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Sample records for break points identified

  1. Model Breaking Points Conceptualized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vig, Rozy; Murray, Eileen; Star, Jon R.

    2014-01-01

    Current curriculum initiatives (e.g., National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers 2010) advocate that models be used in the mathematics classroom. However, despite their apparent promise, there comes a point when models break, a point in the mathematical problem space where the model cannot,…

  2. Consistency of Trend Break Point Estimator with Underspecified Break Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the consistency of trend break point estimators when the number of breaks is underspecified. The consistency of break point estimators in a simple location model with level shifts has been well documented by researchers under various settings, including extensions such as allowing a time trend in the model. Despite the consistency of break point estimators of level shifts, there are few papers on the consistency of trend shift break point estimators in the presence of an underspecified break number. The simulation study and asymptotic analysis in this paper show that the trend shift break point estimator does not converge to the true break points when the break number is underspecified. In the case of two trend shifts, the inconsistency problem worsens if the magnitudes of the breaks are similar and the breaks are either both positive or both negative. The limiting distribution for the trend break point estimator is developed and closely approximates the finite sample performance.

  3. Aluminum break-point contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinemann, Martina; Groot, R.A. de

    1997-01-01

    Ab initio molecular dynamics is used to study the contribution of a single Al atom to an aluminum breakpoint contact during the final stages of breaking and the initial stages of the formation of such a contact. A hysteresis effect is found in excellent agreement with experiment and the form of the

  4. ANALISA BREAK EVENT POINT (BEP TERHADAP LABA PERUSAHAAN

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    Muhammad Yusuf

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Break event point or the break-even point can be defined as a situation where the operating company does not make a profit and not a loss. The goal is to provide the knowledge to increase knowledge about the break event point (the point of principal and its relationship with the company profit and to know how the results of the. Analysis break event point is very important for the leadership of the company to determine the production rate how much the cost will be equal to the amount of sales or in other words to determine the break event point we will determine the relationship between sales, production, selling price, cost, loss or profit, making it easier for leaders to take discretion.DOI: 10.15408/ess.v4i1.1955 

  5. Nearshore bars and the break-point hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallenger, A.H.; Howd, P.A.

    1989-01-01

    The set of hypotheses calling for bar formation at the break point was tested with field data. During two different experiments, waves were measured across the surf zone coincident with the development of a nearshore bar. We use a criterion, based on the wave height to depth ratio, to determine the offshore limit of the inner surf zone. During the first experiment, the bar became better developed and migrated offshore while remaining well within the inner surf zone. During the second experiment, the surf zone was narrower and we cannot rule out the possibility of break point processes contributing to bar development. We conclude that bars are not necessarily coupled with the break point and can become better developed and migrate offshore while being in the inner surf zone landward from initial wave breaking in the outer surf zone. ?? 1989.

  6. Cedar Breaks National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project - Field Plot, Observation Points and Accuracy Assessment Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This point file contains 282 point locations of field plot and observation data used by, and collected for, the vegetation mapping project for Cedar Breaks National...

  7. Break point of serum creatine kinase release after endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totsuka, Manabu; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Suzuki, Katsuhiko; Sugawara, Kazuo; Sato, Koki

    2002-10-01

    We investigated whether there is a break point of creatine kinase (CK) release after daily endurance exercise and whether CK response depends on individual physical characteristics. Fifteen healthy young men performed 90 min of bicycle exercise for 3 consecutive days. Body composition, properties of the quadriceps femoris muscle (QFM), and aerobic and anaerobic capacities were estimated before the test. Blood samples were obtained 22 times during the experimental period. Endurance exercise significantly elevated serum CK from 3 h after the first exercise session (P 500 IU/l of CK) and low responders (LR; break point of CK release after endurance exercise under these conditions is 300-500 IU/l, two or three times higher than in the resting condition, and is associated with properties of the QFM.

  8. Identification of intensity ratio break points from photon arrival trajectories in ratiometric single molecule spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingemann, Dieter; Allen, Rachel M

    2012-01-01

    We describe a statistical method to analyze dual-channel photon arrival trajectories from single molecule spectroscopy model-free to identify break points in the intensity ratio. Photons are binned with a short bin size to calculate the logarithm of the intensity ratio for each bin. Stochastic photon counting noise leads to a near-normal distribution of this logarithm and the standard student t-test is used to find statistically significant changes in this quantity. In stochastic simulations we determine the significance threshold for the t-test's p-value at a given level of confidence. We test the method's sensitivity and accuracy indicating that the analysis reliably locates break points with significant changes in the intensity ratio with little or no error in realistic trajectories with large numbers of small change points, while still identifying a large fraction of the frequent break points with small intensity changes. Based on these results we present an approach to estimate confidence intervals for the identified break point locations and recommend a bin size to choose for the analysis. The method proves powerful and reliable in the analysis of simulated and actual data of single molecule reorientation in a glassy matrix.

  9. Multiple Break-Points Detection in Array CGH Data via the Cross-Entropy Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priyadarshana, W J R M; Sofronov, Georgy

    2015-01-01

    Array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) is a widely used methodology to detect copy number variations of a genome in high resolution. Knowing the number of break-points and their corresponding locations in genomic sequences serves different biological needs. Primarily, it helps to identify disease-causing genes that have functional importance in characterizing genome wide diseases. For human autosomes the normal copy number is two, whereas at the sites of oncogenes it increases (gain of DNA) and at the tumour suppressor genes it decreases (loss of DNA). The majority of the current detection methods are deterministic in their set-up and use dynamic programming or different smoothing techniques to obtain the estimates of copy number variations. These approaches limit the search space of the problem due to different assumptions considered in the methods and do not represent the true nature of the uncertainty associated with the unknown break-points in genomic sequences. We propose the Cross-Entropy method, which is a model-based stochastic optimization technique as an exact search method, to estimate both the number and locations of the break-points in aCGH data. We model the continuous scale log-ratio data obtained by the aCGH technique as a multiple break-point problem. The proposed methodology is compared with well established publicly available methods using both artificially generated data and real data. Results show that the proposed procedure is an effective way of estimating number and especially the locations of break-points with high level of precision. Availability: The methods described in this article are implemented in the new R package breakpoint and it is available from the Comprehensive R Archive Network at http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=breakpoint.

  10. BREAK-EVEN POINT IN SUGAR-BEET PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilija Nedić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available World sugar consumption has been recording a steady growth in the past 70 years and, according to all relevant estimates, it will continue to grow also in the next decade, which puts sugar in the category of the most significant foods and commodities in the world. Of the total world sugar production, around 77% is derived from sugar cane and 23% from sugar beet. Brazil has been the world leader in sugar production for a long period of time, producing white sugar from sugar cane only, whereas the leader in the production of sugar derived from sugar beet is the EU-28. When the Republic of Croatia joined the EU, the Croatian sugar industry became part of the single European sugar market, so the break-even point was used in the research to determine the competitiveness level of the Croatian sugar beet production. Based on the expected selling price of sugar beet amounting to EUR 34 per ton of standard quality sugar beet, and using the break-even method, it was determined that the quantity required to cover total costs in sugar beet production in the Republic of Croatia amounts to 55.26 tons per hectare of payable sugar beet, standard quality, i.e. 8.84 tons of polarized sugar per hectare. As the average sugar beet production in the Republic of Croatia, expressed in the equivalent of polarized sugar, amounts to 7.8 tons per hectare, it is obvious that an average Croatian producer of sugar beet, without income from subsidies, operates at a loss.

  11. Syndrome-related chromosome-specific radiation-induced break points of various inherited human metabolic disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radha, S; Marimuthu, K M

    2003-07-08

    The frequency, distribution pattern and localisation of gamma radiation-induced break points on the chromosomes of patients with various inherited metabolic disorders were studied to detect: (i) whether the break point distribution following irradiation is random and proportional to the length or the DNA content of the chromosome, or non-proportionally distributed on their length and at times clustering to form hot spots on certain region of the chromosomes; and (ii) to find whether there exists a syndrome-related chromosome-specific pattern of radiation-induced break points. Lymphocyte cultures from patients of haemophilia, ichthyosis, Duchenne muscular dystrophy, retinitis pigmentosa and alpha-thalassemia, whose defective gene loci were located by DNA probe method, were subjected to 3Gy of gamma radiation at G(0). The chromosomal break point analysis was carried out on all the 23 types of chromosomes (excluding Y chromosome) using G banding and FISH painting. The exact location of the break points on G-banded chromosomes was identified using a semi-automated microscope densitometer system (Leitz MPV2). In normal individuals in all the chromosomes except the chromosome 1, a random distribution of break points proportional to their length based on their DNA content was observed. However, in all the syndromes studied a mixture of hypersensitive chromosomes with a non-random distribution pattern of chromosomal break points invariably clustering to form hot spots, and chromosomes with random distribution of break points proportional to their length were observed. The hypersensitive chromosomes and their hot spots were syndrome-specific.

  12. Identification of anaplastic lymphoma kinase break points and oncogenic mutation profiles in acral/mucosal melanomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hai-Tao; Zhou, Qi-Ming; Wang, Fang; Shao, Qiong; Guan, Yuan-Xiang; Wen, Xi-Zhi; Chen, Li-Zhen; Feng, Qi-Sheng; Li, Wei; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Zhang, Xiao-Shi

    2013-09-01

    Acral and mucosal melanomas, the two most common subtypes of melanoma in China, exhibit different genetic alterations and biologic behavior compared with other subtypes of melanomas. The purpose of this study was to identify the genetic alterations in patients with acral or mucosal melanomas in southern China. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), immunohistochemistry (IHC) analysis, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (qRT-PCR) were used to assess the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) break points. Furthermore, a mass spectrometry-based genotyping platform was used to analyze 30 acral melanomas and 28 mucosal melanomas to profile 238 known somatic mutations in 19 oncogenes. ALK break points were identified in four acral cases (6.9%). Eight (13.8%) cases harbored BRAF mutations, six (10.3%) had NRAS mutations, four (6.9%) had KIT mutations, two (3.5%) had EGFR mutations, two (3.5%) had KRAS mutations, two (3.5%) had MET mutations, one (1.7%) had an HRAS mutation, and one (1.7%) had a PIK3CA mutation. Two cases exhibited co-occurring mutations, and one case with a BRAF mutation had a translocation in ALK. This study represents a comprehensive and concurrent analysis of the major recurrent oncogenic mutations involved in melanoma cases from southern China. These data have implications for both clinical trial designs and therapeutic strategies.

  13. Breaking Bad Habits: Teaching Effective PowerPoint Use to Working Graduate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vik, Gretchen N.

    2004-01-01

    One interesting aspect of teaching students to use PowerPoint and similar graphics packages effectively is that graduate students who are already in the workforce often have bad presentation habits that they need to break. In this article, the author discusses ways of breaking these bad habits. Using storyboards is one way to keep students from…

  14. Radiative symmetry breaking from interacting UV fixed points arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, Steven

    It is shown that the addition of positive mass-squared terms to asymptotically safe gauge-Yukawa theories with perturbative UV fixed points leads to calculable radiative symmetry breaking in the IR. This phenomenon, and the multiplicative running of the operators that lies behind it, is akin to the radiative symmetry breaking that occurs in the Supersymmetric Standard Model.

  15. Hydrogen bond breaking in aqueous solutions near the critical point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayanovic, Robert A.; Anderson, Alan J.; Bassett, William A.; Chou, I.-Ming

    2001-01-01

    The nature of water-anion bonding is examined using X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy on a 1mZnBr2/6m NaBr aqueous solution, to near critical conditions. Analyses show that upon heating the solution from 25??C to 500??C, a 63% reduction of waters occurs in the solvation shell of ZnBr42-, which is the predominant complex at all pressure-temperature conditions investigated. A similar reduction in the hydration shell of waters in the Br- aqua ion was found. Our results indicate that the water-anion and water-water bond breaking mechanisms occurring at high temperatures are essentially the same. This is consistent with the hydration waters being weakly hydrogen bonded to halide anions in electrolyte solutions. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  16. Near Point of Convergence Break for Different Age Groups in Turkish Population with Normal Binocular Vision: Normative Data

    OpenAIRE

    Nihat Sayın; Birsen Gökyiğit; Pelin Kaynak; Duygu Tüzün Sayın; Ahmet Demirok; Serpil Akar

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the near point of convergence break in Turkish population with normal binocular vision and to obtain the normative data for the near point of convergence break in different age groups. Such database has not been previously reported. Material and Method: In this prospective study, 329 subjects with normal binocular vision (age range, 3-72 years) were evaluated. The near point of convergence break was measured 4 times repeatedly wit...

  17. A novel break point of the BMPR2 gene exonic deletion in a patient with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aimi, Yuki; Hirayama, Tomomi; Kataoka, Masaharu; Momose, Yuichi; Nishimaki, Saiko; Matsushita, Kenichi; Yoshino, Hideaki; Satoh, Toru; Gamou, Shinobu

    2013-12-01

    The presence of genetic rearrangements of bone morphogenetic protein type 2 receptor (BMPR2) was identified in pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) patients as the deletion or duplication of one or more exons of the gene. We recently investigated the deletion break points in exonic deletions of BMPR2 in two Japanese familial cases with PAH, and found that these were Alu-mediated via either non-allelic homologous recombination or non-homologous recombination. We herein report the third case of exonic deletion, which was in a 25-year-old female PAH patient with a deletion of BMPR2 exon 3. The break point in this case was not located in an Alu sequence. The 5'- and 3'-break point maps between the inverted Alu sequences in intron 2 and in exon 3, respectively, resulted in a 759-bp deletion. This novel exonic deletion in this PAH case may be a unique and non-recurrent rearrangement, and appears to be of a different size from that in other patients.

  18. Localisation of aphidicolin-induced break points in Holstein-Friesian cattle (Bos taurus using RBG-banding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mernies Beatriz

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fragile sites (FS seem to play a role in genome instability and may be involved in karyotype evolution and chromosome aberrations. The majority of common fragile sites are induced by aphidicolin. Aphidicolin was used at two different concentrations (0.15 and 0.30 μM to study the occurrence of FS in the cattle karyotype. In this paper, a map of aphidicolin induced break points and fragile sites in cattle chromosomes was constructed. The statistical analysis indicated that any band with three or more breaks was significantly damaged (P r = 0.54. On the contrary, 21 FS were identified on negative R bands while 9 FS were located on positive R bands.

  19. Standard test method for determination of breaking strength of ceramic tiles by three-point loading

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2001-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of breaking strength of ceramic tiles by three-point loading. 1.2 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine the applicability of regulatory limitations prior to use.

  20. Identifying populations at risk from environmental contamination from point sources

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, F; Ogston, S

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To compare methods for defining the population at risk from a point source of air pollution. A major challenge for environmental epidemiology lies in correctly identifying populations at risk from exposure to environmental pollutants. The complexity of today's environment makes it essential that the methods chosen are accurate and sensitive.

  1. Near Point of Convergence Break for Different Age Groups in Turkish Population with Normal Binocular Vision: Normative Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Sayın

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the near point of convergence break in Turkish population with normal binocular vision and to obtain the normative data for the near point of convergence break in different age groups. Such database has not been previously reported. Material and Method: In this prospective study, 329 subjects with normal binocular vision (age range, 3-72 years were evaluated. The near point of convergence break was measured 4 times repeatedly with an accommodative target. Mean values of near point of convergence break were provided for these age groups (≤10, 11-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, and >60 years old. A statistical comparison (one-way ANOVA and post-hoc test of these values between age groups was performed. A correlation between the near point of convergence break and age was evaluated by Pearson’s correlation test. Results: The mean value for near point of convergence break was 2.46±1.88 (0.5-14 cm. Specifically, 95% of measurements in all subjects were 60 year-old age groups in the near point of convergence break values (p=0.0001, p=0.0001, p=0.006, p=0.001, p= 0.004. A mild positive correlation was observed between the increase in near point of convergence break and increase of age (r=0.355 (p<0.001. Discussion: The values derived from a relatively large study population to establish a normative database for the near point of convergence break in the Turkish population with normal binocular vision are in relevance with age. This database has not been previously reported. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 402-6

  2. Breaking a virus: Identifying molecular level failure modes of a viral capsid by multiscale modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamani, V.; Globisch, C.; Peter, C.; Deserno, M.

    2016-07-01

    We use coarse-grained (CG) simulations to study the deformation of empty Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus (CCMV) capsids under uniaxial compression, from the initial elastic response up to capsid breakage. Our CG model is based on the MARTINI force field and has been amended by a stabilizing elastic network, acting only within individual proteins, that was tuned to capture the fluctuation spectrum of capsid protein dimers, obtained from all atom simulations. We have previously shown that this model predicts force-compression curves that match AFM indentation experiments on empty CCMV capsids. Here we investigate details of the actual breaking events when the CCMV capsid finally fails. We present a symmetry classification of all relevant protein contacts and show that they differ significantly in terms of stability. Specifically, we show that interfaces which break readily are precisely those which are believed to form last during assembly, even though some of them might share the same contacts as other non-breaking interfaces. In particular, the interfaces that form pentamers of dimers never break, while the virtually identical interfaces within hexamers of dimers readily do. Since these units differ in the large-scale geometry and, most noticeably, the cone-angle at the center of the 5- or 6-fold vertex, we propose that the hexameric unit fails because it is pre-stressed. This not only suggests that hexamers of dimers form less frequently during the early stages of assembly; it also offers a natural explanation for the well-known β-barrel motif at the hexameric center as a post-aggregation stabilization mechanism. Finally, we identify those amino acid contacts within all key protein interfaces that are most persistent during compressive deformation of the capsid, thereby providing potential targets for mutation studies aiming to elucidate the key contacts upon which overall stability rests.

  3. Breaking a virus: Identifying molecular level failure modes of a viral capsid by multiscale modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamani, V.; Globisch, C.; Peter, C.; Deserno, M.

    2016-10-01

    We use coarse-grained (CG) simulations to study the deformation of empty Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus (CCMV) capsids under uniaxial compression, from the initial elastic response up to capsid breakage. Our CG model is based on the MARTINI force field and has been amended by a stabilizing elastic network, acting only within individual proteins, that was tuned to capture the fluctuation spectrum of capsid protein dimers, obtained from all atom simulations. We have previously shown that this model predicts force-compression curves that match AFM indentation experiments on empty CCMV capsids. Here we investigate details of the actual breaking events when the CCMV capsid finally fails. We present a symmetry classification of all relevant protein contacts and show that they differ significantly in terms of stability. Specifically, we show that interfaces which break readily are precisely those which are believed to form last during assembly, even though some of them might share the same contacts as other non-breaking interfaces. In particular, the interfaces that form pentamers of dimers never break, while the virtually identical interfaces within hexamers of dimers readily do. Since these units differ in the large-scale geometry and, most noticeably, the cone-angle at the center of the 5- or 6-fold vertex, we propose that the hexameric unit fails because it is pre-stressed. This not only suggests that hexamers of dimers form less frequently during the early stages of assembly; it also offers a natural explanation for the well-known β-barrel motif at the hexameric center as a post-aggregation stabilization mechanism. Finally, we identify those amino acid contacts within all key protein interfaces that are most persistent during compressive deformation of the capsid, thereby providing potential targets for mutation studies aiming to elucidate the key contacts upon which overall stability rests.

  4. Analysis of boundary point (break point) in Linear Delay Model for nanoscale VLSI standard cell library characterization at PVT corners

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Gaurav Kumar

    2014-01-01

    In VLSI chip design flow, Static Timing Analysis (STA) is used for fast and accurate analysis of data-path delay. This process is fast because delay is picked from Look Up Tables (LUT) rather than conventional SPICE simulations. But accuracy of this method depends upon the underlying delay model with which LUT was characterized. Non Linear Delay Model (NLDM) based LUTs are quite common in industries. These LUT requires huge amount to time during characterization because of huge number of SPICE simulations done at arbitrary points. To improve this people proposed various other delay models like alpha-power and piecewise linear delay models. Bulusu et al proposed Linear Delay Model(LDM) which reduces LUT generation time to 50 percent. LDM divides delay curve w.r.t input rise time(trin) into two different region one is linear and other is non-linear. This boundary point between linear and non- linear region was called break point (trb). Linear region will be done if we simulate at only two points. This advantage...

  5. Lidar point density analysis: implications for identifying water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worstell, Bruce B.; Poppenga, Sandra; Evans, Gayla A.; Prince, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Most airborne topographic light detection and ranging (lidar) systems operate within the near-infrared spectrum. Laser pulses from these systems frequently are absorbed by water and therefore do not generate reflected returns on water bodies in the resulting void regions within the lidar point cloud. Thus, an analysis of lidar voids has implications for identifying water bodies. Data analysis techniques to detect reduced lidar return densities were evaluated for test sites in Blackhawk County, Iowa, and Beltrami County, Minnesota, to delineate contiguous areas that have few or no lidar returns. Results from this study indicated a 5-meter radius moving window with fewer than 23 returns (28 percent of the moving window) was sufficient for delineating void regions. Techniques to provide elevation values for void regions to flatten water features and to force channel flow in the downstream direction also are presented.

  6. [Localization of 8q24 break-point of Burkitt lymphoma in Japan : relationship to EBV status].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, E; Ohno, H

    1997-02-01

    It has been reported that the break point of 8q24 in t (8; 14) (q24; q32) is located far up-stream from c-myc gene locus in endemic EBV (Epstein-Barr virus)-positive BL, while the break-point is located close to the 1st intron of c-myc gene in sporadic EBV-negative BL. Considering that no statistical analysis is available regarding BL in Japan, the break-point of chromosome No.8 was investigated in 13 BL/L3 cell lines (having t(8; 14)) and 4 fresh samples derived from Japanese patients, including 3 EBV-positive BL cell lines, by using long-distance PCR. In this PCR, one primer was set in the 2nd intron of the c-myc gene, and the other primer in Ig constant region gene, mu, gamma, alpha and epsilon. This long distance PCR can cover up to 30 kb. Thus, this PCR does'nt generate product, if the 8q24 break-point is located far up-stream (more than 50 kb) fom c-myc gene. In 2 of the 3 t (8; 14) EBV-positive BL lines, no product was generated in two lines(N831 and Middle 91), while a product was synthesized in one line(Akata), indicating that the 8q24 break-point is near the c-myc gene in Akata. In all the other BL/L3 lines, a product was synthesized. A larger number of BL cases are necessary to investigate in order to know which 8q24 break-point pattern is exhibited by EBV-positive BL in Japan, while this method is suitable for testing a large number of case materials.

  7. A new criterion for identifying breaks in monsoon conditions over the Indian subcontinent

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Dessai, U.R.P.

    -1967) of rainfall data, Ramamurty (1969) suggested various synoptic situations responsible for the break in monsoon conditions. They include (i) The migration of monsoon trough to the foot hills of Himalayas, (ii) The absence of low level easterly winds over... the northern India and (iii) The increased rainfall activity in the foot hills of Himalayas and decrease of rainfall over the rest of the country. The criteria used by him for a break was based on surface pressure distribution and circulation. He looked...

  8. Summer holidays as break-point in shaping a tannery sludge microbial community around a stable core microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Cesira; Boscaro, Vittorio; Munz, Giulio; Mori, Gualtiero; Vannini, Claudia

    2016-07-27

    Recently, several investigations focused on the discovery of a bacterial consortium shared among different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Nevertheless, the definition of a core microbiota over time represents the necessary counterpart in order to unravel the dynamics of bacterial communities in these environments. Here we performed a monthly survey on the bacterial community of a consortial industrial plant. Objectives of this study were: (1) to identify a core microbiota constant over time; (2) to evaluate the temporal dynamics of the community during one year. A conspicuous and diversified core microbiota is constituted by operational taxonomic units which are present throughout the year in the plant. Community composition data confirm that the presence and abundance of bacteria in WWTPs is highly consistent at high taxonomic level. Our results indicate however a difference in microbial community structure between two groups of samples, identifying the summer holiday period as the break-point. Changes in the structure of the microbial community occur otherwise gradually, one month after another. Further studies will clarify how the size and diversity of the core microbiota could affect the observed dynamics.

  9. Break Point Distribution on Chromosome 3 of Human Epithelial Cells exposed to Gamma Rays, Neutrons and Fe Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, M.; Saganti, P. B.; Gersey, B.; Wilkins, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wu, H.

    2007-01-01

    Most of the reported studies of break point distribution on the damaged chromosomes from radiation exposure were carried out with the G-banding technique or determined based on the relative length of the broken chromosomal fragments. However, these techniques lack the accuracy in comparison with the later developed multicolor banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) technique that is generally used for analysis of intrachromosomal aberrations such as inversions. Using mBAND, we studied chromosome aberrations in human epithelial cells exposed in vitro to both low or high dose rate gamma rays in Houston, low dose rate secondary neutrons at Los Alamos National Laboratory and high dose rate 600 MeV/u Fe ions at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory. Detailed analysis of the inversion type revealed that all of the three radiation types induced a low incidence of simple inversions. Half of the inversions observed after neutron or Fe ion exposure, and the majority of inversions in gamma-irradiated samples were accompanied by other types of intrachromosomal aberrations. In addition, neutrons and Fe ions induced a significant fraction of inversions that involved complex rearrangements of both inter- and intrachromosome exchanges. We further compared the distribution of break point on chromosome 3 for the three radiation types. The break points were found to be randomly distributed on chromosome 3 after neutrons or Fe ions exposure, whereas non-random distribution with clustering break points was observed for gamma-rays. The break point distribution may serve as a potential fingerprint of high-LET radiation exposure.

  10. Relationship between double product break point, lactate threshold, and ventilatory threshold in cardiac patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omiya, Kazuto; Itoh, Haruki; Harada, Naomi; Maeda, Tomoko; Tajima, Akihiko; Oikawa, Keiko; Koike, Akira; Aizawa, Tadanori; Fu, Long-Tai; Osada, Naohiko

    2004-03-01

    A double product break point (DPBP) occurs simultaneously with both ventilatory threshold (VT) and lactate threshold (LT) in normal subjects. We sought to determine whether a DPBP also occurs in cardiac patients and to investigate correlations between DPBP, VT and LT (study 1). We also evaluated a non-invasive DPBP measurement system that determined blood pressure automatically by the cuff method (study 2). Study 1 comprised 15 patients [8 men and 7 women, mean (SD) age 47.7 (11.1) years] who performed cardiopulmonary exercise tests on a cycle ergometer. The double product was defined as the product of heart rate and direct systolic blood pressure. Arterial blood samples were obtained for measurement of lactate, pyruvate, pH, and norepinephrine levels. VT was determined by gas analysis, and LT was determined as the lactate/pyruvate ratio. DPBPs were detected in all 15 patients. Double product slopes above the DPBP were significantly greater than those below the DPBP (286.2 vs 98.5/W, P<0.001). The lactate/pyruvate ratio increased, arterial pH decreased, and plasma norepinephrine concentration increased above the DPBP. DPBP had strong positive correlations with VT ( r=0.93) and LT ( r=0.95). Study 2 comprised 65 cardiac patients. The DPBP was detected in 89.2% of patients and correlated closely with VT. We conclude that DPBP occurs near VT and LT in cardiac patients during incremental exercise, that the noninvasive DPBP measurement method is comparable to the invasive method, and that DPBP may be as useful an index of exercise intensity in patients with cardiac disease as VT or LT.

  11. A nontrivial critical fixed point for replica-symmetry-breaking transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Charbonneau, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The transformation of the free-energy landscape from smooth to fractal is the richest feature of mean-field disordered systems. A well-studied example is the de Almeida-Thouless transition for spin glasses in a magnetic field, and a similar phenomenon--the Gardner transition--has recently been predicted for structural glasses. However, the existence of these phase transitions has been called into question below the upper critical dimension d_u=6. Here, we obtain evidence for these transitions in dimensions didentifies the underlying critical fixed point. Because this fixed point is found in the strong-coupling regime, we further corroborate the result with a nonperturbative renormalization group treatment.

  12. THE STUDY OF SIMPLE HIGH ORDER SYMMETRY-BREAKING BIFURCATION POINT%简单高阶对称破坏分歧点的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贺元; 丁素珍

    2005-01-01

    In this paper,the bifurcation problem g(x, λ) = 0 with symmetry con-dition is studied. An extended system is introduced for computing the simple high order symmetry-breaking bifurcation point. Numerical example is given. Key words Bifurcation problem, Symmetry-breaking bifurcation point, High order Singularities

  13. 'Break-point Checkerboard Plate' for screening of appropriate antibiotic combinations against multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tateda, Kazuhiro; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Matsumoto, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Keizo

    2006-01-01

    Increase of multiple drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP) is becoming a serious problem in the clinical setting. Although the checkerboard method to determine FIC index and synergistic effects of antibiotic combinations is useful, it is not well adapted to a routine test, mainly because of its time-consuming and labor-intensive nature. Here we report 'Break-point Checkerboard Plate', in which breakpoint concentrations, such as 'S' (sensitive) and 'I' (intermediate), were combined in a microtiter plate with 8 antibiotics, including carbapenem, aminoglycoside and fluoroquinolone. The results obtained from 12 strains of MDRP demonstrated a strong synergistic effect of some antibiotic combinations at clinically relevant concentrations. Our data suggest a usefulness of 'Break-point Checkerboard Plate' to screen appropriate antibiotic combinations against drug resistant organisms, including MDRP.

  14. PT symmetry breaking and exceptional points for a class of inhomogeneous complex potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorey, Patrick; Lishman, Anna [Department of Mathematical Sciences, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Dunning, Clare [SMSAS, University of Kent, Canterbury, UK CT2 7NF (United Kingdom); Tateo, Roberto [Dip. di Fisica Teorica and INFN, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125 Torino (Italy)], E-mail: p.e.dorey@durham.ac.uk, E-mail: t.c.dunning@kent.ac.uk, E-mail: AnnaLishman@dunelm.org.uk, E-mail: tateo@to.infn.it

    2009-11-20

    We study a three-parameter family of PT-symmetric Hamiltonians, related via the ODE/IM correspondence to the Perk-Schultz models. We show that real eigenvalues merge and become complex at quadratic and cubic exceptional points, and explore the corresponding Jordan block structures by exploiting the quasi-exact solvability of a subset of the models. The mapping of the phase diagram is completed using a combination of numerical, analytical and perturbative approaches. Among other things this reveals some novel properties of the Bender-Dunne polynomials, and gives new insight into a phase transition to infinitely many complex eigenvalues that was first observed by Bender and Boettcher. A new exactly solvable limit, the inhomogeneous complex square well, is also identified.

  15. Using growth models to relate acquisition of nicotine self-administration to break point and nicotinic receptor binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donny, Eric C; Lanza, Stephanie T; Balster, Robert L; Collins, Linda M; Caggiula, Anthony; Rowell, Peter P

    2004-07-15

    Growth modeling can be used to characterize individual and mean acquisition trajectories for drug self-administration. Individual characteristics can also be incorporated into the growth model, providing a powerful tool for investigating the relationship between acquisition and other behavioral and biological measures. We illustrate the utility of this method by examining the relationship between acquisition of nicotine self-administration and (1) break point on a progressive ratio schedule of reinforcement, and (2) the density of brain nicotinic receptors (B(max)). Daily infusion rates from male and female Sprague-Dawley rats were modeled with break point or B(max) as time-invariant covariates. Use of this model led to two novel findings regarding individual differences in acquisition. First, greater rates of change in infusions early in acquisition were related to higher break points; this relationship was mediated by a similar effect of increasing the number of responses required to obtain nicotine. Second, animals displaying more resistance to increases in the response requirement during acquisition, as indicated by a smaller drop in the rate of nicotine self-administration, generally had fewer nicotinic receptors at the end of the experiment. The relationships revealed demonstrate the usefulness of growth models in the quantitative analysis of individual differences in drug self-administration behavior.

  16. A systematic, critical review of manual palpation for identifying myofascial trigger points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myburgh, Corrie; Larsen, Anders Holsgaard; Hartvigsen, Jan

    2008-01-01

    To determine the reproducibility of manual palpation in identifying trigger points based on a systematic review of available literature.......To determine the reproducibility of manual palpation in identifying trigger points based on a systematic review of available literature....

  17. Universal breaking point asymptotic for energy spectrum of Riemann waves in weakly nonlinear non-dispersive media

    CERN Document Server

    Kartashova, Elena

    2013-01-01

    In this Letter we study the form of the energy spectrum of Riemann waves in weakly nonlinear non-dispersive media. For quadratic and cubic nonlinearity we demonstrate that the deformation of an Riemann wave over time yields an exponential energy spectrum which turns into power law asymptotic with the slope being approximately -8/3 at the last stage of evolution before breaking. We argue, that this is the universal asymptotic behaviour of Riemann waves in any nonlinear non-dispersive medium at the point of breaking. The results reported in this Letter can be used in various non-dispersive media, e.g. magneto-hydro dynamics, physical oceanography, nonlinear acoustics.

  18. Evidence of break-points in breathing pattern at the gas-exchange thresholds during incremental cycling in young, healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cross, Troy J; Morris, Norman R; Schneider, Donald A; Sabapathy, Surendran

    2012-03-01

    The present study investigated whether 'break-points' in breathing pattern correspond to the first ([Formula: see text]) and second gas-exchange thresholds ([Formula: see text]) during incremental cycling. We used polynomial spline smoothing to detect accelerations and decelerations in pulmonary gas-exchange data, which provided an objective means of 'break-point' detection without assumption of the number and shape of said 'break-points'. Twenty-eight recreational cyclists completed the study, with five individuals excluded from analyses due to low signal-to-noise ratios and/or high risk of 'pseudo-threshold' detection. In the remaining participants (n = 23), two separate and distinct accelerations in respiratory frequency (f (R)) during incremental work were observed, both of which demonstrated trivial biases and reasonably small ±95% limits of agreement (LOA) for the [Formula: see text] (0.2 ± 3.0 ml O(2) kg(-1) min(-1)) and [Formula: see text] (0.0 ± 2.4 ml O(2) kg(-1) min(-1)), respectively. A plateau in tidal volume (V (T)) data near the [Formula: see text] was identified in only 14 individuals, and yielded the most unsatisfactory mean bias ±LOA of all comparisons made (-0.4 ± 5.3 ml O(2) kg(-1) min(-1)). Conversely, 18 individuals displayed V (T)-plateau in close proximity to the [Formula: see text] evidenced by a mean bias ± LOA of 0.1 ± 3.1 ml O(2) kg(-1) min(-1). Our findings suggest that both accelerations in f (R) correspond to the gas-exchange thresholds, and a plateau (or decline) in V (T) at the [Formula: see text] is a common (but not universal) feature of the breathing pattern response to incremental cycling.

  19. Numerical Simulation of Spatial Lag Between Wave Breaking Point and Location of Maximum Wave-Induced Current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jin-hai; TANG Yu

    2009-01-01

    A quasi three-dimensional numerical model of wave-driven coastal currents with the effects of surface rollers is developed for the study of the spatial lag between the location of the maximum wave-induced current and the wave breaking point.The governing equations are derived from Navier-Stokes equations and solved by the hybrid method combining the fractional step finite different method in the horizontal plane with a Galerkin finite element method in the vertical direction.The surface rollers effects are considered through incorporating the creation and evolution of the roller area into the free surface shear stress.An energy equation facilitates the computation process which transfers the wave breaking energy dissipation to the surface roller energy.The wave driver model is a phase-averaged wave model based on the wave action balance equation.Two sets of laboratory experiments producing breaking waves that generated longshore currents on a planar beach are used to evaluate the model's performance.The present wave-driven coastal current model with the roller effect in the surface shear stress term can produce satisfactory results by increasing the wave-induced nearshore current velocity inside the surf zone and shifting the location of the maximum longshore current velocity landward.

  20. A comprehensive method for break points finding based on expert system for protection coordination in power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abyaneh, Hossein Askarian; Razavi, Farzad [Department of Electrical Engineering Amirkabir University of Technology (Iran); Al-Dabbagh, Majid [Hydro Tasmania Consulting (Australia); Sedeghi, Hossein [Department of Mathematics Tarbiat Moallem University, Tehran (Iran); Kazemikargar, Hossein [Zanjan University, Zanjan (Iran)

    2007-04-15

    Interconnected power systems are multi-loop structured. In such networks, the determination of settings for all overcurrent relays can be carried out in different forms and may be quite complicated. The main problem for coordination is the determination of starting points, i.e. the location of starting relays in the procedure for settings, which is referred to as break points. In this paper, a powerful approach based on expert system is applied. The rules of the expert system include network configuration, protection systems, fault levels, etc. The method is applied to two networks with different configurations, pilot protection and other protection systems. From the obtained results, it is reviled that the new method is efficient, accurate, comprehensive and more optimal than the previously used graph theory. (author)

  1. The break-up of heavy electrons at a quantum critical point.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custers, J; Gegenwart, P; Wilhelm, H; Neumaier, K; Tokiwa, Y; Trovarelli, O; Geibel, C; Steglich, F; Pépin, C; Coleman, P

    2003-07-31

    The point at absolute zero where matter becomes unstable to new forms of order is called a quantum critical point (QCP). The quantum fluctuations between order and disorder that develop at this point induce profound transformations in the finite temperature electronic properties of the material. Magnetic fields are ideal for tuning a material as close as possible to a QCP, where the most intense effects of criticality can be studied. A previous study on the heavy-electron material YbRh2Si2 found that near a field-induced QCP electrons move ever more slowly and scatter off one another with ever increasing probability, as indicated by a divergence to infinity of the electron effective mass and scattering cross-section. But these studies could not shed light on whether these properties were an artefact of the applied field, or a more general feature of field-free QCPs. Here we report that, when germanium-doped YbRh2Si2 is tuned away from a chemically induced QCP by magnetic fields, there is a universal behaviour in the temperature dependence of the specific heat and resistivity: the characteristic kinetic energy of electrons is directly proportional to the strength of the applied field. We infer that all ballistic motion of electrons vanishes at a QCP, forming a new class of conductor in which individual electrons decay into collective current-carrying motions of the electron fluid.

  2. Investigating Disruptions to Channel Missions - What’s the Breaking Point?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    support of Operation TOMODACHI in March 2011, following a 9.0 magnitude earthquake off the coast of Japan resulting in a large Tsunami. Mackenzie ...2010 exercise held in Africa. As detailed in Rethinking the Last Tactical Mile: Adaptive Air Logistics in Africa, U.S. Army Africa (USARAF) had to deal...airfields identified as suitable. At the end of the exercise , the C-17s that had originally been assigned were re-tasked to higher priority

  3. Double product break point estimates ventilatory threshold in individuals with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victor de Sousa, Caio; Sales, Marcelo Magalhães; Aguiar, Samuel da Silva; Boullosa, Daniel Alexandre; Rosa, Thiago Dos Santos; Baldissera, Vilmar; Simões, Herbert Gustavo

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] To verify the identification of the anaerobic threshold through the double product breakpoint (DPBP) method for individuals with type 2 diabetes. [Subjects and Methods] Nine individuals with T2D (7 females; age=63.2 ± 8.9 y) and 10 non-diabetic (ND) (7 females; age=58.3 ± 7.8 y) performed an incremental exercise test on a cycle ergometer. Heart rate (HR), blood pressure (BP) and expired gas were measured at the end of each stage. The ventilatory threshold (VT) and DPBP were considered as the exercise intensities above which an over proportional increases in VE and DP were observed in relation to increasing workload. [Results] No differences were observed between the workloads, HR and VO2 corresponding to the AT identified respectively by VT and DPBP. For the T2D, strong correlations between VT and DBPB workloads (r=0.853), HR (r=0.714), and VO2 (r=0.863) were found. These relationships were similar to those found for the control group (r=0.923; r=0.881; and r=0.863, respectively). [Conclusion] These results demonstrate that the DPBP enables for the prediction of AT and correlated well the VT in both the T2D and ND participants.

  4. Pig model of pulmonary embolism: where is the hemodynamic break point?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kudlička, J; Mlček, M; Hála, P; Lacko, S; Janák, D; Hrachovina, M; Malík, J; Bělohlávek, J; Neužil, P; Kittnar, O

    2013-01-01

    Early recognition of collapsing hemodynamics in pulmonary embolism is necessary to avoid cardiac arrest using aggressive medical therapy or mechanical cardiac support. The aim of the study was to identify the maximal acute hemodynamic compensatory steady state. Overall, 40 dynamic obstructions of pulmonary artery were performed and hemodynamic data were collected. Occlusion of only left or right pulmonary artery did not lead to the hemodynamic collapse. When gradually obstructing the bifurcation, the right ventricle end-diastolic area expanded proportionally to pulmonary artery mean pressure from 11.6 (10.1, 14.1) to 17.8 (16.1, 18.8) cm(2) (ppoint of maximal hemodynamic compensatory steady state. Similarly, mean arterial pressure decreased from 96 (87, 101) to 60 (53, 78) mmHg (p<0.0001), central venous pressure increased from 4 (4, 5) to 7 (6, 8) mmHg (p<0.0001), heart rate increased from 92 (88, 97) to 147 (122, 165) /min (p<0.0001), continuous cardiac output dropped from 5.2 (4.7, 5.8) to 4.3 (3.7, 5.0) l/min (p=0.0023), modified shock index increased from 0.99 (0.81, 1.10) to 2.31 (1.99, 2.72), p<0.0001. In conclusion, instead of continuous cardiac output all of the analyzed parameters can sensitively determine the individual maximal compensatory response to obstructive shock. We assume their monitoring can be used to predict the critical phase of the hemodynamic status in routine practice.

  5. Genome-wide mapping of virulence in brown planthopper identifies loci that break down host plant resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Shengli; Zhang, Lei; Ma, Yinhua; Liu, Bingfang; Zhao, Yan; Yu, Hangjin; Zhou, Xi; Qin, Rui; Zhu, Lili; He, Guangcun

    2014-01-01

    Insects and plants have coexisted for over 350 million years and their interactions have affected ecosystems and agricultural practices worldwide. Variation in herbivorous insects' virulence to circumvent host resistance has been extensively documented. However, despite decades of investigation, the genetic foundations of virulence are currently unknown. The brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) is the most destructive rice (Oryza sativa) pest in the world. The identification of the resistance gene Bph1 and its introduction in commercial rice varieties prompted the emergence of a new virulent brown planthopper biotype that was able to break the resistance conferred by Bph1. In this study, we aimed to construct a high density linkage map for the brown planthopper and identify the loci responsible for its virulence in order to determine their genetic architecture. Based on genotyping data for hundreds of molecular markers in three mapping populations, we constructed the most comprehensive linkage map available for this species, covering 96.6% of its genome. Fifteen chromosomes were anchored with 124 gene-specific markers. Using genome-wide scanning and interval mapping, the Qhp7 locus that governs preference for Bph1 plants was mapped to a 0.1 cM region of chromosome 7. In addition, two major QTLs that govern the rate of insect growth on resistant rice plants were identified on chromosomes 5 (Qgr5) and 14 (Qgr14). This is the first study to successfully locate virulence in the genome of this important agricultural insect by marker-based genetic mapping. Our results show that the virulence which overcomes the resistance conferred by Bph1 is controlled by a few major genes and that the components of virulence originate from independent genetic characters. The isolation of these loci will enable the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underpinning the rice-brown planthopper interaction and facilitate the development of durable approaches for controlling this most

  6. The influence of aerobic exercise training on the double product break point in low-to-moderate risk adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargens, Trent A; Griffin, Diane C; Kaminsky, Leonard A; Whaley, Mitchell H

    2011-02-01

    The double product is the product of the heart rate and systolic blood pressure. The double product break point (DPBP) is a physiologic threshold that occurs at similar exercise intensities to that of the ventilatory threshold (VT). The influence of aerobic exercise training on the DPBP has not yet been examined. The purpose of this study was to examine whether aerobic exercise training (ET) increases the exercise intensity at which the DPBP occurs, and whether it increases in a similar fashion to the VT. Seven males and 11 females, all sedentary (mean ± SD: age = 29.9 ± 10.5 years) underwent supervised cardiopulmonary exercise testing using a cycle ergometer ramp protocol at baseline and after 8 weeks of vigorous ET on a cycle ergometer. The VT was determined by gas analysis and the V-slope method. Experienced observers using standardized instructions visually determined the DPBP. Following ET, VO(2 peak), maximal workload, and body composition variables all showed significant positive changes. The VO(2) at which the DPBP and VT occurred increased significantly from baseline to follow-up (P Results suggest that the DPBP responds to ET in a similar fashion to that of the VT, and may be an easier and more useful marker of the VT for exercise training purposes.

  7. Evolutionary break point analysis between the proximal half of bovine chromosome 27 and conserved segments of the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldammer, T; Kuehn, C; Brunner, R M; Weikard, R

    2009-01-01

    The proximal half of Bos taurus chromosome 27 (BTA27prox) delimited by microsatellite markers BM3507 and CSSM043 reveals complex rearrangements compared to its corresponding Homo sapiens chromosome (HSA) fragments. A comparative mapping approach combining somatic and radiation hybrid cell mapping techniques and related cytogenetic data resulted in an improved physical map for BTA27prox, which provides candidate genes for several important economic traits. The generated comprehensive map includes anchor loci for 103 genes and microsatellite markers. Mapping of genes proximal to BM3507 matching a region from 0.60 to 2.78 megabase pairs (Mb) of HSA8 confirmed recent sequence annotations on BTA27. Assignments of loci predicted to be on BTA27 to BTA1, BTA8, and BTA17 narrowed down evolutionary chromosome break points compared with corresponding chromosome segments in human. New physical anchors obtained in this study confirm in more detail the described evolutionary conservation between the proximal half of BTA27 and homologous segments of HSA4 and HSA8 and will contribute to the completion of the cattle DNA genome sequence.

  8. Modelling the association of dengue fever cases with temperature and relative humidity in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia-A generalised linear model with break-point analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhaldy, Ibrahim

    2017-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the role of environmental factors in the temporal distribution of dengue fever in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The relationship between dengue fever cases and climatic factors such as relative humidity and temperature was investigated during 2006-2009 to determine whether there is any relationship between dengue fever cases and climatic parameters in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia. A generalised linear model (GLM) with a break-point was used to determine how different levels of temperature and relative humidity affected the distribution of the number of cases of dengue fever. Break-point analysis was performed to modelled the effect before and after a break-point (change point) in the explanatory parameters under various scenarios. Akaike information criterion (AIC) and cross validation (CV) were used to assess the performance of the models. The results showed that maximum temperature and mean relative humidity are most probably the better predictors of the number of dengue fever cases in Jeddah. In this study three scenarios were modelled: no time lag, 1-week lag and 2-weeks lag. Among these scenarios, the 1-week lag model using mean relative humidity as an explanatory variable showed better performance. This study showed a clear relationship between the meteorological variables and the number of dengue fever cases in Jeddah. The results also demonstrated that meteorological variables can be successfully used to estimate the number of dengue fever cases for a given period of time. Break-point analysis provides further insight into the association between meteorological parameters and dengue fever cases by dividing the meteorological parameters into certain break-points.

  9. Monobactam and aminoglycoside combination therapy against metallo-beta-lactamase-producing multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa screened using a 'break-point checkerboard plate'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araoka, Hideki; Baba, Masaru; Takagi, Shinsuke; Matsuno, Naofumi; Ishiwata, Kazuya; Nakano, Nobuaki; Tsuji, Masanori; Yamamoto, Hisashi; Seo, Sachiko; Asano-Mori, Yuki; Uchida, Naoyuki; Masuoka, Kazuhiro; Wake, Atsushi; Taniguchi, Shuichi; Yoneyama, Akiko

    2010-03-01

    Metallo-beta-lactamase-producing multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDR P. aeruginosa) is a cause of life-threatening infections. With parenteral colistin not available in Japan, we treated MDR P. aeruginosa sepsis with monobactam and aminoglycoside combination therapy, with screening using a 'break-point checkerboard plate'.

  10. High-resolution genotyping of chromosome 8 in colon adenocarcinomas reveals recurrent break point but no gene mutation in the 8p21 region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourra, Najat; Zeitoun, Guy; Portier, Guillaume; Blanche, Hélène; Tubacher, Emmanuel; Gressin, Laetitia; Flejou, Jean-François; Tiret, Emmanuel; Thomas, Gilles; Olschwang, Sylviane

    2008-06-01

    The prognosis of patients with colorectal cancer is largely determined by the tumor stage. In this respect, colorectal cancer with lymph node metastases has the worst prognosis. Accordingly, there is considerable clinical interest in understanding the genetic mechanisms underlying metastasis formation. The short arm of chromosome 8 is often lost in colorectal cancer and has been associated with the advanced stages. A common region of deletion has been identified in 8p21, and we investigate here the localization of the putative tumor suppressor gene. A series of 683 sporadic microsatellite stability colorectal tumor samples has been genotyped on 12 microsatellite loci encompassing the common deleted region. Allelic losses were identified in 50% of the cases and 10 break points have been evidenced between D8S1734 and D8S1810, reducing the region of interest to D8S1771-D8S131. Among the 21 genes mapped in this interval, 14 candidate genes have been retained for the sequencing analysis of 48 tumors with 8p allelic loss. No mutation was found, suggesting more complex mechanisms of inactivation or side effects of chromosome arm 8q duplication, which might be up-regulating oncogenes not located within the deleted region.

  11. Effects of aging on identifying emotions conveyed by point-light walkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Justine M Y; Sekuler, Allison B; Bennett, Patrick J; Giese, Martin A; Pilz, Karin S

    2016-02-01

    The visual system is able to recognize human motion simply from point lights attached to the major joints of an actor. Moreover, it has been shown that younger adults are able to recognize emotions from such dynamic point-light displays. Previous research has suggested that the ability to perceive emotional stimuli changes with age. For example, it has been shown that older adults are impaired in recognizing emotional expressions from static faces. In addition, it has been shown that older adults have difficulties perceiving visual motion, which might be helpful to recognize emotions from point-light displays. In the current study, 4 experiments were completed in which older and younger adults were asked to identify 3 emotions (happy, sad, and angry) displayed by 4 types of point-light walkers: upright and inverted normal walkers, which contained both local motion and global form information; upright scrambled walkers, which contained only local motion information; and upright random-position walkers, which contained only global form information. Overall, emotion discrimination accuracy was lower in older participants compared with younger participants, specifically when identifying sad and angry point-light walkers. In addition, observers in both age groups were able to recognize emotions from all types of point-light walkers, suggesting that both older and younger adults are able to recognize emotions from point-light walkers on the basis of local motion or global form.

  12. Identifying entry points to improve fertilizer use efficiency in Taihu Basin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Li; Feng, S.; Reidsma, P.; Qu, F.; Heerink, N.

    2014-01-01

    Overuse of fertilizers in China causes environmental problems and high costs for farmers. In this paper we aim to identify entry points to improve fertilizer use efficiency in Taihu Basin, China. We use stochastic frontier analysis to estimate the technical and fertilizer use efficiency of rice prod

  13. A Combined Control Chart for Identifying Out–Of–Control Points in Multivariate Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marroquín–Prado E.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Hotelling's T2 control chart is widely used to identify out–of–control signals in multivariate processes. However, this chart is not sensitive to small shifts in the process mean vec tor. In this work we propose a control chart to identify out–of–control signals. The proposed chart is a combination of Hotelling's T2 chart, M chart proposed by Hayter et al. (1994 and a new chart based on Principal Components. The combination of these charts identifies any type and size of change in the process mean vector. Us ing simulation and the Average Run Length (ARL, the performance of the proposed control chart is evaluated. The ARL means the average points within control before an out–of–control point is detected, The results of the simulation show that the proposed chart is more sensitive that each one of the three charts individually

  14. Breaking Routines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Peter; Jørgensen, Frances

    2010-01-01

    On some level, innovation begins when the current way of doing things is questioned and alternatives are sought. In cognitive terms, this can be conceptualized as the point at which an agent breaks with existing routine and returns to planning and decision-making. Thus far, however, very little...

  15. New real-time-PCR method to identify single point mutations in hepatitis C virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qian; Belmonte, Irene; Buti, Maria; Nieto, Leonardo; Garcia-Cehic, Damir; Gregori, Josep; Perales, Celia; Ordeig, Laura; Llorens, Meritxell; Soria, Maria Eugenia; Esteban, Rafael; Esteban, Juan Ignacio; Rodriguez-Frias, Francisco; Quer, Josep

    2016-01-01

    AIM To develop a fast, low-cost diagnostic strategy to identify single point mutations in highly variable genomes such as hepatitis C virus (HCV). METHODS In patients with HCV infection, resistance-associated amino acid substitutions within the viral quasispecies prior to therapy can confer decreased susceptibility to direct-acting antiviral agents and lead to treatment failure and virological relapse. One such naturally occurring mutation is the Q80K substitution in the HCV-NS3 protease gene, which confers resistance to PI inhibitors, particularly simeprevir. Low-cost, highly sensitive techniques enabling routine detection of these single point mutations would be useful to identify patients at a risk of treatment failure. LightCycler methods, based on real-time PCR with sequence-specific probe hybridization, have been implemented in most diagnostic laboratories. However, this technique cannot identify single point mutations in highly variable genetic environments, such as the HCV genome. To circumvent this problem, we developed a new method to homogenize all nucleotides present in a region except the point mutation of interest. RESULTS Using nucleotide-specific probes Q, K, and R substitutions at position 80 were clearly identified at a sensitivity of 10% (mutations present at a frequency of at least 10% were detected). The technique was successfully applied to identify the Q80K substitution in 240 HCV G1 serum samples, with performance comparable to that of direct Sanger sequencing, the current standard procedure for this purpose. The new method was then validated in a Catalonian population of 202 HCV G1-infected individuals. Q80K was detected in 14.6% of G1a patients and 0% of G1b in our setting. CONCLUSION A fast, low-cost diagnostic strategy based on real-time PCR and fluorescence resonance energy transfer probe melting curve analysis has been successfully developed to identify single point mutations in highly variable genomes such as hepatitis C virus. This

  16. A New Method of Identifying 3D Null Points in Solar Vector Magnetic Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Zhao; Jing-Xiu Wang; Jun Zhang; Chi-Jie Xiao

    2005-01-01

    Employing the Poincaré index of isolated null-points in a vector field,we worked out a mathematical method of searching for 3D null-points in coronal magnetic fields. After introducing the relevant differential topology, we test the method by using the analytical model of Brown & Priest. The location of nullpoint identified by our method coincides precisely with the analytical solution.Finally we apply the method to the 3D coronal magnetic fields reconstructed from an observed MDI magnetogram of a super-active region (NOAA 10488). We find that the 3D null-point seems to be a key element in the magnetic topology associated with flare occurrence.

  17. An Analysis of the Interactive Development between Lhasa and Shigatse from the Perspective of the Intensity of their Economic Contact and Regional Breaking Point

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Lilan

    2014-01-01

    In the Tibet Autonomous Region , Lhasa and Shigatse are the two core cities in the region’ s development , and they play a leading role for the development of other counties and cit-ies.From the perspective of research on urban ag-glomeration and urban geography , the two cities have a relationship of interactive contact and com-mon development .Within the context of rapid ur-banization in China , the interactive development between Lhasa and Shigatse has become an inevita-ble research focus for the socio-economic construc-tion of Tibet . The intensity of economic contact is used tomeasure the degree of regional economic ties.Onthe one hand, it can reflect the city’ s economiccenter ability to radiate out to the surrounding areas.On the other hand, it can also reflect the levelof acceptance of the surrounding areas to the city’s economic center ability to radiate out tothem.According to the results of economic calculation,the intensity of economic contact betweenLhasa and Shigatse from 2007 to 2011 steadily increasedwith an annual rate of about 20%.Thecontinuous increase of the intensity of economiccontact also meant that the influence of Lhasa andShigatse on the surrounding cities is expanding .Moreover, comparative data show that due to restrictionson the population and level of economicdevelopment, there is still a big gap in Lhasa andShigatse if compared with other urbanized areas inChina.However, regarding the increasing speedof the intensity of contact with other core cities,Lhasa and Shigatse have achieved remarkable a -chievements. During the 1930’ s, William J.Reilly proposedthe Law of Retail Gravitation which was usedby P.D.Converse in the field of urban managementto differentiate the scope of influence ofneighboring cities.In 1949, he put forward theconcept of “Breaking Point” together with a relevantcomputational formula.The Breaking Point isnormally determined by the scale of two cities andthe distance between them.According to the

  18. Higher-order time-symmetry-breaking phase transition due to meeting of an exceptional point and a Fano resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Garmon, Savannah; Kanki, Kazuki; Petrosky, Tomio

    2016-08-01

    We have theoretically investigated the time-symmetry-breaking phase-transition process for two discrete states coupled with a one-dimensional continuum by solving the nonlinear eigenvalue problem for the effective Hamiltonian associated with the discrete spectrum. We obtain the effective Hamiltonian with use of the Feshbach-Brillouin-Wigner projection method. Strong energy dependence of the self-energy appearing in the effective Hamiltonian plays a key role in the time-symmetry-breaking phase transition: As a result of competition in the decay process between the Van Hove singularity and the Fano resonance, the phase transition becomes a higher-order transition when both the two discrete states are located near the continuum threshold.

  19. Identifying critical constraints for the maximum loadability of electric power systems - analysis via interior point method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barboza, Luciano Vitoria [Sul-riograndense Federal Institute for Education, Science and Technology (IFSul), Pelotas, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: luciano@pelotas.ifsul.edu.br

    2009-07-01

    This paper presents an overview about the maximum load ability problem and aims to study the main factors that limit this load ability. Specifically this study focuses its attention on determining which electric system buses influence directly on the power demand supply. The proposed approach uses the conventional maximum load ability method modelled by an optimization problem. The solution of this model is performed using the Interior Point methodology. As consequence of this solution method, the Lagrange multipliers are used as parameters that identify the probable 'bottlenecks' in the electric power system. The study also shows the relationship between the Lagrange multipliers and the cost function in the Interior Point optimization interpreted like sensitivity parameters. In order to illustrate the proposed methodology, the approach was applied to an IEEE test system and to assess its performance, a real equivalent electric system from the South- Southeast region of Brazil was simulated. (author)

  20. Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate End-points (ECLIPSE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, J; Anderson, W; Coxson, H O

    2008-01-01

    . Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate End-points (ECLIPSE) is a 3-yr longitudinal study with four specific aims: 1) definition of clinically relevant COPD subtypes; 2) identification of parameters that predict disease progression in these subtypes; 3) examination of biomarkers...... that correlate with COPD subtypes and may predict disease progression; and 4) identification of novel genetic factors and/or biomarkers that both correlate with clinically relevant COPD subtypes and predict disease progression. ECLIPSE plans to recruit 2,180 COPD subjects in Global Initiative for Chronic...

  1. Detecting and identifying two-dimensional symmetry-protected topological, symmetry-breaking, and intrinsic topological phases with modular matrices via tensor-network methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ching-Yu; Wei, Tzu-Chieh

    2016-04-01

    Symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases exhibit nontrivial order if symmetry is respected but are adiabatically connected to the trivial product phase if symmetry is not respected. However, unlike the symmetry-breaking phase, there is no local order parameter for SPT phases. Here we employ a tensor-network method to compute the topological invariants characterized by the simulated modular S and T matrices to study transitions in a few families of two-dimensional (2D) wave functions which are ZN (N =2 and3 ) symmetric. We find that in addition to the topologically ordered phases, the modular matrices can be used to identify nontrivial SPT phases and detect transitions between different SPT phases as well as between symmetric and symmetry-breaking phases. Therefore modular matrices can be used to characterize various types of gapped phases in a unifying way.

  2. Identifying and Tracking Solar Photospheric Bright Points Based on Three-dimensional Segmentation Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian-ping, Xiong; Ai-li, Zhang; Kai-fan, Ji; Song, Feng; Hui, Deng; Yun-fei, Yang

    2016-10-01

    Photospheric bright points (PBPs) are tiny short-lived brightening phenomena that can be seen within dark inter-granular lanes. In this paper, we develop a new method to identify and track a PBP in a 3D space-time cube. Different from the common-adopted strategy of "identifying-before-tracking", this algorithm is based on the strategy of "identifying-by-tracking". This method can identify a PBP when its intensity is still rather weak, and can avoid the discontinuous evolution of PBP caused by the algorithm of Laplacian morphological dilation (LMD) to recognize completely the evolutionary process of a PBP. The statistics on a group of G-band data observed by Hinode/SOT (Solar Optical Telescope) in quiet regions indicate that the average lifetime of isolated PBP is as long as 3 minutes, and the longest lifetime is up to 27 minutes, which means that the lifetime of PBPs is longer than that obtained by the previous LMD algorithm. Furthermore, it is also found that the mean intensity contrast of PBPs is 1.02 times of the mean photospheric intensity, which is weaker than that calculated by the LMD algorithm, and that the intensity of PBP exhibits a periodical oscillation of 2∼3 minute during the whole lifetime.

  3. Identifying structural breaks in stock markets using the Bayesian method%使用Bayes方法识别股市变结构模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘淳; 刘庆; 张晗

    2011-01-01

    This study uses the marginal likelihood to identify structural breaks in a stock market volatility model. A structure break model was used to analyze using data generated by the Monte Carlo method to identify volatilities in the Chinese stock market.Five stages were identified during the periods of December of 1990 to Fall of 1991, Fall of 1991 to mid-1992, mid-1992 to mid-1997,mid-1997 to Spring of 2002, and Spring of 2002 till now. The results demonstrate that the structural breaks have nothing to do with price changes but are related to the development and improvements in the financial markets.%为了使用边际似然函数进行模型交点的有效识别,通过使用变结构模型和Monte Carlo方法,对波动率模型中的变点进行了判断.通过对中国股票市场的波动性进行分析,识别出中国证券市场的4个变点.实证结果表明;中国股票市场从成立以来,一共经历了5个阶段,分别是1990年12月到1991年秋、1991年秋到1992年中、1992年中到1997年中、1997年中到2002年春、2002年春至今.研究发现,中国证券市场结构发生变化与股票市场价格波动无关,而与中国证券市场不断发展和完善息息相关.

  4. How judges think in the Brazilian Supreme Court: Estimating ideal points and identifying dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernando Almeida Nery Ferreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We use NOMINATE (Nominal Three Step Estimation (Poole and Rosenthal, 1983, 1997 to estimate ideal points for all Supreme Court Justices in Brazil from 2002 to 2012. Based on these estimated preferences we identify the nature of the two main dimensions along which disagreements tend to occur in this Court. These estimates correctly predict over 95% of the votes on constitutional review cases in each of the compositions of the Court which we analyze. The main contribution of the paper is to identify that the main dimension along which preferences align in the Brazilian Supreme Court is for and against the economic interest of the Executive. This is significantly different than the conservative-liberal polarization of the US Supreme Court. Our estimates show that along this dimension the composition of the Court has been clearly favorable to the Executive's economic interests, providing the setting in which the dramatic transformation in institutions and policies that the country has undergone in last two decades could take place.

  5. High speed cinematography of the initial break-point of latex condoms during the air burst test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stube, R; Voeller, B; Davidhazy, A

    1990-06-01

    High speed cinematography of latex condoms inflated to burst under standard (ISO) conditions reveals that rupture of the condom typically is initiated at a small focal point on the shank of the condom and then rapidly propagates throughout the condom's surface, often ending with partial or full severance of the condom at its point of attachment to the air burst instrument. This sequence of events is the reverse of that sometimes hypothesized to occur, where initiation of burst was considered to begin at the attachment point and to constitute a testing method artifact. This hypothesis of breakage at the attachment point, if true, would diminish the value of the air burst test as a standard for assessing manufacturing quality control as well as for condom strength measurements and comparisons.

  6. Nbs1 ChIP-Seq Identifies Off-Target DNA Double-Strand Breaks Induced by AID in Activated Splenic B Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyne Khair

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID is required for initiation of Ig class switch recombination (CSR and somatic hypermutation (SHM of antibody genes during immune responses. AID has also been shown to induce chromosomal translocations, mutations, and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs involving non-Ig genes in activated B cells. To determine what makes a DNA site a target for AID-induced DSBs, we identify off-target DSBs induced by AID by performing chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP for Nbs1, a protein that binds DSBs, followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-Seq. We detect and characterize hundreds of off-target AID-dependent DSBs. Two types of tandem repeats are highly enriched within the Nbs1-binding sites: long CA repeats, which can form Z-DNA, and tandem pentamers containing the AID target hotspot WGCW. These tandem repeats are not nearly as enriched at AID-independent DSBs, which we also identified. Msh2, a component of the mismatch repair pathway and important for genome stability, increases off-target DSBs, similar to its effect on Ig switch region DSBs, which are required intermediates during CSR. Most of the off-target DSBs are two-ended, consistent with generation during G1 phase, similar to DSBs in Ig switch regions. However, a minority are one-ended, presumably due to conversion of single-strand breaks to DSBs during replication. One-ended DSBs are repaired by processes involving homologous recombination, including break-induced replication repair, which can lead to genome instability. Off-target DSBs, especially those present during S phase, can lead to chromosomal translocations, deletions and gene amplifications, resulting in the high frequency of B cell lymphomas derived from cells that express or have expressed AID.

  7. Maturity-onset diabetes of the young caused by a balanced translocation where the 20q12 break point results in disruption upstream of the coding region of hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha (HNF4A) gene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloyn, Anna L; Ellard, Sian; Shepherd, Maggie; Howell, Rodney T; Parry, Elizabeth M; Jefferson, Andrew; Levy, Elaine R; Hattersley, Andrew T

    2002-07-01

    Monogenic human disorders have been used as paradigms for complex genetic disease and as tools for establishing important insights into mechanisms of gene regulation and transcriptional control. Maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY) is a monogenic dominantly inherited form of diabetes that is characterized by defective insulin secretion from the pancreatic beta-cells. A wide variety of mutation types in five different genes have been identified that result in this condition. There have been no reports of a chromosome deletion or translocation resulting in MODY. We report a pedigree where MODY cosegregates with a balanced translocation [karyotype 46, XX t(3;20) (p21.2;q12)]. The chromosome 20 break point, 20q12, is within the region of one of the known MODY genes, hepatocyte nuclear factor-4alpha (HNF4A). Fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis demonstrated that the break point does not disrupt the coding region of this gene, but it lies at least 6 kb upstream of the conventional promoter (P1). We propose that this mutation disrupts the spatial relationship between the recently described alternate distal pancreatic promoter (P2) and HNF4A. This is the first case of MODY due to a balanced translocation, and it provides evidence to confirm the crucial role of an upstream regulator of HNF4A gene expression in the beta-cell.

  8. Identifying and Overcoming Obstacles to Point-of-Care Data Collection for Eye Care Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobach, David F.; Silvey, Garry M.; Macri, Jennifer M.; Hunt, Megan; Kacmaz, Roje O.; Lee, Paul P.

    2005-01-01

    Supporting data entry by clinicians is considered one of the greatest challenges in implementing electronic health records. In this paper we describe a formative evaluation study using three different methodologies through which we identified obstacles to point-of-care data entry for eye care and then used the formative process to develop and test solutions to overcome these obstacles. The greatest obstacles were supporting free text annotation of clinical observations and accommodating the creation of detailed diagrams in multiple colors. To support free text entry, we arrived at an approach that captures an image of a free text note and associates this image with related data elements in an encounter note. The detailed diagrams included a color pallet that allowed changing pen color with a single stroke and also captured the diagrams as an image associated with related data elements. During observed sessions with simulated patients, these approaches satisfied the clinicians’ documentation needs by capturing the full range of clinical complexity that arises in practice. PMID:16779083

  9. Chiral Symmetry Breaking and Point-Splitting Procedure in Light-Cone Quantized QED in a Magnetic Field

    CERN Document Server

    Steinbacher, D

    2005-01-01

    The summation of all rainbow diagrams in QED in a strong magnetic field leads to a dynamical electron mass on the light-cone. Further contributions to this summation however can cause problems with light-cone singularities. It is shown that these problems are generally avoided by applying the point-splitting regularization to every diagram. The possibility of implementing this procedure into the Lagrangian of the theory is discussed.

  10. Pointing and Reference in Sign Language and Spoken Language: Anchoring vs. Identifying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberà, Gemma; Zwets, Martine

    2013-01-01

    In both signed and spoken languages, pointing serves to direct an addressee's attention to a particular entity. This entity may be either present or absent in the physical context of the conversation. In this article we focus on pointing directed to nonspeaker/nonaddressee referents in Sign Language of the Netherlands (Nederlandse Gebarentaal,…

  11. A Mismatch EndoNuclease Array-Based Methodology (MENA for Identifying Known SNPs or Novel Point Mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M. Comeron

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and rapid identification or confirmation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, point mutations and other human genomic variation facilitates understanding the genetic basis of disease. We have developed a new methodology (called MENA (Mismatch EndoNuclease Array pairing DNA mismatch endonuclease enzymology with tiling microarray hybridization in order to genotype both known point mutations (such as SNPs as well as identify previously undiscovered point mutations and small indels. We show that our assay can rapidly genotype known SNPs in a human genomic DNA sample with 99% accuracy, in addition to identifying novel point mutations and small indels with a false discovery rate as low as 10%. Our technology provides a platform for a variety of applications, including: (1 genotyping known SNPs as well as confirming newly discovered SNPs from whole genome sequencing analyses; (2 identifying novel point mutations and indels in any genomic region from any organism for which genome sequence information is available; and (3 screening panels of genes associated with particular diseases and disorders in patient samples to identify causative mutations. As a proof of principle for using MENA to discover novel mutations, we report identification of a novel allele of the beethoven (btv gene in Drosophila, which encodes a ciliary cytoplasmic dynein motor protein important for auditory mechanosensation.

  12. A Mismatch EndoNuclease Array-Based Methodology (MENA) for Identifying Known SNPs or Novel Point Mutations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comeron, Josep M.; Reed, Jordan; Christie, Matthew; Jacobs, Julia S.; Dierdorff, Jason; Eberl, Daniel F.; Manak, J. Robert

    2016-01-01

    Accurate and rapid identification or confirmation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), point mutations and other human genomic variation facilitates understanding the genetic basis of disease. We have developed a new methodology (called MENA (Mismatch EndoNuclease Array)) pairing DNA mismatch endonuclease enzymology with tiling microarray hybridization in order to genotype both known point mutations (such as SNPs) as well as identify previously undiscovered point mutations and small indels. We show that our assay can rapidly genotype known SNPs in a human genomic DNA sample with 99% accuracy, in addition to identifying novel point mutations and small indels with a false discovery rate as low as 10%. Our technology provides a platform for a variety of applications, including: (1) genotyping known SNPs as well as confirming newly discovered SNPs from whole genome sequencing analyses; (2) identifying novel point mutations and indels in any genomic region from any organism for which genome sequence information is available; and (3) screening panels of genes associated with particular diseases and disorders in patient samples to identify causative mutations. As a proof of principle for using MENA to discover novel mutations, we report identification of a novel allele of the beethoven (btv) gene in Drosophila, which encodes a ciliary cytoplasmic dynein motor protein important for auditory mechanosensation. PMID:27600073

  13. Optimal Cutoff Points of Anthropometric Parameters to Identify High Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hyuck; Choi, Hyunrim; Won, Chang Won; Kim, Byung-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Several published studies have reported the need to change the cutoff points of anthropometric indices for obesity. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate anthropometric cutoff points predicting high coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in Korean adults. We analyzed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2007 to 2010. A total of 21,399 subjects aged 20 to 79 yr were included in this study (9,204 men and 12,195 women). We calculated the 10-yr Framingham coronary heart disease risk score for all individuals. We then estimated receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio to predict a 10-yr CHD risk of 20% or more. For sensitivity analysis, we conducted the same analysis for a 10-yr CHD risk of 10% or more. For a CHD risk of 20% or more, the area under the curve of waist-to-height ratio was the highest, followed by waist circumference and BMI. The optimal cutoff points in men and women were 22.7 kg/m(2) and 23.3 kg/m(2) for BMI, 83.2 cm and 79.7 cm for waist circumference, and 0.50 and 0.52 for waist-to-height ratio, respectively. In sensitivity analysis, the results were the same as those reported above except for BMI in women. Our results support the re-classification of anthropometric indices and suggest the clinical use of waist-to-height ratio as a marker for obesity in Korean adults.

  14. African American Young Adult Smoking Initiation: Identifying Intervention Points and Prevention Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…

  15. Imaging Gallium Nitride High Electron Mobility Transistors to Identify Point Defects

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED Master’s Thesis 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE IMAGING GALLIUM NITRIDE HIGH ELECTRON MOBILITY TRANSISTORS TO IDENTIFY...Identification of these trends will assist in the improvement of gallium nitride HEMT fabrication processes leading to the development of more...reliable devices. 14. SUBJECT TERMS Electron microscopy, Gallium Nitride (GaN), high electron mobility transistor (HEMT

  16. Automatic Method for Identifying Photospheric Bright Points and Granules Observed by Sunrise

    CERN Document Server

    Javaherian, Mohsen; Amiri, Ali; Ziaei, Shervin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we propose methods for the automatic detection of photospheric features (bright points and granules) from ultra-violet (UV) radiation, using a feature-based classifier. The methods use quiet-Sun observations at 214 nm and 525 nm images taken by Sunrise on 9 June 2009. The function of region growing and mean shift procedure are applied to segment the bright points (BPs) and granules, respectively. Zernike moments of each region are computed. The Zernike moments of BPs, granules, and other features are distinctive enough to be separated using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The size distribution of BPs can be fitted with a power-law slope -1.5. The peak value of granule sizes is found to be about 0.5 arcsec^2. The mean value of the filling factor of BPs is 0.01, and for granules it is 0.51. There is a critical scale for granules so that small granules with sizes smaller than 2.5 arcsec^2 cover a wide range of brightness, while the brightness of large granules approaches unity. The mean...

  17. Effectiveness of antibiotic combination therapy as evaluated by the Break-point Checkerboard Plate method for multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in clinical use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Itaru; Yamaguchi, Tetsuo; Tsukimori, Ayaka; Sato, Akihiro; Fukushima, Shinji; Mizuno, Yasutaka; Matsumoto, Tetsuya

    2014-04-01

    Multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDRP) strains are defined as having resistance to the following 3 groups of antibiotics: carbapenems, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones. Antibiotic combinations have demonstrated increased activity in vitro compared with a single agent. As an in vitro method of determining the combination activity of antibiotics, the Break-point Checkerboard Plate (BC-plate) can be used routinely in clinical microbiology laboratories. We evaluated the effectiveness of the BC-plate for MDRP infections in clinical settings. We retrospectively selected cases of MDRP infection treated with combination therapy of antibiotics in Tokyo Medical University Hospital (1015 beds), Tokyo, Japan, from November 2010 to October 2012. A total of 28 MDRP strains were clinically isolated from 28 patients during the study period. This study design is a case series of MDRP infection. Six infections among the 28 patients were treated based on the results of the BC-plate assay, and the 6 strains tested positive for MBL. One patient had pneumonia, 3 had urinary tract infections, 1 had vertebral osteomyelitis, and 1 had nasal abscess. The combination of aztreonam with amikacin demonstrated the most frequently recognized in vitro effect (5 patients). Next, aztreonam with ciprofloxacin and piperacillin with amikacin revealed equivalent in vitro effects (3 patients, respectively). The clinical cure rate was 83.3% (5/6 patients). Antibiotic combination therapy based on the results of the BC-plate assay might indicate the effective therapy against MDRP infection in clinical settings.

  18. Diverse origins of Arctic and Subarctic methane point source emissions identified with multiply-substituted isotopologues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, P. M. J.; Stolper, D. A.; Smith, D. A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Paull, C. K.; Dallimore, S.; Wik, M.; Crill, P. M.; Winterdahl, M.; Eiler, J. M.; Sessions, A. L.

    2016-09-01

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, and there are concerns that its natural emissions from the Arctic could act as a substantial positive feedback to anthropogenic global warming. Determining the sources of methane emissions and the biogeochemical processes controlling them is important for understanding present and future Arctic contributions to atmospheric methane budgets. Here we apply measurements of multiply-substituted isotopologues, or clumped isotopes, of methane as a new tool to identify the origins of ebullitive fluxes in Alaska, Sweden and the Arctic Ocean. When methane forms in isotopic equilibrium, clumped isotope measurements indicate the formation temperature. In some microbial methane, however, non-equilibrium isotope effects, probably related to the kinetics of methanogenesis, lead to low clumped isotope values. We identify four categories of emissions in the studied samples: thermogenic methane, deep subsurface or marine microbial methane formed in isotopic equilibrium, freshwater microbial methane with non-equilibrium clumped isotope values, and mixtures of deep and shallow methane (i.e., combinations of the first three end members). Mixing between deep and shallow methane sources produces a non-linear variation in clumped isotope values with mixing proportion that provides new constraints for the formation environment of the mixing end-members. Analyses of microbial methane emitted from lakes, as well as a methanol-consuming methanogen pure culture, support the hypothesis that non-equilibrium clumped isotope values are controlled, in part, by kinetic isotope effects induced during enzymatic reactions involved in methanogenesis. Our results indicate that these kinetic isotope effects vary widely in microbial methane produced in Arctic lake sediments, with non-equilibrium Δ18 values spanning a range of more than 5‰.

  19. Universality class of replica symmetry breaking, scaling behavior, and the low-temperature fixed-point order function of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppermann, R; Schmidt, M J

    2008-12-01

    A scaling theory of replica symmetry breaking (RSB) in the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (SK) model is presented in the framework of critical phenomena for the scaling regime of large RSB orders kappa , small temperatures T , and small (homogeneous) magnetic fields H . We employ the pseudodynamical picture [R. Oppermann, M. J. Schmidt, and D. Sherrington, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 127201 (2007)], where two critical points CP1 and CP2 are associated with the order function's pseudodynamical limits lim_{a-->infinity}q(a)=1 and lim_{a-->0}q(a)=0 at (T=0 , H=0 , 1kappa=0) . CP1 - and CP2 -dominated contributions to the free energy functional F[q(a)] require an unconventional scaling hypothesis. We determine the scaling contributions in accordance with detailed numerical self-consistent solutions for up to 200 orders of RSB. Power laws, scaling functions, and crossover lines are obtained. CP1 -dominated behavior is found for the nonequilibrium susceptibility, which decays like chi_{1}=kappa;{-53}f_{1}(Tkappa;{-53}) , for the entropy, which obeys S(T=0) approximately chi_{1};{2} , and for the subclass of diverging parameters a_{i}=kappa;{53}f_{a_{i}}(Tkappa;{-53}) [describing Parisi box sizes m_{i}(T) identical witha_{i}(T)T ], with f_{1}(zeta) approximately zeta and f_{a_{i}}(zeta) approximately 1zeta for zeta-->infinity , while f(0) is finite. CP2 -dominated behavior, controlled by the magnetic field H while temperature is irrelevant, is retrieved in the plateau height (or width) of the order function q(a) according to q_{pl}(H)=kappa;{-1}f_{pl}(H;{23}kappa;{-1}) with f_{pl}mid R:(zeta)mid R:_{zeta-->infinity} approximately zeta and f_{pl}(0) finite. Divergent characteristic RSB orders kappa_{CP1}(T) approximately T;{-35} and kappa_{CP2}(H) approximately H;{-23} , respectively, describe the crossover from mean field SK- to RSB-critical behavior with rational-valued exponents extracted with high precision from our RSB data. The order function q(a) is obtained as a fixed-point

  20. Detecting Structural Breaks using Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ntantamis, Christos

    Testing for structural breaks and identifying their location is essential for econometric modeling. In this paper, a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approach is used in order to perform these tasks. Breaks are defined as the data points where the underlying Markov Chain switches from one state to another....... The estimation of the HMM is conducted using a variant of the Iterative Conditional Expectation-Generalized Mixture (ICE-GEMI) algorithm proposed by Delignon et al. (1997), that permits analysis of the conditional distributions of economic data and allows for different functional forms across regimes...

  1. An Investigation on the Relationship between Breaking Loads and Deflections in Three Points Bending Test of Camshaft%凸轮轴三点弯曲断裂载荷与挠度的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈保罗; 李莉; 高致文; 张昊

    2012-01-01

    使用WE-500型液压式万能拉伸试验机测定了IAE6半激冷合金铸铁凸轮轴的三点弯曲断裂载荷,研究了其三点弯曲断裂载荷和挠度之间的关系.研究表明:(1)不同炉次的凸轮轴的三点弯曲断裂载荷存在一定的分散性;(2)凸轮轴的三点弯曲断裂载荷与挠度之间存在正相关关系,凸轮轴中含有适量碳化物对其强度和挠度都是有益的.%The breaking load in three points bending test of the 1AE6 semi-chilled alloyed cast iron camshaft was determined by using WE-500 model hydraulic universal tensile test machine and thereby the relationship between its breaking loads and ite defections was; investigated. The resuit showed: (a )There was some dispersivity existing in the three point bonding breaking loads of camshafts of different melting heats; (b)There was a positive correlation existing between the breaking loads and deflections, and a proper amount of carbide contained in the camshaft was beneficial to both its strength and deflection.

  2. Break It

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MATTHEW PLOWRIGHT; GWYNN GUILFORD

    2008-01-01

    @@ Resolutions are not natural - otherwise you wouldn't have to "resolve" to execute them. This year, instead of planning how to commit to a slew of unattainable goals, why not prepare for breaking your resolutions the right way?

  3. A Data Filter for Identifying Steady-State Operating Points in Engine Flight Data for Condition Monitoring Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Donald L.; Litt, Jonathan S.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents an algorithm that automatically identifies and extracts steady-state engine operating points from engine flight data. It calculates the mean and standard deviation of select parameters contained in the incoming flight data stream. If the standard deviation of the data falls below defined constraints, the engine is assumed to be at a steady-state operating point, and the mean measurement data at that point are archived for subsequent condition monitoring purposes. The fundamental design of the steady-state data filter is completely generic and applicable for any dynamic system. Additional domain-specific logic constraints are applied to reduce data outliers and variance within the collected steady-state data. The filter is designed for on-line real-time processing of streaming data as opposed to post-processing of the data in batch mode. Results of applying the steady-state data filter to recorded helicopter engine flight data are shown, demonstrating its utility for engine condition monitoring applications.

  4. Navier-Stokes方程对称破坏分歧点的谱Galerkin逼近[英文]%Spectral Galerkin Approximation of Symmetry Breaking Bifurcation Point of the Navier-Stokes Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王贺元; 王为民; 李开泰

    2002-01-01

    In this paper, spectral Galerkin approximate problem of symmetry breaking biffurcation points for the stationary Navier-Stokes equations is studied, the extended system and its spectral Galerkin approximate system of symmetry breaking biffurcation points for the Navier-Stokes equa tions are constructed, the existence and convergence of solutions of the spectral Galerkin approxi mate system are proved. Accordingly, spectral Galerkin approximation of symmetry breaking bifur cation points of the Navier-Stokes equations is given. Moreover, the error estimates are presented.%本文研究了Navier-Stokes方程对称破坏分歧点的谱Galerkin逼近问题,构造了定常Navier-Stokes方程对称破坏分歧点扩充系统及其谱Galerkin逼近扩充系统,证明了谱Galerkin逼扩充系统解的存在性和收敛性,从而给出了Navier-Stokes方程对称破坏分歧点的谱Galerkin逼近,并给出了逼近的误差估计.

  5. A point-based angular analysis model for identifying attributes of spaces at nodes in street networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sang Kyu; Ban, Yong Un

    2016-05-01

    The effects of the axial map as the key representation of the original space syntax have been questioned by some researchers because of the map's discontinuity. To address this concern, angular segment analysis (ASA) was introduced. ASA calculates spatial depths by considering the turning angles of path segments in a street network. However, ASA cannot calculate the attributes of nodes connected to path segments in the network because it analyzes spaces by linear representation, as in the original space syntax. Because the attributes of the two ends (nodes) of a given path segment (link) are not equal to each other, and because they can affect pedestrian and vehicle movement and land use in a street network, the identification of the attributes at nodes (points) would be helpful in the detailed analysis of spaces in the network consisting of nodes and the segments connecting them. Accordingly, this study aims to develop an extended analysis model that can calculate the attributes of spaces at the nodes, including terminuses, bends, and junctions, in the network. To achieve this end, in this study we developed algorithms for a point-based angular analysis (PAA) to find the attributes of spaces at nodes (points), in contrast to ASA, which analyzes spaces using linear representations. As a result, this methodology can obtain distinct values for the attributes of two nodes at the ends of a path segment, through the calculation of spatial depths weighted by considering the turning angles and distances (lengths) along consecutive nodes for a route in the network. Through our methodology, it was identified that spatial configurations of street network affect the social and symbolic centralities of nodes in the network. We believe that our methodology can be a useful tool for planning urban streets and for deriving spatial and social relationships in street networks.

  6. Long Memory and Structural Breaks in Realized Volatility: An Irreversible Markov Switching Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nonejad, Nima

    This paper proposes a model that simultaneously captures long memory and structural breaks. We model structural breaks through irreversible Markov switching or so-called change-point dynamics. The parameters subject to structural breaks and the unobserved states which determine the position...... of the structural breaks are sampled from the joint posterior density by sampling from their respective conditional posteriors using Gibbs sampling and Metropolis-Hastings. Monte Carlo simulations demonstrate that the proposed estimation approach is effective in identifying and dating structural breaks. Applied...... to daily S&P 500 data, one finds strong evidence of three structural breaks. The evidence of these breaks is robust to different specifications including a GARCH specification for the conditional variance of volatility....

  7. Exact break point of a 50 kb deletion 8 kb centromeric of the HLA-A locus with HLA-A*24:02: the same deletion observed in other A*24 alleles and A*23:01 allele.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsunaga, Shigeki; Okudaira, Yuko; Kunii, Nanae; Cui, Tailin; Hosomichi, Kazuyoshi; Oka, Akira; Suzuki, Yasuo; Homma, Yasuhiko; Sato, Shinji; Inoue, Ituro; Inoko, Hidetoshi

    2011-08-01

    In a structural aberration analysis of patients with arthritis mutilans, a 50 kb deletion near the HLA-A locus with HLA-A*24:02 allele was detected. It was previously reported that HLA-A*24:02 haplotype harbored a large-scale deletion telomeric of the HLA-A gene in healthy individuals. In order to confirm that the deletion are the same in patients with arthritis mutilans and in healthy individuals, and to identify the break point of this deletion, the boundary sequences across the deletion in A*24:02 was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a 3.7 kb genomic fragment and subjected to nucleotide sequence determination. A comparison of these genomic sequences with those of the non-A*24:02 haplotype revealed that the deleted genomic region spanning 50 kb was flanked by 3.7 kb repetitive element-rich segments homologous to each other on both sides in non-A*24. The nucleotide sequences of the PCR products were identical in patients with arthritis mutilans and in healthy individuals, revealing that the deletion linked to A*24:02 is irrelevant to the onset of arthritis mutilans. The deletion was detected in all other A*24 alleles so far examined but not in other HLA-A alleles, except A*23:01. This finding, along with the phylogenic tree of HLA-A alleles and the presence of the 3.7 kb highly homologous segments at the boundary of the deleted genomic region in A*03 and A*32, may suggest that this HLA-A*24:02-linked deletion was generated by homologous recombination within two 3.7 kb homologous segments situated 50 kb apart in the ancestral A*24 haplotype after divergence from the A*03 and A*32 haplotypes.

  8. A model of intrinsic symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Li [Research Center for Quantum Manipulation, Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, Sheng [Department of Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Zhejiang 310004 (China); George, Thomas F., E-mail: tfgeorge@umsl.edu [Office of the Chancellor and Center for Nanoscience, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Sun, Xin, E-mail: xin_sun@fudan.edu.cn [Research Center for Quantum Manipulation, Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Different from the symmetry breaking associated with a phase transition, which occurs when the controlling parameter is manipulated across a critical point, the symmetry breaking presented in this Letter does not need parameter manipulation. Instead, the system itself suddenly undergoes symmetry breaking at a certain time during its evolution, which is intrinsic symmetry breaking. Through a polymer model, it is revealed that the origin of the intrinsic symmetry breaking is nonlinearity, which produces instability at the instance when the evolution crosses an inflexion point, where this instability breaks the original symmetry.

  9. The Break

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Anete Mikkala Camille

    2016-01-01

    The chapter elaborates on how to deal with one of the major challenges facing organizations worldwide; Stress. The Break enacts a quantum approach to meet the challenges by proposing a combination of three different quantum storytelling technologies; protreptic mentoring, walking and material sto...

  10. Supersymmetry breaking

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Emilian Dudas

    2009-01-01

    We review the various mechanisms of supersymmetry breaking and its trans-mission to the observable sector. We argue that hybrid models where gauge dominates over gravity mediation, but gravity provides the main contributions to the Higgs sector masses and the neutralino mass, are able to combine the advantages and reduce the disadvantages of the two transmission mechanisms.

  11. 3D/4D architecture of chromosomal break point regions in the cell nucleus following irradiation of normal cells and tumor cells; 3D/4D Architektur von chromosomalen Bruchpunktregionen im Zellkern nach Bestrahlung von Normalzellen und Tumorzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, M.; Cremer, C.; Friedl, A.; Dollinger, G.; Loebrich, M.; Friedland, W.

    2015-01-15

    The development of an effective analytical methodology for a correct description of oncogenic chromosomal aberrations is the challenge of medical radiobiology with respect to preventive therapeutic methods. Scope of the project was a better understanding of the behavior of break point regions dependent on the genome loci, the chromatin folding, the involved repair proteins and the beam quality with respect to an improvement and an efficient prognosis of the health consequences following radiation exposure. New microscopic insights in the normal cell nucleus are supposed to allow a better understanding of the spatial interactions on a molecular scale.

  12. Breaking Symmetries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirstin Peters

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A well-known result by Palamidessi tells us that πmix (the π-calculus with mixed choice is more expressive than πsep (its subset with only separate choice. The proof of this result argues with their different expressive power concerning leader election in symmetric networks. Later on, Gorla offered an arguably simpler proof that, instead of leader election in symmetric networks, employed the reducibility of incestual processes (mixed choices that include both enabled senders and receivers for the same channel when running two copies in parallel. In both proofs, the role of breaking (initial symmetries is more or less apparent. In this paper, we shed more light on this role by re-proving the above result - based on a proper formalization of what it means to break symmetries without referring to another layer of the distinguishing problem domain of leader election. Both Palamidessi and Gorla rephrased their results by stating that there is no uniform and reasonable encoding from πmix into πsep. We indicate how the respective proofs can be adapted and exhibit the consequences of varying notions of uniformity and reasonableness. In each case, the ability to break initial symmetries turns out to be essential.

  13. Breaking Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Kirstin

    2010-01-01

    A well-known result by Palamidessi tells us that {\\pi}mix (the {\\pi}-calculus with mixed choice) is more expressive than {\\pi}sep (its subset with only separate choice). The proof of this result argues with their different expressive power concerning leader election in symmetric networks. Later on, Gorla of- fered an arguably simpler proof that, instead of leader election in symmetric networks, employed the reducibility of "incestual" processes (mixed choices that include both enabled senders and receivers for the same channel) when running two copies in parallel. In both proofs, the role of breaking (ini- tial) symmetries is more or less apparent. In this paper, we shed more light on this role by re-proving the above result-based on a proper formalization of what it means to break symmetries-without referring to another layer of the distinguishing problem domain of leader election. Both Palamidessi and Gorla rephrased their results by stating that there is no uniform and reason- able encoding from {\\pi}mix i...

  14. Breaking Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Kirstin; 10.4204/EPTCS.41.10

    2010-01-01

    A well-known result by Palamidessi tells us that \\pimix (the \\pi-calculus with mixed choice) is more expressive than \\pisep (its subset with only separate choice). The proof of this result argues with their different expressive power concerning leader election in symmetric networks. Later on, Gorla offered an arguably simpler proof that, instead of leader election in symmetric networks, employed the reducibility of incestual processes (mixed choices that include both enabled senders and receivers for the same channel) when running two copies in parallel. In both proofs, the role of breaking (initial) symmetries is more or less apparent. In this paper, we shed more light on this role by re-proving the above result - based on a proper formalization of what it means to break symmetries without referring to another layer of the distinguishing problem domain of leader election. Both Palamidessi and Gorla rephrased their results by stating that there is no uniform and reasonable encoding from \\pimix into \\pisep. We...

  15. The Break

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Anete Mikkala Camille; Larsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    are elaborated as founding differences for the leadership actions to come aka for the engagement in practices of becoming. Material storytelling story modes are posed as material-discursive attempts at rebalancing present hegemonies of mind/body, nature/culture, matter/meaning, etc. with relation to the posed...... and euro each year. The paper tries to explore new ways to deal with these challenges through a quantum approach to storytelling where the enactment of core values, bodies, spaces and artifacts positions managers and CEO’s from major Scandinavian organizations in sites where they can re-evaluate their life...... stones on a table in an office of a municipality in Denmark. Silence….. Rebuilding rooms for taking breaks with the inclusion of different activities such as a game of soccer or a hike seems to provide the tools to rework these imbalances or enslaving patterns. Break……. The attempt at meeting...

  16. Calculation of Minimum Break Point Set for Multi-area Complex Loop Network of Power System%电力系统多区域复杂环网的最小断点集计算

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马静; 叶东华; 王彤; 王增平; 陈晓芳

    2011-01-01

    为从根本上改善最小断点集(minimum break point set,MBPS)适应系统结构非预设性变化的水平,提出多区域复杂环网最小断点集求取及更新算法。在静态网络拓扑情况下,利用保护关联矩阵并行计算各子区域的最小断点集,在此基础上,优化计算主区域的最小断点集,并据此确定全州最小断点集。在网络变结构的情况下,基于广义断点集提出单区域最小断点集更新方案,并将其推广至多区域网络,存主区域、子区域及单线路联络节点发生变结构情况下,快速更新最小断点集。典型的5区域68节点系统计算结果表明:该方法在最小断点集求取方面,不但能够保证全网断点数目合理,还能提高最小断点集的计算速度;在最小断点集更新方面,该方法仅需处理变结构所关联区域的最小断点集,即可实现全网最小断点集更新,有效地降低了复杂环网最小断点集更新的复杂性,计算量小,适用于多种网络变结构情况。%In order to basically improve the minimum break point set (MBPS) to adapt to the non-predictive change level of system structure, a novel scheme of calculating and updating the MBPS for multi-area complex loop network was proposed in this paper. According to static network topology, the MBPSs of sub-area are parallel calculated based on the relay-incidence matrix. Then, the optimization calculation for the MBPS of main-area is calculated and the final MBPS of the whole network is obtained. When the network topology is varied, a single-area MBPS updating algorithm was firstly proposed based on the generalized break point set. Then the method was applied to rapidly update MBPS in the multi-area when the network topology of the sub-area, main-area or single-line connection node is varied. The typical test system with 5-area, 68-bus study demonstrates the proposed method has the following advantages. In the aspect

  17. 浅议盈亏平衡点下多种产品的销量测算%On the Sales Calculation of Various Products under the Break Even Point

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨颖

    2017-01-01

    本文借助Excel简表,结合变动成本、固定成本以及盈亏平衡点等相关知识,可以快速、有效地解决上述问题,同时其逻辑清晰、通俗易懂的特点,也方便财务人员掌握.%By the help of the Excel table, combined with variable cost, fixed cost, Break Even Point and other related knowledge, this paper can quickly and effectively solve the above problems. Its logic is clear and easy to understand. And it is easy to grasp for the financial officers.

  18. Sensitivity Analysis and Parameter Identifiability of the Land Surface Model JULES at the point scale in permeable catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakopoulou, C.; Bulygina, N.; Butler, A. P.; McIntyre, N. R.

    2012-04-01

    Land surface models (LSMs) are recognised as important components of Global Circulation Models (GCMs). Simulating exchanges of the moisture, carbon and energy between land surface and atmosphere in a consistent manner requires physics-based LSMs of high complexity, fine vertical resolution and a large number of parameters that need to be estimated. The "physics" that is incorporated in such models is generally based on our knowledge of point (or very small) scale hydrological processes. Therefore, while larger GCM grid-scale performance may be the ultimate goal, the ability of the model to simulate the point-scale processes is, intuitively, a pre-requisite for its reliable use at larger scales. Critical evaluation of model performance and parameter uncertainty at point scales is therefore a rational starting point for critical evaluation of LSMs; and identification of optimal parameter sets at the point scale is a significant stage of the model evaluation at larger scales. The Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) is a complex LSM, which is used to represent surface exchanges in the UK Met Office's forecast and climate change models. This complexity necessitates a large number of model parameters (in total 108) some of which are incapable of being measured directly at large (i.e. kilometer) scales. For this reason, a parameter sensitivity analysis is a vital confidence building process within the framework of every LSM, and as a part of the calibration strategy. The problem of JULES parameter estimation and uncertainty at the point scale with a view to assessing the accuracy and the uncertainty in the default parameter values is addressed. The sensitivity of the JULES output of soil moisture is examined using parameter response surface analysis. The implemented technique is based on the Regional Sensitivity Analysis method (RSA), which evaluates the model response surface over a region of parameter space using Monte Carlo sampling. The modified version of RSA

  19. Identifying and characterizing major emission point sources as a basis for geospatial distribution of mercury emissions inventories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steenhuisen, Frits

    2015-01-01

    Mercury is a global pollutant that poses threats to ecosystem and human health. Due to its global transport, mercury contamination is found in regions of the Earth that are remote from major emissions areas, including the Polar regions. Global anthropogenic emission inventories identify important se

  20. Insight into Phenomena of Symmetry Breaking Bifurcation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Tong; ZHANG Ying

    2008-01-01

    @@ We show that symmetry-breaking (SB) bifurcation is just a transition of different forms of symmetry, while still preserving system's symmetry. SB bifurcation always associates with a periodic saddle-node bifurcation, identifiable by a zero maximum of the top Lyapunov exponent of the system. In addition, we show a significant phase portrait of a newly born periodic saddle and its stable and unstable invariant manifolds, together with their neighbouring flow pattern of Poincaré mapping points just after the periodic saddle-node bifurcation, thus gaining an insight into the mechanism of SB bifurcation.

  1. Videofluoroscopy Instrument to Identify the Tibiofemoral Contact Point Migration for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Follow-up: CINARTRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simini, F.; Santos, D.; Francescoli, L.

    2016-04-01

    We measure the Tibiofemoral contact point migration to offer clinicians a tool to evaluate Anterior Cruciate Ligament reconstruction. The design of the tool includes a C arm with fluoroscopy, image acquisition and processing system, interactive software and report generation for the clinical record. The procedure samples 30 images from the videofluoroscopy describing 2 seconds movements of hanging-to-full-extension of the knee articulation. A geometrical routine implemented in the original equipment (CINARTRO) helps capture tibial plateau and femoral condile profile by interaction with the user. The tightness or looseness of the knee is expressed by the migration given in terms of movement of the femur along the tibial plateau, as a percentage. We automatically create clinical reports in standard Clinical Document Architecture or CDA format. A special phantom was developed to correct the “pin cushion effect” in Rx images. Five cases of broken ACL patients were measured giving meaningful results for clinical follow up. Tibiofemoral contact point migration was measured as 60% of the tibial plateau, with standard deviation of 6% for healthy knees, 4% when injured and 1% after reconstruction.

  2. Tool for identifying critical control points in embedded purchasing activities in SMEs : Working paper WP 69 for the 24th IPSERA conference, Amsterdam 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagelaar, Geoffrey; Staal, Anne; Holman, Richard; Walhof, Gert

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses risk and uncertainty aspects and proposes an assessment tool leading to identification of critical control points (CCPs) within purchasing-oriented activities of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Identifying such CCPs is the basis for developing SME purchasing instruments to

  3. Development and application of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing E. coli O103 surrogate for tracking contamination through grinding and identifying persistent points of contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To 1.) develop and validate an easily trackable E. coli O157:H7/non-O157 STEC surrogate that can be detected to the same level of sensitivity as E. coli O157:H7; and 2.) apply the trackable surrogate to model contamination passage through grinding and identify points where contamination ...

  4. Symmetry breaking and coarsening of clusters in a prototypical driven granular gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livne, Eli; Meerson, Baruch; Sasorov, Pavel V

    2002-11-01

    Granular hydrodynamics predicts symmetry-breaking instability in a two-dimensional ensemble of nearly elastically colliding smooth hard disks driven, at zero gravity, by a rapidly vibrating sidewall. Supercritical and subcritical symmetry-breaking bifurcations of the stripe state are identified, and the supercritical bifurcation curve is computed. The cluster dynamics proceed as a coarsening process mediated by the gas phase. Well above the bifurcation point the final steady state, selected by coarsening, represents a single strongly localized densely packed "droplet."

  5. Symmetry breaking and coarsening of clusters in a prototypical driven granular gas

    OpenAIRE

    Livne, Eli; Meerson, Baruch; Sasorov, Pavel V.

    2002-01-01

    Granular hydrodynamics predicts symmetry-breaking instability in a two-dimensional (2D) ensemble of nearly elastically colliding smooth hard spheres driven, at zero gravity, by a rapidly vibrating sidewall. Super- and subcritical symmetry-breaking bifurcations of the simple clustered state are identified, and the supercritical bifurcation curve is computed. The cluster dynamics proceed as a coarsening process mediated by the gas phase. Far above the bifurcation point the final steady state, s...

  6. 国内专业网球运动员体能瓶颈突破的研究及建议%Suggestions and Study on Breaking though the Fitness Choke Point of China Career Tennis Player

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐弘; 和旭

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of fitness choke point is the threshold that the domestic tennis player forward into the professional tennis. In this paper, use the video statistics, mathematical statistics method, the literature material, for reasons of fitness injury domestic outstanding tennis players proceed recovery tracking, design training, supervi- sion and training, regular testing, the recovery and fitness training by a new concept, complete the task of physical stamina to break through the choke point.%体能瓶颈的出现是国内专业网球运动员向世界职业网坛迈进的一大门槛。本文采用录像统计法、数理统计法、文献资料,对因体能原因出现伤病的国内优秀网球运动员进行康复跟踪、设计训练、监督训练、定时测试,在进行康复的同时利用新的体能理念进行训练,完成体能突破瓶颈的任务。

  7. A new method to identify water masses -- a network-based analysis of oceanographic point measurement time series

    CERN Document Server

    Greil, Florian

    2012-01-01

    This is a statistical analysis of the oceanographic time series measured across Fram Strait at a latitude of 78{\\deg}50'N. Fram Strait is the deepest passage between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic. There are up to 16 mooring lines with instruments at different depths measuring water temperature and velocity. These variables vary on different time scales and the challenge is to distinguish different spatial flow regimes. For Fram Strait, a temperature criterion is traditionally applied to identify water-masses, i.e. water volumes of similar origin. Interpolation leads to a vertical latitudinal 2D cross-section from which a scalar - the hypothetical area of waters within a certain temperature interval - can be extracted. The scalar is combined with a similar interpolation of the velocities to approximate the volume flows through the gateway. This approach is not only numerically expensive but also incorporates many assumptions. The present study suggest a new network-based approach to discriminate betw...

  8. Re-estimating Environmental Kuznets Curve with Two Spatial Break Points%基于“空间双拐点”估计的环境库兹涅茨曲线

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘舜佳

    2015-01-01

    基于污染空间扩散这一遗漏掉的非观测变量将传统线性环境库兹涅茨曲线在空间维度扩展成能同时测度环境污染与不同地区经济增长之间关系的“空间双拐点”模型。基于中国31个省区1990—2012年工业废气面板数据的检验结果显示:某一地区工业废气污染与辖域内、外不同地区经济增长之间的关系均呈倒U型,这一结论即使在置换包含不同邻域数的空间权重矩阵之后也具有稳健性,因此遏制工业废气污染需同时逾越辖域内、外经济发展“拐点”。随着产生污染空间扩散的毗邻地区数增加,改善工业废气污染所要求的辖域内经济发展水平趋于严格,辖域内“拐点”到来呈滞后趋势;而改善工业废气污染所要求的辖域外其他地区经济发展水平则随着地理毗邻关系减弱而趋于宽松。政策提示污染治理需国家层面整体推进、缩小区域间经济发展水平差距以及杜绝落后产业的区域间转移。%The classical linear Environmental Kuznets Curve is developed with two spatial break points which can analyzes relationship between environmental pollution and local economic growth , even relationship between environmental pollution and neighbor economic growth . By using a panel data including Chinese 31 provinces from 1990 to 2012 ,the test shows that relationship of reverse U‐shaped curve is depicted between environmental pollution and local economic growth ,that is same to relationship between environmental pollution and neighbor economic growth . The conclusion is robust even using different spatial weighted matrix .So the environmental pollution can be suppressed only when both spatial break points are achieved .Along with polluting districts increasing ,local economy development level has to be promoted to suppress pollution ,w hich causes local break point of economic grow th to be late to reach .Even lower economy development level of

  9. Numerical Study on Breaking Criteria for Solitary Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chung-ren CHOU; Ruey-syan SHIH; John Z. YIM

    2003-01-01

    Studies of the breaking criteria for solitary waves on a slope are presented in this paper. The boundary element method is used to model the processes of shoaling and breaking of solitary waves on various slopes. Empirical formulae that can be used to characterize the breaking of solitary waves are presented. These include the breaking index, the wave height, the water depth, and the maximum particle velocity at the point of breaking. Comparisons with the results of other researches are given.

  10. 儿童从众心理--儿童教育与心理发展新的切入点%Children's Conformity Mentality -the New Breaking Points of Education and Psychological Development of the Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白文金; 武凯良

    2015-01-01

    Paying more attention to children's conformity mentality has a great effect on the physical and mental development of children.But the blind submission will inhibit children's natural growth process.With the transformation of society,the change of the times and the increasing demand for innovative talents,we need the innovative talents who would break the normal proce-dure,be creative and dare to explore.The positive conformity can promote the development of children's innovation ability, while negative one can inhibit its nature,therefore,it requires us to actively guide the children in the process of children edu-cation in addition to strengthen the expected behavior and action.This paper will discuss the use of child psychology of con-formity as a new breaking point of children's education and psychological development.%重视儿童从众心理在儿童良好的身心发展发面有着重要的影响作用,但是,如果盲目的屈从则会抑制儿童自然成长的过程。随着社会的转型、时代的变化,对创新人才的需求在逐渐增加,需要打破常规、推陈出新勇于探索的创新型人才。积极的从众能够促进儿童创新能力的发展,消极的从众则会抑制其天性,所以,这就要求我们在儿童教育的过程中对儿童进行积极的引导,强化其希望出现的行为动作。本文将探讨利用儿童从众心理作为儿童教育与心理发展新的切入点。

  11. Sapan Gözlem ile Yapısal Kırılma Noktası İlişkisi ve Bunun Bayesyen Otoregresif Süreçle Tespiti = The Relationship of Aberrant Observation and Structural Break Point : Determination With Bayesian Autoregressive Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem Yorulmaz

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In time series, structural break point can be considered as Level Shift, one type of aberrant observation. Types of aberrant observations, especially Level Shift, and Bayesian autoregressive process are mentioned in the study. In this extent, the ability of finding Level Shift with Bayesian Autoregressive process is also demonstrated on real data.

  12. Corpuscular Breaking of Supersymmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia

    2014-01-01

    Are topological solitons elementary or composites? We answer this question by drawing up a corpuscular formalism in which solitons are coherent states of quantum constituents. This naturally leads to a functional integral representation, in which the classical saddle point is reached as the most probable distribution of corpuscles in the $\\hbar = 0$ limit and where quantum corpuscular corrections correspond to excursions away from such a distribution that occur only for finite $\\hbar$. Several striking features come up. Topological charge emerges as a collective flow of quantum numbers carried by individual corpuscles. Moreover, the corpuscular corrections are not reducible to any known form of quantum corrections, such as loop expansions in the coupling constant $\\hbar g^2$ or semiclassical $e^{-1/\\hbar g^2}$ effects. Corpuscular corrections are stronger and appear already at order $\\sqrt{\\hbar g^2}$. In SUSY theories quantum corpuscular corrections generically break supersymmetry. We show that a domain wall...

  13. Robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy: a costs and break-even point analysis for decision-making in a university hospital and a regional healthcare system in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Fabbro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Robotic Assisted Radical Prostatectomy (RALP is one of the most expensive urological innovations. Prices of the “Da Vinci System” range from € 761.105 to € 1.902.762 for each unit, without taking into account the cost of maintenance and the use of additional devices. We evaluated outcomes, and costs retrospectively, comparing RALP to open retro-pubic radical prostatectomy (RRP performed in our hospital between December 2009 and December 2010.METHODS: We compared 53 RALP, and 50 RRP in terms of costs, and clinical outcomes. We also implemented a Break Even Analysis in order to evaluate if the public reimbursement covered the total cost of RALP.RESULTS: According to our analysis, RALP showed lower hospitalization (p < 0,0001, higher early continence rate  (p < 0,0001, better potency rate in nerve sparing procedures  (p < 0,0142, and required no transfusions. Excluding the cost of purchasing and maintenance, single case costs were € 6.046,08 for RALP and € 4.834,11 for RRP, respectively. Considering the affordability of the technology, the point where the total revenue is sufficient to cover the total costs is an average of 60 cases performed per year, only in presence of additional reimbursement.CONCLUSIONS: Although our clinical analysis shows better results in favour of RALP, the economical analysis shows that RALP's costs are consistently higher than RRP. Considering also the purchasing costs, we demonstrate that the health gain of the technology does not necessarily offset the higher costs, even in a large, university hospital (1.000 beds. 

  14. On breaks of the Indian monsoon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sulochana Gadgil; P V Joseph

    2003-12-01

    For over a century, the term break has been used for spells in which the rainfall over the Indian monsoon zone is interrupted. The phenomenon of `break monsoon' is of great interest because long intense breaks are often associated with poor monsoon seasons. Such breaks have distinct circulation characteristics (heat trough type circulation) and have a large impact on rainfed agriculture.Although interruption of the monsoon rainfall is considered to be the most important feature of the break monsoon, traditionally breaks have been identified on the basis of the surface pressure and wind patterns over the Indian region. We have defined breaks (and active spells) on the basis of rainfall over the monsoon zone. The rainfall criteria are chosen so as to ensure a large overlap with the traditional breaks documented by Ramamurthy (1969) and De et al (1998). We have identified these rainbreaks for 1901-89. We have also identified active spells on the basis of rainfall over the Indian monsoon zone. We have shown that the all-India summer monsoon rainfall is significantly negatively correlated with the number of rainbreak days (correlation coefficient −0.56) and significantly positively correlated with the number of active days (correlation coefficient 0.47).Thus the interannual variation of the all-India summer monsoon rainfall is shown to be related to the number of days of rainbreaks and active spells identified here. There have been several studies of breaks (and also active spells in several cases) identified on the basis of different criteria over regions differing in spatial scales (e.g., Webster et al 1998; Krishnan et al 2000; Goswami and Mohan 2000; and Annamalai and Slingo 2001). We find that there is considerable overlap between the rainbreaks we have identified and breaks based on the traditional definition. There is some overlap with the breaks identified by Krishnan et al (2000) but little overlap with breaks identified by Webster et al (1998). Further

  15. A Stylistic Analysis of Break,Break,Break

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑶

    2015-01-01

    Break, Break, Break is a poem by Alfred Lord Tennyson, the Poet Laureate during the Queen Victoria's reign. This exquisite little poem is wel known for the poet's grief-stricken feelings and heart-broken emotions over the premature death of his best friend, Arthur Henry Halam. Most of the previous studies on this poem focus on the emotional level to consider it as an elegy, expressing sorrow and lamentation for the death of a particular person. However, in order to have a deep understanding in general, this paper analyzes the poem based on the stylistic theory, concerning on the lexical level and the semantic level. It aims at helping the readers to cultivate a sense of appropriateness, to sharpen the understanding and appreciation of literary works and to achieve adaptation in translation.

  16. Break the Pattern!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Cathrine; Trentemøller, Stine

    Break the Pattern! A critical enquiry into three scientific workplace cultures: Hercules, Caretakers and Worker Bees is the third publication of the international three year long project "Understanding Puzzles in the Gendered European Map" (UPGEM). By contrasting empirical findings from academic...... workplaces in the five UPGEM-countries (Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Italy and Poland) we identify three clusters of cultural patterns in physics as culture. We call these Hercules, Caretakers and Worker Bees. We also consider the influence of national cultural historical processes on the scientific culture...... (physics in culture) and discuss how physics as and in culture influence the perception of science, of work and family life, of the interplay between religion and science as well as how physics as culture can either hinder or promote the career of female scientists....

  17. Literary Careers: Breaks and Stalls

    OpenAIRE

    Crozier, W. Ray

    2001-01-01

    In his article, "Literary Careers: Breaks and Stalls," W. Ray Crozier argues that biographical evidence points to considerable individual variation in writers' output over the life span even when allowance is made for longevity and length of writing career. This issue has been neglected by psychological accounts of creativity. Crozier outlines a theoretical framework for understanding variation in terms of an "artistic career." This is conceptualised as a sequence of projects, the success of ...

  18. Repurposed automated handheld counter as a point-of-care tool to identify individuals 'at risk' of serious post-ivermectin encephalopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasisekhar Bennuru

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Administration of ivermectin (IVM as part of mass drug administration (MDA campaigns for onchocerciasis and/or lymphatic filariasis (LF has been suspended in areas co-endemic for Loa loa due to severe post-treatment adverse events (SAEs associated with high-burden of infection (>30,000 mf/ml. One simple approach for preventing SAEs is to identify and exclude individuals at risk from MDA. Here, we describe a repurposed hand-held automated cell counter (Scepter 2.0; HHAC as a rapid, point-of-care method for quantifying microfilariae (mf in the blood of infected individuals.The quantification of microfilarial levels in blood of naturally infected humans, experimentally infected baboons, or mf-spiked human blood was tested using a microfluidic-based automated counter and compared to traditional calibrated thick-smears. We demonstrate that mf can be quantified in 20 µl of whole blood following lysis with 10% saponin within a minute of obtaining blood. There was a highly significant concordance between the counts obtained by the HHAC and those by microscopy for mf densities of >5,000 (p30,000 per ml (p<0.0001, r(c = 0.90. Preliminary proof of concept field studies in Cameroon with 20 µl of blood from L. loa infected humans (n = 22 and baboons (n = 4 also demonstrated a significantly high concordance (p<0.0001, r(c = 0.89 with calibrated thick blood smears counts.A repurposed HHAC is a portable, sensitive, rapid, point-of-care and quantitative tool to identify individuals with high levels of L. loa mf that put them at risk for SAEs following MDA. In addition, it provides ease of data storage and accessibility.

  19. On the Translating Styles of Two Chinese Versions in Break, Break, Break%评Break,Break,Break两种译文的翻译风格

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许颖红

    2011-01-01

    美国著名翻译家提莫志克指出,翻译就其本质而言只能是一部分翻译,忠实地再现原文所有的信息根本不可能,诗歌的准确翻译就更不容易了。对丁尼生的一首短诗的两种译文进行评析,希望通过分析能对此诗有更深刻的理解。%Tymocko, famous American translator, points out that translation is actually only the translation of part of the language because it is impossible to reproduce all the messages. It is even more difiqeuh to translate a poem. For profound understanding, this paper contrasts two Chinese versions of Break, Break, Break, a short poem of Tennyson.

  20. Small Break Air Ingress Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Oh; Eung Soo Kim

    2011-09-01

    The small break air-ingress experiment, described in this report, is designed to investigate air-ingress phenomena postulated to occur in pipes in a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTRs). During this experiment, air-ingress rates were measured for various flow and break conditions through small holes drilled into a pipe of the experimental apparatus. The holes were drilled at right angles to the pipe wall such that a direction vector drawn from the pipe centerline to the center of each hole was at right angles with respect to the pipe centerline. Thus the orientation of each hole was obtained by measuring the included angle between the direction vector of each hole with respect to a reference line anchored on the pipe centerline and pointing in the direction of the gravitational force. Using this reference system, the influence of several important parameters on the air ingress flow rate were measured including break orientation, break size, and flow velocity . The approach used to study the influence of these parameters on air ingress is based on measuring the changes in oxygen concentrations at various locations in the helium flow circulation system as a function of time using oxygen sensors (or detectors) to estimate the air-ingress rates through the holes. The test-section is constructed of a stainless steel pipe which had small holes drilled at the desired locations.

  1. {sup 37}Cl, {sup 15}N, {sup 13}C isotopic analysis of common agro-chemicals for identifying non-point source agricultural contaminants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annable, W.K. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada)]. E-mail: wkannabl@uwaterloo.ca; Frape, S.K. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Shouakar-Stash, O. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Shanoff, T. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Drimmie, R.J. [Department of Earth Sciences, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, N2L 3G1 (Canada); Harvey, F.E. [School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0517 (United States)

    2007-07-15

    The isotopic compositions of commercially available herbicides were analyzed to determine their respective {sup 15}N, {sup 13}C and {sup 37}Cl signatures for the purposes of developing a discrete tool for tracing and identifying non-point source contaminants in agricultural watersheds. Findings demonstrate that of the agrochemicals evaluated, chlorine stable isotopes signatures range between {delta}{sup 37}Cl = -4.55 per mille and +3.40 per mille , whereas most naturally occurring chlorine stable isotopes signatures, including those of road salt, sewage sludge and fertilizers, vary in a narrow range about the Standard Mean Ocean Chloride (SMOC) between -2.00 per mille and +1.00 per mille . Nitrogen stable isotope values varied widely from {delta}{sup 15}N = -10.86 per mille to +1.44 per mille and carbon stable isotope analysis gave an observed range between {delta}{sup 13}C = -37.13 per mille and -21.35 per mille for the entire suite of agro-chemicals analyzed. When nitrogen, carbon and chlorine stable isotope analyses were compared in a cross-correlation analysis, statistically independent isotopic signatures exist suggesting a new potential tracer tool for identifying herbicides in the environment.

  2. On Anomaly Mediated SUSY Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    de Alwis, S P

    2008-01-01

    A discrepancy between the Anomaly Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking (AMSB) gaugino mass calculated from the work of Kaplunovsky and Louis (hep-th/9402005) (KL) and other calculations in the literature is explained, and it is argued that the KL expression is the correct one relevant to the Wilsonian action. Furthermore it is argued that the AMSB contribution to the squark and slepton masses should be replaced by the contribution pointed out by Dine and Seiberg (DS) which has nothing to do with Weyl anomalies. This is not in general equivalent to the AMSB expression, and it is shown that there are models in which the usual AMSB expression would vanish but the DS one is non-zero. In fact the latter has aspects of both AMSB and gauge mediated SUSY breaking. In particular like the latter, it gives positive squared masses for sleptons.

  3. Renormalizable theories with symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Becchi, Carlo M

    2016-01-01

    The description of symmetry breaking proposed by K. Symanzik within the framework of renormalizable theories is generalized from the geometrical point of view. For an arbitrary compact Lie group, a soft breaking of arbitrary covariance, and an arbitrary field multiplet, the expected integrated Ward identities are shown to hold to all orders of renormalized perturbation theory provided the Lagrangian is suitably chosen. The corresponding local Ward identity which provides the Lagrangian version of current algebra through the coupling to an external, classical, Yang-Mills field, is then proved to hold up to the classical Adler-Bardeen anomaly whose general form is written down. The BPHZ renormalization scheme is used throughout in such a way that the algebraic structure analyzed in the present context may serve as an introduction to the study of fully quantized gauge theories.

  4. In silico reversal of repeat-induced point mutation (RIP identifies the origins of repeat families and uncovers obscured duplicated genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hane James K

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeat-induced point mutation (RIP is a fungal genome defence mechanism guarding against transposon invasion. RIP mutates the sequence of repeated DNA and over time renders the affected regions unrecognisable by similarity search tools such as BLAST. Results DeRIP is a new software tool developed to predict the original sequence of a RIP-mutated region prior to the occurrence of RIP. In this study, we apply deRIP to the genome of the wheat pathogen Stagonospora nodorum SN15 and predict the origin of several previously uncharacterised classes of repetitive DNA. Conclusions Five new classes of transposon repeats and four classes of endogenous gene repeats were identified after deRIP. The deRIP process is a new tool for fungal genomics that facilitates the identification and understanding of the role and origin of fungal repetitive DNA. DeRIP is open-source and is available as part of the RIPCAL suite at http://www.sourceforge.net/projects/ripcal.

  5. Identifying transitions in finite systems by means of partition function zeros and microcanonical inflection-point analysis: A comparison for elastic flexible polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Rocha, Julio C S; Landau, David P; Bachmann, Michael

    2014-01-01

    For the estimation of transition points of finite elastic, flexible polymers with chain lengths from $13$ to $309$ monomers, we compare systematically transition temperatures obtained by the Fisher partition function zeros approach with recent results from microcanonical inflection-point analysis. These methods rely on accurate numerical estimates of the density of states, which have been obtained by advanced multicanonical Monte Carlo sampling techniques. Both the Fisher zeros method and microcanonical inflection-point analysis yield very similar results and enable the unique identification of transition points in finite systems, which is typically impossible in the conventional canonical analysis of thermodynamic quantities.

  6. Superconductivity and symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarasua, L.G., E-mail: sarasua@fisica.edu.uy [Instituto de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad de la Republica, Montevideo (Uruguay)

    2012-02-15

    In the present work we consider the relation between superconductivity and spontaneous gauge symmetry breaking (SGBS). We show that ODLRO does not require in principle SBGS, even in the presence of particle number fluctuations, by examining exact solutions of a fermionic pairing model. The criteria become equivalent if a symmetry breaking field is allowed, which can be attributed to the interaction with the environment. However, superconducting states without SBGS are not forbidden.

  7. 呼吸频率拐点判断无氧阈的可行性研究%Study on the Feasibility of Respiratory Rate Break Point Assessed Anaerobic Threshold

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙杨; 高玮; 张漓; 魏文哲

    2014-01-01

    弹性智能织物(smart fabrics)可通过内置的张力感受器感受胸廓张力变化并计算呼吸频率(RspiratorRate,RR),这项技术使得RR的测试可以和心率(Heart Rate,HR)的测试一样简单.当无氧阈发生时,往往伴随着呼吸的加快、加深.如果RR判断无氧阈成为可能,这将是一种无创的、简便易行的判断无氧阈的新方法.本研究通过在递增负荷运动中,弹性智能织物测试的呼吸频率拐点(Respiratory Rate Break Point,RRBP)和ILAT、VAT的相关关系来验证RR判断无氧阈的可行性.方法:14名大学生高水平男子篮球运动员参与实验,在递增负荷试验中确定ILAT、VAT,试验中同步测试RR、HR的变化.试验后分析RR、HR数据,发现其拐点,并与ILAT、VAT进行分析比较.结果:弹性智能织物和气体代谢仪两种仪器所测得的RR值具有高度相关性,相关系数为0.968(P=0.000).递增负荷运动中,所有受试者的RR-Time曲线均出现明显拐点.以功率、VO2、%VO2 max、时间为参数,在分别达到RRBP和ILAT、VAT时,上述参数组间无显著性差异(P>0.05).RRBP时与IL-AT时对应的功率、(V)O2、%(V)O2max、时间4项参数具有非常显著相关性,相关系数分别为r=0.926(P=0.000),r=0.889(P=0.000)、r=0.851(P=0.000)、r=0.869(P=0.000).RRBP时与VAT时所对应的功率、(V)O2、%(V)O2max、时间4项参数具有非常显著相关性.相关性系数分别为r=0.919(P=0.000)、r=0.899(P=0.000)、r=0.889(P=0.000)、r=0.875(P=0.000).以功率、(V)O2、%(V)O max、时间为参数,两次RRBP测试相关系数分别为r=0.927(P=0.000)、r=0.905(P=0.000)、r=0.907(P=0.000)、r=0.893(P=0.000).心率偏离点(HRDP)在受试者中的检出率较低(57.1%).HRDP时对应的功率、(V)O2、%VO max、时间4项参数和ILAT、VAT时对应的上述参数显著相关,但相关性低于RRBP.结论:递增负荷实验中,RR-Time曲线会出现明显的拐点,且具有较高的稳定性和重复性.RRBP可以作为

  8. A Value Chain Analysis of ghost nets in the Arafura Sea: identifying trans-boundary stakeholders, intervention points and livelihood trade-offs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J R A; Gunn, R; Berry, H L; Wagey, G A; Hardesty, B D; Wilcox, C

    2013-07-15

    Lost or discarded fishing nets are a significant component of marine debris which has trans-boundary impacts in large marine ecosystems. Such 'ghost nets' cause the by-catch of marine fauna and require retrieval from coastlines where they wash up. Identifying the causes of discarded nets and feasible intervention points requires analysis of a complex value chain and the stakeholders within it, yet no studies have attempted this. In this paper we combine Value Chain Analysis, commonly applied to understand value-adding for a commodity, with elements of Life Cycle Assessment and social network analysis to examine the drivers, stakeholders, economic, environmental and social costs and benefits in the life of a trawl net. We use the Arafura Sea as a case study, which is shared by Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and Australia, and is the focus of a Trans-boundary Diagnostic Assessment (TDA) within the Arafura-Timor Seas Ecosystem Action program (ATSEA). We follow a trawl net through four sub-systems: manufacture of webbing in South Korea, fishing and loss by an Indonesian vessel, retrieval as ghost net on the northern Australian coastline by Indigenous rangers, and disposal or re-cycling as 'GhostNet Art' by Indigenous artists. Primary stakeholders along the value chain incur economic and social benefits, and economic and environmental costs. There is an anomaly in the chain between Indonesian fishermen and Indigenous rangers, artists and communities due to the lack of market linkages between these primary stakeholders. The first 'nexus of influence' where reductions in net losses and environmental costs can be achieved is through interactions between GhostNets Australia, the World Wide Fund for Nature and the Australian Government, which can influence Indonesian fishery management institutions and fishing crews. The second nexus is via the international art market which by publicising GhostNet Art can raise awareness amongst fish consumers about the impacts of ghost nets

  9. [Analysis on the sensitivity to beta-lactam antibiotics of respiratory-infectious isolates on the second survey on the sensitivity of isolates conducted by the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy in 2007--concerning the aspect of PK/PD break points].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niki, Yoshihito; Kohno, Shigeru; Watanabe, Akira; Aoki, Nobuki

    2009-06-01

    Sensitivity to beta-lactam antibiotics of isolates clinically obtained from respiratory infection sites in adults on the second survey on sensitivity of isolates conducted by the Japanese Society of Chemotherapy in 2007 was investigated according to the classification of the "Guideline for treatment for adult nosocomial pneumonia in 2008". Among the primary antibacterial drugs for mild (A) and moderate (B) nosocomial pneumonia in adults, beta-lactam antibiotics; ceftriaxone (CTRX), sulbactam/ampicillin (SBT/ABPC), panipenem/betamipron (PAPM/BP), tazobactam/piperacillin (TAZ/PIPC), imipenem/cilastatin (IPM/CS), meropenem (MEPM), doripenem (DRPM), biapenem (BIPM) were studied to evaluate their clinical efficacy. The covering rate was analyzed using the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and break point of pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics (PK/PD). Consequently, the results with methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Klebsiella pneumoniae revealed the MIC90 of all antibacterial drugs to be at low levels, while almost 100% of isolates were within the range of PK/PD break points except BIPM and SBT/ABPC to H. influenzae, and SBT/ABPC to K. pneumoniae. However, the analysis of P. aeruginosa didn't reach 100% for the covering rates of isolates, indicating that these drugs did not have a complete inhibitory action to restrict bacterial proliferation. The analysis of all 5 carbapenem drugs showed superiority to TAZ/PIPC in MIC90 while covering rates of isolates at PK/PD break points showed inferiority to TAZ/PIPC. This tendency was found to be more significant in covering the rates of isolates on the regular dose with maximal bactericidal action and on the maximum dose. This is because the maximum dose approved in Japan is as low as half that in IPM/CS and 1/3 that in MEPM in Western countries.

  10. Symmetry Breaking for Black-Scholes Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xuan-Liu; ZHANG Shun-Li; QU Chang-Zheng

    2007-01-01

    Black-Scholes equation is used to model stock option pricing. In this paper, optimal systems with one to four parameters of Lie point symmetries for Black-Scholes equation and its extension are obtained. Their symmetry breaking interaction associated with the optimal systems is also studied. As a result, symmetry reductions and corresponding solutions for the resulting equations are obtained.

  11. Child personality facets and overreactive parenting as predictors of aggression and rule-breaking trajectories from childhood to adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becht, Andrik I; Prinzie, Peter; Deković, Maja; van den Akker, Alithe L; Shiner, Rebecca L

    2016-05-01

    This study examined trajectories of aggression and rule breaking during the transition from childhood to adolescence (ages 9-15), and determined whether these trajectories were predicted by lower order personality facets, overreactive parenting, and their interaction. At three time points separated by 2-year intervals, mothers and fathers reported on their children's aggression and rule breaking (N = 290, M age = 8.8 years at Time 1). At Time 1, parents reported on their children's personality traits and their own overreactivity. Growth mixture modeling identified three aggression trajectories (low decreasing, high decreasing, and high increasing) and two rule-breaking trajectories (low and high). Lower optimism and compliance and higher energy predicted trajectories for both aggression and rule breaking, whereas higher expressiveness and irritability and lower orderliness and perseverance were unique risk factors for increasing aggression into adolescence. Lower concentration was a unique risk factor for increasing rule breaking. Parental overreactivity predicted higher trajectories of aggression but not rule breaking. Only two Trait × Overreactivity interactions were found. Our results indicate that personality facets could differentiate children at risk for different developmental trajectories of aggression and rule breaking.

  12. Kinematic criterion for breaking of shoaling waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liberzon, Dan; Itay, Uri

    2016-11-01

    Validity of a kinematic criterion for breaking of shoaling waves was examined experimentally. Results obtained by simultaneous measurements of water surface velocity by PTV and of the propagation velocity of a steep crest up to the point of breaking inception during shoaling will be reported. The experiments performed in a large wave tank examining breaking behavior of gentle spillers during shoaling on three different slopes suggest a validity of the recently proposed kinematic criterion. The breaking inception was found to occur when the horizontal velocity of the water surface on the steep (local steepness of 0.41-0.6) crest reaches a threshold value of 0.85-0.95 of that of the crest propagation. The exact moment and position of breaking inception detected using a Phase Time Method (PTM), characterizing a unique shape of the local frequency fluctuations at the inception. Future implementation of the PTM method for detection of breaking events in irregular wave fields will be discussed. Supported by German-Israeli Foundation for Scientific Research and Development (GIF) Grant #2019392.

  13. Electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1990-09-01

    The Higgs mechanism is reviewed in its most general form, requiring the existence of a new symmetry-breaking force and associated particles, which need not however be Higgs bosons. The first lecture reviews the essential elements of the Higgs mechanism, which suffice to establish low energy theorems for the scattering of longitudinally polarized W and Z gauge bosons. An upper bound on the scale of the symmetry-breaking physics then follows from the low energy theorems and partial wave unitarity. The second lecture reviews particular models, with and without Higgs bosons, paying special attention to how the general features discussed in lecture 1 are realized in each model. The third lecture focuses on the experimental signals of strong WW scattering that can be observed at the SSC above 1 TeV in the WW subenergy, which will allow direct measurement of the strength of the symmetry-breaking force. 52 refs., 10 figs.

  14. Analysis of economic break-even point of the biogas utilization for electrical power conversion: case study in a swine terminated unit; Analise do ponto de equilibrio economico da utilizacao do biogas para conversao em energia eletrica: estudo de caso em unidade de terminacao de suinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervi, Ricardo Ghantous; Pinotti, Elvio Brasil [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Registro, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias do Vale do Ribeira], e-mails: rghantous@registro.unesp.br, epinotti@registro.unesp.br; Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutsui; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial], e-mails: maura@fca.unesp.br, osmar@fca.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    This work aimed to develop a study to estimate the break-even point in financial units of the electrical power generation using biogas from swine wastes. The analyzed biodigester is a continuous tubular model with brick concrete duct and plastic covering with a gasometer, and where the waste of 2,300 fattening pigs are deposited daily. The initial investment estimate for the installation was R$ 51,537.17. The system annual costs were R$ 5,708.20, for maintenance, R$ 4,390.40 for depreciation and R$ 1,366.77 for interests. It was noticed that with an average of consumption of 17.1 kW.hour{sup -1} the system presents an annual loss of R$ 1,592.14 because the consumption of 27.85 kW.hour{sup -1} is the minimum that should be consumed to achieve a corresponded financial break-even point of R$ 15,054.40.year{sup -1}. It was concluded that the correct technical dimensioning greatly influences on the economic results. (author)

  15. Identifying nonlinear wave interactions in plasmas using two-point measurements a case study of Short Large Amplitude Magnetic Structures (SLAMS)

    CERN Document Server

    Dudok de Wit, T; Dunlop, M; Luehr, H

    1999-01-01

    A framework is described for estimating Linear growth rates and spectral energy transfers in turbulent wave-fields using two-point measurements. This approach, which is based on Volterra series, is applied to dual satellite data gathered in the vicinity of the Earth's bow shock, where Short Large Amplitude Magnetic Structures (SLAMS) supposedly play a leading role. The analysis attests the dynamic evolution of the SLAMS and reveals an energy cascade toward high-frequency waves.

  16. Can spontaneous symmetry breaking occur in potential with one minimum?

    CERN Document Server

    Acus, A

    2000-01-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking occurs when the symmetry that a physical system possesses, is not preserved for the ground state of the system. Although the procedure of symmetry breaking is quite clear from the mathematical point of view, the physical interpretation of the phenomenon is worth to be better understood. In this note we present a simple and instructive example of the symmetry breaking in a mechanical system. It demonstrates that the spontaneous symmetry breaking can occur for the spatially extended solutions in a potential characterised by a single minimum.

  17. Analyzing Break Point of Individual Income Tax of Year-end Bonus and Making Use of It%浅析年终奖的个人所得税临界点及运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯君邦

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the critical point of the one-time bonus at the end of the year when calculate the personal income tax, and makes further analysis on how to make tax planning, under the premise of considering the critical point of the personal income tax.%本文简要分析年终一次性奖金在个人所得税计算时的临界点,并进一步分析在考虑个人所得税临界点的前提下,如何进行纳税筹划.

  18. Improved single sector supersymmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luty, Markus A.; Terning, John

    1998-12-09

    Building on recent work by N. Arkani-Hamed and the present authors, we construct realistic models that break supersymmetry dynamically and give rise to composite quarks and leptons, all in a single strongly-coupled sector. The most important improvement compared to earlier models is that the second-generation composite states correspond to dimension-2 ''meson'' operators in the ultraviolet. This leads to a higher scale for flavor physics, and gives a completely natural suppression of flavor-changing neutral currents. We also construct models in which the hierarchy of Yukawa couplings is explained by the dimensionality of composite states. These models provide an interesting and viable alternative to gravity- and gauge-mediated models. The generic signatures are unification of scalar masses with different quantum numbers at the compositeness scale, and lighter gaugino, Higgsino, and third-generation squark and slepton masses. We also analyze large classes of models that give rise to both compositeness and supersymmetry breaking, based on gauge theories with confining, fixed-point, or free-magnetic dynamics.

  19. Symmetry-breaking oscillations in membrane optomechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurl, C.; Alvermann, A.; Fehske, H.

    2016-12-01

    We study the classical dynamics of a membrane inside a cavity in the situation where this optomechanical system possesses a reflection symmetry. Symmetry breaking occurs through supercritical and subcritical pitchfork bifurcations of the static fixed-point solutions. Both bifurcations can be observed through variation of the laser-cavity detuning, which gives rise to a boomerang-like fixed-point pattern with hysteresis. The symmetry-breaking fixed points evolve into self-sustained oscillations when the laser intensity is increased. In addition to the analysis of the accompanying Hopf bifurcations we describe these oscillations at finite amplitudes with an ansatz that fully accounts for the frequency shift relative to the natural membrane frequency. We complete our study by following the route to chaos for the membrane dynamics.

  20. Residual chromatin breaks as biodosimetry for cell killing by carbon ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, M.; Kase, Y.; Nakano, T.; Kanai, T.; Ando, K.

    1998-11-01

    We have studied the relationship between cell killing and the induction of residual chromatin breaks on various human cell lines and primary cultured cells obtained by biopsy from patients irradiated with either X-rays or heavy-ion beams to identify potential bio-marker of radiosensitivity for radiation-induced cell killing. The carbon-ion beams were accelerated with the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). Six primary cultures obtained by biopsy from 6 patients with carcinoma of the cervix were irradiated with two different mono-LET beams (LET = 13 keV/μm, 76 keV/μm) and 200kV X rays. Residual chromatin breaks were measured by counting the number of non-rejoining chromatin fragments detected by the premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique after a 24 hour post-irradiation incubation period. The induction rate of residual chromatin breaks per cell per Gy was the highest for 76 keV/μm beams on all of the cells. Our results indicated that cell which was more sensitive to the cell killing was similarly more susceptible to induction of residual chromatin breaks. Furthermore there is a good correlation between these two end points in various cell lines and primary cultured cells. This suggests that the detection of residual chromatin breaks by the PCC technique may be useful as a predictive assay of tumor response to cancer radiotherapy.

  1. Transportation Signs at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (trspsign)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains the starting point for the collection of transportation signs at Cedar Breaks National Monument. There are over 400 signs (transportation and...

  2. Designated Overlook Areas at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (ovrareas)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains three polygons that represent areas of designated overlooks at Cedar Breaks National Monument. Note: Point Supreme needs an FMSS number - it...

  3. Springs at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (allsprgs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 151 points representing spring locations in and surrounding Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah. This data originates...

  4. Electroweak symmetry breaking via QCD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubo, Jisuke; Lim, Kher Sham; Lindner, Manfred

    2014-08-29

    We propose a new mechanism to generate the electroweak scale within the framework of QCD, which is extended to include conformally invariant scalar degrees of freedom belonging to a larger irreducible representation of SU(3)c. The electroweak symmetry breaking is triggered dynamically via the Higgs portal by the condensation of the colored scalar field around 1 TeV. The mass of the colored boson is restricted to be 350  GeV≲mS≲3  TeV, with the upper bound obtained from perturbative renormalization group evolution. This implies that the colored boson can be produced at the LHC. If the colored boson is electrically charged, the branching fraction of the Higgs boson decaying into two photons can slightly increase, and moreover, it can be produced at future linear colliders. Our idea of nonperturbative electroweak scale generation can serve as a new starting point for more realistic model building in solving the hierarchy problem.

  5. Cytometry of chromatin bound Mcm6 and PCNA identifies two states in G1 that are separated functionally by the G1 restriction point1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacobberger James W

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cytometric measurements of DNA content and chromatin-bound Mcm2 have demonstrated bimodal patterns of expression in G1. These patterns, the replication licensing function of Mcm proteins, and a correlation between Mcm loading and cell cycle commitment for cells re-entering the cell cycle, led us to test the idea that cells expressing a defined high level of chromatin-bound Mcm6 in G1 are committed - i.e., past the G1 restriction point. We developed a cell-based assay for tightly-bound PCNA (PCNA* and Mcm6 (Mcm6*, DNA content, and a mitotic marker to clearly define G1, S, G2, and M phases of the cell cycle. hTERT-BJ1, hTERT-RPE-1, and Molt4 cells were extracted with Triton X-100 followed by methanol fixation, stained with antibodies and DAPI, then measured by cytometry. Results Bivariate analysis of cytometric data demonstrated complex patterns with distinct clustering for all combinations of the 4 variables. In G1, cells clustered in two groups characterized by low and high Mcm6* expression. Serum starvation and release experiments showed that residence in the high group was in late G1, just prior to S phase. Kinetic experiments, employing serum withdrawal, and stathmokinetic analysis with aphidicolin, mimosine or nocodazole demonstrated that cells with high levels of Mcm6* cycled with the committed phases of the cell cycle (S, G2, and M. Conclusions A multivariate assay for Mcm6*, PCNA*, DNA content, and a mitotic marker provides analysis capable of estimating the fraction of pre and post-restriction point G1 cells and supports the idea that there are at least two states in G1 defined by levels of chromatin bound Mcm proteins.

  6. Breaking News as Radicalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartley, Jannie Møller

    The aim of the paper is to make explicit how the different categories are applied in the online newsroom and thus how new categories can be seen as positioning strategies in the form of radicalisations of already existing categories. Thus field theory provides us with tools to analyse how online...... journalists are using the categorisations to create hierarchies within the journalistic field in order to position themselves as specialists in what Tuchman has called developing news, aiming and striving for what today is know as breaking news and the “exclusive scoop,” as the trademark of online journalism...... provides us with the following two research questions: How does the category of breaking news fit into Tuchmans typology related to time, planning and technology? What types of stories are providing journalistic capital and how are online news stories categorised relatively within the journalistic field?...

  7. Path-breaking books in regional science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldorf, BS

    2004-01-01

    This article presents a collection of regional science books that long-standing members of the Regional Science Association International (RSAI) identified as path-breaking books. The most frequently nominated books include the "classics" by Isard, the seminal books in urban economics by Alonso, Mut

  8. Predicting appointment breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, A G; Talaga, J

    1995-01-01

    The goal of physician referral services is to schedule appointments, but if too many patients fail to show up, the value of the service will be compromised. The authors found that appointment breaking can be predicted by the number of days to the scheduled appointment, the doctor's specialty, and the patient's age and gender. They also offer specific suggestions for modifying the marketing mix to reduce the incidence of no-shows.

  9. Single sector supersymmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luty, Markus A.; Terning, John

    1999-03-18

    We review recent work on realistic models that break supersymmetry dynamically and give rise to composite quarks and leptons, all in a single sector. These models have a completely natural suppression of flavor-changing neutral currents, and the hierarchy of Yukawa couplings is explained by the dimensionality of composite states. The generic signatures are unification of scalar masses with different quantum numbers at the compositeness scale, and lighter gaugino, Higgsino, and third-generation sfermion masses.

  10. A Point Source of a Different Color: Identifying a Gap in United States Regulatory Policy for “Green” CSO Treatment Using Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeno F. Levy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Up to 850 billion gallons of untreated combined sewer overflow (CSO is discharged into waters of the United States each year. Recent changes in CSO management policy support green infrastructure (GI technologies as “front of the pipe” approaches to discharge mitigation by detention/reduction of urban stormwater runoff. Constructed wetlands for CSO treatment have been considered among suites of GI solutions. However, these wetlands differ fundamentally from other GI technologies in that they are “end of the pipe” treatment systems that discharge from a point source, and are therefore regulated in the U.S. under the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES. We use a comparative regulatory analysis to examine the U.S. policy framework for CSO treatment wetlands. We find in all cases that permitting authorities have used best professional judgment to determine effluent limits and compliance monitoring requirements, referencing technology and water quality-based standards originally developed for traditional “grey” treatment systems. A qualitative comparison with Europe shows less stringent regulatory requirements, perhaps due to institutionalized design parameters. We recommend that permitting authorities develop technical guidance documents for evaluation of “green” CSO treatment systems that account for their unique operational concerns and benefits with respect to sustainable development.

  11. DNA breaks early in replication in B cell cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research by scientists at the NCI has identified a new class of DNA sites in cells that break early in the replication process. They found that these break sites correlate with damage often seen in B cell cancers, such as diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

  12. Two novel exonic point mutations in HEXA identified in a juvenile Tay-Sachs patient: role of alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levit, A; Nutman, D; Osher, E; Kamhi, E; Navon, R

    2010-06-01

    We have identified three mutations in the beta-hexoseaminidase A (HEXA) gene in a juvenile Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) patient, which exhibited a reduced level of HEXA mRNA. Two mutations are novel, c.814G>A (p.Gly272Arg) and c.1305C>T (p.=), located in exon 8 and in exon 11, respectively. The third mutation, c.1195A>G (p.Asn399Asp) in exon 11, has been previously characterized as a common polymorphism in African-Americans. Hex A activity measured in TSD Glial cells, transfected with HEXA cDNA constructs bearing these mutations, was unaltered from the activity level measured in normal HEXA cDNA. Analysis of RT-PCR products revealed three aberrant transcripts in the patient, one where exon 8 was absent, one where exon 11 was absent and a third lacking both exons 10 and 11. All three novel transcripts contain frameshifts resulting in premature termination codons (PTCs). Transfection of mini-gene constructs carrying the c.814G>A and c.1305C>T mutations proved that the two mutations result in exon skipping. mRNAs that harbor a PTC are detected and degraded by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway to prevent synthesis of abnormal proteins. However, although NMD is functional in the patient's fibroblasts, aberrant transcripts are still present. We suggest that the level of correctly spliced transcripts as well as the efficiency in which NMD degrade the PTC-containing transcripts, apparently plays an important role in the phenotype severity of the unique patient and thus should be considered as a potential target for drug therapy.

  13. Network Topology Analysis of Post-Mortem Brain Microarrays Identifies More Alzheimer's Related Genes and MicroRNAs and Points to Novel Routes for Fighting with the Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreedevi Chandrasekaran

    Full Text Available Network-based approaches are powerful and beneficial tools to study complex systems in their entirety, elucidating the essential factors that turn the multitude of individual elements into a functional system. In this study we used critical network topology descriptors and guilt-by-association rule to explore and understand the significant molecular players, drug targets and underlying biological mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease. Analyzing two post-mortem brain gene microarrays (GSE4757 and GSE28146 with Pathway Studio software package we constructed and analyzed a set of protein-protein interaction, as well as miRNA-target networks. In a 4-step procedure the expression datasets were normalized using Robust Multi-array Average approach, while the modulation of gene expression by the disease was statistically evaluated by the empirical Bayes method from the limma Bioconductor package. Representative set of 214 seed-genes (p<0.01 common for the three brain sections of the two microarrays was thus created. The Pathway Studio analysis of the networks built identified 15 new potential AD-related genes and 17 novel AD-involved microRNAs. Using KEGG pathways relevant in Alzheimer's disease we built an integrated mechanistic network from the interactions between the overlapping genes in these pathways. Routes of possible disease initiation process were thus revealed through the CD4, DCN, and IL8 extracellular ligands. DAVID and IPA enrichment analysis uncovered a number of deregulated biological processes and pathways including neuron projection/differentiation, aging, oxidative stress, chemokine/ neurotrophin signaling, long-term potentiation and others. The findings in this study offer information of interest for subsequent experimental studies.

  14. Breaking the Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul Rind; Kirketerp, Anne

    2006-01-01

    The paper shortly reveals the history of a small school - the KaosPilots - dedicated to educate young people to carriers as entrepreneurs. In this contribution we want to explore how the KaosPilots managed to break the waves of institutionalised concepts and practices of teaching entrepreneurship....... Following the so-called 'Dogma' concept developed by Danish filmmakers, this contribution aim to explore the key elements making up the recipes guiding the entrepreneurship training program exercised by the school. Key factors forming a community of learning practice are outlined as well as the critical...... pedagogical elements on which the education in entrepreneurship rests....

  15. Supersymmetry breaking made easy, viable, and generic

    CERN Document Server

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2007-01-01

    The kind of supersymmetry that can be discovered at the LHC must be very much flavor-blind, which used to require very special intelligently designed models of supersymmetry breaking. This led to the pessimism for some in the community that it is not likely for the LHC to discover supersymmetry. I point out that this is not so, because a garden-variety supersymmetric theories actually can do this job.

  16. Bootstrap Dynamical Symmetry Breaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Shu Hou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the emergence of a 125 GeV Higgs-like particle at the LHC, we explore the possibility of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking by strong Yukawa coupling of very heavy new chiral quarks Q . Taking the 125 GeV object to be a dilaton with suppressed couplings, we note that the Goldstone bosons G exist as longitudinal modes V L of the weak bosons and would couple to Q with Yukawa coupling λ Q . With m Q ≳ 700  GeV from LHC, the strong λ Q ≳ 4 could lead to deeply bound Q Q ¯ states. We postulate that the leading “collapsed state,” the color-singlet (heavy isotriplet, pseudoscalar Q Q ¯ meson π 1 , is G itself, and a gap equation without Higgs is constructed. Dynamical symmetry breaking is affected via strong λ Q , generating m Q while self-consistently justifying treating G as massless in the loop, hence, “bootstrap,” Solving such a gap equation, we find that m Q should be several TeV, or λ Q ≳ 4 π , and would become much heavier if there is a light Higgs boson. For such heavy chiral quarks, we find analogy with the π − N system, by which we conjecture the possible annihilation phenomena of Q Q ¯ → n V L with high multiplicity, the search of which might be aided by Yukawa-bound Q Q ¯ resonances.

  17. Symmetry breaking. 2. ed.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strocchi, F. [Scuola Normale Superiore, Classe di Scienze, Pisa (Italy)

    2008-07-01

    This new edition of Prof. Strocchi's well received primer on rigorous aspects of symmetry breaking presents a more detailed and thorough discussion of the mechanism of symmetry breaking in classical field theory in relation with the Noether theorem. Moreover, the link between symmetry breaking without massless Goldstone bosons in Coulomb systems and in gauge theories is made more explicit in terms of the delocalized Coulomb dynamics. Furthermore, the chapter on the Higgs mechanism has been significantly expanded with a non-perturbative treatment of the Higgs phenomenon, at the basis of the standard model of particle physics, in the local and in the Coulomb gauges. Last but not least, a subject index has been added and a number of misprints have been corrected. From the reviews of the first edition: The notion of spontaneous symmetry breaking has proven extremely valuable, the problem is that most derivations are perturbative and heuristic. Yet mathematically precise versions do exist, but are not widely known. It is precisely the aim of his book to correct this unbalance. - It is remarkable to see how much material can actually be presented in a rigorous way (incidentally, many of the results presented are due to Strocchi himself), yet this is largely ignored, the original heuristic derivations being, as a rule, more popular. - At each step he strongly emphasizes the physical meaning and motivation of the various notions introduced, a book that fills a conspicuous gap in the literature, and does it rather well. It could also be a good basis for a graduate course in mathematical physics. It can be recommended to physicists as well and, of course, for physics/mathematics libraries. J.-P. Antoine, Physicalia 28/2, 2006 Strocchi's main emphasis is on the fact that the loss of symmetric behaviour requires both the non-symmetric ground states and the infinite extension of the system. It is written in a pleasant style at a level suitable for graduate students in

  18. 中国哈萨克族成人代谢综合征腰围适宜切点研究%The optimum cut-off points of waist circumference for identifying metabolic syndrome in Kazak adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高静; 王宁; 王建疆; 娜孜姑丽; 谢自敬; 毛新民; 李琳琳

    2010-01-01

    探讨哈萨克族成人代谢综合征(MS)诊断的腰围适宜切点.选取2 052例哈萨克族成人,依据国际糖尿病联盟标准,检出两个以上MS组分的假阳性和假阴性率均较低的腰围切点为男性≥99 cm,女性≥88 cm.建议哈萨克族成人以此切点作为MS的检出标准.%The optimum cut-off point of waist circumference for identifying metabolic syndrome(MS)in Kazak was investigated.Based on Internationul Diabetes Eederation.2052 Kazak adults were analysed.At the cut-off point of waist circumference(≥199 cm for men,≥88 cm for women),the rates of false positive and negative for identifying MS were reduced to a minimum.The two cut-off points were possibly appropriate for identifying MS in Kazak.

  19. Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Shadmi, Y; Shadmi, Yael; Shirman, Yuri

    2000-01-01

    Supersymmetry is one of the most plausible and theoretically motivated frameworks for extending the Standard Model. However, any supersymmetry in Nature must be a broken symmetry. Dynamical supersymmetry breaking (DSB) is an attractive idea for incorporating supersymmetry into a successful description of Nature. The study of DSB has recently enjoyed dramatic progress, fueled by advances in our understanding of the dynamics of supersymmetric field theories. These advances have allowed for direct analysis of DSB in strongly coupled theories, and for the discovery of new DSB theories, some of which contradict early criteria for DSB. We review these criteria, emphasizing recently discovered exceptions. We also describe, through many examples, various techniques for directly establishing DSB by studying the infrared theory, including both older techniques in regions of weak coupling, and new techniques in regions of strong coupling. Finally, we present a list of representative DSB models, their main properties, an...

  20. Skills Associated with Line Breaks in Elite Rugby Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve den Hollander, James Brown, Michael Lambert, Paul Treu, Sharief Hendricks

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability of the attacking team to break through the defensive line is a key indicator of success as it creates opportunities to score tries. The aim of this study was to analyse line breaks and identify the associated skills and playing characteristics. The 2013 Super Rugby season (125 games was analysed, in which 362 line breaks were identified and coded using variables that assessed team patterns and non-contact attacking skills in the phases preceding the line break. There was an average of 3 line breaks per game, with 39% of line breaks resulting in a try. Line breaks occurred when the ball-carrier was running fast [61%, x2(4 = 25.784, p = 0.000, Cramer’s v = 0.1922, weak]. At a moderate distance, short lateral passes (19% and skip passes (15% attributed to the highest percentage of line breaks [x2(26 = 50.899, p = 0.036, Cramer’s v = 0.2484, moderate]. Faster defensive line speeds resulted in more line breaks [x2(12 = 61.703, p < 0.001, Cramer’s v = 0.3026, moderate]. Line breaks are associated with overall team success and try scoring opportunities. Awareness of the defenders line speed and depth, fast running speed when receiving the ball and quick passing between attackers to the outside backs creates line break opportunities. During training, coaches should emphasise the movement speed of the ball between attackers and manipulate the speed and distance of the defenders.

  1. Dynamical (Super)Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Murayama, H

    2001-01-01

    Dynamical Symmetry Breaking (DSB) is a concept theorists rely on very often in the discussions of strong dynamics, model building, and hierarchy problems. In this talk, I will discuss why this is such a permeating concept among theorists and how they are used in understanding physics. I also briefly review recent progress in using dynamical symmetry breaking to construct models of supersymmetry breaking and fermion masses.

  2. Electroweak breaking in supersymmetric models

    CERN Document Server

    Ibáñez, L E

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the mechanism for electroweak symmetry breaking in supersymmetric versions of the standard model. After briefly reviewing the possible sources of supersymmetry breaking, we show how the required pattern of symmetry breaking can automatically result from the structure of quantum corrections in the theory. We demonstrate that this radiative breaking mechanism works well for a heavy top quark and can be combined in unified versions of the theory with excellent predictions for the running couplings of the model. (To be published in ``Perspectives in Higgs Physics'', G. Kane editor.)

  3. On partially entanglement breaking channels

    CERN Document Server

    Chruscinski, D; Chruscinski, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej

    2005-01-01

    Using well known duality between quantum maps and states of composite systems we introduce the notion of Schmidt number of a quantum channel. It enables one to define classes of quantum channels which partially break quantum entanglement. These classes generalize the well known class of entanglement breaking channels.

  4. High Prevalence and Clinical Relevance of Genes Affected by Chromosomal Breaks in Colorectal Cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evert van den Broek

    Full Text Available Cancer is caused by somatic DNA alterations such as gene point mutations, DNA copy number aberrations (CNA and structural variants (SVs. Genome-wide analyses of SVs in large sample series with well-documented clinical information are still scarce. Consequently, the impact of SVs on carcinogenesis and patient outcome remains poorly understood. This study aimed to perform a systematic analysis of genes that are affected by CNA-associated chromosomal breaks in colorectal cancer (CRC and to determine the clinical relevance of recurrent breakpoint genes.Primary CRC samples of patients with metastatic disease from CAIRO and CAIRO2 clinical trials were previously characterized by array-comparative genomic hybridization. These data were now used to determine the prevalence of CNA-associated chromosomal breaks within genes across 352 CRC samples. In addition, mutation status of the commonly affected APC, TP53, KRAS, PIK3CA, FBXW7, SMAD4, BRAF and NRAS genes was determined for 204 CRC samples by targeted massive parallel sequencing. Clinical relevance was assessed upon stratification of patients based on gene mutations and gene breakpoints that were observed in >3% of CRC cases.In total, 748 genes were identified that were recurrently affected by chromosomal breaks (FDR 3% of cases, indicating that prevalence of gene breakpoints is comparable to the prevalence of well-known gene point mutations. Patient stratification based on gene breakpoints and point mutations revealed one CRC subtype with very poor prognosis.We conclude that CNA-associated chromosomal breaks within genes represent a highly prevalent and clinically relevant subset of SVs in CRC.

  5. Entanglement–breaking indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lami, L. [Scuola Normale Superiore, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Giovannetti, V. [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    We study a set of new functionals (called entanglement–breaking indices) which characterize how many local iterations of a given (local) quantum channel are needed in order to completely destroy the entanglement between the system of interest over which the transformation is defined and an external ancilla. The possibility of contrasting the noisy effects introduced by the channel iterations via the action of intermediate (filtering) transformations is analyzed. We provide some examples in which our functionals can be exactly calculated. The differences between unitary and non-unitary filtering operations are analyzed showing that, at least for systems of dimension d larger than or equal to 3, the non-unitary choice is preferable (the gap between the performances of the two cases being divergent in some cases). For d = 2 (qubit case), on the contrary, no evidences of the presence of such gap is revealed: we conjecture that for this special case unitary filtering transformations are optimal. The scenario in which more general filtering protocols are allowed is also discussed in some detail. The case of a depolarizing noise acting on a two–qubit system is exactly solved in a general case.

  6. Coulomb imaging of the concerted and stepwise break up processes of OCS ions in intense femtosecond laser radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wales, Benji [Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Bisson, Éric [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Énergie Matériaux Télécommunications, Varennes, QC J3X 1S2 (Canada); Karimi, Reza [Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Beaulieu, Samuel [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Énergie Matériaux Télécommunications, Varennes, QC J3X 1S2 (Canada); Ramadhan, Ali [Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Giguère, Mathieu [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Énergie Matériaux Télécommunications, Varennes, QC J3X 1S2 (Canada); Long, ZiJian; Liu, Wing-Ki [Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada); Kieffer, Jean-Claude; Légaré, François [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Énergie Matériaux Télécommunications, Varennes, QC J3X 1S2 (Canada); Sanderson, Joseph, E-mail: j3sander@uwaterloo.ca [Department of Physics and Astronomy University of Waterloo, 200 University Avenue West, Waterloo, ON N2L 3G1 (Canada)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • We use FEMPULSE to study the structure of OCS and how it changes with time. • Using Dalitz plots we can see structural properties change with pulse length. • We can use the Dalitz plot to distinguish between break up modes. • We identify three modes of stepwise break up including one for OCS{sup 4+}. • We can control the amount of stepwise break up processes. - Abstract: We study the break up of OCS in intense femtosecond laser radiation using the FEMPULS technique to vary the laser pulse duration from 7 fs to 200 fs. Newton and Dalitz plots show the progression of molecular deformation and break up for OCS{sup 3+} and OCS{sup 4+}. For increasing pulse length, the concerted three body dissociation exhibits increasing bending, and the amount of stepwise dissociation decreases. For the longest pulses however the stepwise process increases again. Both phenomena can be interpreted in terms of the effect of the laser field on lower charge states and the behaviour of a wave packet on a saddle point potential. The experiment illustrates the ability of the Coulomb imaging method to track molecular geometry and dynamics and indicates a new path to laser control of molecular parameters.

  7. The breaking point of modern processor and platform technology

    CERN Document Server

    Nowak, A; Lazzaro, A; Leduc, J

    2011-01-01

    This work is an overview of state of the art processors used in High Energy Physics, their architecture and an extensive outline of the forthcoming technologies. Silicon process science and hardware design are making constant and rapid progress, and a solid grasp of these developments is imperative to the understanding of their possible future applications, which might include software strategy, optimizations, computing center operations and hardware acquisitions. In particular, the current issue of software and platform scalability is becoming more and more noticeable, and will develop in the near future with the growing core count of single chips and the approach of certain x86 architectural limits. Other topics brought forward include the hard, physical limits of innovation, the applicability of tried and tested computing formulas to modern technologies, as well as an analysis of viable alternate choices for continued development.

  8. The breaking point of modern processor and platform technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarp, Sverre; Lazzaro, Alfio; Leduc, Julien; Nowak, Andrzej

    2011-12-01

    This work is an overview of state of the art processors used in High Energy Physics, their architecture and an extensive outline of the forthcoming technologies. Silicon process science and hardware design are making constant and rapid progress, and a solid grasp of these developments is imperative to the understanding of their possible future applications, which might include software strategy, optimizations, computing center operations and hardware acquisitions. In particular, the current issue of software and platform scalability is becoming more and more noticeable, and will develop in the near future with the growing core count of single chips and the approach of certain x86 architectural limits. Other topics brought forward include the hard, physical limits of innovation, the applicability of tried and tested computing formulas to modern technologies, as well as an analysis of viable alternate choices for continued development.

  9. Symmetry breaking of solitons in two-dimensional complex potentials

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Jianke

    2014-01-01

    Symmetry breaking is reported for continuous families of solitons in the nonlinear Schr\\"odinger equation with a two-dimensional complex potential. This symmetry-breaking bifurcation is forbidden in generic complex potentials. However, for a special class of partially parity-time-symmetric potentials, such symmetry breaking is allowed. At the bifurcation point, two branches of asymmetric solitons bifurcate out from the base branch of symmetry-unbroken solitons. Stability of these solitons near the bifurcation point are also studied, and two novel stability properties for the bifurcated asymmetric solitons are revealed. One is that at the bifurcation point, zero and simple imaginary linear-stability eigenvalues of asymmetric solitons can move directly into the complex plane and create oscillatory instability. The other is that the two bifurcated asymmetric solitons, even though having identical powers and being related to each other by spatial mirror reflection, can possess different types of unstable eigenval...

  10. Identifying Activity

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, Adrian S

    2009-01-01

    Identification of active constraints in constrained optimization is of interest from both practical and theoretical viewpoints, as it holds the promise of reducing an inequality-constrained problem to an equality-constrained problem, in a neighborhood of a solution. We study this issue in the more general setting of composite nonsmooth minimization, in which the objective is a composition of a smooth vector function c with a lower semicontinuous function h, typically nonsmooth but structured. In this setting, the graph of the generalized gradient of h can often be decomposed into a union (nondisjoint) of simpler subsets. "Identification" amounts to deciding which subsets of the graph are "active" in the criticality conditions at a given solution. We give conditions under which any convergent sequence of approximate critical points finitely identifies the activity. Prominent among these properties is a condition akin to the Mangasarian-Fromovitz constraint qualification, which ensures boundedness of the set of...

  11. Detecting structural breaks in time series via genetic algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Benjamin; Fischer, Paul; Hilbert, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    Detecting structural breaks is an essential task for the statistical analysis of time series, for example, for fitting parametric models to it. In short, structural breaks are points in time at which the behaviour of the time series substantially changes. Typically, no solid background knowledge...... and mutation operations for this problem, we conduct extensive experiments to determine good choices for the parameters and operators of the genetic algorithm. One surprising observation is that use of uniform and one-point crossover together gave significantly better results than using either crossover...

  12. Phenomenology of symmetry breaking from extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Alfaro, J; Gavela-Legazpi, Maria Belen; Rigolin, S; Salvatori, M

    2007-01-01

    Motivated by the electroweak hierarchy problem, we study the symmetry breaking pattern induced by a background magnetic flux living on extra dimensions, with the four-dimensional scalar fields being gauge boson components in full space. For SU(N) and two compact, toroidal, extra dimensions, we determine analytically the possible field configurations of stable vacua and their symmetries. From the four-dimensional point of view, the system responds dynamically to the magnetic background by an infinite chain of vacuum expectation values so as to reach a stable vacuum. The equivalence between flux compactification and constant boundary conditions - either Scherk-Schwarz or twisted - is established.

  13. Dynamical R-parity Breaking at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shao-Long; Mohapatra, Rabindra N; Zhang, Yue

    2010-01-01

    In a class of extensions of the minimal supersymmetric standard model with (B-L)/left-right symmetry that explains the neutrino masses, breaking R-parity symmetry is an essential and dynamical requirement for successful gauge symmetry breaking. Two consequences of these models are: (i) a new kind of R-parity breaking interaction that protects proton stability but adds new contributions to neutrinoless double beta decay and (ii) an upper bound on the extra gauge and parity symmetry breaking scale which is within the large hadron collider (LHC) energy range. We point out that an important prediction of such theories is a potentially large mixing between the right-handed charged lepton ($e^c$) and the superpartner of the right-handed gauge boson ($\\widetilde W_R^+$), which leads to a brand new class of R-parity violating interactions of type $\\widetilde{\\mu^c}^\\dagger\

  14. Building Bridges, Breaking Barriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horner, Anne

    2016-10-28

    Essential facts Integrated care has been identified by the government and health and social care organisations as a vital step in responding to the increasing numbers of older people with complex needs, who are likely to receive care from several services in different locations.

  15. Breaking beer bottles with cavitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Sunny; Fontana, Jake; Palffy-Muhoray, Peter; Shelley, Michael

    2009-03-01

    Hitting the top of a beer bottle, nearly full of water, with an open hand can cause the bottle to break, with the bottom separating from upper section. We have studied this phenomenon using a high-speed camera, and observed the formation, coalescence and collapse of bubbles. The breaking of glass is due to cavitation, typically occurring near the bottom edge. We make numerical estimates of the relevant physical parameters, and compare these with experimental observations.

  16. Multiscale Simulation of Breaking Wave Impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Ole

    -distance based adaptivity method and redistributed via a point position filtering method. The incompressible and inviscid ALE-WLS model is applied to the following standard validation test cases: deforming elliptical drop, small amplitude standing waves and the dam break problem. The deforming elliptical drop...... and mass conservation is satisfied through a pressure-corrector type calculation of the pressure. The weighted least squares method (WLS) is combined with approximate Riemann solvers to introduce numerical smoothing of the solution around steep gradients in the velocity and pressure fields. The Poisson...... equation is solved and the pressure boundary conditions are satisfied by a generalized finite pointset method (GFPM); This provides a geometrically flexible and stable solution for the fluid pressure. The numerical approximations of these equations are performed on unstructured point distributions...

  17. 青少年代谢综合征腰围身高比切点的初步探讨%The waist-to-height ratio cut-point for identifying metabolic syndrome among adolescents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    尹福在; 陈泓; 曹晓斌; 王敏; 陆强; 马春明; 刘博伟; 娄东辉; 王锐; 韩改玲; 吴广飞; 玄续敏

    2009-01-01

    目的 探讨预测青少年代谢综合征的最佳腰嗣身高比(WHtR)切点.方法 在秦皇岛地区进行一项4 507名13~18岁青少年的横断面调查.采用受试者工作特征(ROC)曲线分析确定代谢综合征 的最佳WHtR切点.结果 无论男性还是女性,代谢综合征的百分比均随着WHtR的增加而增加.WHtR>/0.45后发生代谢综合征的OR值显著增加,分别为13.85(4.08~46.97)和12.42(2.62~58.96,P<0.01).ROC曲线分析显示以上相应WHtR切点具有最佳的敏感性和特异性.结论 WHtR与青少年代谢综合征密切相关.预测青少年代谢综合征的WHtR切点为0.45.%Objective To explore the best cut-point of waist-to-heisht ratio (WHtR) for identifying metabolic syndrome(MS)in adolescents.Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 4 507 adolescents aged 13-18 years in Qinhuangdao.Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was employed to determine the optimal WHtR cut-point for detecting MS.Results The prevalences of MS were higher among higher WHtR in both boys and girls.Odds ratios for MS significantly increased from the WHtR≥0.45 in boys(OR =13.85,95%CI 4.08-46.97)and in girls (OR=12.42,95%CI 2.62-58.96,P<0.01).The ROC curve analysis showed that the optimal WHtR cut-point was 0.45 in boys with the sensitivity of 89.4%and specificity of 81.4%.and in girls with sensitivity of 90.3%and specificity of 86.5%.Conclusion There is a significant correlation between WHtR and MS.Optimal WHtR cut-point for predicting MS is 0.45.

  18. Blasting Vibration Generated by Breaking-Blasting Large Barriers with EBBLB

    OpenAIRE

    Wang Zhen-xiong; Gu Wen-bin; Liang Ting; Liu Jian-qing; Xu Jing-lin; Liu Xin

    2016-01-01

    Equipment for breaking and blasting large barriers (EBBLB) is new break-blast equipment, which inevitably induces ground vibration and may cause substantial damage to rock mass and nearby structures as well as human beings. The ground vibration induced by break-blast is one of the inevitable outcomes. By monitoring vibration at measuring points at different distances from blasting center, time history curve of vibrating velocity can be obtained; it can be drawn that blasting seismic waves are...

  19. Analysis of heavy-ion-induced DNA strand breaks in plasmid pUC18

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Plasmid DNA was irradiated or implanted by mixed particle field(CR) or lithium-ion-beam to detect strand breaks.The primary results showed that mixed particle field could induce single and double strand breaks with positive linear-dose-effects;most of sequence changes induced by CR were point mutant.Lithium-ion-beam could induce strand breaks also,but it was only at dose of 20Gy.

  20. Grapevine bud break prediction for cool winter climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nendel, Claas

    2010-05-01

    Statistical analysis of bud break data for grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L. cvs. Riesling and Müller-Thurgau) at 13 sites along the northern boundary of commercial grapevine production in Europe revealed that, for all investigated sites, the heat summation method for bud break prediction can be improved if the starting date for the accumulation of heat units is specifically determined. Using the coefficient of variance as a criterion, a global minimum for each site can be identified, marking the optimum starting date. Furthermore, it was shown that the application of a threshold temperature for the heat summation method does not lead to an improved prediction of bud break. Using site-specific parameters, bud break of grapevine can be predicted with an accuracy of ± 2.5 days. Using average parameters, the prediction accuracy is reduced to ± 4.5 days, highlighting the sensitivity of the heat summation method to the quality and the representativeness of the driving temperature data.

  1. Dynamical P-parity breaking in effective quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Andrianov, A A; Yudichev, V L

    1995-01-01

    Fermion models with selfinteraction including derivatives of fields are investigated in the strong coupling regime. The existence of three phases is established in the two channel model near tricritical point. The special phase of dynamical P-parity breaking is found.

  2. Symmetries and Exact Solutions of the Breaking Soliton Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈美; 刘希强

    2011-01-01

    With the aid of the classical Lie group method and nonclassical Lie group method, we derive the classical Lie point symmetry and the nonclassical Lie point symmetry of (2+1)-dimensional breaking soliton (BS) equation. Using the symmetries, we find six classical similarity reductions and two nonclassical similarity reductions of the BS equation. Varieties of exact solutions of the BS equation are obtained by solving the reduced equations.

  3. The breaking of quantum double symmetries by defect condensation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bais, F. A.; Mathy, C. J. M.

    2007-03-01

    In this paper, we study the phenomenon of Hopf or more specifically quantum double symmetry breaking. We devise a criterion for this type of symmetry breaking which is more general than the one originally proposed in F.A. Bais, B.J. Schroers, J.K. Slingerland [Broken quantum symmetry and confinement phases in planar physics, Phys. Rev. Lett. 89 (2002) 181601]; Hopf symmetry breaking and confinement in (2+1)-dimensional gauge theory, JHEP 05 (2003) 068], and therefore extends the number of possible breaking patterns that can be described consistently. We start by recalling why the extended symmetry notion of quantum double algebras is an optimal tool when analyzing a wide variety of two-dimensional physical systems including quantum fluids, crystals and liquid crystals. The power of this approach stems from the fact that one may characterize both ordinary and topological modes as representations of a single (generally nonabelian) Hopf symmetry. In principle a full classification of defect mediated as well as ordinary symmetry breaking patterns and subsequent confinement phenomena can be given. The formalism applies equally well to systems exhibiting global, local, internal and/or external (i.e. spatial) symmetries. The subtle differences in interpretation for the various situations are pointed out. We show that the Hopf symmetry breaking formalism reproduces the known results for ordinary (electric) condensates, and we derive formulae for defect (magnetic) condensates which also involve the phenomenon of symmetry restoration. These results are applied in two papers which will be published in parallel [C.J.M. Mathy, F.A. Bais, Nematic phases and the breaking of double symmetries, arXiv:cond-mat/0602109, 2006; F.A. Bais, C.J.M. Mathy, Defect mediated melting and the breaking of quantum double symmetries, arXiv:cond-mat/0602101, 2006].

  4. 49 CFR 176.74 - On deck stowage of break-bulk hazardous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false On deck stowage of break-bulk hazardous materials... CARRIAGE BY VESSEL General Handling and Stowage § 176.74 On deck stowage of break-bulk hazardous materials... within a horizontal distance of 25 feet of an operating or embarkation point of a lifeboat. (g)...

  5. An Analysis of Break,Break,Break Based on the Stylistic Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑶

    2014-01-01

    Break,Break,Break is a poem by Alfred Lord Tennyson, the Poet Laureate during the Queen Victoria's reign. This exquisite little poem is wel known for the poet’s grief-stricken feelings and heart-broken emotions over the premature death of his best friend, Arthur Henry Hal am. Most of the previous studies on this poem focus on the emotional level to consider it as an elegy, expressing sorrow and lamentation for the death of a particular person. However, in order to have a deep understanding in general, this paper analyzes the poem based on the stylistic theory, concerning on the phonological level and the grammatical level. It aims at helping the readers to cultivate a sense of appropriateness, to sharpen the understanding and appreciation of literary works and to achieve adaptation in translation.

  6. Numerical Simulation of Sediment Transport due to Plunging Breaking Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus

    A numerical model simulating the sediment transport due to plunging breaking waves has been developed. The model is two-dimensional, assuming conditions in the long-shore direction invariable. A plunging breaker is simulated by superimposing a non-breaking wave with a jet. Based on the description...... of the sediment transport rates, a simple model describing the morphological changes has been applied to simulate the evolution of a plunge point generated vorticity included, the bottom topography from the experiments by Dette & Uliczka was not in equilibrium according to the model....

  7. Quantum phase transitions about parity breaking in matrix product systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jing-Min

    2011-01-01

    According to our scheme to construct quantum phase transitions (QPTs) in spin chain systems with matrix product ground states, we first successfully combine matrix product state (MPS) QPTs with spontaneous symmetry breaking. For a concrete model, we take into account a kind of MPS QPTs accompanied by spontaneous parity breaking, though for either side of the critical point the GS is typically unique, and show that the kind of MPS QPTs occur only in the thermodynamic limit and are accompanied by the appearance of singularities, diverging correlation length, vanishing energy gap and the entanglement entropy of a half-infinite chain not only staying finite but also whose first derivative discontinuous.

  8. Hole localization and symmetry breaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broer, R; Nieuwpoort, W.C.

    1999-01-01

    A brief overview is presented of some theoretical work on the symmetry breaking of electronic wavefunctions that followed the early work on Bagus and Schaefer who observed that a considerable lower SCF energy could be obtained for an ionized state of the O2 molecule with a 1s hole if the symmetry re

  9. Appointment breaking: causes and solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, A G; Talaga, J

    1992-12-01

    From a review of research on health care appointment breaking, the authors find that patient demographic characteristics, psychosocial problems, previous appointment keeping, health beliefs, and situational factors predict no-show behavior. Suggestions are offered for designing the marketing mix to increase patient appointment keeping. Methods for mitigating the negative effects of no-shows on health care providers are described.

  10. Code breaking in the pacific

    CERN Document Server

    Donovan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Covers the historical context and the evolution of the technically complex Allied Signals Intelligence (Sigint) activity against Japan from 1920 to 1945 Describes, explains and analyzes the code breaking techniques developed during the war in the Pacific Exposes the blunders (in code construction and use) made by the Japanese Navy that led to significant US Naval victories

  11. Inflationary implications of supersymmetry breaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghese, Andrea; Roest, Diederik; Zavala, Ivonne

    2013-01-01

    We discuss a general bound on the possibility to realise inflation in any minimal supergravity with F-terms. The derivation crucially depends on the sGoldstini, the scalar field directions that are singled out by spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. The resulting bound involves both slow-roll paramet

  12. Breaking Carbon Lock-in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Driscoll, Patrick Arthur

    2014-01-01

    This central focus of this paper is to highlight the ways in which path dependencies and increasing returns (network effects) serve to reinforce carbon lock-in in large-scale road transportation infrastructure projects. Breaking carbon lock-in requires drastic changes in the way we plan future...

  13. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barklow, T.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burdman, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Chivukula, R.S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.

  14. How do accretion discs break?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Suzan

    2016-07-01

    Accretion discs are common in binary systems, and they are often found to be misaligned with respect to the binary orbit. The gravitational torque from a companion induces nodal precession in misaligned disc orbits. In this study, we first calculate whether this precession is strong enough to overcome the internal disc torques communicating angular momentum. We compare the disc precession torque with the disc viscous torque to determine whether the disc should warp or break. For typical parameters precession wins: the disc breaks into distinct planes that precess effectively independently. To check our analytical findings, we perform 3D hydrodynamical numerical simulations using the PHANTOM smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, and confirm that disc breaking is widespread and enhances accretion on to the central object. For some inclinations, the disc goes through strong Kozai cycles. Disc breaking promotes markedly enhanced and variable accretion and potentially produces high-energy particles or radiation through shocks. This would have significant implications for all binary systems: e.g. accretion outbursts in X-ray binaries and fuelling supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. The behaviour we have discussed in this work is relevant to a variety of astrophysical systems, for example X-ray binaries, where the disc plane may be tilted by radiation warping, SMBH binaries, where accretion of misaligned gas can create effectively random inclinations and protostellar binaries, where a disc may be misaligned by a variety of effects such as binary capture/exchange, accretion after binary formation.

  15. Breaking Wave Characteristics and Breaking Wave Forces on Slender Cylinders

    OpenAIRE

    Chella, Mayilvahanan Alagan

    2016-01-01

    Offshore wind farms have become an increasingly important source of clean and renewable energy. Most recent offshore wind farms are deployed close to the coast in shallow waters. One of the major factors influencing the initial investment of this technology is the design of the substructure and foundation. The physical processes associated with the non-linear shallow water hydrodynamics are rather complex since the wave motion is strongly influenced by the seabed. Breaking wave...

  16. Picnic Tables within the Designated Picnic Area at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (pcnctbl)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains the individual picnic areas (as points where the picnic tables are generally located) within the only designated picnic area at Cedar Breaks...

  17. Inverse Supersymmetry Breaking in S1 × R3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasilis Oikonomou

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we study the influence of hard supersymmetry breaking terms in a N = 1, d = 4 supersymmetric model, in S1 × R3 spacetime topology. It is shown that when the radius of the compact dimension is large supersymmetry is unbroken, and dynamically breaks as the radius decreases. We point out that this resembles the inverse symmetry breaking of continuous symmetries at finite temperature (however, in the case of supersymmetry, the role of the temperature is played by the compact dimension’s radius. Furthermore, we also find a universality in the dependence of the critical length Lc as a function of a coupling g3, after comparing all cases.

  18. Time-symmetry breaking in turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Jucha, Jennifer; Pumir, Alain; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2014-01-01

    In three-dimensional turbulent flows, the flux of energy from large to small scales breaks time symmetry. We show here that this irreversibility can be quantified by following the relative motion of several Lagrangian tracers. We find by analytical calculation, numerical analysis and experimental observation that the existence of the energy flux implies that, at short times, two particles separate temporally slower forwards than backwards, and the difference between forward and backward dispersion grows as $t^3$. We also find the geometric deformation of material volumes, surrogated by four points spanning an initially regular tetrahedron, to show sensitivity to the time-reversal with an effect growing linearly in $t$. We associate this with the structure of the strain rate in the flow.

  19. Higgsless approach to electroweak symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grojean, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    Higgsless models are an attempt to achieve a breaking of the electroweak symmetry via boundary conditions at the end-points of a fifth dimension compactified on an interval, as an alternative to the usual Higgs mechanism. There is no physical Higgs scalar in the spectrum and the perturbative unitarity violation scale is delayed via the exchange of massive spin-1 KK resonances. The correct mass spectrum is reproduced in a model in warped space, which inherits a custodial symmetry from a left–right gauge symmetry in the bulk. Phenomenological challenges as well as collider signatures are presented. From the AdS/CFT perspective, this model appears as a weakly coupled dual to walking technicolour models.

  20. Breaking the sound barrier in holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyos, Carlos; Jokela, Niko; Rodríguez Fernández, David; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-11-01

    It has been conjectured that the speed of sound in holographic models with UV fixed points has an upper bound set by the value of the quantity in conformal field theory. If true, this would set stringent constraints for the presence of strongly coupled quark matter in the cores of physical neutron stars, as the existence of two-solar-mass stars appears to demand a very stiff equation of state. In this article, we present a family of counterexamples to the speed of sound conjecture, consisting of strongly coupled theories at finite density. The theories we consider include N =4 super Yang-Mills at finite R -charge density and nonzero gaugino masses, while the holographic duals are Einstein-Maxwell theories with a minimally coupled scalar in a charged black hole geometry. We show that for a small breaking of conformal invariance, the speed of sound approaches the conformal value from above at large chemical potentials.

  1. Determination of times maximum insulation in case of internal flooding by pipe break; Determinacion de los tiempos maximos de aislamiento en caso de inundacion interna por rotura de tuberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varas, M. I.; Orteu, E.; Laserna, J. A.

    2014-07-01

    This paper demonstrates the process followed in the preparation of the Manual of floods of Cofrentes NPP to identify the allowed maximum time available to the central in the isolation of a moderate or high energy pipe break, until it affects security (1E) participating in the safe stop of Reactor or in pools of spent fuel cooling-related equipment , and to determine the recommended isolation mode from the point of view of the location of the break or rupture, of the location of the 1E equipment and human factors. (Author)

  2. Modeling Gasoline Demand with Structural Breaks: New Evidence from Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun Akin Omisakin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper extends previous studies in modeling and estimating demand for gasoline for Nigeria from 1977 to 2008. The ingenious attempt of this study, contrast to earlier studies on Nigeria and other developing countries, lies in its assumption of structural breaks in the long run relationship among the variables employed. The study tests for the possibility of structural breaks/regime shifts and parameter instability in the gasoline demand function in Nigeria using more recent and robust techniques. While the conventional residual-based cointegration tests employed fail to identify any meaningful long-run relationship in the gasoline function, the Gregory-Hansen structural break cointegration approach confirms the cointegration relationships despite the breakpoints. The elasticity estimates also follow the a priori expectations being inelastic both in the long- and short-run for both price and income. Having identified plausible breaks in the systems, the test does suggest that a structural break in the cointegration vector is important and needs to be taken care of in the specification of gasoline demand functions in Nigeria. It is envisaged, therefore, that substantial policy lessons would be drawn from the findings of this study especially in the current phase of energy industry deregulation in Nigeria.

  3. Critical dynamics near QCD critical point

    CERN Document Server

    Minami, Yuki

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we study the critical dynamics near the QCD critical point. Near the critical point, the relevant modes for the critical dynamics are identified as the hydrodynamic modes. Thus, we first study the linear dynamics of them by the relativistic hydrodynamics. We show that the thermal diffusion mode is the most relevant mode, whereas the sound mode is suppressed around the critical point. We also find that the Landau equation, which is believed to be an acausal hydrodynamic equation, has no problem to describe slowly varying fluctuations. Moreover, we find that the Israel-Stewart equation, which is a causal one, gives the same result as the Landau equation gives in the long-wavelength region. Next, we study the nonlinear dynamics of the hydrodynamic modes by the nonlinear Langevin equation and the dynamic renormalization group (RG). In the vicinity of the critical point, the usual hydrodynamics breaks down by large fluctuations. Thus, we must consider the nonlinear Langevin equation. We construct t...

  4. Thermal-Hydraulic Integral Effect Test with ATLAS for an Intermediate Break Loss of Coolant Accident at a Pressurizer Surge Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kyoung Ho; Seok Cho; Park, Hyun Sik; Choi, Nam Hyun; Park, Yu Sun; Kim, Jong Rok; Bae, Byoung Uhn; Kim, Yeon Sik; Kim, Kyung Doo; Choi, Ki Yong; Song, Chul Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The main objectives of this test were not only to provide physical insight into the system response of the APR1400 during the pressurizer surge line break accident but also to produce an integral effect test data to validate the SPACE code. In order to simulate a double-ended guillotine break of a pressurizer surge line in the APR1400, the IB-SUR-01R test was performed with ATLAS. The major thermal-hydraulic phenomena such as the system pressures, the collapsed water levels, and the break flow rate were presented and discussed. Despite the core was uncovered, no excursion in the cladding temperature was observed. The pressurizer surge line break can be classified as a hot leg break from a break location point of view. Compared with a cold leg break, coolability in the core may be better in case of a hot leg break due to the enhanced flow in the core region. This integral effect test data will be used to evaluate the prediction capability of existing safety analysis codes of the MARS and the RELAP5 as well as the SPACE code. Furthermore, this data can be utilized to identify any code deficiency for an IBLOCA simulation, especially for DVI-adapted plants. Redefinition of break size for design basis accident (DBA) based on risk information is being extensively investigated due to the potential for safety benefits and unnecessary burden reduction from current LBLOCA (large break loss of coolant accident)-based ECC (Emergency Core Cooling) Acceptance Criteria. As a transition break size (TBS), the rupture of medium-size pipe is considered to be more important than ever in risk-informed regulation (RIR)-relevant safety analysis. As plants age, are up-rated, and continue to seek improved operating efficiencies, the small break and intermediate break LOCA (IBLOCA) can become a concern. In particular, IBLOCA with DVI (Direct Vessel Injection) features will be addressed to support redefinition of a design-basis LOCA. With an aim of expanding code validation to address small

  5. Symmetries, Symmetry Breaking, Gauge Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Strocchi, Franco

    2015-01-01

    The concepts of symmetry, symmetry breaking and gauge symmetries are discussed, their operational meaning being displayed by the observables {\\em and} the (physical) states. For infinitely extended systems the states fall into physically disjoint {\\em phases} characterized by their behavior at infinity or boundary conditions, encoded in the ground state, which provide the cause of symmetry breaking without contradicting Curie Principle. Global gauge symmetries, not seen by the observables, are nevertheless displayed by detectable properties of the states (superselected quantum numbers and parastatistics). Local gauge symmetries are not seen also by the physical states; they appear only in non-positive representations of field algebras. Their role at the Lagrangian level is merely to ensure the validity on the physical states of local Gauss laws, obeyed by the currents which generate the corresponding global gauge symmetries; they are responsible for most distinctive physical properties of gauge quantum field ...

  6. Patterns and breaking points in the distribution of benthic algae along the temperate Pacific coast of South America Patrones y puntos de quiebre en la distribución de algas bentónicas a lo largo de la costa Pacífica de Sudamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ISABEL MENESES

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available According to biogeographic studies made two decades ago, marine benthic algal species of the Pacific temperate coast of South America could be grouped into five components according to their geographic affinities. Each of these components was distributed differentially along the coastline between 4º and 56ºS and thus, their contribution to the overall flora varied depending on the latitude. Species composition changed at specific latitudes in such a way that three groups could be observed: from 4 to 6ºS, from 6 to 30ºS and from 30 to 55ºS. Since 1980, new information on marine algae along this coastline allows a review of the previous phytogeographic characterization. The presence/absence of algal species, separated by division and geographic affinity, was recorded for each degree of latitude from 4º to 56ºS and used to analyze the similarity in species composition and possible changes in distribution patterns. Results show the same five geographic components detected 20 years ago with similar distributions. Differences observed are a further southward intrusion of subtropical elements, a decrease in endemic species number and relative contribution to the flora at the southern tip of South America, and two breaking points in species composition at 12º and 42ºS. Another two breaking points occur at 20ºS and at 33ºS in Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta species composition respectively. The inclusion of single-record species does not affect significantly the distribution of species along this coastlineDe acuerdo a estudios biogeográficos realizados hace 20 años, las especies de algas marinas bentónicas de la costa temperada del Pacífico de Sudamérica se agrupan en 5 componentes de distinta afinidad geográfica. Cada uno de estos componentes posee una distribución diferencial a lo largo de estas costas entre los 4º y los 55ºS. De esta forma su contribución a la flora varía dependiendo de la latitud. La composición de las especies

  7. The symmetry breaking phenomenon in anharmonic oscillator model

    CERN Document Server

    Mastine, Antonio Carlos; Natti, Erica Regina Takano

    2010-01-01

    In this article a non-perturbative time-dependent technique is used to treat the initial value problem, in Quantum Mechanics context, for a non-equilibrium self-interacting fermionic system in the presence of an external magnetic field. Particularly, in mean-field regime, we study the dynamical symmetry breaking phenomenon, identifying the physical processes associated.

  8. Breaking through the tranfer tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    This image shows the tunnel boring machine breaking through the transfer tunnel into the LHC tunnel. Proton beams will be transferred from the SPS pre-accelerator to the LHC at 450 GeV through two specially constructed transfer tunnels. From left to right: LHC Project Director, Lyn Evans; CERN Director-General (at the time), Luciano Maiani, and Director for Accelerators, Kurt Hubner.

  9. Explaining quantum spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chuang; Emch, Gérard G.

    Two accounts of quantum symmetry breaking (SSB) in the algebraic approach are compared: the representational and the decompositional account. The latter account is argued to be superior for understanding quantum SSB. Two exactly solvable models are given as applications of our account: the Weiss-Heisenberg model for ferromagnetism and the BCS model for superconductivity. Finally, the decompositional account is shown to be more conducive to the causal explanation of quantum SSB.

  10. The Masses of Lyman Break Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primack, Joel R.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Somerville, Rachel S.

    Data on galaxies at high redshift, identified by the Lyman-break photometric technique, can teach us about how galaxies form and evolve. The stellar masses and other properties of such Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) depend sensitively on the details of star formation. In this paper we consider three different star formation prescriptions, and use semi-analytic methods applied to the now-standard ΛCDM theory of hierarchical structure formation to show how these assumptions about star formation affect the predicted masses of the stars in these galaxies and the masses of the dark matter halos that host them. We find that, within the rather large uncertainties, recent estimates of the stellar masses of LBGs from multi-color photometry are consistent with the predictions of all three models. However, the estimated stellar masses are more consistent with the predictions of two of the models in which star formation is accelerated at high redshifts z ≳ 3, and of these models the one in which many of the LBGs are merger-driven starbursts is also more consistent with indications that many high redshift galaxies are gas rich. The clustering properties of LBGs have put some constraints on the masses of their host halos, but due to similarities in the halo occupation of the three models we consider and degeneracies between model parameters, current constraints are not yet sufficient to distinguish between realistic models.

  11. The Masses of Lyman Break Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Primack, Joel R; Somerville, R S; Primack, Joel R.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Somerville, Rachel S.

    2001-01-01

    Data on galaxies at high redshift, identified by the Lyman-break photometric technique, can teach us about how galaxies form and evolve. The stellar masses and other properties of such Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) depend sensitively on the details of star formation. In this paper we consider three different star formation prescriptions, and use semi-analytic methods applied to the now-standard $\\Lambda$CDM theory of hierarchical structure formation to show how these assumptions about star formation affect the predicted masses of the stars in these galaxies and the masses of the dark matter halos that host them. We find that, within the rather large uncertainties, recent estimates of the stellar masses of LBGs from multi-color photometry are consistent with the predictions of all three models. However, the estimated stellar masses are more consistent with the predictions of two of the models in which star formation is accelerated at high redshifts $z\\gsim3$, and of these models the one in which many of the LBGs...

  12. Holomorphic Bisectional Curvatures, Supersymmetry Breaking, and Affleck-Dine Baryogenesis

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, Bhaskar

    2012-01-01

    Working in $D=4, N=1$ supergravity, we utilize relations between holomorphic sectional and bisectional curvatures of Kahler manifolds to constrain Affleck-Dine baryogenesis. We show the following No-Go result: Affleck-Dine baryogenesis cannot be performed if the holomorphic sectional curvature at the origin is isotropic in tangent space; as a special case, this rules out spaces of constant holomorphic sectional curvature (defined in the above sense) and in particular maximally symmetric coset spaces. We also investigate scenarios where inflationary supersymmetry breaking is identified with the supersymmetry breaking responsible for mass splitting in the visible sector, using conditions of sequestering to constrain manifolds where inflation can be performed.

  13. Investigation of the current break-down phenomena in solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S.K.; Srinivasamurthy, N.; Agrawal, B.L. [Power Systems Group, ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore (India)

    1996-08-15

    Observed reverse current-voltage characteristics of the single crystal silicon and gallium arsenide solar cells have been analyzed. Physical mechanisms behind the junction break-down in silicon cells and current break-down in gallium arsenide cells have been identified. Preliminary estimates of the diffusion capacitance in GaAs cells have been presented

  14. Large Eddy Simulation for Wave Breaking in the Surf Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白玉川; 蒋昌波; 沈焕庭

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the large eddy simulation method is used combined with the marker and cell method to study the wave propagation or shoaling and breaking process. As wave propagates into shallow water, the shoaling leads to the increase of wave height, and then at a certain position, the wave will be breaking. The breaking wave is a powerful agent for generating turbulence, which plays an important role in most of the fluid dynamic processes throughout the sarf zone, such as transformation of wave energy, generation of near-shore current and diffusion of materials. So a proper numerical model for describing the turbulence effect is needed. In this paper, a revised Smagorinsky subgrid-scale model is used to describe the turbulence effect. The present study reveals that the coefficient of the Smagorinsky model for wave propagation or breaking simulation may be taken as a varying function of the water depth and distance away from the wave breaking point. The large eddy simulation model presented in this paper has been used to study the propagation of the solitary wave in constant water depth and the shoaling of the non-breaking solitary wave on a beach. The model is based on large eddy simulation, and to track free-surface movements, the Tokyo University Modified Marker and Cell (TUMMAC) method is employed. In order to ensure the accuracy of each component of this wave mathematical model,several steps have been taken to verify calculated solutions with either analytical solutions or experimental data. For non-breaking waves, very accurate results are obtained for a solitary wave propagating over a constant depth and on a beach. Application of the model to cnoidal wave breaking in the surf zone shows that the model results are in good agreement with analytical solution and experimental data. From the present model results, it can be seen that the turbulent eddy viscosity increases from the bottom to the water surface in surf zone. In the eddy viscosity curve, there is a

  15. 找准切入点,发挥网络平台在社区教育中的作用%Identify the Entry Point,Play the Role of Network in Community Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李伟明

    2011-01-01

    Use of network platform in modern information technology to conduct community education,is the inevitable trend of community education development;Build a network platform linked the community college with the family and company,to enhance communication between the college and community residents,through modern information technology to enhance the integration of knowledge,thereby enhancing learning,improving the overall quality of the entire population,to achieve the goal of individual learning and lifelong learning.This paper focuses on how to build the online education platform,how to identify the entry point between community residents and network platform,and the role of network platform in community education.Take network education platform as the cornerstone,and support for the construction and development of learning community.%利用现代信息技术中的网络平台开展社区教育,是社区教育发展的必然趋势。构建一个社区学院与单位、家庭相联接的网络信息化学习平台,加强学院与社区居民之间的沟通,通过现代信息技术加强对知识的整合,进而加强学习,提高全体居民的整体素质,达到个人学习、终身学习的目的。本文着重讨论了怎样建设好网络教育平台、怎样找出网络教育平台与社区居民之间的切入点以及网络平台在社区教育中的作用。以网络教育平台为基石,为学习型社区的建设和发展提供支撑。

  16. Breaking a Dark Degeneracy with Gravitational Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Lombriser, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    We identify a scalar-tensor model embedded in the Horndeski action whose cosmological background and linear scalar fluctuations are degenerate with the concordance cosmology. The model admits a self-accelerated background expansion at late times that is stable against perturbations with a sound speed attributed to the new field that is equal to the speed of light. While degenerate in scalar fluctuations, self acceleration of the model implies a present cosmological tensor mode propagation at 5% less efficient than in general relativity. These discrepancies will be testable with future measurements of gravitational waves emitted by events at cosmological distances. Hence, they can be used to break the dark degeneracy in our current observations between two fundamentally different explanations of cosmic acceleration - a cosmological constant and a scalar-tensor modification of gravity.

  17. Leaders break ground for INFINITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Community leaders from Mississippi and Louisiana break ground for the new INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center facility during a Nov. 20 ceremony. Groundbreaking participants included (l to r): Gottfried Construction representative John Smith, Mississippi Highway Commissioner Wayne Brown, INFINITY board member and Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise, Stennis Director Gene Goldman, Studio South representative David Hardy, Leo Seal Jr. family representative Virginia Wagner, Hancock Bank President George Schloegel, Mississippi Rep. J.P. Compretta, Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians representative Charlie Benn and Louisiana Sen. A.G. Crowe.

  18. History of electroweak symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Kibble, T W B

    2015-01-01

    In this talk, I recall the history of the development of the unified electroweak theory, incorporating the symmetry-breaking Higgs mechanism, as I saw it from my standpoint as a member of Abdus Salam's group at Imperial College. I start by describing the state of physics in the years after the Second World War, explain how the goal of a unified gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions emerged, the obstacles encountered, in particular the Goldstone theorem, and how they were overcome, followed by a brief account of more recent history, culminating in the historic discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012.

  19. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in the composite-vector-boson model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garavaglia, T.

    1986-11-15

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking is discussed in the Abelian, QED-like, composite-vector-boson model. When the auxiliary vector field has a nonzero vacuum expectation value, a global symmetry, Lorentz invariance, is broken. It is shown that the regularization of the saddle-point conditions for the quantum fluctuation generating functional is consistent only with a spacelike vacuum expectation value for the auxiliary vector field.

  20. Finsler-like structures from Lorentz-breaking classical particles

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Neil

    2015-01-01

    A method is presented for deducing classical point-particle Lagrange functions corresponding to a class of quartic dispersion relations. Applying this to particles violating Lorentz symmetry in the minimal Standard-Model Extension leads to a variety of novel lagrangians in flat spacetime. Morphisms in these classical systems are studied that echo invariance under field redefinitions in the quantized theory. The Lagrange functions found offer new possibilities for understanding Lorentz-breaking effects by exploring parallels with Finsler-like geometries.

  1. Introduction to Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson,S.

    2008-10-02

    The Standard Model (SM) is the backbone of elementary particle physics-not only does it provide a consistent framework for studying the interactions of quark and leptons, but it also gives predictions which have been extensively tested experimentally. In these notes, I review the electroweak sector of the Standard Model, discuss the calculation of electroweak radiative corrections to observables, and summarize the status of SM Higgs boson searches. Despite the impressive experimental successes, however, the electroweak theory is not completely satisfactory and the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking is untested. I will discuss the logic behind the oft-repeated statement: 'There must be new physics at the TeV scale'. These lectures reflect my strongly held belief that upcoming results from the LHC will fundamentally change our understanding of electroweak symmetry breaking. In these lectures, I review the status of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model, with an emphasis on the importance of radiative corrections and searches for the Standard Model Higgs boson. A discussion of the special role of the TeV energy scale in electroweak physics is included.

  2. Chiral symmetry breaking and monopoles

    CERN Document Server

    Di Giacomo, Adriano; Pucci, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    To understand the relation between the chiral symmetry breaking and monopoles, the chiral condensate which is the order parameter of the chiral symmetry breaking is calculated in the $\\overline{\\mbox{MS}}$ scheme at 2 [GeV]. First, we add one pair of monopoles, varying the monopole charges $m_{c}$ from zero to four, to SU(3) quenched configurations by a monopole creation operator. The low-lying eigenvalues of the Overlap Dirac operator are computed from the gauge links of the normal configurations and the configurations with additional monopoles. Next, we compare the distributions of the nearest-neighbor spacing of the low-lying eigenvalues with the prediction of the random matrix theory. The low-lying eigenvalues not depending on the scale parameter $\\Sigma$ are compared to the prediction of the random matrix theory. The results show the consistency with the random matrix theory. Thus, the additional monopoles do not affect the low-lying eigenvalues. Moreover, we discover that the additional monopoles increa...

  3. How often precipitation records break?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Oikonomou, Maria; Floutsakou, Athina; Bessas, Nikolaos; Mamassis, Nikos

    2016-04-01

    How often precipitation records break? Are there any factors that determine the average time needed for the next maximum to occur? In order to investigate these simple questions we use several hundreds of daily precipitation records (more than 100 years long each) and we study the time intervals between each successive maximum precipitation value. We investigate if the record breaking time interval is related (a) to the autocorrelation structure, (b) to probability dry, and (c) to the tail of the marginal distribution. For the last, we first, evaluate which type of tail is better fitted by choosing among three general types of tails corresponding to the distributions Pareto, Lognormal and Weibull; and second, we assess the heaviness of the tail based on the estimated shape parameter. The performance of each tail is evaluated in terms of return period values, i.e., we compare the empirical return periods of precipitation values above a threshold with the predicted ones by each of the three types of fitted tails.

  4. Boundary breaking for interdisciplinary learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Kidron

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to contribute to the body of knowledge on processesby which students develop interdisciplinary understanding of contents, as well as to suggest technology-enhanced means for supporting them in these processes in the context of higher education. In doing so, we suggest a rethinking of three traditional practices that tend to characterise typical higher education instruction: (1 compartmentalisation of disciplines; (2 traditional pedagogy; and (3 traditional hierarchies based on levels of expertise. Our high-level conjecture was that meaningful dialogue with peers and experts supports both the deepening of ideas in one knowledge domain and the formation of connections between ideas from several domains, both of which are required for the development of interdisciplinary understanding. We developed the Boundary Breaking for Interdisciplinary Learning (BBIL model, which harnesses technology to break boundaries between disciplines, learners and organisational levels of hierarchy. Findings indicate that 36 undergraduate students who participated in an interdisciplinary online course that implemented the BBIL model have significantly improved their interdisciplinary understanding of the course contents. This study illustrates how innovative use of available, free and low-cost technology can produce a ‘positive disruption’ in higher education instruction.

  5. Replica symmetry breaking for anisotropic magnets with quenched disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kogan, E.; Kaveh, M.

    2017-01-01

    We study critical behaviour of a magnet with cubic anisotropy and quenched scalar disorder which is taken into account by replica method. We derive to first order in ε approximation the renormalization group equations taking into account possible replica symmetry breaking. We study the stability of the replica symmetric fixed points with respect to perturbations without (in general case) replica symmetry. However, we find that if a fixed point is stable with respect to replica symmetric deviations, it is also stable with respect to deviations without replica symmetry.

  6. A new statistical model of wave heights based on the concept of wave breaking critical zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jiaxuan; LI Xunqiang; ZHU Shouxian; ZHANG Wenjing; WANG Lei

    2015-01-01

    When waves propagate from deep water to shallow water, wave heights and steepness increase and then waves roll back and break. This phenomenon is called surf. Currently, the present statistical calculation model of surf was derived mainly from the wave energy conservation equation and the linear wave dispersion relation, but it cannot reflect accurately the process which is a rapid increasing in wave height near the broken point. So, the concept of a surf breaking critical zone is presented. And the nearshore is divided as deep water zone, shallow water zone, surf breaking critical zone and after breaking zone. Besides, the calculation formula for the height of the surf breaking critical zone has founded based on flume experiments, thereby a new statistical calculation model on the surf has been established. Using the new model, the calculation error of wave height maximum is reduced from 17.62% to 6.43%.

  7. Nuclear and mitochondrial gene genealogies and allozyme polymorphism across a major phylogeographic break in the copepod Tigriopus californicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, R S; Lee, B N

    1994-05-24

    The genetic structure of natural populations is frequently inferred from geographic distributions of alleles at multiple gene loci. Surveys of allozyme polymorphisms in the tidepool copepod Tigriopus californicus have revealed sharp genetic differentiation of populations, indicating that gene flow among populations is highly restricted. Analysis of population structure in this species has now been extended to include nuclear and mitochondrial gene genealogies. DNA sequences of the mtDNA-encoded cytochrome-c oxidase subunit I gene from 21 isofemale lines derived from seven populations reveal a phylogeographic break between populations north and south of Point Conception, California, with sequence divergence across the break exceeding 18%, the highest level of mtDNA divergence yet reported among conspecific populations. Divergence between populations based on 22 sequences of the nuclear histone H1 gene is geographically concordant with the mitochondrial sequences. In contrast with previously studied nuclear genes in other sexually reproducing metazoans, the H1 gene genealogy from T. californicus shows no evidence of recombination. The apparent absence of intragenic recombinants probably results from the persistent lack of gene flow among geographically separated populations, a conclusion strongly supported by allozyme data and the mitochondrial gene genealogy. Despite strong population differentiation at allozyme loci, the phylogeographic break identified by the DNA sequences was not evident in the allozyme data.

  8. Sediment transport under breaking waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob; Mayer, Stefan

    2000-01-01

    The sediment transport in the surf zone is modelled by combining a Navier-Stokes solver, a free surface model, a turbulence model, and a sediment transport model. The flow solver is based on the finite volume technique for non-orthogonal grids. The model is capable of simulating the turbulence...... generated at the surface where the wave breaks as well as the turbulence generated near the bed due to the wave-motion and the undertow. In general, the levels of turbulent kinetic energy are found to be higher than experiments show. This results in an over prediction of the sediment transport. Nevertheless......, some qualitative features have been modelled with success such as the onshore transport under plunging breakers and offshore transport under spilling breakers....

  9. Dynamical centrosymmetry breaking in graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Carvalho, David N; Biancalana, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    We discover an unusual phenomenon that occurs when a graphene monolayer is illuminated by a short and intense pulse at normal incidence. Due to the pulse-induced oscillations of the Dirac cones, a dynamical breaking of the layer's centrosymmetry takes place, leading to the generation of second harmonic waves. We prove that this result can only be found by using the full Dirac equation and show that the widely used semiconductor Bloch equations fail to reproduce this and some other important physics of graphene. Our results open new windows in the understanding of nonlinear light-matter interactions in a wide variety of new 2D materials with a gapped or ungapped Dirac-like dispersion.

  10. Porter’s five forces reconsideration: Model of joint MBA programmes and schools’ fusion in the industry of Management Education as a counter point of competitive environment model : COMMUNICATION POUR LA BIENNALE 2015 « COOPERER » Identifiant : N° 448

    OpenAIRE

    NGUYEN, Thi Thu Tra

    2015-01-01

    International audience; In the scope of our doctoral research, business education is considered as an industry where business schools act as firms. Our thesis focuses on the strategic management field, with aims to explore how schools revisit their MBA curricula. Within this framework, joint and merged MBA programmes have been analysed as a counter point of Porter’s five forces (1980): rivalry among competitors, entry barriers, substitutions’ threats, buyers’ and suppliers’ bargaining power. ...

  11. Gravity with background fields and diffeomorphism breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Bluhm, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Effective gravitational field theories with background fields break local Lorentz symmetry and diffeomorphism invariance. Examples include Chern-Simons gravity, massive gravity, and the Standard-Model Extension (SME). The physical properties and behavior of these theories depend greatly on whether the spacetime symmetry breaking is explicit or spontaneous. With explicit breaking, the background fields are fixed and nondynamical, and the resulting theories are fundamentally different from Einstein's General Relativity (GR). However, when the symmetry breaking is spontaneous, the background fields are dynamical in origin, and many of the usual features of Einstein's GR still apply.

  12. Modelling Inflation Uncertainty with Structural Breaks Case of Turkey (1994–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Göktaş

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the importance attached to the concept of volatility has increased and become a phenomenon frequently encountered in every field ranging from financial markets to macroeconomic indicators. In this study, inflation data obtained from CPI index for the period of 1994:01–2013:12 in Turkey was used to determine the best representative of the inflation uncertainty. To realize this, both symmetric and asymmetric GARCH-type models were employed. Since there are many factors that may lead to structural change within the economic course of Turkey, a structural break in the series has first been investigated. By administering Bai-Perron structural break test, two different break points both in mean and variance have been detected to be in February 2002 and in June 2001, respectively. The inclusion of those break points to the related equations, appropriate forecasting models were projected. Moreover it was found that, while in the periods prior to the break in both variance and mean the inflation itself was the reason for inflation uncertainty, following the dates of the break, the relationship changed bidirectionally. In the meantime, when the series was taken as a whole without considering the break, bidirectional causality relationship was also detected in the series.

  13. Break-Even Cost for Residential Photovoltaics in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R. M.; Ong, S.; Roberts, B.

    2009-12-01

    Grid parity--or break-even cost--for photovoltaic (PV) technology is defined as the point where the cost of PV-generated electricity equals the cost of electricity purchased from the grid. Break-even cost is expressed in $/W of an installed system. Achieving break-even cost is a function of many variables. Consequently, break-even costs vary by location and time for a country, such as the United States, with a diverse set of resources, electricity prices, and other variables. In this report, we analyze PV break-even costs for U.S. residential customers. We evaluate some key drivers of grid parity both regionally and over time. We also examine the impact of moving from flat to time-of-use (TOU) rates, and we evaluate individual components of the break-even cost, including effect of rate structure and various incentives. Finally, we examine how PV markets might evolve on a regional basis considering the sensitivity of the break-even cost to four major drivers: technical performance, financing parameters, electricity prices and rates, and policies. We find that local incentives rather than ?technical? parameters are in general the key drivers of the break-even cost of PV. Additionally, this analysis provides insight about the potential viability of PV markets.

  14. Investigation on the Use of a Multiphase Eulerian CFD solver to simulate breaking waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomaselli, Pietro D.; Christensen, Erik Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    for mass and momentum transfer among phases, was satisfactorily tested against an experimental bubble column flow. The model was then used to simulate the propagation of a laboratory solitary breaking wave. The motion of the free surface was successfully reproduced up to the breaking point. Further......The main challenge in CFD multiphase simulations of breaking waves is the wide range of interfacial length scales occurring in the flow: from the free surface measurable in meters down to the entrapped air bubbles with size of a fraction of a millimeter. This paper presents a preliminary...

  15. Evolutionary Algorithms for the Detection of Structural Breaks in Time Series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Benjamin; Fischer, Paul; Hilbert, Astrid

    2013-01-01

    series under consideration is available. Therefore, a black-box optimization approach is our method of choice for detecting structural breaks. We describe a evolutionary algorithm framework which easily adapts to a large number of statistical settings. The experiments on artificial and real-world time...... series show that the algorithm detects break points with high precision and is computationally very efficient. A reference implementation is availble at the following address: http://www2.imm.dtu.dk/~pafi/SBX/launch.html...

  16. Structural breaks and fiscal sustainability of the Indonesian government budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivantia S. Mokoginta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify government policy regimes or structural breaks as indicated by significant changes in debt to GDP ratio and to identify fiscal sustainability in Indonesia from 2000 to 2013. Using Fiscal Reaction Functions framework and Smooth Transition Regression, the study found two structural breaks following the three regimes. Foreign debt repayment dominates the government policy during Regime I. Fiscal consolidations and discipline such as reducing energy subsidies in 2002 and 2005, managing debt portfolio and increasing government revenues were dominant during Regime II. In Regime III, the government increases domestic debt, particularly to finance stimulus package. This study also found that the Indonesian fiscal is unsustainable during the period of study. Overall, the findings seem to suggest that managing government debt through fiscal consolidations, foreign debt repayment and debt portfolio management is not sufficient to achieve long-term fiscal sustainability.

  17. Anatomy of new SUSY breaking holographic RG flows

    CERN Document Server

    Argurio, Riccardo; Redigolo, Diego

    2014-01-01

    We find and thoroughly study new supergravity domain wall solutions which are holographic realizations of supersymmetry breaking strongly coupled gauge theories. We set ourselves in an N=2 gauged supergravity with a minimal content in order to reproduce a dual N=1 effective SCFT which has a U(1)_R symmetry, a chiral operator whose components are responsible for triggering the RG flow, and an additional U(1)_F symmetry. We present a full three dimensional parameter space of solutions, which generically break supersymmetry. Some known solutions are recovered for specific sets of values of the parameters, with the new solutions interpolating between them. The generic backgrounds being singular, we provide a stability test of their dual theories by showing that there are no tachyonic resonances in the two point correlators. We compute the latter by holographic renormalization. We also carefully analyze the appearance of massless modes, such as the dilaton and the R axion, when the respective symmetries are sponta...

  18. Dynamical gauge symmetry breaking on the lattice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farakos, K.; Koutsoumbas, G.; Zoupanos, G. (National Research Centre for the Physical Sciences Democritos, Athens (Greece))

    1990-10-11

    We study, using lattice techniques, the dynamical symmetry breaking of a three-dimensional theory that mimics the electroweak sector of the standard model. We show that in the strong coupling limit of a QCD-like theory the fermion condensates which are produced induce dynamical symmetry breaking of the sector corresponding to the electroweak gauge group. (orig.).

  19. Charge-symmetry-breaking nucleon form factors

    CERN Document Server

    Kubis, Bastian

    2009-01-01

    A quantitative understanding of charge-symmetry breaking is an increasingly important ingredient for the extraction of the nucleon's strange vector form factors. We review the theoretical understanding of the charge-symmetry-breaking form factors, both for single nucleons and for Helium-4.

  20. Big break for charge symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, G A

    2003-01-01

    Two new experiments have detected charge-symmetry breaking, the mechanism responsible for protons and neutrons having different masses. Symmetry is a crucial concept in the theories that describe the subatomic world because it has an intimate connection with the laws of conservation. The theory of the strong interaction between quarks - quantum chromodynamics - is approximately invariant under what is called charge symmetry. In other words, if we swap an up quark for a down quark, then the strong interaction will look almost the same. This symmetry is related to the concept of sup i sospin sup , and is not the same as charge conjugation (in which a particle is replaced by its antiparticle). Charge symmetry is broken by the competition between two different effects. The first is the small difference in mass between up and down quarks, which is about 200 times less than the mass of the proton. The second is their different electric charges. The up quark has a charge of +2/3 in units of the proton charge, while ...

  1. Research progress on dam-break floods

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jiansong

    2011-08-01

    Because of the catastrophic effects downstream of dam-break failure, more and more researchers around the world have been working on the study of dam-break flows to accurately forecast the downstream inundation mapping. With the rapid development of computer hardware and computing techniques, numerical study on dam-break flows has been a popular research subject. In the paper, the numerical methodologies used to solve the governing partial differential equations of dam-break flows are classified and summarized, and their characteristics and applications are discussed respectively. Furthermore, the fully-developed mathematical models developed in recent decades are reviewed, and also introduced the authors\\' on-going work. Finally, some possible future developments on modeling the dam-break flows and some solutions are presented and discussed. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. Numerical study of airflow over breaking waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zixuan; Shen, Lian

    2016-11-01

    We present direct numerical simulation (DNS) results on airflow over breaking waves. Air and water are simulated as a coherent system. The initial condition for the simulation is a fully-developed turbulent airflow over strongly-forced steep waves. The airflow is driven by a shear stress at the top. The effects of the initial wave steepness and wave age are studied systematically. Because wave breaking is an unsteady process, we use ensemble averaging of a large number of runs to obtain turbulent statistics. Simulation results show that the airflow above does not see the wave trough during wave breaking. Vortex structures at different stages of wave breaking are analyzed based on a linear stochastic estimation method. It is found that the wave breaking alters the pattern of vortex structures.

  3. A laboratory study of breaking waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaros³aw Têgowski

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with some aspects of the wave-breaking phenomenon. The objectives were to study wave-breaking criteria, and the probability of whitecap coverage under fully controlled wave conditions. An additional task was to in vestigate the characteristic spectral features of the noise produced by breaking waves and the acoustic energy generated during wave breaking events. A controlled experiment was carried out in the Ocean Basin Laboratory at MARINTEK, Trondheim (Norway. Waves were generated by a computer-controlled multi-flap wave maker, which reproduced a realistic pattern of the sea surface for the prescribed spectra. Using wave staff recordings and photographic techniques, correlations between the breaking parameters and the radiated acoustic emissions were established.

  4. Analysis on Dynamic Dielectric Recovery and Statistical Property of Vacuum Circuit-Breakers with Multi-Breaks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖敏夫; 段雄英; 邹积岩

    2004-01-01

    Based on the dynamic dielectric recovery process in the vacuum gaps in series, investigations were made on post-arc insulation state in double and multi-breaks operation in high voltage power system. From the research on the breakdown weak points in high voltage vacuum gaps, their turnout and distribution, some theoretic work were made to set up the models for describing the statistical property of multi-breaks vacuum circuit-breakers' breakdown and post-arc re-strike, which can be used for explaining the mechanism of the improvement in the breaking capacity of multi-breaks units compared with that of single-break ones which have the same equivalent gap length. The advantages of vacuum breakers with multi-breaks are proposed.

  5. Breaking soliton equations and negative-order breaking soliton equations of typical and higher orders

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    ABDUL-MAJID WAZWAZ

    2016-11-01

    We develop breaking soliton equations and negative-order breaking soliton equations of typical and higher orders. The recursion operator of the KdV equation is used to derive these models.We establish the distinctdispersion relation for each equation. We use the simplified Hirota’s method to obtain multiple soliton solutions for each developed breaking soliton equation. We also develop generalized dispersion relations for the typical breaking soliton equations and the generalized negative-order breaking soliton equations. The results provide useful information on the dynamics of the relevant nonlinear negative-order equations.

  6. Comparing the role of fuel breaks across southern California national forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syphard, Alexandra D.; Keeley, Jon E.; Brennan, Teresa J.

    2011-01-01

    Fuel treatment of wildland vegetation is the primary approach advocated for mitigating fire risk at the wildland-urban interface (WUI), but little systematic research has been conducted to understand what role fuel treatments play in controlling large fires, which factors influence this role, or how the role of fuel treatments may vary over space and time. We assembled a spatial database of fuel breaks and fires from the last 30 years in four southern California national forests to better understand which factors are consistently important for fuel breaks in the control of large fires. We also explored which landscape features influence where fires and fuel breaks are most likely to intersect. The relative importance of significant factors explaining fuel break outcome and number of fire and fuel break intersections varied among the forests, which reflects high levels of regional landscape diversity. Nevertheless, several factors were consistently important across all the forests. In general, fuel breaks played an important role in controlling large fires only when they facilitated fire management, primarily by providing access for firefighting activities. Fire weather and fuel break maintenance were also consistently important. Models and maps predicting where fuel breaks and fires are most likely to intersect performed well in the regions where the models were developed, but these models did not extend well to other regions, reflecting how the environmental controls of fire regimes vary even within a single ecoregion. Nevertheless, similar mapping methods could be adopted in different landscapes to help with strategic location of fuel breaks. Strategic location of fuel breaks should also account for access points near communities, where fire protection is most important.

  7. Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking from Extra Dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Hashimoto, M; Yamawaki, K; Hashimoto, Michio; Tanabashi, Masaharu; Yamawaki, Koichi

    2003-01-01

    We study the dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking (DEWSB) in the $D (=6,8,...)$-dimensional bulk with compactified extra dimensions. We identify the critical binding strength for triggering the DEWSB, based on the ladder Schwinger-Dyson equation. In the top mode standard model with extra dimensions, where the standard model gauge bosons and the third generation of quarks and leptons are put in the bulk, we analyze the most attractive channel (MAC) by using renormalization group equations (RGEs) of (dimensionless) bulk gauge couplings and determine the effective cutoff where the MAC coupling exceeds the critical value. We then find that the top-condensation can take place for D=8. Combining RGEs of top-Yukawa and Higgs-quartic couplings with compositeness conditions, we predict the top mass, $m_t=173-180$ GeV, and the Higgs mass, $m_H=181-211$ GeV, for D=8, where we took the universal compactification scale $1/R = 1-100$ TeV.

  8. Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking from Extra Dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashimoto, Michio; Tanabashi, Masaharu; Yamawaki, Koichi

    2003-08-01

    We study the dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking (DEWSB) in the D(= 6, 8, ⋯)-dimensional bulk with compactified extra dimensions. We identify the critical binding strength for triggering the DEWSB, based on the ladder Schwinger-Dyson equation. In the top mode standard model with extra dimensions, where the standard model gauge bosons and the third generation of quarks and leptons are put in the bulk, we analyze the most attractive channel (MAC) by using renormalization group equations (RGEs) of (dimensionless) bulk gauge couplings and determine the effective cutoff where the MAC coupling exceeds the critical value. We then find that the top-condensation can take place for D = 8. Combining RGEs of top-Yukawa and Higgs-quartic couplings with compositeness conditions, we predict the top mass, mt = 173 - 180 GeV, and the Higgs mass, mH = 181 - 211 GeV, for D = 8, where we took the universal compactification scale 1/R = 1 - 100 TeV.

  9. Science Illiteracy: Breaking the Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebofsky, L. A.; Lebofsky, N. R.

    2003-12-01

    At the University of Arizona, as at many state universities and colleges, the introductory science classes for non-science majors may be the only science classes that future K--8 teachers will take. The design of the UA's General Education program requires all future non-science certified teachers to take the General Education science classes. These classes are therefore an ideal venue for the training of the state's future teachers. Many students, often including future teachers, are ill-prepared for college, i.e., they lack basic science content knowledge, basic mathematics skills, and reading and writing skills. They also lack basic critical thinking skills and study skills. It is within this context that our future teachers are trained. How do we break the cycle of science illiteracy? There is no simple solution, and certainly not a one-size-fits-all panacea that complements every professor's style of instruction. However, there are several programs at the University of Arizona, and also principles that I apply in my own classes, that may be adaptable in other classrooms. Assessment of K--12 students' learning supports the use of inquiry-based science instruction. This approach can be incorporated in college classes. Modeling proven and productive teaching methods for the future teachers provides far more than ``just the facts,'' and all students gain from the inquiry approach. Providing authentic research opportunities employs an inquiry-based approach. Reading (outside the textbook) and writing provide feedback to students with poor writing and critical thinking skills. Using peer tutors and an instant messaging hot line gives experience to the tutors and offers "comfortable" assistance to students.

  10. General focus point in the MSSM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, A.; Quiros, M.; Wagner, C. E. M.

    2014-04-01

    The minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (SM) is a well motivated scenario for physics beyond the SM, which allows a perturbative description of the theory up to scales of the order of the Grand Unification scale, where gauge couplings unify. The Higgs mass parameter is insensitive to the ultraviolet physics and is only sensitive to the scale of soft supersymmetry breaking parameters. Present collider bounds suggest that the characteristic values of these parameters may be significantly larger than the weak scale. Large values of the soft breaking parameters, however, induce large radiative corrections to the Higgs mass parameter and therefore the proper electroweak scale may only be obtained by a fine tuned cancellation between the square of the holomorphic μ parameter and the Higgs supersymmetry breaking square mass parameter. This can only be avoided if there is a correlation between the scalar and gaugino mass parameters, such that the Higgs supersymmetry breaking parameter remains of the order of the weak scale. The scale at which this happens is dubbed as focus point. In this article, we define the general conditions required for this to happen, for different values of the messenger scale at which supersymmetry breaking is transmitted to the observable sector, and for arbitrary boundary conditions of the sfermion, gaugino, and Higgs mass parameters. Specific supersymmetry breaking scenarios in which these correlations may occur are also discussed.

  11. Particle production from symmetry breaking after inflation

    CERN Document Server

    García-Bellido, J; Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Morales, Ester Ruiz

    2002-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that the process of symmetry breaking after inflation typically occurs very fast, within a single oscillation of the symmetry-breaking field, due to the spinodal growth of its long-wave modes, otherwise known as `tachyonic preheating'. In this letter we show how this sudden transition from the false to the true vacuum can induce a significant production of particles, bosons and fermions, coupled to the symmetry-breaking field. We find that this new mechanism of particle production in the early Universe may have interesting consequences for the origin of dark matter and the generation of the observed baryon asymmetry through leptogenesis.

  12. Multiple focused EMAT designs for improved surface breaking defect characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thring, C. B.; Fan, Y.; Edwards, R. S.

    2017-02-01

    Ultrasonic Rayleigh waves can be employed for the detection of surface breaking defects such as rolling contact fatigue and stress corrosion cracking. Electromagnetic Acoustic Transducers (EMATs) are well suited to this technique as they can directly generate Rayleigh waves within the sample without the requirement for wedges, and they are robust and inexpensive compared to laser ultrasonics. Three different EMAT coil types have been developed, and these are compared to assess their ability to detect and characterize small (down to 0.5 mm depth, 1 mm diameter) surface breaking defects in aluminium. These designs are: a pair of linear meander coils used in a pseudo-pulse-echo mode, a pair of focused meander coils also used in pseudo-pulse-echo mode, and a pair of focused racetrack coils used in pitch-catch mode. The linear meander coils are able to detect most of the defects tested, but have a much lower signal to noise ratio and give limited sizing information. The focused meander coils and the focused racetrack coils can detect all defects tested, but have the advantage that they can also characterize the defect sizes on the sample surface, and have a stronger sensitivity at their focal point. Measurements using all three EMAT designs are presented and compared for high resolution imaging of surface-breaking defects.

  13. Semiclassical treatment of symmetry breaking and bifurcations in a non-integrable potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliesnik, M. V.; Krivenko-Emetov, Ya D.; Magner, A. G.; Arita, K.; Brack, M.

    2015-11-01

    We have derived an analytical trace formula for the level density of the Hénon-Heiles potential using the improved stationary phase method, based on extensions of Gutzwiller's semiclassical path integral approach. This trace formula has the correct limit to the standard Gutzwiller trace formula for the isolated periodic orbits far from all (critical) symmetry-breaking points. It continuously joins all critical points at which an enhancement of the semiclassical amplitudes occurs. We found a good agreement between the semiclassical and the quantum oscillating level densities for the gross shell structures and for the energy shell corrections, solving the symmetry breaking problem at small energies.

  14. Semiclassical treatment of symmetry breaking and bifurcations in a non-integrable potential

    CERN Document Server

    Koliesnik, M V; Magner, A G; Arita, K; Brack, M

    2014-01-01

    We have derived an analytical trace formula for the level density of the H\\'enon-Heiles potential using the improved stationary phase method, based on extensions of Gutzwiller's semiclassical path integral approach. This trace formula has the correct limit to the standard Gutzwiller trace formula for the isolated periodic orbits far from all (critical) symmetry-breaking points. It continuously joins all critical points at which an enhancement of the semiclassical amplitudes occurs. We found a good agreement between the semi- classical and the quantum oscillating level densities for the gross shell structures and for the energy shell corrections, solving the symmetry breaking problem at small energies.

  15. Density driven symmetry breaking and Butterfly effect in holographic superconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Youngman; Sin, Sang-Jin

    2009-01-01

    We study the density driven symmetry breaking in holographic superconductors by considering positive mass squared case. We show that with small values of positive $m^2$, scalar condensation still forms. As $m^2$ increases, however, the phase space folds due to the non-linearity of the equation of motion, and two nearby points in phase space can represent symmetry broken and unbroken configurations respectively, leading to an analogue of the butterfly effect. We also calculate the specific heat and electrical conductivity for various $m^2$ and compare them with experimentally observed numbers in condensed matter systems.

  16. Model of Break-Bone Fever via Beta-Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdon Atangana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Using the new derivative called beta-derivative, we modelled the well-known infectious disease called break-bone fever or the dengue fever. We presented the endemic equilibrium points under certain conditions of the physical parameters included in the model. We made use of an iteration method to solve the extended model. To show the efficiency of the method used, we have presented in detail the stability and the convergence of the method for solving the system (2. We presented the uniqueness of the special solution of system (2 and finally the numerical simulations were presented for various values of beta.

  17. Model of Break-Bone Fever via Beta-Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atangana, Abdon; Oukouomi Noutchie, Suares Clovis

    2014-01-01

    Using the new derivative called beta-derivative, we modelled the well-known infectious disease called break-bone fever or the dengue fever. We presented the endemic equilibrium points under certain conditions of the physical parameters included in the model. We made use of an iteration method to solve the extended model. To show the efficiency of the method used, we have presented in detail the stability and the convergence of the method for solving the system (2). We presented the uniqueness of the special solution of system (2) and finally the numerical simulations were presented for various values of beta. PMID:25295263

  18. The interaction between warm conveyor belts and breaking Rossby waves: a climatological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonna, Erica; Joos, Hanna; Martius, Olivia; Aebi, Christine; Limbach, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    Warm conveyor belts (WCBs) are moist ascending airstreams in extratropical cyclones. Climatologically, they are key for the meridional and vertical transport of water vapour and heat. The rapid ascent of WCBs from the boundary layer to the upper troposphere in about 1-2 days leads to cloud formation, (intense) precipitation and the release of latent heat, which modifies their potential vorticity (PV) value in a significant way. Typically WCBs reach the tropopause level with low PV values (~0.5 pvu) and therefore the cross-isentropic transport of low-PV air in WCBs can amplify upper-level Rossby waves and contribute to the formation of PV streamers downstream. Here, filamentary PV streamers are regarded as clear signs of breaking Rossby waves. They in turn can act as precursors of extreme weather events and/or trigger the genesis of another cyclone, potentially generating a new WCB. The aim of this study is to quantify the interaction of WCBs and PV-streamers from a climatological point of view for the ERA-Interim data set for the period 1989-2010. WCBs are identified from comprehensive trajectory calculations that select air parcels in the vicinity of cyclones with a minimum ascent of 600 hPa in 48 hours. From these WCB trajectories, coherent features of WCB outflows are derived and checked for overlapping with PV streamers, which are identified using a contour searching algorithm. Both, WCBs and PV-streamers are then tracked using a novel feature tracking technique, which is based upon a modified region growing approach. With this technique, the interaction of WCBs and PV-streamers is analysed for a 22-years period leading to novel insight about the role of WCBs for triggering the breaking of Rossby waves, as well as, vice versa, about the importance of PV-streamers for the formation of new WCBs.

  19. The Focal Points on Training College Students to Identify with Socialist Core Values%大学生社会主义核心价值观认同培育的着力点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴一敏; 衡德福; 张娟

    2015-01-01

    加强大学生社会主义核心价值观认同培育,应当突出理论认同,发挥政治理论教学在理性认知中的主渠道作用;强化情感认同,发挥情感因素在价值判断中的基础性作用;坚持行为认同,发挥社会实践在认知体验中的支撑性作用等。%To enhance the training on College Students to identify with socialist core values, should lay stress on the identity theory and play the role of the main channel of political theory teaching in rational cognition;should strength emotional iden-tification and play the basic role of affective factors in value judgment;should insist on behavior identity and play the effect of support of Social practice in cognitive experience,etc.

  20. Unconventional supersymmetry and its breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Pedro D., E-mail: alvarez@physics.ox.ac.uk [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECS), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. República 440, Santiago (Chile); Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Pais, Pablo, E-mail: pais@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECS), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. República 440, Santiago (Chile); Zanelli, Jorge, E-mail: z@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECS), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. República 440, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-07-30

    We present a gauge theory for a superalgebra that includes an internal gauge (G) and local Lorentz (so(1,D−1)) algebras. These two symmetries are connected by fermionic supercharges. The field content of the system includes a (non-)abelian gauge potential A, a spin-1/2 Dirac spinor ψ, the Lorentz connection ω{sup ab}, and the vielbein e{sub μ}{sup a}. The connection one-form A is in the adjoint representation of G, while ψ is in the fundamental. In contrast to standard supersymmetry and supergravity, the metric is not a fundamental field and is in the center of the superalgebra: it is not only invariant under the internal gauge group, G, and under Lorentz transformations, SO(1,D−1), but is also invariant under supersymmetry. The distinctive features of this theory that mark the difference with standard supersymmetries are: i) the number of fermionic and bosonic states is not necessarily the same; ii) there are no superpartners with equal mass; iii) although this supersymmetry originates in a local gauge theory and gravity is included, there is no gravitino; iv) fermions acquire mass from their coupling to the background or from higher order self-couplings, while bosons remain massless. In odd dimensions, the Chern–Simons (CS) form provides an action that is (quasi-)invariant under the entire superalgebra. In even dimensions, the Yang–Mills (YM) form is the only natural option and the symmetry breaks down to G⊗SO(1,D−1). In four dimensions, the construction follows the Townsend–Mac Dowell–Mansouri approach, starting with an osp(4|2)∼usp(2,2|1) connection. Due to the absence of osp(4|2)-invariant traces in four dimensions, the resulting Lagrangian is only invariant under u(1)⊕so(3,1), which includes a Nambu–Jona-Lasinio (NJL) term. In this case, the Lagrangian depends on a single dimensionful parameter that fixes Newton's constant, the cosmological constant and the NJL coupling.

  1. Hard and soft supersymmetry breaking for ‘graphinos’ in uniform magnetic fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ortíz, S.; Murguía, G.; Raya, A.

    2012-01-01

    Using irreducible and reducible representations of the Dirac matrices, we study the two- and four-component quantum mechanical supersymmetric (SUSY) theories for ultrarelativistic fermions in (2 + 1) dimensions (‘graphinos’) in a background uniform magnetic field perpendicular to their plane of motion. We then consider ordinary and parity-violating mass terms and identify the former as a soft SUSY breaking term and the latter as the hard SUSY breaking one.

  2. Development of a predictive methodology for identifying high radon exhalation potential areas; Mise au point d'une methodologie predictive des zones a fort potentiel d'exhalation du radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ielsch, G

    2001-07-01

    Radon 222 is a radioactive natural gas originating from the decay of radium 226 which itself originates from the decay of uranium 23 8 naturally present in rocks and soil. Inhalation of radon gas and its decay products is a potential health risk for man. Radon can accumulate in confined environments such as buildings, and is responsible for one third of the total radiological exposure of the general public to radiation. The problem of how to manage this risk then arises. The main difficulty encountered is due to the large variability of exposure to radon across the country. A prediction needs to be made of areas with the highest density of buildings with high radon levels. Exposure to radon varies depending on the degree of confinement of the habitat, the lifestyle of the occupants and particularly emission of radon from the surface of the soil on which the building is built. The purpose of this thesis is to elaborate a methodology for determining areas presenting a high potential for radon exhalation at the surface of the soil. The methodology adopted is based on quantification of radon exhalation at the surface, starting from a precise characterization of the main local geological and pedological parameters that control the radon source and its transport to the ground/atmosphere interface. The methodology proposed is innovative in that it combines a cartographic analysis, parameters integrated into a Geographic Information system, and a simplified model for vertical transport of radon by diffusion through pores in the soil. This methodology has been validated on two typical areas, in different geological contexts, and gives forecasts that generally agree with field observations. This makes it possible to identify areas with a high exhalation potential within a range of a few square kilometers. (author)

  3. Symmetry Breaking for Answer Set Programming

    CERN Document Server

    Drescher, Christian

    2010-01-01

    In the context of answer set programming, this work investigates symmetry detection and symmetry breaking to eliminate symmetric parts of the search space and, thereby, simplify the solution process. We contribute a reduction of symmetry detection to a graph automorphism problem which allows to extract symmetries of a logic program from the symmetries of the constructed coloured graph. We also propose an encoding of symmetry-breaking constraints in terms of permutation cycles and use only generators in this process which implicitly represent symmetries and always with exponential compression. These ideas are formulated as preprocessing and implemented in a completely automated flow that first detects symmetries from a given answer set program, adds symmetry-breaking constraints, and can be applied to any existing answer set solver. We demonstrate computational impact on benchmarks versus direct application of the solver. Furthermore, we explore symmetry breaking for answer set programming in two domains: firs...

  4. Water Breaking: Understand This Sign of Labor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Labor and delivery, postpartum care Water breaking worries? Prepare yourself for childbirth by getting the facts about this important sign of labor. By Mayo Clinic Staff If you're ...

  5. Dynamical R-parity breaking at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Long; Kumar Ghosh, Dilip; Mohapatra, Rabindra N.; Zhang, Yue

    2011-02-01

    In a class of extensions of the minimal supersymmetric standard model with (B-L)/left-right symmetry that explains the neutrino masses, breaking R-parity symmetry is an essential and dynamical requirement for successful gauge symmetry breaking. Two consequences of these models are: (i) a new kind of R-parity breaking interaction that protects proton stability but adds new contributions to neutrinoless double beta decay and (ii) an upper bound on the extra gauge and parity symmetry breaking scale which is within the large hadron collider (LHC) energy range. We point out that an important prediction of such theories is a potentially large mixing between the right-handed charged lepton ( e c ) and the superpartner of the right-handed gauge boson left( {tilde{W}_R+ } right) , which leads to a brand new class of R-parity violating interactions of type {tilde{μ }^{{c^dag }}}ν_μ^c{e^c} and {tilde{d}^{{c^dag }}}{u^c}{e^c} . We analyze the relevant constraints on the sparticle mass spectrum and the LHC signatures for the case with smuon/stau NLSP and gravitino LSP. We note the "smoking gun" signals for such models to be lepton flavor/number violating processes: pp!μ±μ±e+ e - jj (or τ±τ± e + e - jj) and pp to {μ^± }{e^± }boverline b jj (or {tau^± }{e^± }boverline b jj ) without significant missing energy. The predicted multi-lepton final states and the flavor structure make the model be distinguishable even in the early running of the LHC.

  6. Breaking antidunes: Cyclic behavior due to hysteresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deigaard, Rolf

    2006-01-01

    The cyclic behavior of breaking antidunes (growth, breaking of surface wave, obliteration) is investigated by use of a numerical model. The model includes the transition between supercritical and transcritical flow. As the antidune grows the flow becomes transcritical and a hydraulic jump is form...... upstream of the antidune crest. The relation between growth of the antidune and supercritical flow and between decay and transcritical flow is shown, and the significance of hysteresis in the flow conditions is investigated....

  7. Symmetry Breaking and Second Order Phase Transitions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangFengshou; R.M.Lynden-Bell

    2003-01-01

    In an earlier paper we showed that symmetry breaking could be induced in the triiodide ion by varying the solvent. Experiments and simulations suggest that protic solvents which can form hydrogen bonds with a negative ion cause symmetry breaking of the ion, so that the charge becomes concentrated at one end of the ion and the corresponding bond elongates. We suggested that one could draw an analogy between the mean field Ising model with free energy,

  8. Dynamical supersymmetry breaking and unification of couplings

    CERN Document Server

    Dubovsky, S L; Troitsky, S V

    1997-01-01

    We consider the possibility of unification of the Supersymmetric Standard Model gauge groups with those of the dynamical supersymmetry breaking (DSB) sector in theories with gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking. We find constraints on the DSB gauge group beta function that come from unification of the gauge coupling constants of the two sectors. These constraints are satisfied by a fairly wide class of models. We discuss possible unification scenarios in the context of a simple model.

  9. Dormancy Breaking in Ormosia arborea Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Edilma Pereira Gonçalves; Franklim Sales de Jesus Soares; Sérgio dos Santos Silva; Débora de Souza Tavares; Jeandson Silva Viana; Brenda Colleen Clifton Cardoso

    2011-01-01

    Ormosia arborea is a tree species planted in urban areas and used to restore degraded areas. Its seeds are dormant and propagation is difficult. This study compares different dormancy breaking methods and physiological seed quality and seedling production. The seeds were germinated in sand in the laboratory of the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil. The following dormancy breaking treatments were applied: control (intact seeds), 100°C water immersion; boiling water imm...

  10. Is soft breaking of BRST symmetry consistent?

    CERN Document Server

    Lavrov, Peter; Reshetnyak, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A definition of soft breaking of BRST symmetry in the field-antifield formalism is proposed, valid for general gauge theories and arbitrary gauge fixing. The Ward identities for the generating functionals of Green's functions are derived, and their gauge dependence is investigated. We present a generalization of the Gribov-Zwanziger action to a one-parameter linear gauge. It is argued that gauge theories with a soft breaking of BRST symmetry are inconsistent.

  11. String breaking in two-dimensional QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Hornbostel, K J

    1999-01-01

    I present results of a numerical calculation of the effects of light quark-antiquark pairs on the linear heavy-quark potential in light-cone quantized two-dimensional QCD. I extract the potential from the Q-Qbar component of the ground-state wavefunction, and observe string breaking at the heavy-light meson pair threshold. I briefly comment on the states responsible for the breaking.

  12. Phil Anderson and Gauge Symmetry Breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witten, Edward

    In this article, I describe the celebrated paper that Phil Anderson wrote in 1962 with early contributions to the idea of gauge symmetry breaking in particle physics. To set the stage, I describe the work of Julian Schwinger to which Anderson was responding, and also some of Anderson's own work on superconductivity that provided part of the context. After describing Anderson's work I describe the later work of others, leading to the modern understanding of gauge symmetry breaking in weak interactions...

  13. Active and break events of Indian summer monsoon during 1901-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, D. S.; Sridhar, Latha; Ramesh Kumar, M. R.

    2016-06-01

    The study lists active and break monsoon events over India over a very long period (1901-2014) identified using criteria based on a rainfall index derived over a critical high rainfall region called core monsoon zone. The break and active spells identified in this study were mostly comparable with that identified in the earlier studies based on similar rainfall criteria during the common data period (1951-2007). However, some noticeable differences were observed in the rainfall anomaly pattern associated with the break monsoon spells identified in this study and that identified based on the synoptic criteria in the earlier studies. The stringent rainfall criteria used in this study seems to be better criteria for identifying the breaks. During the study period, both the active and break spells of short duration were more frequent than the long duration with about 63.4 % of the break spells and 94.3 % of the active spells falling in the range of 3-6 days. There were no active spells of duration ≥13 days. Whereas, about 8 % of the break spells were of duration ≥13 days. During both the halves of the data period (1901-1957 and 1958-2014), there was no change in the distribution of the break events. However, the number of active spells showed an increase of about 12 % in the in the second half, which was mainly in the short duration (3-6 days) spells. During the data period, decadal variations of break days showed an out phase of relationship with the number of days of monsoon depression (MD). Relatively stronger in phase relationship was observed between the decadal variation of MD days and that of the active days till around early 1980s which reversed later due to sudden decrease in the MD days. During the same period, both the active and break days were in the increasing phase. This was also coincided with the sudden and significant increase in the number of days of monsoon lows (LOW). The LOWs, which generally have short life helped in the occurrence of active

  14. Warp Breaks Detection in Jacquard Weaving Using MEMS: Effect of Weave on Break Signals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin H Lee, Ph.D.

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports a study to detect warp breaks in terms of weave structure using MEMS accelerometer based detection system. The system is briefly described. The output signals of MEMS sensors, which were mounted on harness cords of a Jacquard machine, at the moment of warp yarn break and after the break for a broad range of basic weaves were acquired during weaving. The weaves investigated are commonly used in Jacquard weaving to form patterns. The strength of the MEMS output acceleration signals was analyzed in time domain. The results show that the system is capable of detecting warp yarn breaks for the broad range of weaves studied.

  15. Leptogenesis after chaotic sneutrino inflation and the supersymmetry breaking scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Björkeroth

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available We discuss resonant leptogenesis arising from the decays of two nearly-degenerate right-handed neutrinos, identified as the inflaton and stabiliser superfields in a model of chaotic sneutrino inflation. We compare an analytical estimate of the baryon asymmetry ηB in the Boltzmann approximation to a numerical solution of the full density matrix equations, and find that the analytical result fails to capture the correct physics in certain regions of parameter space. The observed baryon asymmetry can be realised for a breaking of the mass degeneracy as small as O(10−8. The origin of such a small mass splitting is explained by considering supersymmetry (SUSY breaking in supergravity, which requires a constant in the superpotential of the order of the gravitino mass m3/2 to cancel the cosmological constant. This yields additional terms in the (sneutrino mass matrices, lifting the degeneracy and linking ηB to the SUSY breaking scale. We find that achieving the correct baryon asymmetry requires a gravitino mass m3/2≥O(100 TeV.

  16. Leptogenesis after Chaotic Sneutrino Inflation and the Supersymmetry Breaking Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Björkeroth, Fredrik; Schmitz, Kai; Yanagida, Tsutomu T

    2016-01-01

    We discuss resonant leptogenesis arising from the decays of two nearly-degenerate right-handed neutrinos, identified as the inflaton and stabiliser superfields in a model of chaotic sneutrino inflation. We compare an analytical estimate of the baryon asymmetry $ \\eta_B $ in the Boltzmann approximation to a numerical solution of the full density matrix equations, and find that the analytical result fails to capture the correct physics in certain regions of parameter space. The observed baryon asymmetry can be realised for a breaking of the mass degeneracy as small as $ \\mathcal{O}(10^{-8}) $. The origin of such a small mass splitting is explained by considering supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking in supergravity, which requires a constant in the superpotential of the order of the gravitino mass $ m_{3/2} $ to cancel the cosmological constant. This yields additional terms in the (s)neutrino mass matrices, lifting the degeneracy and linking $ \\eta_B $ to the SUSY breaking scale. We find that achieving the correct bary...

  17. Leptogenesis after chaotic sneutrino inflation and the supersymmetry breaking scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björkeroth, Fredrik; King, Stephen F.; Schmitz, Kai; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2017-03-01

    We discuss resonant leptogenesis arising from the decays of two nearly-degenerate right-handed neutrinos, identified as the inflaton and stabiliser superfields in a model of chaotic sneutrino inflation. We compare an analytical estimate of the baryon asymmetry ηB in the Boltzmann approximation to a numerical solution of the full density matrix equations, and find that the analytical result fails to capture the correct physics in certain regions of parameter space. The observed baryon asymmetry can be realised for a breaking of the mass degeneracy as small as O (10-8). The origin of such a small mass splitting is explained by considering supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking in supergravity, which requires a constant in the superpotential of the order of the gravitino mass m3/2 to cancel the cosmological constant. This yields additional terms in the (s)neutrino mass matrices, lifting the degeneracy and linking ηB to the SUSY breaking scale. We find that achieving the correct baryon asymmetry requires a gravitino mass m3/2 ≥ O (100) TeV.

  18. Volume modulus inflation and a low scale of SUSY breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Badziak, M

    2008-01-01

    The relation between the Hubble constant and the scale of supersymmetry breaking is investigated in models of inflation dominated by a string modulus. Usually in this kind of models the gravitino mass is of the same order of magnitude as the Hubble constant which is not desirable from the phenomenological point of view. It is shown that slow-roll saddle point inflation may be compatible with a low scale of supersymmetry breaking only if some corrections to the lowest order Kahler potential are taken into account. However, choosing an appropriate Kahler potential is not enough. There are also conditions for the superpotential, and e.g. the popular racetrack superpotential turns out to be not suitable. A model is proposed in which slow-roll inflation and a light gravitino are compatible. It is based on a superpotential with a triple gaugino condensation and the Kahler potential with the leading string corrections. The problem of fine tuning and experimental constraints are discussed for that model.

  19. Brane to brane gravity mediation of supersymmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Rattazzi, Riccardo; Strumia, A; Rattazzi, Riccardo; Scrucca, Claudio A.; Strumia, Alessandro

    2003-01-01

    We extend the results of Mirabelli and Peskin to supergravity. We study the compactification on S_1/Z_2 of Zucker's off-shell formulation of 5D supergravity and its coupling to matter at the fixed points. We clarify some issues related to the off-shell description of supersymmetry breaking a la Scherk-Schwarz (here employed only as a technical tool) discussing how to deal with singular gravitino wave functions. We then consider `visible' and `hidden' chiral superfields localized at the two different fixed points and communicating only through 5D supergravity. We compute the one-loop corrections that mix the two sectors and the radion superfield. Locality in 5D ensures the calculability of these effects, which transmit supersymmetry breaking from the hidden to the visible sector. In the minimal set-up visible-sector scalars get a universal squared mass m_0^2 < 0. In general (e.g. in presence of a sizable gravitational kinetic term localized on the hidden brane) the radion-mediated contribution to m_0^2 can ...

  20. Breaking object correspondence across saccadic eye movements deteriorates object recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian H. Poth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception is based on information processing during periods of eye fixations that are interrupted by fast saccadic eye movements. The ability to sample and relate information on task-relevant objects across fixations implies that correspondence between presaccadic and postsaccadic objects is established. Postsaccadic object information usually updates and overwrites information on the corresponding presaccadic object. The presaccadic object representation is then lost. In contrast, the presaccadic object is conserved when object correspondence is broken. This helps transsaccadic memory but it may impose attentional costs on object recognition. Therefore, we investigated how breaking object correspondence across the saccade affects postsaccadic object recognition. In Experiment 1, object correspondence was broken by a brief postsaccadic blank screen. Observers made a saccade to a peripheral object which was displaced during the saccade. This object reappeared either immediately after the saccade or after the blank screen. Within the postsaccadic object, a letter was briefly presented (terminated by a mask. Observers reported displacement direction and letter identity in different blocks. Breaking object correspondence by blanking improved displacement identification but deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. In Experiment 2, object correspondence was broken by changing the object’s contrast-polarity. There were no object displacements and observers only reported letter identity. Again, breaking object correspondence deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. These findings identify transsaccadic object correspondence as a key determinant of object recognition across the saccade. This is in line with the recent hypothesis that breaking object correspondence results in separate representations of presaccadic and postsaccadic objects which then compete for limited attentional processing resources (Schneider, 2013. Postsaccadic

  1. Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1982-12-01

    These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed. (WHK)

  2. PowerPoint 2013 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Doug

    2013-01-01

    Get up and running with this full-color guide to PowerPoint 2013! PowerPoint, the number one presentation software, has been revised and improved with the introduction of Microsoft Office 2013. With this all-new, full-color book by your side, you will learn how to take full advantage of all of PowerPoint's powerful and dynamic capabilities. Bestselling veteran For Dummies, author Doug Lowe breaks it all down so that you can create a powerful and effective slideshow presentation with the new wide-screen theme and variant that incorporates videos, pictures, and shapes, and all

  3. Identifying Enterprise Leverage Points in Defense Acquisition Program Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    Planning Guidance SPI Schedule Efficiency SPO System Program Office SPOC Special Access Required (SAR) Programs Oversight Committee SPRG...Air Force office of Financial Management and Budget; SES = Senior Executive Service; SPOC /SPRG/SAR = classified financial review system for

  4. The quantum change point

    CERN Document Server

    Sentís, Gael; Calsamiglia, John; Chiribella, Giulio; Munoz-Tapia, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Sudden changes are ubiquitous in nature. Identifying them is of crucial importance for a number of applications in medicine, biology, geophysics, and social sciences. Here we investigate the problem in the quantum domain, considering a source that emits particles in a default state, until a point where it switches to another state. Given a sequence of particles emitted by the source, the problem is to find out where the change occurred. For large sequences, we obtain an analytical expression for the maximum probability of correctly identifying the change point when joint measurements on the whole sequence are allowed. We also construct strategies that measure the particles individually and provide an online answer as soon as a new particle is emitted by the source. We show that these strategies substantially underperform the optimal strategy, indicating that quantum sudden changes, although happening locally, are better detected globally.

  5. Quantum Change Point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sentís, Gael; Bagan, Emilio; Calsamiglia, John; Chiribella, Giulio; Muñoz-Tapia, Ramon

    2016-10-01

    Sudden changes are ubiquitous in nature. Identifying them is crucial for a number of applications in biology, medicine, and social sciences. Here we take the problem of detecting sudden changes to the quantum domain. We consider a source that emits quantum particles in a default state, until a point where a mutation occurs that causes the source to switch to another state. The problem is then to find out where the change occurred. We determine the maximum probability of correctly identifying the change point, allowing for collective measurements on the whole sequence of particles emitted by the source. Then, we devise online strategies where the particles are measured individually and an answer is provided as soon as a new particle is received. We show that these online strategies substantially underperform the optimal quantum measurement, indicating that quantum sudden changes, although happening locally, are better detected globally.

  6. Jet simulations and gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerten, H. J.; Meliani, Z.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Keppens, R.

    2010-01-01

    The conventional derivation of the gamma-ray burst afterglow jet break time uses only the blast wave fluid Lorentz factor and therefore leads to an achromatic break. We show that in general gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks are chromatic across the self-absorption break. Depending on circumstance

  7. Jet simulations and gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerten, H. J.; Meliani, Z.; Wijers, Ramj; Keppens, R.

    2011-01-01

    The conventional derivation of the gamma-ray burst afterglow jet break time uses only the blast wave fluid Lorentz factor and therefore leads to an achromatic break. We show that in general gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks are chromatic across the self-absorption break. Depending on circumstance

  8. Jet simulations and gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerten, H.J.; Meliani, Z.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Keppens, R.

    2012-01-01

    The conventional derivation of the gamma-ray burst afterglow jet break time uses only the blast wave fluid Lorentz factor and therefore leads to an achromatic break. We show that in general gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks are chromatic across the self-absorption break. Depending on circumstance

  9. Barriers and facilitating communication skills for breaking bad news: from the specialists’ practice perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enna Catalina Payán

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breaking bad news is one of a physician’s most difficult duties. There are several studies related to the patient’s needs, but few reflect on the doctors’ experience.Materials and method: A descriptive, cross-sectional research was carried out to study issues related to the process of delivering bad news which might act as barriers and facilitating skills from the doctor’s point of view. These issues were identified through a self-administered survey.Results: Participant doctors use different strategies to communicate bad news to their patients. Examples of these strategies are: to be familiar with the patients’ medical history, to ensure that there is enough time, to know the patient’s caregivers and/or relatives, to determine the patient’s level of knowledge about his/her condition, to use non-technical words, to give information in small pieces, to assess the patient’s understanding, to devise a joint action plan, among others.Conclusion: The communication barriers that were identified focused on the emotional issues of the communication process, particularly those related to the recognition of own emotions, and the limited training about communication strategies available to doctors. Consequently, there is a need to implement training programs that provide doctors with tools to facilitate the bad news communication process.

  10. Random Cell Identifiers Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bestak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite integration of advanced functions that enable Femto Access Points (FAPs to be deployed in a plug-and-play manner, the femtocell concept still cause several opened issues to be resolved. One of them represents an assignment of Physical Cell Identifiers (PCIs to FAPs. This paper analyses a random based assignment algorithm in LTE systems operating in diverse femtocell scenarios. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated by comparing the number of confusions for various femtocell densities, PCI ranges and knowledge of vicinity. Simulation results show that better knowledge of vicinity can significantly reduce the number of confusions events.

  11. Break-glass handling exceptional situations in access control

    CERN Document Server

    Petritsch, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Helmut Petritsch describes the first holistic approach to Break-Glass which covers the whole life-cycle: from access control modeling (pre-access), to logging the security-relevant system state during Break-Glass accesses (at-access), and the automated analysis of Break-Glass accesses (post-access). Break-Glass allows users to override security restrictions in exceptional situations. While several Break-Glass models specific to given access control models have already been discussed in research (e.g., extending RBAC with Break-Glass), the author introduces a generic Break-Glass model. The pres

  12. Report of Break Out Group 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alward, Randy; Carley, Kathleen M.; Madsen, Fredrik Huitfeldt

    2006-01-01

    To help understand a network and its ability to continue operating when under attack, the break out group discussed issues that need to be considered when presenting network vulnerability information to an analyst, manager or commander in effective support of that person's "observe, orient, decide......, action" (OODA) loop. The break out group discussed vulnerability presentation needs common across various application domains, particularly in support of network discovery and network analysis tasks in those domains. Finally, the break out group wished to determine whether there is a means...... of characterizing a vulnerability. This would take into account the potential for the vulnerability to be exploited as well as the potential impact on the operations supported by the network, and on the network structure itself, of a successful exploit of that vulnerability....

  13. Workshop on electroweak symmetry breaking: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinchliffe, I. (ed.)

    1984-10-01

    A theoretical workshop on electroweak symmetry breaking at the Superconducting Supercollider was held at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, June 4-22, 1984. The purpose of the workshop was to focus theoretical attention on the ways in which experimentation at the SSC could reveal manifestations of the phenomenon responsible for electroweak symmetry breaking. This issue represents, at present, the most compelling scientific argument for the need to explore the energy region to be made accessible by the SSC, and a major aim of the workshop was to involve a broad cross section of particle theorists in the ongoing process of sharpening the requirements for both accelerator and detector design that will ensure detection and identification of meaningful signals, whatever form the electroweak symmetry breaking phenomenon should actually take. Separate entries were prepared for the data base for the papers presented.

  14. Isospin Breaking Effects on the Lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Tantalo, Nazario

    2013-01-01

    Isospin symmetry is not exact and the corrections to the isosymmetric limit are, in general, at the percent level. For gold plated quantities, such as pseudoscalar meson masses or the kaon leptonic and semileptonic decay rates, these effects are of the same order of magnitude of the errors quoted in nowadays lattice calculations and cannot be neglected any longer. In this talk I discuss the methods that have been developed in the last few years to calculate isospin breaking corrections by starting from first principles lattice simulations. In particular, I discuss how to perform a combined QCD+QED lattice simulation and a renormalization prescription to be used in order to separate QCD from QED isospin breaking effects. A brief review of recent lattice results of isospin breaking effects on the hadron spectrum is also included.

  15. Large eddy simulation of breaking waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Deigaard, Rolf

    2001-01-01

    is described by large eddy simulation where the larger turbulent features are simulated by solving the flow equations, and the small scale turbulence that is not resolved by the flow model is represented by a sub-grid model. A simple Smagorinsky sub-grid model has been used for the present simulations......A numerical model is used to simulate wave breaking, the large scale water motions and turbulence induced by the breaking process. The model consists of a free surface model using the surface markers method combined with a three-dimensional model that solves the flow equations. The turbulence....... The incoming waves are specified by a flux boundary condition. The waves are approaching in the shore-normal direction and are breaking on a plane, constant slope beach. The first few wave periods are simulated by a two-dimensional model in the vertical plane normal to the beach line. The model describes...

  16. 33 CFR 110.83a - Cedar Point, Sandusky, Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cedar Point, Sandusky, Ohio. 110... ANCHORAGES ANCHORAGE REGULATIONS Special Anchorage Areas § 110.83a Cedar Point, Sandusky, Ohio. The water area enclosed by the break wall beginning at latitude 41°28′13″ N., longitude 82°40′39″ W.;...

  17. Distributions of Low- and High-LET Radiation-Induced Breaks in Chromosomes are Associated with Inter- and Intrachromosome Exchanges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, Megumi; Zhang, Ye; Feiveson, Alan; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wu, Honglu

    2010-01-01

    To study the breakpoint along the length of the chromosome induced by low- and high-LET radiations, we exposed human epithelial cells in vitro to Cs-137 rays at both low and high dose rates, secondary neutrons at a low dose rate, and 600 MeV/u Fe ions at a high dose rate. The location of the breaks was identified using the multicolor banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) that paints Chromosome 3 in 23 different colored bands. The breakpoint distributions were found to be similar between rays of low and high dose rates and between the two high-LET radiation types. Detailed analysis of the chromosome break ends involved in inter- and intrachromosome exchanges revealed that only the break ends participating in interchromosome exchanges contributed to the hot spots found for low-LET. For break ends participating in intrachromosome exchanges, the distributions for all four radiation scenarios were similar with clusters of breaks found in three regions. Analysis of the locations of the two break ends in Chromosome 3 that joined to form an intrachromosome exchange demonstrated that two breaks with a greater genomic separation may be more likely to rejoin than two closer breaks, indicating that chromatin folding can play an important role in the rejoining of chromosome breaks. Our study demonstrated that the gene-rich regions do not necessarily contain more breaks. The breakpoint distribution depends more on the likelihood that a break will join with another break in the same chromosome or in a different chromosome.

  18. Breaking bad news in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Konstantis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In a regional hospital, many patients are newly diagnosed with cancer. Breaking the bad news in these patients and their relatives is a tough task. Many doctors are not experienced in talking to patients about death or death-related diseases. In recent years, there have been great efforts to change the current situation. The aim of this study was to investigate the experience and education of medical personnel in breaking bad news in a secondary hospital. Materials and Methods: 59 doctors from General Hospital of Komotini, Greece were included in the study. All the doctors were in clinical specialties that treated cancer patients. A brief questionnaire was developed based on current guidelines such as Baile/SPIKES framework and the ABCDE mnemonic. Results: Residents are involved in delivering bad news less frequently than specialists. Only 21 doctors (35.59% had specific training on breaking bad news. 20 doctors (33.90% were aware of the available techniques and protocols on breaking bad news. 47 doctors (79.66% had a consistent plan for breaking bad news. 57 (96.61% delivered bad news in a quiet place, 53 (89.83% ensured no interruptions and enough time, 53 (89.83% used simple words and 54 (91.53% checked for understanding and did not rush through the news. 46 doctors (77.97% allowed relatives to determine patient′s knowledge about the disease. Conclusions: There were low rates of specific training in breaking bad news. However, the selected location, the physician′s speech and their plan were according to current guidelines.

  19. Breaking Bad News in Cancer Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantis, Apostolos; Exiara, Triada

    2015-01-01

    Objective: In a regional hospital, many patients are newly diagnosed with cancer. Breaking the bad news in these patients and their relatives is a tough task. Many doctors are not experienced in talking to patients about death or death-related diseases. In recent years, there have been great efforts to change the current situation. The aim of this study was to investigate the experience and education of medical personnel in breaking bad news in a secondary hospital. Materials and Methods: 59 doctors from General Hospital of Komotini, Greece were included in the study. All the doctors were in clinical specialties that treated cancer patients. A brief questionnaire was developed based on current guidelines such as Baile/SPIKES framework and the ABCDE mnemonic. Results: Residents are involved in delivering bad news less frequently than specialists. Only 21 doctors (35.59%) had specific training on breaking bad news. 20 doctors (33.90%) were aware of the available techniques and protocols on breaking bad news. 47 doctors (79.66%) had a consistent plan for breaking bad news. 57 (96.61%) delivered bad news in a quiet place, 53 (89.83%) ensured no interruptions and enough time, 53 (89.83%) used simple words and 54 (91.53%) checked for understanding and did not rush through the news. 46 doctors (77.97%) allowed relatives to determine patient's knowledge about the disease. Conclusions: There were low rates of specific training in breaking bad news. However, the selected location, the physician's speech and their plan were according to current guidelines. PMID:25709183

  20. Gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking and neutrino anomalies

    CERN Document Server

    Joshipura, A S; Joshipura, Anjan S.; Vempati, Sudhir K.

    1999-01-01

    Supersymmetric standard model with softly broken lepton symmetry provides a suitable framework to accommodate the solar and atmospheric neutrino anomalies. This model contains a natural explanation for large mixing and hierarchal masses without fine tuning of the parameters. Neutrino spectrum is particularly constrained in the minimal messenger model (MMM) of gauge mediated SUSY breaking, since all SUSY breaking effects are controlled in MMM by a single parameter. We study the structure of neutrino masses and mixing both in MMM and in simple extensions of it in the context of solar and atmospheric neutrino anomalies.

  1. Breaking the cycle of family violence

    OpenAIRE

    Heikkinen, Eeva

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT Heikkinen Eeva. Breaking the cycle of family violence. Järvenpää, Autumn 2009, 51 pages, 2 appendices. Diaconia University of Applied Sciences, Diak South, Järvenpää. Degree Programme in Social Services. The research was done in a shelter for battered family members, a place where families can go, when they are unable to stay at home because of violence. The aim of the research was to find out the role of the shelter in breaking the cycle of family violence and to ...

  2. Dynamical Symmetry Breaking in Warped Compactifications

    CERN Document Server

    Rius, N

    2001-01-01

    We study dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking in the Randall-Sundrum scenario. We show that one extra dimension is enough to give the correct pattern of electroweak symmetry breaking in a simple model with gauge bosons and the right-handed top quark in the bulk. The top quark mass is also in agreement with experiment. Furthermore, we propose an extended scenario with all Standard Model gauge bosons and fermions propagating in the bulk, which naturally accommodates the fermion mass hierarchies. No new fields or interactions beyond the observed in the Standard Model are required.

  3. Factorization breaking in diffractive dijet photoproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasen, M. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik]|[Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, 38 - Grenoble (France). Univ. Joseph Fourier, Lab. de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie; Kramer, G. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). 2. Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik

    2004-08-01

    We have calculated the diffractive dijet cross section in low-Q{sup 2} ep scattering in the HERA regime. The results of the calculation in LO and NLO are compared to recent experimental data of the H1 collaboration. We find that in LO the calculated cross sections are in reasonable agreement with the experimental results. In NLO, however, some of the cross sections disagree, showing that factorization breaking occurs in that order. By suppressing the resolved contribution by a factor of approximately three, good agreement with all the data is found. The size of the factorization breaking effects in diffractive dijet photoproduction agrees well with absorptive model predictions. (orig.)

  4. Factorization breaking in diffractive dijet photoproduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klasen, M. [Universite Joseph Fourier, CNRS-IN2P3, Laboratoire de Physique Subatomique et de Cosmologie, Grenoble (France); Universitaet Hamburg, II. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Hamburg (Germany); Kramer, G. [Universitaet Hamburg, II. Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Hamburg (Germany)

    2004-12-01

    We have calculated the diffractive dijet cross section in low-Q{sup 2} ep scattering in the HERA regime. The results of the calculation in LO and NLO are compared to recent experimental data of the H1 Collaboration. We find that in LO the calculated cross sections are in reasonable agreement with the experimental results. In NLO, however, some of the cross sections disagree, showing that factorization breaking occurs in that order. By suppressing the resolved contribution by a factor of approximately three, good agreement with all the data is found. The size of the factorization breaking effects in diffractive dijet photoproduction agrees well with absorptive model predictions. (orig.)

  5. Effective dissipation: breaking time-reversal symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Aidan I

    2016-01-01

    At molecular scales, fluctuations play a significant role and prevent biomolecular processes from always proceeding in a preferred direction, raising the question of how limited amounts of free energy can be dissipated to obtain directed progress. We examine the system and process characteristics that efficiently break time-reversal symmetry at fixed energy loss; in particular for a simple model of a molecular machine, an intermediate energy barrier produces unusually high asymmetry for a given dissipation. Such insight into symmetry-breaking factors that produce particularly high time asymmetry suggests generalizations to a broader class of systems.

  6. Mediation of supersymmetry breaking in extra dimensions

    CERN Document Server

    Scrucca, C A

    2004-01-01

    I review the mechanisms of supersymmetry breaking mediation that occur in sequestered models, where the visible and the hidden sectors are separated by an extra dimension and communicate only via gravitational interactions. By locality, soft breaking terms are forbidden at the classical level and reliably computable within an effective field theory approach at the quantum level. I present a self-contained discussion of these radiative gravitational effects and the resulting pattern of soft masses, and give an overview of realistic model building based on this set-up. I consider both flat and warped extra dimensions, as well as the possibility that there be localized kinetic terms for the gravitational fields.

  7. What records have we been breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholow, J.M.; Milhous, R.

    2002-01-01

    a??Today was another record-breaking day,a?? the evening radio or television declares. High temperatures, low temperatures, floods, drought a?? take your choice. But how can we put these pronouncements in perspective? What do they really mean? We present two types of information in this article: 1) an analysis of daily air temperature and precipitation for Fort Collins and 2) an analysis of annual precipitation for Fort Collins. Each analysis provides a different meaning to the statement about a record-breaking day or year.

  8. La poetica degli spazi di Breaking Bad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Martin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Breaking Bad (2008-2013 produced, thanks to the creativity of Vince Gilligan and his writing room, some of the most emblematic characters in the history of contemporary television. Also, the writers of Breaking Bad were able to devise places and spaces that play important symbolic functions: spaces of mediation, spaces of transit, sacred spaces. This article investigates the meanings and characteristics of some of these settings: the swimming pool, the White family home, the meth lab. The analysis considers also the relation between characters and spaces, paying particular attention to the places inhabited by the main character, Walter White.

  9. Supersymmetry in a sector of Higgsless electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knochel, Alexander Karl

    2009-05-11

    In this thesis we have investigated phenomenological implications which arise for cosmology and collider physics when the electroweak symmetry breaking sector of warped higgsless models is extended to include warped supersymmetry with conserved R parity. The goal was to find the simplest supersymmetric extension of these models which still has a realistic light spectrum including a viable dark matter candidate. To accomplish this, we have used the same mechanism which is already at work for symmetry breaking in the electroweak sector to break supersymmetry as well, namely symmetry breaking by boundary conditions. While supersymmetry in five dimensions contains four supercharges and is therefore directly related to 4D N=2 supersymmetry, half of them are broken by the background leaving us with ordinary N=1 theory in the massless sector after Kaluza-Klein expansion. We thus use boundary conditions to model the effects of a breaking mechanism for the remaining two supercharges. The simplest viable scenario to investigate is a supersymmetric bulk and IR brane without supersymmetry on the UV brane. Even though parts of the light spectrum are effectively projected out by this mechanism, we retain the rich phenomenology of complete N=2 supermultiplets in the Kaluza-Klein sector. While the light supersymmetric spectrum consists of electroweak gauginos which get their O(100 GeV) masses from IR brane electroweak symmetry breaking, the light gluinos and squarks are projected out on the UV brane. The neutralinos, as mass eigenstates of the neutral bino-wino sector, are automatically the lightest gauginos, making them LSP dark matter candidates with a relic density that can be brought to agreement withWMAP measurements without extensive tuning of parameters. For chargino masses close to the experimental lower bounds at around m{sub {chi}{sup +}}{approx}100.. 110 GeV, the dark matter relic density points to LSP masses of around m{sub {chi}}{approx}90 GeV. At the LHC, the

  10. Child personality facets and overreactive parenting as predictors of aggression and rule-breaking trajectories from childhood to adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Becht, Andrik I.; Prinzie, Peter; Dekovic, Maja; Van Den Akker, Alithe L.; Rebecca L. Shiner

    2016-01-01

    This study examined trajectories of aggression and rule breaking during the transition from childhood to adolescence (ages 9–15), and determined whether these trajectories were predicted by lower order personality facets, overreactive parenting, and their interaction. At three time points separated by 2-year intervals, mothers and fathers reported on their children's aggression and rule breaking (N = 290, M age = 8.8 years at Time 1). At Time 1, parents reported on their children's personalit...

  11. Neutrino masses from SUSY breaking in radiative seesaw models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Antonio J.R. [University of Lisbon, Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2015-03-01

    Radiatively generated neutrino masses (m{sub ν}) are proportional to supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking, as a result of the SUSY non-renormalisation theorem. In this work, we investigate the space of SUSY radiative seesaw models with regard to their dependence on SUSY breaking (SUSY). In addition to contributions from sources of SUSY that are involved in electroweak symmetry breaking (SUSY{sub EWSB} contributions), and which are manifest from left angle F{sub H}{sup †} right angle = μ left angle anti H right angle ≠ 0 and left angle D right angle = g sum {sub H} left angle H{sup †} x {sub H} H right angle ≠ 0, radiatively generated m{sub ν} can also receive contributions from SUSY sources that are unrelated to EWSB (SUSY{sub EWS} contributions). We point out that recent literature overlooks pure-SUSY{sub EWSB} contributions (∝ μ/M) that can arise at the same order of perturbation theory as the leading order contribution from SUSY{sub EWS}. We show that there exist realistic radiative seesaw models in which the leading order contribution to m{sub ν} is proportional to SUSY{sub EWS}. To our knowledge no model with such a feature exists in the literature. We give a complete description of the simplest model topologies and their leading dependence on SUSY. We show that in one-loop realisations LLHH operators are suppressed by at least μ m{sub soft}/M{sup 3} or m{sub soft}{sup 2}/M{sup 3}. We construct a model example based on a oneloop type-II seesaw. An interesting aspect of these models lies in the fact that the scale of soft-SUSY effects generating the leading order m{sub ν} can be quite small without conflicting with lower limits on the mass of new particles. (orig.)

  12. Ultra-large distance modification of gravity from Lorentz symmetry breaking at the Planck scale

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbunov, D S

    2005-01-01

    We present an extension of the Randall--Sundrum model in which, due to spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking, graviton mixes with bulk vector fields and becomes quasilocalized. The masses of KK modes comprising the four-dimensional graviton are naturally exponentially small. This allows to push the Lorentz breaking scale to as high as a few tenth of the Planck mass. The model does not contain ghosts or tachyons and does not exhibit the van Dam--Veltman--Zakharov discontinuity. The gravitational attraction between static point masses becomes gradually weaker with increasing of separation and gets replaced by repulsion (antigravity) at exponentially large distances.

  13. Interacting spins in a cavity: Finite-size effects and symmetry-breaking dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelmark, Søren; Mølmer, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    , and for small chains, we find significant and nontrivial finite-size effects. Below the first-order phase transition, even quite large spin chains of 30–40 spins give rise to a mean photon number and number fluctuations significantly above the mean-field vacuum result. Near the second-order phase critical point......-transition the random character of the measurement process causes a measurement-induced symmetry breaking in the system. This symmetry breaking occurs on the time scale needed for an observer to gather sufficient information to distinguish between the two possible (mean-field) symmetry-broken states....

  14. Variations on supersymmetry breaking and neutrino spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borzumati, F.; Hamaguchi, K.; Nomura, Y.; Yanagida, T.

    2000-12-11

    The problem of generating light neutrinos within supersymmetric models is discussed. It is shown that the hierarchy of scales induced by supersymmetry breaking can give rise to suppression factors of the correct order of magnitude to produce experimentally allowed neutrino spectra.

  15. Geometrical hierarchy and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farakos, K.; Koutsoumbas, G.; Surridge, M.; Zoupanos, G.

    1987-06-04

    A four-dimensional gauge theory, where Higgs fields and the corresponding potential appear naturally, is obtained by dimensionally reducing a pure gauge theory over a compact coset space S/R. We show, using an explicit example, that a hierarchy of the scales in the coset space can change the spontaneous symmetry breaking of the four-dimensional gauge theory.

  16. Dimensional reduction and dynamical symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forgacs, P.; Zoupanos, G.

    1984-11-22

    We present a model in which the electroweak gauge group is broken according to a dynamical scenario based on the chiral symmetry breaking of high colour representations. The dynamical scenario requires also the existence of elementary Higgs fields, which in the present scheme come from the dimensional reduction of a pure gauge theory.

  17. Dimensional reduction and dynamical symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forgacs, P.; Zoupanos, G. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland))

    1984-11-22

    We present a model in which the electroweak gauge group is broken according to a dynamical scenario based on the chiral symmetry breaking of high colour representations. The dynamical scenario also requires the existence of elementary Higgs fields, which in the present scheme come from the dimensional reduction of a pure gauge theory.

  18. Dynamical Symmetry Breaking in RN Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Kotvytskiy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that in the RN gravitation model, there is no dynamical symmetry breaking effect in the formalism of the Schwinger-Dyson equation (in flat background space-time. A general formula for the second variation of the gravitational action is obtained from the quantum corrections hμν (in arbitrary background metrics.

  19. Breaking a magnetic zero locus: asymptotic analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Raymond, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    25 pages; This paper deals with the spectral analysis of the Laplacian in presence of a magnetic field vanishing along a broken line. Denoting by $\\theta$ the breaking angle, we prove complete asymptotic expansions of all the lowest eigenpairs when $\\theta$ goes to $0$. The investigation deeply uses a coherent states decomposition and a microlocal analysis of the eigenfunctions.

  20. A gravity term from spontaneous symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Moise, Mihai

    2014-01-01

    In this model, the gravity term in the Lagrangean comes from spontaneous symmetry breaking of an additional scalar quadruplet field $\\Upsilon$. The resulting gravitational field is approximate to one of the models of coframe gravity with parameters $\\rho_1 + 4 \\rho_2 = 0$, $\\rho_3 = 0$. This article includes an exact solution of coframe gravity with model parameters $\\rho_1 \

  1. Symmetry and symmetry breaking in particle physics

    OpenAIRE

    Tsou, ST

    1998-01-01

    Symmetry, in particular gauge symmetry, is a fundamental principle in theoretical physics. It is intimately connected to the geometry of fibre bundles. A refinement to the gauge principle, known as ``spontaneous symmetry breaking'', leads to one of the most successful theories in modern particle physics. In this short talk, I shall try to give a taste of this beautiful and exciting concept.

  2. Density Functional Simulation of a Breaking Nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakamura, A.; Brandbyge, Mads; Hansen, Lars Bruno;

    1999-01-01

    We study the deformation and breaking of an atomic-sized sodium wire using density functional simulations. The wire deforms through sudden atomic rearrangements and smoother atomic displacements. The conductance of the wire exhibits plateaus at integer values in units of 2e(2)/h corresponding...

  3. Supersymmetry Breaking and the Cosmological Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Banks, T

    2014-01-01

    I review three attempts to explain the small value of the cosmological constant, and their connection to SUSY breaking. They are The String Landscape, Supersymmetric Large Extra Dimensions (SLED), and the Holographic Space-time Formalism invented by Fischler and myself.

  4. Two-stage perceptual learning to break visual crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ziyun; Fan, Zhenzhi; Fang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    When a target is presented with nearby flankers in the peripheral visual field, it becomes harder to identify, which is referred to as crowding. Crowding sets a fundamental limit of object recognition in peripheral vision, preventing us from fully appreciating cluttered visual scenes. We trained adult human subjects on a crowded orientation discrimination task and investigated whether crowding could be completely eliminated by training. We discovered a two-stage learning process with this training task. In the early stage, when the target and flankers were separated beyond a certain distance, subjects acquired a relatively general ability to break crowding, as evidenced by the fact that the breaking of crowding could transfer to another crowded orientation, even a crowded motion stimulus, although the transfer to the opposite visual hemi-field was weak. In the late stage, like many classical perceptual learning effects, subjects' performance gradually improved and showed specificity to the trained orientation. We also found that, when the target and flankers were spaced too finely, training could only reduce, rather than completely eliminate, the crowding effect. This two-stage learning process illustrates a learning strategy for our brain to deal with the notoriously difficult problem of identifying peripheral objects in clutter. The brain first learned to solve the "easy and general" part of the problem (i.e., improving the processing resolution and segmenting the target and flankers) and then tackle the "difficult and specific" part (i.e., refining the representation of the target).

  5. A requirement for polymerized actin in DNA double-strand break repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrin, Christi; McDonald, Darin; Attwood, Kathleen M; Rodrigue, Amélie; Ghosh, Sunita; Mirzayans, Razmik; Masson, Jean-Yves; Dellaire, Graham; Hendzel, Michael J

    2012-07-01

    Nuclear actin is involved in several nuclear processes from chromatin remodeling to transcription. Here we examined the requirement for actin polymerization in DNA double-strand break repair. Double-strand breaks are considered the most dangerous type of DNA lesion. Double-strand break repair consists of a complex set of events that are tightly regulated. Failure at any step can have catastrophic consequences such as genomic instability, oncogenesis or cell death. Many proteins involved in this repair process have been identified and their roles characterized. We discovered that some DNA double-strand break repair factors are capable of associating with polymeric actin in vitro and specifically, that purified Ku70/80 interacts with polymerized actin under these conditions. We find that the disruption of polymeric actin inhibits DNA double strand break repair both in vitro and in vivo. Introduction of nuclear targeted mutant actin that cannot polymerize, or the depolymerization of endogenous actin filaments by the addition of cytochalasin D, alters the retention of Ku80 at sites of DNA damage in live cells. Our results suggest that polymeric actin is required for proper DNA double-strand break repair and may function through the stabilization of the Ku heterodimer at the DNA damage site.

  6. Numerical analysis of etoposide induced DNA breaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Muslimović

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Etoposide is a cancer drug that induces strand breaks in cellular DNA by inhibiting topoisomerase II (topoII religation of cleaved DNA molecules. Although DNA cleavage by topoisomerase II always produces topoisomerase II-linked DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs, the action of etoposide also results in single-strand breaks (SSBs, since religation of the two strands are independently inhibited by etoposide. In addition, recent studies indicate that topoisomerase II-linked DSBs remain undetected unless topoisomerase II is removed to produce free DSBs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To examine etoposide-induced DNA damage in more detail we compared the relative amount of SSBs and DSBs, survival and H2AX phosphorylation in cells treated with etoposide or calicheamicin, a drug that produces free DSBs and SSBs. With this combination of methods we found that only 3% of the DNA strand breaks induced by etoposide were DSBs. By comparing the level of DSBs, H2AX phosphorylation and toxicity induced by etoposide and calicheamicin, we found that only 10% of etoposide-induced DSBs resulted in histone H2AX phosphorylation and toxicity. There was a close match between toxicity and histone H2AX phosphorylation for calicheamicin and etoposide suggesting that the few etoposide-induced DSBs that activated H2AX phosphorylation were responsible for toxicity. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These results show that only 0.3% of all strand breaks produced by etoposide activate H2AX phosphorylation and suggests that over 99% of the etoposide induced DNA damage does not contribute to its toxicity.

  7. 1-d gravity in infinite point distributions

    OpenAIRE

    Gabrielli, Andrea; Joyce, Michael; Sicard, Francois

    2008-01-01

    The dynamics of infinite, asymptotically uniform, distributions of self-gravitating particles in one spatial dimension provides a simple toy model for the analogous three dimensional problem. We focus here on a limitation of such models as treated so far in the literature: the force, as it has been specified, is well defined in infinite point distributions only if there is a centre of symmetry (i.e. the definition requires explicitly the breaking of statistical translational invariance). The ...

  8. Low-ℓ CMB from string-scale SUSY breaking?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagnotti, A.

    2017-01-01

    Models of inflation are instructive playgrounds for supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking in Supergravity and String Theory. In particular, combinations of branes and orientifolds that are not mutually BPS can lead to brane SUSY breaking, a phenomenon where nonlinear realizations are accompanied, in tachyon-free vacua, by the emergence of steep exponential potentials. When combined with milder terms, these exponentials can lead to slow-roll after a fast ascent and a turning point. This leaves behind distinctive patterns of scalar perturbations, where pre-inflationary peaks can lie well apart from an almost scale invariant profile. I review recent attempts to connect these power spectra to the low-ℓ cosmic microwave background (CMB), and a corresponding one-parameter extension of Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) with a low-frequency cut Δ. A detailed likelihood analysis led to Δ = (0.351 ± 0.114) × 10-3Mpc-1, at 99.4% confidence level, in an extended Galactic mask with fsky = 39%, to be compared with a nearby value at 88.5% in the standard Planck 2015 mask with fsky = 94%. In these scenarios, one would be confronted, in the CMB, with relics of an epoch of deceleration that preceded the onset of slow-roll.

  9. Concrete Walls Crumble as Tunnel TI8 Breaks Through

    CERN Document Server

    2001-01-01

    On Wednesday, October 3rd, the excitement in the tunnels deep beneath CERN was high as an exuberant crowd watched the second and last transfer tunnel (TI8) from the SPS break through to the LHC. The Director-General with the Mayors of Meyrin and Prévessin at the breakthrough point. The area where the break through was to occur did not look particularly special, just a concrete wall with bright orange paint sprayed in the centre. But the austere surroundings quickly faded from importance as a tremendous ruckus filled the corridor. Just minutes later the first pieces of the wall started popping off. The suspense in the room grew and eventually the spinning drill became readily visible to the entire crowd.... and that's when the real noise started, the noise of applause! 'This is the second time I have seen this happen but it is always moving because it shows our steps forward.' said Prof. Luciano Maiani. Technicians, physicists, and engineers chatted excitedly as the tunnel team climbed through...

  10. Quantum phase transitions with parity-symmetry breaking and hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenkwalder, A.; Spagnolli, G.; Semeghini, G.; Coop, S.; Landini, M.; Castilho, P.; Pezzè, L.; Modugno, G.; Inguscio, M.; Smerzi, A.; Fattori, M.

    2016-09-01

    Symmetry-breaking quantum phase transitions play a key role in several condensed matter, cosmology and nuclear physics theoretical models. Its observation in real systems is often hampered by finite temperatures and limited control of the system parameters. In this work we report, for the first time, the experimental observation of the full quantum phase diagram across a transition where the spatial parity symmetry is broken. Our system consists of an ultracold gas with tunable attractive interactions trapped in a spatially symmetric double-well potential. At a critical value of the interaction strength, we observe a continuous quantum phase transition where the gas spontaneously localizes in one well or the other, thus breaking the underlying symmetry of the system. Furthermore, we show the robustness of the asymmetric state against controlled energy mismatch between the two wells. This is the result of hysteresis associated with an additional discontinuous quantum phase transition that we fully characterize. Our results pave the way to the study of quantum critical phenomena at finite temperature, the investigation of macroscopic quantum tunnelling of the order parameter in the hysteretic regime and the production of strongly quantum entangled states at critical points.

  11. Low-scale Inflation and Supersymmetry Breaking in Racetrack Models

    CERN Document Server

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh; Sinha, Kuver

    2009-01-01

    In many moduli stabilization schemes in string theory, the scale of inflation appears to be of the same order as the scale of supersymmetry breaking. For low-scale supersymmetry breaking, therefore, the scale of inflation should also be low, unless this correlation is avoided in specific models. We explore such a low-scale inflationary scenario in a racetrack model with a single modulus in type IIB string theory. Inflation occurs near a point of inflection in the K\\"ahler modulus potential. Obtaining acceptable cosmological density perturbations leads to the introduction of magnetized D7-branes sourcing non-perturbative superpotentials. The gravitino mass, m_{3/2}, is chosen to be around 30 TeV, so that gravitinos that are produced in the inflaton decay do not affect big-bang nucleosynthesis. Supersymmetry is communicated to the visible sector by a mixture of anomaly and modulus mediation. We find that the two sources contribute equally to the gaugino masses, while scalar masses are decided mainly by anomaly ...

  12. An analysis of oil production by OPEC countries: Persistence, breaks, and outliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana Barros, Carlos, E-mail: cbarros@iseg.utl.p [Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao and Research Unit on Complexity and Economics, Technical University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal); Gil-Alana, Luis A., E-mail: alana@unav.e [University of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Payne, James E., E-mail: jepayne@ilstu.ed [Department of Economics, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61790-4200 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    This study examines the time series behaviour of oil production for OPEC member countries within a fractional integration modelling framework recognizing the potential for structural breaks and outliers. The analysis is undertaken using monthly data from January 1973 to October 2008 for 13 OPEC member countries. The results indicate there is mean reverting persistence in oil production with breaks identified in 10 out of the 13 countries examined. Thus, shocks affecting the structure of OPEC oil production will have persistent effects in the long run for all countries, and in some cases the effects are expected to be permanent. - Research Highlights: {yields}Mean reverting persistence in oil production with breaks identified in 10 out of the 13 countries examined. {yields} Standard analysis based on cointegration techniques and involving oil production should be examined in the more general context of fractional cointegraton. {yields} Analysis of outliers did not alter the main conclusions of the study.

  13. Influencing Factors of Breaking Capacity of Double-Break Vacuum Circuit Breakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwen Shu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Using a series arrangement of two vacuum interrupters (VIs has been proved to be an effective way of developing higher voltage vacuum circuit breakers (VCBs, which are known as double-break VCBs. The uniform distribution of the transient recovery voltage (TRV across each VI is very critical for the breaking capacity of double-break VCBs. In this paper, the TRV distribution characteristics of double-break VCBs was studied by the synthetic test and the PSCAD/EMTDC simulation based on a vacuum arc interruption model. The results show that the bias of the TRV distribution ratio is caused by the stray capacitance and the imbalanced post arc plasma characteristic in each VI, which is consistent with the theoretical analysis. Moreover, the negative effect of grading capacitors was discussed. The results show that it is advisable to limit the value of grading capacitors to those ranges which can guarantee sufficiently improve the voltage distribution.

  14. Dynamical Electroweak Symmetry Breaking in String Models with D-branes

    CERN Document Server

    Kitazawa, Noriaki

    2009-01-01

    The possibility of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking by strong coupling gauge interaction in models with D-branes in String Theory is examined. Instead of elementary scalar Higgs doublet fields, the gauge symmetry with strong coupling (technicolor) is introduced. As the first step of this direction, a toy model, which is not fully realistic, is concretely analyzed in some detail. The model consists of D-branes and anti-D-branes at orbifold singularities in (T^2 x T^2 x T^2)/Z_3 which preserves supersymmetry. Supersymmetry is broken through the brane supersymmetry breaking. It is pointed out that the problem of large S parameter in dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking scenario may be solved by natural existence of kinetic term mixings between hypercharge U(1) gauge boson and massive anomalous U(1) gauge bosons. The problems to be solved toward constructing more realistic models are clarified in the analysis.

  15. DNAPKcs-dependent arrest of RNA polymerase II transcription in the presence of DNA breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankotai, Tibor; Bonhomme, Céline; Chen, David; Soutoglou, Evi

    2012-02-12

    DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair interferes with ongoing cellular processes, including replication and transcription. Although the process of replication stalling upon collision of replication forks with damaged DNA has been extensively studied, the fate of elongating RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) that encounters a DSB is not well understood. We show that the occurrence of a single DSB at a human RNAPII-transcribed gene leads to inhibition of transcription elongation and reinitiation. Upon inhibition of DNA protein kinase (DNAPK), RNAPII bypasses the break and continues transcription elongation, suggesting that it is not the break per se that inhibits the processivity of RNAPII, but the activity of DNAPK. We also show that the mechanism of DNAPK-mediated transcription inhibition involves the proteasome-dependent pathway. The results point to the pivotal role of DNAPK activity in the eviction of RNAPII from DNA upon encountering a DNA lesion.

  16. Using rates to measure mixed modulus-anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Conley, J A; Glaser, L; Kraemer, M; Tattersall, J

    2011-01-01

    If SUSY is discovered at the LHC, the task will immediately turn to determining the model of SUSY breaking. Here, we employ a Mixed Modulus-Anomaly Mediated SUSY Breaking (MMAMSB) model with very similar LHC phenomenology to the more conventionally studied Constrained Minimal SUSY Model (CMSSM) and minimal Anomaly Mediated SUSY Breaking (mAMSB) models. We then study whether the models can be distinguished and measured. If we only fit to the various mass edges and mass end-points from cascade decay chains that are normally studied, a unique determination and measurement of the model is problematic without substantial amounts of LHC data. However, if event rate information is included, we can quickly distinguish and measure the correct SUSY model and exclude alternatives.

  17. Break-in and Performance Issues on a single cell PBI-based PEM Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen; Jespersen, Jesper Lebæk

    and the current drawn from the fuel cell are of great importance. One must therefore choose the point of operation carefully in order for the fuel cell to fulfil the requirements for lifetime perform-ance of the system. Break-in of fuel cells is often done in scientific experiments to improve the performance...... of the fuel cell, even though break-in of a fuel cell implemented in a commercial application would most likely not be feasible. In the present work a commercially available PBI-based high temperature MEA is subject to a break-in procedure, as specified by the manufacturer. The cell was operated at 160 °C...... at the active sites of the electrodes causing a more sluggish perform-ance. Moreover, preliminary data is given on a long term degradation study, using Electrochemical Im-pedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurements to analyze the degradation at high current densities (0.8 A/cm2)....

  18. Analysis of Melancholy in Alfred Tennyson’s“Break, Break, Break”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张兰兰

    2012-01-01

      s: As a“Poet Laureate”, Alfred Lord Tennyson has been loved and respected by critics and readers. He is famous not only for his unsurpassed virtuosity, but also the melancholy feeling in his poetry. He excels at penning short lyrics, among which“Break, Break, Break”is one of the representatives. This paper analyzes the melancholy in the poem from different per⁃spectives, the rhetorical device of repetend, the diction and the sound.

  19. Development, validation and application of multi-point kinetics model in RELAP5 for analysis of asymmetric nuclear transients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pradhan, Santosh K., E-mail: santosh@aerb.gov.in [Nuclear Safety Analysis Division, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Mumbai 400094 (India); Obaidurrahman, K. [Nuclear Safety Analysis Division, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Mumbai 400094 (India); Iyer, Kannan N. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, IIT Bombay, Mumbai 400076 (India); Gaikwad, Avinash J. [Nuclear Safety Analysis Division, Atomic Energy Regulatory Board, Mumbai 400094 (India)

    2016-04-15

    Highlights: • A multi-point kinetics model is developed for RELAP5 system thermal hydraulics code. • Model is validated against extensive 3D kinetics code. • RELAP5 multi-point kinetics formulation is used to investigate critical break for LOCA in PHWR. - Abstract: Point kinetics approach in system code RELAP5 limits its use for many of the reactivity induced transients, which involve asymmetric core behaviour. Development of fully coupled 3D core kinetics code with system thermal-hydraulics is the ultimate requirement in this regard; however coupling and validation of 3D kinetics module with system code is cumbersome and it also requires access to source code. An intermediate approach with multi-point kinetics is appropriate and relatively easy to implement for analysis of several asymmetric transients for large cores. Multi-point kinetics formulation is based on dividing the entire core into several regions and solving ODEs describing kinetics in each region. These regions are interconnected by spatial coupling coefficients which are estimated from diffusion theory approximation. This model offers an advantage that associated ordinary differential equations (ODEs) governing multi-point kinetics formulation can be solved using numerical methods to the desired level of accuracy and thus allows formulation based on user defined control variables, i.e., without disturbing the source code and hence also avoiding associated coupling issues. Euler's method has been used in the present formulation to solve several coupled ODEs internally at each time step. The results have been verified against inbuilt point-kinetics models of RELAP5 and validated against 3D kinetics code TRIKIN. The model was used to identify the critical break in RIH of a typical large PHWR core. The neutronic asymmetry produced in the core due to the system induced transient was effectively handled by the multi-point kinetics model overcoming the limitation of in-built point kinetics model

  20. Breaking the sound barrier in AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyos, Carlos; Fernández, David Rodríguez; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-01-01

    It has been conjectured that the speed of sound in holographic models with UV fixed points has an upper bound set by the value of the quantity in conformal field theory. If true, this would set stringent constraints for the presence of strongly coupled quark matter in the cores of physical neutron stars, as the existence of two-solar-mass stars appears to demand a very stiff Equation of State. In this article, we present a family of counterexamples to the speed of sound conjecture, consisting of strongly coupled theories at finite density. The theories we consider include ${\\cal N}=4$ super Yang-Mills at finite R-charge density and non-zero gaugino masses, while the holographic duals are Einstein-Maxwell theories with a minimally coupled scalar in a charged black hole geometry. We show that for a small breaking of conformal invariance, the speed of sound approaches the conformal value from above at large chemical potentials.

  1. Structural topography-mediated high temperature wetting symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jing; Liu, Yahua; Hao, Chonglei; Li, Minfei; Chaudhury, Manoj K; Yao, Shuhuai

    2015-01-01

    Directed motion of liquid droplets is of considerable importance in various industrial processes. Despite extensive advances in this field of research, our understanding and the ability to control droplet dynamics at high temperature remain limited, in part due to the emergence of complex wetting states intertwined by the phase change process at the triple-phase interfaces. Here we show that two concurrent wetting states (Leidenfrost and contact boiling) can be manifested in a single droplet above its boiling point rectified by the presence of asymmetric textures. The breaking of the wetting symmetry at high temperature subsequently leads to the preferential motion towards the region with higher heat transfer coefficient. We demonstrate experimentally and analytically that the droplet vectoring is intricately dependent on the interplay between the structural topography and its imposed thermal state. Our fundamental understanding and the ability to control the droplet dynamics at high temperature represent an ...

  2. $\\mu$ term and supersymmetry breaking from six dimensional theory

    CERN Document Server

    Adachi, Yuki; Yamashita, Toshifumi

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM) which is on a six-dimensional spacetime compactified on a $T^2/Z_3$ orbifold. In this model, three gauge singlet fields $N, S_1$ and $S_2$ in addition to the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) fields are introduced. These fields are localized at some fixed points except for the singlet $N$ and the gauge fields. The $\\mu$ parameter is provided from the vacuum expectation value (vev) of $N$. The $F$ terms get vevs simultaneously, and the gauginos mediate the supersymmetry breaking to the MSSM sector. Both of these parameters are strongly suppressed due to the profile of $N$. Thus these parameters induced from those of the order of the so-called GUT scale can become close to the electroweak scale without unnatural fine tuning.

  3. Searching for cosmological signatures of the Einstein equivalence principle breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Holanda, R F L

    2016-01-01

    Modifications of gravity generated by a multiplicative coupling of a scalar field to the electromagnetic Lagrangian lead to a breaking of Einstein equivalence principle (EEPB) as well as to variations of fundamental constants. In these theoretical frameworks, deviations of standard values of the fine structure constant, $\\Delta \\alpha/\\alpha=\\phi$, and of the cosmic distance duality relation, $D_L(1+z)^{-2}/D_A=\\eta=1$, where $D_L$ and $D_A$ are the luminosity and angular diameter distances, respectively, are unequivocally linked. In this paper, we search for cosmological signatures of the EEPB by using angular diameter distance from galaxy clusters, obtained via their Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (SZE) and X-ray observations, and distance modulus of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). The crucial point here is that we take into account the dependence of the SZE/X-ray technique with $\\phi$ and $\\eta$. Our new results show no indication of the EEPB.

  4. Downslope flow across the Ross Sea shelf break (Antarctica)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergamasco, A.; Budillon, G.; Carniel, S.; Defendi, V.; Meloni, R.; Paschini, E.; Sclavo, M.; Spezie, G.

    2003-12-01

    The analysis of some high-resolution hydrological data sets acquired during the 1997, 1998, 2001 and 2003 austral summers across the Ross Sea continental shelf break are here presented. The main focus of these cruises carried out in the framework of the Italian National Antarctic Program was the investigation of the downslope flow of the dense waters originated inside the Ross Sea. Such dense waters, flow near the bottom and, reaching the continental shelf break, ventilate the deep ocean. Two Antarctic continental shelf mechanisms can originate dense and deep waters. The former mechanism involves the formation, along the Victoria Land coasts, of a dense and saline water mass, the High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW). The HSSW formation is linked to the rejection of salt into the water column as sea ice freezes, especially during winter, in the polynya areas, where the ice is continuously pushed offshore by the strong katabatic winds. The latter one is responsible of the formation of a supercold water mass, the Ice Shelf Water (ISW). The salt supplied by the HSSW recirculated below the Ross Ice Shelf, the latent heat of melting and the heat sink provided by the Ross Ice Shelf give rise to plumes of ISW, characterized by temperatures below the sea-surface freezing point. The dense shelf waters migrate to the continental shelf-break, spill over the shelf edge and descend the continental slope as a shelf-break gravity current, subject to friction and possibly enhanced by topographic channelling. Friction, in particular, breaks the constraint of potential vorticity conservation, counteracting the geostrophic tendency for along slope flow. The density-driven downslope motion or cascading entrains ambient water, namely the lower layer of the CDW, reaches a depth where density is the same and spreads off-slope. In fact, the cascading event is inhibited by friction without entrainment. The downslope processes are important for the ocean and climate system because they play a

  5. Symmetry-Break in Voronoi Tessellations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Lucarini

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyse in a common framework the properties of the Voronoi tessellations resulting from regular 2D and 3D crystals and those of tessellations generated by Poisson distributions of points, thus joining on symmetry breaking processes and the approach to uniform random distributions of seeds. We perturb crystalline structures in 2D and 3D with a spatial Gaussian noise whose adimensional strength is α and analyse the statistical properties of the cells of the resulting Voronoi tessellations using an ensemble approach. In 2D we consider triangular, square and hexagonal regular lattices, resulting into hexagonal, square and triangular tessellations, respectively. In 3D we consider the simple cubic (SC, body-centred cubic (BCC, and face-centred cubic (FCC crystals, whose corresponding Voronoi cells are the cube, the truncated octahedron, and the rhombic dodecahedron, respectively. In 2D, for all values α>0, hexagons constitute the most common class of cells. Noise destroys the triangular and square tessellations, which are structurally unstable, as their topological properties are discontinuous in α=0. On the contrary, the honeycomb hexagonal tessellation is topologically stable and, experimentally, all Voronoi cells are hexagonal for small but finite noise with α<0.12. Basically, the same happens in the 3D case, where only the tessellation of the BCC crystal is topologically stable even against noise of small but finite intensity. In both 2D and 3D cases, already for a moderate amount of Gaussian noise (α>0.5, memory of the specific initial unperturbed state is lost, because the statistical properties of the three perturbed regular tessellations are indistinguishable. When α>2, results converge to those of Poisson-Voronoi tessellations. In 2D, while the isoperimetric ratio increases with noise for the perturbed hexagonal tessellation, for the perturbed triangular and square tessellations it is optimised for specific value of noise intensity

  6. LIDAR, Point Clouds, and their Archaeological Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Devin A [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    It is common in contemporary archaeological literature, in papers at archaeological conferences, and in grant proposals to see heritage professionals use the term LIDAR to refer to high spatial resolution digital elevation models and the technology used to produce them. The goal of this chapter is to break that association and introduce archaeologists to the world of point clouds, in which LIDAR is only one member of a larger family of techniques to obtain, visualize, and analyze three-dimensional measurements of archaeological features. After describing how point clouds are constructed, there is a brief discussion on the currently available software and analytical techniques designed to make sense of them.

  7. Symmetry breaking indication for supergravity inflation in light of the Planck 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tianjun [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, and Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China (KITPC), Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Li, Zhijin [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Nanopoulos, Dimitri V. [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Astroparticle Physics Group, Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), Mitchell Campus, Woodlands, TX 77381 (United States); Academy of Athens, Division of Natural Sciences, 28 Panepistimiou Avenue, Athens 10679 (Greece)

    2015-09-01

    Supergravity (SUGRA) theories with exact global U(1) symmetry or shift symmetry in Kähler potential provide natural frameworks for inflation. However, quadratic inflation is disfavoured by the new results on primordial tensor fluctuations from the Planck Collaboration. To be consistent with the new Planck data, we point out that the explicit symmetry breaking is needed, and study these two SUGRA inflation in detail. For SUGRA inflation with global U(1) symmetry, the symmetry breaking term leads to a trigonometric modulation on inflaton potential. Coefficient of the U(1) symmetry breaking term is of order 10{sup −2}, which is sufficient large to improve the inflationary predictions while its higher order corrections are negligible. Such models predict sizeable tensor fluctuations and highly agree with the Planck results. In particular, the model with a linear U(1) symmetry breaking term predicts the tensor-to-scalar ratio around r∼0.01 and running spectral index α{sub s}∼−0.004, which comfortably fit with the Planck observations. For SUGRA inflation with breaking shift symmetry, the inflaton potential is modulated by an exponential factor. The modulated linear and quadratic models are consistent with the Planck observations. In both types of models the tensor-to-scalar ratio can be of order 10{sup −2}, which will be tested by the near future observations.

  8. Concerted Breaking of Two Hydrogen Bonds in Water Hexamer Prism Revealed from Broadband Rotational Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Jeremy O.; Perez, Cristobal; Lobsiger, Simon; Reid, Adam A.; Temelso, Berhane; Shields, George C.; Kisiel, Zbigniew; Wales, David J.; Pate, Brooks; Althorpe, Stuart C.

    2016-06-01

    Over the past few years, we have used H218O water substitution to determine the structures of water clusters by molecular rotational spectroscopy. In the case of the water hexamer, the energy difference between the cage and prism structures is calculated to be about 0.1 kcal/mol and this energy difference is of the order of the zero-point energy variation between the isomers. Using rotational spectroscopy we provided experimental evidence for three isomers, i.e, cage, prism and book and established their relative energy ordering. In the special case of the prism hexamer, cluster dynamics causes measurable splitting in rotational transitions resulting from tunneling between discernible equivalent minima. Multiple isotopic substitution measurements involving all 64 possible isotopologues of the water hexamer prism (H218O)n(H216O)6-n were performed in order to identify the water molecules involved in the tunneling motion. The analysis of these tunneling-rotation spectra suggests that there are two distinct tunneling paths that involve concerted motion of two water molecules, implying a prototype scenario involving the breaking of two hydrogen bonds. C. Pérez, et al, Science. 2012, 336 897-901 J. O. Richardson et al, Science. 2016, in press

  9. Dynamics of Symmetry Breaking and Tachyonic Preheating

    CERN Document Server

    Felder, G; Greene, P B; Kofman, L A; Linde, Andrei D; Tkachev, Igor I; Felder, Gary; Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Greene, Patrick B.; Kofman, Lev; Linde, Andrei; Tkachev, Igor

    2001-01-01

    We reconsider the old problem of the dynamics of spontaneous symmetry breaking using 3d lattice simulations, and develop a theory of tachyonic preheating, which occurs due to the spinodal instability of the scalar field. Tachyonic preheating is so efficient that symmetry breaking typically completes within a single oscillation of the field distribution as it rolls towards the minimum of its effective potential. As an application of this theory we consider preheating in the hybrid inflation scenario, including SUSY-motivated F-term and D-term inflationary models. We show that preheating in hybrid inflation is typically tachyonic and the stage of oscillations of a homogeneous component of the scalar fields driving inflation ends after a single oscillation. Our results may also be relevant for the theory of the formation of disoriented chiral condensates in heavy ion collisions.

  10. Cosmology of biased discrete symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelmini, Graciela B.; Gleiser, Marcelo; Kolb, Edward W.

    1988-01-01

    The cosmological consequences of spontaneous breaking of an approximate discrete symmetry are studied. The breaking leads to formation of proto-domains of false and true vacuum separated by domain walls of thickness determined by the mass scale of the model. The cosmological evolution of the walls is extremely sensitive to the magnitude of the biasing; several scenarios are possible, depending on the interplay between the surface tension on the walls and the volume pressure from the biasing. Walls may disappear almost immediately after they form, or may live long enough to dominate the energy density of the Universe and cause power-law inflation. Limits are obtained on the biasing that characterizes each possible scenario.

  11. Symmetry breaking in non conservative systems

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Pérez, N E

    2016-01-01

    We apply Noether's theorem to show how the invariances of conservative systems are broken for nonconservative systems, in the variational formulation of Galley. This formulation considers a conservative action, extended by the inclusion of a time reversed sector and a nonconservative generalized potential. We assume that this potential is invariant under the symmetries of the initial conservative system. The breaking occurs because the time reversed sector requires inverse symmetry transformations, under which the nonconservative potential is not invariant. The resulting violation of the conservation laws is consistent with the equations of motion. We generalize this formulation for fermionic and sypersymmetric systems. In the case of a supersymmetric oscillator, the effect of damping is that the bosonic and fermionic components become different frequencies. Considering that initially the nonconservative action is invariant under supersymmetry, and that the breaking is associated to an instability, this resul...

  12. Metastable spontaneous breaking of N=2 supersymmetry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Légeret, Benoît; Scrucca, Claudio A., E-mail: claudio.scrucca@epfl.ch; Smyth, Paul

    2013-05-24

    We show that contrary to the common lore it is possible to spontaneously break N=2 supersymmetry even in simple theories without constant Fayet–Iliopoulos terms. We consider the most general N=2 supersymmetric theory with one hypermultiplet and one vector multiplet without Fayet–Iliopoulos terms, and show that metastable supersymmetry breaking vacua can arise if both the hyper-Kähler and the special-Kähler geometries are suitably curved. We then also prove that while all the scalars can be massive, the lightest one is always lighter than the vector boson. Finally, we argue that these results also directly imply that metastable de Sitter vacua can exist in N=2 supergravity theories with Abelian gaugings and no Fayet–Iliopoulos terms, again contrary to common lore, at least if the cosmological constant is sufficiently large.

  13. Lyman Break Galaxies in the NGST Era

    CERN Document Server

    Ferguson, H C; Papovich, C; Ferguson, Henry C.; Dickinson, Mark; Papovich, Casey

    2002-01-01

    With SIRTF and NGST in the offing, it is interesting to examine what the stellar populations of z~3 galaxies models imply for the existence and nature of Lyman-break galaxies at higher redshift. To this end, we ``turn back the clock'' on the stellar population models that have been fit to optical and infrared data of Lyman-break galaxies at z~3. The generally young ages (typically 10^8 +- 0.5 yr) of these galaxies imply that their stars were not present much beyond z=4. For smooth star-formation histories SFR(t) and Salpeter IMFs, the ionizing radiation from early star-formation in these galaxies would be insufficient to reionize the intergalactic medium at z~6, and the luminosity density at z~4 would be significantly lower than observed. We examine possible ways to increase the global star-formation rate at higher redshift without violating the stellar-population constraints at z~3.

  14. The Radiative Z2 Breaking Twin Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Jiang-Hao

    2016-01-01

    In twin Higgs model, the Higgs boson mass is protected by a $Z_2$ symmetry. The $Z_2$ symmetry needs to be broken either explicitly or spontaneously to obtain misalignment between electroweak and new physics vacua. We propose a novel $Z_2$ breaking mechanism, in which the $Z_2$ is spontaneously broken by radiative corrections to the Higgs potential. Two twin Higgses with different vacua are needed, and vacuum misalignment is realized by opposite but comparable contributions from gauge and Yukawa interactions to the potential. Due to fully radiative symmetry breaking, the Higgs sector is completely determined by twin Higgs vacuum, Yukawa and gauge couplings. There are eight pseudo-Goldstone bosons: the Higgs boson, inert doublet Higgs, and three twin scalars. We show the 125 GeV Higgs mass and constraints from Higgs coupling measurements could be satisfied.

  15. Symmetry Breaking in Neuroevolution: A Technical Report

    CERN Document Server

    Urfalioglu, Onay

    2011-01-01

    Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) comprise important symmetry properties, which can influence the performance of Monte Carlo methods in Neuroevolution. The problem of the symmetries is also known as the competing conventions problem or simply as the permutation problem. In the literature, symmetries are mainly addressed in Genetic Algoritm based approaches. However, investigations in this direction based on other Evolutionary Algorithms (EA) are rare or missing. Furthermore, there are different and contradictionary reports on the efficacy of symmetry breaking. By using a novel viewpoint, we offer a possible explanation for this issue. As a result, we show that a strategy which is invariant to the global optimum can only be successfull on certain problems, whereas it must fail to improve the global convergence on others. We introduce the \\emph{Minimum Global Optimum Proximity} principle as a generalized and adaptive strategy to symmetry breaking, which depends on the location of the global optimum. We apply the...

  16. Collective neutrino oscillations and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Huaiyu

    2015-08-01

    Neutrino oscillations in a hot and dense astrophysical environment such as a core-collapse supernova pose a challenging, seven-dimensional flavor transport problem. To make the problem even more difficult (and interesting), neutrinos can experience collective oscillations through nonlinear refraction in the dense neutrino medium in this environment. Significant progress has been made in the last decade towards the understanding of collective neutrino oscillations in various simplified neutrino gas models with imposed symmetries and reduced dimensions. However, a series of recent studies seem to have "reset" this progress by showing that these models may not be compatible with collective neutrino oscillations because the latter can break the symmetries spontaneously if they are not imposed. We review some of the key concepts of collective neutrino oscillations by using a few simple toy models. We also elucidate the breaking of spatial and directional symmetries in these models because of collective oscillations.

  17. Collective neutrino oscillations and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, Huaiyu

    2015-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations in a hot and dense astrophysical environment such as a core-collapse supernova pose a challenging, seven-dimensional flavor transport problem. To make the problem even more difficult (and interesting), neutrinos can experience collective oscillations through nonlinear refraction in the dense neutrino medium in this environment. Significant progress has been made in the last decade towards the understanding of collective neutrino oscillations in various simplified neutrino gas models with imposed symmetries and reduced dimensions. However, a series of recent studies seem to have "reset" this progress by showing that these models may not be compatible with collective neutrino oscillations because the latter can break the symmetries spontaneously if they are not imposed. We review some of the key concepts of collective neutrino oscillations by using a few simple toy models. We also elucidate the breaking of spatial and directional symmetries in these models because of collective oscillation...

  18. Care farms as a short-break service for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferwerda-van Zonneveld, R.T.; Oosting, S.J.; Kijlstra, A.

    2012-01-01

    Farms are enjoying an increasing popularity as a short-break service for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). The characteristics required on such care farms are currently unknown. To identify these characteristics, farmers of seven Dutch care farms with livestock were interviewed using a

  19. To Cut or Not to Cut: Discovery of a Novel Regulator of DNA Break Resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, James M; Sung, Patrick

    2016-02-04

    Nucleolytic resection of DNA double-strand breaks is the crucial first step in their repair via homologous recombination. New findings by Tkáč et al. (2016) published in this issue of Molecular Cell identify HELB as a novel, cell-cycle-specific negative regulator of DNA end resection.

  20. Dynamical symmetry breaking in quantum field theories

    CERN Document Server

    Miransky, Vladimir A

    1993-01-01

    The phenomenon of dynamical symmetry breaking (DSB) in quantum field theory is discussed in a detailed and comprehensive way. The deep connection between this phenomenon in condensed matter physics and particle physics is emphasized. The realizations of DSB in such realistic theories as quantum chromodynamics and electroweak theory are considered. Issues intimately connected with DSB such as critical phenomenona and effective lagrangian approach are also discussed.

  1. Music and Video Gaming during Breaks

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shuyan; Schad, Daniel J; Kuschpel, Maxim S.; Rapp, Michael A.; Heinz, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Different systems for habitual versus goal-directed control are thought to underlie human decision-making. Working memory is known to shape these decision-making systems and their interplay, and is known to support goal-directed decision making even under stress. Here, we investigated if and how decision systems are differentially influenced by breaks filled with diverse everyday life activities known to modulate working memory performance. We used a within-subject design where young adult...

  2. Wave breaking in tapered holey fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuguang Li; Lei Zhang; Bo Fu; Yi Zheng; Ying Han; Xingtao Zhao

    2011-01-01

    We numerically study the propagation of 1-ps laser pulse in three tapered holey fibers (THFs). The curvature indices of the concave, linear, and convex tapers are 2.0, 1.0, and 0.5, respectively. The central wavelength, located in the normal dispersion regime, is 800 nm. The nonlinear coefficient of the THFs increases from the initial 0.095 m-1· W-1 to the final 0.349 m-l·W-1. Wave breaking accompanied by oscillatory structures occurs near pulse edges, and sidelobes appear in the pulse spectrum. With the increase in propagation distance z, the pulse shape becomes broader and the pulse spectrum flattens. A concave THF is advantageous to the generation of wave breaking and enables easier achievement of super fiat spectra at short lengths.%@@ We numerically study the propagation of 1-ps laser pulse in three tapered holey fibers (THFs).The curvature indices of the concave, linear, and convex tapers are 2.0, 1.0, and 0.5, respectively.The central wavelength, located in the normal dispersion regime, is 800 nm.The nonlinear coefficient of the THFs increases from the initial 0.095 m-1.W-1 to the final 0.349 m-1.W-1.Wave breaking accompanied by oscillatory structures occurs near pulse edges, and sidelobes appear in the pulse spectrum.With the increase in propagation distance z, the pulse shape becomes broader and the pulse spectrum flattens.A concave THF is advantageous to the generation of wave breaking and enables easier achievement of super flat spectra at short lengths.

  3. Adjoint string breaking in the pseudoparticle approach

    CERN Document Server

    Szasz, Christian

    2008-01-01

    We apply the pseudoparticle approach to SU(2) Yang-Mills theory and perform a detailed study of the potential between two static charges for various representations. Whereas for charges in the fundamental representation we find a linearly rising confining potential, we clearly observe string breaking, when considering charges in the adjoint representation. We also demonstrate Casimir scaling and compute gluelump masses for different spin and parity. Numerical results are in qualitative agreement with lattice results.

  4. Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in the Tayler instability

    CERN Document Server

    Del Sordo, Fabio; Brandenburg, Axel; Mitra, Dhrubaditya

    2011-01-01

    The chiral symmetry breaking properties of the Tayler instability are discussed. Effective amplitude equations are determined in one case. This model has three free parameters that are determined numerically. Comparison with chiral symmetry breaking in biochemistry is made.

  5. A break in the obesity epidemic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visscher, T L S; Heitmann, B L; Rissanen, A

    2015-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic papers are presenting prevalence data suggesting breaks and decreases in obesity rates. However, before concluding that the obesity epidemic is not increasing anymore, the validity of the presented data should be discussed more thoroughly. We had a closer look into the litera......, focusing on trends in waist circumference rather than BMI leads to a less optimistic conclusion: the public health problem of obesity is still increasing.International Journal of Obesity advance online publication, 22 July 2014; doi:10.1038/ijo.2014.98.......Recent epidemiologic papers are presenting prevalence data suggesting breaks and decreases in obesity rates. However, before concluding that the obesity epidemic is not increasing anymore, the validity of the presented data should be discussed more thoroughly. We had a closer look...... into the literature presented in recent reviews to address the major potential biases and distortions, and to develop insights about how to interpret the presented suggestions for a potential break in the obesity epidemic. Decreasing participation rates, the use of reported rather than measured data and small sample...

  6. Enhanced breaking of heavy quark spin symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-Kun Guo

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Heavy quark spin symmetry is useful to make predictions on ratios of decay or production rates of systems involving heavy quarks. The breaking of spin symmetry is generally of the order of O(ΛQCD/mQ, with ΛQCD the scale of QCD and mQ the heavy quark mass. In this paper, we will show that a small S- and D-wave mixing in the wave function of the heavy quarkonium could induce a large breaking in the ratios of partial decay widths. As an example, we consider the decays of the ϒ(10860 into the χbJω (J=0,1,2, which were recently measured by the Belle Collaboration. These decays exhibit a huge breaking of the spin symmetry relation were the ϒ(10860 a pure 5S bottomonium state. We propose that this could be a consequence of a mixing of the S-wave and D-wave components in the ϒ(10860. Prediction on the ratio Γ(ϒ(10860→χb0ω/Γ(ϒ(10860→χb2ω is presented assuming that the decay of the D-wave component is dominated by the coupled-channel effects.

  7. Kinematic dynamo, supersymmetry breaking, and chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, Igor V.; Enßlin, Torsten A.

    2016-04-01

    The kinematic dynamo (KD) describes the growth of magnetic fields generated by the flow of a conducting medium in the limit of vanishing backaction of the fields onto the flow. The KD is therefore an important model system for understanding astrophysical magnetism. Here, the mathematical correspondence between the KD and a specific stochastic differential equation (SDE) viewed from the perspective of the supersymmetric theory of stochastics (STS) is discussed. The STS is a novel, approximation-free framework to investigate SDEs. The correspondence reported here permits insights from the STS to be applied to the theory of KD and vice versa. It was previously known that the fast KD in the idealistic limit of no magnetic diffusion requires chaotic flows. The KD-STS correspondence shows that this is also true for the diffusive KD. From the STS perspective, the KD possesses a topological supersymmetry, and the dynamo effect can be viewed as its spontaneous breakdown. This supersymmetry breaking can be regarded as the stochastic generalization of the concept of dynamical chaos. As this supersymmetry breaking happens in both the diffusive and the nondiffusive cases, the necessity of the underlying SDE being chaotic is given in either case. The observed exponentially growing and oscillating KD modes prove physically that dynamical spectra of the STS evolution operator that break the topological supersymmetry exist with both real and complex ground state eigenvalues. Finally, we comment on the nonexistence of dynamos for scalar quantities.

  8. Dormancy Breaking in Ormosia arborea Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilma Pereira Gonçalves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ormosia arborea is a tree species planted in urban areas and used to restore degraded areas. Its seeds are dormant and propagation is difficult. This study compares different dormancy breaking methods and physiological seed quality and seedling production. The seeds were germinated in sand in the laboratory of the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil. The following dormancy breaking treatments were applied: control (intact seeds, 100°C water immersion; boiling water immersion followed by 24 hours of soaking; scarification with number 100 and number 50 sandpaper opposite from root emergence; sulfuric acid immersion for 1 hour, 50, 45, and 30 minutes. Seed immersion in 100°C and boiling water did not break the dormancy. The study species showed a greater vigor of seedling when its seeds were submitted to treatments associated with tegument rupturing by sandpaper or sulfuric acid. On the other hand, seed scarification with sulfuric acid for 1 hour, 50, 45, and 30 minutes or sandpaper favored seed germination and vigor.

  9. Breaking bad news: a patient's perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Lauren; Chabner, Bruce A; Lynch, Thomas J; Penson, Richard T

    2003-01-01

    Shortly before his death in 1995, Kenneth B. Schwartz, a cancer patient at Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH), founded The Kenneth B. Schwartz Center at MGH. The Schwartz Center is a nonprofit organization dedicated to supporting and advancing compassionate health care delivery that provides hope to the patient, support to caregivers, and encourages the healing process. The Center sponsors the Schwartz Center Rounds, a monthly multidisciplinary forum where caregivers reflect on important psychosocial issues faced by patients, their families, and their caregivers, and gain insight and support from fellow staff members. Clinicians in the field of oncology are unavoidably forced to break bad news. The Schwartz Center Rounds focuses on issues of communication between patients and their caregivers, one of the most difficult aspects of which is breaking bad news. The invited patient, a woman who had been living with a low-grade cancer for many years, spoke about her experiences both as a person living with cancer and as the daughter of a patient diagnosed with cancer. Her father's suicide, precipitated by being told his diagnosis, puts the horror of receiving bad news into stark relief. She provides a fascinating account of how she proactively adjusted to her diagnosis, and fought for optimal quality of life. This article discusses issues of support, abandonment, and how hope is conveyed, and reviews the literature that informs good clinical practice in breaking bad news.

  10. CP breaking in $S(3)$ flavoured Higgs model

    CERN Document Server

    Barradas-Guevara, E; Rodríguez-Jáuregui, E

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the Higgs sector of the minimal $S(3)$-invariant extension of the Standard Model including CP violation arising from the spontaneous breaking of the electroweak symmetry. This extended Higgs sector includes three $SU(2)$ doublets Higgs fields with complex vev's provide an interesting scenario to analyze the Higgs masses spectrum, trilinear self-couplings and CP violation. We present how the spontaneous electroweak symmetry breaking coming from three $S(3)$ Higgs fields gives an interesting scenario with nine physical Higgs and three Goldstone bosons when spontaneous CP violation arises from the Higgs field $S(3)$ singlet $H_S$. Furthermore, numerical analysis of the Higgs masses and trilinear self-couplings is presented, particularly we find a physical solution for the scenario in which spontaneous CPB is provided by the single field $H_S$. The scalar Higgs $H_4^0$ is identified whose mass is 125 GeV and $\\lambda_{H_{4}^0 H_{4}^0 H_{4}^0} \\sim \\lambda_{h^0 h^0 h^0}^{SM}$ in good agreement with the ...

  11. Healthy breaks: tasty tips for the under fives

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2014-01-01

    Today the Public Health Agency is launching a new resource pack designed to assist nursery schools and playgroups deliver a healthy breaks scheme.All nursery schools and playgroups in Northern Ireland will receive the pack - 'Healthy breaks for pre-school children' - which includes a poster and information leaflets for parents explaining why a healthy break is so important for pre-school children and some tips and ideas for healthy nutritious breaks.Judith Hanvey, Regional Food in Schools Co-...

  12. Break-Even Income Analysis of Pharmacy Graduates Compared to High School and College Graduates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A; Dickey, Susan E

    2016-04-25

    Objective. To project the net cumulative income break-even point between practicing pharmacists and those who enter the workforce directly after high school graduation or after obtaining a bachelor's degree. Methods. Markov modeling and break-even analysis were conducted. Estimated costs of education were used in calculating net early career earnings of high school graduates, bachelor's degree holders, pharmacists without residency training, and pharmacists with residency training. Results. Models indicate that over the first 10 years of a pharmacist's career, they accumulate net earnings of $716 345 to $1 064 840, depending on cost of obtaining the PharmD degree and career path followed. In the break-even analysis, all pharmacy career tracks surpassed net cumulative earnings of high school graduates by age 33 and bachelor's degree holders by age 34. Conclusion. Regardless of the chosen pharmacy career track and the typical cost of obtaining a PharmD degree, the model under study assumptions demonstrates that pharmacy education has a positive financial return on investment, with a projected break-even point of less than 10 years upon career entry.

  13. Spawning rings of exceptional points out of Dirac cones

    CERN Document Server

    Zhen, Bo; Igarashi, Yuichi; Lu, Ling; Kaminer, Ido; Pick, Adi; Chua, Song-Liang; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljačić, Marin

    2015-01-01

    The Dirac cone underlies many unique electronic properties of graphene and topological insulators, and its band structure--two conical bands touching at a single point--has also been realized for photons in waveguide arrays, atoms in optical lattices, and through accidental degeneracy. Deformations of the Dirac cone often reveal intriguing properties; an example is the quantum Hall effect, where a constant magnetic field breaks the Dirac cone into isolated Landau levels. A seemingly unrelated phenomenon is the exceptional point, also known as the parity-time symmetry breaking point, where two resonances coincide in both their positions and widths. Exceptional points lead to counter-intuitive phenomena such as loss-induced transparency, unidirectional transmission or reflection, and lasers with reversed pump dependence or single-mode operation. These two fields of research are in fact connected: here we discover the ability of a Dirac cone to evolve into a ring of exceptional points, which we call an "exceptio...

  14. An analysis of oil production by OPEC countries. Persistence, breaks, and outliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Carlos Pestana [Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao and Research Unit on Complexity and Economics, Technical University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal); Gil-Alana, Luis A. [University of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Payne, James E. [Department of Economics, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61790-4200 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    This study examines the time series behaviour of oil production for OPEC member countries within a fractional integration modelling framework recognizing the potential for structural breaks and outliers. The analysis is undertaken using monthly data from January 1973 to October 2008 for 13 OPEC member countries. The results indicate there is mean reverting persistence in oil production with breaks identified in 10 out of the 13 countries examined. Thus, shocks affecting the structure of OPEC oil production will have persistent effects in the long run for all countries, and in some cases the effects are expected to be permanent. (author)

  15. 20. Yüzyılın Son Çeyreğinde Yaşanan Jeopolitik Kırılma Noktası ile Başlayan 21. Yüzyıl, Yeni Tarihin Ne Kadar Başlangıcıdır? 21st Century; Initiated With The Geopolitical Breaking Point Occurred At The Last Quarter Of 20th Century; Beginning Of The New History In What Extent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laziza Nurpeiis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available With the collapse of the USSR in 1990, many global problemshave arisen. One of the most crucial issues has been the replacement ofthe stability sustained by Cold War that affected the 20th centurydeeply, the bipolar world system, nuclear and ballistic weapons with achaotic environment of asymmetric features. This new stage not onlyaffected the political vital constraints of all societies but also showed theneed of geopolitical theories dealing with problems that can arise.The incapability in dealing with uncertainties of power at all levelscaused a lack of compiling long and mid-term plans.Energy sources of the former Soviet territory, mergedcommunities, social issues, various underground resources, issues ofethnic conflicts and radical terrorist organizations, put the whole worldinto a chaotic environment.Therefore, an important breaking point in 1990 was experiencedby all countries. This is such a point that the near and distant pastaccumulations will remain ineffective and new strategic and geopoliticalapproaches are required. The main problem is revolved around twoquestions. Will the geo-strategic theories of 20th century that are basedon two power poles be available in the new era of asymmetric chaos?Or, are theories, built with the new geostrategic perception needed? 1990 yılında SSCB’nin dağılması ile ortaya birçok küresel sorun çıkmıştır. Bu sorunların en başında da 20’inci yüzyıla damgasını vuran Soğuk Savaş, iki kutuplu dünya düzeni, nükleer ve balistik silahlara dayalı denge ortamının yok olması ve yerine asimetrik özelliklere sahip kaotik bir ortamın çıkması vardır. Yeni başlayan süreç, hem bütün toplumların siyasi/politik yaşamsal desteklerini ve dayanaklarını ortadan kaldıracak şekilde sarsmış, hem de ortaya çıkan problem sahaları ile mücadele edebilecek jeopolitik teorilerin eksikliği hissedilmiştir. Özellikle her seviyedeki gücün yeni başlayan sürecin bilinmezliği ile

  16. Bond breaking in a Morse chain under tension: Fragmentation patterns, higher index saddles, and bond healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauguière, F. A. L.; Collins, P.; Ezra, G. S.; Wiggins, S.

    2013-04-01

    We investigate the fragmentation dynamics of an atomic chain under tensile stress. We have classified the location, stability type (indices), and energy of all equilibria for the general n-particle chain, and have highlighted the importance of saddle points with index >1. We show that for an n = 2-particle chain under tensile stress the index 2 saddle plays a central role in organizing the dynamics. We apply normal form theory to analyze phase space structure and dynamics in a neighborhood of the index 2 saddle. We define a phase dividing surface (DS) that enables us to classify trajectories passing through a neighborhood of the saddle point using the values of the integrals associated with the normal form. We also generalize our definition of the dividing surface and define an extended dividing surface (EDS), which is used to sample and classify all trajectories that pass through a phase space neighborhood of the index 2 saddle at total energies less than that of the saddle. Classical trajectory simulations are used to study fragmentation patterns for the n = 2 chain under tension. That is, we investigate the relative probability for breaking one bond versus concerted fission of several (two, in this case) bonds. Initial conditions for trajectories are obtained by sampling the EDS at constant energy. We sample trajectories at fixed energies both above and below the energy of the saddle. The fate of trajectories (single versus multiple bond breakage) is explored as a function of the location of the initial condition on the EDS, and a connection made to the work of Chesnavich on collision-induced dissociation. A significant finding is that we can readily identify trajectories that exhibit bond healing. Such trajectories pass outside the nominal (index 1) transition state for single bond dissociation, but return to the potential well region, possibly several times, before ultimately dissociating.

  17. The Emergence of Topological Nodal Points in Photonic Crystal with Mirror Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    He, Wen-Yu

    2014-01-01

    We show that topological nodal points can emerge in photonic crystal possessing mirror symmetry. The mechanism of generating topological nodal points is discussed in a two-dimensional photonic square lattice, in which four topological nodal points split out naturally after the touching of two bands with different parity. The emergence of such nodal points, characterized by vortex structure in momentum space, is attributed to the unavoidable band crossing protected by mirror symmetry. The topological nodes can be unbuckled through breaking the mirror symmetry and a photonic Chern insulator can be achieved through time reversal symmetry breaking. The joint effect of breaking time reversal symmetry and breaking inversion symmetry is further found to strengthen the finite size effect, providing ways to engineer helical edge states.

  18. Near-bed hydrodynamics and turbulence below a large-scale plunging breaking wave over a mobile barred bed profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Zanden, J.; van der A, D. A.; Hurther, D.; Cáceres, I.; O'Donoghue, T.; Ribberink, J. S.

    2016-08-01

    Detailed measurements are presented of velocities and turbulence under a large-scale regular plunging breaking wave in a wave flume. Measurements were obtained at 12 cross-shore locations around a mobile medium-sand breaker bar. They focused particularly on the dynamics of the wave bottom boundary layer (WBL) and near-bed turbulent kinetic energy (TKE), measured with an Acoustic Concentration and Velocity Profiler (ACVP). The breaking process and outer flow hydrodynamics are in agreement with previous laboratory and field observations of plunging waves, including a strong undertow in the bar trough region. The WBL thickness matches with previous studies at locations offshore from the bar crest, but it increases near the breaking-wave plunge point. This relates possibly to breaking-induced TKE or to the diverging flow at the shoreward slope of the bar. Outer flow TKE is dominated by wave breaking and exhibits strong spatial variation with largest TKE above the breaker bar crest. Below the plunge point, breaking-induced turbulence invades the WBL during both crest and trough half cycle. This results in an increase in the time-averaged TKE in the WBL (with a factor 3) and an increase in peak onshore and offshore near-bed Reynolds stresses (with a factor 2) from shoaling to breaking region. A fraction of locally produced TKE is advected offshore over a distance of a few meters to shoaling locations during the wave trough phase, and travels back onshore during the crest half cycle. The results imply that breaking-induced turbulence, for large-scale conditions, may significantly affect near-bed sediment transport processes.

  19. Neutrino-induced Electroweak Symmetry Breaking in Supersymmetric SO(10) Unification

    CERN Document Server

    Inoue, K; Yoshioka, K; Inoue, Kenzo; Kojima, Kentaro; Yoshioka, Koichi

    2006-01-01

    The radiative electroweak symmetry breaking, the unification of third-generation Yukawa couplings, and flavor-changing rare decay are investigated in two types of supersymmetric SO(10) scenarios taking into account of the effects of neutrino physics, i.e. the observed large generation mixing and tiny mass scale. The first scenario is minimal, including right-handed neutrinos at intermediate scale with the unification of third-generation Yukawa couplings. Another is the case that the large mixing of atmospheric neutrinos originates from the charged-lepton sector. Under the SO(10)-motivated boundary conditions for supersymmetry-breaking parameters, typical low-energy particle spectrum is discussed and the parameter space is identified which satisfies the conditions for successful radiative electroweak symmetry breaking and the experimental mass bounds of superparticles. In particular, the predictions of the bottom quark mass and the b \\to s gamma branching ratio are fully analyzed. In both two scenarios, new ty...

  20. [Conception of Ashi points].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rong-dong; Li, Heng

    2005-04-01

    In the light of obscure conception of Ashi points in the circle of acupuncture and moxibustion at present, this article tries to clarify the origin and definition of Ashi points by textual research of literatures. It is put forward that Ashi points are not the same with "tender spot" and "Buding point, Tianying point", but are some special responding points, including regular points and extra points, when the organism is ill. When these points are pressed the organism will be comfortable or painful. And the definition, location and clinical location method of Ashi points are proposed.

  1. Single particles accelerate final stages of capillary break up

    CERN Document Server

    Lindner, Anke; Wagner, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Droplet formation of suspensions is present in many industrial and technological processes such as coating and food engineering. Whilst the finite time singularity of the minimum neck diameter in capillary break-up of simple liquids can be described by well known self-similarity solutions, the pinching of non-Brownian suspension depends in a complex way on the particle dynamics in the thinning thread. Here we focus on the very dilute regime where the filament contains only isolated beads to identify the physical mechanisms leading to the pronounced acceleration of the filament thinning observed. This accelerated regime is characterized by an asymmetric shape of the filament with an enhanced curvature that depends on the size and the spatial distribution of the particles within the capillary thread.

  2. Magnetism and local symmetry breaking in a Mott insulator with strong spin orbit interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, L.; Song, M.; Liu, W.; Reyes, A. P.; Kuhns, P.; Lee, H. O.; Fisher, I. R.; Mitrović, V. F.

    2017-01-01

    Study of the combined effects of strong electronic correlations with spin-orbit coupling (SOC) represents a central issue in quantum materials research. Predicting emergent properties represents a huge theoretical problem since the presence of SOC implies that the spin is not a good quantum number. Existing theories propose the emergence of a multitude of exotic quantum phases, distinguishable by either local point symmetry breaking or local spin expectation values, even in materials with simple cubic crystal structure such as Ba2NaOsO6. Experimental tests of these theories by local probes are highly sought for. Our local measurements designed to concurrently probe spin and orbital/lattice degrees of freedom of Ba2NaOsO6 provide such tests. Here we show that a canted ferromagnetic phase which is preceded by local point symmetry breaking is stabilized at low temperatures, as predicted by quantum theories involving multipolar spin interactions. PMID:28181502

  3. The gravity dual to a quantum critical point with spontaneous symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Gubser, Steven S

    2008-01-01

    We consider zero temperature solutions to the Abelian Higgs model coupled to gravity with a negative cosmological constant. With appropriate choices of parameters, the geometry contains two copies of anti-de Sitter space, one describing conformal invariance in the ultraviolet, and one in the infrared. The effective speed of signal propagation is smaller in the infrared. Green's functions and associated transport coefficients can have unusual power law scaling in the infrared. We provide an example in which the real part of the conductivity scales approximately as omega^3.5 for small omega.

  4. Nearly finished LHC particle smasher breaks at support point to magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    Atkins, William

    2007-01-01

    "The proton-proton Large Hadron Collider (LHC) particle accelerator is being built at Geneva, Switzerland's CERN - the world's largest particle physics laboratory. However, a support assembly structure for critical magnets failed while being tested on March 27, 2007." (1/2 page)

  5. Quantum critical point of Dirac fermion mass generation without spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yuan-Yao; Wu, Han-Qing; You, Yi-Zhuang; Xu, Cenke; Meng, Zi Yang; Lu, Zhong-Yi

    2016-12-01

    We study a lattice model of interacting Dirac fermions in (2 +1 ) dimensions space-time with an SU(4) symmetry. While increasing the interaction strength, this model undergoes a continuous quantum phase transition from a weakly interacting Dirac semimetal to a fully gapped and nondegenerate phase without condensing any Dirac fermion bilinear mass operator. This unusual mechanism for mass generation is consistent with recent studies of interacting topological insulators/superconductors, and also consistent with recent progress in the lattice QCD community.

  6. Timothy Leary's mid-career shift: clean break or inflection point?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devonis, David C

    2012-01-01

    The psychologist Timothy Leary (1920-1996), an iconic cultural figure in the United States in the 1960s and afterward, has received comparatively scant attention in the history of psychology. This may be due to perceptions that, after a major career shift centering around his experimentation with psychedelic substances and his subsequent dismissal from Harvard in 1963, Leary parted company with the field. While there are several good reasons to adopt this view, examination of his entire career as well as his intellectual ancestry reveals unacknowledged continuities, suggesting that a more prominent place be accorded to him in the history of psychology, as well as to the challenges he poses.

  7. The relationship of aberrant observation and structural break point: determination with bayesian autoregressive process

    OpenAIRE

    Ekici, Oya; Yorulmaz, Özlem

    2008-01-01

    Yapısal kırılma noktası, zaman serilerinde sapan gözlem türlerinden biri olan seviye kayması (Level Shift) olarak düşünülebilir. Çalışmada sapan gözlem türlerinden özellikle seviye kayması ve Bayesyen otoregresif sürece kısaca değinilmiştir. Bu kapsamda seviye kaymasının Bayesyen otoregresif süreçle de bulunabildiği bir seri üzerinde gösterilmiştir.

  8. ArtBreak Group Counseling for Children: Framework, Practice Points, and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziff, Katherine; Ivers, Nathaniel N.; Shaw, Edward G.

    2016-01-01

    Child social/emotional development and mitigation of child stress are receiving continued emphasis in the literature. While choice-based group art studios have a long association with mental health, documentation on their potential for supporting children is limited. This article describes an elementary school counseling intervention designed to…

  9. MODELING THE INTERACTION THRESHOLD: THE BREAK-POINT BETWEEN ADDITIVITY AND NON-ADDITIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dose-dependent changes in toxicity mechanisms of single chemicals may take place along the full dose-response spectrum. At high doses, the possibility exists for some steps in the principle mechanism of toxicity to shift to other mechanisms. The possibility of mechanism shifts fo...

  10. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in a classical particle

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez, L A; Sanchez, Luis Alberto; Mahecha, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    Due to the fact that only matter fields have phase, frequently is believed that the gauge principle can induce gauge fields only in quantum systems. But this is not necessary. This paper, of pedagogical scope, presents a classical system constituted by a particle in a classical potential, which is used as a model to illustrate the gauge principle and the spontaneous symmetry breaking. Those concepts appear in the study of second order phase transitions. Ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism, superconductivity, plasmons in a free electron gas, and the mass of vector bosons in the gauge field Yang-Mills theories, are some of the phenomena in which these transitions occur.

  11. Chiral symmetry breaking in continuum QCD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitter, Mario; Pawlowski, Jan M.; Strodthoff, Nils

    2015-03-01

    We present a quantitative analysis of chiral symmetry breaking in two-flavor continuum QCD in the quenched limit. The theory is set up at perturbative momenta, where asymptotic freedom leads to precise results. The evolution of QCD towards the hadronic phase is achieved by means of dynamical hadronization in the nonperturbative functional renormalization group approach. We use a vertex expansion scheme based on gauge-invariant operators and discuss its convergence properties and the remaining systematic errors. In particular, we present results for the quark propagator, the full tensor structure and momentum dependence of the quark-gluon vertex, and the four-Fermi scatterings.

  12. Electroweak symmetry breaking beyond the Standard Model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gautam Bhattacharyya

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, two key issues related to electroweak symmetry breaking are addressed. First, how fine-tuned different models are that trigger this phenomenon? Second, even if a light Higgs boson exists, does it have to be necessarily elementary? After a brief introduction, the fine-tuning aspects of the MSSM, NMSSM, generalized NMSSM and GMSB scenarios shall be reviewed, then the little Higgs, composite Higgs and the Higgsless models shall be compared. Finally, a broad overview will be given on where we stand at the end of 2011.

  13. Breaking Barriers in Polymer Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, Lonnie J [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Post, Brian K [ORNL; Lind, Randall F [ORNL; Lloyd, Peter D [ORNL; Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL; Blue, Craig A [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) enables the creation of complex structures directly from a computer-aided design (CAD). There are limitations that prevent the technology from realizing its full potential. AM has been criticized for being slow and expensive with limited build size. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a large scale AM system that improves upon each of these areas by more than an order of magnitude. The Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system directly converts low cost pellets into a large, three-dimensional part at a rate exceeding 25 kg/h. By breaking these traditional barriers, it is possible for polymer AM to penetrate new manufacturing markets.

  14. String Breaking in Four Dimensional Lattice QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Duncan, A; Thacker, H

    2001-01-01

    Virtual quark pair screening leads to breaking of the string between fundamental representation quarks in QCD. For unquenched four dimensional lattice QCD, this (so far elusive) phenomenon is studied using the recently developed truncated determinant algorithm (TDA). The dynamical configurations were generated on an Athlon 650 MHz PC. Quark eigenmodes up to 420 MeV are included exactly in these TDA studies performed at low quark mass on large coarse (but O($a^2$) improved) lattices. A study of Wilson line correlators in Coulomb gauge extracted from an ensemble of 1000 two-flavor dynamical configurations reveals evidence for flattening of the string tension at distances R $\\geq$ approximately 1 fm.

  15. On inflation, cosmological constant, and SUSY breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Linde, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    We consider a broad class of inflationary models of two unconstrained chiral superfields, the stabilizer $S$ and the inflaton $\\Phi$, which can describe inflationary models with nearly arbitrary potentials. These models include, in particular, the recently introduced theories of cosmological attractors, which provide an excellent fit to the latest Planck data. We show that by adding to the superpotential of the fields $S$ and $\\Phi$ a small term depending on a nilpotent chiral superfield $P$ one can break SUSY and introduce a small cosmological constant without affecting main predictions of the original inflationary scenario.

  16. SU(3) flavour breaking and baryon structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, A.N.; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Pleiter, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Juelich Supercomputing Centre (JSC); Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Shanahan, P.; Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Stueben, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Regionales Rechenzentrum; Collaboration: QCDSF/UKQCD Collaboration

    2013-11-15

    We present results from the QCDSF/UKQCD collaboration for hyperon electromagnetic form factors and axial charges obtained from simulations using N{sub f}=2+1 flavours of O(a)-improved Wilson fermions. We also consider matrix elements relevant for hyperon semileptonic decays. We find flavour-breaking effects in hyperon magnetic moments which are consistent with experiment, while our results for the connected quark spin content indicates that quarks contribute more to the spin of the {Xi} baryon than they do to the proton.

  17. De Sitter Uplift with Dynamical Susy Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Retolaza, Ander

    2015-01-01

    We propose the use of D-brane realizations of Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking (DSB) gauge sectors as sources of uplift in compactifications with moduli stabilization onto de Sitter vacua. This construction is fairly different from the introduction of anti D-branes, yet allows for tunably small contributions to the vacuum energy via their embedding into warped throats. The idea is explicitly exemplified by the embedding of the 1-family $SU(5)$ DSB model in a local warped throat with fluxes, which we discuss in detail in terms of orientifolds of dimer diagrams.

  18. De Sitter uplift with Dynamical Susy Breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retolaza, Ander; Uranga, Angel

    2016-04-01

    We propose the use of D-brane realizations of Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking (DSB) gauge sectors as sources of uplift in compactifications with moduli stabilization onto de Sitter vacua. This construction is fairly different from the introduction of anti D-branes, yet allows for tunably small contributions to the vacuum energy via their embedding into warped throats. The idea is explicitly exemplified by the embedding of the 1-family SU(5) DSB model in a local warped throat with fluxes, which we discuss in detail in terms of orientifolds of dimer diagrams.

  19. Breaking of Cooper pairs in 108Pd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatinejad, A.; Kakavand, T.; Razavi, R.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, breaking of Cooper pairs in 108Pd is investigated within the canonical ensemble framework and the BCS model. Our results show an evidence of two phase transitions, which are related to neutron and proton systems. Also, with consideration of pairing interaction, the role of neutron and proton systems in entropy, spin cutoff parameter and as a result in the moment of inertia are investigated. The results show minor role for the proton system at low temperatures and approximately equal roles for both neutron and proton systems after the critical temperature. Good agreement was observed between obtained results and the experimental data.

  20. Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking Why and How

    CERN Document Server

    Poppitz, E R

    1998-01-01

    This theoretical review is intended to give non-theorists a flavor of the ideas driving the current efforts to experimentally find supersymmetry. We discuss the main reasons behind the expectation that supersymmetry may be "just around the corner" and may be discovered in the near future. We use simple quantum-mechanical examples to illustrate the concept---and the power---of supersymmetry, the possible ways to break supersymmetry, and the dynamical generation of small scales. We then describe how this theoretical machinery helps shape our perception of what physics beyond the electroweak scale might be.

  1. Cascading Multicriticality in Nonrelativistic Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Griffin, Tom; Horava, Petr; Yan, Ziqi

    2015-01-01

    Without Lorentz invariance, spontaneous global symmetry breaking can lead to multicritical Nambu-Goldstone modes with a higher-order low-energy dispersion $\\omega\\sim k^n$ ($n=2,3,\\ldots$), whose naturalness is protected by polynomial shift symmetries. Here we investigate the role of infrared divergences and the nonrelativistic generalization of the Coleman-Hohenberg-Mermin-Wagner (CHMW) theorem. We find novel cascading phenomena with large hierarchies between the scales at which the value of $n$ changes, leading to an evasion of the "no-go" consequences of the relativistic CHMW theorem.

  2. Cosmological SUSY Breaking and the Pyramid Schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Banks, T

    2014-01-01

    I review the ideas of holographic space-time (HST), Cosmological SUSY breaking (CSB), and the Pyramid Schemes, which are the only known models of Tera-scale physics consistent with CSB, current particle data, and gauge coupling unification. There is considerable uncertainty in the estimate of the masses of supersymmetric partners of the standard model particles, but the model predicts that the gluino is probably out of reach of the LHC, squarks may be in reach, and the NLSP is a right handed slepton, which should be discovered soon.

  3. Tree Level Mediation of Supersymmetry Breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nardecchia, Marco, E-mail: marco.nardecchia@sissa.it [SISSA/ISAS and INFN, I-34013 Trieste (Italy)

    2010-11-01

    We propose a new scheme in which supersymmetry breaking is communicated to the MSSM sfermions by GUT gauge interactions at the tree level. The (positive) contribution of MSSM fields to Str(M{sup 2}) is automatically compensated by a (negative) contribution from heavy fields. Sfermion masses are flavour universal, thus solving the supersymmetric flavour problem. In the simplest SO(10) embedding, the ratio of different sfermion masses is predicted and differs from mSugra and other schemes, thus making this framework testable at the LHC. Gaugino masses are generated at the loop level but enhanced by model dependent factors.

  4. Parity Breaking Medium and Squeeze Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Andrianov, A A; Soldati, R

    2016-01-01

    The transition between a Minkowski space region and a parity breaking medium domain is thoroughly discussed. The requirement of continuity of the field operator content across the separating boundary of the two domains leads to Bogolyubov transformations, squeezed pairs states and squeeze operators that turn out to generate a functional SU(2) algebra. According to this algebraic approach, the reflection and transmission probability amplitude across the separating boundary are computed. The suitable generalization of the well known Sauter-Schwinger-Nikishov formula to the emission or absorption of squeezed pairs out of the vacuum is obtained.

  5. Carbon Break Even Analysis: Environmental Impact of Tablets in Higher Education

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadi Safieddine

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available With the growing pace of tablets use and the large focus it is attracting especially in higher education, this paper looks at an important aspect of tablets; their carbon footprint. Studies have suggested that tablets have positive impact on the environment; especially since tablets use less energy than laptops or desktops. Recent manufacturers’ reports on the carbon footprint of tablets have revealed that a significant portion, as much as 80%, of the carbon footprint of tablets comes from production and delivery as opposed to the operational life-cycle of these devices. Thus rending some of previous assumptions about the environmental impact of tablets questionable. This study sets to answer a key question: What is the break-even analysis point when saving on printed paper offsets the carbon footprint of producing and running the tablet in higher education. A review of the literature indicated several examples of tablet models and their carbon emission impact; this is compared to the environmental savings on paper that green courses could produce. The analysis of the carbon break-even point shows that even when considering some of the most efficient and least carbon impact tablets available on the market with a carbon-footprint production of 153Kg CO2e, the break-even point is 81.5 months; referring to 6 years, 9 months and 15 days of use. This exceeds the life-cycle of an average tablet of five years and average degree duration of four years. While tablets still have the least carbon-footprint impact compared to laptops and desktops, to achieve the break-even point of carbon neutral operations this study concludes that manufacturers need to find more environmentally efficient ways of production that would reduce the carbon-footprint product to a level that does not exceed 112.8kg CO2e.

  6. Refined Source Terms in Wave Watch 3 with Wave Breaking and Sea Spray Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-05

    in many wave measurements using single-point instruments such as buoys or wave poles . This phenomenon is due to the increasing directional spreading...14 above shows the variation of spectral peak breaking probability against inverse wave age for a range of wind speeds and normalised saturations...standard windspeed-only model plotted against the inverse wave age (U10/cp). Note how the ratio of the mass flux changes as the inverse wave age

  7. Molecular Basis for DNA Double-Strand Break Annealing and Primer Extension by an NHEJ DNA Polymerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel C. Brissett

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ is one of the major DNA double-strand break (DSB repair pathways. The mechanisms by which breaks are competently brought together and extended during NHEJ is poorly understood. As polymerases extend DNA in a 5′-3′ direction by nucleotide addition to a primer, it is unclear how NHEJ polymerases fill in break termini containing 3′ overhangs that lack a primer strand. Here, we describe, at the molecular level, how prokaryotic NHEJ polymerases configure a primer-template substrate by annealing the 3′ overhanging strands from opposing breaks, forming a gapped intermediate that can be extended in trans. We identify structural elements that facilitate docking of the 3′ ends in the active sites of adjacent polymerases and reveal how the termini act as primers for extension of the annealed break, thus explaining how such DSBs are extended in trans. This study clarifies how polymerases couple break-synapsis to catalysis, providing a molecular mechanism to explain how primer extension is achieved on DNA breaks.

  8. Chiral Gauge Dynamics and Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poppitz, Erich; /Toronto U.; Unsal, Mithat; /SLAC /Stanford U.

    2009-05-07

    We study the dynamics of a chiral SU(2) gauge theory with a Weyl fermion in the I = 3/2 representation and of its supersymmetric generalization. In the former, we find a new and exotic mechanism of confinement, induced by topological excitations that we refer to as magnetic quintets. The supersymmetric version was examined earlier in the context of dynamical supersymmetry breaking by Intriligator, Seiberg, and Shenker, who showed that if this gauge theory confines at the origin of moduli space, one may break supersymmetry by adding a tree level superpotential. We examine the dynamics by deforming the theory on S{sup 1} x R{sup 3}, and show that the infrared behavior of this theory is an interacting CFT at small S{sup 1}. We argue that this continues to hold at large S{sup 1}, and if so, that supersymmetry must remain unbroken. Our methods also provide the microscopic origin of various superpotentials in SQCD on S{sup 1} x R{sup 3}--which were previously obtained by using symmetry and holomorphy--and resolve a long standing interpretational puzzle concerning a flux operator discovered by Affleck, Harvey, and Witten. It is generated by a topological excitation, a 'magnetic bion', whose stability is due to fermion pair exchange between its constituents. We also briefly comment on composite monopole operators as leading effects in two dimensional antiferromagnets.

  9. Large-field inflation and supersymmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchmueller, Wilfried; Wieck, Clemens [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Dudas, Emilian; Heurtier, Lucien [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau (France). CPht

    2014-07-15

    Large-field inflation is an interesting and predictive scenario. Its non-trivial embedding in supergravity was intensively studied in the recent literature, whereas its interplay with supersymmetry breaking has been less thoroughly investigated. We consider the minimal viable model of chaotic inflation in supergravity containing a stabilizer field, and add a Polonyi field. Furthermore, we study two possible extensions of the minimal setup. We show that there are various constraints: first of all, it is very hard to couple an O'Raifeartaigh sector with the inflaton sector, the simplest viable option being to couple them only through gravity. Second, even in the simplest model the gravitino mass is bounded from above parametrically by the inflaton mass. Therefore, high-scale supersymmetry breaking is hard to implement in a chaotic inflation setup. As a separate comment we analyze the simplest chaotic inflation construction without a stabilizer field, together with a supersymmetrically stabilized Kaehler modulus. Without a modulus, the potential of such a model is unbounded from below. We show that a heavy modulus cannot solve this problem.

  10. Chiral symmetry breaking, instantons, and monopoles

    CERN Document Server

    Di Giacomo, Adriano

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to show that monopoles induce the chiral symmetry breaking. In order to indicate the evidence, we add one pair of monopoles with magnetic charges to the quenched SU(3) configurations by a monopole creation operator, and investigate the propaties of the chiral symmetry breaking using the Overlap fermion. We show that instantons are created by the monopoles. The pseudoscalar meson mass and decay constant are computed from the correlation functions, and the renormalization constant $Z_{S}$ is determined by the non perturbative method. The renormalization group invariant chiral condensate in $\\overline{\\mbox{MS}}$-scheme at 2 [GeV] is evaluated by the Gell-Mann-Oakes-Renner formula, and the random matrix theory. Finally, we estimate the renormalization group invariant quark masses $\\bar{m} = (m_{u} + m_{d})/2$, and $m_{s}$ in $\\overline{\\mbox{MS}}$-scheme at 2 [GeV]. The preliminary results indicate that the chiral condensate decreases and the quark masses become slightly heavy by inc...

  11. Generalized Soft Breaking Leverage for the MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Ün, Cem Salih; Kerman, Saime; Solmaz, Levent

    2014-01-01

    In this work we study implications of additional non-holomorphic soft breaking terms (mu', A'_t, A'_b and A'_tau$) on the MSSM phenomenology. By respecting the existing bounds on the mass measurements and restrictions coming from certain B-decays, we probe reactions of the MSSM to these additional soft breaking terms. We provide examples in which some slightly excluded solutions of the MSSM can be made to be consistent with the current experimental results. During this, even after applying additional fine-tuning constraints the non-holomorphic terms are allowed to be as large as hundreds of GeV. Such terms prove that they are capable of enriching the phenomenology and varying the mass spectra of the MSSM heavily, with a reasonable amount of fine-tuning. We observe that higgsinos, the lightest stop, the heavy Higgs boson states A, H, charged H, sbottom and stau exhibit the highest sensitivity to the new terms. We also show how the light stop can become nearly degenerate with top quark using these non-holomorph...

  12. Chip breaking system for automated machine tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arehart, Theodore A.; Carey, Donald O.

    1987-01-01

    The invention is a rotary selectively directional valve assembly for use in an automated turret lathe for directing a stream of high pressure liquid machining coolant to the interface of a machine tool and workpiece for breaking up ribbon-shaped chips during the formation thereof so as to inhibit scratching or other marring of the machined surfaces by these ribbon-shaped chips. The valve assembly is provided by a manifold arrangement having a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart ports each coupled to a machine tool. The manifold is rotatable with the turret when the turret is positioned for alignment of a machine tool in a machining relationship with the workpiece. The manifold is connected to a non-rotational header having a single passageway therethrough which conveys the high pressure coolant to only the port in the manifold which is in registry with the tool disposed in a working relationship with the workpiece. To position the machine tools the turret is rotated and one of the tools is placed in a material-removing relationship of the workpiece. The passageway in the header and one of the ports in the manifold arrangement are then automatically aligned to supply the machining coolant to the machine tool workpiece interface for breaking up of the chips as well as cooling the tool and workpiece during the machining operation.

  13. Repair of DNA Double-Strand Breaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Martin; Lukasova, Emilie; Kozubek, Stanislav

    The genetic information of cells continuously undergoes damage induced by intracellular processes including energy metabolism, DNA replication and transcription, and by environmental factors such as mutagenic chemicals and UV and ionizing radiation. This causes numerous DNA lesions, including double strand breaks (DSBs). Since cells cannot escape this damage or normally function with a damaged genome, several DNA repair mechanisms have evolved. Although most "single-stranded" DNA lesions are rapidly removed from DNA without permanent damage, DSBs completely break the DNA molecule, presenting a real challenge for repair mechanisms, with the highest risk among DNA lesions of incorrect repair. Hence, DSBs can have serious consequences for human health. Therefore, in this chapter, we will refer only to this type of DNA damage. In addition to the biochemical aspects of DSB repair, which have been extensively studied over a long period of time, the spatio-temporal organization of DSB induction and repair, the importance of which was recognized only recently, will be considered in terms of current knowledge and remaining questions.

  14. Spontaneous spherical symmetry breaking in atomic confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Sveshnikov, K

    2016-01-01

    The effect of spontaneous breaking of initial SO(3) symmetry is shown to be possible for an H-like atom in the ground state, when it is confined in a spherical box under general boundary conditions of "not going out" through the box surface (i.e. third kind or Robin's ones), for a wide range of physically reasonable values of system parameters. The reason is that such boundary conditions could yield a large magnitude of electronic wavefunction in some sector of the box boundary, what in turn promotes atomic displacement from the box center towards this part of the boundary, and so the underlying SO(3) symmetry spontaneously breaks. The emerging Goldstone modes, coinciding with rotations around the box center, restore the symmetry by spreading the atom over a spherical shell localized at some distances from the box center. Atomic confinement inside the cavity proceeds dynamically -- due to the boundary condition the deformation of electronic wavefunction near the boundary works as a spring, that returns the at...

  15. Golden Probe of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi; Lykken, Joe; Spiropulu, Maria; Stolarski, Daniel; Vega-Morales, Roberto

    2016-12-01

    The ratio of the Higgs couplings to W W and Z Z pairs, λW Z, is a fundamental parameter in electroweak symmetry breaking as well as a measure of the (approximate) custodial symmetry possessed by the gauge boson mass matrix. We show that Higgs decays to four leptons are sensitive, via tree level or one-loop interference effects, to both the magnitude and, in particular, overall sign of λW Z. Determining this sign requires interference effects, as it is nearly impossible to measure with rate information. Furthermore, simply determining the sign effectively establishes the custodial representation of the Higgs boson. We find that h →4 ℓ (4 ℓ≡2 e 2 μ , 4 e , 4 μ ) decays have excellent prospects of directly establishing the overall sign at a high luminosity 13 TeV LHC. We also examine the ultimate LHC sensitivity in h →4 ℓ to the magnitude of λW Z. Our results are independent of other measurements of the Higgs boson couplings and, in particular, largely free of assumptions about the top quark Yukawa couplings which also enter at one loop. This makes h →4 ℓ a unique and independent probe of electroweak symmetry breaking and custodial symmetry.

  16. Retinal breaks due to intravitreal ocriplasmin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva RA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ruwan A Silva, Darius M Moshfeghi, Theodore Leng Byers Eye Institute at Stanford, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USA Abstract: Ocriplasmin represents a new treatment option for numerous vitreoretinopathies involving an abnormal vitreomacular interface. While the drug may circumvent the traditional risks of surgical treatment, pharmacologic vitreolysis is not devoid of risk itself. This report presents two cases, one of vitreomacular traction syndrome and the other of a full-thickness macular hole, both of which were treated with an intravitreal injection of ocriplasmin. Notably, in both cases, vitreomacular traction of the macula appears to have been alleviated; however, failure to completely relieve vitreoretinal traction from the peripheral retina generated retinal breaks with one patient eventually developing a macula-involving retinal detachment. Thus, even in instances of ‘successful’ pharmacologic treatment of vitreomacular traction, continued follow-up evaluation is essential. Keywords: posterior vitreous detachment, retinal detachment, vitreomacular traction, ocriplasmin, retinal break, macular hole, laser retinopexy

  17. D-branes, Supersymmetry Breaking, and Neutrinos

    CERN Document Server

    Seo, Jihye

    2010-01-01

    This thesis studies meta- and exactly stable supersymmetry breaking mechanisms in heterotic and type IIB string theories and constructs an F-theory Grand Unified Theory model for neutrino physics in which neutrino mass is determined by the supersymmetry breaking mechanism. Focussing attention on heterotic string theory compactified on a 4-torus, stability of non-supersymmetric states is studied. A non-supersymmetric state with robust stability is constructed, and its exact stability is proven in a large region of moduli space of T^4 against all the possible decay mechanisms allowed by charge conservation. Using string-string duality, the results are interpreted in terms of Dirichlet-branes in type IIA string theory compactified on an orbifold limit of a K3 surface. In type IIB string theory, metastable and exactly stable non-supersymmetric systems are constructed using D-branes and Calabi-Yau geometry. Branes and anti-branes wrap rigid and separate 2-spheres inside a non-compact Calabi-Yau three-fold: supersy...

  18. Examining the Knowledge and Capacity of Elementary Teachers to Implement Classroom Physical Activity Breaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danae M. DINKEL

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined teachers’ zone of proximal development for classroom physical activity breaks by assessing teachers’ knowledge and capacity for implementing classroom physical activity breaks. Five school districts of various sizes (n=346 teachers took part in a short online survey. Descriptive statistics were calculated and chi-square analyses were used to identify differences between districts. Almost all teachers utilized classroom physical activity to some extent. A third of teachers who stated they implemented classroom physical activity, experienced barriers to implementation. A majority of teachers were interested in learning more about classroom physical activity. There were significant differences between districts on the number of days per week classroom physical activity was integrated, the frequency of collaboration that occurred between teachers, the percentage of teachers who experienced barriers, and preferred delivery method of professional development. These findings support the importance of identifying teachers’ zone of proximal development to increase the use of classroom physical activity breaks. Understanding teachers’ knowledge and capacity for implementing classroom physical activity breaks can allow educational professionals to shift the implementation of classroom physical activity beyond sporadic use by isolated teachers and schools to a more systematic and consistent delivery across classrooms and throughout districts.

  19. Inflation and reheating in theories with spontaneous scale invariance symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Vanzo, Luciano

    2016-07-01

    We study a scale-invariant model of quadratic gravity with a nonminimally coupled scalar field. We focus on cosmological solutions and find that scale invariance is spontaneously broken and a mass scale naturally emerges. Before the symmetry breaking, the Universe undergoes an inflationary expansion with nearly the same observational predictions of Starobinsky's model. At the end of inflation, the Hubble parameter and the scalar field converge to a stable fixed point through damped oscillations and the usual Einstein-Hilbert action is recovered. The oscillations around the fixed point can reheat the Universe in various ways, and we study in detail some of these possibilities.

  20. Measurement of Wave Chaotic Eigenfunctions in the Time-Reversal Symmetry-Breaking Crossover Regime

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, S H; Wu, D H; Bridgewater, A; Anlage, S M; Chung, Seok-Hwan; Gokirmak, Ali; Wu, Dong-Ho; Anlage, Steven M.

    1999-01-01

    We present experimental results on eigenfunctions of a wave chaotic system in the continuous crossover regime between time-reversal symmetric and time-reversal symmetry-broken states. The statistical properties of the eigenfunctions of a two-dimensional microwave resonator are analyzed as a function of an experimentally determined time-reversal symmetry breaking parameter. We test four theories of eigenfunction statistics in the crossover regime. We also find a universal correlation between the one-point and two-point statistical parameters for the crossover eigenfunctions.

  1. Child personality facets and overreactive parenting as predictors of aggression and rule-breaking trajectories from childhood to adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becht, Andrik I.; Prinzie, Peter; Dekovic, Maja; van den Akker, Alithe L.; Shiner, Rebecca L.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined trajectories of aggression and rule breaking during the transition from childhood to adolescence (ages 9–15), and determined whether these trajectories were predicted by lower order personality facets, overreactive parenting, and their interaction. At three time points separated

  2. Child personality facets and overreactive parenting as predictors of aggression and rule-breaking trajectories from childhood to adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becht, A.I.; Prinzie, P.; Deković, M.; van den Akker, A.L.; Shiner, R.L.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined trajectories of aggression and rule breaking during the transition from childhood to adolescence (ages 9-15), and determined whether these trajectories were predicted by lower order personality facets, overreactive parenting, and their interaction. At three time points separated

  3. Confinement/deconfinement transition from symmetry breaking in gauge/gravity duality

    CERN Document Server

    Čubrović, Mihailo

    2016-01-01

    We study the confinement/deconfinement transition in a strongly coupled system triggered by an independent symmetry-breaking quantum phase transition in gauge/gravity duality. The gravity dual is an Einstein-scalar-dilaton system with AdS near-boundary behavior and soft wall interior at zero scalar condensate. We study the cases of neutral and charged condensate separately. In the former case the condensation breaks the discrete $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ symmetry while a charged condensate breaks the continuous $U(1)$ symmetry. After the condensation of the order parameter, the non-zero vacuum expectation value of the scalar couples to the dilaton, changing the soft wall geometry into a non-confining and anisotropically scale-invariant infrared metric. In other words, the formation of long-range order is immediately followed by the deconfinement transition and the two critical points coincide. The confined phase has a scale -- the confinement scale (energy gap) which vanishes in the deconfined case. Therefore, the break...

  4. Dam breaking modeling on a river with ice cover : needs and tools : Hydro-Quebec perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tchamen, G.W.; Quach, T.T.; Aubin, F.; Mellado, A. [Hydro-Quebec, Montreal, PQ (Canada). Unite Barrages and Hydraulique

    2007-07-01

    In order to ensure public safety, owners and operators of high capacity dams in Quebec have a legal obligation to conduct dam break analysis for each of their dams. Several scenarios of dam failure have been modelled under open water conditions to anticipate the worst-case scenario in terms of downstream consequences. However, the province of Quebec is located north of the 45th parallel, and most of the surface waters are ice covered in the winter. The presence of ice influences the river flow characteristics. As such, it is important to evaluate how ice may change the propagation of a surge wave and other important hydraulic parameters following a dam break. This paper reviewed traditional hydraulic methodologies and models used to perform dam break analyses with particular attention to the presence of ice. The changes in hydraulic processes in river flow involve various physical phenomena, some of which are poorly understood from a theoretical point of view. In the past several years, robust numerical techniques borrowed from fluid mechanics and aerodynamics have resulted in the development of robust hydrodynamic codes that effectively handle irregular bottom geometries, dry bed and mixed flow regimes in reasonable computational times. However, advances are still needed in the understanding of several ice processes, their formulation and their modeling. Data collection that would improve the understanding of the processes is also needed in order to reduce the level of uncertainties associated with the results of dam-break analysis. 22 refs., 3 tabs., 6 figs.

  5. Behavioural breaks in the heterogeneous agent model: The impact of herding, overconfidence, and market sentiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukacka, Jiri; Barunik, Jozef

    2013-12-01

    The main aim of this work is to incorporate selected findings from behavioural finance into a Heterogeneous Agent Model using the Brock and Hommes (1998) [34] framework. Behavioural patterns are injected into an asset pricing framework through the so-called ‘Break Point Date’, which allows us to examine their direct impact. In particular, we analyse the dynamics of the model around the behavioural break. Price behaviour of 30 Dow Jones Industrial Average constituents covering five particularly turbulent US stock market periods reveals interesting patterns in this aspect. To replicate it, we apply numerical analysis using the Heterogeneous Agent Model extended with the selected findings from behavioural finance: herding, overconfidence, and market sentiment. We show that these behavioural breaks can be well modelled via the Heterogeneous Agent Model framework and they extend the original model considerably. Various modifications lead to significantly different results and model with behavioural breaks is also able to partially replicate price behaviour found in the data during turbulent stock market periods.

  6. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF DAM-BREAK FLOW IN CASCADE RESERVOIRS WITH STEEP BOTTOM SLOPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Yang; XU Wei-lin; LUO Shu-jing; CHEN Hua-yong; LI Nai-wen; XU Ling-jun

    2011-01-01

    Dam break can cause a significant disaster in the downstream,especially,in a valley with cascade reservoirs,which would aggravate the disaster extent.The experimental studies of the dam-break flow of cascade reservoirs are few and far between at the present.Most of related studies concern the failure of a single dam..This article presents an experimental study of the characteristics of an instantly filled dam-break flow of cascade reservoirs in a rectangular glass flume with a steep bottom slope.A new method was used to simulate the sudden collapse of the dam.A series of sensors for automatic water-levels were deployed to record the rapid water depth fluctuation.The experimental results show that,the ratio of the initial water depth of the downstream reservoir to that of the upstream reservoir would greatly affect the flood peak water depth in the downstream reservoir area and in the stream channel behind the downstream dam,while the influence of the dam spacing is insignificant.In addition,the comparison between the single reservoir and the cascade reservoirs shows some difference in the dam-break flow pattern and the stage hydrograph at the corresponding gauging points.

  7. Break-Even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassard, H.; Denholm, P.; Ong, S.

    2011-02-01

    This paper examines the break-even cost for residential rooftop solar water heating (SWH) technology, defined as the point where the cost of the energy saved with a SWH system equals the cost of a conventional heating fuel purchased from the grid (either electricity or natural gas). We examine the break-even cost for the largest 1,000 electric and natural gas utilities serving residential customers in the United States as of 2008. Currently, the break-even cost of SWH in the United States varies by more than a factor of five for both electricity and natural gas, despite a much smaller variation in the amount of energy saved by the systems (a factor of approximately one and a half). The break-even price for natural gas is lower than that for electricity due to a lower fuel cost. We also consider the relationship between SWH price and solar fraction and examine the key drivers behind break-even costs. Overall, the key drivers of the break-even cost of SWH are a combination of fuel price, local incentives, and technical factors including the solar resource location, system size, and hot water draw.

  8. Sulforaphane induces DNA single strand breaks in cultured human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sestili, Piero, E-mail: piero.sestili@uniurb.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomolecolari, Via Maggetti, 21, Universita degli Studi di Urbino ' Carlo Bo' , 61029 Urbino, PU (Italy); Paolillo, Marco [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomolecolari, Via Maggetti, 21, Universita degli Studi di Urbino ' Carlo Bo' , 61029 Urbino, PU (Italy); Lenzi, Monia [Dipartimento di Farmacologia, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, Via Irnerio 48, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Colombo, Evelin; Vallorani, Luciana; Casadei, Lucia; Martinelli, Chiara [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomolecolari, Via Maggetti, 21, Universita degli Studi di Urbino ' Carlo Bo' , 61029 Urbino, PU (Italy); Fimognari, Carmela [Dipartimento di Farmacologia, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, Via Irnerio 48, 40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2010-07-07

    Sulforaphane (SFR), an isothiocyanate from cruciferous vegetables, possesses growth-inhibiting and apoptosis-inducing activities in cancer cell lines. Recently, SFR has been shown to promote the mitochondrial formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human cancer cell lines. The present study was undertaken to see whether SFR-derived ROS might cause DNA damage in cultured human cells, namely T limphoblastoid Jurkat and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). 1-3 h treatments with 10-30 {mu}M SFR elicited intracellular ROS formation (as assayed with dihydrorhodamine, DHR, oxidation) as well as DNA breakage (as assessed with fast halo assay, FHA). These effects lacked cell-type specificity, since could be observed in both Jurkat and HUVEC. Differential-pH FHA analysis of damaged DNA showed that SFR causes frank DNA single strand breaks (SSBs); no DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) were found within the considered treatment times (up to 3 h). SFR-derived ROS were formed at the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) level: indeed rotenone or myxothiazol (MRC Complex I and III inhibitors, respectively) abrogated ROS formation. Furthermore ROS were not formed in Jurkat cells pharmacologically depleted of respiring mitochondria (MRC-/Jurkat). Formation of ROS was causally linked to the induction of SSBs: indeed all the experimental conditions capable of preventing ROS formation also prevented the damage of nuclear DNA from SFR-intoxicated cells. As to the toxicological relevance of SSBs, we found that their prevention slightly but significantly attenuated SFR cytotoxicity, suggesting that high-dose SFR toxicity is the result of a complex series of events among which GSH depletion seems to play a pivotal role. In conclusion, the present study identifies a novel mechanism contributing to SFR toxicity which - since DNA damage is a prominent mechanism underlying the cytotoxic activity of established antineoplastic agents - might help to exploit the therapeutic value

  9. Symmetry breaking of particle trajectories due to magnetic interactions in a dilute suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, F.R., E-mail: frcunha@unb.br [Vortex Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics of Complex Flows and Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Faculdade de Tecnologia, Universidade de Brasilia, Campus Universitario Darcy Ribeiro, 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Gontijo, R.G., E-mail: rafaelgabler@gmail.com [Vortex Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics of Complex Flows and Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Faculdade de Tecnologia, Universidade de Brasilia, Campus Universitario Darcy Ribeiro, 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Sobral, Y.D., E-mail: ydsobral@unb.br [Vortex Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics of Complex Flows and Departamento de Matematica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade de Brasilia, Campus Universitario Darcy Ribeiro, 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    This work presents a numerical study of the relative trajectories of two magnetic particles interacting in a dilute suspension. The suspension is composed of magnetic spherical particles of different radius and density immersed in a Newtonian fluid. The particles settle relative to one another under the action of gravity and, when in close proximity, exert on each other magnetic force and torque due to their permanent magnetization. The equations of motion for both translation and rotation of the particles are solved and particle inertia is included in the calculation. The numerical simulations are based on the direct computations of the hydrodynamic and of the magnetic interactions between the rigid particles in the regime of non-zero Stokes number. A detailed study of the relative trajectories of two magnetic particles in a dilute suspension allows us to explore irreversible interactions that lead to particle aggregation and particle migration induced by the breaking of the time reversibility of the creeping flow due to magnetic effects. The calculation shows that the rotation of the particles produced by magnetic interactions change significantly the dynamics of collisions of magnetic particle. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relative trajectories of magnetic particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic interactions of particles under a gravity field. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic interactions break relative trajectories reversibility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Particle Rotation decrease the rate of aggregation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dispersion in a magnetic suspension due to magnetic interactions.

  10. DNA Strand Breaks, Neurodegeneration and Aging in the Brain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katyal, Sachin; McKinnon, Peter J.

    2013-01-01

    Defective responses to DNA single- or double-strand breaks can result in neurological disease, underscoring the critical importance of DNA repair for neural homeostasis. Human DNA repair-deficient syndromes are generally congenital, in which brain pathology reflects the consequences of developmentally incurred DNA damage. Although, it is unclear to what degree DNA strand-break repair defects in mature neural cells contributes to disease pathology. However, DNA single-strand breaks are a relatively common lesion which if not repaired can impact cells via interference with transcription. Thus, this lesion, and probably to a lesser extent DNA double strand breaks, may be particularly relevant to aging in the neural cell population. In this review we will examine the consequences of defective DNA strand break repair towards homeostasis in the brain. Further, we also consider the utility of mouse models as reagents to understand the connection between DNA strand breaks and aging in the brain. PMID:18455751

  11. Symmetry Breaking in MILP Formulations for Unit Commitment Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, Ricardo

    2015-12-11

    This paper addresses the study of symmetry in Unit Commitment (UC) problems solved by Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) formulations, and using Linear Programming based Branch & Bound MILP solvers. We propose three sets of symmetry breaking constraints for UC MILP formulations exhibiting symmetry, and its impact on three UC MILP models are studied. The case studies involve the solution of 24 instances by three widely used models in the literature, with and without symmetry breaking constraints. The results show that problems that could not be solved to optimality within hours can be solved with a relatively small computational burden if the symmetry breaking constraints are assumed. The proposed symmetry breaking constraints are also compared with the symmetry breaking methods included in two MILP solvers, and the symmetry breaking constraints derived in this work have a distinct advantage over the methods in the MILP solvers.

  12. Statistical model on the surface elevation of waves with breaking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In the surface wind drift layer with constant momentum flux, two sets of the consistent surface eleva- tion expressions with breaking and occurrence conditions for breaking are deduced from the first in- tegrals of the energy and vortex variations and the kinetic and mathematic breaking criterions, then the expression of the surface elevation with wave breaking is established by using the Heaviside function. On the basis of the form of the sea surface elevation with wave breaking and the understanding of small slope sea waves, a triple composite function of real sea waves is presented including the func- tions for the breaking, weak-nonlinear and basic waves. The expression of the triple composite func- tion and the normal distribution of basic waves are the expected theoretical model for surface elevation statistics.

  13. Treatment of retinal detachments with multiple breaks by pneumatic retinopexy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, I L; Zegarra, H; Meyers, S M; Gutman, F A

    1987-07-01

    Pneumatic retinopexy is a recent innovation in the treatment of uncomplicated retinal detachments due to a superior retinal break extending for 30 degrees or less. We describe four patients with retinal detachments involving multiple breaks who were successfully treated by a modification of this technique. One case involved a calculation of the size of the gas bubble required to achieve tamponade of both breaks simultaneously. The gas was then administered in two sequential injections, as the volume was too large to be given in a single dose. In the remaining three cases, the gas bubble was rotated from the position of tamponade for one break into a position where tamponade of the second break or groups of breaks was achieved.

  14. Biased discrete symmetry breaking and Fermi balls

    CERN Document Server

    MacPherson, A L; Macpherson, Alick L; Campbell, Bruce A

    1994-01-01

    The spontaneous breaking of an approximate discrete symmetry is considered, with the resulting protodomains of true and false vacuum being separated by domain walls. Given a strong, symmetric Yukawa coupling of the real scalar field to a generic fermion, the domain walls accumulate a gas of fermions, which modify the domain wall dynamics. The splitting of the degeneracy of the ground states results in the false vacuum protodomain structures eventually being fragmented into tiny false vacuum bags with a Fermi gas shell (Fermi balls), that may be cosmologically stable due to the Fermi gas pressure and wall curvature forces, acting on the domain walls. As fermions inhabiting the domain walls do not undergo number density freeze out, stable Fermi balls exist only if a fermion anti-fermion asymmetry occurs. Fermi balls formed with a new Dirac fermion that possesses no standard model gauge charges provide a novel cold dark matter candidate.

  15. Acoustic Emission from Breaking a Bamboo Chopstick

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Sun-Ting; Wang, Li-Min; Huang, Panpan; Yang, Zhengning; Chang, Chin-De; Hong, Tzay-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The acoustic emission from breaking a bamboo chopstick or a bundle of spaghetti is found to exhibit similar behavior as the famous seismic laws of Gutenberg and Richter, Omori, and Båth. By the use of a force-sensing detector, we establish a positive correlation between the statistics of sound intensity and the magnitude of a tremor. We also manage to derive these laws analytically without invoking the concept of a phase transition, self-organized criticality, or fractal. Our model is deterministic and relies on the existence of a structured cross section, either fibrous or layered. This success at explaining the power-law behavior supports the proposal that geometry is sometimes more important than mechanics.

  16. Supersymmetry Breaking, Gauge Mediation, and the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, David [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2015-04-14

    Gauge mediated SUSY breaking (GMSB) is a promising class of supersymmetric models that automatically satisfies the precision constraints. Prior work of Meade, Seiberg and Shih in 2008 established the full, model-independent parameter space of GMSB, which they called "General Gauge Mediation" (GGM). During the first half of 2010-2015, Shih and his collaborators thoroughly explored the parameter space of GGM and established many well-motivated benchmark models for use by the experimentalists at the LHC. Through their work, the current constraints on GGM from LEP, the Tevatron and the LHC were fully elucidated, together with the possible collider signatures of GMSB at the LHC. This ensured that the full discovery potential for GGM could be completely realized at the LHC.

  17. Symmetry breaking at magnetic surfaces and interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu, Z. Q.

    1998-11-20

    Examples represented of how symmetry breaking enters into consideration of the physical properties of magnetic surfaces and ultrathin films. The role of magnetic anisotropy is discussed to understand: (i) the existence of two-dimensional (2D) magnetic long-ranged order at finite temperature, (ii) magnetization scaling behavior at the Curie transition, (iii) the 2D spin reorientation transition, and (iv) step-induced magnetic behavior. Experimental examples cited include ultrathin magnetic Fe and Co overlayer and wedge structures grown onto single crystal substrates that are either flat or curved to produce vicinal surfaces with a continuous gradient in the step density. Also included is an example of an atomically flat manganite intergrowth that appears as a stacking fault in a bulk single crystal of a naturally layered structure.

  18. Symmetry breaking: The standard model and superstrings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1988-08-31

    The outstanding unresolved issue of the highly successful standard model is the origin of electroweak symmetry breaking and of the mechanism that determines its scale, namely the vacuum expectation value (vev)v that is fixed by experiment at the value v = 4m//sub w//sup 2///g/sup 2/ = (..sqrt..2G/sub F/)/sup /minus/1/ approx. = 1/4 TeV. In this talk I will discuss aspects of two approaches to this problem. One approach is straightforward and down to earth: the search for experimental signatures, as discussed previously by Pierre Darriulat. This approach covers the energy scales accessible to future and present laboratory experiments: roughly (10/sup /minus/9/ /minus/ 10/sup 3/)GeV. The second approach involves theoretical speculations, such as technicolor and supersymmetry, that attempt to explain the TeV scale. 23 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Magnetic rotation and chiral symmetry breaking

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok Kumar Jain; Amita

    2001-08-01

    The deformed mean field of nuclei exhibits various geometrical and dynamical symmetries which manifest themselves as various types of rotational and decay patterns. Most of the symmetry operations considered so far have been defined for a situation wherein the angular momentum coincides with one of the principal axes and the principal axis cranking may be invoked. New possibilities arise with the observation of rotational features in weakly deformed nuclei and now interpreted as magnetic rotational bands. More than 120 MR bands have now been identified by filtering the existing data. We present a brief overview of these bands. The total angular momentum vector in such bands is tilted away from the principal axes. Such a situation gives rise to several new possibilities including breaking of chiral symmetry as discussed recently by Frauendorf. We present the outcome of such symmetries and their possible experimental verification. Some possible examples of chiral bands are presented.

  20. Gravitino condensation, supersymmetry breaking and inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Houston, N

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by dualistic considerations of the reality of quark condensation in quantum chromodynamics, and the connections of supergravity to the exotic physics of string and M-theory, in this thesis we investigate the dynamical breaking of local supersymmetry via gravitino condensation. We firstly demonstrate non-perturbative gravitino mass generation via this mechanism in flat spacetime, and from this derive the condensate mode wavefunction renormalisation. By then calculating the full canonically normalised one-loop effective potential for the condensate mode about a de Sitter background, we demonstrate that, contrary to claims in the literature, this process may both occur and function in a phenomenologically viable manner. In particular, we find that outside of certain unfortunate gauge choices, the stability of the condensate is intimately tied via gravitational degrees of freedom to the sign of the tree-level cosmological constant. Furthermore, we find that the energy density liberated may provide the n...

  1. Discrete Symmetry Breaking in Fractional Chern Insulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Akshay; Roy, Rahul; Sondhi, S. L.

    2014-03-01

    We study the interplay between quantum hall ordering and spontaneous translational symmetry breaking in a multiple Chern number (C > 1) band at partial filling. We begin with non-interacting fermions in a family of square lattice models with flat C=2 bands and a wide band gap, and add nearest neighbor density-density repulsive interactions. By means of Hartree-Fock theory supplemented by numerical exact diagonalization for a small system at 1/2 filling, we find that the system generically develops charge density wave order with two degenerate ground states. We note that this physics is especially transparent in the limit in which the C=2 band describes two decoupled C=1 bands. We discuss the nature of domain walls in this phase and note the close analogy to the quantum Hall Ising ferromagnet in the multivalley problem. Finally we discuss generalizations to other fillings and higher Chern numbers.

  2. Self-breaking retarded acid emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherubel, G.A.

    1979-02-20

    A subterranean formation is acidized with an acid-in-oil emulsion consisting of an aqueous acidizing solution, an oil, an alkyl C/sub 8/ to C/sub 18/ primary fatty amine, and at least one diethanolamide of at least one C/sub 8/ to C/sub 18/ fatty acid. The present invention is an improved acid-in-oil acidizing emulsion, and acidizing method such as an emulsion, the emulsion being of the type containing an effective amount of at least one C/sub 8/ to C/sub 18/ primary amine as a cationic surfactant to increase the normal reaction. The diethanolamine is a nonionic surfactant which causes the emulsion to break as the acidizing capacity of the emulsion becomes substantially depleted, i.e., spent, on the formation. 41 claims.

  3. Dirac Gauginos in Low Scale Supersymmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Goodsell, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    It has been claimed that Dirac gaugino masses are necessary for realistic models of low-scale supersymmetry breaking, and yet very little attention has been paid to the phenomenology of a light gravitino when gauginos have Dirac masses. We begin to address this deficit by investigating the couplings and phenomenology of the gravitino in the effective Lagrangian approach. We pay particular attention to the phenomenology of the scalar octets, where new decay channels open up. This leads us to propose a new simplified effective scenario including only light gluinos, sgluons and gravitinos, allowing the squarks to be heavy -- with the possible exception of the third generation. Finally, we comment on the application of our results to Fake Split Supersymmetry.

  4. Dirac gauginos in low scale supersymmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodsell, Mark D., E-mail: mark.goodsell@lpthe.jussieu.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR 7589, LPTHE, F-75005, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589, LPTHE, F-75005, Paris (France); Tziveloglou, Pantelis, E-mail: pantelis.tziveloglou@vub.ac.be [Theoretische Natuurkunde and IIHE, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); International Solvay Institutes, Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-12-15

    It has been claimed that Dirac gaugino masses are necessary for realistic models of low-scale supersymmetry breaking, and yet very little attention has been paid to the phenomenology of a light gravitino when gauginos have Dirac masses. We begin to address this deficit by investigating the couplings and phenomenology of the gravitino in the effective Lagrangian approach. We pay particular attention to the phenomenology of the scalar octets, where new decay channels open up. This leads us to propose a new simplified effective scenario including only light gluinos, sgluons and gravitinos, allowing the squarks to be heavy – with the possible exception of the third generation. Finally, we comment on the application of our results to Fake Split Supersymmetry.

  5. Information Content of Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Gleiser, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    We propose a measure of order in the context of nonequilibrium field theory and argue that this measure, which we call relative configurational entropy (RCE), may be used to quantify the emergence of coherent low-entropy configurations, such as time-dependent or time-independent topological and nontopological spatially-extended structures. As an illustration, we investigate the nonequilibrium dynamics of spontaneous symmetry-breaking in three spatial dimensions. In particular, we focus on a model where a real scalar field, prepared initially in a symmetric thermal state, is quenched to a broken-symmetric state. For a certain range of initial temperatures, spatially-localized, long-lived structures known as oscillons emerge in synchrony and remain until the field reaches equilibrium again. We show that the RCE correlates with the number-density of oscillons, thus offering a quantitative measure of the emergence of nonperturbative spatiotemporal patterns that can be generalized to a variety of physical systems.

  6. Breaking Gaussian incompatibility on continuous variable quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Kiukas, Jukka, E-mail: jukka.kiukas@aber.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, Aberystwyth University, Penglais, Aberystwyth, SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom); Schultz, Jussi, E-mail: jussi.schultz@gmail.com [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    We characterise Gaussian quantum channels that are Gaussian incompatibility breaking, that is, transform every set of Gaussian measurements into a set obtainable from a joint Gaussian observable via Gaussian postprocessing. Such channels represent local noise which renders measurements useless for Gaussian EPR-steering, providing the appropriate generalisation of entanglement breaking channels for this scenario. Understanding the structure of Gaussian incompatibility breaking channels contributes to the resource theory of noisy continuous variable quantum information protocols.

  7. Three-Dimensional Simulations of Deep-Water Breaking Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Brucker, Kyle A; Dommermuth, Douglas G; Adams, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The formulation of a canonical deep-water breaking wave problem is introduced, and the results of a set of three-dimensional numerical simulations for deep-water breaking waves are presented. In this paper fully nonlinear progressive waves are generated by applying a normal stress to the free surface. Precise control of the forcing allows for a systematic study of four types of deep-water breaking waves, characterized herein as weak plunging, plunging, strong plunging, and very strong plunging.

  8. DNA Strand Breaks, Neurodegeneration and Aging in the Brain

    OpenAIRE

    Katyal, Sachin; McKinnon, Peter J

    2008-01-01

    Defective responses to DNA single- or double-strand breaks can result in neurological disease, underscoring the critical importance of DNA repair for neural homeostasis. Human DNA repair-deficient syndromes are generally congenital, in which brain pathology reflects the consequences of developmentally incurred DNA damage. Although, it is unclear to what degree DNA strand-break repair defects in mature neural cells contributes to disease pathology. However, DNA single-strand breaks are a relat...

  9. Review of Rotational Symmetry Breaking in Baby Skyrme Models

    CERN Document Server

    Karliner, Marek

    2009-01-01

    We discuss one of the most interesting phenomena exhibited by baby skyrmions -- breaking of rotational symmetry. The topics we will deal with here include the appearance of rotational symmetry breaking in the static solutions of baby Skyrme models, both in flat as well as in curved spaces, the zero-temperature crystalline structure of baby skyrmions, and finally, the appearance of spontaneous breaking of rotational symmetry in rotating baby skyrmions.

  10. Soft breaking of BRST symmetry and gauge dependence

    CERN Document Server

    Lavrov, P M; Reshetnyak, A A

    2012-01-01

    We continue investigation of soft breaking of BRST symmetry in the Batalin-Vilkovisky (BV) formalism beyond regularizations like dimensional ones used in our previous paper. We generalize a definition of soft breaking of BRST symmetry valid for general gauge theories and arbitrary gauge fixing. The gauge dependence of generating functionals of Green's functions is investigated. It is proved that such introduction of a soft breaking of BRST symmetry into gauge theories leads to inconsistency of the conventional BV formalism.

  11. Dynamical Breaking of Generalized Yang-Mills Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGDian-Fu; SONGHe-Shan

    2004-01-01

    The dynamical breaking of a generalized Yang-Mills theory is discussed. It is shown, in terms of the Nambu Jona-Lasinio mechanism, that the gauge symmetry breaking can be realized dynamically in the generalized Yang-Mills theory. The combination of the generalized Yang-Mills theory and the NJL mechanism provides a way to overcome the difficulties related to the Higgs field and the Higgs mechanism in the usual spontaneous symmetry breaking theory.

  12. Dynamical Breaking of Generalized Yang-Mills Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dian-Fu; SONG He-Shah

    2004-01-01

    The dynamical breaking of a generalized Yang-Mills theory is discussed. It is shown, in terms of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio mechanism, that the gauge symmetry breaking can be realized dynamically in the generalized Yang-Mills theory. The combination of the generalized Yang-Mills theory and the NJL mechanism provides a way to overcome the difficulties related to the Higgs field and the Higgs mechanism in the usual spontaneous symmetry breaking theory.

  13. A Boussinesq Equation-Based Model for Nearshore Wave Breaking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余建星; 张伟; 王广东; 杨树清

    2004-01-01

    Based on the wave breaking model by Li and Wang (1999), this work is to apply Dally' s analytical solution to the wave-height decay irstead of the empirical and semi-empirical hypotheses of wave-height distribution within the wave breaking zone. This enhances the applicability of the model. Computational results of shoaling, location of wave breaking, wave-height decay after wave breaking, set-down and set-up for incident regular waves are shown to have good agreement with experimental and field data.

  14. Wilson flux breaking and coset space dimensional reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoupanos, G.

    1988-02-11

    Higher dimensional gauge theories lead, after dimensional reduction on coset spaces, to four-dimensional gauge theories usually with the natural emergence of a Higgs sector which is completely determined. However, the Higgs fields never appear in the adjoint representation which in many GUTs could lead to a successful spontaneous symmetry breaking towards the low energy gauge group. As an alternative we suggest that the breaking of the four-dimensional GUTs obtained from CSDR could be provided by the Wilson flux breaking and we discuss some semirealistic examples. We also speculate on the possibility that the breaking of the electroweak sector has dynamical origin.

  15. Simulation of dike-break processes in the Yellow River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIANG; Lin(梁林); NI; Jinren(倪晋仁); A.G.L.; Borthwick; B.D.; Rogers

    2002-01-01

    Although dike-break and dam-break processes have similar unsteady and discontinuous hydrodynamic characteristics, there are significant differences. In general, dam-break simulations focus on the flood discharge, whereas dike-break simulations are required to provide detailed information on the hydraulic and breach evolution processes, such as pit-scour and breach-expansion. In order to overcome the difficulties inherent in applying existing dam-break models to dike-breaks, this paper presents an integrated model that combines the shallow water, sediment transport, riverbed deformation and breach-expansion equations. A Godunov-type finite volume method is used for the flow simulation, based on a fixed quadtree grid system. The hydrodynamic aspects of the model are validated for an idealized rectangular dam break. A representative reach in the Yellow River is selected at a location where there is a significant risk of a dike-break, and full-scale topographic and hydrologic data are available. Typical dike-break processes are successfully simulated, with predicted hydraulic characteristics and terrain changes qualitatively in agreement with laboratory data. The modeling study is of practical importance for implementation of engineering countermeasures in the Yellow River, such as breach blocking and head wrapping.

  16. Phenomena identification and ranking tables for Westinghouse AP600 small break loss-of-coolant accident, main steam line break, and steam generator tube rupture scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, G.E.; Fletcher, C.D.; Davis, C.B. [and others

    1997-06-01

    This report revision incorporates new experimental evidence regarding AP600 behavior during small break loss-of-coolant accidents. This report documents the results of Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) efforts for the Westinghouse AP600 reactor. The purpose of this PIRT is to identify important phenomena so that they may be addressed in both the experimental programs and the RELAP5/MOD3 systems analysis computer code. In Revision of this report, the responses of AP600 during small break loss-of-coolant accident, main steam line break, and steam generator tube rupture accident scenarios were evaluated by a committee of thermal-hydraulic experts. Committee membership included Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory staff and recognized thermal-hydraulic experts from outside of the laboratory. Each of the accident scenarios was subdivided into separate, sequential periods or phases. Within each phase, the plant behavior is controlled by, at most, a few thermal-hydraulic processes. The committee identified the phenomena influencing those processes, and ranked & influences as being of high, medium, low, or insignificant importance. The primary product of this effort is a series of tables, one for each phase of each accident scenario, describing the thermal-hydraulic phenomena judged by the committee to be important, and the relative ranking of that importance. The rationales for the phenomena selected and their rankings are provided. This document issue incorporates an update of the small break loss-of-coolant accident portion of the report. This revision is the result of the release of experimental evidence from AP600-related integral test facilities (ROSA/AP600, OSU, and SPES) and thermal-hydraulic expert review. The activities associated with this update were performed during the period from June 1995 through November 1996. 8 refs., 26 figs., 42 tabs.

  17. Dependence of Wave-Breaking Statistics on Wind Stress and Wave Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsaros, Kristina B.; Atakturk, Serhad S.

    1992-01-01

    Incidence of wave breaking for pure wind driven waves has been studied on Lake Washington at wind speeds up to 8 m/s. Video recordings were employed to identify and categorize the breaking events in terms of micro-scale, spilling and plunging breakers. These events were correlated with the magnitude of the wave spectrum measured with a resistance wire wave gauge and band pass filtered between 6 and 10 Hz. An equivalent percentage of breaking crests were found for spilling and plunging events. Wave forcing as measured by wind stress (or friction velocity, u(sub *), squared) and by inverse wave age, u(sub *)/Cp where Cp is the phase velocity of the waves at the peak of the frequency spectrum, were found to be good prerictors of percentage of breaking crests. When combined in a two parameter regression, those two variables gave small standard deviation and had a high correlation coefficient (66 percent). The combination of u(sub *)(exp 2) and u(sub *)/Cp can be understood in physical terms. Furthermore, for the larger values of u(sub *)(exp 2) the dependence of wave braking and wave age was stronger than at the low end of the values u(sub *)(exp 2) and u(sub *)/Cp. Thus, both the level of wave development as determined by inverse wave age, which we may term relative wind effectiveness for wave forcing and the wind forcing on the water surface determine the incidence of wave breaking. Substituting U(sub 10)(sup 3.75) (which is the dependence of whitecap cover found by Monahan and coworkers) an equivalent correlation was found to the prediction by u(sub *)(exp 2). Slightly better standard deviation value and higher correlation coefficient were found by using a Reynolds number as predictor. A two-parameter regression involving u(sub *)(exp 2) and a Reynold's number proposed by Toba and his colleagues which relates u(sub *)(exp 2) and peak wave frequency, improves the correlation even more but is less easy to interpret in physical terms. The equivalent percentage of

  18. Supersymmetry Breaking in Disordered Systems and Relation to Functional Renormalization and Replica-Symmetry Breaking

    OpenAIRE

    Wiese, Kay Joerg

    2004-01-01

    In this article, we study an elastic manifold in quenched disorder in the limit of zero temperature. Naively it is equivalent to a free theory with elasticity in Fourier-space proportional to k^4 instead of k^2, i.e. a model without disorder in two space-dimensions less. This phenomenon, called dimensional reduction, is most elegantly obtained using supersymmetry. However, scaling arguments suggest, and functional renormalization shows that dimensional reduction breaks down beyond the Larkin ...

  19. A Microscopic View of Oil Slick Break-Up and Emulsion Formation in Breaking Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, J.; Shahrokhi, H.; Shaw, J. M.

    1996-11-01

    The hydrodynamic behaviour of oil spills in breaking waves determines the appropriateness and effectiveness of remedial measures during clean-up operations. Oil slicks either disperse as fine drops or form water in oil emulsions when exposed to breaking waves. However, there is little agreement with respect to the controlling variables or mechanisms for emulsification or dispersion and predictions are unreliable. For example, predicted energy dissipation rates in breaking waves are too low to account for the drop sizes encountered experimentally[1]. In this paper, we assess the impact of hydrodynamics and physical properties on the formation of dispersions or emulsions. The maximum stable drop size for dispersions arising from oil slicks and water in oil emulsions are shown to be controlled by Raleigh-Taylor instability or the prevalent local shear stress. Data from four experimental studies[2-5], with a broad range of physical properties were fitted quantitatively. As high shear events are intermittent, stable water in oil emulsions can be formed by dispersion inversion near the water air interface or by water entrained by gas bubbles passing through oil slicks. 1) Li & Garrett, 19th AMOP, Calgary AB, 1, 185-198 (1996). 2) Lin et al., Report CG-D-54-78, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington D.C. (1978). 3) Buist, MASc Thesis, University of Toronto (1979). 4) Wallace et al., 9th AMOP, Edmonton AB, 2, 421-429, June 10-12 (1986). 5) Ross Environmental Research Ltd., Ottawa ON, Report EE-96, (1987).

  20. One-Dimensional Horizontal Boussinesq Model Enhanced for Non-Breaking and Breaking Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Guo-hai; MA Xiao-zhou; TENG Bin

    2008-01-01

    Based on a set of fully nonlinear Boussinesq equations up to the order of O(μ2, ε3μ2) (where ε is the ratio of wave amplitude to water depth and μ is the ratio of water depth to wave length) a numerical wave model is formulated. The model's linear dispersion is acceptably accurate to μ≌1.0, which is confirmed by comparisons between the simulated and measured time series of the regular waves propagating on a submerged bar. The moving shoreline is treated numerically by replacing the solid beach with a permeable beach. Run-up of nonbreaking waves is verified against the analytical solution for nonlinear shallow water waves. The inclusion of wave breaking is fulfilled by introducing an eddy term in the momentum equation to serve as the breaking wave force term to dissipate wave energy in the surf zone. The model is applied to cross-shore motions of regular waves including various types of breaking on plane sloping beaches. Comparisons of the model test results comprising spatial distribution of wave height and mean water level with experimental data are presented.

  1. THE BUD BREAK PROCESS AND ITS VARIATION AMONG LOCAL POPULATIONS OF BOREAL BLACK SPRUCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eRossi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenology of local populations can exhibit adaptations to the current environmental conditions resulting from a close interaction between climate and genotype. The bud break process and its variations among populations were analysed in greenhouse by monitoring the growth resumption in black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill. BSP] seedlings originating from seeds of five stands across the closed boreal forest in Quebec, Canada. Bud break lasted 15 days and occurred earlier and quicker in northern provenances. Provenance explained between 10.2 and 32.3% of the variance in bud break, while the families accounted for a smaller but still significant part of the variance. The late occurrence of one phenological phase corresponded to a delayed occurrence of the others according to linear relationships. A causal model was proposed in the form of a chain of events with each phase of bud break being related to the previous and successive one, while no link was observed between non-adjacent phases. The adaptation of black spruce populations along the latitudinal gradient points towards a strategy based on rapid physiological processes triggered by temperature increase inducing high metabolic activity. The variation observed in bud break reflects an evolutionary trade-off between maximization of security and taking advantage of the short growing season. This work provides evidence of the phenological adaptations of black spruce to its local environmental conditions while retaining sizeable genetic diversity within populations. Because of the multigenic nature of phenology, this diversity should provide some raw material for adaptation to changing local environmental conditions.

  2. The bud break process and its variation among local populations of boreal black spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Sergio; Bousquet, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Phenology of local populations can exhibit adaptations to the current environmental conditions resulting from a close interaction between climate and genotype. The bud break process and its variations among populations were analyzed in greenhouse by monitoring the growth resumption in black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP] seedlings originating from seeds of five stands across the closed boreal forest in Quebec, Canada. Bud break lasted 15 days and occurred earlier and quicker in northern provenances. Provenance explained between 10.2 and 32.3% of the variance in bud break, while the families accounted for a smaller but still significant part of the variance. The late occurrence of one phenological phase corresponded to a delayed occurrence of the others according to linear relationships. A causal model was proposed in the form of a chain of events with each phase of bud break being related to the previous and successive one, while no link was observed between non-adjacent phases. The adaptation of black spruce populations along the latitudinal gradient points toward a strategy based on rapid physiological processes triggered by temperature increase inducing high metabolic activity. The variation observed in bud break reflects an evolutionary trade-off between maximization of security and taking advantage of the short growing season. This work provides evidence of the phenological adaptations of black spruce to its local environmental conditions while retaining sizeable genetic diversity within populations. Because of the multigenic nature of phenology, this diversity should provide some raw material for adaptation to changing local environmental conditions. PMID:25389430

  3. Double-strand break damage and associated DNA repair genes predispose smokers to gene methylation

    OpenAIRE

    Leng, Shuguang; Stidley, Christine A.; Willink, Randy; Bernauer, Amanda; Do, Kieu; Picchi, Maria A.; Sheng, Xin; Frasco, Melissa, A.; Berg, David Van Den; Gilliland, Frank D.; Zima, Christopher; Crowell, Richard E.; Belinsky, Steven A.

    2008-01-01

    Gene promoter hypermethylation in sputum is a promising biomarker for predicting lung cancer. Identifying factors that predispose smokers to methylation of multiple gene promoters in the lung could impact strategies for early detection and chemoprevention. This study evaluated the hypothesis that double-strand break repair capacity and sequence variation in genes in this pathway are associated with a high methylation index in a cohort of current and former cancer-free smokers. A 50% reduction...

  4. Integral measurement of break-up excitation function using a multiple silicon telescope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corre, J.M.; Anne, R.; Lewitowicz, M.; Saint-Laurent, M.G. [Grand Accelerateur National d`Ions Lourds (GANIL), 14 - Caen (France); Borcea, C.; Carstoiu, F.; Negoita, F. [Institute of Atomic Physics, Bucharest (Romania); Borrel, V.; Guillemaud-Mueller, D.; Mueller, A.C.; Pougheon, F.; Sorlin, O. [Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France). Inst. de Physique Nucleaire; Dlouhy, Z. [NPI, Rez (Czech Republic); Fomichev, A.S.; Lukyanov, S.M.; Penoinzhkevich, Y.E.; Skobelev, N.K. [Joint Inst. for Nuclear Research, Dubna (Russian Federation); Kordyasz, A. [Warsaw Univ. (Poland). Inst. Fizyki Doswiadczalnej

    1994-12-31

    A simple method is proposed for measuring the inclusive break-up excitation function which the experimental device, consisting of a set of successive silicon detectors, serves the double purpose of decreasing the incident beam energy and of detecting and identifying the reaction products. Monte Carlo simulations revealed the merits and the limitations of the method. Finally, experimental data for tritons are treated in order to obtain relevant physical informations (authors). 9 refs., 9 figs.

  5. Symmetry breaking: a tool to unveil the topology of chaotic scattering with three degrees of freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Christof; Zapfe, W. P. Karel; Merlo, Olivier; Seligman, T. H.

    2010-12-01

    We shall use symmetry breaking as a tool to attack the problem of identifying the topology of chaotic scatteruing with more then two degrees of freedom. specifically we discuss the structure of the homoclinic/heteroclinic tangle and the connection between the chaotic invariant set, the scattering functions and the singularities in the cross section for a class of scattering systems with one open and two closed degrees of freedom.

  6. Orthogonality-breaking sensing model based on the instantaneous Stokes vector and the Mueller calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Quijano, Noé; Fade, Julien; Roche, Muriel; Parnet, François; Alouini, Mehdi

    2016-04-01

    Polarimetric sensing by orthogonality breaking has been recently proposed as an alternative technique for performing direct and fast polarimetric measurements using a specific dual-frequency-dual-polarization (DFDP) source. Based on the instantaneous Stokes-Mueller formalism to describe the high-frequency evolution of the DFDP beam intensity, we thoroughly analyze the interaction of such a beam with birefringent, dichroic, and depolarizing samples. This allows us to confirm that orthogonality breaking is produced by the sample diattenuation, whereas this technique is immune to both birefringence and diagonal depolarization. We further analyze the robustness of this technique when polarimetric sensing is performed through a birefringent waveguide, and the optimal DFDP source configuration for fiber-based endoscopic measurements is subsequently identified. Finally, we consider a stochastic depolarization model based on an ensemble of random linear diattenuators, which makes it possible to understand the progressive vanishing of the detected orthogonality-breaking signal as the spatial heterogeneity of the sample increases, thus confirming the insensitivity of this method to diagonal depolarization. The fact that the orthogonality-breaking signal is exclusively due to the sample dichroism is an advantageous feature for the precise decoupled characterization of such an anisotropic parameter in samples showing several simultaneous effects.

  7. Exploring the Overabundance of ULXs in Metal- and Dust-poor Local Lyman Break Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu-Zych, Antara R.; Lehmer, Bret; Fragos, Tassos; Hornschemeier, Ann; Yukita, Mihoko; Zezas, Andreas; Ptak, Andy

    2016-02-01

    We have studied high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) populations within two low-metallicity, starburst galaxies, Haro 11 and VV 114. These galaxies serve as analogs to high-redshift (z\\gt 2) Lyman break galaxies and, within the larger sample of Lyman break analogs (LBAs), they are sufficiently nearby (crowded lower-luminosity HMXBs using the star-forming galaxy XLF and then vary the XLF normalizations and bright-end slopes until we reproduce the observed point source luminosity distributions. We find that these LBAs have a shallower bright-end slope ({γ }2=1.90) than the standard XLF ({γ }2=2.73). If we conservatively assume that the brightest X-ray source from each galaxy is powered by an accreting supermassive black hole rather than an HMXB and eliminate these sources from consideration, the luminosity distribution becomes poorly constrained but does appear to be consistent with a standard XLF.

  8. Singular Mapping for a $PT$-Symmetric Sinusoidal Optical Lattice at the Symmetry-Breaking Threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Jones, H F

    2014-01-01

    A popular $PT$-symmetric optical potential (variation of the refractive index) that supports a variety of interesting and unusual phenomena is the imaginary exponential, the limiting case of the potential $V_0[\\cos(2\\pi x/a)+i\\lambda\\sin(2\\pi x/a)]$ as $\\lambda \\to 1$, the symmetry-breaking point. For $\\lambda<1$, when the spectrum is entirely real, there is a well-known mapping by a similarity transformation to an equivalent Hermitian potential. However, as $\\lambda \\to 1$, the spectrum, while remaining real, contains Jordan blocks in which eigenvalues and the corresponding eigenfunctions coincide. In this limit the similarity transformation becomes singular. Nonetheless, we show that the mapping from the original potential to its Hermitian counterpart can still be implemented; however, the inverse mapping breaks down. We also illuminate the role of Jordan associated functions in the original problem, showing that they map onto eigenfunctions in the associated Hermitian problem.

  9. Universal Behaviour on the Break-up of the Spiral Mean Torus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周济林; 胡斑比; 孙义燧

    2001-01-01

    We study numerically the critical behaviour during the break-up of the spiral mean torus in a four-dimensional symplectic map. At each point of the parameter space, the stability indices of a serial of periodic orbits are calculated with their winding numbers approaching the spiral mean torus. The critical values of the parameters when the torus breaks are determined by the criterion that the variance of the distribution on the indices reaches a minimum. Some evidence is revealed about the possible existence of a universal distribution on the stability indices of the periodic orbits at the critical This confirms the picture given by the approximate renormalization theory of the Hamiltonian systems with three degrees of freedom.

  10. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in the O(4) scalar model on a lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Demchik, Vadim; Skalozub, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    The spontaneous symmetry breaking in the four component scalar $\\lambda \\phi^4$ model (O(4) model) is investigated on a lattice dependently on the value of the coupling constant $\\lambda$. A general approach for dealing with this phenomenon is developed. In the spherical coordinates in the internal space of the scalar field, the Goldstone modes are integrated out by the saddle point method that reduces the functional integral of the model to the effective one component theory convenient for lattice investigations. The partition function of the model is calculated analytically up to the one-loop order. Monte Carlo simulations are performed with a QCDGPU software package on a HGPU cluster. It is shown that for $\\lambda < 10^{-5}$ the scalar field condensate does not create. For larger values of coupling symmetry breaking happens. Qualitatively, this is similar to that of observed already in the O(1) model.

  11. Experimental Study on Coal-Breaking Pressure for Compressed Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on lab model experiments and through the limit analysis, the theoretical formula of calculauoncoal-breaking pressure with compressed air was derived. The experimental result shows that blasting pressure mustexceed 84.0 MPa to break coal with compressive strength of 13.2 MPa. The research provides an important theoretical basis for the design of airshooting mining and industrial tests.

  12. Mechanisms of supersymmetry breaking in the minimal supersymmetric standard model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Probir Roy

    2003-02-01

    We provide a bird’s eyeview of current ideas on supersymmetry breaking mechanisms in the MSSM. The essentials of gauge, gravity, anomaly and gaugino/higgsino mediation mechanisms are covered briefly and the phenomenology of the associated models is touched upon. A few statement are also made on braneworld supersymmetry breaking.

  13. Mediation of Supersymmetry Breaking via Anti-Generation Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, M

    2000-01-01

    In the context of the weakly coupled heterotic string, we propose a new model of mediating supersymmetry breaking. The breakdown of supersymmetry in the hidden sector is transmitted to anti-generation fields via gravitational interactions. Subsequent transmission of the breaking to the MSSM sector occurs via gauge interactions. It is shown that the mass spectra of superparticles are phenomenologically viable.

  14. Inverse Symmetry Breaking and the Exact Renormalization Group

    CERN Document Server

    Pietroni, M; Tetradis, N

    1997-01-01

    We discuss the question of inverse symmetry breaking at non-zero temperature using the exact renormalization group. We study a two-scalar theory and concentrate on the nature of the phase transition during which the symmetry is broken. We also examine the persistence of symmetry breaking at temperatures higher than the critical one.

  15. Spontaneous Breaking of Spatial and Spin Symmetry in Spinor Condensates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherer, M.; Lücke, B.; Gebreyesus, G.;

    2010-01-01

    Parametric amplification of quantum fluctuations constitutes a fundamental mechanism for spontaneous symmetry breaking. In our experiments, a spinor condensate acts as a parametric amplifier of spin modes, resulting in a twofold spontaneous breaking of spatial and spin symmetry in the amplified...

  16. "Old Dead Guys": Using Activity Breaks to Teach History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holles, Joseph H.

    2009-01-01

    The people and history of chemical engineering surround us: Gibbs free energy, Arrhenius Equation, and Reynolds number. Since these seminal figures appear in almost every classroom lecture, they provide an opportunity for a historically focused activity break. Each activity break provides the students with an image of the historical figure along…

  17. Shear stresses and mean flow in shoaling and breaking waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stive, M.J.F.; De Vriend, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the vertical, wave averaged distributions of shear stresses and Eulerian flow in normally incident, shoaling and breaking waves. It is found that shear stresses are solely due to wave amplitude variations, which can be caused by shoaling, boundary layer dissipation and/or breaking wav

  18. Unstable volatility functions: the break preserving local linear estimator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Isabel; Gijbels, Irene

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the break preserving local linear (BPLL) estimator for the estimation of unstable volatility functions. Breaks in the structure of the conditional mean and/or the volatility functions are common in Finance. Markov switching models (Hamilton, 1989) and t...

  19. The Year Zero: Iconoclastic Breaks with the Past

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon

    2015-01-01

    Some regimes try to force a complete break with the past and even to start from the year zero. Throughout history, such iconoclastic breaks were meant to erase, once and for all, the entire past or to destroy as many of its relics and symbols as possible, and either to reach orregain some faraway go

  20. Distributed Decision Making in Combined Vehicle Routing and Break Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, Christoph Manuel; Kopfer, Herbert; Kok, Adrianus Leendert; Schutten, Marco; Kreowski, Hans-Jörg; Scholz-Reiter, Bernd; Thoben, Klaus-Dieter

    2011-01-01

    The problem of combined vehicle routing and break scheduling comprises three subproblems: clustering of customer requests, routing of vehicles, and break scheduling. In practice, these subproblems are usually solved in the interaction between planners and drivers. We consider the case that the plann

  1. Distributed Decision Making in Combined Vehicle Routing and Break Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, Christoph Manuel; Kopfer, Herbert; Kok, Adrianus Leendert; Schutten, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The problem of combined vehicle routing and break scheduling comprises three subproblems: clustering of customer requests, routing of vehicles, and break scheduling. In practice, these subproblems are usually solved in the interaction between planners and drivers. We consider the case that the plann

  2. ANALYSIS OF MEN'S AND WOMEN'S BASKETBALL FAST-BREAKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Refoyo

    2009-01-01

    opposition. For men, some dependence relationships were found between the fast break result and the following variables: duration, completion area, and opposition to its completion. For women, the results revealed a weak association between the fast break result and the opposition to its completion.

  3. Examining structural breaks and growth rates in international health expenditures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayan, Paresh Kumar

    2006-09-01

    Over the last decade, there has been a growing interest in examining health expenditures. In this paper, we study the behaviour of health expenditures in the G3 countries (USA, the UK, and Japan) and three European countries (the UK, Switzerland and Spain) over the period 1960-2000 from a different perspective, in that we examine: (1) whether there is a common structural break in health expenditures across the G3 and European countries; (2) whether structural breaks have slowed down health expenditure growth rates in these countries or vice versa. Our main findings are that: (1) health expenditures share a common break in both bivariate and trivariate cases, and structural breaks and break intervals suggest that either one or a combination of events (second oil price shock, the 1987 stock market crash and/or recessions) have contributed to the commonality of break in health expenditures in the G3, while the oil price shocks have been instrumental in the commonality of breaks for the European countries; (2) except for the UK, structural breaks have slowed down growth rates in health expenditures for the USA, Japan, Switzerland and Spain.

  4. Young Children's Interpretations of Page Breaks in Contemporary Picture Storybooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipe, Lawrence R.; Brightman, Anne E.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a study of the responses of a second-grade class to the page breaks in contemporary picturebooks. In a picturebook, the text and accompanying illustrations are divided into a series of facing pages called openings, and the divisions between the openings are called page breaks or turns. Unlike a novel, in which the page…

  5. Benchmarking Density Functional Theory Approaches for the Description of Symmetry-Breaking in Long Polymethine Dyes

    KAUST Repository

    Gieseking, Rebecca L.

    2016-04-25

    Long polymethines are well-known experimentally to symmetry-break, which dramatically modifies their linear and nonlinear optical properties. Computational modeling could be very useful to provide insight into the symmetry-breaking process, which is not readily available experimentally; however, accurately predicting the crossover point from symmetric to symmetry-broken structures has proven challenging. Here, we benchmark the accuracy of several DFT approaches relative to CCSD(T) geometries. In particular, we compare analogous hybrid and long-range corrected (LRC) functionals to clearly show the influence of the functional exchange term. Although both hybrid and LRC functionals can be tuned to reproduce the CCSD(T) geometries, the LRC functionals are better performing at reproducing the geometry evolution with chain length and provide a finite upper limit for the gas-phase crossover point; these methods also provide good agreement with the experimental crossover points for more complex polymethines in polar solvents. Using an approach based on LRC functionals, a reduction in the crossover length is found with increasing medium dielectric constant, which is related to localization of the excess charge on the end groups. Symmetry-breaking is associated with the appearance of an imaginary frequency of b2 symmetry involving a large change in the degree of bond-length alternation. Examination of the IR spectra show that short, isolated streptocyanines have a mode at ~1200 cm-1 involving a large change in bond-length alternation; as the polymethine length or the medium dielectric increases, the frequency of this mode decreases before becoming imaginary at the crossover point.

  6. Comparing Point Clouds

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-04-01

    Point clouds are one of the most primitive and fundamental surface representations. A popular source of point clouds are three dimensional shape...acquisition devices such as laser range scanners. Another important field where point clouds are found is in the representation of high-dimensional...framework for comparing manifolds given by point clouds is presented in this paper. The underlying theory is based on Gromov-Hausdorff distances, leading

  7. Generalized geometry and partial supersymmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triendl, Hagen Mathias

    2010-08-15

    This thesis consists of two parts. In the first part we use the formalism of (exceptional) generalized geometry to derive the scalar field space of SU(2) x SU(2)-structure compactifications. We show that in contrast to SU(3) x SU(3) structures, there is no dynamical SU(2) x SU(2) structure interpolating between an SU(2) structure and an identity structure. Furthermore, we derive the scalar manifold of the low-energy effective action for consistent Kaluza-Klein truncations as expected from N = 4 supergravity. In the second part we then determine the general conditions for the existence of stable Minkowski and AdS N = 1 vacua in spontaneously broken gauged N = 2 supergravities and construct the general solution under the assumption that two appropriate commuting isometries exist in the hypermultiplet sector. Furthermore, we derive the low-energy effective action below the scale of partial supersymmetry breaking and show that it satisfies the constraints of N = 1 supergravity. We then apply the discussion to special quaternionic-Kaehler geometries which appear in the low-energy limit of SU(3) x SU(3)-structure compactifications and construct Killing vectors with the right properties. Finally we discuss the string theory realizations for these solutions. (orig.)

  8. Breaking temporal symmetries for emission and absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadad, Yakir; Soric, Jason C.; Alu, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Time-reversal symmetries impose stringent constraints on emission and absorption. Antennas, from radiofrequencies to optics, are bound to transmit and receive signals equally well from the same direction, making a directive antenna prone to receive echoes and reflections. Similarly, in thermodynamics Kirchhoff’s law dictates that the absorptivity and emissivity are bound to be equal in reciprocal systems at equilibrium, e(ω,θ)=a(ω,θ), with important consequences for thermal management and energy applications. This bound requires that a good absorber emits a portion of the absorbed energy back to the source, limiting its overall efficiency. Recent works have shown that weak time modulation or mechanical motion in suitably designed structures may largely break reciprocity and time-reversal symmetry. Here we show theoretically and experimentally that a spatiotemporally modulated device can be designed to have drastically different emission and absorption properties. The proposed concept may provide significant advances for compact and efficient radiofrequency communication systems, as well as for energy harvesting and thermal management when translated to infrared frequencies. PMID:26984502

  9. LHC Report: a break from luminosity production

    CERN Multimedia

    Jan Uythoven for the LHC team

    2016-01-01

    The LHC has been in great shape over the last few months, delivering over 20 fb-1 of integrated luminosity before the ICHEP conference in Chicago at the beginning of August. This is not much below the 25 fb-1 target for the whole of 2016. With this success in mind, a break in luminosity production was taken for six days, starting on 26 July 2016, for a machine development period.   This year, 20 days of the LHC schedule are devoted to machine development with the aim of carrying out detailed studies of the accelerator. The 20 days are divided over five different periods, called MD blocks. They can be seen as an investment in the future, so the machine can produce collisions more efficiently in the months and years to come. A detailed programme is worked out for each MD block, whereby different specialist teams are assigned periods of four to twelve hours, depending on the topic, to perform their previously approved tests. The MD program continues 24 hours per day, as in normal physics operation. One...

  10. Parametric Symmetry Breaking in a Nonlinear Resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuch, Anina; Papariello, Luca; Zilberberg, Oded; Degen, Christian L.; Chitra, R.; Eichler, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    Much of the physical world around us can be described in terms of harmonic oscillators in thermodynamic equilibrium. At the same time, the far-from-equilibrium behavior of oscillators is important in many aspects of modern physics. Here, we investigate a resonating system subject to a fundamental interplay between intrinsic nonlinearities and a combination of several driving forces. We have constructed a controllable and robust realization of such a system using a macroscopic doubly clamped string. We experimentally observe a hitherto unseen double hysteresis in both the amplitude and the phase of the resonator's response function and present a theoretical model that is in excellent agreement with the experiment. Our work unveils that the double hysteresis is a manifestation of an out-of-equilibrium symmetry breaking between parametric phase states. Such a fundamental phenomenon, in the most ubiquitous building block of nature, paves the way for the investigation of new dynamical phases of matter in parametrically driven many-body systems and motivates applications ranging from ultrasensitive force detection to low-energy computing memory units.

  11. Control of roofs difficult to break down

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukashov, V.G.; Suslyakov, V.P.; Korobov, A.N.

    1981-03-01

    This paper describes a method of advanced torpedoing a roof difficult to break down at the Polysaevskaya coal mine. It consists in placing explosive charges in the roof ahead of the coal face. Three schemes were tested: boreholes were drilled parallel to the face, perpendicular or inclined at an angle to the face. Boreholes were 112 mm in diameter and their length ranged from 30 to 100 m, distance between the boreholes amounted to 20 m. 6ZhV ammonite explosive, 90 mm in diameter and 500 mm long, were used. Torpedos were 2 m long, and separated by 3 to 4 m long air pockets. When a roof characterized by a high compressive strength coefficient (about 10 on the Protod'yakonov scale) was torpedoed, 250 kg of ammonite were used for a borehole 80 m long, and 160 kg for a borehole 50 m long. When borehole length was reduced to 40 m explosive consumption decreased to 117 kg. In the case of rocks with compressive strength coefficient of 6, explosive amount was two times lower. In a coal mine in which an OKP-70 face system was used applying advanced torpedoing increased labor productivity of the face by 30% and reduced cost of mining by 42%. Number of work accidents was reduced 13 times. (In Russian)

  12. Golden Probe of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yi; Spiropulu, Maria; Stolarski, Daniel; Vega-Morales, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    The ratio of the Higgs couplings to $WW$ and $ZZ$ pairs, $\\lambda_{WZ}$, is a fundamental parameter in electroweak symmetry breaking as well as a measure of the (approximate) custodial symmetry possessed by the gauge boson mass matrix. We show that Higgs decays to four leptons are sensitive, via tree level/1-loop interference effects, to both the magnitude and, in particular, overall sign of $\\lambda_{WZ}$. Determining this sign requires interference effects, as it is nearly impossible to measure with rate information. Furthermore, simply determining the sign effectively establishes the custodial representation of the Higgs boson. We find that $h\\to4\\ell$ ($4\\ell \\equiv 2e2\\mu, 4e, 4\\mu$) decays have excellent prospects of directly establishing the overall sign at a high luminosity 13 TeV LHC. We also examine the ultimate LHC sensitivity in $h\\to4\\ell$ to the magnitude of $\\lambda_{WZ}$. Our results are independent of other measurements of the Higgs boson couplings and, in particular, largely free of assumpti...

  13. Kinematic Dynamo, Supersymmetry Breaking, and Chaos

    CERN Document Server

    Ovchinnikov, Igor V

    2015-01-01

    The kinematic dynamo (KD) describes the growth of magnetic fields generated by the flow of a conducting medium in the limit of vanishing backaction of the fields onto the flow. The KD is therefore an important model system for understanding astrophysical magnetism. Here, the mathematical correspondence between the KD and a specific stochastic differential equation (SDE) viewed from the perspective of the supersymmetric theory of stochastics (STS) is discussed. The STS is a novel, approximation-free framework to investigate SDEs. The correspondence reported here permits insights from the STS to be applied to the theory of KD and vice versa. It was previously known that the fast KD in the idealistic limit of no magnetic diffusion requires chaotic flows. The KD-STS correspondence shows that this is also true for the diffusive KD. From the STS perspective, the KD possesses a topological supersymmetry and the dynamo effect can be viewed as its spontaneous breakdown. This supersymmetry breaking can be regarded as t...

  14. Warped electroweak breaking without custodial symmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabrer, Joan A.; von Gersdorff, Gero; Quirós, Mariano

    2011-03-01

    We propose an alternative to the introduction of an extra gauge (custodial) symmetry to suppress the contribution of KK modes to the T parameter in warped theories of electroweak breaking. The mechanism is based on a general class of warped 5D metrics and a Higgs propagating in the bulk. The metrics are nearly AdS in the UV region but depart from AdS in the IR region, towards where KK fluctuations are mainly localized, and have a singularity outside the slice between the UV and IR branes. This gravitational background is generated by a bulk stabilizing scalar field which triggers a natural solution to the hierarchy problem. Depending on the model parameters, gauge-boson KK modes can be consistent with present bounds on EWPT for mKK≳1 TeV at 95% CL. The model contains a light Higgs mode which unitarizes the four-dimensional theory. The reduction in the precision observables can be traced back to a large wave function renormalization for this mode.

  15. Warped Electroweak Breaking Without Custodial Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrer, Joan A; Quiros, Mariano

    2010-01-01

    We propose an alternative to the introduction of an extra gauge (custodial) symmetry to suppress the contribution of KK modes to the T parameter in warped theories of electroweak breaking. The mechanism is based on a general class of warped 5D metrics and a Higgs propagating in the bulk. The metrics are nearly AdS in the UV region but depart from AdS in the IR region, towards where KK fluctuations are mainly localized, and have a singularity outside the slice between the UV and IR branes. This gravitational background is generated by a bulk stabilizing scalar field which triggers a natural solution to the hierarchy problem. Depending on the model parameters, gauge-boson KK modes can be consistent with present bounds on EWPT for m > 1 TeV at 95% CL. The model contains a light Higgs mode which unitarizes the four-dimensional theory. The reduction in the precision observables can be traced back to a large wave function renormalization for this mode.

  16. Self-breaking retarded acid emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherubel, G.A.

    1980-10-07

    An acid-in-oil acidizing emulsion, and acidizing method use an emulsion of the type containing an effective amount of at least one C8 to C18 primary amine as a cationic surfactant to increase the normal reaction time of the acid with an acid soluble formation. The composition and method aspects are both affected by the inclusion in the emulsion of an effective amount of a nonionic surfactant. Specifically, the emulsion resides in a composition for acidizing a subterranean formation, the composition being of the acidizing solution-in-oil emulsion type containing an effective amount of an alkyl C8 to C18 primary amine to reduce the normal reaction rate of the emulsion, and an effective amount of at least one diethanolamide of at least one C8 to C18 fatty acid so that the emulsion substantially completely breaks when the acidizing capacity of the emulsion becomes substantially spent as a result of reaction with such a formation. 19 claims.

  17. A Molecular Model for Chiral Symmetry Breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latinwo, Folarin; Stillinger, Frank; Debenedetti, Pablo

    In this work, we present a new class of molecular models for chiral phenomena in condensed matter systems. A key feature of these models is the ability of the four-site (tetramer) ``molecules'' to inter-convert between two distinct chiral forms (enantiomers). Given this feature, we use analytical theory and computer simulations to investigate the emergent chiral properties (including symmetry breaking) over a range of conditions. In particular, we consider the single-molecule level and condensed-phase behavior of our model system. Interestingly, we find that our liquid-phase predictions are in excellent agreement with recent experimental reports on chiral self-sorting in isotropic liquids. From this perspective, our model demonstrates accurate predictive capabilities, as well as a platform for understanding the microscopic origins of a variety of chiral phenomena. In a broader context, we anticipate that this class of models will be relevant to chirality-dominated areas such as the pharmaceutical industry and pre-biotic geochemistry.

  18. Spontaneous Planar Chiral Symmetry Breaking in Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadidjojo, Jeremy; Lubensky, David

    Recent progress in animal development has highlighted the central role played by planar cell polarity (PCP) in epithelial tissue morphogenesis. Through PCP, cells have the ability to collectively polarize in the plane of the epithelium by localizing morphogenetic proteins along a certain axis. This allows direction-dependent modulation of tissue mechanical properties that can translate into the formation of complex, non-rotationally invariant shapes. Recent experimental observations[1] show that cells, in addition to being planar-polarized, can also spontaneously develop planar chirality, perhaps in the effort of making yet more complex shapes that are reflection non-invariant. In this talk we will present our work in characterizing general mechanisms that can lead to spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in cells. We decompose interfacial concentration of polarity proteins in a hexagonal cell packing into irreducible representations. We find that in the case of polar concentration distributions, a chiral state can only be reached from a secondary instability after the cells are polarized. However in the case of nematic distributions, we show that a finite-amplitude (subcritical, or ``first-order'') nematic transition can send the system from disorder directly to a chiral state. In addition, we find that perturbing the system by stretching the hexagonal packing enables direct (supercritical, or ``second-order'') chiral transition in the nematic case. Finally, we do a Landau expansion to study competition between stretch-induced chirality and the tendency towards a non-chiral state in packings that have retained the full 6-fold symmetry.

  19. Contrasting effects of interference and of breaks in interval timing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudreault, Rémi; Fortin, Claudette; Macar, Françoise

    2010-01-01

    When a break is introduced during an interval to be timed, the interval is perceived shorter as break location is delayed. This is interpreted as a result of attention sharing between timing and monitoring the source of the break signal. Similar effects and interpretations are found in another context involving interfering tasks. Such tasks are assumed to induce transient interruptions in timing, comparable to those obtained with breaks. Break and interference conditions were contrasted in a temporal reproduction procedure with identical stimuli. Both conditions induced temporal underestimation and similar location effects. Similar trends occurred in a control condition where no processing of the interfering signal was required. The data suggest that expectancy, intentional processing, and automatic attraction of attention shorten temporal estimates.

  20. A Supersymmetric Composite Model with Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Kitazawa, N; Kitazawa, Noriaki; Okada, Nobuchika

    1997-01-01

    We present a supersymmetric composite model with dynamical supersymmetry breaking. The model is based on the gauge group $SU(2)_S \\times SU(2)_H \\times SU(3)_c \\times SU(2)_L \\times U(1)_Y$. Supersymmetry is dynamically broken by the non-perturbative effect of the $SU(2)_S$ `supercolor' interaction. The large top Yukawa coupling is naturally generated by the $SU(2)_H$ `hypercolor' interaction as recently proposed by Nelson and Strassler. The supersymmetry breaking is mediated to the standard model sector by a new mechanism. The electroweak symmetry breaking is caused by the radiative correction due to the large top Yukawa coupling with the supersymmetry breaking. This is the `radiative breaking scenario', which originates from the dynamics of the supercolor and hypercolor gauge interactions.