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Sample records for break points identified

  1. A new approach to assess COPD by identifying lung function break-points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson G

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Göran Eriksson,1,* Linnea Jarenbäck,1,* Stefan Peterson,2 Jaro Ankerst,1 Leif Bjermer,1 Ellen Tufvesson11Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, 2Regional Cancer Center South, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: COPD is a progressive disease, which can take different routes, leading to great heterogeneity. The aim of the post-hoc analysis reported here was to perform continuous analyses of advanced lung function measurements, using linear and nonlinear regressions.Patients and methods: Fifty-one COPD patients with mild to very severe disease (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] Stages I–IV and 41 healthy smokers were investigated post-bronchodilation by flow-volume spirometry, body plethysmography, diffusion capacity testing, and impulse oscillometry. The relationship between COPD severity, based on forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, and different lung function parameters was analyzed by flexible nonparametric method, linear regression, and segmented linear regression with break-points.Results: Most lung function parameters were nonlinear in relation to spirometric severity. Parameters related to volume (residual volume, functional residual capacity, total lung capacity, diffusion capacity [diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide], diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide/alveolar volume and reactance (reactance area and reactance at 5Hz were segmented with break-points at 60%–70% of FEV1. FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC and resonance frequency had break-points around 80% of FEV1, while many resistance parameters had break-points below 40%. The slopes in percent predicted differed; resistance at 5 Hz minus resistance at 20 Hz had a linear slope change of -5.3 per unit FEV1, while residual volume had no slope change above and -3.3 change per unit FEV1 below its break-point of 61

  2. A new approach to assess COPD by identifying lung function break-points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eriksson, Göran; Jarenbäck, Linnea; Peterson, Stefan; Ankerst, Jaro; Bjermer, Leif; Tufvesson, Ellen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose COPD is a progressive disease, which can take different routes, leading to great heterogeneity. The aim of the post-hoc analysis reported here was to perform continuous analyses of advanced lung function measurements, using linear and nonlinear regressions. Patients and methods Fifty-one COPD patients with mild to very severe disease (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] Stages I–IV) and 41 healthy smokers were investigated post-bronchodilation by flow-volume spirometry, body plethysmography, diffusion capacity testing, and impulse oscillometry. The relationship between COPD severity, based on forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and different lung function parameters was analyzed by flexible nonparametric method, linear regression, and segmented linear regression with break-points. Results Most lung function parameters were nonlinear in relation to spirometric severity. Parameters related to volume (residual volume, functional residual capacity, total lung capacity, diffusion capacity [diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide], diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide/alveolar volume) and reactance (reactance area and reactance at 5Hz) were segmented with break-points at 60%–70% of FEV1. FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) and resonance frequency had break-points around 80% of FEV1, while many resistance parameters had break-points below 40%. The slopes in percent predicted differed; resistance at 5 Hz minus resistance at 20 Hz had a linear slope change of −5.3 per unit FEV1, while residual volume had no slope change above and −3.3 change per unit FEV1 below its break-point of 61%. Conclusion Continuous analyses of different lung function parameters over the spirometric COPD severity range gave valuable information additional to categorical analyses. Parameters related to volume, diffusion capacity, and reactance showed break-points around 65% of FEV1, indicating that air trapping starts to dominate

  3. Model Breaking Points Conceptualized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vig, Rozy; Murray, Eileen; Star, Jon R.

    2014-01-01

    Current curriculum initiatives (e.g., National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers 2010) advocate that models be used in the mathematics classroom. However, despite their apparent promise, there comes a point when models break, a point in the mathematical problem space where the model cannot,…

  4. Piecewise-smooth circle homeomorphisms with several break points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We prove that the invariant probability measure of an ergodic piecewise-smooth circle homeomorphism with several break points and the product of the jumps at break points non-trivial is singular with respect to Lebesgue measure.

  5. DNA Replication Reaches the Breaking Point

    OpenAIRE

    Petrini, John H.J.

    2009-01-01

    DNA strand breaks that result in stalled or damaged replication forks can be detrimental to the DNA replication process. In this issue, Doksani et al. (2009) examine the impact of a single double-stranded DNA break on replication in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  6. Cedar Breaks National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project - Field Plot, Observation Points and Accuracy Assessment Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This point file contains 282 point locations of field plot and observation data used by, and collected for, the vegetation mapping project for Cedar Breaks National...

  7. Propagation Mechanism Analysis Before the Break Point Inside Tunnels

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Ke; Zhong, Zhangdui; Bo, Ai; Briso Rodriguez, Cesar

    2011-01-01

    There is no unanimous consensus yet on the propagation mechanism before the break point inside tunnels. Some deem that the propagation mechanism follows the free space model, others argue that it should be described by the multimode waveguide model. Firstly, this paper analyzes the propagation loss in two mechanisms. Then, by conjunctively using the propagation theory and the three-dimensional solid geometry, a generic analytical model for the boundary between the free space mechanism and the...

  8. Infra-red fixed point structure characterising SUSY SU(5) symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze the one-loop renormalisation group equations for the parameters of the Higgs potential of a supersymmetric SU(5) model with first step of symmetry breaking involving an adjoint Higgs. In particular, we investigate the running of the parameters that decide the first step of symmetry breaking in attempt to establish which symmetry-breaking scenarios would be most likely if the model is the effective low-energy description of some more fundamental theory. An infra-red fixed point is identified analytically. It is located at the boundary between the region of Higgs parameter space corresponding to unbroken SU(5) and the region corresponding to the breaking of SU(5) to the Standard Model, and we elaborate on its implications. We also observe that certain forms of the Higgs potential discussed at tree level in the literature are not renormalisation group invariant. (Author)

  9. Infra-red fixed point structure characterising SUSY SU(5) symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Allanach, Benjamin C; Philipsen, O

    1996-01-01

    We analyze the one-loop renormalisation group equations for the parameters of the Higgs potential of a supersymmetric SU(5) model with first step of symmetry breaking involving an adjoint Higgs. In particular, we investigate the running of the parameters that decide the first step of symmetry breaking in an attempt to establish which symmetry-breaking scenarios would be most likely if the model is the effective low-energy description of some more fundamental theory. An infra-red fixed point is identified analytically. It is located at the boundary between the region of Higgs parameter space corresponding to unbroken SU(5) and the region corresponding to the breaking of SU(5) to the Standard Model, and we elaborate on its implications. We also observe that certain forms of the Higgs potential discussed at tree level in the literature are not renormalisation group invariant.

  10. Periodic orbits of circle homeomorphisms with a break point

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Let fθ(x) = F0(x) + θ (mod1), x is an element of S1 , θ is an element of [0,1] be a family of preserving orientation circle homeomorphisms with a single break point xb, i.e. with a jump in the first derivative F0 at the point x = xb. Suppose that F'0(x) is absolutely continuous on [xb, xb +1] and F''0(x) is an element of Lα([0,1]) for some α> 1. Consider fθ with rational rotation number ρθ = p/q of rank n, i.e. p/q = [k1, k2, ...,kn]. We prove that for sufficiently large n, the homeomorphism fθ has either a unique periodic orbit of period q or two periodic orbits of period q. Also the renormalization behaviour of fθ with rational rotation number p ρθ = p/q is studied. (author)

  11. Identifying image forgeries using change points detection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mahdian, Babak; Saic, Stanislav

    Washington: SPIE, 2011, 788008-1-780808-2. ISBN 978-0-8194-8417-8. ISSN 0277-786X. [SPIE Electronic Imaging, Media Watermarking, Security, and Forensics III. San Francisco (US), 22.01.2011-23.01.2011] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/08/0470; GA MV VG20102013064 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10750506 Keywords : image forgery Subject RIV: JC - Computer Hardware ; Software http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2012/ZOI/mahdian-identifying image forgeries using change points detection.pdf

  12. BREAK-EVEN POINT IN SUGAR-BEET PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilija Nedić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available World sugar consumption has been recording a steady growth in the past 70 years and, according to all relevant estimates, it will continue to grow also in the next decade, which puts sugar in the category of the most significant foods and commodities in the world. Of the total world sugar production, around 77% is derived from sugar cane and 23% from sugar beet. Brazil has been the world leader in sugar production for a long period of time, producing white sugar from sugar cane only, whereas the leader in the production of sugar derived from sugar beet is the EU-28. When the Republic of Croatia joined the EU, the Croatian sugar industry became part of the single European sugar market, so the break-even point was used in the research to determine the competitiveness level of the Croatian sugar beet production. Based on the expected selling price of sugar beet amounting to EUR 34 per ton of standard quality sugar beet, and using the break-even method, it was determined that the quantity required to cover total costs in sugar beet production in the Republic of Croatia amounts to 55.26 tons per hectare of payable sugar beet, standard quality, i.e. 8.84 tons of polarized sugar per hectare. As the average sugar beet production in the Republic of Croatia, expressed in the equivalent of polarized sugar, amounts to 7.8 tons per hectare, it is obvious that an average Croatian producer of sugar beet, without income from subsidies, operates at a loss.

  13. Anchor Points Reactive Potential for Bond-Breaking Reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ke R; Xu, Xuefei; Truhlar, Donald G

    2014-03-11

    We present a new method for fitting potential energy surfaces in molecular-mechanics-like internal coordinates based on data from electronic structure calculations. The method should be applicable to chemical reactions involving either bond dissociation or isomerization and is illustrated here for bond dissociation, in particular the breaking of an O-H bond in methanol and the breaking of an N-H bond in dimethylamine. As compared to previously available systematic methods for fitting global potential energy surfaces, it extends the maximum size of the system than can be treated by at least an order of magnitude. PMID:26580172

  14. Chromosomal break points in irradiated and ethyl methane sulphonate treated leucocytes of patients with Down syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frequencies of chromosomal damage in the peripheral leucocytes of patients with Down syndrome, on exposure to gamma rays (2Gy) or ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS, 1 x 10-4M), were assessed. Analysis of break points in the chromosomes of irradiated cells revealed a non-random occurrence. Six of the break points observed in EMS-treated cells were found to overlap with those recorded in irradiated cells. Thirteen break points observed were found to correlate with the location of cancer-specific break points and four of these coincided with the bands where oncogenes have been located. Two break points were localised to the same bands as that of known heritable fragile sites. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  15. Identifying single points of failure in your organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Robby J

    2013-01-01

    Single points of failure may spell disaster for businesses that have not adequately identified and mitigated these critical risks. A single point of failure audit will identify the single points of failure in all functional areas that may negatively impact organisational processes and process flows. This paper provides a holistic approach to constructing a successful single point of failure audit and identifies the systems that are frequently the sources of single points of failure. It also examines the internal and external risks that may spawn single points of failure and provides various mitigation strategies for the systems identified. PMID:24113634

  16. Localisation of aphidicolin-induced break points in Holstein-Friesian cattle (Bos taurus using RBG-banding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mernies Beatriz

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fragile sites (FS seem to play a role in genome instability and may be involved in karyotype evolution and chromosome aberrations. The majority of common fragile sites are induced by aphidicolin. Aphidicolin was used at two different concentrations (0.15 and 0.30 μM to study the occurrence of FS in the cattle karyotype. In this paper, a map of aphidicolin induced break points and fragile sites in cattle chromosomes was constructed. The statistical analysis indicated that any band with three or more breaks was significantly damaged (P r = 0.54. On the contrary, 21 FS were identified on negative R bands while 9 FS were located on positive R bands.

  17. Effect of Symmetry Breaking on Electronic Band Structure: Gap Opening at the High Symmetry Points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillaume Vasseur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Some characteristic features of band structures, like the band degeneracy at high symmetry points or the existence of energy gaps, usually reflect the symmetry of the crystal or, more precisely, the symmetry of the wave vector group at the relevant points of the Brillouin zone. In this paper, we will illustrate this property by considering two-dimensional (2D-hexagonal lattices characterized by a possible two-fold degenerate band at the K points with a linear dispersion (Dirac points. By combining scanning tunneling spectroscopy and angle-resolved photoemission, we study the electronic properties of a similar system: the Ag/Cu(111 interface reconstruction characterized by a hexagonal superlattice, and we show that the gap opening at the K points of the Brillouin zone of the reconstructed cell is due to the symmetry breaking of the wave vector group.

  18. Identifying populations at risk from environmental contamination from point sources

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, F; Ogston, S

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To compare methods for defining the population at risk from a point source of air pollution. A major challenge for environmental epidemiology lies in correctly identifying populations at risk from exposure to environmental pollutants. The complexity of today's environment makes it essential that the methods chosen are accurate and sensitive.

  19. Chiral symmetry breaking in three-dimensional quantum electrodynamics as fixed point annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Herbut, Igor F

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in three dimensional ($d=3$) quantum electrodynamics is understood as annihilation of an infrared-stable fixed point that describes the large-N conformal phase by another unstable fixed point at a critical number of fermions $N=N_c$. We discuss the root of universality of $N_c$ in this picture, together with some features of the phase boundary in the $(d,N)$ plane. In particular, it is shown that as $d\\rightarrow 4$, $N_c\\rightarrow 0$ with a constant slope, our best estimate of which suggests that $N_c = 2.89$ in $d=3$.

  20. Chiral symmetry breaking in three-dimensional quantum electrodynamics as fixed point annihilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbut, Igor F.

    2016-07-01

    Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in three-dimensional (d =3 ) quantum electrodynamics is understood as annihilation of an infrared-stable fixed point that describes the large-N conformal phase by another unstable fixed point at a critical number of fermions N =Nc. We discuss the root of universality of Nc in this picture, together with some features of the phase boundary in the (d ,N ) plane. In particular, it is shown that as d →4 , Nc→0 with a constant slope, our best estimate of which suggests that Nc=2.89 in d =3 .

  1. Breaking a virus: Identifying molecular level failure modes of a viral capsid by multiscale modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamani, V.; Globisch, C.; Peter, C.; Deserno, M.

    2016-07-01

    We use coarse-grained (CG) simulations to study the deformation of empty Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus (CCMV) capsids under uniaxial compression, from the initial elastic response up to capsid breakage. Our CG model is based on the MARTINI force field and has been amended by a stabilizing elastic network, acting only within individual proteins, that was tuned to capture the fluctuation spectrum of capsid protein dimers, obtained from all atom simulations. We have previously shown that this model predicts force-compression curves that match AFM indentation experiments on empty CCMV capsids. Here we investigate details of the actual breaking events when the CCMV capsid finally fails. We present a symmetry classification of all relevant protein contacts and show that they differ significantly in terms of stability. Specifically, we show that interfaces which break readily are precisely those which are believed to form last during assembly, even though some of them might share the same contacts as other non-breaking interfaces. In particular, the interfaces that form pentamers of dimers never break, while the virtually identical interfaces within hexamers of dimers readily do. Since these units differ in the large-scale geometry and, most noticeably, the cone-angle at the center of the 5- or 6-fold vertex, we propose that the hexameric unit fails because it is pre-stressed. This not only suggests that hexamers of dimers form less frequently during the early stages of assembly; it also offers a natural explanation for the well-known β-barrel motif at the hexameric center as a post-aggregation stabilization mechanism. Finally, we identify those amino acid contacts within all key protein interfaces that are most persistent during compressive deformation of the capsid, thereby providing potential targets for mutation studies aiming to elucidate the key contacts upon which overall stability rests.

  2. Near Point of Convergence Break for Different Age Groups in Turkish Population with Normal Binocular Vision: Normative Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Sayın

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the near point of convergence break in Turkish population with normal binocular vision and to obtain the normative data for the near point of convergence break in different age groups. Such database has not been previously reported. Material and Method: In this prospective study, 329 subjects with normal binocular vision (age range, 3-72 years were evaluated. The near point of convergence break was measured 4 times repeatedly with an accommodative target. Mean values of near point of convergence break were provided for these age groups (≤10, 11-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, and >60 years old. A statistical comparison (one-way ANOVA and post-hoc test of these values between age groups was performed. A correlation between the near point of convergence break and age was evaluated by Pearson’s correlation test. Results: The mean value for near point of convergence break was 2.46±1.88 (0.5-14 cm. Specifically, 95% of measurements in all subjects were 60 year-old age groups in the near point of convergence break values (p=0.0001, p=0.0001, p=0.006, p=0.001, p= 0.004. A mild positive correlation was observed between the increase in near point of convergence break and increase of age (r=0.355 (p<0.001. Discussion: The values derived from a relatively large study population to establish a normative database for the near point of convergence break in the Turkish population with normal binocular vision are in relevance with age. This database has not been previously reported. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 402-6

  3. Analysis of boundary point (break point) in Linear Delay Model for nanoscale VLSI standard cell library characterization at PVT corners

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Gaurav Kumar

    2014-01-01

    In VLSI chip design flow, Static Timing Analysis (STA) is used for fast and accurate analysis of data-path delay. This process is fast because delay is picked from Look Up Tables (LUT) rather than conventional SPICE simulations. But accuracy of this method depends upon the underlying delay model with which LUT was characterized. Non Linear Delay Model (NLDM) based LUTs are quite common in industries. These LUT requires huge amount to time during characterization because of huge number of SPICE simulations done at arbitrary points. To improve this people proposed various other delay models like alpha-power and piecewise linear delay models. Bulusu et al proposed Linear Delay Model(LDM) which reduces LUT generation time to 50 percent. LDM divides delay curve w.r.t input rise time(trin) into two different region one is linear and other is non-linear. This boundary point between linear and non- linear region was called break point (trb). Linear region will be done if we simulate at only two points. This advantage...

  4. RUBIC identifies driver genes by detecting recurrent DNA copy number breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dyk, Ewald; Hoogstraat, Marlous; Ten Hoeve, Jelle; Reinders, Marcel J T; Wessels, Lodewyk F A

    2016-01-01

    The frequent recurrence of copy number aberrations across tumour samples is a reliable hallmark of certain cancer driver genes. However, state-of-the-art algorithms for detecting recurrent aberrations fail to detect several known drivers. In this study, we propose RUBIC, an approach that detects recurrent copy number breaks, rather than recurrently amplified or deleted regions. This change of perspective allows for a simplified approach as recursive peak splitting procedures and repeated re-estimation of the background model are avoided. Furthermore, we control the false discovery rate on the level of called regions, rather than at the probe level, as in competing algorithms. We benchmark RUBIC against GISTIC2 (a state-of-the-art approach) and RAIG (a recently proposed approach) on simulated copy number data and on three SNP6 and NGS copy number data sets from TCGA. We show that RUBIC calls more focal recurrent regions and identifies a much larger fraction of known cancer genes. PMID:27396759

  5. Lidar point density analysis: implications for identifying water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worstell, Bruce B.; Poppenga, Sandra; Evans, Gayla A.; Prince, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Most airborne topographic light detection and ranging (lidar) systems operate within the near-infrared spectrum. Laser pulses from these systems frequently are absorbed by water and therefore do not generate reflected returns on water bodies in the resulting void regions within the lidar point cloud. Thus, an analysis of lidar voids has implications for identifying water bodies. Data analysis techniques to detect reduced lidar return densities were evaluated for test sites in Blackhawk County, Iowa, and Beltrami County, Minnesota, to delineate contiguous areas that have few or no lidar returns. Results from this study indicated a 5-meter radius moving window with fewer than 23 returns (28 percent of the moving window) was sufficient for delineating void regions. Techniques to provide elevation values for void regions to flatten water features and to force channel flow in the downstream direction also are presented.

  6. Breaking Bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Isaac-Cesar; Kagan, David

    2013-01-01

    The sight of a broken bat in Major League Baseball can produce anything from a humorous dribbler in the infield to a frightening pointed projectile headed for the stands. Bats usually break at the weakest point, typically in the handle. Breaking happens because the wood gets bent beyond the breaking point due to the wave sent down the bat created…

  7. A new criterion for identifying breaks in monsoon conditions over the Indian subcontinent

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Dessai, U.R.P.

    for the period 1901 to 2002. We refer to a situation as a break, if the all India rainfall is less than 9 mm/day and the condition persists for a minimum of three days and if it occurs in the mid monsoon months of July and August. The majority of the breaks...

  8. The breaking point between fast- and slow-light in a degenerate two-level atomic system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates the breaking point between fast- and slow-light in a degenerate two-level atomic system, where fast-light can be converted to slow-light arbitrarily on a single transition line by adjusting the strength of the pumping field. An equivalent incoherent pumping rate is introduced in this simplified theoretical model which exploits the dependence of this feature. The experimental observation is presented as evidence of the breaking point where the injected power is about 0.08 mW. (classical areas of phenomenology)

  9. Summer holidays as break-point in shaping a tannery sludge microbial community around a stable core microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Cesira; Boscaro, Vittorio; Munz, Giulio; Mori, Gualtiero; Vannini, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Recently, several investigations focused on the discovery of a bacterial consortium shared among different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Nevertheless, the definition of a core microbiota over time represents the necessary counterpart in order to unravel the dynamics of bacterial communities in these environments. Here we performed a monthly survey on the bacterial community of a consortial industrial plant. Objectives of this study were: (1) to identify a core microbiota constant over time; (2) to evaluate the temporal dynamics of the community during one year. A conspicuous and diversified core microbiota is constituted by operational taxonomic units which are present throughout the year in the plant. Community composition data confirm that the presence and abundance of bacteria in WWTPs is highly consistent at high taxonomic level. Our results indicate however a difference in microbial community structure between two groups of samples, identifying the summer holiday period as the break-point. Changes in the structure of the microbial community occur otherwise gradually, one month after another. Further studies will clarify how the size and diversity of the core microbiota could affect the observed dynamics. PMID:27461169

  10. Break Point Distribution on Chromosome 3 of Human Epithelial Cells exposed to Gamma Rays, Neutrons and Fe Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, M.; Saganti, P. B.; Gersey, B.; Wilkins, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wu, H.

    2007-01-01

    Most of the reported studies of break point distribution on the damaged chromosomes from radiation exposure were carried out with the G-banding technique or determined based on the relative length of the broken chromosomal fragments. However, these techniques lack the accuracy in comparison with the later developed multicolor banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) technique that is generally used for analysis of intrachromosomal aberrations such as inversions. Using mBAND, we studied chromosome aberrations in human epithelial cells exposed in vitro to both low or high dose rate gamma rays in Houston, low dose rate secondary neutrons at Los Alamos National Laboratory and high dose rate 600 MeV/u Fe ions at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory. Detailed analysis of the inversion type revealed that all of the three radiation types induced a low incidence of simple inversions. Half of the inversions observed after neutron or Fe ion exposure, and the majority of inversions in gamma-irradiated samples were accompanied by other types of intrachromosomal aberrations. In addition, neutrons and Fe ions induced a significant fraction of inversions that involved complex rearrangements of both inter- and intrachromosome exchanges. We further compared the distribution of break point on chromosome 3 for the three radiation types. The break points were found to be randomly distributed on chromosome 3 after neutrons or Fe ions exposure, whereas non-random distribution with clustering break points was observed for gamma-rays. The break point distribution may serve as a potential fingerprint of high-LET radiation exposure.

  11. A nontrivial critical fixed point for replica-symmetry-breaking transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Charbonneau, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The transformation of the free-energy landscape from smooth to fractal is the richest feature of mean-field disordered systems. A well-studied example is the de Almeida-Thouless transition for spin glasses in a magnetic field, and a similar phenomenon--the Gardner transition--has recently been predicted for structural glasses. However, the existence of these phase transitions has been called into question below the upper critical dimension d_u=6. Here, we obtain evidence for these transitions in dimensions didentifies the underlying critical fixed point. Because this fixed point is found in the strong-coupling regime, we further corroborate the result with a nonperturbative renormalization group treatment.

  12. IDENTIFYING BREAKS AND CURVATURE IN THE FERMI SPECTRA OF BRIGHT FLAT SPECTRUM RADIO QUASARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowing the site of γ-ray emission in active galactic nucleus jets will do much for our understanding of the physics of the source. In particular, if the emission region is close to the black hole then absorption of γ-rays with photons from the broad-line region could become significant. Such absorption is predicted to produce two specific spectral breaks in the γ-ray spectra of Flat Spectrum Radio Quasars (FSRQs). We test this hypothesis using three years of Fermi observations of nine bright FSRQs. A simple power-law fit to the spectrum of each source can be significantly improved by introducing a break, but the break energies are inconsistent with those predicted by the double-absorber model. In some cases the fit can be further improved by a log-parabola. In addition, by dividing the data from each source into two equal epochs we find that the best description of an object's spectrum often varies between a log-parabola and a broken power law.

  13. B-lymphocyte commitment: identifying the point of no return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welinder, Eva; Ahsberg, Josefine; Sigvardsson, Mikael

    2011-10-01

    Even though B-lymphocyte development is one of the best understood models for cell differentiation in the hematopoetic system, recent advances in cell sorting and functional genomics has increased this understanding further. This has suggested that already early lymphoid primed multipotent progenitor cells (LMPPs) express low levels of lymphoid restricted transcripts. The expression of these genes becomes more pronounced when cells enter the FLT-3/IL-7 receptor positive common lymphoid progenitor (CLP) stage. However, the expression of B-lineage specific genes is limited to a B-cell restricted Ly6D surface positive subpopulation of the CLP compartment. The gene expression patterns also reflect differences in lineage potential and while Ly6D negative FLT-3/IL-7 receptor positive cells represents true CLPs with an ability to generate B/T and NK cells, the Ly6D positive cells lack NK cell potential and display a reduced T-cell potential in vivo. These recent findings suggest that the CLP compartment is highly heterogenous and that the point of no return in B-cell development may occur already in B220(-)CD19(-) cells. These findings have allowed for a better understanding of the interplay between transcription factors like EBF-1, PAX-5 and E47, all known as crucial for normal B-cell development. In this review, we aim to provide a comprehensive overview of B-cell fate specification and commitment based on the recent advances in the understanding of molecular networks as well as functional properties of early progenitor populations. PMID:21944938

  14. Based on the Theory of Diffusion Breaking Point to Divide Scope of Travel Web Sites Radiation Research

    OpenAIRE

    FU Gang; NI Daoan; Li, Tao

    2014-01-01

    This study used a principal component analysis on the competitiveness of 31 tourism website to quantitatively evaluate, to calculate the travel sites of standardized competitiveness score, using the theory of diffusion breaking point to divide the scope of its radiation, generated radiation range diagram by ArcGis. Research shows that: ①Tour website information of radiation range size depends not only on the web site of the standardized competitiveness, also depends on Euclidean distance of a...

  15. A new approach to assess COPD by identifying lung function break-points

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Göran Eriksson,1,* Linnea Jarenbäck,1,* Stefan Peterson,2 Jaro Ankerst,1 Leif Bjermer,1 Ellen Tufvesson11Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, 2Regional Cancer Center South, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: COPD is a progressive disease, which can take different routes, leading to great heterogeneity. The aim of the post-hoc analysis reported her...

  16. Universal breaking point asymptotic for energy spectrum of Riemann waves in weakly nonlinear non-dispersive media

    CERN Document Server

    Kartashova, Elena

    2013-01-01

    In this Letter we study the form of the energy spectrum of Riemann waves in weakly nonlinear non-dispersive media. For quadratic and cubic nonlinearity we demonstrate that the deformation of an Riemann wave over time yields an exponential energy spectrum which turns into power law asymptotic with the slope being approximately -8/3 at the last stage of evolution before breaking. We argue, that this is the universal asymptotic behaviour of Riemann waves in any nonlinear non-dispersive medium at the point of breaking. The results reported in this Letter can be used in various non-dispersive media, e.g. magneto-hydro dynamics, physical oceanography, nonlinear acoustics.

  17. Influence of neutron correlations on nuclear break-up reaction both from theoretical and experimental point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear break-up has been studied both from an experimental and a theoretical point of view and has shown to be a powerful tool to probe nucleon correlations in nuclei. A theory beyond mean-field, called TDDM, (Time Dependant Density Matrix) taking into account two-body correlations has been developed. The dynamical evolution of a correlated nuclei can be described and especially nuclear break-up. This study shows that the distributions of relative angle between the two neutrons strongly differ when varying initial correlations: two nucleons close together in the nuclei will lead to small relative angle after emission whereas two nucleons far from each other gives large relative angles. From an experimental point of view, correlations between the two neutrons in the halo of the Borromean nucleus He6 have been investigated. Its ground state is predicted to have two dominant configurations: the di-neutron configuration where the two neutrons are very close to each other and the cigar configuration, where the two neutrons are on opposite side with respect to the core. Nuclear break-up of He6 on a lead target has been studied at GANIL with a SPIRAL beam. The alpha particles coming out of the break-up where detected by a stripped Silicon detector coupled to a Silicon-Lithium detector and the neutrons by EDEN and the Neutron Wall, in order to get a large angular coverage. Angular correlation functions extracted from data show both strong correlation at small relative angles and at large relative angle corresponding respectively to the contribution of the di-neutron configuration and of the cigar like configuration. So He6 ground state seems to be a superposition of these two configurations. (author)

  18. Numerical Simulation of Spatial Lag Between Wave Breaking Point and Location of Maximum Wave-Induced Current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jin-hai; TANG Yu

    2009-01-01

    A quasi three-dimensional numerical model of wave-driven coastal currents with the effects of surface rollers is developed for the study of the spatial lag between the location of the maximum wave-induced current and the wave breaking point.The governing equations are derived from Navier-Stokes equations and solved by the hybrid method combining the fractional step finite different method in the horizontal plane with a Galerkin finite element method in the vertical direction.The surface rollers effects are considered through incorporating the creation and evolution of the roller area into the free surface shear stress.An energy equation facilitates the computation process which transfers the wave breaking energy dissipation to the surface roller energy.The wave driver model is a phase-averaged wave model based on the wave action balance equation.Two sets of laboratory experiments producing breaking waves that generated longshore currents on a planar beach are used to evaluate the model's performance.The present wave-driven coastal current model with the roller effect in the surface shear stress term can produce satisfactory results by increasing the wave-induced nearshore current velocity inside the surf zone and shifting the location of the maximum longshore current velocity landward.

  19. Netrin signaling breaks the equivalence between two identified zebrafish motoneurons revealing a new role of intermediate targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Hale

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously showed that equivalence between two identified zebrafish motoneurons is broken by interactions with identified muscle fibers that act as an intermediate target for the axons of these motoneurons. Here we investigate the molecular basis of the signaling interaction between the intermediate target and the motoneurons. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We provide evidence that Netrin 1a is an intermediate target-derived signal that causes two equivalent motoneurons to adopt distinct fates. We show that although these two motoneurons express the same Netrin receptors, their axons respond differently to Netrin 1a encountered at the intermediate target. Furthermore, we demonstrate that when Netrin 1a is knocked down, more distal intermediate targets that express other Netrins can also function to break equivalence between these motoneurons. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest a new role for intermediate targets in breaking neuronal equivalence. The data we present reveal that signals encountered during axon pathfinding can cause equivalent neurons to adopt distinct fates. Such signals may be key in diversifying a neuronal population and leading to correct circuit formation.

  20. Breaking barriers to interoperability: assigning spatially and temporally unique identifiers to spaces and buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Christopher R; Madan, Isaac

    2013-08-01

    The real estate industry routinely uses specialized information systems for functions, including design, construction, facilities management, brokerage, tax assessment, and utilities. These systems are mature and effective within vertically integrated market segments. However, new questions are reaching across these traditional information silos. For example, buyers may be interested in evaluating the design, energy efficiency characteristics, and operational performance of a commercial building. This requires the integration of information across multiple databases held by different institutions. Today, this type of data integration is difficult to automate and propone to errors due, in part, to the lack of generally accepted building and spaces identifiers. Moving forward, the real estate industry needs a new mechanism to assign identifiers for whole buildings and interior spaces for the purpose of interoperability, data exchange, and integration. This paper describes a systematic process to identify activities occurring at building or within interior spaces to provide a foundation for exchange and interoperability. We demonstrate the application of the approach with a prototype Web application. This concept and demonstration illustrate the elements of a practical interoperability framework that can increase productivity, create new business opportunities, and reduce errors, waste, and redundancy. PMID:23919918

  1. A Free, Open-Source Tool for Identifying Urban Agglomerations Using Point Data

    OpenAIRE

    Day, Jennifer; Chen, Yiqun; Ellis, Peter; Roberts, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a software tool for identifying urban agglomerations in low-information settings. The framework outlined in this paper is designed to work using point data. Our tool and all required data are provided free and in open-source format. This paper describes the advantages and disadvantages of using point-based geographies in regional analysis, discusses the practical and ethical challenges of distinguishing urban from rural regions, details the function of our software, and d...

  2. Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate End-points (ECLIPSE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, J; Anderson, W; Coxson, H O;

    2008-01-01

    plethysmography), chest computed tomography, biomarker measurement (in blood, sputum, urine and exhaled breath condensate), health outcomes, body impedance, resting oxygen saturation and 6-min walking distance. Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate End-points is the largest study...

  3. A Combined Control Chart for Identifying Out–Of–Control Points in Multivariate Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marroquín–Prado E.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Hotelling's T2 control chart is widely used to identify out–of–control signals in multivariate processes. However, this chart is not sensitive to small shifts in the process mean vec tor. In this work we propose a control chart to identify out–of–control signals. The proposed chart is a combination of Hotelling's T2 chart, M chart proposed by Hayter et al. (1994 and a new chart based on Principal Components. The combination of these charts identifies any type and size of change in the process mean vector. Us ing simulation and the Average Run Length (ARL, the performance of the proposed control chart is evaluated. The ARL means the average points within control before an out–of–control point is detected, The results of the simulation show that the proposed chart is more sensitive that each one of the three charts individually

  4. Detecting Structural Breaks using Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ntantamis, Christos

    Testing for structural breaks and identifying their location is essential for econometric modeling. In this paper, a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approach is used in order to perform these tasks. Breaks are defined as the data points where the underlying Markov Chain switches from one state to another...

  5. Inter-point procrustes: identifying regional and large differences in 3D anatomical shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekadir, Karim; Frangi, Alejandro F; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for the robust alignment and interpretation of 3D anatomical structures with large and localized shape differences. In such situations, existing techniques based on the well-known Procrustes analysis can be significantly affected due to the introduced non-Gaussian distribution of the residuals. In the proposed technique, influential points that induce large dissimilarities are identified and displaced with the aim to obtain an intermediate template with an improved distribution of the residuals. The key element of the algorithm is the use of pose invariant shape variables to robustly guide both the influential point detection and displacement steps. The intermediate template is then used as the basis for the estimation of the final pose parameters between the source and destination shapes, enabling to effectively highlight the regional differences of interest. The validation using synthetic and real datasets of different morphologies demonstrates robustness up-to 50% regional differences and potential for shape classification. PMID:23286119

  6. Using Soluble Reactive Phosphorus and Ammonia to Identify Point Source Discharge from Large Livestock Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrello, M. C.; Scribner, M.; Chessin, K.

    2013-12-01

    A growing body of research draws attention to the negative environmental impacts on surface water from large livestock facilities. These impacts are mostly in the form of excessive nutrient loading resulting in significantly decreased oxygen levels. Over-application of animal waste on fields as well as direct discharge into surface water from facilities themselves has been identified as the main contributor to the development of hypoxic zones in Lake Erie, Chesapeake Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. Some regulators claim enforcement of water quality laws is problematic because of the nature and pervasiveness of non-point source impacts. Any direct discharge by a facility is a violation of permits governed by the Clean Water Act, unless the facility has special dispensation for discharge. Previous research by the principal author and others has shown runoff and underdrain transport are the main mechanisms by which nutrients enter surface water. This study utilized previous work to determine if the effects of non-point source discharge can be distinguished from direct (point-source) discharge using simple nutrient analysis and dissolved oxygen (DO) parameters. Nutrient and DO parameters were measured from three sites: 1. A stream adjacent to a field receiving manure, upstream of a large livestock facility with a history of direct discharge, 2. The same stream downstream of the facility and 3. A stream in an area relatively unimpacted by large-scale agriculture (control site). Results show that calculating a simple Pearson correlation coefficient (r) of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and ammonia over time as well as temperature and DO, distinguishes non-point source from point source discharge into surface water. The r value for SRP and ammonia for the upstream site was 0.01 while the r value for the downstream site was 0.92. The control site had an r value of 0.20. Likewise, r values were calculated on temperature and DO for each site. High negative correlations

  7. Analytical and numerical (Monte Carlo) studies of point and space group symmetry-breaking in the liquid-solid phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a complete classification of symmetry-breaking terms in the one- and two-body densities for crystallographic space group P63/mmc according to irreducible representations (IR) of the extended Euclidean space group E(vertical bar R3) in three dimensions. We show that these IRs of E(vertical bar R3) are the order parameter symmetries of the liquid-solid phase transition from a spatially uniform liquid, with space group E(vertical bar R3), to a crystal of space group P63/mmc. The analytical group-theoretical methods derived in this paper furnish mathematically rigorous criteria at the level of the microscopic spatial structure of materials for identifying the occurrence of a spontaneous solidification of a liquid and the low-symmetry crystallographic subgroup of E(vertical bar R3) in which the liquid crystallizes. We prove in particular that all of the irreducible order parameter symmetries of the liquid-solid phase transition appear in the two-body density, whereas the vast majority of symmetry-breaking IRs of E(vertical bar R3) is absent from the one body density. The novel aspects arising from this finding for analyzing phase transitions are discussed. We present numerical results of an exact Fourier path integral Monte Carlo simulation of spontaneous crystallization of liquid natural argon at the experimental triple point temperature into a hexagonal close-packed crystal, with space group P63/mmc. The experimental relevance of this system in particular is addressed. We mention the relation of the theory presented here to experimental X-ray diffraction and neutron scattering analysis of the microstructure of materials. We outline the applicability of formal and/or computational techniques derived and employed in this research to (envisaged) Monte Carlo investigations of adsorbed solid and liquid films, phase transitions in liquid crystals, computation of the local electron number density for electronic energy band structure calculations, and variational

  8. Concerning the proofs of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in Q.C.D. from the effective lagrangian point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claims that spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in Q.C.D. is mediated by the U(1) axial anomaly are examined from the viewpoint of effective chiral lagrangians. The proofs are seen to arise from a use of effective chiral lagrangians in which the U(1) axial symmetry is explicitly broken by effects of the anomaly. A U(1) axial invariant chiral lagrangian (to be presented) offers no such proof. (author)

  9. Detecting and identifying two-dimensional symmetry-protected topological, symmetry-breaking, and intrinsic topological phases with modular matrices via tensor-network methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ching-Yu; Wei, Tzu-Chieh

    2016-04-01

    Symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases exhibit nontrivial order if symmetry is respected but are adiabatically connected to the trivial product phase if symmetry is not respected. However, unlike the symmetry-breaking phase, there is no local order parameter for SPT phases. Here we employ a tensor-network method to compute the topological invariants characterized by the simulated modular S and T matrices to study transitions in a few families of two-dimensional (2D) wave functions which are ZN (N =2 and3 ) symmetric. We find that in addition to the topologically ordered phases, the modular matrices can be used to identify nontrivial SPT phases and detect transitions between different SPT phases as well as between symmetric and symmetry-breaking phases. Therefore modular matrices can be used to characterize various types of gapped phases in a unifying way.

  10. Comparative mapping identifies the fusion point of an ancient mammalian X-autosomal rearrangement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, S.A.; Watson, J.M.; Spencer, J.A. [La Trobe Univ., Victoria (Australia)] [and others

    1996-07-01

    Previous comparisons of gene location in the three major groups of mammals (eutherians, marsupials, and monotremes) have suggested that the long arm of the human X represents the ancestral mammalian X chromosome, whereas the short arm represents an autosomal region(s) recently added to the eutherian X chromosome. To identify the fusion point of this ancient X-autosome rearrangement, we have mapped four genes, three of which map near the centromere of the human Xp, in marsupials and in a monotreme. We found that ARAF1, and GATA1 are located on the X chromosome in marsupials, and ALA2 and GATA1 are also located on the X in the platypus. This implies that the proximal short arm of the human X chromosome, including the centromere, was part of the ancestral mammalian X chromosome. The fusion point between the conserved region and the recently added regions therefore maps to human Xp11.23, although gene order on the human X indicates that there has been some rearrangement of this region. 26 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  11. 3D/4D architecture of chromosomal break point regions in the cell nucleus following irradiation of normal cells and tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of an effective analytical methodology for a correct description of oncogenic chromosomal aberrations is the challenge of medical radiobiology with respect to preventive therapeutic methods. Scope of the project was a better understanding of the behavior of break point regions dependent on the genome loci, the chromatin folding, the involved repair proteins and the beam quality with respect to an improvement and an efficient prognosis of the health consequences following radiation exposure. New microscopic insights in the normal cell nucleus are supposed to allow a better understanding of the spatial interactions on a molecular scale.

  12. Forecasting Brazilian output and its turning points in the presence of breaks: a comparison of linear and nonlinear models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brisne J. V. Céspedes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the forecasting performance of linear and nonlinear models under the presence of structural breaks for the Brazilian real GDP growth. The Markov switching models proposed by Hamilton (1989 and its generalized version by Lam (1990 are applied to quarterly GDP from 1975:1 to 2000:2 allowing for breaks at the Collor Plans. The probabilities of recessions are used to analyze the Brazilian business cycle. The in-sample and out-of-sample forecasting ability of growth rates of GDP of each model is compared with linear specifications and with a non-parametric rule. We find that the nonlinear models display a better forecasting performance than linear models. The specifications with the presence of structural breaks are important in obtaining a representation of the Brazilian business cycle and their inclusion improves considerably the models forecasting performance within and out-of-sample.Este artigo compara as habilidades preditivas de modelos lineares e não-lineares, com quebras estruturais, nas previsões da taxa de crescimento do PIB real do Brasil. Os modelos com mudanças de regime markovianas, propostos por Hamilton (1989 e generalizados por Lam (1990, são estimados para dados trimestrais de 1975:1 a 2000:2. Os modelos são estimados permitindo quebras estruturais durante os planos Collor. As probabilidades de recessão dos modelos são utilizadas para analisar o ciclo de negócios brasileiro. A capacidade de previsão da taxa de crescimento do PIB fora e dentro da amostra desses modelos é comparada com modelos lineares e com uma regra não-parametrizada. Os resultados indicam que os modelos não-lineares são os que apresentam o melhor desempenho preditivo quando comparados com modelos lineares. A inclusão de quebras estruturais é importante para a representação do ciclo de negócios no Brasil, além de levar a um desempenho de previsão consideravelmente melhor do que os modelos sem intervenção, dentro e fora de

  13. Nbs1 ChIP-Seq Identifies Off-Target DNA Double-Strand Breaks Induced by AID in Activated Splenic B Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyne Khair

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID is required for initiation of Ig class switch recombination (CSR and somatic hypermutation (SHM of antibody genes during immune responses. AID has also been shown to induce chromosomal translocations, mutations, and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs involving non-Ig genes in activated B cells. To determine what makes a DNA site a target for AID-induced DSBs, we identify off-target DSBs induced by AID by performing chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP for Nbs1, a protein that binds DSBs, followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-Seq. We detect and characterize hundreds of off-target AID-dependent DSBs. Two types of tandem repeats are highly enriched within the Nbs1-binding sites: long CA repeats, which can form Z-DNA, and tandem pentamers containing the AID target hotspot WGCW. These tandem repeats are not nearly as enriched at AID-independent DSBs, which we also identified. Msh2, a component of the mismatch repair pathway and important for genome stability, increases off-target DSBs, similar to its effect on Ig switch region DSBs, which are required intermediates during CSR. Most of the off-target DSBs are two-ended, consistent with generation during G1 phase, similar to DSBs in Ig switch regions. However, a minority are one-ended, presumably due to conversion of single-strand breaks to DSBs during replication. One-ended DSBs are repaired by processes involving homologous recombination, including break-induced replication repair, which can lead to genome instability. Off-target DSBs, especially those present during S phase, can lead to chromosomal translocations, deletions and gene amplifications, resulting in the high frequency of B cell lymphomas derived from cells that express or have expressed AID.

  14. The Effect of Using Break-Even-Point in Planning, Controlling, and Decision Making in the Industrial Jordanian Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Nabil Alnasser; Osama Samih Shaban; Ziad Al-Zubi

    2014-01-01

    This research study aimed to figure out the effect of using breakeven point in planning, controlling, and in the decision-making process, in the Jordanian industrial companies. This research study shed the light on the reality of the use of the breakeven point in the planning, controlling and decision-making in industrial companies in Jordan. The study sample of the study was formed out of 54 employees in the accounting departments in the Jordanian industrial companies. The study found out th...

  15. Analysis of economic break-even point of the biogas utilization for electrical power conversion: case study in a swine terminated unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aimed to develop a study to estimate the break-even point in financial units of the electrical power generation using biogas from swine wastes. The analyzed biodigester is a continuous tubular model with brick concrete duct and plastic covering with a gasometer, and where the waste of 2,300 fattening pigs are deposited daily. The initial investment estimate for the installation was R$ 51,537.17. The system annual costs were R$ 5,708.20, for maintenance, R$ 4,390.40 for depreciation and R$ 1,366.77 for interests. It was noticed that with an average of consumption of 17.1 kW.hour-1 the system presents an annual loss of R$ 1,592.14 because the consumption of 27.85 kW.hour-1 is the minimum that should be consumed to achieve a corresponded financial break-even point of R$ 15,054.40.year-1. It was concluded that the correct technical dimensioning greatly influences on the economic results. (author)

  16. Pointing and Reference in Sign Language and Spoken Language: Anchoring vs. Identifying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberà, Gemma; Zwets, Martine

    2013-01-01

    In both signed and spoken languages, pointing serves to direct an addressee's attention to a particular entity. This entity may be either present or absent in the physical context of the conversation. In this article we focus on pointing directed to nonspeaker/nonaddressee referents in Sign Language of the Netherlands (Nederlandse Gebarentaal,…

  17. A new method to identify the location of the kick point during the golf swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Christopher; Burnett, Angus; Matthews, Miccal

    2013-12-01

    No method currently exists to determine the location of the kick point during the golf swing. This study consisted of two phases. In the first phase, the static kick point of 10 drivers (having identical grip and head but fitted with shafts of differing mass and stiffness) was determined by two methods: (1) a visual method used by professional club fitters and (2) an algorithm using 3D locations of markers positioned on the golf club. Using level of agreement statistics, we showed the latter technique was a valid method to determine the location of the static kick point. In phase two, the validated method was used to determine the dynamic kick point during the golf swing. Twelve elite male golfers had three shots analyzed for two drivers fitted with stiff shafts of differing mass (56 g and 78 g). Excellent between-trial reliability was found for dynamic kick point location. Differences were found for dynamic kick point location when compared with static kick point location, as well as between-shaft and within-shaft. These findings have implications for future investigations examining the bending behavior of golf clubs, as well as being useful to examine relationships between properties of the shaft and launch parameters. PMID:23271218

  18. COST VOLUME PROFIT MODEL, THE BREAK -EVEN POINT AND THE DECISION MAKING PROCESS IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Management accounting and cost calculation in the hospitality industry is a pathless land. The prezent article is a starting point of a long scientific approach on the domain of the hospitality industry and on the managerial accounting in this area. Our intention is to put the spot light back on the thorny problem of applying Financial Accounting and specifically its implementation in the hospitality industry. One aim of this article is to provide a picture of CVP analysis in decision making ...

  19. Analysis of the OECD/NEA PWR Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) Benchmark Exercise 1 using the RELAP5 code with the point kinetics option

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The main purpose of the computational OECD/NEA pressurized water reactor main steam line break (PWR MSLB) Benchmark is the evaluation of the prediction capability of advanced code systems by means of a code-to-code comparison. The postulated MSLB-transient is characterized by a strong non-symmetrical core thermal behaviour due to the feedback between neutron kinetics and plant thermal hydraulics. The analysis of such transients with pronounced spatial power distortion represents a considerable challenge for advanced code systems. The transient is initiated by a double-ended break of one main steam line when the reactor TMI-1 is operated at nominal power. The high heat removal through the break leads to a strong cooldown of the primary coolant. Under such conditions a power increase and a re-criticality of the core despite scram can not be excluded due to the negative reactivity coefficients. The MSLB-Benchmark enfolds three exercises as follows: Exercise 1: integral plant simulation with best-estimate codes using point kinetics, Exercise 2: multidimensional simulation of the core for given initial and boundary conditions, and Exercise 3: integral plant simulation with coupled, best-estimate codes using 3D-neutron kinetics models. Das Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (FZK) and Framatome Advanced Nuclear Power/Erlangen (former Siemens/KWU) participated on the MSLB-Benchmark with the code system RELAP5/MOD3.2 for the Exercise 1: In this report, the integral plant model developed for this Exercise 1 together with the calculated results will be presented and discussed. (orig.)

  20. COST VOLUME PROFIT MODEL, THE BREAK -EVEN POINT AND THE DECISION MAKING PROCESS IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scorte Carmen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Management accounting and cost calculation in the hospitality industry is a pathless land. The prezent article is a starting point of a long scientific approach on the domain of the hospitality industry and on the managerial accounting in this area. Our intention is to put the spot light back on the thorny problem of applying Financial Accounting and specifically its implementation in the hospitality industry. One aim of this article is to provide a picture of CVP analysis in decision making with customizing the hospitality industry. To cope with the crisis period, the competition and to achieve the expected profits of the hospitality industry ,managers have the possibility to apply CVP analysis, one of the most simple and useful analytical tools. This paper will address the basic version of the CVP model, exemplifying the main indicators of the particular model for the hospitality industry that can help guide decision-making.

  1. A Combined Control Chart for Identifying Out–Of–Control Points in Multivariate Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Marroquín–Prado E.; Cantú–Sifuentes M.

    2010-01-01

    The Hotelling's T2 control chart is widely used to identify out–of–control signals in multivariate processes. However, this chart is not sensitive to small shifts in the process mean vec tor. In this work we propose a control chart to identify out–of–control signals. The proposed chart is a combination of Hotelling's T2 chart, M chart proposed by Hayter et al. (1994) and a new chart based on Principal Components. The combination of these charts identifies any type and size of change in the pr...

  2. A Mismatch EndoNuclease Array-Based Methodology (MENA for Identifying Known SNPs or Novel Point Mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M. Comeron

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and rapid identification or confirmation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, point mutations and other human genomic variation facilitates understanding the genetic basis of disease. We have developed a new methodology (called MENA (Mismatch EndoNuclease Array pairing DNA mismatch endonuclease enzymology with tiling microarray hybridization in order to genotype both known point mutations (such as SNPs as well as identify previously undiscovered point mutations and small indels. We show that our assay can rapidly genotype known SNPs in a human genomic DNA sample with 99% accuracy, in addition to identifying novel point mutations and small indels with a false discovery rate as low as 10%. Our technology provides a platform for a variety of applications, including: (1 genotyping known SNPs as well as confirming newly discovered SNPs from whole genome sequencing analyses; (2 identifying novel point mutations and indels in any genomic region from any organism for which genome sequence information is available; and (3 screening panels of genes associated with particular diseases and disorders in patient samples to identify causative mutations. As a proof of principle for using MENA to discover novel mutations, we report identification of a novel allele of the beethoven (btv gene in Drosophila, which encodes a ciliary cytoplasmic dynein motor protein important for auditory mechanosensation.

  3. The 2001 recession and the Chicago Fed National Index: identifying business cycle turning points

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Charles L.; Chin Te Liu; Genevieve Pham-Kanter

    2002-01-01

    The initial release of the Chicago Fed National Activity Index (CFNAI) in early 2001 pointed to the very real possibility that the U.S. economy was teetering on the brink of recession. This article quantifies the statistical ability of the CFNAI to act as an early warning indicator of economic recessions. In simulation experiments, the CFNAI performed virtually as well as the statistical model's ideal measure of the business cycle.

  4. Automatic Method for Identifying Photospheric Bright Points and Granules Observed by Sunrise

    CERN Document Server

    Javaherian, Mohsen; Amiri, Ali; Ziaei, Shervin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we propose methods for the automatic detection of photospheric features (bright points and granules) from ultra-violet (UV) radiation, using a feature-based classifier. The methods use quiet-Sun observations at 214 nm and 525 nm images taken by Sunrise on 9 June 2009. The function of region growing and mean shift procedure are applied to segment the bright points (BPs) and granules, respectively. Zernike moments of each region are computed. The Zernike moments of BPs, granules, and other features are distinctive enough to be separated using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The size distribution of BPs can be fitted with a power-law slope -1.5. The peak value of granule sizes is found to be about 0.5 arcsec^2. The mean value of the filling factor of BPs is 0.01, and for granules it is 0.51. There is a critical scale for granules so that small granules with sizes smaller than 2.5 arcsec^2 cover a wide range of brightness, while the brightness of large granules approaches unity. The mean...

  5. Electroweak symmetry breaking through supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The connection between the scales of SU(2) x U(1) gauge symmetry breaking and supersymmetry breaking is didactically displayed in the framework of a T.O.Y. (Theory Overestimating Yukawas) model, a version of the (M + 1) SSM (supersymmetric extension of the standard model with a gauge singlet) in which the relevant parameters are determined in the fixed point regime. Some conspicuous features of supersymmetric particle physics are reviewed in the light of this simplified model. An alternative theory corresponding to lim (M + 1) SSM → MSSM, leads to interesting inequalities among the supersymmetric breaking parameters of the MSSM

  6. Identifying potential pollutant point sources in an area of high ground water consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Commonwealth of Pennsylvania relies heavily upon its ground water resources for drinking water. The US Environmental Protection Agency, Region 3, is responsible for regulating the discharge of waste to the subsurface through injection wells within Pennsylvania. To facilitate identification of industrial facilities unregulated by EPA that may be contaminating ground water through industrial water and waste water discharge wells, a screening procedure was devised utilizing a Geographic Information System (GIS). This procedure involved cross-referencing locations of industrial sites to maps of municipal sewer systems. The effectiveness of this GIS screening procedure was investigated in seven counties in southeastern Pennsylvania. Facilities identified by the procedure were inspected for possible violations of Underground Injection Control (UIC) program regulations. As a result of these inspections, many facilities were found to be illegally discharging waste into ground water. In addition, other EPA program violations were identified. The project demonstrated that the GIS screening procedure can be an effective tool to locate sources of pollution of ground water

  7. Identifying non-point sources of endocrine active compounds and their biological impacts in freshwater lakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Beth H; Martinovic-Weigelt, Dalma; Ferrey, Mark; Barber, Larry B; Writer, Jeffery H; Rosenberry, Donald O; Kiesling, Richard L; Lundy, James R; Schoenfuss, Heiko L

    2014-10-01

    Contaminants of emerging concern, particularly endocrine active compounds (EACs), have been identified as a threat to aquatic wildlife. However, little is known about the impact of EACs on lakes through groundwater from onsite wastewater treatment systems (OWTS). This study aims to identify specific contributions of OWTS to Sullivan Lake, Minnesota, USA. Lake hydrology, water chemistry, caged bluegill sunfish (Lepomis macrochirus), and larval fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) exposures were used to assess whether EACs entered the lake through OWTS inflow and the resultant biological impact on fish. Study areas included two OWTS-influenced near-shore sites with native bluegill spawning habitats and two in-lake control sites without nearby EAC sources. Caged bluegill sunfish were analyzed for plasma vitellogenin concentrations, organosomatic indices, and histological pathologies. Surface and porewater was collected from each site and analyzed for EACs. Porewater was also collected for laboratory exposure of larval fathead minnow, before analysis of predator escape performance and gene expression profiles. Chemical analysis showed EACs present at low concentrations at each study site, whereas discrete variations were reported between sites and between summer and fall samplings. Body condition index and liver vacuolization of sunfish were found to differ among study sites as did gene expression in exposed larval fathead minnows. Interestingly, biological exposure data and water chemistry did not match. Therefore, although results highlight the potential impacts of seepage from OWTS, further investigation of mixture effects and life history factor as well as chemical fate is warranted. PMID:24974177

  8. Diverse origins of Arctic and Subarctic methane point source emissions identified with multiply-substituted isotopologues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, P. M. J.; Stolper, D. A.; Smith, D. A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Paull, C. K.; Dallimore, S.; Wik, M.; Crill, P. M.; Winterdahl, M.; Eiler, J. M.; Sessions, A. L.

    2016-09-01

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, and there are concerns that its natural emissions from the Arctic could act as a substantial positive feedback to anthropogenic global warming. Determining the sources of methane emissions and the biogeochemical processes controlling them is important for understanding present and future Arctic contributions to atmospheric methane budgets. Here we apply measurements of multiply-substituted isotopologues, or clumped isotopes, of methane as a new tool to identify the origins of ebullitive fluxes in Alaska, Sweden and the Arctic Ocean. When methane forms in isotopic equilibrium, clumped isotope measurements indicate the formation temperature. In some microbial methane, however, non-equilibrium isotope effects, probably related to the kinetics of methanogenesis, lead to low clumped isotope values. We identify four categories of emissions in the studied samples: thermogenic methane, deep subsurface or marine microbial methane formed in isotopic equilibrium, freshwater microbial methane with non-equilibrium clumped isotope values, and mixtures of deep and shallow methane (i.e., combinations of the first three end members). Mixing between deep and shallow methane sources produces a non-linear variation in clumped isotope values with mixing proportion that provides new constraints for the formation environment of the mixing end-members. Analyses of microbial methane emitted from lakes, as well as a methanol-consuming methanogen pure culture, support the hypothesis that non-equilibrium clumped isotope values are controlled, in part, by kinetic isotope effects induced during enzymatic reactions involved in methanogenesis. Our results indicate that these kinetic isotope effects vary widely in microbial methane produced in Arctic lake sediments, with non-equilibrium Δ18 values spanning a range of more than 5‰.

  9. Identifying and characterizing major emission point sources as a basis for geospatial distribution of mercury emissions inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steenhuisen, Frits; Wilson, Simon J.

    2015-07-01

    Mercury is a global pollutant that poses threats to ecosystem and human health. Due to its global transport, mercury contamination is found in regions of the Earth that are remote from major emissions areas, including the Polar regions. Global anthropogenic emission inventories identify important sectors and industries responsible for emissions at a national level; however, to be useful for air transport modelling, more precise information on the locations of emission is required. This paper describes the methodology applied, and the results of work that was conducted to assign anthropogenic mercury emissions to point sources as part of geospatial mapping of the 2010 global anthropogenic mercury emissions inventory prepared by AMAP/UNEP. Major point-source emission sectors addressed in this work account for about 850 tonnes of the emissions included in the 2010 inventory. This work allocated more than 90% of these emissions to some 4600 identified point source locations, including significantly more point source locations in Africa, Asia, Australia and South America than had been identified during previous work to geospatially-distribute the 2005 global inventory. The results demonstrate the utility and the limitations of using existing, mainly public domain resources to accomplish this work. Assumptions necessary to make use of selected online resources are discussed, as are artefacts that can arise when these assumptions are applied to assign (national-sector) emissions estimates to point sources in various countries and regions. Notwithstanding the limitations of the available information, the value of this procedure over alternative methods commonly used to geo-spatially distribute emissions, such as use of 'proxy' datasets to represent emissions patterns, is illustrated. Improvements in information that would facilitate greater use of these methods in future work to assign emissions to point-sources are discussed. These include improvements to both national

  10. Enhancing Supply Chain Connectivity and Competitiveness of ASEAN Agricultural Products: Identifying Choke Points and Opportunities for Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Israel, Danilo C.; Roehlano M. Briones

    2014-01-01

    This study examines "choke points" in the supply chain of two selected commodity groups that are of interest to the ASEAN region; within the HS15 group the study focuses on crude coconut oil (CNO); for HS03 the study covers fish and crustacean, mollusks, and other aquatic invertebrates (HS 03). For CNO, no major choke points have been identified from mill site to export stages; cost and delay factors can be found at the farm to mill stage, namely low farm productivity, poor postharvest practi...

  11. Demarking and identifying points-reliable criteria for determination of sex from external ear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant E Natekar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The anatomy of the external ear is clinically and surgically important as it is related to the vital structures in the neck. The morphometric measurements of the external ear were undertaken to determine the sex of an individual. These findings also suggest that this study will have a role in plastic and reconstructive surgery; identification of dysmorphic features in various chromosomal disorders. Aim: The present study will enlighten us to determine the sex from the external ear and provide an insight in determining the variations in sex from the external ear with 100% accuracy. It may also serve as a guideline before surgical intervention in otoplasty so as to resculpt or reshape the ear. Materials and Methods: The subjects were 100 healthy male and 100 healthy female medical students of age group 18-25 years of Goa Medical College, Bambolim, Goa, having no history of any diseases or other genetic disorder or heredity diseases. The anatomical landmarks used for this research study were the right and left a ear length b ear length above tragus c ear length below tragus d tragus length e ear breadth f concha length g concha breadth h lobule height i lobule width of the external ear. Results: The measurement procedure proved to be easy and it did not show any discomfort to the participants. Ear length below tragus, lobule height and lobule width were larger in females than males. This method was made applicable to all the parameters except for ear length below tragus, lobule height and lobule widths since these parameters were greater in females than males. Conclusion: In this study, we could determine the sex from the external ear in a large percentage. The parameters were of little value when subjected to demarking point analyses. However, for a larger population the mean values for the above parameters from different regions will have significantly different values and hence, DPs are to be worked out separately for the different

  12. Genetic analysis of wild-isolated Neurospora crassa strains identified as dominant suppressors of repeat-induced point mutation.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat, Ashwin; Noubissi, Felicite K.; Vyas, Meenal; Kasbekar, Durgadas P

    2003-01-01

    Repeat-induced point mutation (RIP) in Neurospora results in inactivation of duplicated DNA sequences. RIP is thought to provide protection against foreign elements such as retrotransposons, only one of which has been found in N. crassa. To examine the role of RIP in nature, we have examined seven N. crassa strains, identified among 446 wild isolates scored for dominant suppression of RIP. The test system involved a small duplication that targets RIP to the easily scorable gene erg-3. We prev...

  13. A Data Filter for Identifying Steady-State Operating Points in Engine Flight Data for Condition Monitoring Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm that automatically identifies and extracts steady-state engine operating points from engine flight data. It calculates the mean and standard deviation of select parameters contained in the incoming flight data stream. If the standard deviation of the data falls below defined constraints, the engine is assumed to be at a steady-state operating point, and the mean measurement data at that point are archived for subsequent condition monitoring purposes. The fundamental design of the steady-state data filter is completely generic and applicable for any dynamic system. Additional domain-specific logic constraints are applied to reduce data outliers and variance within the collected steady-state data. The filter is designed for on-line real-time processing of streaming data as opposed to post-processing of the data in batch mode. Results of applying the steady-state data filter to recorded helicopter engine flight data are shown, demonstrating its utility for engine condition monitoring applications.

  14. Whole exome sequencing identifies the first STRADA point mutation in a patient with polyhydramnios, megalencephaly, and symptomatic epilepsy syndrome (PMSE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Weimin; Glass, Ian A; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; Eng, Christine M; Yang, Yaping; Sun, Angela

    2016-08-01

    Polyhydramnios, megalencephaly, and symptomatic epilepsy syndrome (PMSE) is an ultra rare neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe, infantile-onset intractable epilepsy, neurocognitive delay, macrocephaly, and craniofacial dysmorphism. The molecular diagnosis of this condition has thus far only been made in 16 Old Order Mennonite patients carrying a homozygous 7 kb founder deletion of exons 9-13 of STRADA. We performed clinical whole exome sequencing (WES) on a 4-year-old Indian male with global developmental delay, history of failure to thrive, infantile spasms, repetitive behaviors, hypotonia, low muscle mass, marked joint laxity, and dysmorphic facial features including tall forehead, long face, arched eyebrows, small chin, wide mouth, and tented upper lip. A homozygous single nucleotide duplication, c.842dupA (p.D281fs), in exon 10 of STRADA was identified. Sanger sequencing confirmed the mutation in the individual and identified both parents as carriers. In light of the molecular discoveries, the patient's clinical phenotype was considered to be a good fit for PMSE. We identified for the first time a homozygous point mutation in STRADA causing PMSE. Additional bi-allelic mutations related to PMSE thus far have not been observed in Baylor ∼6,000 consecutive clinical WES cases, supporting the rarity of this disorder. Our findings may have treatment implications for the patient since previous studies have shown rapamycin as a potential therapeutic agent for the seizures and cognitive problems in PMSE patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27170158

  15. An Efficient and Optimal Filter for Identifying Point Sources in Millimeter/Sub-Millimeter Wavelength Sky Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Perera, T A; Scott, K S; Austermann, J E; Schaar, J R; Mancera, A

    2013-01-01

    A new technique for reliably identifying point sources in millimeter/sub-millimeter wavelength maps is presented. This method accounts for the frequency dependence of noise in the Fourier domain as well as non-uniformities in the coverage of a field. This optimal filter is an improvement over commonly-used matched filters that ignore coverage gradients. Treating noise variations in the Fourier domain as well as map space is traditionally viewed as a computationally intensive problem. We show that the penalty incurred in terms of computing time is quite small due to casting many of the calculations in terms of FFTs and exploiting the absence of sharp features in the noise spectra of observations. Practical aspects of implementing the optimal filter are presented in the context of data from the AzTEC bolometer camera. The advantages of using the new filter over the standard matched filter are also addressed in terms of a typical AzTEC map.

  16. A point-based angular analysis model for identifying attributes of spaces at nodes in street networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sang Kyu; Ban, Yong Un

    2016-05-01

    The effects of the axial map as the key representation of the original space syntax have been questioned by some researchers because of the map's discontinuity. To address this concern, angular segment analysis (ASA) was introduced. ASA calculates spatial depths by considering the turning angles of path segments in a street network. However, ASA cannot calculate the attributes of nodes connected to path segments in the network because it analyzes spaces by linear representation, as in the original space syntax. Because the attributes of the two ends (nodes) of a given path segment (link) are not equal to each other, and because they can affect pedestrian and vehicle movement and land use in a street network, the identification of the attributes at nodes (points) would be helpful in the detailed analysis of spaces in the network consisting of nodes and the segments connecting them. Accordingly, this study aims to develop an extended analysis model that can calculate the attributes of spaces at the nodes, including terminuses, bends, and junctions, in the network. To achieve this end, in this study we developed algorithms for a point-based angular analysis (PAA) to find the attributes of spaces at nodes (points), in contrast to ASA, which analyzes spaces using linear representations. As a result, this methodology can obtain distinct values for the attributes of two nodes at the ends of a path segment, through the calculation of spatial depths weighted by considering the turning angles and distances (lengths) along consecutive nodes for a route in the network. Through our methodology, it was identified that spatial configurations of street network affect the social and symbolic centralities of nodes in the network. We believe that our methodology can be a useful tool for planning urban streets and for deriving spatial and social relationships in street networks.

  17. Identifying non-point source critical source areas based on multi-factors at a basin scale with SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruimin; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Peipei; Yu, Wenwen; Men, Cong

    2016-02-01

    The identification of critical source areas (CSAs) is a precondition for non-point source (NPS) pollution control at a basin scale, especially in areas with limited resources. Based on the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), nutrient loads coupled with population density and water quality requirements are regarded as multi-factors for CSAs identification in Xiangxi river watershed, the first tributary of the Yangtze River. The results based on the calibrated model found that the subbasins heavily and seriously polluted by nutrient loads were different from the subbasins identified as CSAs, demonstrating integrating socio-economic factors like population density and water quality requirements to identify CSAs is of much necessity. The CSAs occupied 19.7% of the total subbasins, and accounted for 53% total nitrogen loads, 54% total phosphorus loads and 36% of the total population. Considering the model calibration and validation will take a long time as well as data deficiency in some subbasins, the influence of uncalibrated SWAT on CSAs identifications was discussed. The comparative results between CSAs identification with calibrated and uncalibrated SWAT model revealed that model calibration had little effect on nutrients distribution and CSAs locations in the study area. Uncalibrated SWAT model may be applied when the research objective is less related to model calibration. The results will be greatly effective for CSAs identification and NPS pollution control at a basin scale.

  18. The precipitation driven correlation based mapping method (PCM) for identifying the critical source areas of non-point source pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinhui Jeanne; Lin, Xiaojuan; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Hao

    2015-05-01

    Critical source areas (CSAs) are the areas that are relatively more erosion-prone and contribute significantly more pollutants per unit area. They have been widely recognized as optimal locations for the control of non-point source (NPS) pollution. Modeling approach has been frequently used to identify the CSAs of NPS pollution on a basin scale. In previous studies, CSAs were identified based on the simulated average annual nutrient yields for the simulation period at the levels of sub-basin or hydrologic response unit (HRU). However, this method did not consider the impact of uneven spatial distribution of precipitation, which is considered to be the driven force of NPS pollution. In many cases, due to limited length of qualified monitoring data collected, the simulation period may not cover a full spectrum of the precipitation characteristics so that some potential CSAs may be missed. In the present study, the precipitation driven correlation based mapping method (PCM) was proposed, which can reduce the impact of uncertain spatial-temporal distribution of precipitation and identify the CSAs of NPS pollution with a better coverage. This method was applied to the Zhang River Basin, a watershed in North China that occupies an area of 18,072 km2. The SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) was used for simulation purposes. By using PCM, the maps of CSAs for controlling total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were produced. This study has found that the monthly precipitation is highly correlated with the TN and TP yields. It was observed that TN yields have slightly higher correlation value with the precipitation than TP yields. Hence, the precipitation has more impacts on TN yields than TP yields. The impact is more substantial in urban areas than other areas.

  19. A model of intrinsic symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Li [Research Center for Quantum Manipulation, Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, Sheng [Department of Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Zhejiang 310004 (China); George, Thomas F., E-mail: tfgeorge@umsl.edu [Office of the Chancellor and Center for Nanoscience, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Sun, Xin, E-mail: xin_sun@fudan.edu.cn [Research Center for Quantum Manipulation, Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Different from the symmetry breaking associated with a phase transition, which occurs when the controlling parameter is manipulated across a critical point, the symmetry breaking presented in this Letter does not need parameter manipulation. Instead, the system itself suddenly undergoes symmetry breaking at a certain time during its evolution, which is intrinsic symmetry breaking. Through a polymer model, it is revealed that the origin of the intrinsic symmetry breaking is nonlinearity, which produces instability at the instance when the evolution crosses an inflexion point, where this instability breaks the original symmetry.

  20. String breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Bali, G S; Lippert, T; Neff, H; Prkacin, Z; Schilling, K; Bali, Gunnar S; Dussel, Thomas; Lippert, Thomas; Neff, Hartmut; Prkacin, Zdravko; Schilling, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    We numerically investigate the transition of the static quark-antiquark string into a static-light meson-antimeson system. Improving noise reduction techniques, we are able to resolve the signature of string breaking dynamics for Nf=2 lattice QCD at zero temperature. We discuss the lattice techniques used and present results on energy levels and mixing angle of the static two-state system. We visualize the action density distribution in the region of string breaking as a function of the static colour source-antisource separation. The results can be related to properties of quarkonium systems.

  1. Appropriate waist circumference cut points for identifying insulin resistance in black youth: a cross sectional analysis of the 1986 Jamaica birth cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Tulloch-Reid Marshall K; Ferguson Trevor S; Younger Novie OM; Van den Broeck Jan; Boyne Michael S; Knight-Madden Jennifer M; Samms-Vaughan Maureen E; Ashley Deana E; Wilks Rainford J

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background While the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) has ethnic specific waist circumference (WC) cut-points for the metabolic syndrome for Asian populations it is not known whether the cut-points for black populations should differ from those for European populations. We examined the validity of IDF WC cut points for identifying insulin resistance (IR), the underlying cause of the metabolic syndrome, in predominantly black, young Jamaican adults. Methods Participants from a ...

  2. Supersymmetry breaking

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Emilian Dudas

    2009-01-01

    We review the various mechanisms of supersymmetry breaking and its trans-mission to the observable sector. We argue that hybrid models where gauge dominates over gravity mediation, but gravity provides the main contributions to the Higgs sector masses and the neutralino mass, are able to combine the advantages and reduce the disadvantages of the two transmission mechanisms.

  3. 3D/4D architecture of chromosomal break point regions in the cell nucleus following irradiation of normal cells and tumor cells; 3D/4D Architektur von chromosomalen Bruchpunktregionen im Zellkern nach Bestrahlung von Normalzellen und Tumorzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, M.; Cremer, C.; Friedl, A.; Dollinger, G.; Loebrich, M.; Friedland, W.

    2015-01-15

    The development of an effective analytical methodology for a correct description of oncogenic chromosomal aberrations is the challenge of medical radiobiology with respect to preventive therapeutic methods. Scope of the project was a better understanding of the behavior of break point regions dependent on the genome loci, the chromatin folding, the involved repair proteins and the beam quality with respect to an improvement and an efficient prognosis of the health consequences following radiation exposure. New microscopic insights in the normal cell nucleus are supposed to allow a better understanding of the spatial interactions on a molecular scale.

  4. The Break

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Anete Mikkala Camille

    2016-01-01

    The chapter elaborates on how to deal with one of the major challenges facing organizations worldwide; Stress. The Break enacts a quantum approach to meet the challenges by proposing a combination of three different quantum storytelling technologies; protreptic mentoring, walking and material sto...... provider and witness to your elaborations. It’s really that simple! The chapter concludes towards a set of Dogmas for future reference in addressing these challenges in this manner....

  5. 基于扩展断裂点模型的农村居民点整理布局优化%Layout optimization for rural settlements consolidation based on extended break-point model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯电军; 沈陈华

    2014-01-01

    applying AHP, and the value of RSPCI for each rural settlement patch was calculated by applying unit score weighting. Then, the rural settlement patches and identified optimization strategies were classified according to Jenks natural breaks classification method. Finally, spatial impact range of core at village level based on extended break-point model of weighted Voronoi diagram and the direction of migration of rural settlements were determined in order to optimize the spatial pattern of rural settlements. The results showed that the indicator systems of RSPCI in Zhulin town included four factors:location, residential settlement, natural resources and economics. The weight for each of them was 0.11, 0.31, 0.28 and 0.30 respectively. The rural settlements were divided into four levels based on value of RSPCI including central village, core village, natural village and scattered village levels. The hierarchical structures for different levels of rural settlement were obvious in terms of size and the number. Four kinds of optimization strategies including priority development, restrictive development, combined migration and retention policies should be used to optimize spatial pattern and layout of rural settlement. Among 466 rural settlement patches in the town, 28 were given with full priority to develop, 193 were given with limited priority to develop, 244 were combined and migrated, and 1 was reserved. The migration direction of 244 patches was given by extended break point model of weighted Voronoi diagram. Therefore, rural settlement patches for different levels showed different influences on scope. As a result, different spatial layout optimization strategies should be employed for different rural settlement patches. In order to maintain a stable structure for residential settlement patches, rural settlement patches with low comprehensive influence should be migrated to those with high comprehensive influence during rural settlement consolidation. The results above

  6. OECD/NEZ Main Steam Line Break Benchmark Problem Exercise I Simulation Using the SPACE Code with the Point Kinetics Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Safety and Performance Analysis Code for Nuclear Power Plants (SPACE) has been developed in recent years by the Korea Nuclear Hydro and Nuclear Power Co. (KHNP) through collaborative works with other Korean nuclear industries. The SPACE is a best-estimated two-phase three-field thermal-hydraulic analysis code to analyze the safety and performance of pressurized water reactors (PWRs). The SPACE code has sufficient features to replace outdated vendor supplied codes and to be used for the safety analysis of operating PWRs and the design of advanced reactors. As a result of the second phase of the development, the 2.14 version of the code was released through the successive various V and V works. The topical reports on the code and related safety analysis methodologies have been prepared for license works. In this study, the OECD/NEA Main Steam Line Break (MSLB) Benchmark Problem Exercise I was simulated as a V and V work. The results were compared with those of the participants in the benchmark project. The OECD/NEA MSLB Benchmark Problem Exercise I was simulated using the SPACE code. The results were compared with those of the participants in the benchmark project. Through the simulation, it was concluded that the SPACE code can effectively simulate PWR MSLB accidents

  7. Appropriate waist circumference cut points for identifying insulin resistance in black youth: a cross sectional analysis of the 1986 Jamaica birth cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulloch-Reid Marshall K

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the International Diabetes Federation (IDF has ethnic specific waist circumference (WC cut-points for the metabolic syndrome for Asian populations it is not known whether the cut-points for black populations should differ from those for European populations. We examined the validity of IDF WC cut points for identifying insulin resistance (IR, the underlying cause of the metabolic syndrome, in predominantly black, young Jamaican adults. Methods Participants from a 1986 birth cohort were evaluated between 2005 and 2007 when they were 18-20 years old. Trained observers took anthropometric measurements and collected a fasting blood sample. IR was assessed using the homeostasis model assessment computer programme (HOMA-IR. Sex specific quartiles for IR were generated using HOMA-IR values and participants in the highest quartile were classified as "insulin resistant". Receiver operator characteristic (ROC curves were used to estimate the best WC to identify insulin resistance. The sensitivity and specificity of these values were compared with the IDF recommended WC cut-points. Results Data from 707 participants (315 males; 392females were analysed. In both sexes those with IR were more obese, had higher mean systolic blood pressure, glucose and triglycerides and lower mean HDL cholesterol. The WC was a good predictor of IR with an ROC area under the curve (95% CI of 0.71(0.64,0.79 for men and 0.72(0.65,0.79 for women. Using the Youden Index (J the best WC cut point for identifying IR in male participants was 82 cm (sensitivity 45%, specificity 93%, J 0.38 while the standard cut point of 94 cm had a sensitivity of 14% and specificity of 98% (J 0.12. In the female participants 82 cm was also a good cut point for identifying IR (sensitivity 52%, specificity 87%, J 0.39 and was similar to the standard IDF 80 cm cut point (sensitivity 53%, specificity 82%, J 0.35. Conclusions The WC that identified IR in young black men is lower

  8. Reconstruction of thermotolerant yeast by one-point mutation identified through whole-genome analyses of adaptively-evolved strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satomura, Atsushi; Miura, Natsuko; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae is used as a host strain in bioproduction, because of its rapid growth, ease of genetic manipulation, and high reducing capacity. However, the heat produced during the fermentation processes inhibits the biological activities and growth of the yeast cells. We performed whole-genome sequencing of 19 intermediate strains previously obtained during adaptation experiments under heat stress; 49 mutations were found in the adaptation steps. Phylogenetic tree revealed at least five events in which these strains had acquired mutations in the CDC25 gene. Reconstructed CDC25 point mutants based on a parental strain had acquired thermotolerance without any growth defects. These mutations led to the downregulation of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) signaling pathway, which controls a variety of processes such as cell-cycle progression and stress tolerance. The one-point mutations in CDC25 were involved in the global transcriptional regulation through the cAMP/PKA pathway. Additionally, the mutations enabled efficient ethanol fermentation at 39 °C, suggesting that the one-point mutations in CDC25 may contribute to bioproduction. PMID:26984760

  9. Spontaneous Breaking of the Quantum Superposition

    OpenAIRE

    Pankovic, Vladan; Predojevic, Milan

    2007-01-01

    In this work spontaneous (non-dynamical) breaking (effective hiding) of the unitary quantum mechanical dynamical symmetry (superposition) is considered. It represents an especial but very interesting case of the general formalism of the spontaneous symmetry breaking (effective hiding). Conceptual analogies with spontaneous breaking of the gauge symmetry in Weinberg-Sallam's electro-weak interaction are pointed out. Also, consequences of the spontaneous superposition breaking in the measuremen...

  10. Breaking Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Kirstin

    2010-01-01

    A well-known result by Palamidessi tells us that {\\pi}mix (the {\\pi}-calculus with mixed choice) is more expressive than {\\pi}sep (its subset with only separate choice). The proof of this result argues with their different expressive power concerning leader election in symmetric networks. Later on, Gorla of- fered an arguably simpler proof that, instead of leader election in symmetric networks, employed the reducibility of "incestual" processes (mixed choices that include both enabled senders and receivers for the same channel) when running two copies in parallel. In both proofs, the role of breaking (ini- tial) symmetries is more or less apparent. In this paper, we shed more light on this role by re-proving the above result-based on a proper formalization of what it means to break symmetries-without referring to another layer of the distinguishing problem domain of leader election. Both Palamidessi and Gorla rephrased their results by stating that there is no uniform and reason- able encoding from {\\pi}mix i...

  11. The Break

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Anete Mikkala Camille; Larsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    to Explore your Leadership” . ”Time to reflect closer to heaven as we did in the Pyrenees, makes me humble and simplifies the thoughts on how to lead within my own set of values. It´s all about energy”, (Lars Lund Hansen, manager, Novo Nordisk) A few objects; a neckless, a candle, a dragon and five crystal...... terrain break elaborates the terrain of Organizations anno 2015 as a terrain of complexity, streamlining, language-orientation and dis-functionality. The latter in regard to a WHO acknowledged concern for health issues related to work-related stress (Prætorius, 2012) and an ongoing urge for learning...... that language and the social has been granted too much power on the dispense of the bodily, physical and biological – or in short, in dispense of the material. The break To be or not to be poses the theoretical notion of dis-/continuity (Barad, 2007, 2010) from the quantum approach to storytelling (Strand 2012...

  12. Videofluoroscopy Instrument to Identify the Tibiofemoral Contact Point Migration for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Follow-up: CINARTRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simini, F.; Santos, D.; Francescoli, L.

    2016-04-01

    We measure the Tibiofemoral contact point migration to offer clinicians a tool to evaluate Anterior Cruciate Ligament reconstruction. The design of the tool includes a C arm with fluoroscopy, image acquisition and processing system, interactive software and report generation for the clinical record. The procedure samples 30 images from the videofluoroscopy describing 2 seconds movements of hanging-to-full-extension of the knee articulation. A geometrical routine implemented in the original equipment (CINARTRO) helps capture tibial plateau and femoral condile profile by interaction with the user. The tightness or looseness of the knee is expressed by the migration given in terms of movement of the femur along the tibial plateau, as a percentage. We automatically create clinical reports in standard Clinical Document Architecture or CDA format. A special phantom was developed to correct the “pin cushion effect” in Rx images. Five cases of broken ACL patients were measured giving meaningful results for clinical follow up. Tibiofemoral contact point migration was measured as 60% of the tibial plateau, with standard deviation of 6% for healthy knees, 4% when injured and 1% after reconstruction.

  13. Development and application of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing E. coli O103 surrogate for tracking contamination through grinding and identifying persistent points of contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To 1.) develop and validate an easily trackable E. coli O157:H7/non-O157 STEC surrogate that can be detected to the same level of sensitivity as E. coli O157:H7; and 2.) apply the trackable surrogate to model contamination passage through grinding and identify points where contamination ...

  14. Incompatibility breaking quantum channels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A typical bipartite quantum protocol, such as EPR-steering, relies on two quantum features, entanglement of states and incompatibility of measurements. Noise can delete both of these quantum features. In this work we study the behavior of incompatibility under noisy quantum channels. The starting point for our investigation is the observation that compatible measurements cannot become incompatible by the action of any channel. We focus our attention to channels which completely destroy the incompatibility of various relevant sets of measurements. We call such channels incompatibility breaking, in analogy to the concept of entanglement breaking channels. This notion is relevant especially for the understanding of noise-robustness of the local measurement resources for steering. (paper)

  15. A new method to identify water masses -- a network-based analysis of oceanographic point measurement time series

    CERN Document Server

    Greil, Florian

    2012-01-01

    This is a statistical analysis of the oceanographic time series measured across Fram Strait at a latitude of 78{\\deg}50'N. Fram Strait is the deepest passage between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic. There are up to 16 mooring lines with instruments at different depths measuring water temperature and velocity. These variables vary on different time scales and the challenge is to distinguish different spatial flow regimes. For Fram Strait, a temperature criterion is traditionally applied to identify water-masses, i.e. water volumes of similar origin. Interpolation leads to a vertical latitudinal 2D cross-section from which a scalar - the hypothetical area of waters within a certain temperature interval - can be extracted. The scalar is combined with a similar interpolation of the velocities to approximate the volume flows through the gateway. This approach is not only numerically expensive but also incorporates many assumptions. The present study suggest a new network-based approach to discriminate betw...

  16. Where practice and theory intersect in the chemistry classroom: using cogenerative dialogue to identify the critical point in science education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Sonya

    2006-12-01

    This paper argues for an inclusive model of science education practice that attempts to facilitate a relationship between "science and all" by paying particular attention to the development of the relationship between the teacher, students and science. This model hinges on the implementation of cogenerative dialogues between students and teachers. Cogenerative dialogues are a form of structured discourse in which teachers and students engage in a collaborative effort to help identify and implement positive changes in classroom teaching and learning practices. A primary goal of this paper is to introduce a methodological and theoretical framework for conducting cogenerative dialogue that is accessible to classroom teachers and their students. I propose that researchers must learn to disseminate their findings to teachers in ways that are practical, in that they provide teachers with information needed to make concrete connections between the research and their teaching, while continuing to make available the theories that support their findings. Using an integration research framework in conjunction with a temporality of learning model, I introduce a method of disseminating research findings that provides both classroom teachers and researchers with access to different forms of knowledge about cogenerative dialogues in the same paper. In doing so, this article examines the relationships between teacher knowledge and researcher knowledge by exploring the practical application of cogenerative dialogues for classrooms teachers and the theoretical implications of using cogenerative dialogues for researchers.

  17. Tool for identifying critical control points in embedded purchasing activities in SMEs: Working paper WP 69 for the 24th IPSERA conference, Amsterdam 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Hagelaar, Geoffrey; Staal, Anne; Holman, Richard; Walhof, Gert

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses risk and uncertainty aspects and proposes an assessment tool leading to identification of critical control points (CCPs) within purchasing-oriented activities of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Identifying such CCPs is the basis for developing SME purchasing instruments to support purchasing-oriented activities. The identification of such CCPs will be theoretically approached from a systems perspective using four management functions which are needed to operate as a ...

  18. Symmetry breaking in molecular ferroelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ping-Ping; Tang, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Peng-Fei; Liao, Wei-Qiang; Wang, Zhong-Xia; Ye, Qiong; Xiong, Ren-Gen

    2016-07-11

    Ferroelectrics are inseparable from symmetry breaking. Accompanying the paraelectric-to-ferroelectric phase transition, the paraelectric phase adopting one of the 32 crystallographic point groups is broken into subgroups belonging to one of the 10 ferroelectric point groups, i.e. C1, C2, C1h, C2v, C4, C4v, C3, C3v, C6 and C6v. The symmetry breaking is captured by the order parameter known as spontaneous polarization, whose switching under an external electric field results in a typical ferroelectric hysteresis loop. In addition, the responses of spontaneous polarization to other external excitations are related to a number of physical effects such as second-harmonic generation, piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity and dielectric properties. Based on these, this review summarizes recent developments in molecular ferroelectrics since 2011 and focuses on the relationship between symmetry breaking and ferroelectricity, offering ideas for exploring high-performance molecular ferroelectrics. PMID:27051889

  19. Mutual information and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    OpenAIRE

    Hamma, A.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Illuminati, F.

    2015-01-01

    We show that the metastable, symmetry-breaking ground states of quantum many-body Hamiltonians have vanishing quantum mutual information between macroscopically separated regions, and are thus the most classical ones among all possible quantum ground states. This statement is obvious only when the symmetry-breaking ground states are simple product states, e.g. at the factorization point. On the other hand, symmetry-breaking states are in general entangled along the entire ordered phase, and t...

  20. Break the Pattern!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Cathrine; Trentemøller, Stine

    Break the Pattern! A critical enquiry into three scientific workplace cultures: Hercules, Caretakers and Worker Bees is the third publication of the international three year long project "Understanding Puzzles in the Gendered European Map" (UPGEM). By contrasting empirical findings from academic...... workplaces in the five UPGEM-countries (Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Italy and Poland) we identify three clusters of cultural patterns in physics as culture. We call these Hercules, Caretakers and Worker Bees. We also consider the influence of national cultural historical processes on the scientific culture...

  1. Repurposed automated handheld counter as a point-of-care tool to identify individuals 'at risk' of serious post-ivermectin encephalopathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Sasisekhar Bennuru; Sébastien D S Pion; Joseph Kamgno; Samuel Wanji; Thomas B Nutman

    2014-01-01

    Administration of ivermectin (IVM) as part of mass drug administration (MDA) campaigns for onchocerciasis and/or lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been suspended in areas co-endemic for Loa loa due to severe post-treatment adverse events (SAEs) associated with high-burden of infection (>30,000 mf/ml). One simple approach for preventing SAEs is to identify and exclude individuals at risk from MDA. Here, we describe a repurposed hand-held automated cell counter (Scepter 2.0; HHAC) as a rapid, point...

  2. Local Activity Principle:. the Cause of Complexity and Symmetry Breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainzer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The principle of local activity is precisely the missing concept to explain the emergence of complex patterns in a homogeneous medium. Leon O. Chua discovered and defined this principle in the theory of nonlinear electronic circuits in a mathematically rigorous way. The local principle can be generalized and proven at least for the class of nonlinear reaction-diffusion systems in physics, chemistry, biology and brain research. Recently, it was realized by memristors for nanoelectronic device applications in technical brains. In general, the emergence of complex patterns and structures is explained by symmetry breaking in homogeneous media. The principle of local activity is the cause of symmetry breaking in homogeneous media. We argue that the principle of local activity is really fundamental in science and can even be identified in quantum cosmology as symmetry breaking of local gauge symmetries generating the complexity of matter and forces in our universe. Finally, we consider applications in economic, financial, and social systems with the emergence of equilibrium states, symmetry breaking at critical points of phase transitions and risky acting at the edge of chaos. In any case, the driving causes of symmetry breaking and the emergence of complexity are locally active elements, cells, units, or agents.

  3. Breaking out or breaking down.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, L R; Halweil, B

    1999-01-01

    A new kind of challenge looms in several regions of the world, where the historic trend toward longer life expectancy has been sharply reversed. There are three clearly identifiable trends that are causing death rates to increase. The first is the spread of the HIV virus, which causes AIDS. As illustrated by the case of sub-Saharan Africa, the growth of the HIV epidemic damages a nation's social infrastructure, producing lingering demographic and economic effects. It reinforces conditions like poverty, illiteracy, and malnutrition. Second, the depletion of aquifers has become a major threat, particularly in India, where water tables are falling in almost every region. Water shortage leads to such problems as infectious diseases, waterborne microbes, and weakened water irrigation for farmers, which in turn leads to a diminishment of the food supply. The third threat that hangs over the future of nearly all countries where rapid population growth continues is the decline in the amount of cropland per person; this is a threat arising as a consequence of population growth and of the conversion of cropland to other uses. Land scarcity readily translates into malnutrition, hunger, rising mortality, and migration. In order to face all of these threats, leaders all over the world will need to understand that universal access to family planning is not only important for coping with resource scarcity and the spread of HIV/AIDS but is also likely to improve the quality of life for citizens of their countries. PMID:12322237

  4. Repurposed automated handheld counter as a point-of-care tool to identify individuals 'at risk' of serious post-ivermectin encephalopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasisekhar Bennuru

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Administration of ivermectin (IVM as part of mass drug administration (MDA campaigns for onchocerciasis and/or lymphatic filariasis (LF has been suspended in areas co-endemic for Loa loa due to severe post-treatment adverse events (SAEs associated with high-burden of infection (>30,000 mf/ml. One simple approach for preventing SAEs is to identify and exclude individuals at risk from MDA. Here, we describe a repurposed hand-held automated cell counter (Scepter 2.0; HHAC as a rapid, point-of-care method for quantifying microfilariae (mf in the blood of infected individuals.The quantification of microfilarial levels in blood of naturally infected humans, experimentally infected baboons, or mf-spiked human blood was tested using a microfluidic-based automated counter and compared to traditional calibrated thick-smears. We demonstrate that mf can be quantified in 20 µl of whole blood following lysis with 10% saponin within a minute of obtaining blood. There was a highly significant concordance between the counts obtained by the HHAC and those by microscopy for mf densities of >5,000 (p30,000 per ml (p<0.0001, r(c = 0.90. Preliminary proof of concept field studies in Cameroon with 20 µl of blood from L. loa infected humans (n = 22 and baboons (n = 4 also demonstrated a significantly high concordance (p<0.0001, r(c = 0.89 with calibrated thick blood smears counts.A repurposed HHAC is a portable, sensitive, rapid, point-of-care and quantitative tool to identify individuals with high levels of L. loa mf that put them at risk for SAEs following MDA. In addition, it provides ease of data storage and accessibility.

  5. Cut-off points of the visceral adiposity index (VAI identifying a visceral adipose dysfunction associated with cardiometabolic risk in a Caucasian Sicilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amato Marco C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI is a sex-specific mathematical index, based on Waist Circumference (WC, Body Mass Index (BMI, triglycerides (TG and HDL cholesterol (HDL levels, indirectly expressing visceral adipose function and insulin sensitivity. Our aim was to find the optimal cut-off points of VAI identifying a visceral adipose dysfunction (VAD associated with cardiometabolic risk in a Caucasian Sicilian population. Methods Medical check-up data of 1,764 Primary Care patients (PC patients were retrospectively and cross-sectionally examined using a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve to determine appropriate stratified-for-age cut-off of VAI, for the identification of PC patients with Metabolic Syndrome (MetS according to the NCEP-ATP III criteria. The PC patients with higher VAI scores were subdivided into three groups according to VAI tertiles (i.e. PC patients with mild VAD, moderate VAD or severe VAD. Finally, VAD classes were compared to classical cardio- and cerebrovascular risk factors as independent predictors of coronary heart disease and/or myocardial infarction, transient ischemic attack and/or ischemic stroke. Results Moderate and severe VADs proved to be independently associated with cardiovascular events [(OR: 5.35; 95% CI: 1.92-14.87; p = 0.001 and (OR: 7.46; 95% CI: 2.64-21.05; p Conclusions Our study suggests that among Caucasian Sicilian subjects there are clear cut-off points of VAI able to identify a VAD strongly associated with cardiometabolic risk.

  6. On breaks of the Indian monsoon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sulochana Gadgil; P V Joseph

    2003-12-01

    For over a century, the term break has been used for spells in which the rainfall over the Indian monsoon zone is interrupted. The phenomenon of `break monsoon' is of great interest because long intense breaks are often associated with poor monsoon seasons. Such breaks have distinct circulation characteristics (heat trough type circulation) and have a large impact on rainfed agriculture.Although interruption of the monsoon rainfall is considered to be the most important feature of the break monsoon, traditionally breaks have been identified on the basis of the surface pressure and wind patterns over the Indian region. We have defined breaks (and active spells) on the basis of rainfall over the monsoon zone. The rainfall criteria are chosen so as to ensure a large overlap with the traditional breaks documented by Ramamurthy (1969) and De et al (1998). We have identified these rainbreaks for 1901-89. We have also identified active spells on the basis of rainfall over the Indian monsoon zone. We have shown that the all-India summer monsoon rainfall is significantly negatively correlated with the number of rainbreak days (correlation coefficient −0.56) and significantly positively correlated with the number of active days (correlation coefficient 0.47).Thus the interannual variation of the all-India summer monsoon rainfall is shown to be related to the number of days of rainbreaks and active spells identified here. There have been several studies of breaks (and also active spells in several cases) identified on the basis of different criteria over regions differing in spatial scales (e.g., Webster et al 1998; Krishnan et al 2000; Goswami and Mohan 2000; and Annamalai and Slingo 2001). We find that there is considerable overlap between the rainbreaks we have identified and breaks based on the traditional definition. There is some overlap with the breaks identified by Krishnan et al (2000) but little overlap with breaks identified by Webster et al (1998). Further

  7. A Stylistic Analysis of Break,Break,Break

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑶

    2015-01-01

    Break, Break, Break is a poem by Alfred Lord Tennyson, the Poet Laureate during the Queen Victoria's reign. This exquisite little poem is wel known for the poet's grief-stricken feelings and heart-broken emotions over the premature death of his best friend, Arthur Henry Halam. Most of the previous studies on this poem focus on the emotional level to consider it as an elegy, expressing sorrow and lamentation for the death of a particular person. However, in order to have a deep understanding in general, this paper analyzes the poem based on the stylistic theory, concerning on the lexical level and the semantic level. It aims at helping the readers to cultivate a sense of appropriateness, to sharpen the understanding and appreciation of literary works and to achieve adaptation in translation.

  8. Time point-based integrative analyses of deep-transcriptome identify four signal pathways in blastemal regeneration of zebrafish lower jaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Xuelong; Lyu, Kailun; Gao, Siqi; Wang, Guan; Fan, Chunxin; Zhang, Xin A; Yan, Jizhou

    2015-03-01

    There has been growing interest in applying tissue engineering to stem cell-based regeneration therapies. We have previously reported that zebrafish can faithfully regenerate complicated tissue structures through blastemal cell type conversions and tissue reorganization. To unveil the regenerative factors and engineering arts of blastemal regeneration, we conducted transcriptomal analyses at four time points corresponding to preamputation, re-epitheliation, blastemal formation, and respecification. By combining the hierarchical gene ontology term network, the DAVID annotation system, and Euclidean distance clustering, we identified four signaling pathways: foxi1-foxo1b-pou3f1, pax3a-mant3a-col11/col2, pou5f1-cdx4-kdrl, and isl1-wnt11 PCP-sox9a. Results from immunohistochemical staining and promoter-driven transgenic fish suggest that these pathways, respectively, define wound epidermis reconstitution, cell type conversions, blastemal angiogenesis/vasculogenesis, and cartilage matrix-orientation. Foxi1 morpholino-knockdown caused expansions of Foxo1b- and Pax3a-expression in the basal layer-blastemal junction region. Moreover, foxi1 morphants displayed increased sox9a and hoxa2b transcripts in the embryonic pharyngeal arches. Thus, a Foxi1 signal switch is required to establish correct tissue patterns, including re-epitheliation and blastema formation. This study provides novel insight into a blastema regeneration strategy devised by epithelial cell transdifferentiation, blood vessel engineering, and cartilage matrix deposition. PMID:25420467

  9. In silico reversal of repeat-induced point mutation (RIP identifies the origins of repeat families and uncovers obscured duplicated genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hane James K

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeat-induced point mutation (RIP is a fungal genome defence mechanism guarding against transposon invasion. RIP mutates the sequence of repeated DNA and over time renders the affected regions unrecognisable by similarity search tools such as BLAST. Results DeRIP is a new software tool developed to predict the original sequence of a RIP-mutated region prior to the occurrence of RIP. In this study, we apply deRIP to the genome of the wheat pathogen Stagonospora nodorum SN15 and predict the origin of several previously uncharacterised classes of repetitive DNA. Conclusions Five new classes of transposon repeats and four classes of endogenous gene repeats were identified after deRIP. The deRIP process is a new tool for fungal genomics that facilitates the identification and understanding of the role and origin of fungal repetitive DNA. DeRIP is open-source and is available as part of the RIPCAL suite at http://www.sourceforge.net/projects/ripcal.

  10. Mixing-induced spontaneous supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is conjectured that flavor mixing furnishes a universal mechanism for the spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry. The conjecture is proved explicitly for the mixing of two chiral N=1 supermultiplets and arguments for its general validity are given. That is an instance of the O'Raifeartaigh Lagrangian for which there is no tree-level nor perturbative breaking. Nonetheless, the dynamical breaking occurs due to the vacuum condensate, a mixing-induced nonperturbative effect that lifts the zero point energy. -- Highlights: → In this paper we propose a novel mechanism for spontaneous supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking based on flavor mixing. → We prove the conjecture in detail for the free massive Wess-Zumino case and give robust arguments for the general validity. → We present here is a dynamical SUSY breaking that is induced by a nonperturbative quantum effect.

  11. Small Break Air Ingress Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Oh; Eung Soo Kim

    2011-09-01

    The small break air-ingress experiment, described in this report, is designed to investigate air-ingress phenomena postulated to occur in pipes in a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTRs). During this experiment, air-ingress rates were measured for various flow and break conditions through small holes drilled into a pipe of the experimental apparatus. The holes were drilled at right angles to the pipe wall such that a direction vector drawn from the pipe centerline to the center of each hole was at right angles with respect to the pipe centerline. Thus the orientation of each hole was obtained by measuring the included angle between the direction vector of each hole with respect to a reference line anchored on the pipe centerline and pointing in the direction of the gravitational force. Using this reference system, the influence of several important parameters on the air ingress flow rate were measured including break orientation, break size, and flow velocity . The approach used to study the influence of these parameters on air ingress is based on measuring the changes in oxygen concentrations at various locations in the helium flow circulation system as a function of time using oxygen sensors (or detectors) to estimate the air-ingress rates through the holes. The test-section is constructed of a stainless steel pipe which had small holes drilled at the desired locations.

  12. A strict QCD inequality and mechanisms for chiral symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A strict QCD inequality allows one to discuss mechanisms proposed for breaking the chiral symmetry in QCD. ''Order parameters'' are identified such that if sufficiently many gauge field configurations contribute to them, spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking follows. As an application the role of instantons is discussed in chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. (orig.)

  13. Renormalizable theories with symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Becchi, Carlo M

    2016-01-01

    The description of symmetry breaking proposed by K. Symanzik within the framework of renormalizable theories is generalized from the geometrical point of view. For an arbitrary compact Lie group, a soft breaking of arbitrary covariance, and an arbitrary field multiplet, the expected integrated Ward identities are shown to hold to all orders of renormalized perturbation theory provided the Lagrangian is suitably chosen. The corresponding local Ward identity which provides the Lagrangian version of current algebra through the coupling to an external, classical, Yang-Mills field, is then proved to hold up to the classical Adler-Bardeen anomaly whose general form is written down. The BPHZ renormalization scheme is used throughout in such a way that the algebraic structure analyzed in the present context may serve as an introduction to the study of fully quantized gauge theories.

  14. Dynamical supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supersymmetry, and in particular, dynamical supersymmetry breaking, offers the hope of a natural solution of the gauge hierarchy problem in grand unification. I briefly review recent work on dynamical supersymmetry breaking in four-dimensional Higgs theories and its application to grand unified model building

  15. The use of multiple versus single assessment time points to improve screening accuracy in identifying children at risk for later serious antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petras, Hanno; Buckley, Jacquelyn A; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2013-10-01

    Guided by Kraemer et al.'s (Psychological Methods, 3:257-271, 1999) framework for measuring the potency of risk factors, we sought to improve on the classification accuracy reported in Petras et al. (Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 43:88-96, 2004a) and Petras et al. (Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 44:790-797, 2005) by using multiple as opposed to single point in time assessments of early aggressive and disruptive behavior in the classification of youth who would likely benefit from targeted preventive interventions. Different from Petras et al. (2004a, 2005), the outcome used in this study included serious antisocial behavior in young adulthood as well as in adolescence. Among males, the use of multiple time points did not yield greater classification accuracy than the highest single time points, that is, third and fifth grades. For females, although fifth grade represented the best single time point in terms of classification accuracy, no significant association was found between earlier time points and the later outcome, rendering a test of the multiple time points hypothesis moot. The findings presented in this study have strong implications for the design of targeted intervention for violence prevention, indicating that the screening quality based on aggression ratings during the elementary years is rather modest, particularly for females. PMID:23408279

  16. Break the ice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Jacky:My sister is mad at me.She refuses(拒绝)to talk to me.What can I do to break the ice?Ella:You can buy her a little gift.Break的意思是"打破",ice是指"冰块"。冰是又冷又硬的东西,作为俗语break the ice是指"打破沉默(僵局)"。Jacky惹妹妹生气,妹妹不理他了,他能通过送小礼物break the ice吗?

  17. Supersymmetry breaking from superstrings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gauge hierarchy problem is briefly reviewed and a class of effective field theories obtained from superstrings is described. These are characterized by a classical symmetry, related to the space-time duality of string theory, that is responsible for the suppression of observable supersymmetry breaking effects. At the quantum level, the symmetry is broken by anomalies that provide the seed of observable supersymmetry breaking, and an acceptably large gauge hierarchy may be generated. 26 refs

  18. A rapid method for measuring local groundwater-surface water interactions and identifying potential non-point source pollution inputs to rivers

    OpenAIRE

    Butler, Christopher Aaron

    2009-01-01

    Agriculture in the Central Valley of California is a potential contributor of non-point source pollution to surface waters via the groundwater pathway. This work presents a relatively simple method and inexpensive apparatus for quantifying local groundwater discharge into rivers using heat as a tracer. Two transects along a known gaining reach of the Lower Merced River were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the groundwater discharge monitoring instruments, known as Temperat...

  19. Supersymmetry breaking as a quantum phase transition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explore supersymmetry breaking in the light of a rich fixed-point structure of two-dimensional supersymmetric Wess-Zumino models with one supercharge using the functional renormalization group. We relate the dynamical breaking of supersymmetry to a renormalization group relevant control parameter of the superpotential which is a common relevant direction of all fixed points of the system. Supersymmetry breaking can thus be understood as a quantum phase transition analogous to similar transitions in correlated fermion systems. Supersymmetry gives rise to a new superscaling relation between the critical exponent associated with the control parameter and the anomalous dimension of the field - a scaling relation which is not known in standard spin systems.

  20. Supersymmetry breaking as a quantum phase transition

    CERN Document Server

    Gies, Holger; Wipf, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    We explore supersymmetry breaking in the light of a rich fixed-point structure of two-dimensional supersymmetric Wess-Zumino models with one supercharge using the functional renormalization group (RG). We relate the dynamical breaking of supersymmetry to an RG relevant control parameter of the superpotential which is a common relevant direction of all fixed points of the system. Supersymmetry breaking can thus be understood as a quantum phase transition analogously to similar transitions in correlated fermion systems. Supersymmetry gives rise to a new superscaling relation between the critical exponent associated with the control parameter and the anomalous dimension of the field -- a scaling relation which is not known in standard spin systems.

  1. Point mutations in the Moloney murine leukemia virus enhancer identify a lymphoid-specific viral core motif and 1,3-phorbol myristate acetate-inducible element.

    OpenAIRE

    Speck, N A; Renjifo, B; Hopkins, N

    1990-01-01

    The transcriptional enhancer of the Moloney murine leukemia virus (MoMLV) is organized as a 75-base-pair repeat, and in each copy of the repeat there are multiple binding sites for nuclear factors. We have introduced point mutations into each of the known nuclear factor-binding sites in the MoMLV enhancer, in both copies of the direct repeat, and have analyzed the transcriptional activity conferred by the mutated enhancers by transient-expression assays in both hematopoietic and nonhematopoie...

  2. Symmetry Breaking for Black-Scholes Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xuan-Liu; ZHANG Shun-Li; QU Chang-Zheng

    2007-01-01

    Black-Scholes equation is used to model stock option pricing. In this paper, optimal systems with one to four parameters of Lie point symmetries for Black-Scholes equation and its extension are obtained. Their symmetry breaking interaction associated with the optimal systems is also studied. As a result, symmetry reductions and corresponding solutions for the resulting equations are obtained.

  3. Symmetry Breaking for Black-Scholes Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuan-Liu; Zhang, Shun-Li; Qu, Chang-Zheng

    2007-06-01

    Black-Scholes equation is used to model stock option pricing. In this paper, optimal systems with one to four parameters of Lie point symmetries for Black-Scholes equation and its extension are obtained. Their symmetry breaking interaction associated with the optimal systems is also studied. As a result, symmetry reductions and corresponding solutions for the resulting equations are obtained.

  4. Symmetry Breaking for Black-Scholes Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black-Scholes equation is used to model stock option pricing. In this paper, optimal systems with one to four parameters of Lie point symmetries for Black-Scholes equation and its extension are obtained. Their symmetry breaking interaction associated with the optimal systems is also studied. As a result, symmetry reductions and corresponding solutions for the resulting equations are obtained.

  5. Break preclusion: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper is the result of an attempt to understand the frequently referred terms 'Break Preclusion' (BP) and 'Leak Before Break' (LBB) criteria in the safety literature and available relevant information on internet. Break Preclusion means exclusion of assumption of double ended guillotine rupture of pipelines and instead assuming leak before break which allows to use a reliable system for leak detection signal to shutdown the reactor before the pipe rupture occurs. In other words it means discovery of leak before fracture may occur in service. Pressure vessels and Piping of main steam lines are the areas of application of LBB. Early detection of leak enables shutdown of the reactor of the nuclear power plant. The information used for review are based on abstracts and/or concise form of papers available on internet. As early as in 1982 preclusion of double ended circumferential rupture of the main coolant line was attempted. Break preclusion concept, BPC and LBB both are based on high level knowledge of fracture mechanics. (author)

  6. Warped Supersymmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Burgess, C P; de Alwis, S P; Giddings, S B; Maharana, A; Quevedo, Fernando; Suruliz, K

    2008-01-01

    We address the size of supersymmetry-breaking effects within higher-dimensional settings where the observable sector resides deep within a strongly warped region, with supersymmetry breaking not necessarily localized in that region. Our particular interest is in how the supersymmetry-breaking scale seen by the observable sector depends on this warping. We obtain this dependence in two ways: by computing within the microscopic (string) theory supersymmetry-breaking masses in supermultiplets; and by investigating how warping gets encoded into masses within the low-energy 4D effective theory. We find that the lightest gravitino mode can have mass much less than the straightforward estimate from the mass shift of the unwarped zero mode. This lightest Kaluza-Klein excitation plays the role of the supersymmetric partner of the graviton and has a warped mass m_{3/2} proportional to e^A, with e^A the warp factor, and controls the size of the soft SUSY breaking terms. We formulate the conditions required for the exist...

  7. A Four-Point Screening Method for Assessing Molecular Mechanism of Action (MMOA) Identifies Tideglusib as a Time-Dependent Inhibitor of Trypanosoma brucei GSK3β

    OpenAIRE

    Swinney, Zachary T.; Haubrich, Brad A.; Xia, Shuangluo; Ramesha, Chakk; Gomez, Stephen R.; Guyett, Paul; Mensa-Wilmot, Kojo; Swinney, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Background New therapeutics are needed for neglected tropical diseases including Human African trypanosomiasis (HAT), a progressive and fatal disease caused by the protozoan parasites Trypanosoma brucei gambiense and T. b. rhodesiense. There is a need for simple, efficient, cost effective methods to identify new molecules with unique molecular mechanisms of action (MMOAs). The mechanistic features of a binding mode, such as competition with endogenous substrates and time-dependence can affect...

  8. Optimal Cut-Off Points on the Health Anxiety Inventory, Illness Attitude Scales and Whiteley Index to Identify Severe Health Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Hedman; Mats Lekander; Brjánn Ljótsson; Nils Lindefors; Christian Rück; Gerhard Andersson; Erik Andersson

    2015-01-01

    Background Health anxiety can be viewed as a dimensional phenomenon where severe health anxiety in form of DSM-IV hypochondriasis represents a cut-off where the health anxiety becomes clinically significant. Three of the most reliable and used self-report measures of health anxiety are the Health Anxiety Inventory (HAI), the Illness Attitude Scales (IAS) and the Whiteley Index (WI). Identifying the optimal cut-offs for classification of presence of a diagnosis of severe health anxiety on thes...

  9. Electroweak symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Higgs mechanism is reviewed in its most general form, requiring the existence of a new symmetry-breaking force and associated particles, which need not however be Higgs bosons. The first lecture reviews the essential elements of the Higgs mechanism, which suffice to establish low energy theorems for the scattering of longitudinally polarized W and Z gauge bosons. An upper bound on the scale of the symmetry-breaking physics then follows from the low energy theorems and partial wave unitarity. The second lecture reviews particular models, with and without Higgs bosons, paying special attention to how the general features discussed in lecture 1 are realized in each model. The third lecture focuses on the experimental signals of strong WW scattering that can be observed at the SSC above 1 TeV in the WW subenergy, which will allow direct measurement of the strength of the symmetry-breaking force. 52 refs., 10 figs

  10. Analysis of economic break-even point of the biogas utilization for electrical power conversion: case study in a swine terminated unit; Analise do ponto de equilibrio economico da utilizacao do biogas para conversao em energia eletrica: estudo de caso em unidade de terminacao de suinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervi, Ricardo Ghantous; Pinotti, Elvio Brasil [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Registro, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias do Vale do Ribeira], e-mails: rghantous@registro.unesp.br, epinotti@registro.unesp.br; Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutsui; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial], e-mails: maura@fca.unesp.br, osmar@fca.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    This work aimed to develop a study to estimate the break-even point in financial units of the electrical power generation using biogas from swine wastes. The analyzed biodigester is a continuous tubular model with brick concrete duct and plastic covering with a gasometer, and where the waste of 2,300 fattening pigs are deposited daily. The initial investment estimate for the installation was R$ 51,537.17. The system annual costs were R$ 5,708.20, for maintenance, R$ 4,390.40 for depreciation and R$ 1,366.77 for interests. It was noticed that with an average of consumption of 17.1 kW.hour{sup -1} the system presents an annual loss of R$ 1,592.14 because the consumption of 27.85 kW.hour{sup -1} is the minimum that should be consumed to achieve a corresponded financial break-even point of R$ 15,054.40.year{sup -1}. It was concluded that the correct technical dimensioning greatly influences on the economic results. (author)

  11. Repurposed Automated Handheld Counter as a Point-of-Care Tool to Identify Individuals ‘At Risk’ of Serious Post-Ivermectin Encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Sébastien D S Pion; Kamgno, Joseph; Wanji, Samuel; Thomas B Nutman

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Administration of ivermectin (IVM) as part of mass drug administration (MDA) campaigns for onchocerciasis and/or lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been suspended in areas co-endemic for Loa loa due to severe post-treatment adverse events (SAEs) associated with high-burden of infection (>30,000 mf/ml). One simple approach for preventing SAEs is to identify and exclude individuals at risk from MDA. Here, we describe a repurposed hand-held automated cell counter (Scepter 2.0; HHAC) as ...

  12. Analyzing Break Point of Individual Income Tax of Year-end Bonus and Making Use of It%浅析年终奖的个人所得税临界点及运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯君邦

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the critical point of the one-time bonus at the end of the year when calculate the personal income tax, and makes further analysis on how to make tax planning, under the premise of considering the critical point of the personal income tax.%本文简要分析年终一次性奖金在个人所得税计算时的临界点,并进一步分析在考虑个人所得税临界点的前提下,如何进行纳税筹划.

  13. A Point Source of a Different Color: Identifying a Gap in United States Regulatory Policy for “Green” CSO Treatment Using Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeno F. Levy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Up to 850 billion gallons of untreated combined sewer overflow (CSO is discharged into waters of the United States each year. Recent changes in CSO management policy support green infrastructure (GI technologies as “front of the pipe” approaches to discharge mitigation by detention/reduction of urban stormwater runoff. Constructed wetlands for CSO treatment have been considered among suites of GI solutions. However, these wetlands differ fundamentally from other GI technologies in that they are “end of the pipe” treatment systems that discharge from a point source, and are therefore regulated in the U.S. under the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES. We use a comparative regulatory analysis to examine the U.S. policy framework for CSO treatment wetlands. We find in all cases that permitting authorities have used best professional judgment to determine effluent limits and compliance monitoring requirements, referencing technology and water quality-based standards originally developed for traditional “grey” treatment systems. A qualitative comparison with Europe shows less stringent regulatory requirements, perhaps due to institutionalized design parameters. We recommend that permitting authorities develop technical guidance documents for evaluation of “green” CSO treatment systems that account for their unique operational concerns and benefits with respect to sustainable development.

  14. CP breaking in lattice chiral gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CP symmetry is not manifestly implemented for the local and doubler-free Ginsparg-Wilson operator in lattice chiral gauge theory. We precisely identify where the effects of this CP breaking appear. We show that they appear in: (I) Overall constant phase of the fermion generating functional. (II) Overall constant coefficient of the fermion generating functional. (III) Fermion propagator appearing in external fermion lines and the propagator connected to Yukawa vertices. The first effect appears from the transformation of the path integral measure and it is absorbed into a suitable definition of the constant phase factor for each topological sector; in this sense there appears no 'CP anomaly'. The second constant arises from the explicit breaking in the action and it is absorbed by the suitable weights with which topological sectors are summed. The last one in the propagator is inherent to this formulation and cannot be avoided by a mere modification of the projection operator, for example, in the framework of the Ginsparg-Wilson operator. This breaking emerges as an (almost) contact term in the propagator when the Higgs field, which is treated perturbatively, has no vacuum expectation value. In the presence of the vacuum expectation value, however, a completely new situation arises and the breaking becomes intrinsically non-local, though this breaking may still be removed in a suitable continuum limit. This non-local CP breaking is expected to persist for a non-perturbative treatment of the Higgs coupling. (author)

  15. Optimal cut-off points on the health anxiety inventory, illness attitude scales and whiteley index to identify severe health anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hedman

    Full Text Available Health anxiety can be viewed as a dimensional phenomenon where severe health anxiety in form of DSM-IV hypochondriasis represents a cut-off where the health anxiety becomes clinically significant. Three of the most reliable and used self-report measures of health anxiety are the Health Anxiety Inventory (HAI, the Illness Attitude Scales (IAS and the Whiteley Index (WI. Identifying the optimal cut-offs for classification of presence of a diagnosis of severe health anxiety on these measures has several advantages in clinical and research settings. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the HAI, IAS and WI as proximal diagnostic instruments for severe health anxiety defined as DSM-IV hypochondriasis.We investigated sensitivity, specificity and predictive value on the HAI, IAS and WI using a total of 347 adult participants of whom 158 had a diagnosis of severe health anxiety, 97 had obsessive-compulsive disorder and 92 were healthy non-clinical controls. Diagnostic assessments were conducted using the Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule.Optimal cut-offs for identifying a diagnosis of severe health anxiety was 67 on the HAI, 47 on the IAS, and 5 on the WI. Sensitivity and specificity were high, ranging from 92.6 to 99.4%. Positive and negative predictive values ranged from 91.6 to 99.4% using unadjusted prevalence rates.The HAI, IAS and WI have very good properties as diagnostic indicators of severe health anxiety and can be used as cost-efficient proximal estimates of the diagnosis.

  16. Unstable volatility functions: the break preserving local linear estimator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Isabel; Gijbels, Irene

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the break preserving local linear (BPLL) estimator for the estimation of unstable volatility functions. Breaks in the structure of the conditional mean and/or the volatility functions are common in Finance. Markov switching models (Hamilton, 1989) and...... threshold models (Lin and Terasvirta, 1994) are amongst the most popular models to describe the behaviour of data with structural breaks. The local linear (LL) estimator is not consistent at points where the volatility function has a break and it may even report negative values for finite samples. The...

  17. Routinizing Breaking News

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartley, Jannie Møller

    2011-01-01

    This chapter revisits seminal theoretical categorizations of news proposed three decades earlier by US sociologist Gaye Tuchman. By exploring the definition of ”breaking news” in the contemporary online newsrooms of three Danish news organisations, the author offers us a long overdue re-theorizat...

  18. Breaking the Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul Rind; Kirketerp, Anne

    2006-01-01

    The paper shortly reveals the history of a small school - the KaosPilots - dedicated to educate young people to carriers as entrepreneurs. In this contribution we want to explore how the KaosPilots managed to break the waves of institutionalised concepts and practices of teaching entrepreneurship...

  19. Novel CIC point mutations and an exon-spanning, homozygous deletion identified in oligodendroglial tumors by a comprehensive genomic approach including transcriptome sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Eisenreich

    Full Text Available Oligodendroglial tumors form a distinct subgroup of gliomas, characterized by a better response to treatment and prolonged overall survival. Most oligodendrogliomas and also some oligoastrocytomas are characterized by a unique and typical unbalanced translocation, der(1,19, resulting in a 1p/19q co-deletion. Candidate tumor suppressor genes targeted by these losses, CIC on 19q13.2 and FUBP1 on 1p31.1, were only recently discovered. We analyzed 17 oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas by applying a comprehensive approach consisting of RNA expression analysis, DNA sequencing of CIC, FUBP1, IDH1/2, and array CGH. We confirmed three different genetic subtypes in our samples: i the "oligodendroglial" subtype with 1p/19q co-deletion in twelve out of 17 tumors; ii the "astrocytic" subtype in three tumors; iii the "other" subtype in two tumors. All twelve tumors with the 1p/19q co-deletion carried the most common IDH1 R132H mutation. In seven of these tumors, we found protein-disrupting point mutations in the remaining allele of CIC, four of which are novel. One of these tumors also had a deleterious mutation in FUBP1. Only by integrating RNA expression and array CGH data, were we able to discover an exon-spanning homozygous microdeletion within the remaining allele of CIC in an additional tumor with 1p/19q co-deletion. Therefore we propose that the mutation rate might be underestimated when looking at sequence variants alone. In conclusion, the high frequency and the spectrum of CIC mutations in our 1p/19q-codeleted tumor cohort support the hypothesis that CIC acts as a tumor suppressor in these tumors, whereas FUBP1 might play only a minor role.

  20. Detecting structural breaks in time series via genetic algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Benjamin; Fischer, Paul; Hilbert, Astrid;

    2016-01-01

    Detecting structural breaks is an essential task for the statistical analysis of time series, for example, for fitting parametric models to it. In short, structural breaks are points in time at which the behaviour of the time series substantially changes. Typically, no solid background knowledge of...... crossover and mutation operations for this problem, we conduct extensive experiments to determine good choices for the parameters and operators of the genetic algorithm. One surprising observation is that use of uniform and one-point crossover together gave significantly better results than using either...... crossover operator alone. Moreover, we present a specific fitness function which exploits the sparse structure of the break points and which can be evaluated particularly efficiently. The experiments on artificial and real-world time series show that the resulting algorithm detects break points with high...

  1. Transportation Signs at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (trspsign)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains the starting point for the collection of transportation signs at Cedar Breaks National Monument. There are over 400 signs (transportation and...

  2. Designated Overlook Areas at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (ovrareas)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains three polygons that represent areas of designated overlooks at Cedar Breaks National Monument. Note: Point Supreme needs an FMSS number - it...

  3. Springs at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (allsprgs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 151 points representing spring locations in and surrounding Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah. This data originates...

  4. Pure gravity mediation and spontaneous B-L breaking from strong dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Kaladi S.; Schmitz, Kai; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2016-04-01

    In pure gravity mediation (PGM), the most minimal scheme for the mediation of supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking to the visible sector, soft masses for the standard model gauginos are generated at one loop rather than via direct couplings to the SUSY-breaking field. In any concrete implementation of PGM, the SUSY-breaking field is therefore required to carry nonzero charge under some global or local symmetry. As we point out in this note, a prime candidate for such a symmetry might be B- L, the Abelian gauge symmetry associated with the difference between baryon number B and lepton number L. The F-term of the SUSY-breaking field then not only breaks SUSY, but also B- L, which relates the respective spontaneous breaking of SUSY and B- L at a fundamental level. As a particularly interesting consequence, we find that the heavy Majorana neutrino mass scale ends up being tied to the gravitino mass, ΛN ∼m3/2. Assuming nonthermal leptogenesis to be responsible for the generation of the baryon asymmetry of the universe, this connection may then explain why SUSY necessarily needs to be broken at a rather high energy scale, so that m3/2 ≳ 1000 TeV in accord with the concept of PGM. We illustrate our idea by means of a minimal model of dynamical SUSY breaking, in which B- L is identified as a weakly gauged flavor symmetry. We also discuss the effect of the B- L gauge dynamics on the superparticle mass spectrum as well as the resulting constraints on the parameter space of our model. In particular, we comment on the role of the B- L D-term.

  5. On the breaking of mu-tau flavor symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Zhen-hua

    2016-01-01

    In light of the observation of a relatively large $\\theta^{}_{13}$, one has to consider breaking the $\\mu$-$\\tau$ symmetry properly which would otherwise result in a vanishing $\\theta^{}_{13}$ (as well as $\\theta^{}_{23} = \\pi/4$). Therefore, we investigate various symmetry-breaking patterns and accordingly identify those that are phenomenologically viable. Furthermore, the symmetry-breaking effects arising from some specific physics (e.g., the renormalization group equation running effect) are discussed as well.

  6. Two novel exonic point mutations in HEXA identified in a juvenile Tay-Sachs patient: role of alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levit, A; Nutman, D; Osher, E; Kamhi, E; Navon, R

    2010-06-01

    We have identified three mutations in the beta-hexoseaminidase A (HEXA) gene in a juvenile Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) patient, which exhibited a reduced level of HEXA mRNA. Two mutations are novel, c.814G>A (p.Gly272Arg) and c.1305C>T (p.=), located in exon 8 and in exon 11, respectively. The third mutation, c.1195A>G (p.Asn399Asp) in exon 11, has been previously characterized as a common polymorphism in African-Americans. Hex A activity measured in TSD Glial cells, transfected with HEXA cDNA constructs bearing these mutations, was unaltered from the activity level measured in normal HEXA cDNA. Analysis of RT-PCR products revealed three aberrant transcripts in the patient, one where exon 8 was absent, one where exon 11 was absent and a third lacking both exons 10 and 11. All three novel transcripts contain frameshifts resulting in premature termination codons (PTCs). Transfection of mini-gene constructs carrying the c.814G>A and c.1305C>T mutations proved that the two mutations result in exon skipping. mRNAs that harbor a PTC are detected and degraded by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway to prevent synthesis of abnormal proteins. However, although NMD is functional in the patient's fibroblasts, aberrant transcripts are still present. We suggest that the level of correctly spliced transcripts as well as the efficiency in which NMD degrade the PTC-containing transcripts, apparently plays an important role in the phenotype severity of the unique patient and thus should be considered as a potential target for drug therapy. PMID:20363167

  7. Achromatic Breaks for Swift GRBs: Any Evidence?

    OpenAIRE

    S. Covino(INAF - Oss. Astronomico di Brera); Malesani, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Vergani, S.D.; Chincarini, G.; Kann, D. A.; A. Moretti(Fermilab, Batavia, IL, USA); Stella, L.

    2006-01-01

    The availability of multi-wavelength high-quality data of gamma-ray burst afterglows in the Swift era, contrary to the expectations, did not allow us to fully confirm yet one of the most fundamental features of the standard afterglow picture: the presence of an achromatic break in the decaying light curve. We briefly review the most interesting cases identified so far.

  8. Breaking News as Radicalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartley, Jannie Møller

    The aim of the paper is to make explicit how the different categories are applied in the online newsroom and thus how new categories can be seen as positioning strategies in the form of radicalisations of already existing categories. Thus field theory provides us with tools to analyse how online...... journalists are using the categorisations to create hierarchies within the journalistic field in order to position themselves as specialists in what Tuchman has called developing news, aiming and striving for what today is know as breaking news and the “exclusive scoop,” as the trademark of online journalism...... in a media environment where immediacy rules (Domingo 2008a). Following this research the primary focus of this paper is the category breaking news and Tuchmans developing news, but as they are all connected the analysis will also draw upon the other categories in Tuchmans typology. The theoretical...

  9. Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hošek, Jiří; Smetana, Adam

    Berlin: Springer, 2014, s. 17-28. ISBN 978-3-319-07072-8 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/06/0734; GA MŠk LA08015; GA MŠk LA08032 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking * top-quark condensation * neutriono condensation * strong Yukawa dynamics * flavor gauge dynamics Subject RIV: BE - Theoretical Physics

  10. Predicting appointment breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, A G; Talaga, J

    1995-01-01

    The goal of physician referral services is to schedule appointments, but if too many patients fail to show up, the value of the service will be compromised. The authors found that appointment breaking can be predicted by the number of days to the scheduled appointment, the doctor's specialty, and the patient's age and gender. They also offer specific suggestions for modifying the marketing mix to reduce the incidence of no-shows. PMID:10142384

  11. On the symmetry breaking phenomenon

    OpenAIRE

    Birtea, Petre; Puta, Mircea; Ratiu, Tudor S.; Tudoran, Ruazvan Micu

    2006-01-01

    We investigate the problem of symmetry breaking in the framework of dynamical systems with symmetry on a smooth manifold. Two cases will be analyzed: general and Hamiltonian dynamical systems. We give sufficient conditions for symmetry breaking in both cases.

  12. Symmetry breaking. 2. ed.

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This new edition of Prof. Strocchi's well received primer on rigorous aspects of symmetry breaking presents a more detailed and thorough discussion of the mechanism of symmetry breaking in classical field theory in relation with the Noether theorem. Moreover, the link between symmetry breaking without massless Goldstone bosons in Coulomb systems and in gauge theories is made more explicit in terms of the delocalized Coulomb dynamics. Furthermore, the chapter on the Higgs mechanism has been significantly expanded with a non-perturbative treatment of the Higgs phenomenon, at the basis of the standard model of particle physics, in the local and in the Coulomb gauges. Last but not least, a subject index has been added and a number of misprints have been corrected. From the reviews of the first edition: The notion of spontaneous symmetry breaking has proven extremely valuable, the problem is that most derivations are perturbative and heuristic. Yet mathematically precise versions do exist, but are not widely known. It is precisely the aim of his book to correct this unbalance. - It is remarkable to see how much material can actually be presented in a rigorous way (incidentally, many of the results presented are due to Strocchi himself), yet this is largely ignored, the original heuristic derivations being, as a rule, more popular. - At each step he strongly emphasizes the physical meaning and motivation of the various notions introduced, a book that fills a conspicuous gap in the literature, and does it rather well. It could also be a good basis for a graduate course in mathematical physics. It can be recommended to physicists as well and, of course, for physics/mathematics libraries. J.-P. Antoine, Physicalia 28/2, 2006 Strocchi's main emphasis is on the fact that the loss of symmetric behaviour requires both the non-symmetric ground states and the infinite extension of the system. It is written in a pleasant style at a level suitable for graduate students in

  13. DNA breaks early in replication in B cell cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research by scientists at the NCI has identified a new class of DNA sites in cells that break early in the replication process. They found that these break sites correlate with damage often seen in B cell cancers, such as diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

  14. Breaking the cycle of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, B; Jacobvitz, D; Sroufe, L A

    1988-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify variables that distinguish mothers who broke the cycle of abuse from mothers who were abused as children and who also abused their own children. Based on maternal interviews and questionnaires completed over a 64-month period, measures of mothers' past and current relationship experiences, stressful life events, and personality characteristics were obtained. Abused mothers who were able to break the abusive cycle were significantly more likely to have received emotional support from a nonabusive adult during childhood, participated in therapy during any period of their lives, and to have had a nonabusive and more stable, emotionally supportive, and satisfying relationship with a mate. Abused mothers who reenacted their maltreatment with their own children experienced significantly more life stress and were more anxious, dependent, immature, and depressed. PMID:3168615

  15. Modelling oil price volatility with structural breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we provide two main innovations: (i) we analyze oil prices of two prominent markets namely West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Brent using the two recently developed tests by Narayan and Popp (2010) and Liu and Narayan, 2010 both of which allow for two structural breaks in the data series; and (ii) the latter method is modified to include both symmetric and asymmetric volatility models. We identify two structural breaks that occur in 1990 and 2008 which coincidentally correspond to the Iraqi/Kuwait conflict and the global financial crisis, respectively. We find evidence of persistence and leverage effects in the oil price volatility. While further extensions can be pursued, the consideration of asymmetric effects as well as structural breaks should not be jettisoned when modelling oil price volatility. - Highlights: ► We analyze oil price volatility using NP (2010) and LN (2010) tests. ► We modify the LN (2010) to account for leverage effects in oil price. ► We find two structural breaks that reflect major global crisis in the oil market. ► We find evidence of persistence and leverage effects in oil price volatility. ► Leverage effects and structural breaks are fundamental in oil price modelling.

  16. Supersymmetry breaking made easy, viable, and generic

    CERN Document Server

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2007-01-01

    The kind of supersymmetry that can be discovered at the LHC must be very much flavor-blind, which used to require very special intelligently designed models of supersymmetry breaking. This led to the pessimism for some in the community that it is not likely for the LHC to discover supersymmetry. I point out that this is not so, because a garden-variety supersymmetric theories actually can do this job.

  17. Symmetries and Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Van Oers, W T H

    2003-01-01

    In understanding the world of matter, the introduction of symmetry principles following experimentation or using the predictive power of symmetry principles to guide experimentation is most profound. The conservation of energy, linear momentum, angular momentum, charge, and CPT involve fundamental symmetries. All other conservation laws are valid within a restricted subspace of the four interactions: the strong, the electromagnetic, the weak, and the gravitational interaction. In this paper comments are made regarding parity violation in hadronic systems, charge symmetry breaking in two nucleon and few nucleon systems, and time-reversal-invariance in hadronic systems.

  18. Breaking the Silence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Many women who suffer from vaginitis have kept silent about their illness because they think it is shameful to have such a disease. The International Women’s Health Coalition (IWHC) has publicized the problem, referring to it as a "culture of silence"inherited from traditional thinking. The coalition has made attempts to improve women’s health conditions by changing people’s misconceptions about the disease. In 1997, under a grant from the American Ford Foundation, the Sichuan Provincial Women’s Federation carried out a study on women’s repro-ductive health, aimed at "breaking the silence."

  19. Stationarity Test for Aggregate Outputs in the Presence of Structural Breaks

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, D. K.; Shanmugam, K. R.

    2012-01-01

    This study tests for the stationarity of aggregate output (GDP at factor cost) and its three major components, namely GDP agriculture, GDP industry and GDP services in the presence of structural breaks during 1950-51 to 2011-12. Results indicate that (i) the GDP has three break points; (ii) GDP agriculture contains one while the GDP industry and GDP services contain four breaks each; and (iii) all variables are trends stationary with one or more structural breaks. Our alternative test, which ...

  20. Performance analysis of single structural break test with an empirical study on efficient market hypothesis"

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldız, İzzet

    2005-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. In this thesis, performance of the single structural break tests is examined. Since it has proved superiority of Sequential F test on other single break tests, it is chosen as single break test. Monte Carlo simulation is run for different scenarios and performances of the test with respect to estimating break points, and parameters, and rejecting or accepting the joint null hypothesis is observed. For all cases small sample bias is obse...

  1. Spontaneous breaking of supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zumino, B.

    1981-12-01

    There has been recently a revival of interest in supersymmetric gauge theories, stimulated by the hope that supersymmetry might help in clarifying some of the questions which remain unanswered in the so called Grand Unified Theories and in particular the gauge hierarchy problem. In a Grand Unified Theory one has two widely different mass scales: the unification mass M approx. = 10/sup 15/GeV at which the unification group (e.g. SU(5)) breaks down to SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) and the mass ..mu.. approx. = 100 GeV at which SU(2) x U(1) is broken down to the U(1) of electromagnetism. There is at present no theoretical understanding of the extreme smallness of the ratio ..mu../M of these two numbers. This is the gauge hierarchy problem. This lecture attempts to review the various mechanisms for spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in gauge theories. Most of the discussions are concerned with the tree approximation, but what is presently known about radiative correction is also reviewed.

  2. Bootstrap Dynamical Symmetry Breaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Shu Hou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the emergence of a 125 GeV Higgs-like particle at the LHC, we explore the possibility of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking by strong Yukawa coupling of very heavy new chiral quarks Q . Taking the 125 GeV object to be a dilaton with suppressed couplings, we note that the Goldstone bosons G exist as longitudinal modes V L of the weak bosons and would couple to Q with Yukawa coupling λ Q . With m Q ≳ 700  GeV from LHC, the strong λ Q ≳ 4 could lead to deeply bound Q Q ¯ states. We postulate that the leading “collapsed state,” the color-singlet (heavy isotriplet, pseudoscalar Q Q ¯ meson π 1 , is G itself, and a gap equation without Higgs is constructed. Dynamical symmetry breaking is affected via strong λ Q , generating m Q while self-consistently justifying treating G as massless in the loop, hence, “bootstrap,” Solving such a gap equation, we find that m Q should be several TeV, or λ Q ≳ 4 π , and would become much heavier if there is a light Higgs boson. For such heavy chiral quarks, we find analogy with the π − N system, by which we conjecture the possible annihilation phenomena of Q Q ¯ → n V L with high multiplicity, the search of which might be aided by Yukawa-bound Q Q ¯ resonances.

  3. Numt-mediated double-strand break repair mitigates deletions during primate genome evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat Hazkani-Covo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ is the major mechanism of double-strand break repair (DSBR in mammalian cells. NHEJ has traditionally been inferred from experimental systems involving induced double strand breaks (DSBs. Whether or not the spectrum of repair events observed in experimental NHEJ reflects the repair of natural breaks by NHEJ during chromosomal evolution is an unresolved issue. In primate phylogeny, nuclear DNA sequences of mitochondrial origin, numts, are inserted into naturally occurring chromosomal breaks via NHEJ. Thus, numt integration sites harbor evidence for the mechanisms that act on the genome over evolutionary timescales. We have identified 35 and 55 lineage-specific numts in the human and chimpanzee genomes, respectively, using the rhesus monkey genome as an outgroup. One hundred and fifty two numt-chromosome fusion points were classified based on their repair patterns. Repair involving microhomology and repair leading to nucleotide additions were detected. These repair patterns are within the experimentally determined spectrum of classical NHEJ, suggesting that information from experimental systems is representative of broader genetic loci and end configurations. However, in incompatible DSBR events, small deletions always occur, whereas in 54% of numt integration events examined, no deletions were detected. Numts show a statistically significant reduction in deletion frequency, even in comparison to DSBR involving filler DNA. Therefore, numts show a unique mechanism of integration via NHEJ. Since the deletion frequency during numt insertion is low, native overhangs of chromosome breaks are preserved, allowing us to determine that 24% of the analyzed breaks are cohesive with overhangs of up to 11 bases. These data represent, to the best of our knowledge, the most comprehensive description of the structure of naturally occurring DSBs. We suggest a model in which the sealing of DSBs by numts, and probably by other filler

  4. Numerical Simulation of a Seaway with Breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dommermuth, Douglas; O'Shea, Thomas; Brucker, Kyle; Wyatt, Donald

    2012-11-01

    The focus of this presentation is to describe the recent efforts to simulate a fully non-linear seaway with breaking by using a high-order spectral (HOS) solution of the free-surface boundary value problem to drive a three-dimensional Volume of Fluid (VOF) solution. Historically, the two main types of simulations to simulate free-surface flows are the boundary integral equations method (BIEM) and high-order spectral (HOS) methods. BIEM calculations fail at the point at which the surface impacts upon itself, if not sooner, and HOS methods can only simulate a single valued free-surface. Both also employ a single-phase approximation in which the effects of the air on the water are neglected. Due to these limitations they are unable to simulate breaking waves and air entrainment. The Volume of Fluid (VOF) method on the other hand is suitable for modeling breaking waves and air entrainment. However it is computationally intractable to generate a realistic non-linear sea-state. Here, we use the HOS solution to quickly drive, or nudge, the VOF solution into a non-linear state. The computational strategies, mathematical formulation, and numerical implementation will be discussed. The results of the VOF simulation of a seaway with breaking will also be presented, and compared to the single phase, single valued HOS results.

  5. Violent breaking wave impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredmose, Henrik; Peregrine, D.H.; Bullock, G.N.

    2009-01-01

    When an ocean wave breaks against a steep-fronted breakwater, sea wall or a similar marine structure, its impact on the structure can be very violent. This paper describes the theoretical studies that, together with field and laboratory investigations, have been carried out in order to gain a...... better understanding of the processes involved. The wave's approach towards a structure is modelled with classical irrotational flow to obtain the different types of impact profiles that may or may not lead to air entrapment. The subsequent impact is modelled with a novel compressible-flow model for a...... homogeneous mixture of incompressible liquid and ideal gas. This enables a numerical description of both trapped air pockets and the propagation of pressure shock waves through the aerated water. An exact Riemann solver is developed to permit a finite-volume solution to the flow model with smallest possible...

  6. Electroweak breaking in supersymmetric models

    CERN Document Server

    Ibáñez, L E

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the mechanism for electroweak symmetry breaking in supersymmetric versions of the standard model. After briefly reviewing the possible sources of supersymmetry breaking, we show how the required pattern of symmetry breaking can automatically result from the structure of quantum corrections in the theory. We demonstrate that this radiative breaking mechanism works well for a heavy top quark and can be combined in unified versions of the theory with excellent predictions for the running couplings of the model. (To be published in ``Perspectives in Higgs Physics'', G. Kane editor.)

  7. Break location effects on PWR small break LOCA phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents experimental results of a small lower plenum break test of SB-PV-01 conducted at the large-Scale Test Facility (LSTF) of the Rig-of-Safety Assessment (ROSA)-IV program. This test simulates a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) caused by instrument tubes break (break area corresponds to 0.5% of the cold leg flow area) in a Westinghouse-type pressurized water reactor (PWR) assuming both manual actuation for all of the high pressure injection (HPI) systems and failure of the auxiliary feedwater systems. The report clarifies long-term system responses, especially the core cooling conditions related to the primary mass inventory. Also it clarifies break location effects on small break LOCA phenomena by comparing other five similar LOCA tests with break locations at cold leg, hot leg, upper head, pressurizer top (TMI-type) and SG U-tubes. It is coucluded that the lower plenum break is the severest on core heatup due to the highest break flow rate and the least primary mass recovery after the ECCS among the six tests. (author)

  8. The breaking point of modern processor and platform technology

    CERN Document Server

    Nowak, A; Lazzaro, A; Leduc, J

    2011-01-01

    This work is an overview of state of the art processors used in High Energy Physics, their architecture and an extensive outline of the forthcoming technologies. Silicon process science and hardware design are making constant and rapid progress, and a solid grasp of these developments is imperative to the understanding of their possible future applications, which might include software strategy, optimizations, computing center operations and hardware acquisitions. In particular, the current issue of software and platform scalability is becoming more and more noticeable, and will develop in the near future with the growing core count of single chips and the approach of certain x86 architectural limits. Other topics brought forward include the hard, physical limits of innovation, the applicability of tried and tested computing formulas to modern technologies, as well as an analysis of viable alternate choices for continued development.

  9. Anomalies, instantons and chiral symmetry breaking at a Lifshitz point

    CERN Document Server

    Bakas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    We give a new twist to an old-fashioned topic in quantum field theory describing violations of the chiral charge conservation of massless fermions through Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomalies in the background of instanton fields in the context of non-relativistic Lifshitz theories. The results we report here summarize in a nut-shell our earlier work on the subject found in arXiv:1103.5693 and arXiv:1110.1332. We present simple examples where index computations can be carried out explicitly focusing, in particular, to gravitational models of Lifshitz type and highlight their differences from ordinary gravity in four space-time dimensions.

  10. BREAK-EVEN POINT IN SUGAR-BEET PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ilija Nedić

    2015-01-01

    World sugar consumption has been recording a steady growth in the past 70 years and, according to all relevant estimates, it will continue to grow also in the next decade, which puts sugar in the category of the most significant foods and commodities in the world. Of the total world sugar production, around 77% is derived from sugar cane and 23% from sugar beet. Brazil has been the world leader in sugar production for a long period of time, producing white sugar from sugar cane only, whereas ...

  11. Coulomb imaging of the concerted and stepwise break up processes of OCS ions in intense femtosecond laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We use FEMPULSE to study the structure of OCS and how it changes with time. • Using Dalitz plots we can see structural properties change with pulse length. • We can use the Dalitz plot to distinguish between break up modes. • We identify three modes of stepwise break up including one for OCS4+. • We can control the amount of stepwise break up processes. - Abstract: We study the break up of OCS in intense femtosecond laser radiation using the FEMPULS technique to vary the laser pulse duration from 7 fs to 200 fs. Newton and Dalitz plots show the progression of molecular deformation and break up for OCS3+ and OCS4+. For increasing pulse length, the concerted three body dissociation exhibits increasing bending, and the amount of stepwise dissociation decreases. For the longest pulses however the stepwise process increases again. Both phenomena can be interpreted in terms of the effect of the laser field on lower charge states and the behaviour of a wave packet on a saddle point potential. The experiment illustrates the ability of the Coulomb imaging method to track molecular geometry and dynamics and indicates a new path to laser control of molecular parameters

  12. R-parity breaking phenomenology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review various features of the R-parity breaking phenomenology, with particular attention to the low energy observables, and to the patterns of the R-parity breaking interactions that arise in Grand Unified models. (author). 22 refs, 1 fig., 3 tabs

  13. On partially entanglement breaking channels

    OpenAIRE

    Chruściński, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    Using well known duality between quantum maps and states of composite systems we introduce the notion of Schmidt number of a quantum channel. It enables one to define classes of quantum channels which partially break quantum entanglement. These classes generalize the well known class of entanglement breaking channels.

  14. Parity-time-symmetry breaking in two-dimensional photonic crystals: Square lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mock, Adam

    2016-06-01

    We consider theoretically materials whose electromagnetic properties possess parity-time (PT ) symmetry and are periodic in two dimensions. When designed for optical frequencies such structures are commonly known as two-dimensional (2D) photonic crystals. With the addition of PT symmetry the optical modes of 2D photonic crystals exhibit thresholdless spontaneous PT -symmetry breaking near the Brillouin zone boundary, which is analogous to what has previously been studied in PT -symmetric structures with one-dimensional periodicity. Consistent with previous work, we find that spontaneous PT -symmetry breaking occurs at band crossings in the photonic dispersion diagram. Due to the extra spatial degree of freedom in 2D periodic systems, their band structures contain more band crossings and higher-order degeneracies than their one-dimensional counterparts. This work provides a comprehensive theoretical analysis of spontaneous PT -symmetry breaking at these points in the band structure. We find that, as in the case of one-dimensional structures, photonic band gaps exist at k =0 . We also find that at points of degeneracy with order higher than 2, bands merge pairwise to form broken-PT -symmetry supermodes. If the degeneracy order is even, this means multiple pairs of bands can form distinct (nondegenerate) broken-symmetry supermodes. If the order of degeneracy is odd, at least one of the bands will have protected PT symmetry. At other points of degeneracy, we find that the PT symmetry of the modes may be protected and we provide a spatial mode symmetry argument to explain this behavior. Finally, we identify a point at which two broken-PT -symmetry supermodes become degenerate, creating a point of fourfold degeneracy in the broken-PT -symmetry regime.

  15. Entanglement–breaking indices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study a set of new functionals (called entanglement–breaking indices) which characterize how many local iterations of a given (local) quantum channel are needed in order to completely destroy the entanglement between the system of interest over which the transformation is defined and an external ancilla. The possibility of contrasting the noisy effects introduced by the channel iterations via the action of intermediate (filtering) transformations is analyzed. We provide some examples in which our functionals can be exactly calculated. The differences between unitary and non-unitary filtering operations are analyzed showing that, at least for systems of dimension d larger than or equal to 3, the non-unitary choice is preferable (the gap between the performances of the two cases being divergent in some cases). For d = 2 (qubit case), on the contrary, no evidences of the presence of such gap is revealed: we conjecture that for this special case unitary filtering transformations are optimal. The scenario in which more general filtering protocols are allowed is also discussed in some detail. The case of a depolarizing noise acting on a two–qubit system is exactly solved in a general case

  16. The a-theorem and conformal symmetry breaking in holographic RG flows

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyos, Carlos; Sonnenschein, Jacob; Yankielowicz, Shimon

    2012-01-01

    We study holographic models describing an RG flow between two fixed points driven by a relevant scalar operator. We show how to introduce a spurion field to restore Weyl invariance and compute the anomalous contribution to the generating functional in even dimensional theories. We find that the coefficient of the anomalous term is proportional to the difference of the conformal anomalies of the UV and IR fixed points, as expected from anomaly matching arguments in field theory. For any even dimensions the coefficient is positive as implied by the holographic a-theorem. For flows corresponding to spontaneous breaking of conformal invariance, we also compute the two-point functions of the energy-momentum tensor and the scalar operator and identify the dilaton mode. We find that the simplest models with one scalar field have IR divergence which is at odds with unitarity in a local field theory.

  17. Nuclear break-up of 11Be

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, V; Lacroix, D; Blumenfeld, Y; Bourgeois, C; Chabot, M; Chomaz, Ph; Désesquelles, P; Duflot, V; Duprat, J; Fallot, M; Frascaria, N; Grévy, S; Guillemaud-Müller, D; Roussel-Chomaz, P; Savajols, H; Sorlin, O

    2007-01-01

    The break-up of 11Be was studied at 41AMeV using a secondary beam of 11Be from the GANIL facility on a 48Ti target by measuring correlations between the 10Be core, the emitted neutrons and gamma rays. The nuclear break-up leading to the emission of a neutron at large angle in the laboratory frame is identified with the towing mode through its characteristic n-fragment correlation. The experimental spectra are compared with a model where the time dependent Schrodinger equation (TDSE) is solved for the neutron initially in the 11 Be. A good agreement is found between experiment and theory for the shapes of neutron experimental energies and angular distributions. The spectroscopic factor of the 2s orbital is tentatively extracted to be 0.46+-0.15. The neutron emission from the 1p and 1d orbitals is also studied.

  18. Heavy quark solitons strangeness and symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Momen, A; Subbaraman, A; Momen, Arshad; Schechter, Joseph; Subbaraman, Anand

    1994-01-01

    We discuss the generalization of the Callan-Klebanov model to the case of heavy quark baryons. The light flavor group is considered to be $SU(3)$ and the limit of heavy spin symmetry is taken. The presence of the Wess-Zumino-Witten term permits the neat development of a picture , at the collective level, of a light diquark bound to a ``heavy" quark with decoupled spin degree of freedom. The consequences of $SU(3)$ symmetry breaking are discussed in detail. We point out that the $SU(3)$ mass splittings of the heavy baryons essentially measure the ``low energy" physics once more and that the comparison with experiment is satisfactory.

  19. Heavy quark solitons: Strangeness and symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the generalization of the Callan-Klebanov model to the case of heavy quark baryons. The light flavor group is considered to be SU(3) and the limit of heavy spin symmetry is taken. The presence of the Wess-Zumino-Witten term permits the neat development of a picture, at the collective level, of a light diquark bound to a ''heavy'' quark with decoupled spin degree of freedom. The consequences of SU(3) symmetry breaking are discussed in detail. We point out that the SU(3) mass splitting of the heavy baryons essentially measure the ''low energy'' physics once more and that the comparison with experiment is satisfactory

  20. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study dynamical chiral symmetry breaking in QCD by the use of the generalized Hartree-Fock method. The low energy quark mass is calculated to the second order of diagrammatic expansion around shifted perturbative vacuum where quarks are massive. We show that the low energy mass is finite and renormalization group invariant. We find that the finite mass gap emerges as the solutions of gap equation and stationarity condition, thereby breaking the chiral symmetry. We also discuss the possibility that the breaking solution may exist up to all orders. (author)

  1. Detecting the presence of insider trading via structural break tests

    OpenAIRE

    Olmo, Jose; Pilbeam, Keith; Pouliot, William

    2011-01-01

    The occurrence of abnormal returns before the unscheduled announcement of price sensitive information is a potential indicator of insider trading. We identify insider trading with a structural change in the intercept of an extended capital asset pricing model. To detect such a change we introduce a consistent timing structural break test (CTSB) based upon a U-statistic type process. Unlike the traditional CUSUM test, the CTSB test provides a consistent estimator of the timing of a break in th...

  2. Topcolor breaking through boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nontrivial boundary conditions (BC's) for the topcolor breaking are investigated in the context of the TeV-scale extra dimension scenario. In the gauge symmetry breaking mechanism via the BC's we do not need to incorporate a dynamical mechanism for the topcolor breaking into the model. Moreover, the topcolor breaking can be realized without introducing explicitly a (composite) scalar field. We present a six dimensional model where the top and bottom quarks in the bulk have the topcolor charge while the other quarks in the bulk do not. We also put the electroweak gauge interaction in the six dimensional bulk. The bottom quark condensation is naturally suppressed owing to the powerlike running of the bulk U(1)Y interaction, so that only the top condensation is expected to take place. We explore such a possibility based on the ladder Schwinger-Dyson equation and show the cutoff to make the model viable

  3. Supersymmetry Breaking in Warped Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kiwoon; Kim, Do Young; Kim, Ian-Woo; Kobayashi, Tatsuo

    2003-01-01

    We examine the soft supersymmetry breaking parameters in supersymmetric theories on a slice of AdS_5 which generate the hierarchical Yukawa couplings by dynamically localizing the bulk matter fields in extra dimension. Such models can be regarded as the AdS dual of the recently studied 4-dimensional models which contain a supersymmetric CFT to generate the hierarchical Yukawa couplings. In such models, if supersymmetry breaking is mediated by the bulk radion superfield and/or some brane chira...

  4. Fixed Point Actions for Lattice Fermions

    OpenAIRE

    Bietenholz, W.; Wiese, U. -J.

    1993-01-01

    The fixed point actions for Wilson and staggered lattice fermions are determined by iterating renormalization group transformations. In both cases a line of fixed points is found. Some points have very local fixed point actions. They can be used to construct perfect lattice actions for asymptotically free fermionic theories like QCD or the Gross-Neveu model. The local fixed point actions for Wilson fermions break chiral symmetry, while in the staggered case the remnant $U(1)_e \\otimes U(1)_o$...

  5. Sequential flavor symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gauge sector of the standard model exhibits a flavor symmetry that allows for independent unitary transformations of the fermion multiplets. In the standard model the flavor symmetry is broken by the Yukawa couplings to the Higgs boson, and the resulting fermion masses and mixing angles show a pronounced hierarchy. In this work we connect the observed hierarchy to a sequence of intermediate effective theories, where the flavor symmetries are broken in a stepwise fashion by vacuum expectation values of suitably constructed spurion fields. We identify the possible scenarios in the quark sector and discuss some implications of this approach.

  6. Analysis of heavy-ion-induced DNA strand breaks in plasmid pUC18

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Plasmid DNA was irradiated or implanted by mixed particle field(CR) or lithium-ion-beam to detect strand breaks.The primary results showed that mixed particle field could induce single and double strand breaks with positive linear-dose-effects;most of sequence changes induced by CR were point mutant.Lithium-ion-beam could induce strand breaks also,but it was only at dose of 20Gy.

  7. Dynamical P-parity breaking in effective quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Andrianov, A A; Yudichev, V L

    1995-01-01

    Fermion models with selfinteraction including derivatives of fields are investigated in the strong coupling regime. The existence of three phases is established in the two channel model near tricritical point. The special phase of dynamical P-parity breaking is found.

  8. Postmodernism and Consumer Psychology: Transformation or Break?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel Hamouda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The research’s aim is to identify the postmodern consumer characteristics. Studied through its main conditions (Hyperreality, Fragmentation, Decentered subject, Reversal of production and consumption and Paradoxical juxtaposition of opposites, postmodernism seems to affect some psychological traits of the consumer (Materialism, social desirability, locus of control and social identity. We tried to generate a number of assumptions. The check of these assumptions could answer us whether these psychological characteristics have been radically influenced by postmodernism and in this case, the consumer would have undergone a break or the effect is partial and it is only a simple transformation within the consumer.

  9. Spectral signatures of high-symmetry quantum dots and effects of symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, K. F.; Oberli, D. Y.; Dupertuis, M. A.; Troncale, V.; Byszewski, M.; Pelucchi, E.; Rudra, A.; Holtz, P. O.; Kapon, E.

    2015-10-01

    High symmetry epitaxial quantum dots (QDs) with three or more symmetry planes provide a very promising route for the generation of entangled photons for quantum information applications. The great challenge to fabricate nanoscopic high symmetry QDs is further complicated by the lack of structural characterization techniques able to resolve small symmetry breaking. In this work, we present an approach for identifying and analyzing the signatures of symmetry breaking in the optical spectra of QDs. Exciton complexes in InGaAs/AlGaAs QDs grown along the [111]B crystalline axis in inverted tetrahedral pyramids are studied by polarization resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy combined with lattice temperature dependence, excitation power dependence and temporal photon correlation measurements. By combining such a systematic experimental approach with a simple theoretical approach based on a point-group symmetry analysis of the polarized emission patterns of each exciton complex, we demonstrate that it is possible to achieve a strict and coherent identification of all the observable spectral patterns of numerous exciton complexes and a quantitative determination of the fine structure splittings of their quantum states. This analysis is found to be particularly powerful for selecting QDs with the highest degree of symmetry (C3v and {D}3h) for potential applications of these QDs as polarization entangled photon sources. We exhibit the optical spectra when evolving towards asymmetrical QDs, and show the higher sensitivity of certain exciton complexes to symmetry breaking.

  10. Evolutionary Algorithms for the Detection of Structural Breaks in Time Series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Benjamin; Fischer, Paul; Hilbert, Astrid;

    2013-01-01

    Detecting structural breaks is an essential task for the statistical analysis of time series, for example, for fitting parametric models to it. In short, structural breaks are points in time at which the behavior of the time series changes. Typically, no solid background knowledge of the time...

  11. Give me a better break: Choosing workday break activities to maximize resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Emily M; Wu, Cindy

    2016-02-01

    Surprisingly little research investigates employee breaks at work, and even less research provides prescriptive suggestions for better workday breaks in terms of when, where, and how break activities are most beneficial. Based on the effort-recovery model and using experience sampling methodology, we examined the characteristics of employee workday breaks with 95 employees across 5 workdays. In addition, we examined resources as a mediator between break characteristics and well-being. Multilevel analysis results indicated that activities that were preferred and earlier in the work shift related to more resource recovery following the break. We also found that resources mediated the influence of preferred break activities and time of break on health symptoms and that resource recovery benefited person-level outcomes of emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behavior. Finally, break length interacted with the number of breaks per day such that longer breaks and frequent short breaks were associated with more resources than infrequent short breaks. PMID:26375961

  12. Quantum phase transitions about parity breaking in matrix product systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jing-Min

    2011-01-01

    According to our scheme to construct quantum phase transitions (QPTs) in spin chain systems with matrix product ground states, we first successfully combine matrix product state (MPS) QPTs with spontaneous symmetry breaking. For a concrete model, we take into account a kind of MPS QPTs accompanied by spontaneous parity breaking, though for either side of the critical point the GS is typically unique, and show that the kind of MPS QPTs occur only in the thermodynamic limit and are accompanied by the appearance of singularities, diverging correlation length, vanishing energy gap and the entanglement entropy of a half-infinite chain not only staying finite but also whose first derivative discontinuous.

  13. An Analysis of Break,Break,Break Based on the Stylistic Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑶

    2014-01-01

    Break,Break,Break is a poem by Alfred Lord Tennyson, the Poet Laureate during the Queen Victoria's reign. This exquisite little poem is wel known for the poet’s grief-stricken feelings and heart-broken emotions over the premature death of his best friend, Arthur Henry Hal am. Most of the previous studies on this poem focus on the emotional level to consider it as an elegy, expressing sorrow and lamentation for the death of a particular person. However, in order to have a deep understanding in general, this paper analyzes the poem based on the stylistic theory, concerning on the phonological level and the grammatical level. It aims at helping the readers to cultivate a sense of appropriateness, to sharpen the understanding and appreciation of literary works and to achieve adaptation in translation.

  14. Liquid-Bridge Breaking Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macner, Ashley; Steen, Paul

    2011-11-01

    Wet adhesion by liquid bridges in large arrays shows promise for use in lightweight, controllable on-demand devices. Applications include grab/release of wafer substrates, transport of micron-sized tiles for use in 3D printing and micro-dosing of personalized pharmaceutical drugs. By wetting and spreading, a drop can form a bridge and thereby ``grab'' a nearby solid substrate. By volume decrease or extension, the bridge can break. The breaking limit corresponds to bridge instability which can be predicted, knowing the static mechanical response of the bridge. Mechanical behaviors include force-volume (FV), pressure-volume (pV) and force-length (FL) responses. Instability crucially depends on the mode of failure - failure under constant-force or constant length are typical cases. We study single bridge equilibria for their breaking limits. FV diagrams for the pin-pin equal and pin-pin unequal radii boundary conditions for different bridge heights are measured in the laboratory. The FL response in the case of pin-pin equal radii is also measured. Results are compared to predictions of static theory. Static results are then used to compare to dynamical sequences where volume is driven quasistatically by syringe or an electro-osmotic pump. As the breaking limit is approached, the shape deformation accelerates leading to non-equilibrium shapes not captured by the static analysis.

  15. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barklow, T.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burdman, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Chivukula, R.S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.

  16. Sediment transport under breaking waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob; Mayer, Stefan

    2000-01-01

    generated at the surface where the wave breaks as well as the turbulence generated near the bed due to the wave-motion and the undertow. In general, the levels of turbulent kinetic energy are found to be higher than experiments show. This results in an over prediction of the sediment transport. Nevertheless...

  17. Oil prices: Breaks and trends

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper contributes to the literature of the stationarity of financial time series and the literature on oil and macroeconomics in several ways. First, it uses Kejriwal and Perron (2010) sequential procedure to endogenously determine multiple structural changes in real oil prices without facing the circular testing problem between structural changes and stationary assumptions of previous tests. Second, it performs a diagnostic check to detect the significance and magnitude of the potential breaks. Third, it uses the above information to test for the existence of stochastic trends in real oil prices, and fourth, it speculates about possible explanations for the break dates found in order to encourage further work and discussions. The exercise uses monthly data from January 1861 to August 2011. - Highlights: ► The model endogenously determine multiple structural changes in real oil prices. ► The methods used does not face the circular testing problem. ► It also detect the significance and magnitude of the breaks detected. ► It tests for the existence of stochastic trends. ► It explains the reasons for the break dates found

  18. Instantons and chiral symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed investigation of chiral symmetry breaking due to instanton dynamics is carried out, within the framework of the dilute gas approximation, for quarks in both the fundamental and adjoint representations of SU(2). The momentum dependence of the dynamical mass is found to be very similar in each representation. (orig.)

  19. Code breaking in the pacific

    CERN Document Server

    Donovan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Covers the historical context and the evolution of the technically complex Allied Signals Intelligence (Sigint) activity against Japan from 1920 to 1945 Describes, explains and analyzes the code breaking techniques developed during the war in the Pacific Exposes the blunders (in code construction and use) made by the Japanese Navy that led to significant US Naval victories

  20. How do accretion discs break?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Suzan

    2016-07-01

    Accretion discs are common in binary systems, and they are often found to be misaligned with respect to the binary orbit. The gravitational torque from a companion induces nodal precession in misaligned disc orbits. In this study, we first calculate whether this precession is strong enough to overcome the internal disc torques communicating angular momentum. We compare the disc precession torque with the disc viscous torque to determine whether the disc should warp or break. For typical parameters precession wins: the disc breaks into distinct planes that precess effectively independently. To check our analytical findings, we perform 3D hydrodynamical numerical simulations using the PHANTOM smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, and confirm that disc breaking is widespread and enhances accretion on to the central object. For some inclinations, the disc goes through strong Kozai cycles. Disc breaking promotes markedly enhanced and variable accretion and potentially produces high-energy particles or radiation through shocks. This would have significant implications for all binary systems: e.g. accretion outbursts in X-ray binaries and fuelling supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. The behaviour we have discussed in this work is relevant to a variety of astrophysical systems, for example X-ray binaries, where the disc plane may be tilted by radiation warping, SMBH binaries, where accretion of misaligned gas can create effectively random inclinations and protostellar binaries, where a disc may be misaligned by a variety of effects such as binary capture/exchange, accretion after binary formation.

  1. Inflationary implications of supersymmetry breaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghese, Andrea; Roest, Diederik; Zavala, Ivonne

    2013-01-01

    We discuss a general bound on the possibility to realise inflation in any minimal supergravity with F-terms. The derivation crucially depends on the sGoldstini, the scalar field directions that are singled out by spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. The resulting bound involves both slow-roll paramet

  2. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... en español Blog About OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by ... danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe ...

  3. Supersymmetry breaking in 4D string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We construct a (locally supersymmetric) four-fermion effective lagrangian description of the strong binding effects responsible for the formation of a gaugino condensate, extending the analysis to include the multiple moduli of orbifold compactification. Using this to estimate the binding we find that supersymmetry is broken and a phenomenologically realistic value for the gravitino mass and gauge coupling constant at the unification scale with only one gaugino condensate may be obtained. The main source for supersymmetry breaking is the VEV of the auxiliary field of the dilaton hs (i.e. hS>>hT, where T are moduli fields). By studying the scalar potential we find either that the vacuum expectation values of the moduli have a common value related to the vacuum expectation value of the dilaton or that they take the values of the dual invariant points. A squeezed orbifold can thus naturally be obtained, allowing for the possibility of minimal string unification. We include chiral matter fields and derive the scalar potential up to one-loop level. The one-loop potential is responsible for stabilising the scalar potential for vanishing vacuum expectation values of the chiral matter fields. We then calculate the soft supersymmetry breaking parameters in the visible sector. Finally we show that with a suitable choice of superpotential it is possible to cancel the cosmological constant while having supersymmetry broken. ((orig.))

  4. Picnic Tables within the Designated Picnic Area at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (pcnctbl)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains the individual picnic areas (as points where the picnic tables are generally located) within the only designated picnic area at Cedar Breaks...

  5. Modeling Gasoline Demand with Structural Breaks: New Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Akin Omisakin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends previous studies in modeling and estimating demand for gasoline for Nigeria from 1977 to 2008. The ingenious attempt of this study, contrast to earlier studies on Nigeria and other developing countries, lies in its assumption of structural breaks in the long run relationship among the variables employed. The study tests for the possibility of structural breaks/regime shifts and parameter instability in the gasoline demand function in Nigeria using more recent and robust techniques. While the conventional residual-based cointegration tests employed fail to identify any meaningful long-run relationship in the gasoline function, the Gregory-Hansen structural break cointegration approach confirms the cointegration relationships despite the breakpoints. The elasticity estimates also follow the a priori expectations being inelastic both in the long- and short-run for both price and income. Having identified plausible breaks in the systems, the test does suggest that a structural break in the cointegration vector is important and needs to be taken care of in the specification of gasoline demand functions in Nigeria. It is envisaged, therefore, that substantial policy lessons would be drawn from the findings of this study especially in the current phase of energy industry deregulation in Nigeria.

  6. A (critical) overview of electroweak symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation discusses the following points: The standard Higgs, big vs. little hierarchy; Electroweak Symmetry Breaking in supersymmetry and little hierarchy of Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM): Buried Higgs, Bigger quartic (D-terms, Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), fat Higgs,..); Strong dynamics and related models: Technicolor, Monopole condensate, Warped extra dimensions, Realistic RS, Higgs-less, Composite Higgs, Little Higgs. In summary, we do not understand how Higgs is light and still no trace of new physics. In Supersymmetry (SUSY) it calls for extension of MSSM. In strong dynamics models: electroweak penguin (EWP) usually issue (Warped extra dimension - composite Higgs, Higgs-less, Little Higgs, Technicolor, monopole condensation,..). None of them is fully convincing but LHC should settle these

  7. Generic Rigidity for Circle Diffeomorphisms with Breaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocić, Saša

    2016-06-01

    We prove that {C^r}-smooth ({r > 2}) circle diffeomorphisms with a break, i.e., circle diffeomorphisms with a single singular point where the derivative has a jump discontinuity, are generically, i.e., for almost all irrational rotation numbers, not {C^{1+\\varepsilon}}-rigid, for any {\\varepsilon > 0}. This result complements our recent proof, joint with Khanin (Geom Funct Anal 24:2002-2028, 2014), that such maps are generically {C^1}-rigid. It stands in remarkable contrast to the result of Yoccoz (Ann Sci Ec Norm Sup 17:333-361, 1984) that {C^r}-smooth circle diffeomorphisms are generically {C^{r-1-κ}}-rigid, for any {κ > 0}.

  8. Arctic Climate Tipping Points

    OpenAIRE

    Lenton, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    There is widespread concern that anthropogenic global warming will trigger Arctic climate tipping points. The Arctic has a long history of natural, abrupt climate changes, which together with current observations and model projections, can help us to identify which parts of the Arctic climate system might pass future tipping points. Here the climate tipping points are defined, noting that not all of them involve bifurcations leading to irreversible change. Past abrupt climate changes in the A...

  9. The symmetry breaking phenomenon in anharmonic oscillator model

    CERN Document Server

    Mastine, Antonio Carlos; Natti, Erica Regina Takano

    2010-01-01

    In this article a non-perturbative time-dependent technique is used to treat the initial value problem, in Quantum Mechanics context, for a non-equilibrium self-interacting fermionic system in the presence of an external magnetic field. Particularly, in mean-field regime, we study the dynamical symmetry breaking phenomenon, identifying the physical processes associated.

  10. Project Trust: Breaking down Barriers between Middle School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batiuk, Mary Ellen; Boland, James A.; Wilcox, Norma

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the success of a camp retreat weekend called Project Trust involving middle school students and teachers. The goal of the camp is to break down barriers between cliques identified as active in the school. The camp focuses on building team relationships across clique membership and incorporates elements of peace education and…

  11. Breaking GSM with rainbow Tables

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Since 1998 the GSM security has been academically broken but no real attack has ever been done until in 2008 when two engineers of Pico Computing (FPGA manufacture) revealed that they could break the GSM encryption in 30 seconds with 200'000$ hardware and precomputed rainbow tables. Since then the hardware was either available for rich people only or was confiscated by government agencies. So Chris Paget and Karsten Nohl decided to react and do the same thing but in a distributed open source form (on torrent). This way everybody could "enjoy" breaking GSM security and operators will be forced to upgrade the GSM protocol that is being used by more than 4 billion users and that is more than 20 years old.

  12. Symmetry breaking in supersymmetric GUTs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper analyzes the first step of symmetry breaking in N=1 supersymmetric unified theories. The possible patterns of gauge symmetry breaking consistent with supersymmetry are characterized. Some well-known properties of the scalar potential in supersymmetric gauge theories are reviewed. Simple methods to discover which v.e.v.'s of a given multiplet of scalar fields are consistent with the conditions of given equations are introduced. The vanishing of the D2-term and of the F2-term is discussed and a simple lemma derived from the former. The results of these discussions are applied to some possible candidates for a supersymmetric gauge theory based on the gauge groups SU(5), 0(10), and E6

  13. Symmetries, Symmetry Breaking, Gauge Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Strocchi, Franco

    2015-01-01

    The concepts of symmetry, symmetry breaking and gauge symmetries are discussed, their operational meaning being displayed by the observables {\\em and} the (physical) states. For infinitely extended systems the states fall into physically disjoint {\\em phases} characterized by their behavior at infinity or boundary conditions, encoded in the ground state, which provide the cause of symmetry breaking without contradicting Curie Principle. Global gauge symmetries, not seen by the observables, are nevertheless displayed by detectable properties of the states (superselected quantum numbers and parastatistics). Local gauge symmetries are not seen also by the physical states; they appear only in non-positive representations of field algebras. Their role at the Lagrangian level is merely to ensure the validity on the physical states of local Gauss laws, obeyed by the currents which generate the corresponding global gauge symmetries; they are responsible for most distinctive physical properties of gauge quantum field ...

  14. Breaking of de Sitter Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Bander, Myron

    2010-01-01

    We show that an interacting spin-0 field on a de Sitter space background will break the underlying de Sitter symmetry. This is done first for a (1+1) de Sitter space where a boson-fermion correspondence permits us to solve certain interacting theories by transforming them into free ones of opposite statistics. A massless boson interacting by a sine-Gordon potential is shown to be equivalent to a free massive fermion with the mass depending on the de Sitter time thus breaking the symmetry explicitly. We then show that for larger dimensions and any boson potential, to one loop, an anomaly develops and the currents generating the de Sitter transformations are not conserved.

  15. Complete quantum measurements break entanglement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A complete measurement of a quantum observable (POVM) is a measurement of the maximally refined version of the POVM. Complete measurements give information on multiplicities of measurement outcomes and can be used as state preparation procedures. Moreover, any observable can be measured completely. In this Letter, we show that a complete measurement breaks entanglement completely between the system, ancilla and their environment. Finally, consequences for the quantum Zeno effect and complete position measurements are discussed.

  16. 16th Edition Breaks New Ground

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Fei

    2010-01-01

    @@ Breaking new ground,Intertextile Shanghai Apparel Fabrics,successfully closed its doors on October 22nd,2010at the Shanghai New International Exhibition Centre,attracting a record breaking,more than 57,000 buyers.

  17. Holomorphic Bisectional Curvatures, Supersymmetry Breaking, and Affleck-Dine Baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Bhaskar

    2012-01-01

    Working in $D=4, N=1$ supergravity, we utilize relations between holomorphic sectional and bisectional curvatures of Kahler manifolds to constrain Affleck-Dine baryogenesis. We show the following No-Go result: Affleck-Dine baryogenesis cannot be performed if the holomorphic sectional curvature at the origin is isotropic in tangent space; as a special case, this rules out spaces of constant holomorphic sectional curvature (defined in the above sense) and in particular maximally symmetric coset spaces. We also investigate scenarios where inflationary supersymmetry breaking is identified with the supersymmetry breaking responsible for mass splitting in the visible sector, using conditions of sequestering to constrain manifolds where inflation can be performed.

  18. Effects of Breaking Sitting by Standing and Acute Exercise on Postprandial Oxidative Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Takahashi; Miyashita; Park; Sakamoto; Suzuki

    2015-01-01

    Background Sedentary behavior, which includes sitting and TV viewing, has been identified as an independent risk factor for type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Breaking sedentary behavior improves metabolic health such as postprandial glycaemia and insulinemia. However, the mechanisms underlying this effect are unclear. Objectives Here, we examined whether breaking sitting by standing and acute exercise reduces postprandia...

  19. Electroweak symmetry breaking at photon colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electroweak-symmetry-breaking sector of the standard model can be weakly-coupled or can be strongly-coupled, which is characterized by some kinds of strong interaction among the Goldstone bosons of the electroweak-symmetry-breaking sector. In this paper, we summarize an investigation of probing the strong electroweak-symmetry-breaking effects at photon colliders. ((orig.))

  20. Large Eddy Simulation for Wave Breaking in the Surf Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白玉川; 蒋昌波; 沈焕庭

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the large eddy simulation method is used combined with the marker and cell method to study the wave propagation or shoaling and breaking process. As wave propagates into shallow water, the shoaling leads to the increase of wave height, and then at a certain position, the wave will be breaking. The breaking wave is a powerful agent for generating turbulence, which plays an important role in most of the fluid dynamic processes throughout the sarf zone, such as transformation of wave energy, generation of near-shore current and diffusion of materials. So a proper numerical model for describing the turbulence effect is needed. In this paper, a revised Smagorinsky subgrid-scale model is used to describe the turbulence effect. The present study reveals that the coefficient of the Smagorinsky model for wave propagation or breaking simulation may be taken as a varying function of the water depth and distance away from the wave breaking point. The large eddy simulation model presented in this paper has been used to study the propagation of the solitary wave in constant water depth and the shoaling of the non-breaking solitary wave on a beach. The model is based on large eddy simulation, and to track free-surface movements, the Tokyo University Modified Marker and Cell (TUMMAC) method is employed. In order to ensure the accuracy of each component of this wave mathematical model,several steps have been taken to verify calculated solutions with either analytical solutions or experimental data. For non-breaking waves, very accurate results are obtained for a solitary wave propagating over a constant depth and on a beach. Application of the model to cnoidal wave breaking in the surf zone shows that the model results are in good agreement with analytical solution and experimental data. From the present model results, it can be seen that the turbulent eddy viscosity increases from the bottom to the water surface in surf zone. In the eddy viscosity curve, there is a

  1. CSNI specialist meeting on leak-before-break in nuclear reactor piping: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On September 1 and 2, 1983, the CSNI subcommittee on primary system integrity held a special meeting in Monterey, California, on the subject of leak-before-break in nuclear reactor piping systems. The purpose of the meeting was to provide an international forum for the exchange of ideas, positions, and research results; to identify areas requiring additional research and development; and to determine the general attitude toward acceptance of the leak-before-break concept. The importance of the leak-before-break issue was evidenced by excellent attendance at the meeting and through active participation by the meeting attendees. Approximately 125 people representing fifteen different nations attended the meeting. The meeting was divided into four technical sessions addressing the following areas: Application of Piping Fracture Mechanics to Leak-Before Break, Leak Rate and Leak Detection, Leak-Before-Break Studies, Methods and Results, Current and Proposed Positions on Leak-Before-Break

  2. Applicability of the leak before break concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of the IAEA Extrabudgetary Programme on the Safety of WWER-440 Model 230 NPPs, a list of safety issues requiring broad studies of general interest have been agreed upon by an Advisory Group which met in Vienna in September 1990. The information on the status of the issues, and on amount of work already completed and under way in various countries, needs to be compiled. Moreover, an evaluation of what further work is required to resolve each of the issues is also necessary. In view of this, the IAEA has started the preparation of a series of status reports on the various issues. This report on the generic safety issue ''Applicability of the Leak Before Break Concept'' presents a comprehensive survey of technical information available in the field and identifies those which require further investigation. 50 refs, 15 figs, 2 tabs

  3. Chiral symmetry breaking in brane models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the chiral symmetry breaking in general intersecting Dq/Dp brane models consisting of Nc Dq-branes and a single Dp-brane with an s-dimensional intersection. There exists a QCD-like theory localized at the intersection and the Dq/Dp model gives a holographic description of it. The rotational symmetry of directions transverse to both of the Dq and Dp-branes can be identified with a chiral symmetry, which is non-Abelian for certain cases. The asymptotic distance between the Dq-branes and the Dp-brane corresponds to a quark mass. By studying the probe Dp-brane dynamics in a Dq-brane background in the near horizon and large Nc limit we find that the chiral symmetry is spontaneously broken and there appear (pseudo-)Nambu-Goldstone bosons. We also discuss the models at finite temperature

  4. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... TV falls with about the same force as child falling from the third story of a building. ...

  5. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... see news reports about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The ...

  6. Turning Point

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Moves from the United States and North Korea give new impetus to nuclear disablement and U.S.-North Korea ties The tense situation surrounding denu-clearization on the Korean Peninsula has reached a turning point. On

  7. Cluster formation, breaking, and excitation in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we discuss cluster phenomena in light nuclei based on calculations using the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) method. Cluster structures in C, B, and Be were studied systematically, and their cluster formation and excitation are discussed. Cluster gas states and their band members are suggested for the excited states of 12C and 11B. The ground state cluster correlation and excited cluster gas state are discussed from the point of view of symmetry breaking and restoration. (authors)

  8. Origin of fermion masses without spontaneous symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Ayyar, Venkitesh

    2015-01-01

    Using a simple three dimensional lattice four-fermion model we argue that massless fermions can become massive due to interactions without the need for any spontaneous symmetry breaking. Using large scale Monte Carlo calculations within our model, we show that this non-traditional mass generation mechanism occurs at a second order quantum critical point that separates phases with the same symmetries. Universality then suggests that the new origin for the fermion mass should be of wide interest.

  9. Porter’s five forces reconsideration: Model of joint MBA programmes and schools’ fusion in the industry of Management Education as a counter point of competitive environment model : COMMUNICATION POUR LA BIENNALE 2015 « COOPERER » Identifiant : N° 448

    OpenAIRE

    NGUYEN, Thi Thu Tra

    2015-01-01

    International audience In the scope of our doctoral research, business education is considered as an industry where business schools act as firms. Our thesis focuses on the strategic management field, with aims to explore how schools revisit their MBA curricula. Within this framework, joint and merged MBA programmes have been analysed as a counter point of Porter’s five forces (1980): rivalry among competitors, entry barriers, substitutions’ threats, buyers’ and suppliers’ bargaining power...

  10. Breaking stress of neutron star crust

    CERN Document Server

    Chugunov, A I

    2010-01-01

    The breaking stress (the maximum of the stress-strain curve) of neutron star crust is important for neutron star physics including pulsar glitches, emission of gravitational waves from static mountains, and flares from star quakes. We perform many molecular dynamic simulations of the breaking stress at different coupling parameters (inverse temperatures) and strain rates. We describe our results with the Zhurkov model of strength. We apply this model to estimate the breaking stress for timescales ~1 s - 1 year, which are most important for applications, but much longer than can be directly simulated. At these timescales the breaking stress depends strongly on the temperature. For coupling parameter <200, matter breaks at very small stress, if it is applied for a few years. This viscoelastic creep can limit the lifetime of mountains on neutron stars. We also suggest an alternative model of timescale-independent breaking stress, which can be used to estimate an upper limit on the breaking stress.

  11. History of electroweak symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Kibble, T W B

    2015-01-01

    In this talk, I recall the history of the development of the unified electroweak theory, incorporating the symmetry-breaking Higgs mechanism, as I saw it from my standpoint as a member of Abdus Salam's group at Imperial College. I start by describing the state of physics in the years after the Second World War, explain how the goal of a unified gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions emerged, the obstacles encountered, in particular the Goldstone theorem, and how they were overcome, followed by a brief account of more recent history, culminating in the historic discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012.

  12. Leaders break ground for INFINITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Community leaders from Mississippi and Louisiana break ground for the new INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center facility during a Nov. 20 ceremony. Groundbreaking participants included (l to r): Gottfried Construction representative John Smith, Mississippi Highway Commissioner Wayne Brown, INFINITY board member and Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise, Stennis Director Gene Goldman, Studio South representative David Hardy, Leo Seal Jr. family representative Virginia Wagner, Hancock Bank President George Schloegel, Mississippi Rep. J.P. Compretta, Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians representative Charlie Benn and Louisiana Sen. A.G. Crowe.

  13. History of electroweak symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kibble, T. W. B.

    2015-07-01

    In this talk, I recall the history of the development of the unified electroweak theory, incorporating the symmetry-breaking Higgs mechanism, as I saw it from my standpoint as a member of Abdus Salam's group at Imperial College. I start by describing the state of physics in the years after the Second World War, explain how the goal of a unified gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions emerged, the obstacles encountered, in particular the Goldstone theorem, and how they were overcome, followed by a brief account of more recent history, culminating in the historic discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012.

  14. Supersymmetry breaking in string theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    I briefly review the problems with previous investigations of supersymmetry breaking in string theory --- at tree-level, at one-loop, and non-perturbatively. A variant of the original non-perturbative scenario is proposed, in which gaugino condensation takes place in two different strongly-interacting hidden-sector gauge groups. In the new scenario it is possible to generate a large hierarchy of mass scale and to simultaneously stabilize the dilaton at a large expectation value (weak coupling). However, it is still uncertain whether supersymmetry is broken in such a vacuum. 26 refs

  15. Spontaneous Breaking of Flavor Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Törnqvist, N A

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that part of the quark masses of the standard model can be generated spontaneously within the strong interactions of QCD. After the breaking of U(Nf) x U(Nf) symmetry by the vacuum, also the resulting flavor symmetric, degenerate meson mass spectrum is shown to be unstable with respect to quantum loops, for rather general models. For a C-degenerate meson spectrum the stable mass spectrum obeys the Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka rule and the approximateequal spacing rule.

  16. Breaking Carbon Lock-in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Driscoll, Patrick Arthur

    2014-01-01

    This central focus of this paper is to highlight the ways in which path dependencies and increasing returns (network effects) serve to reinforce carbon lock-in in large-scale road transportation infrastructure projects. Breaking carbon lock-in requires drastic changes in the way we plan future...... transportation infrastructure projects, and documentary evidence presented here from the metropolitan regions of Copenhagen, Denmark and Portland, USA suggest that there may be a discontinuity in the system of automobility (Urry, 2004) thereby increasing the likelihood that such drastic measures may in fact be...

  17. Progress in Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Dawson, S

    2015-01-01

    In this talk, I discuss theoretical advances in understanding the properties of the Higgs boson and the implications for models of electroweak symmetry breaking. I begin by reviewing some of the recent progress in Standard Model calculations for Higgs boson production and decay rates, followed by a lightning tour of the use of effective field theories in the search for new physics in the Higgs sector. I end with a discussion of the complementarity of precision Higgs coupling measurements and direct searches for heavy particles for the discovery of Beyond the Standard Model physics in the electroweak sector.

  18. EARLY BUD-BREAK1 (EBB1) defines a conserved mechanism for control of bud-break in woody perennials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busov, Victor; Carneros, Elena; Yakovlev, Igor

    2016-01-01

    Bud-break is an environmentally and economically important trait in trees, shrubs and vines from temperate latitudes. Poor synchronization of bud-break timing with local climates can lead to frost injuries, susceptibility to pests and pathogens and poor crop yields in fruit trees and vines. The rapid climate changes outpace the adaptive capacities of plants to respond through natural selection. This is particularly true for trees which have long generation cycle and thus the adaptive changes are significantly delayed. Therefore, to devise appropriate breeding and conservation strategies, it is imperative to understand the molecular underpinnings that govern dormancy mechanisms. We have recently identified and characterized the poplar EARLY BUD-BREAK 1 (EBB1) gene. EBB1 is a positive regulator of bud-break and encodes a transcription factor from the AP2/ERF family. Here, using comparative and functional genomics approaches we show that EBB1 function in regulation of bud-break is likely conserved across wide range of woody perennial species with importance to forestry and agriculture. PMID:26317150

  19. Boundary breaking for interdisciplinary learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Kidron

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to contribute to the body of knowledge on processesby which students develop interdisciplinary understanding of contents, as well as to suggest technology-enhanced means for supporting them in these processes in the context of higher education. In doing so, we suggest a rethinking of three traditional practices that tend to characterise typical higher education instruction: (1 compartmentalisation of disciplines; (2 traditional pedagogy; and (3 traditional hierarchies based on levels of expertise. Our high-level conjecture was that meaningful dialogue with peers and experts supports both the deepening of ideas in one knowledge domain and the formation of connections between ideas from several domains, both of which are required for the development of interdisciplinary understanding. We developed the Boundary Breaking for Interdisciplinary Learning (BBIL model, which harnesses technology to break boundaries between disciplines, learners and organisational levels of hierarchy. Findings indicate that 36 undergraduate students who participated in an interdisciplinary online course that implemented the BBIL model have significantly improved their interdisciplinary understanding of the course contents. This study illustrates how innovative use of available, free and low-cost technology can produce a ‘positive disruption’ in higher education instruction.

  20. Introduction to Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson,S.

    2008-10-02

    The Standard Model (SM) is the backbone of elementary particle physics-not only does it provide a consistent framework for studying the interactions of quark and leptons, but it also gives predictions which have been extensively tested experimentally. In these notes, I review the electroweak sector of the Standard Model, discuss the calculation of electroweak radiative corrections to observables, and summarize the status of SM Higgs boson searches. Despite the impressive experimental successes, however, the electroweak theory is not completely satisfactory and the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking is untested. I will discuss the logic behind the oft-repeated statement: 'There must be new physics at the TeV scale'. These lectures reflect my strongly held belief that upcoming results from the LHC will fundamentally change our understanding of electroweak symmetry breaking. In these lectures, I review the status of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model, with an emphasis on the importance of radiative corrections and searches for the Standard Model Higgs boson. A discussion of the special role of the TeV energy scale in electroweak physics is included.

  1. Chiral symmetry breaking and monopoles

    CERN Document Server

    Di Giacomo, Adriano; Pucci, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    To understand the relation between the chiral symmetry breaking and monopoles, the chiral condensate which is the order parameter of the chiral symmetry breaking is calculated in the $\\overline{\\mbox{MS}}$ scheme at 2 [GeV]. First, we add one pair of monopoles, varying the monopole charges $m_{c}$ from zero to four, to SU(3) quenched configurations by a monopole creation operator. The low-lying eigenvalues of the Overlap Dirac operator are computed from the gauge links of the normal configurations and the configurations with additional monopoles. Next, we compare the distributions of the nearest-neighbor spacing of the low-lying eigenvalues with the prediction of the random matrix theory. The low-lying eigenvalues not depending on the scale parameter $\\Sigma$ are compared to the prediction of the random matrix theory. The results show the consistency with the random matrix theory. Thus, the additional monopoles do not affect the low-lying eigenvalues. Moreover, we discover that the additional monopoles increa...

  2. Tranverse beam break up in a periodic linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of cumulative beam break up in a periodic linac for a general impedance is discussed, with the effects of acceleration included. The transverse equations of motion for a set of identical point like bunches moving along the length of the linac are cast into a simple form using a smooth approximation. This results in a working formula that is used to analyze beam breakup. Explicit expressions for the transverse motion in the case of a single resonance impedance are found using saddle point integration. This is done first with no external focusing, and again in the strong focusing limit

  3. Parity-Time Symmetry Breaking in Coupled Nanobeam Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Senlin; Zhang, Yuguang; He, Sailing

    2015-01-01

    The parity-time symmetry (PT symmetry) breaking phenomenon is investigated in a coupled nanobeam cavity system. An exceptional point is observed during the tuning of the relation of the gain/loss and coupling strength of the closely placed nanobeam pairs. The PT symmetry concept can be applied to realize unidirectional light propagation and single mode operation lasers, which may allow for a new way to harness the optical signal in photonic integrated circuits. Otherwise, operating at this particular exceptional point, sensitivity of tiny perturbation detection can be enhanced greatly compared with conventional sensors.

  4. Relative fixed point theory

    OpenAIRE

    Ponto, Kate

    2009-01-01

    The Lefschetz fixed point theorem and its converse have many generalizations. One of these generalizations is to endomorphisms of a space relative to a fixed subspace. In this paper we define relative Lefschetz numbers and Reidemeister traces using traces in bicategories with shadows. We use the functoriality of this trace to identify different forms of these invariants and to prove a relative Lefschetz fixed point theorem and its converse.

  5. Genome-wide association study of regional brain volume suggests involvement of known psychiatry candidate genes, identified new candidates for psychiatric disorders and points to potential modes of their action

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, B.; Rijpkema, M.; Arias Vasquez, A.; Veltman, J; Brunner, H.; Hagoort, P.; G. FERNANDEZ

    2010-01-01

    Though most psychiatric disorders are highly heritable, it has been hard to identify genetic risk factors involved, which are most likely of small individual effect size. A possible way to aid identification of risk genes is the use of intermediate phenotypes. These are supposed to be closer to the biological substrate(s) of the disorder than psychiatric diagnoses, and therefore less genetically complex. Intermediate phenotypes can be defined e. g. at the level of brain function and of region...

  6. Revolving D-branes and Spontaneous Gauge Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Iso, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new mechanism of spontaneous gauge symmetry breaking in the world-volume theory of revolving D-branes around a fixed point of orbifolds. In this paper, we consider a simple model of the T6/Z3 orbifold on which we put D3-branes, D7-branes and their anti-branes. The configuration breaks supersymmetry, but the R-R tadpole cancellation conditions are satisfied. A set of three D3-branes at an orbifold fixed point can separate from the point, but when they move perpendicular to the anti-D7-branes put on the fixed point, they are forced to be pulled back due to an attractive interaction between the D3 and anti-D7 branes. In order to stabilize the separation of the D3-branes at nonzero distance, we consider revolution of the D3-branes around the fixed point. Then the gauge symmetry on D3-branes is spontaneously broken, and the rank of the gauge group is reduced. The distance can be set at our will by appropriately choosing the angular momentum of the revolving D3-branes, which should be determined by the...

  7. Revolving D-branes and spontaneous gauge-symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iso, Satoshi; Kitazawa, Noriaki

    2015-12-01

    We propose a new mechanism of spontaneous gauge-symmetry breaking in the world-volume theory of revolving D-branes around a fixed point of orbifolds. In this paper, we consider a simple model of the T^6/Z_3 orbifold on which we put D3-branes, D7-branes, and their anti-branes. The configuration breaks supersymmetry, but the Ramond-Ramond tadpole cancellation conditions are satisfied. A set of three D3-branes at an orbifold fixed point can separate from the point, but, when they move perpendicular to the anti-D7-branes put on the fixed point, they are pulled back due to an attractive interaction between the D3- and anti-D7-branes. In order to stabilize the separation of the D3-branes at nonzero distance, we consider revolution of the D3-branes around the fixed point. Then the gauge symmetry on the D3-branes is spontaneously broken, and the rank of the gauge group is reduced. The distance can be set at will by appropriately choosing the angular momentum of the revolving D3-branes, which should be determined by the initial condition of the cosmological evolution of the D-brane configurations. The distance corresponds to the vacuum expectation values of brane moduli fields in the world-volume theory and, if it is written as M/M_s^2 in terms of the string scale M_s, the scale of gauge-symmetry breaking is given by M. Angular momentum conservation of revolving D3-branes assures the stability of the scale M against M_s.

  8. Revolving D-branes and spontaneous gauge-symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a new mechanism of spontaneous gauge-symmetry breaking in the world-volume theory of revolving D-branes around a fixed point of orbifolds. In this paper, we consider a simple model of the T6/Z3 orbifold on which we put D3-branes, D7-branes, and their anti-branes. The configuration breaks supersymmetry, but the Ramond–Ramond tadpole cancellation conditions are satisfied. A set of three D3-branes at an orbifold fixed point can separate from the point, but, when they move perpendicular to the anti-D7-branes put on the fixed point, they are pulled back due to an attractive interaction between the D3- and anti-D7-branes. In order to stabilize the separation of the D3-branes at nonzero distance, we consider revolution of the D3-branes around the fixed point. Then the gauge symmetry on the D3-branes is spontaneously broken, and the rank of the gauge group is reduced. The distance can be set at will by appropriately choosing the angular momentum of the revolving D3-branes, which should be determined by the initial condition of the cosmological evolution of the D-brane configurations. The distance corresponds to the vacuum expectation values of brane moduli fields in the world-volume theory and, if it is written as M/Ms2 in terms of the string scale Ms, the scale of gauge-symmetry breaking is given by M. Angular momentum conservation of revolving D3-branes assures the stability of the scale M against Ms

  9. Electroweak Symmetry Breaking by QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Kubo, Jisuke; Lindner, Manfred

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new mechanism to generate the electroweak scale within the framework of QCD, which is extended to include conformally invariant scalar degrees of freedom belonging to a larger irreducible representation of $SU(3)_c$. The electroweak symmetry breaking is triggered dynamically via the Higgs portal by the condensation of the colored scalar field around $1$ TeV. The mass of the colored boson is restricted to be $350$ GeV $\\lesssim m_S\\lesssim 3$ TeV, with the upper bound obtained from renormalization group evolution. This implies that the colored boson can be produced at LHC. If the colored boson is electrically charged, the branching fraction of the Higgs decaying into two photons can slightly increase, and moreover, it can be produced at future linear colliders.

  10. Symmetry Breaking in Finite Volume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chuan

    2000-01-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a cooperative phenomenon for systems with infinitely many degrees of freedom and it plays an essential role in quantum field theories. Lattice O(N) model is studied within the Hamiltonian approach using an adiabatic approximation. It is shown that the low-lying spectrum of the system in the broken phase can be understood by using the adiabatic, or Born-Oppenheimer approximation, which turns out to become an expansion in the inverse power of volume. In the infinite volume limit, the symmetry is broken while in the finite volume the slow rotation of the zero-momentum mode restores the symmetry and gives rise to the rotator spectrum, which has been observed in realistic Monte Carlo simulations.

  11. Z'-mediated supersymmetry breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langacker, Paul; Paz, Gil; Wang, Lian-Tao; Yavin, Itay

    2008-02-01

    We consider a class of models in which supersymmetry breaking is communicated dominantly via a U1' gauge interaction, which also helps solve the mu problem. Such models can emerge naturally in top-down constructions and are a version of split supersymmetry. The spectrum contains heavy sfermions, Higgsinos, exotics, and Z' approximately 10-100 TeV, light gauginos approximately 100-1000 GeV, a light Higgs boson approximately 140 GeV, and a light singlino. A specific set of U1' charges and exotics is analyzed, and we present five benchmark models. The implications for the gluino lifetime, cold dark matter, and the gravitino and neutrino masses are discussed. PMID:18352261

  12. Dynamical centrosymmetry breaking in graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Carvalho, David N; Biancalana, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    We discover an unusual phenomenon that occurs when a graphene monolayer is illuminated by a short and intense pulse at normal incidence. Due to the pulse-induced oscillations of the Dirac cones, a dynamical breaking of the layer's centrosymmetry takes place, leading to the generation of second harmonic waves. We prove that this result can only be found by using the full Dirac equation and show that the widely used semiconductor Bloch equations fail to reproduce this and some other important physics of graphene. Our results open new windows in the understanding of nonlinear light-matter interactions in a wide variety of new 2D materials with a gapped or ungapped Dirac-like dispersion.

  13. The t(14,15) in Mouse Strain CBA/CaH-T(14;15)6Ca/J Causes a Break in the ADAMTS12 Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Acar-Perk, Bengi; Bräutigam, Karen; Grunewald, Regina; Schmutzler, Andreas; Schem, Christian; Arnold, Norbert K; Jonat, Walter; Weimer, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    The mouse strain CBA/CaH-T(14;15)6Ca/J carries a homozygous balanced reciprocal translocation between mouse chromosomes 14 and 15, but the break points of this translocation have not previously been examined in detail. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization, we assigned the break point in 14qE3 to a 200-kb region devoid of any known gene. We similarly defined the break point in 15qA1 to a 27-kb region containing involving ADAMTS12. The chromosomal break likely is between exons 2 and 3 of ADA...

  14. Modelling Inflation Uncertainty with Structural Breaks Case of Turkey (1994–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Göktaş

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the importance attached to the concept of volatility has increased and become a phenomenon frequently encountered in every field ranging from financial markets to macroeconomic indicators. In this study, inflation data obtained from CPI index for the period of 1994:01–2013:12 in Turkey was used to determine the best representative of the inflation uncertainty. To realize this, both symmetric and asymmetric GARCH-type models were employed. Since there are many factors that may lead to structural change within the economic course of Turkey, a structural break in the series has first been investigated. By administering Bai-Perron structural break test, two different break points both in mean and variance have been detected to be in February 2002 and in June 2001, respectively. The inclusion of those break points to the related equations, appropriate forecasting models were projected. Moreover it was found that, while in the periods prior to the break in both variance and mean the inflation itself was the reason for inflation uncertainty, following the dates of the break, the relationship changed bidirectionally. In the meantime, when the series was taken as a whole without considering the break, bidirectional causality relationship was also detected in the series.

  15. Gravity with background fields and diffeomorphism breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Bluhm, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Effective gravitational field theories with background fields break local Lorentz symmetry and diffeomorphism invariance. Examples include Chern-Simons gravity, massive gravity, and the Standard-Model Extension (SME). The physical properties and behavior of these theories depend greatly on whether the spacetime symmetry breaking is explicit or spontaneous. With explicit breaking, the background fields are fixed and nondynamical, and the resulting theories are fundamentally different from Einstein's General Relativity (GR). However, when the symmetry breaking is spontaneous, the background fields are dynamical in origin, and many of the usual features of Einstein's GR still apply.

  16. Point Lepreau

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This brief pamphlet gives general information about the station. The Point Lepreau Nuclear Generating Station consists of a single CANDU 600 unit with a total net capacity of 630,000 kilowatts. This single reactor, the first nuclear installation in Atlantic Canada, is expected to supply about 20% of New Brunswick's electrical energy during the 1980's. The station is located on the Lepreau peninsula, overlooking the Bay of Fundy, 40 km southwest of Saint John on Route 790, off Highway 1. Construction of Point Lepreau began in May 1975 and was completed late in 1981. At the peak of construction activity in 1979, 3,300 workers were employed on the project. First power was produced in September 1982 and Lepreau began commercial operation early in 1983. Point Lepreau was built with provision for an additional 600 MW unit on the site and is essentially a duplicate of CANDU 600 reactors in Quebec, Argentina and Korea. Although started third, Lepreau was the first of these CANDU's in Canada and abroad to be licensed for operation, the first to achieve criticality (start-up), and the first to begin commercial operation. Lepreau is owned and operated by New Brunswick Power

  17. Projected Symmetry Breaking in Dipole-Locked ^3He-B

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Hiromitsu; Kobayashi, Shingo

    2016-05-01

    We show theoretically that a collision of two superfluid droplets can effectively cause a two-dimensional symmetry breaking phase transition. Three-dimensional nucleation of quantized vortices and/or hedgehogs in the collision are considered the formation of domain walls and/or point vortices due to the Kibble-Zurek mechanism in a projected two-dimensional space. This problem is generally applicable to arbitrarily ordered media that undergo spontaneous breaking of continuous symmetries.

  18. Aspects of causality and unitarity and comments on vortex-like configurations in an Abelian model with a Lorentz-Breaking term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gauge-invariant Chern-Simons-type Lorentz- and CPT-breaking term is here reassessed and a spin-projector method is adopted to account for the breaking (vector) parameter. Issues like causality, unitarity, spontaneous gauge-symmetry breaking and vortex formation are investigated, and consistency conditions on the external vector are identified. (author)

  19. Multilepton signatures of gauge mediated SUSY breaking at LEPII

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Kingman; Dicus, Duane A.; Dutta, B.; Nandi, S.

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking models pair production of the lightest neutralinos, scalar leptons, or charginos at LEPII gives rise to interesting signals involving multilepton final states and missing energy. In the parameter space where the scalar tau, $\\tilde{\\tau}_1$, is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle, we identify three interesting regions, which give rise to distinctly different final states: (i) 2 $\\tau$-leptons plus missing energy, (ii) 4 charge...

  20. Evaluation of the change-point piecewise exponential model

    OpenAIRE

    Kanavou, Sofia

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of the piecewise exponential model and application of a two change-point piecewise exponential model in real and simulated data, first in the case of known change-points and then, in the case of unknown break points that have to be estimated.

  1. Anatomy of new SUSY breaking holographic RG flows

    CERN Document Server

    Argurio, Riccardo; Redigolo, Diego

    2014-01-01

    We find and thoroughly study new supergravity domain wall solutions which are holographic realizations of supersymmetry breaking strongly coupled gauge theories. We set ourselves in an N=2 gauged supergravity with a minimal content in order to reproduce a dual N=1 effective SCFT which has a U(1)_R symmetry, a chiral operator whose components are responsible for triggering the RG flow, and an additional U(1)_F symmetry. We present a full three dimensional parameter space of solutions, which generically break supersymmetry. Some known solutions are recovered for specific sets of values of the parameters, with the new solutions interpolating between them. The generic backgrounds being singular, we provide a stability test of their dual theories by showing that there are no tachyonic resonances in the two point correlators. We compute the latter by holographic renormalization. We also carefully analyze the appearance of massless modes, such as the dilaton and the R axion, when the respective symmetries are sponta...

  2. Electroweak Symmetry Breaking and the Higgs Boson

    CERN Document Server

    Pich, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The first LHC run has confirmed the Standard Model as the correct theory at the electroweak scale, and the existence of a Higgs-like particle associated with the spontaneous breaking of the electroweak gauge symmetry. These lectures overview the present knowledge on the Higgs boson and discuss alternative scenarios of electroweak symmetry breaking which are already being constrained by the experimental data.

  3. Multiscale Simulation of Breaking Wave Impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Ole

    compare reasonably well. The incompressible and inviscid ALE-WLS model is coupled with the potential flow model of Engsig-Karup et al. [2009], to perform multiscale calculation of breaking wave impacts on a vertical breakwater. The potential flow model provides accurate calculation of the wave...... potential flow model to provide multiscale calculation of forces from breaking wave impacts on structures....

  4. Four Top Production and Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Kingman

    1995-01-01

    With the recent discovery of a heavy top quark $(m_t \\approx 175 - 200$ GeV), the top quark opens an window to electroweak symmetry breaking. We propose the study of four-top, $t\\bar t t\\bar t$, production at hadronic supercolliders as a probe to electroweak symmetry breaking.

  5. Anatomy of String Breaking in QCD

    OpenAIRE

    Prkacin, Zdravko; Bali, Gunnar S.; Dussel, Thomas; Lippert, Thomas; Neff, Hartmut; Schilling, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the string breaking mechanism in n_f=2 QCD. We discuss the lattice techniques used and present results on energy levels and mixing angle of the static BBbar|QbarQ two-state system. The string breaking is visualized, by means of an animation of the action density distribution as a function of the static colour source-antisource separation.

  6. Use of Utility Codes for Fuel Analysis during Off-Stagnation Feeder Break in CANDU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feeder break accident is regarded as one of the design basis accident in CANDU reactor which results in a fuel failure. For a particular range of inlet feeder break sizes, the flow in the channel is reduced sufficiently that the fuel and fuel channel integrity can be significantly affected to have damage in the affected channel, while the remainder of the core remains adequately cooled. The flow in the downstream channel can be more or less stagnated due to a balance between pressure at the break on the upstream side and the reverse driving pressure between the break and the downstream end. In the extreme, this can lead to rapid fuel heatup and fuel damage and failure of the fuel channel similar to that associated with a severe channel flow blockage. Such an inlet feeder break scenario is called a stagnation break. For an inlet feeder break which is slightly larger or smaller than that for the stagnation break case, the result is a channel flow which is low enough to result in fuel failure but high enough that the pressure tube remains intact. This event is identified as the off-stagnation break. In this report, the fuel analysis methodology and the usage of utility codes to evaluate the fission gas release during the off-stagnation feeder break are described. The accident was assumed to be occurred in the refurbished Wolsong unit 1 and the latest safety codes were used in the analysis. Fission product inventories during the steady state were calculated by using ELESTRES-IST 1.2 code. After starting the off-stagnation break, ELOCA code evaluated the timing of fuel failure and the following fission gas release due to the oxidation of the pellet are calculated by using several utility codes until the reactor trip. The calculated fission product releases are provided to the following dose assessment as a source term

  7. Critical and shielding parametric studies with the Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI to identify the key points to take into account during the transportation of blanket assemblies with high ratio of americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of French research program on Generation IV sodium cooled fast reactor, one possible option consists in burning minor actinides in this kind of Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor. Two types of transmutation mode are studied in the world : the homogeneous mode of transmutation where actinides are scattered with very low enrichment ratio in fissile assemblies and the heterogeneous mode where fissile core is surrounded by blanket assemblies filled with minor actinides with ratio of incorporated actinides up to 20%. Depending on which element is considered to be burnt and on its content, these minor actinides contents imply constraints on assemblies' transportation between Nuclear Power Plants and fuel cycle facilities. In this study, we present some academic studies in order to identify some key constraints linked to the residual power and neutron/gamma load of such kind of blanket assemblies. To simplify the approach, we considered a modeling of a 'model cask' dedicated to the transportation of a unique irradiated blanket assembly loaded with 20% of Americium and basically inspired from an existent cask designed initially for the damaged fissile Superphenix assembly transport. Thermal calculations performed with EDF-SYRTHES code have shown that due to thermal limitations on cladding temperature, the decay time to be considered before transportation is 20 years. This study is based on explicit 3D representations of the cask and the contained blanket assembly with the Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI/JEFF3.1.1 library and concludes that after such a decay time, the transportation of a unique Americium radial blanket is feasible only if the design of our model cask is modified in order to comply with the dose limitation criterion. (author)

  8. Development of a predictive methodology for identifying high radon exhalation potential areas; Mise au point d'une methodologie predictive des zones a fort potentiel d'exhalation du radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ielsch, G

    2001-07-01

    Radon 222 is a radioactive natural gas originating from the decay of radium 226 which itself originates from the decay of uranium 23 8 naturally present in rocks and soil. Inhalation of radon gas and its decay products is a potential health risk for man. Radon can accumulate in confined environments such as buildings, and is responsible for one third of the total radiological exposure of the general public to radiation. The problem of how to manage this risk then arises. The main difficulty encountered is due to the large variability of exposure to radon across the country. A prediction needs to be made of areas with the highest density of buildings with high radon levels. Exposure to radon varies depending on the degree of confinement of the habitat, the lifestyle of the occupants and particularly emission of radon from the surface of the soil on which the building is built. The purpose of this thesis is to elaborate a methodology for determining areas presenting a high potential for radon exhalation at the surface of the soil. The methodology adopted is based on quantification of radon exhalation at the surface, starting from a precise characterization of the main local geological and pedological parameters that control the radon source and its transport to the ground/atmosphere interface. The methodology proposed is innovative in that it combines a cartographic analysis, parameters integrated into a Geographic Information system, and a simplified model for vertical transport of radon by diffusion through pores in the soil. This methodology has been validated on two typical areas, in different geological contexts, and gives forecasts that generally agree with field observations. This makes it possible to identify areas with a high exhalation potential within a range of a few square kilometers. (author)

  9. Big break for charge symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, G A

    2003-01-01

    Two new experiments have detected charge-symmetry breaking, the mechanism responsible for protons and neutrons having different masses. Symmetry is a crucial concept in the theories that describe the subatomic world because it has an intimate connection with the laws of conservation. The theory of the strong interaction between quarks - quantum chromodynamics - is approximately invariant under what is called charge symmetry. In other words, if we swap an up quark for a down quark, then the strong interaction will look almost the same. This symmetry is related to the concept of sup i sospin sup , and is not the same as charge conjugation (in which a particle is replaced by its antiparticle). Charge symmetry is broken by the competition between two different effects. The first is the small difference in mass between up and down quarks, which is about 200 times less than the mass of the proton. The second is their different electric charges. The up quark has a charge of +2/3 in units of the proton charge, while ...

  10. Research progress on dam-break floods

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jiansong

    2011-08-01

    Because of the catastrophic effects downstream of dam-break failure, more and more researchers around the world have been working on the study of dam-break flows to accurately forecast the downstream inundation mapping. With the rapid development of computer hardware and computing techniques, numerical study on dam-break flows has been a popular research subject. In the paper, the numerical methodologies used to solve the governing partial differential equations of dam-break flows are classified and summarized, and their characteristics and applications are discussed respectively. Furthermore, the fully-developed mathematical models developed in recent decades are reviewed, and also introduced the authors\\' on-going work. Finally, some possible future developments on modeling the dam-break flows and some solutions are presented and discussed. © 2011 IEEE.

  11. Supersymmetry Breaking by Higher Dimension Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Farakos, Fotis; Kehagias, Alex; Porrati, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    We discuss a supersymmetry breaking mechanism for N = 1 theories triggered by higher dimensional op- erators. We consider such operators for real linear and chiral spinor superfields that break superymmetry and reduce to the Volkov-Akulov action. We also consider supersymmetry breaking induced by a higher dimensional operator of a nonminimal scalar (complex linear) multiplet. The latter differs from the stan- dard chiral multiplet in its auxiliary sector, which contains, in addition to the complex scalar auxiliary of a chiral superfield, a complex vector and two spinors auxiliaries. By adding an appropriate higher di- mension operator, the scalar auxiliary may acquire a nonzero vev triggering spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. We find that the spectrum of the theory in the supersymmetry breaking vacuum consists of a free chiral multiplet and a constraint chiral superfield describing the goldstino. Interestingly, the latter turns out to be one of the auxiliary fermions, which becomes dynamical in the supersym...

  12. Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed

  13. A laboratory study of breaking waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaros³aw Têgowski

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with some aspects of the wave-breaking phenomenon. The objectives were to study wave-breaking criteria, and the probability of whitecap coverage under fully controlled wave conditions. An additional task was to in vestigate the characteristic spectral features of the noise produced by breaking waves and the acoustic energy generated during wave breaking events. A controlled experiment was carried out in the Ocean Basin Laboratory at MARINTEK, Trondheim (Norway. Waves were generated by a computer-controlled multi-flap wave maker, which reproduced a realistic pattern of the sea surface for the prescribed spectra. Using wave staff recordings and photographic techniques, correlations between the breaking parameters and the radiated acoustic emissions were established.

  14. Mentional references and familiarity break

    OpenAIRE

    Corblin, Francis

    1999-01-01

    The main concern of this paper is the proper analysis of the NP celui-ci in French. The contribution of L. Tasmowski to this discussion is well known (Tasmowski 1990). In my view, this contribution makes two important points: 1) in its anaphoric uses, celui-ci cannot be analysed as a "nominal anaphoric" along the lines suggested by Corblin (1985, 1990) for its exophoric uses. This point is also made in Kleiber (1991), Zribi-Hertz (1991), Imoto (1997); 2) eventhough celui-ci like pronouns and ...

  15. Breaking Free with Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, John

    2002-01-01

    Discusses wireless local area networks (LANs) which typically consist of laptop computers that connect to fixed access points via infrared or radio signals. Topics include wide area networks; personal area networks; problems, including limitations of available bandwidth, interference, and security concerns; use in education; interoperability;…

  16. SU(3) breaking in hyperon transition vector form factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a calculation of the SU(3)-breaking corrections to the hyperon transition vector form factors to O(p4) in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory with finite-range regularisation. Both octet and decuplet degrees of freedom are included. We formulate a chiral expansion at the kinematic point Q2=-(MB1-MB2)2, which can be conveniently accessed in lattice QCD. The two unknown low-energy constants at this point are constrained by lattice QCD simulation results for the Σ-→n and Ξ0→Σ+ transition form factors. Hence we determine lattice-informed values of f1 at the physical point. This work constitutes progress towards the precise determination of vertical stroke Vus vertical stroke from hyperon semileptonic decays.

  17. SU(3) breaking in hyperon transition vector form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanahan, P.E.; Thomas, A.W.; Young, R.D.; Zanotti, J.M. [ARC Centre of Excellence in Particle Physics at the Terascale, Adelaide (Australia); Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter (CSSM), Adelaide, SA (Australia); Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). Dept. of Physics; Cooke, A.N.; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe (Japan); Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Division; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    We present a calculation of the SU(3)-breaking corrections to the hyperon transition vector form factors to O(p{sup 4}) in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory with finite-range regularisation. Both octet and decuplet degrees of freedom are included. We formulate a chiral expansion at the kinematic point Q{sup 2}=-(M{sub B{sub 1}}-M{sub B{sub 2}}){sup 2}, which can be conveniently accessed in lattice QCD. The two unknown low-energy constants at this point are constrained by lattice QCD simulation results for the Σ{sup -}→n and Ξ{sup 0}→Σ{sup +} transition form factors. Hence we determine lattice-informed values of f{sub 1} at the physical point. This work constitutes progress towards the precise determination of vertical stroke V{sub us} vertical stroke from hyperon semileptonic decays.

  18. Leak-before-break demonstration for a typical PWR main steam pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently the main steam line break evaluations of pressurized water reactor coolant systems are performed for postulated circumferential (guillotine) breaks. This results in overly conservation loading conditions. The objective of this paper is to study the local and global stability of a postulated through wall circumferential flaw in the main steam pipe of a typical pressurized water reactor. Steam leak rates are estimated and are examined in light of currently available leak rate criteria to demonstrate the leak-before-break condition. The need for additional criteria for detection of steam leaks is identified

  19. Breaking stress of neutron star crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The breaking stress (the maximum of the stress-strain curve) of neutron star crust is important for neutron star physics including pulsar glitches, emission of gravitational waves from static mountains, and flares from star quakes. We perform many molecular dynamic simulations of the breaking stress at different coupling parameters (inverse temperatures), strain rates and composition of matter. We describe our results with the Zhurkov model of strength. We apply this model to estimate the breaking stress for timescales ∼1 s - 1 year, which are most important for applications, but much longer than can be directly simulated. At these timescales the breaking stress depends strongly on the temperature. For coupling parameter Γ<200 matter breaks at very small stress, if it is applied for a few years. This viscoelastic creep can limit the lifetime of mountains on neutron stars. We also suggest an alternative model of timescale-independent breaking stress, which can be used to estimate an upper limit on the breaking stress. This work was partially supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant 11-02-00253-a), by the State Program 'Leading Scientific Schools of Russian Federation' (grant NSh 3769.2010.2), by the President grant for young Russian scientists (MK-5857.2010.2), by United States DOE grant (DE-FG02-87ER40365) and by Shared University Research grants from IBM, Inc. to Indiana University.

  20. Semiclassical treatment of symmetry breaking and bifurcations in a non-integrable potential

    CERN Document Server

    Koliesnik, M V; Magner, A G; Arita, K; Brack, M

    2014-01-01

    We have derived an analytical trace formula for the level density of the H\\'enon-Heiles potential using the improved stationary phase method, based on extensions of Gutzwiller's semiclassical path integral approach. This trace formula has the correct limit to the standard Gutzwiller trace formula for the isolated periodic orbits far from all (critical) symmetry-breaking points. It continuously joins all critical points at which an enhancement of the semiclassical amplitudes occurs. We found a good agreement between the semi- classical and the quantum oscillating level densities for the gross shell structures and for the energy shell corrections, solving the symmetry breaking problem at small energies.

  1. Intermediate Symmetries in the Spontaneous Breaking of Supersymmetric SO(10)

    OpenAIRE

    Buccella, F.; Savoy, C.A.

    2002-01-01

    We study the supersymmetric spontaneous symmetry breaking of SO(10) into SU(3)xSU(2)xU(1) for the most physically interesting cases of SU(5) or flipped SU(5)xU(1) intermediate symmetries. The first case is more easily realized while the second one requires a fine-tuning condition on the parameters of the superpotential. This is because in the case of SU(5) symmetry there is at most one singlet of the residual symmetry in each SO(10) irreducible representation. We also point out on more genera...

  2. Symmetry-breaking transitions in networks of nonlinear circuit elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, Martin; Dahms, Thomas; Flunkert, Valentin; Schoell, Eckehard [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Teitsworth, Stephen W, E-mail: schoell@physik.tu-berlin.d [Department of Physics, Duke University, PO Box 90305, Durham, NC 27708-0305 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    We investigate a nonlinear circuit consisting of N tunnel diodes in series, which shows close similarities to a semiconductor superlattice or to a neural network. Each tunnel diode is modeled by a three-variable FitzHugh-Nagumo-like system. The tunnel diodes are coupled globally through a load resistor. We find complex bifurcation scenarios with symmetry-breaking transitions that generate multiple fixed points off the synchronization manifold. We show that multiply degenerate zero-eigenvalue bifurcations occur, which lead to multistable current branches, and that these bifurcations are also degenerate with a Hopf bifurcation. These predicted scenarios of multiple branches and degenerate bifurcations are also found experimentally.

  3. Aeration and bubble measurements of coastal breaking waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The air entrainment process of surf zone waves is studied experimentally to understand as a first step of two-phase characteristics of surf zone breaking waves. A set of laboratory experiments of free surface elevation, water velocity, void fraction and bubble distribution is conducted simultaneously for regular gravity wave breaking on a plane slope. The in situ data are collected by using a measurement array of wave gages, a dual-tip resistivity void fraction probe and an acoustic Doppler velocimeter. Two-dimensional projected bubble size measurements are conduced by the high speed camera with imaging technique. The experimental data show a linear relationship between the void fraction and turbulent intensity. In addition, the bubble size distributions are proportional to the bubble size to the power of -1 and -3.4 independent of the distance from breaking point and water depth. The length scale separating two power laws is the Hinze scale which corresponds to the wave energy dissipation scale. This result will be important for modeling and implication for the study of surf zone dynamics.

  4. Dirac Neutrino Masses from Generalized Supersymmetry Breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate that Dirac neutrino masses in the experimentally preferred range are generated within supersymmetric gauge extensions of the standard model with a generalized supersymmetry breaking sector. If the superpotential neutrino Yukawa terms are forbidden by the gauge symmetry [such as a U(1)'], sub-eV scale effective Dirac mass terms can arise at tree level from hard supersymmetry breaking Yukawa couplings, or at one loop due to nonanalytic soft supersymmetry breaking trilinear scalar couplings. The radiative neutrino magnetic and electric dipole moments vanish at one-loop order

  5. Spontaneous chiral parity breaking by hydromagnetic buoyancy

    CERN Document Server

    Chatterjee, Piyali; Brandenburg, Axel; Rheinhardt, Matthias

    2010-01-01

    Evidence for a parity-breaking nature of the magnetic buoyancy instability in a stably stratified gas is reported. In the absence of rotation, no helicity is produced, but the non-helical state is found to be unstable to small helical perturbations during the development of the instability. The parity-breaking nature of an instability in magnetohydrodynamics appears to be the first of its kind and is similar to chiral symmetry breaking in biochemistry. Applications to the production of mean fields in galaxy clusters are being discussed.

  6. Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking by hydromagnetic buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Piyali; Mitra, Dhrubaditya; Brandenburg, Axel; Rheinhardt, Matthias

    2011-08-01

    Evidence for the parity-breaking nature of the magnetic buoyancy instability in a stably stratified gas is reported. In the absence of rotation, no helicity is produced, but the nonhelical state is found to be unstable to small helical perturbations during the development of the instability. The parity-breaking nature of this magnetohydrodynamic instability appears to be the first of its kind and has properties similar to those in chiral symmetry breaking in biochemistry. Applications to the production of mean fields in galaxy clusters are discussed.

  7. Mechanism for Time Reparametrization Symmetry Breaking in Spinor Gravity Coupled to Long-Range Spinor Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Konishi, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    We propose a mechanism for time reparametrization symmetry breaking in canonical gravity. We consider a model of spinor gravity, based on Sen's reformulation of canonical gravity as a spin system, with one additional long-range self-interacting massive spinor particle that is coupled to spinor gravity. The symmetry breaking is identified with the origin of the quantum mechanical non-unitary evolution. A part of our approach to deriving non-unitary time-dependent processes of wave functions fo...

  8. Procedure for probabilistic safety assessment of leaks and breaks of piping systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The estimation of leak and break frequencies in piping systems is part of the probabilistic safety assessment of technical plants. In this paper, a statistical method based on the evaluation of German operational experience for piping systems with different diameters is described because an earlier estimation has been updated and extended introducing new methodical aspects and data. A major point is the inclusion of structural reliability models based on fracture mechanics calculation procedures. As an example of application the statistical estimation method for leak and break frequencies of piping systems with a nominal diameter of 50 mm (the volume control system of a German pressurized water reactor) was updated. Moreover, the evaluation of the operational experience was extended to 341 years with respect to cracks, leaks and breaks in the volume control system of German pressurized water reactors (PWR). Using the actual database, new calculations of leak and break frequencies have been performed and the results have been compared with previous values.

  9. Formation of radiation-induced DNA breaks: the ratio of double-strand breaks to single-strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation causes the formation of strand breaks in cellular DNA, as well as other types of lesions in the chromatin of cells. Some of the earliest investigations of the molecular basis of radiation-induced damage and the implications of enzymatic repair were done by Dr. H. S. Kaplan. Because it is difficult to assay for DNA lesions in the large mammalian genome, the authors have developed a method of assaying for DNA double-strand breaks in the supercoiled nucleosome-complexed Simian virus 40 (SV40) genome, irradiated intracellularly. In this communication they present their measurements of the DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) to single-strand breaks (SSBs) ratio obtained from the intracellularly irradiated SV40 genome. After cobalt gamma ray and X ray irradiations, this ratio is about 1/10. Their methods and results are compared with pertinent data in the literature. If the DSBs/SSBs ratio of 1/10 for cellular chromatin is correct, a substantial number of DNA double-strand breaks are formed in a mammalian cell after moderate doses (1 Gy) of radiation. The implications of different types of DNA double-strand breaks are discussed

  10. Unconventional supersymmetry and its breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Pedro D., E-mail: alvarez@physics.ox.ac.uk [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECS), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. República 440, Santiago (Chile); Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Pais, Pablo, E-mail: pais@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECS), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. República 440, Santiago (Chile); Zanelli, Jorge, E-mail: z@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECS), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. República 440, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-07-30

    We present a gauge theory for a superalgebra that includes an internal gauge (G) and local Lorentz (so(1,D−1)) algebras. These two symmetries are connected by fermionic supercharges. The field content of the system includes a (non-)abelian gauge potential A, a spin-1/2 Dirac spinor ψ, the Lorentz connection ω{sup ab}, and the vielbein e{sub μ}{sup a}. The connection one-form A is in the adjoint representation of G, while ψ is in the fundamental. In contrast to standard supersymmetry and supergravity, the metric is not a fundamental field and is in the center of the superalgebra: it is not only invariant under the internal gauge group, G, and under Lorentz transformations, SO(1,D−1), but is also invariant under supersymmetry. The distinctive features of this theory that mark the difference with standard supersymmetries are: i) the number of fermionic and bosonic states is not necessarily the same; ii) there are no superpartners with equal mass; iii) although this supersymmetry originates in a local gauge theory and gravity is included, there is no gravitino; iv) fermions acquire mass from their coupling to the background or from higher order self-couplings, while bosons remain massless. In odd dimensions, the Chern–Simons (CS) form provides an action that is (quasi-)invariant under the entire superalgebra. In even dimensions, the Yang–Mills (YM) form is the only natural option and the symmetry breaks down to G⊗SO(1,D−1). In four dimensions, the construction follows the Townsend–Mac Dowell–Mansouri approach, starting with an osp(4|2)∼usp(2,2|1) connection. Due to the absence of osp(4|2)-invariant traces in four dimensions, the resulting Lagrangian is only invariant under u(1)⊕so(3,1), which includes a Nambu–Jona-Lasinio (NJL) term. In this case, the Lagrangian depends on a single dimensionful parameter that fixes Newton's constant, the cosmological constant and the NJL coupling.

  11. Dirac neutrino masses from generalized supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate that Dirac neutrino masses in the experimentally preferred range are generated within supersymmetric gauge extensions of the Standard Model with a generalized supersymmetry breaking sector. If the usual superpotential Yukawa couplings are forbidden by the additional gauge symmetry (such as a U(1)'), effective Dirac mass terms involving the ''wrong Higgs'' field can arise either at tree level due to hard supersymmetry breaking fermion Yukawa couplings, or at one-loop due to nonanalytic or ''nonholomorphic'' soft supersymmetry breaking trilinear scalar couplings. As both of these operators are naturally suppressed in generic models of supersymmetry breaking, the resulting neutrino masses are naturally in the sub-eV range. The neutrino magnetic and electric dipole moments resulting from the radiative mechanism also vanish at one-loop order. (orig.)

  12. Dirac Neutrino Masses from Generalized Supersymmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Demir, Durmus A; Langacker, Paul

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate that Dirac neutrino masses in the experimentally preferred range are generated within supersymmetric gauge extensions of the Standard Model with a generalized supersymmetry breaking sector. If the usual superpotential Yukawa couplings are forbidden by the additional gauge symmetry (such as a U(1)'), effective Dirac mass terms involving the "wrong Higgs" field can arise either at tree level due to hard supersymmetry breaking fermion Yukawa couplings, or at one-loop due to nonanalytic or "nonholomorphic" soft supersymmetry breaking trilinear scalar couplings. As both of these operators are naturally suppressed in generic models of supersymmetry breaking, the resulting neutrino masses are naturally in the sub-eV range. The neutrino magnetic and electric dipole moments resulting from the radiative mechanism also vanish at one-loop order.

  13. Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingkai; Powell, David A.; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Lapine, Mikhail; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2014-07-01

    Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking underpins a variety of areas such as subatomic physics and biochemistry, and leads to an impressive range of fundamental phenomena. Here we show that this prominent effect is now available in artificial electromagnetic systems, enabled by the advent of magnetoelastic metamaterials where a mechanical degree of freedom leads to a rich variety of strong nonlinear effects such as bistability and self-oscillations. We report spontaneous symmetry breaking in torsional chiral magnetoelastic structures where two or more meta-molecules with opposite handedness are electromagnetically coupled, modifying the system stability. Importantly, we show that chiral symmetry breaking can be found in the stationary response of the system, and the effect is successfully demonstrated in a microwave pump-probe experiment. Such symmetry breaking can lead to a giant nonlinear polarization change, energy localization and mode splitting, which provides a new possibility for creating an artificial phase transition in metamaterials, analogous to that in ferrimagnetic domains.

  14. Tax Breaks for Law Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Alan L.

    1981-01-01

    A guide to federal income tax law as it affects law students is presented. Some costs that may constitute valuable above-the-line deductions are identified: moving expenses, educational expenses, job-seeking expenses, and income averaging. Available from Washington and Lee University School of Law, Lexington, VA 24450, $5.50 sc) (MLW)

  15. The quantum change point

    CERN Document Server

    Sentís, Gael; Calsamiglia, John; Chiribella, Giulio; Munoz-Tapia, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Sudden changes are ubiquitous in nature. Identifying them is of crucial importance for a number of applications in medicine, biology, geophysics, and social sciences. Here we investigate the problem in the quantum domain, considering a source that emits particles in a default state, until a point where it switches to another state. Given a sequence of particles emitted by the source, the problem is to find out where the change occurred. For large sequences, we obtain an analytical expression for the maximum probability of correctly identifying the change point when joint measurements on the whole sequence are allowed. We also construct strategies that measure the particles individually and provide an online answer as soon as a new particle is emitted by the source. We show that these strategies substantially underperform the optimal strategy, indicating that quantum sudden changes, although happening locally, are better detected globally.

  16. Relativistic theory of string breaking in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Simonov, Yu A

    2011-01-01

    The QCD string breaking due to quark pair creation in the vacuum confining field, possibly accompanied by vector, scalar or Nambu-Goldstone bosons, is studied nonperturbatively. The scalar light pair creation vertex occurs due to chiral symmetry breaking and has a confining form, which is computed explicitly together with subleading vector contributions. Dependence on light quark mass and flavor is specifically studied. The dominant scalar term is in good agreement with the $^3P_0$ model and experimental data.

  17. AIR LOAD BREAK SWITCH DESIGN PARAMETERS

    OpenAIRE

    Støa-Aanensen, Nina Sasaki

    2015-01-01

    Current interruption is vital in the power system, as this makes it possible to control the use of different loads, change the grid configuration, and minimize damage when faults occur. This thesis presents a study of the different switch design and test circuit parameters involved in medium voltage air load break switching and how they affect the thermal interrupting capability. Mediumvoltage load break switches are common in the distribution grid, and are a cheaper option ...

  18. Grand unification with large supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General criteria are given for the magnitudes of mass splittings between supersymmetric partners compatible with the desired hierarchy of mass scales in GUTs. These splittings arise naturally when masses are generated radiatively from a Higgs sector breaking supersymmetry through the O'Raifeartaigh mechanism (Nucl. Phys; B96:331 (1975)). Explicit GUTs are constructed in which the supersymmetry breaking scale may easily be as large as the Planck mass. (author)

  19. Dirac Neutrino Masses from Generalized Supersymmetry Breaking

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Durmus A.; Everett, Lisa L.; Langacker, Paul

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate that Dirac neutrino masses in the experimentally preferred range are generated within supersymmetric gauge extensions of the Standard Model with a generalized supersymmetry breaking sector. If the usual superpotential Yukawa couplings are forbidden by the additional gauge symmetry (such as a U(1)'), effective Dirac mass terms involving the "wrong Higgs" field can arise either at tree level due to hard supersymmetry breaking fermion Yukawa couplings, or at one-loop due to nonana...

  20. A random fuse model for breaking processes

    OpenAIRE

    de Arcangelis, L.; Redner, S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    We introduce and study a simple idealized model to describe breaking processes by analysing the current-carrying properties of a random network consisting of insulators and fuses. By increasing the value of the external voltage applied across the network, a sequence of fuses will « burn out » and change irreversible into insultating bonds. This process terminates when a conducting path no longer exists in the network. We monitor several basic quantities during this breaking process, such as t...

  1. Yet another symmetry breaking to be discovered

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshimura, M

    2016-01-01

    The discovery of spontaneous symmetry breaking in particle physics was the greatest contribution in Nambu's achievements. There is another class of symmetries that exist in the low energy nature, yet is doomed to be broken at high energy, due to a lack of protection of the gauge symmetry. I shall review our approach to search for this class of symmetry breaking, the lepton number violation linked to generation of the matter-antimatter asymmetry in our universe.

  2. Dark matter from dynamical SUSY breaking

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, JiJi; Thaler, Jesse; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2010-01-01

    We consider explicit models of dynamical supersymmetry breaking where dark matter is a 10 – 100 TeV strongly-interacting composite state carrying no standard model quantum numbers. These constructions are simple variants of well-known supersymmetry breaking mechanisms, augmented to allow for a large “flavor” symmetry. Dark matter is the lightest composite modulus charged under this symmetry and is a viable cold dark matter candidate with a thermal relic abundance. This is an at...

  3. Holographic realization of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Skenderis, Kostas

    2012-01-01

    The general gauge mediation scenario provides a framework in which properties of a visible sector with soft supersymmetry breaking are computed from current correlation functions in the supersymmetry breaking hidden sector. In this paper we will use holography to model strongly coupled hidden sectors by weakly curved geometries and describe how the current correlators relevant for general gauge mediation are computed by holographic methods. We illustrate the general setup by a toy example which captures most of the relevant features.

  4. Chimera Death: Symmetry Breaking in Dynamical Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zakharova, Anna; Kapeller, Marie; Schöll, Eckehard

    2014-01-01

    For a network of generic oscillators with nonlocal topology and symmetry-breaking coupling we establish novel partially coherent inhomogeneous spatial patterns, which combine the features of chimera states (coexisting incongruous coherent and incoherent domains) and oscillation death (oscillation suppression), which we call chimera death. We show that due to the interplay of nonlocality and breaking of rotational symmetry by the coupling two distinct scenarios from oscillatory behavior to a s...

  5. Yet another symmetry breaking to be discovered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, M.

    2016-07-01

    The discovery of spontaneous symmetry breaking in particle physics was the greatest contribution in Nambu's achievements. There is another class of symmetries that exist in low-energy nature, yet is doomed to be broken at high energy, due to a lack of protection of the gauge symmetry. I shall review our approach to searching for this class of symmetry breaking, the lepton number violation linked to the generation of the matter-antimatter asymmetry in our universe.

  6. Molecular analysis of the distribution of chromosomal breakpoints: characterization of a 'hot' region for breaks in human chromosome 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Ionizing radiation randomly damages DNA and chromosomes whereas subsequent chromosome breaks are non-random. Assuming, as an ideal and naive but useful proposition, that breaks are equally likely anywhere in the chromosome and that a deletion always occurs between two breaks, the frequency of fragments would decrease linearly with increasing fragment size. This simple distribution is not, however, observed. To shed light on the 'real' situation of break formation we mapped breakpoints in the human chromosome no. 11 of 353 independent CD59- mutants isolated from human/hamster hybrid AL cells exposed to radiations (high and low dose-rate gamma rays, high LET carbon or nitrogen ions, protons) or chemicals (arsenic or irradiated, mutagenic histidine) or unexposed. The number of breaks per unit length of DNA differed significantly in different regions of chromosome 11.The highest level of breaks (140/mbp) were in the 0.8 mbp segment between CD59 and Catalase (CAT). Finer mapping of break points was carried out using 26 PCR primer pairs spread across this interval in 15 independent mutants. In two mutants, the break point was in a 107 bp fragment; in the other 13 the breaks were in a single 35 mbp fragment, but not all were at exactly the same site; 4 of 13 occurred in 3 different 3 mbp sub-segments. We are sequencing these fragments to look for such features as repeats: 'colder' regions like that between CD59 and WT will also be analyzed. But, since at least some breaks occurred at different sites and the frequency and distribution of breaks was about the same for all treatments, our we postulate that hot (and cold spots) may be due more to structural features or specific repair than to sequence or type of damage

  7. Active and break events of Indian summer monsoon during 1901-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, D. S.; Sridhar, Latha; Ramesh Kumar, M. R.

    2016-06-01

    The study lists active and break monsoon events over India over a very long period (1901-2014) identified using criteria based on a rainfall index derived over a critical high rainfall region called core monsoon zone. The break and active spells identified in this study were mostly comparable with that identified in the earlier studies based on similar rainfall criteria during the common data period (1951-2007). However, some noticeable differences were observed in the rainfall anomaly pattern associated with the break monsoon spells identified in this study and that identified based on the synoptic criteria in the earlier studies. The stringent rainfall criteria used in this study seems to be better criteria for identifying the breaks. During the study period, both the active and break spells of short duration were more frequent than the long duration with about 63.4 % of the break spells and 94.3 % of the active spells falling in the range of 3-6 days. There were no active spells of duration ≥13 days. Whereas, about 8 % of the break spells were of duration ≥13 days. During both the halves of the data period (1901-1957 and 1958-2014), there was no change in the distribution of the break events. However, the number of active spells showed an increase of about 12 % in the in the second half, which was mainly in the short duration (3-6 days) spells. During the data period, decadal variations of break days showed an out phase of relationship with the number of days of monsoon depression (MD). Relatively stronger in phase relationship was observed between the decadal variation of MD days and that of the active days till around early 1980s which reversed later due to sudden decrease in the MD days. During the same period, both the active and break days were in the increasing phase. This was also coincided with the sudden and significant increase in the number of days of monsoon lows (LOW). The LOWs, which generally have short life helped in the occurrence of active

  8. PowerPoint 2013 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Doug

    2013-01-01

    Get up and running with this full-color guide to PowerPoint 2013! PowerPoint, the number one presentation software, has been revised and improved with the introduction of Microsoft Office 2013. With this all-new, full-color book by your side, you will learn how to take full advantage of all of PowerPoint's powerful and dynamic capabilities. Bestselling veteran For Dummies, author Doug Lowe breaks it all down so that you can create a powerful and effective slideshow presentation with the new wide-screen theme and variant that incorporates videos, pictures, and shapes, and all

  9. New aspects of scale and discrete flavor symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Kher Sham

    2014-11-05

    The Standard Model (SM) of particle physics is complete with the discovery of the Higgs particle. However the SM cannot be a complete theory of nature as it does not explain the origin of neutrino mass, dark matter (DM), dark energy, matter-antimatter asymmetry and smallness of the strong CP parameter. From theoretical point of view we do not understand the origin of the scale separation between the electroweak (EW) and the Planck scale, and also the flavor puzzle. In this work we tackle the hierarchy problem with scale symmetry and the flavor puzzle with discrete flavor symmetries, charting new symmetry groups and their breaking, while investigating their implied phenomenologies along the way. In the first part we provide two novel mechanisms to explain the origin of the EW scale generated by quantum effects from an anomalous breaking of a classical scale invariant extension of the SM. For the first model we utilize a direct scale transmission from condensation of a scalar, charged under a high representation of QCD, to trigger EW symmetry breaking (EWSB) dynamically. In the second model, we use the indirect scale transmission approach to generate the EW scale transmitted by a singlet scalar mediator which couples to the SM and a strongly coupled hidden sector. Chiral symmetry in the dark fermion sector is broken spontaneously due to nonperturbative effects of the running coupling in the hidden sector, triggering indirectly EWSB due to dimensional transmutation and providing stable DM candidates in the form of dark pions. In the last part of this work we focus on charting new discrete flavor symmetry groups to obtain experimentally acceptable leptonic and quark mixing patterns. The interesting new discrete groups that we have found are classified mathematically and provide a new starting point for model building in discrete flavor symmetry.

  10. Suppression and restoration of disorder-induced light localization mediated by PT-symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Konotop, Vladimir V; Vysloukh, Victor A; Huang, Guoxiang; Torner, Lluis

    2016-01-01

    We uncover that the breaking point of the PT-symmetry in optical waveguide arrays has a dramatic impact on light localization induced by the off-diagonal disorder. Specifically, when the gain/loss control parameter approaches a critical value at which PT-symmetry breaking occurs, a fast growth of the coupling between neighboring waveguides causes diffraction to dominate to an extent that light localization is strongly suppressed and statistically averaged width of the output pattern substantially increases. Beyond the symmetry-breaking point localization is gradually restored, although in this regime the power of localized modes grows upon propagation. The strength of localization monotonically increases with disorder at both, broken and unbroken PT-symmetry.

  11. Leptogenesis after Chaotic Sneutrino Inflation and the Supersymmetry Breaking Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Björkeroth, Fredrik; Schmitz, Kai; Yanagida, Tsutomu T

    2016-01-01

    We discuss resonant leptogenesis arising from the decays of two nearly-degenerate right-handed neutrinos, identified as the inflaton and stabiliser superfields in a model of chaotic sneutrino inflation. We compare an analytical estimate of the baryon asymmetry $ \\eta_B $ in the Boltzmann approximation to a numerical solution of the full density matrix equations, and find that the analytical result fails to capture the correct physics in certain regions of parameter space. The observed baryon asymmetry can be realised for a breaking of the mass degeneracy as small as $ \\mathcal{O}(10^{-8}) $. The origin of such a small mass splitting is explained by considering supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking in supergravity, which requires a constant in the superpotential of the order of the gravitino mass $ m_{3/2} $ to cancel the cosmological constant. This yields additional terms in the (s)neutrino mass matrices, lifting the degeneracy and linking $ \\eta_B $ to the SUSY breaking scale. We find that achieving the correct bary...

  12. Inverted Break-up Behaviour in Continuous Inkjet (CIJ) Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlroy, Claire; Harlen, Oliver; Morrison, Neil

    2014-11-01

    Although droplet creation during continuous jetting of Newtonian fluids has been widely studied, unsolved problems surrounding the break-up dynamics remain. Jetting through a nozzle creates a stream of liquid that is rendered unstable by surface tension. This instability creates a succession of main drops connected by thin filaments, with drop separation determined by the fastest growing wavelength. In order to control break-up and increase printing speeds, continuous inkjet (CIJ) printing exploits the effects of finite amplitude modulations in the jet velocity profile giving conditions where jet stability deviates from the usual Rayleigh behaviour. To explore these non-linear effects, we have developed a one-dimensional jetting model. In particular, we identify a modulation range for which pinching occurs upstream of the connecting filament, rather than downstream - a phenomenon we call ``inverted'' break-up. Furthermore, this behaviour can be controlled by the addition of harmonics to the initial driving signal. Our results are compared to full axisymmetric simulations in order to incorporate the effects of nozzle geometry. EPSRC Innovation in Industrial Technology.

  13. Parity-Time Symmetry Breaking in Coupled Nanobeam Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Senlin; Yong, Zhengdong; Zhang, Yuguang; He, Sailing

    2016-04-01

    The concept of parity-time symmetry (PT symmetry) originates from the canonical quantum mechanics and has become a hot topic recently. As a versatile platform to investigate the intriguing concept, both theoretical and experimental works in optics have been implemented. In this paper, the PT symmetry breaking phenomenon is investigated in a coupled nanobeam cavity system. An exceptional point is observed during the tuning of the gain/loss level and the coupling strength of the closely placed nanobeam pair. Unidirectional light propagation is investigated, as well as enhanced sensitivity of single particle detection in the vicinity of the exceptional point. The proposed system is easy to be integrated with photonic integrated circuits and can be strongly coupled to optical waveguides.

  14. Fixed points and vacuum energy of dynamically broken gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We show that if a gauge theory with dynamical symmetry breaking has non-trivial fixed points, for values of the coupling constant within the range delimiting the dynamically broken phase, they will correspond to extrema of the vacuum energy. This relationship provides a different method to find fixed points, and we suggest that it can be tested in lattice simulations. (author)

  15. Breaking object correspondence across saccadic eye movements deteriorates object recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian H. Poth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception is based on information processing during periods of eye fixations that are interrupted by fast saccadic eye movements. The ability to sample and relate information on task-relevant objects across fixations implies that correspondence between presaccadic and postsaccadic objects is established. Postsaccadic object information usually updates and overwrites information on the corresponding presaccadic object. The presaccadic object representation is then lost. In contrast, the presaccadic object is conserved when object correspondence is broken. This helps transsaccadic memory but it may impose attentional costs on object recognition. Therefore, we investigated how breaking object correspondence across the saccade affects postsaccadic object recognition. In Experiment 1, object correspondence was broken by a brief postsaccadic blank screen. Observers made a saccade to a peripheral object which was displaced during the saccade. This object reappeared either immediately after the saccade or after the blank screen. Within the postsaccadic object, a letter was briefly presented (terminated by a mask. Observers reported displacement direction and letter identity in different blocks. Breaking object correspondence by blanking improved displacement identification but deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. In Experiment 2, object correspondence was broken by changing the object’s contrast-polarity. There were no object displacements and observers only reported letter identity. Again, breaking object correspondence deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. These findings identify transsaccadic object correspondence as a key determinant of object recognition across the saccade. This is in line with the recent hypothesis that breaking object correspondence results in separate representations of presaccadic and postsaccadic objects which then compete for limited attentional processing resources (Schneider, 2013. Postsaccadic

  16. Barriers and facilitating communication skills for breaking bad news: from the specialists’ practice perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enna Catalina Payán

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breaking bad news is one of a physician’s most difficult duties. There are several studies related to the patient’s needs, but few reflect on the doctors’ experience.Materials and method: A descriptive, cross-sectional research was carried out to study issues related to the process of delivering bad news which might act as barriers and facilitating skills from the doctor’s point of view. These issues were identified through a self-administered survey.Results: Participant doctors use different strategies to communicate bad news to their patients. Examples of these strategies are: to be familiar with the patients’ medical history, to ensure that there is enough time, to know the patient’s caregivers and/or relatives, to determine the patient’s level of knowledge about his/her condition, to use non-technical words, to give information in small pieces, to assess the patient’s understanding, to devise a joint action plan, among others.Conclusion: The communication barriers that were identified focused on the emotional issues of the communication process, particularly those related to the recognition of own emotions, and the limited training about communication strategies available to doctors. Consequently, there is a need to implement training programs that provide doctors with tools to facilitate the bad news communication process.

  17. CRISPR-Mediated Base Editing without DNA Double-Strand Breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plosky, Brian S

    2016-05-19

    Targeting point mutations using CRISPR/Cas9 so far has required efficient homologous recombination (HR) and donor oligonucleotides. In a recent Nature paper, Komor and colleagues (2016) describe a way to make specific base changes that does not depend on HR or donor DNA and does not involve making double-strand breaks. PMID:27203175

  18. Breaking chaotic shift key communication via adaptive key identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper proposes an adaptive parameter identification method for breaking chaotic shift key communication from the transmitted signal in public channel. The sensitive dependence property of chaos on parameter mismatch is used for chaos adaptive synchronization and parameter identification. An index function about the synchronization error is defined and conjugate gradient method is used to minimize the index function and to search the transmitter's parameter (key). By using proposed method, secure key is recovered from transmitted signal generated by low dimensional chaos and hyper chaos switching communication. Multi-parameters can also be identified from the transmitted signal with noise

  19. Symmetry Breaking and Quark-Hadron Duality in Structure Functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We identify conditions under which a summation over nucleon resonances can yield, via quark-hadron duality, parton model results for electromagnetic and neutrino structure functions at large x. While a summation over the lowest even and odd parity multiplets is sufficient to achieve duality in the symmetric quark model, a suppression of transitions to specific final states is required for more realistic cases incorporating SU(6) breaking. We outline several scenarios consistent with duality, discuss their implications for the high Q2 behavior of transition form factors, and illustrate how they can expose the patterns in the flavor-spin dependence of short-distance forces in the strong-QCD limit

  20. Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1982-12-01

    These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed. (WHK)

  1. Pure Gravity Mediation and Spontaneous B-L Breaking from Strong Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, Kaladi S; Yanagida, Tsutomu T

    2015-01-01

    In pure gravity mediation (PGM), the most minimal scheme for the mediation of supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking to the visible sector, soft masses for the standard model gauginos are generated at one loop rather than via direct couplings to the SUSY-breaking field. In any concrete implementation of PGM, the SUSY-breaking field is therefore required to carry nonzero charge under some global or local symmetry. As we point out in this note, a prime candidate for such a symmetry might be B-L, the Abelian gauge symmetry associated with the difference between baryon number B and lepton number L. The F-term of the SUSY-breaking field then not only breaks SUSY, but also B-L, which relates the respective spontaneous breaking of SUSY and B-L at a fundamental level. As a particularly interesting consequence, we find that the heavy Majorana neutrino mass scale ends up being tied to the gravitino mass, Lambda_N ~ m_3/2. Assuming nonthermal leptogenesis to be responsible for the generation of the baryon asymmetry of the univer...

  2. Calculation of the limiting CESSAR Feedwater Line-Break and Steam Line-Break transients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), under contract to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission, performed audit calculations of the limiting Feedwater Line Break (FLB) and Steam Line Break (SLB) transients presented in the CESSAR FSAR. The results of the FLB and SLB calculations are discussed

  3. Numerical evidence of breaking of vortex lines in an ideal fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Kuznetsov, E A; Zheligovsky, V A

    2001-01-01

    Emergence of singularity of vorticity at a single point, not related to any symmetry of the initial distribution, has been demonstrated numerically for the first time. Behavior of the maximum of vorticity near the point of collapse closely follows the dependence 1/(t0-t), where t0 is the time of collapse. This agrees with the interpretation of collapse in an ideal incompressible fluid as of the process of vortex lines breaking.

  4. Break-glass handling exceptional situations in access control

    CERN Document Server

    Petritsch, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Helmut Petritsch describes the first holistic approach to Break-Glass which covers the whole life-cycle: from access control modeling (pre-access), to logging the security-relevant system state during Break-Glass accesses (at-access), and the automated analysis of Break-Glass accesses (post-access). Break-Glass allows users to override security restrictions in exceptional situations. While several Break-Glass models specific to given access control models have already been discussed in research (e.g., extending RBAC with Break-Glass), the author introduces a generic Break-Glass model. The pres

  5. A UV-complete Composite Higgs model for Electroweak Symmetry Breaking: Minimal Conformal Technicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacchi, Ruggero Altair

    The Large Hadron Collider is currently collecting data. One of the main goals of the experiment is to find evidence of the mechanism responsible for the breaking of the electroweak symmetry. There are many different models attempting to explain this breaking and traditionally most of them involve the use of supersymmetry near the scale of the breaking. This work is focused on exploring a viable model that is not based on a weakly coupled low scale supersymmetry sector to explain the electroweak symmetry breaking. We build a model based on a new strong interaction, in the fashion of theories commonly called "technicolor", name that is reminiscent of one of the first attempts of explaining the electroweak symmetry breaking using a strong interaction similar to the one whose charges are called colors. We explicitly study the minimal model of conformal technicolor, an SU(2) gauge theory near a strongly coupled conformal fixed point, with conformal symmetry softly broken by technifermion mass terms. Conformal symmetry breaking triggers chiral symmetry breaking in the pattern SU(4) → Sp (4), which gives rise to a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson that can act as a composite Higgs boson. There is an additional composite pseudoscalar A with mass larger than mh and suppressed direct production at LHC. We discuss the electroweak fit in this model in detail. A good fit requires fine tuning at the 10% level. We construct a complete, realistic, and natural UV completion of the model, that explains the origin of quark and lepton masses and mixing angles. We embed conformal technicolor in a supersymmetric theory, with supersymmetry broken at a high scale. The effective theory below the supersymmetry breaking scale is minimal conformal technicolor with an additional light technicolor gaugino that might give rise to an additional pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson that is observable at the LHC.

  6. Marginal Breaking of Conformal SUSY QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Cleary, Kevin F

    2015-01-01

    We provide an example of a 4D theory that exhibits the Contino-Pomarol-Rattazzi mechanism, where breaking conformal symmetry by an almost marginal operator leads to a light pseudo-Goldstone boson, the dilaton, and a parametrically suppressed contribution to vacuum energy. We consider SUSY QCD at the edge of the conformal window and break conformal symmetry by weakly gauging a subgroup of the flavor symmetry. Using Seiberg duality we show that for a range of parameters the singlet meson in the dual theory reaches the unitarity bound, however, this theory does not have a stable vacuum. We stabilize the vacuum with soft breaking terms, compute the mass of the dilaton, and determine the range of parameters where the leading contribution to the dilaton mass is from the almost marginal coupling.

  7. Dynamical supersymmetry breaking on quantum moduli spaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supersymmetry breaking by the quantum deformation of a classical moduli space is considered. A simple, non-chiral, renormalizable model is presented to illustrate this mechanism. The well-known, chiral, SU(3) x SU(2) model and its generalizations are shown to break supersymmetry by this mechanism in the limit Λ2>>Λ3. Other supersymmetry breaking models, with classical flat directions that are only lifted quantum mechanically, are presented. Finally, by integrating in vector matter, the strongly coupled region of chiral models with a dynamically generated superpotential is shown to be continuously connected to a weakly coupled description in terms of confined degrees of freedom, with supersymmetry broken at tree level. (orig.)

  8. Workshop on electroweak symmetry breaking: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A theoretical workshop on electroweak symmetry breaking at the Superconducting Supercollider was held at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, June 4-22, 1984. The purpose of the workshop was to focus theoretical attention on the ways in which experimentation at the SSC could reveal manifestations of the phenomenon responsible for electroweak symmetry breaking. This issue represents, at present, the most compelling scientific argument for the need to explore the energy region to be made accessible by the SSC, and a major aim of the workshop was to involve a broad cross section of particle theorists in the ongoing process of sharpening the requirements for both accelerator and detector design that will ensure detection and identification of meaningful signals, whatever form the electroweak symmetry breaking phenomenon should actually take. Separate entries were prepared for the data base for the papers presented

  9. Enhanced breaking of heavy quark spin symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Feng-Kun; Shen, Cheng-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Heavy quark spin symmetry is useful to make predictions on ratios of decay or production rates of systems involving heavy quarks. The breaking of spin symmetry is generally of the order of $O({\\Lambda_{\\rm QCD}/m_Q})$, with $\\Lambda_{\\rm QCD}$ the scale of QCD and $m_Q$ the heavy quark mass. In this paper, we propose a new mechanism to enhance the spin symmetry breaking. Taking the decays of the $\\Upsilon(10860)$ into the $\\chi_{bJ}\\omega\\, (J=0,1,2)$ as an example, we show that a small $S$- and $D$-wave mixing can induce a significant breaking of the spin symmetry relations for the ratios of the branching fractions of these decays, owing to an enhancement of the decays of the $D$-wave component due to nearby coupled channels.

  10. A break in the obesity epidemic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visscher, T L S; Heitmann, B L; Rissanen, A;

    2015-01-01

    epidemic. However, follow-ups of short duration may, in part, explain the apparent break or decrease in the obesity epidemic. On the other hand, a single focus on body mass index (BMI) ⩾25 or ⩾30 kg m(-)(2) is likely to mask a real increase in the obesity epidemic. And, in both children and adults, trends......Recent epidemiologic papers are presenting prevalence data suggesting breaks and decreases in obesity rates. However, before concluding that the obesity epidemic is not increasing anymore, the validity of the presented data should be discussed more thoroughly. We had a closer look...... into the literature presented in recent reviews to address the major potential biases and distortions, and to develop insights about how to interpret the presented suggestions for a potential break in the obesity epidemic. Decreasing participation rates, the use of reported rather than measured data and small sample...

  11. Workshop on electroweak symmetry breaking: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinchliffe, I. (ed.)

    1984-10-01

    A theoretical workshop on electroweak symmetry breaking at the Superconducting Supercollider was held at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, June 4-22, 1984. The purpose of the workshop was to focus theoretical attention on the ways in which experimentation at the SSC could reveal manifestations of the phenomenon responsible for electroweak symmetry breaking. This issue represents, at present, the most compelling scientific argument for the need to explore the energy region to be made accessible by the SSC, and a major aim of the workshop was to involve a broad cross section of particle theorists in the ongoing process of sharpening the requirements for both accelerator and detector design that will ensure detection and identification of meaningful signals, whatever form the electroweak symmetry breaking phenomenon should actually take. Separate entries were prepared for the data base for the papers presented.

  12. Large eddy simulation of breaking waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Deigaard, Rolf

    2001-01-01

    A numerical model is used to simulate wave breaking, the large scale water motions and turbulence induced by the breaking process. The model consists of a free surface model using the surface markers method combined with a three-dimensional model that solves the flow equations. The turbulence is...... incoming waves are specified by a flux boundary condition. The waves are approaching in the shore-normal direction and are breaking on a plane, constant slope beach. The first few wave periods are simulated by a two-dimensional model in the vertical plane normal to the beach line. The model describes the...... steepening and the overturning of the wave. At a given instant, the model domain is extended to three dimensions, and the two-dimensional flow field develops spontaneously three-dimensional flow features with turbulent eddies. After a few wave periods, stationary (periodic) conditions are achieved. The...

  13. U(1) mediation of flux supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the mediation of supersymmetry breaking triggered by background fluxes in Type II string compactifications with N = 1 supersymmetry. The mediation arises due to an U(1) vector multiplet coupling to both a hidden supersymmetry breaking flux sector and a visible D-brane sector. The required internal manifolds can be constructed by non-Kaehler resolutions of singular Calabi-Yau manifolds. The effective action encoding the U(1) coupling is then determined in terms of the global topological properties of the internal space. We investigate suitable local geometries for the hidden and visible sector in detail. This includes a systematic study of orientifold symmetries of del Pezzo surfaces realized in compact geometries after geometric transition. We construct compact examples admitting the key properties to realize flux supersymmetry breaking and U(1) mediation. Their toric realization allows us to analyze the geometry of curve classes and confirm the topological connection between the hidden and visible sector.

  14. [Breaking immune tolerance in cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbois, Mélanie; Champiat, Stéphane; Chaput, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The discovery and understanding of complex cellular interactions that govern the immune system contributed to the pharmacological targeting of anti-tumor immunity. The activity of immune effector cells, such as NK and T-cells, is regulated by a wide range of activating and inhibiting receptors or ligands. Drugs that target these receptors or ligands can modulate the immune response by exerting antagonistic or agonistic effects. Over the past decade, several immunomodulators have demonstrated clinical effectiveness, and three of them have already been approved for use in oncology. The development of these immunotherapy approaches presented unique challenges for safety and efficacy, requiring revising clinical response criteria and the establishment of guidelines to help oncologists to manage properly inflammatory toxicities. The introduction of these immunotherapies is a revolution in oncology. However, additional efforts in terms of optimizing treatment administration and identification of biomarkers are needed. Identifying the immunodynamics of various immunomodulators should allow a better understanding of anti-tumor and inflammatory mechanisms, and certainly give the opportunity to develop effective therapeutic combinations without potentiating adverse events. PMID:25609492

  15. Breaking bad news in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Konstantis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In a regional hospital, many patients are newly diagnosed with cancer. Breaking the bad news in these patients and their relatives is a tough task. Many doctors are not experienced in talking to patients about death or death-related diseases. In recent years, there have been great efforts to change the current situation. The aim of this study was to investigate the experience and education of medical personnel in breaking bad news in a secondary hospital. Materials and Methods: 59 doctors from General Hospital of Komotini, Greece were included in the study. All the doctors were in clinical specialties that treated cancer patients. A brief questionnaire was developed based on current guidelines such as Baile/SPIKES framework and the ABCDE mnemonic. Results: Residents are involved in delivering bad news less frequently than specialists. Only 21 doctors (35.59% had specific training on breaking bad news. 20 doctors (33.90% were aware of the available techniques and protocols on breaking bad news. 47 doctors (79.66% had a consistent plan for breaking bad news. 57 (96.61% delivered bad news in a quiet place, 53 (89.83% ensured no interruptions and enough time, 53 (89.83% used simple words and 54 (91.53% checked for understanding and did not rush through the news. 46 doctors (77.97% allowed relatives to determine patient′s knowledge about the disease. Conclusions: There were low rates of specific training in breaking bad news. However, the selected location, the physician′s speech and their plan were according to current guidelines.

  16. Coupled simulation of steam line break accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steam line break is a PWR type reactor design accident, which concerns coupled physical phenomena. To control these problems simulation are needed to define and validate the operating procedures. The benchmark OECD PWR MSLB (Main Steam Line Break) has been proposed by the OECD to validate the feasibility and the contribution of the multi-dimensional tools in the simulation of the core transients. First the benchmark OECD PWR MSLB is presented. Then the analysis of the three exercises (system with pinpoint kinetic, three-dimensional core and whole system with three-dimensional core) are discussed. (A.L.B.)

  17. Polarimetric contrast microscopy by orthogonality breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the design and first implementation of an active polarimetric imaging system based on the recently introduced concept of polarimetric sensing by orthogonality breaking, which involves a specific crossed-polarization dual-frequency illumination. We describe the laser source architecture and microscope set-up devoted to visible imaging at 488 nm, as well as the specific homodyne detection chain required for orthogonality breaking measurements. The first polarimetric images obtained with this non-conventional approach are presented. The polarimetric contrasts observed validate the polarimetric sensitivity of the technique. (fast track communication)

  18. R-Parity Breaking in Minimal Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz, M A

    1997-01-01

    We consider the Minimal Supergravity Model with universality of scalar and gaugino masses plus an extra bilinear term in the superpotential which breaks R-Parity and lepton number. We explicitly check the consistency of this model with the radiative breaking of the electroweak symmetry. A neutrino mass is radiatively induced, and large Higgs-Lepton mixings are compatible with its experimental bound. We also study briefly the lightest Higgs mass. This one-parameter extension of SUGRA-MSSM is the simplest way of introducing R-parity violation.

  19. Variations on Minimal Gauge Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Dine, Michael; Shirman, Yu; Dine, Michael; Nir, Yosef; Shirman, Yuri

    1997-01-01

    We study various modifications to the minimal models of gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking. We argue that, under reasonable assumptions, the structure of the messenger sector is rather restricted. We investigate the effects of possible mixing between messenger and ordinary squark and slepton fields and, in particular, violation of universality. We show that acceptable values for the $\\mu$ and $B$ parameters can naturally arise from discrete, possibly horizontal, symmetries. We claim that in models where the supersymmetry breaking parameters $A$ and $B$ vanish at tree level, $\\tan\\beta$ could be large without fine tuning. We explain how the supersymmetric CP problem is solved in such models.

  20. The experimental investigation of supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If Nature is supersymmetric at the weak interaction scale, what can we hope to learn from experiments on supersymmetric particles? The most mysterious aspect of phenomenological supersymmetry is the mechanism of spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. This mechanism ties the observable pattern of supersymmetric particle masses to aspects of the underlying unified theory at very small distance scales. In this article, I will discuss a systematic experimental program to determine the mechanism of supersymmetry breaking. Both pp and e+e- colliders of the next generation play an essential role

  1. Chiral symmetry breaking in lattice electrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chiral symmetry breaking is studied in lattice quantum electrodynamics in the quenched approximation by computer-simulation methods. Simulations at zero temperature show that in non-zero for all couplings e2 greater than a critical value e2/sub c/. The sensitivity of to short-distance features of the lattice Action is studied by simulating variant gauge Actions. Simulations on asymmetric lattices do not reveal significant temperature dependence in the symmetry-breaking dynamics. Subtle effects and limitations of quenched calculations are discussed

  2. Effective dissipation: breaking time-reversal symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Aidan I

    2016-01-01

    At molecular scales, fluctuations play a significant role and prevent biomolecular processes from always proceeding in a preferred direction, raising the question of how limited amounts of free energy can be dissipated to obtain directed progress. We examine the system and process characteristics that efficiently break time-reversal symmetry at fixed energy loss; in particular for a simple model of a molecular machine, an intermediate energy barrier produces unusually high asymmetry for a given dissipation. Such insight into symmetry-breaking factors that produce particularly high time asymmetry suggests generalizations to a broader class of systems.

  3. Chiral Symmetry Breaking from Center Vortices

    CERN Document Server

    Höllwieser, Roman; Schweigler, Thomas; Heller, Urs M

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the creation of near-zero modes from would-be zero modes of various topological charge contributions from classical center vortices in SU(2) lattice gauge theory. We show that colorful spherical vortex and instanton configurations have very similar Dirac eigenmodes and also vortex intersections are able to give rise to a finite density of near-zero modes, leading to chiral symmetry breaking via the Banks-Casher formula. We discuss the influence of the magnetic vortex fluxes on quarks and how center vortices may break chiral symmetry.

  4. Algorithms to identify failure pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Poudel, Bhuwan Krishna Som

    2013-01-01

    This project report was written for ?Algorithms to Identify Failure Pattern? at NTNU (Norwegian University of Science and Technology), IME (Faculty of Information Technology, Mathematics and Electrical Engineering) and IDI (Department of Computer Science).In software application, there are three types of failure pattern: point pattern, block pattern and stripe pattern. The purpose of the report is to prepare an algorithm that identifies the pattern in a software application. Only theoretical ...

  5. Supersymmetry in a sector of Higgsless electroweak symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis we have investigated phenomenological implications which arise for cosmology and collider physics when the electroweak symmetry breaking sector of warped higgsless models is extended to include warped supersymmetry with conserved R parity. The goal was to find the simplest supersymmetric extension of these models which still has a realistic light spectrum including a viable dark matter candidate. To accomplish this, we have used the same mechanism which is already at work for symmetry breaking in the electroweak sector to break supersymmetry as well, namely symmetry breaking by boundary conditions. While supersymmetry in five dimensions contains four supercharges and is therefore directly related to 4D N=2 supersymmetry, half of them are broken by the background leaving us with ordinary N=1 theory in the massless sector after Kaluza-Klein expansion. We thus use boundary conditions to model the effects of a breaking mechanism for the remaining two supercharges. The simplest viable scenario to investigate is a supersymmetric bulk and IR brane without supersymmetry on the UV brane. Even though parts of the light spectrum are effectively projected out by this mechanism, we retain the rich phenomenology of complete N=2 supermultiplets in the Kaluza-Klein sector. While the light supersymmetric spectrum consists of electroweak gauginos which get their O(100 GeV) masses from IR brane electroweak symmetry breaking, the light gluinos and squarks are projected out on the UV brane. The neutralinos, as mass eigenstates of the neutral bino-wino sector, are automatically the lightest gauginos, making them LSP dark matter candidates with a relic density that can be brought to agreement withWMAP measurements without extensive tuning of parameters. For chargino masses close to the experimental lower bounds at around mχ+∼100.. 110 GeV, the dark matter relic density points to LSP masses of around mχ∼90 GeV. At the LHC, the standard particle content of our model

  6. Supersymmetry in a sector of Higgsless electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knochel, Alexander Karl

    2009-05-11

    In this thesis we have investigated phenomenological implications which arise for cosmology and collider physics when the electroweak symmetry breaking sector of warped higgsless models is extended to include warped supersymmetry with conserved R parity. The goal was to find the simplest supersymmetric extension of these models which still has a realistic light spectrum including a viable dark matter candidate. To accomplish this, we have used the same mechanism which is already at work for symmetry breaking in the electroweak sector to break supersymmetry as well, namely symmetry breaking by boundary conditions. While supersymmetry in five dimensions contains four supercharges and is therefore directly related to 4D N=2 supersymmetry, half of them are broken by the background leaving us with ordinary N=1 theory in the massless sector after Kaluza-Klein expansion. We thus use boundary conditions to model the effects of a breaking mechanism for the remaining two supercharges. The simplest viable scenario to investigate is a supersymmetric bulk and IR brane without supersymmetry on the UV brane. Even though parts of the light spectrum are effectively projected out by this mechanism, we retain the rich phenomenology of complete N=2 supermultiplets in the Kaluza-Klein sector. While the light supersymmetric spectrum consists of electroweak gauginos which get their O(100 GeV) masses from IR brane electroweak symmetry breaking, the light gluinos and squarks are projected out on the UV brane. The neutralinos, as mass eigenstates of the neutral bino-wino sector, are automatically the lightest gauginos, making them LSP dark matter candidates with a relic density that can be brought to agreement withWMAP measurements without extensive tuning of parameters. For chargino masses close to the experimental lower bounds at around m{sub {chi}{sup +}}{approx}100.. 110 GeV, the dark matter relic density points to LSP masses of around m{sub {chi}}{approx}90 GeV. At the LHC, the

  7. Neutrino masses from SUSY breaking in radiative seesaw models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Antonio J.R. [University of Lisbon, Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2015-03-01

    Radiatively generated neutrino masses (m{sub ν}) are proportional to supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking, as a result of the SUSY non-renormalisation theorem. In this work, we investigate the space of SUSY radiative seesaw models with regard to their dependence on SUSY breaking (SUSY). In addition to contributions from sources of SUSY that are involved in electroweak symmetry breaking (SUSY{sub EWSB} contributions), and which are manifest from left angle F{sub H}{sup †} right angle = μ left angle anti H right angle ≠ 0 and left angle D right angle = g sum {sub H} left angle H{sup †} x {sub H} H right angle ≠ 0, radiatively generated m{sub ν} can also receive contributions from SUSY sources that are unrelated to EWSB (SUSY{sub EWS} contributions). We point out that recent literature overlooks pure-SUSY{sub EWSB} contributions (∝ μ/M) that can arise at the same order of perturbation theory as the leading order contribution from SUSY{sub EWS}. We show that there exist realistic radiative seesaw models in which the leading order contribution to m{sub ν} is proportional to SUSY{sub EWS}. To our knowledge no model with such a feature exists in the literature. We give a complete description of the simplest model topologies and their leading dependence on SUSY. We show that in one-loop realisations LLHH operators are suppressed by at least μ m{sub soft}/M{sup 3} or m{sub soft}{sup 2}/M{sup 3}. We construct a model example based on a oneloop type-II seesaw. An interesting aspect of these models lies in the fact that the scale of soft-SUSY effects generating the leading order m{sub ν} can be quite small without conflicting with lower limits on the mass of new particles. (orig.)

  8. Neutrino masses from SUSY breaking in radiative seesaw models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiatively generated neutrino masses (mν) are proportional to supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking, as a result of the SUSY non-renormalisation theorem. In this work, we investigate the space of SUSY radiative seesaw models with regard to their dependence on SUSY breaking (SUSY). In addition to contributions from sources of SUSY that are involved in electroweak symmetry breaking (SUSYEWSB contributions), and which are manifest from left angle FH† right angle = μ left angle anti H right angle ≠ 0 and left angle D right angle = g sum H left angle H† x H H right angle ≠ 0, radiatively generated mν can also receive contributions from SUSY sources that are unrelated to EWSB (SUSYEWS contributions). We point out that recent literature overlooks pure-SUSYEWSB contributions (∝ μ/M) that can arise at the same order of perturbation theory as the leading order contribution from SUSYEWS. We show that there exist realistic radiative seesaw models in which the leading order contribution to mν is proportional to SUSYEWS. To our knowledge no model with such a feature exists in the literature. We give a complete description of the simplest model topologies and their leading dependence on SUSY. We show that in one-loop realisations LLHH operators are suppressed by at least μ msoft/M3 or msoft2/M3. We construct a model example based on a oneloop type-II seesaw. An interesting aspect of these models lies in the fact that the scale of soft-SUSY effects generating the leading order mν can be quite small without conflicting with lower limits on the mass of new particles. (orig.)

  9. Neutrino masses from SUSY breaking in radiative seesaw models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueiredo, António J. R.

    2015-03-01

    Radiatively generated neutrino masses () are proportional to supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking, as a result of the SUSY non-renormalisation theorem. In this work, we investigate the space of SUSY radiative seesaw models with regard to their dependence on SUSY breaking ([InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]). In addition to contributions from sources of [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] that are involved in electroweak symmetry breaking ([InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] contributions), and which are manifest from and , radiatively generated can also receive contributions from [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] sources that are unrelated to EWSB ([InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] contributions). We point out that recent literature overlooks pure-[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] contributions () that can arise at the same order of perturbation theory as the leading order contribution from [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]. We show that there exist realistic radiative seesaw models in which the leading order contribution to is proportional to [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]. To our knowledge no model with such a feature exists in the literature. We give a complete description of the simplest model topologies and their leading dependence on [InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.]. We show that in one-loop realisations operators are suppressed by at least or . We construct a model example based on a one-loop type-II seesaw. An interesting aspect of these models lies in the fact that the scale of soft-[InlineEquation not available: see fulltext.] effects generating the leading order can be quite small without conflicting with lower limits on the mass of new particles.

  10. Economics of Garlic Production in Baran District of Rajasthan; Break Even Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lokesh Kumar Meena; Chandra Sen; Arun jhajharia; N. K. Raghuwanshi

    2013-01-01

    The study focuses on economic analysis of garlic production in the Baran District of Rajasthan. The study is carried out to determine break even analysis and constraints of garlic production in the study area. Break even analysis is carried out to arrive at that minimum level at which optimum conditions of cost and returns is equated that is no profit no loss point. In this study selected small, medium and large farmers will not be at loss even if their actual yield of garlic is decline by 56...

  11. Ultra-large distance modification of gravity from Lorentz symmetry breaking at the Planck scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an extension of the Randall-Sundrum model in which, due to spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking, graviton mixes with bulk vector fields and becomes quasilocalized. The masses of KK modes comprising the four-dimensional graviton are naturally exponentially small. This allows to push the Lorentz breaking scale to as high as a few tenth of the Planck mass. The model does not contain ghosts or tachyons and does not exhibit the van Dam-Veltman-Zakharov discontinuity. The gravitational attraction between static point masses becomes gradually weaker with increasing of separation and gets replaced by repulsion (antigravity) at exponentially large distances

  12. Ultra-large distance modification of gravity from Lorentz symmetry breaking at the Planck scale

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbunov, D S

    2005-01-01

    We present an extension of the Randall--Sundrum model in which, due to spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking, graviton mixes with bulk vector fields and becomes quasilocalized. The masses of KK modes comprising the four-dimensional graviton are naturally exponentially small. This allows to push the Lorentz breaking scale to as high as a few tenth of the Planck mass. The model does not contain ghosts or tachyons and does not exhibit the van Dam--Veltman--Zakharov discontinuity. The gravitational attraction between static point masses becomes gradually weaker with increasing of separation and gets replaced by repulsion (antigravity) at exponentially large distances.

  13. Ultra-large distance modification of gravity from Lorentz symmetry breaking at the Planck scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbunov, Dmitry S. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary prospect, 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Sibiryakov, Sergei M. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary prospect, 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2005-09-15

    We present an extension of the Randall-Sundrum model in which, due to spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking, graviton mixes with bulk vector fields and becomes quasilocalized. The masses of KK modes comprising the four-dimensional graviton are naturally exponentially small. This allows to push the Lorentz breaking scale to as high as a few tenth of the Planck mass. The model does not contain ghosts or tachyons and does not exhibit the van Dam-Veltman-Zakharov discontinuity. The gravitational attraction between static point masses becomes gradually weaker with increasing of separation and gets replaced by repulsion (antigravity) at exponentially large distances.

  14. Age and gender effects on DNA strand break repair in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Christian; Moreno-Villanueva, Maria; Bürkle, Alexander; Petersen, Inge; Bohr, Vilhelm A.; Christensen, Kaare; Stevnsner, Tinna V.

    2013-01-01

    single-strand breaks (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Of these lesions, DSBs are the least frequent but the most dangerous for cells. We have measured the level of endogenous SSBs, SSB repair capacity, γ-H2AX response, and DSB repair capacity in......Exogenous and endogenous damage to DNA is constantly challenging the stability of our genome. This DNA damage increase the frequency of errors in DNA replication, thus causing point mutations or chromosomal rearrangements and has been implicated in aging, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases...

  15. Re-examination of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking in Supersymmetry and Implications for Light Superpartners

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, G L; Nelson, B D; Wang, L T; Nelson, Brent D.; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2003-01-01

    We examine arguments that could avoid light superpartners as an implication of supersymmetric radiative electroweak symmetry breaking. We argue that, from the point of view of string theory and standard approaches to generating the mu-term, cancellations among parameters are not a generic feature. While the coefficients relating the Z-mass to parameters in the soft supersymmetry breaking Lagrangian can be made smaller, these same mechanisms lead to lighter superpartner masses at the electroweak scale. Consequently we strengthen the implication that gluinos, neutralinos, and charginos are light and likely to be produced at the Fermilab Tevatron and a linear collider.

  16. Dynamical basis for the GOE-GUE transition upon the breaking of time-reversal invariance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is possible to explain why the long range two-point energy level statistics of chaotic systems coincide with those of Gaussian ensembles, on the basis of semiclassical periodic orbit theory. The statistics of general systems follow the Gaussian Unitary Ensemble (GUE), whereas systems with time reversal invariance are governed by the Gaussian Orthogonal Ensemble (GOE). The effect of a symmetry breaking perturbation on the GOE statistics was derived within random matrix theory by Pandey and Mehta (1983). The breaking of phase coherence for the contribution of symmetric pairs of periodic orbits to the periodic orbit sum is here shown to produce the same transition. (author). 15 refs

  17. French regulatory practice and reflections on the leak-before-break concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For nuclear units in the design phase, the vendor (FRAMATOME) and the utility (EDF) examine the possibility of applying the leak-before-break criterion to a certain number of circuits, particularly the primary circuit and various parts of the secondary circuit. EDF has not completed its reflection on the leak-before-break approach and consequently, French safety authorities have not been officially notified of any request for assessment of the acceptability of such an approach. Nevertheless, from a strict safety point of view, it is possible to determine minimal conditions required in the implementation of such a course of action. Firstly, removing pipe breaks from the design basis of the plant will significantly weaken the application of the defense in-depth concept. This must be counter-balanced by reinforced manufacturing non destructive examinations and a stringent in-service inspection. Secondly, the demonstration of the existence of leaks before breaks must be obtained with a high degree of certainty, which requires large investments in a certain number of fields. The exact methodology will be defined by the Vendor and the utility at a later stage. However, from our point of view, analysis should involve the following steps: Definition of a maximum size defect; analysis of evolution under normal loads; stability analysis, definition of the critical defect; Definition of the detectable defect. This paper develops each of these points, and specifies, for each discipline, the domains in which present knowledge must be expanded and deepened

  18. An integral effect test on the feedwater line break of APR1400 with the ATLAS facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An integral effect test on the feedwater line break (FLB) was performed with the ATLAS facility for an APR1400 as a typical secondary system transient. The objectives of the present FLB tests are to understand the accident progression of the FLB scenario based on the APR1400 preliminary safety analysis report (PSAR) and to assess the prediction capability of system analysis codes such as the MARS, RELAP5, TRACE and SPACE. The main concern of the present FLB test is the peak RCS pressure and the major parameters affecting the peak RCS pressure are the break size, the break location, potential for reverse flow, initial pressurizer level and the initial SG level. The present test is performed for a break on the pipe connected to the economizer with a typical break size. The initial steady-state conditions and the sequence of event of FLB scenario for the APR1400 were successfully simulated with the ATLAS facility. In the present paper, major thermal-hydraulic phenomena such as the system pressures, the collapsed water levels, and the break flow rate are presented and discussed. It could be concluded that the APR1400 has the capability of coping with the hypothetical FLB scenario with an adequate set of controlling devices and proper setpoints. This integral effect test data could also be used to evaluate the prediction capability of existing safety analysis codes of MARS, RELAP5 and SPACE and to identify any code deficiency for an FLB simulation. (author)

  19. Stochastic properties of circuit breaking arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothhardt, L.

    1985-09-01

    Results are discussed for research work concerning the influence of cooling gas turbulence onto the breaker arc and the dielectric properties of the widely used cooling gases, air, and SF6, at elevated temperatures, both needed for numerical simulation of the breaking action.

  20. Fragmentation in DNA double-strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA double strand breaks are important lesions induced by irradiations. Random breakage model or quantification supported by this concept is suitable to analyze DNA double strand break data induced by low LET radiation, but deviation from random breakage model is more evident in high LET radiation data analysis. In this work we develop a new method, statistical fragmentation model, to analyze the fragmentation process of DNA double strand breaks. After charged particles enter the biological cell, they produce ionizations along their tracks, and transfer their energies to the cells and break the cellular DNA strands into fragments. The probable distribution of the fragments is obtained under the condition in which the entropy is maximum. Under the approximation E≅E0 + E1l + E2l2, the distribution functions are obtained as exp(αl + βl2). There are two components, the one proportional to exp(βl2), mainly contributes to the low mass fragment yields, the other component, proportional to exp(αl), decreases slowly as the mass of the fragments increases. Numerical solution of the constraint equations provides parameters α and β. Experimental data, especially when the energy deposition is higher, support the statistical fragmentation model. (authors)

  1. Report of Break Out Group 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alward, Randy; Carley, Kathleen M.; Madsen, Fredrik Huitfeldt;

    2006-01-01

    To help understand a network and its ability to continue operating when under attack, the break out group discussed issues that need to be considered when presenting network vulnerability information to an analyst, manager or commander in effective support of that person's "observe, orient, decide...

  2. Weak mixing matrix under permutation symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The two-Higgs-doublet extension of the standard electroweak model is considered. A permutation symmetry-breaking scheme is proposed and used to calculate the weak mixing matrix up to second order. The CP-violation factor J and the correction to Bjorken's approximation are then given. A special case is considered

  3. Dynamical Symmetry Breaking in RN Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Kotvytskiy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that in the RN gravitation model, there is no dynamical symmetry breaking effect in the formalism of the Schwinger-Dyson equation (in flat background space-time. A general formula for the second variation of the gravitational action is obtained from the quantum corrections hμν (in arbitrary background metrics.

  4. Physical implications of dynamical symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some model-independent physical implications of a class of hypercolorbased theories of dynamical symmetry-breaking are described and discussed. The role which e+e- colliders can play, in distinguishing between such theories and the canonical methodology, is underlined

  5. Physician-patient communication: breaking bad news.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fields, Scott A; Johnson, W Michael

    2012-01-01

    Physicians often struggle with how to manage the task of breaking bad news with patients. Moreover, the arduous nature of the task can contribute to physician detachment from the patient or an avoidance of breaking the news in a timely manner. A plan of action can only improve physician confidence in breaking bad news, and also make the task more manageable. Over a decade ago, Rabow and McPhee offered a strategy; the ABCDE plan, which provided a patient centered framework from which to deliver troubling news to patients and families. At the heart of this plan was the creation of a safe environment, the demonstration of timely communication skills, and the display of empathy on the physician's part. Careful consideration of the doctor's own reactions to death and dying also played an important role. A close review of the five tenets of this plan indicates the relevance of Rabow and McPhee's strategy today. The patient base in our nation and state continues to be older, on average, and physicians are faced with numerous patients who have terminal illness. A constructive plan with specific ideas for breaking bad news can help physicians effectively navigate this difficult task. PMID:22655433

  6. Density Functional Simulation of a Breaking Nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakamura, A.; Brandbyge, Mads; Hansen, Lars Bruno;

    1999-01-01

    We study the deformation and breaking of an atomic-sized sodium wire using density functional simulations. The wire deforms through sudden atomic rearrangements and smoother atomic displacements. The conductance of the wire exhibits plateaus at integer values in units of 2e(2)/h corresponding to a...

  7. The issue of supersymmetry breaking in strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss the central role that supersymmetry plays in string models, both in spacetime and at the level of the string world-sheet. The problems associated with supersymmetry-breaking are reviewed together with some of the attempts to solve them, in the string as well as the field theory approach

  8. Firm break-up and performance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočenda, Evžen; Hanousek, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2012), s. 121-143. ISSN 1435-6104 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/1595 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : break-up of firms * corporate performance * ownership changes Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.588, year: 2012

  9. Lifshitz-sector mediated SUSY breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a novel mechanism of SUSY breaking by coupling a Lorentz-invariant supersymmetric matter sector to non-supersymmetric gravitational interactions with Lifshitz scaling. The improved UV properties of Lifshitz propagators moderate the otherwise uncontrollable ultraviolet divergences induced by gravitational loops. This ensures that both the amount of induced Lorentz violation and SUSY breaking in the matter sector are controlled by ΛHL2/MP2, the ratio of the Hořava-Lifshitz cross-over scale ΛHL to the Planck scale MP. This ratio can be kept very small, providing a novel way of explicitly breaking supersymmetry without reintroducing fine-tuning. We illustrate our idea by considering a model of scalar gravity with Hořava-Lifshitz scaling coupled to a supersymmetric Wess-Zumino matter sector, in which we compute the two-loop SUSY breaking corrections to the masses of the light scalars due to the gravitational interactions and the heavy fields

  10. Symmetry breaking and restoration in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is made of the utilization of the Higgs mechanism in spontaneous symmetry breaking. It is shown that such as ideas came from an analogy with the superconductivity phenomenological theory based on a Ginzburg-Landau lagrangean. The symmetry restoration through the temperature influence is studied. (L.C.)

  11. An analysis of oil production by OPEC countries: Persistence, breaks, and outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the time series behaviour of oil production for OPEC member countries within a fractional integration modelling framework recognizing the potential for structural breaks and outliers. The analysis is undertaken using monthly data from January 1973 to October 2008 for 13 OPEC member countries. The results indicate there is mean reverting persistence in oil production with breaks identified in 10 out of the 13 countries examined. Thus, shocks affecting the structure of OPEC oil production will have persistent effects in the long run for all countries, and in some cases the effects are expected to be permanent. - Research Highlights: →Mean reverting persistence in oil production with breaks identified in 10 out of the 13 countries examined. → Standard analysis based on cointegration techniques and involving oil production should be examined in the more general context of fractional cointegraton. → Analysis of outliers did not alter the main conclusions of the study.

  12. LIDAR, Point Clouds, and their Archaeological Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Devin A [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    It is common in contemporary archaeological literature, in papers at archaeological conferences, and in grant proposals to see heritage professionals use the term LIDAR to refer to high spatial resolution digital elevation models and the technology used to produce them. The goal of this chapter is to break that association and introduce archaeologists to the world of point clouds, in which LIDAR is only one member of a larger family of techniques to obtain, visualize, and analyze three-dimensional measurements of archaeological features. After describing how point clouds are constructed, there is a brief discussion on the currently available software and analytical techniques designed to make sense of them.

  13. Development of technique for estimating primary cooling system break diameter in predicting nuclear emergency event sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    If an emergency event occurs in a nuclear power plant, appropriate action is selected and taken in accordance with the plant status, which changes from time to time, in order to prevent escalation and mitigate the event consequences. It is thus important to predict the event sequence and identify the plant behavior resulting from the action taken. In predicting the event sequence during a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA), it is necessary to estimate break diameter. The conventional method for this estimation is time-consuming, since it involves multiple sensitivity analyses to determine the break diameter that is consistent with the plant behavior. To speed up the process of predicting the nuclear emergency event sequence, a new break diameter estimation technique that is applicable to pressurized water reactors was developed in this study. This technique enables the estimation of break diameter using the plant data sent from the safety parameter display system (SPDS), with focus on the depressurization rate in the reactor cooling system (RCS) during LOCA. The results of LOCA analysis, performed by varying the break diameter using the MAAP4 and RELAP5/MOD3.2 codes, confirmed that the RCS depressurization rate could be expressed by the log linear function of break diameter, except in the case of a small leak, in which RCS depressurization is affected by the coolant charging system and the high-pressure injection system. A correlation equation for break diameter estimation was developed from this function and tested for accuracy. Testing verified that the correlation equation could estimate break diameter accurately within an error of approximately 16%, even if the leak increases gradually, changing the plant status. (author)

  14. Low-$\\ell$ CMB from String-Scale SUSY Breaking?

    CERN Document Server

    Sagnotti, A

    2015-01-01

    Models of inflation are instructive playgrounds for supersymmetry breaking in Supergravity and String Theory. In particular, combinations of branes and orientifolds that are not mutually BPS can lead to \\emph{brane supersymmetry breaking}, a phenomenon where non--linear realizations are accompanied, in tachyon--free vacua, by the emergence of steep exponential potentials. When combined with milder terms, these exponentials can lead to slow--roll after a fast ascent and a turning point. This leaves behind distinctive patterns of scalar perturbations, where pre--inflationary peaks can lie well apart from an almost scale invariant profile. I review recent attempts to connect these power spectra to the low--$\\ell$ CMB, and a corresponding one--parameter extension of $\\Lambda$CDM with a low--frequency cut $\\Delta$. A detailed likelihood analysis led to $\\Delta = (0.351 \\pm 0.114) \\times 10^{-3} \\, \\mbox{Mpc}^{-1}$, at $99.4\\%$ confidence level, in an extended Galactic mask with $f_{sky}=39\\%$, to be compared with ...

  15. Low scale supersymmetry breaking and its LHC signatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the most general extension of the MSSM Lagrangian that includes scenarios in which supersymmetry is spontaneously broken at a low scale f. The spurion that parametrizes supersymmetry breaking in the MSSM is promoted to a dynamical superfield involving the goldstino, with (and without) its scalar superpartner, the sgoldstino. The low energy effective Lagrangian is written as an expansion in terms of ▪/√(f), where ▪ is the induced supersymmetry breaking scale, and contains, in addition to the usual MSSM Lagrangian with the soft terms, couplings involving the component fields of the goldstino superfield and the MSSM fields. This Lagrangian can provide significant corrections to the usual couplings in the Standard Model and the MSSM. We study how these new corrections affect the Higgs couplings to gauge bosons and fermions, and how LHC bounds can be used in order to constrain f. We also discuss that, from the effective field theory point of view, the couplings of the goldstino interactions are not determined by any symmetry, and their usual simple relation to the soft terms is corrected by higher-dimensional operators

  16. Electroweak symmetry breaking without the μ2 term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, Florian

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate that from a low-energy perspective a viable breaking of the electroweak symmetry, as present in nature, can be achieved without the (negative sign) μ2 mass term in the Higgs potential, thereby avoiding completely the appearance of relevant operators, featuring coefficients with a positive mass dimension, in the theory. We show that such a setup is self-consistent and not ruled out by Higgs physics. In particular, we point out that it is the lightness of the Higgs boson that allows for the electroweak symmetry to be broken dynamically via operators of D ≥4 , consistent with the power expansion. Beyond that, we entertain how this scenario might even be preferred phenomenologically compared to the ordinary mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking, as realized in the Standard Model, and argue that it can be fully tested at the LHC. In the Appendix, we classify UV completions that could lead to such a setup, considering also the option of generating all scales dynamically.

  17. Concrete Walls Crumble as Tunnel TI8 Breaks Through

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    On Wednesday, October 3rd, the excitement in the tunnels deep beneath CERN was high as an exuberant crowd watched the second and last transfer tunnel (TI8) from the SPS break through to the LHC. The Director-General with the Mayors of Meyrin and Prévessin at the breakthrough point. The area where the break through was to occur did not look particularly special, just a concrete wall with bright orange paint sprayed in the centre. But the austere surroundings quickly faded from importance as a tremendous ruckus filled the corridor. Just minutes later the first pieces of the wall started popping off. The suspense in the room grew and eventually the spinning drill became readily visible to the entire crowd.... and that's when the real noise started, the noise of applause! 'This is the second time I have seen this happen but it is always moving because it shows our steps forward.' said Prof. Luciano Maiani. Technicians, physicists, and engineers chatted excitedly as the tunnel team climbed through...

  18. Degeneracy Breaking for K2 Microlens Parallaxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Andrew; Yee, Jennifer; Carey, Sean

    2015-10-01

    By adding Spitzer observations to microlensing targets being observed from Kepler and Earth, we will create the first interplanetary network of microlensing observatories. This 3-observatory configuration has the unique potential to break the famous 4-fold degeneracy for space-based microlensing parallaxes. This is crucial both for the interpretation of some individual events and to rigorously validate the statistical methods that are used when (as is usually the case) this special 3-observatory configuration is not possible. The Kepler K2 C9 microlensing campaign will monitor about 4 square degrees of the Bulge from 6 Apr to 29 Jun, with the aim of measuring microlens parallaxes. Spitzer can observe this K2 field from 18 Jun to 26 Jul. The 11-day overlap between the two campaigns will allow us to break the 4-fold degeneracy of about 50 microlensing events. Some of these events will be well-covered over the peak from K2, with Spitzer observations of the falling wing providing the necessary information to break the degeneracy in the K2-Earth parallax. Others will be the reverse, with K2 observations of the rising event breaking the degeneracy in Spitzer-Earth parallaxes (i.e., for events peaking during the Spitzer campaign). Breaking this degeneracy leads to a definitive measurement of the magnitude of the microlens parallax vector, which will enable measurements of the masses and distances of the lens systems, including events with planets that contribute to the ~12 needed to make a first measurement of the Galactic distribution of planets, binaries, and many single-lens events, some of which could be black holes, brown dwarfs, or other interesting objects. The distance distribution of the ensemble of lenses can serve as a probe of Galactic structure. All lightcurves will be reduced using our customized software and then made public (for unrestricted use), within two months of the completion of observations (as we did for our 2015 observations).

  19. Light dilaton at fixed points and ultra light scale super-Yang-Mills

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the infrared dynamics of a nonsupersymmetric SU(X) gauge theory featuring an adjoint fermion, Nf Dirac flavors and a Higgs-like complex Nf×Nf scalar which is a gauge singlet. We first establish the existence of an infrared stable perturbative fixed point and then investigate the spectrum near this point. We demonstrate that this theory features a light scalar degree of freedom to be identified with the dilaton and elucidate its physical properties. We compute the spectrum and demonstrate that at low energy the nonperturbative part of the spectrum of the theory is the one of pure supersymmetric Yang-Mills. We can therefore determine the exact nonperturbative fermion condensate and deduce relevant properties of the nonperturbative spectrum of the theory. We also show that the intrinsic scale of super-Yang-Mills is exponentially smaller than the scale associated to the breaking of conformal and chiral symmetry of the theory.

  20. Break-in and Performance Issues on a single cell PBI-based PEM Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen; Jespersen, Jesper Lebæk

    performance of the fuel cell, even though break-in of a fuel cell implemented in a commercial application would most likely not be feasible. In the present work a commercially available PBI-based high temperature MEA is subject to a break-in procedure, as specified by the manufacturer. The cell was operated......Depending on the application in question and the load cycle of operation, fuel cell degradation can be a serious problem. Fuel cell degradation of PBI-based MEA's and fuel cells in general is quite complex. The rate of degradation depends on several parameters, where the operating temperature and...... the current drawn from the fuel cell are of great importance. One must therefore choose the point of operation carefully in order for the fuel cell to fulfil the requirements for lifetime perform-ance of the system. Break-in of fuel cells is often done in scientific experiments to improve the...

  1. Spontaneous symmetry breaking for scalar QED with nonminimal Chern-Simons coupling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the two-loop effective potential for both minimally and non-minimally coupled Maxwell-Chern-Simons theories. The nonminimal gauge interaction represents the magnetic moment interaction between a charged scalar and the electromagnetic field. In a previous paper we have shown that the two loop effective potential for this model is renormalizable with an appropriate choice of the non-minimal coupling constant. We carry out a detailed analysis of the spontaneous symmetry breaking induced by radiative corrections. As long as the renormalization point for all couplings is chosen to be the true minimum of the effective potential, both models predict the presence of spontaneous symmetry breaking. Two loop corrections are small compared to the one loop result, and thus the symmetry breaking is perturbatively stable

  2. Investigation on the Use of a Multiphase Eulerian CFD solver to simulate breaking waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomaselli, Pietro D.; Christensen, Erik Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    The main challenge in CFD multiphase simulations of breaking waves is the wide range of interfacial length scales occurring in the flow: from the free surface measurable in meters down to the entrapped air bubbles with size of a fraction of a millimeter. This paper presents a preliminary...... investigation on a CFD model capable of handling this problem. The model is based on a solver, available in the open-source CFD toolkit OpenFOAM, which combines the Eulerian multi-fluid approach for dispersed flows with a numerical interface sharpening method. The solver, enhanced with additional formulations...... for mass and momentum transfer among phases, was satisfactorily tested against an experimental bubble column flow. The model was then used to simulate the propagation of a laboratory solitary breaking wave. The motion of the free surface was successfully reproduced up to the breaking point. Further...

  3. Distinctive signatures of space-time diffeomorphism breaking in EFT of inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolo, Nicola; Ricciardone, Angelo; Tasinato, Gianmassimo

    2015-01-01

    The effective field theory of inflation is a powerful tool for obtaining model independent predictions common to large classes of inflationary models. It requires only information about the symmetries broken during the inflationary era, and on the number and nature of fields that drive inflation. In this paper, we consider the case for scenarios that simultaneously break time reparameterization and spatial diffeomorphisms during inflation. We examine how to analyse such systems using an effective field theory approach, and we discuss several observational consequences for the statistics of scalar and tensor modes. For example, examining the three point functions, we show that this symmetry breaking pattern can lead to an enhanced amplitude for the squeezed bispectra, and to a distinctive angular dependence between their three wavevectors. We also discuss how our results indicate prospects for constraining the level of spatial diffeomorphism breaking during inflation.

  4. Distinctive signatures of space-time diffeomorphism breaking in EFT of inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolo, Nicola; Cannone, Dario; Ricciardone, Angelo; Tasinato, Gianmassimo

    2016-03-01

    The effective field theory of inflation is a powerful tool for obtaining model independent predictions common to large classes of inflationary models. It requires only information about the symmetries broken during the inflationary era, and on the number and nature of fields that drive inflation. In this paper, we consider the case for scenarios that simultaneously break time reparameterization and spatial diffeomorphisms during inflation. We examine how to analyse such systems using an effective field theory approach, and we discuss several observational consequences for the statistics of scalar and tensor modes. For example, examining the three point functions, we show that this symmetry breaking pattern can lead to an enhanced amplitude for the squeezed bispectra, and to a distinctive angular dependence between their three wavevectors. We also discuss how our results indicate prospects for constraining the level of spatial diffeomorphism breaking during inflation.

  5. Dynamics of symmetry breaking during quantum real-time evolution in a minimal model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyl, Markus; Vojta, Matthias

    2014-10-31

    One necessary criterion for the thermalization of a nonequilibrium quantum many-particle system is ergodicity. It is, however, not sufficient in cases where the asymptotic long-time state lies in a symmetry-broken phase but the initial state of nonequilibrium time evolution is fully symmetric with respect to this symmetry. In equilibrium, one particular symmetry-broken state is chosen as a result of an infinitesimal symmetry-breaking perturbation. From a dynamical point of view the question is: Can such an infinitesimal perturbation be sufficient for the system to establish a nonvanishing order during quantum real-time evolution? We study this question analytically for a minimal model system that can be associated with symmetry breaking, the ferromagnetic Kondo model. We show that after a quantum quench from a completely symmetric state the system is able to break its symmetry dynamically and discuss how these features can be observed experimentally. PMID:25396355

  6. Resonant excitation of high amplitude oscillations and hydrodynamic wave breaking in a streaming cold plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The excitation of large amplitude electron oscillations in a streaming cold plasma and the minimum threshold of wave breaking in the resonant region are investigated analytically as a function of flow velocity. The problem is reduced to the solution of a driven harmonic oscillator with time varying eigenfrequency ωsub(p)(t) in a self-consistent, stationary ion density profile. An analytical solution is presented and applied to the correct wave breaking criterion in a streaming plasma. Wave breaking sets in when the driver amplitude Esub(d) obeys a inequality, which shows that the threshold is proportional to the driver frequency ω and to the flow velocity at the resonance point, vsub(c); however, it is independent of the density scale length. Resonance ends at eta = π/2. The denominator assumes there the value 2.750. eta is a dimensionless time which measures the transit time of a volume element through resonance. (orig.)

  7. GOBLIN computer code. Comparison between calculations and TLTA small break test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GOBLIN calcuations have been performed for two simulation tests of the boiling water reactor (BWR) small break loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) which were conducted in the two loop test apparatus (TLTA). The first test investigated the small break with nondegraded emergency core coolant (ECC) systems and the second test studied the same small break but with degraded ECC systems in which the high pressure core spray (HPCS) was assumed unavailable. Very good agreement between test data and calculations is achieved. The second test is the most challenging from code comparison point of view and the code prediction of the complicated mass distribution pattern which changes with time is very satisfactory. In the first test and to some extent late in the second test multidimensional subchannel effects are evident in the core bundle region. These are not and cannot be reproduced by the code since the bundle model of GOBLIN is strictly one-dimensional. (Author)

  8. Influencing Factors of Breaking Capacity of Double-Break Vacuum Circuit Breakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwen Shu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a series arrangement of two vacuum interrupters (VIs has been proved to be an effective way of developing higher voltage vacuum circuit breakers (VCBs, which are known as double-break VCBs. The uniform distribution of the transient recovery voltage (TRV across each VI is very critical for the breaking capacity of double-break VCBs. In this paper, the TRV distribution characteristics of double-break VCBs was studied by the synthetic test and the PSCAD/EMTDC simulation based on a vacuum arc interruption model. The results show that the bias of the TRV distribution ratio is caused by the stray capacitance and the imbalanced post arc plasma characteristic in each VI, which is consistent with the theoretical analysis. Moreover, the negative effect of grading capacitors was discussed. The results show that it is advisable to limit the value of grading capacitors to those ranges which can guarantee sufficiently improve the voltage distribution.

  9. Searching for cosmological signatures of the Einstein equivalence principle breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Holanda, R F L

    2016-01-01

    Modifications of gravity generated by a multiplicative coupling of a scalar field to the electromagnetic Lagrangian lead to a breaking of Einstein equivalence principle (EEPB) as well as to variations of fundamental constants. In these theoretical frameworks, deviations of standard values of the fine structure constant, $\\Delta \\alpha/\\alpha=\\phi$, and of the cosmic distance duality relation, $D_L(1+z)^{-2}/D_A=\\eta=1$, where $D_L$ and $D_A$ are the luminosity and angular diameter distances, respectively, are unequivocally linked. In this paper, we search for cosmological signatures of the EEPB by using angular diameter distance from galaxy clusters, obtained via their Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (SZE) and X-ray observations, and distance modulus of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). The crucial point here is that we take into account the dependence of the SZE/X-ray technique with $\\phi$ and $\\eta$. Our new results show no indication of the EEPB.

  10. Spontaneous breaking of spatial symmetries in collective neutrino oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, Huaiyu

    2014-01-01

    A dense neutrino medium can experience collective oscillations or self-induced flavor transformation through nonlinear neutrino-neutrino refraction. To make the problem of collective neutrino oscillations more tractable, all previous studies on this subject have assumed some spatial symmetry or symmetries in the neutrino medium (e.g., translation symmetries in the early universe and spherical symmetry in core-collapse supernovae). We point out that the collective oscillation modes studied in such models are very special. Using a simple toy model we show that spatial symmetries can be broken spontaneously in collective neutrino oscillations. We also show that the spatial-symmetry-breaking (SSB) modes of neutrino oscillations can exist for both neutrino mass hierarchies and even in the regimes where collective neutrino oscillations were previously thought to be suppressed. This finding calls for study of collective neutrino oscillations in multi-dimensional models.

  11. Universality and Symmetry Breaking in Conformally Reduced Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bonanno, Alfio

    2012-01-01

    The scaling properties of quantum gravity are discussed by employing a class of proper-time regulators in the functional flow equation for the conformal factor within the formalism of the background field method. Renormalization group trajectories obtained by projecting the flow on a flat topology are more stable than those obtained from a projection on a spherical topology. In the latter case the ultraviolet flow can be characterized by a Hopf bifurcation with an ultraviolet attractive limiting cycle. Although the possibility of determining the infrared flow for an extended theory space can be severely hampered due to the conformal factor instability, we present a robust numerical approach to study the flow structure around the non-gaussian fixed point as an inverse-problem strategy. In particular it is shown the possibility of having a spontaneous breaking of the diffeomorphism invariance can be realized with non-local functionals of the volume operator.

  12. Equation of state of hot nuclei before break-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the method developed by the authors, recently, the equation of state of hot nuclei (238U* in concrete) before break-up was investigated numerically. The isotherms are drawn in the plane of the general pressure P versus volume VRT. They are similar to those of Van der Waals gas. The critical temperature of phase transition should correspond to the isotherm with one truning point only. It turns out that the data of mas yield distribution can be reproduced by many pairs of parameters T and VRT (freeze-out temperature and freezeout volume) varying in certain range. For each isotherm (each T), the data are always best reproduced by the value of VRT located at the maximum general pressure within two phases coexistence region

  13. Structural topography-mediated high temperature wetting symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jing; Liu, Yahua; Hao, Chonglei; Li, Minfei; Chaudhury, Manoj K; Yao, Shuhuai

    2015-01-01

    Directed motion of liquid droplets is of considerable importance in various industrial processes. Despite extensive advances in this field of research, our understanding and the ability to control droplet dynamics at high temperature remain limited, in part due to the emergence of complex wetting states intertwined by the phase change process at the triple-phase interfaces. Here we show that two concurrent wetting states (Leidenfrost and contact boiling) can be manifested in a single droplet above its boiling point rectified by the presence of asymmetric textures. The breaking of the wetting symmetry at high temperature subsequently leads to the preferential motion towards the region with higher heat transfer coefficient. We demonstrate experimentally and analytically that the droplet vectoring is intricately dependent on the interplay between the structural topography and its imposed thermal state. Our fundamental understanding and the ability to control the droplet dynamics at high temperature represent an ...

  14. Universality of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate one-flavor QCD with an additional chiral scalar field. For a large domain in the space of coupling constants, this model belongs to the same universality class as QCD, and the effects of the scalar become unobservable. This is connected to a 'bound-state fixed point' of the renormalization flow for which all memory of the microscopic scalar interactions is lost. The QCD domain includes a microscopic scalar potential with minima at a nonzero field. On the other hand, for a scalar mass term m2 below a critical value mc2, the universality class is characterized by perturbative spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking which renders the quarks massive. Our renormalization group analysis shows how this universality class is continuously connected with the QCD universality class

  15. Breaking the sound barrier in AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyos, Carlos; Fernández, David Rodríguez; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-01-01

    It has been conjectured that the speed of sound in holographic models with UV fixed points has an upper bound set by the value of the quantity in conformal field theory. If true, this would set stringent constraints for the presence of strongly coupled quark matter in the cores of physical neutron stars, as the existence of two-solar-mass stars appears to demand a very stiff Equation of State. In this article, we present a family of counterexamples to the speed of sound conjecture, consisting of strongly coupled theories at finite density. The theories we consider include ${\\cal N}=4$ super Yang-Mills at finite R-charge density and non-zero gaugino masses, while the holographic duals are Einstein-Maxwell theories with a minimally coupled scalar in a charged black hole geometry. We show that for a small breaking of conformal invariance, the speed of sound approaches the conformal value from above at large chemical potentials.

  16. μ term and supersymmetry breaking from 6D theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a new next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM), which is on a 6D spacetime compactified on a T2/Z3 orbifold. In this model, three gauge singlet fields N, S1, and S2 in addition to the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) fields are introduced. These fields are localized at some fixed points, except for the singlet N and the gauge fields. The μ parameter is provided from the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of N. The F terms get VEVs simultaneously, and the gauginos mediate the supersymmetry breaking to the MSSM sector. Both of these parameters are strongly suppressed due to the profile of N. Thus, these parameters, induced from those on the order of the so-called Grand Unified Theory (GUT) scale, can become close to the electroweak scale without unnatural fine tuning

  17. Leak before break detection-annulus gas monitoring system evolution and operating experience at KGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWR) at RAPS 1 and 2 and MAPS have provision for detection of pressure tube leak by indirect method. The reactor vessel (calandria) is housed in calandria vault (C/V) filled with air and C/V moisture element indicates the water leak from calandria tube or pressure tube. Further, detection of leak is a cumbersome process. From NAPS onwards, calandria is housed in C/V filled with water, annulus between calandria tube and pressure tube is filled with CO2 and annulus gas monitoring system (AGMS) is provided by design for detection of any pressure tube leak. The design was improved and AGMS for Kaiga 1 and 2 and RAPS 3 and 4 is having re-circulation mode of operation. The design provides for monitoring dew point of annulus gas (CO2) for indicating the leak and later to identify the pressure tube/calandria tube having leak. The paper deals with operating experience of AGMS at Kaiga generating station (KGS). During the commissioning and initial power operation at KGS, problems were encountered in re-circulation mode. These problems were high radiation field near AGMS piping, high temperature on blower body, blower bearing failure and system leaks. Design modifications were carried out for effective performance of the system for detecting leak before break

  18. Spawning rings of exceptional points out of Dirac cones

    CERN Document Server

    Zhen, Bo; Igarashi, Yuichi; Lu, Ling; Kaminer, Ido; Pick, Adi; Chua, Song-Liang; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljačić, Marin

    2015-01-01

    The Dirac cone underlies many unique electronic properties of graphene and topological insulators, and its band structure--two conical bands touching at a single point--has also been realized for photons in waveguide arrays, atoms in optical lattices, and through accidental degeneracy. Deformations of the Dirac cone often reveal intriguing properties; an example is the quantum Hall effect, where a constant magnetic field breaks the Dirac cone into isolated Landau levels. A seemingly unrelated phenomenon is the exceptional point, also known as the parity-time symmetry breaking point, where two resonances coincide in both their positions and widths. Exceptional points lead to counter-intuitive phenomena such as loss-induced transparency, unidirectional transmission or reflection, and lasers with reversed pump dependence or single-mode operation. These two fields of research are in fact connected: here we discover the ability of a Dirac cone to evolve into a ring of exceptional points, which we call an "exceptio...

  19. Radiation-induced DNA strand breaks and the relationship between strand breaks and fecundity in mosquitofish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosquitofish (Gambusia affines) were collected from a small pond on the US DOE reservation that is contaminated with 137Cs, 90Sr and other radionuclides. Fish from non-contaminated populations were also collected. DNA was isolated from both the liver and the blood and examined for DNA single- and double-strand breaks by gel electrophoresis. In general, both single- and double-strand DNA breaks were more prevalent in fish from radionuclide-contaminated sites than from uncontaminated sites. In addition, there were more double-strand than single-strand breaks in DNA from contaminated fish, and more strand breaks in blood cell than in liver DNA. Also, fecundity and number of malformed embryos were determined in fish from all sites. It was found that, for fish from the contaminated site, the number of DNA strand breaks was negatively correlated with fecundity, and that females with malformed embryos in their broods had more DNA strand breaks than did females with no malformed embryos. These findings have implications for both ecological risk assessment and evolutionary ecology

  20. Symmetry-Break in Voronoi Tessellations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Lucarini

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyse in a common framework the properties of the Voronoi tessellations resulting from regular 2D and 3D crystals and those of tessellations generated by Poisson distributions of points, thus joining on symmetry breaking processes and the approach to uniform random distributions of seeds. We perturb crystalline structures in 2D and 3D with a spatial Gaussian noise whose adimensional strength is α and analyse the statistical properties of the cells of the resulting Voronoi tessellations using an ensemble approach. In 2D we consider triangular, square and hexagonal regular lattices, resulting into hexagonal, square and triangular tessellations, respectively. In 3D we consider the simple cubic (SC, body-centred cubic (BCC, and face-centred cubic (FCC crystals, whose corresponding Voronoi cells are the cube, the truncated octahedron, and the rhombic dodecahedron, respectively. In 2D, for all values α>0, hexagons constitute the most common class of cells. Noise destroys the triangular and square tessellations, which are structurally unstable, as their topological properties are discontinuous in α=0. On the contrary, the honeycomb hexagonal tessellation is topologically stable and, experimentally, all Voronoi cells are hexagonal for small but finite noise with α<0.12. Basically, the same happens in the 3D case, where only the tessellation of the BCC crystal is topologically stable even against noise of small but finite intensity. In both 2D and 3D cases, already for a moderate amount of Gaussian noise (α>0.5, memory of the specific initial unperturbed state is lost, because the statistical properties of the three perturbed regular tessellations are indistinguishable. When α>2, results converge to those of Poisson-Voronoi tessellations. In 2D, while the isoperimetric ratio increases with noise for the perturbed hexagonal tessellation, for the perturbed triangular and square tessellations it is optimised for specific value of noise intensity

  1. Symmetry breaking indication for supergravity inflation in light of the Planck 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supergravity (SUGRA) theories with exact global U(1) symmetry or shift symmetry in Kähler potential provide natural frameworks for inflation. However, quadratic inflation is disfavoured by the new results on primordial tensor fluctuations from the Planck Collaboration. To be consistent with the new Planck data, we point out that the explicit symmetry breaking is needed, and study these two SUGRA inflation in detail. For SUGRA inflation with global U(1) symmetry, the symmetry breaking term leads to a trigonometric modulation on inflaton potential. Coefficient of the U(1) symmetry breaking term is of order 10−2, which is sufficient large to improve the inflationary predictions while its higher order corrections are negligible. Such models predict sizeable tensor fluctuations and highly agree with the Planck results. In particular, the model with a linear U(1) symmetry breaking term predicts the tensor-to-scalar ratio around r∼0.01 and running spectral index αs∼−0.004, which comfortably fit with the Planck observations. For SUGRA inflation with breaking shift symmetry, the inflaton potential is modulated by an exponential factor. The modulated linear and quadratic models are consistent with the Planck observations. In both types of models the tensor-to-scalar ratio can be of order 10−2, which will be tested by the near future observations

  2. Precision Agriculture Equipment Ownership versus Custom Hire: A Break-even Land Area Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gandonou, Jean-Marc; Dillon, Carl; Shearer, Scott; Stombaugh, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Identifying the least-cost strategy of obtaining a technology is important. This study determined the break-even cropped area necessary to economically justify the purchase of Precision Agriculture (PA) equipment versus the custom hiring of the PA services. The results suggest that a commercial Kentucky grain farmers would purchase the PA equipment.

  3. Coherent States and Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in Light Front Scalar Field Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vary, J.P.; /Iowa State U. /LLNL, Livermore /SLAC; Chakrabarti, D.; /Florida U.; Harindranath, A.; /Saha Inst.; Lloyd, R.; /Arkansas State U.; Martinovic, L.; /Bratislava,; Spence, J.R.; /Iowa State U.

    2005-12-14

    Recently developed nuclear many-body techniques provide novel results when applied to constituent quark models and to light-front scalar field theory. We show how spontaneous symmetry breaking arises and is consistent with a coherent state ansatz in a variational treatment. The kink and the kink-antikink topological features are identified and the onset of symmetry restoration is demonstrated.

  4. A Fourth Chiral Generation And Susy Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Wingerter, Akin

    2011-01-01

    We revisit four generations within the context of supersymmetry. We compute the perturbativity limits for the fourth generation Yukawa couplings and show that if the masses of the fourth generation lie within reasonable limits of their present experimental lower bounds, it is possible to have perturbativity only up to scales around 1000 TeV, i.e. the current experimental bounds and perturbative unification are mutually exclusive. Such low scales are ideally suited to incorporate gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking, where the mediation scale can be as low as 10-20 TeV. The minimal messenger model, however, is highly constrained. Lack of electroweak symmetry breaking rules out a large part of the parameter space, and in the remaining part, the fourth generation stau is tachyonic.

  5. Four Generations: SUSY and SUSY Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Godbole, Rohini M; Wingerter, Akin

    2009-01-01

    We revisit four generations within the context of supersymmetry. We compute the perturbativity limits for the fourth generation Yukawa couplings and show that if the masses of the fourth generation lie within reasonable limits of their present experimental lower bounds, it is possible to have perturbativity only up to scales around 1000 TeV. Such low scales are ideally suited to incorporate gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking, where the mediation scale can be as low as 10-20 TeV. The minimal messenger model, however, is highly constrained. While lack of electroweak symmetry breaking rules out a large part of the parameter space, a small region exists, where the fourth generation stau is tachyonic. General gauge mediation with its broader set of boundary conditions is better suited to accommodate the fourth generation.

  6. Fractional Branes and Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Franco, S; Saad, F; Uranga, Angel M; Franco, Sebastian; Hanany, Amihay; Saad, Fouad; Uranga, Angel M.

    2006-01-01

    We study the dynamics of fractional branes at toric singularities, including cones over del Pezzo surfaces and the recently constructed Y^{p,q} theories. We find that generically the field theories on such fractional branes show dynamical supersymmetry breaking, due to the appearance of non-perturbative superpotentials. In special cases, one recovers the known cases of supersymmetric infrared behaviors, associated to SYM confinement (mapped to complex deformations of the dual geometries, in the gauge/string correspondence sense) or N=2 fractional branes. In the supersymmetry breaking cases, when the dynamics of closed string moduli at the singularity is included, the theories show a runaway behavior (involving moduli such as FI terms or equivalently dibaryonic operators), rather than stable non-supersymmetric minima. We comment on the implications of this gauge theory behavior for the infrared smoothing of the dual warped throat solutions with 3-form fluxes, describing duality cascades ending in such field th...

  7. Symmetry breaking in non conservative systems

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Pérez, N E

    2016-01-01

    We apply Noether's theorem to show how the invariances of conservative systems are broken for nonconservative systems, in the variational formulation of Galley. This formulation considers a conservative action, extended by the inclusion of a time reversed sector and a nonconservative generalized potential. We assume that this potential is invariant under the symmetries of the initial conservative system. The breaking occurs because the time reversed sector requires inverse symmetry transformations, under which the nonconservative potential is not invariant. The resulting violation of the conservation laws is consistent with the equations of motion. We generalize this formulation for fermionic and sypersymmetric systems. In the case of a supersymmetric oscillator, the effect of damping is that the bosonic and fermionic components become different frequencies. Considering that initially the nonconservative action is invariant under supersymmetry, and that the breaking is associated to an instability, this resul...

  8. The Radiative Z2 Breaking Twin Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Jiang-Hao

    2016-01-01

    In twin Higgs model, the Higgs boson mass is protected by a $Z_2$ symmetry. The $Z_2$ symmetry needs to be broken either explicitly or spontaneously to obtain misalignment between electroweak and new physics vacua. We propose a novel $Z_2$ breaking mechanism, in which the $Z_2$ is spontaneously broken by radiative corrections to the Higgs potential. Two twin Higgses with different vacua are needed, and vacuum misalignment is realized by opposite but comparable contributions from gauge and Yukawa interactions to the potential. Due to fully radiative symmetry breaking, the Higgs sector is completely determined by twin Higgs vacuum, Yukawa and gauge couplings. There are eight pseudo-Goldstone bosons: the Higgs boson, inert doublet Higgs, and three twin scalars. We show the 125 GeV Higgs mass and constraints from Higgs coupling measurements could be satisfied.

  9. Mechanics of breaking coal by water jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Z.; Xi, B.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, L. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

    2008-09-15

    It is presumed that the elastic modulus and compressive strength of inhomogeneous rock conform to the Weibull distribution. The methods of breaking inhomogeneous rock by water jet and the threshold pressure of the water jet were deduced using percolation theory. Continuous drilling in the inhomogeneous coal by water jet was numerically simulated by the finite element method and an experiment of breaking coal by water jet was carried out. The study indicated that under the pressure of water jets, the low strength cells in inhomogeneous rock are first destroyed and a crack is created. The effect of a water wedge occurring by the water jet entering the crack space produces a tensile stress concentration at the tip of a crack, so cracks expand rapidly and converge gradually. Eventually the rock is fragmented and a cracked pit forms. The length of a crack in coal caused by a water jet at 60 MPa is over 0.5 m. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  10. Phenomenological implications of low energy supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experimental signatures for low energy supersymmetry breaking are presented. The lightest standard model superpartner is unstable and decays to its partner plus a Goldstino, G. For a supersymmetry breaking scale below a few 1000 TeV this decay can take place within a detector, leading to very distinctive signatures. If a neutralino is the lightest standard model superpartner it decays by χ01→γ + G, and if kinematically accessible by χ01 → (Z0, h0, H0, A0) + G. These decays can give rise to displaced vertices. Alternately, if a slepton is the lightest standard model superpartner it decays by l→l + G. This can be seen as a greater than minimum ionizing charged particle track, possibly with a kink to a minimum ionizing track. (orig.)

  11. Electroweak symmetry breaking: Higgs/whatever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first of these two lectures the Higgs mechanism is reviewed in its most general form, which does not necessarily require the existence of Higgs bosons. The general consequences of the hypothesis that electroweak symmetry breaking is due to the Higgs mechanism are deduced just from gauge invariance and unitarity. In the second lecture the general properties are illustrated with three specific models: the Weinberg-Salam model, its minimal supersymmetric extension, and technicolor. The second lecture concludes with a discussion of the experiment signals for strong WW scattering, whose presence or absence will allow us to determine whether the symmetry breaking sector lies above or below 1 TeV. 57 refs

  12. Rotation Breaking Induced by ELMs on EAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, H.; Xu, G.; Sun, Y.;

    Spontaneous rotation has been observed in LHCD H-mode plasmas with type III ELMs (edge localized modes) on EAST, and it revealed that type III ELMs can induce the loss of both core and edge toroidal rotation. Here we work on the breaking mechanism during the ELMs. Several large tokamaks have...... of magnetic surface, thus generate NTV (neoclassical toroidal viscosity) torque that affects toroidal rotation. We adopt 1cm maximum edge magnetic surface displacement from experimental observation, and our calculation shows that the edge torque is about 0.35 N/m2, and the core very small. The...... expected angular momentum density change is about 3.8 N/m2, nearly 10 times larger than the calculation. Previous work on EAST has suggested that there is a mechanism at the edge that breaks the rotation, while the core rotation change is mostly likely related with momentum transport to the edge. In other...

  13. Analysis of chiral symmetry breaking mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The renormalization group invariant quark condensate μ is determinate both from the consistent equation for quark condensate in the chiral limit and from the Schwinger-Dyson (SD) equation improved by the intermediate range QCD force singular like δ (q) which is associated with the gluon condensate. The solutions of μ in these two equations are consistent. We also obtain the critical strong coupling constant αc above which chiral symmetry breaks in two approaches. The nonperturbative kernel of the SD equation makes αc smaller and μ bigger. An intuitive picture of the condensation above αc is discussed. In addition, with the help of the Slavnov-Taylor-Ward (STW) identity we derive the equations for the nonperturbative quark propagator from SD equation in the presence of the intermediate-range force is also responsible for dynamical chiral symmetry breaking. (author)

  14. Boost Breaking in the EFT of Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Delacretaz, Luca V; Senatore, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    If time-translations are spontaneously broken, so are boosts. This symmetry breaking pattern can be non-linearly realized by either just the Goldstone boson of time translations, or by four Goldstone bosons associated with time translations and boosts. In this paper we extend the Effective Field Theory of Multifield Inflation to consider the case in which the additional Goldstone bosons associated with boosts are light and coupled to the Goldstone boson of time translations. The symmetry breaking pattern forces a coupling to curvature so that the mass of the additional Goldstone bosons is predicted to be equal to $\\sqrt{2}H$ in the vast majority of the parameter space where they are light. This pattern therefore offers a natural way of generating self-interacting particles with Hubble mass during inflation. After constructing the general effective Lagrangian, we study how these particles mix and interact with the curvature fluctuations, generating potentially detectable non-Gaussian signals.

  15. Isospin breaking in octet baryon mass splittings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Najjar, J. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Pleiter, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Juelich Supercomputer Centre; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Division; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics

    2012-06-15

    Using an SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion in the quark mass, we determine the QCD component of the nucleon, Sigma and Xi mass splittings of the baryon octet due to up-down (and strange) quark mass differences in terms of the kaon mass splitting. Provided the average quark mass is kept constant, the expansion coefficients in our procedure can be determined from computationally cheaper simulations with mass degenerate sea quarks and partially quenched valence quarks. Both the linear and quadratic terms in the SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion are considered; it is found that the quadratic terms only change the result by a few percent, indicating that the expansion is highly convergent.

  16. Isospin breaking in octet baryon mass splittings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using an SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion in the quark mass, we determine the QCD component of the nucleon, Sigma and Xi mass splittings of the baryon octet due to up-down (and strange) quark mass differences in terms of the kaon mass splitting. Provided the average quark mass is kept constant, the expansion coefficients in our procedure can be determined from computationally cheaper simulations with mass degenerate sea quarks and partially quenched valence quarks. Both the linear and quadratic terms in the SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion are considered; it is found that the quadratic terms only change the result by a few percent, indicating that the expansion is highly convergent.

  17. Symmetry Breaking in Neuroevolution: A Technical Report

    CERN Document Server

    Urfalioglu, Onay

    2011-01-01

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) comprise important symmetry properties, which can influence the performance of Monte Carlo methods in Neuroevolution. The problem of the symmetries is also known as the competing conventions problem or simply as the permutation problem. In the literature, symmetries are mainly addressed in Genetic Algoritm based approaches. However, investigations in this direction based on other Evolutionary Algorithms (EA) are rare or missing. Furthermore, there are different and contradictionary reports on the efficacy of symmetry breaking. By using a novel viewpoint, we offer a possible explanation for this issue. As a result, we show that a strategy which is invariant to the global optimum can only be successfull on certain problems, whereas it must fail to improve the global convergence on others. We introduce the \\emph{Minimum Global Optimum Proximity} principle as a generalized and adaptive strategy to symmetry breaking, which depends on the location of the global optimum. We apply the...

  18. Testing Chiral Symmetry Breaking at DAPHNE

    OpenAIRE

    M. R. Pennington

    1996-01-01

    The spontaneous breakdown of the chiral symmetry of the QCD Lagrangian ensures that $\\pi\\pi$ interactions are weak at low energies. How weak depends on the nature of explicit symmetry breaking. Measurements of $K_{e4}$ decays at DA$\\Phi$NE will provide a unique insight into this mechanism and test whether the $q{\\overline q}$--condensate is large or small.

  19. Music and Video Gaming during Breaks

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shuyan; Schad, Daniel J.; Kuschpel, Maxim S.; Michael A Rapp; Heinz, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Different systems for habitual versus goal-directed control are thought to underlie human decision-making. Working memory is known to shape these decision-making systems and their interplay, and is known to support goal-directed decision making even under stress. Here, we investigated if and how decision systems are differentially influenced by breaks filled with diverse everyday life activities known to modulate working memory performance. We used a within-subject design where young adult...

  20. The Experimental Investigation of Supersymmetry Breaking

    OpenAIRE

    Peskin, Michael E.

    1996-01-01

    If Nature is supersymmetric at the weak interaction scale, what can we hope to learn from experiments on supersymmetric particles? The most mysterious aspect of phenomenological supersymmetry is the mechanism of spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. This mechanism ties the observable pattern of supersymmetric particle masses to aspects of the underlying unified theory at very small distance scales. In this article, I will discuss a systematic experimental program to determine the mechanism of s...

  1. Numerical simulation of 3D breaking waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraunie, Philippe; Golay, Frederic

    2015-04-01

    Numerical methods dealing with two phase flows basically can be classified in two ways : the "interface tracking" methods when the two phases are resolved separately including boundary conditions fixed at the interface and the "interface capturing" methods when a single flow is considered with variable density. Physical and numerical properties of the two approaches are discussed, based on some numerical experiments performed concerning 3D breaking waves. Acknowledgements : This research was supported by the Modtercom program of Region PACA.

  2. Dynamical symmetry breaking in quantum field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Miransky, Vladimir A

    1993-01-01

    The phenomenon of dynamical symmetry breaking (DSB) in quantum field theory is discussed in a detailed and comprehensive way. The deep connection between this phenomenon in condensed matter physics and particle physics is emphasized. The realizations of DSB in such realistic theories as quantum chromodynamics and electroweak theory are considered. Issues intimately connected with DSB such as critical phenomenona and effective lagrangian approach are also discussed.

  3. Spontaneous symmetry breaking of SU(n)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spontaneous symmetry breaking pattern for the gauge group SU(n) is found by studying the absolute minimum of the Higgs potential, chosen as a polynomial of degree 4 of one adjoint and one fundamental representation. SU(n) may be broken into SU(n - 1) or SU(h) x SU(n - 1 - h) x U(1) (h = 1,...n - 2), depending on the values of the parameters, but without any assumption on their smallness. (orig.)

  4. Wave breaking in tapered holey fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuguang Li; Lei Zhang; Bo Fu; Yi Zheng; Ying Han; Xingtao Zhao

    2011-01-01

    We numerically study the propagation of 1-ps laser pulse in three tapered holey fibers (THFs). The curvature indices of the concave, linear, and convex tapers are 2.0, 1.0, and 0.5, respectively. The central wavelength, located in the normal dispersion regime, is 800 nm. The nonlinear coefficient of the THFs increases from the initial 0.095 m-1· W-1 to the final 0.349 m-l·W-1. Wave breaking accompanied by oscillatory structures occurs near pulse edges, and sidelobes appear in the pulse spectrum. With the increase in propagation distance z, the pulse shape becomes broader and the pulse spectrum flattens. A concave THF is advantageous to the generation of wave breaking and enables easier achievement of super fiat spectra at short lengths.%@@ We numerically study the propagation of 1-ps laser pulse in three tapered holey fibers (THFs).The curvature indices of the concave, linear, and convex tapers are 2.0, 1.0, and 0.5, respectively.The central wavelength, located in the normal dispersion regime, is 800 nm.The nonlinear coefficient of the THFs increases from the initial 0.095 m-1.W-1 to the final 0.349 m-1.W-1.Wave breaking accompanied by oscillatory structures occurs near pulse edges, and sidelobes appear in the pulse spectrum.With the increase in propagation distance z, the pulse shape becomes broader and the pulse spectrum flattens.A concave THF is advantageous to the generation of wave breaking and enables easier achievement of super flat spectra at short lengths.

  5. Soft branes in supersymmetry-breaking backgrounds

    OpenAIRE

    McGuirk, Paul; Shiu, Gary; Ye, Fang

    2012-01-01

    We revisit the analysis of effective field theories resulting from non-supersymmetric perturbations to supersymmetric flux compactifications of the type-IIB superstring with an eye towards those resulting from the backreaction of a small number of anti-D3-branes. Independently of the background, we show that the low-energy Lagrangian describing the fluctuations of a stack of probe D3-branes exhibits soft supersymmetry breaking, despite perturbations to marginal operators that were not fully c...

  6. Electroweak Symmetry Breaking Beyond the Standard Model

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharyya, Gautam

    2012-01-01

    In this talk, I shall address two key issues related to electroweak symmetry breaking. First, how fine-tuned different models are that trigger this phenomenon? Second, even if a light Higgs boson exists, does it have to be necessarily elementary? After a brief introduction, I shall first review the fine-tuning aspects of the MSSM, NMSSM, generalized NMSSM and GMSB scenarios. I shall then compare and contrast the little Higgs, composite Higgs and the Higgsless models. Finally, I shall summariz...

  7. Induced Higgs couplings and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that spontaneous symmetry breaking can arise in a non-Abelian gauge theory free of quartic scalar couplings only if fermions are present in the theory. A sufficiency condition is developed for positivity of the induced PHI4-potential as PHI→infinity. The same condition guarantees the existence of asymptotically free positive-eigenvalue solutions to the renormalization group equations for running coupling constants. Correspondence is established between ''eigenvalue'' and induced-potential approaches toward total asymptotic freedom. (author)

  8. Symmetry Breaking in Topological Quantum Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielke, Eckehard W.

    2015-01-01

    A SL(5, R) gauge-invariant topological field theory of gravity and possible gauge unifications are considered in four-dimensions. The problem of quantization is evaluated in the asymptotic safety scenario. `Minimal' BF type models for the high energy limit are physically not quite realistic, a tiny symmetry breaking is needed to recover standard Einsteinian gravity for the oscopic metrical background with induced cosmological constant.

  9. Center vortices, confinement and chiral symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The center vortex model, proposed as an explanation of confinement in non-abelian gauge theories is introduced. Some checks of the confinement properties of center vortices in SU(2) lattice gauge theory with improved Luescher-Weisz gauge action are presented. Phenomena related to chiral symmetry, such as topological charge and spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking (SCSB) are studied within the vortex model. In particular the influence of center vortices on the low-lying spectrum of the Dirac operator is analyzed. (author)

  10. How does DNA break during chromosomal translocations?

    OpenAIRE

    Nambiar, Mridula; Raghavan, Sathees C.

    2011-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations are one of the most common types of genetic rearrangements and are molecular signatures for many types of cancers. They are considered as primary causes for cancers, especially lymphoma and leukemia. Although many translocations have been reported in the last four decades, the mechanism by which chromosomes break during a translocation remains largely unknown. In this review, we summarize recent advances made in understanding the molecular mechanism of chromosomal t...

  11. Flavour Violation in Anomaly Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking

    OpenAIRE

    Allanach, B. C.; Hiller, G; Jones, D. R. T.; Slavich, P.(LPTHE, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Sorbonne Universités, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252, Paris, France)

    2009-01-01

    32 pages, 8 figures International audience We study squark flavour violation in the anomaly mediated supersymmetry broken (AMSB) minimal supersymmetric standard model. Analytical expressions for the three-generational squark mass matrices are derived. We show that the anomaly-induced soft breaking terms have a decreasing amount of squark flavour violation when running from the GUT to the weak scale. Taking into account inter-generational squark mixing, we work out non-trivial constraint...

  12. Breaking of Nanotube Symmetry by Substrate Polarization

    OpenAIRE

    Petrov, Alexey G.; Rotkin, Slava V.

    2003-01-01

    Substrate and nanotube polarization are shown to change qualitatively a nanotube bandstructure. The effect is studied in a linear approximation in an external potential which causes the changes. A work function difference between the nanotube and gold surface is estimated to be large enough to break the band symmetry and lift a degeneracy of a lowest but one subband of a metallic nanotube. This subband splitting for [10,10] nanotube is about 50 meV in absence of other external potential.

  13. Breaking democracy with non renormalizable mass terms

    CERN Document Server

    Silva-Marcos, Joaquim I

    2001-01-01

    The exact democratic structure for the quark mass matrix, resulting from the action of the family symmetry group $A_{3L}\\times A_{3R}$, is broken by the vacuum expectation values of heavy singlet fields appearing in non renormalizable dimension 6 operators. Within this specific context of breaking of the family symmetry we formulate a very simple ansatz which leads to correct quark masses and mixings.

  14. CP breaking in $S(3)$ flavoured Higgs model

    CERN Document Server

    Barradas-Guevara, E; Rodríguez-Jáuregui, E

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the Higgs sector of the minimal $S(3)$-invariant extension of the Standard Model including CP violation arising from the spontaneous breaking of the electroweak symmetry. This extended Higgs sector includes three $SU(2)$ doublets Higgs fields with complex vev's provide an interesting scenario to analyze the Higgs masses spectrum, trilinear self-couplings and CP violation. We present how the spontaneous electroweak symmetry breaking coming from three $S(3)$ Higgs fields gives an interesting scenario with nine physical Higgs and three Goldstone bosons when spontaneous CP violation arises from the Higgs field $S(3)$ singlet $H_S$. Furthermore, numerical analysis of the Higgs masses and trilinear self-couplings is presented, particularly we find a physical solution for the scenario in which spontaneous CPB is provided by the single field $H_S$. The scalar Higgs $H_4^0$ is identified whose mass is 125 GeV and $\\lambda_{H_{4}^0 H_{4}^0 H_{4}^0} \\sim \\lambda_{h^0 h^0 h^0}^{SM}$ in good agreement with the ...

  15. Breaking of separability condition for dynamical collective subspace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is the purpose of the present paper to study 'global structure' of the state-space of an N-body interacting fermion system, which exhibits regular, transient and stochastic phases depending on strength of the interaction. An optimum representation called a dynamical representation plays an essential role in this investigation. The concept of the dynamical representation has been introduced in the quantum theory of dynamical collective subspace in our previous paper, in order to self-consistently determine an optimum collective subspace as well as an optimum collective Hamiltonian. In the theory, furthermore, dynamical conditions called separability and stability conditions have been provided in order to identify the optimum collective subspace as an approximate invariant subspace of the Hamiltonian. Physical meaning of these conditions are classified from a viewpoint to relate breaking of them with bifurcation of the collectivity and an onset of quantum chaos from the regular collective motion, by illustrating the general idea with numerical results obtained for a simple soluble model. It turns out that the onset of the stochastic phase is associated with dissolution of the quantum numbers to specify the collective subspace and this dissolution is induced by the breaking of the separability condition in the dynamical representation. (author)

  16. The Beam Break-Up Numerical Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travish, G.A.

    1989-11-01

    Beam Break-Up (BBU) is a severe constraint in accelerator design, limiting beam current and quality. The control of BBU has become the focus of much research in the design of the next generation collider, recirculating and linear induction accelerators and advanced accelerators. Determining the effect on BBU of modifications to cavities, the focusing elements or the beam is frequently beyond the ability of current analytic models. A computer code was written to address this problem. The Beam Break-Up Numerical Simulator (BBUNS) was designed to numerically solve for beam break-up (BBU) due to an arbitrary transverse wakefield. BBUNS was developed to be as user friendly as possible on the Cray computer series. The user is able to control all aspects of input and output by using a single command file. In addition, the wakefield is specified by the user and read in as a table. The program can model energy variations along and within the beam, focusing magnetic field profiles can be specified, and the graphical output can be tailored. In this note we discuss BBUNS, its structure and application. Included are detailed instructions, examples and a sample session of BBUNS. This program is available for distribution. 50 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Enhanced breaking of heavy quark spin symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heavy quark spin symmetry is useful to make predictions on ratios of decay or production rates of systems involving heavy quarks. The breaking of spin symmetry is generally of the order of O(ΛQCD/mQ), with ΛQCD the scale of QCD and mQ the heavy quark mass. In this paper, we will show that a small S- and D-wave mixing in the wave function of the heavy quarkonium could induce a large breaking in the ratios of partial decay widths. As an example, we consider the decays of the ϒ(10860) into the χbJω(J=0,1,2), which were recently measured by the Belle Collaboration. These decays exhibit a huge breaking of the spin symmetry relation were the ϒ(10860) a pure 5S bottomonium state. We propose that this could be a consequence of a mixing of the S-wave and D-wave components in the ϒ(10860). Prediction on the ratio Γ(ϒ(10860)→χb0ω)/Γ(ϒ(10860)→χb2ω) is presented assuming that the decay of the D-wave component is dominated by the coupled-channel effects

  18. Kinematic dynamo, supersymmetry breaking, and chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, Igor V.; Enßlin, Torsten A.

    2016-04-01

    The kinematic dynamo (KD) describes the growth of magnetic fields generated by the flow of a conducting medium in the limit of vanishing backaction of the fields onto the flow. The KD is therefore an important model system for understanding astrophysical magnetism. Here, the mathematical correspondence between the KD and a specific stochastic differential equation (SDE) viewed from the perspective of the supersymmetric theory of stochastics (STS) is discussed. The STS is a novel, approximation-free framework to investigate SDEs. The correspondence reported here permits insights from the STS to be applied to the theory of KD and vice versa. It was previously known that the fast KD in the idealistic limit of no magnetic diffusion requires chaotic flows. The KD-STS correspondence shows that this is also true for the diffusive KD. From the STS perspective, the KD possesses a topological supersymmetry, and the dynamo effect can be viewed as its spontaneous breakdown. This supersymmetry breaking can be regarded as the stochastic generalization of the concept of dynamical chaos. As this supersymmetry breaking happens in both the diffusive and the nondiffusive cases, the necessity of the underlying SDE being chaotic is given in either case. The observed exponentially growing and oscillating KD modes prove physically that dynamical spectra of the STS evolution operator that break the topological supersymmetry exist with both real and complex ground state eigenvalues. Finally, we comment on the nonexistence of dynamos for scalar quantities.

  19. Dormancy Breaking in Ormosia arborea Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilma Pereira Gonçalves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ormosia arborea is a tree species planted in urban areas and used to restore degraded areas. Its seeds are dormant and propagation is difficult. This study compares different dormancy breaking methods and physiological seed quality and seedling production. The seeds were germinated in sand in the laboratory of the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil. The following dormancy breaking treatments were applied: control (intact seeds, 100°C water immersion; boiling water immersion followed by 24 hours of soaking; scarification with number 100 and number 50 sandpaper opposite from root emergence; sulfuric acid immersion for 1 hour, 50, 45, and 30 minutes. Seed immersion in 100°C and boiling water did not break the dormancy. The study species showed a greater vigor of seedling when its seeds were submitted to treatments associated with tegument rupturing by sandpaper or sulfuric acid. On the other hand, seed scarification with sulfuric acid for 1 hour, 50, 45, and 30 minutes or sandpaper favored seed germination and vigor.

  20. The Beam Break-Up Numerical Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam Break-Up (BBU) is a severe constraint in accelerator design, limiting beam current and quality. The control of BBU has become the focus of much research in the design of the next generation collider, recirculating and linear induction accelerators and advanced accelerators. Determining the effect on BBU of modifications to cavities, the focusing elements or the beam is frequently beyond the ability of current analytic models. A computer code was written to address this problem. The Beam Break-Up Numerical Simulator (BBUNS) was designed to numerically solve for beam break-up (BBU) due to an arbitrary transverse wakefield. BBUNS was developed to be as user friendly as possible on the Cray computer series. The user is able to control all aspects of input and output by using a single command file. In addition, the wakefield is specified by the user and read in as a table. The program can model energy variations along and within the beam, focusing magnetic field profiles can be specified, and the graphical output can be tailored. In this note we discuss BBUNS, its structure and application. Included are detailed instructions, examples and a sample session of BBUNS. This program is available for distribution. 50 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs

  1. Break-Even Income Analysis of Pharmacy Graduates Compared to High School and College Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A; Dickey, Susan E

    2016-04-25

    Objective. To project the net cumulative income break-even point between practicing pharmacists and those who enter the workforce directly after high school graduation or after obtaining a bachelor's degree. Methods. Markov modeling and break-even analysis were conducted. Estimated costs of education were used in calculating net early career earnings of high school graduates, bachelor's degree holders, pharmacists without residency training, and pharmacists with residency training. Results. Models indicate that over the first 10 years of a pharmacist's career, they accumulate net earnings of $716 345 to $1 064 840, depending on cost of obtaining the PharmD degree and career path followed. In the break-even analysis, all pharmacy career tracks surpassed net cumulative earnings of high school graduates by age 33 and bachelor's degree holders by age 34. Conclusion. Regardless of the chosen pharmacy career track and the typical cost of obtaining a PharmD degree, the model under study assumptions demonstrates that pharmacy education has a positive financial return on investment, with a projected break-even point of less than 10 years upon career entry. PMID:27170815

  2. Break-Even Income Analysis of Pharmacy Graduates Compared to High School and College Graduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A.; Dickey, Susan E.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To project the net cumulative income break-even point between practicing pharmacists and those who enter the workforce directly after high school graduation or after obtaining a bachelor’s degree. Methods. Markov modeling and break-even analysis were conducted. Estimated costs of education were used in calculating net early career earnings of high school graduates, bachelor’s degree holders, pharmacists without residency training, and pharmacists with residency training. Results. Models indicate that over the first 10 years of a pharmacist’s career, they accumulate net earnings of $716 345 to $1 064 840, depending on cost of obtaining the PharmD degree and career path followed. In the break-even analysis, all pharmacy career tracks surpassed net cumulative earnings of high school graduates by age 33 and bachelor’s degree holders by age 34. Conclusion. Regardless of the chosen pharmacy career track and the typical cost of obtaining a PharmD degree, the model under study assumptions demonstrates that pharmacy education has a positive financial return on investment, with a projected break-even point of less than 10 years upon career entry.

  3. 20. Yüzyılın Son Çeyreğinde Yaşanan Jeopolitik Kırılma Noktası ile Başlayan 21. Yüzyıl, Yeni Tarihin Ne Kadar Başlangıcıdır? 21st Century; Initiated With The Geopolitical Breaking Point Occurred At The Last Quarter Of 20th Century; Beginning Of The New History In What Extent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laziza Nurpeiis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available With the collapse of the USSR in 1990, many global problemshave arisen. One of the most crucial issues has been the replacement ofthe stability sustained by Cold War that affected the 20th centurydeeply, the bipolar world system, nuclear and ballistic weapons with achaotic environment of asymmetric features. This new stage not onlyaffected the political vital constraints of all societies but also showed theneed of geopolitical theories dealing with problems that can arise.The incapability in dealing with uncertainties of power at all levelscaused a lack of compiling long and mid-term plans.Energy sources of the former Soviet territory, mergedcommunities, social issues, various underground resources, issues ofethnic conflicts and radical terrorist organizations, put the whole worldinto a chaotic environment.Therefore, an important breaking point in 1990 was experiencedby all countries. This is such a point that the near and distant pastaccumulations will remain ineffective and new strategic and geopoliticalapproaches are required. The main problem is revolved around twoquestions. Will the geo-strategic theories of 20th century that are basedon two power poles be available in the new era of asymmetric chaos?Or, are theories, built with the new geostrategic perception needed? 1990 yılında SSCB’nin dağılması ile ortaya birçok küresel sorun çıkmıştır. Bu sorunların en başında da 20’inci yüzyıla damgasını vuran Soğuk Savaş, iki kutuplu dünya düzeni, nükleer ve balistik silahlara dayalı denge ortamının yok olması ve yerine asimetrik özelliklere sahip kaotik bir ortamın çıkması vardır. Yeni başlayan süreç, hem bütün toplumların siyasi/politik yaşamsal desteklerini ve dayanaklarını ortadan kaldıracak şekilde sarsmış, hem de ortaya çıkan problem sahaları ile mücadele edebilecek jeopolitik teorilerin eksikliği hissedilmiştir. Özellikle her seviyedeki gücün yeni başlayan sürecin bilinmezliği ile

  4. Healthy breaks: tasty tips for the under fives

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2014-01-01

    Today the Public Health Agency is launching a new resource pack designed to assist nursery schools and playgroups deliver a healthy breaks scheme.All nursery schools and playgroups in Northern Ireland will receive the pack - 'Healthy breaks for pre-school children' - which includes a poster and information leaflets for parents explaining why a healthy break is so important for pre-school children and some tips and ideas for healthy nutritious breaks.Judith Hanvey, Regional Food in Schools Co-...

  5. Linkages among commodity futures prices in the recent financial crisis: An application of cointegration tests with a structural break

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoichi Tsuchiya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we investigate the existence of long-term co-movements among the prices of commodity futures contracts. We use a cointegration test, which accounts for the presence of a structural break. We show that while there is a long-term relationship among agricultural and among non-agricultural commodity futures prices when a structural break is taken into account, there is no such relationship without allowing for a structural break. We also show that these break points, in fact, occur a few months before the recent global financial crisis. Although the previous literature broadly casts doubt on such price co-movements, our results confirm that market performance improved during the sample period.

  6. 9 CFR 590.522 - Breaking room operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Breaking room operations. 590.522..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.522 Breaking room operations. (a) The breaking room shall be kept... room personnel shall wash their hands thoroughly with odorless soap and water each time they enter...

  7. 24 CFR 982.315 - Family break-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Family break-up. 982.315 Section... SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Leasing a Unit § 982.315 Family break-up... assistance in the program if the family breaks up. The PHA administrative plan must state PHA policies on...

  8. Breaking of Waves over a Steep Bottom Slope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten S.

    The thesis deals with the wave breaking process of waves propagating over a steep submerged bottom slope. The amount of energy dissipated in the wave breaking process is focused upon. An extensive number of experimental tests (>400) using regular and irregular waves breaking over a simulated reef...

  9. Phenomenological approach to symmetry breaking pattern of democratic mass matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Harada, J

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the symmetry breaking pattern of the democratic mass matrix model, which leads to the small flavor mixing in quark sector and bi-large mixing in lepton sector. We present the symmetry breaking matrices in quark sector which are determined by alternative ways instead of conventional ansatz. These matrices might be useful for understanding the origin of democratic symmetry and its breaking.

  10. Break Lines, Break lines were captured from Orthoimagery from our 1998 imagery, Published in unknown, Johnson County AIMS.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Break Lines dataset, was produced all or in part from Orthoimagery information as of unknown. It is described as 'Break lines were captured from Orthoimagery...

  11. Climate: toward the breaking point? New scientific data on climate crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication first outlines the scientific consensus on climate change and briefly presents the main predictions published in the fourth IPCC assessment report. A table indicates impacts of average temperature increase from 0 to 5 degrees on water, on ecosystems, on food production, on coastal areas, on health and on the occurrence of some peculiar phenomena. By discussing data related to the evolution of polar ice coverage, and by quoting some press articles, it notices that impacts are occurring earlier and at lower temperatures than foreseen, and outlines the increasing concern related to temperature increase. Based on measurements and IPCC predictions, it shows that greenhouse gas emissions are increasing rapidly, and that atmospheric concentrations exceed the forecasts. It indicates the components of the climate system which may together result in reaching a critical warming level (ocean and ground carbon sink are becoming carbon sources, methane will be released by the permafrost, methane hydrates are becoming carbon sources, ocean acidification). This synthesis finally discusses a possible capping of temperature increase and possible outcomes

  12. Gravity Dual to a Quantum Critical Point with Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider zero-temperature solutions to the Abelian Higgs model coupled to gravity with a negative cosmological constant. With appropriate choices of parameters, the geometry contains two copies of anti-de Sitter space, one describing conformal invariance in the ultraviolet, and one in the infrared. The effective speed of signal propagation is smaller in the infrared. Green's functions and associated transport coefficients can have unusual power-law scaling in the infrared. We provide an example in which the real part of the conductivity scales approximately as ω3.5 for small ω

  13. High-performance analysis of single interphase cells with custom DNA probes spanning translocation break points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weier, Heinz-Ulli G.; Munne, S.; Lersch, Robert A.; Marquez, C.; Wu, J.; Pedersen, Roger A.; Fung, Jingly

    1999-06-01

    The chromatin organization of interphase cell nuclei, albeit an object of intense investigation, is only poorly understood. In the past, this has hampered the cytogenetic analysis of tissues derived from specimens where only few cells were actively proliferating or a significant number of metaphase cells could be obtained by induction of growth. Typical examples of such hard to analyze cell systems are solid tumors, germ cells and, to a certain extent, fetal cells such as amniocytes, blastomeres or cytotrophoblasts. Balanced reciprocal translocations that do not disrupt essential genes and thus do not led to disease symptoms exit in less than one percent of the general population. Since the presence of translocations interferes with homologue pairing in meiosis, many of these individuals experience problems in their reproduction, such as reduced fertility, infertility or a history of spontaneous abortions. The majority of translocation carriers enrolled in our in vitro fertilization (IVF) programs carry simple translocations involving only two autosomes. While most translocations are relatively easy to spot in metaphase cells, the majority of cells biopsied from embryos produced by IVF are in interphase and thus unsuitable for analysis by chromosome banding or FISH-painting. We therefore set out to analyze single interphase cells for presence or absence of specific translocations. Our assay, based on fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) of breakpoint-spanning DNA probes, detects translocations in interphase by visual microscopic inspection of hybridization domains. Probes are prepared so that they span a breakpoint and cover several hundred kb of DNA adjacent to the breakpoint. On normal chromosomes, such probes label a contiguous stretch of DNA and produce a single hybridization domain per chromosome in interphase cells. The translocation disrupts the hybridization domain and the resulting two fragments appear as physically separated hybridization domains in the nucleus. To facilitate the detection, DNA probes for breakpoints on different chromosomes are labeled in different colors, so the translocation event can be detected as a fusion of red and green hybridization domains. We applied this scheme successfully for the analysis of somatic and germ cells from more than 20 translocation patients, each with individual breakpoints, and provide summaries of our experience as well as strategies, cost and time frames to prepare case-specific translocation probes.

  14. ArtBreak Group Counseling for Children: Framework, Practice Points, and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziff, Katherine; Ivers, Nathaniel N.; Shaw, Edward G.

    2016-01-01

    Child social/emotional development and mitigation of child stress are receiving continued emphasis in the literature. While choice-based group art studios have a long association with mental health, documentation on their potential for supporting children is limited. This article describes an elementary school counseling intervention designed to…

  15. Single particles accelerate final stages of capillary break up

    CERN Document Server

    Lindner, Anke; Wagner, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Droplet formation of suspensions is present in many industrial and technological processes such as coating and food engineering. Whilst the finite time singularity of the minimum neck diameter in capillary break-up of simple liquids can be described by well known self-similarity solutions, the pinching of non-Brownian suspension depends in a complex way on the particle dynamics in the thinning thread. Here we focus on the very dilute regime where the filament contains only isolated beads to identify the physical mechanisms leading to the pronounced acceleration of the filament thinning observed. This accelerated regime is characterized by an asymmetric shape of the filament with an enhanced curvature that depends on the size and the spatial distribution of the particles within the capillary thread.

  16. Cosmological constant in SUGRA models and the multiple point principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tiny order of magnitude of the cosmological constant is sought to be explained in a model involving the following ingredients: supersymmetry breaking in N=1 supergravity and the multiple point principle. We demonstrate the viability of this scenario in the minimal SUGRA model. (author)

  17. Sparticle spectrum and constraints in anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking models

    CERN Document Server

    Huitu, K; Pandita, P N

    2002-01-01

    We study in detail the particle spectrum in anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking models in which supersymmetry breaking terms are induced by super-Weyl anomaly. We investigate the minimal anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking models, gaugino assisted supersymmetry breaking models, as well as models with additional residual non-decoupling D-term contributions due to an extra U(1) gauge symmetry at high energy scale. We derive sum rules for the sparticle masses in these models which can help in differentiating between them. We also obtain the sparticle spectrum numerically, and compare and contrast the results so obtained for the different types of anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking models.

  18. Raman amplification in the coherent wave-breaking regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, J P; Pukhov, A

    2015-12-01

    In regimes far beyond the wave-breaking threshold of Raman amplification, we show that significant amplification can occur after the onset of wave breaking, before phase mixing destroys the coherent coupling between pump, probe, and plasma wave. Amplification in this regime is therefore a transient effect, with the higher-efficiency "coherent wave-breaking" (CWB) regime accessed by using a short, intense probe. Parameter scans illustrate the marked difference in behavior between below wave breaking, in which the energy-transfer efficiency is high but total energy transfer is low, wave breaking, in which efficiency is low, and CWB, in which moderate efficiencies allow the highest total energy transfer. PMID:26764840

  19. Characteristic slepton signal in anomaly mediated SUSY breaking models via gauge boson fusion at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, A; Datta, Anindya; Huitu, Katri

    2003-01-01

    We point out that slepton pairs produced via gauge boson fusion in anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking (AMSB) model have very characteristic and almost clean signal at the Large Hadron Collider. In this letter, we discuss how one lepton associated with missing energy and produced in between two high-$p_T$ and high-mass forward jets can explore quite heavy sleptons in this scenario.

  20. Okun's Law Does the Austrian unemployment-GDP relationship exhibit structural breaks?

    OpenAIRE

    Leopold Sögner

    2001-01-01

    Okun's Law postulates an inverse relationship between movements of the unemployment rate and the real gross domestic product (GDP). Empirical estimates for US data indicate that a two to three percent GDP growth rate above the natural or average GDP growth rate causes unemployment to decrease by one percentage point and vice versa. In this investigation we check whether this postulated relationship exhibits structural breaks by means of Markov-Chain Monte Carlo methods. We estimate a regressi...

  1. On the breaking and restoration of symmetries within the nuclear energy density functional formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We review the notion of symmetry breaking and restoration within the frame of nuclear energy density functional methods. We focus on key differences between wave-function- and energy-functional-based methods. In particular, we point to difficulties encountered within the energy functional framework and discuss new potential constraints on the underlying energy density functional that could make the restoration of broken symmetries better formulated within such a formalism. We refer to Ref.1 for details. (authors)

  2. Thermodynamic formalism and circle homeomorphisms with a break-type singularity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A renormalization group (RG) transformation on the space of circle homeomorphisms with break-type singularity point and with the rotation number ρ=(√5-1)/2 ('golden mean') has a unique periodic trajectory {T1,T2} with period two. For homeomorphisms T which are C1-conjugate to T1 (or T2) the behavior of Holder's exponents of singular invariant measure are studied. Limit distributions of entrance times are also studied. (author)

  3. Fuel breaks affect nonnative species abundance in Californian plant communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, K.E.; Keeley, J.E.; Beyers, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the abundance of nonnative plants on fuel breaks and in adjacent untreated areas to determine if fuel treatments promote the invasion of nonnative plant species. Understanding the relationship between fuel treatments and nonnative plants is becoming increasingly important as federal and state agencies are currently implementing large fuel treatment programs throughout the United States to reduce the threat of wildland fire. Our study included 24 fuel breaks located across the State of California. We found that nonnative plant abundance was over 200% higher on fuel breaks than in adjacent wildland areas. Relative nonnative cover was greater on fuel breaks constructed by bulldozers (28%) than on fuel breaks constructed by other methods (7%). Canopy cover, litter cover, and duff depth also were significantly lower on fuel breaks constructed by bulldozers, and these fuel breaks had significantly more exposed bare ground than other types of fuel breaks. There was a significant decline in relative nonnative cover with increasing distance from the fuel break, particularly in areas that had experienced more numerous fires during the past 50 years, and in areas that had been grazed. These data suggest that fuel breaks could provide establishment sites for nonnative plants, and that nonnatives may invade surrounding areas, especially after disturbances such as fire or grazing. Fuel break construction and maintenance methods that leave some overstory canopy and minimize exposure of bare ground may be less likely to promote nonnative plants. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  4. Break spectrum analyses for small break loss of coolant accidents in a RESAR-3S Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of thermal-hydraulic analyses were performed to investigate phenomena occurring during small break loss-of-coolant-accident (LOCA) sequences in a RESAR-3S pressurized water reactor. The analysis included simulations of plant behavior using the TRAC-PF1 and RELAP5/MOD2 computer codes. Series of calculations were performed using both codes for different break sizes. The analyses presented here also served an audit function in that the results shown here were used by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) as an independent confirmation of similar analyses performed by Westinghouse Electric Company using another computer code. 10 refs., 62 figs., 14 tabs

  5. Cascading Multicriticality in Nonrelativistic Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Griffin, Tom; Horava, Petr; Yan, Ziqi

    2015-01-01

    Without Lorentz invariance, spontaneous global symmetry breaking can lead to multicritical Nambu-Goldstone modes with a higher-order low-energy dispersion $\\omega\\sim k^n$ ($n=2,3,\\ldots$), whose naturalness is protected by polynomial shift symmetries. Here we investigate the role of infrared divergences and the nonrelativistic generalization of the Coleman-Hohenberg-Mermin-Wagner (CHMW) theorem. We find novel cascading phenomena with large hierarchies between the scales at which the value of $n$ changes, leading to an evasion of the "no-go" consequences of the relativistic CHMW theorem.

  6. Breaking the fault tree circular logic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Event tree - fault tree approach to model failures of nuclear plants as well as of other complex facilities is noticeably dominant now. This approach implies modeling an object in form of unidirectional logical graph - tree, i.e. graph without circular logic. However, genuine nuclear plants intrinsically demonstrate quite a few logical loops (circular logic), especially where electrical systems are involved. This paper shows the incorrectness of existing practice of circular logic breaking by elimination of part of logical dependencies and puts forward a formal algorithm, which enables the analyst to correctly model the failure of complex object, which involves logical dependencies between system and components, in form of fault tree. (author)

  7. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in a classical particle

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez, L A; Sanchez, Luis Alberto; Mahecha, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    Due to the fact that only matter fields have phase, frequently is believed that the gauge principle can induce gauge fields only in quantum systems. But this is not necessary. This paper, of pedagogical scope, presents a classical system constituted by a particle in a classical potential, which is used as a model to illustrate the gauge principle and the spontaneous symmetry breaking. Those concepts appear in the study of second order phase transitions. Ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism, superconductivity, plasmons in a free electron gas, and the mass of vector bosons in the gauge field Yang-Mills theories, are some of the phenomena in which these transitions occur.

  8. String breaking in four dimensional lattice QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virtual quark pair screening leads to breaking of the string between fundamental representation quarks in QCD. For unquenched four dimensional lattice QCD, this (so far elusive) phenomenon is studied using the recently developed truncated determinant algorithm (TDA). The dynamical configurations were generated on a 650 MHz PC. Quark eigenmodes up to 420 MeV are included exactly in these TDA studies performed at low quark mass on large coarse [but O(a2) improved] lattices. A study of Wilson line correlators in Coulomb gauge extracted from an ensemble of 1000 two-flavor dynamical configurations reveals evidence for flattening of the string tension at distances R∼>1 fm

  9. String Breaking in Four Dimensional Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Duncan, A; Thacker, H

    2001-01-01

    Virtual quark pair screening leads to breaking of the string between fundamental representation quarks in QCD. For unquenched four dimensional lattice QCD, this (so far elusive) phenomenon is studied using the recently developed truncated determinant algorithm (TDA). The dynamical configurations were generated on an Athlon 650 MHz PC. Quark eigenmodes up to 420 MeV are included exactly in these TDA studies performed at low quark mass on large coarse (but O($a^2$) improved) lattices. A study of Wilson line correlators in Coulomb gauge extracted from an ensemble of 1000 two-flavor dynamical configurations reveals evidence for flattening of the string tension at distances R $\\geq$ approximately 1 fm.

  10. SU(3) flavour breaking and baryon structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, A.N.; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Pleiter, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Juelich Supercomputing Centre (JSC); Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Shanahan, P.; Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Stueben, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Regionales Rechenzentrum; Collaboration: QCDSF/UKQCD Collaboration

    2013-11-15

    We present results from the QCDSF/UKQCD collaboration for hyperon electromagnetic form factors and axial charges obtained from simulations using N{sub f}=2+1 flavours of O(a)-improved Wilson fermions. We also consider matrix elements relevant for hyperon semileptonic decays. We find flavour-breaking effects in hyperon magnetic moments which are consistent with experiment, while our results for the connected quark spin content indicates that quarks contribute more to the spin of the {Xi} baryon than they do to the proton.

  11. New Mechanisms For Transmission Of Supersymmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, S P

    2004-01-01

    We considered new mechanisms for transmission of supersymmetry breaking and their phenomenological consequences. Specifically, we investigated the scalar mass corrections via five-dimensional supergravity loops and explored the possibility that supersymmetry is an accidental symmetry of Nature. We find that both these lead to phenomenologically viable scenarios. In the former, the negative slepton mass-squared masses arising from minimal anomaly mediation is cured. In the latter, which constitutes a paradigm shift, we find a more natural framework for low-energy supersymmetry than the conventional picture.

  12. Breaking Barriers in Polymer Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, Lonnie J [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Post, Brian K [ORNL; Lind, Randall F [ORNL; Lloyd, Peter D [ORNL; Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL; Blue, Craig A [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) enables the creation of complex structures directly from a computer-aided design (CAD). There are limitations that prevent the technology from realizing its full potential. AM has been criticized for being slow and expensive with limited build size. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a large scale AM system that improves upon each of these areas by more than an order of magnitude. The Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system directly converts low cost pellets into a large, three-dimensional part at a rate exceeding 25 kg/h. By breaking these traditional barriers, it is possible for polymer AM to penetrate new manufacturing markets.

  13. Dynamical supersymmetry breaking at low energies

    CERN Document Server

    Dine, Michael; Dine, Michael; Nelson, Ann E.

    1993-01-01

    Conventional approaches to supersymmetric model building suffer from several naturalness problems: they do not explain the large hierarchy between the weak scale and the Planck mass, and they require fine tuning to avoid large flavor changing neutral currents and particle electric dipole moments. The existence of models with dynamical supersymmetry breaking, which can explain the hierarchy, has been known for some time, but efforts to build such models have suffered from unwanted axions and difficulties with asymptotic freedom. In this paper, we describe an approach to model building with supersymmetry broken at comparatively low energies which solves these problems, and give a realistic example.

  14. Dynamical supersymmetry breaking at low energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional approaches to supersymmetric model building suffer from several naturalness problems: they do not explain the large hierarchy between the weak scale and the Planck mass, and they require fine-tuning to avoid large flavor-changing neutral currents and particle electric dipole moments. The existence of models with dynamical supersymmetry breaking, which can explain the hierarchy, has been known for some time, but efforts to build such models have suffered from unwanted axions and difficulties with asymptotic freedom. In this paper we describe an approach to model building with supersymmetry broken at comparatively low energies which solves these problems, and give a realistic example

  15. Cosmological SUSY Breaking and the Pyramid Schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Banks, T

    2014-01-01

    I review the ideas of holographic space-time (HST), Cosmological SUSY breaking (CSB), and the Pyramid Schemes, which are the only known models of Tera-scale physics consistent with CSB, current particle data, and gauge coupling unification. There is considerable uncertainty in the estimate of the masses of supersymmetric partners of the standard model particles, but the model predicts that the gluino is probably out of reach of the LHC, squarks may be in reach, and the NLSP is a right handed slepton, which should be discovered soon.

  16. Percolation picture of nucleus break-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of nuclear fragments in multifragmentation and spallation reactions is viewed as a percolation phenomenon. A model of nuclear percolation is proposed. The criteria for linkage of nucleons to a cluster are defined in real and momentum spaces. In addition, ''compactness'' conditions are imposed to the clusters in both spaces. This model behaves in many respects as a two-dimensional site percolation model, exhibiting a rather well defined percolation threshold at psub(c) approximately 0.6. The concentration p is related to the number of fast particles leaving the nuclear volume. We discuss possible experimental signatures of this new break-up mechanism

  17. Implications of Local Chiral Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    La, H S

    2003-01-01

    The spontaneous symmetry breaking of a local chiral symmetry to its diagonal vector symmetry naturally realizes a complete geometrical structure more general than that of Yang-Mills (YM) theory, rather similar to that of gravity. A good example is the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) with respect to the Chiral Color model. Also, a new anomaly-free particle content for a Chiral Color model is introduced: the Chiral Color can be realized without introducing whole new generations of quarks and leptons, but by simply enlarging each generation with new exotic fermions.

  18. Electroweak symmetry breaking beyond the Standard Model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gautam Bhattacharyya

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, two key issues related to electroweak symmetry breaking are addressed. First, how fine-tuned different models are that trigger this phenomenon? Second, even if a light Higgs boson exists, does it have to be necessarily elementary? After a brief introduction, the fine-tuning aspects of the MSSM, NMSSM, generalized NMSSM and GMSB scenarios shall be reviewed, then the little Higgs, composite Higgs and the Higgsless models shall be compared. Finally, a broad overview will be given on where we stand at the end of 2011.

  19. Double-Ended Break Test of an 8.5 inch Direct Vessel Injection Line using the ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermal-hydraulic integral effect test facility, ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation), has been constructed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). It is a 1/2 reduced height and 1/288-volume scaled test facility with respect to the APR1400, an evolutionary pressurized water reactor developed by the Korean industry. In 2008, an integral effect test for simulating a guillotine break of a DVI line of the APR1400 was carried out as the first DVI test item, named as SB-DVI-03, on May, 2008. With an improvement on the break flow measuring system, the second DVI test for a guillotine break of a DVI line of the APR1400, named as SB-DVI-08, was conducted for repeatability. The present data is the first integral effect test data of its kind for simulating a DVI line break accident. It will help in understanding the thermal hydraulic phenomena occurring during the DVI line break accident. A post-test calculation was performed with a best-estimate safety analysis code MARS 3.1 to examine its prediction capability and to identify any code deficiencies for the thermal hydraulic phenomena occurring during the DVI line break accidents. The present integral effect test data will be used to validate the current safety analysis methodology for the DVI line break accident

  20. On chiral symmetry breaking, topology and confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuryak, Edward

    2014-08-15

    We start with the relation between the chiral symmetry breaking and gauge field topology. New lattice results further enhance the notion of Zero Mode Zone, a very narrow strip of states with quasizero Dirac eigenvalues. Then we move to the issue of “origin of mass” and Brown–Rho scaling: a number of empirical facts contradicts to the idea that masses of quarks and such hadrons as ρ,N decrease near T{sub c}. We argue that while at T=0 the main contribution to the effective quark mass is chirally odd m{sub χ/}, near T{sub c} it rotates to chirally-even component m{sub χ}, because “infinite clusters” of topological solitons gets split into finite ones. Recent progress in understanding of topology require introduction of nonzero holonomy 〈A{sub 0}〉≠0, which splits instantons into N{sub c} (anti)selfdual “instanton–dyons”. Qualitative progress, as well as first numerical studies of the dyon ensemble are reported. New connections between chiral symmetry breaking and confinement are recently understood, since instanton–dyons generate holonomy potential with a minimum at confining value, if the ensemble is dense enough.

  1. Break-Induced Replication and Genome Stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Malkova

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Genetic instabilities, including mutations and chromosomal rearrangements, lead to cancer and other diseases in humans and play an important role in evolution. A frequent cause of genetic instabilities is double-strand DNA breaks (DSBs, which may arise from a wide range of exogeneous and endogeneous cellular factors. Although the repair of DSBs is required, some repair pathways are dangerous because they may destabilize the genome. One such pathway, break-induced replication (BIR, is the mechanism for repairing DSBs that possesses only one repairable end. This situation commonly arises as a result of eroded telomeres or collapsed replication forks. Although BIR plays a positive role in repairing DSBs, it can alternatively be a dangerous source of several types of genetic instabilities, including loss of heterozygosity, telomere maintenance in the absence of telomerase, and non-reciprocal translocations. Also, mutation rates in BIR are about 1000 times higher as compared to normal DNA replication. In addition, micro-homology-mediated BIR (MMBIR, which is a mechanism related to BIR, can generate copy-number variations (CNVs as well as various complex chromosomal rearrangements. Overall, activation of BIR may contribute to genomic destabilization resulting in substantial biological consequences including those affecting human health.

  2. Spontaneous spherical symmetry breaking in atomic confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Sveshnikov, K

    2016-01-01

    The effect of spontaneous breaking of initial SO(3) symmetry is shown to be possible for an H-like atom in the ground state, when it is confined in a spherical box under general boundary conditions of "not going out" through the box surface (i.e. third kind or Robin's ones), for a wide range of physically reasonable values of system parameters. The reason is that such boundary conditions could yield a large magnitude of electronic wavefunction in some sector of the box boundary, what in turn promotes atomic displacement from the box center towards this part of the boundary, and so the underlying SO(3) symmetry spontaneously breaks. The emerging Goldstone modes, coinciding with rotations around the box center, restore the symmetry by spreading the atom over a spherical shell localized at some distances from the box center. Atomic confinement inside the cavity proceeds dynamically -- due to the boundary condition the deformation of electronic wavefunction near the boundary works as a spring, that returns the at...

  3. Chip breaking system for automated machine tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arehart, Theodore A.; Carey, Donald O.

    1987-01-01

    The invention is a rotary selectively directional valve assembly for use in an automated turret lathe for directing a stream of high pressure liquid machining coolant to the interface of a machine tool and workpiece for breaking up ribbon-shaped chips during the formation thereof so as to inhibit scratching or other marring of the machined surfaces by these ribbon-shaped chips. The valve assembly is provided by a manifold arrangement having a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart ports each coupled to a machine tool. The manifold is rotatable with the turret when the turret is positioned for alignment of a machine tool in a machining relationship with the workpiece. The manifold is connected to a non-rotational header having a single passageway therethrough which conveys the high pressure coolant to only the port in the manifold which is in registry with the tool disposed in a working relationship with the workpiece. To position the machine tools the turret is rotated and one of the tools is placed in a material-removing relationship of the workpiece. The passageway in the header and one of the ports in the manifold arrangement are then automatically aligned to supply the machining coolant to the machine tool workpiece interface for breaking up of the chips as well as cooling the tool and workpiece during the machining operation.

  4. Spitzer View of Lyman Break Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Magdis, Georgios E

    2007-01-01

    Using a combination of deep MID-IR observations obtained by IRAC, MIPS and IRS on board Spitzer we investigate the MID-IR properties of Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) at z~3, establish a better understanding of their nature and attempt a complete characterisation of the population. With deep mid-infrared and optical observations of ~1000 LBGs covered by IRAC/MIPS and from the ground respectively, we extend the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the LBGs to mid-infrared. Spitzer data reveal for the first time that the mid-infrared properties of the population are inhomogeneous ranging from those with marginal IRAC detections to those with bright rest-frame near-infrared colors and those detected at 24mu MIPS band revealing the newly discovered population of the Infrared Luminous Lyman Break Galaxies (ILLBGs). To investigate this diversity, we examine the photometric properties of the population and we use stellar population synthesis models to probe the stellar content of these galaxies. We find that a fract...

  5. Hyperscaling violation and electroweak symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider a class of simplified models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking built in terms of their five-dimensional weakly-coupled gravity duals, in the spirit of bottom-up holography. The sigma-model consists of two abelian gauge bosons and one real, non-charged scalar field coupled to gravity in five dimensions. The scalar potential is a simple exponential function of the scalar field. The background metric resulting from solving the classical equations of motion exhibits hyperscaling violation, at least at asymptotically large values of the radial direction. We study the spectrum of scalar composite states of the putative dual field theory by fluctuating the sigma-model scalars and gravity, and discuss in which cases we find a parametrically light scalar state in the spectrum. We model the spontaneous breaking of the (weakly coupled) gauge symmetry to the diagonal subgroup by the choice of IR boundary conditions. We compute the mass spectrum of spin-1 states, and the precision electroweak parameter S as a function of the hyperscaling coefficient. We find a general bound on the mass of the lightest spin-1 resonance, by requiring that the indirect bounds on the precision parameters be satisfied, that implies that precision electroweak physics excludes the possibility of a techni-rho meson with mass lighter than several TeV

  6. Human Xip1 (C2orf13) is a novel regulator of cellular responses to DNA strand breaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bekker-Jensen, Simon; Fugger, Kasper; Danielsen, Jannie Rendtlew;

    2007-01-01

    the C terminus of Xip1. The initial recruitment kinetics of Xip1 closely paralleled that of XRCC1, a central organizer of single strand break (SSB) repair, and its accumulation was both delayed and sustained when the detection of SSBs was abrogated by inhibition of PARP-1. Xip1 and XRCC1 stably...... identify the previously uncharacterized human protein Xip1 (C2orf13) as a novel component of the checkpoint response to DNA strand breaks. Green fluorescent protein-tagged Xip1 was rapidly recruited to sites of DNA breaks, and this accumulation was dependent on a novel type of zinc finger motif located in...... underscoring the potential importance of Xip1 in the DNA damage response. Finally, depletion of Xip1 significantly decreased the clonogenic survival of cells exposed to DNA SSB- or double strand break-inducing agents. Collectively, these findings implicate Xip1 as a new regulator of genome maintenance pathways...

  7. Method for detecting DNA strand breaks in mammalian cells using the Deinococcus radiodurans PprA protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a previous study, we identified the novel protein PprA that plays a critical role in the radiation resistance of Deinococcus radiodurans. In this study, we focussed on the ability of PprA protein to recognize and bind to double-stranded DNA carrying strand breaks, and attempted to visualize radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in mammalian cultured cells by employing PprA protein using an immunofluorescence technique. Increased PprA protein binding to CHO-K1 nuclei immediately following irradiation suggests the protein is binding to DNA strand breaks. By altering the cell permeabilization conditions, PprA protein binding to CHO-K1 mitochondria, which is probably resulted from DNA strand break immediately following irradiation, was also detected. The method developed and detailed in this study will be useful in evaluating DNA damage responses in cultured cells, and could also be applicable to genotoxic tests in the environmental and pharmaceutical fields

  8. Passivity breaking of a local vacuum state in a quantum Hall system

    CERN Document Server

    Yusa, Go; Hotta, Masahiro

    2011-01-01

    We propose an experimental method for extracting the zero-point energy from a local vacuum state by performing local operations and classical communication (LOCC). We model a quantum Hall edge channel as a quantum entangled many-body channel and the zero-point fluctuation in the charge density of the channel as the vacuum state. We estimate the order of the energy gain using reasonable experimental parameters. Such a quantum feedback system breaks the passivity of a local vacuum state. It can be used to demonstrate Maxwell's demon or quantum energy teleportation in which no physical entity transports energy.

  9. Inflation and reheating in theories with spontaneous scale invariance symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Vanzo, Luciano

    2016-07-01

    We study a scale-invariant model of quadratic gravity with a nonminimally coupled scalar field. We focus on cosmological solutions and find that scale invariance is spontaneously broken and a mass scale naturally emerges. Before the symmetry breaking, the Universe undergoes an inflationary expansion with nearly the same observational predictions of Starobinsky's model. At the end of inflation, the Hubble parameter and the scalar field converge to a stable fixed point through damped oscillations and the usual Einstein-Hilbert action is recovered. The oscillations around the fixed point can reheat the Universe in various ways, and we study in detail some of these possibilities.

  10. Cloud properties during active and break spells of the West African summer monsoon from CloudSat-CALIPSO measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efon, E.; Lenouo, A.; Monkam, D.; Manatsa, D.

    2016-07-01

    High resolution of daily rainfall dataset from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) was used to identify active and break cloud formation periods. The clouds were characterized based on CloudSat-CALIPSO satellite images over West Africa during the summer monsoon during the period 2006-2010. The active and break periods are defined as the periods during the peak monsoon months of June to August when the normalized anomaly of rainfall over the monsoon core zone is greater than 0.9 or less than -0.9 respectively, provided the criteria is satisfied for at least three consecutive days. It is found that about 90% of the break period and 66.7% of the active spells lasted 3-4 days. Active spells lasting duration of about a week were observed while no break spell had such a long span. Cloud macrophysical (cloud base height (CBH), cloud top height (CTH) and cloud geometric depth (∆H), microphysical (cloud liquid water content, (LWC), liquid number concentration (LNC), liquid effective radius, ice water content (IWC), ice number concentration (INC) and ice effective radius) and radiative (heating rate properties) over South Central West Africa (5-15°N; 15°W-10°E) during the active and break spells were also analyzed. High-level clouds are more predominant during the break periods compared to the active periods. Active spells have lower INC compared to the break spells. Liquid water clouds are observed to have more radiative forcing during the active than break periods while ice phase clouds bring more cooling effect during the break spells compared to the active spells.

  11. Breaks in Play: Do They Achieve Intended Aims?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaszczynski, Alexander; Cowley, Elizabeth; Anthony, Christina; Hinsley, Kate

    2016-06-01

    Breaks in play represent a responsible gambling strategy designed to disrupt states of dissociation and enhance the likelihood of drawing attention to a player's session behaviour and expenditure with respect to time and money. The aim of the break in play is to motivate the player to modify or cease gambling so the activity remains within affordable levels. The aim of this study was to investigate whether imposed breaks in play in the absence of accompanying warning messages were effective in reducing cravings. Participants (141 university students) were randomly allocated to one of three conditions: 15 min computer simulated Black Jack play followed by no break, a 3 or 8 min break in play. Participants were administered a battery of measures to assess problem gambling card play, cravings, and dissociation to assess the effects of length of break on cravings. Results indicated that cravings increased rather than decreased with imposed breaks in play, and that the strength of cravings were higher following the eight- compared to 3-min break. It was concluded that breaks in play in isolation might produce counterproductive, unintended, and even perverse effects. The policy implications for responsible gambling strategies is that breaks in play ought to be accompanied with warning and/or personal appraisal messages if optimal effects in reducing within session gambling expenditure are to be achieved. PMID:26275785

  12. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF DAM-BREAK FLOW IN CASCADE RESERVOIRS WITH STEEP BOTTOM SLOPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Yang; XU Wei-lin; LUO Shu-jing; CHEN Hua-yong; LI Nai-wen; XU Ling-jun

    2011-01-01

    Dam break can cause a significant disaster in the downstream,especially,in a valley with cascade reservoirs,which would aggravate the disaster extent.The experimental studies of the dam-break flow of cascade reservoirs are few and far between at the present.Most of related studies concern the failure of a single dam..This article presents an experimental study of the characteristics of an instantly filled dam-break flow of cascade reservoirs in a rectangular glass flume with a steep bottom slope.A new method was used to simulate the sudden collapse of the dam.A series of sensors for automatic water-levels were deployed to record the rapid water depth fluctuation.The experimental results show that,the ratio of the initial water depth of the downstream reservoir to that of the upstream reservoir would greatly affect the flood peak water depth in the downstream reservoir area and in the stream channel behind the downstream dam,while the influence of the dam spacing is insignificant.In addition,the comparison between the single reservoir and the cascade reservoirs shows some difference in the dam-break flow pattern and the stage hydrograph at the corresponding gauging points.

  13. Behavioural breaks in the heterogeneous agent model: The impact of herding, overconfidence, and market sentiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukacka, Jiri; Barunik, Jozef

    2013-12-01

    The main aim of this work is to incorporate selected findings from behavioural finance into a Heterogeneous Agent Model using the Brock and Hommes (1998) [34] framework. Behavioural patterns are injected into an asset pricing framework through the so-called ‘Break Point Date’, which allows us to examine their direct impact. In particular, we analyse the dynamics of the model around the behavioural break. Price behaviour of 30 Dow Jones Industrial Average constituents covering five particularly turbulent US stock market periods reveals interesting patterns in this aspect. To replicate it, we apply numerical analysis using the Heterogeneous Agent Model extended with the selected findings from behavioural finance: herding, overconfidence, and market sentiment. We show that these behavioural breaks can be well modelled via the Heterogeneous Agent Model framework and they extend the original model considerably. Various modifications lead to significantly different results and model with behavioural breaks is also able to partially replicate price behaviour found in the data during turbulent stock market periods.

  14. Confinement/deconfinement transition from symmetry breaking in gauge/gravity duality

    CERN Document Server

    Čubrović, Mihailo

    2016-01-01

    We study the confinement/deconfinement transition in a strongly coupled system triggered by an independent symmetry-breaking quantum phase transition in gauge/gravity duality. The gravity dual is an Einstein-scalar-dilaton system with AdS near-boundary behavior and soft wall interior at zero scalar condensate. We study the cases of neutral and charged condensate separately. In the former case the condensation breaks the discrete $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ symmetry while a charged condensate breaks the continuous $U(1)$ symmetry. After the condensation of the order parameter, the non-zero vacuum expectation value of the scalar couples to the dilaton, changing the soft wall geometry into a non-confining and anisotropically scale-invariant infrared metric. In other words, the formation of long-range order is immediately followed by the deconfinement transition and the two critical points coincide. The confined phase has a scale -- the confinement scale (energy gap) which vanishes in the deconfined case. Therefore, the break...

  15. Symmetry breaking of particle trajectories due to magnetic interactions in a dilute suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, F.R., E-mail: frcunha@unb.br [Vortex Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics of Complex Flows and Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Faculdade de Tecnologia, Universidade de Brasilia, Campus Universitario Darcy Ribeiro, 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Gontijo, R.G., E-mail: rafaelgabler@gmail.com [Vortex Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics of Complex Flows and Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Faculdade de Tecnologia, Universidade de Brasilia, Campus Universitario Darcy Ribeiro, 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Sobral, Y.D., E-mail: ydsobral@unb.br [Vortex Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics of Complex Flows and Departamento de Matematica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade de Brasilia, Campus Universitario Darcy Ribeiro, 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    This work presents a numerical study of the relative trajectories of two magnetic particles interacting in a dilute suspension. The suspension is composed of magnetic spherical particles of different radius and density immersed in a Newtonian fluid. The particles settle relative to one another under the action of gravity and, when in close proximity, exert on each other magnetic force and torque due to their permanent magnetization. The equations of motion for both translation and rotation of the particles are solved and particle inertia is included in the calculation. The numerical simulations are based on the direct computations of the hydrodynamic and of the magnetic interactions between the rigid particles in the regime of non-zero Stokes number. A detailed study of the relative trajectories of two magnetic particles in a dilute suspension allows us to explore irreversible interactions that lead to particle aggregation and particle migration induced by the breaking of the time reversibility of the creeping flow due to magnetic effects. The calculation shows that the rotation of the particles produced by magnetic interactions change significantly the dynamics of collisions of magnetic particle. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relative trajectories of magnetic particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic interactions of particles under a gravity field. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic interactions break relative trajectories reversibility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Particle Rotation decrease the rate of aggregation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dispersion in a magnetic suspension due to magnetic interactions.

  16. Semilocal string with Lorentz-breaking term

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Topological defects arising from the spontaneous symmetry breaking are physical systems of interest in a wide range of theories, from condensed matter to cosmology. These defects may arise from an abelian, as well as non-abelian, symmetry spontaneously broken. The type of the defect depends on the broken symmetry. Among the typical interesting defects are the vortex solutions, whose characteristics were extensively investigated in the literature. On the other hand,extensions of the standard model including Lorentz-violation terms have been greatly studied in recent years. It was demonstrated that a Maxwell-Higgs systems with a CPT-even Lorentz symmetry violating term yields Bogomolnyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) vortex solutions enjoying fractional quantization of the magnetic field. One of the benchmarks of the vortex theory is the semi local vortex. Usually, most part of the study of vortex was restricted to the local symmetry. However, the inclusion of a global symmetry, besides the usual local one, may lead to some interesting characteristics in the resulting topological defect as the presence of topological vortex even if the vacuum manifold is simply connected. This work is partially concerned with the demonstration that semi local vortices may be found in a usual Maxwell-Higgs system plus a CPT-even Lorentz symmetry violating term. In fact, starting from a SU(2) global x U(1) local symmetry, the symmetry breaks down to U(1) local. Hence, the first homotopy group is trivial, i. e., π1(SU(2)globalxU(1)local=U(1)local) = 1. However, the local symmetry also plays its role. Since the potential we shall deal with goes as usual, it is possible to say that as in the usual Higgs-Maxwell case , when no Lorentz-violating term is present, the arguments in favor of stable vortices are strong, but not exhaustive. In order to guarantee the existence of semi local vortices in the Maxwell-Higgs plus Lorentz-violating model, we have to construct the solutions. It was

  17. Sulforaphane induces DNA single strand breaks in cultured human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sestili, Piero, E-mail: piero.sestili@uniurb.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomolecolari, Via Maggetti, 21, Universita degli Studi di Urbino ' Carlo Bo' , 61029 Urbino, PU (Italy); Paolillo, Marco [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomolecolari, Via Maggetti, 21, Universita degli Studi di Urbino ' Carlo Bo' , 61029 Urbino, PU (Italy); Lenzi, Monia [Dipartimento di Farmacologia, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, Via Irnerio 48, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Colombo, Evelin; Vallorani, Luciana; Casadei, Lucia; Martinelli, Chiara [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomolecolari, Via Maggetti, 21, Universita degli Studi di Urbino ' Carlo Bo' , 61029 Urbino, PU (Italy); Fimognari, Carmela [Dipartimento di Farmacologia, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, Via Irnerio 48, 40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2010-07-07

    Sulforaphane (SFR), an isothiocyanate from cruciferous vegetables, possesses growth-inhibiting and apoptosis-inducing activities in cancer cell lines. Recently, SFR has been shown to promote the mitochondrial formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human cancer cell lines. The present study was undertaken to see whether SFR-derived ROS might cause DNA damage in cultured human cells, namely T limphoblastoid Jurkat and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). 1-3 h treatments with 10-30 {mu}M SFR elicited intracellular ROS formation (as assayed with dihydrorhodamine, DHR, oxidation) as well as DNA breakage (as assessed with fast halo assay, FHA). These effects lacked cell-type specificity, since could be observed in both Jurkat and HUVEC. Differential-pH FHA analysis of damaged DNA showed that SFR causes frank DNA single strand breaks (SSBs); no DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) were found within the considered treatment times (up to 3 h). SFR-derived ROS were formed at the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) level: indeed rotenone or myxothiazol (MRC Complex I and III inhibitors, respectively) abrogated ROS formation. Furthermore ROS were not formed in Jurkat cells pharmacologically depleted of respiring mitochondria (MRC-/Jurkat). Formation of ROS was causally linked to the induction of SSBs: indeed all the experimental conditions capable of preventing ROS formation also prevented the damage of nuclear DNA from SFR-intoxicated cells. As to the toxicological relevance of SSBs, we found that their prevention slightly but significantly attenuated SFR cytotoxicity, suggesting that high-dose SFR toxicity is the result of a complex series of events among which GSH depletion seems to play a pivotal role. In conclusion, the present study identifies a novel mechanism contributing to SFR toxicity which - since DNA damage is a prominent mechanism underlying the cytotoxic activity of established antineoplastic agents - might help to exploit the therapeutic value

  18. Statistical model on the surface elevation of waves with breaking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In the surface wind drift layer with constant momentum flux, two sets of the consistent surface eleva- tion expressions with breaking and occurrence conditions for breaking are deduced from the first in- tegrals of the energy and vortex variations and the kinetic and mathematic breaking criterions, then the expression of the surface elevation with wave breaking is established by using the Heaviside function. On the basis of the form of the sea surface elevation with wave breaking and the understanding of small slope sea waves, a triple composite function of real sea waves is presented including the func- tions for the breaking, weak-nonlinear and basic waves. The expression of the triple composite func- tion and the normal distribution of basic waves are the expected theoretical model for surface elevation statistics.

  19. Shock wave propagation of circular dam break problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the behavior of shock wave propagation of circular (radial) dam break problems. A dam break problem represents a reservoir having two sides of water at rest initially with different depth separated by a wall, then water flows after the wall is removed. The behavior of shock wave propagation is investigated with respect to water levels and with respect to the speeds of the shock waves. To the author's knowledge, such investigation for circular dam break problems had never been done before. Therefore, this new work shall be important for applied computational mathematics and physics communities as well as fluid dynamic researchers. Based on our research results, the propagation speed of shock wave in a circular dam break is lower than that of shock wave in a planar dam break having the same initial water levels as in the circular dam break

  20. Symmetry Breaking in MILP Formulations for Unit Commitment Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, Ricardo M.

    2015-12-11

    This paper addresses the study of symmetry in Unit Commitment (UC) problems solved by Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) formulations, and using Linear Programming based Branch & Bound MILP solvers. We propose three sets of symmetry breaking constraints for UC MILP formulations exhibiting symmetry, and its impact on three UC MILP models are studied. The case studies involve the solution of 24 instances by three widely used models in the literature, with and without symmetry breaking constraints. The results show that problems that could not be solved to optimality within hours can be solved with a relatively small computational burden if the symmetry breaking constraints are assumed. The proposed symmetry breaking constraints are also compared with the symmetry breaking methods included in two MILP solvers, and the symmetry breaking constraints derived in this work have a distinct advantage over the methods in the MILP solvers.