WorldWideScience

Sample records for breakdown soft scald

  1. Two QTL characterized for soft scald and soggy breakdown in apple (Malus × domestica) through pedigree-based analysis of a large population of interconnected families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Howard, Nicholas P.; Weg, van de Eric; Tillman, John; Tong, Cindy B.S.; Silverstein, Kevin A.T.; Luby, James J.

    2018-01-01

    Soft scald and soggy breakdown are important postharvest physiological disorders of apple (Malus × domestica). ‘Honeycrisp’ and some of its offspring are particularly susceptible to developing these disorders. The purpose of this study was to identify molecular markers associated with high

  2. QTL analysis of soft scald in two apple populations

    OpenAIRE

    McClure, Kendra A; Gardner, Kyle M; Toivonen, Peter MA; Hampson, Cheryl R; Song, Jun; Forney, Charles F; DeLong, John; Rajcan, Istvan; Myles, Sean

    2016-01-01

    The apple (Malus?domestica Borkh.) is one of the world?s most widely grown and valuable fruit crops. With demand for apples year round, storability has emerged as an important consideration for apple breeding programs. Soft scald is a cold storage-related disorder that results in sunken, darkened tissue on the fruit surface. Apple breeders are keen to generate new cultivars that do not suffer from soft scald and can thus be marketed year round. Traditional breeding approaches are protracted a...

  3. Use of a scald additive to reduce levels of Salmonella typhimurium during poultry processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, S R; Townsend, J C; Bilgili, S F

    2008-08-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a scald additive, RP scald, to reduce Salmonella Typhimurium (ST) levels on inoculated poultry carcasses. The RP scald (contains sodium hydroxide) in a 1% solution has a pH of 11.0, which may reduce bacteria levels on carcasses. In this study, 600 broilers (Ross 708 straight run, 6 wk of age) with 300 broilers in each of 2 experimental trials were divided into 4 scald treatments (inoculated with ST) and 2 noninoculated groups. The treatment groups included 4 scald treatments (n = 50 per experimental group per trial): soft scald (SS; 50 degrees C for 90 s), soft scald with 1.0% added RP scald (SSRP), hard scald (56.6 degrees C for 45 s; HS), and hard scald with 1.0% added RP scald. The noninoculated groups (n = 50 per group per trial) are represented by SS0 and HS0. After defeathering, carcass rinses were collected for ST detection. Results indicated that inoculated broilers from hard scald with 1.0% added RP scald had the lowest Salmonella recovery, whereas carcasses from the SS treatment with no RP additive had the highest ST recovery. In trial 1, the SSRP was more effective in reducing ST than HS alone; however, this trend was not consistent. In trial 2, HS alone was more effective in ST reduction than SSRP. Within each scald temperature, the addition of RP scald increased ST reduction; therefore, RP scald may be effective in reducing ST on broiler carcasses in poultry scalder applications, particularly when hard scald temperatures are used.

  4. Optically reversible electrical soft-breakdown in wide-bandgap oxides—A factorial study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Ang, D. S.; Kalaga, P. S.

    2018-04-01

    In an earlier work, we found that an electrical soft-breakdown region in wide-bandgap oxides, such as hafnium dioxide, silicon dioxide, etc., could be reversed when illuminated by white light. The effect is evidenced by a decrease in the breakdown leakage current, termed as a negative photoconductivity response. This finding raises the prospect for optical sensing applications based on these traditionally non-photo-responsive but ubiquitous oxide materials. In this study, we examine the statistical distribution for the rate of breakdown reversal as well as the influence of factors such as wavelength, light intensity, oxide stoichiometry (or oxygen content) and temperature on the reversal rate. The rate of breakdown reversal is shown to be best described by the lognormal distribution. Light in the range of ˜400-700 nm is found to have relatively little influence on the reversal rate. On the other hand, light intensity, oxygen content and temperature, each of them has a clear impact; a stronger light intensity, an oxide that is richer in oxygen content and a reduced temperature all speed up the reversal process substantially. These experimental results are consistent with the proposed phenomenological redox model involving photo-assisted recombination of the surrounding oxygen interstitials with vacancy defects in the breakdown path.

  5. Impact of broiler processing scalding and chilling profiles on carcass and breast meat yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, R J; Walker, J M; Bourassa, D V; Caudill, A B; Kiepper, B H; Zhuang, H

    2014-06-01

    The effect of scalding and chilling procedures was evaluated on carcass and breast meat weight and yield in broilers. On 4 separate weeks (trials), broilers were subjected to feed withdrawal, weighed, and then stunned and bled in 4 sequential batches (n = 16 broilers/batch, 64 broilers/trial). In addition, breast skin was collected before scalding, after scalding, and after defeathering for proximate analysis. Each batch of 16 carcasses was subjected to either hard (60.0°C for 1.5 min) or soft (52.8°C for 3 min) immersion scalding. Following defeathering and evisceration, 8 carcasses/batch were air-chilled (0.5°C, 120 min, 86% RH) and 8 carcasses/batch were immersion water-chilled (water and ice 0.5°C, 40 min). Carcasses were reweighed individually following evisceration and following chilling. Breast meat was removed from the carcass and weighed within 4 h postmortem. There were significant (P defeathered eviscerated weights did not differ between the scalding and chilling treatments. During air-chilling all carcasses lost weight, resulting in postchill carcass yield of 73.0% for soft-scalded and 71.3% for hard-scalded carcasses, a difference of 1.7%. During water-chilling all carcasses gained weight, resulting in heavier postchill carcass weights (2,031 g) than for air-chilled carcasses (1,899 g). Postchill carcass yields were correspondingly higher for water-chilled carcasses, 78.2% for soft-scalded and 76.1% for hard-scalded carcasses, a difference of 2.1%. Only in trials 1 and 4 was breast meat yield significantly lower for hard-scalded, air-chilled carcasses (16.1 and 17.5%) than the other treatments. Proximate analysis of skin sampled after scalding or defeathering did not differ significantly in moisture (P = 0.2530) or lipid (P = 0.6412) content compared with skin sampled before scalding. Skin protein content was significantly higher (P defeathering. The hard-scalding method used in this experiment did not result in increased skin lipid loss either

  6. Crowding of Interacting Fluid Particles in Porous Media through Molecular Dynamics: Breakdown of Universality for Soft Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnyder, Simon K.; Horbach, Jürgen

    2018-02-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of interacting soft disks confined in a heterogeneous quenched matrix of soft obstacles show dynamics which is fundamentally different from that of hard disks. The interactions between the disks can enhance transport when their density is increased, as disks cooperatively help each other over the finite energy barriers in the matrix. The system exhibits a transition from a diffusive to a localized state, but the transition is strongly rounded. Effective exponents in the mean-squared displacement can be observed over three decades in time but depend on the density of the disks and do not correspond to asymptotic behavior in the vicinity of a critical point, thus, showing that it is incorrect to relate them to the critical exponents in the Lorentz model scenario. The soft interactions are, therefore, responsible for a breakdown of the universality of the dynamics.

  7. Scalds among children in Kuwait.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, R L; Ebrahim, M K; Sharma, P N

    1997-01-01

    In a prospective study of 560 children treated for burns as in-patients over a period of four-and-a-half years in specialized hospitals responsible for the majority of burn cases in Kuwait, 388 patients (69%) had sustained scalds. The mean age of these 388 children, between 0 to 12 years, was 3.02 +/- 2.08, and male to female ratio 1.5 to 1. They were categorized into three age groups, first, up to 1 year comprised 17.5% cases, who were solely dependent on parents or childminder; second 2 to 5 years of age, who were inquisitive, independent, pre-school children, and constituted the majority of cases (73%), and third 6 to 12 years who were 9.5% school children. The pre-school children (2-5 years) thus formed a highly vulnerable group in the country. Accidents (99.4%) occurred at home and the kitchen being the commonest place. The hot water from pan and pots in the kitchen was the most common etiologic factor in 229 cases (59%), followed by tea/coffee 20.7%, soup 9.0%, hot oil 6.7%, and milk 4.6% patients. The most common circumstance was the child upsetting the pan of hot fluid in the kitchen. The mean total body surface areas of second and third degree burns were 14.21 +/- 9.66 (range 1 to 60%). The average length of stay in the hospital was 16.90 +/- 15.74 days, varying from one to 109 days. Thirty-nine children were ill prior to burn, and the commonest disease was respiratory tract infection. Three patients (0.8%) with 3rd degree burns were treated with primary excision and grafting, and 137 (35.3%) needed secondary skin grafting for residual burn wounds. Four patients (1%) died, one due to burn shock, two due to septicemia and one due to multiorgan failure. There is need for general awareness through public education, which may lead to the prevention of significant number of such accidents.

  8. Programming MapReduce with Scalding

    CERN Document Server

    Chalkiopoulos, Antonios

    2014-01-01

    This book is an easy-to-understand, practical guide to designing, testing, and implementing complex MapReduce applications in Scala using the Scalding framework. It is packed with examples featuring log-processing, ad-targeting, and machine learning. This book is for developers who are willing to discover how to effectively develop MapReduce applications. Prior knowledge of Hadoop or Scala is not required; however, investing some time on those topics would certainly be beneficial.

  9. Patterns of scald injuries in children--has anything changed?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Yates, J

    2011-10-01

    The objective was to study presentation patterns of scald injuries in children and suggest potential countermeasures to reduce these injuries. We retrospectively studied scald injuries in children attending an urban paediatric emergency department between January 1st and December 31st 2008. Data was extracted from our emergency department database using search terms \\'burn\\

  10. Development of a Consistent and Reproducible Porcine Scald Burn Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempf, Margit; Kimble, Roy; Cuttle, Leila

    2016-01-01

    There are very few porcine burn models that replicate scald injuries similar to those encountered by children. We have developed a robust porcine burn model capable of creating reproducible scald burns for a wide range of burn conditions. The study was conducted with juvenile Large White pigs, creating replicates of burn combinations; 50°C for 1, 2, 5 and 10 minutes and 60°C, 70°C, 80°C and 90°C for 5 seconds. Visual wound examination, biopsies and Laser Doppler Imaging were performed at 1, 24 hours and at 3 and 7 days post-burn. A consistent water temperature was maintained within the scald device for long durations (49.8 ± 0.1°C when set at 50°C). The macroscopic and histologic appearance was consistent between replicates of burn conditions. For 50°C water, 10 minute duration burns showed significantly deeper tissue injury than all shorter durations at 24 hours post-burn (p ≤ 0.0001), with damage seen to increase until day 3 post-burn. For 5 second duration burns, by day 7 post-burn the 80°C and 90°C scalds had damage detected significantly deeper in the tissue than the 70°C scalds (p ≤ 0.001). A reliable and safe model of porcine scald burn injury has been successfully developed. The novel apparatus with continually refreshed water improves consistency of scald creation for long exposure times. This model allows the pathophysiology of scald burn wound creation and progression to be examined. PMID:27612153

  11. Discrimination of soft tissues using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy in combination with k nearest neighbors (kNN) and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Sibo; Fan, Rongwei; Yu, Xin; Chen, Deying

    2018-06-01

    In this paper, discrimination of soft tissues using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) in combination with multivariate statistical methods is presented. Fresh pork fat, skin, ham, loin and tenderloin muscle tissues are manually cut into slices and ablated using a 1064 nm pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Discrimination analyses between fat, skin and muscle tissues, and further between highly similar ham, loin and tenderloin muscle tissues, are performed based on the LIBS spectra in combination with multivariate statistical methods, including principal component analysis (PCA), k nearest neighbors (kNN) classification, and support vector machine (SVM) classification. Performances of the discrimination models, including accuracy, sensitivity and specificity, are evaluated using 10-fold cross validation. The classification models are optimized to achieve best discrimination performances. The fat, skin and muscle tissues can be definitely discriminated using both kNN and SVM classifiers, with accuracy of over 99.83%, sensitivity of over 0.995 and specificity of over 0.998. The highly similar ham, loin and tenderloin muscle tissues can also be discriminated with acceptable performances. The best performances are achieved with SVM classifier using Gaussian kernel function, with accuracy of 76.84%, sensitivity of over 0.742 and specificity of over 0.869. The results show that the LIBS technique assisted with multivariate statistical methods could be a powerful tool for online discrimination of soft tissues, even for tissues of high similarity, such as muscles from different parts of the animal body. This technique could be used for discrimination of tissues suffering minor clinical changes, thus may advance the diagnosis of early lesions and abnormalities.

  12. Congenital staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in a premature infant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haveman, LM; Fleer, A; de Vries, LS; Gerards, LJ

    2004-01-01

    A case of congenital staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) with fatal outcome in a premature infant is reported. An intrauterine infection with Staphylococcus aureus was probably the cause for the fulminant course of the disease. Despite adequate antibiotic treatment, the infant died within 24

  13. Pediatric soup scald burn injury: etiology and prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmieri, Tina L; Alderson, Tyrone S; Ison, Dahlia; O'Mara, Michael S; Sharma, Raj; Bubba, Anthony; Coombs, Elena; Greenhalgh, David G

    2008-01-01

    One of the leading causes of scald burn injury in children is from hot soup, particularly prepackaged instant soups. The purpose of this study was to determine the demographic, socioeconomic, and situational factors that contribute to the incidence of scald burns in children. A 20-item questionnaire was given to the caregiver of children who were treated for scald burn injury at a pediatric burn center from July 2006 to March 2007. Questions included demographics (child age, gender, siblings, ethnicity), socioeconomic status (income, education), factors contributing to the injury (type of soup, child supervision, type of container), and location of injury. The mean age of the 78 children sustaining burn injury and completing the survey was 4.8 +/- 0.6 years. The majority of patients were girls (51%), and the most frequently involved ethnic group was Hispanic (44%). Households had a mean of 3.0 +/- 0.3 children in residence, and an income of less than $29,000/year (59%). The highest educational level achieved was high school for 73% of the parents. Prepackaged soup (65%) with a narrow base heated directly in the original container (46%) using the microwave (51%) was implicated in the majority of burns. Soup scald burns, especially from prepackaged instant soups, appear to predominate in lower income families with multiple children. The majority of injuries occur when the caregiver heats the soup in the original container using the microwave. Prevention of these types of injuries will require a two-pronged approach: educating families with multiple children and changing the soup packaging.

  14. Effect of nano-silver hydrogel coating film on deep partial thickness scald model of rabbit

    OpenAIRE

    Peng Xi; Yan Li; Xiaojin Ge; Dandan Liu; Mingsan Miao

    2018-01-01

    Objective: Observing the effect of nano-silver hydrogel coating film on deep partial thickness scald model of rabbit. Method: We prepared boiling water scalded rabbits with deep II degree scald models and applied high, medium and low doses of nano-silver hydrogel coating film for different time and area. Then we compared the difference of burned paper weight before administration and after administration model burns, burn local skin irritation points infection, skin crusting and scabs from th...

  15. 9 CFR 311.30 - Livestock suffocated and hogs scalded alive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Livestock suffocated and hogs scalded alive. 311.30 Section 311.30 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... PARTS § 311.30 Livestock suffocated and hogs scalded alive. All livestock which have been suffocated in...

  16. Defeathering of broiler carcasses subjected to delayed scalding 1, 2, 4, and 8 hours after slaughter

    Science.gov (United States)

    With implementation of farm slaughter, scalding and defeathering could be delayed for a minimum of 2 to 4 h. This research evaluated the potential for delaying scalding and defeathering up to 8 h after slaughter. Following 12 h feed withdrawal broilers were cooped and transported to the pilot plan...

  17. Contamination of pig carcasses with scalding water studied with a radiolabelled colloid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, E; Nilsson, T; Ekman, L; Oestlund, K [Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala. Dept. of Clinical Chemistry; Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, Uppsala. Abt. fuer Lebensmittelhygiene; Schwedisches Fleischforschungszentrum, Kaevlinge

    1979-10-01

    Swine carcasses at slaughter are normally scalded after bleeding, i.e. immersed in a hot-water-tank. The present study was made to investigate whether during this treatment scalding water enters the severed vessels via the stick wound and contaminates the carcass. Five experimental pigs were slaughtered and immersed in a scalding vat containing water with a dispersed radiolabelled colloid, sup(99m)Tc-sulphide. After scalding muscles and other tissues from various parts of the body were examined for radioactivity. Scalding water (radioactivity) could be demonstrated in tissues from all investigated parts of the carcass. The highest amounts were found in the lungs and in the large blood vessels. The hygienic significance of the findings is discussed.

  18. Steam versus hot-water scalding in reducing bacterial loads on the skin of commercially processed poultry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrick, T E; Goodwin, T L; Collins, J A; Wyche, R C; Love, B E

    1972-04-01

    A comparison of two types of scalders was conducted to determine their effectiveness in reducing bacterial contamination of poultry carcasses. A conventional hot-water scalder and a prototype model of a steam scalder were tested under commercial conditions. Total plate counts from steam-scalded birds were significantly lower than the counts of water-scalded birds immediately after scalding and again after picking. No differences in the two methods could be found after chilling. Coliform counts from steam-scalded birds were significantly lower than the counts from water-scalded birds immediately after scalding. No significant differences in coliform counts were detected when the two scald methods were compared after defeathering and chilling.

  19. Early childhood severe scalds in a developing country: A 3-year retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pius Agbenorku

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The burns intensive care unit (BICU staff observed an increasing number of pediatric scald burn admissions as a result of increase injuries associated with the scald burns. A retrospective study was conducted to identify scalds demographics, etiologies, and mortality risk factors. This descriptive study comprised a total of 166 patients aged 0-5 years, who were admitted to the BICU of the Reconstructive Plastic Surgery and Burns Unit (RPSBU through the Accident and Emergency (A and E Centre of the Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH from May 1 st 2009 to April 30 th 2012. Source of information was the BICU Computerized Database System. Data extracted included demographics as well as treatment methods and outcomes. The study population was 166; 92 (55.4% males and 74 (44.6% females. Scalds admissions were 141 (84.9%; 13 (9.2% of them died, 83 (58.9% discharged, and 45 (31.9% transferred-out to another burn ward and pediatric surgery ward in the hospital. Scald patients' demographics included 78 males (55.3% and 63 females (44.7%; mean age was 2.18 years. Mortality risk factors identified were age <3 years (P = 0.044; scalds from hot water (P = 0.033, total burns surface area >30% (P = 0.017, and multiple body parts affected (P = 0.049. The current study showed age, hot water, and Total Burns Surface Area (TBSA as risk factors of early childhood scalds. Education on scalds prevention targeting mothers/caregivers is needed to create awareness of the frequency, severity, and danger associated with pediatric scalds.

  20. Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in a 4-year-old child: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haasnoot, P J; De Vries, A

    2018-01-29

    Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome is an exfoliating skin disease which primarily affects children. Differential diagnosis includes toxic epidermal necrolysis, staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome, epidermolysis bullosa, and Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome primarily affects children and can cause serious morbidity. In this case report we highlight the case of a 4-year-old Caucasian boy. Diagnostic and therapeutic challenges are discussed. Differential diagnoses are considered and therapy is described and discussed. The latest treatment options are used and described. Successful results are achieved in this case due to timely and correct management. Some therapeutic options are widely used without thorough research bases. This case report highlights staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome and its treatment, and future challenges. Further research is warranted and this case report aims to further research in exfoliating skin disorders.

  1. [An experimental study on the prevention of enteral bacterial translocation in scalded rats by smectite powder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hai-tao; Li, Yi-shu; Lu, Shu-liang; Sun, Man; Qing, Chun; Li, Zong-yu; Shao, Tie-bing; Huang, Li-bing; Qu, Bing; Yang, Xin-bo

    2005-04-01

    To explore the preventive and treatment effects of smectite powder on enteral bacterial translocation in scalded rats. Fifty-four Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups, i.e. normal control (A, n = 6), burn control (B, n = 24), and burn treatment (T, n = 24) groups. The rats in B and T groups were fed with tracing bacteria JM109, which was transfected with PUC19 plasmid in advance. The rats were subjected to 30% TBSA scald injury after the plasmid was shown to have colonized in the intestine. Smectite powder (0.6 g/day/kg) was fed to rats of T group immediately after the scalding, while those in B group received no smectite powder. Bacterial translocation in blood and mesenteric lymph nodes in all groups was observed and identified by enzyme digestion at 12 post scald hour (PSH) and on 1, 3 and 5 post-scald days (PSD). The contents of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) were determined in rat intestinal tissue. And the degree of injury to the entire small intestine was observed pathologically. The villus height of intestinal mucosa was measured, and the rate of epithelial nuclear splitting of mucosal crypts was calculated. The number of rats with positive blood bacterial culture in B group was obviously higher than that in A and T groups (P Smectite powder is beneficial to the protection of the intestinal mucosa in scalded rats, and can effectively prevent postburn intestinal bacterial translocation in rats.

  2. Electrical breakdown phenomena of dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

    Silicone elastomers have been heavily investigated as candidates for dielectric elastomers and are as such almost ideal candidates with their inherent softness and compliance but they suffer from low dielectric permittivity. This shortcoming has been sought optimized by many means during recent...... years. However, optimization with respect to the dielectric permittivity solely may lead to other problematic phenomena such as premature electrical breakdown. In this work, we investigate the electrical breakdown phenomena of various types of permittivity-enhanced silicone elastomers. Two types...... of silicone elastomers are investigated and different types of breakdown are discussed. Furthermore the use of voltage stabilizers in silicone-based dielectric elastomers is investigated and discussed....

  3. Electroacupuncture at Zusanli Prevents Severe Scalds-Induced Gut Ischemia and Paralysis by Activating the Cholinergic Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huan Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Severe burn injuries may result in gastrointestinal paralysis, and barrier dysfunction due to gut ischemia and lowered vagus excitability. In this study we investigate whether electroacupuncture (EA at Zusanli (ST36 could prevent severe scalds-induced gut ischemia, paralysis, and barrier dysfunction and whether the protective role of EA at ST36 is related to the vagus nerve. 35% burn area rats were divided into six groups: (a EAN: EA nonchannel acupoints followed by scald injury; (b EA: EA at ST36 after scald injury; (c VGX/EA: vagotomy (VGX before EA at ST36 and scald injury; (d VGX/EAN: VGX before EAN and scald injury; (e atropine/EA: applying atropine before scald injury and then EA at ST36; (f atropine/EAN: applying atropine before scald injury and then EA at nonchannel acupoints. EA at the Zusanli point significantly promoted the intestinal impelling ratio and increased the amount of mucosal blood flow after scald injury. The plasma diamine oxidase (DAO and intestinal permeability decreased significantly after scald injury in the EA group compared with others. However, EA after atropine injection or cervical vagotomy failed to improve intestinal motility and mucosa blood flow suggesting that the mechanism of EA may be related to the activation of the cholinergic nerve pathway.

  4. Regional outbreak of staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun Jeong Do

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS is a relatively uncommon superficial blistering skin disease that is due to Staphylococcus aureus. We had experienced a regional outbreak of SSSS over 3 years in healthy children. Methods : We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of those patients diagnosed as SSSS. Most of neonatal cases were nosocomial infections and excluded from the analysis. The clinical features, laboratory findings, the isolation and antibiotic resistance of S. aureus, the antibiotic management and other supportive treatments were analyzed. Results : Fifty-five patients with SSSS were admitted to our hospital from October 2001 to September 2004. The median age of patients was 3.0 years. Of the 55 patients, 9 were the generalized type, 13 were the intermediate type and 33 were the scarletiniform rash. All the patients were living in neighborhood of the Jinju area. S. aureus were isolated from 9 of the patients and all of the isolated S. aureus were methicillin resistant. All the patients except two were treated with intravenous flocloxacillin or nafcillin and/or cefotaxime. All the patients recovered during the follow-up period of 2 to 3 weeks. Conclusion : We experienced a regional outbreak of SSSS in previous healthy children. Further study for finding the carriers of S. aureus caused SSSS and preventing the spread of this disease is needed. Additionally, guidelines for treating SSSS due to methicillin resistant S. aureus should be established.

  5. Neonatal staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome: clinical and outbreak containment review.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Neylon, Orla

    2012-01-31

    Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) is a toxin-mediated exfoliating skin condition predominated by desquamation and blistering. Neonatal outbreaks have already been reported; however, our outbreak highlights the potential for SSSS following neonatal health promotion measures such as intra-muscular vitamin K administration and metabolic screening (heel prick) as well as effective case containment measures and the value of staff screening. Between February and June 2007, five confirmed cases of neonatal SSSS were identified in full-term neonates born in an Irish regional maternity hospital. All infants were treated successfully. Analysis of contact and environmental screening was undertaken, including family members and healthcare workers. Molecular typing on isolates was carried out. An outbreak control team (OCT) was assembled and took successful prospective steps to prevent further cases. All five Staphylococcus aureus isolates tested positive for exfoliative toxin A, of which two distinct strains were identified on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis. Two cases followed staphylococcal inoculation during preventive measures such as intra-muscular vitamin K administration and metabolic screening (heel prick). None of the neonatal isolates were methicillin resistant. Of 259 hospital staff (70% of staff) screened, 30% were colonised with S. aureus, and 6% were positive for MRSA carriage. This is the first reported outbreak of neonatal SSSS in Ireland. Effective case containment measures and clinical value of OCT is demonstrated. Results of staff screening underlines the need for vigilance and compliance in hand disinfection strategies in maternity hospitals especially during neonatal screening and preventive procedures.

  6. Wound Healing Effects of Prunus yedoensis Matsumura Bark in Scalded Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ho Lee

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pruni Cortex has been used to treat asthma, measles, cough, urticaria, pruritus, and dermatitis in traditional Korean medicine. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of Prunus yedoensis Matsumura bark methanol extract (PYE on scald-induced dorsal skin wounds in rats. Scalds were produced in Sprague-Dawley rats with 100°C water and treated with 5% and 20% PYE (using Vaseline as a base, silver sulfadiazine (SSD, and Vaseline once a day for 21 days, beginning 24 hours after scald by treatment group allocation. The PYE-treated groups showed accelerated healing from 12 days after scald, demonstrated by rapid eschar exfoliation compared to the control and SSD groups. PYE-treated groups showed higher wound contraction rates and better tissue regeneration in comparison with the control group. Serum analysis showed that transforming growth factor beta 1 and vascular endothelial growth factor levels remained high or gradually increased up to day 14 in both PYE groups and then showed a sharp decline by day 21, implying successful completion of the inflammatory phase and initiation of tissue regeneration. These findings suggested that PYE is effective in promoting scald wound healing in the inflammation and tissue proliferation stages.

  7. Re-evaluation of broiler carcass scalding protocols for impact on the recovery of Campylobacter from breast skin after defeathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research re-evaluated the impact of scalding protocols on the recovery of Campylobacter from breast skin following defeathering after preliminary processing trials detected Campylobacter from breast skin for 4/8 carcasses that had vents plugged and sutured prior to scalding. Published research...

  8. AC BREAKDOWN IN GASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    electron- emission (multipactor) region, and (3) the low-frequency region. The breakdown mechanism in each of these regions is explained. An extensive bibliography on AC breakdown in gases is included.

  9. Irradiation seed treatment reduces scald, common root rot and increases phosphorus absorption of barley

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arabi, M.I.E.; Jawhar, M.

    2003-01-01

    The effect of low doses of gamma irradiation on severity of barley to scald and common root rot diseases, and phosphorus absorption was studied seeds were exposed to doses of 0, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40 and 50 Gy. A stimulatory effect was observed at irradiation doses of 30 and 40 Gy, which decreased the severity of barley to scald by 34% and 31% respectively. On the other hand, doses 20 and 30 Gy decreased the severity to CRR by 54% and 49% respectively, whereas, phosphorus absorption was significantly increased at doses of 15 and 20 Gy

  10. Harvest Date Influences Superficial Scald Development in Granny Smith Apples During Long Term Storage

    OpenAIRE

    ERKAN, Mustafa; PEKMEZCİ, Mustafa

    2014-01-01

    The effects of harvest dates on superficial scald development and postharvest quality in 'Granny Smith' apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) were investigated. Apples were harvested at 15-day intervals during 2 consecutive years (2000-2001) and stored at 0 °C with 90% relative humidity for 8 months. At the end of the 8 - month storage period plus an additional 1 week at 20 °C the percentage of superficial scald was lower (24.4%) in late harvested (November 15) apples than in ap...

  11. Pediatric superficial scald burns--reassessment of our follow-up protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egro, Francesco M; O'Neill, Jennifer K; Briard, Robert; Cubison, Tania C S; Kay, Alan R; Estela, Catalina M; Burge, Timothy S

    2010-01-01

    The most common pediatric burn injury is a superficial scald. The current follow-up protocol for such burns includes review of the patient at 2 weeks postinjury and then 2 months later. The authors decided to review the protocol to assess the need for this second follow-up. A retrospective study reviewed the case notes of patients younger than 16 years at the time of their injury presenting with a scald over 5% TBSA. The progress of healing and scar development up to 5 years follow-up was assessed. This study showed that scalds healing within 2 weeks following injury rarely became hypertrophic. A prospective study was performed over a 10-month period. All children who suffered a superficial partial-thickness scald injury were included. At the 2-week appointment, the need for further follow-up was predicted. The accuracy of this prediction was assessed 2 months later. This study showed that an experienced member of the burns team could reliably predict at 2-week appointment those children who could be safely discharged with no subsequent need for scar management. This study suggests that it will be safe to modify the follow-up protocol, reducing the number of clinic attendances.

  12. Effect of nano-silver hydrogel coating film on deep partial thickness scald model of rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Peng; Li, Yan; Ge, Xiaojin; Liu, Dandan; Miao, Mingsan

    2018-05-01

    Observing the effect of nano-silver hydrogel coating film on deep partial thickness scald model of rabbit. We prepared boiling water scalded rabbits with deep II degree scald models and applied high, medium and low doses of nano-silver hydrogel coating film for different time and area. Then we compared the difference of burned paper weight before administration and after administration model burns, burn local skin irritation points infection, skin crusting and scabs from the time, and the impact of local skin tissue morphology. Rabbits deep II degree burn model successful modeling; on day 12, 18, high, medium and low doses of nano-silver hydrogel coating film significantly reduced skin irritation of rabbits infected with the integral value ( P  film group significantly decreased skin irritation, infection integral value ( P  film significantly reduced film rabbits' scalded skin crusting time ( P  film on the deep partial thickness burns has a significant therapeutic effect; external use has a significant role in wound healing.

  13. Identification of QTLs for powdery mildew and scald resistance in barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shtaya, M.J.Y.; Marcel, T.C.; Sillero, J.C.; Niks, R.E.; Rubiales, D.

    2006-01-01

    A population of 103 recombinant inbred lines (RILs, F9-derived lines) developed from the two-row spring barley cross L94 × `Vada¿ was evaluated under field conditions for resistance against powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei) and scald (Rhynchosporium secalis). Apart from the major

  14. High frequency breakdown voltage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu, Thanh Duy.

    1992-03-01

    This report contains information about the effect of frequency on the breakdown voltage of an air gap at standard pressure and temperature, 76 mm Hg and O degrees C, respectively. The frequencies of interest are 47 MHz and 60 MHz. Additionally, the breakdown in vacuum is briefly considered. The breakdown mechanism is explained on the basis of collision and ionization. The presence of the positive ions produced by ionization enhances the field in the gap, and thus determines the breakdown. When a low-frequency voltage is applied across the gap, the breakdown mechanism is the same as that caused by the DC or static voltage. However, when the frequency exceeds the first critical value f c , the positive ions are trapped in the gap, increasing the field considerably. This makes the breakdown occur earlier; in other words, the breakdown voltage is lowered. As the frequency increases two decades or more, the second critical frequency, f ce , is reached. This time the electrons start being trapped in the gap. Those electrons that travel multiple times across the gap before reaching the positive electrode result in an enormous number of electrons and positive ions being present in the gap. The result is a further decrease of the breakdown voltage. However, increasing the frequency does not decrease the breakdown voltage correspondingly. In fact, the associated breakdown field intensity is almost constant (about 29 kV/cm).The reason is that the recombination rate increases and counterbalances the production rate, thus reducing the effect of the positive ions' concentration in the gap. The theory of collision and ionization does not apply to the breakdown in vacuum. It seems that the breakdown in vacuum is primarily determined by the irregularities on the surfaces of the electrodes. Therefore, the effect of frequency on the breakdown, if any, is of secondary importance

  15. Biobrane versus topical agents in the treatment of adult scald burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krezdorn, Nicco; Könneker, Sören; Paprottka, Felix Julian; Tapking, Christian; Mett, Tobias R; Brölsch, G Felix; Boyce, Maria; Ipaktchi, Ramin; Vogt, Peter M

    2017-02-01

    Limited data is available for treatment of scald lesions in adults. The use of the biosynthetic matrix Biobrane ® has been suggested as treatment option with more benefits over topical dressings. Application of Biobrane ® in scalds in our center led to a perceived increase of infection, secondary deepening, surgery and length of stay. We therefore assessed the effect of different treatment options in adult scalds in our center. We performed a retrospective cohort study of adult patients that have been admitted with scalds in our center between 2011 and 2014. We assessed two groups, group 1 with Biobrane ® as initial treatment and group 2 with topical treatment using polyhexanid hydrogel and fatty gauze. Primary outcome variables were rate of secondary deepening, surgery, infection (defined as positive microbiological swabs and antibiotic treatment) and length of stay. Total body surface area (TBSA) as well as diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, smoking and alcohol consumption as potential confounders were included. A total of 52 patients were included in this study. 36 patients received treatment with Biobrane ® and 16 with ointment and fatty gauze. No significant differences were found for age and TBSA whereas gender ratio was different (25/11 male/female in group 1 vs 4/12 in group 2, p=0.003). Rate of secondary deepening, surgery, infection as well as days of hospital stay (DOHS) were comparable. Logistic and multilinear regression showed TBSA to be a predictive factor for infection (p=0.041), and TBSA and age for length of stay (age p=0.036; TBSA p=0.042) in group 1. The use of Biobrane ® in adult scald lesions is safe and non-inferior to topical treatment options. In elder patients and larger TBSA Biobrane ® may increase the risk of infection or a prolonged stay in hospital. Level 3 - retrospective cohort study. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of nano-silver hydrogel coating film on deep partial thickness scald model of rabbit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Xi

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Observing the effect of nano-silver hydrogel coating film on deep partial thickness scald model of rabbit. Method: We prepared boiling water scalded rabbits with deep II degree scald models and applied high, medium and low doses of nano-silver hydrogel coating film for different time and area. Then we compared the difference of burned paper weight before administration and after administration model burns, burn local skin irritation points infection, skin crusting and scabs from the time, and the impact of local skin tissue morphology. Result: Rabbits deep II degree burn model successful modeling; on day 12, 18, high, medium and low doses of nano-silver hydrogel coating film significantly reduced skin irritation of rabbits infected with the integral value (P < 0.01, P < 0.05; high, medium and low doses of nano-silver hydrogel coating film group significantly decreased skin irritation, infection integral value (P < 0.01, P < 0.05; high, medium and low doses of nano-silver hydrogel coating film significantly reduced film rabbits’ scalded skin crusting time (P < 0.01, significantly shortened the rabbit skin burns from the scab time (P < 0.01, and significantly improved the treatment of skin diseases in rabbits scald model change (P < 0.01, P < 0.05. Conclusion: The nano-silver hydrogel coating film on the deep partial thickness burns has a significant therapeutic effect; external use has a significant role in wound healing. Keywords: Nano-silver hydrogel coating film, Deep degree burns, Topical, Rabbits

  17. Fancy a cup of scald? - The role of hot beverage burns in paediatric burns admissions in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, F; Hegarty, M; Jennings, P; Marsden, P; Smith, L

    2017-06-09

    Burns and scalds are preventable injuries in children that typically occur in the home. This study aimed to examine the role of hot beverage scalds in paediatric burn admissions in order to identify key target audiences for future safety strategies. Using the Hospital Inpatient Enquiry System (HIPE) a retrospective study of paediatric burn admissions in 2014 examined demographics, cause and severity of injury and location of occurrence. There were 233 paediatric discharges (age 0-18 yrs.) with a principal diagnosis of burn injury; 57% of these occurred in children under three years and 95% of these occurred in the home. Scalds caused 74% of burn injuries; hot beverages accounted for least 33% of these of which 77% were partial thickness and 73% were upper body burns. Effective hot beverage scald prevention strategies, targeted towards caregivers in the home, are required.

  18. Hot tea and tiny tots don't mix: A cross-sectional survey on hot beverage scalds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, J D; Kimble, R M; Watt, K A; Cameron, C M

    2017-12-01

    Hot beverage scalds are a leading cause of burns in young children. The aim of this study was to look at the circumstances surrounding these injuries in terms of setting, mechanism, supervision and first aid to inform a prevention campaign. A cross-sectional study was delivered via iPad to parents and caregivers presenting with a child aged 0-36 months with a hot beverage scald at a major paediatric burns centre. Of the 101 children aged 0-36 months that presented with a hot beverage scald over a 12-month period, 54 participants were included. The scald aetiology was as expected with the peak prevalence in children aged 6-24 months, pulling a cup of hot liquid down over themselves. The majority of injuries occurred in the child's home and were witnessed by the caregiver or parent. The supervising adult was often in close proximity when the scald occurred. Less than a third (28%) of participants received recommended first aid treatment at the scene, with an additional 18% receiving this treatment with three hours of the injury-usually at an emergency department. While the aetiology of these scalds were as expected, the low use of recommended burn first aid was of concern. Although supervision was present in almost all cases, with the parent/caregiver close-by, this proximity still permitted injury. Attentiveness and continuity of supervision, which can be difficult with competing parental demands, appear to play a more important role role; as do considerations of other safety mechanisms such as hazard reduction through keeping hot drinks out of reach and engineering factors such as improved cup design. By incorporating the findings from this study and other research into a hot beverage scald prevention campaign, we hope to see a change in knowledge and behaviour in parents and caregivers of young children, and ultimately a reduction in the incidence of hot beverage scalds. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of plasma CGRP and NPY level changes on intestinal mucosal barrier injury after scald in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shao Lijian; Zhu Qingxian; He Ming; Zhang Hongyan

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the significance of plasma CGRP and NPY levels changes immediately after scald in rats. Methods: Thirty-two rat models of 30% TBSA III degree scald were prepared. Eight animals each were sacrificed at 3, 6,12 and 24 hrs; taking blood samples for determination of plasma CGRP, NPY levels and 5 cm of ileum for pathologic study. As controls, eight animals without scald were treated in the same way. Results: Plasma CGRP levels were decreased significantly after scald, reaching bottom value at 12 hr and remained lower than those in controls at 24 hr (p 0.05). Plasma levels of CGRP were negatively correlated to plasma NPY levels (p<0.01). Ileum mucosal injuries presented as edema, congestion with necrosis and slough of epithelium were most marked at 12 hr. Conclusion: Plasma CGRP and NPY levels changed significantly after scald and were mutually negatively correlated. Post-scald intestinal mucosa barrier injuries were possibly related to the changes of levels of those vasoactive peptides

  20. Burns and scalds in pre-school children attending accident and emergency: accident or abuse?

    OpenAIRE

    Benger, J; McCabe, S

    2001-01-01

    Objectives—To assess how frequently and adequately information relating to the possibility of non-accidental injury (NAI) is documented and considered by doctors assessing pre-school children with burns and scalds in the accident and emergency (A&E) department, and to determine the effect of introducing a routine reminder mechanism into the A&E notes, coupled with an improved programme of NAI education and awareness.

  1. On dielectric breakdown statistics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuncer, Enis; James, D Randy; Sauers, Isidor; Ellis, Alvin R; Pace, Marshall O

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the dielectric breakdown data of some insulating materials and focus on the applicability of the two- and three-parameter Weibull distributions. A new distribution function is also proposed. In order to assess the model distribution's trustworthiness, we employ the Monte Carlo technique and, randomly selecting data-subsets from the whole dielectric breakdown data, determine whether the selected probability functions accurately describe the breakdown data. The utility and strength of the proposed expression are illustrated distinctly by the numerical procedure. The proposed expression is shown to be a valuable alternative to the Weibull ones

  2. Product Work Breakdown Structure

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Okayama, Y; Chirillo, L. D

    1980-01-01

    .... Any such subdivision scheme is a work breakdown structure. Traditional shipbuilders employ work subdivisions by ships functional systems which are natural and appropriate for estimating and for early design stages...

  3. Electrical breakdown in vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beukema, G.P.

    1980-01-01

    The main part of this thesis is dedicated to the field enhancement factor; in particular to the study of the origin, alteration and influence on the breakdown properties of different materials. This work required the examination of large surface areas on the same microscopic scale on which the relevant phenomena occur. (Pre)-breakdown measurements are described in which the anode condition does not play a role in the initiation of a breakdown, while the cathode can be considered as a broad-area electrode. The influence of adsorbed gases on pre-breakdown currents is investigated. It is shown that ions, released by field emission electrons from adsorbed layers on the anode change the emitting properties of a well-conditioned cathode if the current density at the anode is small. A new experimental arrangement is outlined to better distinguish between the different parameters which are important for the initiation of electrical breakdown. Comparative measurements between stainless steel and titanium electrodes are described to study the influence of either the cathode or the anode upon the initiation of a breakdown. (Auth.)

  4. Is cupping blister harmful?-A proteomical analysis of blister fluid induced by cupping therapy and scald.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhidan; Chen, Chunlan; Li, Xiaoyan; Zhao, Chuang; Li, Zunyuan; Liang, Wei; Lin, Yufang

    2018-02-01

    Cupping therapy has a long history in traditional medicine especially in Asian countries. It was controversial whether cupping induced blisters are beneficial to healing effects, and the formation and content in the blisters remain unexplored. We aimed to identify and compare the molecular components of the blister fluid from the cupping therapy and the scalds to explore the necessary of inducing cupping induced blisters. Fluid sample of blisters from fifteen patients receiving cupping therapy (Cupping group) and scald burns (Scald group) were collected in this study. Proteins from the blisters were separated by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-gel) and further analyzed by mass spectrometry. In addition, the changes in particular proteins were confirmed by Western blotting. The protein components are significantly different between blister from cupping therapy and scalds. The immune responses, oxidative stress and metabolic related proteins (Ig lambda-2 chain C regions, Ig gamma-1 chain C region, hemopexin, prdx2, calmodulin, succinyl-CoA ligase and tetranectin) were increased, whereas the hemoglobin subunit beta was decreased in the Cupping group compared with the Scald group. Cupping induced blisters contain several proteins which relate to the activation of certain immune pathways including anti-oxidation, anti-apoptosis, tissue repairing and metabolic regulation. This proteomic analysis may indicate a significant clue to the mechanism study of cupping. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. An unsuspected cause of meal-time morbidity: instant noodle scald burns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltz, Peter F; Wasicek, Philip; Mays, Chester; Bell, Derek E

    2013-01-01

    Observational analysis revealed a concerning frequency of scald burns secondary to instant noodles. A literature review reveals studies with small sample sizes of pediatric populations and analysis of container engineering. The adult cohort, treatments, and short-term outcomes have been neglected. Considering these deficiencies, we reviewed our institution's experience with burns secondary to instant noodles. Patient encounters due to instant noodle burns from January 1, 2007, through May 15, 2011, were reviewed. Demographics, burn characteristics, treatment, length of stay, number of operative interventions, and complications were analyzed. Eight hundred fifty-two patients were seen (460 were admitted) for scald burns of all pathogenesis. Of these, 121 (14%) were seen for burns secondary to noodles (63 men and 58 women). Of these, 48 were older than age 4 (group 1), and 73 were younger than age 4 (group 2). TBSA was 2.34 in group 1 and 1.64 in group 2 (P = .04). The most commonly burned areas in group 1 were extremities (n = 43) and in group 2 were chest (n = 32) and extremities (n = 31). Seven patients in group 1 and two patients in group 2 required operative intervention. Length of stay in groups 1 and 2 were 3.5 and 6 days, respectively. Noodle scald burns cause morbidity at all ages. Pediatric burns due to noodles are frequently managed conservatively but more often necessitate inpatient treatment. The nonpediatric population has larger TBSA and requires more frequent operative intervention. The morbidity of noodle burns is significant. Increased public education and container re-engineering is warranted.

  6. Impulse breakdown of liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Ushakov, Vasily Y

    2007-01-01

    The book describes the main physical processes and phenomena in pulsed electric breakdown. The knowledge and the control of the electric breakdown of liquids is important not only for the insulation inside power systems but it is also used for the creation and information of high voltage and high current pulses. Such high-voltage micro- and nanosecond pulses find wide application in experimental physics, electro discharge technology, physics of dielectrics, radar detection and ranging, high-speed photography. The nature of charge carriers, mechanism of formation and evolution of the gas phase,

  7. Campylobacter, Salmonella, and Escherichia coli on broiler carcasses subjected to a high pH scald and low pH postpick chlorine dip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang, M E; Windham, W R; Meinersmann, R J

    2011-04-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the individual and combined effects of a high pH scald and a postpick chlorine dip on bacteria present on broiler carcasses. In each of 3 replications, a flock was sampled at several sites within a commercial broiler processing plant. Carcasses were sampled by whole carcass rinse before and after treated scalding at mean pH 9.89 or control scalding at mean pH 6.88. Other carcasses from the same flock run on both the treated and control scald lines were collected and sampled before and after a chlorine dip tank operated at mean total chlorine level of 83.3 mg/kg and pH 6.04. Rinses were cultured for numbers of Campylobacter and Escherichia coli and presence or absence of Salmonella. High pH scald was more effective than standard scald to lessen the prevalence and numbers of Campylobacter on broiler carcasses; a lower prevalence was maintained through the postpick chlorine dip tank. The pH of the scald tank made no difference in numbers of E. coli recovered from broiler carcasses at any tested point on the processing line. High pH scald was not more effective than standard scald to lessen Salmonella prevalence. Furthermore, it is unclear why the postpick chlorine dip effectively lessened Salmonella prevalence on only the control scald line. Although no evidence exists that these treatments have an additive effect when used in series, each treatment shows some promise individually. Further optimization may result in more effective decontamination of broiler carcasses.

  8. Beauty in the Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brisco, Nicole

    2008-01-01

    Most human beings look at erosion as the destruction of a surface, but artists can see that erosion often creates indefinable beauty. Where do you see beauty in the breakdown? In this article, the author presents an innovative lesson that would allow students to observe both human and physical nature. In this activity students will create a work…

  9. Feather retention force in broiler carcasses slaughtered and held up to 8 hours postmortem prior to scalding

    Science.gov (United States)

    One factor that could impact the feasibility of commercial on-farm slaughter of broilers is the time delay from on-farm slaughter to scalding and defeathering in the commercial plant that could be 4 h or more. This experiment evaluated feather retention force (FRF) in broilers that were slaughtered ...

  10. Microbiology and evisceration efficiency of broiler carcasses slaughtered and held up to 8 hours postmortem prior to scalding and defeathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    The implementation of on farm slaughter could eliminate potential animal welfare issues associated with cooping, transport, dumping, and shackling live broilers. This research evaluated evisceration efficiency and the microbiological implications of delaying scalding and defeathering for up to 8 h a...

  11. Preliminary Essay on the Effect of Foliar Treatment with the Fungicide Triadimenol on Barley Culture Infected by Scald

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasraoui, B.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the foliar treatment by the fungicide triadimenol against barley scald. Results have shown that two or three triadimenol treatments have practically stopped the infection evolution. The disease have slightly extended with only one treatment. Moreover, other assessment showed that one, two or three triadimenol treatments were significantly associated to the same increase in the yield.

  12. Candidate biomarker discovery and selection for ‘Granny Smith' superficial scald risk management and diagnosis, poster board

    Science.gov (United States)

    Discovery of candidate biomarkers for superficial scald, a peel disorder that develops during storage of susceptible apple cultivars, is part of a larger project aimed at developing biomarker-based risk-management and diagnostic tools for multiple apple postharvest disorders (http://www.tfrec.wsu.ed...

  13. Gas breakdown in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abramov, V.A.; Pogutse, O.P.; Yurchenko, Eh.I.

    1975-01-01

    The initial stage of the charge development in a tokomak is considered theoretically. It is supposed that all electrons produced in neutral gas ionisation process are in the regime of an almost continuous acceleration. The production time of a given electron density is calculated as a function of the neutral gas density and of parameters of the vortex electric field. The mechanism of plasma escape on walls is considered. It is shown that the escaping time is defined by a specific inertial flow of plasma and depends on whether chamber walls are metal or dielectric. The criterion of the gas breakdown in a toroidal system is formulated. The developed theory is shown to explain a strong dependence of the breakdown on the gas initial density [ru

  14. Lack of a standardised UK care pathway resulting in national variations in management and outcomes of paediatric small area scalds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevatt, Alexander E J; Kirkham, Emily N; Allix, Bradley; Greenwood, Rosemary; Coy, Karen; Hollén, Linda I; Young, Amber E R

    2016-09-01

    There is a paucity of evidence guiding management of small area partial thickness paediatric scalds. This has prevented the development of national management guidelines for these injuries. This research aimed to investigate whether a lack of evidence for national guidelines has resulted in variations in both management and outcomes of paediatric small area scalds across England and Wales (E&W). A national survey of initial management of paediatric scalds ≤5% Total Body Surface Area (%TBSA) was sent to 14 burns services in E&W. Skin graft rates of anonymised burns services over seven years were collected from the international Burns Injury Database (iBID). Average skin grafting rates across services were compared. Length of stay and proportion of patients receiving general anaesthesia for dressing application at each service were also compared. All 14 burns services responded to the survey. Only 50% of services had a protocol in place for the management of small area burns. All protocols varied in how partial thickness paediatrics scalds ≤5% TBSA should be managed. There was no consensus as to which scalds should be treated using biosynthetic dressings. Data from iBID for 11,917 patients showed that the average reported skin grafting rate across all burns services was 2.3% (95% CI 2.1, 2.6) but varied from 0.3% to 7.1% (P<0.001). Service provider remained associated with likelihood of skin grafting when variations in the %TBSA case mix seen by each service were controlled for (χ(2)=87.3, P<0.001). The use of general anaesthetics across services varied between 0.6 and 35.5% (P<0.001). The median length of stay across services varied from 1 to 3 days (P<0.001). A lack of evidence guiding management of small-area paediatric scalds has resulted in variation in management of these injuries across E&W. There is also significant variation in outcomes for these injuries. Further research is indicated to determine if care pathways and outcomes are linked. An evidence

  15. Effect of DPA and 1-MCP on chemical compounds related to superficial scald of Granny Smith apples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moggia, C.; Moya-Leon, M. A.; Pereira, M.; Yuri, J. A.; Lobos, G. A.

    2010-07-01

    Research was carried out to study the mode of action of diphenylamine (DPA) and 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP), on control of superficial scald of Granny Smith apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), and its relation with chemical compounds. Fruit was harvested from a commercial orchard in Chile, 182 and 189 days after full bloom and received the following treatments: DPA (2,000 ppm); 1-MCP (1.2 ppm) and control (no treatment). All fruit was stored for 4 or 6 months at 0 degree centigrade. A completely randomized factorial design was used (2 harvest dates by 3 post harvest treatments). Monthly measurements were made on maturity indices, ethylene production rate (EPR), scald related compounds [a-farnesene (AF), conjugated trienes (CT), total anti-oxidants (AO)], and cell membrane stability. Following 4 and 6 months of storage, plus 7 days at 20 degree centigrade, scald was evaluated. After 6 months, DPA-treated fruit, from both harvests, showed similar firmness, EPR and AO, compared to the control. However, AF and CT were lower, and cell membrane stability higher. Conversely, 1-MCP-treated fruit showed a noticeable EPR suppression and AF inhibition, along with higher firmness, lower CT and AO, compared to the control and DPA. Furthermore, cell membrane stability was superior to that of the control and similar to that of the DPA. Treated fruit (DPA and 1-MCP) showed an important reduction in scald compared to the control. The effect of 1-MCP on the investigated compounds and the reduction in scald, confirms that ethylene plays a major role on its development. (Author) 50 refs.

  16. Anti-inflammatory and organ protective effect of insulin in scalded MODS rats without controlling hyperglycemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhongzhen; Hu, Tian; Wang, Zhanke; Wang, Jin; Liu, Rui; Yang, Qianyong; Zhang, Xiaoyun; Xiong, Yuanyuan

    2018-02-01

    Insulin, as an anti-inflammatory drug, could not be freely used in patients who experienced trauma according to the degree of inflammation, because of the side effect of hypoglycemia. In vivo experimental evidence is lacking concerning whether the effect is dosage dependent and whether it relies on controlling hyperglycemia. By adjusting the dosage ratio of glucose and insulin, different dosages of insulin were used to treat severely scalded MODS rats to achieve uncontrolled or controlled hyperglycemia. One hundred forty rats with severe scalded were randomly divided into a hyperglycemia-controlled group, hyperglycemia-uncontrolled group, and control group. The levels of inflammation response indexes and major organ dysfunction indexes were measured and compared between groups. The blood indexes of inflammatory response and major organ dysfunction did not show statistical difference between hyperglycemia-controlled groups (A) and uncontrolled groups (B) in the same dosage of insulin (all P>0.05). The blood indexes of inflammatory response and major organ dysfunction demonstrated statistical difference in different dosages of insulin with hyperglycemia-controlled groups (A1-A3 groups) and hyperglycemia-uncontrolled groups (B1-B3 groups) (all Pcontrolling hyperglycemia. The effect of anti-inflammation and organ protection of insulin is dosage dependent in vivo; it does not rely on controlling hyperglycemia. Temporary traumatic hyperglycemia itself might not be detrimental to the body. Adjusting the ratio of insulin and glucose could provide a novel train of thought for freely treating patients with severe traumatic injury with different dosages of insulin according to the degree of inflammation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Pediatric scalds: do cooking-related burns have a higher injury burden?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachier, Marielena; Hammond, Sarah E; Williams, Regan; Jancelewicz, Timothy; Feliz, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Pediatric scald burns result in frequent emergency room visits and hospitalizations. We investigated whether cooking-related burns produce greater morbidity requiring more extensive care than noncooking burns. We performed a 6-y review at our free-standing children's hospital. Children aged cooking versus noncooking burns. The Mann-Whitney U test, a chi-square test, and the negative binomial were used to compare continuous, categorical, and count data between groups. Bivariate analysis was performed to identify risk factors among patients with adverse outcomes. We identified 308 patients; 262 (85%) cooking and 46 (15%) noncooking burns. Most patients were African-American males, with public insurance, and a median age of 2 y. Cooking burns preferentially occurred over the head, neck, and upper body; noncooking burns were distributed over the lower body (P  0.11). In subgroup analysis, semisolid and grease burns resulted in increased rates of wound contractures and/or limited mobility when compared with noncooking burns (P = 0.05 and P = 0.008, respectively). Patients with complications were more likely to have third degree burns and required more consults, longer hospitalization, and more surgical debridements and clinic visits. Most accidental scald burns occurred in young children during food preparation. Greater long-term morbidity was found in patients with semisolid and grease burns. This subset of children has a higher injury burden and requires extensive care in the acute and long-term setting. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. PHENIX Work Breakdown Structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-02-01

    The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Book begins with this Overview section, which contains the high-level summary cost estimate, the cost profile, and the global construction schedule. The summary cost estimate shows the total US cost and the cost in terms of PHENIX construction funds for building the PHENIX detector. All costs in the WBS book are shown in FY 1993 dollars. Also shown are the institutional and foreign contributions, the level of pre-operations funding, and the cost of deferred items. Pie charts are presented at PHENIX WBS level 1 and 2 that show this information. The PHENIX construction funds are shown broken down to PHENIX WBS level 3 items per fiscal year, and the resulting profile is compared to the RHIC target profile. An accumulated difference of the two profiles is also shown. The PHENIX global construction schedule is presented at the end of the Overview section. Following the Overview are sections for each subsystem. Each subsystem section begins with a summary cost estimate, cost profile, and critical path. The total level 3 cost is broken down into fixed costs (M ampersand S), engineering costs (EDIA) and labor costs. Costs are further broken down in terms of PHENIX construction funds, institutional and foreign contributions, pre-operations funding, and deferred items. Also shown is the contingency at level 3 and the level 4 breakdown of the total cost. The cost profile in fiscal years is shown at level 3. The subsystem summaries are followed by the full cost estimate and schedule sheets for that subsystem. These detailed sheets are typically carried down to level 7 or 8. The cost estimate shows Total, M ampersand S, EDIA, and Labor breakdowns, as well as contingency, for each WBS entry

  19. Breakdowns in collaborative information seeking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten

    2010-01-01

    Collaborative information seeking is integral to many professional activities. In hospital work, the medication process encompasses continual seeking for information and collaborative grounding of information. This study investigates breakdowns in collaborative information seeking through analyses...... of the use of the electronic medication record adopted in a Danish healthcare region and of the reports of five years of medication incidents at Danish hospitals. The results show that breakdowns in collaborative information seeking is a major source of medication incidents, that most of these breakdowns...... are breakdowns in collaborative grounding rather than information seeking, that the medication incidents mainly concern breakdowns in the use of records as opposed to oral communication, that the breakdowns span multiple degrees of separation between clinicians, and that the electronic medication record has...

  20. Experimental research and observation of the skin response of mice with a second-degree scald during irradiation by a CO2 laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yunxia; Wu, Shulian; Li, Zhifang; Xu, Xiaohui; Li, Hui

    2014-05-01

    Second-degree scalding is a common dermatological injury. Inappropriate treatment methods in clinical practice always produce scarring, and can lead to skin cancer and other complications in the longer term. In this study optical coherence tomography (OCT) combined with a skin detector was used to monitor the response of second-degree scalded skin tissue irradiated by a CO2 laser. The process of treatment of second-degree scalding was systematically studied from the perspective of tissue optics. The OCT signal intensity was stronger within the whole recovery period in the experimental group undergoing CO2 laser treatment, and the attenuation coefficient (μt) returned to its original value in a shorter time. The results help us to understand tissue injury in a second-degree scald and may help improve the standard treatment.

  1. Intracellular protein breakdown. 8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohley, P.; Kirschke, H.; Langner, J.; Wiederanders, B.; Ansorge, S.

    1976-01-01

    Double-labelled proteins from rat liver cytosol ( 14 C in long-lived, 3 H in short-lived proteins after in-vivo-labelling) are used as substrates for unlabelled proteinases in vitro. Differences in the degradation rates of short-lived and long-lived proteins in vitro by different proteinases and after addition of different effectors allow conclusions concerning their importance for the in-vivo-turnover of substrate proteins. The main activity (>90%) of soluble lysosomal proteinases at pH 6.1 and pH 6.9 is caused by thiolproteinases, which degrade preferentially short-lived cytosol proteins. These proteinases are inhibited by leupeptin. Autolysis of double-labelled cell fractions shows a remarkably faster breakdown of short-lived substrate proteins only in the soluble part of lysosomes. Microsomal fractions degrade in vitro preferentially long-lived substrate proteins. (author)

  2. Breakdown concepts for contingency tables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuhnt, S.

    2010-01-01

    Loglinear Poisson models are commonly used to analyse contingency tables. So far, robustness of parameter estimators as well as outlier detection have rarely been treated in this context. We start with finite-sample breakdown points. We yield that the breakdown point of mean value estimators

  3. Cave breakdown by vadose weathering.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osborne R. Armstrong L.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Vadose weathering is a significant mechanism for initiating breakdown in caves. Vadose weathering of ore bodies, mineral veins, palaeokarst deposits, non-carbonate keystones and impure, altered or fractured bedrock, which is intersected by caves, will frequently result in breakdown. Breakdown is an active, ongoing process. Breakdown occurs throughout the vadose zone, and is not restricted to large diameter passages, or to cave ceilings. The surfaces of disarticulated blocks are commonly coated, rather than having fresh broken faces, and blocks continue to disintegrate after separating from the bedrock. Not only gypsum, but also hydromagnesite and aragonite are responsible for crystal wedging. It is impossible to study or identify potential breakdown foci by surface surveys alone, in-cave observation and mapping are essential.

  4. [Effects of astragalus polysaccharide on intestinal immune function of rats with severe scald injury].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cuilan; Zhan, Jianhua; Luo, Jinhua

    2015-02-01

    To observe the effects of astragalus polysaccharide (AP) on the intestinal mucosal morphology, level of secretory IgA (s-IgA) in intestinal mucus, and distribution of T lymphocyte subsets in Peyer's patch in rats with severe scald injury. One hundred and thirty SD rats were divided into sham injury group (SI, sham injured, n = 10), scald group (S, n = 30), low dosage group (LD, n = 30), moderate dosage group (MD, n = 30), and high dosage group (HD, n = 30) according to the random number table. Rats in the latter 4 groups were inflicted with 30% TBSA full-thickness scald on the back. From post injury hour 2, rats in groups LD, MD, and HD were intraperitoneally injected with 0.5 mL AP solution with the dosage of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg each day respectively, and rats in group S were injected with 0.5 mL normal saline instead. Ten rats from group SI immediately after injury and 10 rats from each of the latter 4 groups on post injury day (PID) 3, 7, 14 were sacrificed, and their intestines were harvested. The morphology of ileal mucosa was examined after HE staining; the level of s-IgA in ileal mucus was determined with double-antibody sandwich ELISA method; the proportions of CD3⁺, CD4⁺, CD8⁺ T lymphocytes in Peyer's patches of intestine were determined with flow cytometer, and the proportion of CD4⁺ to CD8⁺ was calculated. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance, analysis of variance of factorial design, and SNK test. (1) Villi in normal form and intact villus epithelial cells were observed in rats of group SI immediately after injury, while edema of villi and necrosis and desquamation of an enormous amount of villi were observed in groups with scalded rats on PID 3, with significant infiltration of inflammatory cells. On PID 7, no obvious improvement in intestinal mucosal lesion was observed in groups with scalded rats. On PID 14, the pathology in intestinal mucosa of rats remained nearly the same in group S, and it was alleviated obviously

  5. [Efficacy observation on application of negative pressure therapy in the treatment of superficial partial-thickness scald wound in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Chuan-an; Chai, Jia-ke; Tuo, Xiao-ye; Cai, Jian-hua; Li, Dong-jie; Zhang, Lin; Zhu, Hua; Cai, Jin-dong

    2013-02-01

    To observe the effect of negative pressure therapy in the treatment of superficial partial-thickness scald in children. Three hundred and seven children with superficial partial-thickness scald hospitalized from August 2009 to May 2012 were divided into negative pressure therapy group (NPT, n = 145) and control group (C, n = 162) according to the random number table. Patients in group NPT were treated with negative pressure from within post injury day (PID) 3 to PID 9 (with -16 kPa pressure), while traditional occlusive dressing method was used in group C. Changes in body temperature, wound healing condition, frequency of dressing change were compared between group NPT and group C. Bacterial culture results of wounds were compared before and after treatment in group NPT. Volume of drained transudate per one percent of wound area was recorded in group NPT on PID 1 to PID 3. Data were processed with t test or chi-square test. The incidence of high fever was significantly lower in group NPT (26.9%, 39/145) than in group C (63.6%, 103/162, χ(2) = 41.419, P partial-thickness scald.

  6. Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in a premature newborn caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Hörner

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome is an exfoliative skin disease. Reports of this syndrome in newborns caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are rare but, when present, rapid diagnosis and treatment is required in order to decrease morbidity and mortality. CASE REPORT: A premature newly born girl weighing 1,520 g, born with a gestational age of 29 weeks and 4 days, developed staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome on the fifth day of life. Cultures on blood samples collected on the first and fourth days were negative, but Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterococcus sp. (vancomycin-sensitive developed in blood cultures performed on the day of death (seventh day, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia marcescens were identified in cultures on nasopharyngeal, buttock and abdominal secretions. In addition to these two Gram-negative bacilli, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in a culture on the umbilical stump (seventh day. The diagnosis of staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome was based on clinical criteria.

  7. The Influence of Scalded Flour, Fermentation, and Plants Belonging to Lamiaceae Family on the Wheat Bread Quality and Acrylamide Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiene, Elena; Bartkevics, Vadims; Krungleviciute, Vita; Pugajeva, Iveta; Zadeike, Daiva; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Cizeikiene, Dalia

    2018-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of additives such as plants belonging to Lamiaceae family (Thymus vulgaris, Carum carvi, Origanum vulgare, Ocimum basilicum, and Coriandrum sativum), scalded flour (SF) or scalded flour fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum LUHS135 (SFFLp) on the quality and acrylamide formation in wheat bread. The formation of acrylamide and bread quality significantly depended on the king of plants used and the amount of SF and SFFLp used. The additives of T. vulgaris and SF increased the content of acrylamide by 3.4-fold in comparison with bread prepared without SF, whereas the addition of SFFLp significantly reduced the content of acrylamide in bread, especially using 5% of SFFLp supplemented with O. vulgare and 15% of SFFLp supplemented with C. sativum (respectively by 40% and 29.4%) therefore could be recommended for safer bread production. The addition of 5% (from total wheat flour content) of scalded wheat flour fermented with Lactobacillus plantarum LUHS135 strain (SFFLp) with Origanum vulgare addition, and 5% or 10% of SFFLp prepared with Ocimum basilicum, and 15% of SFFLp prepared with Coriandrum sativum significantly reduce the content of acrylamide in wheat bread, therefore could be recommended for safer bread production. © 2018 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  8. Inducible satellite cell depletion attenuates skeletal muscle regrowth following a scald-burn injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finnerty, Celeste C; McKenna, Colleen F; Cambias, Lauren A; Brightwell, Camille R; Prasai, Anesh; Wang, Ye; El Ayadi, Amina; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E; Fry, Christopher S

    2017-11-01

    Severe burns result in significant skeletal muscle cachexia that impedes recovery. Activity of satellite cells, skeletal muscle stem cells, is altered following a burn injury and likely hinders regrowth of muscle. Severe burn injury induces satellite cell proliferation and fusion into myofibres with greater activity in muscles proximal to the injury site. Conditional depletion of satellite cells attenuates recovery of myofibre area and volume following a scald burn injury in mice. Skeletal muscle regrowth following a burn injury requires satellite cell activity, underscoring the therapeutic potential of satellite cells in the prevention of prolonged frailty in burn survivors. Severe burns result in profound skeletal muscle atrophy; persistent muscle atrophy and weakness are major complications that hamper recovery from burn injury. Many factors contribute to the erosion of muscle mass following burn trauma, and we have previously shown concurrent activation and apoptosis of muscle satellite cells following a burn injury in paediatric patients. To determine the necessity of satellite cells during muscle recovery following a burn injury, we utilized a genetically modified mouse model (Pax7 CreER -DTA) that allows for the conditional depletion of satellite cells in skeletal muscle. Additionally, mice were provided 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine to determine satellite cell proliferation, activation and fusion. Juvenile satellite cell-wild-type (SC-WT) and satellite cell-depleted (SC-Dep) mice (8 weeks of age) were randomized to sham or burn injury consisting of a dorsal scald burn injury covering 30% of total body surface area. Both hindlimb and dorsal muscles were studied at 7, 14 and 21 days post-burn. SC-Dep mice had >93% depletion of satellite cells compared to SC-WT (P satellite cell proliferation and fusion. Depletion of satellite cells impaired post-burn recovery of both muscle fibre cross-sectional area and volume (P satellite cells in the aetiology of lean

  9. Nosocomial outbreak of staphyloccocal scalded skin syndrome in neonates in England, December 2012 to March 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paranthaman, K; Bentley, A; Milne, L M; Kearns, A; Loader, S; Thomas, A; Thompson, F; Logan, M; Newitt, S; Puleston, R

    2014-08-21

    Staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) is a blistering skin condition caused by exfoliative toxin-producing strains of Staphylococcus aureus. Outbreaks of SSSS in maternity settings are rarely reported. We describe an outbreak of SSSS that occurred among neonates born at a maternity unit in England during December 2012 to March 2013. Detailed epidemiological and microbiological investigations were undertaken. Eight neonates were found to be infected with the outbreak strain of S. aureus, of spa type t346, representing a single pulsotype. All eight isolates contained genes encoding exfoliative toxin A (eta) and six of them contained genes encoding toxin B (etb). Nasal swabs taken during targeted staff screening yielded a staphylococcal carriage rate of 21% (17/80), but none contained the outbreak strain. Mass screening involving multi-site swabbing and pooled, enrichment culture identified a healthcare worker (HCW) with the outbreak strain. This HCW was known to have a chronic skin condition and their initial nasal screen was negative. The outbreak ended when they were excluded from work. This outbreak highlights the need for implementing robust swabbing and culture methodswhen conventional techniques are unsuccessful in identifying staff carrier(s). This study adds to the growing body of evidence on the role of HCWs in nosocomial transmission of S. aureus.

  10. Varicella infection in a neonate with subsequent staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome and fatal shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Shakal Narayan; Tahazzul, Mohammad; Singh, Anita; Chandra, Surabhi

    2012-08-01

    A male term neonate, at day 23 of life, presented with vesicular lesions over the trunk, which spread to allover the body on the next day. Five days later, he started developing blistering of the skin over the trunk and extremities, which subsequently ruptured, leaving erythematous, tender raw areas with peeling of the skin. The mother had vesicular eruptions, which started on the second day of delivery and progressed over the next 3 days. Subsequently, similar eruptions were noticed in two of the siblings before affecting the neonate. On the basis of the exposure history and clinical picture, a diagnosis was made of varicella infection with staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS). The blood culture and the wound surface culture grew Staphylococcus aureus. Treatment included intravenous fluid, antibiotics, acyclovir and wound care. However, after 72 h of hospitalisation, the neonate first developed shock, refractory to fluid boluses, vasopressors and catecholamine along with other supports; and he then succumbed. In all neonates, staphylococcal infection with varicella can be fatal due to SSSS, the toxic shock syndrome or septicaemia.

  11. Adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis reduces neutrophil infiltration and necrosis in partial-thickness scald burns in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayliss, Jill; Delarosa, Sara; Wu, Jianfeng; Peterson, Jonathan R; Eboda, Oluwatobi N; Su, Grace L; Hemmila, Mark; Krebsbach, Paul H; Cederna, Paul S; Wang, Stewart C; Xi, Chuanwu; Levi, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP), present in thermally injured tissue, modulates the inflammatory response and causes significant tissue damage. The authors hypothesize that neutrophil infiltration and ensuing tissue necrosis would be mitigated by removing ATP-dependent signaling at the burn site. Mice were subjected to 30% TBSA partial-thickness scald burn by dorsal skin immersion in a water bath at 60 or 20°C (nonburn controls). In the treatment arm, an ATP hydrolyzing enzyme, apyrase, was applied directly to the site immediately after injury. Skin was harvested after 24 hours and 5 days for hematoxylin and eosin stain, elastase, and Ki-67 staining. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interferon (IFN)-β expression were measured through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. At 24 hours, the amount of neutrophil infiltration was different between the burn and burn + apyrase groups (P burn group at 24 hours and 5 days. TNF-α and IFN-β expression at 24 hours in the apyrase group was lower than in the burn group (P burn site allays the neutrophil response to thermal injury and reduces tissue necrosis. This decrease in inflammation and tissue necrosis is at least partially because of TNF-α and IFN-β signaling. Apyrase could be used as topical inflammatory regulators to quell the injury caused by inflammation.

  12. Analyzing randomly occurring voltage breakdowns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiltshire, C.W.

    1977-01-01

    During acceptance testing of high-vacuum neutron tubes, 40% of the tubes failed after experiencing high-voltage breakdowns during the aging process. Use of a digitizer in place of an oscilloscope revealed two types of breakdowns, only one of which affected acceptance testing. This information allowed redesign of the aging sequence to prevent tube damage and improve yield and quality of the final product

  13. Soft leptogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ambrosio, Giancarlo; Giudice, Gian F.; Raidal, Martti

    2003-01-01

    We study 'soft leptogenesis', a new mechanism of leptogenesis which does not require flavour mixing among the right-handed neutrinos. Supersymmetry soft-breaking terms give a small mass splitting between the CP-even and CP-odd right-handed sneutrino states of a single generation and provide a CP-violating phase sufficient to generate a lepton asymmetry. The mechanism is successful if the lepton-violating soft bilinear coupling is unconventionally (but not unnaturally) small. The values of the right-handed neutrino masses predicted by soft leptogenesis can be low enough to evade the cosmological gravitino problem

  14. Hot soup! Correlating the severity of liquid scald burns to fluid and biomedical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loller, Cameron; Buxton, Gavin A; Kerzmann, Tony L

    2016-05-01

    Burns caused by hot drinks and soups can be both debilitating and costly, especially to pediatric and geriatric patients. This research is aimed at better understanding the fluid properties that can influence the severity of skin burns. We use a standard model which combines heat transfer and biomedical equations to predict burn severity. In particular, experimental data from a physical model serves as the input to our numerical model to determine the severity of scald burns as a consequence of actual fluid flows. This technique enables us to numerically predict the heat transfer from the hot soup into the skin, without the need to numerically estimate the complex fluid mechanics and thermodynamics of the potentially highly viscous and heterogeneous soup. While the temperature of the soup is obviously is the most important fact in determining the degree of burn, we also find that more viscous fluids result in more severe burns, as the slower flowing thicker fluids remain in contact with the skin for longer. Furthermore, other factors can also increase the severity of burn such as a higher initial fluid temperature, a greater fluid thermal conductivity, or a higher thermal capacity of the fluid. Our combined experimental and numerical investigation finds that for average skin properties a very viscous fluid at 100°C, the fluid must be in contact with the skin for around 15-20s to cause second degree burns, and more than 80s to cause a third degree burn. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  15. Nosocomial outbreak of staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome in neonates: epidemiological investigation and control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Helali, N; Carbonne, A; Naas, T; Kerneis, S; Fresco, O; Giovangrandi, Y; Fortineau, N; Nordmann, P; Astagneau, P

    2005-10-01

    Over a three-month period, 13 neonates developed staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) in a maternity unit, between four and 18 days after their birth. An epidemiological and descriptive study followed by a case-control study was performed. A case was defined as a neonate with blistering or peeling skin, and exfoliative toxin A Staphylococcus aureus positive cultures. Controls were selected at random from the asymptomatic, non-colonized neonates born on the same day as the cases. All staff members and all neonates born during the outbreak period were screened for carriage by nasal swabs and umbilical swabs, respectively. S. aureus isolates were polymerase chain reaction (PCR) screened for etA gene and genotyped by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Two clusters of eight and five cases were identified. Receiving more than one early umbilical care procedure by the same ancillary nurse was the only risk factor identified in the case-control study (odds ratio=15, 95% confidence intervals 2-328). The ancillary nurse suffered from chronic dermatitis on her hands that favoured S. aureus carriage. Exfoliative-toxin-A-producing strains, as evidenced by PCR and indistinguishable by PFGE, were isolated from all but one of the SSSS cases, from four asymptomatic neonates, from two staff members and from the ancillary nurse's hands. Removal of the ancillary nurse from duty, infection control measures (isolation precautions, chlorhexidine handwashing and barrier protections), and treatment of the carriers (nasal mupirocin and chlorhexidine showers) led to control of the epidemic. In conclusion, this study emphasizes the need for tight surveillance of chronic dermatitis in healthcare workers.

  16. [Effects of exogenous high mobility group protein box 1 on angiogenesis in ischemic zone of early scald wounds of rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, L; Guo, X; Huang, H J; Liao, X M; Luo, X Q; Li, D; Zhou, H; Gao, X C; Tan, M Y

    2018-04-20

    Objective: To observe effects of exogenous high mobility group protein box 1 (HMGB1) on angiogenesis in ischemic zone of early scald wounds of rats. Methods: Thirty-six Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into HMGB1 group and simple scald (SS) group according to the random number table, with 18 rats in each group. Comb-like copper mould was placed on the back of rats for 20 s after being immersed in 100 ℃ hot water for 3 to 5 min to make three ischemic zones of wound. Immediately after scald, rats in HMGB1 group were subcutaneously injected with 0.4 μg HMGB1 and 0.1 mL phosphate buffer solution (PBS), and rats in SS group were subcutaneously injected with 0.1 mL PBS from boarders of ischemic zone of scald wound. At post scald hour (PSH) 24, 48, and 72, 6 rats in each group were collected. Protein expressions of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in ischemic zone of wound at PSH 24, 48, and 72 and protein expressions of CD31 in ischemic zone of wound at PSH 48 and 72 were detected by immunohistochemistry. The number of microvessel in CD31 immunohistochemical sections of ischemic zone of wound at PSH 48 and 72 was calculated after observing by the microscope. The mRNA expressions of VEGF and CD31 in ischemic zone of wound were detected by real-time fluorescence quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction at PSH 24, 48, and 72. Data were processed with analysis of variance of factorial design, t test, and Bonferroni correction. Results: (1) At PSH 24, 48, and 72, protein expressions of VEGF in ischemic zone of wound of rats in HMGB1 group were significantly higher than those of rats in SS group ( t =7.496, 4.437, 5.402, P zone of wound of rats in HMGB1 group were 0.038 8±0.007 9 and 0.057 7±0.001 2 respectively, significantly higher than 0.013 4±0.004 9 and 0.030 3±0.004 0 of rats in SS group ( t =10.257, 15.055, P zone of wound of rats in HMGB1 group was obviously more than that of rats in SS group ( t =3.536, 4.000, P zone of wound of

  17. Target metabolite and gene transcription profiling during the development of superficial scald in apple (Malus x domestica Borkh).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busatto, Nicola; Farneti, Brian; Tadiello, Alice; Vrhovsek, Urska; Cappellin, Luca; Biasioli, Franco; Velasco, Riccardo; Costa, Guglielmo; Costa, Fabrizio

    2014-07-20

    Fruit quality features resulting from ripening processes need to be preserved throughout storage for economical reasons. However, during this period several physiological disorders can occur, of which superficial scald is one of the most important, due to the development of large brown areas on the fruit skin surface. This study examined the variation in polyphenolic content with the progress of superficial scald in apple, also with respect to 1-MCP, an ethylene competitor interacting with the hormone receptors and known to interfere with this etiology. The change in the accumulation of these metabolites was further correlated with the gene set involved in this pathway, together with two specific VOCs (Volatile Organic Compounds), α-farnesene and its oxidative form, 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one. Metabolite profiling and qRT-PCR assay showed these volatiles are more heavily involved in the signalling system, while the browning coloration would seem to be due more to a specific accumulation of chlorogenic acid (as a consequence of the activation of MdPAL and MdC3H), and its further oxidation carried out by a polyphenol oxidase gene (MdPPO). In this physiological scenario, new evidence regarding the involvement of an anti-apoptotic regulatory mechanism for the compartmentation of this phenomenon in the skin alone was also hypothesized, as suggested by the expression profile of the MdDAD1, MdDND1 and MdLSD1 genes. The results presented in this work represent a step forward in understanding the physiological mechanisms of superficial scald in apple, shedding light on the regulation of the specific physiological cascade.

  18. High gradient RF breakdown study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurent, L.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Scheitrum, G.; Hanna, S.; Pearson, C.; Phillips, R.

    1998-01-01

    Stanford Linear Accelerator Center and UC Davis have been investigating high gradient RF breakdown and its effects on pulse shortening in high energy microwave devices. RF breakdown is a critical issue in the development of high power microwave sources and next generation linear accelerators since it limits the output power of microwave sources and the accelerating gradient of linacs. The motivation of this research is to find methods to increase the breakdown threshold level in X-band structures by reducing dark current. Emphasis is focused on improved materials, surface finish, and cleanliness. The test platform for this research is a traveling wave resonant ring. A 30 MW klystron is employed to provide up to 300 MW of traveling wave power in the ring to trigger breakdown in the cavity. Five TM 01 cavities have previously been tested, each with a different combination of surface polish and/or coating. The onset of breakdown was extended up to 250 MV/m with a TiN surface finish, as compared to 210 MV/m for uncoated OFE copper. Although the TiN coating was helpful in depressing the field emission, the lowest dark current was obtained with a 1 microinch surface finish, single-point diamond-turned cavity

  19. Vortex breakdown incipience: Theoretical considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Stanley A.; Erlebacher, Gordon

    1992-01-01

    The sensitivity of the onset and the location of vortex breakdowns in concentrated vortex cores, and the pronounced tendency of the breakdowns to migrate upstream have been characteristic observations of experimental investigations; they have also been features of numerical simulations and led to questions about the validity of these simulations. This behavior seems to be inconsistent with the strong time-like axial evolution of the flow, as expressed explicitly, for example, by the quasi-cylindrical approximate equations for this flow. An order-of-magnitude analysis of the equations of motion near breakdown leads to a modified set of governing equations, analysis of which demonstrates that the interplay between radial inertial, pressure, and viscous forces gives an elliptic character to these concentrated swirling flows. Analytical, asymptotic, and numerical solutions of a simplified non-linear equation are presented; these qualitatively exhibit the features of vortex onset and location noted above.

  20. Epidemiology and outcome analysis of scalds in children caused by "guo lian kang": an 11-year review in a burn center in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Liqiang; Zhang, Hong; Shi, Fusheng; Yi, Dong; Zhu, Guangjun

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the epidemiological characteristics of scalds induced by "guo lian kang" (literally "stove connected to bed") in children. The demographic, burn features, outcome, and other information of 0-14-year-old children with "guo lian kang"-induced scalds admitted to the burn treatment center of the 322 Hospital of the People's Liberation Army in Datong from 30 September 2001 to 31 December 2011 were analyzed. Among the 1993 children clearly documented with scalds due to hot liquid in vessels, 795 (39.89%) had burns due to "guo lian kang." The proportion of the pediatric burns caused by "guo lian kang" was 55.56% in 2002 and 37.30% in 2011, with a decreasing trend. One-year-old children accounted for the highest proportion of children with burns due to "guo lian kang" (male:female=1.54:1). Scalding mostly occurred from October to May; the most common times were around 8:00 AM, 11:00 AM, and 7:00 PM. Most scalds occurred on the upper limbs, 90.22% of which were dermal burns. The median burn area was 11% of the total body surface area. The burn agent was mainly hot water in pots. Scalding mostly occurred when the children accidentally sat on, or fell or stepped into the pot while playing. Among the children with "guo lian kang"-induced scalds, up to 42.26% of the children did not receive any treatment before hospital admission, and 18.86% of the children were admitted to the hospital ≥6h after the occurrence of burns. In addition, 74.97% of the children's families can afford the medical expenses, while 5.28% abandoned treatment because of financial difficulties. There were no significant differences between children with scalds caused by "guo lian kang" and scalds caused due to other reasons considering the age and sex. Compared to scalds due to other reasons, children with "guo lian kang"-induced scalds had greater burn area and depth, shock incidence, surgery rate, blood transfusion rate, length of hospital stay, and

  1. Investigations of dc breakdown fields

    CERN Document Server

    Ramsvik, Trond; Reginelli, Alessandra; Taborelli, Mauro

    2006-01-01

    The need for high accelerating gradients for the future 30 GHz multi-TeV e+e- Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) at CERN has triggered a comprehensive study of DC breakdown fields of metals in UHV. The study shows that molybdenum (Mo), tungsten (W), titanium (Ti) and TiVAl reach high breakdown fields, and are thus good candidates for the iris material of CLIC structures. A significant decrease in the saturated breakdown field (Esat) is observed for molybdenum and tungsten when exposed to air. Specifically, at air pressures of 10-5 mbar, the decrease in Esat is found to be 50% and 30% for molybdenum and tungsten, respectively. In addition, a 30% decrease is found when molybdenum is conditioned with a CO pressure of ~1-10-5 mbar. Surface analysis measurements and breakdown conditioning in O2 ambience imply that the origin of the decrease in Esat is closely linked to oxide formation on the cathode surface. "Ex-situ" treatments by ion bombardment of molybdenum effectively reduce the oxide layers, and improve the brea...

  2. Soft Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitesides, George M

    2018-04-09

    This description of "soft robotics" is not intended to be a conventional review, in the sense of a comprehensive technical summary of a developing field. Rather, its objective is to describe soft robotics as a new field-one that offers opportunities to chemists and materials scientists who like to make "things" and to work with macroscopic objects that move and exert force. It will give one (personal) view of what soft actuators and robots are, and how this class of soft devices fits into the more highly developed field of conventional "hard" robotics. It will also suggest how and why soft robotics is more than simply a minor technical "tweak" on hard robotics and propose a unique role for chemistry, and materials science, in this field. Soft robotics is, at its core, intellectually and technologically different from hard robotics, both because it has different objectives and uses and because it relies on the properties of materials to assume many of the roles played by sensors, actuators, and controllers in hard robotics. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Soft lubrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skotheim, Jan; Mahadevan, Laksminarayanan

    2004-11-01

    We study the lubrication of fluid-immersed soft interfaces and show that elastic deformation couples tangential and normal forces and thus generates lift. We consider materials that deform easily, due to either geometry (e.g a shell) or constitutive properties (e.g. a gel or a rubber), so that the effects of pressure and temperature on the fluid properties may be neglected. Four different system geometries are considered: a rigid cylinder moving tangentially to a soft layer coating a rigid substrate; a soft cylinder moving tangentially to a rigid substrate; a cylindrical shell moving tangentially to a rigid substrate; and finally a journal bearing coated with a thin soft layer, which being a conforming contact allows us to gauge the influence of contact geometry. In addition, for the particular case of a soft layer coating a rigid substrate we consider both elastic and poroelastic material responses. Finally, we consider the role of contact geometry in the context of the journal bearing, a conforming contact. For all these cases we find the same generic behavior: there is an optimal combination of geometric and material parameters that maximizes the dimensionless normal force as a function of the softness.

  4. Gauge theories as theories of spontaneous breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.; Ogievetsky, V.I.

    1976-01-01

    Any gauge theory is proved to arise from spontaneous breakdown of symmetry under certain infinite parameter group, the corresponding gauge field being the Goldstone field by which this breakdown is accompanied

  5. Soft Clouding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søndergaard, Morten; Markussen, Thomas; Wetton, Barnabas

    2012-01-01

    Soft Clouding is a blended concept, which describes the aim of a collaborative and transdisciplinary project. The concept is a metaphor implying a blend of cognitive, embodied interaction and semantic web. Furthermore, it is a metaphor describing our attempt of curating a new semantics of sound...... archiving. The Soft Clouding Project is part of LARM - a major infrastructure combining research in and access to sound and radio archives in Denmark. In 2012 the LARM infrastructure will consist of more than 1 million hours of radio, combined with metadata who describes the content. The idea is to analyse...... the concept of ‘infrastructure’ and ‘interface’ on a creative play with the fundamentals of LARM (and any sound archive situation combining many kinds and layers of data and sources). This paper will present and discuss the Soft clouding project from the perspective of the three practices and competencies...

  6. Individual breakdown of pension rights

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    You should have recently received, via email, your “Individual breakdown of pension rights”.   Please note that: the calculation was based on data as at 1st July 2016, as at 1st September 2016, CERN will introduce a new career structure; the salary position will now be expressed as a percentage of a midpoint of a grade.   We would like to draw your attention to the fact that your pension rights will remain unchanged. Benefits Service CERN Pension Fund

  7. Voltage breakdown on niobium and copper surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Werner, G.R.; Padamsee, H.; Betzwieser, J.C.; Liu, Y.G.; Rubin, K.H.R.; Shipman, J.E.; Ying, L.T.

    2003-01-01

    Experiments have shown that voltage breakdown in superconducting niobium RF cavities is in many ways similar to voltage breakdown on niobium cathodes in DC voltage gaps; most striking are the distinctive starburst patterns and craters that mark the site of voltage breakdown in both superconducting cavities and DC vacuum gaps. Therefore, we can learn much about RF breakdown from simpler, faster DC experiments. We have direct evidence, in the form of before'' and ''after'' pictures, that breakdown events caused by high surface electric fields occur with high probability at contaminant particles on surfaces. Although the pre-breakdown behavior (field emission) seems to depend mostly on the contaminant particles present and little on the substrate, the breakdown event itself is greatly affected by the substrate-niobium, heavily oxidized niobium, electropolished copper, and diamond-machined copper cathodes lead to different kinds of breakdown events. By studying DC voltage breakdown we hope to learn more details about the processes involved in the transition from field emission to catastrophic arcing and the cratering of the surface; as well as learning how to prevent breakdown, we would like to learn how to cause breakdown, which could be important when ''processing'' cavities to reduce field emission. (author)

  8. Bacterial recovery from breast skin of genetically feathered and featherless broiler carcasses immediately following scalding and picking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buhr, R J; Berrang, M E; Cason, J A

    2003-10-01

    Genetically feathered and featherless sibling broilers selected for matched BW were killed, scalded, and defeathered to determine the consequences of feathers and empty feather follicles on the recovery of bacteria from carcass breast skin. In trial 1, the vents of all carcasses were plugged and sutured before scalding to prevent the expulsion of cloacal contents during picking. In trial 2, half of the carcasses had their vents plugged and sutured. Immediately after defeathering, breast skin was aseptically removed, and bacteria associated with it were enumerated. In trial 1, the levels of bacteria recovered did not differ between feathered and featherless carcasses: Campylobacter log10 1.4 cfu/mL of rinse, coliform log10 1.8, Escherichia coli log10 1.6, and total aerobic bacteria log10 3.1. In trial 2, the carcasses that had vents plugged and sutured had lower levels of all four types of bacteria (differences of Campylobacter log10 0.7 cfu/mL, coliform log10 1.8, E. coli log10 1.7, and total aerobic bacteria log10 0.5) than those carcasses with open vents. The lower levels of bacteria recovered from carcasses with the vents plugged and sutured during picking enabled detection of small but significant differences between feathered and featherless carcasses. The level of coliform and E. coli recovered was slightly higher by log10 0.7 cfu for feathered carcasses, but featherless carcasses had marginally higher levels of total aerobic bacteria by log10 0.4 cfu. Feathered and featherless carcasses with open vents during picking did not differ in the levels of recovery of coliform, E. coli, and total aerobic bacteria from breast skin.

  9. Soft electronics for soft robotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Rebecca K.

    2015-05-01

    As advanced as modern machines are, the building blocks have changed little since the industrial revolution, leading to rigid, bulky, and complex devices. Future machines will include electromechanical systems that are soft and elastically deformable, lending them to applications such as soft robotics, wearable/implantable devices, sensory skins, and energy storage and transport systems. One key step toward the realization of soft systems is the development of stretchable electronics that remain functional even when subject to high strains. Liquid-metal traces embedded in elastic polymers present a unique opportunity to retain the function of rigid metal conductors while leveraging the deformable properties of liquid-elastomer composites. However, in order to achieve the potential benefits of liquid-metal, scalable processing and manufacturing methods must be identified.

  10. Necrotizing Soft Tissue Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahil Aggarwal, BS

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 71-year-old woman with a history of metastatic ovarian cancer presented with sudden onset, rapidly progressing painful rash in the genital region and lower abdominal wall. She was febrile to 103°F, heart rate was 114 beats per minute, and respiratory rate was 24 per minute. Her exam was notable for a toxic-appearing female with extensive areas of erythema, tenderness, and induration to her lower abdomen, intertriginous areas, and perineum with intermittent segments of crepitus without hemorrhagic bullae or skin breakdown. Significant findings: Computed tomography (CT of the abdominal and pelvis with intravenous (IV contrast revealed inflammatory changes, including gas and fluid collections within the ventral abdominal wall extending to the vulva, consistent with a necrotizing soft tissue infection. Discussion: Necrotizing fasciitis is a serious infection of the skin and soft tissues that requires an early diagnosis to reduce morbidity and mortality. Classified into several subtypes based on the type of microbial infection, necrotizing fasciitis can rapidly progress to septic shock or death if left untreated.1 Diagnosing necrotizing fasciitis requires a high index of suspicion based on patient risk factors, presentation, and exam findings. Definitive treatment involves prompt surgical exploration and debridement coupled with IV antibiotics.2,3 Clinical characteristics such as swelling, disproportionate pain, erythema, crepitus, and necrotic tissue should be a guide to further diagnostic tests.4 Unfortunately, lab values such as white blood cell count and lactate imaging studies have high sensitivity but low specificity, making the diagnosis of necrotizing fasciitis still largely a clinical one.4,5 CT is a reliable method to exclude the diagnosis of necrotizing soft tissue infections (sensitivity of 100%, but is only moderately reliable in correctly identifying such infections (specificity of 81%.5 Given the emergent

  11. APPLICATION OF THE HACCP METHOD IN THE SWINE ABATTOIR BY SCALDING-SKINNING ECOLOGICAL PROCESSING / APPLICATION DE LA METHODE HACCP DANS L’ABATTOIR PORCIN PAR LE PROCESSUS ECOLOGIQUE D’ÉCHAUDAGE-DÉPEÇAGE

    OpenAIRE

    IULIAN SUCEVEANU; IRINA-CLAUDIA ALEXA; LUMINITA GROSU; OANA-IRINA PATRICIU; IRINA IFRIM; MIRELA SUCEVEANU

    2017-01-01

    In the food industry development, the food safety and the valorization of by-products represent important aspects. The present study consists in the application of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) method in pig slaughterhouses for scalding-skinning technology in order to ensure the conformity of meat quality and the by-products management and recycling. In order to optimize the scalding-skinning process of swine, all the classical technological steps of the technological...

  12. The breakdown of COSMOS 1402

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerlund, E.A.

    1983-01-01

    Sections of the satellite COSMOS 1402 containing radioactive materials disintegrated in the atmosphere over the Indian and Atlantic oceans Janyary/February 1983. Having the COSMOS 954 incident in mind and taking account of the fact that several satellite orbits crossed Norwegian territory, some preparedness measures were implemented prior to the break-down. The report describes the functions and experiences of an ad hoc satellite counsil which was appointed to take care of data collection, informaton to the public and planning for emergency actions. (RF)

  13. Dielectric breakdown in liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, F.L. Jr.

    1975-01-01

    The experimental apparatus consists of a 130 kV dc 80 kV ac intermediate voltage unit and a 600 kV dc 700 kV high voltage unit under construction. The experimental devices consist of an insulated container, or dewar, in which two electrodes are placed, one above the other. A voltage is built up in one electrode until an arc occurs to the other electrode. A typical set of breakdown data is shown. A mathematical analysis is briefly described. (MOW)

  14. ["Nervous breakdown": a diagnostic characterization study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmán, E; Carrasco, J L; Liebowitz, M; Díaz Marsá, M; Prieto, R; Jusino, C; Cárdenas, D; Klein, D

    1997-01-01

    An evaluation was made of the influence of different psychiatric co-morbidities on the symptoms of the disorder popularly known as "ataque de nervios" (nervous breakdown) among the US Hispanic population. Using a self-completed instrument designed specially for both traditional nervous breakdown and for panic symptoms, and structured or semi-structured psychiatric interviews for Axis I disorders, and evaluation was made of Hispanic subjects who sought treatment for anxiety in a clinic (n = 156). This study centered on 102 subjects who presented symptoms of "nervous breakdown" and comorbidity with panic disorder, other anxiety disorders, or affective disorder. Variations in co-morbidity with "nervous breakdown" enabled the identification of different patterns of "nervous breakdown" presenting symptoms. Individuals with "nervous breakdown" and panic disorder characteristically expressed a greater sense of asphyxiation, fear of dying, and growing fear (panic-like) during their breakdowns. Subjects with "nervous breakdown" and affective disorder had a greater sensation of anger and more tendency toward screaming and aggressive behavior such as breaking things during the breakdown (emotional anger). Finally, subjects with "nervous breakdown" and co-morbidity with another anxiety disorder had fewer "paniclike" or "emotional anger" symptoms. These findings suggest that: a) the widely used term "nervous breakdown" is a popular label for different patterns of loss of emotional control; b) the type of loss of emotional control is influenced by the associated psychiatric disorder; and c) the symptoms characteristics of the "nervous breakdown" can be useful clinical markers for associated psychiatric disorders. Future research is needed to determine whether the known Hispanic entity "ataque de nervios" is simply a popular description for different aspects of well-known psychiatric disorders, or if it reflects specific demographic, environmental, personality and/or clinical

  15. Discharge breakdown in the EXTRAP configuration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drake, J.R.

    1982-02-01

    The breakdown of a discharge in a linear EXTRAP configuration has been studied experimentally. In this configuration the breakdown occurs along the zero B-field line, which is the axis of the linear octupole magnetic field, between the anode and cathode which constitute the ends of the linear device. Breakdown could be described by a modified Townsend criterion which included additional electron losses due to the presence of the B-field transverse to the discharge. (author)

  16. Electrode breakdown potentials in MHD plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodha, M.S.; Raju, G.V.R.; Kumar, A.S.; Gupta, Bhumesh

    1988-01-01

    Electrode breakdown potentials and current densities have been calculated for both the thermionically electron emitting and non-emitting cathodes. Calculated values have been compared with the available experimental results. It is found that the cathode potential drop for the breakdown is almost unaffected by the emission. However, both the total potential difference between the anode and the cathode and the current density at the breakdown are higher for electron-emitting cathodes than for non-emitting cathodes. (author)

  17. The Development of Breakdown in Transformer Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Kudelcik

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The conditions under which breakdown of composite liquid - solid insulation can be occurred, e.g. in transformer, play an important role in designing of such insulation. The initial state of breakdown development is explained based on development of streamers in cavitations. The whole breakdown development in transformer oil is represented by RLC circuit and it depends on the parameters of outer circuit.

  18. Multiple helical modes of vortex breakdown

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Nørkær; Naumov, I. V.; Okulov, Valery

    2011-01-01

    Experimental observations of vortex breakdown in a rotating lid-driven cavity are presented. The results show that vortex breakdown for cavities with high aspect ratios is associated with the appearance of stable helical vortex multiplets. By using results from stability theory generalizing Kelvi......’s problem on vortex polygon stability, and systematically exploring the cavity flow, we succeeded in identifying two new stable vortex breakdown states consisting of triple and quadruple helical multiplets....

  19. Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide program/project teams necessary instruction and guidance in the best practices for Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and WBS dictionary development and use for project implementation and management control. This handbook can be used for all types of NASA projects and work activities including research, development, construction, test and evaluation, and operations. The products of these work efforts may be hardware, software, data, or service elements (alone or in combination). The aim of this document is to assist project teams in the development of effective work breakdown structures that provide a framework of common reference for all project elements. The WBS and WBS dictionary are effective management processes for planning, organizing, and administering NASA programs and projects. The guidance contained in this document is applicable to both in-house, NASA-led effort and contracted effort. It assists management teams from both entities in fulfilling necessary responsibilities for successful accomplishment of project cost, schedule, and technical goals. Benefits resulting from the use of an effective WBS include, but are not limited to: providing a basis for assigned project responsibilities, providing a basis for project schedule development, simplifying a project by dividing the total work scope into manageable units, and providing a common reference for all project communication.

  20. The Multistability of Technological Breakdowns in Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Bjarke Lindsø; Tafdrup, Oliver Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Everyone who is involved with modern technological artefacts such as computers, software and tablets has experienced situations where the artefacts suddenly cease to function properly. This is commonly known as a technological breakdown. Within education and the praxis of teaching...... technological breakdowns become a more and more ubiquitous phenomenon due to the rapid increase of technological artefacts utilized for educational purposes (Riis, 2012). The breakdowns impact the educational practice with consequences ranging from creating small obstacles to rendering it impossible to conduct...... successful teaching. Thus, knowing how to cope with technological breakdowns is a pivotal part of being a technological literate....

  1. Rapid containment of nosocomial transmission of a rare community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) clone, responsible for the Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS)

    OpenAIRE

    Lamanna, Onofrio; Bongiorno, Dafne; Bertoncello, Lisa; Grandesso, Stefano; Mazzucato, Sandra; Pozzan, Giovanni Battista; Cutrone, Mario; Chirico, Michela; Baesso, Flavia; Brugnaro, Pierluigi; Cafiso, Viviana; Stefani, Stefania; Campanile, Floriana

    2017-01-01

    Background The aims of this study were to identify the source and the transmission pathway for a Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS) outbreak in a maternity setting in Italy over 2?months, during 2014; to implement appropriate control measures in order to prevent the epidemic spread within the maternity ward; and to identify the Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) epidemic clone. Methods Epidemiological and microbiological investigations, based on phenotyping and genoty...

  2. Soft Robotics Week

    CERN Document Server

    Rossiter, Jonathan; Iida, Fumiya; Cianchetti, Matteo; Margheri, Laura

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive, timely snapshot of current research, technologies and applications of soft robotics. The different chapters, written by international experts across multiple fields of soft robotics, cover innovative systems and technologies for soft robot legged locomotion, soft robot manipulation, underwater soft robotics, biomimetic soft robotic platforms, plant-inspired soft robots, flying soft robots, soft robotics in surgery, as well as methods for their modeling and control. Based on the results of the second edition of the Soft Robotics Week, held on April 25 – 30, 2016, in Livorno, Italy, the book reports on the major research lines and novel technologies presented and discussed during the event.

  3. The protective effects of sildenafil in acute lung injury in a rat model of severe scald burn: A biochemical and histopathological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokakin, Ali Kagan; Deveci, Koksal; Kurt, Atilla; Karakus, Boran Cihat; Duger, Cevdet; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Topcu, Omer

    2013-09-01

    Severe burn induces biochemical mediators such as reactive oxygen species that leads to lipid peroxidation which may have a key role in formation of acute lung injury (ALI). Sildenafil is a selective and potent inhibitor of cyclic guanosine monophosphate specific phosphodiesterase-5. Sildenafil preserves alveolar growth, angiogenesis, reduces inflammation and airway reactivity. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different dosages of sildenafil in ALI due to severe scald burn in rats. Twenty-four rats were subjected to 30% total body surface area severe scald injury and were randomly divided into three equal groups as follow: control, 10 and 20mg/kg sildenafil groups. Levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), activities of glutathione peroxidase (Gpx), catalase (Cat), total oxidative stress (TOS), and total antioxidative capacity (TAC) were measured in both tissues and serums. Oxidative stress index (OSI) was calculated. A semi-quantitative scoring system was used for the evaluation of histopatological findings. Sildenafil increased Gpx, Cat, TAC and decreased MDA, TOS and OSI. Sildenafil decreased inflammation scores in lungs. Our results reveal that sildenafil is protective against scald burn related ALI by decreasing oxidative stress and inflammation and the dosage of 10mg/kg could be apparently better than 20mg/kg. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. The physics of ''vacuum'' breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwirzke, F.

    1993-01-01

    Many discharges form small cathode spots which provide such a high energy density that the cathode material explodes into a dense plasma cloud within a very short time. Despite the fundamental importance of cathode spots for the breakdown process and the formation of a discharge, the structure of the cathode spot plasma and the source of the high energy density were not yet well defined. One model, the whisker explosive emission model, assumes that joule heating by field emitted electrons provides the energy. Current densities of j FE = 10 12 - 10 13 A/m 2 would be required. However, the pre-breakdown j FE is self-limiting. The negative space charge caused by j FE in the cathode-anode gap reduces the effective electric field E on the cathode surface. The maximum current density j CL is space charge limited by Child-Langmuir's law. The field emitting spot cannot deliver j CL without turning itself off, since the negative space charge caused by j CL reduces E congruent 0 at the cathode surface. Hence, it must be that the vacuum j FE CL . The development of a current with j > j FE (vacuum) requires that ions exist in front of the electron emitting spot. Ions cannot be emitted from the surface of the field emitting spot, the enhanced electric field would hold them back. The initial ionization must occur in the cathode-anode gap near the electron emitting spot. Ionization of desorbed neutrals provides the mechanism. This ionization process requires considerably less current than the ionization of solid material by joule heating. Field emission and the impact of ions stimulate desorption of weakly bound adsorbates from the surface of the electron emitting spot. The cross section for ionization of the neutrals has a maximum for ∼ 100 eV electrons

  5. Breakdown of interdependent directed networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xueming; Stanley, H Eugene; Gao, Jianxi

    2016-02-02

    Increasing evidence shows that real-world systems interact with one another via dependency connectivities. Failing connectivities are the mechanism behind the breakdown of interacting complex systems, e.g., blackouts caused by the interdependence of power grids and communication networks. Previous research analyzing the robustness of interdependent networks has been limited to undirected networks. However, most real-world networks are directed, their in-degrees and out-degrees may be correlated, and they are often coupled to one another as interdependent directed networks. To understand the breakdown and robustness of interdependent directed networks, we develop a theoretical framework based on generating functions and percolation theory. We find that for interdependent Erdős-Rényi networks the directionality within each network increases their vulnerability and exhibits hybrid phase transitions. We also find that the percolation behavior of interdependent directed scale-free networks with and without degree correlations is so complex that two criteria are needed to quantify and compare their robustness: the percolation threshold and the integrated size of the giant component during an entire attack process. Interestingly, we find that the in-degree and out-degree correlations in each network layer increase the robustness of interdependent degree heterogeneous networks that most real networks are, but decrease the robustness of interdependent networks with homogeneous degree distribution and with strong coupling strengths. Moreover, by applying our theoretical analysis to real interdependent international trade networks, we find that the robustness of these real-world systems increases with the in-degree and out-degree correlations, confirming our theoretical analysis.

  6. Fast Breakdown as Coronal/Ionization Waves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krehbiel, P. R.; Petersen, D.; da Silva, C. L.

    2017-12-01

    Studies of high-power narrow bipolar events (NBEs) have shown they are produced by a newly-recognized breakdown process called fast positive breakdown (FPB, Rison et al., 2016, doi:10.1038/ncomms10721). The breakdown was inferred to be produced by a system of positive streamers that propagate at high speed ( ˜3-6 x 107 m/s) due to occurring in a localized region of strong electric field. The polarity of the breakdown was determined from broadband interferometer (INTF) observations of the propagation direction of its VHF radiation, which was downward into the main negative charge region of a normally-electrified storm. Subsequent INTF observations being conducted in at Kennedy Space Center in Florida have shown a much greater incidence of NBEs than in New Mexico. Among the larger dataset have been clear-cut instances of some NBEs being produced by upward breakdown that would be of negative polarity. The speed and behavior of the negative breakdown is the same as that of the fast positive, leading to it being termed fast negative breakdown (FNB). The similarity (not too mention its occurrence) is surprising, given the fact that negative streamers and breakdown develops much differently than that of positive breakdown. The question is how this happens. In this study, we compare fast breakdown characteristics to well-known streamer properties as inferred from laboratory experiments and theoretical analysis. Additionally, we begin to explore the possibility that both polarities of fast breakdown are produced by what may be called coronal or ionization waves, in which the enhanced electric field produced by streamer or coronal breakdown of either polarity propagates away from the advancing front at the speed of light into a medium that is in a metastable condition of being at the threshold of hydrometeor-mediated corona onset or other ionization processes. The wave would develop at a faster speed than the streamer breakdown that gives rise to it, and thus would be

  7. Should dermal scald burns in children be covered with autologous skin grafts or with allogeneic cultivated keratinocytes?--"The Viennese concept".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rab, Matthias; Koller, Rupert; Ruzicka, Margot; Burda, Gudrun; Kamolz, Lars Peter; Bierochs, Bettina; Meissl, Guenther; Frey, Manfred

    2005-08-01

    The treatment of scald burns in children is still under discussion. The aim of the present study was to evaluate an optimised treatment regime for scald burns in children. Between 1997 and 2002, 124 children underwent surgical intervention due to burn injuries. Thirty-six out of these 124 children were enrolled into the evaluation of our recent treatment protocol. Twenty-two children with scald burns covering an average body surface area (TBSA) of 18.5% were treated by early excision and coverage with allogeneic keratinocytes in case of partial thickness lesions (keratinocyte group). Fourteen children with a TBSA of 17.2% were treated with autologous skin grafts alone (skin graft group). Both groups were comparable according to age, burn depth and affected TBSA. The complete clinical follow-up examination of at least 17 months was performed in 12 out of 22 children of the keratinocyte group and in 9 out of 14 patients of the comparative group. Visible scar formations were classified according to the Vancouver Scar Scale (VSS) in each patient. The use of allogeneic keratinocytes led to complete epithelialisation within 12 days in 20 of the 22 cases. No secondary skin grafting procedures had to be done. Skin take rate at the sixth postoperative day was 100% in the skin graft group. Blood transfusions were administered intraoperatively according to the clinical need of the patients by the responsible anaesthesiologist. The mean volume of blood, which had to be transfused was 63.9 ml in the keratinocyte group and significantly lower than the volume of 151.4 ml, which was administered in the skin graft group (p=0.04). At follow up the VSS observed in areas covered by keratinocytes was 2.33 on the average and therefore, significantly lower than the VSS of 5.22 in skin grafted areas of the comparative group (p=0.04). In children the use of cultivated keratinocytes in partial thickness scald burns is a procedure, which renders constantly reliable results. It minimizes the

  8. Breakdown properties of irradiated MOS capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paccagnella, A.; Candelori, A.; Pellizzer, F.; Fuochi, P.G.; Lavale, M.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have studied the effects of ionizing and non-ionizing radiation on the breakdown properties of different types of MOS capacitors, with thick (200 nm) and thin (down to 8 nm) oxides. In general, no large variations of the average breakdown field, time-to-breakdown at constant voltage, or charge-to-breakdown at constant voltage, or charge-to-breakdown values have been observed after high dose irradiation (20 Mrad(Si) 9 MeV electrons on thin and thick oxides, 17(Si) Mrad Co 60 gamma and 10 14 neutrons/cm 2 only on thick oxides). However, some modifications of the cumulative failure distributions have been observed in few of the oxides tested

  9. Experiments concerning the theories of vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panton, Ronald L.; Stifle, Kirk E.

    1991-01-01

    An experimental project was undertaken to investigate the character of vortex breakdown with particular regard to the stagnation and wave guide theories of vortex breakdown. Three different wings were used to produce a trailing vortex which convected downstream without undergoing breakdown. Disturbances were then introduced onto the vortex using a moving wire to 'cut' the vortex. The development of upstream and downstream propagating disturbance waves was observed and the propagation velocities measured. A downstream traveling wave was observed to produce a structure similar in appearance to a vortex breakdown. An upstream traveling wave produced a moving turbulent region. The upstream disturbance moved into an axial velocity profile that had a wake-like defect while the downstream moving vortex breakdown moved against a jet-like overshoot. The longitudinal and swirl velocity profiles were documented by LDV measurement. Wave velocities, swirl angles, and swirl parameters are reported.

  10. Some evidence for skewed mating type distribution in Iranian populations of Rhynchosporium commune, the cause of barley scald disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arzanlou Mahdi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Rhynchosporium commune (formerly known as Rhynchosporium secalis, the causal agent of scald disease on barley, is known to spread asexually by splash dispersed conidia. However, there are multiple lines of evidence for the possibility of a clandestine sexual cycle occurrence in this species including extensive genotypic diversity, equal distribution of mating type alleles across the world and expression of mating type genes. In the current study, the potential for the occurrence of a sexual cycle amongst the Iranian population of R. commune was assessed by analyzing distribution and frequency of the mating type alleles at both micro and macro-spatial scales. A total of 95 single-conidial R. commune isolates were obtained from different barley fields in Kurdistan province. Previously designed primers were applied in a multiplex PCR assay to study distribution and frequency of the mating type alleles within and between populations. Totally, 67 isolates were determined as MAT1-1 and the remaining 28 isolates as MAT1-2 throughout the sampling counties. The results obtained at a macro-spatial scale revealed that unlike Kamyaran county (both MAT1-1 and MAT1-2 at an equal ratio, an unequal distribution of mating type genes was dominant among R. commune isolates in both Mariwan and Dehgolan counties. Our findings support a predominantly asexual reproduction for Mariwan and Dehgolan counties and the possibility of sexual stage occurrence in Kamyarna county.

  11. Skin regeneration in deep second-degree scald injuries either by infusion pumping or topical application of recombinant human erythropoietin gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giri P

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Priya Giri,1 Sabine Ebert,1 Ulf-Dietrich Braumann,2 Mathias Kremer,3 Shibashish Giri,1 Hans-Günther Machens,4 Augustinus Bader1 1Department of Cell Techniques and Applied Stem Cell Biology, Center for Biotechnology and Biomedicine (BBZ, Faculty of Medicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; 2Interdisciplinary Center for Bioinformatics (IZBI, University of Leipzig, Leipzig, Germany; 3Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, Germany; 4Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany Abstract: Large doses of recombinant growth factors formulated in solution form directly injected into the body is usual clinical practice in treating second-degree scald injuries, with promising results, but this approach creates side effects; furthermore, it may not allow appropriate levels of the factor to be sensed by the target injured tissue/organ in the specific time frame, owing to complications arising from regeneration. In this research, two delivery methods (infusion pumping and local topical application were applied to deliver recombinant human erythropoietin (rHuEPO for skin regeneration. First, rHuEPO was given in deep second-degree scald injury sites in mice by infusion pump. Vascularization was remarkably higher in the rHuEPO pumping group than in controls. Second, local topical application of rHuEPO gel was given in deep second-degree scald injury sites in rats. Histological analysis showed that epithelialization rate was significantly higher in the rHuEPO gel-treated group than in controls. Immunohistochemical studies showed that the rHuEPO gel-treated group showed remarkably higher expression of skin regeneration makers than the control group. An accurate method for visualization and quantification of blood vessel networks in target areas has still not been developed up to this point, because of technical difficulties in detecting such thin blood vessels. A method which

  12. Drell-Yan diffraction: breakdown of QCD factorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pasechnik, R.S.; Kopeliovich, B.Z.

    2011-01-01

    We consider the diffractive Drell-Yan process in proton-(anti)proton collisions at high energies in the color dipole approach. The calculations are performed at forward rapidities of the leptonic pair. The effect of eikonalization of the universal ''bare'' dipole-target elastic amplitude in the saturation regime takes into account the principal part of the gap survival probability. We present predictions for the total and differential cross sections of the single-diffractive lepton-pair production at RHIC and LHC energies. We analyze implications of the QCD factorization breakdown in the diffractive Drell-Yan process, which is caused by a specific interplay of the soft and hard interactions, resulting in rather unusual properties of the corresponding observables. (orig.)

  13. The Work Breakdown Structure in an Acquisition Reform Environment

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Albert, Neil

    1997-01-01

    These viewgraphs discuss acquisition reform, costs, provide a definition for work breakdown structure, development process of work breakdown, an overview of contract business management, a GAO review...

  14. Breakdown characteristics of xenon HID Lamps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaeva, Natalia; Sato, Ayumu; Brates, Nanu; Noro, Koji; Kushner, Mark

    2009-10-01

    The breakdown characteristics of mercury free xenon high intensity discharge (HID) lamps exhibit a large statistical time lag often having a large scatter in breakdown voltages. In this paper, we report on results from a computational investigation of the processes which determine the ignition voltages for positive and negative pulses in commercial HID lamps having fill pressures of up to 20 atm. Steep voltage rise results in higher avalanche electron densities and earlier breakdown times. Circuit characteristics also play a role. Large ballast resistors may limit current to the degree that breakdown is quenched. The breakdown voltage critically depends on cathode charge injection by electric field emission (or other mechanisms) which in large part controls the statistical time lag for breakdown. For symmetric lamps, ionization waves (IWs) simultaneously develop from the bottom and top electrodes. Breakdown typically occurs when the top and bottom IWs converge. Condensed salt layers having small conductivities on the inner walls of HID lamps and on the electrodes can influence the ignition behavior. With these layers, IWs tend to propagate along the inner wall and exhibit a different structure depending on the polarity.

  15. Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... muscles, tendons, fat, and blood vessels. Soft tissue sarcoma is a cancer of these soft tissues. There ... have certain genetic diseases. Doctors diagnose soft tissue sarcomas with a biopsy. Treatments include surgery to remove ...

  16. Breakdown Cause and Effect Analysis. Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biały, Witold; Ružbarský, Juraj

    2018-06-01

    Every company must ensure that the production process proceeds without interferences. Within this article, the author uses the term "interferences" in reference to unplanned stoppages caused by breakdowns. Unfortunately, usually due to machine operators' mistakes, machines break, which causes stoppages thus generating additional costs for the company. This article shows a cause and effect analysis of a breakdown in a production process. The FMEA as well as quality management tools: the Ishikawa diagram and Pareto chart were used for the analysis. Correction measures were presented which allowed for a significant reduction in the number of stoppages caused by breakdowns.

  17. Fundamental studies of passivity and passivity breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macdonald, D.D.; Urquidi-Macdonald, M.; Song, H.; Biaggio-Rocha, S.; Searson, P.

    1991-11-01

    This report summarizes the findings of our fundamental research program on passivity and passivity breakdown. During the past three and one half years in this program (including the three year incrementally-funded grant prior to the present grant), we developed and experimentally tested various physical models for the growth and breakdown of passive films on metal surfaces. These models belong to a general class termed ''point defects models'' (PDMs), in which the growth and breakdown of passive films are described in terms of the movement of anion and cation vacancies

  18. Soft energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lovins, A.B.

    1978-01-01

    A compact energy concept opposes the existing development course of energy supply. This concept does without projects for opening-up oil and gas occurrences in the Arctic and in offshore seas, and also without a further extension of nuclear energy. Energy consumption is to be stabilized in the long-run on today's level by a utilization of energy which is to be substantially improved in a technical and economic respect. Oil and gas are to be replaced by 'soft', regenerative, mainly decentralized energy sources, in the course of about 30 years time. Solar energy is to be used for heating and service water, biogas as motor fuel being generated primarily from reference which will come from agriculture and forestry. Wind and hydroelectric power are to be used for generating electricity. In the first part, concepts for the present and future energy policy are discussed, in the second part, a lot of figures are given, supporting the respective arguments. In the third part the relationships between social and energy-economic developments are pointed out. (UA) [de

  19. The burning issues of motor vehicle radiator scald injuries revisited - a fresh review and changing prevention strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, J N; Tan, A; Frew, Q; Dziewulski, P

    2016-12-31

    A preventable subgroup of burn injuries is scalds sustained from motor vehicle radiators. This study was to determine changes in trends in epidemiology of such injuries and to discuss whether current and other prevention efforts proposed previously require reinforcement. We conducted a retrospective study (February 2007-August 2015) of all motor vehicle-related burn referrals to our regional burns service. 68 cases of motor vehicle radiator burns were identified. Male to female ratio was 65:3. Mean age was 35.1 (range = 9-71). Most cases occurred in the summer months (22/68 = 32.4%). 65 cases (95.6%) involved car radiators. 66% of injuries resulted from actively removing the pressure cap of an overheated radiator in the motor vehicle. Mean total burn surface area (%TBSA) was 2.1% (range = 0.5- 11%). The depths of burn injuries were mostly superficial partial thickness. Face, chest and upper limbs were the most common sites of injury. Mean healing time was 14.2 days (range = 4-60). Following the introduction of safety measures by vehicle manufacturers, motor vehicle radiator burns in this era are mostly minor injuries and can be potentially managed conservatively as an outpatient. This contrasts with findings from previous studies over a decade ago of larger, more significant injuries requiring admission and surgery. Whilst manufacturers have installed safety measures into the design of radiator caps, our findings suggest that re-educating the public to allow a period of cooling prior to opening caps should be reinforced.

  20. The burning issues of motor vehicle radiator scald injuries revisited – a fresh review and changing prevention strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, J.N.; Tan, A.; Frew, Q.; Dziewulski, P.

    2016-01-01

    Summary A preventable subgroup of burn injuries is scalds sustained from motor vehicle radiators. This study was to determine changes in trends in epidemiology of such injuries and to discuss whether current and other prevention efforts proposed previously require reinforcement. We conducted a retrospective study (February 2007-August 2015) of all motor vehicle-related burn referrals to our regional burns service. 68 cases of motor vehicle radiator burns were identified. Male to female ratio was 65:3. Mean age was 35.1 (range = 9-71). Most cases occurred in the summer months (22/68 = 32.4%). 65 cases (95.6%) involved car radiators. 66% of injuries resulted from actively removing the pressure cap of an overheated radiator in the motor vehicle. Mean total burn surface area (%TBSA) was 2.1% (range = 0.5- 11%). The depths of burn injuries were mostly superficial partial thickness. Face, chest and upper limbs were the most common sites of injury. Mean healing time was 14.2 days (range = 4-60). Following the introduction of safety measures by vehicle manufacturers, motor vehicle radiator burns in this era are mostly minor injuries and can be potentially managed conservatively as an outpatient. This contrasts with findings from previous studies over a decade ago of larger, more significant injuries requiring admission and surgery. Whilst manufacturers have installed safety measures into the design of radiator caps, our findings suggest that re-educating the public to allow a period of cooling prior to opening caps should be reinforced. PMID:28289357

  1. Conditioning and breakdown phenomena in accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skorka, S.J.

    1979-01-01

    Important breakdown mechanisms in accelerator tubes are reviewed, and discharge phenomena in NEC tubes are deduced from the surface appearance of the electrodes and insulators of a used tube. Microphotos of these surfaces are shown

  2. [Effects of seawater immersion on the inflammatory response and oxygen free radical injury of rats with superficial partial-thickness scald at early stage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y X; Wang, J H; Liu, L; Zou, Q; Zhang, Y; Bai, Z

    2017-06-20

    Objective: To study the effects of seawater immersion on the inflammatory response and oxygen free radical injury of rats with superficial-thickness scald at early stage. Methods: Seventy Wistar rats were divided into healthy control group (HC, n =7), pure scald group (PS, n =21), scald+ fresh water immersion group (SF, n =21), and scald+ seawater immersion group (SS, n =21) according to the random number table. Rats in group HC did not receive any treatment, while 5% total body surface area superficial partial-thickness scald was made on the back of rats in the latter three groups. Rats in group PS lived freely immediately post burn, while wounds on the back of rats in groups SF and SS were immersed into fresh water and seawater, respectively. Serum and full-thickness skin tissue in the center of wounds on the back of 7 rats in groups PS, SF, and SS at post immersion (injury) hour (PIH) 2, 4, and 6 were collected, respectively, while serum and full-thickness skin tissue at the same position of the 7 rats in group HC were collected at PIH 6 of rats in other groups. Morphology of skin tissue was observed with HE staining; tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) content in serum and skin tissue was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay; superoxide dismutase (SOD) content in serum and skin tissue was determined by hydroxylamine method; malondialdehyde content in serum and skin tissue was determined by thiobarbituric acid method. Data were processed with analysis of variance of factorial design, one-way analysis of variance, Welch test, LSD test, and Tamhane test. Results: (1) Epidermal cells of skin tissue of rats in group HC arranged in order and continuously, and the dermis tissue and accessory structures were clear and complete. The skin layer and epidermis of wounds of rats in group PS had no significant change, but the edema of epidermis and dermis and infiltration of inflammatory cells enhanced over time at PIH 2, 4, and 6. The horny layer of epidermis of

  3. Surface breakdown igniter for mercury arc devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayless, John R.

    1977-01-01

    Surface breakdown igniter comprises a semiconductor of medium resistivity which has the arc device cathode as one electrode and has an igniter anode electrode so that when voltage is applied between the electrodes a spark is generated when electrical breakdown occurs over the surface of the semiconductor. The geometry of the igniter anode and cathode electrodes causes the igniter discharge to be forced away from the semiconductor surface.

  4. Obstacle-induced spiral vortex breakdown

    OpenAIRE

    Pasche, Simon; Gallaire, François; Dreyer, Matthieu; Farhat, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    An experimental investigation on vortex breakdown dynamics is performed. An adverse pressure gradient is created along the axis of a wing-tip vortex by introducing a sphere downstream of an elliptical hydrofoil. The instrumentation involves high-speed visualizations with air bubbles used as tracers and 2D Laser Doppler Velocimeter (LDV). Two key parameters are identified and varied to control the onset of vortex breakdown: the swirl number, defined as the maximum azimuthal velocity divided by...

  5. Modeling Covariance Breakdowns in Multivariate GARCH

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Xin; Maheu, John M

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a flexible way of modeling dynamic heterogeneous covariance breakdowns in multivariate GARCH (MGARCH) models. During periods of normal market activity, volatility dynamics are governed by an MGARCH specification. A covariance breakdown is any significant temporary deviation of the conditional covariance matrix from its implied MGARCH dynamics. This is captured through a flexible stochastic component that allows for changes in the conditional variances, covariances and impl...

  6. Skin breakdown in acute care pediatrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suddaby, Elizabeth C; Barnett, Scott D; Facteau, Lorna

    2006-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a simple, single-page measurement tool that evaluates risk of skin breakdown in the peadiatric population and apply it to the acutely hospitalized child. Data were collected over a 15-month period from 347 patients on four in-patient units (PICU, medical-surgical, oncology, and adolescents) on skin breakdown using the AHCPR staging guidelines and compared to the total score on the Starkid SkinScale in order to determine its ability to predict skin breakdown. The inter-rater reliability of the Starkid Skin Scale was r2 = 0.85 with an internal reliablity of 0.71. The sensitivity of the total score was low (17.5%) but highly specific (98.5%). The prevalence of skin breakdown in the acutely hospitalized child was 23%, the majority (77.5%) occurring as erythema of the skin. Buttocks, perineum, and occiput were the most common locations of breakdown. Occiput breakdown was more common in critically ill (PICU) patients while diaper dermatitis was more common in the general medical-surgical population.

  7. Humidity effects on wire insulation breakdown strength.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Appelhans, Leah

    2013-08-01

    Methods for the testing of the dielectric breakdown strength of insulation on metal wires under variable humidity conditions were developed. Two methods, an ASTM method and the twisted pair method, were compared to determine if the twisted pair method could be used for determination of breakdown strength under variable humidity conditions. It was concluded that, although there were small differences in outcomes between the two testing methods, the non-standard method (twisted pair) would be appropriate to use for further testing of the effects of humidity on breakdown performance. The dielectric breakdown strength of 34G copper wire insulated with double layer Poly-Thermaleze/Polyamide-imide insulation was measured using the twisted pair method under a variety of relative humidity (RH) conditions and exposure times. Humidity at 50% RH and below was not found to affect the dielectric breakdown strength. At 80% RH the dielectric breakdown strength was significantly diminished. No effect for exposure time up to 140 hours was observed at 50 or 80%RH.

  8. Soft Interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strzalkowski, Ireneusz

    1997-01-01

    This book presents an extended form of the 1994 Dirac Memorial Lecture delivered by Pierre Gilles de Gennes at Cambridge University. The main task of the presentation is to show the beauty and richness of structural forms and phenomena which are observed at soft interfaces between two media. They are much more complex than forms and phenomena existing in each phase separately. Problems are discussed including both traditional, classical techniques, such as the contact angle in static and dynamic partial wetting, as well as the latest research methodology, like 'environmental' scanning electron microscopes. The book is not a systematic lecture on phenomena but it can be considered as a compact set of essays on topics which particularly fascinate the author. The continuum theory widely used in the book is based on a deep molecular approach. The author is particularly interested in a broad-minded rheology of liquid systems at interfaces with specific emphasis on polymer melts. To study this, the author has developed a special methodology called anemometry near walls. The second main topic presented in the book is the problem of adhesion. Molecular processes, energy transformations and electrostatic interaction are included in an interesting discussion of the many aspects of the principles of adhesion. The third topic concerns welding between two polymer surfaces, such as A/A and A/B interfaces. Of great worth is the presentation of various unsolved, open problems. The kind of topics and brevity of description indicate that this book is intended for a well prepared reader. However, for any reader it will present an interesting picture of how many mysterious processes are acting in the surrounding world and how these phenomena are perceived by a Nobel Laureate, who won that prize mainly for his investigations in this field. (book review)

  9. Measuring protein breakdown rate in individual proteins in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm, Lars; Kjaer, Michael

    2010-01-01

    To outline different approaches of how protein breakdown can be quantified and to present a new approach to determine the fractional breakdown rate of individual slow turnover proteins in vivo.......To outline different approaches of how protein breakdown can be quantified and to present a new approach to determine the fractional breakdown rate of individual slow turnover proteins in vivo....

  10. Splenectomy attenuates severe thermal trauma-induced intestinal barrier breakdown in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang-dong; Chen, Zhen-yong; Yang, Peng; Huang, Wen-guang; Jiang, Chun-fang

    2015-12-01

    The severe local thermal trauma activates a number of systemic inflammatory mediators, such as TNF-α, NF-κB, resulting in a disruption of gut barrier. The gastrointestinal tight junction (TJ) is highly regulated by membrane-associated proteins including zonula occludens protein-1 (ZO-1) and occludin, which can be modulated by inflammatory cytokines. As splenectomy has been shown to reduce secretion of cytokines, we hypothesized that (1) severe scald injury up-regulates TNF-α and NF-κB, meanwhile down-regulates expression of ZO-1 and occludin, leading to the increased intestinal permeability, and (2) splenectomy can prevent the burn-induced decrease in ZO-1 and occludin expression, resulting in improved intestinal barrier. Wistar rats undergoing a 30% total body surface area (TBSA) thermal trauma were randomized to receive an accessorial splenectomy meanwhile or not. Intestinal injury was assessed by histological morphological analysis, and serum endotoxin levels, TNF-α, NF-κB, ZO-1 and occludin levels were detected by Western blotting in the terminal ileum mucosal tissue. 30% TBSA burn caused a significant increase in serum endotoxin levels, but NF-κB, and TNF-α, and the average intestinal villus height and mucosal thickness were decreased significantly. Burn injury could also markedly decrease the levels of ZO-1 and occludin in terminal ileum mucosal tissue (all PSplenectomy at 7th day after burn significantly reversed the burn-induced breakdown of ZO-1 and occludin (all PSplenectomy may provide a therapeutic benefit in restoring burn-induced intestinal barrier by decreasing the release of inflammatory cytokines and recovering TJ proteins.

  11. A computational study of the topology of vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spall, Robert E.; Gatski, Thomas B.

    1991-01-01

    A fully three-dimensional numerical simulation of vortex breakdown using the unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations has been performed. Solutions to four distinct types of breakdown are identified and compared with experimental results. The computed solutions include weak helical, double helix, spiral, and bubble-type breakdowns. The topological structure of the various breakdowns as well as their interrelationship are studied. The data reveal that the asymmetric modes of breakdown may be subject to additional breakdowns as the vortex core evolves in the streamwise direction. The solutions also show that the freestream axial velocity distribution has a significant effect on the position and type of vortex breakdown.

  12. dc breakdown conditioning and breakdown rate of metals and metallic alloys under ultrahigh vacuum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Descoeudres

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The rf accelerating structures of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC require a material capable of sustaining high electric field with a low breakdown rate and low induced damage. Because of the similarity of many aspects of dc and rf breakdown, a dc breakdown study is underway at CERN in order to test candidate materials and surface preparations, and have a better understanding of the breakdown mechanism under ultrahigh vacuum in a simple setup. Conditioning speeds and breakdown fields of several metals and alloys have been measured. The average breakdown field after conditioning ranges from 100  MV/m for Al to 850  MV/m for stainless steel, and is around 170  MV/m for Cu which is the present base-line material for CLIC structures. The results indicate clearly that the breakdown field is limited by the cathode. The presence of a thin cuprous oxide film at the surface of copper electrodes significantly increases the breakdown field. On the other hand, the conditioning speed of Mo is improved by removing oxides at the surface with a vacuum heat treatment, typically at 875°C for 2 hours. Surface finishing treatments of Cu samples only affect the very first breakdowns. More generally, surface treatments have an effect on the conditioning process itself, but not on the average breakdown field reached after the conditioning phase. In analogy to rf, the breakdown probability has been measured in dc with Cu and Mo electrodes. The dc data show similar behavior as rf as a function of the applied electric field.

  13. Soft supersymmetry breaking in KKLT flux compactification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, K.; Falkowski, A.; Nilles, H.P.; Olechowski, M.

    2005-01-01

    We examine the structure of soft supersymmetry breaking terms in KKLT models of flux compactification with low energy supersymmetry. Moduli are stabilized by fluxes and nonperturbative dynamics while a de Sitter vacuum is obtained by adding supersymmetry breaking anti-branes. We discuss the characteristic pattern of mass scales in such a set-up as well as some features of 4D N=1 supergravity breakdown by anti-branes. Anomaly mediation is found to always give an important contribution and one can easily arrange for flavor-independent soft terms. In its most attractive realization, the modulus mediation is comparable to the anomaly mediation, yielding a quite distinctive sparticle spectrum. In addition, the axion component of the modulus/dilaton superfield dynamically cancels the relative CP phase between the contributions of anomaly and modulus mediation, thereby avoiding dangerous SUSY CP violation

  14. dc breakdown conditioning and breakdown rate of metals and metallic alloys under ultrahigh vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Descoeudres, A; Calatroni, S; Taborelli, M; Wuensch, W

    2009-01-01

    RF accelerating structures of the Compact Linear Collider (CLIC) require a material capable of sustaining high electric field with a low breakdown rate and low induced damage. Because of the similarity of many aspects of DC and RF breakdown, a DC breakdown study is underway at CERN in order to test candidate materials and surface preparations, and have a better understanding of the breakdown mechanism under ultra-high vacuum in a simple setup. Conditioning speeds and breakdown fields of several metals and alloys have been measured. The average breakdown field after conditioning ranges from 100 MV/m for Al to 850 MV/m for stainless steel, and is around 170 MV/m for Cu which is the present base-line material for CLIC structures. The results indicate clearly that the breakdown field is limited by the cathode. The presence of a thin cuprous oxide film at the surface of copper electrodes significantly increases the breakdown field. On the other hand, the conditioning speed of Mo is improved by removing oxides at t...

  15. Three-dimensional supersonic vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, Hamdy A.; Liu, C. H.

    1993-01-01

    Three-dimensional supersonic vortex-breakdown problems in bound and unbound domains are solved. The solutions are obtained using the time-accurate integration of the unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations. The computational scheme is an implicit, upwind, flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme. Two vortex-breakdown applications are considered in the present paper. The first is for a supersonic swirling jet which is issued from a nozzle into a supersonic uniform flow at a lower Mach number than that of the swirling jet. The second is for a supersonic swirling flow in a configured circular duct. In the first application, an extensive study of the effects of grid fineness, shape and grid-point distribution on the vortex breakdown is presented. Four grids are used in this study and they show a substantial dependence of the breakdown bubble and shock wave on the grid used. In the second application, the bubble-type and helix-type vortex breakdown have been captured.

  16. Planned waveguide electric field breakdown studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Faya; Li Zenghai

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental setup for X-band rf breakdown studies. The setup is composed of a section of WR90 waveguide with a tapered pin located at the middle of the waveguide E-plane. Another pin is used to rf match the waveguide so it operates in a travelling wave mode. By adjusting the penetration depth of the tapered pin, different surface electric field enhancements can be obtained. The setup will be used to study the rf breakdown rate dependence on power flow in the waveguide for a constant maximum surface electric field on the pin. Two groups of pins have been designed. The Q of one group is different and very low. The other has a similar Q. With the test of the two groups of pins, we should be able to discern how the net power flow and Q affect the breakdown. Furthermore, we will apply an electron beam treatment to the pins to study its effect on breakdown. Overall, these experiments should be very helpful in understanding rf breakdown phenomena and could significantly benefit the design of high gradient accelerator structures.

  17. Electrical breakdown of water in microgaps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenbach, Karl; Kolb, Juergen; Xiao Shu; Katsuki, Sunao; Minamitani, Yasushi; Joshi, Ravindra

    2008-01-01

    Experimental and modeling studies on electrical breakdown in water in submillimeter gaps between pin and plane electrodes have been performed. Prebreakdown, breakdown and recovery of the water gaps were studied experimentally by using optical and electrical diagnostics with a temporal resolution on the order of one nanosecond. By using Mach-Zehnder interferometry, the electric field distribution in the prebreakdown phase was determined by means of the Kerr effect. Electric fields values in excess of the computed electric fields, which reach >4 MV cm -1 for applied electrical pulses of 20 ns duration, were recorded at the tip of the pin electrode, an effect which can be explained by a reduced permittivity of water at high electric fields. Breakdown of the gaps, streamer-to-arc transition, was recorded by means of high-speed electrical diagnostics, and through high-speed photography. It was shown, through simulations, that breakdown is initiated by field emission at the interface of preexisting microbubbles. Impact ionization within the micro-bubble's gas then contributes to plasma development. Experiments using pulse-probe methods and Schlieren diagnostics allowed us to follow the development of the disturbance caused by the breakdown over a time of more than milliseconds and to determine the recovery time of a water switch. In order to trigger water switches a trigger electrode with a triple point has been utilized. The results of this research have found application in the construction of compact pulse power generators for bioelectric applications.

  18. The soft notion of China's 'soft power'

    OpenAIRE

    Breslin, Shaun

    2011-01-01

    · Although debates over Chinese soft power have increased in\\ud recent years, there is no shared definition of what ‘soft power’\\ud actually means. The definition seems to change depending on\\ud what the observer wants to argue.\\ud · External analyses of soft power often include a focus on\\ud economic relations and other material (hard) sources of power\\ud and influence.\\ud · Many Chinese analyses of soft power focus on the promotion of a\\ud preferred (positive) understanding of China’s inter...

  19. Application of on-line nanoLC-IT-TOF in the identification of serum β-catenin complex in mice scald model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-cai Huang

    Full Text Available Severe burn shock remains an unresolved clinical problem with an urgent need to explore novel therapeutic treatments. Intracellular β-catenin, through interaction with other proteins, has been reported to be able to regulate the size of cutaneous wounds. Higher expression of β-catenin is associated with larger sized wounds. However, the identification of serum β-catenin complex is difficult and has been rarely reported. The exploitation of more binding partners can contribute to uncovering the exact mechanisms behind serum β-catenin mediated biological effects. Here, we describe a method that consists of immunoprecipitation, SDS-PAGE, in-gel digestion, and nanoLC coupled to LCMS-IT-TOF for the investigation of serum β-catenin complex in mice scald model. Among selected gel bands obtained from the protein gels, a total of 31 peptides were identified and sequenced with high statistical significance (p<0.01. Three proteins (alpha-2-marcoglobulin, serine protease inhibitor A3K, and serine protease inhibitor A1A were identified and validated with high reliability and high reproducibility. It was inferred that these proteins might interact with serum β-catenin, which could affect the wound healing resulting from burn shock. Our study demonstrated that the on-line coupling of nano-LC with a LCMS-IT-TOF mass spectrometer was capable of sensitive and automated characterization of the serum β-catenin complex in mice scald model.

  20. Impact of Machine Breakdowns on Productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anwaruddin Tanwari

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports the machine breakdowns and their impact on the total productivity for the FMCGs (Fast Moving Consumer Goods industry because higher productivity rate is important factor on which the customer services largely depend in this competitive business world. This paper also suggests that the machine breakdowns and other related problems within the plant are due to improper care, keeping the plant operative for twenty four hours a day, seven days a week without any break and lack of management\\'s concentration towards these issues. These break-downs results in un-timely closure of the plant and very poor production performance is achieved in the plant that affects the service level at great level. Realising the importance of maintenance in improving productivity and service, an attempt has been made in this paper to study the scope of maintenance with the help of a case study.

  1. The Electrical Breakdown of Thin Dielectric Elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakaria, Shamsul Bin; Morshuis, Peter H. F.; Yahia, Benslimane Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Dielectric elastomers are being developed for use in actuators, sensors and generators to be used in various applications, such as artificial eye lids, pressure sensors and human motion energy generators. In order to obtain maximum efficiency, the devices are operated at high electrical fields....... This increases the likelihood for electrical breakdown significantly. Hence, for many applications the performance of the dielectric elastomers is limited by this risk of failure, which is triggered by several factors. Amongst others thermal effects may strongly influence the electrical breakdown strength....... In this study, we model the electrothermal breakdown in thin PDMS based dielectric elastomers in order to evaluate the thermal mechanisms behind the electrical failures. The objective is to predict the operation range of PDMS based dielectric elastomers with respect to the temperature at given electric field...

  2. Progressive current degradation and breakdown behavior in GaN LEDs under high reverse bias stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Linna; Yu Peihong; Yan Dawei; Zhou Hao; Wu Jinbo; Cui Zhiqiang; Gu Xiaofeng; Guo Zixiang; Sun Huarui

    2017-01-01

    The progressive current degradation and breakdown behaviors of GaN-based light emitting diodes under high reverse-bias stress are studied by combining the electrical, optical, and surface morphology characterizations. The current features a typical “soft breakdown” behavior, which is linearly correlated to an increase of the accumulative number of electroluminescence spots. The time-to-failure for each failure site approximately obeys a Weibull distribution with slopes of about 0.67 and 4.09 at the infant and wear-out periods, respectively. After breakdown, visible craters can be observed at the device surface as a result of transient electrostatic discharge. By performing focused ion beam cuts coupled with scan electron microscope, we observed a local current shunt path in the surface layer, caused by the rapid microstructure deterioration due to significant current heating effect, consistent well with the optical beam induced resistance change observations. (paper)

  3. NASA Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrell, Stefanie M.

    2018-01-01

    The purpose of this document is to provide program/project teams necessary instruction and guidance in the best practices for Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and WBS dictionary development and use for project implementation and management control. This handbook can be used for all types of NASA projects and work activities including research, development, construction, test and evaluation, and operations. The products of these work efforts may be hardware, software, data, or service elements (alone or in combination). The aim of this document is to assist project teams in the development of effective work breakdown structures that provide a framework of common reference for all project elements.

  4. Project management strategies for prototyping breakdowns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granlien, Maren Sander; Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    2009-01-01

    , managing the explorative and iterative aspects of prototyping projects is not a trivial task. We examine the managerial challenges in a small scale prototyping project in the Danish healthcare sector where a prototype breakdown and project escalation occurs. From this study we derive a framework...... of strategies for coping with escalation in troubled prototyping projects; the framework is based on project management triangle theory and is useful when considering how to manage prototype breakdown and escalation. All strategies were applied in the project case at different points in time. The strategies led...

  5. Vortex breakdown in a supersonic jet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutler, Andrew D.; Levey, Brian S.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports a study of a vortex breakdown in a supersonic jet. A supersonic vortical jets were created by tangential injection and acceleration through a convergent-divergent nozzle. Vortex circulation was varied, and the nature of the flow in vortical jets was investigated using several types of flow visualization, including focusing schlieren and imaging of Rayleigh scattering from a laser light sheet. Results show that the vortical jet mixed much more rapidly with the ambient air than a comparable straight jet. When overexpanded, the vortical jet exhibited considerable unsteadiness and showed signs of vortex breakdown.

  6. Breakdowns in Coordination Between Air Traffic Controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bearman, Chris; Orasanu, Judith; Miller, Ronald C.

    2011-01-01

    This talk outlines the complexity of coordination in air traffic control, introduces the NextGen technologies, identifies common causes for coordination breakdowns in air traffic control and examines whether these causes are likely to be reduced with the introduction of NextGen technologies. While some of the common causes of breakdowns will be reduced in a NextGen environment this conclusion should be drawn carefully given the current stage of development of the technologies and the observation that new technologies often shift problems rather than reduce them.

  7. Soft, Embodied, Situated & Connected

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomico, Oscar; Wilde, Danielle

    2015-01-01

    Soft wearables include clothing and textile-based accessories that incorporate smart textiles and soft electronic interfaces to enable responsive and interactive experiences. When designed well, they leverage the cultural, sociological and material qualities of textiles, fashion and dress; divers...

  8. Soft, embodied, situated & connected

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomico Plasencia, O.; Wilde, D.

    2015-01-01

    Soft wearables include clothing and textile-based accessories that incorporate smart textiles and soft electronic interfaces to enable responsive and interactive experiences. When designed well, they leverage the cultural, sociological and material qualities of textiles, fashion and dress; diverse

  9. A Model for the Onset of Vortex Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahesh, K.

    1996-01-01

    A large body of information exists on the breakdown of incompressible streamwise vortices. Less is known about vortex breakdown at high speeds. An interesting example of supersonic vortex breakdown is the breakdown induced by the interaction of vortices with shock waves. The flow in supersonic engine inlets and over high-speed delta wings constitute technologically important examples of this phenomenon, which is termed 'shock-induced vortex breakdown'. In this report, we propose a model to predict the onset of shock-induced vortex breakdown. The proposed model has no adjustable constants, and is compared to both experiment and computation. The model is then extended to consider two other problems: the breakdown of a free compressible vortex, and free incompressible vortex breakdown. The same breakdown criterion is used in all three problems to predict the onset of breakdown. Finally, a new breakdown map is proposed that allows the simultaneous comparison of data from flows ranging from incompressible breakdown to breakdown induced by a shock wave.

  10. Spontaneous symmetry breakdown in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scadron, M.D.

    1982-01-01

    The dynamical theory of spontaneous breakdown correctly predicts the bound states and relates the order parameters of electron-photon superconductivity and quark-gluon chiral symmetry. A similar statement cannot be made for the standard electro-weak gauge symmetry. (author)

  11. Vortex breakdown in a truncated conical bioreactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balci, Adnan; Brøns, Morten; Herrada, Miguel A.

    2015-01-01

    . It is found that the sidewall convergence (divergence) from the top to the bottom stimulates (suppresses) the development of vortex breakdown (VB) in both water and air. At α = 60°, the flow topology changes eighteen times as Hw varies. The changes are due to (a) competing effects of AMF (the air meridional...

  12. Investigation of multipactor breakdown in communication satellite

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Multipactor breakdown or multipactor discharge is a form of high frequency discharge that may occur in microwave components operating at very low pressures. Some RF components of multi-channel communication satellites have co-axial geometry and handle high RF power under near-vacuum conditions.

  13. Breakdown and bad luck in Biblis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randow, G. von.

    1994-01-01

    Five minor breakdowns within a month have heated up the dispute between the ministries of the environment of the Federation and the Land of Hesse. Biblis A is to be shut down at all costs. As yet, however, the Hessian Ministry of the Environment has not solved the question of how to compensate the power cut. (DG) [de

  14. Electrical breakdown phenomena of dielectric elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yu, Liyun; Mateiu, Ramona Valentina; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

    years. However, optimization with respect to the dielectric permittivity solely may lead to other problematic phenomena such as premature electrical breakdown. In this work, we focus on the chloro propyl functionalized silicone elastomers prepared in Madsen et al[2] and we investigate the electrical...

  15. Fear of breakdown and the unlived life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Thomas H

    2014-04-01

    Winnicott's Fear of breakdown is an unfinished work that requires that the reader be not only a reader, but also a writer of this work which often gestures toward meaning as opposed to presenting fully developed ideas. The author's understanding of the often confusing, sometimes opaque, argument of Winnicott's paper is as follows. In infancy there occurs a breakdown in the mother-infant tie that forces the infant to take on, by himself, emotional events that he is unable to manage. He short-circuits his experience of primitive agony by generating defense organizations that are psychotic in nature, i.e., they substitute self-created inner reality for external reality, thus foreclosing his actually experiencing critical life events. By not experiencing the breakdown of the mother-infant tie when it occurred in infancy, the individual creates a psychological state in which he lives in fear of a breakdown that has already happened, but which he did not experience. The author extends Winnicott's thinking by suggesting that the driving force of the patient's need to find the source of his fear is his feeling that parts of himself are missing and that he must find them if he is to become whole. What remains of his life feels to him like a life that is mostly an unlived life. Copyright © 2014 Institute of Psychoanalysis.

  16. Numerical Borehole Breakdown Investigations using XFEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckhuis, Sven; Leonhart, Dirk; Meschke, Günther

    2016-04-01

    During pressurization of a wellbore a typical downhole pressure record shows the following regimes: first the applied wellbore pressure balances the reservoir pressure, then after the compressive circumferential hole stresses are overcome, tensile stresses are induced on the inside surface of the hole. When the magnitude of these stresses reach the tensile failure stress of the surrounding rock medium, a fracture is initiated and propagates into the reservoir. [1] In standard theories this pressure, the so called breakdown pressure, is the peak pressure in the down-hole pressure record. However experimental investigations [2] show that the breakdown did not occur even if a fracture was initiated at the borehole wall. Drilling muds had the tendency to seal and stabilize fractures and prevent fracture propagation. Also fracture mechanics analysis of breakdown process in mini-frac or leak off tests [3] show that the breakdown pressure could be either equal or larger than the fracture initiation pressure. In order to gain a deeper understanding of the breakdown process in reservoir rock, numerical investigations using the extended finite element method (XFEM) for hydraulic fracturing of porous materials [4] are discussed. The reservoir rock is assumed to be pre-fractured. During pressurization of the borehole, the injection pressure, the pressure distribution and the position of the highest flux along the fracture for different fracturing fluid viscosities are recorded and the influence of the aforementioned values on the stability of fracture propagation is discussed. [1] YEW, C. H. (1997), "Mechanics of Hydraulic Fracturing", Gulf Publishing Company [2] MORITA, N.; BLACK, A. D.; FUH, G.-F. (1996), "Borehole Breakdown Pressure with Drilling Fluids". International Journal of Rock Mechanics and Mining Sciences 33, pp. 39-51 [3] DETOURNAY, E.; CARBONELL, R. (1996), "Fracture Mechanics Analysis of the Breakdown Process in Minifrac or Leakoff Test", Society of Petroleum

  17. Soft Congruence Relations over Rings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xin, Xiaolong; Li, Wenting

    2014-01-01

    Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft sets, which can be seen as a new mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper, we initiate the study of soft congruence relations by using the soft set theory. The notions of soft quotient rings, generalized soft ideals and generalized soft quotient rings, are introduced, and several related properties are investigated. Also, we obtain a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and idealistic soft rings and a one-to-one correspondence between soft congruence relations and soft ideals. In particular, the first, second, and third soft isomorphism theorems are established, respectively. PMID:24949493

  18. A computational study of the taxonomy of vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spall, Robert E.; Gatski, Thomas B.

    1990-01-01

    The results of a fully three-dimensional numerical simulation of vortex breakdown using the unsteady, incompressible Navier-Stokes equations are presented. The solutions show that the freestream axial velocity distribution has a significant effect on the position and type of vortex breakdown. Common features between bubble-type and spiral-type breakdown are identified and the role of flow stagnation and the critical state are discussed as complimentary ideas describing the initiation of breakdown.

  19. Electrical breakdown studies with Mycalex insulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waldron, W.; Greenway, W.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Yu, S.

    2003-01-01

    Insulating materials such as alumina and glass-bonded mica (Mycalex) are used in accelerator systems for high voltage feedthroughs, structural supports, and barriers between high voltage insulating oil and the vacuum beam pipe in induction accelerator cells. Electric fields in the triple points should be minimized to prevent voltage breakdown. Mechanical stress can compromise seals and result in oil contamination of the insulator surface. We have tested various insulator cleaning procedures including ultrasonic cleaning with a variety of aqueous-based detergents, and manual scrubbing with various detergents. Water sheeting tests were used to determine the initial results of the cleaning methods. Ultimately, voltage breakdown tests will be used to quantify the benefits of these cleaning procedures

  20. Prevention of breakdown behind railgun projectiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, R.S.

    1992-01-01

    An electromagnetic railgun accelerator system, for accelerating projectiles by a plasma arc, introduces a breakdown inhibiting gas into the railgun chamber behind the accelerating projectile. The breakdown inhibiting gas, which absorbs electrons, is a halide or a halide compound such as fluorine or SF 6 . The gas is introduced between the railgun rails after the projectile has passed through inlets in the rails or the projectile; by coating the rails or the projectile with a material which releases the gas after the projectile passes over it; by fabricating the rails or the projectile or insulators out of a material which releases the gas into the portions of the chamber through which the projectile has travelled. The projectile may have a cavity at its rear to control the release of ablation products. 12 figs

  1. Supersonic quasi-axisymmetric vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, Hamdy A.; Liu, C. H.

    1991-01-01

    An extensive computational study of supersonic quasi-axisymmetric vortex breakdown in a configured circular duct is presented. The unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations are used. The NS equations are solved for the quasi-axisymmetric flows using an implicit, upwind, flux difference splitting, finite volume scheme. The quasi-axisymmetric solutions are time accurate and are obtained by forcing the components of the flowfield vector to be equal on two axial planes, which are in close proximity of each other. The effect of Reynolds number, for laminar flows, on the evolution and persistence of vortex breakdown, is studied. Finally, the effect of swirl ration at the duct inlet is investigated.

  2. Breakdown Studies for the CLIC Accelerating

    CERN Document Server

    Calatroni, S; Kovermann, J; Taborelli, M; Timko, H; Wuensch, W; Durabekova, F; Nordlund, K; Pohjonen, A; Kuronen, A

    2010-01-01

    Optimizing the design and the manufacturing of the CLIC RF accelerating structures for achieving the target value of breakdown rate at the nominal accelerating gradient of 100 MV/m requires a detailed understanding of all the steps involved in the mechanism of breakdown. These include surface modification under RF fields, electron emission and neutral evaporation in the vacuum, arc ignition and consequent surface modification due to plasma bombardment. Together with RF tests, experiments are conducted in a simple DC test set-up instrumented with electrical diagnostics and optical spectroscopy. The results are also used for validating simulations which are performed using a wide range of numerical tools (MD coupled to electrostatic codes, PIC plasma simulations) able to include all the above phenomena. Some recent results are presented in this paper

  3. Bioavailability of glucosinolates and their breakdown products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barba Orellana, Francisco Jose; Nikmaram, Nooshin; Roohinejad, Shahin

    2016-01-01

    Glucosinolates are a large group of plant secondary metabolites with nutritional effects, and are mainly found in cruciferous plants. After ingestion, glucosinolates could be partially absorbed in their intact form through the gastrointestinal mucosa. However, the largest fraction is metabolized ...... the bioavailability of glucosinolates and their breakdown products. This review paper summarizes the assimilation, absorption, and elimination of these molecules, as well as the impact of processing on their bioavailability....

  4. Topology hidden behind the breakdown of adiabaticity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, L.-B.; Chen, S.-G.

    2005-01-01

    For classical Hamiltonian systems, the adiabatic condition may fail at some critical points. However, the breakdown of the adiabatic condition does not always cause the adiabatic evolution to be destroyed. In this paper, we suggest a supplemental condition of the adiabatic evolution for the fixed points of classical Hamiltonian systems when the adiabatic condition breaks down at the critical points. As an example, we investigate the adiabatic evolution of the fixed points of a classical Hamiltonian system which has a number of applications

  5. Three-dimensional simulation of vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruvila, G.; Salas, M. D.

    1990-01-01

    The integral form of the complete, unsteady, compressible, three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations in the conservation form, cast in generalized coordinate system, are solved, numerically, to simulate the vortex breakdown phenomenon. The inviscid fluxes are discretized using Roe's upwind-biased flux-difference splitting scheme and the viscous fluxes are discretized using central differencing. Time integration is performed using a backward Euler ADI (alternating direction implicit) scheme. A full approximation multigrid is used to accelerate the convergence to steady state.

  6. Electrical Breakdown Phenomena Involving Material Interfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    create ozone through chemical reactions involving reactive species created by the electrical discharge [3]. The glow discharge breakdown in such...2. REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Investigation Of Pre-Ionization And Atmospheric Pulsed Discharge Plasma 5a...growth of the air discharge in the form of a conductive filament consisting of electrons and ions. This filament is created by temporal pulse that

  7. Breakdown localization in the fixed gap system

    CERN Document Server

    Rajamaki, Robin; Wuensch, Walter

    2014-01-01

    Accurate localization of breakdowns in vacuum could help shed light on breakdown related processes that are not yet fully understood. At the DC spark lab at CERN, an instrument called the Fixed Gap System (FGS) has been developed partially for this purpose. Among other things, the FGS has four built-in antennas, which are intended for breakdown localization. The capability of this aspect of the FGS was explored in this report. Specifically, the feasibility of using a method similar to that which is used in cavity Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) was investigated. The usable frequency range of the current experimental setup was also studied. Firstly, a modal analysis of the inner geometry of the FGS was done in HFSS. This showed that the two first modes to be expected in the spark gap quite differ from those of the ideal pillbox – both in field pattern and in frequency ( 4 and 6 GHz vs. 0.2 and 3 GHz). Secondly, S-parameters of the system were measured. These showed that the coupling between antennas is weak...

  8. Kinetic Simulations of Dense Plasma Focus Breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, A.; Higginson, D. P.; Jiang, S.; Link, A.; Povilus, A.; Sears, J.; Bennett, N.; Rose, D. V.; Welch, D. R.

    2015-11-01

    A dense plasma focus (DPF) device is a type of plasma gun that drives current through a set of coaxial electrodes to assemble gas inside the device and then implode that gas on axis to form a Z-pinch. This implosion drives hydrodynamic and kinetic instabilities that generate strong electric fields, which produces a short intense pulse of x-rays, high-energy (>100 keV) electrons and ions, and (in deuterium gas) neutrons. A strong factor in pinch performance is the initial breakdown and ionization of the gas along the insulator surface separating the two electrodes. The smoothness and isotropy of this ionized sheath are imprinted on the current sheath that travels along the electrodes, thus making it an important portion of the DPF to both understand and optimize. Here we use kinetic simulations in the Particle-in-cell code LSP to model the breakdown. Simulations are initiated with neutral gas and the breakdown modeled self-consistently as driven by a charged capacitor system. We also investigate novel geometries for the insulator and electrodes to attempt to control the electric field profile. The initial ionization fraction of gas is explored computationally to gauge possible advantages of pre-ionization which could be created experimentally via lasers or a glow-discharge. Prepared by LLNL under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  9. Runaway breakdown and electrical discharges in thunderstorms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milikh, Gennady; Roussel-Dupré, Robert

    2010-12-01

    This review considers the precise role played by runaway breakdown (RB) in the initiation and development of lightning discharges. RB remains a fundamental research topic under intense investigation. The question of how lightning is initiated and subsequently evolves in the thunderstorm environment rests in part on a fundamental understanding of RB and cosmic rays and the potential coupling to thermal runaway (as a seed to RB) and conventional breakdown (as a source of thermal runaways). In this paper, we describe the basic mechanism of RB and the conditions required to initiate an observable avalanche. Feedback processes that fundamentally enhance RB are discussed, as are both conventional breakdown and thermal runaway. Observations that provide clear evidence for the presence of energetic particles in thunderstorms/lightning include γ-ray and X-ray flux intensifications over thunderstorms, γ-ray and X-ray bursts in conjunction with stepped leaders, terrestrial γ-ray flashes, and neutron production by lightning. Intense radio impulses termed narrow bipolar pulses (or NBPs) provide indirect evidence for RB particularly when measured in association with cosmic ray showers. Our present understanding of these phenomena and their enduring enigmatic character are touched upon briefly.

  10. Dispersion of breakdown voltage of liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishii, Itaru; Noguchi, Takuya

    1978-01-01

    As for the electrical insulation characteristics of liquid helium, the discrepancy among the measured values by each person is very large even in the fundamental DC breakdown voltage in uniform electric field. The dispersion of experimental values obtained in the experiments by the same person is also large. Hereafter, the difference among the mean values obtained by each experimenter will be referred to as ''deviation of mean values'', and the dispersion of measured values around the mean value obtained by the same person as ''deviation around the man value''. The authors have mainly investigated on the latter experimentally. The cryostat was made of stainless steel, and the innermost helium chamber was of 500 mm I.D. and approximately 1200 mm deep. The high voltage electrode was of brass sphere of 25 mm diameter, and the low voltage electrode was of brass plate. The experiment was conducted for liquid helium boiling at 4.2 K and 1 atm, and the breakdown voltage and time lag were measured by applying the approximately square wave impulses of fast rise and long tail, ramp and DC voltages. The cause of the deviation of mean values may be the presence of impurity particles or the effect of electrode shape. As for the deviation around the mean value, the dispersion is large, and its standard deviation may amount to 10 to 20% of the man value. The dispersion is not due to the statistical time lag, but is due to parameters that vary with breakdown. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  11. Shock/vortex interaction and vortex-breakdown modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama A.; Kandil, H. A.; Liu, C. H.

    1992-01-01

    Computational simulation and study of shock/vortex interaction and vortex-breakdown modes are considered for bound (internal) and unbound (external) flow domains. The problem is formulated using the unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations which are solved using an implicit, flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme. For the bound flow domain, a supersonic swirling flow is considered in a configured circular duct and the problem is solved for quasi-axisymmetric and three-dimensional flows. For the unbound domain, a supersonic swirling flow issued from a nozzle into a uniform supersonic flow of lower Mach number is considered for quasi-axisymmetric and three-dimensional flows. The results show several modes of breakdown; e.g., no-breakdown, transient single-bubble breakdown, transient multi-bubble breakdown, periodic multi-bubble multi-frequency breakdown and helical breakdown.

  12. Comparative Studies of High-Gradient Rf and Dc Breakdowns

    CERN Document Server

    Kovermann, Jan Wilhelm; Wuensch, Walter

    2010-01-01

    The CLIC project is based on normal-conducting high-gradient accelerating structures with an average accelerating gradient of 100 MV/m. The maximum achievable gradient in these structures is limited by the breakdown phenomenon. The physics of breakdowns is not yet fully understood quantitatively. A full knowledge could have strong impact on the design, material choice and construction of rf structures. Therefore, understanding breakdowns has great importance to reaching a gradient of 100MV/m with an acceptable breakdown probability. This thesis addresses the physics underlying the breakdown effect, focusing on a comparison of breakdowns in rf structures and in a dc spark setup. The dc system is simpler, easier to benchmark against simulations, with a faster turnaround time, but the relationship to rf breakdown must be established. To do so, an experimental approach based on optical diagnostics and electrical measurements methods was made. Following an introduction into the CLIC project, a general theoretical ...

  13. Soft matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Doi, Masao

    2013-01-01

    Soft matter (polymers, colloids, surfactants and liquid crystals) are an important class of materials in modern technology. They also form the basis of many future technologies, for example in medical and environmental applications. Soft matter shows complex behaviour between fluids and solids, and used to be a synonym of complex materials. Due to the developments of the past two decades, soft condensed matter can now be discussed on the same sound physical basis as solid condensedmatter. The purpose of this book is to provide an overview of soft matter for undergraduate and graduate students

  14. RF BREAKDOWN STUDIES USING PRESSURIZED CAVITIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Rolland

    2014-09-21

    Many present and future particle accelerators are limited by the maximum electric gradient and peak surface fields that can be realized in RF cavities. Despite considerable effort, a comprehensive theory of RF breakdown has not been achieved and mitigation techniques to improve practical maximum accelerating gradients have had only limited success. Part of the problem is that RF breakdown in an evacuated cavity involves a complex mixture of effects, which include the geometry, metallurgy, and surface preparation of the accelerating structures and the make-up and pressure of the residual gas in which plasmas form. Studies showed that high gradients can be achieved quickly in 805 MHz RF cavities pressurized with dense hydrogen gas, as needed for muon cooling channels, without the need for long conditioning times, even in the presence of strong external magnetic fields. This positive result was expected because the dense gas can practically eliminate dark currents and multipacting. In this project we used this high pressure technique to suppress effects of residual vacuum and geometry that are found in evacuated cavities in order to isolate and study the role of the metallic surfaces in RF cavity breakdown as a function of magnetic field, frequency, and surface preparation. One of the interesting and useful outcomes of this project was the unanticipated collaborations with LANL and Fermilab that led to new insights as to the operation of evacuated normal-conducting RF cavities in high external magnetic fields. Other accomplishments included: (1) RF breakdown experiments to test the effects of SF6 dopant in H2 and He gases with Sn, Al, and Cu electrodes were carried out in an 805 MHz cavity and compared to calculations and computer simulations. The heavy corrosion caused by the SF6 components led to the suggestion that a small admixture of oxygen, instead of SF6, to the hydrogen would allow the same advantages without the corrosion in a practical muon beam line. (2) A

  15. Voltage-stabilised elastomers with increased relative permittivity and high electrical breakdown strength by means of phase separating binary copolymer blends of silicone elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    A Razak, Aliff Hisyam; Yu, Liyun; Skov, Anne Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

    Increased electrical breakdown strength and increased dielectric permittivity of silicone-based dielectric elastomers are achieved by means of the addition of so-called voltage-stabilisers prepared from PDMS–PPMS copolymers as well as PDMS–PEG copolymers in order to compensate for the negative...... effect of softness on electrical stability of silicone elastomers. The voltage-stabilised elastomer, incorporating a high-permittivity PDMS–PEG copolymer, possesses increased relative permittivity, high electrical breakdown strength, excellent network integrity and low dielectric loss and paves the way...

  16. Soft, embodied, situated & connected: enriching interactions with soft wearbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tomico Plasencia, O.; Wilde, D.

    2016-01-01

    Soft wearables include clothing and textile-based accessories that incorporate smart textiles and soft electronic interfaces to enable responsive and interactive experiences. When designed well, soft wearables leverage the cultural, sociological and material qualities of textiles, fashion and dress;

  17. Possibility Fuzzy Soft Set

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkat Alkhazaleh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the concept of possibility fuzzy soft set and its operation and study some of its properties. We give applications of this theory in solving a decision-making problem. We also introduce a similarity measure of two possibility fuzzy soft sets and discuss their application in a medical diagnosis problem.

  18. Fixing soft margins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Kofman (Paul); A. Vaal, de (Albert); C.G. de Vries (Casper)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractNon-parametric tolerance limits are employed to calculate soft margins such as advocated in Williamson's target zone proposal. In particular, the tradeoff between softness and zone width is quantified. This may be helpful in choosing appropriate margins. Furthermore, it offers

  19. learning and soft skills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2000-01-01

    Learning of soft skills are becoming more and more necessary due to the complexe development of modern companies and their environments. However, there seems to be a 'gap' between intentions and reality regarding need of soft skills and the possiblities to be educated in this subject in particular...

  20. Embodying Soft Wearables Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomico, Oscar; Wilde, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    of soft wearables. Throughout, we will experiment with how embodied design research techniques might be shared, developed, and used as direct and unmediated vehicles for their own reporting. Rather than engage in oral presentations, participants will lead each other through a proven embodied method...... and knowledge transfer in the context of soft wearables....

  1. APPLICATION OF THE HACCP METHOD IN THE SWINE ABATTOIR BY SCALDING-SKINNING ECOLOGICAL PROCESSING / APPLICATION DE LA METHODE HACCP DANS L’ABATTOIR PORCIN PAR LE PROCESSUS ECOLOGIQUE D’ÉCHAUDAGE-DÉPEÇAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IULIAN SUCEVEANU

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In the food industry development, the food safety and the valorization of by-products represent important aspects. The present study consists in the application of the Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP method in pig slaughterhouses for scalding-skinning technology in order to ensure the conformity of meat quality and the by-products management and recycling. In order to optimize the scalding-skinning process of swine, all the classical technological steps of the technological processes were analyzed separately and globally, with the adaptation of the HACCP method for the new technology. The result of this study shows that the implementation of the new technology that combines existing technologies has many advantages from both an economic and a technological point of view. At the same time the new technology ensures food safety by taking account of the application of the food safety system, respectively, HACCP method.

  2. Soft buckling actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dian; Whitesides, George M.

    2017-12-26

    A soft actuator is described, including: a rotation center having a center of mass; a plurality of bucklable, elastic structural components each comprising a wall defining an axis along its longest dimension, the wall connected to the rotation center in a way that the axis is offset from the center of mass in a predetermined direction; and a plurality of cells each disposed between two adjacent bucklable, elastic structural components and configured for connection with a fluid inflation or deflation source; wherein upon the deflation of the cell, the bucklable, elastic structural components are configured to buckle in the predetermined direction. A soft actuating device including a plurality of the soft actuators and methods of actuation using the soft actuator or soft actuating device disclosed herein are also described.

  3. Need for spontaneous breakdown of chiral symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomone, A.; Schechter, J.; Tudron, T.

    1981-01-01

    The question of whether the chiral symmetry of the theory of strong interactions (with massless quarks) is required to be spontaneously broken is examined in the framework of a previously discussed effective Lagrangian for quantum chromodynamics. The assumption that physical masses of the theory be finite leads in a very direct way to the necessity of spontaneous breakdown. This result holds for all N/sub F/> or =2, where N/sub F/ is the number of different flavors of light quarks. The atypical cases N/sub F/ = 1,2 are discussed separately

  4. Criteria for vacuum breakdown in rf cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peter, W.; Faehl, R.J.; Kadish, A.; Thode, L.E.

    1983-01-01

    A new high-voltage scaling based on Kilpatrick's criterion is presented that suggests that voltages more than twice the Kilpatrick limit can be obtained with identical initial conditions of vacuum and surface cleanliness. The calculations are based on the experimentally observed decrease in secondary electron emission with increasing ion-impact energy above 100 keV. A generalized secondary-emission package has been developed to simulate actual cavity dynamics in conjunction with our 2 1/2-dimensional fully electromagnetic particle-in-cell code CEMIT. The results are discussed with application to the suppression of vacuum breakdown in rf accelerator devices

  5. On spontaneous breakdown in Σ-models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, E.A.

    1975-01-01

    The group theory aspects of spontaneous breakdown in linear Σ-models are discussed. General conditions are formulated under which multiplet of group G (compact or noncompact) is suitable for constructing the Σ-model with a given subgroup of stability of vacuum. It is shown that the Σ-models of spontaneously broken space-time symmetries can be constructed in general only if some extra coordinates are introduced in addition to an ordinary 4-coordinate xsub(μ). The connection between Σ-models of internal symmetries and appropriate nonlinear realizations has also been investigated

  6. Ergodicity breakdown and scaling from single sequences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalashyan, Armen K. [Center for Nonlinear Science, University of North Texas, P.O. Box 311427, Denton, TX 76203-1427 (United States); Buiatti, Marco [Laboratoire de Neurophysique et Physiologie, CNRS UMR 8119 Universite Rene Descartes - Paris 5 45, rue des Saints Peres, 75270 Paris Cedex 06 (France); Cognitive Neuroimaging Unit - INSERM U562, Service Hospitalier Frederic Joliot, CEA/DRM/DSV, 4 Place du general Leclerc, 91401 Orsay Cedex (France); Grigolini, Paolo [Center for Nonlinear Science, University of North Texas, P.O. Box 311427, Denton, TX 76203-1427 (United States); Dipartimento di Fisica ' E.Fermi' - Universita di Pisa and INFM, Largo Pontecorvo 3, 56127 Pisa (Italy); Istituto dei Processi Chimico, Fisici del CNR Area della Ricerca di Pisa, Via G. Moruzzi 1, 56124 Pisa (Italy)], E-mail: grigo@df.unipi.it

    2009-01-30

    In the ergodic regime, several methods efficiently estimate the temporal scaling of time series characterized by long-range power-law correlations by converting them into diffusion processes. However, in the condition of ergodicity breakdown, the same methods give ambiguous results. We show that in such regime, two different scaling behaviors emerge depending on the age of the windows used for the estimation. We explain the ambiguity of the estimation methods by the different influence of the two scaling behaviors on each method. Our results suggest that aging drastically alters the scaling properties of non-ergodic processes.

  7. Ergodicity breakdown and scaling from single sequences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalashyan, Armen K.; Buiatti, Marco; Grigolini, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    In the ergodic regime, several methods efficiently estimate the temporal scaling of time series characterized by long-range power-law correlations by converting them into diffusion processes. However, in the condition of ergodicity breakdown, the same methods give ambiguous results. We show that in such regime, two different scaling behaviors emerge depending on the age of the windows used for the estimation. We explain the ambiguity of the estimation methods by the different influence of the two scaling behaviors on each method. Our results suggest that aging drastically alters the scaling properties of non-ergodic processes.

  8. Numerical simulation and physical aspects of supersonic vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. H.; Kandil, O. A.; Kandil, H. A.

    1993-01-01

    Existing numerical simulations and physical aspects of subsonic and supersonic vortex-breakdown modes are reviewed. The solution to the problem of supersonic vortex breakdown is emphasized in this paper and carried out with the full Navier-Stokes equations for compressible flows. Numerical simulations of vortex-breakdown modes are presented in bounded and unbounded domains. The effects of different types of downstream-exit boundary conditions are studied and discussed.

  9. Pressurized-helium breakdown at very low temperatures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metas, R J

    1972-06-01

    An investigation of the electrical-breakdown behavior of helium at very low temperatures has been carried out to assist the design and development of superconducting power cables. At very high densities, both liquid and gaseous helium showed an enhancement in electric strength when pressurized to a few atmospheres; conditioned values of breakdown fields then varied between 30 and 45 MV/m. Breakdown processes occurring over a wide range of helium densities are discussed. 24 references.

  10. Measurement of skeletal muscle collagen breakdown by microdialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Miller, B F; Ellis, D; Robinson, M M

    2011-01-01

    Exercise increases the synthesis of collagen in the extracellular matrix of skeletal muscle. Breakdown of skeletal muscle collagen has not yet been determined because of technical limitations. The purpose of the present study was to use local sampling to determine skeletal muscle collagen breakdown...... collagen breakdown 17–21 h post-exercise, and our measurement of OHP using GC–MS was in agreement with traditional assays....

  11. Analysis on X-band structure breakdown at GLCTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suehara, T.; Sanuki, T.; Komamiya, S.; Higo, T.; Hayano, H.; Terunuma, N.; Saeki, T.; Watanabe, K.; Hayakawa, A.; Tsukada, Y.

    2004-01-01

    We have built a new monitoring system for accelerator structure breakdown in the X-band high-gradient test facility at KEK (GLCTA: Global Linear Collider Test Accelerator). An X-band test structure KX01 (made by KEK) has been processed at GLCTA and we have been collecting data for about 3 months using this breakdown monitoring system. We describe overview of the monitoring system and preliminary result of breakdown analysis of the structure. (author)

  12. Breakdown of highly excited oxygen in a DC electric field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vagin, N.P.; Ionin, A.A.; Klimachev, Yu.M.; Sinitsin, D.V.; Yuryshev, N.N.; Deryugin, A.A.; Kochetov, I.V.; Napartovich, A.P.

    2000-01-01

    The breakdown of oxygen in a dc electric field is studied. A high concentration of oxygen molecules in the a 1 Δ g excited state is obtained in a purely chemical reactor. A decrease in the breakdown voltage at degrees of excitation exceeding 50% is observed. The theoretical decrement in the breakdown voltage obtained by solving the Boltzmann equation is in good agreement with the experimental data

  13. Studies of RF Breakdown of Metals in Dense Gases

    CERN Document Server

    Hanlet, Pierrick M; Ankenbrandt, Charles; Johnson, Rolland P; Kaplan, Daniel; Kuchnir, Moyses; Moretti, Alfred; Paul, Kevin; Popovic, Milorad; Yarba, Victor; Yonehara, Katsuya

    2005-01-01

    A study of RF breakdown of metals in gases has begun as part of a program to develop RF cavities filled with dense hydrogen gas to be used for muon ionization cooling. A pressurized 800 MHz test cell has been used at Fermilab to compare the conditioning and breakdown behavior of copper, molybdenum, chromium, and beryllium electrodes as functions of hydrogen and helium gas density. These results are compared to the predicted or known RF breakdown behavior of these metals in vacuum.

  14. Numerical simulation of a precessing vortex breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jochmann, P.; Sinigersky, A.; Hehle, M.; Schaefer, O.; Koch, R.; Bauer, H.-J.

    2006-01-01

    The objective of this work is to present the results of time-dependent numerical predictions of a turbulent symmetry breaking vortex breakdown in a realistic gas turbine combustor. The unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations are solved by using the k-ε two-equation model as well as by a full second-order closure using the Reynolds stress model of Speziale, Sarkar and Gatski (SSG). The results for a Reynolds number of 5.2 x 10 4 , a swirl number of 0.52 and an expansion ratio of 5 show that the flow is emerging from the swirler as a spiral gyrating around a zone of strong recirculation which is also asymmetric and precessing. These flow structures which are typical for the spiral type (S-type) vortex breakdown have been confirmed by PIV and local LDA measurements in a corresponding experimental setup. Provided that high resolution meshes are employed the calculations with both turbulence models are capable to reproduce the spatial and temporal dynamics of the flow

  15. Microemulsion systems applied to breakdown petroleum emulsions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuma de Castro Dantas, Tereza; Avelino Dantas Neto, Afonso; Ferreira Moura, Everlane [Deptos de Quimica e Eng. Quimica, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Campus Universitario s/n, 59072.970, Natal/RN Campinas (Brazil)

    2001-12-29

    Microemulsion systems obtained using commercial surfactants with demulsifier and emulsion prevention properties have been employed to break down Brazilian crude water-in-oil (W/O) emulsions. These crude oils were supplied by the Brazilian oil company-PETROBRAS-and were characterized by the different Balance sheet of Sediment and Water (BSW) values of 48%, 36%, and 32%. The microemulsion systems formed in this study were composed of an aqueous phase (HCl 5.2% solution); an oil phase (toluene); a cosurfactant/surfactant (C/S) phase (isopropyl alcohol (C)/surfactants (S) with a ratio C/S of 9.0). The microemulsion efficiency to break down oil emulsions was evaluated by a direct contact method between the microemulsions and crude (W/O) emulsions. The Scheffe net statistical planning for mixtures was used to relate the component mass fractions to the relative breakdown of petroleum emulsions. The best composition of the microemulsion system for the complete breakdown of oil emulsions with high BSW values had the lowest C/S phase percentage.

  16. Second harmonic electron cyclotron breakdown in stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carter, M.D.; Batchelor, D.B.; England, A.C.

    1987-01-01

    In linear wave-particle interaction models, the coupling between cold electrons and microwaves with frequency equal to twice the electron gyrofrequency is so weak that the ionization of a significant number of neutral hydrogen atoms would seem impossible in practical applications. However, the non-linear interaction of a cold electron with the wave is very large if the electron becomes trapped near resonance in a shallow, static magnetic well. A model has been developed to describe the breakdown of a neutral gas when these non-linear interactions are considered, and it is in reasonable agreement with the limited amount of available experimental data. For gas pressures that are too large, electron-neutral collisions inhibit the non-linear interaction and prevent breakdown. For gas pressures that are too low, the growth rate of the free electron population is limited because electrons capable of causing ionization are lost before suffering a collision with a neutral. Quantitative growth rate predictions are presented for stellarators, and formulae for rough estimates are given. (author)

  17. Bipolar soft connected, bipolar soft disconnected and bipolar soft compact spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Shabir

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar soft topological spaces are mathematical expressions to estimate interpretation of data frameworks. Bipolar soft theory considers the core features of data granules. Bipolarity is important to distinguish between positive information which is guaranteed to be possible and negative information which is forbidden or surely false. Connectedness and compactness are the most important fundamental topological properties. These properties highlight the main features of topological spaces and distinguish one topology from another. Taking this into account, we explore the bipolar soft connectedness, bipolar soft disconnectedness and bipolar soft compactness properties for bipolar soft topological spaces. Moreover, we introduce the notion of bipolar soft disjoint sets, bipolar soft separation, and bipolar soft hereditary property and study on bipolar soft connected and disconnected spaces. By giving the detailed picture of bipolar soft connected and disconnected spaces we investigate bipolar soft compact spaces and derive some results related to this concept.

  18. Electrical strength of vacuum gap at repetitive breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dubinin, N.P.; Chistyakov, N.P.

    1983-01-01

    The investigation of repetitive pulse breakdown of vacuum space, which electrodes have been subjected to various treatment in vacuum and inert gas, is carried out. In case of electrode warm-up in vacuum up to 400 deg C as well as electronic heating up to 900 deg C the voltage in case of repetitive breakdown hasncreased approximately twice and in case of a through treatment, which is accomplished by a high-current glow discharge in inert gas, the maximum high voltage in case of the first breakdown at repetitive breakdown has decreased by 30...40%, remaining 2-3 times higher than in the first case

  19. Soft-Material Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, L; Nurzaman, SG; Iida, Fumiya

    2017-01-01

    There has been a boost of research activities in robotics using soft materials in the past ten years. It is expected that the use and control of soft materials can help realize robotic systems that are safer, cheaper, and more adaptable than the level that the conventional rigid-material robots can achieve. Contrary to a number of existing review and position papers on soft-material robotics, which mostly present case studies and/or discuss trends and challenges, the review focuses on the fun...

  20. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2006-01-01

    ’s interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable for supporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...

  1. Evaluating Six Soft Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Valqui Vidal, René Victor

    2008-01-01

    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...

  2. Evaluating six soft approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lene Tolstrup; Vidal, Rene Victor Valqui

    2008-01-01

    's interactive planning principles to be supported by soft approaches in carrying out the principles in action. These six soft approaches are suitable forsupporting various steps of the strategy development and planning process. These are the SWOT analysis, the Future Workshop, the Scenario methodology......, Strategic Option Development and Analysis, Strategic Choice Approach and Soft Systems Methodology. Evaluations of each methodology are carried out using a conceptual framework in which the organisation, the result, the process and the technology of the specific approach are taken into consideration. Using...

  3. Rapid containment of nosocomial transmission of a rare community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) clone, responsible for the Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamanna, Onofrio; Bongiorno, Dafne; Bertoncello, Lisa; Grandesso, Stefano; Mazzucato, Sandra; Pozzan, Giovanni Battista; Cutrone, Mario; Chirico, Michela; Baesso, Flavia; Brugnaro, Pierluigi; Cafiso, Viviana; Stefani, Stefania; Campanile, Floriana

    2017-01-06

    The aims of this study were to identify the source and the transmission pathway for a Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome (SSSS) outbreak in a maternity setting in Italy over 2 months, during 2014; to implement appropriate control measures in order to prevent the epidemic spread within the maternity ward; and to identify the Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) epidemic clone. Epidemiological and microbiological investigations, based on phenotyping and genotyping methods, were performed. All neonates involved in the outbreak underwent clinical and microbiological investigations to detect the cause of illness. Parents and healthcare workers were screened for Staphylococcus aureus to identify asymptomatic carriers. The SSSS outbreak was due to the cross-transmission of a rare clone of ST5-CA-MRSA-SCCmecV-spa type t311, exfoliative toxin A-producer, isolated from three neonates, one mother (from her nose and from dermatological lesions due to pre-existing hand eczema) and from a nurse (colonized in her nose by this microorganism). The epidemiological and microbiological investigation confirmed these as two potential carriers. A rapid containment of these infections was obtained only after implementation of robust swabbing of mothers and healthcare workers. The use of molecular methodologies for typing was able to identify all carriers and to trace the transmission.

  4. ATLAS soft QCD results

    CERN Document Server

    Sykora, Tomas; The ATLAS collaboration

    2018-01-01

    Recent results of soft QCD measurements performed by the ATLAS collaboration are reported. The measurements include total, elastic and inelastic cross sections, inclusive spectra, underlying event and particle correlations in p-p and p-Pb collisions.

  5. Dynamics of Soft Matter

    CERN Document Server

    García Sakai, Victoria; Chen, Sow-Hsin

    2012-01-01

    Dynamics of Soft Matter: Neutron Applications provides an overview of neutron scattering techniques that measure temporal and spatial correlations simultaneously, at the microscopic and/or mesoscopic scale. These techniques offer answers to new questions arising at the interface of physics, chemistry, and biology. Knowledge of the dynamics at these levels is crucial to understanding the soft matter field, which includes colloids, polymers, membranes, biological macromolecules, foams, emulsions towards biological & biomimetic systems, and phenomena involving wetting, friction, adhesion, or micr

  6. Skin regeneration with conical and hair follicle structure of deep second-degree scalding injuries via combined expression of the EPO receptor and beta common receptor by local subcutaneous injection of nanosized rhEPO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebert S

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Augustinus Bader1, Sabine Ebert1, Shibashish Giri1, Mathias Kremer2, Shuhua Liu2, Andreas Nerlich5, Christina I Günter³, Dagmar U Smith4, Hans-Günther Machens2,31Department of Applied Stem Cell Biology and Cell Techniques, Centre for Biotechnology and Biomedicine, University of Leipzig, Leipzieg, 2Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, University of Lübeck, Lübeck, 3Department of Plastic and Hand Surgery, Technische Universität München, Munich, 4Münchner Studienzentrum, Technische Universität München, Munich, 5Institute of Pathology, Klinikum München-Bogenhausen, Munich, GermanyBackground: Acceleration of skin regeneration is still an unsolved problem in the clinical treatment of patients suffering from deep burns and scalds. Although erythropoietin (EPO has a protective role in a wide range of organs and cells during ischemia and after trauma, it has been recently discovered that EPO is not tissue-protective in the common β subunit receptor (βCR knockout mouse. The protective capacity of EPO in tissue is mediated via a heteroreceptor complex comprising both the erythropoietin receptor (EPOR and βCR. However, proof of coexpression of these heterogenic receptors in regenerating skin after burns is still lacking.Methods: To understand the role of nanosized recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO in wound healing, we investigated the effects of subcutaneous injections of EPO on skin regeneration after deep second-degree scalding injuries. Our aim was to determine if joint expression of EPOR and βCR is a prerequisite for the tissue-protective effect of rhEPO. The efficiency in wound regeneration in a skin scalding injury mouse model was examined. A deep second-degree dermal scald injury was produced on the backs of 20 female Balb/c mice which were subsequently randomized to four experimental groups, two of which received daily subcutaneous injections of rhEPO. At days 7 and 14, the mice were sacrificed and the effects of rhEPO were

  7. Teaching Soft Skills Employers Need

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Maureen; Kisling, Eric; Hackworth, Robbie G.

    2014-01-01

    This study identifies the soft skills community colleges teach in an office technology course and determines whether the skills taught are congruent with the soft skills employers require in today's entry-level office work. A qualitative content analysis of a community college office technology soft skills course was performed using 23 soft skills…

  8. Robust AIC with High Breakdown Scale Estimate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shokrya Saleh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Akaike Information Criterion (AIC based on least squares (LS regression minimizes the sum of the squared residuals; LS is sensitive to outlier observations. Alternative criterion, which is less sensitive to outlying observation, has been proposed; examples are robust AIC (RAIC, robust Mallows Cp (RCp, and robust Bayesian information criterion (RBIC. In this paper, we propose a robust AIC by replacing the scale estimate with a high breakdown point estimate of scale. The robustness of the proposed methods is studied through its influence function. We show that, the proposed robust AIC is effective in selecting accurate models in the presence of outliers and high leverage points, through simulated and real data examples.

  9. Vortex breakdown in simple pipe bends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Jesse; Shin, Sangwoo; Stone, Howard

    2016-11-01

    Pipe bends and elbows are one of the most common fluid mechanics elements that exists. However, despite their ubiquity and the extensive amount of research related to these common, simple geometries, unexpected complexities still remain. We show that for a range of geometries and flow conditions, these simple flows experience unexpected fluid dynamical bifurcations resembling the bubble-type vortex breakdown phenomenon. Specifically, we show with simulations and experiments that recirculation zones develop within the bends under certain conditions. As a consequence, fluid and particles can remain trapped within these structures for unexpectedly-long time scales. We also present simple techniques to mitigate this recirculation effect which can potentially have impact across industries ranging from biomedical and chemical processing to food and health sciences.

  10. Runaway breakdown and hydrometeors in lightning initiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurevich, A V; Karashtin, A N

    2013-05-03

    The particular electric pulse discharges are observed in thunderclouds during the initiation stage of negative cloud-to-ground lightning. The discharges are quite different from conventional streamers or leaders. A detailed analysis reveals that the shape of the pulses is determined by the runaway breakdown of air in the thundercloud electric field initiated by extensive atmospheric showers (RB-EAS). The high amplitude of the pulse electric current is due to the multiple microdischarges at hydrometeors stimulated and synchronized by the low-energy electrons generated in the RB-EAS process. The series of specific pulse discharges leads to charge reset from hydrometeors to the free ions and creates numerous stretched ion clusters, both positive and negative. As a result, a wide region in the thundercloud with a sufficiently high fractal ion conductivity is formed. The charge transport by ions plays a decisive role in the lightning leader preconditioning.

  11. Development of Electrical Breakdown in Transformer Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Kudelcik

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Power transformers are key equipment for transfer and distribution of the electric power. Considering the significance of the power transformers in the electric system, their price and possible damages occurred by accidents, it is necessary to pay attention to their higher prevention. To prevent failure states of transformers, we perform different types ofmeasurements. They shall illustrate a momentary state of the measured equipment and if necessary to draw attention in advance to changes of parameters, which have specific relationship to no-failure operation of the equipment. The conditions under which breakdown of composite liquid/ solid insulation can occur, e.g. in transformer, play an important role in designing such insulation. The liquid, mainly mineral oil, generally constitutes the weakest part of insulation and a great amount of work has been devoted to the study of streamers, which appear in the gaseous phase, and most often are triggering the failure of insulation.

  12. Junction depth dependence of breakdown in silicon detector diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, G.A.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Greenwood, N.M.; Lucas, A.D.; Munday, D.J.; Pritchard, T.W.; Robinson, D.; Wilburn, C.D.; Wyllie, K.

    1996-01-01

    The high voltage capability of detector diodes fabricated in the planar process is limited by the high field generated at the edge of the junction.We have fabricated diodes with increased junction depth with respect to our standard process and find a significantly higher breakdown voltage,in reasonable agreement with previous studies of junction breakdown. (orig.)

  13. Breakdown Breakthrough: NREL Finds Easier Ways to Deconstruct Biomass |

    Science.gov (United States)

    News | NREL Breakdown Breakthrough: NREL Finds Easier Ways to Deconstruct Biomass Breakdown Breakthrough: NREL Finds Easier Ways to Deconstruct Biomass May 22, 2018 Roman Brunecky (left), Yannick Bomble soften biomass. Photo by Dennis Schroeder, NREL If there's an easier, more efficient method, science will

  14. Simulation of a three-dimensional vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, C. H.; Menne, Stefan

    1989-01-01

    The breakdown of a vortex flow in a tube is studied for a slightly diverging tube by means of a numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for a quasi-stationary, incompressible, laminar flow. Numerical results are compared to experiments of Faler and Leibovich. The numerical data display features similar to the experimental results concerning breakdown conditions, location, and structure.

  15. Formation of vortex breakdown in conical–cylindrical cavities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martins, Diego Alves de Moro; Souza, Francisco José de; Salvo, Ricardo de Vasconcelos

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Rotating flows in conical–cylindrical cavities were simulated via an in-house code using unstructured meshes. • The vortex breakdown phenomenon was verified in the geometries analyzed. • The influence of Stewartson and Bödewadt layers was observed in the vortex breakdown formation. • A curve of stability and number of breakdowns was obtained as a function of Reynolds number. • Spiral vortex breakdown was observed in some situations. - Abstract: Numerical simulations in confined rotating flows were performed in this work, in order to verify and characterize the formation of the vortex breakdown phenomenon. Cylindrical and conical–cylindrical geometries, both closed, were used in the simulations. The rotating flow is induced by the bottom wall, which rotates at constant angular velocity. Firstly the numerical results were compared to experimental results available in references, with the purpose to verify the capacity of the computational code to predict the vortex breakdown phenomenon. Further, several simulations varying the parameters which govern the characteristics of the flows analyzed in this work, i.e., the Reynolds number and the aspect ratio, were performed. In these simulations, the limits for the transitional regime and the vortex breakdown formation were verified. Steady and transient cases, with and without turbulence modeling, were simulated. In general, some aspects of the process of vortex breakdown in conical–cylindrical geometries were observed to be different from that in cylinders

  16. Electric field measurements in moving ionization fronts during plasma breakdown

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaars, E.; Bowden, M.D.; Kroesen, G.M.W.

    2006-01-01

    We have performed time-resolved, direct measurements of electric field strengths in moving ionization fronts during the breakdown phase of a pulsed plasma. Plasma breakdown, or plasma ignition, is a highly transient process marking the transition from a gas to a plasma. Some aspects of plasma

  17. Quasiparticle Breakdown in a Quantum Spin Liquid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, Matthew B.; Zalinznyak, I.; Hong, T.; Broholm, C.L.; Reich, D.H.

    2006-01-01

    Much of modern condensed matter physics is understood in terms of elementary excitations, or quasiparticles -- fundamental quanta of energy and momentum. Various strongly interacting atomic systems are successfully treated as a collection of quasiparticles with weak or no interactions. However, there are interesting limitations to this description: in some systems the very existence of quasiparticles cannot be taken for granted. Like unstable elementary particles, quasiparticles cannot survive beyond a threshold where certain decay channels become allowed by conservation laws; their spectrum terminates at this threshold. Such quasiparticle breakdown was first predicted for an exotic state of matter -- super-fluid 4 He at temperatures close to absolute zero, a quantum Bose liquid where zero-point atomic motion precludes crystallization. Here we show, using neutron scattering, that quasiparticle breakdown can also occur in a quantum magnet and, by implication, in other systems with Bose quasiparticles. We have measured spin excitations in a two-dimensional quantum magnet, piperazinium hexachlorodicuprate (PHCC), in which spin-1/2 copper ions form a non-magnetic quantum spin liquid, and find remarkable similarities with excitations in superfluid 4 He. We observe a threshold momentum beyond which the quasiparticle peak merges with the two-quasiparticle continuum. It then acquires a finite energy width and becomes indistinguishable from a leading-edge singularity, so that excited states are no longer quasiparticles but occupy a wide band of energy. Our findings have important ramifications for understanding excitations with gapped spectra in many condensed matter systems, ranging from band insulators to high-transition-temperature superconductors.

  18. Determining the mode of high voltage breakdowns in vacuum devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, H.C.; Furno, E.J.; Sturtz, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    Devices were constructed which were essentially vacuum diodes equipped with windows allowing observation of high voltage breakdowns. The waveform of the applied voltage was photographed, and the x-ray output was monitored to investigate electrical breakdown in these vacuum diodes. Results indicate that breakdowns may be divided into two types: (1) vacuum (interelectrode) breakdown - characterized by a diffuse moderately bright discharge, a relative slow and smooth voltage collapse, and a large burst of x-rays, and (2) surface (insulator) flashover - characterized by a bright discharge with a very bright filamentary core, a relatively fast and noisy voltage collapse and no x-ray burst. Useful information concerning the type of breakdown in a vacuum device can be obtained by monitoring the voltage (current) waveform and the x-ray output

  19. Development of Hybrid Product Breakdown Structure for NASA Ground Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Mark W.; Henry, Robert J.

    2013-01-01

    The Product Breakdown Structure is traditionally a method of identification of the products of a project in a tree structure. It is a tool used to assess, plan, document, and display the equipment requirements for a project. It is part of a product based planning technique, and attempts to break down all components of a project in as much detail as possible, so that nothing is overlooked. The PBS for ground systems at the Kennedy Space Center is being developed to encompass the traditional requirements including the alignment of facility, systems, and components to the organizational hierarchy. The Ground Operations Product Breakdown Structure is a hybrid in nature in that some aspects of a work breakdown structure will be incorporated and merged with the Architecture Concept of Operations, Master Subsystem List, customer interface, and assigned management responsibility. The Ground Operations Product Breakdown Structure needs to be able to identify the flexibility of support differing customers (internal and external) usage of ground support equipment within the Kennedy Space Center launch and processing complex. The development of the Product Breakdown Structure is an iterative activity Initially documenting the organization hierarchy structure and relationships. The Product Breakdown Structure identifies the linkage between the customer program requirements, allocation of system resources, development of design goals, and identification logistics products. As the Product Breakdown Structure progresses the incorporation of the results of requirement planning for the customer occurs identifying facility needs and systems. The mature Product Breakdown Structure is baselined with a hierarchical drawing, the Product Breakdown Structure database, and an associated document identifying the verification of the data through the life cycle of the program/product line. This paper will document, demonstrate, and identify key aspects of the life cycle of a Hybrid Product

  20. Detection of Elemental Composition of Lubricating Grease Using Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cherry Dhiman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The elemental composition of lubricating soft grease used in rail engines are studied using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS technique. LIBS spectra of fresh, partially used and fully used grease samples are recorded using time-gated ICCD spectrometer for verification of compositional degradation of the used grease. LIBS spectra of grease samples are analyzed by comparing with emission spectra of elements published by NIST standard database. Many spectral lines of impurity elements like Fe, Cu, Ba, Mg, Mn, Ni, S, Zn, Si, Pb, Ti, Ca and Al present in the grease in ppm or ppb level in trace level concentrations are observed in excess in the used grease mainly due to wear and tear. On the other hand in fresh grease, spectral lines of Ca, Al and Na are observed predominantly.

  1. Soft Decision Analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lansdowne, Chatwin; Steele, Glen; Zucha, Joan; Schlesinger, Adam

    2013-01-01

    We describe the benefit of using closed-loop measurements for a radio receiver paired with a counterpart transmitter. We show that real-time analysis of the soft decision output of a receiver can provide rich and relevant insight far beyond the traditional hard-decision bit error rate (BER) test statistic. We describe a Soft Decision Analyzer (SDA) implementation for closed-loop measurements on single- or dual- (orthogonal) channel serial data communication links. The analyzer has been used to identify, quantify, and prioritize contributors to implementation loss in live-time during the development of software defined radios. This test technique gains importance as modern receivers are providing soft decision symbol synchronization as radio links are challenged to push more data and more protocol overhead through noisier channels, and software-defined radios (SDRs) use error-correction codes that approach Shannon's theoretical limit of performance.

  2. Hard and Soft Governance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moos, Lejf

    2009-01-01

    of Denmark, and finally the third layer: the leadership used in Danish schools. The use of 'soft governance' is shifting the focus of governance and leadership from decisions towards influence and power and thus shifting the focus of the processes from the decision-making itself towards more focus......The governance and leadership at transnational, national and school level seem to be converging into a number of isomorphic forms as we see a tendency towards substituting 'hard' forms of governance, that are legally binding, with 'soft' forms based on persuasion and advice. This article analyses...... and discusses governance forms at several levels. The first layer is the global: the methods of 'soft governance' that are being utilised by transnational agencies. The second layer is the national and local: the shift in national and local governance seen in many countries, but here demonstrated in the case...

  3. Experimental Study on High Electrical Breakdown of Water Dielectric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zicheng; Zhang Jiande; Yang Jianhua

    2005-01-01

    By means of a coaxial apparatus, pressurized water breakdown experiments with microsecond charging have been carried out with different surface roughness of electrodes and different ethylene glycol concentrations of ethylene glycol/water mixture. The experimental results about the breakdown stress and the effective time are presented. The breakdown stress is normalized to the situation that the effective time is transformed to 1 μs and analyzed. The conclusions are as follows: (1) the breakdown stress formula is modified to E = 0.561M A -1/10 t eff -1/N P 1/8 ; (2) the coefficient M is significantly increased by surface polishing and ethylene glycol additive; (3) it is accumulative for the capacity of improving electrical breakdown strength for surface polishing, ethylene glycol additive, and pressurization, of which pressurization is the most effective method; (4) the highest stress of 235.5 kV/cm is observed in ethylene glycol/water mixture with an ethylene glycol concentration of 80% at a hydrostatic pressure of 1215.9 kPa and is about one time greater than that in pure water at constant pressure; (5) for pressurization and surface polishing, the primary mechanism to improve the breakdown strength of water dielectric is the increase in the breakdown time delay. Research results indicate great potential in the application of the high power pulse conditioning system of water dielectric

  4. Soft and hard pomerons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maor, Uri; Tel Aviv Univ.

    1995-09-01

    The role of s-channel unitarity screening corrections, calculated in the eikonal approximation, is investigated for soft Pomeron exchange responsible for elastic and diffractive hadron scattering in the high energy limit. We examine the differences between our results and those obtained from the supercritical Pomeron-Regge model with no such corrections. It is shown that screening saturation is attained at different scales for different channels. We then proceed to discuss the new HERA data on hard (PQCD) Pomeron diffractive channels and discuss the relationship between the soft and hard Pomerons and the relevance of our analysis to this problem. (author). 18 refs, 9 figs, 1 tab

  5. Mechanics of soft materials

    CERN Document Server

    Volokh, Konstantin

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a concise introduction to soft matter modelling. It offers an up-to-date review of continuum mechanical description of soft and biological materials from the basics to the latest scientific materials. It includes multi-physics descriptions, such as chemo-, thermo-, electro- mechanical coupling. It derives from a graduate course at Technion that has been established in recent years. It presents original explanations for some standard materials and features elaborated examples on all topics throughout the text. PowerPoint lecture notes can be provided to instructors. .

  6. Antimicrobial Agent of Susceptibilities and Antiseptic Resistance Gene Distribution among Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Isolates from Patients with Impetigo and Staphylococcal Scalded Skin Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Norihisa; Nakaminami, Hidemasa; Nishijima, Setsuko; Kurokawa, Ichiro; So, Hiromu; Sasatsu, Masanori

    2006-01-01

    The susceptibilities to antimicrobial agents of and distributions of antiseptic resistance genes in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) strains isolated between 1999 and 2004 in Japan were examined. The data of MRSA strains that are causative agents of impetigo and staphylococcal scalded skin syndrome (SSSS) were compared with those of MRSA strains isolated from patients with other diseases. The susceptibilities to antiseptic agents in MRSA isolates from patients with impetigo and SSSS were higher than those in MRSA isolates from patients with other diseases. The distribution of the qacA/B genes in MRSA strains isolated from patients with impetigo and SSSS (1.3%, 1/76) was remarkably lower than that in MRSA strains isolated from patients with other diseases (45.9%, 95/207). Epidemiologic typings of staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) showed that MRSA strains isolated from patients with impetigo and SSSS had type IV SCCmec (75/76), except for one strain, and 64.5% (49/76) of the strains had different PFGE types. In addition, the patterns of restriction digestion of all tested qacA/B plasmid in MRSA isolates having different PFGE types were identical. The results showed that a specific MRSA clone carrying qacA/B was not prevalent, but qacA/B was spread among health care-associated MRSA strains. Therefore, it was concluded that the lower distribution rate of qacA/B resulted in higher susceptibilities to cationic antiseptic agents in MRSA isolated from patients with impetigo and SSSS. PMID:16757607

  7. Mappings on Neutrosophic Soft Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawkat Alkhazaleh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In 1995 Smarandache introduced the concept of neutrosophic set which is a mathematical tool for handling problems involving imprecise, indeterminacy and inconsistent data. In 2013 Maji introduced the concept of neutrosophic soft set theory as a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty. In this paper we define the notion of a mapping on classes where the neutrosophic soft classes are collections of neutrosophic soft set. We also define and study the properties of neutrosophic soft images and neutrosophic soft inverse images of neutrosophic soft sets.

  8. Work Breakdown Structures The Foundation for Project Management Excellence

    CERN Document Server

    Norman, Eric S; Fried, Robert T

    2011-01-01

    Understand and apply new concepts regarding Work Breakdown Structures The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) has emerged as a foundational concept and tool in Project Management. It is an enabler that ensures clear definition and communication of project scope while performing a critical role as a monitoring and controlling tool. Created by the three experts who led the development of PMI's Practice Standard for Work Breakdown Structures, Second Edition, this much-needed text expands on what the standard covers and describes how to go about successfully implementing the WBS within the project life

  9. A model of breakdown in parallel-plate detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonte, P.

    1996-01-01

    Parallel-plate avalanche chambers (PPAC's) have many desirable properties, such as a fast, large area particle detector. However, the maximum gain is limited by a form of violent breakdown that limits the usefulness of this detector, despite its other evident qualities. The exact nature of this phenomenon is not yet sufficiently clear to sustain possible improvements. A previous experimental study is complemented in the present work by a quantitative model of the breakdown phenomenon in PPAC's, based on the streamer theory. The model reproduces well the peculiar behavior of the external current observed in PPAC's and resistive-plate chambers. Other breakdown properties measured in PPAC's are also well reproduced

  10. Vortex breakdown in a truncated conical bioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balci, Adnan; Brøns, Morten [DTU Compute, Technical University of Denmark, DK-2800 Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Herrada, Miguel A [E.S.I, Universidad de Sevilla, Camino de los Descubrimientos s/n, E-41092 (Spain); Shtern, Vladimir N, E-mail: mobr@dtu.dk [Shtern Research and Consulting, Houston, TX 77096 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    This numerical study explains the eddy formation and disappearance in a slow steady axisymmetric air–water flow in a vertical truncated conical container, driven by the rotating top disk. Numerous topological metamorphoses occur as the water height, H{sub w}, and the bottom-sidewall angle, α, vary. It is found that the sidewall convergence (divergence) from the top to the bottom stimulates (suppresses) the development of vortex breakdown (VB) in both water and air. At α = 60°, the flow topology changes eighteen times as H{sub w} varies. The changes are due to (a) competing effects of AMF (the air meridional flow) and swirl, which drive meridional motions of opposite directions in water, and (b) feedback of water flow on AMF. For small H{sub w}, the AMF effect dominates. As H{sub w} increases, the swirl effect dominates and causes VB. The water flow feedback produces and modifies air eddies. The results are of fundamental interest and can be relevant for aerial bioreactors. (paper)

  11. Subnanosecond breakdown in high-pressure gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naidis, George V.; Tarasenko, Victor F.; Babaeva, Natalia Yu; Lomaev, Mikhail I.

    2018-01-01

    Pulsed discharges in high-pressure gases are of considerable interest as sources of nonequilibrium plasma for various technological applications: pollution control, pumping of laser media, plasma-assisted combustion, etc. Recently, attention has been attracted to the use of subnanosecond voltage fronts, producing diffuse discharges with radii of several millimeters. Such plasma structures, similar to pulsed glow discharges, are of special interest for applications due to quasi-uniformity of plasma parameters in relatively large gas volumes. This review presents the results of experimental and computational study of subnanosecond diffuse discharge formation. A description of generators of short high-voltage pulses with subnanosecond fronts and of discharge setups is given. Diagnostic methods for the measurement of various discharge parameters with high temporal and spatial resolution are described. Obtained experimental data on plasma properties for a wide range of governing factors are discussed. A review of various theoretical approaches used for computational study of the dynamics and structure of fast ionization waves is given; the applicability of conventional fluid streamer models for simulation of subnanosecond ionization waves is discussed. Calculated spatial-temporal profiles of plasma parameters during streamer propagation are presented. The efficiency of subnanosecond discharges for the production of reactive species is evaluated. On the basis of the comparison of simulation results and experimental data the effects of various factors (voltage rise time, polarity, etc.) on discharge characteristics are revealed. The major physical phenomena governing the properties of subnanosecond breakdown are analyzed.

  12. Vortex breakdown in a truncated conical bioreactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balci, Adnan; Brøns, Morten; Herrada, Miguel A; Shtern, Vladimir N

    2015-01-01

    This numerical study explains the eddy formation and disappearance in a slow steady axisymmetric air–water flow in a vertical truncated conical container, driven by the rotating top disk. Numerous topological metamorphoses occur as the water height, H w , and the bottom-sidewall angle, α, vary. It is found that the sidewall convergence (divergence) from the top to the bottom stimulates (suppresses) the development of vortex breakdown (VB) in both water and air. At α = 60°, the flow topology changes eighteen times as H w varies. The changes are due to (a) competing effects of AMF (the air meridional flow) and swirl, which drive meridional motions of opposite directions in water, and (b) feedback of water flow on AMF. For small H w , the AMF effect dominates. As H w increases, the swirl effect dominates and causes VB. The water flow feedback produces and modifies air eddies. The results are of fundamental interest and can be relevant for aerial bioreactors. (paper)

  13. Medical Applications of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pathak, A K; Rai, N K; Singh, Ankita; Rai, A K; Rai, Pradeep K; Rai, Pramod K

    2014-01-01

    Sedentary lifestyle of human beings has resulted in various diseases and in turn we require a potential tool that can be used to address various issues related to human health. Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) is one such potential optical analytical tool that has become quite popular because of its distinctive features that include applicability to any type/phase of samples with almost no sample preparation. Several reports are available that discusses the capabilities of LIBS, suitable for various applications in different branches of science which cannot be addressed by traditional analytical methods but only few reports are available for the medical applications of LIBS. In the present work, LIBS has been implemented to understand the role of various elements in the formation of gallstones (formed under the empyema and mucocele state of gallbladder) samples along with patient history that were collected from Purvancal region of Uttar Pradesh, India. The occurrence statistics of gallstones under the present study reveal higher occurrence of gallstones in female patients. The gallstone occurrence was found more prevalent for those male patients who were having the habit of either tobacco chewing, smoking or drinking alcohols. This work further reports in-situ LIBS study of deciduous tooth and in-vivo LIBS study of human nail

  14. Soft actuators and soft actuating devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Dian; Whitesides, George M.

    2017-10-17

    A soft buckling linear actuator is described, including: a plurality of substantially parallel bucklable, elastic structural components each having its longest dimension along a first axis; and a plurality of secondary structural components each disposed between and bridging two adjacent bucklable, elastic structural components; wherein every two adjacent bucklable, elastic structural components and the secondary structural components in-between define a layer comprising a plurality of cells each capable of being connected with a fluid inflation or deflation source; the secondary structural components from two adjacent layers are not aligned along a second axis perpendicular to the first axis; and the secondary structural components are configured not to buckle, the bucklable, elastic structural components are configured to buckle along the second axis to generate a linear force, upon the inflation or deflation of the cells. Methods of actuation using the same are also described.

  15. Soft Tissue Extramedullary Plasmacytoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Ruiz Santiago

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We present the uncommon case of a subcutaneous fascia-based extramedullary plasmacytoma in the leg, which was confirmed by the pathology report and followed up until its remission. We report the differential diagnosis with other more common soft tissue masses. Imaging findings are nonspecific but are important to determine the tumour extension and to plan the biopsy.

  16. On Soft Biometrics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nixon, Mark; Correia, Paulo; Nasrollahi, Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Innovation has formed much of the rich history in biometrics. The field of soft biometrics was originally aimed to augment the recognition process by fusion of metrics that were sufficient to discriminate populations rather than individuals. This was later refined to use measures that could be us...

  17. Soft Matter Characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Borsali, Redouane

    2008-01-01

    Progress in basic soft matter research is driven largely by the experimental techniques available. Much of the work is concerned with understanding them at the microscopic level, especially at the nanometer length scales that give soft matter studies a wide overlap with nanotechnology. This 2 volume reference work, split into 4 parts, presents detailed discussions of many of the major techniques commonly used as well as some of those in current development for studying and manipulating soft matter. The articles are intended to be accessible to the interdisciplinary audience (at the graduate student level and above) that is or will be engaged in soft matter studies or those in other disciplines who wish to view some of the research methods in this fascinating field. Part 1 contains articles with a largely (but, in most cases, not exclusively) theoretical content and/or that cover material relevant to more than one of the techniques covered in subsequent volumes. It includes an introductory chapter on some of t...

  18. The legal aspects of the power breakdown in August 2003

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunberry, E.

    2004-01-01

    The power breakdown on August 14, 2003 could re-occur. There are legal liabilities over interruptions of power without notice and honouring of contract terms. This risk must be managed with prudence and diligence. (author)

  19. Low-pressure gas breakdown in longitudinal combined electric fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lisovskiy, V A; Kharchenko, N D; Yegorenkov, V D

    2010-01-01

    This paper contains the complete experimental and analytical picture of gas breakdown in combined electric fields for arbitrary values of rf and dc fields. To obtain it, we continued the study of the discharge ignition modes in nitrogen with simultaneous application of dc and rf electric fields presented in Lisovskiy et al (2008 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 125207). To this end, we studied the effect of rf voltage on dc discharge ignition. When we applied an rf voltage exceeding the one corresponding to the minimum breakdown voltage of a self-sustained rf discharge, the curve of dependence of the dc breakdown voltage of a combined discharge on gas pressure was found to consist of two sections. We got the generalized gas breakdown criterion in the combined field valid for arbitrary values of rf and dc electric fields. The calculation results agree with experimental data satisfactorily.

  20. Surface of Alumina Films after Prolonged Breakdowns in Galvanostatic Anodization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Girginov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Breakdown phenomena are investigated at continuous isothermal (20∘C and galvanostatic (0.2–5 mA cm−2 anodizing of aluminum in ammonium salicylate in dimethylformamide (1 M AS/DMF electrolyte. From the kinetic (-curves, the breakdown voltage ( values are estimated, as well as the frequency and amplitude of oscillations of formation voltage ( at different current densities. The surface of the aluminum specimens was studied using atomic force microscopy (AFM. Data on topography and surface roughness parameters of the electrode after electric breakdowns are obtained as a function of anodization time. The electrode surface of anodic films, formed with different current densities until the same charge density has passed (2.5 C cm−2, was assessed. Results are discussed on the basis of perceptions of avalanche mechanism of the breakdown phenomena, due to the injection of electrons and their multiplication in the volume of the film.

  1. Review of Vortex Methods for Simulation of Vortex Breakdown

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Levinski, Oleg

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this work is to identify current developments in the field of vortex breakdown modelling in order to initiate the development of a numerical model for the simulation of F/A-18 empennage buffet...

  2. Vortex breakdown in closed containers with polygonal cross sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naumov, I. V.; Dvoynishnikov, S. V.; Kabardin, I. K.; Tsoy, M. A.

    2015-01-01

    The vortex breakdown bubble in the confined flow generated by a rotating lid in closed containers with polygonal cross sections was analysed both experimentally and numerically for the height/radius aspect ratio equal to 2. The stagnation point locations of the breakdown bubble emergence and the corresponding Reynolds number were determined experimentally and in addition computed numerically by STAR-CCM+ CFD software for square, pentagonal, hexagonal, and octagonal cross section configurations. The flow pattern and the velocity were observed and measured by combining the seeding particle visualization and the temporal accuracy of laser Doppler anemometry. The vortex breakdown size and position on the container axis were determined for Reynolds numbers, ranging from 1450 to 2400. The obtained results were compared with the flow structure in the closed container of cubical and cylindrical configurations. It is shown that the measured evolution of steady vortex breakdown is in close agreement with the numerical results

  3. Streamwise Fluctuations of Vortex Breakdown at High Reynolds Numbers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Connelly, Jonathan S

    2006-01-01

    This thesis deals with the characterization of the dependence on the flow geometry of the stream wise fluctuations of the stagnation point of vortex breakdown in axisymmetric tubes and over delta wing aircraft...

  4. Optimal Rules for Single Machine Scheduling with Stochastic Breakdowns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinwei Gu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the problem of scheduling a set of jobs on a single machine subject to stochastic breakdowns, where jobs have to be restarted if preemptions occur because of breakdowns. The breakdown process of the machine is independent of the jobs processed on the machine. The processing times required to complete the jobs are constants if no breakdown occurs. The machine uptimes are independently and identically distributed (i.i.d. and are subject to a uniform distribution. It is proved that the Longest Processing Time first (LPT rule minimizes the expected makespan. For the large-scale problem, it is also showed that the Shortest Processing Time first (SPT rule is optimal to minimize the expected total completion times of all jobs.

  5. Breakdown processes in wire chambers, prevention and rate capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atac, M.

    1983-01-01

    Breakdowns were optically and electronically observed in drift tubes and drift chambers. They occur at a critical gain for given intensity in a gas mixture when ultraviolet photons are not completely quenched. It was observed that the breakdowns depended critically on average current for a given gas mixture independent of the size of the drift tubes used. Using 4.6% ethyl alcohol vapor mixed into 50/50 argon ethane gas, breakdown are eliminated up to 7 /sub μ/A average current drawn by pulses on a 1 cm section of an anode wire under an intense source. Pulses with an avalanche size of 10 6 electron rates above 10 6 pulses per centimeter per wire may be obtained with the elimination of breakdowns

  6. Breakdown processes in wire chambers, prevention and rate capability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atac, M.

    1982-01-01

    Breakdowns were optically and electronically observed in drift tubes and drift chambers. They occur at a critical gain for given intensity in a gas mixture when ultraviolet photons are not completely quenched. It was observed that the breakdowns depended critically on average current for a given gas mixture independent of the size of the drift tubes used. Using 4.6% ethyl alcohol vapor mixed into 50/50 argon ethane gas, breakdowns are eliminated up to 7 μA average current drawn by pulses on a 1 cm section of an anode wire under an intense source. Pulses with an avalanche size of 10 6 electron rates above 10 6 pulses per centimeter per wire may be obtained with the elimination of breakdowns

  7. Kertész line of thermally activated breakdown phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Yoshioka, Naoki; Kun, Ferenc; Ito, Nobuyasu

    2010-01-01

    Based on a fiber bundle model we substantially extend the phase-transition analogy of thermally activated breakdown of homogeneous materials. We show that the competition of breaking due to stress enhancement and due to thermal fluctuations leads

  8. Critical issues in soft rocks

    OpenAIRE

    Milton Assis Kanji

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses several efforts made to study and investigate soft rocks, as well as their physico-mechanical characteristics recognized up to now, the problems in their sampling and testing, and the possibility of its reproduction through artificially made soft rocks. The problems in utilizing current and widespread classification systems to some types of weak rocks are also discussed, as well as other problems related to them. Some examples of engineering works in soft rock or in soft ...

  9. Soft skills and dental education

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, M. A. G.; Abu Kasim, N. H.; Naimie, Z.

    2014-01-01

    Soft skills and hard skills are essential in the practice of dentistry. While hard skills deal with technical proficiency, soft skills relate to a personal values and interpersonal skills that determine a person's ability to fit in a particular situation. These skills contribute to the success of organisations that deal face-to-face with clients. Effective soft skills benefit the dental practice. However, the teaching of soft skills remains a challenge to dental schools. This paper discusses ...

  10. Enhancement of dielectric breakdown strengths in polymer film capacitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binder, M.; Mammone, R.J.; Lavene, B.; Rondeau, E.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that breakdown voltages of wound, polymer film/metal foil capacitors have been dramatically increased by briefly exposing them (after they had been spirally wound) to a low pressure, low temperature gas plasma. Exposure of wound, polycarbonate-based capacitors to a 96%CF 4 /4%O 2 gas plasma for 4 minutes, for example, produced a 200% increase in breakdown voltage

  11. Communication Breakdown: Unraveling the Islamic States Media Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    Communication Breakdown: Unraveling the Islamic State’s Media Efforts Daniel Milton Communication Breakdown: Unraveling the Islamic State’s Media ...production arm of central media office).28 The high level of communication between the central media office and the satellite offices illustrates the tension...and discussed by the mass media . Those products are likely important to the group’s recruitment efforts, but clearly it is trying to portray itself

  12. Method of making dielectric capacitors with increased dielectric breakdown strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Beihai; Balachandran, Uthamalingam; Liu, Shanshan

    2017-05-09

    The invention is directed to a process for making a dielectric ceramic film capacitor and the ceramic dielectric laminated capacitor formed therefrom, the dielectric ceramic film capacitors having increased dielectric breakdown strength. The invention increases breakdown strength by embedding a conductive oxide layer between electrode layers within the dielectric layer of the capacitors. The conductive oxide layer redistributes and dissipates charge, thus mitigating charge concentration and micro fractures formed within the dielectric by electric fields.

  13. Dynamical symmetry breakdown in SU(5) and SO(10)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shellard, R.C.

    1983-09-01

    Some restrictions imposed upon Grand Unified Theories by dynamical symmetry breakdown are examined. It is observed in particular, that theories with SU(5) as symmetry group, with 3 or more fermion families undergo dynamical symmetry breakdown, and some of the fermions will acquire mass at the Grand Unified scale. On the other hand, the SO(10) group, with 3 families is free from this problem. (Author) [pt

  14. Ionizing potential waves and high-voltage breakdown streamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albright, N. W.; Tidman, D. A.

    1972-01-01

    The structure of ionizing potential waves driven by a strong electric field in a dense gas is discussed. Negative breakdown waves are found to propagate with a velocity proportional to the electric field normal to the wavefront. This causes a curved ionizing potential wavefront to focus down into a filamentary structure, and may provide the reason why breakdown in dense gases propagates in the form of a narrow leader streamer instead of a broad wavefront.

  15. On Neutrosophic Soft Topological Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuhin Bera

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the concept of connectedness and compactness on neutrosophic soft topological space have been introduced along with the investigation of their several characteristics. Some related theorems have been established also. Then, the notion of neutrosophic soft continuous mapping on a neutrosophic soft topological space and it’s properties are developed here.

  16. Breakdown of predictability in gravitational collapse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawking, S.W.

    1976-01-01

    In this paper it is claimed that the breakdown of classical concepts of space and time is not merely a result of our ignorance of the correct theory but that it represents a fundamental limitation to our ability to predict the future, a limitation that is analogous but additional to the limitation imposed by the normal quantum-mechanical uncertainty principle. The new limitation arises because general relativity allows the causal structure of space-time to be very different from that of Minkowski space. The interaction region can be bounded not only by an initial surface on which data are given and a final surface on which measurements are made but also a ''hidden surface'' about which the observer has only limited information such as the mass, angular momentum, and charge. Concerning this hidden surface one has a ''principle of ignorance'': The surface emits with equal probability all configurations of particles compatible with the observerslimited knowledge. It is shown that the ignorance principle holds for the quantum-mechanical evaporation of black holes: The black hole creates particles in pairs, with one particle always falling into the hole and the other possibly escaping to infinity. Because part of the information about the state of the system is lost down the hole, the final situation is represented by a density matrix rather than a pure quantum state. This means there is no S matrix for the process of black-hole formation and evaporation. Instead one has to introduce a new operator, called the superscattering operator, which maps density matrices describing the initial situation to density matrices describing the final situation

  17. Stress-induced breakdown during galvanostatic anodising of zirconium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Overmeere, Q.; Proost, J.

    2010-01-01

    Although internal stress is frequently being suggested as a plausible reason for oxide breakdown during valve metal anodising, no direct quantitative evidence has been made available yet. In this work, we anodized sputtered zirconium thin films galvanostatically at room temperature in sulphuric acid until breakdown was observed, and simultaneously measured the internal stress evolution in the oxide in situ, using a high-resolution curvature setup. It was found that the higher the magnitude of the observed internal compressive stress in the oxide, the smaller the oxide thickness at which breakdown occurred. The moment of breakdown was identified from a slope change in the cell voltage evolution, indicative for a decrease in anodising efficiency. The latter presumably occurs as a result of oxygen evolution, initiated by the relative increase of the cubic or tetragonal zirconia phase content relative to the monoclinic one. This was evidenced in turn by comparing electron diffractograms, taken in a transmission electron microscope, before and after breakdown. The critical role of internal stress on oxide breakdown during zirconium anodising can therefore be associated with its promoting effect on the densifying phase transformation of monoclinic oxide.

  18. Breakdown coefficients and scaling properties of rain fields

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Harris

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The theory of scale similarity and breakdown coefficients is applied here to intermittent rainfall data consisting of time series and spatial rain fields. The probability distributions (pdf of the logarithm of the breakdown coefficients are the principal descriptor used. Rain fields are distinguished as being either multiscaling or multiaffine depending on whether the pdfs of breakdown coefficients are scale similar or scale dependent, respectively. Parameter  estimation techniques are developed which are applicable to both multiscaling and multiaffine fields. The scale parameter (width, σ, of the pdfs of the log-breakdown coefficients is a measure of the intermittency of a field. For multiaffine fields, this scale parameter is found to increase with scale in a power-law fashion consistent with a bounded-cascade picture of rainfall modelling. The resulting power-law exponent, H, is indicative of the smoothness of the field. Some details of breakdown coefficient analysis are addressed and a theoretical link between this analysis and moment scaling analysis is also presented. Breakdown coefficient properties of cascades are also investigated in the context of parameter estimation for modelling purposes.

  19. AVLIS Production Plant work breakdown structure and Dictionary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    The work breakdown structure has been prepared for the AVLIS Production Plant to define, organize, and identify the work efforts and is summarized in Fig. 1-1 for the top three project levels. The work breakdown structure itself is intended to be the primary organizational tool of the AVLIS Production Plant and is consistent with the overall AVLIS Program Work Breakdown Structure. It is designed to provide a framework for definition and accounting of all of the elements that are required for the eventual design, procurement, and construction of the AVLIS Production Plant. During the present phase of the AVLIS Project, the conceptual engineering phase, the work breakdown structure is intended to be the master structure and project organizer of documents, designs, and cost estimates. As the master project organizer, the key role of the work breakdown structure is to provide the mechanism for developing completeness in AVLIS cost estimates and design development of all hardware and systems. The work breakdown structure provides the framework for tracking, on a one-to-one basis, the component design criteria, systems requirements, design concepts, design drawings, performance projections, and conceptual cost estimates. It also serves as a vehicle for contract reporting. 12 figures, 2 tables

  20. Plasma breakdown in a capacitively-coupled radiofrequency argon discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, H. B.; Charles, C.; Boswell, R. W.

    1998-10-01

    Low pressure, capacitively-coupled rf discharges are widely used in research and commercial ventures. Understanding of the non-equilibrium processes which occur in these discharges during breakdown is of interest, both for industrial applications and for a deeper understanding of fundamental plasma behaviour. The voltage required to breakdown the discharge V_brk has long been known to be a strong function of the product of the neutral gas pressure and the electrode seperation (pd). This paper investigates the dependence of V_brk on pd in rf systems using experimental, computational and analytic techniques. Experimental measurements of V_brk are made for pressures in the range 1 -- 500 mTorr and electrode separations of 2 -- 20 cm. A Paschen-style curve for breakdown in rf systems is developed which has the minimum breakdown voltage at a much smaller pd value, and breakdown voltages which are significantly lower overall, than for Paschen curves obtained from dc discharges. The differences between the two systems are explained using a simple analytic model. A Particle-in-Cell simulation is used to investigate a similar pd range and examine the effect of the secondary emission coefficient on the rf breakdown curve, particularly at low pd values. Analytic curves are fitted to both experimental and simulation results.

  1. Clinical management of soft tissue sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinedo, H.M.; Verweij, J.

    1986-01-01

    This book is concerned with the clinical management of soft tissue sarcomas. Topics covered include: Radiotherapy; Pathology of soft tissue sarcomas; Surgical treatment of soft tissue sarcomas; and Chemotherapy in advanced soft tissue sarcomas

  2. Mapping on complex neutrosophic soft expert sets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Quran, Ashraf; Hassan, Nasruddin

    2018-04-01

    We introduce the mapping on complex neutrosophic soft expert sets. Further, we investigated the basic operations and other related properties of complex neutrosophic soft expert image and complex neutrosophic soft expert inverse image of complex neutrosophic soft expert sets.

  3. Soft options. Sanfte Alternativen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, R

    1981-01-01

    This collection of contributions made by supporters of the ''soft approach'' is intended to provide an insight into a conceivable future which is quite different from traditional ideas on social and economic developments based on the usual economic thinking and conventional energy sources. The chapter entitled ''The new world view'' shows the way from a machine-like paradigm to a living example in science. In the chapter entitled ''Women are organizing their future'' female perspectives and concepts of solutions are described. In the chapter ''Eco-tecture'' examples of living architecture and of environment formation are presented. In the chapter ''Soft technology'' approaches to an ecology-oriented technology are discussed, and in the chapter ''Network and future workshops'' novel forms of organization and communication are described.

  4. Biological Soft Robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feinberg, Adam W

    2015-01-01

    In nature, nanometer-scale molecular motors are used to generate force within cells for diverse processes from transcription and transport to muscle contraction. This adaptability and scalability across wide temporal, spatial, and force regimes have spurred the development of biological soft robotic systems that seek to mimic and extend these capabilities. This review describes how molecular motors are hierarchically organized into larger-scale structures in order to provide a basic understanding of how these systems work in nature and the complexity and functionality we hope to replicate in biological soft robotics. These span the subcellular scale to macroscale, and this article focuses on the integration of biological components with synthetic materials, coupled with bioinspired robotic design. Key examples include nanoscale molecular motor-powered actuators, microscale bacteria-controlled devices, and macroscale muscle-powered robots that grasp, walk, and swim. Finally, the current challenges and future opportunities in the field are addressed.

  5. Soft-sediment mullions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortner, Hugo

    2015-04-01

    In this contribution I describe the appearance, formation and significance of soft-sediment mullions. I use several examples from synorogenic turbidites of the Alps and the Pyrenees to show their appearance in the field. Soft-sediment mullions are elongate, slightly irregular bulges at the base of coarse-grained clastic beds (sand to conglomerate), separated by narrow, elongate flames of fine-grained material (mud) protruding into the coarse-grained bed. Various processes may lead to the formation of such structures: (1) longitudinal furrows parallel to the sediment transport direction may form by spiral motion in flow rolls during sediment transport (Dzulinski, 1966; Dzulinski & Simpson, 1966). (2) Loading combined with downslope movement can produce elongate structures parallelling the dowslope direction (Anketell et al., 1970). (3) Soft-sediment mullions are oriented perpendicular or oblique to the downslope direction, and show evidence of bedding-parallel shortening. Thus, they resemble cuspate-lobate folds or mullions, which are well-known in ductile structural geology (e.g. Urai et al., 2001). Soft-sediment mullions have been observed in two cases: Either bedding-parallel shortening can be achieved by slump processes, or by active tectonic shortening. Slumping is characterized by an alternation of stretching and shortening (e.g. Ortner, 2007; Alsop & Marco 2014), and therefore mullions do overprint or are overprinted by normal faults. In active depositional systems that are subject to tectonic shortening growth strata will form, but sediments already deposited will be shortened during lithification. In some cases, the formation of soft-sediment mullions predates folding, but the most widespread expression of syn-lithification shortening seems to be soft-sediment mullions, that form in the inner arcs of fold hinges. In the examples documented so far, the size of soft-sediment mullions is dependent on the grain-size of the coarse-grained layer, in which the

  6. Fracture in Soft Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassager, Ole

    Fracture is a phenomenon that is generally associated with solids. A key element in fracture theory is the so-called weakest link idea that fracture initiates from the largest pre-existing material imperfection. However, recent work has demonstrated that fracture can also happen in liquids, where...... surface tension will act to suppress such imperfections. Therefore, the weakest link idea does not seem immediately applicable to fracture in liquids. This presentation will review fracture in liquids and argue that fracture in soft liquids is a material property independent of pre-existing imperfections....... The following questions then emerge: What is the material description needed to predict crack initiation, crack speed and crack shape in soft materials and liquids....

  7. CHARACTERIZATIONS OF FUZZY SOFT PRE SEPARATION AXIOMS

    OpenAIRE

    El-Latif, Alaa Mohamed Abd

    2015-01-01

    − The notions of fuzzy pre open soft sets and fuzzy pre closed soft sets were introducedby Abd El-latif et al. [2]. In this paper, we continue the study on fuzzy soft topological spaces andinvestigate the properties of fuzzy pre open soft sets, fuzzy pre closed soft sets and study variousproperties and notions related to these structures. In particular, we study the relationship betweenfuzzy pre soft interior fuzzy pre soft closure. Moreover, we study the properties of fuzzy soft pre regulars...

  8. Holiday fun with soft gluons

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    Emissions of soft gluons from energetic particles play an important role in collider processes. While the basic physics of soft emissions is simple, it gives rise to a variety of interesting and intricate phenomena (non-global logs, Glauber phases, super-leading logs, factorization breaking). After an introduction, I will review progress in resummation methods such as Soft-Collinear Effective Theory driven by a better understanding of soft emissions. I will also show some new results for computations of soft-gluon effects in gap-between-jets and isolation-cone cross sections.

  9. Reptile Soft Tissue Surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Girolamo, Nicola; Mans, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The surgical approach to reptiles can be challenging. Reptiles have unique physiologic, anatomic, and pathologic differences. This may result in frustrating surgical experiences. However, recent investigations provided novel, less invasive, surgical techniques. The purpose of this review was to describe the technical aspects behind soft tissue surgical techniques that have been used in reptiles, so as to provide a general guideline for veterinarians working with reptiles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Alveolar Soft Part Sarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaber, Omar I; Kirby, Patricia A

    2015-11-01

    Alveolar soft part sarcoma is a rare neoplasm usually arising in the soft tissues of the lower limbs in adults and in the head and neck region in children. It presents primarily as a slowly growing mass or as metastatic disease. It is characterized by a specific chromosomal alteration, der(17)t(X:17)(p11:q25), resulting in fusion of the transcription factor E3 (TFE3) with alveolar soft part sarcoma critical region 1 (ASPSCR1) at 17q25. This translocation is diagnostically useful because the tumor nuclei are positive for TFE3 by immunohistochemistry. Real-time polymerase chain reaction to detect the ASPSCR1-TFE3 fusion transcript on paraffin-embedded tissue blocks has been shown to be more sensitive and specific than detection of TFE3 by immunohistochemical stain. Cathepsin K is a relatively recent immunohistochemical stain that can aid in the diagnosis. The recent discovery of the role of the ASPSCR1-TFE3 fusion protein in the MET proto-oncogene signaling pathway promoting angiogenesis and cell proliferation offers a promising targeted molecular therapy.

  11. Soft Ultrathin Electronics Innervated Adaptive Fully Soft Robots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengjun; Sim, Kyoseung; Chen, Jin; Kim, Hojin; Rao, Zhoulyu; Li, Yuhang; Chen, Weiqiu; Song, Jizhou; Verduzco, Rafael; Yu, Cunjiang

    2018-03-01

    Soft robots outperform the conventional hard robots on significantly enhanced safety, adaptability, and complex motions. The development of fully soft robots, especially fully from smart soft materials to mimic soft animals, is still nascent. In addition, to date, existing soft robots cannot adapt themselves to the surrounding environment, i.e., sensing and adaptive motion or response, like animals. Here, compliant ultrathin sensing and actuating electronics innervated fully soft robots that can sense the environment and perform soft bodied crawling adaptively, mimicking an inchworm, are reported. The soft robots are constructed with actuators of open-mesh shaped ultrathin deformable heaters, sensors of single-crystal Si optoelectronic photodetectors, and thermally responsive artificial muscle of carbon-black-doped liquid-crystal elastomer (LCE-CB) nanocomposite. The results demonstrate that adaptive crawling locomotion can be realized through the conjugation of sensing and actuation, where the sensors sense the environment and actuators respond correspondingly to control the locomotion autonomously through regulating the deformation of LCE-CB bimorphs and the locomotion of the robots. The strategy of innervating soft sensing and actuating electronics with artificial muscles paves the way for the development of smart autonomous soft robots. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Numerical study on physical mechanism of vortex breakdown occurrence in spin-up process

    OpenAIRE

    "小出, 輝明"; Teruaki", "Koide

    2008-01-01

    "A Numerical study presented on a vortex breakdown in spin-up process in an enclosed cylindrical container. In a transitional state, momentary vortex breakdowns can occur for particular parameter values ofthe Reynolds number and aspect ratio where no vortex breakdown appears in a steady state. This transient vortex breakdown flow is convenient to consider a mechanism for the occurrence of a vortex breakdown. It isdiscussed that periodical increase and decrease of angular momentum in upstream ...

  13. Breakdown-prone volume in terahertz wave beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nusinovich, G. S.; Qiao, F.; Kashyn, D. G.; Pu, R. [Institute for Research in Electronics and Applied Physics, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742-3511 (United States); Dolin, L. S. [Institute of Applied Physics, Nizhny Novgorod 603600 (Russian Federation)

    2013-06-21

    This study was motivated by the recently proposed concept of remote detection of concealed radioactive materials by a focused terahertz (THz) radiation [V. L. Granatstein and G. S. Nusinovich, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063304 (2010)]. According to this concept, a high-power THz radiation should be focused in a small spot where the field intensity exceeds the breakdown threshold. In the presence of free electrons in such a breakdown-prone volume, a THz discharge will occur there. However, this volume should be so small that in the absence of ionizing sources in its vicinity the probability to have there any free electrons is low. Then, the increased breakdown rate in a series of THz pulses would indicate the presence of hidden radioactive materials in the vicinity of the focused spot. For this concept, it is important to accurately determine the breakdown-prone volume created by a focused THz radiation. This problem is analyzed in this paper, first, for the case of a single wave beam and, then, for the case of crossing wave beams of different polarizations. The problem is studied first ignoring the diffraction spread of wave beams in the vicinity of the focal plane and, then, with the account for the diffraction spreading. Then, relations between the THz wave power, the range of such a system and the breakdown-prone volume are analyzed. Finally, the effect of the atmospheric turbulence on propagation and focusing of THz wave beams in air is considered.

  14. Dramatically enhanced electrical breakdown strength in cellulose nanopaper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianwen Huang

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Electrical breakdown behaviors of nanopaper prepared from nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC were investigated. Compared to conventional insulating paper made from micro softwood fibers, nanopaper has a dramatically enhanced breakdown strength. Breakdown field of nanopaper is 67.7 kV/mm, whereas that of conventional paper is only 20 kV/mm. Air voids in the surface of conventional paper are observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM. Further analyses using mercury intrusion show that pore diameter of conventional paper is around 1.7 μm, while that of nanopaper is below 3 nm. Specific pore size of nanopaper is determined to be approximately 2.8 nm by the gas adsorption technique. In addition, theoretical breakdown strengths of nanopaper and conventional paper are also calculated to evaluate the effect of pore size. It turns out that theoretical values agree well with experimental data, indicating that the improved strength in nanopaper is mainly attributed to the decreased pore size. Due to its outstanding breakdown strength, this study indicates the suitability of nanopaper for electrical insulation in ultra-high voltage convert transformers and other electrical devices.

  15. Accoustic Localization of Breakdown in Radio Frequency Accelerating Cavities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Peter Gwin [IIT, Chicago

    2016-07-01

    Current designs for muon accelerators require high-gradient radio frequency (RF) cavities to be placed in solenoidal magnetic fields. These fields help contain and efficiently reduce the phase space volume of source muons in order to create a usable muon beam for collider and neutrino experiments. In this context and in general, the use of RF cavities in strong magnetic fields has its challenges. It has been found that placing normal conducting RF cavities in strong magnetic fields reduces the threshold at which RF cavity breakdown occurs. To aid the effort to study RF cavity breakdown in magnetic fields, it would be helpful to have a diagnostic tool which can localize the source of breakdown sparks inside the cavity. These sparks generate thermal shocks to small regions of the inner cavity wall that can be detected and localized using microphones attached to the outer cavity surface. Details on RF cavity sound sources as well as the hardware, software, and algorithms used to localize the source of sound emitted from breakdown thermal shocks are presented. In addition, results from simulations and experiments on three RF cavities, namely the Aluminum Mock Cavity, the High-Pressure Cavity, and the Modular Cavity, are also given. These results demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the described technique for acoustic localization of breakdown.

  16. Breakdown resistance of refractory metals compared to copper

    CERN Document Server

    Taborelli, M; Kildemo, M

    2004-01-01

    The behaviour of Mo, W and Cu with respect to electrical breakdown in ultra high vacuum has been investigated by means of a capacitor discharge method. The maximum stable electric field without breakdown and the field enhancement factor, beta have been measured between electrodes of the same material in a sphere/plane geometry for anode and cathode, respectively. The maximum stable field increases as a function of the number of breakdown events for W and Mo. In contrast, no systematic increase is observed for Cu. The highest values obtained are typically 500 MV/m for W, 350 MV/m for Mo and only 180 MV/m for Cu. This conditioning, found for the refractory metals, corresponds to a simultaneous decrease of beta and is therefore related to the field emission properties of the surface and their modification upon sparking. Accordingly, high beta values and no applicable field increase occur for Cu even after repeated breakdown. The results are compared with RF breakdown experiments [1] performed on prototype 30 GHz...

  17. Abnormal breakdown characteristic in a two-phase mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ye Qizheng; Li Jin; Lu Fei

    2006-01-01

    A two-phase mixture (TPM) is a mixture of gas and macroparticles of high concentration. Based on Townsend's theory, a new cell-iterative model in analytical form for the breakdown mechanism in TPM is presented. Compared with the original cell-iterative model in our previous paper, the obstructive factor of the macroparticles that influences the electron avalanche propagation is considered, except for the macroparticles distorting the electrical field and capture of the electrons. The cell attractive parameter k is presented according to the classical continuum theory for field charging. The modified Paschen law for a TPM is presented to calculate the breakdown voltage. The breakdown voltage of the TPM, U TPM , increases gradually with an increase in the macroparticle number density (m). The voltage U TPM is lower than that of the pure gas at low m values and larger at high m values. With a decrease of the macroparticle volume fraction and the dielectric mismatch, the voltage U TPM increases gradually at low m values and decreases gradually at high m values. The voltage U TPM at pd 200 cm Torr is lower than that at pd = 760 cm Torr for low m values and larger for high m values. This kind of abnormal breakdown characteristic in the TPM occurs in the case of high macroparticle volume fraction. On the other hand, the minimum of the TPM's Paschen curve increases with increase in m. It provides the possibility and the conditions of greatly increasing the breakdown voltage in a nearly uniform field

  18. Breakdown-prone volume in terahertz wave beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nusinovich, G. S.; Qiao, F.; Kashyn, D. G.; Pu, R.; Dolin, L. S.

    2013-01-01

    This study was motivated by the recently proposed concept of remote detection of concealed radioactive materials by a focused terahertz (THz) radiation [V. L. Granatstein and G. S. Nusinovich, J. Appl. Phys. 108, 063304 (2010)]. According to this concept, a high-power THz radiation should be focused in a small spot where the field intensity exceeds the breakdown threshold. In the presence of free electrons in such a breakdown-prone volume, a THz discharge will occur there. However, this volume should be so small that in the absence of ionizing sources in its vicinity the probability to have there any free electrons is low. Then, the increased breakdown rate in a series of THz pulses would indicate the presence of hidden radioactive materials in the vicinity of the focused spot. For this concept, it is important to accurately determine the breakdown-prone volume created by a focused THz radiation. This problem is analyzed in this paper, first, for the case of a single wave beam and, then, for the case of crossing wave beams of different polarizations. The problem is studied first ignoring the diffraction spread of wave beams in the vicinity of the focal plane and, then, with the account for the diffraction spreading. Then, relations between the THz wave power, the range of such a system and the breakdown-prone volume are analyzed. Finally, the effect of the atmospheric turbulence on propagation and focusing of THz wave beams in air is considered.

  19. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy analysis of asbestos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caneve, L.; Colao, F.; Fabbri, F.; Fantoni, R.; Spizzichino, V.; Striber, J.

    2005-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy was applied to test the possibility of detecting and identifying asbestos in different samples in view of the perspective at field operation without sample preparation which is peculiar to this technique. Several like-resin materials were first investigated by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, in order to find an asbestos container assuring safe laboratory operation during the material characterization aimed to identify indicators suitable for a quick identification on field. Successively, spectra of asbestos samples of both in serpentine and amphibole forms were measured and the variability in elemental composition was calculated from the emission spectra. Ratios of intensities of characteristic elements were tested as indicators for asbestos recognition. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy results were compared with those obtained by analyzing the same asbestos samples with a scanning electron microscopy equipped with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, a good correlation was found for Mg/Si and Fe/Si, thus showing the capability of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for this category of materials. In particular, it was demonstrated that the method based on two indicators derived from laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy intensity ratios allows to discriminate between asbestos and cements in single shot measurements suitable to field operation

  20. Soft tissue anchor systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, G V; Chang, T; White, J M

    1994-04-01

    The concept of soft tissue attachment and reattachment has been addressed over the years through a variety of surgical techniques. This includes tendons and ligaments that have been detached both surgically and traumatically from their osseous origins or insertions. This study is designed to provide the reader with a comprehensive overview of current commercially available devices. Detailed descriptions of the various devices are provided along with a discussion of the advantages and disadvantages of each. Their application and use in reconstructive foot and ankle surgery are also discussed.

  1. Soft, Embodied, Situated & Connected

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomico, Oscar; Wilde, Danielle

    2016-01-01

    relationship with textiles, as they are one of the few products worn much of the time, often in direct contact with the body. When designing wearables a designer must consider a range of requirements that do not typically demand focus when designing products that are not worn, including: sensitivity...... to material detail; an eye for fit and comfort on bodies with diverse shapes and movement capabilities; openness to a diversity of meanings that may be generated; as well as consideration of wearers’ intimate relations with technology. Soft wearables allow for greater scope within these requirements...

  2. Fundamentals of soft robot locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisti, M; Picardi, G; Laschi, C

    2017-05-01

    Soft robotics and its related technologies enable robot abilities in several robotics domains including, but not exclusively related to, manipulation, manufacturing, human-robot interaction and locomotion. Although field applications have emerged for soft manipulation and human-robot interaction, mobile soft robots appear to remain in the research stage, involving the somehow conflictual goals of having a deformable body and exerting forces on the environment to achieve locomotion. This paper aims to provide a reference guide for researchers approaching mobile soft robotics, to describe the underlying principles of soft robot locomotion with its pros and cons, and to envisage applications and further developments for mobile soft robotics. © 2017 The Author(s).

  3. Soft skills and dental education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, M A G; Abu Kasim, N H; Naimie, Z

    2013-05-01

    Soft skills and hard skills are essential in the practice of dentistry. While hard skills deal with technical proficiency, soft skills relate to a personal values and interpersonal skills that determine a person's ability to fit in a particular situation. These skills contribute to the success of organisations that deal face-to-face with clients. Effective soft skills benefit the dental practice. However, the teaching of soft skills remains a challenge to dental schools. This paper discusses the different soft skills, how they are taught and assessed and the issues that need to be addressed in their teaching and assessment. The use of the module by the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Malaya for development of soft skills for institutions of higher learning introduced by the Ministry of Higher Education, Malaysia. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. RF Breakdown in Normal Conducting Single-cell Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Dolgashev, Valery A; Higo, Toshiyasu; Nantista, Christopher D; Tantawi, Sami G

    2005-01-01

    Operating accelerating gradient in normal conducting accelerating structures is often limited by rf breakdown. The limit depends on multiple parameters, including input rf power, rf circuit, cavity shape and material. Experimental and theoretical study of the effects of these parameters on the breakdown limit in full scale structures is difficult and costly. We use 11.4 GHz single-cell traveling wave and standing wave accelerating structures for experiments and modeling of rf breakdown behavior. These test structures are designed so that the electromagnetic fields in one cell mimic the fields in prototype multicell structures for the X-band linear collider. Fields elsewhere in the test structures are significantly lower than that of the single cell. The setup uses matched mode converters that launch the circular TM01 mode into short test structures. The test structures are connected to the mode launchers with vacuum rf flanges. This setup allows economic testing of different cell geometries, cell materials an...

  5. High-voltage atmospheric breakdown across intervening rutile dielectrics.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williamson, Kenneth Martin; Simpson, Sean; Coats, Rebecca Sue; Jorgenson, Roy Eberhardt; Hjalmarson, Harold Paul; Pasik, Michael Francis

    2013-09-01

    This report documents work conducted in FY13 on electrical discharge experiments performed to develop predictive computational models of the fundamental processes of surface breakdown in the vicinity of high-permittivity material interfaces. Further, experiments were conducted to determine if free carrier electrons could be excited into the conduction band thus lowering the effective breakdown voltage when UV photons (4.66 eV) from a high energy pulsed laser were incident on the rutile sample. This report documents the numerical approach, the experimental setup, and summarizes the data and simulations. Lastly, it describes the path forward and challenges that must be overcome in order to improve future experiments for characterizing the breakdown behavior for rutile.

  6. The structure and dynamics of bubble-type vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spall, R. E.; Ash, R. L.; Gatski, T. B.

    1990-01-01

    A unique discrete form of the Navier-Stokes equations for unsteady, three-dimensional, incompressible flow has been used to study vortex breakdown numerically. A Burgers-type vortex was introduced along the central axis of the computational domain, and allowed to evolve in space and time. By varying the strength of the vortex and the free stream axial velocity distribution, using a previously developed Rossby number criterion as a guide, the location and size of the vortex breakdown region was controlled. While the boundaries of the vortex breakdown bubble appear to be nominally symmetric, the internal flow field is not. Consequently, the mechanisms for mixing and entrainment required to sustain the bubble region are different from those suggested by earlier axisymmetric models. Results presented in this study, for a Reynolds number of 200, are in good qualitative agreement with higher Reynolds number experimental observations, and a variety of plots have been presented to help illuminate the fluid physics.

  7. New method for determining avalanche breakdown voltage of silicon photomultipliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chirikov-Zorin, I.

    2017-01-01

    The avalanche breakdown and Geiger mode of the silicon p-n junction is considered. A precise physically motivated method is proposed for determining the avalanche breakdown voltage of silicon photomultipliers (SiPM). The method is based on measuring the dependence of the relative photon detection efficiency (PDE rel ) on the bias voltage when one type of carriers (electron or hole) is injected into the avalanche multiplication zone of the p-n junction. The injection of electrons or holes from the base region of the SiPM semiconductor structure is performed using short-wave or long-wave light. At a low overvoltage (1-2 V) the detection efficiency is linearly dependent on the bias voltage; therefore, extrapolation to zero PDE rel value determines the SiPM avalanche breakdown voltage with an accuracy within a few millivolts. [ru

  8. Gas breakdown at cyclotron resonance with a submillimeter laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hacker, M.P.; Temkin, R.J.; Lax, B.

    1976-01-01

    A pulsed 496-μm CH 3 F laser is used to produce gas breakdown in He at pressures between 1 and 300 Torr in an intense longitudinal magnetic field. Breakdown is detected by the observation of visible light when the electron cyclotron frequency (eB/m) equals the laser frequency, which occurs at B=216 kG for lambda=496 μm. At the lowest helium pressures and near cyclotron resonance, the focused laser intensity of 40 kW/cm 2 gives rise to very large electron heating rates, well beyond the limit of validity of conventional equilibrium breakdown theory. The observed result is an intensity-dependent resonant linewidth, much larger than predicted by equilibrium theories

  9. Fundamentals of soft robot locomotion

    OpenAIRE

    Calisti, M.; Picardi, G.; Laschi, C.

    2017-01-01

    Soft robotics and its related technologies enable robot abilities in several robotics domains including, but not exclusively related to, manipulation, manufacturing, human���robot interaction and locomotion. Although field applications have emerged for soft manipulation and human���robot interaction, mobile soft robots appear to remain in the research stage, involving the somehow conflictual goals of having a deformable body and exerting forces on the environment to achieve locomotion. This p...

  10. Architecture design for soft errors

    CERN Document Server

    Mukherjee, Shubu

    2008-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive description of the architetural techniques to tackle the soft error problem. It covers the new methodologies for quantitative analysis of soft errors as well as novel, cost-effective architectural techniques to mitigate them. To provide readers with a better grasp of the broader problem deffinition and solution space, this book also delves into the physics of soft errors and reviews current circuit and software mitigation techniques.

  11. New phenomenology of gas breakdown in DC and RF fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrović, Zoran Lj; Sivoš, Jelena; Savić, Marija; Škoro, Nikola; Radmilović Radenović, Marija; Malović, Gordana; Gocić, Saša; Marić, Dragana

    2014-05-01

    This paper follows a review lecture on the new developments in the field of gas breakdown and low current discharges, usually covered by a form of Townsend's theory and phenomenology. It gives an overview of a new approach to identifying which feedback agents provide breakdown, how to model gas discharge conditions and reconcile the results with binary experiments and how to employ that knowledge in modelling gas discharges. The next step is an illustration on how to record volt-ampere characteristics and use them on one hand to obtain the breakdown voltage and, on the other, to identify the regime of operation and model the secondary electron yields. The second aspect of this section concerns understanding the different regimes, their anatomy, how those are generated and how free running oscillations occur. While temporal development is the most useful and interesting part of the new developments, the difficulty of presenting the data in a written form precludes an easy publication and discussion. Thus, we shall only mention some of the results that stem from these measurements. Most micro discharges operate in DC albeit with complex geometries. Thus, parallel plate micro discharge measurements were needed to establish that Townsend's theory, with all its recent extensions, is still valid until some very small gaps. We have shown, for example, how a long-path breakdown puts in jeopardy many experimental observations and why a flat left-hand side of the Paschen curve often does not represent good physics. We will also summarize a kinetic representation of the RF breakdown revealing a somewhat more complex picture than the standard model. Finally, we will address briefly the breakdown in radially inhomogeneous conditions and how that affects the measured properties of the discharge. This review has the goal of summarizing (rather than developing details of) the current status of the low-current DC discharges formation and operation as a discipline which, in spite of

  12. Soft Robotic Actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Juleon Taylor

    In this thesis a survey on soft robotic actuators is conducted. The actuators are classified into three main categories: Pneumatic Artificial Muscles (PAM), Electronic Electroactive Polymers (Electric EAP), and Ionic Electroactive Polymers (Ionic EAP). Soft robots can have many degrees and are more compliant than hard robots. This makes them suitable for applications that are difficult for hard robots. For each actuator background history, build materials, how they operate, and modeling are presented. Multiple actuators in each class are reviewed highlighting both their use and their mathematical formulation. In addition to the survey the McKibben actuator was chosen for fabrication and in-depth experimental analysis. Four McKibben actuators were fabricated using mesh sleeve, barbed hose fittings, and different elastic bladders. All were actuated using compressed air. Tensile tests were performed for each actuator to measure the tension force as air pressure increased from 20 to 100 psi in 10 psi increments. To account for material relaxation properties eleven trials for each actuator were run for 2-3 days. In conclusion, the smallest outer diameter elastic bladder was capable of producing the highest force due to the larger gap between the bladder and the sleeve.

  13. Soft skills and Moodle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanova Veronica

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, technical university graduates are expected to acquire a set of not only hard skills but soft ones as well, which are in the first instance communication skills that can be developed through active and interactive methods during in-class learning. The issue related to communicative skills development is being discussed in different countries throughout the world. This problem is faced by university graduates from Europe, the US and Russia, and in the East. The learning process exploits a variety of electronic platforms, which, on the one hand, significantly increase the pool of students, but, on the other hand, hinder the development of communicative skills. This poses the question about blended learning which combines active and interactive teaching methods with e-learning. Consider a good example of these two types of combined student activity obtained using interactive methods in the Moodle course “Professional training in English” designed for the Bachelor's Degree Programs, Tomsk Polytechnic University (Tomsk, Russia. This paper considers the main types of tasks used in the e-course. It is shown that the teacher’s first aim is to be not a scientific knowledge translator, but to foster a creative educational environment by selecting an optimal teaching strategy through modern educational technology; an e-course is a good teaching aid to build hard and soft skills.

  14. Blackbody Emission from Laser Breakdown in High-Pressure Gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bataller, A.; Plateau, G. R.; Kappus, B.; Putterman, S.

    2014-08-01

    Laser induced breakdown of pressurized gases is used to generate plasmas under conditions where the atomic density and temperature are similar to those found in sonoluminescing bubbles. Calibrated streak spectroscopy reveals that a blackbody persists well after the exciting femtosecond laser pulse has turned off. Deviation from Saha's equation of state and an accompanying large reduction in ionization potential are observed at unexpectedly low atomic densities—in parallel with sonoluminescence. In laser breakdown, energy input proceeds via excitation of electrons whereas in sonoluminescence it is initiated via the atoms. The similar responses indicate that these systems are revealing the thermodynamics and transport of a strongly coupled plasma.

  15. A Coaxial Vortex Ring Model for Vortex Breakdown

    OpenAIRE

    Blackmore, Denis; Brons, Morten; Goullet, Arnaud

    2008-01-01

    A simple - yet plausible - model for B-type vortex breakdown flows is postulated; one that is based on the immersion of a pair of slender coaxial vortex rings in a swirling flow of an ideal fluid rotating around the axis of symmetry of the rings. It is shown that this model exhibits in the advection of passive fluid particles (kinematics) just about all of the characteristics that have been observed in what is now a substantial body of published research on the phenomenon of vortex breakdown....

  16. Nanosecond air breakdown parameters for electron and microwave beam propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, A.W.

    1988-01-01

    Air breakdown by avalanche ionization plays an important role in the electron beam and microwave propagations. For high electric fields and short pulse applications one needs avalanche ionization parameters for modeling and scaling of experimental devices. However, the breakdown parameters, i.e., the ionization frequency vs E/p (volt. cm -1 . Torr -1 ) in air is uncertain for very high values of E/P. A review is given of the experimental data for the electron drift velocity, the Townsend ionization coefficient in N 2 and O 2 and the ionization frequency and the collision frequency for momentum transfer in air are developed. (author)

  17. Electrical Breakdown and Mechanical Ageing in Dielectric Elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakaria, Shamsul Bin

    Dielectric elastomers (DE) are used in various applications, such as artificial eye lids, pressure sensors and human motion energy generators. For many applications, one of the major factors that limits the DE performance is premature electrical breakdown. There are many approaches that have been......, the lifetime of elastomer materials needs further investigation. Therefore, in the second strategy, several DE parameters such as Young’s moduli, breakdown strengths and dielectric permittivities of PDMS elastomers filled with hard filler particles were investigated after being subjected to pre...

  18. From Soft Sculpture to Soft Robotics: Retracing a Physical Aesthetics of Bio-Morphic Softness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    Soft robotics has in the past decade emerged as a growing subfield of technical robotics research, distinguishable by its bio-inspired design strategies, interest in morphological computation, and interdisciplinary combination of insights from engineering, computer science, biology and material...... science. Recently, soft robotics technology has also started to make its way into art, design, and architecture. This paper attempts to think an aesthetics of softness and the life-like through an artistic tradition deeply imbricated with an interrogation of softness and its physical substrates, namely...... the soft sculpture that started proliferating in the late 1960s. Critical descriptions of these works, interestingly, frequently emphasize their similarities with living organisms and bodies as a central tenet of their aesthetics. The paper seeks to articulate aspects of a contiguity between softness...

  19. A Combined Electro-Thermal Breakdown Model for Oil-Impregnated Paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The breakdown property of oil-impregnated paper is a key factor for converter transformer design and operation, but it is not well understood. In this paper, breakdown voltages of oil-impregnated paper were measured at different temperatures. The results showed that with the increase of temperature, electrical, electro-thermal and thermal breakdown occurred successively. An electro-thermal breakdown model was proposed based on the heat equilibrium and space charge transport, and negative differential mobility was introduced to the model. It was shown that carrier mobility determined whether it was electrical or thermal breakdown, and the model can effectively explain the temperature-dependent breakdown.

  20. Soft matter physics

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Claudine

    1999-01-01

    What do colloids, fractals, liquid crystals, and polymers have in common? Nothing at first sight. Yet the distance scales, the energy transfers, the way these objects react to an external field are very similar. For the first time, this book offers an introduction to the physics of these soft materials in one single volume. A variety of experiments and concepts are presented, including the phenomena of capillarity and wetting, fractals, small volumes and large surfaces, colloids, surfactants, giant micelles and fluid membranes, polymers, and liquid crystals. Each chapter is written by experts in the field with the aim of making the book accessible to the widest possible scientific audience: graduate students, lecturers, and research scientists in physics, chemistry, and other disciplines. Nobel Prize winner Pierre-Gilles de Gennes inspired this book and has written a foreword.

  1. Soft Costs Fact Sheet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2016-05-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the systems integration subprogram at the U.S. Department of Energy SunShot Initiative. Soft costs can vary significantly as a result of a fragmented energy marketplace. In the U.S., there are 18,000 jurisdictions and 3,000 utilities with different rules and regulations for how to go solar. The same solar equipment may vary widely in its final installation price due to process and market variations across jurisdictions, creating barriers to rapid industry growth. SunShot supports the development of innovative solutions that enable communities to build their local economies and establish clean energy initiatives that meet their needs, while at the same time creating sustainable solar market conditions.

  2. Soft Systems Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Checkland, Peter; Poulter, John

    Soft systems methodology (SSM) is an approach for tackling problematical, messy situations of all kinds. It is an action-oriented process of inquiry into problematic situations in which users learn their way from finding out about the situation, to taking action to improve it. The learning emerges via an organised process in which the situation is explored using a set of models of purposeful action (each built to encapsulate a single worldview) as intellectual devices, or tools, to inform and structure discussion about a situation and how it might be improved. This paper, written by the original developer Peter Checkland and practitioner John Poulter, gives a clear and concise account of the approach that covers SSM's specific techniques, the learning cycle process of the methodology and the craft skills which practitioners develop. This concise but theoretically robust account nevertheless includes the fundamental concepts, techniques, core tenets described through a wide range of settings.

  3. Soft, Rotating Pneumatic Actuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ainla, Alar; Verma, Mohit S; Yang, Dian; Whitesides, George M

    2017-09-01

    This article describes a soft pneumatic actuator that generates cyclical motion. The actuator consists of several (three, four, or five) chambers (arranged around the circumference of a circle surrounding a central rod) that can be actuated independently using negative pressure (or partial vacuum). Sequential actuation of the four-chamber device using reduced pressure moves the central rod cyclically in an approximately square path. We characterize the trajectory of the actuator and the force exerted by it, as we vary the material used for fabrication, the number of chambers, and the size of the actuator. We demonstrate two applications of this actuator: to deliver fluid while stirring (by replacing the central rod with a needle) and for locomotion that mimics a reptilian gait (by combining four actuators together).

  4. Soft tissue sparganosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Ki Soon; Lee, Yul; Chung, Soo Young; Park, Choong Ki; Lee, Kwan Sup [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cho, In Hwan; Suh, Hyoung Sim [Daelin S. Mary' s Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1993-11-15

    Sparganosis is a rare tissue-parasitic infestation caused by a plerocercoid tapeworm larva(sparganum), genus Spirometra. The most common clinical presentation of sparganosis is a palpable subcutaneous mass or masses. Fifteen simple radiographs and 10 ultrasosnograms of 17 patients with operatively verified subcutaneous sparganosis were retrospectively analyzed to find its radiologic characteristics for preoperative diagnosis of sparganosis. The location of the subcutaneous sparganosis were lower extremity, abdominal wall, breast, inguinal region and scrotum in order of frequency. The simple radiographs showed linear or elongated calcification with or without nodular elongated shaped soft tissue mass shadows in 8 patients, soft tissue mass shadow only in 2 patients and lateral abdominal wall thickening in 1 patient. But no specific findings was noted in 4 patients with small abdominal and inguinal masses. We could classify the subcutaneous sparganosis by ultrasound into 2 types: one is long band-like hypoechoic structures, corresponding to the subcutaneous tunnel-like tracks formed by migration of sparganum larva and the order is elongated or ovoid hyperechoic nodules, representing granulomas. Long band-like hypoechoic structures within or associated with mixed echoic granulomatous masses were noted in 6 patients and elongated or ovoid hypoechoic mass or masses were noted in 4 patients. In conclusion, sparganosis should be considered when these radiologic findings-irregular linear calcifications on simple radiograph and long band-like hypoechoic structures on ultrasonography, corresponding to the subcutaneous tunnel-like tracks formed by migration of sparganum larva are noted in the patients who have subcutaneous palpable mass or masses. And radiologic examination especially ultrasonography is very helpful to diagnose sparganosis.

  5. Soft-collinear supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, Timothy [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon,Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Elor, Gilly [Institute of Theoretical Science, University of Oregon,Eugene, OR 97403 (United States); Center for Theoretical Physics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology,Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Larkoski, Andrew J. [Physics Department, Reed College,Portland, OR 97202 (United States); Center for Fundamental Laws of Nature, Harvard University,Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-03-03

    Soft-Collinear Effective Theory (SCET) is a framework for modeling the infrared structure of theories whose long distance behavior is dominated by soft and collinear divergences. This paper demonstrates that SCET can be made compatible with supersymmetry (SUSY). Explicitly, the effective Lagrangian for N=1 SUSY Yang-Mills is constructed and shown to be a complete description for the infrared of this model. For contrast, we also construct the effective Lagrangian for chiral SUSY theories with Yukawa couplings, specifically the single flavor Wess-Zumino model. Only a subset of the infrared divergences are reproduced by the Lagrangian — to account for the complete low energy description requires the inclusion of local operators. SCET is formulated by expanding fields along a light-like direction and then subsequently integrating out degrees-of-freedom that are away from the light-cone. Defining the theory with respect to a specific frame obfuscates Lorentz invariance — given that SUSY is a space-time symmetry, this presents a possible obstruction. The cleanest language with which to expose the congruence between SUSY and SCET requires exploring two novel formalisms: collinear fermions as two-component Weyl spinors, and SCET in light-cone gauge. By expressing SUSY Yang-Mills in “collinear superspace', a slice of superspace derived by integrating out half the fermionic coordinates, the light-cone gauge SUSY SCET theory can be written in terms of superfields. As a byproduct, bootstrapping up to the full theory yields the first algorithmic approach for determining the SUSY Yang-Mills on-shell superspace action. This work paves the way toward discovering the effective theory for the collinear limit of N=4 SUSY Yang-Mills.

  6. Interaction with Soft Robotic Tentacles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jonas

    2018-01-01

    Soft robotics technology has been proposed for a number of applications that involve human-robot interaction. In this tabletop demonstration it is possible to interact with two soft robotic platforms that have been used in human-robot interaction experiments (also accepted to HRI'18 as a Late...

  7. Not-so-Soft Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curran, Mary

    2010-01-01

    Much recent discussion about the skills needed to secure Britain's economic recovery has focused on skills for employability. However, too often, these fundamental skills are understood in narrow functional or vocational terms. So-called "soft skills", what Penelope Tobin, in her 2008 paper "Soft Skills: the hard facts", terms "traits and…

  8. Pulsed and streamer discharges in air above breakdown electric field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.B. Sun (Anbang); H.J. Teunissen (Jannis); U. M. Ebert (Ute)

    2013-01-01

    htmlabstractA 3D particle model is developed to investigate the streamer formation in electric fields above the breakdown threshold, in atmospheric air (1bar, 300 Kelvin). Adaptive particle management, adaptive mesh refinement and parallel computing techniques are used in the code. Photoionization

  9. Localization of rf breakdowns in a standing wave cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faya Wang

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available At SLAC, a five-cell, normal-conducting, L-band (1.3 GHz, standing-wave (SW cavity was built as a prototype positron capture accelerator for the ILC. The structure met the ILC gradient goal but required extensive rf processing. When rf breakdowns occurred, a large variation was observed in the decay rate of the stored energy in the cavity after the input power was shut off. It appeared that the breakdowns were isolating sections of the cavity, and that the trapped energy in those sections was then partitioned among its natural modes, producing a distinct beating pattern during the decay. To explore this phenomenon further, an equivalent circuit model of cavity was created that reproduces well its normal operating characteristics. The model was then used to compute the spectra of trapped energy for different numbers of isolated cells. The resulting modal patterns agree well with those of the breakdown data, and thus such a comparison appears to provide a means of identifying the irises on which the breakdowns occurred.

  10. characteristics of structural breakdown in plastic concrete and their

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    observed as shearing proceeded. ANALYSIS OF THIXOTROPIC BREAKDOWN OF. CONCRETE. As the cup rotates on application of rotational shear stress, the stator also tends to rotate due to the viscous drag transmitted by the mix. The stator continues to rotate until the resistance registered by the torque arm becomes ...

  11. Characteristics of Structural Breakdown in Plastic Concrete and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Characteristics of Structural Breakdown in Plastic Concrete and Their Potentials for Quality Control. ... A typical trace has four such significant features which characterise the mix. The significance of these features are analysed in relation to the functional requirements of plastic concrete in practice. Finally, the potentials of ...

  12. The breakdown phase in a coaxial plasma gun

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donges, A.; Herziger, G.; Krompholz, H.; Ruehl, F.; Schoenbach, K.

    1980-01-01

    The electrical breakdown in a coaxial plasma gun was investigated by means of optical and electrical measurements. The optimum start and operation conditions of the gun turned out to be strongly dependent on material and length of the cylindrical insulator. (orig.)

  13. Overview of applications of Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cremers, D.A.

    1987-01-01

    Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a method of performing elemental analyses of solids, liquids, and gases using the microplasma produced by a focused laser pulse. Because the microplasma is formed by optical radiation, LIBS has some important advantages compared to conventional laboratory based analytical methods. Three applications are discussed which use the LIBS method. 6 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs

  14. Direct relationship between breakdown strength and tracking index of composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren Find; Henriksen, Mogens; Holbøll, Joachim

    2006-01-01

    . The breakdown field strength of specimens cut from similar samples is determined by a new method capable of estimating the stressed volume. The results from the two tests are finally compared and incorporated in a single analytical formula. All test specimens are supplied by Danish manufacturers of wind turbine...

  15. Highly Efficient Estimators of Multivariate Location with High Breakdown Point

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lopuhaa, H.P.

    1991-01-01

    We propose an affine equivariant estimator of multivariate location that combines a high breakdown point and a bounded influence function with high asymptotic efficiency. This proposal is basically a location $M$-estimator based on the observations obtained after scaling with an affine equivariant

  16. The masking breakdown point of multivariate outlier identification rules

    OpenAIRE

    Becker, Claudia; Gather, Ursula

    1997-01-01

    In this paper, we consider one-step outlier identifiation rules for multivariate data, generalizing the concept of so-called alpha outlier identifiers, as presented in Davies and Gather (1993) for the case of univariate samples. We investigate, how the finite-sample breakdown points of estimators used in these identification rules influence the masking behaviour of the rules.

  17. Phenomena of g-u symmetry-breakdown in HD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Lange, A.; Reinhold, E.M.; Ubachs, W.M.G.

    2002-01-01

    Phenomena associated with the breakdown of inversion symmetry in the HD molecule are reviewed and discussed. A distinction is made between three kinds of physical effects observed in HD spectra. The existence of a small electric dipole moment in the ground state gives rise to vibrational and pure

  18. On locally uniformly linearizable high breakdown location and scale functionals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Davies, P.L.

    1998-01-01

    This article gives two constructions of a weighted mean which has a large domain, is affinely equivariant, has a locally high breakdown point and is locally uniformly linearizable. One construction is based on $M$-functionals with smooth defining $\\psi$- and $\\chi$ -functions which are used to

  19. Electric breakdown of high polymer insulating materials at cryogenic temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sanhyon; Yoshino, Katsumi

    1985-01-01

    Cryogenic properties : temperature dependence of E sub(b) and effects of media upon E sub(b) were investigated on several high polymers. Temperature conditions were provided by liquid He (4.2 K), liquid N 2 (77 K) and cryogen (dry ice-methyl alcohol, 194 K). Silicone oil was used also at ambient temperature and elevated temperature. Polymer film coated with gold by vacuum evaporation was placed in cryostat, and high tension from pulse generator was applied to the film. Dielectric breakdowns were detected by oscilloscope and observed visually. The results of experiment are summerized as follow. (1) E sub(b) of film in He is affected by medium remarkably, and covering with 3-methyl pentane is effective for increasing E sub(b). (2) Temperature dependence of E sub(b) was not recognized in cryogenic temperature below liquid N 2 . (3) Temperature characteristic of E sub(b) changes considerably at the critical temperature T sub(c), and T sub(c) is dependent on material. (4) Strength against dielectric breakdown under cryogenic temperature is not affected by bridging caused by irradiation of electron beam. (5) Dielectric breakdown is thought to be caused by electronic process such as electron avalanche. Consequently, for designing insulation for the temperature below liquid He, insulation design for liquid N 2 is thought to be sufficient. However, the degradation and breakdown by mechanical stress under cryogenic temperature must be taken into consideration. (Ishimitsu, A.)

  20. Breakdown of large-scale circulation in turbulent rotating convection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kunnen, R.P.J.; Clercx, H.J.H.; Geurts, Bernardus J.

    2008-01-01

    Turbulent rotating convection in a cylinder is investigated both numerically and experimentally at Rayleigh number Ra = $10^9$ and Prandtl number $\\sigma$ = 6.4. In this Letter we discuss two topics: the breakdown under rotation of the domain-filling large-scale circulation (LSC) typical for

  1. Prediction of vortex breakdown on a delta wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, S.; Robinson, B. A.; Barnett, R. M.

    1992-01-01

    Recent studies of leading-edge vortex flows with computational fluid dynamics codes using Euler or Navier-Stokes formulations have shown fair agreement with experimental data. These studies have concentrated on simulating the flowfields associated with a sharp-edged flat plate 70 deg delta wing at angles of attack where vortex breakdown or burst is observed over the wing. There are, however, a number of discrepancies between the experimental data and the computed flowfields. The location of vortex breakdown in the computational solutions is seen to differ from the experimental data and to vary with changes in the computational grid and freestream Mach number. There also remain issues as to the validity of steady-state computations for cases which contain regions of unsteady flow, such as in the post-breakdown regions. As a partial response to these questions, a number of laminar Navier-Stokes solutions were examined for the 70 deg delta wing. The computed solutions are compared with an experimental database obtained at low subsonic speeds. The convergence of forces, moments and vortex breakdown locations are also analyzed to determine if the computed flowfields actually reach steady-state conditions.

  2. Effects of continuum breakdown on hypersonic aerothermodynamics for reacting flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Timothy D.; Boyd, Iain D.

    2011-02-01

    This study investigates the effects of continuum breakdown on the surface aerothermodynamic properties (pressure, stress, and heat transfer rate) of a sphere in a Mach 25 flow of reacting air in regimes varying from continuum to a rarefied gas. Results are generated using both continuum [computational fluid dynamics (CFD)] and particle [direct simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC)] approaches. The DSMC method utilizes a chemistry model that calculates the backward rates from an equilibrium constant. A preferential dissociation model is modified in the CFD method to better compare with the vibrationally favored dissociation model that is utilized in the DSMC method. Tests of these models are performed to confirm their validity and to compare the chemistry models in both numerical methods. This study examines the effect of reacting air flow on continuum breakdown and the surface properties of the sphere. As the global Knudsen number increases, the amount of continuum breakdown in the flow and on the surface increases. This increase in continuum breakdown significantly affects the surface properties, causing an increase in the differences between CFD and DSMC. Explanations are provided for the trends observed.

  3. RF Breakdown in Normal Conducting Single-Cell Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolgashev, V.A.; Nantista, C.D.; Tantawi, S.G.; Higashi, Y.; Higo, T.

    2006-01-01

    Operating accelerating gradient in normal conducting accelerating structures is often limited by rf breakdown. The limit depends on multiple parameters, including input rf power, rf circuit, cavity shape and material. Experimental and theoretical study of the effects of these parameters on the breakdown limit in full scale structures is difficult and costly. We use 11.4 GHz single-cell traveling wave and standing wave accelerating structures for experiments and modeling of rf breakdown behavior. These test structures are designed so that the electromagnetic fields in one cell mimic the fields in prototype multicell structures for the X-band linear collider. Fields elsewhere in the test structures are significantly lower than that of the single cell. The setup uses matched mode converters that launch the circular TM 01 mode into short test structures. The test structures are connected to the mode launchers with vacuum rf flanges. This setup allows economic testing of different cell geometries, cell materials and preparation techniques with short turn-around time. Simple 2D geometry of the test structures simplifies modeling of the breakdown currents and their thermal effects

  4. Investigation of oral gels breakdown using image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tournier, Carole; Devezeaux de Lavergne, Marine; Velde, van de Fred; Stieger, Markus; Salles, Christian; Bertrand, Dominique

    2017-01-01

    Characterizing the dynamics of food oral breakdown is of interest to understand the temporal perception of food products. The present work aimed at studying the possible contribution of artificial vision for studying bolus formation. Four emulsion-filled gels were prepared from two concentrations

  5. CANCER-PAthological breakdown of coherent energy states

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pokorný, Jiří; Pokorný, Jan; Kobilková, J.; Jandová, Anna; Vrba, J.; Vrba, J. jr.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2014), s. 115-133 ISSN 1793-0480 Institutional support: RVO:67985882 ; RVO:68378271 Keywords : breakdown of coherent states * Cancer electrodynamics * Warburg effect Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering; BO - Biophysics (FZU-D)

  6. Novel dielectric reduces corona breakdown in ac capacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loehner, J. L.

    1972-01-01

    Dielectric system was developed which consists of two layers of 25-gage paper separated by one layer of 50-gage polypropylene to reduce corona breakdown in ac capacitors. System can be used in any alternating current application where constant voltage does not exceed 400 V rms. With a little research it could probably be increased to 700 to 800 V rms.

  7. Effects of streamwise vortex breakdown on supersonic combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiejima, Toshihiko

    2016-04-01

    This paper presents a numerical simulation study of the combustion structure of streamwise vortex breakdown at Mach number 2.48. Hydrogen fuel is injected into a combustor at sonic speed from the rear of a hypermixer strut that can generate streamwise vortices. The results show that the burning behavior is enhanced at the points of the shock waves that are incident on the vortex and therefore the vortex breakdown in the subsonic region occurs due to combustion. The breakdown domain in the mainstream is found to form a flame-holding region suited to combustion and to lead to a stable combustion field with detached flames. In this way, streamwise vortex breakdown has an essential role in combustion enhancement and the formation of flames that hold under supersonic inflow conditions. Finally, the combustion property defined here is shown to coincide with the produced-water mass flow. This property shows that the amount of combustion is saturated at equivalence ratios over 0.4, although there is a slight increase beyond 1.

  8. Hyperammonemic encephalopathy due to suture line breakdown after bladder operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boogerd, W; Zoetmulder, F A; Moffie, D

    1990-01-01

    A patient is described with a severe encephalopathy and hyperammonemia in absence of liver dysfunction, attributed to urine absorption into the systemic circulation due to suture line breakdown after bladder dome resection. At autopsy characteristic Alzheimer type II astrocytes were found in the basal ganglia.

  9. Novel Voltage limiting concept for avalance breakdown protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruijs, L.C.H.; Bezooijen, van A.; Mahmoudi, R.; Roermund, van A.H.M.

    2006-01-01

    Destructive over-voltage breakdown of cellular phone power transistors is prevented by using a new voltage-limiting concept. The output voltage is detected by an avalanche-based detector, and limited by decreasing the output power when needed. The voltage detector contains a low voltage bipolar NPN

  10. Influence of ultrasound on the electrical breakdown of transformer oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isakaev, E. Kh; Tyuftyaev, A. S.; Gadzhiev, M. Kh; Demirov, N. A.; Akimov, P. L.

    2018-01-01

    When the transformer oil is exposed to low power ultrasonic waves (cavitation bubbles. With the increase of sonication time the breakdown voltage also increases, nonlinearly. The experimental data indicate the possibility of using ultrasonic waves of low power for degassing of transformer oil.

  11. Inhibitory effects of ethanol on phosphatidylinositol breakdown in pancreatic acini

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Towner, S.J.; Peppin, J.F.; Tsukamoto, H.

    1986-01-01

    Recently the physiological relationship between the phospholipid effect and secretagogue-induced cellular function has begun to be understood. In this study, the authors investigated acute and chronic effects of ethanol on phosphatidylinositol (PI) synthesis and breakdown in pancreatic acini. Five pairs of male Wistar rats were intragastrically infused for 30 days with high fat diet (25% total calories) plus ethanol or isocaloric dextrose. After intoxication, isolated in HEPES media, followed by 30 min incubation with CCK-8 (0, 100, 300 or 600 pM) and ethanol (0 or 100 mM). Acinar lipids were extracted and counted for labeled PI. Incorporation of 3 H-inositol into alcoholic acinar PI was reduced to 38.2% of that in controls. A percent maximal PI break down by CCK-8 was similar in the two groups (13-24% of basal). However, the magnitude of PI breakdown was markedly lower in alcoholic acini (482 vs 1081 dpm) due to the decreased PI synthesis rate. The presence of 100 mM ethanol in the media further inhibited the breakdown by 50% in this group. These results strongly indicate that chronic ethanol intoxication inhibits PI synthesis and breakdown in pancreatic acini, and that this inhibition can be potentiated by acute ethanol administration

  12. Experimental study of vortex breakdown in a cylindrical, swirling flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, J. L.; Celik, Z. Z.; Cantwell, B. J.; Lopez, J. M.

    1996-01-01

    The stability of a steady, vortical flow in a cylindrical container with one rotating endwall has been experimentally examined to gain insight into the process of vortex breakdowwn. The dynamics of the flow are governed by the Reynolds number (Re) and the aspect ratio of the cylinder. Re is given by Omega R(sup 2)/nu, where Omega is the speed of rotation of the endwall, R is the cylinder radius, and nu is the kinematic viscosity of the fluid filling the cylinder. The aspect ratio is H/R, where H is the height of the cylinder. Numerical simulation studies disagree whether or not the steady breakdown is stable beyond a critical Reynolds number, Re(sub c). Previous experimental researches have considered the steady and unsteady flows near Re(sub c), but have not explored the stability of the steady breakdown structures beyond this value. In this investigation, laser induced fluorescence was utilized to observe both steady and unsteady vortex breakdown at a fixed H/R of 2.5 with Re varying around Re(sub c). When the Re of a steady flow was slowly increased beyond Re(sub c), the breakdown structure remained steady even though unsteadiness was possible. In addition, a number of hysteresis events involving the oscillation periods of the unsteady flow were noted. The results show that both steady and unsteady vortex breakdown occur for a limited range of Re above Re(sub c). Also, with increasing Re, complex flow transformations take place that alter the period at which the unsteady flow oscillates.

  13. Abnormal breakdown characteristic in a two-phase mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye Qizheng; Li Jin; Lu Fei [College of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan, 430074 (China)

    2006-05-21

    A two-phase mixture (TPM) is a mixture of gas and macroparticles of high concentration. Based on Townsend's theory, a new cell-iterative model in analytical form for the breakdown mechanism in TPM is presented. Compared with the original cell-iterative model in our previous paper, the obstructive factor of the macroparticles that influences the electron avalanche propagation is considered, except for the macroparticles distorting the electrical field and capture of the electrons. The cell attractive parameter k is presented according to the classical continuum theory for field charging. The modified Paschen law for a TPM is presented to calculate the breakdown voltage. The breakdown voltage of the TPM, U{sub TPM}, increases gradually with an increase in the macroparticle number density (m). The voltage U{sub TPM} is lower than that of the pure gas at low m values and larger at high m values. With a decrease of the macroparticle volume fraction and the dielectric mismatch, the voltage U{sub TPM} increases gradually at low m values and decreases gradually at high m values. The voltage U{sub TPM} at pd 200 cm Torr is lower than that at pd = 760 cm Torr for low m values and larger for high m values. This kind of abnormal breakdown characteristic in the TPM occurs in the case of high macroparticle volume fraction. On the other hand, the minimum of the TPM's Paschen curve increases with increase in m. It provides the possibility and the conditions of greatly increasing the breakdown voltage in a nearly uniform field.

  14. A Real-time Breakdown Prediction Method for Urban Expressway On-ramp Bottlenecks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Yingjun; Qin, Guoyang; Sun, Jian; Liu, Qiyuan

    2018-01-01

    Breakdown occurrence on expressway is considered to relate with various factors. Therefore, to investigate the association between breakdowns and these factors, a Bayesian network (BN) model is adopted in this paper. Based on the breakdown events identified at 10 urban expressways on-ramp in Shanghai, China, 23 parameters before breakdowns are extracted, including dynamic environment conditions aggregated with 5-minutes and static geometry features. Different time periods data are used to predict breakdown. Results indicate that the models using 5-10 min data prior to breakdown performs the best prediction, with the prediction accuracies higher than 73%. Moreover, one unified model for all bottlenecks is also built and shows reasonably good prediction performance with the classification accuracy of breakdowns about 75%, at best. Additionally, to simplify the model parameter input, the random forests (RF) model is adopted to identify the key variables. Modeling with the selected 7 parameters, the refined BN model can predict breakdown with adequate accuracy.

  15. The electrical breakdown strength of pre-stretched elastomers, with and without sample volume conservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zakaria, Shamsul Bin; Morshuis, Peter H. F.; Yahia, Benslimane Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    In practice, the electrical breakdown strength of dielectric electroactive polymers (DEAPs)determines the upper limit for transduction. During DEAP actuation, the thickness of the elastomer decreases, and thus the electrical field increases and the breakdown process is determined by a coupled...... electro-mechanical failure mechanism. A thorough understanding of the mechanisms behind the electro-mechanical breakdown process is required for developing reliable transducers. In this study, two experimental configurations were used to determine the stretch dependence of the electrical breakdown...

  16. Soft Neutrosophic Loops and Their Generalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Ali

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Soft set theory is a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertain, fuzzy, not clearly defined objects. In this paper we introduced soft neutrosophic loop,soft neutosophic biloop, soft neutrosophic N -loop with the discuission of some of their characteristics. We also introduced a new type of soft neutrophic loop, the so called soft strong neutrosophic loop which is of pure neutrosophic character. This notion also found in all the other corresponding notions of soft neutrosophic thoery. We also given some of their properties of this newly born soft structure related to the strong part of neutrosophic theory.

  17. Soft Hair on Black Holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W.; Perry, Malcolm J.; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-01

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  18. Advances in Soft Matter Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Shaofan

    2012-01-01

    "Advances in Soft Matter Mechanics" is a compilation and selection of recent works in soft matter mechanics by a group of active researchers in the field. The main objectives of this book are first to disseminate the latest developments in soft matter mechanics in the field of applied and computational mechanics, and second to introduce soft matter mechanics as a sub-discipline of soft matter physics. As an important branch of soft matter physics, soft matter mechanics has developed rapidly in recent years. A number of the novel approaches discussed in this book are unique, such as the coarse grained finite element method for modeling colloidal adhesion, entropic elasticity, meshfree simulations of liquid crystal elastomers, simulations of DNA, etc. The book is intended for researchers and graduate students in the field of mechanics, condensed matter physics and biomaterials. Dr. Shaofan Li is a professor of the University of California-Berkeley, U.S.A; Dr. Bohua Sun is a professor of Cape Peninsula Universit...

  19. Soft Hair on Black Holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawking, Stephen W; Perry, Malcolm J; Strominger, Andrew

    2016-06-10

    It has recently been shown that Bondi-van der Burg-Metzner-Sachs supertranslation symmetries imply an infinite number of conservation laws for all gravitational theories in asymptotically Minkowskian spacetimes. These laws require black holes to carry a large amount of soft (i.e., zero-energy) supertranslation hair. The presence of a Maxwell field similarly implies soft electric hair. This Letter gives an explicit description of soft hair in terms of soft gravitons or photons on the black hole horizon, and shows that complete information about their quantum state is stored on a holographic plate at the future boundary of the horizon. Charge conservation is used to give an infinite number of exact relations between the evaporation products of black holes which have different soft hair but are otherwise identical. It is further argued that soft hair which is spatially localized to much less than a Planck length cannot be excited in a physically realizable process, giving an effective number of soft degrees of freedom proportional to the horizon area in Planck units.

  20. Impulse breakdown of small air gap in electric field Part II: Statistical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The patterns of shot distribution and maximum coverage at impulse breakdown voltage for positive point electr-odes (needle and cone electrodes) in small air gaps in non-uniform electric fields were investigated. During the breakdown test, a sheet of paper was placed on the plate electrode (-ve), and each breakdown shot ...

  1. 48 CFR 252.236-7000 - Modification proposals-price breakdown.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-price breakdown. 252.236-7000 Section 252.236-7000 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... CLAUSES Text of Provisions And Clauses 252.236-7000 Modification proposals—price breakdown. As prescribed in 236.570(a), use the following clause: Modification Proposals—Price Breakdown (DEC 1991) (a) The...

  2. Differential saliva-induced breakdown of starch filled protein gels in relation to sensory perception

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.M.; Pijpekamp, A.M. van de; Labiausse, D.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the differential breakdown of protein gels containing four types of high and low cross-linked starch granules were studied. Susceptibility to saliva-induced breakdown of starch granules and the consequences of these for overall breakdown of the gel matrix were captured using a

  3. Relations between rheological properties, saliva-induced structure breakdown and sensory texture attributes of custards

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A.M.; Terpstra, M.E.J.; Wijk, R.A.de; Prinz, J.F.

    2007-01-01

    The relevance of initial rheological properties and mechanical and enzymatic structure breakdown in determining selected sensory texture attributes of custards was studied. The so-called structure breakdown cell was used to characterize saliva-induced breakdown, i.e., by monitoring digestion of

  4. Breakdown of teenage placements in Danish out-of-home care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egelund, Tine; Olsson, Martin; Høst, Anders

    2012-01-01

    to breakdown. However, while the logistic regression model was significant, it explained only 6% of the variance. Earlier studies have indicated that breakdown is a substantial problem of child welfare in several other western countries, Denmark is no exception. These corresponding breakdown rates point out...

  5. Sample preconcentration utilizing nanofractures generated by junction gap breakdown assisted by self-assembled monolayer of gold nanoparticles.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Ping Jen

    Full Text Available The preconcentration of proteins with low concentrations can be used to increase the sensitivity and accuracy of detection. A nonlinear electrokinetic flow is induced in a nanofluidic channel due to the overlap of electrical double layers, resulting in the fast accumulation of proteins, referred to as the exclusion-enrichment effect. The proposed chip for protein preconcentration was fabricated using simple standard soft lithography with a polydimethylsiloxane replica. This study extends our previous paper, in which gold nanoparticles were manually deposited onto the surface of a protein preconcentrator. In the present work, nanofractures were formed by utilizing the self-assembly of gold-nanoparticle-assisted electric breakdown. This reliable method for nanofracture formation, involving self-assembled monolayers of nanoparticles at the junction gap between microchannels, also decreases the required electric breakdown voltage. The experimental results reveal that a high concentration factor of 1.5×10(4 for a protein sample with an extremely low concentration of 1 nM was achieved in 30 min by using the proposed chip, which is faster than our previously proposed chip at the same conditions. Moreover, an immunoassay of bovine serum albumin (BSA and anti-BSA was carried out to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed chip.

  6. ON SOFT D2-ALGEBRA AND SOFT D2-IDEALS

    OpenAIRE

    S. Subramanian; S. Seethalaksmi

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we have studied some characterization of soft D2-algebra, kernel, intersection, image, quotient D2-algebra’s and relations ship between D2-algebra and D2-ideals with suitable examples.

  7. Soft tissue tumors - imaging methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlart, I.P.

    1985-01-01

    Soft Tissue Tumors - Imaging Methods: Imaging methods play an important diagnostic role in soft tissue tumors concerning a preoperative evaluation of localization, size, topographic relationship, dignity, and metastatic disease. The present paper gives an overview about diagnostic methods available today such as ultrasound, thermography, roentgenographic plain films and xeroradiography, radionuclide methods, computed tomography, lymphography, angiography, and magnetic resonance imaging. Besides sonography particularly computed tomography has the most important diagnostic value in soft tissue tumors. The application of a recently developed method, the magnetic resonance imaging, cannot yet be assessed in its significance. (orig.) [de

  8. Hard evidence on soft skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heckman, James J; Kautz, Tim

    2012-08-01

    This paper summarizes recent evidence on what achievement tests measure; how achievement tests relate to other measures of "cognitive ability" like IQ and grades; the important skills that achievement tests miss or mismeasure, and how much these skills matter in life. Achievement tests miss, or perhaps more accurately, do not adequately capture, soft skills -personality traits, goals, motivations, and preferences that are valued in the labor market, in school, and in many other domains. The larger message of this paper is that soft skills predict success in life, that they causally produce that success, and that programs that enhance soft skills have an important place in an effective portfolio of public policies.

  9. Soft gelatin capsules (softgels).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gullapalli, Rampurna Prasad

    2010-10-01

    It is estimated that more than 40% of new chemical entities (NCEs) coming out of the current drug discovery process have poor biopharmaceutical properties, such as low aqueous solubility and/or permeability. These suboptimal properties pose significant challenges for the oral absorption of the compounds and for the development of orally bioavailable dosage forms. Development of soft gelatin capsule (softgel) dosage form is of growing interest for the oral delivery of poorly water soluble compounds (BCS class II or class IV). The softgel dosage form offers several advantages over other oral dosage forms, such as delivering a liquid matrix designed to solubilize and improve the oral bioavailability of a poorly soluble compound as a unit dose solid dosage form, delivering low and ultra-low doses of a compound, delivering a low melting compound, and minimizing potential generation of dust during manufacturing and thereby improving the safety of production personnel. However, due to the very dynamic nature of the softgel dosage form, its development and stability during its shelf-life are fraught with several challenges. The goal of the current review is to provide an in-depth discussion on the softgel dosage form to formulation scientists who are considering developing softgels for therapeutic compounds.

  10. Soft valves in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Keunhwan; Tixier, Aude; Christensen, Anneline; Arnbjerg-Nielsen, Sif; Zwieniecki, Maciej; Jensen, Kaare

    2017-11-01

    Water and minerals flow from plant roots to leaves in the xylem, an interconnected network of vascular conduits that spans the full length of the organism. When a plant is subjected to drought stress, air pockets can spread inside the xylem, threatening the survival of the plant. Many plants prevent propagation of air by using hydrophobic nano-membranes in the ``pit'' pores that link adjacent xylem cells. This adds considerable resistance to flow. Interestingly, torus-margo pit pores in conifers are open and offer less resistance. To prevent propagation of air, conifers use a soft gating mechanism, which relies on hydrodynamic interactions between the xylem liquid and the elastic pit. However, it is unknown exactly how it is able to combine the seemingly antagonist functions of high permeability and resistance to propagation of air. We conduct experiments on biomimetic pores to elucidate the flow regulation mechanism. The design of plant valves is compared to other natural systems and optimal strategies are discussed. This work was supported by a research Grant (13166) from VILLUM FONDEN.

  11. Soft tissue angiosarcomas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, P.H.; Lindberg, R.D.; Barkley, H.T.

    1981-12-01

    From 1949 to 1979, 12 patients with soft tissue angiosarcoma received radiotherapy (alone or in combination with other modalities of treatment) with curative intent at The University of Texas M.D. Anderson Hospital and Tumor Institute. The primary site was the head and neck in six patients (scalp, four; maxillary antrum, one; and oral tongue, one), the breast in four patients, and the thigh in two patients. All four patients with angiosarcoma of the scalp had advanced multifocal tumors, and two of them had clinically positive neck nodes. None of these tumors were controlled locally, and local recurrences occurred within and/or at a distance from the generous fields of irradiation. The remaining two patients with head and neck lesions had their disease controlled by surgery and postoperative irradiation. Three of the four angiosarcomas of the breast were primary cases which were treated by a combination of surgery (excisional biopsy, simple mastectomy, radical mastectomy) and postoperative irradiation. One patient also received adjuvant chemotherapy. The fourth patient was treated for scar recurrence after radical mastectomy. All four patients had their disease locally controlled, and two of them have survived over 5 years. The two patients with angiosarcoma of the thigh were treated by conservative surgical excision and postoperative irradiation. One patient had her disease controlled; the other had a local recurrence requiring hip disarticulation and subsequent hemipelvectomy for salvage.

  12. Forensic Discrimination of Latent Fingerprints Using Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Chemometric Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jun-Ho; Yoh, Jack J

    2018-01-01

    A novel technique is reported for separating overlapping latent fingerprints using chemometric approaches that combine laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and multivariate analysis. The LIBS technique provides the capability of real time analysis and high frequency scanning as well as the data regarding the chemical composition of overlapping latent fingerprints. These spectra offer valuable information for the classification and reconstruction of overlapping latent fingerprints by implementing appropriate statistical multivariate analysis. The current study employs principal component analysis and partial least square methods for the classification of latent fingerprints from the LIBS spectra. This technique was successfully demonstrated through a classification study of four distinct latent fingerprints using classification methods such as soft independent modeling of class analogy (SIMCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA). The novel method yielded an accuracy of more than 85% and was proven to be sufficiently robust. Furthermore, through laser scanning analysis at a spatial interval of 125 µm, the overlapping fingerprints were reconstructed as separate two-dimensional forms.

  13. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and chemometrics for classification of toys relying on toxic elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godoi, Quienly; Leme, Flavio O.; Trevizan, Lilian C.; Pereira Filho, Edenir R.; Rufini, Iolanda A.; Santos, Dario; Krug, Francisco J.

    2011-01-01

    Quality control of toys for avoiding children exposure to potentially toxic elements is of utmost relevance and it is a common requirement in national and/or international norms for health and safety reasons. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was recently evaluated at authors' laboratory for direct analysis of plastic toys and one of the main difficulties for the determination of Cd, Cr and Pb was the variety of mixtures and types of polymers. As most norms rely on migration (lixiviation) protocols, chemometric classification models from LIBS spectra were tested for sampling toys that present potential risk of Cd, Cr and Pb contamination. The classification models were generated from the emission spectra of 51 polymeric toys and by using Partial Least Squares - Discriminant Analysis (PLS-DA), Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) and K-Nearest Neighbor (KNN). The classification models and validations were carried out with 40 and 11 test samples, respectively. Best results were obtained when KNN was used, with corrected predictions varying from 95% for Cd to 100% for Cr and Pb.

  14. Engineering applications of soft computing

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz-Cortés, Margarita-Arimatea; Rojas, Raúl

    2017-01-01

    This book bridges the gap between Soft Computing techniques and their applications to complex engineering problems. In each chapter we endeavor to explain the basic ideas behind the proposed applications in an accessible format for readers who may not possess a background in some of the fields. Therefore, engineers or practitioners who are not familiar with Soft Computing methods will appreciate that the techniques discussed go beyond simple theoretical tools, since they have been adapted to solve significant problems that commonly arise in such areas. At the same time, the book will show members of the Soft Computing community how engineering problems are now being solved and handled with the help of intelligent approaches. Highlighting new applications and implementations of Soft Computing approaches in various engineering contexts, the book is divided into 12 chapters. Further, it has been structured so that each chapter can be read independently of the others.

  15. Imaging of soft tissue sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanel, D.; Le Treut, A.

    1988-01-01

    Modern imaging of soft tissue sarcomas now includes ultrasounds, CT and MRI. These new techniques allow a better evaluation of initial local extension, of the response to treatment and are able to detect local recurrences early [fr

  16. Soft ideal topological space and mixed fuzzy soft ideal topological space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manash Borah

    2019-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce fuzzy soft ideal and mixed fuzzy soft ideal topological spaces and some properties of this space. Also we introduce fuzzy soft $I$-open set, fuzzy soft $\\alpha$-$I$-open set, fuzzy soft pre-$I$-open set, fuzzy soft semi-$I$-open set and fuzzy soft $\\beta$-$I$-open set and discuss some of their properties.

  17. Boron nitride as two dimensional dielectric: Reliability and dielectric breakdown

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ji, Yanfeng; Pan, Chengbin; Hui, Fei; Shi, Yuanyuan; Lanza, Mario, E-mail: mlanza@suda.edu.cn [Institute of Functional Nano and Soft Materials, Collaborative Innovation Center of Suzhou Nano Science and Technology, Soochow University, 199 Ren-Ai Road, Suzhou 215123 (China); Zhang, Meiyun; Long, Shibing [Key Laboratory of Microelectronics Devices & Integrated Technology, Institute of Microelectronics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029 (China); Lian, Xiaojuan; Miao, Feng [National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, School of Physics, Collaborative Innovation Center of Advanced Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China); Larcher, Luca [DISMI, Università di Modena e Reggio Emilia, 42122 Reggio Emilia (Italy); Wu, Ernest [IBM Research Division, Essex Junction, Vermont 05452 (United States)

    2016-01-04

    Boron Nitride (BN) is a two dimensional insulator with excellent chemical, thermal, mechanical, and optical properties, which make it especially attractive for logic device applications. Nevertheless, its insulating properties and reliability as a dielectric material have never been analyzed in-depth. Here, we present the first thorough characterization of BN as dielectric film using nanoscale and device level experiments complementing with theoretical study. Our results reveal that BN is extremely stable against voltage stress, and it does not show the reliability problems related to conventional dielectrics like HfO{sub 2}, such as charge trapping and detrapping, stress induced leakage current, and untimely dielectric breakdown. Moreover, we observe a unique layer-by-layer dielectric breakdown, both at the nanoscale and device level. These findings may be of interest for many materials scientists and could open a new pathway towards two dimensional logic device applications.

  18. Development of microwave-enhanced spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Yuji; Moon, Ahsa; Kaneko, Masashi

    2010-01-01

    We propose microwave-enhanced spark-induced breakdown spectroscopy with the same measurement and analysis processes as in laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy, but with a different plasma generation mechanism. The size and lifetime of the plasma generated can contribute to increased measurement accuracy and expand its applicability to industrial measurement, such as an exhaust gas analyzer for automobile engine development and its regulation, which has been hard to operate by laser at an engineering evaluation site. The use of microwaves in this application helps lower the cost, reduce the system size, and increase the ease of operation to make it commercially viable. A microwave frequency of 2.45 GHz was used to enhance the volume and lifetime of the plasma at atmospheric condition even at elevated pressure.

  19. Factors that Influence RF Breakdown in Antenna Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughman, J. B. O.; Baity, F. W.; Rasmussen, D. A.; Aghazarian, M.; Castano Giraldo, C. H.; Ruzic, David

    2007-11-01

    One of the main power-limiting factors in antenna systems is the maximum voltage that the antenna or vacuum transmission line can sustain before breaking down. The factors that influence RF breakdown are being studied in a resonant 1/4-wavelength section of vacuum transmission line terminated with an open circuit electrode structure. Breakdown can be initiated via electron emission by high electric fields and by plasma formation in the structure, depending on the gas pressure. Recent experiments have shown that a 1 kG magnetic field can influence plasma formation at pressures as low as 8x10-5 Torr at moderate voltage levels (LLC, for the U.S. Dept. of Energy under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725. Work supported by USDOE with grant DE-FG02-04ER54765

  20. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS): a new spectrochemical technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radziemski, L.J.; Loree, T.R.; Cremers, D.A.

    1982-01-01

    We have used the breakdown spark from a focused laser beam to generate analytically useful emission spectra of minor constituents in air and other carrier gases. The medium was sampled directly. It was not necessary to reduce the sample to solution nor to introduce electrodes. The apparatus is particularly simple; a pulsed laser, spectrometer, and some method for time resolution. The latter is essential in laser-induced-breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) because of the strong early continuum. High temperatures in the spark result in vaporization of small particles, dissociation of molecules, and excitation of atomic and ionic spectra, including species which are normally difficult to detect. In one application, we have monitored beryllium in air at conventrations below 1 μg/m 3 , which is below 1 ppB (w/w). In another we have monitored chlorine and fluorine atoms in real time. LIBS has the potential for real-time direct sampling of contaminants in situ

  1. Breakdown dynamics of electrically exploding thin metal wires in vacuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkisov, G. S.; Caplinger, J.; Parada, F.; Sotnikov, V. I.

    2016-10-01

    Using a two-frame intensified charge coupled device (iCCD) imaging system with a 2 ns exposure time, we observed the dynamics of voltage breakdown and corona generation in experiments of fast ns-time exploding fine Ni and stainless-steel (SS) wires in a vacuum. These experiments show that corona generation along the wire surface is subjected to temporal-spatial inhomogeneity. For both metal wires, we observed an initial generation of a bright cathode spot before the ionization of the entire wire length. This cathode spot does not expand with time. For 25.4 μm diameter Ni and SS wire explosions with positive polarity, breakdown starts from the ground anode and propagates to the high voltage cathode with speeds approaching 3500 km/s or approximately one percent of light speed.

  2. Analysis of organic vapors with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nozari, Hadi; Tavassoli, Seyed Hassan; Rezaei, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is utilized in the study of acetone, ethanol, methanol, cyclohexane, and nonane vapors. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atomic emission spectra have been recorded following laser-induced breakdown of the organic vapors that are mixed with air inside a quartz chamber at atmospheric pressure. The plasma is generated with focused, Q-switched Nd:YAG radiation at the wavelength of 1064 nm. The effects of ignition and vapor pressure are discussed in view of the appearance of the emission spectra. The recorded spectra are proportional to the vapor pressure in air. The hydrogen and oxygen contributions diminish gradually with consecutive laser-plasma events without gas flow. The results show that LIBS can be used to characterize organic vapor

  3. Research of Dielectric Breakdown Micro fluidic Sampling Chip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, F.; Lei, Y.; Yu, J.

    2013-01-01

    Micro fluidic chip is mainly driven electrically by external electrode and array electrode, but there are certain disadvantages in both of ways, which affect the promotion and application of micro fluidic technology. This paper discusses a scheme that uses the conductive solution in a microchannel made by PDMS, replacing electrodes and the way of dielectric breakdown to achieve microfluidic chip driver. It could reduce the driving voltage and simplify the chip production process. To prove the feasibility of this method, we produced a micro fluidic chip used in PDMS material with the lithography technology and experimented it. The results showed that using the dielectric breakdown to achieve microfluidic chip driver is feasible, and it has certain application prospect.

  4. Vortex-Breakdown-Induced Particle Capture in Branching Junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Jesse T; Fani, Andrea; Chen, Kevin K; Shin, Sangwoo; Gallaire, François; Stone, Howard A

    2016-08-19

    We show experimentally that a flow-induced, Reynolds number-dependent particle-capture mechanism in branching junctions can be enhanced or eliminated by varying the junction angle. In addition, numerical simulations are used to show that the features responsible for this capture have the signatures of classical vortex breakdown, including an approach flow aligned with the vortex axis and a pocket of subcriticality. We show how these recirculation regions originate and evolve and suggest a physical mechanism for their formation. Furthermore, comparing experiments and numerical simulations, the presence of vortex breakdown is found to be an excellent predictor of particle capture. These results inform the design of systems in which suspended particle accumulation can be eliminated or maximized.

  5. Critical effects of downstream boundary conditions on vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama; Kandil, Hamdy A.; Liu, C. H.

    1992-01-01

    The unsteady, compressible, full Navier-Stokes (NS) equations are used to study the critical effects of the downstream boundary conditions on the supersonic vortex breakdown. The present study is applied to two supersonic vortex breakdown cases. In the first case, quasi-axisymmetric supersonic swirling flow is considered in a configured circular duct, and in the second case, quasi-axisymmetric supersonic swirling jet, that is issued from a nozzle into a supersonic jet of lower Mach number, is considered. For the configured duct flow, four different types of downstream boundary conditions are used, and for the swirling jet flow from the nozzle, two types of downstream boundary conditions are used. The solutions are time accurate which are obtained using an implicit, upwind, flux-difference splitting, finite-volume scheme.

  6. Relativistic runaway breakdown in low-frequency radio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fullekrug, M.; Roussel-Dupre, R.; Symbalisty, E.M.D.

    2011-01-01

    at a distance of similar to 550 km. The measured broadband pulses occur similar to 4-9 ms after the sprite-producing lightning discharge, they exhibit electromagnetic radiation which mainly spans the frequency range from similar to 50 to 350 kHz, and they exhibit complex waveforms without the typical...... electromagnetic pulses and possibly generates sprites. The source location of the broadband pulses can be determined with an interferometric network of wideband low-frequency radio receivers to lend further experimental support to the relativistic runaway breakdown theory.......The electromagnetic radiation emitted by an electron avalanche beam resulting from relativistic runaway breakdown within the Earth's atmosphere is investigated. It is found from theoretical modeling with a computer simulation that the electron beam emits electromagnetic radiation which...

  7. Partial discharges and breakdown in C3F8

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M; Franck, C M

    2014-01-01

    Traditional search processes of gases or gas mixtures for replacing SF 6 involve time consuming measurements of partial discharges and breakdown behaviour for several voltage waveforms and different field configurations. Recently a model for prediction of this behaviour for SF 6 was described in literature. The model only requires basic properties of the gas such as the critical field strength and the effective ionization coefficient, which can be obtained by swarm parameter measurements, and thermodynamic properties, which can be calculated. In this paper, we show for the well-known and electronegative gas octafluoropropane (C 3 F 8 ) that it is possible to transfer the model developed for SF 6 to this gas to describe the breakdown behaviour of C 3 F 8 . Thus the model can be beneficial in the screening process of new insulation gases. (paper)

  8. Partial discharges and breakdown in C3F8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, M.; Franck, C. M.

    2014-10-01

    Traditional search processes of gases or gas mixtures for replacing SF6 involve time consuming measurements of partial discharges and breakdown behaviour for several voltage waveforms and different field configurations. Recently a model for prediction of this behaviour for SF6 was described in literature. The model only requires basic properties of the gas such as the critical field strength and the effective ionization coefficient, which can be obtained by swarm parameter measurements, and thermodynamic properties, which can be calculated. In this paper, we show for the well-known and electronegative gas octafluoropropane (C3F8) that it is possible to transfer the model developed for SF6 to this gas to describe the breakdown behaviour of C3F8. Thus the model can be beneficial in the screening process of new insulation gases.

  9. Grain-Scale Supercharging and Breakdown on Airless Regoliths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, M. I.; Farrell, W. M.; Hartzell, C.M.; Wang, X.; Horanyi, M.; Hurley, D. M.; Hibbitts, K.

    2016-01-01

    Interactions of the solar wind and emitted photoelectrons with airless bodies have been studied extensively. However, the details of how charged particles interact with the regolith at the scale of a single grain have remained largely uncharacterized. Recent efforts have focused upon determining total surface charge under photoemission and solar wind bombardment and the associated electric field and potential. In this work, theory and simulations are used to show that grain-grain charge differences can exceed classical sheath predictions by several orders of magnitude, sometimes reaching dielectric breakdown levels. Temperature-dependent electrical conductivity works against supercharging by allowing current to leak through individual grains; the balance between internal conduction and surface charging controls the maximum possible grain-to-grain electric field. Understanding the finer details of regolith grain charging, conductive equilibrium, and dielectric breakdown will improve future numerical studies of space weathering and dust levitation on airless bodies.

  10. Analysis of organic vapors with laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nozari, Hadi; Tavassoli, Seyed Hassan [Laser and Plasma Research Institute, Shahid Beheshti University, G. C, 1983963113 Evin, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Rezaei, Fatemeh, E-mail: fatemehrezaei@kntu.ac.ir [Department of Physics, K. N. Toosi University of Technology, 15875-4416 Shariati, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is utilized in the study of acetone, ethanol, methanol, cyclohexane, and nonane vapors. Carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, and nitrogen atomic emission spectra have been recorded following laser-induced breakdown of the organic vapors that are mixed with air inside a quartz chamber at atmospheric pressure. The plasma is generated with focused, Q-switched Nd:YAG radiation at the wavelength of 1064 nm. The effects of ignition and vapor pressure are discussed in view of the appearance of the emission spectra. The recorded spectra are proportional to the vapor pressure in air. The hydrogen and oxygen contributions diminish gradually with consecutive laser-plasma events without gas flow. The results show that LIBS can be used to characterize organic vapor.

  11. Breakdown in traffic networks fundamentals of transportation science

    CERN Document Server

    Kerner, Boris S

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a detailed investigation of breakdowns in traffic and transportation networks. It shows empirically that transitions from free flow to so-called synchronized flow, initiated by local disturbances at network bottlenecks, display a nucleation-type behavior: while small disturbances in free flow decay, larger ones grow further and lead to breakdowns at the bottlenecks. Further, it discusses in detail the significance of this nucleation effect for traffic and transportation theories, and the consequences this has for future automatic driving, traffic control, dynamic traffic assignment, and optimization in traffic and transportation networks. Starting from a large volume of field traffic data collected from various sources obtained solely through measurements in real world traffic, the author develops his insights, with an emphasis less on reviewing existing methodologies, models and theories, and more on providing a detailed analysis of empirical traffic data and drawing consequences regarding t...

  12. The validity of the general similarity law for electrical breakdown of gases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osmokrovic, Predrag; Zivic, Tamara; Loncar, Boris; Vasic, Aleksandra

    2006-01-01

    This paper investigates the validity of the similarity law in cases of dc and pulse breakdown of gases. Geometrically similar systems insulated with SF 6 gas were used during experiments. It is shown that the similarity law is valid for dc breakdown voltage if the electron mean free path is included in geometrical parameters of the system, but not for pulse breakdown voltages. The explanation for this is the mechanism of the pulse discharge. The similarity law was expanded to take into account mechanisms of pulse breakdown initiation. Thus, the general similarity law is obtained, the validity of which in case of a pulse breakdown is established experimentally

  13. Effects of polarization and absorption on laser induced optical breakdown threshold for skin rejuvenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varghese, Babu; Bonito, Valentina; Turco, Simona; Verhagen, Rieko

    2016-03-01

    Laser induced optical breakdown (LIOB) is a non-linear absorption process leading to plasma formation at locations where the threshold irradiance for breakdown is surpassed. In this paper we experimentally demonstrate the influence of polarization and absorption on laser induced breakdown threshold in transparent, absorbing and scattering phantoms made from water suspensions of polystyrene microspheres. We demonstrate that radially polarized light yields a lower irradiance threshold for creating optical breakdown compared to linearly polarized light. We also demonstrate that the thermal initiation pathway used for generating seed electrons results in a lower irradiance threshold compared to multiphoton initiation pathway used for optical breakdown.

  14. Soft physics with a supercollider

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, B.

    1984-01-01

    I discuss a set of possible, more or less adventurous, physics scenarios for the soft physics of a supercollider of 10-20 TeV cms energy. I also present extrapolations of the sizes of different quantities to these immense energies. One should always note that whether we like it or not, some 95-99% of the cross-section is soft physics at all energies. (orig.)

  15. Radiation effects on breakdown in silicon multiguarded diodes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bisello, D.; Da Rold, M.; Franzin, L.; Wheadon, R.

    1996-01-01

    The authors have investigated the current-voltage characteristics of silicon PIN diodes with a number of different multiguard structures. These structures were designed to increase the overall device breakdown voltage. The same measurements were carried out after gamma irradiation at different doses and neutron irradiation at fluences beyond type-inversion. This study is a first step towards defining guard structures optimized for operation in high-radiation environments such as those expected at the LHC

  16. Canadian Food Dollar: Breakdown between Farm and Marketing Costs

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly, Jessica; Weersink, Alfons; Cranfield, John

    2013-01-01

    This poster assesses the breakdown of the Canadian food dollar between farm and marketing costs. It uses input-output methods, comparable to those used by the Economic Research Service (ERS), in order to allow for Canadian-American comparison. The farm share and marketing bill provide a valuable snapshot of the dynamics of the agri-food supply chain, changing consumer demands, and the resultant value distribution of the retail food dollar.

  17. Breakdown, fractoemission, diffusion: role of defects in dielectrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vigouroux, J.P.; Serruys, Y.

    1987-01-01

    During the surface analysis of dielectric materials, the impinging ionising particles induce point defects localised in the band gap and build an electrical charge. The electric field created by the charged defects modifies the physico-chemical properties of surface and bulk. We show that the fundamental study of defects allows a better understanding of technological phenomena such as dielectric breakdown, fracture and diffusion [fr

  18. Study of three-dimensional effects on vortex breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, M. D.; Kuruvila, G.

    1988-01-01

    The incompressible axisymmetric steady Navier-Stokes equations in primitive variables are used to simulate vortex breakdown. The equations, discretized using a second-order, central-difference scheme, are linearized and then solved using an exact LU decomposition, Gaussian elimination, and Newton iteration. Solutions are presented for Reynolds numbers, based on vortex-core radius, as high as 1500. An attempt to study the stability of the axisymmetric solutions against three-dimensional perturbations is discussed.

  19. Ionizing gas breakdown waves in strong electric fields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klingbeil, R.; Tidman, D. A.; Fernsler, R. F.

    1972-01-01

    A previous analysis by Albright and Tidman (1972) of the structure of an ionizing potential wave driven through a dense gas by a strong electric field is extended to include atomic structure details of the background atoms and radiative effects, especially, photoionization. It is found that photoionization plays an important role in avalanche propagation. Velocities, electron densities, and temperatures are presented as a function of electric field for both negative and positive breakdown waves in nitrogen.

  20. Quantum dynamics and breakdown of classical realism in nonlinear oscillators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gat, Omri

    2007-01-01

    The leading nonclassical term in the quantum dynamics of nonlinear oscillators is calculated in the Moyal quasi-trajectory representation. The irreducibility of the quantum dynamics to phase-space trajectories is quantified by the discrepancy of the canonical quasi-flow and the quasi-flow of a general observable. This discrepancy is shown to imply the breakdown of classical realism that can give rise to a dynamical violation of Bell's inequalities. (fast track communication)

  1. Dissecting soft radiation with factorization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart, Iain W.; Tackmann, Frank J.; Waalewijn, Wouter J.; Amsterdam Univ.

    2014-05-01

    An essential part of high-energy hadronic collisions is the soft hadronic activity that underlies the primary hard interaction. It can receive contributions from soft radiation from the primary hard partons, secondary multiple parton interactions (MPI), and factorization violating effects. The invariant mass spectrum of the leading jet in Z+jet and H+jet events is directly sensitive to these effects. We use a QCD factorization theorem to predict the dependence on the jet radius R, jet p T , jet rapidity, and partonic process for both the perturbative and nonperturbative components of primary soft radiation. The nonperturbative contributions involve only odd powers of R, and the linear R term is universal for quark and gluon jets. The hadronization model in PYTHIA8 agrees well with these properties. The perturbative soft initial state radiation (ISR) has a contribution that depends on the jet area in the same way as the underlying event. This degeneracy is broken by the jet p T dependence. The size of this soft ISR contribution is proportional to the color state of the initial partons, yielding the same positive contribution for gg→Hg and gq→Zq, but a negative interference contribution for q anti q→Zg. Hence, measuring these dependencies allows one to separate hadronization, soft ISR, and MPI contributions in the data.

  2. Optical breakdown of helium in Bessel laser radiation beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andreev, N E; Pleshanov, I V; Margolin, L Ya; Pyatnitskii, Lev N

    1998-01-01

    Numerical simulation is used to investigate the dynamics of formation of a helium plasma in Bessel beams, shaped by an axicon and a phase converter from a laser radiation pulse with Gaussian temporal and radial intensity profiles. The beam intensities at the breakdown threshold are determined as a function of the pulse duration for various radial field distributions in a beam characterised by Bessel functions of order m (m = 0 - 5). It is shown that in the investigated range of parameters the threshold intensity is independent of m. The temporal and spatial evolution of the resultant plasma, and the dependence of the plasma characteristics on the pulse parameters are considered. Conditions are found for the formation of tubular plasma channels in beams of orders m≥1. The adopted model of the optical breakdown of helium is shown to be satisfactory because of a good agreement between the results of calculations of the moment of breakdown in a zeroth-order Bessel beam and experimental results. (interaction of laser radiation with matter. laser plasma)

  3. Magnetic breakdown in an array of overlapping Fermi surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kadigrobov, A.M.; Radić, D.; Bjeliš, A.

    2015-01-01

    We develop a theoretical framework for a magnetic breakdown in an array of circular two-dimensional bands with a finite overlap of neighboring Fermi surfaces due to the presence of a presumably weak periodic potential, and apply the obtained results to the electron bands in carbon honeycomb structures of doped graphene and intercalated graphite compounds. In contrast to the standard treatment, inaugurated more than fifty years ago by Slutskin and Kadigrobov, with electron semiclassical trajectories encircling significantly overlapping Fermi surfaces, we examine a configuration in which bands are related in a way that the Fermi surfaces only slightly overlap, forming internal band pockets with areas of the size comparable to the area of the quantum magnetic flux for a given external magnetic field. Such band configuration has to be treated quantum mechanically. The calculation leads to the results for magnetic breakdown coefficients comprising an additional large factor with respect to the standard results, proportional to the ratio of the Fermi energy and the cyclotron energy. Also, these coefficients show oscillating dependence on energy, as well as on the wave number of periodic potential. Both mentioned elements enable the adjustment of the preferred wave vector of possible magnetic breakdown induced density wave instability at the highest possible critical temperature

  4. Improvement of powertrain efficiency through energy breakdown analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Damiani, Lorenzo; Repetto, Matteo; Prato, Alessandro Pini

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy breakdown analysis for the vehicular powertrain. • Model for road vehicles simulation in different missions. • Implemented powertrain management strategies: intelligent gearbox, Stop and Start, free wheel. • Innovative hybrid powertrain turned to engine thermodynamic cycles minimization. • Evaluation of fuel savings associated to each management strategy. - Abstract: A vehicular powertrain can be thought as an energy conversion chain, each component being characterized by its efficiency. Significant global efficiency improvements can be achieved once is identified the system energy breakdown, individuating the losses connected to each powertrain component; it is then possible to carry out the most appropriate interventions. This paper presents a simulation study of a diesel-fuelled commercial vehicle powertrain based on the above summarized point of view. The work aims at individuating the energy flows involved in the system during different missions, proposing an intelligent combination of technical solutions which minimize fuel consumption. Through a validated Matlab–Simulink model, able to indicate the powertrain energy breakdown, simulations are carried out to evaluate the fuel saving associated to a series of powertrain management logics which lead to the minimization of engine losses, the recovery of reverse power in deceleration and braking, the elimination of useless engine cycles. Tests were performed for different real missions (urban, extra-urban and highway). The results obtained point out a –23% fuel consumption (average value for urban, extra-urban and highway missions) compared to the traditional powertrain. Clearly, such result affects positively the CO 2 emission

  5. Vortex breakdown of compressible swirling flows in a pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Harry; Rusak, Zvi; Wang, Shixiao

    2017-11-01

    The manifold of branches of steady and axisymmetric states of compressible subsonic swirling flows in a finite-length straight circular pipe are developed. The analysis is based on Rusak et al. (2015) nonlinear partial differential equation for the solution of the flow stream function in terms of the inlet flow total enthalpy, entropy and circulation functions. This equation reflects the complicated thermo-physical interactions in the flows. The flow problem is solved numerically using a finite difference approach with a penalty procedure for identifying vortex breakdown and wall-separation states. Several types of solutions are found and used to form the bifurcation diagram of steady compressible flows with swirl as the inlet swirl level is increased at a fixed inlet Mach number. Results are compared with predictions from the global analysis approach of Rusak et al. (2015). The computed results provide theoretical predictions of the critical swirl levels for the first appearance of vortex breakdown states as a function of the inlet Mach number. The shows the delay in the appearance of breakdown with increase of the inlet axial flow Mach number in the subsonic range of operation.

  6. Relativistic runaway breakdown in low-frequency radio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füllekrug, Martin; Roussel-Dupré, Robert; Symbalisty, Eugene M. D.; Chanrion, Olivier; Odzimek, Anna; van der Velde, Oscar; Neubert, Torsten

    2010-01-01

    The electromagnetic radiation emitted by an electron avalanche beam resulting from relativistic runaway breakdown within the Earth's atmosphere is investigated. It is found from theoretical modeling with a computer simulation that the electron beam emits electromagnetic radiation which is characterized by consecutive broadband pulses in the low-frequency radio range from ˜10 to 300 kHz at a distance of ˜800 km. Experimental evidence for the existence of consecutive broadband pulses is provided by low-frequency radio observations of sprite-producing lightning discharges at a distance of ˜550 km. The measured broadband pulses occur ˜4-9 ms after the sprite-producing lightning discharge, they exhibit electromagnetic radiation which mainly spans the frequency range from ˜50 to 350 kHz, and they exhibit complex waveforms without the typical ionospheric reflection of the first hop sky wave. Two consecutive pulses occur ˜4.5 ms and ˜3 ms after the causative lightning discharge and coincide with the sprite luminosity. It is concluded that relativistic runaway breakdown within the Earth's atmosphere can emit broadband electromagnetic pulses and possibly generates sprites. The source location of the broadband pulses can be determined with an interferometric network of wideband low-frequency radio receivers to lend further experimental support to the relativistic runaway breakdown theory.

  7. Breakdown of coupling dielectrics for Si microstrip detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Candelori, A.; Paccagnella, A.; Padova Univ.; Saglimbeni, G.

    1999-01-01

    Double-layer coupling dielectrics for AC-coupled Si microstrip detectors have been electrically characterized in order to determine their performance in a radiation-harsh environment, with a focus on the dielectric breakdown. Two different dielectric technologies have been investigated: SiO 2 /TEOS and SiO 2 /Si 3 N 4 . Dielectrics have been tested by using a negative gate voltage ramp of 0.2 MV/(cm·s). The metal/insulator/Si I-V characteristics show different behaviours depending on the technology. The extrapolated values of the breakdown field for unirradiated devices are significantly higher for SiO 2 /Si 3 N 4 dielectrics, but the data dispersion is lower for SiO 2 /TEOS devices. No significant variation of the breakdown field has been measured after a 10 Mrad (Si) γ irradiation for SiO 2 /Si 3 N 4 dielectrics. Finally, the SiO 2 /Si 3 N 4 DC conduction is enhanced if a positive gate voltage ramp is applied with respect to the negative one, due to the asymmetric conduction of the double-layer dielectric

  8. Evaluation of methods for increasing vacuum breakdown strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, R.D.; Cooke, C.M.; Berman, E.R.

    1977-01-01

    Research to determine the effectiveness of coated and gas shielded cathodes as a means of increasing vacuum breakdown strength under short pulse conditions is reported. A technique for rapidly evaluating large numbers of coatings on small electrodes at relatively low pulse voltage (120 kV or less) and methods for testing larger electrodes and fewer coatings at higher total voltage were developed. Experiments with gas shielded cathodes were also conducted. Results suggest that it may be possible to eliminate prebreakdown current and to double breakdown strength by applying a suitable coating to the cathode. Breakdown stresses in excess of 2 MV/cm were obtained in a 0.5 mm gap with sputtered coatings of alumina, Cr 2 O 3 , and several readily available epoxies. Electrodes two orders of magnitude greater in area were tested, and stresses approaching 1 MV/cm were measured in 5 mm gaps for several epoxies and for alumina. It has further been shown that, because similar trends occurred in the data from large and small experiments, it should be possible to screen potential coatings rapidly and effectively with minimum expenditure using a method similar to that employed for small electrodes at low pulse voltage

  9. Pre-breakdown light emission phenomena in low-pressure argon between parabolic electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagenaars, E [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Perriens, N W B [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Brok, W J M [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Bowden, M D [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Open University, Milton Keynes, MK7 6AA (United Kingdom); Veldhuizen, E M van [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Kroesen, G M W [Department of Applied Physics, Eindhoven University of Technology, PO Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2006-09-07

    An experimental study on pre-breakdown light emission in low-pressure argon gas was performed. In a pulsed discharge, pre-breakdown phenomena were observed for repetition rates between 100 and 2000 Hz and pulse duration of 100 {mu}s. These phenomena were studied with time-resolved emission imaging using an intensified charge coupled device camera. The origin of the pre-breakdown emission was identified as diffusion of volume charges left over from previous discharges. These charges were accelerated towards the anode in small electron avalanches causing excitation of argon atoms. Different spatial distributions of the pre-breakdown light emission for different times between discharges were measured and the effects of the pre-breakdown phenomena on the main breakdown phase were studied using a double voltage pulse. The observed effects were attributed to the distribution of volume charges, left over from previous discharges, in the discharge gap during the pre-breakdown phase.

  10. Soft Mobility and Urban Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Anna La Rocca

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines some European cases referred to promotion of soft mobility as a new lifestyle aimed to improve benefits on environment and urban liveability. Soft mobility includes any non-motorized transport (human powered mobility. According to this, soft mobility refers to pedestrian, bicycle, roller skate and skateboard transfers. It could be indented as “zeroimpact” mobility too. As a matter of fact, the words to define this way of moving have not been codified yet, therefore mobilitè douce, soft mobility, slow traffic are synonymous in referring mainly to pedestrians and cyclists to indicate alternative to car use. Soft mobility, indeed, can be defined as a special form of sustainable mobility able to optimize urban liveability, by keeping the individual right to move. At present, cities are engaged in defining policies, procedures and interventions to further “slow traffic”, both to relieve the traffic congestion, and to work for regeneration and environmental improvements. This asks for an in-depth cooperation between different political and administrative levels to achieve common objectives of development more attentive to environmental concerns. Despite this increasing attention, the idea of a “network” for soft mobility has not been yet achieved and the supply of integrated facilities and services as an alternative to the car use seems to be still difficult of accomplishment. High disparity characterizes European countries in promoting soft mobility: despite a prolific production of laws and roles referred to emergency of adopting alternative ways of moving to minimize negatives impacts (especially air and noise pollution as very threat to health due to car dependence for urban short distance too. And yet, soft mobility could represent a real occasion of urban and territorial regeneration aimed to rehabilitate some disused paths and routes (greenways. Some successful European cases show how it is possible to

  11. Neutrosophic Parameterized Soft Relations and Their Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irfan Deli

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of relation on neutrosophic parameterized soft set (NP- soft sets theory. We have studied some related properties and also put forward some propositions on neutrosophic parameterized soft relation with proofs and examples. Finally the notions of symmetric, transitive, reflexive, and equivalence neutrosophic parameterized soft set relations have been established in our work. Finally a decision making method on NP-soft sets is presented.

  12. Biologically-inspired soft exosuit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asbeck, Alan T; Dyer, Robert J; Larusson, Arnar F; Walsh, Conor J

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we present the design and evaluation of a novel soft cable-driven exosuit that can apply forces to the body to assist walking. Unlike traditional exoskeletons which contain rigid framing elements, the soft exosuit is worn like clothing, yet can generate moments at the ankle and hip with magnitudes of 18% and 30% of those naturally generated by the body during walking, respectively. Our design uses geared motors to pull on Bowden cables connected to the suit near the ankle. The suit has the advantages over a traditional exoskeleton in that the wearer's joints are unconstrained by external rigid structures, and the worn part of the suit is extremely light, which minimizes the suit's unintentional interference with the body's natural biomechanics. However, a soft suit presents challenges related to actuation force transfer and control, since the body is compliant and cannot support large pressures comfortably. We discuss the design of the suit and actuation system, including principles by which soft suits can transfer force to the body effectively and the biological inspiration for the design. For a soft exosuit, an important design parameter is the combined effective stiffness of the suit and its interface to the wearer. We characterize the exosuit's effective stiffness, and present preliminary results from it generating assistive torques to a subject during walking. We envision such an exosuit having broad applicability for assisting healthy individuals as well as those with muscle weakness.

  13. Radiosensitivity of soft tissue sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirano, Toru; Iwasaki, Katsuro; Suzuki, Ryohei; Monzen, Yoshio; Hombo, Zenichiro

    1989-01-01

    The correlation between the effectiveness of radiation therapy and the histology of soft tissue sarcomas was investigated. Of 31 cases with a soft tissue sarcoma of an extremity treated by conservative surgery and postoperative radiation of 3,000-6,000 cGy, local recurrence occurred in 12; 5 out of 7 synovial sarcomas, 4 of 9 MFH, one of 8 liposarcomas, none of 4 rhabdomyosarcomas and 2 of 3 others. As for the histological subtyping, the 31 soft tissue sarcomas were divided into spindle cell, pleomorphic cell, myxoid and round cell type, and recurrence rates were 75%, 33.3%, 16.7% and 0%, respectively. From the remarkable difference in recurrent rate, it was suggested that round cell and myxoid type of soft tissue sarcomas showed a high radiosensitivity compared to the spindle cell type with low sensitivity. Clarifying the degree of radiosensitivity is helpful in deciding on the management of limb salvage in soft tissue sarcomas of an extremity. (author)

  14. The decline of soft power?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Vladimirovna Pimenova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the origins and stages of the evolution of the concept of “soft power” in the political practice of the key countries in the world. This concept is both theoretical and practical product since it synthesizes and represents the direction of the application by a state its of social and political resources. It is significant to trace the transformation of the views of the author of the term J. Nye on the essential elements and mechanisms of “soft power”. The author examines the concept of “soft power” as an element of the US strategy to maintain its leadership in the world. In this regard, for other countries the use of “soft power” may be less effective for their own political purposes, because the concept is tuned to the specific characteristics of US policy. Moreover, with change in the international environment, Wash-ington modernizes the concept, of “smart power”. The author draws attention to the fact that the conditions for the use of turning it in “soft power” are likely to have been changed for the other states. The author concludes that there is a need to revise the existing theoretical approaches to the image of the state in the international arena and to develop new tools that can take into account the complex cultural, tourism, educational opportunities and achievements of every state.

  15. Soft cooperation systems and games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, J. R.; Gallego, I.; Jiménez-Losada, A.; Ordóñez, M.

    2018-04-01

    A cooperative game for a set of agents establishes a fair allocation of the profit obtained for their cooperation. In order to obtain this allocation, a characteristic function is known. It establishes the profit of each coalition of agents if this coalition decides to act alone. Originally players are considered symmetric and then the allocation only depends on the characteristic function; this paper is about cooperative games with an asymmetric set of agents. We introduced cooperative games with a soft set of agents which explains those parameters determining the asymmetry among them in the cooperation. Now the characteristic function is defined not over the coalitions but over the soft coalitions, namely the profit depends not only on the formed coalition but also on the attributes considered for the players in the coalition. The best known of the allocation rules for cooperative games is the Shapley value. We propose a Shapley kind solution for soft games.

  16. High performance soft magnetic materials

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book provides comprehensive coverage of the current state-of-the-art in soft magnetic materials and related applications, with particular focus on amorphous and nanocrystalline magnetic wires and ribbons and sensor applications. Expert chapters cover preparation, processing, tuning of magnetic properties, modeling, and applications. Cost-effective soft magnetic materials are required in a range of industrial sectors, such as magnetic sensors and actuators, microelectronics, cell phones, security, automobiles, medicine, health monitoring, aerospace, informatics, and electrical engineering. This book presents both fundamentals and applications to enable academic and industry researchers to pursue further developments of these key materials. This highly interdisciplinary volume represents essential reading for researchers in materials science, magnetism, electrodynamics, and modeling who are interested in working with soft magnets. Covers magnetic microwires, sensor applications, amorphous and nanocrystalli...

  17. Soft Pneumatic Actuators for Rehabilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guido Belforte

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Pneumatic artificial muscles are pneumatic devices with practical and various applications as common actuators. They, as human muscles, work in agonistic-antagonistic way, giving a traction force only when supplied by compressed air. The state of the art of soft pneumatic actuators is here analyzed: different models of pneumatic muscles are considered and evolution lines are presented. Then, the use of Pneumatic Muscles (PAM in rehabilitation apparatus is described and the general characteristics required in different applications are considered, analyzing the use of proper soft actuators with various technical properties. Therefore, research activity carried out in the Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering in the field of soft and textile actuators is presented here. In particular, pneumatic textile muscles useful for active suits design are described. These components are made of a tubular structure, with an inner layer of latex coated with a deformable outer fabric sewn along the edge. In order to increase pneumatic muscles forces and contractions Braided Pneumatic Muscles are studied. In this paper, new prototypes are presented, based on a fabric construction and various kinds of geometry. Pressure-force-deformation tests results are carried out and analyzed. These actuators are useful for rehabilitation applications. In order to reproduce the whole upper limb movements, new kind of soft actuators are studied, based on the same principle of planar membranes deformation. As an example, the bellows muscle model and worm muscle model are developed and described. In both cases, wide deformations are expected. Another issue for soft actuators is the pressure therapy. Some textile sleeve prototypes developed for massage therapy on patients suffering of lymph edema are analyzed. Different types of fabric and assembly techniques have been tested. In general, these Pressure Soft Actuators are useful for upper/lower limbs treatments

  18. Breakdown study of dc silicon micro-discharge devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwaederlé, L; Kulsreshath, M K; Lefaucheux, P; Tillocher, T; Dussart, R; Overzet, L J

    2012-01-01

    The influence of geometrical and operating parameters on the electrical characteristics of dc microcavity discharges provides insight into their controlling physics. We present here results of such a study on silicon-based microcavity discharge devices carried out in helium at pressure ranging from 100 to 1000 Torr. Different micro-reactor configurations were measured. The differences include isolated single cavities versus arrays of closely spaced cavities, various cavity geometries (un-etched as well as isotropically and anisotropically etched), various dimensions (100 or 150 µm cavity diameter and 0-150 µm depth). The electrode gap was kept constant in all cases at approximately 6 µm. The applied electric field reaches 5 × 10 7 V m -1 which results in current and power densities up to 2 A cm -2 and 200 kW cm -3 , respectively. The number of microcavities and the microcavity depth are shown to be the most important geometrical parameters for predicting breakdown and operation of microcavity devices. The probability of initiatory electron generation which is volume dependent and the electric field strength which is depth dependent are, respectively, considered to be responsible. The cavity shape (isotropic/anisotropic) and diameter had no significant influence. The number of micro-discharges that could be ignited depends on the rate of voltage rise and pressure. Larger numbers ignite at lower frequency and pressure. In addition, the voltage polarity has the largest influence on the electrical characteristics of the micro-discharge of all parameters, which is due to both the asymmetric role of electrodes as electron emitter and the non-uniformity of the electric field resulting in different ionization efficiencies. The qualitative shape of all breakdown voltage versus pressure curves can be explained in terms of the distance over which the discharge breakdown effectively occurs as long as one understand that this distance can depend on pressure. (paper)

  19. PHENIX Work Breakdown Structure. Cost and schedule review copy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) Book begins with this Overview section, which contains the high-level summary cost estimate, the cost profile, and the global construction schedule. The summary cost estimate shows the total US cost and the cost in terms of PHENIX construction funds for building the PHENIX detector. All costs in the WBS book are shown in FY 1993 dollars. Also shown are the institutional and foreign contributions, the level of pre-operations funding, and the cost of deferred items. Pie charts are presented at PHENIX WBS level 1 and 2 that show this information. The PHENIX construction funds are shown broken down to PHENIX WBS level 3 items per fiscal year, and the resulting profile is compared to the RHIC target profile. An accumulated difference of the two profiles is also shown. The PHENIX global construction schedule is presented at the end of the Overview section. Following the Overview are sections for each subsystem. Each subsystem section begins with a summary cost estimate, cost profile, and critical path. The total level 3 cost is broken down into fixed costs (M&S), engineering costs (EDIA) and labor costs. Costs are further broken down in terms of PHENIX construction funds, institutional and foreign contributions, pre-operations funding, and deferred items. Also shown is the contingency at level 3 and the level 4 breakdown of the total cost. The cost profile in fiscal years is shown at level 3. The subsystem summaries are followed by the full cost estimate and schedule sheets for that subsystem. These detailed sheets are typically carried down to level 7 or 8. The cost estimate shows Total, M&S, EDIA, and Labor breakdowns, as well as contingency, for each WBS entry.

  20. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy library for the Martian environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cousin, A.; Forni, O.; Maurice, S.; Gasnault, O.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Mars Science Laboratory rover will carry the first Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy experiment in space: ChemCam. We have developed a laboratory model which mimics ChemCam's main characteristics. We used a set of target samples relevant to Mars geochemistry, and we recorded individual spectra. We propose a data reduction scheme for Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy data incorporating de-noising, continuum removal, and peak fitting. Known effects of the Martian atmosphere are confirmed with our experiment: better Signal-to-Noise Ratio on Mars compared to Earth, narrower peak width, and essentially no self-absorption. The wavelength shift of emission lines from air to Mars pressure is discussed. The National Institute of Standards and Technology vacuum database is used for wavelength calibration and to identify the elemental lines. Our Martian database contains 1336 lines for 32 elements: H, Li, Be, B, C, N, O, F, Na, Mg, Al, Si, P, S, Cl, K, Ar, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Rb, Sr, Cs, Ba, and Pb. It is a subset of the National Institute of Standards and Technology database to be used for Martian geochemistry. Finally, synthetic spectra can be built from the Martian database. Correlation calculations help to distinguish between elements in case of uncertainty. This work is used to create tools and support data for the interpretation of ChemCam results. - Highlights: ► Chemcam: first Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy technique on Mars. ► Creation of a LIBS specific database to ChemCam on Mars. ► Data reduction scheme is proposed. ► Best signal under Martian conditions. ► LIBS emission lines database: subset of NIST database for Martian geochemistry.

  1. Optical breakdown threshold investigation of 1064 nm laser induced air plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thiyagarajan, Magesh; Thompson, Shane

    2012-01-01

    We present the theoretical and experimental measurements and analysis of the optical breakdown threshold for dry air by 1064 nm infrared laser radiation and the significance of the multiphoton and collisional cascade ionization process on the breakdown threshold measurements over pressures range from 10 to 2000 Torr. Theoretical estimates of the breakdown threshold laser intensities and electric fields are obtained using two distinct theories namely multiphoton and collisional cascade ionization theories. The theoretical estimates are validated by experimental measurements and analysis of laser induced breakdown processes in dry air at a wavelength of 1064 nm by focusing 450 mJ max, 6 ns, 75 MW max high-power 1064 nm IR laser radiation onto a 20 μm radius spot size that produces laser intensities up to 3 - 6 TW/cm 2 , sufficient for air ionization over the pressures of interest ranging from 10 to 2000 Torr. Analysis of the measured breakdown threshold laser intensities and electric fields are carried out in relation with classical and quantum theoretical ionization processes, operating pressures. Comparative analysis of the laser air breakdown results at 1064 nm with corresponding results of a shorter laser wavelength (193 nm) [M. Thiyagarajan and J. E. Scharer, IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 36, 2512 (2008)] and a longer microwave wavelength (10 8 nm) [A. D. MacDonald, Microwave Breakdown in Gases (Wiley, New York, 1966)]. A universal scaling analysis of the breakdown threshold measurements provided a direct comparison of breakdown threshold values over a wide range of frequencies ranging from microwave to ultraviolet frequencies. Comparison of 1064 nm laser induced effective field intensities for air breakdown measurements with data calculated based on the collisional cascade and multiphoton breakdown theories is used successfully to determine the scaled collisional microwave portion. The measured breakdown threshold of 1064 nm laser intensities are then scaled to

  2. A-Soft Separation Axioms in Soft Topological Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luay Abd –Al-Hani Al-Sweedi

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The important science tools in a different kinds and  specialties , that considered the basic mainstay of ( the set theory and because of  huge development in all life fields. This causes great problems , that need solution and parallel tools for those developments , so the scientis become responsible to work on the development of number theory and open new horizons , that a new science had appeared  which is  ( soft figures theory which is considered the important tool to solve most difficult problems or overcome them ,in these sciences and their specific life specialization, economy, medicine , geometry and others. Also the theory of soft numbers had entered in general topology in power full and active way. The last years a new science has appeared is (soft topological space.              The main idea of this research is to define the separation axioms in  (soft topological space  and practically in certain point , and to study the most important  properties and results of it .

  3. Individual breakdown of pension rights and end of contract

    CERN Multimedia

    2015-01-01

    As in previous years, members of the CERN Pension Fund will shortly receive their “Individual breakdown of pension rights” by e-mail.   In this respect, we would like to remind members that according to Articles II 1.11 - II 1.12 (calculation and payment of the transfer value) and II 2.02 (retirement pension), several options are possible at the end of their contract (depending on their length of service in the Fund): payment of the transfer value into a personal bank account, payment of the transfer value into a new pension scheme, pension (deferred, anticipated or retirement). Benefits Service CERN Pension Fund

  4. Autism Spectrum Disorder in Children Adopted After Early Care Breakdown

    OpenAIRE

    Green, Jonathan; Leadbitter, Kathy; Kay, Catherine; Sharma, Kishan

    2016-01-01

    Syndromic autism has been described in children adopted after orphanage rearing. We investigated whether the same existed in children adopted after family breakdown. Families of 54/60 adopted children aged 6?11?years (mean 102?months; SD 20; 45?% male) returned screening questionnaires for autism spectrum disorder (ASD); 21/54 (39?%) screened positive. Detailed in-person phenotyping of screen positive cases showed ASD in 6/54 (11?%), Broad ASD (sub threshold traits) in 10/54 (18.5?%); 5/54 (9...

  5. Dynamical breakdown of chiral symmetry and abnormal perturbation expansion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ebert, D.; Pervushin, V.N.

    1976-01-01

    Dynamical breakdown of γ 5 -symmetry is studied in the Abelian gauge theory of massless ''quarks'' interacting with massless vector ''gluons''. For this purpose the path-integral approach with bilocal fields as dynamical variables is used. The classical field equation defined by the stationary point of the generating functional turns out to be identical with the Schwinger-Dyson equation for the quark propagator. After a short discussion of the possible solutions of this equation an abnormal perturbation theory has been worked out

  6. Chemical consequences of laser-induced breakdown in molecular gases

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Babánková, Dagmar; Civiš, Svatopluk; Juha, Libor

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 30, č. 2-3 (2006), s. 75-88 ISSN 0079-6727 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/06/1278; GA MŠk LC510; GA MŠk LC528; GA MŠk 1P04LA235 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z10100523 Keywords : laser spark * laser-induced dielectric breakdown * laser-plasma chemistry Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 4.500, year: 2006

  7. Recovering from trust breakdowns in large system implementations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rerup Schlichter, Bjarne Rerup; Andersen, Povl Erik Rostgård

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of experiences from the Faroese large-scale implementation of integrated healthcare information systems and insights into dynamic aspects of trust, we offer the following lessons learned for the successful management and recovery of trust (breakdowns) in large system implementations......: restore relations by turning towards face-to-face events and procedures, assure a well-functioning and available support organization, demonstrate trust in actors to enhance their own self-confidence and celebrate successes, even the smallest or ones injected by yourself. The propositions are based on a 6...

  8. Determination of secondary electron yields from low pressure breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maric, D; Zivanov, S.; Strinic, A.; Malovic, G.; Djuric, M.; Petrovic, Z. Lj.

    2000-01-01

    In order to model accurately the secondary yields in gas breakdown and collisional plasmas both the numerous processes discussed in related experiments must be included and also proper determination of γ (E/n) must be provided. In addition to the application of the correct ionization rate it is also essential to include the nonequilibrium region where electrons gain energy and achieve hydrodynamics equilibrium. For lower values of E/n, greater values of γ than those based on the literature data for αn(E/n) have been found, possibly due to existence of the photoelectric effects

  9. Mechanism of laser beam reentry into a laser breakdown plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savic, P.; Kekez, M.M.; Makomaski, A.H.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that the focus-directed filament often observed in streak photographs of CO 2 -laser produced gas breakdown can be explained by the lateral expansion and consequent cooling of the plasma behind the radiation supported shock. A simple analysis and more detailed numerical calculations show a temperature maximum developing in the plasma, which travels either towards or away from the light source, depending on the nature of the gas. Thus, the locus of the cutoff temperature also travels along the beam, allowing it to reenter the plasma at a velocity which may attain the speed of light. (Auth.)

  10. Soft Neutrosophic Bi-LA-semigroup and Soft Neutrosophic N-LA-seigroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mumtaz Ali

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Soft set theory is a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertain, fuzzy, not clearly defined objects. In this paper we introduced soft neutrosophic biLA-semigroup,soft neutosophic sub bi-LA-semigroup, soft neutrosophic N -LA-semigroup with the discuission of some of their characteristics. We also introduced a new type of soft neutrophic bi-LAsemigroup, the so called soft strong neutrosophic bi-LAsemigoup which is of pure neutrosophic character. This is also extend to soft neutrosophic strong N-LA-semigroup. We also given some of their properties of this newly born soft structure related to the strong part of neutrosophic theory.

  11. Influence of water trees on breakdown voltage of polymeric cables insulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stancu, Cristina [INCDIE ICPE CA, Bucharest (Romania); Notingher, Petru V.; Plopeanu, Mihai Gabriel [Politehnica University of Bucharest, Bucharest (Romania)

    2011-07-01

    In a previous paper was shown that water trees development modifies considerably the electric field repartition, which increases significantly in the vicinity of treed areas. In order to find the water trees influence on the breakdown voltage, in the present paper, an experimental study on model cables insulated with low density polyethylene is done. In insulation samples, water trees with various dimensions and densities were developed. For the reduction of the test duration, an electric field with a higher frequency (3-5 kHz) was used. For breakdown voltage measurement an automatic setup was realized. For each value of the ageing time the dimensions and densities of water trees and breakdown voltage were measured and the dependency of the breakdown voltage with these quantities were analysed. The results show a significant reduction of the breakdown voltage of treed cables insulations compared to un-treed ones. Key words: polyethylene, water treeing, electric field, breakdown, power cables.

  12. Influence of temperature on current-induced domain wall motion and its Walker breakdown

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan, Lvchao; Hu, Jingguo; Su, Yuanchang; Zhu, Jinrong

    2016-01-01

    The current-driven domain wall propagation along a thin ferromagnetic strip with thermal field is studied by means of micromagnetic simulations. The results show that the velocity of domain wall is almost independent of temperature until Walker breakdown happened. However the thermal field can suppress Walker breakdown and makes domain wall move faster. Further analysis indicates that the thermal field tends to keep the out-of-plane magnetic moment of the domain wall stay in high value, which can promote domain wall motion and suppress the Walker breakdown by breaking the period of domain wall transformation. - Highlights: • Influences of temperature on the displacement and the velocity of DW are shown. • The suppression of Walker breakdown by temperature is given. • The reason for suppressing Walker breakdown is analyzed. • The breaking transformation period of Walker breakdown by temperature is given.

  13. Criterion for vortex breakdown on shock wave and streamwise vortex interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiejima, Toshihiko

    2014-05-01

    The interactions between supersonic streamwise vortices and oblique shock waves are theoretically and numerically investigated by three-dimensional (3D) Navier-Stokes equations. Based on the two inequalities, a criterion for shock-induced breakdown of the streamwise vortex is proposed. The simple breakdown condition depends on the Mach number, the swirl number, the velocity deficit, and the shock angle. According to the proposed criterion, the breakdown region expands as the Mach number increases. In numerical simulations, vortex breakdown appeared under conditions of multiple pressure increases and the helicity disappeared behind the oblique shock wave along the line of the vortex center. The numerical results are consistent with the predicted breakdown condition at Mach numbers 2.0 and 3.0. This study also found that the axial velocity deficit is important for classifying the breakdown configuration.

  14. Noise Parameter Analysis of SiGe HBTs for Different Sizes in the Breakdown Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chie-In Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Noise parameters of silicon germanium (SiGe heterojunction bipolar transistors (HBTs for different sizes are investigated in the breakdown region for the first time. When the emitter length of SiGe HBTs shortens, minimum noise figure at breakdown decreases. In addition, narrower emitter width also decreases noise figure of SiGe HBTs in the avalanche region. Reduction of noise performance for smaller emitter length and width of SiGe HBTs at breakdown resulted from the lower noise spectral density resulting from the breakdown mechanism. Good agreement between experimental and simulated noise performance at breakdown is achieved for different sized SiGe HBTs. The presented analysis can benefit the RF circuits operating in the breakdown region.

  15. Experimental study of DC vacuum breakdown and application to high-gradient accelerating structures for CLIC

    CERN Document Server

    Shipman, Nicholas; Jones, Roger

    2016-01-01

    The compact linear collider (CLIC) is a leading candidate for the next generation high energy linear collider. As any breakdown would result in a partial or full loss of luminosity for the pulse in which it occurs, obtaining a low breakdown rate in CLIC accelerating structures is a critical requirement for the successful operation of the proposed collider. This thesis presents investigations into the breakdown phenomenon primarily in the low breakdown rate regime of interest to CLIC, performed using the CERN DC spark systems between 2011 and 2014. The design, construction and commissioning of several new pieces of hardware, as well as the development of improved techniques to measuring the inter-electrode gap distance are detailed. These hardware improvements were fundamental in enabling the exciting new experiments mentioned below, which in turn have provided significant additional insight into the phenomenon of breakdown. Experiments were performed to measure fundamental parameters of individual breakdowns...

  16. Breakdown characteristics in DC spark experiments of copper focusing on purity and hardness

    CERN Document Server

    Yokoyama, Kazue; Higashi, Yasuo; Higo, Toshi; Matsumoto, Shuji; Santiago-Kern, Ana Rocia; Pasquino, Chiara; Calatroni, Sergio; Wuensch, Walter

    2010-01-01

    The breakdown characteristics related to the differences in purity and hardness were investigated for several types of copper using a DC spark test system. Three types of oxygen-free copper (OFC) materials, usual class 1 OFC 7-nine large-grain copper and 6-nine hot-isotropic-pressed (HIP) copper with/without diamond finish, were tested with the DC spark test system. The measurements of the beta, breakdown fields, and breakdown probability are presented and discussed in this paper.

  17. An Opinion on Soft Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Mikhailovitch Astakhov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes different aspects of the "soft power" of Russia. The author affirms that in this field the country doesn't have well defined strategies policy. To Russia has the excellent potential for the promotion of its positive image. This potential is primarily due to the famous Russian science, literature, music and art. But this "natural"potential has to be used in the national interests abroad. In recent years the Russian government has made some important steps in cultural diplomacy, in particular for the promotion of Russian language and supporting Russian Diaspora. However, much more has to be done not only in these directions, but also in propaganda and counterpropaganda to meet information pressure against Russia. In this connection, to form properly all directions of the policy of "soft power", is desirable to use the experience of other countries. The states who pretend to have an important place in the world, consider "soft power" as a strategic policy aiming to strengthen their geopolitical positions. In this context the author offers some suggestions concerning different organizational aspects. Special attention is given to the coordination of the activities of all structures involved in the policy of "soft power ".

  18. Glass transition of soft colloids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippe, Adrian-Marie; Truzzolillo, Domenico; Galvan-Myoshi, Julian; Dieudonné-George, Philippe; Trappe, Véronique; Berthier, Ludovic; Cipelletti, Luca

    2018-04-01

    We explore the glassy dynamics of soft colloids using microgels and charged particles interacting by steric and screened Coulomb interactions, respectively. In the supercooled regime, the structural relaxation time τα of both systems grows steeply with volume fraction, reminiscent of the behavior of colloidal hard spheres. Computer simulations confirm that the growth of τα on approaching the glass transition is independent of particle softness. By contrast, softness becomes relevant at very large packing fractions when the system falls out of equilibrium. In this nonequilibrium regime, τα depends surprisingly weakly on packing fraction, and time correlation functions exhibit a compressed exponential decay consistent with stress-driven relaxation. The transition to this novel regime coincides with the onset of an anomalous decrease in local order with increasing density typical of ultrasoft systems. We propose that these peculiar dynamics results from the combination of the nonequilibrium aging dynamics expected in the glassy state and the tendency of colloids interacting through soft potentials to refluidize at high packing fractions.

  19. Bone and soft tissue ischemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berquist, T.H.; Brown, M.L.; Joyce, J.W.; Johnson, K.A.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses clinical features and imaging techniques for ischemic necrosis, a common problem in the foot, particularly in diabetics and patients with other vascular diseases. Necrosis of bone and soft tissues will be considered separately as the underlying etiology and imaging evaluation differ considerably

  20. Modeling soft interface dominated systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamorgese, A.; Mauri, R.; Sagis, L.M.C.

    2017-01-01

    The two main continuum frameworks used for modeling the dynamics of soft multiphase systems are the Gibbs dividing surface model, and the diffuse interface model. In the former the interface is modeled as a two dimensional surface, and excess properties such as a surface density, or surface energy

  1. Biocompatible mesoporous and soft nanoarchitectures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Angelova, A.; Angelov, Borislav; Mutafchieva, R.; Lesieur, S.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 2 (2015), s. 214-232 ISSN 1574-1443 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP208/10/1600 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : soft nanoarchitectures * lipid bilayer building block * self-assembled nanochannel networks Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.308, year: 2015

  2. Soft-Collinear Effective Theory

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    I will review the basic principles about Soft-Collinear Effective Theory. I will focus on how it can be used to understand factorization properties and how one can resum large logarithms arising from infrared physics using the renormalization group evolution.

  3. Nanomedicine a soft matter perspective

    CERN Document Server

    Pan, Dipanjan

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a broad introduction to soft matters for nanomedicinal applications, with a deeper discussion of the individual modalities for molecular imaging. It includes a general introduction to the opportunities provided by this technology in chemistry, materials, biology and nanomedicine. It is designed and written with the perspective that anyone, with or without previous knowledge of nanotechnology, would benefit.

  4. CMS results on soft diffraction

    CERN Document Server

    INSPIRE-00086121

    2013-01-01

    We present measurements of soft single- and double-diffractive cross sections, as well as of forward rapidity gap cross sections at 7 TeV at the LHC, and compare the results to other measurements and to theoretical predictions implemented in various Monte Carlo simulations.

  5. Soft lithography of ceramic patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göbel, Ole; Nedelcu, M.; Steiner, U.

    2007-01-01

    Polymer-based precursor solutions are patterned using a soft-lithographic patterning technique to yield sub-micrometer-sized ceramic patterns. By using a polymer-metal-nitrate solution as a lithographic resist, we demonstrate a micromolding procedure using a simple rubber stamp that yields a

  6. Hard Thinking about Soft Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claxton, Guy; Costa, Arthur L.; Kallick, Bena

    2016-01-01

    People use various terms to refer to traits and tendencies connected to social-emotional behavior and ways of thinking or approaching problems--from 21st century skills to mindsets to habits of mind. Such traits are also often called soft skills or non-cognitive skills. The authors contend that these latter terms imply that these traits and…

  7. Time domain simulations of preliminary breakdown pulses in natural lightning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, B E; Liang, C; Bitzer, P; Christian, H

    2015-06-16

    Lightning discharge is a complicated process with relevant physical scales spanning many orders of magnitude. In an effort to understand the electrodynamics of lightning and connect physical properties of the channel to observed behavior, we construct a simulation of charge and current flow on a narrow conducting channel embedded in three-dimensional space with the time domain electric field integral equation, the method of moments, and the thin-wire approximation. The method includes approximate treatment of resistance evolution due to lightning channel heating and the corona sheath of charge surrounding the lightning channel. Focusing our attention on preliminary breakdown in natural lightning by simulating stepwise channel extension with a simplified geometry, our simulation reproduces the broad features observed in data collected with the Huntsville Alabama Marx Meter Array. Some deviations in pulse shape details are evident, suggesting future work focusing on the detailed properties of the stepping mechanism. Preliminary breakdown pulses can be reproduced by simulated channel extension Channel heating and corona sheath formation are crucial to proper pulse shape Extension processes and channel orientation significantly affect observations.

  8. Experimental breakdown of selected anodized aluminum samples in dilute plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Norman T.; Domitz, Stanley

    1992-01-01

    Anodized aluminum samples representative of Space Station Freedom structural material were tested for electrical breakdown under space plasma conditions. In space, this potential arises across the insulating anodized coating when the spacecraft structure is driven to a negative bias relative to the external plasma potential due to plasma-surface interaction phenomena. For anodized materials used in the tests, it was found that breakdown voltage varied from 100 to 2000 volts depending on the sample. The current in the arcs depended on the sample, the capacitor, and the voltage. The level of the arc currents varied from 60 to 1000 amperes. The plasma number density varied from 3 x 10 exp 6 to 10 exp 3 ions per cc. The time between arcs increased as the number density was lowered. Corona testing of anodized samples revealed that samples with higher corona inception voltage had higher arcing inception voltages. From this it is concluded that corona testing may provide a method of screening the samples.

  9. Control of leading edge vortex breakdown by blowing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visser, K. D.; Iwanski, K. P.; Nelson, R. C.; Ng, T. T.

    1988-01-01

    An investigation into the effects of using a jet of air to control the vortex breakdown position on a 70 degree delta wing is presented. The specific objectives focused on optimizing the blowing positions in terms of maximum lift increments obtained for minimum blowing rates. The tests were conducted at chord Reynolds numbers of 150,000, 200,000, and 250,000 at angles of incidence of 30 and 35 degrees. Visualization and force data is presented to show the effect of the jet on the wing aerodynamic characteristics. The results indicate a jet position located at and aligned parallel to the leading edge to be the optimum. Nearness to the apex and tangency to the upper surface were also crucial factors. The influence of the jet on the leading edge vortex structure was examined using laser Doppler anemometry. Velocity surveys through the vortex showed that at high blowing rates the parallel velocity in the outer swirling region of the vortex increased and the normal velocity decreased. This resulted in a decrease in the swirling angle in the outer region. The peak core velocity was reduced and the vortex breakdown was delayed.

  10. Preliminary Breakdown: Physical Mechanisms and Potential for Energetic Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, D.; Beasley, W. H.

    2014-12-01

    Observations and analysis of the preliminary breakdown phase of virgin negative cloud-to-ground (-CG) lightning strokes will be presented. Of primary interest are the physical processes responsible for the fast electric field "characteristic" pulses that are often observed during this phase. The pulse widths of characteristic pulses are shown to occur as a superposed bimodal distribution, with the short and long modes having characteristic timescales on the order of 1 microsecond and 10 microseconds, respectively. Analysis of these pulses is based on comparison with laboratory observations of long spark discharge processes and with recently acquired high-speed video observations of a single -CG event. It will be argued that the fast electric field bimodal distribution is the result of conventional discharge processes operating in an extensive strong ambient electric field environment. An important related topic will also be discussed, where it will be argued that preliminary breakdown discharges are capable of generating energetic electrons and may therefore seed relativistic electron avalanches that go on to produce pulsed energetic photon emissions.

  11. Materials and Breakdown Phenomena: Heterogeneous Molybdenum Metallic Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Augusto Marcelli

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Technological activities to design, manufacture, and test new accelerating devices using different materials and methods is under way all over the world. The main goal of these studies is to increase the accelerating gradients and reduce the probability of radio-frequency (RF breakdown. Indeed, it is still not clear why, by increasing the intensity of the applied field, intense surface damage is observed in copper structures, limiting the lifetime and, therefore, the practical applications. A possible solution is represented by a coating of a relatively thick layer of molybdenum in order to improve the breakdown rate. molybdenum can be reliably grown on different substrates with a negligible strain and, for thicknesses up to 600 nm, with a resistivity < 100–150·μΩ cm. Moreover, Mo coatings with controlled composition, internal stress, and roughness may allow improving thermo-mechanical properties reaching values not attainable by uncoated copper. Although the Mo conductivity remains lower compared to Cu, a Mo coating represents a very interesting option for high gradient accelerator components manufactured in copper.

  12. Mechanical breakdown in the nuclear multifragmentation phenomena. Thermodynamic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulavin, L.A.; Cherevko, K.V.; Sysoev, V.M.

    2012-01-01

    Based on a similarity of the Van der Waals and nucleon-nucleon interaction the known thermodynamic relations for ordinary liquids are used to analyze the possible decay channels in the proton induced nuclear multifragmentation phenomena. The main features of the different phase trajectories in the P-V plane are compared with the experimental data on multifragmentation. It allowed choosing the phase trajectories with the correct qualitative picture of the phenomena. Based on the thermodynamic analysis of the proton-induced multifragmentation phenomena the most appropriate decay channel corresponding to the realistic phase trajectory is chosen. Macroscopic analysis of the suggested decay channel is done in order to check the possibility of the mechanical breakdown of the heated system. Based on a simple thermodynamic model preliminary quantitative calculations of corresponding macroscopic parameters (energy, pressure) are done and therefore the model verification on macroscopic level is held. It is shown that on macroscopic level the chosen decay channel through the mechanical breakdown meets the necessary conditions for describing the proton-induced multifragmentation phenomena

  13. Breakdown of the few-level approximation in collective systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiffner, M.; Evers, J.; Keitel, C. H.

    2007-01-01

    The validity of the few-level approximation in dipole-dipole interacting collective systems is discussed. As an example system, we study the archetype case of two dipole-dipole interacting atoms, each modeled by two complete sets of angular momentum multiplets. We establish the breakdown of the few-level approximation by first proving the intuitive result that the dipole-dipole induced energy shifts between collective two-atom states depend on the length of the vector connecting the atoms, but not on its orientation, if complete and degenerate multiplets are considered. A careful analysis of our findings reveals that the simplification of the atomic level scheme by artificially omitting Zeeman sublevels in a few-level approximation generally leads to incorrect predictions. We find that this breakdown can be traced back to the dipole-dipole coupling of transitions with orthogonal dipole moments. Our interpretation enables us to identify special geometries in which partial few-level approximations to two- or three-level systems are valid

  14. Breakdown of air pockets in downwardly inclined sewerage pressure mains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubbers, C L; Clemens, F H L R

    2006-01-01

    In the Netherlands, wastewater is collected in municipal areas and transported to centralised WWTPs by an extensive system of pressure mains. Over the last decades these pressure mains did not receive much attention in terms of monitoring of performance or maintenance. A recent inventory showed that half of the pressure mains show an increased pressure loss for no directly obvious reason. One of the many causes that account for the reduction of the flow capacity is the occurrence of free gas in the pipeline. During dry weather periods with low flow velocities, gas may accumulate at high points in the system. Once the velocity increases during storm weather flow, the air pockets may be broken down and transported to the end of the system. A research study is started focussing on the description of the gas-water phenomena in wastewater pressure mains with respect to transportation of gas. An experimental facility is constructed for the study of multi-phase flow. This paper describes the preliminary results of experiments on breakdown rates of gas pockets as a function of inclination angle and water flow rate. The results show an increasing breakdown rate with increasing inclination angle.

  15. Magnetoresistance and magnetic breakdown phenomenon in amorphous magnetic alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Hui-yu; Gong Xiao-yu

    1988-01-01

    Transverse magnetoresistance in amorphous magnetic alloys (Fe/sub 1-//sub x/CO/sub x/) 82 Cu/sub 0.4/Si/sub 4.4/B/sub 13.2/ were measured at room temperature and in the magnetic field range 0--15 kOe. For large magnetic field, three different functional dependences of magnetoresistance on magnetic field strength have been found as follows: (1) Δrho/rho approaches saturation. (2) Δrho/rho increases proportionally to H 2 . (3) For x = 0.15, a sharp Δrho/rho peak appears at a certain magnetic field strength in spatial angular orientation of both magnetic field and electric currents. Case (3) is a magnetic breakdown phenomenon. Magnetic breakdown occurs at the gap between the spin-up and spin-down sheets of the Fermi surface. This gap is the spin-orbit gap and its magnitude is a sensitive function of magnetization. Hence the magnitude and width of the magnetoresistance peak and the magnetic field strength at the peak point are functions of angular orientation of both magnetic field and electric current

  16. Rf breakdown studies in room temperature electron linac structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loew, G.A.; Wang, J.W.

    1988-05-01

    This paper is an overall review of studies carried out by the authors and some of their colleagues on RF breakdown, Field Emission and RF processing in room temperature electron linac structure. The motivation behind this work is twofold: in a fundamental way, to contribute to the understanding of the RF breakdown phenomenon, and as an application, to determine the maximum electric field gradient that can be obtained and used safely in future e/sup +-/ linear colliders. Indeed, the next generation of these machines will have to reach into the TeV (10 12 eV) energy range, and the accelerating gradient will be to be of the crucial parameters affecting their design, construction and cost. For a specified total energy, the gradient sets the accelerator length, and once the RF structure, frequency and pulse repetition rate are selected, it also determines the peak and average power consumption. These three quantities are at the heart of the ultimate realizability and cost of these accelerators. 24 refs., 19 figs., 4 tabs

  17. Structure of a swirling jet with vortex breakdown and combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharaborin, D. K.; Dulin, V. M.; Markovich, D. M.

    2018-03-01

    An experimental investigation is performed in order to compare the time-averaged spatial structure of low- and high-swirl turbulent premixed lean flames by using the particle image velocimetry and spontaneous Raman scattering techniques. Distributions of the time-average velocity, density and concentration of the main components of the gas mixture are measured for turbulent premixed swirling propane/air flames at atmospheric pressure for the equivalence ratio Φ = 0.7 and Reynolds number Re = 5000 for low- and high-swirl reacting jets. For the low-swirl jet (S = 0.41), the local minimum of the axial mean velocity is observed within the jet center. The positive value of the mean axial velocity indicates the absence of a permanent recirculation zone, and no clear vortex breakdown could be determined from the average velocity field. For the high-swirl jet (S = 1.0), a pronounced vortex breakdown took place with a bubble-type central recirculation zone. In both cases, the flames are stabilized in the inner mixing layer of the jet around the central wake, containing hot combustion products. O2 and CO2 concentrations in the wake of the low-swirl jet are found to be approximately two times smaller and greater than those in the recirculation zone of the high-swirl jet, respectively.

  18. Experimental research for vacuum gap breakdown in high voltage multi-pulse

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Ziping; He Jialong; Chen Sifu; Deng Jianjun; Wang Liping

    2008-01-01

    Base on the breakdown theory of vacuum gaps, experiments have been done to find out the breakdown electric field intensities in high voltage single-and triple-pulse for 26 vacuum gaps with different shapes. The experimental results match up to the theory and confirm the effect of the pulse-number increase on the breakdown electric field intensity. The key point to decide the macroscopical breakdown electric field intensity of a vacuum gap has been pointed out with some advises about the design of a multi-pulse linear inductive accelerator's accelerate gap. (authors)

  19. Studies on gas breakdown in pulsed radio frequency atmospheric pressure glow discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huo, W. G.; Jian, S. J.; Yao, J.; Ding, Z. F.

    2014-01-01

    In pulsed RF atmospheric pressure glow discharges, the gas breakdown judged by the rapid drop in the amplitude of the pulsed RF voltage is no longer universally true. The steep increment of the plasma-absorbed RF power is proposed to determine the gas breakdown. The averaged plasma-absorbed RF power over a pulse period is used to evaluate effects of the preceding pulsed RF discharge on the breakdown voltage of the following one, finding that the breakdown voltage decreases with the increment in the averaged plasma-absorbed RF power under constant pulse duty ratio. Effects of the pulse off-time on the breakdown voltage and the breakdown delay time are also studied. The obtained dependence of the breakdown voltage on the pulse off-time is indicative of the transitional plasma diffusion processes in the afterglow. The breakdown voltage varies rapidly as the plasma diffuses fast in the region of moderate pulse off-time. The contribution of nitrogen atom recombination at the alumina surface is demonstrated in the prolonged memory effect on the breakdown delay time vs. the pulse off-time and experimentally validated by introducing a trace amount of nitrogen into argon at short and long pulse off-times

  20. A categorization of water system breakdowns: Evidence from Liberia, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Tori; Cronk, Ryan; Shields, Katherine F; Bartram, Jamie

    2018-04-01

    In rural sub-Saharan Africa, one in three handpumps are non-functional at any time. While there is some evidence describing factors associated with non-functional water systems, there is little evidence describing the categories of water system breakdowns that commonly occur. Insufficient water availability from broken down systems can force people to use unimproved water sources, which undermines the health benefits of an improved water source. We categorized common water system breakdowns using quantitative and qualitative monitoring data from Liberia, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Uganda (each N>3600 water systems) and examined how breakdown category varies by water system type and management characteristics. Specific broken parts were mentioned more frequently than all other reasons for breakdown; hardware parts frequently found at fault for breakdown were aprons (Liberia), pipes (Tanzania and Uganda), taps/spouts (Tanzania and Uganda), and lift mechanisms (Nigeria). Statistically significant differences in breakdown category were identified based on system type, age, management type, and fee collection type. Categorization can help to identify common reasons for water system breakdown. The analysis of these data can be used to develop improved monitoring instruments to inform actors of different breakdown types and provide reasons for system non-functionality. Improved monitoring instruments would enable actors to target appropriate resources to address specific breakdowns likely to arise based on system type and management characteristics in order to inform improved implementation of and post-construction support for water systems in sub-Saharan Africa. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Ac breakdown in near-atmospheric pressure noble gases: I. Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobota, A; Kanters, J H M; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Haverlag, M; Manders, F; Gendre, M F; Hendriks, J

    2011-01-01

    Ac-driven breakdown processes have been explored much less than the pulsed or dc breakdown, even though they have possible applications in industry. This paper focuses on the frequency range between 60 kHz and 1 MHz, at a pin-pin electrode geometry and gap lengths of 4 or 7 mm. The breakdown process was examined in argon and xenon at 0.3 and 0.7 bar. We used electrical and optical measurements to characterize the breakdown process, to observe the influence of frequency change and the effect of ignition enhancers-UV irradiation and radioactive material.

  2. Ac breakdown in near-atmospheric pressure noble gases: I. Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sobota, A; Kanters, J H M; Van Veldhuizen, E M; Haverlag, M [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Applied Physics, Postbus 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Manders, F; Gendre, M F; Hendriks, J, E-mail: a.sobota@tue.nl [Philips Lighting, LightLabs, Mathildelaan 1, 5600JM Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2011-06-08

    Ac-driven breakdown processes have been explored much less than the pulsed or dc breakdown, even though they have possible applications in industry. This paper focuses on the frequency range between 60 kHz and 1 MHz, at a pin-pin electrode geometry and gap lengths of 4 or 7 mm. The breakdown process was examined in argon and xenon at 0.3 and 0.7 bar. We used electrical and optical measurements to characterize the breakdown process, to observe the influence of frequency change and the effect of ignition enhancers-UV irradiation and radioactive material.

  3. Improved model of activation energy absorption for different electrical breakdowns in semi-crystalline insulating polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sima, Wenxia; Jiang, Xiongwei; Peng, Qingjun; Sun, Potao

    2018-05-01

    Electrical breakdown is an important physical phenomenon in electrical equipment and electronic devices. Many related models and theories of electrical breakdown have been proposed. However, a widely recognized understanding on the following phenomenon is still lacking: impulse breakdown strength which varies with waveform parameters, decrease in the breakdown strength of AC voltage with increasing frequency, and higher impulse breakdown strength than that of AC. In this work, an improved model of activation energy absorption for different electrical breakdowns in semi-crystalline insulating polymers is proposed based on the Harmonic oscillator model. Simulation and experimental results show that, the energy of trapped charges obtained from AC stress is higher than that of impulse voltage, and the absorbed activation energy increases with the increase in the electric field frequency. Meanwhile, the frequency-dependent relative dielectric constant ε r and dielectric loss tanδ also affect the absorption of activation energy. The absorbed activation energy and modified trap level synergistically determine the breakdown strength. The mechanism analysis of breakdown strength under various voltage waveforms is consistent with the experimental results. Therefore, the proposed model of activation energy absorption in the present work may provide a new possible method for analyzing and explaining the breakdown phenomenon in semi-crystalline insulating polymers.

  4. Reduction of space charge breakdown in e-beam irradiated nano/polymethyl methacrylate composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng Feihu; Zhang Yewen; An Zhenlian; Dong Jianxing; Lei Qingquan

    2013-01-01

    Fast discharge of numerous space charges in dielectric materials can cause space charge breakdown. This letter reports the role of nanoparticles in affecting space charge breakdown of nano/polymethyl methacrylate composites. Space charge distributions in the composites, implanted by electron beam irradiation, were measured by pressure wave propagation method. The results show that the nanoparticles have significant effects on the isothermal charge decay and space charge breakdown in the nanocomposites. The resistance to space charge breakdown in the nanocomposites is attributed to the combined action of the introduction of deep trapping states and the scattering effect by the added nanoparticles.

  5. Soft x-ray Planetary Imager

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The project is to prototype a soft X-ray Imager for planetary applications that has the sensitivity to observe solar system sources of soft  X-ray emission. A strong...

  6. Success of Chemotherapy in Soft Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Trifonova, I.; Kurteva, G.; Stefanov, S. Z.

    2014-01-01

    The success of chemotharapy in soft matter as a survival is found in the paper. Therefore, it is found the analogous tumor stretching force in soft matter; ultrasonography is performed for this tumor; restoration in soft matter with such a tumor is found; Bayes estimate of the probability of chemotherapy success is derived from the transferred chemical energy and from soft matter entropy; survival probability is juxtaposed to this probability of success.

  7. Planar Elongation Measurements on Soft Elastomers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Mette Krog; Skov, Anne Ladegaard; Rasmussen, Henrik K.

    2009-01-01

    A new fixture to the filament stretch rheometer (FSR) has been developed to measure planar elongation of soft polymeric networks. To validate this new technique, soft polymeric networks of poly(propyleneoxide) (PPO) were investigated during deformation.......A new fixture to the filament stretch rheometer (FSR) has been developed to measure planar elongation of soft polymeric networks. To validate this new technique, soft polymeric networks of poly(propyleneoxide) (PPO) were investigated during deformation....

  8. Applications of Soft Sets in -Algebras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Alshehri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In 1999, Molodtsov introduced the concept of soft set theory as a general mathematical tool for dealing with uncertainty and vagueness. In this paper, we apply the concept of soft sets to K-algebras and investigate some properties of Abelian soft K-algebras. We also introduce the concept of soft intersection K-algebras and investigate some of their properties.

  9. Hardware for soft computing and soft computing for hardware

    CERN Document Server

    Nedjah, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    Single and Multi-Objective Evolutionary Computation (MOEA),  Genetic Algorithms (GAs), Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs), Fuzzy Controllers (FCs), Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Ant colony Optimization (ACO) are becoming omnipresent in almost every intelligent system design. Unfortunately, the application of the majority of these techniques is complex and so requires a huge computational effort to yield useful and practical results. Therefore, dedicated hardware for evolutionary, neural and fuzzy computation is a key issue for designers. With the spread of reconfigurable hardware such as FPGAs, digital as well as analog hardware implementations of such computation become cost-effective. The idea behind this book is to offer a variety of hardware designs for soft computing techniques that can be embedded in any final product. Also, to introduce the successful application of soft computing technique to solve many hard problem encountered during the design of embedded hardware designs. Reconfigurable em...

  10. Comparison of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and spark induced breakdown spectroscopy for determination of mercury in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srungaram, Pavan K.; Ayyalasomayajula, Krishna K.; Yu-Yueh, Fang; Singh, Jagdish P., E-mail: singh@icet.msstate.edu

    2013-09-01

    Mercury is a toxic element found throughout the environment. Elevated concentrations of mercury in soils are quite hazardous to plants growing in these soils and also the runoff of soils to nearby water bodies contaminates the water, endangering the flora and fauna of that region. This makes continuous monitoring of mercury very essential. This work compares two potential spectroscopic methods (laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and spark induced breakdown spectroscopy (SIBS)) at their optimum experimental conditions for mercury monitoring. For LIBS, pellets were prepared from soil samples of known concentration for generating a calibration curve while for SIBS, soil samples of known concentration were used in the powder form. The limits of detection (LODs) of Hg in soil were calculated from the Hg calibration curves. The LOD for mercury in soil calculated using LIBS and SIBS is 483 ppm and 20 ppm, respectively. The detection range for LIBS and SIBS is discussed. - Highlights: • We compared SIBS and LIBS for mercury (Hg) measurements in soil. • Hg 546.07 nm line was selected for both LIBS and SIBS measurements. • Limit of detection for Hg was found to be 20 ppm with SIBS and 483 ppm with LIBS.

  11. Comparison of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy and spark induced breakdown spectroscopy for determination of mercury in soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srungaram, Pavan K.; Ayyalasomayajula, Krishna K.; Yu-Yueh, Fang; Singh, Jagdish P.

    2013-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic element found throughout the environment. Elevated concentrations of mercury in soils are quite hazardous to plants growing in these soils and also the runoff of soils to nearby water bodies contaminates the water, endangering the flora and fauna of that region. This makes continuous monitoring of mercury very essential. This work compares two potential spectroscopic methods (laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) and spark induced breakdown spectroscopy (SIBS)) at their optimum experimental conditions for mercury monitoring. For LIBS, pellets were prepared from soil samples of known concentration for generating a calibration curve while for SIBS, soil samples of known concentration were used in the powder form. The limits of detection (LODs) of Hg in soil were calculated from the Hg calibration curves. The LOD for mercury in soil calculated using LIBS and SIBS is 483 ppm and 20 ppm, respectively. The detection range for LIBS and SIBS is discussed. - Highlights: • We compared SIBS and LIBS for mercury (Hg) measurements in soil. • Hg 546.07 nm line was selected for both LIBS and SIBS measurements. • Limit of detection for Hg was found to be 20 ppm with SIBS and 483 ppm with LIBS

  12. Dissociation dynamics of CH3I in electric spark induced breakdown revealed by time-resolved laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yang; Liu, Wei-long; Song, Yun-fei; Duo, Li-ping; Liu, Yu-qiang; Yang, Yan-qiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Emission of electric spark dissociation of CH 3 I is similar to its fs LIBS. • We use fs laser induced breakdown as a simulation for electric spark dissociation. • The I 2 molecule formation is directly observed in the time-resolved LIBS. • Bimolecular collision of I ∗ and CH 3 I is responsible for the formation of I 2 . - Abstract: The electric discharge spark dissociation of gas CH 3 I is found to be similar to its femtosecond laser photodissociation. The almost identical spectra of the two processes show that their initial ionization conditions are very similar. The initial ionization followed by molecular fragmentation is proposed as the dissociation mechanism, in which the characteristic emissions of I + , CH 3 , CH 2 , CH, H, and I 2 are identified as the dissociation products. The emission band of 505 nm I 2 is clearly observed in the time-resolved laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The dynamic curve indicates that I 2 ∗ molecules are formed after the delay time of ∼4.7 ns. The formation of I 2 ∗ molecule results from the bimolecular collision of the highly excited iodine atom I ∗ ( 4 P) and CH 3 I molecule. This dynamical information can help understand the process of electric discharge spark dissociation of CH 3 I

  13. Transient soft X-ray sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakawa, S.; Murakami, T.; Nagase, F.; Tanaka, Y.; Yamashita, K.

    1976-01-01

    A rocket observation of cosmic soft X-rays suggests the existence of transient, recurrent soft X-ray sources which are found variable during the flight time of the rocket. Some of the soft X-ray sources thus far reported are considered to be of this time. These sources are listed and their positions are shown. (Auth.)

  14. Soft Tissue Sarcoma—Health Professional Version

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soft tissue sarcomas are malignant tumors that arise in any of the mesodermal tissues of the extremities, trunk and retroperitoneum, or head and neck. Soft tissue sarcomas may be heterogeneous. Find evidence-based information on soft tissue sarcoma treatment and research.

  15. Windchill-201 - Custom Soft-Type Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Corey; LaPha, Steven

    2013-01-01

    This presentation will explain Windchill soft-types-what they are, how they work, and how to construct custom ones, configured specifically for your system. The process and particulars of creating and implementing a WTDocument soft-type will be discussed, and the interaction between soft-types and Windchill objects will be shown.

  16. Wanted: Soft Skills for Today's Jobs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirsch, Barton J.

    2017-01-01

    Educating high school students for both college and career is difficult. Teaching trade skills seems alien to the academic culture. But new research indicates that soft skills are quite important to judgments of employability and that youth learn many soft skills in traditional academic subjects (e.g., literature). A focus on soft skills allows…

  17. Radioletic degradation of monocrotophos and toxicity of breakdown products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghanem, I.; Shamma, M.; Al-Arfi, M.; Abu-Alnaser, A.

    2015-03-01

    Among sources of environmental pollution, pesticides contamination is wide spread and has become a source of concern. The organophosphorus pesticide, monocrotophos, is highly toxic compound and inhibits cholinesterase. It is very dangerous by all ways of exposure. Monocrotophos is used widely in Syria to control a variety of boring, chewing and sucking insects on various fruit and veditable crops. It is even, ellegally used to protect grapes in grape orchards from birds which is potentially hazaradous to both birds and the consumers of rthis crop. Monocrotophos is imported to Syria, and this is done according to a yearly plan to assess the amount needed of each pesticide. Such planning combined with variation in the incidence of pest infestation may lead to accummulation of pesticides from year to another, they become obsolete . Getting rid of such pesticides in the developing world is a problem, and Syria is no exception. There are various method of getting rid of obsolete pesticides ranging from containment to chemical methods of breaking down the pesticide. The present study aimed at assesing the feasiblity of using gamma radiation as a means to break down high concentrations of technical grade monocrotophos Several concentrations, 50, 200, and 400 mg/ml of technical grade monocrotophos were exposed to several doses of gamma radiation, namely, 0, 15, 45, 75, and 105 kGy. For each concentration tested percentages of monocrotophos breakdown increased with the increase of applied gamma radiation dose. However, the effect of gamma radiation dose was inversely related to monocrotophos concentration. The highest percentage of moncrotophos degradation was 60% and it was achieved by exposing 50 mg/ml of monocrotophos to 105 kGy of gamma radiation Breakdown products were identified using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry GC-MS. Some identified products were dimethyl methyl phosphonate, phosphoric acid trimethyl and phosphoric acid dimethyl 1-methyl ethyl

  18. Applications of Soft Union Sets in the Ring Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongwei Yang

    2013-01-01

    through discussing quotient soft subsets, an approach for constructing quotient soft union rings is made. Finally, isomorphism theorems of λ,μ-soft union rings related to invariant soft sets are discussed.

  19. Soft Pomeron in Holographic QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Ballon-Bayona, Alfonso; Costa, Miguel S; Djurić, Marko

    2016-01-01

    We study the graviton Regge trajectory in Holographic QCD as a model for high energy scattering processes dominated by soft pomeron exchange. This is done by considering spin J fields from the closed string sector that are dual to glueball states of even spin and parity. In particular, we construct a model that governs the analytic continuation of the spin J field equation to the region of real J < 2, which includes the scattering domain of negative Maldelstam variable t. The model leads to approximately linear Regge trajectories and is compatible with the measured values of 1.08 for the intercept and 0.25 GeV$^{-2}$ for the slope of the soft pomeron. The intercept of the secondary pomeron trajectory is in the same region of the subleading trajectories, made of mesons, proposed by Donnachie and Landshoff, and should therefore be taken into account.

  20. Soft material for optical storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lucchetti, L.; Simoni, F.

    2000-01-01

    The aim of transforming electronic networking into optical networking is producing a major effort in studying all optical processing and as a consequence in investigating the nonlinear optical properties of materials for this purpose. In this research area soft materials like polymers and liquid crystals are more and more attractive because they are cheap and they are more easily integrated in microcircuits hardware with respect to the well-known highly nonlinear crystals. Since optical processing spans a too wide field to be treated in one single paper, the authors will focus on one specific subject within this field and give a review of the most recent advances in studying the soft-materials properties interesting for the storage of optical information. The efforts in research of new materials and techniques for optical storage are motivated by the need to store and retrieve large amounts of data with short access time and high data rate at a competitive cost

  1. Soft Terms from Broken Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Buican, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    In theories of phyiscs beyond the Standard Model (SM), visible sector fields often carry quantum numbers under additional gauge symmetries. One could then imagine a scenario in which these extra gauge symmetries play a role in transmitting supersymmetry breaking from a hidden sector to the Supersymmetric Standard Model (SSM). In this paper we present a general formalism for studying the resulting hidden sectors and calculating the corresponding gauge mediated soft parameters. We find that a large class of generic models features a leading universal contribution to the soft scalar masses that only depends on the scale of Higgsing, even if the model is strongly coupled. As a by-product of our analysis, we elucidate some IR aspects of the correlation functions in General Gauge Mediation. We also discuss possible phenomenological applications.

  2. DYSTOCIA DUE TO SOFT TISSUE

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeCarle, Donald W.

    1954-01-01

    In dystocia caused by abnormal conditions of the soft parts, the etiologic changes may be either in the genital tissues or in adjacent soft structures. Broadly, the conditions causing the difficulty may be grouped as follows: (1) anomalies or congenital modifications; (2) tumors; (3) modifications due to age, accident or surgical operations; (4) modification of the expulsive forces; (5) abnormalities of the products of conception. Often in such circumstances cesarean section is necessary. Sometimes when tumor is present it can be removed before it interferes with delivery, but decision to excise the growth must be guided by such factors as the location of the lesion and the stage of gestation. This would determine to what extent the maintenance of pregnancy would be jeopardized by surgical intervention before term. PMID:13190430

  3. Nanoscale Mixing of Soft Solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Soo-Hyung; Lee, Sangwoo; Soto, Haidy E.; Lodge, Timothy P.; Bates, Frank S.

    2011-01-01

    Assessing the state of mixing on the molecular scale in soft solids is challenging. Concentrated solutions of micelles formed by self-assembly of polystyrene-block-poly(ethylene-alt-propylene) (PS-PEP) diblock copolymers in squalane (C 30 H 62 ) adopt a body-centered cubic (bcc) lattice, with glassy PS cores. Utilizing small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) and isotopic labeling ( 1 H and 2 H (D) polystyrene blocks) in a contrast-matching solvent (a mixture of squalane and perdeuterated squalane), we demonstrate quantitatively the remarkable fact that a commercial mixer can create completely random mixtures of micelles with either normal, PS(H), or deuterium-labeled, PS(D), cores on a well-defined bcc lattice. The resulting SANS intensity is quantitatively modeled by the form factor of a single spherical core. These results demonstrate both the possibility of achieving complete nanoscale mixing in a soft solid and the use of SANS to quantify the randomness.

  4. Genetic networks and soft computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Sushmita; Das, Ranajit; Hayashi, Yoichi

    2011-01-01

    The analysis of gene regulatory networks provides enormous information on various fundamental cellular processes involving growth, development, hormone secretion, and cellular communication. Their extraction from available gene expression profiles is a challenging problem. Such reverse engineering of genetic networks offers insight into cellular activity toward prediction of adverse effects of new drugs or possible identification of new drug targets. Tasks such as classification, clustering, and feature selection enable efficient mining of knowledge about gene interactions in the form of networks. It is known that biological data is prone to different kinds of noise and ambiguity. Soft computing tools, such as fuzzy sets, evolutionary strategies, and neurocomputing, have been found to be helpful in providing low-cost, acceptable solutions in the presence of various types of uncertainties. In this paper, we survey the role of these soft methodologies and their hybridizations, for the purpose of generating genetic networks.

  5. Soft computing for business intelligence

    CERN Document Server

    Pérez, Rafael; Cobo, Angel; Marx, Jorge; Valdés, Ariel

    2014-01-01

    The book Soft Computing for Business Intelligence is the remarkable output of a program based on the idea of joint trans-disciplinary research as supported by the Eureka Iberoamerica Network and the University of Oldenburg. It contains twenty-seven papers allocated to three sections: Soft Computing, Business Intelligence and Knowledge Discovery, and Knowledge Management and Decision Making. Although the contents touch different domains they are similar in so far as they follow the BI principle “Observation and Analysis” while keeping a practical oriented theoretical eye on sound methodologies, like Fuzzy Logic, Compensatory Fuzzy Logic (CFL), Rough Sets and other softcomputing elements. The book tears down the traditional focus on business, and extends Business Intelligence techniques in an impressive way to a broad range of fields like medicine, environment, wind farming, social collaboration and interaction, car sharing and sustainability.

  6. Soft tissue modelling with conical springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Nadzeri; Zhong, Yongmin; Jazar, Reza N; Subic, Aleksandar; Smith, Julian; Shirinzadeh, Bijan

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a new method for real-time modelling soft tissue deformation. It improves the traditional mass-spring model with conical springs to deal with nonlinear mechanical behaviours of soft tissues. A conical spring model is developed to predict soft tissue deformation with reference to deformation patterns. The model parameters are formulated according to tissue deformation patterns and the nonlinear behaviours of soft tissues are modelled with the stiffness variation of conical spring. Experimental results show that the proposed method can describe different tissue deformation patterns using one single equation and also exhibit the typical mechanical behaviours of soft tissues.

  7. Electroroentgenography in diagnosis of soft tissue tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vintergal'ter, S.F.; Vishevnik, B.I.

    1989-01-01

    Clinical, electroroentgenographic and X-ray studies of soft tissues were carried out in 425 patients with malignant (75), benign (246) soft tissue tumors and in cases of such soft tissue pathologies of the extremities and body (104). The paper discusses the technicalities of electroroentgenography which produces on one roentgenogram separate images of all components of soft tissues and bones in a given segment. A comparions of image quality assured by electroroentgeno- and roentgenography did not establish any significant difference in soft tissue tumor semiotics

  8. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy theory and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Perini, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    This book deals with the Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS), a widely used atomic emission spectroscopy technique for elemental analysis of materials. It is based on the use of a high-power, short pulse laser excitation. The book is divided into two main sections: the first one concerning theoretical aspects of the technique, the second one describing the state of the art in applications of the technique in different scientific/technological areas. Numerous examples of state of the art applications provide the readers an almost complete scenario of the LIBS technique. The LIBS theoretical aspects are reviewed. The book helps the readers who are less familiar with the technique to understand the basic principles. Numerous examples of state of the art applications give an almost complete scenario of the LIBS technique potentiality. These examples of applications may have a strong impact on future industrial utilization. The authors made important contributions to the development of this field.

  9. Design Flaws and Service System Breakdowns: Learning from Systems Thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ing

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In what ways might systems thinking be helpful to designers?  In the 21st century, the types of project with which designers have become engaged has expanded to include service systems.  Service systems are typically composites of mechanisms, organisms, human beings and ecologies.  Systems thinking is a perspective with theories, methods and practices that enables transcending disciplinary boundaries.  Application of systems thinking in designing a service system can aid in surfacing potential flaws and/or anticipating future breakdowns in functions, structures and/or processes. Designers and systems thinkers should work together to improve the nature of service systems.  As a starter set into these conversations, seven conditions are proposed as a starting context.  These conditions are presented neither as rigourously defined nor as exhaustive, but as an entry point into future joint engagement.

  10. Technology Development Benefits and the Economics Breakdown Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Eric J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes the construction and application of the EBS (Economics Breakdown Structure) in evaluating technology investments across multiple systems and organizations, illustrated with examples in space transportation technology. The United States Government (USG) has a long history of investing in technology to enable its missions. Agencies such as the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and the Department of Defense (DoD) have evaluated their technology development programs primarily on their effects on mission performance and cost. More and more, though, USG agencies are being evaluated on their technology transfer to the commercial sector. In addition, an increasing number of USG missions are being accomplished by industry-led or joint efforts, where the USG provides technology and funding but tasks industry with development and operation of the mission systems.

  11. Kertész line of thermally activated breakdown phenomena

    KAUST Repository

    Yoshioka, Naoki

    2010-11-12

    Based on a fiber bundle model we substantially extend the phase-transition analogy of thermally activated breakdown of homogeneous materials. We show that the competition of breaking due to stress enhancement and due to thermal fluctuations leads to an astonishing complexity of the phase space of the system: varying the load and the temperature a phase boundary emerges, separating a Griffith-type regime of abrupt failure analogous to first-order phase transitions from disorder dominated fracture where a spanning cluster of cracks emerges. We demonstrate that the phase boundary is the Kertész line of the system along which thermally activated fracture appears as a continuous phase transition analogous to percolation. The Kertész line has technological relevance setting the boundary of safe operation for construction components under high thermal loads. © 2010 The American Physical Society.

  12. Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Noll, Reinhard

    2012-01-01

    This book is a comprehensive source of the fundamentals, process parameters, instrumental components and applications of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). The effect of multiple pulses on material ablation, plasma dynamics and plasma emission is presented. A heuristic plasma modeling allows to simulate complex experimental plasma spectra. These methods and findings form the basis for a variety of applications to perform quantitative multi-element analysis with LIBS. These application potentials of LIBS have really boosted in the last years ranging from bulk analysis of metallic alloys and non-conducting materials, via spatially resolved analysis and depth profiling covering measuring objects in all physical states: gaseous, liquid and solid. Dedicated chapters present LIBS investigations for these tasks with special emphasis on the methodical and instrumental concepts as well as the optimization strategies for a quantitative analysis. Requirements, concepts, design and characteristic features of LI...

  13. New mechanism of cluster-field evaporation in rf breakdown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Insepov

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Using a simple field evaporation model and molecular dynamics simulations of nanoscale copper tip evolution in a high electric field gradient typical for linacs, we have studied a new mechanism for rf-field evaporation. The mechanism consists of simultaneous (collective field evaporation of a large group of tip atoms in high-gradient fields. Thus, evaporation of large clusters is energetically more favorable when compared with the conventional, “one-by-one” mechanism. The studied mechanism could also be considered a new mechanism for the triggering of rf-vacuum breakdown. This paper discusses the mechanism and the experimental data available for electric field evaporation of field-emission microscopy tips.

  14. Determining the mode of high voltage breakdowns in vacuum devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, H.C.; Furno, E.J.; Sturtz, J.P.

    1980-01-01

    High voltage breakdowns (HVBs) occur in many vacuum devices. It frequently is of great practical interest to know the type (or mode) of such HVB's, since this can indicate weak points in the device. Post-mortems can sometimes be helpful, but it would be quite desirable to have a technique which would allow the HVB mode to be determined in an operating device. Photography can be quite helpful, but unfortunately many devices do not permit optical access to the region of interest. However, the idea of using photography in conjunction with other diagnostic techniques to establish the validity of these techniques seemed promising, since these techniques could then be used to determine the mode of HVBs in opaque devices. A literature search indicates that promising techniques are to measure the voltage applied to the device (or the current through the device) and also to look for x-rays generated by the device during an HVB

  15. Marital Dialogue – between Conflict, Agreement and Relationship Breakdown

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kornaszewska-Polak Monika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Marital dialogue plays an essential role in shaping the relationship between spouses and supports experiencing personal I in the context of the community – We. In these couples, where dialogue is going well, it fulfils the function of a secure base forming a community based on the foundation of unity. However, contemporary culture denies an interpersonal dialogue the authenticity and engagement, emphasizing individualistic attitudes, preoccupation with oneself, leading to relationship and community disintegration and breakdown. This paper is to present the authors twenty year research into bonds, communication styles, marital conflicts and ways of coping with them. The research shows various issues related to developing the interpersonal dialogue and thus creating bonds and unity in the marriage and family. At first, the research devoted to the transmission of generation patterns in the family is presented and it is followed by presentation of selected psychological factors influencing marriage quality and marital satisfaction.

  16. Off-axis vortex breakdown in a shallow whirlpool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrada, Miguel A; Shtern, Vladimir N; López-Herrera, José María

    2013-06-01

    The off-axis emergence of vortex breakdown (VB) is revealed. The steady axisymmetric flow in a vertical sealed cylinder, which is partially filled with water and the rest is filled with air, is driven by the rotating bottom disk. The numerical simulations show that VB can emerge away from the rotation axis, interface, and walls. As the rotation intensifies, VB first develops in the water region. If the water height is less (larger) than nearly one half of the cylinder radius, VB emerges off (on) the axis. As the rotation further increases, the off-axis VB ring touches the interface and then a thin countercirculation layer develops in the air flow above the water VB domain. This two-fluid VB ring shrinks (it even disappears in a very shallow whirlpool) as the interface approaches the bottom disk.

  17. Analysis and control of supersonic vortex breakdown flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Osama A.

    1990-01-01

    Analysis and computation of steady, compressible, quasi-axisymmetric flow of an isolated, slender vortex are considered. The compressible, Navier-Stokes equations are reduced to a simpler set by using the slenderness and quasi-axisymmetry assumptions. The resulting set along with a compatibility equation are transformed from the diverging physical domain to a rectangular computational domain. Solving for a compatible set of initial profiles and specifying a compatible set of boundary conditions, the equations are solved using a type-differencing scheme. Vortex breakdown locations are detected by the failure of the scheme to converge. Computational examples include isolated vortex flows at different Mach numbers, external axial-pressure gradients and swirl ratios.

  18. Breakdown of the classical description of a local system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eran, Kot; Grønbech-Jensen, Niels; Nielsen, Bo Melholt

    2012-01-01

    We provide a straightforward demonstration of a fundamental difference between classical and quantum mechanics for a single local system: namely, the absence of a joint probability distribution of the position x and momentum p. Elaborating on a recently reported criterion by Bednorz and Belzig...... of the breakdown of a classical description of the underlying state. Most importantly, the criterion used does not rely on quantum mechanics and can thus be used to demonstrate nonclassicality of systems not immediately apparent to exhibit quantum behavior. The criterion is directly applicable to any system...... [ Phys. Rev. A 83 052113 (2011)] we derive a simple criterion that must be fulfilled for any joint probability distribution in classical physics. We demonstrate the violation of this criterion using the homodyne measurement of a single photon state, thus proving a straightforward signature...

  19. Detection of early caries by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasazawa, Shuhei; Kakino, Satoko; Matsuura, Yuji

    2015-07-01

    To improve sensitivity of dental caries detection by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) analysis, it is proposed to utilize emission peaks in the ultraviolet. We newly focused on zinc whose emission peaks exist in ultraviolet because zinc exists at high concentration in the outer layer of enamel. It was shown that by using ratios between heights of an emission peak of Zn and that of Ca, the detection sensitivity and stability are largely improved. It was also shown that early caries are differentiated from healthy part by properly setting a threshold in the detected ratios. The proposed caries detection system can be applied to dental laser systems such as ones based on Er:YAG-lasers. When ablating early caries part by laser light, the system notices the dentist that the ablation of caries part is finished. We also show the intensity of emission peaks of zinc decreased with ablation with Er:YAG laser light.

  20. Breakdown of Counterflow Superfluidity in a Disordered Quantum Hall Bilayer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D.K.K.; Eastham, P.R.; Cooper, N.R.

    2011-01-01

    We present a theory for the regime of coherent interlayer tunneling in a disordered quantum Hall bilayer at total filling factor one, allowing for the effect of static vortices. We find that the system consists of domains of polarized superfluid phase. Injected currents introduce phase slips between the polarized domains which are pinned by disorder. We present a model of saturated tunneling domains that predicts a critical current for the breakdown of coherent tunneling that is extensive in the system size. This theory is supported by numerical results from a disordered phase model in two dimensions. We also discuss how our picture might be used to interpret experiments in the counterflow geometry and in two-terminal measurements

  1. Breakdown of Counterflow Superfluidity in a Disordered Quantum Hall Bilayer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. K. K. Lee

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a theory for the regime of coherent interlayer tunneling in a disordered quantum Hall bilayer at total filling factor one, allowing for the effect of static vortices. We find that the system consists of domains of polarized superfluid phase. Injected currents introduce phase slips between the polarized domains which are pinned by disorder. We present a model of saturated tunneling domains that predicts a critical current for the breakdown of coherent tunneling that is extensive in the system size. This theory is supported by numerical results from a disordered phase model in two dimensions. We also discuss how our picture might be used to interpret experiments in the counterflow geometry and in two-terminal measurements.

  2. Transitions between superstatistical regimes: Validity, breakdown and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jizba, Petr; Korbel, Jan; Lavička, Hynek; Prokš, Martin; Svoboda, Václav; Beck, Christian

    2018-03-01

    Superstatistics is a widely employed tool of non-equilibrium statistical physics which plays an important rôle in analysis of hierarchical complex dynamical systems. Yet, its "canonical" formulation in terms of a single nuisance parameter is often too restrictive when applied to complex empirical data. Here we show that a multi-scale generalization of the superstatistics paradigm is more versatile, allowing to address such pertinent issues as transmutation of statistics or inter-scale stochastic behavior. To put some flesh on the bare bones, we provide a numerical evidence for a transition between two superstatistics regimes, by analyzing high-frequency (minute-tick) data for share-price returns of seven selected companies. Salient issues, such as breakdown of superstatistics in fractional diffusion processes or connection with Brownian subordination are also briefly discussed.

  3. Symmetry Breakdown in Ground State Dissociation of HD+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Itzhak, I.; Wells, E.; Carnes, K. D.; Krishnamurthi, Vidhya; Weaver, O. L.; Esry, B. D.

    2000-01-01

    Experimental studies of the dissociation of the electronic ground state of HD + following ionization of HD by fast proton impact indicate that the H + +D 1s dissociation channel is more likely than the H1s+D + dissociation channel by about 7% . This isotopic symmetry breakdown is due to the finite nuclear mass correction to the Born-Oppenheimer approximation which makes the 1sσ state 3.7 meV lower than the 2pσ state at the dissociation limit. The measured fractions of the two dissociation channels are in agreement with coupled-channels calculations of 1sσ to 2pσ transitions. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  4. Combined raman spectrometer/laser-induced breakdown spectrometer design concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazalgette Courrèges-Lacoste, Gregory; Ahlers, Berit; Boslooper, Erik; Rull-Perez, Fernando; Maurice, Sylvestre

    2017-11-01

    Amongst the different instruments that have been preselected to be on-board the Pasteur payload on ExoMars is the Raman/ Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) instrument. Raman spectroscopy and LIBS will be integrated into a single instrument sharing many hardware commonalities. An international team under the lead of TNO has been gathered to produce a design concept for a combined Raman Spectrometer/ LIBS Elegant Bread-Board (EBB). The instrument is based on a specifically designed extremely compact spectrometer with high resolution over a large wavelength range, suitable for both Raman spectroscopy and LIBS measurements. Low mass, size and resources are the main drivers of the instrument's design concept. The proposed design concept, realization and testing programme for the combined Raman/ LIBS EBB is presented as well as background information on Raman and LIBS.

  5. Analysis of fresco by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caneve, L.; Diamanti, A.; Grimaldi, F.; Palleschi, G.; Spizzichino, V.; Valentini, F.

    2010-01-01

    The laser-based techniques have been shown to be a very powerful tool for artworks characterization and are used in the field of cultural heritage for the offered advantages of minimum invasiveness, in situ applicability and high sensitivity. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy, in particular, has been applied in this field to many different kinds of ancient materials with successful results. In this work, a fragment of a Roman wall painting from the archaeological area of Pompeii has been investigated by LIBS. The sample elemental composition resulting from LIBS measurements suggested the presence of certain pigments. The ratio of the intensities of different lines related to some characteristic elements is proposed as an indicator for pigment recognition. The depth profiling permitted to put in evidence the presence of successive paint layers with different compositions. A comparison with the results obtained by the microscopy inspection of the sample has been done.

  6. Apparatus, system, and method for laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effenberger, Jr., Andrew J; Scott, Jill R; McJunkin, Timothy R

    2014-11-18

    In laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), an apparatus includes a pulsed laser configured to generate a pulsed laser signal toward a sample, a constructive interference object and an optical element, each located in a path of light from the sample. The constructive interference object is configured to generate constructive interference patterns of the light. The optical element is configured to disperse the light. A LIBS system includes a first and a second optical element, and a data acquisition module. The data acquisition module is configured to determine an isotope measurement based, at least in part, on light received by an image sensor from the first and second optical elements. A method for performing LIBS includes generating a pulsed laser on a sample to generate light from a plasma, generating constructive interference patterns of the light, and dispersing the light into a plurality of wavelengths.

  7. Soft systems methodology: other voices

    OpenAIRE

    Holwell, Sue

    2000-01-01

    This issue of Systemic Practice and Action Research, celebrating the work of Peter Checkland, in the particular nature and development of soft systems methodology (SSM), would not have happened unless the work was seen by others as being important. No significant contribution to thinking happens without a secondary literature developing. Not surprisingly, many commentaries have accompanied the ongoing development of SSM. Some of these are insightful, some full of errors, and some include both...

  8. Soft Budgets And Highway Franchising

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo Engel; Ronald Fischer; Alexander Galetovic

    2004-01-01

    Latin American governments progressively substituted build–operate–and–transfer (BOT) contracts for government–provided highways during the nineties. Because under BOT a private franchise holder finances and operates the road in exchange for tolls, it is often claimed that BOT represents a privatization of highways. We argue that, as currently applied, the BOT model is an imperfect and incomplete privatization, because the franchise holders’ budget constraint has been soft, with losses being ...

  9. The soft pomeron and QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donnachie, A.

    1996-01-01

    The standard phenomenology of the soft pomeron in hadron-hadron interactions is recalled briefly. The model is confronted with the HERA data for the total photoproduction cross section, deep inelastic scattering, diffractive vector meson photoproduction and diffractive electroproduction of vector mesons. The standard phenomenology is incompatible with some aspects of the HERA data which require a more rapid variation with energy than can be incorporated. Possible solutions to this problem are indicated. (author)

  10. Impulse breakdown of small air gap in electric field Part I: Influence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of barrier position on breakdown voltage in air dielectric has been investigated. Needle and Cone positive point electrodes were used and the effects of electrode curvature on barrier position for maximum breakdown voltage were compared, with air gap for the point to plane electrode fixed at 10 cm for all the ...

  11. Blueprint for Breakdown: Three Mile Island and the Media before the Accident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Sharon M.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses media coverage of the Three Mile Island nuclear power plant before and during the disaster. Concludes that there was a communication breakdown prior to the accident. Outlines the causes and offers suggestions for avoiding similar breakdowns in the future. (JMF)

  12. Formation and breakdown of adenosine in the heart : investigations on myocardial purine metabolismen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.W. Achterberg (Peter)

    1986-01-01

    textabstractAdenosine, a strong coronary vasodilator, is a breakdown product of the myocardial high-energy phosphate ATP. ATP serves as the direct energy source for contraction of the heart. Chapter 1 of this thesis gives a general introduction on contractility dependent ATP-breakdown, the

  13. Pre-breakdown light emission phenomena in low-pressure argon between parabolic electrodes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagenaars, E.; Perriëns, N.W.B.; Brok, W.J.M.; Bowden, M.D.; Veldhuizen, van E.M.; Kroesen, G.M.W.

    2006-01-01

    An experimental study on pre-breakdown light emission in low-pressure argon gas was performed. In a pulsed discharge, pre-breakdown phenomena were observed for repetition rates between 100 and 2000 Hz and pulse duration of 100 ¿s. These phenomena were studied with time-resolved emission imaging

  14. Electronic individual breakdown of pension rights and/or transfer value

    CERN Document Server

    Pension Fund

    2011-01-01

    Commencing this year, members of the personnel will be notified by e-mail of their annual breakdown of pension rights and/or transfer value. Each person receiving the e-mail notification will be invited to consult this breakdown by clicking on a link protected by AISlogin and a password. Benefits Service of the Pension Fund pension-benefits@cern.ch  

  15. Double helix vortex breakdown in a turbulent swirling annular jet flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vanierschot, M.; Perçin, M.; van Oudheusden, B.W.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we report on the structure and dynamics of double helix vortex breakdown in a turbulent annular swirling jet. Double helix breakdown has been reported previously for the laminar flow regime, but this structure has rarely been observed in turbulent flow. The flow field is

  16. How practice breakdowns disclose existing structures and contribute to practice innovation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Loohuis, Raymond Petrus Antonius

    2015-01-01

    Practice breakdowns provide fertile ground for practice innovation because they demand a shift from structure to process. Practice breakdowns are fruitful subjects for research and practice because they disclose existing structures by prompting situated actors to become reflective on the otherwise

  17. Lowering effect of radioactive irradiation on breakdown voltage and electron avalanche pulse characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawahashi, Akira; Nakano, Toru; Hosokawa, Tatsuzo; Miyoshi, Yosinori.

    1976-01-01

    In the time resolving measurement of the growing process and breakdown of electron avalanche in a gap of uniform electric field, the phenomenon that DC breakdown voltage slightly lowered was observed when β ray was irradiated as the initial electron source, as compared with unirradiated condition. Beta source used is 90 Sr- 90 Y of 2 mCi in radiative equilibrium. The experimental results and the examination are described in detail. In brief, the remarkable superposition of succeeding avalanche pulse over the preceeding avalanche pulse waveform was observed under the gap condition in which the breakdown voltage decreased in β-ray irradiation. Thus this superposition of avalanche pulses is considered as one of the causes of the breakdown voltage reduction. When β source is used as the initial electron source, the number of supplied initial electrons is very large as compared with unity, and at the same time, a great number of initial electrons can be supplied within the diffusion radius r of avalanche. Then the effect of initial electron number n 0 was considered by employing a diagram for breakdown scheme. The transition from Townsend type breakdown to streamer type breakdown occurs owing to increasing n 0 , and in that condition, the breakdown voltage lowers slightly. (Wakatsuki, Y)

  18. MICROBIAL COLONIZATION, RESPIRATION, AND BREAKDOWN OF MAPLE LEAVES ALONG A STREAM-MARSH CONTINUUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breakdown rates, macroinvertebrate and bacterial colonization, and microbial respiration were measured on decaying maple (Acer saccharum) leaves at three sites along a stream-marsh continuum. Breakdown rates (-k+-SE) were 0.0284+-0.0045 d-1 for leaves in a high-gradient, non-tida...

  19. The rate of dielectric breakdown weathering of lunar regolith in permanently shadowed regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, A. P.; Stubbs, T. J.; Wilson, J. K.; Schwadron, N. A.; Spence, H. E.

    2017-02-01

    Large solar energetic particle events may cause dielectric breakdown in the upper 1 mm of regolith in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs). We estimate how the resulting breakdown weathering compares to meteoroid impact weathering. Although the SEP event rates measured by the Cosmic Ray Telescope for the Effects of Radiation (CRaTER) on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) are too low for breakdown to have significantly affected the regolith over the duration of the LRO mission, regolith gardened by meteoroid impacts has been exposed to SEPs for ∼106 yr. Therefore, we estimate that breakdown weathering's production rate of vapor and melt in the coldest PSRs is up to 1.8 - 3.5 ×10-7 kg m-2 yr-1 , which is comparable to that produced by meteoroid impacts. Thus, in PSRs, up to 10-25% of the regolith may have been melted or vaporized by dielectric breakdown. Breakdown weathering could also be consistent with observations of the increased porosity ("fairy castles") of PSR regolith. We also show that it is conceivable that breakdown-weathered material is present in Apollo soil samples. Consequently, breakdown weathering could be an important process within PSRs, and it warrants further investigation.

  20. Humidity and polarity influence on MIM PZT capacitor degradation and breakdown

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Jiahui; Salm, Cora; Houwman, Evert; Schmitz, Jurriaan; Nguyen, Minh

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a reliability study on unpackaged metal-PZT-metal capacitors. Both ramped voltage stress (RVS) and time dependent dielectric breakdown (TDDB) measurements show that environmental humidity dramatically worsens the PZT reliability. Visible breakdown spots on the surface of PZT