitumen production SAGD facility, or 2.0 million metric tons per year for the replacement of 700 MWe of grid electricity with a nuclear power plant. Should carbon emissions be priced, the economic advantages of nuclear energy would be dramatically improved such that with a $50/ton CO2e at the releases expected for typical projects using natural gas, breakeven gas prices for nuclear drop to less than $3.50/MMBtu, well below the current natural gas price of $10/MMBtu for SAGD steam production. (authors)

  1. 不同目标条件下收费公路规制效应的比较%Comparison of toll road regulation effects under different goal conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊建强; 徐海成

    2014-01-01

    为了比较不同目标条件下的规制措施对收费公路经济变量的影响,应用福利经济学和规制经济学基本理论,构建了不同目标条件下的收费公路规制模型,通过仿真计算,比较了5种不同规制模型中主要经济变量的差异。分析结果表明:无规制前提下追求社会福利最大化目标容易导致企业亏损;收支均衡前提下追求社会福利最大化目标会使通行费价格提高;无规制前提下追求利润最大化的目标会导致收费公路通行能力下降,社会福利水平减小;交通量规制和通行成本规制前提下追求利润最大化目标既有助于提高社会福利水平,同时也有利于增加企业利润。收费公路的社会福利最大化目标和企业利润最大化目标难以同时实现,但是政府规制前提下的特许经营模式有利于协调两大目标之间的差异。%In order to compare the influences of regulation measures on the economic variables of toll roads under different goals,the regulation models of toll roads under different goals were built by using the basic theories of welfare economics and regulation economics, and the differences of maj or economic variables in five different regulation models were compared by simulation calculation.Analysis result shows that it is easy to lead to business losses under the objective of social welfare maximization with no regulation.The toll price will increase under the objective of social welfare maximization with a breakeven on the finance of toll road.The road capacity and social welfare will decrease under the obj ective of profit maximization with no regulation.It is helpful to increase not only social welfare but also corporate profit under the objective of profit maximization with traffic volume regulation and travel cost regulation.The obj ectives of social welfare maximization and profit maximization are difficult to be achieved at the same time,but it is helpful

  2. Phase 1A Final Report for the AREVA Team Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrell, Mike E. [AREVA Federal Services LLC, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2015-03-19

    In response to the Department of Energy (DOE) funded initiative to develop and deploy lead fuel assemblies (LFAs) of Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuel (EATF) into a US reactor within 10 years, AREVA put together a team to develop promising technologies for improved fuel performance during off normal operations. This team consisted of the University of Florida (UF) and the University of Wisconsin (UW), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), Duke Energy and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). This team brought broad experience and expertise to bear on EATF development. AREVA has been designing; manufacturing and testing nuclear fuel for over 50 years and is one of the 3 large international companies supplying fuel to the nuclear industry. The university and National Laboratory team members brought expertise in nuclear fuel concepts and materials development. Duke and TVA brought practical utility operating experience. This report documents the results from the initial “discovery phase” where the team explored options for EATF concepts that provide enhanced accident tolerance for both Design Basis (DB) and Beyond Design Basis Events (BDB). The main driver for the concepts under development were that they could be implemented in a 10 year time frame and be economically viable and acceptable to the nuclear fuel marketplace. The economics of fuel design make this DOE funded project very important to the nuclear industry. Even incremental changes to an existing fuel design can cost in the range of $100M to implement through to LFAs. If this money is invested evenly over 10 years then it can take the fuel vendor several decades after the start of the project to recover their initial investment and reach a breakeven point on the initial investment. Step or radical changes to a fuel assembly design can cost upwards of $500M and will take even longer for the fuel vendor to recover their investment. With the projected lifetimes of the current generation of nuclear power

  3. A cost-benefit analysis of The National Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halsing, David L.; Theissen, Kevin; Bernknopf, Richard

    2003-01-01

    , over its 30-year projected lifespan, The National Map will bring a net present value (NPV) of benefits of $2.05 billion in 2001 dollars. The average time until the initial investments (the break-even period) are recovered is 14 years. Table ES-1 shows a running total of NPV in each year of the simulation model. In year 14, The National Map first shows a positive NPV, and so the table is highlighted in gray after that point. Figure ES-1 is a graph of the total benefit and total cost curves of a single model run over time. The curves cross in year 14, when the project breaks even. A sensitivity analysis of the input variables illustrated that these results of the NPV of The National Map are quite robust. Figure ES-2 plots the mean NPV results from 60 different scenarios, each consisting of fifty 30-year runs. The error bars represent a two-standard-deviation range around each mean. The analysis that follows contains the details of the cost-benefit analysis, the framework for evaluating economic benefits, a computational simulation tool, and a sensitivity analysis of model variables and values.

  4. Fusion in a staged Z-pinch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wessel, F. J.; Rahman, H. U.; Ney, P.; Valenzuela, J.; Beg, F.; McKee, E.; Darling, T.

    2016-03-01

    . Instability develops at the interface, as the plasma decelerates, which promotes the formation of target-hot spots. Early experiments provide evidence for the magneto-inertial implosion [8, 9, 10]. Studies underway are designed to verify these predictions on the National Terawatt Facility, Zebra Generator, located at the University of Nevada, Reno. Simulations for an unmagnetized, silver-plasma liner imploding onto a deuterium-tritium plasma target, driven by a 200 TW generator, predict fusion beyond break-even, with a 200 MJ yield in an ignited plasma, with an engineering gain factor of, G = Efusion/Estored˜20.

  5. 名义账户制下我国社会养老保险设计研究%Research on the Design of Social Pension Insurance of China under the National Account System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王振军

    2015-01-01

    本文采用名义账户制就我国社会养老保险进行了设计研究,并根据设计方案构建了个人账户资金支付模型,在对相关参数取值的基础上就名义账户制下我国社会养老保险的待遇标准和财务收支状况进行了测算分析。分析结果表明:名义账户制下我国社会养老保险设计方案在降低了工作单位投保费率的同时提升了社会养老保险的待遇标准,在收支相抵的情况下还有一定的基金积累,并且资金结余率完全能够自动调节社会养老保险的短期财政平衡。鉴于我国社会养老保险在转制中存在着较高的成本风险,且名义账户制能够有效减缓社会养老保险在体制转型中的各种风险影响。本文试图为我国社会养老保险的成功转型提供一些理论研究和实证分析的建议,以利于我国社会养老保险的可持续发展。%We research on the design of social pension insurance system of China used notional account in this paper ,and constructed personal account funds paid model according to the design of social pension insurance ,calculated the standard of treatment and financial status of China’s social pension insurance system based on the values of the relevant parameters under the notional account. The results showed that:scheme designed of China’s social pension insurance to reduce the workplace insurance rates while improving the standard of treatment of social pension insurance under the notional account ,there is a certain break-even accumulation funds,and fund balance rates are able to automatically adjust the rates of short-term finan-cial balance of social pension insurance. In view of China’s social pension insurance has a higher risk in the restructuring costs,and the notional account system can effectively reduce the impact of social pension insurance risks in the transformation system. We are trying to provide some suggestions theoretical and empirical

  6. Modeling, Analysis, and Control of Demand Response Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, Johanna L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    variability in response. We find that, in general, baseline model error is large. Though some facilities exhibit real DR variability, most observed variability results from baseline model error. In some cases, however, aggregations of C&I facilities exhibit real DR variability, which could create challenges for power system operation. These results have implications for DR program design and deployment. Emerging DR paradigms focus on faster timescale DR. Here, we investigate methods to coordinate aggregations of residential thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs), including air conditioners and refrigerators, to manage frequency and energy imbalances in power systems. We focus on opportunities to centrally control loads with high accuracy but low requirements for sensing and communications infrastructure. Specifically, we compare cases when measured load state information (e.g., power consumption and temperature) is 1) available in real time; 2) available, but not in real time; and 3) not available. We develop Markov Chain models to describe the temperature state evolution of heterogeneous populations of TCLs, and use Kalman filtering for both state and joint parameter/state estimation. We present a look-ahead proportional controller to broadcast control signals to all TCLs, which always remain in their temperature dead-band. Simulations indicate that it is possible to achieve power tracking RMS errors in the range of 0.26–9.3% of steady state aggregated power consumption. Results depend upon the information available for system identification, state estimation, and control. We find that, depending upon the performance required, TCLs may not need to provide state information to the central controller in real time or at all. We also estimate the size of the TCL potential resource; potential revenue from participation in markets; and break-even costs associated with deploying DR-enabling technologies. We find that current TCL energy storage capacity in California is 8–11

  7. Climate change. Scientific assessment and policy analysis. Technological learning in the energy sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lako, P.; Lensink, S.M. [ECN Policy Studies, Petten (Netherlands); Junginger, M.; Van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Weiss, M. [Utrecht University, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2008-04-15

    Technology learning is a key driver behind the improvement of (energy) technologies available to mankind and subsequent reduction of production costs. Many of the conventional technologies in use today have already been continuously improved over decades, sometimes even a century, for example coal-fired power plants. In contrast, many renewable / clean fossil fuel energy technologies and energy saving technologies still have higher production costs, but lower fuel demands and GHG emissions. As most of these technologies are still quite young, their technological development and resulting cost reduction occur at relatively high speeds compared to the conventional technologies. It is thus anticipated that in many cases the gap between conventional and new technologies can be closed, i.e. a break-even point be reached. Crucial questions are however, whether this point will be reached, and if so, when and under what circumstances (especially how this depends on policy support). One approach to analyze both past and future production cost reduction is the experience curve approach. It has been empirically observed for many different technologies that production costs tend to decline with a fixed percentage with every doubling of the cumulative production. The progress ratio (PR) is a parameter that expresses the rate at which costs decline for every doubling of cumulative production. For example, a progress ratio of 80% equals a 20% cost decrease for each doubling of the cumulative capacity. As a rule of thumb, this cost reduction lies between 10-30% (PRs between 70-90%). The experience curve concept has been applied to (renewable) energy technologies with a varying degree of detail. Based on a wide-ranging literature review, this study aims to provide: (1) A comprehensive review of studies on technological development and cost reductions performed for a large range of energy technologies, including renewable energy technologies, (clean) fossil fuel technologies and

  8. Impact of different national biomass policies on investment costs of biomass district heating plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    The BIO-COST project - co-ordinated by E.V.A. - was funded by the European Commission's THERMIE Type B Programme. The objective of BIO-COST was to analyse the impact of national biomass policies on the investment costs of biomass district heating (DH) plants. The European comparison should help identifying measures to reduce investment costs for biomass DH plants and/or components down to a 'best practice' level. The investigation is based on the comparison of 20 biomass DH plants by country, with Denmark and Sweden having mainly high energy taxes as driver, while Austria and France rely mainly on subsidy systems. The results of BIO-COST show, that governmental policies can have a big impact especially on grid and buildings costs, effecting of course the overall costs of the plant enormously. Emission standards have their effects especially on the costs for technical equipment, however, this fact was not reflected in the BIO-COST data. The results do not show a clear advantage of either the energy tax approach or the subsidy approach: The French subsidy approach leads to fairly low cost levels compared to the Danish tax approach, while the Swedish tax approach seems to yield the lowest cost level. On the other hand the Austrian subsidy approach seems to intercrease investment costs. In principle both the tax as the subsidy approach can lead to the same effect: a project is calculated in such a way, that it just meets economic breakeven. This is typically the case when the project is not carried out by a private enterprise but by an operator aiming at enhanced public welfare (e.g. co-operative, municipality). In this case a subsidy model might yield more possibilities to encourage an economically efficient development, than a tax. Instead of giving subsidies as a fixed percentage of investments they could be adjusted to the actual needs of the project as proven by a standardised calculation. Of course this can create the incentive to expect higher

  9. Towards worldwide harmonization of radioecology networks: IUR initiates the 'FORUM' - Towards worldwide harmonization of radioecology networks: an initiative of the International Union of Radioecology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brechignac, F. [International Union of Radioecology (IUR) and Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Direction General, Centre of Cadarache, Bldg 229, BP 1, 13115 St Paul-lez-Durance cedex (France); Bollhoefer, A. [South Pacific Environmental Radioactivity Association (SPERA) and Environmental Research Institute of the Supervising Scientist, Department of the Environment, Darwin, NT 0810 (Australia); Frogg, K.E.; Strand, P. [Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority (NRPA), P.O. Box 55, N-1332 Oesteraas (Norway); Higley, K. [Department of Nuclear Engineering and Radiation Health Physics, Oregon State University, 100 Radiation Center, Corvallis, OR 97331-5902 (United States); Hinton, T. [Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Centre of Cadarache, BP 1, 13115 St Paul-lez- Durance cedex (France); Kapustka, L. [LK Consultancy, P.O. Box 373, Turner Valley, Alberta (Canada); Kuhne, W. [Savannah River National Laboratory, Savannah River Nuclear Solutions, Aiken, SC 29808 (United States); Leonard, K.S. [Cefas, Pakefield Road, Lowestoft, Suffolk, NR33 0HT (United Kingdom); Masson, O. [Institute of Radioprotection and Nuclear Safety (IRSN), Centre of Cadarache, Bldg 153, BP 1, 13115 St Paul-lez- Durance cedex (France); Nanba, K. [Institute of Environmental Radioactivity, Fukushima University, 1 Kanayagawa, Fukushima, Fukushima 960- 1296 (Japan); Smith, G. [GMS Abingdon Ltd, Tamarisk, Radley Road, Abingdon, OX14 3PP (United Kingdom); Smith, K. [RadEcol Consulting Ltd, Fell View, Middletown, Cumbria, CA22 2UG (United Kingdom); Vandenhove, H. [SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Institute of Environment Health and Safety, Radiological Impact and Performance Assessment, Boeretang, 200, B-2400 Mol (Belgium); Yankovich, T. [International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), Division of Radiation, Transport and Waste Safety, Vienna International Centre, PO Box 100, 1400 Vienna (Austria); Yoshida, S. [Fukushima Project Headquarters, National Institute of Radiological Sciences, 263-8555, Chiba-shi (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    Many specialized networks have been designed in the past years to meet specific radioecological objectives, whether regional or sectorial (purpose-oriented). Regional networks deal with an array of radioecological issues related to their territories, such as waste problems, environmental modelling, prevention of impacts, regulation, etc- In Europe, a network of excellence in radioecology has been set up in order to design a strategic research agenda. It is currently being expected to become part of a European platform for radiation protection. Sectorial networks are more problem-oriented, often with wider international representativeness, but restricted to one specific issue like waste, low-level atmospheric contamination, etc. Other kind of sectorial networks result from international agreements for wide environment surveillance. IUR, founded on its large and long-existing international representation, with a current membership spread in nearly 60 countries worldwide, has now identified the need to bridge all such regional and/or sectorial networks together in order to promote the emergence of a worldwide coordinated development process for radioecology. This is especially warranted at a breakeven period where nuclear industry is starting, or expected, to spread beyond the small historical club of nuclearized countries in response to growing energetic demands throughout the world. Furthermore, with more than 30 years of existence, IUR with its dedicated task groups has a long tradition of promoting recommendations on the scientific needs to advance radioecology. In consequence, the construction of a process for worldwide international harmonization of R and D programmes and efforts is becoming highly desirable. This harmonization process would have the objectives to optimize efficiency, avoid duplications, optimize efficient exploitation of existing infrastructures, support harmonised and coherent regulatory developments, help the development of well informed

  10. CUSTOS E RENTABILIDADE DO MILHO EM FUNÇÃO DO MANEJO DO SOLO E DA ADUBAÇÃO NITROGENADA MAIZE COSTS AND PROFITABILITY ACCORDING TO SOIL MANAGEMENT AND NITROGEN FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Hiroshi Kaneko

    2009-12-01

    ;">ha-1 in V6; 30 kg ha-1 (S + 45 kg ha-1 in V4 + 45 kg ha-1 in V8. The total operating cost (TOC, gross revenue (GR, operating profit (OP, profitability index (PI, break-even yield, and break-even price were estimated. It was concluded that the no-tillage system, after 11 years of management, associated with nitrogen fertilization promotes positive PI and OP, being useful to farmers.

    KEY-WORDS: Zea mays; production cost; no-tillage; conventional tillage.

  11. Modeling, Analysis, and Control of Demand Response Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathieu, Johanna L. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2012-05-01

    variability in response. We find that, in general, baseline model error is large. Though some facilities exhibit real DR variability, most observed variability results from baseline model error. In some cases, however, aggregations of C&I facilities exhibit real DR variability, which could create challenges for power system operation. These results have implications for DR program design and deployment. Emerging DR paradigms focus on faster timescale DR. Here, we investigate methods to coordinate aggregations of residential thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs), including air conditioners and refrigerators, to manage frequency and energy imbalances in power systems. We focus on opportunities to centrally control loads with high accuracy but low requirements for sensing and communications infrastructure. Specifically, we compare cases when measured load state information (e.g., power consumption and temperature) is 1) available in real time; 2) available, but not in real time; and 3) not available. We develop Markov Chain models to describe the temperature state evolution of heterogeneous populations of TCLs, and use Kalman filtering for both state and joint parameter/state estimation. We present a look-ahead proportional controller to broadcast control signals to all TCLs, which always remain in their temperature dead-band. Simulations indicate that it is possible to achieve power tracking RMS errors in the range of 0.26–9.3% of steady state aggregated power consumption. Results depend upon the information available for system identification, state estimation, and control. We find that, depending upon the performance required, TCLs may not need to provide state information to the central controller in real time or at all. We also estimate the size of the TCL potential resource; potential revenue from participation in markets; and break-even costs associated with deploying DR-enabling technologies. We find that current TCL energy storage capacity in California is 8–11

  12. Sugarcane resources for sustainable development: A case study in Luena, Zambia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornland, D.W.; Johnson, Francis X. (eds.) [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden); Yamba, F. [Centre for Energy, Environment and Engineering Ltd. (Zambia); Chidumayo, E.N.; Mtonga-Chidumayo, S.B. [CHI-CHI Consultancy (Zambia); Morales, M.M. [Stockholm Environment Inst. (Sweden); Kalumiana, O. [Ministry of Energy and Water Development (Zambia)

    2001-04-01

    and ethanol production are financially viable. Adding advanced cogeneration (using a CEST 8 system) to produce surplus electricity significantly increases the initial capital cost but improves financial viability. Assuming that sugar can be sold at 370 USD/tonne but ethanol can only be sold at 45 cents/liter, as was done in this study, results in sugar production always being preferred to ethanol production. Ethanol production that does not displace sugar production is profitable. However, the breakeven price for ethanol sales was estimated to be 50 cents/liter. Hence, a subsidy of five cents per liter would be sufficient to make ethanol competitive with sugar production, from a producer perspective, at the given prices. The scenarios explored in this study assume that any investment would have to be self-sustaining (i.e., profitable). (abstract truncated)

  13. Phase 1A Final Report for the AREVA Team Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuels Concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrell, Mike E. [AREVA Federal Services LLC, Charlotte, NC (United States)

    2015-03-19

    In response to the Department of Energy (DOE) funded initiative to develop and deploy lead fuel assemblies (LFAs) of Enhanced Accident Tolerant Fuel (EATF) into a US reactor within 10 years, AREVA put together a team to develop promising technologies for improved fuel performance during off normal operations. This team consisted of the University of Florida (UF) and the University of Wisconsin (UW), Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL), Duke Energy and Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). This team brought broad experience and expertise to bear on EATF development. AREVA has been designing; manufacturing and testing nuclear fuel for over 50 years and is one of the 3 large international companies supplying fuel to the nuclear industry. The university and National Laboratory team members brought expertise in nuclear fuel concepts and materials development. Duke and TVA brought practical utility operating experience. This report documents the results from the initial “discovery phase” where the team explored options for EATF concepts that provide enhanced accident tolerance for both Design Basis (DB) and Beyond Design Basis Events (BDB). The main driver for the concepts under development were that they could be implemented in a 10 year time frame and be economically viable and acceptable to the nuclear fuel marketplace. The economics of fuel design make this DOE funded project very important to the nuclear industry. Even incremental changes to an existing fuel design can cost in the range of $100M to implement through to LFAs. If this money is invested evenly over 10 years then it can take the fuel vendor several decades after the start of the project to recover their initial investment and reach a breakeven point on the initial investment. Step or radical changes to a fuel assembly design can cost upwards of $500M and will take even longer for the fuel vendor to recover their investment. With the projected lifetimes of the current generation of nuclear power