WorldWideScience

Sample records for break points identified

  1. A new approach to assess COPD by identifying lung function break-points

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eriksson G

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Göran Eriksson,1,* Linnea Jarenbäck,1,* Stefan Peterson,2 Jaro Ankerst,1 Leif Bjermer,1 Ellen Tufvesson11Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, 2Regional Cancer Center South, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: COPD is a progressive disease, which can take different routes, leading to great heterogeneity. The aim of the post-hoc analysis reported here was to perform continuous analyses of advanced lung function measurements, using linear and nonlinear regressions.Patients and methods: Fifty-one COPD patients with mild to very severe disease (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] Stages I–IV and 41 healthy smokers were investigated post-bronchodilation by flow-volume spirometry, body plethysmography, diffusion capacity testing, and impulse oscillometry. The relationship between COPD severity, based on forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1, and different lung function parameters was analyzed by flexible nonparametric method, linear regression, and segmented linear regression with break-points.Results: Most lung function parameters were nonlinear in relation to spirometric severity. Parameters related to volume (residual volume, functional residual capacity, total lung capacity, diffusion capacity [diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide], diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide/alveolar volume and reactance (reactance area and reactance at 5Hz were segmented with break-points at 60%–70% of FEV1. FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC and resonance frequency had break-points around 80% of FEV1, while many resistance parameters had break-points below 40%. The slopes in percent predicted differed; resistance at 5 Hz minus resistance at 20 Hz had a linear slope change of -5.3 per unit FEV1, while residual volume had no slope change above and -3.3 change per unit FEV1 below its break-point of 61

  2. Model Breaking Points Conceptualized

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vig, Rozy; Murray, Eileen; Star, Jon R.

    2014-01-01

    Current curriculum initiatives (e.g., National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers 2010) advocate that models be used in the mathematics classroom. However, despite their apparent promise, there comes a point when models break, a point in the mathematical problem space where the model cannot,…

  3. Piecewise-smooth circle homeomorphisms with several break points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We prove that the invariant probability measure of an ergodic piecewise-smooth circle homeomorphism with several break points and the product of the jumps at break points non-trivial is singular with respect to Lebesgue measure.

  4. DNA Replication Reaches the Breaking Point

    OpenAIRE

    Petrini, John H.J.

    2009-01-01

    DNA strand breaks that result in stalled or damaged replication forks can be detrimental to the DNA replication process. In this issue, Doksani et al. (2009) examine the impact of a single double-stranded DNA break on replication in the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  5. Cedar Breaks National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project - Field Plot, Observation Points and Accuracy Assessment Points

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This point file contains 282 point locations of field plot and observation data used by, and collected for, the vegetation mapping project for Cedar Breaks National...

  6. Propagation Mechanism Analysis Before the Break Point Inside Tunnels

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Ke; Zhong, Zhangdui; Bo, Ai; Briso Rodriguez, Cesar

    2011-01-01

    There is no unanimous consensus yet on the propagation mechanism before the break point inside tunnels. Some deem that the propagation mechanism follows the free space model, others argue that it should be described by the multimode waveguide model. Firstly, this paper analyzes the propagation loss in two mechanisms. Then, by conjunctively using the propagation theory and the three-dimensional solid geometry, a generic analytical model for the boundary between the free space mechanism and the...

  7. Infra-red fixed point structure characterising SUSY SU(5) symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Allanach, Benjamin C; Philipsen, O

    1996-01-01

    We analyze the one-loop renormalisation group equations for the parameters of the Higgs potential of a supersymmetric SU(5) model with first step of symmetry breaking involving an adjoint Higgs. In particular, we investigate the running of the parameters that decide the first step of symmetry breaking in an attempt to establish which symmetry-breaking scenarios would be most likely if the model is the effective low-energy description of some more fundamental theory. An infra-red fixed point is identified analytically. It is located at the boundary between the region of Higgs parameter space corresponding to unbroken SU(5) and the region corresponding to the breaking of SU(5) to the Standard Model, and we elaborate on its implications. We also observe that certain forms of the Higgs potential discussed at tree level in the literature are not renormalisation group invariant.

  8. BREAK-EVEN POINT IN SUGAR-BEET PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilija Nedić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available World sugar consumption has been recording a steady growth in the past 70 years and, according to all relevant estimates, it will continue to grow also in the next decade, which puts sugar in the category of the most significant foods and commodities in the world. Of the total world sugar production, around 77% is derived from sugar cane and 23% from sugar beet. Brazil has been the world leader in sugar production for a long period of time, producing white sugar from sugar cane only, whereas the leader in the production of sugar derived from sugar beet is the EU-28. When the Republic of Croatia joined the EU, the Croatian sugar industry became part of the single European sugar market, so the break-even point was used in the research to determine the competitiveness level of the Croatian sugar beet production. Based on the expected selling price of sugar beet amounting to EUR 34 per ton of standard quality sugar beet, and using the break-even method, it was determined that the quantity required to cover total costs in sugar beet production in the Republic of Croatia amounts to 55.26 tons per hectare of payable sugar beet, standard quality, i.e. 8.84 tons of polarized sugar per hectare. As the average sugar beet production in the Republic of Croatia, expressed in the equivalent of polarized sugar, amounts to 7.8 tons per hectare, it is obvious that an average Croatian producer of sugar beet, without income from subsidies, operates at a loss.

  9. Chromosomal break points in irradiated and ethyl methane sulphonate treated leucocytes of patients with Down syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frequencies of chromosomal damage in the peripheral leucocytes of patients with Down syndrome, on exposure to gamma rays (2Gy) or ethyl methane sulphonate (EMS, 1 x 10-4M), were assessed. Analysis of break points in the chromosomes of irradiated cells revealed a non-random occurrence. Six of the break points observed in EMS-treated cells were found to overlap with those recorded in irradiated cells. Thirteen break points observed were found to correlate with the location of cancer-specific break points and four of these coincided with the bands where oncogenes have been located. Two break points were localised to the same bands as that of known heritable fragile sites. (author). 17 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs

  10. A new criterion for identifying breaks in monsoon conditions over the Indian subcontinent

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Dessai, U.R.P.

    in the months of July and August were of 3-4 days duration (49%). Breaks identified by our method were in general consistent with those identified by the conventional methods. Further, the correlation between the seasonal monsoon rainfall and break (active) days...

  11. Identifying single points of failure in your organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Robby J

    2013-01-01

    Single points of failure may spell disaster for businesses that have not adequately identified and mitigated these critical risks. A single point of failure audit will identify the single points of failure in all functional areas that may negatively impact organisational processes and process flows. This paper provides a holistic approach to constructing a successful single point of failure audit and identifies the systems that are frequently the sources of single points of failure. It also examines the internal and external risks that may spawn single points of failure and provides various mitigation strategies for the systems identified. PMID:24113634

  12. Localisation of aphidicolin-induced break points in Holstein-Friesian cattle (Bos taurus using RBG-banding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mernies Beatriz

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Fragile sites (FS seem to play a role in genome instability and may be involved in karyotype evolution and chromosome aberrations. The majority of common fragile sites are induced by aphidicolin. Aphidicolin was used at two different concentrations (0.15 and 0.30 μM to study the occurrence of FS in the cattle karyotype. In this paper, a map of aphidicolin induced break points and fragile sites in cattle chromosomes was constructed. The statistical analysis indicated that any band with three or more breaks was significantly damaged (P r = 0.54. On the contrary, 21 FS were identified on negative R bands while 9 FS were located on positive R bands.

  13. Chiral symmetry breaking in three-dimensional quantum electrodynamics as fixed point annihilation

    CERN Document Server

    Herbut, Igor F

    2016-01-01

    Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in three dimensional ($d=3$) quantum electrodynamics is understood as annihilation of an infrared-stable fixed point that describes the large-N conformal phase by another unstable fixed point at a critical number of fermions $N=N_c$. We discuss the root of universality of $N_c$ in this picture, together with some features of the phase boundary in the $(d,N)$ plane. In particular, it is shown that as $d\\rightarrow 4$, $N_c\\rightarrow 0$ with a constant slope, our best estimate of which suggests that $N_c = 2.89$ in $d=3$.

  14. Chiral symmetry breaking in three-dimensional quantum electrodynamics as fixed point annihilation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbut, Igor F.

    2016-07-01

    Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in three-dimensional (d =3 ) quantum electrodynamics is understood as annihilation of an infrared-stable fixed point that describes the large-N conformal phase by another unstable fixed point at a critical number of fermions N =Nc. We discuss the root of universality of Nc in this picture, together with some features of the phase boundary in the (d ,N ) plane. In particular, it is shown that as d →4 , Nc→0 with a constant slope, our best estimate of which suggests that Nc=2.89 in d =3 .

  15. Identifying populations at risk from environmental contamination from point sources

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, F; Ogston, S

    2002-01-01

    Objectives: To compare methods for defining the population at risk from a point source of air pollution. A major challenge for environmental epidemiology lies in correctly identifying populations at risk from exposure to environmental pollutants. The complexity of today's environment makes it essential that the methods chosen are accurate and sensitive.

  16. Breaking a virus: Identifying molecular level failure modes of a viral capsid by multiscale modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamani, V.; Globisch, C.; Peter, C.; Deserno, M.

    2016-07-01

    We use coarse-grained (CG) simulations to study the deformation of empty Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus (CCMV) capsids under uniaxial compression, from the initial elastic response up to capsid breakage. Our CG model is based on the MARTINI force field and has been amended by a stabilizing elastic network, acting only within individual proteins, that was tuned to capture the fluctuation spectrum of capsid protein dimers, obtained from all atom simulations. We have previously shown that this model predicts force-compression curves that match AFM indentation experiments on empty CCMV capsids. Here we investigate details of the actual breaking events when the CCMV capsid finally fails. We present a symmetry classification of all relevant protein contacts and show that they differ significantly in terms of stability. Specifically, we show that interfaces which break readily are precisely those which are believed to form last during assembly, even though some of them might share the same contacts as other non-breaking interfaces. In particular, the interfaces that form pentamers of dimers never break, while the virtually identical interfaces within hexamers of dimers readily do. Since these units differ in the large-scale geometry and, most noticeably, the cone-angle at the center of the 5- or 6-fold vertex, we propose that the hexameric unit fails because it is pre-stressed. This not only suggests that hexamers of dimers form less frequently during the early stages of assembly; it also offers a natural explanation for the well-known β-barrel motif at the hexameric center as a post-aggregation stabilization mechanism. Finally, we identify those amino acid contacts within all key protein interfaces that are most persistent during compressive deformation of the capsid, thereby providing potential targets for mutation studies aiming to elucidate the key contacts upon which overall stability rests.

  17. Analysis of boundary point (break point) in Linear Delay Model for nanoscale VLSI standard cell library characterization at PVT corners

    CERN Document Server

    Agarwal, Gaurav Kumar

    2014-01-01

    In VLSI chip design flow, Static Timing Analysis (STA) is used for fast and accurate analysis of data-path delay. This process is fast because delay is picked from Look Up Tables (LUT) rather than conventional SPICE simulations. But accuracy of this method depends upon the underlying delay model with which LUT was characterized. Non Linear Delay Model (NLDM) based LUTs are quite common in industries. These LUT requires huge amount to time during characterization because of huge number of SPICE simulations done at arbitrary points. To improve this people proposed various other delay models like alpha-power and piecewise linear delay models. Bulusu et al proposed Linear Delay Model(LDM) which reduces LUT generation time to 50 percent. LDM divides delay curve w.r.t input rise time(trin) into two different region one is linear and other is non-linear. This boundary point between linear and non- linear region was called break point (trb). Linear region will be done if we simulate at only two points. This advantage...

  18. RUBIC identifies driver genes by detecting recurrent DNA copy number breaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dyk, Ewald; Hoogstraat, Marlous; Ten Hoeve, Jelle; Reinders, Marcel J T; Wessels, Lodewyk F A

    2016-01-01

    The frequent recurrence of copy number aberrations across tumour samples is a reliable hallmark of certain cancer driver genes. However, state-of-the-art algorithms for detecting recurrent aberrations fail to detect several known drivers. In this study, we propose RUBIC, an approach that detects recurrent copy number breaks, rather than recurrently amplified or deleted regions. This change of perspective allows for a simplified approach as recursive peak splitting procedures and repeated re-estimation of the background model are avoided. Furthermore, we control the false discovery rate on the level of called regions, rather than at the probe level, as in competing algorithms. We benchmark RUBIC against GISTIC2 (a state-of-the-art approach) and RAIG (a recently proposed approach) on simulated copy number data and on three SNP6 and NGS copy number data sets from TCGA. We show that RUBIC calls more focal recurrent regions and identifies a much larger fraction of known cancer genes. PMID:27396759

  19. RUBIC identifies driver genes by detecting recurrent DNA copy number breaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dyk, Ewald; Hoogstraat, Marlous; ten Hoeve, Jelle; Reinders, Marcel J. T.; Wessels, Lodewyk F. A.

    2016-01-01

    The frequent recurrence of copy number aberrations across tumour samples is a reliable hallmark of certain cancer driver genes. However, state-of-the-art algorithms for detecting recurrent aberrations fail to detect several known drivers. In this study, we propose RUBIC, an approach that detects recurrent copy number breaks, rather than recurrently amplified or deleted regions. This change of perspective allows for a simplified approach as recursive peak splitting procedures and repeated re-estimation of the background model are avoided. Furthermore, we control the false discovery rate on the level of called regions, rather than at the probe level, as in competing algorithms. We benchmark RUBIC against GISTIC2 (a state-of-the-art approach) and RAIG (a recently proposed approach) on simulated copy number data and on three SNP6 and NGS copy number data sets from TCGA. We show that RUBIC calls more focal recurrent regions and identifies a much larger fraction of known cancer genes. PMID:27396759

  20. Breaking Bat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Isaac-Cesar; Kagan, David

    2013-01-01

    The sight of a broken bat in Major League Baseball can produce anything from a humorous dribbler in the infield to a frightening pointed projectile headed for the stands. Bats usually break at the weakest point, typically in the handle. Breaking happens because the wood gets bent beyond the breaking point due to the wave sent down the bat created…

  1. Lidar point density analysis: implications for identifying water bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worstell, Bruce B.; Poppenga, Sandra; Evans, Gayla A.; Prince, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    Most airborne topographic light detection and ranging (lidar) systems operate within the near-infrared spectrum. Laser pulses from these systems frequently are absorbed by water and therefore do not generate reflected returns on water bodies in the resulting void regions within the lidar point cloud. Thus, an analysis of lidar voids has implications for identifying water bodies. Data analysis techniques to detect reduced lidar return densities were evaluated for test sites in Blackhawk County, Iowa, and Beltrami County, Minnesota, to delineate contiguous areas that have few or no lidar returns. Results from this study indicated a 5-meter radius moving window with fewer than 23 returns (28 percent of the moving window) was sufficient for delineating void regions. Techniques to provide elevation values for void regions to flatten water features and to force channel flow in the downstream direction also are presented.

  2. Summer holidays as break-point in shaping a tannery sludge microbial community around a stable core microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Cesira; Boscaro, Vittorio; Munz, Giulio; Mori, Gualtiero; Vannini, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Recently, several investigations focused on the discovery of a bacterial consortium shared among different wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Nevertheless, the definition of a core microbiota over time represents the necessary counterpart in order to unravel the dynamics of bacterial communities in these environments. Here we performed a monthly survey on the bacterial community of a consortial industrial plant. Objectives of this study were: (1) to identify a core microbiota constant over time; (2) to evaluate the temporal dynamics of the community during one year. A conspicuous and diversified core microbiota is constituted by operational taxonomic units which are present throughout the year in the plant. Community composition data confirm that the presence and abundance of bacteria in WWTPs is highly consistent at high taxonomic level. Our results indicate however a difference in microbial community structure between two groups of samples, identifying the summer holiday period as the break-point. Changes in the structure of the microbial community occur otherwise gradually, one month after another. Further studies will clarify how the size and diversity of the core microbiota could affect the observed dynamics. PMID:27461169

  3. Break Point Distribution on Chromosome 3 of Human Epithelial Cells exposed to Gamma Rays, Neutrons and Fe Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hada, M.; Saganti, P. B.; Gersey, B.; Wilkins, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wu, H.

    2007-01-01

    Most of the reported studies of break point distribution on the damaged chromosomes from radiation exposure were carried out with the G-banding technique or determined based on the relative length of the broken chromosomal fragments. However, these techniques lack the accuracy in comparison with the later developed multicolor banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) technique that is generally used for analysis of intrachromosomal aberrations such as inversions. Using mBAND, we studied chromosome aberrations in human epithelial cells exposed in vitro to both low or high dose rate gamma rays in Houston, low dose rate secondary neutrons at Los Alamos National Laboratory and high dose rate 600 MeV/u Fe ions at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory. Detailed analysis of the inversion type revealed that all of the three radiation types induced a low incidence of simple inversions. Half of the inversions observed after neutron or Fe ion exposure, and the majority of inversions in gamma-irradiated samples were accompanied by other types of intrachromosomal aberrations. In addition, neutrons and Fe ions induced a significant fraction of inversions that involved complex rearrangements of both inter- and intrachromosome exchanges. We further compared the distribution of break point on chromosome 3 for the three radiation types. The break points were found to be randomly distributed on chromosome 3 after neutrons or Fe ions exposure, whereas non-random distribution with clustering break points was observed for gamma-rays. The break point distribution may serve as a potential fingerprint of high-LET radiation exposure.

  4. A nontrivial critical fixed point for replica-symmetry-breaking transitions

    CERN Document Server

    Charbonneau, Patrick

    2016-01-01

    The transformation of the free-energy landscape from smooth to fractal is the richest feature of mean-field disordered systems. A well-studied example is the de Almeida-Thouless transition for spin glasses in a magnetic field, and a similar phenomenon--the Gardner transition--has recently been predicted for structural glasses. However, the existence of these phase transitions has been called into question below the upper critical dimension d_u=6. Here, we obtain evidence for these transitions in dimensions didentifies the underlying critical fixed point. Because this fixed point is found in the strong-coupling regime, we further corroborate the result with a nonperturbative renormalization group treatment.

  5. A new approach to assess COPD by identifying lung function break-points

    OpenAIRE

    Eriksson, Göran

    2015-01-01

    Göran Eriksson,1,* Linnea Jarenbäck,1,* Stefan Peterson,2 Jaro Ankerst,1 Leif Bjermer,1 Ellen Tufvesson11Respiratory Medicine and Allergology, Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University, 2Regional Cancer Center South, Skåne University Hospital, Lund, Sweden*These authors contributed equally to this workPurpose: COPD is a progressive disease, which can take different routes, leading to great heterogeneity. The aim of the post-hoc analysis reported her...

  6. Universal breaking point asymptotic for energy spectrum of Riemann waves in weakly nonlinear non-dispersive media

    CERN Document Server

    Kartashova, Elena

    2013-01-01

    In this Letter we study the form of the energy spectrum of Riemann waves in weakly nonlinear non-dispersive media. For quadratic and cubic nonlinearity we demonstrate that the deformation of an Riemann wave over time yields an exponential energy spectrum which turns into power law asymptotic with the slope being approximately -8/3 at the last stage of evolution before breaking. We argue, that this is the universal asymptotic behaviour of Riemann waves in any nonlinear non-dispersive medium at the point of breaking. The results reported in this Letter can be used in various non-dispersive media, e.g. magneto-hydro dynamics, physical oceanography, nonlinear acoustics.

  7. Influence of neutron correlations on nuclear break-up reaction both from theoretical and experimental point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear break-up has been studied both from an experimental and a theoretical point of view and has shown to be a powerful tool to probe nucleon correlations in nuclei. A theory beyond mean-field, called TDDM, (Time Dependant Density Matrix) taking into account two-body correlations has been developed. The dynamical evolution of a correlated nuclei can be described and especially nuclear break-up. This study shows that the distributions of relative angle between the two neutrons strongly differ when varying initial correlations: two nucleons close together in the nuclei will lead to small relative angle after emission whereas two nucleons far from each other gives large relative angles. From an experimental point of view, correlations between the two neutrons in the halo of the Borromean nucleus He6 have been investigated. Its ground state is predicted to have two dominant configurations: the di-neutron configuration where the two neutrons are very close to each other and the cigar configuration, where the two neutrons are on opposite side with respect to the core. Nuclear break-up of He6 on a lead target has been studied at GANIL with a SPIRAL beam. The alpha particles coming out of the break-up where detected by a stripped Silicon detector coupled to a Silicon-Lithium detector and the neutrons by EDEN and the Neutron Wall, in order to get a large angular coverage. Angular correlation functions extracted from data show both strong correlation at small relative angles and at large relative angle corresponding respectively to the contribution of the di-neutron configuration and of the cigar like configuration. So He6 ground state seems to be a superposition of these two configurations. (author)

  8. Numerical Simulation of Spatial Lag Between Wave Breaking Point and Location of Maximum Wave-Induced Current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jin-hai; TANG Yu

    2009-01-01

    A quasi three-dimensional numerical model of wave-driven coastal currents with the effects of surface rollers is developed for the study of the spatial lag between the location of the maximum wave-induced current and the wave breaking point.The governing equations are derived from Navier-Stokes equations and solved by the hybrid method combining the fractional step finite different method in the horizontal plane with a Galerkin finite element method in the vertical direction.The surface rollers effects are considered through incorporating the creation and evolution of the roller area into the free surface shear stress.An energy equation facilitates the computation process which transfers the wave breaking energy dissipation to the surface roller energy.The wave driver model is a phase-averaged wave model based on the wave action balance equation.Two sets of laboratory experiments producing breaking waves that generated longshore currents on a planar beach are used to evaluate the model's performance.The present wave-driven coastal current model with the roller effect in the surface shear stress term can produce satisfactory results by increasing the wave-induced nearshore current velocity inside the surf zone and shifting the location of the maximum longshore current velocity landward.

  9. Netrin signaling breaks the equivalence between two identified zebrafish motoneurons revealing a new role of intermediate targets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura A Hale

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously showed that equivalence between two identified zebrafish motoneurons is broken by interactions with identified muscle fibers that act as an intermediate target for the axons of these motoneurons. Here we investigate the molecular basis of the signaling interaction between the intermediate target and the motoneurons. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We provide evidence that Netrin 1a is an intermediate target-derived signal that causes two equivalent motoneurons to adopt distinct fates. We show that although these two motoneurons express the same Netrin receptors, their axons respond differently to Netrin 1a encountered at the intermediate target. Furthermore, we demonstrate that when Netrin 1a is knocked down, more distal intermediate targets that express other Netrins can also function to break equivalence between these motoneurons. SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest a new role for intermediate targets in breaking neuronal equivalence. The data we present reveal that signals encountered during axon pathfinding can cause equivalent neurons to adopt distinct fates. Such signals may be key in diversifying a neuronal population and leading to correct circuit formation.

  10. Breaking barriers to interoperability: assigning spatially and temporally unique identifiers to spaces and buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyke, Christopher R; Madan, Isaac

    2013-08-01

    The real estate industry routinely uses specialized information systems for functions, including design, construction, facilities management, brokerage, tax assessment, and utilities. These systems are mature and effective within vertically integrated market segments. However, new questions are reaching across these traditional information silos. For example, buyers may be interested in evaluating the design, energy efficiency characteristics, and operational performance of a commercial building. This requires the integration of information across multiple databases held by different institutions. Today, this type of data integration is difficult to automate and propone to errors due, in part, to the lack of generally accepted building and spaces identifiers. Moving forward, the real estate industry needs a new mechanism to assign identifiers for whole buildings and interior spaces for the purpose of interoperability, data exchange, and integration. This paper describes a systematic process to identify activities occurring at building or within interior spaces to provide a foundation for exchange and interoperability. We demonstrate the application of the approach with a prototype Web application. This concept and demonstration illustrate the elements of a practical interoperability framework that can increase productivity, create new business opportunities, and reduce errors, waste, and redundancy. PMID:23919918

  11. A comprehensive method for break points finding based on expert system for protection coordination in power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abyaneh, Hossein Askarian; Razavi, Farzad [Department of Electrical Engineering Amirkabir University of Technology (Iran); Al-Dabbagh, Majid [Hydro Tasmania Consulting (Australia); Sedeghi, Hossein [Department of Mathematics Tarbiat Moallem University, Tehran (Iran); Kazemikargar, Hossein [Zanjan University, Zanjan (Iran)

    2007-04-15

    Interconnected power systems are multi-loop structured. In such networks, the determination of settings for all overcurrent relays can be carried out in different forms and may be quite complicated. The main problem for coordination is the determination of starting points, i.e. the location of starting relays in the procedure for settings, which is referred to as break points. In this paper, a powerful approach based on expert system is applied. The rules of the expert system include network configuration, protection systems, fault levels, etc. The method is applied to two networks with different configurations, pilot protection and other protection systems. From the obtained results, it is reviled that the new method is efficient, accurate, comprehensive and more optimal than the previously used graph theory. (author)

  12. Genome-wide mapping of virulence in brown planthopper identifies loci that break down host plant resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Shengli; Zhang, Lei; Ma, Yinhua; Liu, Bingfang; Zhao, Yan; Yu, Hangjin; Zhou, Xi; Qin, Rui; Zhu, Lili; He, Guangcun

    2014-01-01

    Insects and plants have coexisted for over 350 million years and their interactions have affected ecosystems and agricultural practices worldwide. Variation in herbivorous insects' virulence to circumvent host resistance has been extensively documented. However, despite decades of investigation, the genetic foundations of virulence are currently unknown. The brown planthopper (Nilaparvata lugens) is the most destructive rice (Oryza sativa) pest in the world. The identification of the resistance gene Bph1 and its introduction in commercial rice varieties prompted the emergence of a new virulent brown planthopper biotype that was able to break the resistance conferred by Bph1. In this study, we aimed to construct a high density linkage map for the brown planthopper and identify the loci responsible for its virulence in order to determine their genetic architecture. Based on genotyping data for hundreds of molecular markers in three mapping populations, we constructed the most comprehensive linkage map available for this species, covering 96.6% of its genome. Fifteen chromosomes were anchored with 124 gene-specific markers. Using genome-wide scanning and interval mapping, the Qhp7 locus that governs preference for Bph1 plants was mapped to a 0.1 cM region of chromosome 7. In addition, two major QTLs that govern the rate of insect growth on resistant rice plants were identified on chromosomes 5 (Qgr5) and 14 (Qgr14). This is the first study to successfully locate virulence in the genome of this important agricultural insect by marker-based genetic mapping. Our results show that the virulence which overcomes the resistance conferred by Bph1 is controlled by a few major genes and that the components of virulence originate from independent genetic characters. The isolation of these loci will enable the elucidation of the molecular mechanisms underpinning the rice-brown planthopper interaction and facilitate the development of durable approaches for controlling this most

  13. A Free, Open-Source Tool for Identifying Urban Agglomerations Using Point Data

    OpenAIRE

    Day, Jennifer; Chen, Yiqun; Ellis, Peter; Roberts, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a software tool for identifying urban agglomerations in low-information settings. The framework outlined in this paper is designed to work using point data. Our tool and all required data are provided free and in open-source format. This paper describes the advantages and disadvantages of using point-based geographies in regional analysis, discusses the practical and ethical challenges of distinguishing urban from rural regions, details the function of our software, and d...

  14. Identifying entry points to improve fertilizer use efficiency in Taihu Basin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Li; Feng, S.; Reidsma, P.; Qu, F.; Heerink, N.

    2014-01-01

    Overuse of fertilizers in China causes environmental problems and high costs for farmers. In this paper we aim to identify entry points to improve fertilizer use efficiency in Taihu Basin, China. We use stochastic frontier analysis to estimate the technical and fertilizer use efficiency of rice prod

  15. A Combined Control Chart for Identifying Out–Of–Control Points in Multivariate Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marroquín–Prado E.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The Hotelling's T2 control chart is widely used to identify out–of–control signals in multivariate processes. However, this chart is not sensitive to small shifts in the process mean vec tor. In this work we propose a control chart to identify out–of–control signals. The proposed chart is a combination of Hotelling's T2 chart, M chart proposed by Hayter et al. (1994 and a new chart based on Principal Components. The combination of these charts identifies any type and size of change in the process mean vector. Us ing simulation and the Average Run Length (ARL, the performance of the proposed control chart is evaluated. The ARL means the average points within control before an out–of–control point is detected, The results of the simulation show that the proposed chart is more sensitive that each one of the three charts individually

  16. A New Method of Identifying 3D Null Points in Solar Vector Magnetic Fields

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Zhao; Jing-Xiu Wang; Jun Zhang; Chi-Jie Xiao

    2005-01-01

    Employing the Poincaré index of isolated null-points in a vector field,we worked out a mathematical method of searching for 3D null-points in coronal magnetic fields. After introducing the relevant differential topology, we test the method by using the analytical model of Brown & Priest. The location of nullpoint identified by our method coincides precisely with the analytical solution.Finally we apply the method to the 3D coronal magnetic fields reconstructed from an observed MDI magnetogram of a super-active region (NOAA 10488). We find that the 3D null-point seems to be a key element in the magnetic topology associated with flare occurrence.

  17. An Analysis of the Interactive Development between Lhasa and Shigatse from the Perspective of the Intensity of their Economic Contact and Regional Breaking Point

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Lilan

    2014-01-01

    In the Tibet Autonomous Region , Lhasa and Shigatse are the two core cities in the region’ s development , and they play a leading role for the development of other counties and cit-ies.From the perspective of research on urban ag-glomeration and urban geography , the two cities have a relationship of interactive contact and com-mon development .Within the context of rapid ur-banization in China , the interactive development between Lhasa and Shigatse has become an inevita-ble research focus for the socio-economic construc-tion of Tibet . The intensity of economic contact is used tomeasure the degree of regional economic ties.Onthe one hand, it can reflect the city’ s economiccenter ability to radiate out to the surrounding areas.On the other hand, it can also reflect the levelof acceptance of the surrounding areas to the city’s economic center ability to radiate out tothem.According to the results of economic calculation,the intensity of economic contact betweenLhasa and Shigatse from 2007 to 2011 steadily increasedwith an annual rate of about 20%.Thecontinuous increase of the intensity of economiccontact also meant that the influence of Lhasa andShigatse on the surrounding cities is expanding .Moreover, comparative data show that due to restrictionson the population and level of economicdevelopment, there is still a big gap in Lhasa andShigatse if compared with other urbanized areas inChina.However, regarding the increasing speedof the intensity of contact with other core cities,Lhasa and Shigatse have achieved remarkable a -chievements. During the 1930’ s, William J.Reilly proposedthe Law of Retail Gravitation which was usedby P.D.Converse in the field of urban managementto differentiate the scope of influence ofneighboring cities.In 1949, he put forward theconcept of “Breaking Point” together with a relevantcomputational formula.The Breaking Point isnormally determined by the scale of two cities andthe distance between them.According to the

  18. Inter-point procrustes: identifying regional and large differences in 3D anatomical shapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekadir, Karim; Frangi, Alejandro F; Yang, Guang-Zhong

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a new approach for the robust alignment and interpretation of 3D anatomical structures with large and localized shape differences. In such situations, existing techniques based on the well-known Procrustes analysis can be significantly affected due to the introduced non-Gaussian distribution of the residuals. In the proposed technique, influential points that induce large dissimilarities are identified and displaced with the aim to obtain an intermediate template with an improved distribution of the residuals. The key element of the algorithm is the use of pose invariant shape variables to robustly guide both the influential point detection and displacement steps. The intermediate template is then used as the basis for the estimation of the final pose parameters between the source and destination shapes, enabling to effectively highlight the regional differences of interest. The validation using synthetic and real datasets of different morphologies demonstrates robustness up-to 50% regional differences and potential for shape classification. PMID:23286119

  19. Higher-order time-symmetry-breaking phase transition due to meeting of an exceptional point and a Fano resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Garmon, Savannah; Kanki, Kazuki; Petrosky, Tomio

    2016-08-01

    We have theoretically investigated the time-symmetry-breaking phase-transition process for two discrete states coupled with a one-dimensional continuum by solving the nonlinear eigenvalue problem for the effective Hamiltonian associated with the discrete spectrum. We obtain the effective Hamiltonian with use of the Feshbach-Brillouin-Wigner projection method. Strong energy dependence of the self-energy appearing in the effective Hamiltonian plays a key role in the time-symmetry-breaking phase transition: As a result of competition in the decay process between the Van Hove singularity and the Fano resonance, the phase transition becomes a higher-order transition when both the two discrete states are located near the continuum threshold.

  20. Using Soluble Reactive Phosphorus and Ammonia to Identify Point Source Discharge from Large Livestock Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrello, M. C.; Scribner, M.; Chessin, K.

    2013-12-01

    A growing body of research draws attention to the negative environmental impacts on surface water from large livestock facilities. These impacts are mostly in the form of excessive nutrient loading resulting in significantly decreased oxygen levels. Over-application of animal waste on fields as well as direct discharge into surface water from facilities themselves has been identified as the main contributor to the development of hypoxic zones in Lake Erie, Chesapeake Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. Some regulators claim enforcement of water quality laws is problematic because of the nature and pervasiveness of non-point source impacts. Any direct discharge by a facility is a violation of permits governed by the Clean Water Act, unless the facility has special dispensation for discharge. Previous research by the principal author and others has shown runoff and underdrain transport are the main mechanisms by which nutrients enter surface water. This study utilized previous work to determine if the effects of non-point source discharge can be distinguished from direct (point-source) discharge using simple nutrient analysis and dissolved oxygen (DO) parameters. Nutrient and DO parameters were measured from three sites: 1. A stream adjacent to a field receiving manure, upstream of a large livestock facility with a history of direct discharge, 2. The same stream downstream of the facility and 3. A stream in an area relatively unimpacted by large-scale agriculture (control site). Results show that calculating a simple Pearson correlation coefficient (r) of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and ammonia over time as well as temperature and DO, distinguishes non-point source from point source discharge into surface water. The r value for SRP and ammonia for the upstream site was 0.01 while the r value for the downstream site was 0.92. The control site had an r value of 0.20. Likewise, r values were calculated on temperature and DO for each site. High negative correlations

  1. Concerning the proofs of spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in Q.C.D. from the effective lagrangian point of view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Claims that spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in Q.C.D. is mediated by the U(1) axial anomaly are examined from the viewpoint of effective chiral lagrangians. The proofs are seen to arise from a use of effective chiral lagrangians in which the U(1) axial symmetry is explicitly broken by effects of the anomaly. A U(1) axial invariant chiral lagrangian (to be presented) offers no such proof. (author)

  2. Detecting and identifying two-dimensional symmetry-protected topological, symmetry-breaking, and intrinsic topological phases with modular matrices via tensor-network methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ching-Yu; Wei, Tzu-Chieh

    2016-04-01

    Symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases exhibit nontrivial order if symmetry is respected but are adiabatically connected to the trivial product phase if symmetry is not respected. However, unlike the symmetry-breaking phase, there is no local order parameter for SPT phases. Here we employ a tensor-network method to compute the topological invariants characterized by the simulated modular S and T matrices to study transitions in a few families of two-dimensional (2D) wave functions which are ZN (N =2 and3 ) symmetric. We find that in addition to the topologically ordered phases, the modular matrices can be used to identify nontrivial SPT phases and detect transitions between different SPT phases as well as between symmetric and symmetry-breaking phases. Therefore modular matrices can be used to characterize various types of gapped phases in a unifying way.

  3. Forecasting Brazilian output and its turning points in the presence of breaks: a comparison of linear and nonlinear models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brisne J. V. Céspedes

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the forecasting performance of linear and nonlinear models under the presence of structural breaks for the Brazilian real GDP growth. The Markov switching models proposed by Hamilton (1989 and its generalized version by Lam (1990 are applied to quarterly GDP from 1975:1 to 2000:2 allowing for breaks at the Collor Plans. The probabilities of recessions are used to analyze the Brazilian business cycle. The in-sample and out-of-sample forecasting ability of growth rates of GDP of each model is compared with linear specifications and with a non-parametric rule. We find that the nonlinear models display a better forecasting performance than linear models. The specifications with the presence of structural breaks are important in obtaining a representation of the Brazilian business cycle and their inclusion improves considerably the models forecasting performance within and out-of-sample.Este artigo compara as habilidades preditivas de modelos lineares e não-lineares, com quebras estruturais, nas previsões da taxa de crescimento do PIB real do Brasil. Os modelos com mudanças de regime markovianas, propostos por Hamilton (1989 e generalizados por Lam (1990, são estimados para dados trimestrais de 1975:1 a 2000:2. Os modelos são estimados permitindo quebras estruturais durante os planos Collor. As probabilidades de recessão dos modelos são utilizadas para analisar o ciclo de negócios brasileiro. A capacidade de previsão da taxa de crescimento do PIB fora e dentro da amostra desses modelos é comparada com modelos lineares e com uma regra não-parametrizada. Os resultados indicam que os modelos não-lineares são os que apresentam o melhor desempenho preditivo quando comparados com modelos lineares. A inclusão de quebras estruturais é importante para a representação do ciclo de negócios no Brasil, além de levar a um desempenho de previsão consideravelmente melhor do que os modelos sem intervenção, dentro e fora de

  4. 3D/4D architecture of chromosomal break point regions in the cell nucleus following irradiation of normal cells and tumor cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of an effective analytical methodology for a correct description of oncogenic chromosomal aberrations is the challenge of medical radiobiology with respect to preventive therapeutic methods. Scope of the project was a better understanding of the behavior of break point regions dependent on the genome loci, the chromatin folding, the involved repair proteins and the beam quality with respect to an improvement and an efficient prognosis of the health consequences following radiation exposure. New microscopic insights in the normal cell nucleus are supposed to allow a better understanding of the spatial interactions on a molecular scale.

  5. How judges think in the Brazilian Supreme Court: Estimating ideal points and identifying dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Fernando Almeida Nery Ferreira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We use NOMINATE (Nominal Three Step Estimation (Poole and Rosenthal, 1983, 1997 to estimate ideal points for all Supreme Court Justices in Brazil from 2002 to 2012. Based on these estimated preferences we identify the nature of the two main dimensions along which disagreements tend to occur in this Court. These estimates correctly predict over 95% of the votes on constitutional review cases in each of the compositions of the Court which we analyze. The main contribution of the paper is to identify that the main dimension along which preferences align in the Brazilian Supreme Court is for and against the economic interest of the Executive. This is significantly different than the conservative-liberal polarization of the US Supreme Court. Our estimates show that along this dimension the composition of the Court has been clearly favorable to the Executive's economic interests, providing the setting in which the dramatic transformation in institutions and policies that the country has undergone in last two decades could take place.

  6. Nbs1 ChIP-Seq Identifies Off-Target DNA Double-Strand Breaks Induced by AID in Activated Splenic B Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyne Khair

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID is required for initiation of Ig class switch recombination (CSR and somatic hypermutation (SHM of antibody genes during immune responses. AID has also been shown to induce chromosomal translocations, mutations, and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs involving non-Ig genes in activated B cells. To determine what makes a DNA site a target for AID-induced DSBs, we identify off-target DSBs induced by AID by performing chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP for Nbs1, a protein that binds DSBs, followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-Seq. We detect and characterize hundreds of off-target AID-dependent DSBs. Two types of tandem repeats are highly enriched within the Nbs1-binding sites: long CA repeats, which can form Z-DNA, and tandem pentamers containing the AID target hotspot WGCW. These tandem repeats are not nearly as enriched at AID-independent DSBs, which we also identified. Msh2, a component of the mismatch repair pathway and important for genome stability, increases off-target DSBs, similar to its effect on Ig switch region DSBs, which are required intermediates during CSR. Most of the off-target DSBs are two-ended, consistent with generation during G1 phase, similar to DSBs in Ig switch regions. However, a minority are one-ended, presumably due to conversion of single-strand breaks to DSBs during replication. One-ended DSBs are repaired by processes involving homologous recombination, including break-induced replication repair, which can lead to genome instability. Off-target DSBs, especially those present during S phase, can lead to chromosomal translocations, deletions and gene amplifications, resulting in the high frequency of B cell lymphomas derived from cells that express or have expressed AID.

  7. The Effect of Using Break-Even-Point in Planning, Controlling, and Decision Making in the Industrial Jordanian Companies

    OpenAIRE

    Nabil Alnasser; Osama Samih Shaban; Ziad Al-Zubi

    2014-01-01

    This research study aimed to figure out the effect of using breakeven point in planning, controlling, and in the decision-making process, in the Jordanian industrial companies. This research study shed the light on the reality of the use of the breakeven point in the planning, controlling and decision-making in industrial companies in Jordan. The study sample of the study was formed out of 54 employees in the accounting departments in the Jordanian industrial companies. The study found out th...

  8. Analysis of economic break-even point of the biogas utilization for electrical power conversion: case study in a swine terminated unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work aimed to develop a study to estimate the break-even point in financial units of the electrical power generation using biogas from swine wastes. The analyzed biodigester is a continuous tubular model with brick concrete duct and plastic covering with a gasometer, and where the waste of 2,300 fattening pigs are deposited daily. The initial investment estimate for the installation was R$ 51,537.17. The system annual costs were R$ 5,708.20, for maintenance, R$ 4,390.40 for depreciation and R$ 1,366.77 for interests. It was noticed that with an average of consumption of 17.1 kW.hour-1 the system presents an annual loss of R$ 1,592.14 because the consumption of 27.85 kW.hour-1 is the minimum that should be consumed to achieve a corresponded financial break-even point of R$ 15,054.40.year-1. It was concluded that the correct technical dimensioning greatly influences on the economic results. (author)

  9. Detecting Structural Breaks using Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ntantamis, Christos

    Testing for structural breaks and identifying their location is essential for econometric modeling. In this paper, a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approach is used in order to perform these tasks. Breaks are defined as the data points where the underlying Markov Chain switches from one state to anoth...... in the monetary policy of United States, the dierent functional form being variants of the Taylor (1993) rule.......Testing for structural breaks and identifying their location is essential for econometric modeling. In this paper, a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approach is used in order to perform these tasks. Breaks are defined as the data points where the underlying Markov Chain switches from one state to another....... The estimation of the HMM is conducted using a variant of the Iterative Conditional Expectation-Generalized Mixture (ICE-GEMI) algorithm proposed by Delignon et al. (1997), that permits analysis of the conditional distributions of economic data and allows for different functional forms across regimes...

  10. Breaking Routines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesting, Peter; Jørgensen, Frances

    On some level, innovation begins when the current way of doing things is questioned and alternatives are sought. In cognitive terms, this can be conceptualized as the point at which an agent breaks with existing routine and returns to planning and decision-making. Thus far, however, very little...... is known about this cognitive structure or the factors that trigger the search for alternatives. In cooperation with the Danish Research Centre for Magnetic Resonance, University of Copenhagen, Denmark, we are in the process of designing an experimental study designed to gain insights into the triggers...

  11. Pointing and Reference in Sign Language and Spoken Language: Anchoring vs. Identifying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barberà, Gemma; Zwets, Martine

    2013-01-01

    In both signed and spoken languages, pointing serves to direct an addressee's attention to a particular entity. This entity may be either present or absent in the physical context of the conversation. In this article we focus on pointing directed to nonspeaker/nonaddressee referents in Sign Language of the Netherlands (Nederlandse Gebarentaal,…

  12. COST VOLUME PROFIT MODEL, THE BREAK -EVEN POINT AND THE DECISION MAKING PROCESS IN THE HOSPITALITY INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scorte Carmen

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Management accounting and cost calculation in the hospitality industry is a pathless land. The prezent article is a starting point of a long scientific approach on the domain of the hospitality industry and on the managerial accounting in this area. Our intention is to put the spot light back on the thorny problem of applying Financial Accounting and specifically its implementation in the hospitality industry. One aim of this article is to provide a picture of CVP analysis in decision making with customizing the hospitality industry. To cope with the crisis period, the competition and to achieve the expected profits of the hospitality industry ,managers have the possibility to apply CVP analysis, one of the most simple and useful analytical tools. This paper will address the basic version of the CVP model, exemplifying the main indicators of the particular model for the hospitality industry that can help guide decision-making.

  13. A new method to identify the location of the kick point during the golf swing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyce, Christopher; Burnett, Angus; Matthews, Miccal

    2013-12-01

    No method currently exists to determine the location of the kick point during the golf swing. This study consisted of two phases. In the first phase, the static kick point of 10 drivers (having identical grip and head but fitted with shafts of differing mass and stiffness) was determined by two methods: (1) a visual method used by professional club fitters and (2) an algorithm using 3D locations of markers positioned on the golf club. Using level of agreement statistics, we showed the latter technique was a valid method to determine the location of the static kick point. In phase two, the validated method was used to determine the dynamic kick point during the golf swing. Twelve elite male golfers had three shots analyzed for two drivers fitted with stiff shafts of differing mass (56 g and 78 g). Excellent between-trial reliability was found for dynamic kick point location. Differences were found for dynamic kick point location when compared with static kick point location, as well as between-shaft and within-shaft. These findings have implications for future investigations examining the bending behavior of golf clubs, as well as being useful to examine relationships between properties of the shaft and launch parameters. PMID:23271218

  14. A Mismatch EndoNuclease Array-Based Methodology (MENA for Identifying Known SNPs or Novel Point Mutations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josep M. Comeron

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and rapid identification or confirmation of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs, point mutations and other human genomic variation facilitates understanding the genetic basis of disease. We have developed a new methodology (called MENA (Mismatch EndoNuclease Array pairing DNA mismatch endonuclease enzymology with tiling microarray hybridization in order to genotype both known point mutations (such as SNPs as well as identify previously undiscovered point mutations and small indels. We show that our assay can rapidly genotype known SNPs in a human genomic DNA sample with 99% accuracy, in addition to identifying novel point mutations and small indels with a false discovery rate as low as 10%. Our technology provides a platform for a variety of applications, including: (1 genotyping known SNPs as well as confirming newly discovered SNPs from whole genome sequencing analyses; (2 identifying novel point mutations and indels in any genomic region from any organism for which genome sequence information is available; and (3 screening panels of genes associated with particular diseases and disorders in patient samples to identify causative mutations. As a proof of principle for using MENA to discover novel mutations, we report identification of a novel allele of the beethoven (btv gene in Drosophila, which encodes a ciliary cytoplasmic dynein motor protein important for auditory mechanosensation.

  15. Optimal Cutoff Points of Anthropometric Parameters to Identify High Coronary Heart Disease Risk in Korean Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sang Hyuck; Choi, Hyunrim; Won, Chang Won; Kim, Byung-Sung

    2016-01-01

    Several published studies have reported the need to change the cutoff points of anthropometric indices for obesity. We therefore conducted a cross-sectional study to estimate anthropometric cutoff points predicting high coronary heart disease (CHD) risk in Korean adults. We analyzed the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2007 to 2010. A total of 21,399 subjects aged 20 to 79 yr were included in this study (9,204 men and 12,195 women). We calculated the 10-yr Framingham coronary heart disease risk score for all individuals. We then estimated receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curves for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and waist-to-height ratio to predict a 10-yr CHD risk of 20% or more. For sensitivity analysis, we conducted the same analysis for a 10-yr CHD risk of 10% or more. For a CHD risk of 20% or more, the area under the curve of waist-to-height ratio was the highest, followed by waist circumference and BMI. The optimal cutoff points in men and women were 22.7 kg/m(2) and 23.3 kg/m(2) for BMI, 83.2 cm and 79.7 cm for waist circumference, and 0.50 and 0.52 for waist-to-height ratio, respectively. In sensitivity analysis, the results were the same as those reported above except for BMI in women. Our results support the re-classification of anthropometric indices and suggest the clinical use of waist-to-height ratio as a marker for obesity in Korean adults.

  16. African American Young Adult Smoking Initiation: Identifying Intervention Points and Prevention Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline

    2014-01-01

    Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…

  17. Automatic Method for Identifying Photospheric Bright Points and Granules Observed by Sunrise

    CERN Document Server

    Javaherian, Mohsen; Amiri, Ali; Ziaei, Shervin

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we propose methods for the automatic detection of photospheric features (bright points and granules) from ultra-violet (UV) radiation, using a feature-based classifier. The methods use quiet-Sun observations at 214 nm and 525 nm images taken by Sunrise on 9 June 2009. The function of region growing and mean shift procedure are applied to segment the bright points (BPs) and granules, respectively. Zernike moments of each region are computed. The Zernike moments of BPs, granules, and other features are distinctive enough to be separated using a support vector machine (SVM) classifier. The size distribution of BPs can be fitted with a power-law slope -1.5. The peak value of granule sizes is found to be about 0.5 arcsec^2. The mean value of the filling factor of BPs is 0.01, and for granules it is 0.51. There is a critical scale for granules so that small granules with sizes smaller than 2.5 arcsec^2 cover a wide range of brightness, while the brightness of large granules approaches unity. The mean...

  18. Diverse origins of Arctic and Subarctic methane point source emissions identified with multiply-substituted isotopologues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, P. M. J.; Stolper, D. A.; Smith, D. A.; Walter Anthony, K. M.; Paull, C. K.; Dallimore, S.; Wik, M.; Crill, P. M.; Winterdahl, M.; Eiler, J. M.; Sessions, A. L.

    2016-09-01

    Methane is a potent greenhouse gas, and there are concerns that its natural emissions from the Arctic could act as a substantial positive feedback to anthropogenic global warming. Determining the sources of methane emissions and the biogeochemical processes controlling them is important for understanding present and future Arctic contributions to atmospheric methane budgets. Here we apply measurements of multiply-substituted isotopologues, or clumped isotopes, of methane as a new tool to identify the origins of ebullitive fluxes in Alaska, Sweden and the Arctic Ocean. When methane forms in isotopic equilibrium, clumped isotope measurements indicate the formation temperature. In some microbial methane, however, non-equilibrium isotope effects, probably related to the kinetics of methanogenesis, lead to low clumped isotope values. We identify four categories of emissions in the studied samples: thermogenic methane, deep subsurface or marine microbial methane formed in isotopic equilibrium, freshwater microbial methane with non-equilibrium clumped isotope values, and mixtures of deep and shallow methane (i.e., combinations of the first three end members). Mixing between deep and shallow methane sources produces a non-linear variation in clumped isotope values with mixing proportion that provides new constraints for the formation environment of the mixing end-members. Analyses of microbial methane emitted from lakes, as well as a methanol-consuming methanogen pure culture, support the hypothesis that non-equilibrium clumped isotope values are controlled, in part, by kinetic isotope effects induced during enzymatic reactions involved in methanogenesis. Our results indicate that these kinetic isotope effects vary widely in microbial methane produced in Arctic lake sediments, with non-equilibrium Δ18 values spanning a range of more than 5‰.

  19. Enhancing Supply Chain Connectivity and Competitiveness of ASEAN Agricultural Products: Identifying Choke Points and Opportunities for Improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Israel, Danilo C.; Roehlano M. Briones

    2014-01-01

    This study examines "choke points" in the supply chain of two selected commodity groups that are of interest to the ASEAN region; within the HS15 group the study focuses on crude coconut oil (CNO); for HS03 the study covers fish and crustacean, mollusks, and other aquatic invertebrates (HS 03). For CNO, no major choke points have been identified from mill site to export stages; cost and delay factors can be found at the farm to mill stage, namely low farm productivity, poor postharvest practi...

  20. Genetic analysis of wild-isolated Neurospora crassa strains identified as dominant suppressors of repeat-induced point mutation.

    OpenAIRE

    Bhat, Ashwin; Noubissi, Felicite K.; Vyas, Meenal; Kasbekar, Durgadas P

    2003-01-01

    Repeat-induced point mutation (RIP) in Neurospora results in inactivation of duplicated DNA sequences. RIP is thought to provide protection against foreign elements such as retrotransposons, only one of which has been found in N. crassa. To examine the role of RIP in nature, we have examined seven N. crassa strains, identified among 446 wild isolates scored for dominant suppression of RIP. The test system involved a small duplication that targets RIP to the easily scorable gene erg-3. We prev...

  1. An Investigation on the Relationship between Breaking Loads and Deflections in Three Points Bending Test of Camshaft%凸轮轴三点弯曲断裂载荷与挠度的关系研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈保罗; 李莉; 高致文; 张昊

    2012-01-01

    使用WE-500型液压式万能拉伸试验机测定了IAE6半激冷合金铸铁凸轮轴的三点弯曲断裂载荷,研究了其三点弯曲断裂载荷和挠度之间的关系.研究表明:(1)不同炉次的凸轮轴的三点弯曲断裂载荷存在一定的分散性;(2)凸轮轴的三点弯曲断裂载荷与挠度之间存在正相关关系,凸轮轴中含有适量碳化物对其强度和挠度都是有益的.%The breaking load in three points bending test of the 1AE6 semi-chilled alloyed cast iron camshaft was determined by using WE-500 model hydraulic universal tensile test machine and thereby the relationship between its breaking loads and ite defections was; investigated. The resuit showed: (a )There was some dispersivity existing in the three point bonding breaking loads of camshafts of different melting heats; (b)There was a positive correlation existing between the breaking loads and deflections, and a proper amount of carbide contained in the camshaft was beneficial to both its strength and deflection.

  2. Break It

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MATTHEW PLOWRIGHT; GWYNN GUILFORD

    2008-01-01

    @@ Resolutions are not natural - otherwise you wouldn't have to "resolve" to execute them. This year, instead of planning how to commit to a slew of unattainable goals, why not prepare for breaking your resolutions the right way?

  3. Whole exome sequencing identifies the first STRADA point mutation in a patient with polyhydramnios, megalencephaly, and symptomatic epilepsy syndrome (PMSE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Weimin; Glass, Ian A; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; Eng, Christine M; Yang, Yaping; Sun, Angela

    2016-08-01

    Polyhydramnios, megalencephaly, and symptomatic epilepsy syndrome (PMSE) is an ultra rare neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe, infantile-onset intractable epilepsy, neurocognitive delay, macrocephaly, and craniofacial dysmorphism. The molecular diagnosis of this condition has thus far only been made in 16 Old Order Mennonite patients carrying a homozygous 7 kb founder deletion of exons 9-13 of STRADA. We performed clinical whole exome sequencing (WES) on a 4-year-old Indian male with global developmental delay, history of failure to thrive, infantile spasms, repetitive behaviors, hypotonia, low muscle mass, marked joint laxity, and dysmorphic facial features including tall forehead, long face, arched eyebrows, small chin, wide mouth, and tented upper lip. A homozygous single nucleotide duplication, c.842dupA (p.D281fs), in exon 10 of STRADA was identified. Sanger sequencing confirmed the mutation in the individual and identified both parents as carriers. In light of the molecular discoveries, the patient's clinical phenotype was considered to be a good fit for PMSE. We identified for the first time a homozygous point mutation in STRADA causing PMSE. Additional bi-allelic mutations related to PMSE thus far have not been observed in Baylor ∼6,000 consecutive clinical WES cases, supporting the rarity of this disorder. Our findings may have treatment implications for the patient since previous studies have shown rapamycin as a potential therapeutic agent for the seizures and cognitive problems in PMSE patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27170158

  4. An Efficient and Optimal Filter for Identifying Point Sources in Millimeter/Sub-Millimeter Wavelength Sky Maps

    CERN Document Server

    Perera, T A; Scott, K S; Austermann, J E; Schaar, J R; Mancera, A

    2013-01-01

    A new technique for reliably identifying point sources in millimeter/sub-millimeter wavelength maps is presented. This method accounts for the frequency dependence of noise in the Fourier domain as well as non-uniformities in the coverage of a field. This optimal filter is an improvement over commonly-used matched filters that ignore coverage gradients. Treating noise variations in the Fourier domain as well as map space is traditionally viewed as a computationally intensive problem. We show that the penalty incurred in terms of computing time is quite small due to casting many of the calculations in terms of FFTs and exploiting the absence of sharp features in the noise spectra of observations. Practical aspects of implementing the optimal filter are presented in the context of data from the AzTEC bolometer camera. The advantages of using the new filter over the standard matched filter are also addressed in terms of a typical AzTEC map.

  5. A point-based angular analysis model for identifying attributes of spaces at nodes in street networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Sang Kyu; Ban, Yong Un

    2016-05-01

    The effects of the axial map as the key representation of the original space syntax have been questioned by some researchers because of the map's discontinuity. To address this concern, angular segment analysis (ASA) was introduced. ASA calculates spatial depths by considering the turning angles of path segments in a street network. However, ASA cannot calculate the attributes of nodes connected to path segments in the network because it analyzes spaces by linear representation, as in the original space syntax. Because the attributes of the two ends (nodes) of a given path segment (link) are not equal to each other, and because they can affect pedestrian and vehicle movement and land use in a street network, the identification of the attributes at nodes (points) would be helpful in the detailed analysis of spaces in the network consisting of nodes and the segments connecting them. Accordingly, this study aims to develop an extended analysis model that can calculate the attributes of spaces at the nodes, including terminuses, bends, and junctions, in the network. To achieve this end, in this study we developed algorithms for a point-based angular analysis (PAA) to find the attributes of spaces at nodes (points), in contrast to ASA, which analyzes spaces using linear representations. As a result, this methodology can obtain distinct values for the attributes of two nodes at the ends of a path segment, through the calculation of spatial depths weighted by considering the turning angles and distances (lengths) along consecutive nodes for a route in the network. Through our methodology, it was identified that spatial configurations of street network affect the social and symbolic centralities of nodes in the network. We believe that our methodology can be a useful tool for planning urban streets and for deriving spatial and social relationships in street networks.

  6. Detecting multiple breaks in geodetic time series using indicator saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Luke; Pretis, Felix

    2016-04-01

    Identifying the timing and magnitude of breaks in geodetic time series has been the source of much discussion. Instruments recording different geophysical phenomena may record long term trends, quasi-periodic signals at a variety of time scales from days to decades, and sudden breaks due to natural or anthropogenic causes, ranging from instrument replacement to earthquakes. Records can not always be relied upon to be continuous in time, yet one may desire to accurately bridge gaps without performing interpolation. We apply the novel Indicator Saturation (IS) method to identify breaks in a synthetic GPS time series used for the Detection of Offsets in GPS Experiments (DOGEX). The IS approach differs from alternative break detection methods by considering every point in the time series as a break, until it is demonstrated statistically that it is not. Saturating a model with a full set of break functions and removing all but significant ones, formulates the detection of breaks as a problem of model selection. This allows multiple breaks of different forms (from impulses, to shifts in the mean, and changing trends) without requiring a minimum break-length to be detected, while simultaneously modelling any underlying variation driven by additional covariates. To address selection bias in the coefficients, we demonstrate the bias-corrected estimates of break coefficients when using step-shifts in the mean of the modelled time-series. The regimes of the time-varying mean of the time-series (the `coefficient path' of the intercept determined by the detected breaks) can be used to conduct hypothesis tests on whether subsequent shifts offset each other - for example whether a measurement change induces a temporary bias rather than a permanent one. We explore this non-classical analysis method to see if it can bring about the sub millimetre errors in long term rates of land motion currently required by the GPS community.

  7. Identifying non-point source critical source areas based on multi-factors at a basin scale with SWAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ruimin; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Peipei; Yu, Wenwen; Men, Cong

    2016-02-01

    The identification of critical source areas (CSAs) is a precondition for non-point source (NPS) pollution control at a basin scale, especially in areas with limited resources. Based on the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT), nutrient loads coupled with population density and water quality requirements are regarded as multi-factors for CSAs identification in Xiangxi river watershed, the first tributary of the Yangtze River. The results based on the calibrated model found that the subbasins heavily and seriously polluted by nutrient loads were different from the subbasins identified as CSAs, demonstrating integrating socio-economic factors like population density and water quality requirements to identify CSAs is of much necessity. The CSAs occupied 19.7% of the total subbasins, and accounted for 53% total nitrogen loads, 54% total phosphorus loads and 36% of the total population. Considering the model calibration and validation will take a long time as well as data deficiency in some subbasins, the influence of uncalibrated SWAT on CSAs identifications was discussed. The comparative results between CSAs identification with calibrated and uncalibrated SWAT model revealed that model calibration had little effect on nutrients distribution and CSAs locations in the study area. Uncalibrated SWAT model may be applied when the research objective is less related to model calibration. The results will be greatly effective for CSAs identification and NPS pollution control at a basin scale.

  8. The Break

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Anete Mikkala Camille

    2016-01-01

    storytelling to enact fruitful breakings of patterns unbecoming. The claim being, that the hamster wheel of Work-life anno 2016 needs reconfiguration and the simple yet fruitful manner by which this is done is through acknowledging the benefits of bodies, spaces and artifacts – and the benefits of actually...... taking a break, discontinuing for a moment in order to continue better, wiser and more at ease. Both within and as part of the daily routines, and – now and then – outside these routines in the majesty of nature with time to explore and redirect the course of life in companionships with fellow man...

  9. String breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Bali, G S; Lippert, T; Neff, H; Prkacin, Z; Schilling, K; Bali, Gunnar S; Dussel, Thomas; Lippert, Thomas; Neff, Hartmut; Prkacin, Zdravko; Schilling, Klaus

    2006-01-01

    We numerically investigate the transition of the static quark-antiquark string into a static-light meson-antimeson system. Improving noise reduction techniques, we are able to resolve the signature of string breaking dynamics for Nf=2 lattice QCD at zero temperature. We discuss the lattice techniques used and present results on energy levels and mixing angle of the static two-state system. We visualize the action density distribution in the region of string breaking as a function of the static colour source-antisource separation. The results can be related to properties of quarkonium systems.

  10. The precipitation driven correlation based mapping method (PCM) for identifying the critical source areas of non-point source pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinhui Jeanne; Lin, Xiaojuan; Wang, Jianhua; Wang, Hao

    2015-05-01

    Critical source areas (CSAs) are the areas that are relatively more erosion-prone and contribute significantly more pollutants per unit area. They have been widely recognized as optimal locations for the control of non-point source (NPS) pollution. Modeling approach has been frequently used to identify the CSAs of NPS pollution on a basin scale. In previous studies, CSAs were identified based on the simulated average annual nutrient yields for the simulation period at the levels of sub-basin or hydrologic response unit (HRU). However, this method did not consider the impact of uneven spatial distribution of precipitation, which is considered to be the driven force of NPS pollution. In many cases, due to limited length of qualified monitoring data collected, the simulation period may not cover a full spectrum of the precipitation characteristics so that some potential CSAs may be missed. In the present study, the precipitation driven correlation based mapping method (PCM) was proposed, which can reduce the impact of uncertain spatial-temporal distribution of precipitation and identify the CSAs of NPS pollution with a better coverage. This method was applied to the Zhang River Basin, a watershed in North China that occupies an area of 18,072 km2. The SWAT (Soil and Water Assessment Tool) was used for simulation purposes. By using PCM, the maps of CSAs for controlling total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) were produced. This study has found that the monthly precipitation is highly correlated with the TN and TP yields. It was observed that TN yields have slightly higher correlation value with the precipitation than TP yields. Hence, the precipitation has more impacts on TN yields than TP yields. The impact is more substantial in urban areas than other areas.

  11. A model of intrinsic symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Li [Research Center for Quantum Manipulation, Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, Sheng [Department of Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Zhejiang 310004 (China); George, Thomas F., E-mail: tfgeorge@umsl.edu [Office of the Chancellor and Center for Nanoscience, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Sun, Xin, E-mail: xin_sun@fudan.edu.cn [Research Center for Quantum Manipulation, Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)

    2013-11-01

    Different from the symmetry breaking associated with a phase transition, which occurs when the controlling parameter is manipulated across a critical point, the symmetry breaking presented in this Letter does not need parameter manipulation. Instead, the system itself suddenly undergoes symmetry breaking at a certain time during its evolution, which is intrinsic symmetry breaking. Through a polymer model, it is revealed that the origin of the intrinsic symmetry breaking is nonlinearity, which produces instability at the instance when the evolution crosses an inflexion point, where this instability breaks the original symmetry.

  12. Supersymmetry breaking

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Emilian Dudas

    2009-01-01

    We review the various mechanisms of supersymmetry breaking and its trans-mission to the observable sector. We argue that hybrid models where gauge dominates over gravity mediation, but gravity provides the main contributions to the Higgs sector masses and the neutralino mass, are able to combine the advantages and reduce the disadvantages of the two transmission mechanisms.

  13. 3D/4D architecture of chromosomal break point regions in the cell nucleus following irradiation of normal cells and tumor cells; 3D/4D Architektur von chromosomalen Bruchpunktregionen im Zellkern nach Bestrahlung von Normalzellen und Tumorzellen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hausmann, M.; Cremer, C.; Friedl, A.; Dollinger, G.; Loebrich, M.; Friedland, W.

    2015-01-15

    The development of an effective analytical methodology for a correct description of oncogenic chromosomal aberrations is the challenge of medical radiobiology with respect to preventive therapeutic methods. Scope of the project was a better understanding of the behavior of break point regions dependent on the genome loci, the chromatin folding, the involved repair proteins and the beam quality with respect to an improvement and an efficient prognosis of the health consequences following radiation exposure. New microscopic insights in the normal cell nucleus are supposed to allow a better understanding of the spatial interactions on a molecular scale.

  14. 基于扩展断裂点模型的农村居民点整理布局优化%Layout optimization for rural settlements consolidation based on extended break-point model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯电军; 沈陈华

    2014-01-01

    applying AHP, and the value of RSPCI for each rural settlement patch was calculated by applying unit score weighting. Then, the rural settlement patches and identified optimization strategies were classified according to Jenks natural breaks classification method. Finally, spatial impact range of core at village level based on extended break-point model of weighted Voronoi diagram and the direction of migration of rural settlements were determined in order to optimize the spatial pattern of rural settlements. The results showed that the indicator systems of RSPCI in Zhulin town included four factors:location, residential settlement, natural resources and economics. The weight for each of them was 0.11, 0.31, 0.28 and 0.30 respectively. The rural settlements were divided into four levels based on value of RSPCI including central village, core village, natural village and scattered village levels. The hierarchical structures for different levels of rural settlement were obvious in terms of size and the number. Four kinds of optimization strategies including priority development, restrictive development, combined migration and retention policies should be used to optimize spatial pattern and layout of rural settlement. Among 466 rural settlement patches in the town, 28 were given with full priority to develop, 193 were given with limited priority to develop, 244 were combined and migrated, and 1 was reserved. The migration direction of 244 patches was given by extended break point model of weighted Voronoi diagram. Therefore, rural settlement patches for different levels showed different influences on scope. As a result, different spatial layout optimization strategies should be employed for different rural settlement patches. In order to maintain a stable structure for residential settlement patches, rural settlement patches with low comprehensive influence should be migrated to those with high comprehensive influence during rural settlement consolidation. The results above

  15. Breaking Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Kirstin

    2010-01-01

    A well-known result by Palamidessi tells us that {\\pi}mix (the {\\pi}-calculus with mixed choice) is more expressive than {\\pi}sep (its subset with only separate choice). The proof of this result argues with their different expressive power concerning leader election in symmetric networks. Later on, Gorla of- fered an arguably simpler proof that, instead of leader election in symmetric networks, employed the reducibility of "incestual" processes (mixed choices that include both enabled senders and receivers for the same channel) when running two copies in parallel. In both proofs, the role of breaking (ini- tial) symmetries is more or less apparent. In this paper, we shed more light on this role by re-proving the above result-based on a proper formalization of what it means to break symmetries-without referring to another layer of the distinguishing problem domain of leader election. Both Palamidessi and Gorla rephrased their results by stating that there is no uniform and reason- able encoding from {\\pi}mix i...

  16. Spontaneous Breaking of the Quantum Superposition

    OpenAIRE

    Pankovic, Vladan; Predojevic, Milan

    2007-01-01

    In this work spontaneous (non-dynamical) breaking (effective hiding) of the unitary quantum mechanical dynamical symmetry (superposition) is considered. It represents an especial but very interesting case of the general formalism of the spontaneous symmetry breaking (effective hiding). Conceptual analogies with spontaneous breaking of the gauge symmetry in Weinberg-Sallam's electro-weak interaction are pointed out. Also, consequences of the spontaneous superposition breaking in the measuremen...

  17. Videofluoroscopy Instrument to Identify the Tibiofemoral Contact Point Migration for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Follow-up: CINARTRO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simini, F.; Santos, D.; Francescoli, L.

    2016-04-01

    We measure the Tibiofemoral contact point migration to offer clinicians a tool to evaluate Anterior Cruciate Ligament reconstruction. The design of the tool includes a C arm with fluoroscopy, image acquisition and processing system, interactive software and report generation for the clinical record. The procedure samples 30 images from the videofluoroscopy describing 2 seconds movements of hanging-to-full-extension of the knee articulation. A geometrical routine implemented in the original equipment (CINARTRO) helps capture tibial plateau and femoral condile profile by interaction with the user. The tightness or looseness of the knee is expressed by the migration given in terms of movement of the femur along the tibial plateau, as a percentage. We automatically create clinical reports in standard Clinical Document Architecture or CDA format. A special phantom was developed to correct the “pin cushion effect” in Rx images. Five cases of broken ACL patients were measured giving meaningful results for clinical follow up. Tibiofemoral contact point migration was measured as 60% of the tibial plateau, with standard deviation of 6% for healthy knees, 4% when injured and 1% after reconstruction.

  18. Insight into Phenomena of Symmetry Breaking Bifurcation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Tong; ZHANG Ying

    2008-01-01

    @@ We show that symmetry-breaking (SB) bifurcation is just a transition of different forms of symmetry, while still preserving system's symmetry. SB bifurcation always associates with a periodic saddle-node bifurcation, identifiable by a zero maximum of the top Lyapunov exponent of the system. In addition, we show a significant phase portrait of a newly born periodic saddle and its stable and unstable invariant manifolds, together with their neighbouring flow pattern of Poincaré mapping points just after the periodic saddle-node bifurcation, thus gaining an insight into the mechanism of SB bifurcation.

  19. Development and application of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing E. coli O103 surrogate for tracking contamination through grinding and identifying persistent points of contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: To 1.) develop and validate an easily trackable E. coli O157:H7/non-O157 STEC surrogate that can be detected to the same level of sensitivity as E. coli O157:H7; and 2.) apply the trackable surrogate to model contamination passage through grinding and identify points where contamination ...

  20. Tool for identifying critical control points in embedded purchasing activities in SMEs : Working paper WP 69 for the 24th IPSERA conference, Amsterdam 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagelaar, Geoffrey; Staal, Anne; Holman, Richard; Walhof, Gert

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses risk and uncertainty aspects and proposes an assessment tool leading to identification of critical control points (CCPs) within purchasing-oriented activities of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Identifying such CCPs is the basis for developing SME purchasing instruments to

  1. A new method to identify water masses -- a network-based analysis of oceanographic point measurement time series

    CERN Document Server

    Greil, Florian

    2012-01-01

    This is a statistical analysis of the oceanographic time series measured across Fram Strait at a latitude of 78{\\deg}50'N. Fram Strait is the deepest passage between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic. There are up to 16 mooring lines with instruments at different depths measuring water temperature and velocity. These variables vary on different time scales and the challenge is to distinguish different spatial flow regimes. For Fram Strait, a temperature criterion is traditionally applied to identify water-masses, i.e. water volumes of similar origin. Interpolation leads to a vertical latitudinal 2D cross-section from which a scalar - the hypothetical area of waters within a certain temperature interval - can be extracted. The scalar is combined with a similar interpolation of the velocities to approximate the volume flows through the gateway. This approach is not only numerically expensive but also incorporates many assumptions. The present study suggest a new network-based approach to discriminate betw...

  2. Symmetry breaking in molecular ferroelectrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ping-Ping; Tang, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Peng-Fei; Liao, Wei-Qiang; Wang, Zhong-Xia; Ye, Qiong; Xiong, Ren-Gen

    2016-07-11

    Ferroelectrics are inseparable from symmetry breaking. Accompanying the paraelectric-to-ferroelectric phase transition, the paraelectric phase adopting one of the 32 crystallographic point groups is broken into subgroups belonging to one of the 10 ferroelectric point groups, i.e. C1, C2, C1h, C2v, C4, C4v, C3, C3v, C6 and C6v. The symmetry breaking is captured by the order parameter known as spontaneous polarization, whose switching under an external electric field results in a typical ferroelectric hysteresis loop. In addition, the responses of spontaneous polarization to other external excitations are related to a number of physical effects such as second-harmonic generation, piezoelectricity, pyroelectricity and dielectric properties. Based on these, this review summarizes recent developments in molecular ferroelectrics since 2011 and focuses on the relationship between symmetry breaking and ferroelectricity, offering ideas for exploring high-performance molecular ferroelectrics. PMID:27051889

  3. Structural breaks in finance growth nexus: the study of Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bidisha Mukhopadhyay

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically investigates the finance-growth nexus for an annual data set of Indonesia during the last two decades. The purpose is to examine the causal relationship between financial development and economic growth in Indonesia and also to test the structural breaks in the finance-growth relationship to investigate the change in policy regimes. To examine the causal relationship between financial development and economic growth, the newly proposed ARDL bound testing approach by Pesaran et al. (1996 has been applied .The estimated results support the view of Lucas (1988 that finance doesn’t matter for economic growth. Structural break is identified in the year 1997 in Indonesia with the estimated finance-growth relationship. The stability of the estimated relationship is examined with break-point Chow tests (F tests.

  4. Mutual information and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    OpenAIRE

    Hamma, A.; Giampaolo, S. M.; Illuminati, F.

    2015-01-01

    We show that the metastable, symmetry-breaking ground states of quantum many-body Hamiltonians have vanishing quantum mutual information between macroscopically separated regions, and are thus the most classical ones among all possible quantum ground states. This statement is obvious only when the symmetry-breaking ground states are simple product states, e.g. at the factorization point. On the other hand, symmetry-breaking states are in general entangled along the entire ordered phase, and t...

  5. Tool for identifying critical control points in embedded purchasing activities in SMEs: Working paper WP 69 for the 24th IPSERA conference, Amsterdam 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Hagelaar, Geoffrey; Staal, Anne; Holman, Richard; Walhof, Gert

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses risk and uncertainty aspects and proposes an assessment tool leading to identification of critical control points (CCPs) within purchasing-oriented activities of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Identifying such CCPs is the basis for developing SME purchasing instruments to support purchasing-oriented activities. The identification of such CCPs will be theoretically approached from a systems perspective using four management functions which are needed to operate as a ...

  6. Numerical Study on Breaking Criteria for Solitary Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chung-ren CHOU; Ruey-syan SHIH; John Z. YIM

    2003-01-01

    Studies of the breaking criteria for solitary waves on a slope are presented in this paper. The boundary element method is used to model the processes of shoaling and breaking of solitary waves on various slopes. Empirical formulae that can be used to characterize the breaking of solitary waves are presented. These include the breaking index, the wave height, the water depth, and the maximum particle velocity at the point of breaking. Comparisons with the results of other researches are given.

  7. Isolating the Role of Bevacizumab in Elderly Patients With Previously Untreated Nonsquamous Non–Small Cell Lung Cancer: Secondary Analyses of the ECOG 4599 and PointBreak Trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Corey J.; Socinski, Mark A.; Patel, Jyoti D.; Sandler, Alan B.; Schiller, Joan H.; Leon, Larry; Hazard, Sebastien J.; Ramalingam, Suresh S.

    2016-01-01

    Background Patient-level data from 2 phase III studies in patients with previously untreated, advanced-stage, nonsquamous non–small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) were pooled to examine outcomes with bevacizumab and chemotherapy based on age. Methods Data from patients randomized to paclitaxel–carboplatin (PC) + bevacizumab in the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group 4599 (E4599) and PointBreak studies were pooled and compared with E4599 patients randomized to PC alone. Patients were grouped by age: AEs) were assessed by age group in each study. Results The PC + bevacizumab and PC arms comprised 901 and 444 patients, respectively. PC + bevacizumab was associated with significant increases in overall survival relative to PC in patients AEs was reported with PC + bevacizumab vs. PC in patients <75 (63% vs. 48%; P <0.05) and ≥75 years (81% vs. 56%; P <0.05) in E4599. Conclusions This analysis demonstrates that the survival benefits associated with PC + bevacizumab extend to patient subgroups <75 years with advanced-stage NSCLC; no benefit, however, was observed for bevacizumab-eligible patients who were ≥75 years. PMID:25628268

  8. 儿童从众心理--儿童教育与心理发展新的切入点%Children's Conformity Mentality -the New Breaking Points of Education and Psychological Development of the Children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白文金; 武凯良

    2015-01-01

    Paying more attention to children's conformity mentality has a great effect on the physical and mental development of children.But the blind submission will inhibit children's natural growth process.With the transformation of society,the change of the times and the increasing demand for innovative talents,we need the innovative talents who would break the normal proce-dure,be creative and dare to explore.The positive conformity can promote the development of children's innovation ability, while negative one can inhibit its nature,therefore,it requires us to actively guide the children in the process of children edu-cation in addition to strengthen the expected behavior and action.This paper will discuss the use of child psychology of con-formity as a new breaking point of children's education and psychological development.%重视儿童从众心理在儿童良好的身心发展发面有着重要的影响作用,但是,如果盲目的屈从则会抑制儿童自然成长的过程。随着社会的转型、时代的变化,对创新人才的需求在逐渐增加,需要打破常规、推陈出新勇于探索的创新型人才。积极的从众能够促进儿童创新能力的发展,消极的从众则会抑制其天性,所以,这就要求我们在儿童教育的过程中对儿童进行积极的引导,强化其希望出现的行为动作。本文将探讨利用儿童从众心理作为儿童教育与心理发展新的切入点。

  9. Repurposed automated handheld counter as a point-of-care tool to identify individuals 'at risk' of serious post-ivermectin encephalopathy.

    OpenAIRE

    Sasisekhar Bennuru; Sébastien D S Pion; Joseph Kamgno; Samuel Wanji; Thomas B Nutman

    2014-01-01

    Administration of ivermectin (IVM) as part of mass drug administration (MDA) campaigns for onchocerciasis and/or lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been suspended in areas co-endemic for Loa loa due to severe post-treatment adverse events (SAEs) associated with high-burden of infection (>30,000 mf/ml). One simple approach for preventing SAEs is to identify and exclude individuals at risk from MDA. Here, we describe a repurposed hand-held automated cell counter (Scepter 2.0; HHAC) as a rapid, point...

  10. On breaks of the Indian monsoon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sulochana Gadgil; P V Joseph

    2003-12-01

    For over a century, the term break has been used for spells in which the rainfall over the Indian monsoon zone is interrupted. The phenomenon of `break monsoon' is of great interest because long intense breaks are often associated with poor monsoon seasons. Such breaks have distinct circulation characteristics (heat trough type circulation) and have a large impact on rainfed agriculture.Although interruption of the monsoon rainfall is considered to be the most important feature of the break monsoon, traditionally breaks have been identified on the basis of the surface pressure and wind patterns over the Indian region. We have defined breaks (and active spells) on the basis of rainfall over the monsoon zone. The rainfall criteria are chosen so as to ensure a large overlap with the traditional breaks documented by Ramamurthy (1969) and De et al (1998). We have identified these rainbreaks for 1901-89. We have also identified active spells on the basis of rainfall over the Indian monsoon zone. We have shown that the all-India summer monsoon rainfall is significantly negatively correlated with the number of rainbreak days (correlation coefficient −0.56) and significantly positively correlated with the number of active days (correlation coefficient 0.47).Thus the interannual variation of the all-India summer monsoon rainfall is shown to be related to the number of days of rainbreaks and active spells identified here. There have been several studies of breaks (and also active spells in several cases) identified on the basis of different criteria over regions differing in spatial scales (e.g., Webster et al 1998; Krishnan et al 2000; Goswami and Mohan 2000; and Annamalai and Slingo 2001). We find that there is considerable overlap between the rainbreaks we have identified and breaks based on the traditional definition. There is some overlap with the breaks identified by Krishnan et al (2000) but little overlap with breaks identified by Webster et al (1998). Further

  11. A Stylistic Analysis of Break,Break,Break

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑶

    2015-01-01

    Break, Break, Break is a poem by Alfred Lord Tennyson, the Poet Laureate during the Queen Victoria's reign. This exquisite little poem is wel known for the poet's grief-stricken feelings and heart-broken emotions over the premature death of his best friend, Arthur Henry Halam. Most of the previous studies on this poem focus on the emotional level to consider it as an elegy, expressing sorrow and lamentation for the death of a particular person. However, in order to have a deep understanding in general, this paper analyzes the poem based on the stylistic theory, concerning on the lexical level and the semantic level. It aims at helping the readers to cultivate a sense of appropriateness, to sharpen the understanding and appreciation of literary works and to achieve adaptation in translation.

  12. Break the Pattern!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Cathrine; Trentemøller, Stine

    Break the Pattern! A critical enquiry into three scientific workplace cultures: Hercules, Caretakers and Worker Bees is the third publication of the international three year long project "Understanding Puzzles in the Gendered European Map" (UPGEM). By contrasting empirical findings from academic...... workplaces in the five UPGEM-countries (Denmark, Estonia, Finland, Italy and Poland) we identify three clusters of cultural patterns in physics as culture. We call these Hercules, Caretakers and Worker Bees. We also consider the influence of national cultural historical processes on the scientific culture...... (physics in culture) and discuss how physics as and in culture influence the perception of science, of work and family life, of the interplay between religion and science as well as how physics as culture can either hinder or promote the career of female scientists....

  13. The Mercy unique device identifier demonstration project: Implementing point of use product identification in the cardiac catheterization laboratories of a regional health system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drozda, Joseph P; Dudley, Curtis; Helmering, Paul; Roach, James; Hutchison, Lisa

    2016-06-01

    Mercy, a 4 state health system, conducted an FDA-sponsored demonstration whereby prototype unique device identifiers (UDIs) of coronary stents were implemented in its electronic information systems for safety surveillance and research. To accomplish this, a multi-disciplinary team implemented a point of use barcode scanning inventory management system in all 5 Mercy cardiac catheterization laboratories. The system's potential for improving inventory management and tracking Cath Lab supplies was felt to be sufficiently compelling for system deployment outside of the context of the demonstration. Further, it was felt to be useful for all Cath Lab renewable supplies and not just coronary stents. Benefits included preventing procedure delays, lowering costs, and increasing revenue. Finally, the system is extensible to all implanted medical devices and generalizable to most hospitals. PMID:27343161

  14. Repurposed automated handheld counter as a point-of-care tool to identify individuals 'at risk' of serious post-ivermectin encephalopathy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sasisekhar Bennuru

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Administration of ivermectin (IVM as part of mass drug administration (MDA campaigns for onchocerciasis and/or lymphatic filariasis (LF has been suspended in areas co-endemic for Loa loa due to severe post-treatment adverse events (SAEs associated with high-burden of infection (>30,000 mf/ml. One simple approach for preventing SAEs is to identify and exclude individuals at risk from MDA. Here, we describe a repurposed hand-held automated cell counter (Scepter 2.0; HHAC as a rapid, point-of-care method for quantifying microfilariae (mf in the blood of infected individuals.The quantification of microfilarial levels in blood of naturally infected humans, experimentally infected baboons, or mf-spiked human blood was tested using a microfluidic-based automated counter and compared to traditional calibrated thick-smears. We demonstrate that mf can be quantified in 20 µl of whole blood following lysis with 10% saponin within a minute of obtaining blood. There was a highly significant concordance between the counts obtained by the HHAC and those by microscopy for mf densities of >5,000 (p30,000 per ml (p<0.0001, r(c = 0.90. Preliminary proof of concept field studies in Cameroon with 20 µl of blood from L. loa infected humans (n = 22 and baboons (n = 4 also demonstrated a significantly high concordance (p<0.0001, r(c = 0.89 with calibrated thick blood smears counts.A repurposed HHAC is a portable, sensitive, rapid, point-of-care and quantitative tool to identify individuals with high levels of L. loa mf that put them at risk for SAEs following MDA. In addition, it provides ease of data storage and accessibility.

  15. Cut-off points of the visceral adiposity index (VAI identifying a visceral adipose dysfunction associated with cardiometabolic risk in a Caucasian Sicilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amato Marco C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Visceral Adiposity Index (VAI is a sex-specific mathematical index, based on Waist Circumference (WC, Body Mass Index (BMI, triglycerides (TG and HDL cholesterol (HDL levels, indirectly expressing visceral adipose function and insulin sensitivity. Our aim was to find the optimal cut-off points of VAI identifying a visceral adipose dysfunction (VAD associated with cardiometabolic risk in a Caucasian Sicilian population. Methods Medical check-up data of 1,764 Primary Care patients (PC patients were retrospectively and cross-sectionally examined using a receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve to determine appropriate stratified-for-age cut-off of VAI, for the identification of PC patients with Metabolic Syndrome (MetS according to the NCEP-ATP III criteria. The PC patients with higher VAI scores were subdivided into three groups according to VAI tertiles (i.e. PC patients with mild VAD, moderate VAD or severe VAD. Finally, VAD classes were compared to classical cardio- and cerebrovascular risk factors as independent predictors of coronary heart disease and/or myocardial infarction, transient ischemic attack and/or ischemic stroke. Results Moderate and severe VADs proved to be independently associated with cardiovascular events [(OR: 5.35; 95% CI: 1.92-14.87; p = 0.001 and (OR: 7.46; 95% CI: 2.64-21.05; p Conclusions Our study suggests that among Caucasian Sicilian subjects there are clear cut-off points of VAI able to identify a VAD strongly associated with cardiometabolic risk.

  16. Small Break Air Ingress Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Oh; Eung Soo Kim

    2011-09-01

    The small break air-ingress experiment, described in this report, is designed to investigate air-ingress phenomena postulated to occur in pipes in a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTRs). During this experiment, air-ingress rates were measured for various flow and break conditions through small holes drilled into a pipe of the experimental apparatus. The holes were drilled at right angles to the pipe wall such that a direction vector drawn from the pipe centerline to the center of each hole was at right angles with respect to the pipe centerline. Thus the orientation of each hole was obtained by measuring the included angle between the direction vector of each hole with respect to a reference line anchored on the pipe centerline and pointing in the direction of the gravitational force. Using this reference system, the influence of several important parameters on the air ingress flow rate were measured including break orientation, break size, and flow velocity . The approach used to study the influence of these parameters on air ingress is based on measuring the changes in oxygen concentrations at various locations in the helium flow circulation system as a function of time using oxygen sensors (or detectors) to estimate the air-ingress rates through the holes. The test-section is constructed of a stainless steel pipe which had small holes drilled at the desired locations.

  17. Renormalizable theories with symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Becchi, Carlo M

    2016-01-01

    The description of symmetry breaking proposed by K. Symanzik within the framework of renormalizable theories is generalized from the geometrical point of view. For an arbitrary compact Lie group, a soft breaking of arbitrary covariance, and an arbitrary field multiplet, the expected integrated Ward identities are shown to hold to all orders of renormalized perturbation theory provided the Lagrangian is suitably chosen. The corresponding local Ward identity which provides the Lagrangian version of current algebra through the coupling to an external, classical, Yang-Mills field, is then proved to hold up to the classical Adler-Bardeen anomaly whose general form is written down. The BPHZ renormalization scheme is used throughout in such a way that the algebraic structure analyzed in the present context may serve as an introduction to the study of fully quantized gauge theories.

  18. A strict QCD inequality and mechanisms for chiral symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A strict QCD inequality allows one to discuss mechanisms proposed for breaking the chiral symmetry in QCD. ''Order parameters'' are identified such that if sufficiently many gauge field configurations contribute to them, spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking follows. As an application the role of instantons is discussed in chiral symmetry breaking in QCD. (orig.)

  19. Time point-based integrative analyses of deep-transcriptome identify four signal pathways in blastemal regeneration of zebrafish lower jaw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Xuelong; Lyu, Kailun; Gao, Siqi; Wang, Guan; Fan, Chunxin; Zhang, Xin A; Yan, Jizhou

    2015-03-01

    There has been growing interest in applying tissue engineering to stem cell-based regeneration therapies. We have previously reported that zebrafish can faithfully regenerate complicated tissue structures through blastemal cell type conversions and tissue reorganization. To unveil the regenerative factors and engineering arts of blastemal regeneration, we conducted transcriptomal analyses at four time points corresponding to preamputation, re-epitheliation, blastemal formation, and respecification. By combining the hierarchical gene ontology term network, the DAVID annotation system, and Euclidean distance clustering, we identified four signaling pathways: foxi1-foxo1b-pou3f1, pax3a-mant3a-col11/col2, pou5f1-cdx4-kdrl, and isl1-wnt11 PCP-sox9a. Results from immunohistochemical staining and promoter-driven transgenic fish suggest that these pathways, respectively, define wound epidermis reconstitution, cell type conversions, blastemal angiogenesis/vasculogenesis, and cartilage matrix-orientation. Foxi1 morpholino-knockdown caused expansions of Foxo1b- and Pax3a-expression in the basal layer-blastemal junction region. Moreover, foxi1 morphants displayed increased sox9a and hoxa2b transcripts in the embryonic pharyngeal arches. Thus, a Foxi1 signal switch is required to establish correct tissue patterns, including re-epitheliation and blastema formation. This study provides novel insight into a blastema regeneration strategy devised by epithelial cell transdifferentiation, blood vessel engineering, and cartilage matrix deposition. PMID:25420467

  20. In silico reversal of repeat-induced point mutation (RIP identifies the origins of repeat families and uncovers obscured duplicated genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hane James K

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeat-induced point mutation (RIP is a fungal genome defence mechanism guarding against transposon invasion. RIP mutates the sequence of repeated DNA and over time renders the affected regions unrecognisable by similarity search tools such as BLAST. Results DeRIP is a new software tool developed to predict the original sequence of a RIP-mutated region prior to the occurrence of RIP. In this study, we apply deRIP to the genome of the wheat pathogen Stagonospora nodorum SN15 and predict the origin of several previously uncharacterised classes of repetitive DNA. Conclusions Five new classes of transposon repeats and four classes of endogenous gene repeats were identified after deRIP. The deRIP process is a new tool for fungal genomics that facilitates the identification and understanding of the role and origin of fungal repetitive DNA. DeRIP is open-source and is available as part of the RIPCAL suite at http://www.sourceforge.net/projects/ripcal.

  1. Confirming the gamma-ray burst spectral-energy correlations in the era of multiple time breaks

    CERN Document Server

    Ghirlanda, G; Ghisellini, G; Firmani, C

    2007-01-01

    We test the spectral-energy correlation including the new bursts detected (mostly) by Swift with firm measurements of their redshifts and peak energy. The problem of identifying the jet breaks is discussed in the complex and multibreak/flaring X-ray light curves observed by Swift. We use the optical data as the most reliable source for the identification of the jet break, since the X-ray flux may be produced by a mechanism different from the external shocks between the fireball and the circumburst medium, which are responsible for the optical afterglow. We show that the presence of an underlying SN event in XRF 050416A requires a break to occur in the afterglow optical light curve at around the expected jet break time. The possible presence of a jet break in the optical light curve of GRB 050401 is also discussed. We point out that, for measuring the jet break, it is mandatory that the optical light curve extends after the epoch where the jet break is expected. The interpretation of the early optical breaks i...

  2. Break the ice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    Jacky:My sister is mad at me.She refuses(拒绝)to talk to me.What can I do to break the ice?Ella:You can buy her a little gift.Break的意思是"打破",ice是指"冰块"。冰是又冷又硬的东西,作为俗语break the ice是指"打破沉默(僵局)"。Jacky惹妹妹生气,妹妹不理他了,他能通过送小礼物break the ice吗?

  3. Testing cosmological supersymmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Kabat, D; Kabat, Daniel; Rajaraman, Arvind

    2001-01-01

    Banks has proposed a relation between the scale of supersymmetry breaking and the cosmological constant in de Sitter space. His proposal has a natural extension to a general FRW cosmology, in which the supersymmetry breaking scale is related to the Hubble parameter. We study one consequence of such a relation, namely that coupling constants change as the universe evolves. We find that the most straightforward extension of Banks' proposal is disfavored by experimental bounds on variation of the fine structure constant.

  4. Self-Breaking Technicolor

    CERN Document Server

    Martin, S P

    1993-01-01

    We propose a scenario in which the electroweak symmetry is spontaneously broken by an $SU(4)$ technicolor gauge interaction which also manages to break itself completely. The technicolor gauge bosons and technifermions are not confined by the technicolor force, but get large masses. Starting with a single technidoublet, one emerges with a complete standard model family of technifermions after the symmetry breaking is complete. This suggests a broad new avenue for model building. A few variations on the theme are mentioned.

  5. The use of multiple versus single assessment time points to improve screening accuracy in identifying children at risk for later serious antisocial behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petras, Hanno; Buckley, Jacquelyn A; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S; Stuart, Elizabeth A; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2013-10-01

    Guided by Kraemer et al.'s (Psychological Methods, 3:257-271, 1999) framework for measuring the potency of risk factors, we sought to improve on the classification accuracy reported in Petras et al. (Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 43:88-96, 2004a) and Petras et al. (Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 44:790-797, 2005) by using multiple as opposed to single point in time assessments of early aggressive and disruptive behavior in the classification of youth who would likely benefit from targeted preventive interventions. Different from Petras et al. (2004a, 2005), the outcome used in this study included serious antisocial behavior in young adulthood as well as in adolescence. Among males, the use of multiple time points did not yield greater classification accuracy than the highest single time points, that is, third and fifth grades. For females, although fifth grade represented the best single time point in terms of classification accuracy, no significant association was found between earlier time points and the later outcome, rendering a test of the multiple time points hypothesis moot. The findings presented in this study have strong implications for the design of targeted intervention for violence prevention, indicating that the screening quality based on aggression ratings during the elementary years is rather modest, particularly for females. PMID:23408279

  6. Symmetry Breaking for Black-Scholes Equations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xuan-Liu; ZHANG Shun-Li; QU Chang-Zheng

    2007-01-01

    Black-Scholes equation is used to model stock option pricing. In this paper, optimal systems with one to four parameters of Lie point symmetries for Black-Scholes equation and its extension are obtained. Their symmetry breaking interaction associated with the optimal systems is also studied. As a result, symmetry reductions and corresponding solutions for the resulting equations are obtained.

  7. Symmetry Breaking for Black-Scholes Equations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xuan-Liu; Zhang, Shun-Li; Qu, Chang-Zheng

    2007-06-01

    Black-Scholes equation is used to model stock option pricing. In this paper, optimal systems with one to four parameters of Lie point symmetries for Black-Scholes equation and its extension are obtained. Their symmetry breaking interaction associated with the optimal systems is also studied. As a result, symmetry reductions and corresponding solutions for the resulting equations are obtained.

  8. Symmetry Breaking for Black-Scholes Equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black-Scholes equation is used to model stock option pricing. In this paper, optimal systems with one to four parameters of Lie point symmetries for Black-Scholes equation and its extension are obtained. Their symmetry breaking interaction associated with the optimal systems is also studied. As a result, symmetry reductions and corresponding solutions for the resulting equations are obtained.

  9. Electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chanowitz, M.S.

    1990-09-01

    The Higgs mechanism is reviewed in its most general form, requiring the existence of a new symmetry-breaking force and associated particles, which need not however be Higgs bosons. The first lecture reviews the essential elements of the Higgs mechanism, which suffice to establish low energy theorems for the scattering of longitudinally polarized W and Z gauge bosons. An upper bound on the scale of the symmetry-breaking physics then follows from the low energy theorems and partial wave unitarity. The second lecture reviews particular models, with and without Higgs bosons, paying special attention to how the general features discussed in lecture 1 are realized in each model. The third lecture focuses on the experimental signals of strong WW scattering that can be observed at the SSC above 1 TeV in the WW subenergy, which will allow direct measurement of the strength of the symmetry-breaking force. 52 refs., 10 figs.

  10. Detecting structural breaks in time series via genetic algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Benjamin; Fischer, Paul; Hilbert, Astrid;

    2016-01-01

    Detecting structural breaks is an essential task for the statistical analysis of time series, for example, for fitting parametric models to it. In short, structural breaks are points in time at which the behaviour of the time series substantially changes. Typically, no solid background knowledge...... of the time series under consideration is available. Therefore, a black-box optimization approach is our method of choice for detecting structural breaks. We describe a genetic algorithm framework which easily adapts to a large number of statistical settings. To evaluate the usefulness of different crossover...... operator alone. Moreover, we present a specific fitness function which exploits the sparse structure of the break points and which can be evaluated particularly efficiently. The experiments on artificial and real-world time series show that the resulting algorithm detects break points with high precision...

  11. Analysis of economic break-even point of the biogas utilization for electrical power conversion: case study in a swine terminated unit; Analise do ponto de equilibrio economico da utilizacao do biogas para conversao em energia eletrica: estudo de caso em unidade de terminacao de suinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervi, Ricardo Ghantous; Pinotti, Elvio Brasil [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Registro, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias do Vale do Ribeira], e-mails: rghantous@registro.unesp.br, epinotti@registro.unesp.br; Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutsui; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial], e-mails: maura@fca.unesp.br, osmar@fca.unesp.br

    2010-07-01

    This work aimed to develop a study to estimate the break-even point in financial units of the electrical power generation using biogas from swine wastes. The analyzed biodigester is a continuous tubular model with brick concrete duct and plastic covering with a gasometer, and where the waste of 2,300 fattening pigs are deposited daily. The initial investment estimate for the installation was R$ 51,537.17. The system annual costs were R$ 5,708.20, for maintenance, R$ 4,390.40 for depreciation and R$ 1,366.77 for interests. It was noticed that with an average of consumption of 17.1 kW.hour{sup -1} the system presents an annual loss of R$ 1,592.14 because the consumption of 27.85 kW.hour{sup -1} is the minimum that should be consumed to achieve a corresponded financial break-even point of R$ 15,054.40.year{sup -1}. It was concluded that the correct technical dimensioning greatly influences on the economic results. (author)

  12. Breaking the Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Poul Rind; Kirketerp, Anne

    2006-01-01

    The paper shortly reveals the history of a small school - the KaosPilots - dedicated to educate young people to carriers as entrepreneurs. In this contribution we want to explore how the KaosPilots managed to break the waves of institutionalised concepts and practices of teaching entrepreneurship...

  13. CP breaking in lattice chiral gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CP symmetry is not manifestly implemented for the local and doubler-free Ginsparg-Wilson operator in lattice chiral gauge theory. We precisely identify where the effects of this CP breaking appear. We show that they appear in: (I) Overall constant phase of the fermion generating functional. (II) Overall constant coefficient of the fermion generating functional. (III) Fermion propagator appearing in external fermion lines and the propagator connected to Yukawa vertices. The first effect appears from the transformation of the path integral measure and it is absorbed into a suitable definition of the constant phase factor for each topological sector; in this sense there appears no 'CP anomaly'. The second constant arises from the explicit breaking in the action and it is absorbed by the suitable weights with which topological sectors are summed. The last one in the propagator is inherent to this formulation and cannot be avoided by a mere modification of the projection operator, for example, in the framework of the Ginsparg-Wilson operator. This breaking emerges as an (almost) contact term in the propagator when the Higgs field, which is treated perturbatively, has no vacuum expectation value. In the presence of the vacuum expectation value, however, a completely new situation arises and the breaking becomes intrinsically non-local, though this breaking may still be removed in a suitable continuum limit. This non-local CP breaking is expected to persist for a non-perturbative treatment of the Higgs coupling. (author)

  14. Improved single sector supersymmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luty, Markus A.; Terning, John

    1998-12-09

    Building on recent work by N. Arkani-Hamed and the present authors, we construct realistic models that break supersymmetry dynamically and give rise to composite quarks and leptons, all in a single strongly-coupled sector. The most important improvement compared to earlier models is that the second-generation composite states correspond to dimension-2 ''meson'' operators in the ultraviolet. This leads to a higher scale for flavor physics, and gives a completely natural suppression of flavor-changing neutral currents. We also construct models in which the hierarchy of Yukawa couplings is explained by the dimensionality of composite states. These models provide an interesting and viable alternative to gravity- and gauge-mediated models. The generic signatures are unification of scalar masses with different quantum numbers at the compositeness scale, and lighter gaugino, Higgsino, and third-generation squark and slepton masses. We also analyze large classes of models that give rise to both compositeness and supersymmetry breaking, based on gauge theories with confining, fixed-point, or free-magnetic dynamics.

  15. Analyzing Break Point of Individual Income Tax of Year-end Bonus and Making Use of It%浅析年终奖的个人所得税临界点及运用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯君邦

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes the critical point of the one-time bonus at the end of the year when calculate the personal income tax, and makes further analysis on how to make tax planning, under the premise of considering the critical point of the personal income tax.%本文简要分析年终一次性奖金在个人所得税计算时的临界点,并进一步分析在考虑个人所得税临界点的前提下,如何进行纳税筹划.

  16. Residual chromatin breaks as biodosimetry for cell killing by carbon ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, M.; Kase, Y.; Nakano, T.; Kanai, T.; Ando, K.

    1998-11-01

    We have studied the relationship between cell killing and the induction of residual chromatin breaks on various human cell lines and primary cultured cells obtained by biopsy from patients irradiated with either X-rays or heavy-ion beams to identify potential bio-marker of radiosensitivity for radiation-induced cell killing. The carbon-ion beams were accelerated with the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC). Six primary cultures obtained by biopsy from 6 patients with carcinoma of the cervix were irradiated with two different mono-LET beams (LET = 13 keV/μm, 76 keV/μm) and 200kV X rays. Residual chromatin breaks were measured by counting the number of non-rejoining chromatin fragments detected by the premature chromosome condensation (PCC) technique after a 24 hour post-irradiation incubation period. The induction rate of residual chromatin breaks per cell per Gy was the highest for 76 keV/μm beams on all of the cells. Our results indicated that cell which was more sensitive to the cell killing was similarly more susceptible to induction of residual chromatin breaks. Furthermore there is a good correlation between these two end points in various cell lines and primary cultured cells. This suggests that the detection of residual chromatin breaks by the PCC technique may be useful as a predictive assay of tumor response to cancer radiotherapy.

  17. Transportation Signs at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (trspsign)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains the starting point for the collection of transportation signs at Cedar Breaks National Monument. There are over 400 signs (transportation and...

  18. Designated Overlook Areas at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (ovrareas)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains three polygons that represent areas of designated overlooks at Cedar Breaks National Monument. Note: Point Supreme needs an FMSS number - it...

  19. Springs at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (allsprgs)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/Info coverage consisting of 151 points representing spring locations in and surrounding Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah. This data originates...

  20. Multiscale Simulation of Breaking Wave Impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Ole

    errors in the fluid volume. The dam break test case shows that the incompressible and inviscid ALE-WLS model can calculate nonlinear fluid motion, fluid structure impacts and overturning waves. The propagation speed of the wetting front and impact pressures are compared to experiments and the results......The purpose of this project is to make an accurate, robust, geometric flexible and efficient model for calculation of forces on structures from nonlinear ocean waves and breaking wave impacts. Accurate prediction of the extreme forces on wind turbine foundations, breakwaters and tidal or wave power......-distance based adaptivity method and redistributed via a point position filtering method. The incompressible and inviscid ALE-WLS model is applied to the following standard validation test cases: deforming elliptical drop, small amplitude standing waves and the dam break problem. The deforming elliptical drop...

  1. Optimal Cut-Off Points on the Health Anxiety Inventory, Illness Attitude Scales and Whiteley Index to Identify Severe Health Anxiety

    OpenAIRE

    Erik Hedman; Mats Lekander; Brjánn Ljótsson; Nils Lindefors; Christian Rück; Gerhard Andersson; Erik Andersson

    2015-01-01

    Background Health anxiety can be viewed as a dimensional phenomenon where severe health anxiety in form of DSM-IV hypochondriasis represents a cut-off where the health anxiety becomes clinically significant. Three of the most reliable and used self-report measures of health anxiety are the Health Anxiety Inventory (HAI), the Illness Attitude Scales (IAS) and the Whiteley Index (WI). Identifying the optimal cut-offs for classification of presence of a diagnosis of severe health anxiety on thes...

  2. Pure gravity mediation and spontaneous B-L breaking from strong dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babu, Kaladi S.; Schmitz, Kai; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.

    2016-04-01

    In pure gravity mediation (PGM), the most minimal scheme for the mediation of supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking to the visible sector, soft masses for the standard model gauginos are generated at one loop rather than via direct couplings to the SUSY-breaking field. In any concrete implementation of PGM, the SUSY-breaking field is therefore required to carry nonzero charge under some global or local symmetry. As we point out in this note, a prime candidate for such a symmetry might be B- L, the Abelian gauge symmetry associated with the difference between baryon number B and lepton number L. The F-term of the SUSY-breaking field then not only breaks SUSY, but also B- L, which relates the respective spontaneous breaking of SUSY and B- L at a fundamental level. As a particularly interesting consequence, we find that the heavy Majorana neutrino mass scale ends up being tied to the gravitino mass, ΛN ∼m3/2. Assuming nonthermal leptogenesis to be responsible for the generation of the baryon asymmetry of the universe, this connection may then explain why SUSY necessarily needs to be broken at a rather high energy scale, so that m3/2 ≳ 1000 TeV in accord with the concept of PGM. We illustrate our idea by means of a minimal model of dynamical SUSY breaking, in which B- L is identified as a weakly gauged flavor symmetry. We also discuss the effect of the B- L gauge dynamics on the superparticle mass spectrum as well as the resulting constraints on the parameter space of our model. In particular, we comment on the role of the B- L D-term.

  3. Breaking News as Radicalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartley, Jannie Møller

    The aim of the paper is to make explicit how the different categories are applied in the online newsroom and thus how new categories can be seen as positioning strategies in the form of radicalisations of already existing categories. Thus field theory provides us with tools to analyse how online...... journalists are using the categorisations to create hierarchies within the journalistic field in order to position themselves as specialists in what Tuchman has called developing news, aiming and striving for what today is know as breaking news and the “exclusive scoop,” as the trademark of online journalism...... provides us with the following two research questions: How does the category of breaking news fit into Tuchmans typology related to time, planning and technology? What types of stories are providing journalistic capital and how are online news stories categorised relatively within the journalistic field?...

  4. Repurposed Automated Handheld Counter as a Point-of-Care Tool to Identify Individuals ‘At Risk’ of Serious Post-Ivermectin Encephalopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Bennuru, Sasisekhar; Sébastien D S Pion; Kamgno, Joseph; Wanji, Samuel; Thomas B Nutman

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Administration of ivermectin (IVM) as part of mass drug administration (MDA) campaigns for onchocerciasis and/or lymphatic filariasis (LF) has been suspended in areas co-endemic for Loa loa due to severe post-treatment adverse events (SAEs) associated with high-burden of infection (>30,000 mf/ml). One simple approach for preventing SAEs is to identify and exclude individuals at risk from MDA. Here, we describe a repurposed hand-held automated cell counter (Scepter 2.0; HHAC) as ...

  5. Achromatic Breaks for Swift GRBs: Any Evidence?

    OpenAIRE

    S. Covino(INAF - Oss. Astronomico di Brera); Malesani, D.; Tagliaferri, G.; Vergani, S.D.; Chincarini, G.; Kann, D. A.; A. Moretti(Fermilab, Batavia, IL, USA); Stella, L.

    2006-01-01

    The availability of multi-wavelength high-quality data of gamma-ray burst afterglows in the Swift era, contrary to the expectations, did not allow us to fully confirm yet one of the most fundamental features of the standard afterglow picture: the presence of an achromatic break in the decaying light curve. We briefly review the most interesting cases identified so far.

  6. Single sector supersymmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luty, Markus A.; Terning, John

    1999-03-18

    We review recent work on realistic models that break supersymmetry dynamically and give rise to composite quarks and leptons, all in a single sector. These models have a completely natural suppression of flavor-changing neutral currents, and the hierarchy of Yukawa couplings is explained by the dimensionality of composite states. The generic signatures are unification of scalar masses with different quantum numbers at the compositeness scale, and lighter gaugino, Higgsino, and third-generation sfermion masses.

  7. Routinizing Breaking News

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartley, Jannie Møller

    2011-01-01

    This chapter revisits seminal theoretical categorizations of news proposed three decades earlier by US sociologist Gaye Tuchman. By exploring the definition of ”breaking news” in the contemporary online newsrooms of three Danish news organisations, the author offers us a long overdue re......-theorization of journalistic practice in the online context and helpfully explores well-evidenced limitations to online news production, such as the relationship between original reporting and the use of ”shovelware.”...

  8. Predicting appointment breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bean, A G; Talaga, J

    1995-01-01

    The goal of physician referral services is to schedule appointments, but if too many patients fail to show up, the value of the service will be compromised. The authors found that appointment breaking can be predicted by the number of days to the scheduled appointment, the doctor's specialty, and the patient's age and gender. They also offer specific suggestions for modifying the marketing mix to reduce the incidence of no-shows. PMID:10142384

  9. A Point Source of a Different Color: Identifying a Gap in United States Regulatory Policy for “Green” CSO Treatment Using Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeno F. Levy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Up to 850 billion gallons of untreated combined sewer overflow (CSO is discharged into waters of the United States each year. Recent changes in CSO management policy support green infrastructure (GI technologies as “front of the pipe” approaches to discharge mitigation by detention/reduction of urban stormwater runoff. Constructed wetlands for CSO treatment have been considered among suites of GI solutions. However, these wetlands differ fundamentally from other GI technologies in that they are “end of the pipe” treatment systems that discharge from a point source, and are therefore regulated in the U.S. under the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES. We use a comparative regulatory analysis to examine the U.S. policy framework for CSO treatment wetlands. We find in all cases that permitting authorities have used best professional judgment to determine effluent limits and compliance monitoring requirements, referencing technology and water quality-based standards originally developed for traditional “grey” treatment systems. A qualitative comparison with Europe shows less stringent regulatory requirements, perhaps due to institutionalized design parameters. We recommend that permitting authorities develop technical guidance documents for evaluation of “green” CSO treatment systems that account for their unique operational concerns and benefits with respect to sustainable development.

  10. Optimal cut-off points on the health anxiety inventory, illness attitude scales and whiteley index to identify severe health anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hedman

    Full Text Available Health anxiety can be viewed as a dimensional phenomenon where severe health anxiety in form of DSM-IV hypochondriasis represents a cut-off where the health anxiety becomes clinically significant. Three of the most reliable and used self-report measures of health anxiety are the Health Anxiety Inventory (HAI, the Illness Attitude Scales (IAS and the Whiteley Index (WI. Identifying the optimal cut-offs for classification of presence of a diagnosis of severe health anxiety on these measures has several advantages in clinical and research settings. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the HAI, IAS and WI as proximal diagnostic instruments for severe health anxiety defined as DSM-IV hypochondriasis.We investigated sensitivity, specificity and predictive value on the HAI, IAS and WI using a total of 347 adult participants of whom 158 had a diagnosis of severe health anxiety, 97 had obsessive-compulsive disorder and 92 were healthy non-clinical controls. Diagnostic assessments were conducted using the Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule.Optimal cut-offs for identifying a diagnosis of severe health anxiety was 67 on the HAI, 47 on the IAS, and 5 on the WI. Sensitivity and specificity were high, ranging from 92.6 to 99.4%. Positive and negative predictive values ranged from 91.6 to 99.4% using unadjusted prevalence rates.The HAI, IAS and WI have very good properties as diagnostic indicators of severe health anxiety and can be used as cost-efficient proximal estimates of the diagnosis.

  11. Novel CIC point mutations and an exon-spanning, homozygous deletion identified in oligodendroglial tumors by a comprehensive genomic approach including transcriptome sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Eisenreich

    Full Text Available Oligodendroglial tumors form a distinct subgroup of gliomas, characterized by a better response to treatment and prolonged overall survival. Most oligodendrogliomas and also some oligoastrocytomas are characterized by a unique and typical unbalanced translocation, der(1,19, resulting in a 1p/19q co-deletion. Candidate tumor suppressor genes targeted by these losses, CIC on 19q13.2 and FUBP1 on 1p31.1, were only recently discovered. We analyzed 17 oligodendrogliomas and oligoastrocytomas by applying a comprehensive approach consisting of RNA expression analysis, DNA sequencing of CIC, FUBP1, IDH1/2, and array CGH. We confirmed three different genetic subtypes in our samples: i the "oligodendroglial" subtype with 1p/19q co-deletion in twelve out of 17 tumors; ii the "astrocytic" subtype in three tumors; iii the "other" subtype in two tumors. All twelve tumors with the 1p/19q co-deletion carried the most common IDH1 R132H mutation. In seven of these tumors, we found protein-disrupting point mutations in the remaining allele of CIC, four of which are novel. One of these tumors also had a deleterious mutation in FUBP1. Only by integrating RNA expression and array CGH data, were we able to discover an exon-spanning homozygous microdeletion within the remaining allele of CIC in an additional tumor with 1p/19q co-deletion. Therefore we propose that the mutation rate might be underestimated when looking at sequence variants alone. In conclusion, the high frequency and the spectrum of CIC mutations in our 1p/19q-codeleted tumor cohort support the hypothesis that CIC acts as a tumor suppressor in these tumors, whereas FUBP1 might play only a minor role.

  12. DNA breaks early in replication in B cell cancers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Research by scientists at the NCI has identified a new class of DNA sites in cells that break early in the replication process. They found that these break sites correlate with damage often seen in B cell cancers, such as diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

  13. Breaking the cycle of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egeland, B; Jacobvitz, D; Sroufe, L A

    1988-08-01

    The aim of this study was to identify variables that distinguish mothers who broke the cycle of abuse from mothers who were abused as children and who also abused their own children. Based on maternal interviews and questionnaires completed over a 64-month period, measures of mothers' past and current relationship experiences, stressful life events, and personality characteristics were obtained. Abused mothers who were able to break the abusive cycle were significantly more likely to have received emotional support from a nonabusive adult during childhood, participated in therapy during any period of their lives, and to have had a nonabusive and more stable, emotionally supportive, and satisfying relationship with a mate. Abused mothers who reenacted their maltreatment with their own children experienced significantly more life stress and were more anxious, dependent, immature, and depressed. PMID:3168615

  14. Two novel exonic point mutations in HEXA identified in a juvenile Tay-Sachs patient: role of alternative splicing and nonsense-mediated mRNA decay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levit, A; Nutman, D; Osher, E; Kamhi, E; Navon, R

    2010-06-01

    We have identified three mutations in the beta-hexoseaminidase A (HEXA) gene in a juvenile Tay-Sachs disease (TSD) patient, which exhibited a reduced level of HEXA mRNA. Two mutations are novel, c.814G>A (p.Gly272Arg) and c.1305C>T (p.=), located in exon 8 and in exon 11, respectively. The third mutation, c.1195A>G (p.Asn399Asp) in exon 11, has been previously characterized as a common polymorphism in African-Americans. Hex A activity measured in TSD Glial cells, transfected with HEXA cDNA constructs bearing these mutations, was unaltered from the activity level measured in normal HEXA cDNA. Analysis of RT-PCR products revealed three aberrant transcripts in the patient, one where exon 8 was absent, one where exon 11 was absent and a third lacking both exons 10 and 11. All three novel transcripts contain frameshifts resulting in premature termination codons (PTCs). Transfection of mini-gene constructs carrying the c.814G>A and c.1305C>T mutations proved that the two mutations result in exon skipping. mRNAs that harbor a PTC are detected and degraded by the nonsense-mediated mRNA decay (NMD) pathway to prevent synthesis of abnormal proteins. However, although NMD is functional in the patient's fibroblasts, aberrant transcripts are still present. We suggest that the level of correctly spliced transcripts as well as the efficiency in which NMD degrade the PTC-containing transcripts, apparently plays an important role in the phenotype severity of the unique patient and thus should be considered as a potential target for drug therapy. PMID:20363167

  15. Modelling oil price volatility with structural breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we provide two main innovations: (i) we analyze oil prices of two prominent markets namely West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Brent using the two recently developed tests by Narayan and Popp (2010) and Liu and Narayan, 2010 both of which allow for two structural breaks in the data series; and (ii) the latter method is modified to include both symmetric and asymmetric volatility models. We identify two structural breaks that occur in 1990 and 2008 which coincidentally correspond to the Iraqi/Kuwait conflict and the global financial crisis, respectively. We find evidence of persistence and leverage effects in the oil price volatility. While further extensions can be pursued, the consideration of asymmetric effects as well as structural breaks should not be jettisoned when modelling oil price volatility. - Highlights: ► We analyze oil price volatility using NP (2010) and LN (2010) tests. ► We modify the LN (2010) to account for leverage effects in oil price. ► We find two structural breaks that reflect major global crisis in the oil market. ► We find evidence of persistence and leverage effects in oil price volatility. ► Leverage effects and structural breaks are fundamental in oil price modelling.

  16. Breaking the Silence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    Many women who suffer from vaginitis have kept silent about their illness because they think it is shameful to have such a disease. The International Women’s Health Coalition (IWHC) has publicized the problem, referring to it as a "culture of silence"inherited from traditional thinking. The coalition has made attempts to improve women’s health conditions by changing people’s misconceptions about the disease. In 1997, under a grant from the American Ford Foundation, the Sichuan Provincial Women’s Federation carried out a study on women’s repro-ductive health, aimed at "breaking the silence."

  17. Symmetries and Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Van Oers, W T H

    2003-01-01

    In understanding the world of matter, the introduction of symmetry principles following experimentation or using the predictive power of symmetry principles to guide experimentation is most profound. The conservation of energy, linear momentum, angular momentum, charge, and CPT involve fundamental symmetries. All other conservation laws are valid within a restricted subspace of the four interactions: the strong, the electromagnetic, the weak, and the gravitational interaction. In this paper comments are made regarding parity violation in hadronic systems, charge symmetry breaking in two nucleon and few nucleon systems, and time-reversal-invariance in hadronic systems.

  18. Breaking the silence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Konradsen, Hanne; Kirkevold, Marit; McCallin, Antoinette;

    2012-01-01

    and individual interviews were analyzed using the grounded theory method. The findings revealed that the main concern of the patients was feeling isolated, which was resolved using a process of interactional integration. Interactional integration begins by breaking the silence to enable the progression from......Little is known about the psychosocial effects of facial disfigurement. We present the results of a qualitative study following 15 patients who had been surgically treated for head, neck, or eye cancer over the course of their first postoperative year. Taped nurse-patient conversations...

  19. Supersymmetry breaking made easy, viable, and generic

    CERN Document Server

    Murayama, Hitoshi

    2007-01-01

    The kind of supersymmetry that can be discovered at the LHC must be very much flavor-blind, which used to require very special intelligently designed models of supersymmetry breaking. This led to the pessimism for some in the community that it is not likely for the LHC to discover supersymmetry. I point out that this is not so, because a garden-variety supersymmetric theories actually can do this job.

  20. Bootstrap Dynamical Symmetry Breaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Shu Hou

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the emergence of a 125 GeV Higgs-like particle at the LHC, we explore the possibility of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking by strong Yukawa coupling of very heavy new chiral quarks Q . Taking the 125 GeV object to be a dilaton with suppressed couplings, we note that the Goldstone bosons G exist as longitudinal modes V L of the weak bosons and would couple to Q with Yukawa coupling λ Q . With m Q ≳ 700  GeV from LHC, the strong λ Q ≳ 4 could lead to deeply bound Q Q ¯ states. We postulate that the leading “collapsed state,” the color-singlet (heavy isotriplet, pseudoscalar Q Q ¯ meson π 1 , is G itself, and a gap equation without Higgs is constructed. Dynamical symmetry breaking is affected via strong λ Q , generating m Q while self-consistently justifying treating G as massless in the loop, hence, “bootstrap,” Solving such a gap equation, we find that m Q should be several TeV, or λ Q ≳ 4 π , and would become much heavier if there is a light Higgs boson. For such heavy chiral quarks, we find analogy with the π − N system, by which we conjecture the possible annihilation phenomena of Q Q ¯ → n V L with high multiplicity, the search of which might be aided by Yukawa-bound Q Q ¯ resonances.

  1. Stationarity Test for Aggregate Outputs in the Presence of Structural Breaks

    OpenAIRE

    Srivastava, D. K.; Shanmugam, K. R.

    2012-01-01

    This study tests for the stationarity of aggregate output (GDP at factor cost) and its three major components, namely GDP agriculture, GDP industry and GDP services in the presence of structural breaks during 1950-51 to 2011-12. Results indicate that (i) the GDP has three break points; (ii) GDP agriculture contains one while the GDP industry and GDP services contain four breaks each; and (iii) all variables are trends stationary with one or more structural breaks. Our alternative test, which ...

  2. Performance analysis of single structural break test with an empirical study on efficient market hypothesis"

    OpenAIRE

    Yıldız, İzzet

    2005-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. In this thesis, performance of the single structural break tests is examined. Since it has proved superiority of Sequential F test on other single break tests, it is chosen as single break test. Monte Carlo simulation is run for different scenarios and performances of the test with respect to estimating break points, and parameters, and rejecting or accepting the joint null hypothesis is observed. For all cases small sample bias is obse...

  3. Numt-mediated double-strand break repair mitigates deletions during primate genome evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat Hazkani-Covo

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ is the major mechanism of double-strand break repair (DSBR in mammalian cells. NHEJ has traditionally been inferred from experimental systems involving induced double strand breaks (DSBs. Whether or not the spectrum of repair events observed in experimental NHEJ reflects the repair of natural breaks by NHEJ during chromosomal evolution is an unresolved issue. In primate phylogeny, nuclear DNA sequences of mitochondrial origin, numts, are inserted into naturally occurring chromosomal breaks via NHEJ. Thus, numt integration sites harbor evidence for the mechanisms that act on the genome over evolutionary timescales. We have identified 35 and 55 lineage-specific numts in the human and chimpanzee genomes, respectively, using the rhesus monkey genome as an outgroup. One hundred and fifty two numt-chromosome fusion points were classified based on their repair patterns. Repair involving microhomology and repair leading to nucleotide additions were detected. These repair patterns are within the experimentally determined spectrum of classical NHEJ, suggesting that information from experimental systems is representative of broader genetic loci and end configurations. However, in incompatible DSBR events, small deletions always occur, whereas in 54% of numt integration events examined, no deletions were detected. Numts show a statistically significant reduction in deletion frequency, even in comparison to DSBR involving filler DNA. Therefore, numts show a unique mechanism of integration via NHEJ. Since the deletion frequency during numt insertion is low, native overhangs of chromosome breaks are preserved, allowing us to determine that 24% of the analyzed breaks are cohesive with overhangs of up to 11 bases. These data represent, to the best of our knowledge, the most comprehensive description of the structure of naturally occurring DSBs. We suggest a model in which the sealing of DSBs by numts, and probably by other filler

  4. Violent breaking wave impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredmose, Henrik; Peregrine, D.H.; Bullock, G.N.

    2009-01-01

    When an ocean wave breaks against a steep-fronted breakwater, sea wall or a similar marine structure, its impact on the structure can be very violent. This paper describes the theoretical studies that, together with field and laboratory investigations, have been carried out in order to gain...... a better understanding of the processes involved. The wave's approach towards a structure is modelled with classical irrotational flow to obtain the different types of impact profiles that may or may not lead to air entrapment. The subsequent impact is modelled with a novel compressible-flow model...... for a homogeneous mixture of incompressible liquid and ideal gas. This enables a numerical description of both trapped air pockets and the propagation of pressure shock waves through the aerated water. An exact Riemann solver is developed to permit a finite-volume solution to the flow model with smallest possible...

  5. Skills Associated with Line Breaks in Elite Rugby Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve den Hollander, James Brown, Michael Lambert, Paul Treu, Sharief Hendricks

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The ability of the attacking team to break through the defensive line is a key indicator of success as it creates opportunities to score tries. The aim of this study was to analyse line breaks and identify the associated skills and playing characteristics. The 2013 Super Rugby season (125 games was analysed, in which 362 line breaks were identified and coded using variables that assessed team patterns and non-contact attacking skills in the phases preceding the line break. There was an average of 3 line breaks per game, with 39% of line breaks resulting in a try. Line breaks occurred when the ball-carrier was running fast [61%, x2(4 = 25.784, p = 0.000, Cramer’s v = 0.1922, weak]. At a moderate distance, short lateral passes (19% and skip passes (15% attributed to the highest percentage of line breaks [x2(26 = 50.899, p = 0.036, Cramer’s v = 0.2484, moderate]. Faster defensive line speeds resulted in more line breaks [x2(12 = 61.703, p < 0.001, Cramer’s v = 0.3026, moderate]. Line breaks are associated with overall team success and try scoring opportunities. Awareness of the defenders line speed and depth, fast running speed when receiving the ball and quick passing between attackers to the outside backs creates line break opportunities. During training, coaches should emphasise the movement speed of the ball between attackers and manipulate the speed and distance of the defenders.

  6. Electroweak breaking in supersymmetric models

    CERN Document Server

    Ibáñez, L E

    1992-01-01

    We discuss the mechanism for electroweak symmetry breaking in supersymmetric versions of the standard model. After briefly reviewing the possible sources of supersymmetry breaking, we show how the required pattern of symmetry breaking can automatically result from the structure of quantum corrections in the theory. We demonstrate that this radiative breaking mechanism works well for a heavy top quark and can be combined in unified versions of the theory with excellent predictions for the running couplings of the model. (To be published in ``Perspectives in Higgs Physics'', G. Kane editor.)

  7. Break location effects on PWR small break LOCA phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report presents experimental results of a small lower plenum break test of SB-PV-01 conducted at the large-Scale Test Facility (LSTF) of the Rig-of-Safety Assessment (ROSA)-IV program. This test simulates a loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA) caused by instrument tubes break (break area corresponds to 0.5% of the cold leg flow area) in a Westinghouse-type pressurized water reactor (PWR) assuming both manual actuation for all of the high pressure injection (HPI) systems and failure of the auxiliary feedwater systems. The report clarifies long-term system responses, especially the core cooling conditions related to the primary mass inventory. Also it clarifies break location effects on small break LOCA phenomena by comparing other five similar LOCA tests with break locations at cold leg, hot leg, upper head, pressurizer top (TMI-type) and SG U-tubes. It is coucluded that the lower plenum break is the severest on core heatup due to the highest break flow rate and the least primary mass recovery after the ECCS among the six tests. (author)

  8. Entanglement–breaking indices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lami, L. [Scuola Normale Superiore, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Giovannetti, V. [NEST, Scuola Normale Superiore and Istituto Nanoscienze-CNR, I-56127 Pisa (Italy)

    2015-09-15

    We study a set of new functionals (called entanglement–breaking indices) which characterize how many local iterations of a given (local) quantum channel are needed in order to completely destroy the entanglement between the system of interest over which the transformation is defined and an external ancilla. The possibility of contrasting the noisy effects introduced by the channel iterations via the action of intermediate (filtering) transformations is analyzed. We provide some examples in which our functionals can be exactly calculated. The differences between unitary and non-unitary filtering operations are analyzed showing that, at least for systems of dimension d larger than or equal to 3, the non-unitary choice is preferable (the gap between the performances of the two cases being divergent in some cases). For d = 2 (qubit case), on the contrary, no evidences of the presence of such gap is revealed: we conjecture that for this special case unitary filtering transformations are optimal. The scenario in which more general filtering protocols are allowed is also discussed in some detail. The case of a depolarizing noise acting on a two–qubit system is exactly solved in a general case.

  9. Coulomb imaging of the concerted and stepwise break up processes of OCS ions in intense femtosecond laser radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • We use FEMPULSE to study the structure of OCS and how it changes with time. • Using Dalitz plots we can see structural properties change with pulse length. • We can use the Dalitz plot to distinguish between break up modes. • We identify three modes of stepwise break up including one for OCS4+. • We can control the amount of stepwise break up processes. - Abstract: We study the break up of OCS in intense femtosecond laser radiation using the FEMPULS technique to vary the laser pulse duration from 7 fs to 200 fs. Newton and Dalitz plots show the progression of molecular deformation and break up for OCS3+ and OCS4+. For increasing pulse length, the concerted three body dissociation exhibits increasing bending, and the amount of stepwise dissociation decreases. For the longest pulses however the stepwise process increases again. Both phenomena can be interpreted in terms of the effect of the laser field on lower charge states and the behaviour of a wave packet on a saddle point potential. The experiment illustrates the ability of the Coulomb imaging method to track molecular geometry and dynamics and indicates a new path to laser control of molecular parameters

  10. BREAK-EVEN POINT IN SUGAR-BEET PRODUCTION

    OpenAIRE

    Ilija Nedić

    2015-01-01

    World sugar consumption has been recording a steady growth in the past 70 years and, according to all relevant estimates, it will continue to grow also in the next decade, which puts sugar in the category of the most significant foods and commodities in the world. Of the total world sugar production, around 77% is derived from sugar cane and 23% from sugar beet. Brazil has been the world leader in sugar production for a long period of time, producing white sugar from sugar cane only, whereas ...

  11. Anomalies, instantons and chiral symmetry breaking at a Lifshitz point

    CERN Document Server

    Bakas, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    We give a new twist to an old-fashioned topic in quantum field theory describing violations of the chiral charge conservation of massless fermions through Adler-Bell-Jackiw anomalies in the background of instanton fields in the context of non-relativistic Lifshitz theories. The results we report here summarize in a nut-shell our earlier work on the subject found in arXiv:1103.5693 and arXiv:1110.1332. We present simple examples where index computations can be carried out explicitly focusing, in particular, to gravitational models of Lifshitz type and highlight their differences from ordinary gravity in four space-time dimensions.

  12. Identifying and Positioning of Line Short Circuit Point Caused by Lightning Stroke%雷击造成的线路短路点识别和定位方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩志锟

    2013-01-01

    雷击造成线路故障后,故障点的及时识别和定位有利于电力系统稳定运行。对故障性雷击进行仿真,根据故障行波的特点提出判断故障点与雷击点位置异同的方法。并提出利用相关分析法处理故障行波,根据相关法的定义得到相关峰含义,推导得出测距公式,利用测距公式,对仿真模型进行故障测距。测距结果验证表明,该方法对近距离复杂波头的识别准确有效,可有效进行故障性雷击的故障测距。%After line fault caused by lightning stroke, in-time identifying and positioning of fault point is favorable for stable opera-tion of power system. This paper carried out simulation for fault lightning stroke point. According to the features of fault waves, a method to judge the difference between fault point and lightning stroke point was raised and the correlation analysis method was pro-posed to deal with fault travelling wave. According to the definition of correlation, the correlation peak definition was obtained, thus to derive distance measuring formula. The formula was used to carry fault distance measurement for simulation model. The result of distance measurement shows that the method is correct and valid for the identification of short distance complicated peak wave head identification, can effectively carry out fault distance measurement of lightning stroke.

  13. Nuclear break-up of 11Be

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, V; Lacroix, D; Blumenfeld, Y; Bourgeois, C; Chabot, M; Chomaz, Ph; Désesquelles, P; Duflot, V; Duprat, J; Fallot, M; Frascaria, N; Grévy, S; Guillemaud-Müller, D; Roussel-Chomaz, P; Savajols, H; Sorlin, O

    2007-01-01

    The break-up of 11Be was studied at 41AMeV using a secondary beam of 11Be from the GANIL facility on a 48Ti target by measuring correlations between the 10Be core, the emitted neutrons and gamma rays. The nuclear break-up leading to the emission of a neutron at large angle in the laboratory frame is identified with the towing mode through its characteristic n-fragment correlation. The experimental spectra are compared with a model where the time dependent Schrodinger equation (TDSE) is solved for the neutron initially in the 11 Be. A good agreement is found between experiment and theory for the shapes of neutron experimental energies and angular distributions. The spectroscopic factor of the 2s orbital is tentatively extracted to be 0.46+-0.15. The neutron emission from the 1p and 1d orbitals is also studied.

  14. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in loop quantum gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helesfai, G [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Eoetvoes University, Pazmany Peter setany 1/A, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary)], E-mail: heles@manna.elte.hu

    2008-12-07

    In this paper we investigate the question of how spontaneous symmetry breaking works in the framework of loop quantum gravity and compare it to the results obtained in the case of the Proca field, where we were able to quantize the theory in loop quantum gravity without introducing a Higgs field. We obtained that the Hamiltonian of the two systems is very similar, the only difference is an extra scalar field in the case of spontaneous symmetry breaking. This field can be identified as the field that carries the mass of the vector field. In the quantum regime this becomes a well-defined operator, which turns out to be a self-adjoint operator with continuous spectrum. To calculate the spectrum we used a new representation in the case of scalar fields, which in addition enabled us to rewrite the constraint equations to a finite system of linear partial differential equations. This made it possible to solve part of the constraints explicitly.

  15. Dynamical R-parity Breaking at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Shao-Long; Mohapatra, Rabindra N; Zhang, Yue

    2010-01-01

    In a class of extensions of the minimal supersymmetric standard model with (B-L)/left-right symmetry that explains the neutrino masses, breaking R-parity symmetry is an essential and dynamical requirement for successful gauge symmetry breaking. Two consequences of these models are: (i) a new kind of R-parity breaking interaction that protects proton stability but adds new contributions to neutrinoless double beta decay and (ii) an upper bound on the extra gauge and parity symmetry breaking scale which is within the large hadron collider (LHC) energy range. We point out that an important prediction of such theories is a potentially large mixing between the right-handed charged lepton ($e^c$) and the superpartner of the right-handed gauge boson ($\\widetilde W_R^+$), which leads to a brand new class of R-parity violating interactions of type $\\widetilde{\\mu^c}^\\dagger\

  16. Supersymmetry Breaking in Warped Geometry

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Kiwoon; Kim, Do Young; Kim, Ian-Woo; Kobayashi, Tatsuo

    2003-01-01

    We examine the soft supersymmetry breaking parameters in supersymmetric theories on a slice of AdS_5 which generate the hierarchical Yukawa couplings by dynamically localizing the bulk matter fields in extra dimension. Such models can be regarded as the AdS dual of the recently studied 4-dimensional models which contain a supersymmetric CFT to generate the hierarchical Yukawa couplings. In such models, if supersymmetry breaking is mediated by the bulk radion superfield and/or some brane chira...

  17. Sequential flavor symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The gauge sector of the standard model exhibits a flavor symmetry that allows for independent unitary transformations of the fermion multiplets. In the standard model the flavor symmetry is broken by the Yukawa couplings to the Higgs boson, and the resulting fermion masses and mixing angles show a pronounced hierarchy. In this work we connect the observed hierarchy to a sequence of intermediate effective theories, where the flavor symmetries are broken in a stepwise fashion by vacuum expectation values of suitably constructed spurion fields. We identify the possible scenarios in the quark sector and discuss some implications of this approach.

  18. Analysis of heavy-ion-induced DNA strand breaks in plasmid pUC18

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Plasmid DNA was irradiated or implanted by mixed particle field(CR) or lithium-ion-beam to detect strand breaks.The primary results showed that mixed particle field could induce single and double strand breaks with positive linear-dose-effects;most of sequence changes induced by CR were point mutant.Lithium-ion-beam could induce strand breaks also,but it was only at dose of 20Gy.

  19. Dynamical P-parity breaking in effective quark model

    CERN Document Server

    Andrianov, A A; Yudichev, V L

    1995-01-01

    Fermion models with selfinteraction including derivatives of fields are investigated in the strong coupling regime. The existence of three phases is established in the two channel model near tricritical point. The special phase of dynamical P-parity breaking is found.

  20. Postmodernism and Consumer Psychology: Transformation or Break?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manel Hamouda

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The research’s aim is to identify the postmodern consumer characteristics. Studied through its main conditions (Hyperreality, Fragmentation, Decentered subject, Reversal of production and consumption and Paradoxical juxtaposition of opposites, postmodernism seems to affect some psychological traits of the consumer (Materialism, social desirability, locus of control and social identity. We tried to generate a number of assumptions. The check of these assumptions could answer us whether these psychological characteristics have been radically influenced by postmodernism and in this case, the consumer would have undergone a break or the effect is partial and it is only a simple transformation within the consumer.

  1. Analisis Break Even Pengusahaan Bibit Ulat Sutera Unggul dan Lokal di Kabupaten Soppeng

    OpenAIRE

    Sadapotto, Andi; Dassir, Muh.; Rasni, Wiwin

    2004-01-01

    Research on analysis of break even point of silkworm egg business in PT. Perhutani KPSA Sopeng and local silkworm company in Soppeng Regency. The purpose was to know production cost and selling yield of superior silkworm egg and local silkworm egg in order to determine the production on break even point level and to know the effect of price fluctuation and cost to break even point level. The results showed that the cost amount spent by PT. Perhutani KPSA Soppeng in year 2000 was Rp. 381.37...

  2. Give me a better break: Choosing workday break activities to maximize resource recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Emily M; Wu, Cindy

    2016-02-01

    Surprisingly little research investigates employee breaks at work, and even less research provides prescriptive suggestions for better workday breaks in terms of when, where, and how break activities are most beneficial. Based on the effort-recovery model and using experience sampling methodology, we examined the characteristics of employee workday breaks with 95 employees across 5 workdays. In addition, we examined resources as a mediator between break characteristics and well-being. Multilevel analysis results indicated that activities that were preferred and earlier in the work shift related to more resource recovery following the break. We also found that resources mediated the influence of preferred break activities and time of break on health symptoms and that resource recovery benefited person-level outcomes of emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behavior. Finally, break length interacted with the number of breaks per day such that longer breaks and frequent short breaks were associated with more resources than infrequent short breaks. PMID:26375961

  3. Evolutionary Algorithms for the Detection of Structural Breaks in Time Series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Benjamin; Fischer, Paul; Hilbert, Astrid;

    2013-01-01

    Detecting structural breaks is an essential task for the statistical analysis of time series, for example, for fitting parametric models to it. In short, structural breaks are points in time at which the behavior of the time series changes. Typically, no solid background knowledge of the time ser...

  4. An Analysis of Break,Break,Break Based on the Stylistic Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李瑶

    2014-01-01

    Break,Break,Break is a poem by Alfred Lord Tennyson, the Poet Laureate during the Queen Victoria's reign. This exquisite little poem is wel known for the poet’s grief-stricken feelings and heart-broken emotions over the premature death of his best friend, Arthur Henry Hal am. Most of the previous studies on this poem focus on the emotional level to consider it as an elegy, expressing sorrow and lamentation for the death of a particular person. However, in order to have a deep understanding in general, this paper analyzes the poem based on the stylistic theory, concerning on the phonological level and the grammatical level. It aims at helping the readers to cultivate a sense of appropriateness, to sharpen the understanding and appreciation of literary works and to achieve adaptation in translation.

  5. Numerical Simulation of Sediment Transport due to Plunging Breaking Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Claus

    A numerical model simulating the sediment transport due to plunging breaking waves has been developed. The model is two-dimensional, assuming conditions in the long-shore direction invariable. A plunging breaker is simulated by superimposing a non-breaking wave with a jet. Based on the description...... of the sediment transport rates, a simple model describing the morphological changes has been applied to simulate the evolution of a plunge point generated vorticity included, the bottom topography from the experiments by Dette & Uliczka was not in equilibrium according to the model....

  6. Quantum phase transitions about parity breaking in matrix product systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jing-Min

    2011-01-01

    According to our scheme to construct quantum phase transitions (QPTs) in spin chain systems with matrix product ground states, we first successfully combine matrix product state (MPS) QPTs with spontaneous symmetry breaking. For a concrete model, we take into account a kind of MPS QPTs accompanied by spontaneous parity breaking, though for either side of the critical point the GS is typically unique, and show that the kind of MPS QPTs occur only in the thermodynamic limit and are accompanied by the appearance of singularities, diverging correlation length, vanishing energy gap and the entanglement entropy of a half-infinite chain not only staying finite but also whose first derivative discontinuous.

  7. Liquid-Bridge Breaking Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macner, Ashley; Steen, Paul

    2011-11-01

    Wet adhesion by liquid bridges in large arrays shows promise for use in lightweight, controllable on-demand devices. Applications include grab/release of wafer substrates, transport of micron-sized tiles for use in 3D printing and micro-dosing of personalized pharmaceutical drugs. By wetting and spreading, a drop can form a bridge and thereby ``grab'' a nearby solid substrate. By volume decrease or extension, the bridge can break. The breaking limit corresponds to bridge instability which can be predicted, knowing the static mechanical response of the bridge. Mechanical behaviors include force-volume (FV), pressure-volume (pV) and force-length (FL) responses. Instability crucially depends on the mode of failure - failure under constant-force or constant length are typical cases. We study single bridge equilibria for their breaking limits. FV diagrams for the pin-pin equal and pin-pin unequal radii boundary conditions for different bridge heights are measured in the laboratory. The FL response in the case of pin-pin equal radii is also measured. Results are compared to predictions of static theory. Static results are then used to compare to dynamical sequences where volume is driven quasistatically by syringe or an electro-osmotic pump. As the breaking limit is approached, the shape deformation accelerates leading to non-equilibrium shapes not captured by the static analysis.

  8. Inflationary implications of supersymmetry breaking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borghese, Andrea; Roest, Diederik; Zavala, Ivonne

    2013-01-01

    We discuss a general bound on the possibility to realise inflation in any minimal supergravity with F-terms. The derivation crucially depends on the sGoldstini, the scalar field directions that are singled out by spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. The resulting bound involves both slow-roll paramet

  9. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barklow, T.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burdman, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Chivukula, R.S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-04-01

    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.

  10. How do accretion discs break?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogan, Suzan

    2016-07-01

    Accretion discs are common in binary systems, and they are often found to be misaligned with respect to the binary orbit. The gravitational torque from a companion induces nodal precession in misaligned disc orbits. In this study, we first calculate whether this precession is strong enough to overcome the internal disc torques communicating angular momentum. We compare the disc precession torque with the disc viscous torque to determine whether the disc should warp or break. For typical parameters precession wins: the disc breaks into distinct planes that precess effectively independently. To check our analytical findings, we perform 3D hydrodynamical numerical simulations using the PHANTOM smoothed particle hydrodynamics code, and confirm that disc breaking is widespread and enhances accretion on to the central object. For some inclinations, the disc goes through strong Kozai cycles. Disc breaking promotes markedly enhanced and variable accretion and potentially produces high-energy particles or radiation through shocks. This would have significant implications for all binary systems: e.g. accretion outbursts in X-ray binaries and fuelling supermassive black hole (SMBH) binaries. The behaviour we have discussed in this work is relevant to a variety of astrophysical systems, for example X-ray binaries, where the disc plane may be tilted by radiation warping, SMBH binaries, where accretion of misaligned gas can create effectively random inclinations and protostellar binaries, where a disc may be misaligned by a variety of effects such as binary capture/exchange, accretion after binary formation.

  11. Sediment transport under breaking waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob; Mayer, Stefan

    2000-01-01

    generated at the surface where the wave breaks as well as the turbulence generated near the bed due to the wave-motion and the undertow. In general, the levels of turbulent kinetic energy are found to be higher than experiments show. This results in an over prediction of the sediment transport. Nevertheless...

  12. Code breaking in the pacific

    CERN Document Server

    Donovan, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Covers the historical context and the evolution of the technically complex Allied Signals Intelligence (Sigint) activity against Japan from 1920 to 1945 Describes, explains and analyzes the code breaking techniques developed during the war in the Pacific Exposes the blunders (in code construction and use) made by the Japanese Navy that led to significant US Naval victories

  13. Breaking Carbon Lock-in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Driscoll, Patrick Arthur

    2014-01-01

    This central focus of this paper is to highlight the ways in which path dependencies and increasing returns (network effects) serve to reinforce carbon lock-in in large-scale road transportation infrastructure projects. Breaking carbon lock-in requires drastic changes in the way we plan future...

  14. Picnic Tables within the Designated Picnic Area at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (pcnctbl)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains the individual picnic areas (as points where the picnic tables are generally located) within the only designated picnic area at Cedar Breaks...

  15. A (critical) overview of electroweak symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This presentation discusses the following points: The standard Higgs, big vs. little hierarchy; Electroweak Symmetry Breaking in supersymmetry and little hierarchy of Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM): Buried Higgs, Bigger quartic (D-terms, Next-to-Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (NMSSM), fat Higgs,..); Strong dynamics and related models: Technicolor, Monopole condensate, Warped extra dimensions, Realistic RS, Higgs-less, Composite Higgs, Little Higgs. In summary, we do not understand how Higgs is light and still no trace of new physics. In Supersymmetry (SUSY) it calls for extension of MSSM. In strong dynamics models: electroweak penguin (EWP) usually issue (Warped extra dimension - composite Higgs, Higgs-less, Little Higgs, Technicolor, monopole condensation,..). None of them is fully convincing but LHC should settle these

  16. Generic Rigidity for Circle Diffeomorphisms with Breaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocić, Saša

    2016-06-01

    We prove that {C^r}-smooth ({r > 2}) circle diffeomorphisms with a break, i.e., circle diffeomorphisms with a single singular point where the derivative has a jump discontinuity, are generically, i.e., for almost all irrational rotation numbers, not {C^{1+\\varepsilon}}-rigid, for any {\\varepsilon > 0}. This result complements our recent proof, joint with Khanin (Geom Funct Anal 24:2002-2028, 2014), that such maps are generically {C^1}-rigid. It stands in remarkable contrast to the result of Yoccoz (Ann Sci Ec Norm Sup 17:333-361, 1984) that {C^r}-smooth circle diffeomorphisms are generically {C^{r-1-κ}}-rigid, for any {κ > 0}.

  17. Hadron physics and dynamical chiral symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Chang, Lei; Wilson, David J

    2012-01-01

    Physics is an experimental science; and a constructive feedback between theory and extant and forthcoming experiments is necessary if an understanding of nonperturbative QCD is to be achieved. The Dyson-Schwinger equations connect confinement with dynamical chiral symmetry breaking, both with the observable properties of hadrons, and hence can plausibly provide a means of elucidating the empirical content of strong QCD. We illustrate these points via comments on: in-hadron condensates; dressed-quark anomalous chromo- and electro-magnetic moments; the self-limiting magnitudes of such moments and pion-loop contributions to the gap equation; deep inelastic scattering; the spectra of mesons and baryons; the critical role played by hadron-hadron interactions in producing these spectra; and nucleon elastic and transition form factors.

  18. Time-symmetry breaking in turbulence

    CERN Document Server

    Jucha, Jennifer; Pumir, Alain; Bodenschatz, Eberhard

    2014-01-01

    In three-dimensional turbulent flows, the flux of energy from large to small scales breaks time symmetry. We show here that this irreversibility can be quantified by following the relative motion of several Lagrangian tracers. We find by analytical calculation, numerical analysis and experimental observation that the existence of the energy flux implies that, at short times, two particles separate temporally slower forwards than backwards, and the difference between forward and backward dispersion grows as $t^3$. We also find the geometric deformation of material volumes, surrogated by four points spanning an initially regular tetrahedron, to show sensitivity to the time-reversal with an effect growing linearly in $t$. We associate this with the structure of the strain rate in the flow.

  19. Higgsless approach to electroweak symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grojean, Christophe

    2007-01-01

    Higgsless models are an attempt to achieve a breaking of the electroweak symmetry via boundary conditions at the end-points of a fifth dimension compactified on an interval, as an alternative to the usual Higgs mechanism. There is no physical Higgs scalar in the spectrum and the perturbative unitarity violation scale is delayed via the exchange of massive spin-1 KK resonances. The correct mass spectrum is reproduced in a model in warped space, which inherits a custodial symmetry from a left–right gauge symmetry in the bulk. Phenomenological challenges as well as collider signatures are presented. From the AdS/CFT perspective, this model appears as a weakly coupled dual to walking technicolour models.

  20. Determination of times maximum insulation in case of internal flooding by pipe break; Determinacion de los tiempos maximos de aislamiento en caso de inundacion interna por rotura de tuberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varas, M. I.; Orteu, E.; Laserna, J. A.

    2014-07-01

    This paper demonstrates the process followed in the preparation of the Manual of floods of Cofrentes NPP to identify the allowed maximum time available to the central in the isolation of a moderate or high energy pipe break, until it affects security (1E) participating in the safe stop of Reactor or in pools of spent fuel cooling-related equipment , and to determine the recommended isolation mode from the point of view of the location of the break or rupture, of the location of the 1E equipment and human factors. (Author)

  1. Critical dynamics near QCD critical point

    CERN Document Server

    Minami, Yuki

    2012-01-01

    In this thesis, we study the critical dynamics near the QCD critical point. Near the critical point, the relevant modes for the critical dynamics are identified as the hydrodynamic modes. Thus, we first study the linear dynamics of them by the relativistic hydrodynamics. We show that the thermal diffusion mode is the most relevant mode, whereas the sound mode is suppressed around the critical point. We also find that the Landau equation, which is believed to be an acausal hydrodynamic equation, has no problem to describe slowly varying fluctuations. Moreover, we find that the Israel-Stewart equation, which is a causal one, gives the same result as the Landau equation gives in the long-wavelength region. Next, we study the nonlinear dynamics of the hydrodynamic modes by the nonlinear Langevin equation and the dynamic renormalization group (RG). In the vicinity of the critical point, the usual hydrodynamics breaks down by large fluctuations. Thus, we must consider the nonlinear Langevin equation. We construct t...

  2. Thermal-Hydraulic Integral Effect Test with ATLAS for an Intermediate Break Loss of Coolant Accident at a Pressurizer Surge Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kyoung Ho; Seok Cho; Park, Hyun Sik; Choi, Nam Hyun; Park, Yu Sun; Kim, Jong Rok; Bae, Byoung Uhn; Kim, Yeon Sik; Kim, Kyung Doo; Choi, Ki Yong; Song, Chul Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The main objectives of this test were not only to provide physical insight into the system response of the APR1400 during the pressurizer surge line break accident but also to produce an integral effect test data to validate the SPACE code. In order to simulate a double-ended guillotine break of a pressurizer surge line in the APR1400, the IB-SUR-01R test was performed with ATLAS. The major thermal-hydraulic phenomena such as the system pressures, the collapsed water levels, and the break flow rate were presented and discussed. Despite the core was uncovered, no excursion in the cladding temperature was observed. The pressurizer surge line break can be classified as a hot leg break from a break location point of view. Compared with a cold leg break, coolability in the core may be better in case of a hot leg break due to the enhanced flow in the core region. This integral effect test data will be used to evaluate the prediction capability of existing safety analysis codes of the MARS and the RELAP5 as well as the SPACE code. Furthermore, this data can be utilized to identify any code deficiency for an IBLOCA simulation, especially for DVI-adapted plants. Redefinition of break size for design basis accident (DBA) based on risk information is being extensively investigated due to the potential for safety benefits and unnecessary burden reduction from current LBLOCA (large break loss of coolant accident)-based ECC (Emergency Core Cooling) Acceptance Criteria. As a transition break size (TBS), the rupture of medium-size pipe is considered to be more important than ever in risk-informed regulation (RIR)-relevant safety analysis. As plants age, are up-rated, and continue to seek improved operating efficiencies, the small break and intermediate break LOCA (IBLOCA) can become a concern. In particular, IBLOCA with DVI (Direct Vessel Injection) features will be addressed to support redefinition of a design-basis LOCA. With an aim of expanding code validation to address small

  3. Symmetries, Symmetry Breaking, Gauge Symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Strocchi, Franco

    2015-01-01

    The concepts of symmetry, symmetry breaking and gauge symmetries are discussed, their operational meaning being displayed by the observables {\\em and} the (physical) states. For infinitely extended systems the states fall into physically disjoint {\\em phases} characterized by their behavior at infinity or boundary conditions, encoded in the ground state, which provide the cause of symmetry breaking without contradicting Curie Principle. Global gauge symmetries, not seen by the observables, are nevertheless displayed by detectable properties of the states (superselected quantum numbers and parastatistics). Local gauge symmetries are not seen also by the physical states; they appear only in non-positive representations of field algebras. Their role at the Lagrangian level is merely to ensure the validity on the physical states of local Gauss laws, obeyed by the currents which generate the corresponding global gauge symmetries; they are responsible for most distinctive physical properties of gauge quantum field ...

  4. Breaking GSM with rainbow Tables

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Since 1998 the GSM security has been academically broken but no real attack has ever been done until in 2008 when two engineers of Pico Computing (FPGA manufacture) revealed that they could break the GSM encryption in 30 seconds with 200'000$ hardware and precomputed rainbow tables. Since then the hardware was either available for rich people only or was confiscated by government agencies. So Chris Paget and Karsten Nohl decided to react and do the same thing but in a distributed open source form (on torrent). This way everybody could "enjoy" breaking GSM security and operators will be forced to upgrade the GSM protocol that is being used by more than 4 billion users and that is more than 20 years old.

  5. Project Trust: Breaking down Barriers between Middle School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batiuk, Mary Ellen; Boland, James A.; Wilcox, Norma

    2004-01-01

    This paper analyzes the success of a camp retreat weekend called Project Trust involving middle school students and teachers. The goal of the camp is to break down barriers between cliques identified as active in the school. The camp focuses on building team relationships across clique membership and incorporates elements of peace education and…

  6. Breaking through the tranfer tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud

    2001-01-01

    This image shows the tunnel boring machine breaking through the transfer tunnel into the LHC tunnel. Proton beams will be transferred from the SPS pre-accelerator to the LHC at 450 GeV through two specially constructed transfer tunnels. From left to right: LHC Project Director, Lyn Evans; CERN Director-General (at the time), Luciano Maiani, and Director for Accelerators, Kurt Hubner.

  7. 16th Edition Breaks New Ground

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Fei

    2010-01-01

    @@ Breaking new ground,Intertextile Shanghai Apparel Fabrics,successfully closed its doors on October 22nd,2010at the Shanghai New International Exhibition Centre,attracting a record breaking,more than 57,000 buyers.

  8. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... en español Blog About OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by ... danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe ...

  9. BREAKING WAVE FORCES ON VERTICAL CYLINDERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The breaking wave forces on vertical cylinders in shallow waters were studied by means of experimental methods. The results indicate that the breaking wave pressure is distributed exponentially with respect to water depth. An experimental formula was given using the test data. Compared with test data, the calculated breaking wave forces are in good agreement with the test data.

  10. Electroweak symmetry breaking at photon colliders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electroweak-symmetry-breaking sector of the standard model can be weakly-coupled or can be strongly-coupled, which is characterized by some kinds of strong interaction among the Goldstone bosons of the electroweak-symmetry-breaking sector. In this paper, we summarize an investigation of probing the strong electroweak-symmetry-breaking effects at photon colliders. ((orig.))

  11. Investigation of the current break-down phenomena in solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, S.K.; Srinivasamurthy, N.; Agrawal, B.L. [Power Systems Group, ISRO Satellite Centre, Bangalore (India)

    1996-08-15

    Observed reverse current-voltage characteristics of the single crystal silicon and gallium arsenide solar cells have been analyzed. Physical mechanisms behind the junction break-down in silicon cells and current break-down in gallium arsenide cells have been identified. Preliminary estimates of the diffusion capacitance in GaAs cells have been presented

  12. Active and break events of Indian summer monsoon during 1901-2014

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Pai, D.S.; Sridhar, L.; RameshKumar, M.R.

    The study lists active and break monsoon events over India over a very long period (1901-2014) identified using criteria based on a rainfall index derived over a critical high rainfall region called core monsoon zone. The break and active spells...

  13. Large Eddy Simulation for Wave Breaking in the Surf Zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白玉川; 蒋昌波; 沈焕庭

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, the large eddy simulation method is used combined with the marker and cell method to study the wave propagation or shoaling and breaking process. As wave propagates into shallow water, the shoaling leads to the increase of wave height, and then at a certain position, the wave will be breaking. The breaking wave is a powerful agent for generating turbulence, which plays an important role in most of the fluid dynamic processes throughout the sarf zone, such as transformation of wave energy, generation of near-shore current and diffusion of materials. So a proper numerical model for describing the turbulence effect is needed. In this paper, a revised Smagorinsky subgrid-scale model is used to describe the turbulence effect. The present study reveals that the coefficient of the Smagorinsky model for wave propagation or breaking simulation may be taken as a varying function of the water depth and distance away from the wave breaking point. The large eddy simulation model presented in this paper has been used to study the propagation of the solitary wave in constant water depth and the shoaling of the non-breaking solitary wave on a beach. The model is based on large eddy simulation, and to track free-surface movements, the Tokyo University Modified Marker and Cell (TUMMAC) method is employed. In order to ensure the accuracy of each component of this wave mathematical model,several steps have been taken to verify calculated solutions with either analytical solutions or experimental data. For non-breaking waves, very accurate results are obtained for a solitary wave propagating over a constant depth and on a beach. Application of the model to cnoidal wave breaking in the surf zone shows that the model results are in good agreement with analytical solution and experimental data. From the present model results, it can be seen that the turbulent eddy viscosity increases from the bottom to the water surface in surf zone. In the eddy viscosity curve, there is a

  14. CSNI specialist meeting on leak-before-break in nuclear reactor piping: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On September 1 and 2, 1983, the CSNI subcommittee on primary system integrity held a special meeting in Monterey, California, on the subject of leak-before-break in nuclear reactor piping systems. The purpose of the meeting was to provide an international forum for the exchange of ideas, positions, and research results; to identify areas requiring additional research and development; and to determine the general attitude toward acceptance of the leak-before-break concept. The importance of the leak-before-break issue was evidenced by excellent attendance at the meeting and through active participation by the meeting attendees. Approximately 125 people representing fifteen different nations attended the meeting. The meeting was divided into four technical sessions addressing the following areas: Application of Piping Fracture Mechanics to Leak-Before Break, Leak Rate and Leak Detection, Leak-Before-Break Studies, Methods and Results, Current and Proposed Positions on Leak-Before-Break

  15. Breaking a Dark Degeneracy with Gravitational Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Lombriser, Lucas

    2015-01-01

    We identify a scalar-tensor model embedded in the Horndeski action whose cosmological background and linear scalar fluctuations are degenerate with the concordance cosmology. The model admits a self-accelerated background expansion at late times that is stable against perturbations with a sound speed attributed to the new field that is equal to the speed of light. While degenerate in scalar fluctuations, self acceleration of the model implies a present cosmological tensor mode propagation at 5% less efficient than in general relativity. These discrepancies will be testable with future measurements of gravitational waves emitted by events at cosmological distances. Hence, they can be used to break the dark degeneracy in our current observations between two fundamentally different explanations of cosmic acceleration - a cosmological constant and a scalar-tensor modification of gravity.

  16. Applicability of the leak before break concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Within the framework of the IAEA Extrabudgetary Programme on the Safety of WWER-440 Model 230 NPPs, a list of safety issues requiring broad studies of general interest have been agreed upon by an Advisory Group which met in Vienna in September 1990. The information on the status of the issues, and on amount of work already completed and under way in various countries, needs to be compiled. Moreover, an evaluation of what further work is required to resolve each of the issues is also necessary. In view of this, the IAEA has started the preparation of a series of status reports on the various issues. This report on the generic safety issue ''Applicability of the Leak Before Break Concept'' presents a comprehensive survey of technical information available in the field and identifies those which require further investigation. 50 refs, 15 figs, 2 tabs

  17. Arctic Climate Tipping Points

    OpenAIRE

    Lenton, Timothy M.

    2012-01-01

    There is widespread concern that anthropogenic global warming will trigger Arctic climate tipping points. The Arctic has a long history of natural, abrupt climate changes, which together with current observations and model projections, can help us to identify which parts of the Arctic climate system might pass future tipping points. Here the climate tipping points are defined, noting that not all of them involve bifurcations leading to irreversible change. Past abrupt climate changes in the A...

  18. Surface tension effects in wave breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deike, Luc; Melville, W. K.; Popinet, Stephane

    2014-11-01

    We present a numerical study of wave breaking by solving the full Navier-Stokes equations for two-phase air-water flows using the solver Gerris. We describe a parametric study of the influence of capillary effects on wave breaking using two-dimensional simulations. The onset of wave breaking as a function of the Bond number, Bo, and the initial wave steepness S is determined and a phase diagram in terms of (S,Bo) is presented that distinguishes between non-breaking gravity waves, parasitic capillaries on a gravity wave, spilling breakers and plunging breakers. The wave energy dissipation is computed for each wave regime and is found to be in good agreement with experimental results for breaking waves. Moreover, the enhanced dissipation just by parasitic capillaries is comparable to the dissipation due to breaking. Extending the simulations to three dimensions permits studies of the generation and statistics of bubbles and spray during breaking.

  19. Directional excitation without breaking reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramezani, Hamidreza; Dubois, Marc; Wang, Yuan; Shen, Y. Ron; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-09-01

    We propose a mechanism for directional excitation without breaking reciprocity. This is achieved by embedding an impedance matched parity-time symmetric potential in a three-port system. The amplitude distribution within the gain and loss regions is strongly influenced by the direction of the incoming field. Consequently, the excitation of the third port is contingent on the direction of incidence while transmission in the main channel is immune. Our design improves the four-port directional coupler scheme, as there is no need to implement an anechoic termination to one of the ports.

  20. History of electroweak symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Kibble, T W B

    2015-01-01

    In this talk, I recall the history of the development of the unified electroweak theory, incorporating the symmetry-breaking Higgs mechanism, as I saw it from my standpoint as a member of Abdus Salam's group at Imperial College. I start by describing the state of physics in the years after the Second World War, explain how the goal of a unified gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions emerged, the obstacles encountered, in particular the Goldstone theorem, and how they were overcome, followed by a brief account of more recent history, culminating in the historic discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012.

  1. Leaders break ground for INFINITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-01-01

    Community leaders from Mississippi and Louisiana break ground for the new INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center facility during a Nov. 20 ceremony. Groundbreaking participants included (l to r): Gottfried Construction representative John Smith, Mississippi Highway Commissioner Wayne Brown, INFINITY board member and Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise, Stennis Director Gene Goldman, Studio South representative David Hardy, Leo Seal Jr. family representative Virginia Wagner, Hancock Bank President George Schloegel, Mississippi Rep. J.P. Compretta, Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians representative Charlie Benn and Louisiana Sen. A.G. Crowe.

  2. Spontaneous Breaking of Flavor Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Törnqvist, N A

    1996-01-01

    It is shown that part of the quark masses of the standard model can be generated spontaneously within the strong interactions of QCD. After the breaking of U(Nf) x U(Nf) symmetry by the vacuum, also the resulting flavor symmetric, degenerate meson mass spectrum is shown to be unstable with respect to quantum loops, for rather general models. For a C-degenerate meson spectrum the stable mass spectrum obeys the Okubo-Zweig-Iizuka rule and the approximateequal spacing rule.

  3. Cluster formation, breaking, and excitation in light nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we discuss cluster phenomena in light nuclei based on calculations using the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics (AMD) method. Cluster structures in C, B, and Be were studied systematically, and their cluster formation and excitation are discussed. Cluster gas states and their band members are suggested for the excited states of 12C and 11B. The ground state cluster correlation and excited cluster gas state are discussed from the point of view of symmetry breaking and restoration. (authors)

  4. Finsler-like structures from Lorentz-breaking classical particles

    CERN Document Server

    Russell, Neil

    2015-01-01

    A method is presented for deducing classical point-particle Lagrange functions corresponding to a class of quartic dispersion relations. Applying this to particles violating Lorentz symmetry in the minimal Standard-Model Extension leads to a variety of novel lagrangians in flat spacetime. Morphisms in these classical systems are studied that echo invariance under field redefinitions in the quantized theory. The Lagrange functions found offer new possibilities for understanding Lorentz-breaking effects by exploring parallels with Finsler-like geometries.

  5. Boundary breaking for interdisciplinary learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Kidron

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to contribute to the body of knowledge on processesby which students develop interdisciplinary understanding of contents, as well as to suggest technology-enhanced means for supporting them in these processes in the context of higher education. In doing so, we suggest a rethinking of three traditional practices that tend to characterise typical higher education instruction: (1 compartmentalisation of disciplines; (2 traditional pedagogy; and (3 traditional hierarchies based on levels of expertise. Our high-level conjecture was that meaningful dialogue with peers and experts supports both the deepening of ideas in one knowledge domain and the formation of connections between ideas from several domains, both of which are required for the development of interdisciplinary understanding. We developed the Boundary Breaking for Interdisciplinary Learning (BBIL model, which harnesses technology to break boundaries between disciplines, learners and organisational levels of hierarchy. Findings indicate that 36 undergraduate students who participated in an interdisciplinary online course that implemented the BBIL model have significantly improved their interdisciplinary understanding of the course contents. This study illustrates how innovative use of available, free and low-cost technology can produce a ‘positive disruption’ in higher education instruction.

  6. How often precipitation records break?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papalexiou, Simon Michael; Oikonomou, Maria; Floutsakou, Athina; Bessas, Nikolaos; Mamassis, Nikos

    2016-04-01

    How often precipitation records break? Are there any factors that determine the average time needed for the next maximum to occur? In order to investigate these simple questions we use several hundreds of daily precipitation records (more than 100 years long each) and we study the time intervals between each successive maximum precipitation value. We investigate if the record breaking time interval is related (a) to the autocorrelation structure, (b) to probability dry, and (c) to the tail of the marginal distribution. For the last, we first, evaluate which type of tail is better fitted by choosing among three general types of tails corresponding to the distributions Pareto, Lognormal and Weibull; and second, we assess the heaviness of the tail based on the estimated shape parameter. The performance of each tail is evaluated in terms of return period values, i.e., we compare the empirical return periods of precipitation values above a threshold with the predicted ones by each of the three types of fitted tails.

  7. Strictly Anomaly Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Hindmarsh, Mark

    2012-01-01

    We consider an MSSM extension with anomaly mediation as the source of supersymmetry-breaking, and a U(1) symmetry which solves the tachyonic slepton problem, and introduces both the see-saw mechanism for neutrino masses, and the Higgs mu-term. We compare its spectra with those from so-called minimal anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking. We find a Standard Model-like Higgs of mass 124 GeV with a gravitino mass of 120 TeV and tan(beta)=17, while a contribution to the muon anomalous magnetic moment within 2 sigma of the discrepancy between Standard Model theory and experiment favours a slightly lower gravitino mass of around 80 TeV. The model naturally produces a period of hybrid inflation, with exit to a false vacuum characterised by large Higgs vevs, the true ground state being achieved after a period of thermal inflation. The scalar spectral index is reduced to approximately 0.975, and the correct abundance of dark matter can be produced by decays of thermally-produced gravitinos, provided the gravitino ma...

  8. Introduction to Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dawson,S.

    2008-10-02

    The Standard Model (SM) is the backbone of elementary particle physics-not only does it provide a consistent framework for studying the interactions of quark and leptons, but it also gives predictions which have been extensively tested experimentally. In these notes, I review the electroweak sector of the Standard Model, discuss the calculation of electroweak radiative corrections to observables, and summarize the status of SM Higgs boson searches. Despite the impressive experimental successes, however, the electroweak theory is not completely satisfactory and the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking is untested. I will discuss the logic behind the oft-repeated statement: 'There must be new physics at the TeV scale'. These lectures reflect my strongly held belief that upcoming results from the LHC will fundamentally change our understanding of electroweak symmetry breaking. In these lectures, I review the status of the electroweak sector of the Standard Model, with an emphasis on the importance of radiative corrections and searches for the Standard Model Higgs boson. A discussion of the special role of the TeV energy scale in electroweak physics is included.

  9. Chiral symmetry breaking and monopoles

    CERN Document Server

    Di Giacomo, Adriano; Pucci, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    To understand the relation between the chiral symmetry breaking and monopoles, the chiral condensate which is the order parameter of the chiral symmetry breaking is calculated in the $\\overline{\\mbox{MS}}$ scheme at 2 [GeV]. First, we add one pair of monopoles, varying the monopole charges $m_{c}$ from zero to four, to SU(3) quenched configurations by a monopole creation operator. The low-lying eigenvalues of the Overlap Dirac operator are computed from the gauge links of the normal configurations and the configurations with additional monopoles. Next, we compare the distributions of the nearest-neighbor spacing of the low-lying eigenvalues with the prediction of the random matrix theory. The low-lying eigenvalues not depending on the scale parameter $\\Sigma$ are compared to the prediction of the random matrix theory. The results show the consistency with the random matrix theory. Thus, the additional monopoles do not affect the low-lying eigenvalues. Moreover, we discover that the additional monopoles increa...

  10. Parity-Time Symmetry Breaking in Coupled Nanobeam Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, Senlin; Zhang, Yuguang; He, Sailing

    2015-01-01

    The parity-time symmetry (PT symmetry) breaking phenomenon is investigated in a coupled nanobeam cavity system. An exceptional point is observed during the tuning of the relation of the gain/loss and coupling strength of the closely placed nanobeam pairs. The PT symmetry concept can be applied to realize unidirectional light propagation and single mode operation lasers, which may allow for a new way to harness the optical signal in photonic integrated circuits. Otherwise, operating at this particular exceptional point, sensitivity of tiny perturbation detection can be enhanced greatly compared with conventional sensors.

  11. Tranverse beam break up in a periodic linac

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of cumulative beam break up in a periodic linac for a general impedance is discussed, with the effects of acceleration included. The transverse equations of motion for a set of identical point like bunches moving along the length of the linac are cast into a simple form using a smooth approximation. This results in a working formula that is used to analyze beam breakup. Explicit expressions for the transverse motion in the case of a single resonance impedance are found using saddle point integration. This is done first with no external focusing, and again in the strong focusing limit

  12. A new statistical model of wave heights based on the concept of wave breaking critical zone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jiaxuan; LI Xunqiang; ZHU Shouxian; ZHANG Wenjing; WANG Lei

    2015-01-01

    When waves propagate from deep water to shallow water, wave heights and steepness increase and then waves roll back and break. This phenomenon is called surf. Currently, the present statistical calculation model of surf was derived mainly from the wave energy conservation equation and the linear wave dispersion relation, but it cannot reflect accurately the process which is a rapid increasing in wave height near the broken point. So, the concept of a surf breaking critical zone is presented. And the nearshore is divided as deep water zone, shallow water zone, surf breaking critical zone and after breaking zone. Besides, the calculation formula for the height of the surf breaking critical zone has founded based on flume experiments, thereby a new statistical calculation model on the surf has been established. Using the new model, the calculation error of wave height maximum is reduced from 17.62% to 6.43%.

  13. Turning Point

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Moves from the United States and North Korea give new impetus to nuclear disablement and U.S.-North Korea ties The tense situation surrounding denu-clearization on the Korean Peninsula has reached a turning point. On

  14. Z'-mediated supersymmetry breaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langacker, Paul; Paz, Gil; Wang, Lian-Tao; Yavin, Itay

    2008-02-01

    We consider a class of models in which supersymmetry breaking is communicated dominantly via a U1' gauge interaction, which also helps solve the mu problem. Such models can emerge naturally in top-down constructions and are a version of split supersymmetry. The spectrum contains heavy sfermions, Higgsinos, exotics, and Z' approximately 10-100 TeV, light gauginos approximately 100-1000 GeV, a light Higgs boson approximately 140 GeV, and a light singlino. A specific set of U1' charges and exotics is analyzed, and we present five benchmark models. The implications for the gluino lifetime, cold dark matter, and the gravitino and neutrino masses are discussed. PMID:18352261

  15. Dynamical centrosymmetry breaking in graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Carvalho, David N; Biancalana, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    We discover an unusual phenomenon that occurs when a graphene monolayer is illuminated by a short and intense pulse at normal incidence. Due to the pulse-induced oscillations of the Dirac cones, a dynamical breaking of the layer's centrosymmetry takes place, leading to the generation of second harmonic waves. We prove that this result can only be found by using the full Dirac equation and show that the widely used semiconductor Bloch equations fail to reproduce this and some other important physics of graphene. Our results open new windows in the understanding of nonlinear light-matter interactions in a wide variety of new 2D materials with a gapped or ungapped Dirac-like dispersion.

  16. Symmetry Breaking in Finite Volume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Chuan

    2000-01-01

    Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a cooperative phenomenon for systems with infinitely many degrees of freedom and it plays an essential role in quantum field theories. Lattice O(N) model is studied within the Hamiltonian approach using an adiabatic approximation. It is shown that the low-lying spectrum of the system in the broken phase can be understood by using the adiabatic, or Born-Oppenheimer approximation, which turns out to become an expansion in the inverse power of volume. In the infinite volume limit, the symmetry is broken while in the finite volume the slow rotation of the zero-momentum mode restores the symmetry and gives rise to the rotator spectrum, which has been observed in realistic Monte Carlo simulations.

  17. Porter’s five forces reconsideration: Model of joint MBA programmes and schools’ fusion in the industry of Management Education as a counter point of competitive environment model : COMMUNICATION POUR LA BIENNALE 2015 « COOPERER » Identifiant : N° 448

    OpenAIRE

    NGUYEN, Thi Thu Tra

    2015-01-01

    International audience In the scope of our doctoral research, business education is considered as an industry where business schools act as firms. Our thesis focuses on the strategic management field, with aims to explore how schools revisit their MBA curricula. Within this framework, joint and merged MBA programmes have been analysed as a counter point of Porter’s five forces (1980): rivalry among competitors, entry barriers, substitutions’ threats, buyers’ and suppliers’ bargaining power...

  18. Supersymmetry-breaking nonlinear sigma models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imai, Takumi, E-mail: imai@yukawa.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Izawa, K.-I. [Yukawa Institute for Theoretical Physics, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the Universe, University of Tokyo (WPI), Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Nakai, Yuichiro [Department of Physics, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan)

    2012-10-22

    We consider a novel class of constraints on chiral superfields to obtain supersymmetric nonlinear sigma models in four spacetime dimensions, which strictly combine the internal symmetry breaking with spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. The resultant massless modes can be exclusively Nambu-Goldstone bosons without their complex partners and the goldstino that is charged under the internal symmetry. The massive modes show a peculiar relation among their masses and the scales of symmetry breakings.

  19. Revolving D-branes and spontaneous gauge-symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a new mechanism of spontaneous gauge-symmetry breaking in the world-volume theory of revolving D-branes around a fixed point of orbifolds. In this paper, we consider a simple model of the T6/Z3 orbifold on which we put D3-branes, D7-branes, and their anti-branes. The configuration breaks supersymmetry, but the Ramond–Ramond tadpole cancellation conditions are satisfied. A set of three D3-branes at an orbifold fixed point can separate from the point, but, when they move perpendicular to the anti-D7-branes put on the fixed point, they are pulled back due to an attractive interaction between the D3- and anti-D7-branes. In order to stabilize the separation of the D3-branes at nonzero distance, we consider revolution of the D3-branes around the fixed point. Then the gauge symmetry on the D3-branes is spontaneously broken, and the rank of the gauge group is reduced. The distance can be set at will by appropriately choosing the angular momentum of the revolving D3-branes, which should be determined by the initial condition of the cosmological evolution of the D-brane configurations. The distance corresponds to the vacuum expectation values of brane moduli fields in the world-volume theory and, if it is written as M/Ms2 in terms of the string scale Ms, the scale of gauge-symmetry breaking is given by M. Angular momentum conservation of revolving D3-branes assures the stability of the scale M against Ms

  20. Modelling Inflation Uncertainty with Structural Breaks Case of Turkey (1994–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Göktaş

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the importance attached to the concept of volatility has increased and become a phenomenon frequently encountered in every field ranging from financial markets to macroeconomic indicators. In this study, inflation data obtained from CPI index for the period of 1994:01–2013:12 in Turkey was used to determine the best representative of the inflation uncertainty. To realize this, both symmetric and asymmetric GARCH-type models were employed. Since there are many factors that may lead to structural change within the economic course of Turkey, a structural break in the series has first been investigated. By administering Bai-Perron structural break test, two different break points both in mean and variance have been detected to be in February 2002 and in June 2001, respectively. The inclusion of those break points to the related equations, appropriate forecasting models were projected. Moreover it was found that, while in the periods prior to the break in both variance and mean the inflation itself was the reason for inflation uncertainty, following the dates of the break, the relationship changed bidirectionally. In the meantime, when the series was taken as a whole without considering the break, bidirectional causality relationship was also detected in the series.

  1. The t(14,15) in Mouse Strain CBA/CaH-T(14;15)6Ca/J Causes a Break in the ADAMTS12 Gene

    OpenAIRE

    Acar-Perk, Bengi; Bräutigam, Karen; Grunewald, Regina; Schmutzler, Andreas; Schem, Christian; Arnold, Norbert K; Jonat, Walter; Weimer, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    The mouse strain CBA/CaH-T(14;15)6Ca/J carries a homozygous balanced reciprocal translocation between mouse chromosomes 14 and 15, but the break points of this translocation have not previously been examined in detail. Using fluorescent in situ hybridization, we assigned the break point in 14qE3 to a 200-kb region devoid of any known gene. We similarly defined the break point in 15qA1 to a 27-kb region containing involving ADAMTS12. The chromosomal break likely is between exons 2 and 3 of ADA...

  2. Break-Even Cost for Residential Photovoltaics in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R. M.; Ong, S.; Roberts, B.

    2009-12-01

    Grid parity--or break-even cost--for photovoltaic (PV) technology is defined as the point where the cost of PV-generated electricity equals the cost of electricity purchased from the grid. Break-even cost is expressed in $/W of an installed system. Achieving break-even cost is a function of many variables. Consequently, break-even costs vary by location and time for a country, such as the United States, with a diverse set of resources, electricity prices, and other variables. In this report, we analyze PV break-even costs for U.S. residential customers. We evaluate some key drivers of grid parity both regionally and over time. We also examine the impact of moving from flat to time-of-use (TOU) rates, and we evaluate individual components of the break-even cost, including effect of rate structure and various incentives. Finally, we examine how PV markets might evolve on a regional basis considering the sensitivity of the break-even cost to four major drivers: technical performance, financing parameters, electricity prices and rates, and policies. We find that local incentives rather than ?technical? parameters are in general the key drivers of the break-even cost of PV. Additionally, this analysis provides insight about the potential viability of PV markets.

  3. Structural breaks and fiscal sustainability of the Indonesian government budget

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivantia S. Mokoginta

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to identify government policy regimes or structural breaks as indicated by significant changes in debt to GDP ratio and to identify fiscal sustainability in Indonesia from 2000 to 2013. Using Fiscal Reaction Functions framework and Smooth Transition Regression, the study found two structural breaks following the three regimes. Foreign debt repayment dominates the government policy during Regime I. Fiscal consolidations and discipline such as reducing energy subsidies in 2002 and 2005, managing debt portfolio and increasing government revenues were dominant during Regime II. In Regime III, the government increases domestic debt, particularly to finance stimulus package. This study also found that the Indonesian fiscal is unsustainable during the period of study. Overall, the findings seem to suggest that managing government debt through fiscal consolidations, foreign debt repayment and debt portfolio management is not sufficient to achieve long-term fiscal sustainability.

  4. Multilepton signatures of gauge mediated SUSY breaking at LEPII

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Kingman; Dicus, Duane A.; Dutta, B.; Nandi, S.

    1997-01-01

    In the framework of gauge-mediated supersymmetry breaking models pair production of the lightest neutralinos, scalar leptons, or charginos at LEPII gives rise to interesting signals involving multilepton final states and missing energy. In the parameter space where the scalar tau, $\\tilde{\\tau}_1$, is the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle, we identify three interesting regions, which give rise to distinctly different final states: (i) 2 $\\tau$-leptons plus missing energy, (ii) 4 charge...

  5. On string models with Scherk-Schwarz supersymmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scrucca, Claudio A.; Serone, Marco

    2001-10-01

    We construct a general class of chiral four-dimensional string models with Scherk-Schwarz supersymmetry breaking, involving freely acting orbifolds. The basic ingredient is to combine an ordinary supersymmetry-preserving Bbb ZN projection with a supersymmetry-breaking projection Bbb ZM' acting freely on a subspace of the internal manifold. A crucial condition is that any generator of the full orbifold group Bbb ZN × Bbb ZM' must either preserve some supersymmetry or act freely in order to become irrelevant in some large volume limit. Tachyons are found to be absent or limited to a given region of the tree-level moduli space. We find several new models with orthogonal supersymmetries preserved at distinct fixed-points. Particular attention is devoted to an interesting Bbb Z3 × Bbb Z3' heterotic example.

  6. Anatomy of new SUSY breaking holographic RG flows

    CERN Document Server

    Argurio, Riccardo; Redigolo, Diego

    2014-01-01

    We find and thoroughly study new supergravity domain wall solutions which are holographic realizations of supersymmetry breaking strongly coupled gauge theories. We set ourselves in an N=2 gauged supergravity with a minimal content in order to reproduce a dual N=1 effective SCFT which has a U(1)_R symmetry, a chiral operator whose components are responsible for triggering the RG flow, and an additional U(1)_F symmetry. We present a full three dimensional parameter space of solutions, which generically break supersymmetry. Some known solutions are recovered for specific sets of values of the parameters, with the new solutions interpolating between them. The generic backgrounds being singular, we provide a stability test of their dual theories by showing that there are no tachyonic resonances in the two point correlators. We compute the latter by holographic renormalization. We also carefully analyze the appearance of massless modes, such as the dilaton and the R axion, when the respective symmetries are sponta...

  7. Breaking the biomass bottleneck of the fossil free society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    be converted to high-density fuels for mobility purposes, and it is a key source of carbon feedstock All in all, everything points to the fact, that biomass (and agricultural land) may be a severe bottleneck in the fossil free society and that excessive use can have severe consequences for the world’s forest...... resources, the food sector and the poorest part of the world population. We can, however, break this bottleneck. First of all, we must seek further energy savings. Secondly, we need to look for ways to de-carbonize society. There is a growing consensus among energy scientists and energy planners...... by hydrogenation and CCR, can approximately five-double our biomass potential for providing storable and high-density fuels and carbon feedstock compared to the presently applied technologies for converting biomass to fuels and feedstock. This can fully and effectively break the biomass bottleneck of the fossil...

  8. Genome-wide association study of regional brain volume suggests involvement of known psychiatry candidate genes, identified new candidates for psychiatric disorders and points to potential modes of their action

    OpenAIRE

    Franke, B.; Rijpkema, M.; Arias Vasquez, A.; Veltman, J; Brunner, H.; Hagoort, P.; G. FERNANDEZ

    2010-01-01

    Though most psychiatric disorders are highly heritable, it has been hard to identify genetic risk factors involved, which are most likely of small individual effect size. A possible way to aid identification of risk genes is the use of intermediate phenotypes. These are supposed to be closer to the biological substrate(s) of the disorder than psychiatric diagnoses, and therefore less genetically complex. Intermediate phenotypes can be defined e. g. at the level of brain function and of region...

  9. Four Top Production and Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Kingman

    1995-01-01

    With the recent discovery of a heavy top quark $(m_t \\approx 175 - 200$ GeV), the top quark opens an window to electroweak symmetry breaking. We propose the study of four-top, $t\\bar t t\\bar t$, production at hadronic supercolliders as a probe to electroweak symmetry breaking.

  10. Anatomy of String Breaking in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Prkacin, Z; Dussel, T; Lippert, T; Neff, H; Schilling, K; Prkacin, Zdravko; Bali, Gunnar S; Dussel, Thomas; Lippert, Thomas; Neff, Hartmut; Schilling, Klaus

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the string breaking mechanism in n_f=2 QCD. We discuss the lattice techniques used and present results on energy levels and mixing angle of the static BBbar|QbarQ two-state system. The string breaking is visualized, by means of an animation of the action density distribution as a function of the static colour source-antisource separation.

  11. Electroweak Symmetry Breaking and the Higgs Boson

    CERN Document Server

    Pich, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    The first LHC run has confirmed the Standard Model as the correct theory at the electroweak scale, and the existence of a Higgs-like particle associated with the spontaneous breaking of the electroweak gauge symmetry. These lectures overview the present knowledge on the Higgs boson and discuss alternative scenarios of electroweak symmetry breaking which are already being constrained by the experimental data.

  12. Charge-symmetry-breaking nucleon form factors

    CERN Document Server

    Kubis, Bastian

    2009-01-01

    A quantitative understanding of charge-symmetry breaking is an increasingly important ingredient for the extraction of the nucleon's strange vector form factors. We review the theoretical understanding of the charge-symmetry-breaking form factors, both for single nucleons and for Helium-4.

  13. Big break for charge symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, G A

    2003-01-01

    Two new experiments have detected charge-symmetry breaking, the mechanism responsible for protons and neutrons having different masses. Symmetry is a crucial concept in the theories that describe the subatomic world because it has an intimate connection with the laws of conservation. The theory of the strong interaction between quarks - quantum chromodynamics - is approximately invariant under what is called charge symmetry. In other words, if we swap an up quark for a down quark, then the strong interaction will look almost the same. This symmetry is related to the concept of sup i sospin sup , and is not the same as charge conjugation (in which a particle is replaced by its antiparticle). Charge symmetry is broken by the competition between two different effects. The first is the small difference in mass between up and down quarks, which is about 200 times less than the mass of the proton. The second is their different electric charges. The up quark has a charge of +2/3 in units of the proton charge, while ...

  14. Automatic Prosodic Break Detection and Feature Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chong-Jia Ni; Ai-Ying Zhang; Wen-Ju Liu; Bo Xu

    2012-01-01

    Automatic prosodic break detection and annotation are important for both speech understanding and natural speech synthesis.In this paper,we discuss automatic prosodic break detection and feature analysis.The contributions of the paper are two aspects.One is that we use classifier combination method to detect Mandarin and English prosodic break using acoustic,lexical and syntactic evidence.Our proposed method achieves better performance on both the Mandarin prosodic annotation corpus — Annotated Speech Corpus of Chinese Discourse and the English prosodic annotation corpus —Boston University Radio News Corpus when compared with the baseline system and other researches' experimental results.The other is the feature analysis for prosodic break detection.The functions of different features,such as duration,pitch,energy,and intensity,are analyzed and compared in Mandarin and English prosodic break detection.Based on the feature analysis,we also verify some linguistic conclusions.

  15. A laboratory study of breaking waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaros³aw Têgowski

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with some aspects of the wave-breaking phenomenon. The objectives were to study wave-breaking criteria, and the probability of whitecap coverage under fully controlled wave conditions. An additional task was to in vestigate the characteristic spectral features of the noise produced by breaking waves and the acoustic energy generated during wave breaking events. A controlled experiment was carried out in the Ocean Basin Laboratory at MARINTEK, Trondheim (Norway. Waves were generated by a computer-controlled multi-flap wave maker, which reproduced a realistic pattern of the sea surface for the prescribed spectra. Using wave staff recordings and photographic techniques, correlations between the breaking parameters and the radiated acoustic emissions were established.

  16. Supersymmetry Breaking by Higher Dimension Operators

    CERN Document Server

    Farakos, Fotis; Kehagias, Alex; Porrati, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    We discuss a supersymmetry breaking mechanism for N = 1 theories triggered by higher dimensional op- erators. We consider such operators for real linear and chiral spinor superfields that break superymmetry and reduce to the Volkov-Akulov action. We also consider supersymmetry breaking induced by a higher dimensional operator of a nonminimal scalar (complex linear) multiplet. The latter differs from the stan- dard chiral multiplet in its auxiliary sector, which contains, in addition to the complex scalar auxiliary of a chiral superfield, a complex vector and two spinors auxiliaries. By adding an appropriate higher di- mension operator, the scalar auxiliary may acquire a nonzero vev triggering spontaneous supersymmetry breaking. We find that the spectrum of the theory in the supersymmetry breaking vacuum consists of a free chiral multiplet and a constraint chiral superfield describing the goldstino. Interestingly, the latter turns out to be one of the auxiliary fermions, which becomes dynamical in the supersym...

  17. Research progress on dam-break floods

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jiansong

    2011-08-01

    Because of the catastrophic effects downstream of dam-break failure, more and more researchers around the world have been working on the study of dam-break flows to accurately forecast the downstream inundation mapping. With the rapid development of computer hardware and computing techniques, numerical study on dam-break flows has been a popular research subject. In the paper, the numerical methodologies used to solve the governing partial differential equations of dam-break flows are classified and summarized, and their characteristics and applications are discussed respectively. Furthermore, the fully-developed mathematical models developed in recent decades are reviewed, and also introduced the authors\\' on-going work. Finally, some possible future developments on modeling the dam-break flows and some solutions are presented and discussed. © 2011 IEEE.

  18. Mentional references and familiarity break

    OpenAIRE

    Corblin, Francis

    1999-01-01

    The main concern of this paper is the proper analysis of the NP celui-ci in French. The contribution of L. Tasmowski to this discussion is well known (Tasmowski 1990). In my view, this contribution makes two important points: 1) in its anaphoric uses, celui-ci cannot be analysed as a "nominal anaphoric" along the lines suggested by Corblin (1985, 1990) for its exophoric uses. This point is also made in Kleiber (1991), Zribi-Hertz (1991), Imoto (1997); 2) eventhough celui-ci like pronouns and ...

  19. Comparing the role of fuel breaks across southern California national forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syphard, Alexandra D.; Keeley, Jon E.; Brennan, Teresa J.

    2011-01-01

    Fuel treatment of wildland vegetation is the primary approach advocated for mitigating fire risk at the wildland-urban interface (WUI), but little systematic research has been conducted to understand what role fuel treatments play in controlling large fires, which factors influence this role, or how the role of fuel treatments may vary over space and time. We assembled a spatial database of fuel breaks and fires from the last 30 years in four southern California national forests to better understand which factors are consistently important for fuel breaks in the control of large fires. We also explored which landscape features influence where fires and fuel breaks are most likely to intersect. The relative importance of significant factors explaining fuel break outcome and number of fire and fuel break intersections varied among the forests, which reflects high levels of regional landscape diversity. Nevertheless, several factors were consistently important across all the forests. In general, fuel breaks played an important role in controlling large fires only when they facilitated fire management, primarily by providing access for firefighting activities. Fire weather and fuel break maintenance were also consistently important. Models and maps predicting where fuel breaks and fires are most likely to intersect performed well in the regions where the models were developed, but these models did not extend well to other regions, reflecting how the environmental controls of fire regimes vary even within a single ecoregion. Nevertheless, similar mapping methods could be adopted in different landscapes to help with strategic location of fuel breaks. Strategic location of fuel breaks should also account for access points near communities, where fire protection is most important.

  20. Breaking Free with Wireless Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, John

    2002-01-01

    Discusses wireless local area networks (LANs) which typically consist of laptop computers that connect to fixed access points via infrared or radio signals. Topics include wide area networks; personal area networks; problems, including limitations of available bandwidth, interference, and security concerns; use in education; interoperability;…

  1. Hydraulic Response of Caisson Breakwaters in Multidirectional Breaking and Non-Breaking Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech, J.; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Hald, Tue;

    1998-01-01

    induced loading and overtopping on caisson breakwaters situated in breaking seas. Regarding the wave forces only minor differences between breaking and non breaking waves in deep water were observed, and it was found that the prediction formula of Goda also seems to apply well for multidirectionally...... breaking waves at deep water. The study on wave overtopping showed that the 3D wave overtopping formula suggested by Franco et al., 1995b, predicts the wave overtopping reasonable well for both non breaking and breaking waves at deep water.......The present paper concerns the results and findings of a physical study on wave impacts on vertical caisson breakwaters situated in irregular, multidirectional breaking seas. The study has taken place as part of the framework programme "Dynamic of Structures" financially supported by the Danish...

  2. Science Illiteracy: Breaking the Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebofsky, L. A.; Lebofsky, N. R.

    2003-12-01

    At the University of Arizona, as at many state universities and colleges, the introductory science classes for non-science majors may be the only science classes that future K--8 teachers will take. The design of the UA's General Education program requires all future non-science certified teachers to take the General Education science classes. These classes are therefore an ideal venue for the training of the state's future teachers. Many students, often including future teachers, are ill-prepared for college, i.e., they lack basic science content knowledge, basic mathematics skills, and reading and writing skills. They also lack basic critical thinking skills and study skills. It is within this context that our future teachers are trained. How do we break the cycle of science illiteracy? There is no simple solution, and certainly not a one-size-fits-all panacea that complements every professor's style of instruction. However, there are several programs at the University of Arizona, and also principles that I apply in my own classes, that may be adaptable in other classrooms. Assessment of K--12 students' learning supports the use of inquiry-based science instruction. This approach can be incorporated in college classes. Modeling proven and productive teaching methods for the future teachers provides far more than ``just the facts,'' and all students gain from the inquiry approach. Providing authentic research opportunities employs an inquiry-based approach. Reading (outside the textbook) and writing provide feedback to students with poor writing and critical thinking skills. Using peer tutors and an instant messaging hot line gives experience to the tutors and offers "comfortable" assistance to students.

  3. SU(3) breaking in hyperon transition vector form factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shanahan, P.E.; Thomas, A.W.; Young, R.D.; Zanotti, J.M. [ARC Centre of Excellence in Particle Physics at the Terascale, Adelaide (Australia); Centre for the Subatomic Structure of Matter (CSSM), Adelaide, SA (Australia); Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). Dept. of Physics; Cooke, A.N.; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe (Japan); Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Division; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    We present a calculation of the SU(3)-breaking corrections to the hyperon transition vector form factors to O(p{sup 4}) in heavy baryon chiral perturbation theory with finite-range regularisation. Both octet and decuplet degrees of freedom are included. We formulate a chiral expansion at the kinematic point Q{sup 2}=-(M{sub B{sub 1}}-M{sub B{sub 2}}){sup 2}, which can be conveniently accessed in lattice QCD. The two unknown low-energy constants at this point are constrained by lattice QCD simulation results for the Σ{sup -}→n and Ξ{sup 0}→Σ{sup +} transition form factors. Hence we determine lattice-informed values of f{sub 1} at the physical point. This work constitutes progress towards the precise determination of vertical stroke V{sub us} vertical stroke from hyperon semileptonic decays.

  4. Breaking stress of neutron star crust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The breaking stress (the maximum of the stress-strain curve) of neutron star crust is important for neutron star physics including pulsar glitches, emission of gravitational waves from static mountains, and flares from star quakes. We perform many molecular dynamic simulations of the breaking stress at different coupling parameters (inverse temperatures), strain rates and composition of matter. We describe our results with the Zhurkov model of strength. We apply this model to estimate the breaking stress for timescales ∼1 s - 1 year, which are most important for applications, but much longer than can be directly simulated. At these timescales the breaking stress depends strongly on the temperature. For coupling parameter Γ<200 matter breaks at very small stress, if it is applied for a few years. This viscoelastic creep can limit the lifetime of mountains on neutron stars. We also suggest an alternative model of timescale-independent breaking stress, which can be used to estimate an upper limit on the breaking stress. This work was partially supported by the Russian Foundation for Basic Research (grant 11-02-00253-a), by the State Program 'Leading Scientific Schools of Russian Federation' (grant NSh 3769.2010.2), by the President grant for young Russian scientists (MK-5857.2010.2), by United States DOE grant (DE-FG02-87ER40365) and by Shared University Research grants from IBM, Inc. to Indiana University.

  5. Leak-before-break demonstration for a typical PWR main steam pipe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Currently the main steam line break evaluations of pressurized water reactor coolant systems are performed for postulated circumferential (guillotine) breaks. This results in overly conservation loading conditions. The objective of this paper is to study the local and global stability of a postulated through wall circumferential flaw in the main steam pipe of a typical pressurized water reactor. Steam leak rates are estimated and are examined in light of currently available leak rate criteria to demonstrate the leak-before-break condition. The need for additional criteria for detection of steam leaks is identified

  6. Dirac Neutrino Masses from Generalized Supersymmetry Breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrate that Dirac neutrino masses in the experimentally preferred range are generated within supersymmetric gauge extensions of the standard model with a generalized supersymmetry breaking sector. If the superpotential neutrino Yukawa terms are forbidden by the gauge symmetry [such as a U(1)'], sub-eV scale effective Dirac mass terms can arise at tree level from hard supersymmetry breaking Yukawa couplings, or at one loop due to nonanalytic soft supersymmetry breaking trilinear scalar couplings. The radiative neutrino magnetic and electric dipole moments vanish at one-loop order

  7. Search for primordial symmetry breakings in CMB

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraishi, Maresuke

    2016-06-01

    There are possibilities to violate symmetries (e.g. parity and rotational invariance) in the primordial cosmological fluctuations. Such symmetry breakings can imprint very rich signatures in late-time phenomena, which may be possible to observe. Especially, Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) will change its face drastically, corresponding to the symmetry-breaking types, since the harmonic-space representation is very sensitive to the statistical, spin and angular dependences of cosmological perturbations. Here, we discuss (1) general responses of CMB to the symmetry breakings, (2) some theoretical models creating interesting CMB signatures, and (3) aspects of the estimation from observational data.

  8. Semiclassical treatment of symmetry breaking and bifurcations in a non-integrable potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koliesnik, M. V.; Krivenko-Emetov, Ya D.; Magner, A. G.; Arita, K.; Brack, M.

    2015-11-01

    We have derived an analytical trace formula for the level density of the Hénon-Heiles potential using the improved stationary phase method, based on extensions of Gutzwiller's semiclassical path integral approach. This trace formula has the correct limit to the standard Gutzwiller trace formula for the isolated periodic orbits far from all (critical) symmetry-breaking points. It continuously joins all critical points at which an enhancement of the semiclassical amplitudes occurs. We found a good agreement between the semiclassical and the quantum oscillating level densities for the gross shell structures and for the energy shell corrections, solving the symmetry breaking problem at small energies.

  9. Semiclassical treatment of symmetry breaking and bifurcations in a non-integrable potential

    CERN Document Server

    Koliesnik, M V; Magner, A G; Arita, K; Brack, M

    2014-01-01

    We have derived an analytical trace formula for the level density of the H\\'enon-Heiles potential using the improved stationary phase method, based on extensions of Gutzwiller's semiclassical path integral approach. This trace formula has the correct limit to the standard Gutzwiller trace formula for the isolated periodic orbits far from all (critical) symmetry-breaking points. It continuously joins all critical points at which an enhancement of the semiclassical amplitudes occurs. We found a good agreement between the semi- classical and the quantum oscillating level densities for the gross shell structures and for the energy shell corrections, solving the symmetry breaking problem at small energies.

  10. The interaction between warm conveyor belts and breaking Rossby waves: a climatological perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madonna, Erica; Joos, Hanna; Martius, Olivia; Aebi, Christine; Limbach, Sebastian

    2014-05-01

    Warm conveyor belts (WCBs) are moist ascending airstreams in extratropical cyclones. Climatologically, they are key for the meridional and vertical transport of water vapour and heat. The rapid ascent of WCBs from the boundary layer to the upper troposphere in about 1-2 days leads to cloud formation, (intense) precipitation and the release of latent heat, which modifies their potential vorticity (PV) value in a significant way. Typically WCBs reach the tropopause level with low PV values (~0.5 pvu) and therefore the cross-isentropic transport of low-PV air in WCBs can amplify upper-level Rossby waves and contribute to the formation of PV streamers downstream. Here, filamentary PV streamers are regarded as clear signs of breaking Rossby waves. They in turn can act as precursors of extreme weather events and/or trigger the genesis of another cyclone, potentially generating a new WCB. The aim of this study is to quantify the interaction of WCBs and PV-streamers from a climatological point of view for the ERA-Interim data set for the period 1989-2010. WCBs are identified from comprehensive trajectory calculations that select air parcels in the vicinity of cyclones with a minimum ascent of 600 hPa in 48 hours. From these WCB trajectories, coherent features of WCB outflows are derived and checked for overlapping with PV streamers, which are identified using a contour searching algorithm. Both, WCBs and PV-streamers are then tracked using a novel feature tracking technique, which is based upon a modified region growing approach. With this technique, the interaction of WCBs and PV-streamers is analysed for a 22-years period leading to novel insight about the role of WCBs for triggering the breaking of Rossby waves, as well as, vice versa, about the importance of PV-streamers for the formation of new WCBs.

  11. Symmetry-breaking transitions in networks of nonlinear circuit elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinrich, Martin; Dahms, Thomas; Flunkert, Valentin; Schoell, Eckehard [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, 10623 Berlin (Germany); Teitsworth, Stephen W, E-mail: schoell@physik.tu-berlin.d [Department of Physics, Duke University, PO Box 90305, Durham, NC 27708-0305 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    We investigate a nonlinear circuit consisting of N tunnel diodes in series, which shows close similarities to a semiconductor superlattice or to a neural network. Each tunnel diode is modeled by a three-variable FitzHugh-Nagumo-like system. The tunnel diodes are coupled globally through a load resistor. We find complex bifurcation scenarios with symmetry-breaking transitions that generate multiple fixed points off the synchronization manifold. We show that multiply degenerate zero-eigenvalue bifurcations occur, which lead to multistable current branches, and that these bifurcations are also degenerate with a Hopf bifurcation. These predicted scenarios of multiple branches and degenerate bifurcations are also found experimentally.

  12. Formation of radiation-induced DNA breaks: the ratio of double-strand breaks to single-strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionizing radiation causes the formation of strand breaks in cellular DNA, as well as other types of lesions in the chromatin of cells. Some of the earliest investigations of the molecular basis of radiation-induced damage and the implications of enzymatic repair were done by Dr. H. S. Kaplan. Because it is difficult to assay for DNA lesions in the large mammalian genome, the authors have developed a method of assaying for DNA double-strand breaks in the supercoiled nucleosome-complexed Simian virus 40 (SV40) genome, irradiated intracellularly. In this communication they present their measurements of the DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) to single-strand breaks (SSBs) ratio obtained from the intracellularly irradiated SV40 genome. After cobalt gamma ray and X ray irradiations, this ratio is about 1/10. Their methods and results are compared with pertinent data in the literature. If the DSBs/SSBs ratio of 1/10 for cellular chromatin is correct, a substantial number of DNA double-strand breaks are formed in a mammalian cell after moderate doses (1 Gy) of radiation. The implications of different types of DNA double-strand breaks are discussed

  13. Unconventional supersymmetry and its breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alvarez, Pedro D., E-mail: alvarez@physics.ox.ac.uk [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECS), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. República 440, Santiago (Chile); Rudolf Peierls Centre for Theoretical Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford (United Kingdom); Pais, Pablo, E-mail: pais@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECS), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. República 440, Santiago (Chile); Zanelli, Jorge, E-mail: z@cecs.cl [Centro de Estudios Científicos (CECS), Av. Arturo Prat 514, Valdivia (Chile); Universidad Andrés Bello, Av. República 440, Santiago (Chile)

    2014-07-30

    We present a gauge theory for a superalgebra that includes an internal gauge (G) and local Lorentz (so(1,D−1)) algebras. These two symmetries are connected by fermionic supercharges. The field content of the system includes a (non-)abelian gauge potential A, a spin-1/2 Dirac spinor ψ, the Lorentz connection ω{sup ab}, and the vielbein e{sub μ}{sup a}. The connection one-form A is in the adjoint representation of G, while ψ is in the fundamental. In contrast to standard supersymmetry and supergravity, the metric is not a fundamental field and is in the center of the superalgebra: it is not only invariant under the internal gauge group, G, and under Lorentz transformations, SO(1,D−1), but is also invariant under supersymmetry. The distinctive features of this theory that mark the difference with standard supersymmetries are: i) the number of fermionic and bosonic states is not necessarily the same; ii) there are no superpartners with equal mass; iii) although this supersymmetry originates in a local gauge theory and gravity is included, there is no gravitino; iv) fermions acquire mass from their coupling to the background or from higher order self-couplings, while bosons remain massless. In odd dimensions, the Chern–Simons (CS) form provides an action that is (quasi-)invariant under the entire superalgebra. In even dimensions, the Yang–Mills (YM) form is the only natural option and the symmetry breaks down to G⊗SO(1,D−1). In four dimensions, the construction follows the Townsend–Mac Dowell–Mansouri approach, starting with an osp(4|2)∼usp(2,2|1) connection. Due to the absence of osp(4|2)-invariant traces in four dimensions, the resulting Lagrangian is only invariant under u(1)⊕so(3,1), which includes a Nambu–Jona-Lasinio (NJL) term. In this case, the Lagrangian depends on a single dimensionful parameter that fixes Newton's constant, the cosmological constant and the NJL coupling.

  14. Critical and shielding parametric studies with the Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI to identify the key points to take into account during the transportation of blanket assemblies with high ratio of americium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the framework of French research program on Generation IV sodium cooled fast reactor, one possible option consists in burning minor actinides in this kind of Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor. Two types of transmutation mode are studied in the world : the homogeneous mode of transmutation where actinides are scattered with very low enrichment ratio in fissile assemblies and the heterogeneous mode where fissile core is surrounded by blanket assemblies filled with minor actinides with ratio of incorporated actinides up to 20%. Depending on which element is considered to be burnt and on its content, these minor actinides contents imply constraints on assemblies' transportation between Nuclear Power Plants and fuel cycle facilities. In this study, we present some academic studies in order to identify some key constraints linked to the residual power and neutron/gamma load of such kind of blanket assemblies. To simplify the approach, we considered a modeling of a 'model cask' dedicated to the transportation of a unique irradiated blanket assembly loaded with 20% of Americium and basically inspired from an existent cask designed initially for the damaged fissile Superphenix assembly transport. Thermal calculations performed with EDF-SYRTHES code have shown that due to thermal limitations on cladding temperature, the decay time to be considered before transportation is 20 years. This study is based on explicit 3D representations of the cask and the contained blanket assembly with the Monte Carlo code TRIPOLI/JEFF3.1.1 library and concludes that after such a decay time, the transportation of a unique Americium radial blanket is feasible only if the design of our model cask is modified in order to comply with the dose limitation criterion. (author)

  15. Development of a predictive methodology for identifying high radon exhalation potential areas; Mise au point d'une methodologie predictive des zones a fort potentiel d'exhalation du radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ielsch, G

    2001-07-01

    Radon 222 is a radioactive natural gas originating from the decay of radium 226 which itself originates from the decay of uranium 23 8 naturally present in rocks and soil. Inhalation of radon gas and its decay products is a potential health risk for man. Radon can accumulate in confined environments such as buildings, and is responsible for one third of the total radiological exposure of the general public to radiation. The problem of how to manage this risk then arises. The main difficulty encountered is due to the large variability of exposure to radon across the country. A prediction needs to be made of areas with the highest density of buildings with high radon levels. Exposure to radon varies depending on the degree of confinement of the habitat, the lifestyle of the occupants and particularly emission of radon from the surface of the soil on which the building is built. The purpose of this thesis is to elaborate a methodology for determining areas presenting a high potential for radon exhalation at the surface of the soil. The methodology adopted is based on quantification of radon exhalation at the surface, starting from a precise characterization of the main local geological and pedological parameters that control the radon source and its transport to the ground/atmosphere interface. The methodology proposed is innovative in that it combines a cartographic analysis, parameters integrated into a Geographic Information system, and a simplified model for vertical transport of radon by diffusion through pores in the soil. This methodology has been validated on two typical areas, in different geological contexts, and gives forecasts that generally agree with field observations. This makes it possible to identify areas with a high exhalation potential within a range of a few square kilometers. (author)

  16. Mechanism for Time Reparametrization Symmetry Breaking in Spinor Gravity Coupled to Long-Range Spinor Particles

    OpenAIRE

    Konishi, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    We propose a mechanism for time reparametrization symmetry breaking in canonical gravity. We consider a model of spinor gravity, based on Sen's reformulation of canonical gravity as a spin system, with one additional long-range self-interacting massive spinor particle that is coupled to spinor gravity. The symmetry breaking is identified with the origin of the quantum mechanical non-unitary evolution. A part of our approach to deriving non-unitary time-dependent processes of wave functions fo...

  17. Dirac Neutrino Masses from Generalized Supersymmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Demir, Durmus A; Langacker, Paul

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate that Dirac neutrino masses in the experimentally preferred range are generated within supersymmetric gauge extensions of the Standard Model with a generalized supersymmetry breaking sector. If the usual superpotential Yukawa couplings are forbidden by the additional gauge symmetry (such as a U(1)'), effective Dirac mass terms involving the "wrong Higgs" field can arise either at tree level due to hard supersymmetry breaking fermion Yukawa couplings, or at one-loop due to nonanalytic or "nonholomorphic" soft supersymmetry breaking trilinear scalar couplings. As both of these operators are naturally suppressed in generic models of supersymmetry breaking, the resulting neutrino masses are naturally in the sub-eV range. The neutrino magnetic and electric dipole moments resulting from the radiative mechanism also vanish at one-loop order.

  18. Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingkai; Powell, David A.; Shadrivov, Ilya V.; Lapine, Mikhail; Kivshar, Yuri S.

    2014-07-01

    Spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking underpins a variety of areas such as subatomic physics and biochemistry, and leads to an impressive range of fundamental phenomena. Here we show that this prominent effect is now available in artificial electromagnetic systems, enabled by the advent of magnetoelastic metamaterials where a mechanical degree of freedom leads to a rich variety of strong nonlinear effects such as bistability and self-oscillations. We report spontaneous symmetry breaking in torsional chiral magnetoelastic structures where two or more meta-molecules with opposite handedness are electromagnetically coupled, modifying the system stability. Importantly, we show that chiral symmetry breaking can be found in the stationary response of the system, and the effect is successfully demonstrated in a microwave pump-probe experiment. Such symmetry breaking can lead to a giant nonlinear polarization change, energy localization and mode splitting, which provides a new possibility for creating an artificial phase transition in metamaterials, analogous to that in ferrimagnetic domains.

  19. Dynamical R-parity breaking at the LHC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-Long; Kumar Ghosh, Dilip; Mohapatra, Rabindra N.; Zhang, Yue

    2011-02-01

    In a class of extensions of the minimal supersymmetric standard model with (B-L)/left-right symmetry that explains the neutrino masses, breaking R-parity symmetry is an essential and dynamical requirement for successful gauge symmetry breaking. Two consequences of these models are: (i) a new kind of R-parity breaking interaction that protects proton stability but adds new contributions to neutrinoless double beta decay and (ii) an upper bound on the extra gauge and parity symmetry breaking scale which is within the large hadron collider (LHC) energy range. We point out that an important prediction of such theories is a potentially large mixing between the right-handed charged lepton ( e c ) and the superpartner of the right-handed gauge boson left( {tilde{W}_R+ } right) , which leads to a brand new class of R-parity violating interactions of type {tilde{μ }^{{c^dag }}}ν_μ^c{e^c} and {tilde{d}^{{c^dag }}}{u^c}{e^c} . We analyze the relevant constraints on the sparticle mass spectrum and the LHC signatures for the case with smuon/stau NLSP and gravitino LSP. We note the "smoking gun" signals for such models to be lepton flavor/number violating processes: pp!μ±μ±e+ e - jj (or τ±τ± e + e - jj) and pp to {μ^± }{e^± }boverline b jj (or {tau^± }{e^± }boverline b jj ) without significant missing energy. The predicted multi-lepton final states and the flavor structure make the model be distinguishable even in the early running of the LHC.

  20. Tax Breaks for Law Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Button, Alan L.

    1981-01-01

    A guide to federal income tax law as it affects law students is presented. Some costs that may constitute valuable above-the-line deductions are identified: moving expenses, educational expenses, job-seeking expenses, and income averaging. Available from Washington and Lee University School of Law, Lexington, VA 24450, $5.50 sc) (MLW)

  1. Dirac Neutrino Masses from Generalized Supersymmetry Breaking

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Durmus A.; Everett, Lisa L.; Langacker, Paul

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate that Dirac neutrino masses in the experimentally preferred range are generated within supersymmetric gauge extensions of the Standard Model with a generalized supersymmetry breaking sector. If the usual superpotential Yukawa couplings are forbidden by the additional gauge symmetry (such as a U(1)'), effective Dirac mass terms involving the "wrong Higgs" field can arise either at tree level due to hard supersymmetry breaking fermion Yukawa couplings, or at one-loop due to nonana...

  2. Grand unification with large supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    General criteria are given for the magnitudes of mass splittings between supersymmetric partners compatible with the desired hierarchy of mass scales in GUTs. These splittings arise naturally when masses are generated radiatively from a Higgs sector breaking supersymmetry through the O'Raifeartaigh mechanism (Nucl. Phys; B96:331 (1975)). Explicit GUTs are constructed in which the supersymmetry breaking scale may easily be as large as the Planck mass. (author)

  3. Yet another symmetry breaking to be discovered

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, M.

    2016-07-01

    The discovery of spontaneous symmetry breaking in particle physics was the greatest contribution in Nambu's achievements. There is another class of symmetries that exist in low-energy nature, yet is doomed to be broken at high energy, due to a lack of protection of the gauge symmetry. I shall review our approach to searching for this class of symmetry breaking, the lepton number violation linked to the generation of the matter-antimatter asymmetry in our universe.

  4. Behavior of thermal breaks under seismic loads

    OpenAIRE

    Nguyen, Thi Thanh Huyen

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays sustainable constructions imply an objective of energetic performances by reducing the level of thermal conduction. The thermal-break elements, an innovative technological element is under study in several countries in Europe. If the thermal benefits have already been proved, the mechanical effects of such a wall-slab connection in a building for the seismic risk have not been assessed. To evaluate the building seismic vulnerability modifications due to these thermal breaks, experime...

  5. Breaking antidunes: Cyclic behavior due to hysteresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deigaard, Rolf

    2006-01-01

    The cyclic behavior of breaking antidunes (growth, breaking of surface wave, obliteration) is investigated by use of a numerical model. The model includes the transition between supercritical and transcritical flow. As the antidune grows the flow becomes transcritical and a hydraulic jump is form...... upstream of the antidune crest. The relation between growth of the antidune and supercritical flow and between decay and transcritical flow is shown, and the significance of hysteresis in the flow conditions is investigated....

  6. Chimera Death: Symmetry Breaking in Dynamical Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Zakharova, Anna; Kapeller, Marie; Schöll, Eckehard

    2014-01-01

    For a network of generic oscillators with nonlocal topology and symmetry-breaking coupling we establish novel partially coherent inhomogeneous spatial patterns, which combine the features of chimera states (coexisting incongruous coherent and incoherent domains) and oscillation death (oscillation suppression), which we call chimera death. We show that due to the interplay of nonlocality and breaking of rotational symmetry by the coupling two distinct scenarios from oscillatory behavior to a s...

  7. A random fuse model for breaking processes

    OpenAIRE

    de Arcangelis, L.; Redner, S.; Herrmann, H. J.

    1985-01-01

    We introduce and study a simple idealized model to describe breaking processes by analysing the current-carrying properties of a random network consisting of insulators and fuses. By increasing the value of the external voltage applied across the network, a sequence of fuses will « burn out » and change irreversible into insultating bonds. This process terminates when a conducting path no longer exists in the network. We monitor several basic quantities during this breaking process, such as t...

  8. Relativistic theory of string breaking in QCD

    CERN Document Server

    Simonov, Yu A

    2011-01-01

    The QCD string breaking due to quark pair creation in the vacuum confining field, possibly accompanied by vector, scalar or Nambu-Goldstone bosons, is studied nonperturbatively. The scalar light pair creation vertex occurs due to chiral symmetry breaking and has a confining form, which is computed explicitly together with subleading vector contributions. Dependence on light quark mass and flavor is specifically studied. The dominant scalar term is in good agreement with the $^3P_0$ model and experimental data.

  9. Breaking of waves in deep water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Chavarria, Gerardo

    2013-11-01

    The breaking of waves is a nonlinear phenomenon during which a fraction of the energy is dissipated. In the previous stage the wave undergoes a growth of its amplitude and the wave pattern is modified in the sense that the crests become more pronounced than the troughs. The breaking has been extensively studied in the case of waves approaching the shore. However, the wave breaking in deep water remains an open problem in fluid dynamics. In this work we study the wave breaking due to focusing of an initially parabolic wave front. To this end the evolution of wave is numerically investigated using a meshless code (Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics). We present some results about the evolution of waves excited by a parabolic wave maker, among others, the growth induced by the focusing, the behavior around the Huygens' cusp and the process of wave breaking. Then, we compare the numerical results with the criteria given in the literature about the onset of breaking and we discuss how the energy dissipates, for example by the rise of short waves. In addition we compare the numerical results with data obtained in two different experiments made by our team. Author acknowledges DGAPA-UNAM by support under project IN116312, ``Vorticidad y ondas no lineales en fluidos.''

  10. Molecular analysis of the distribution of chromosomal breakpoints: characterization of a 'hot' region for breaks in human chromosome 11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Ionizing radiation randomly damages DNA and chromosomes whereas subsequent chromosome breaks are non-random. Assuming, as an ideal and naive but useful proposition, that breaks are equally likely anywhere in the chromosome and that a deletion always occurs between two breaks, the frequency of fragments would decrease linearly with increasing fragment size. This simple distribution is not, however, observed. To shed light on the 'real' situation of break formation we mapped breakpoints in the human chromosome no. 11 of 353 independent CD59- mutants isolated from human/hamster hybrid AL cells exposed to radiations (high and low dose-rate gamma rays, high LET carbon or nitrogen ions, protons) or chemicals (arsenic or irradiated, mutagenic histidine) or unexposed. The number of breaks per unit length of DNA differed significantly in different regions of chromosome 11.The highest level of breaks (140/mbp) were in the 0.8 mbp segment between CD59 and Catalase (CAT). Finer mapping of break points was carried out using 26 PCR primer pairs spread across this interval in 15 independent mutants. In two mutants, the break point was in a 107 bp fragment; in the other 13 the breaks were in a single 35 mbp fragment, but not all were at exactly the same site; 4 of 13 occurred in 3 different 3 mbp sub-segments. We are sequencing these fragments to look for such features as repeats: 'colder' regions like that between CD59 and WT will also be analyzed. But, since at least some breaks occurred at different sites and the frequency and distribution of breaks was about the same for all treatments, our we postulate that hot (and cold spots) may be due more to structural features or specific repair than to sequence or type of damage

  11. Active and break events of Indian summer monsoon during 1901-2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pai, D. S.; Sridhar, Latha; Ramesh Kumar, M. R.

    2016-06-01

    The study lists active and break monsoon events over India over a very long period (1901-2014) identified using criteria based on a rainfall index derived over a critical high rainfall region called core monsoon zone. The break and active spells identified in this study were mostly comparable with that identified in the earlier studies based on similar rainfall criteria during the common data period (1951-2007). However, some noticeable differences were observed in the rainfall anomaly pattern associated with the break monsoon spells identified in this study and that identified based on the synoptic criteria in the earlier studies. The stringent rainfall criteria used in this study seems to be better criteria for identifying the breaks. During the study period, both the active and break spells of short duration were more frequent than the long duration with about 63.4 % of the break spells and 94.3 % of the active spells falling in the range of 3-6 days. There were no active spells of duration ≥13 days. Whereas, about 8 % of the break spells were of duration ≥13 days. During both the halves of the data period (1901-1957 and 1958-2014), there was no change in the distribution of the break events. However, the number of active spells showed an increase of about 12 % in the in the second half, which was mainly in the short duration (3-6 days) spells. During the data period, decadal variations of break days showed an out phase of relationship with the number of days of monsoon depression (MD). Relatively stronger in phase relationship was observed between the decadal variation of MD days and that of the active days till around early 1980s which reversed later due to sudden decrease in the MD days. During the same period, both the active and break days were in the increasing phase. This was also coincided with the sudden and significant increase in the number of days of monsoon lows (LOW). The LOWs, which generally have short life helped in the occurrence of active

  12. New aspects of scale and discrete flavor symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Kher Sham

    2014-11-05

    The Standard Model (SM) of particle physics is complete with the discovery of the Higgs particle. However the SM cannot be a complete theory of nature as it does not explain the origin of neutrino mass, dark matter (DM), dark energy, matter-antimatter asymmetry and smallness of the strong CP parameter. From theoretical point of view we do not understand the origin of the scale separation between the electroweak (EW) and the Planck scale, and also the flavor puzzle. In this work we tackle the hierarchy problem with scale symmetry and the flavor puzzle with discrete flavor symmetries, charting new symmetry groups and their breaking, while investigating their implied phenomenologies along the way. In the first part we provide two novel mechanisms to explain the origin of the EW scale generated by quantum effects from an anomalous breaking of a classical scale invariant extension of the SM. For the first model we utilize a direct scale transmission from condensation of a scalar, charged under a high representation of QCD, to trigger EW symmetry breaking (EWSB) dynamically. In the second model, we use the indirect scale transmission approach to generate the EW scale transmitted by a singlet scalar mediator which couples to the SM and a strongly coupled hidden sector. Chiral symmetry in the dark fermion sector is broken spontaneously due to nonperturbative effects of the running coupling in the hidden sector, triggering indirectly EWSB due to dimensional transmutation and providing stable DM candidates in the form of dark pions. In the last part of this work we focus on charting new discrete flavor symmetry groups to obtain experimentally acceptable leptonic and quark mixing patterns. The interesting new discrete groups that we have found are classified mathematically and provide a new starting point for model building in discrete flavor symmetry.

  13. Leptogenesis after Chaotic Sneutrino Inflation and the Supersymmetry Breaking Scale

    CERN Document Server

    Björkeroth, Fredrik; Schmitz, Kai; Yanagida, Tsutomu T

    2016-01-01

    We discuss resonant leptogenesis arising from the decays of two nearly-degenerate right-handed neutrinos, identified as the inflaton and stabiliser superfields in a model of chaotic sneutrino inflation. We compare an analytical estimate of the baryon asymmetry $ \\eta_B $ in the Boltzmann approximation to a numerical solution of the full density matrix equations, and find that the analytical result fails to capture the correct physics in certain regions of parameter space. The observed baryon asymmetry can be realised for a breaking of the mass degeneracy as small as $ \\mathcal{O}(10^{-8}) $. The origin of such a small mass splitting is explained by considering supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking in supergravity, which requires a constant in the superpotential of the order of the gravitino mass $ m_{3/2} $ to cancel the cosmological constant. This yields additional terms in the (s)neutrino mass matrices, lifting the degeneracy and linking $ \\eta_B $ to the SUSY breaking scale. We find that achieving the correct bary...

  14. Inverted Break-up Behaviour in Continuous Inkjet (CIJ) Printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIlroy, Claire; Harlen, Oliver; Morrison, Neil

    2014-11-01

    Although droplet creation during continuous jetting of Newtonian fluids has been widely studied, unsolved problems surrounding the break-up dynamics remain. Jetting through a nozzle creates a stream of liquid that is rendered unstable by surface tension. This instability creates a succession of main drops connected by thin filaments, with drop separation determined by the fastest growing wavelength. In order to control break-up and increase printing speeds, continuous inkjet (CIJ) printing exploits the effects of finite amplitude modulations in the jet velocity profile giving conditions where jet stability deviates from the usual Rayleigh behaviour. To explore these non-linear effects, we have developed a one-dimensional jetting model. In particular, we identify a modulation range for which pinching occurs upstream of the connecting filament, rather than downstream - a phenomenon we call ``inverted'' break-up. Furthermore, this behaviour can be controlled by the addition of harmonics to the initial driving signal. Our results are compared to full axisymmetric simulations in order to incorporate the effects of nozzle geometry. EPSRC Innovation in Industrial Technology.

  15. Suppression and restoration of disorder-induced light localization mediated by PT-symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Konotop, Vladimir V; Vysloukh, Victor A; Huang, Guoxiang; Torner, Lluis

    2016-01-01

    We uncover that the breaking point of the PT-symmetry in optical waveguide arrays has a dramatic impact on light localization induced by the off-diagonal disorder. Specifically, when the gain/loss control parameter approaches a critical value at which PT-symmetry breaking occurs, a fast growth of the coupling between neighboring waveguides causes diffraction to dominate to an extent that light localization is strongly suppressed and statistically averaged width of the output pattern substantially increases. Beyond the symmetry-breaking point localization is gradually restored, although in this regime the power of localized modes grows upon propagation. The strength of localization monotonically increases with disorder at both, broken and unbroken PT-symmetry.

  16. Supernatural Supersymmetry Phenomenological Implications of Anomaly-Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Feng, J L; Feng, Jonathan L; Moroi, Takeo

    2000-01-01

    We discuss the phenomenology of supersymmetric models in which supersymmetry breaking terms are induced by the super-Weyl anomaly. Such a scenario is envisioned to arise when supersymmetry breaking takes place in another world, i.e., on another brane. We review the anomaly-mediated framework and study in detail the minimal anomaly-mediated model parametrized by only 3+1 parameters: M_aux, m_0, \\tan\\beta, and sign(\\mu). The renormalization group equations exhibit a novel "focus point" (as opposed to fixed point) behavior, which allows squark and slepton masses to be far above their usual naturalness bounds. We present the superparticle spectrum and highlight several implications for high energy colliders. Three lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) candidates exist: the Wino, the stau, and the tau sneutrino. For the Wino LSP scenario, light Wino triplets with the smallest possible mass splittings are preferred; such Winos are within reach of Run II Tevatron searches. Finally, we study a variety of sensitive l...

  17. Supernatural supersymmetry: Phenomenological implications of anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Jonathan L. [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Moroi, Takeo [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2000-05-01

    We discuss the phenomenology of supersymmetric models in which supersymmetry breaking terms are induced by the super-Weyl anomaly. Such a scenario is envisioned to arise when supersymmetry breaking takes place in another world, i.e., on another brane. We review the anomaly-mediated framework and study in detail the minimal anomaly-mediated model parametrized by only 3+1 parameters: M{sub aux}, m{sub 0}, tan {beta}, and sgn({mu}). The renormalization group equations exhibit a novel ''focus point'' (as opposed to fixed point) behavior, which allows squark and slepton masses far above their usual naturalness bounds. We present the superparticle spectrum and highlight several implications for high energy colliders. Three lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) candidates exist: the W-ino, the stau, and the tau sneutrino. For the W-ino LSP scenario, light W-ino triplets with the smallest possible mass splittings are preferred; such W-inos are within reach of run II Fermilab Tevatron searches. Finally, we study a variety of sensitive low energy probes, including b{yields}s{gamma}, the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the electric dipole moments of the electron and neutron. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  18. Supernatural supersymmetry: Phenomenological implications of anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Moroi, Takeo

    2000-05-01

    We discuss the phenomenology of supersymmetric models in which supersymmetry breaking terms are induced by the super-Weyl anomaly. Such a scenario is envisioned to arise when supersymmetry breaking takes place in another world, i.e., on another brane. We review the anomaly-mediated framework and study in detail the minimal anomaly-mediated model parametrized by only 3+1 parameters: Maux, m0, tan β, and sgn(μ). The renormalization group equations exhibit a novel ``focus point'' (as opposed to fixed point) behavior, which allows squark and slepton masses far above their usual naturalness bounds. We present the superparticle spectrum and highlight several implications for high energy colliders. Three lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) candidates exist: the W-ino, the stau, and the tau sneutrino. For the W-ino LSP scenario, light W-ino triplets with the smallest possible mass splittings are preferred; such W-inos are within reach of run II Fermilab Tevatron searches. Finally, we study a variety of sensitive low energy probes, including b-->sγ, the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the electric dipole moments of the electron and neutron.

  19. PT Symmetry Breaking and Nonlinear Optical Isolation in Coupled Microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Xin

    2016-01-01

    We perform a theoretical study of nonlinear optical isolator devices based on coupled microcavities with gain and loss. Using coupled-mode theory, we derive a correspondence between the boundary of asymptotic stability in the nonlinear regime, where gain saturation is present, and the PT-breaking transition in the underlying linear system. For zero detuning and weak input intensity, the onset of optical isolation can be rigorously derived, and corresponds precisely to the PT transition point. When the couplings to the external ports are unequal, the isolation ratio exhibits an abrupt jump at the transition point, determined by the ratio of the couplings. This could be exploited to realize an actively controlled nonlinear optical isolator, in which strong optical isolation can be switched on or off using tiny variations in the inter-resonator separation.

  20. Breaking object correspondence across saccadic eye movements deteriorates object recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian H. Poth

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual perception is based on information processing during periods of eye fixations that are interrupted by fast saccadic eye movements. The ability to sample and relate information on task-relevant objects across fixations implies that correspondence between presaccadic and postsaccadic objects is established. Postsaccadic object information usually updates and overwrites information on the corresponding presaccadic object. The presaccadic object representation is then lost. In contrast, the presaccadic object is conserved when object correspondence is broken. This helps transsaccadic memory but it may impose attentional costs on object recognition. Therefore, we investigated how breaking object correspondence across the saccade affects postsaccadic object recognition. In Experiment 1, object correspondence was broken by a brief postsaccadic blank screen. Observers made a saccade to a peripheral object which was displaced during the saccade. This object reappeared either immediately after the saccade or after the blank screen. Within the postsaccadic object, a letter was briefly presented (terminated by a mask. Observers reported displacement direction and letter identity in different blocks. Breaking object correspondence by blanking improved displacement identification but deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. In Experiment 2, object correspondence was broken by changing the object’s contrast-polarity. There were no object displacements and observers only reported letter identity. Again, breaking object correspondence deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. These findings identify transsaccadic object correspondence as a key determinant of object recognition across the saccade. This is in line with the recent hypothesis that breaking object correspondence results in separate representations of presaccadic and postsaccadic objects which then compete for limited attentional processing resources (Schneider, 2013. Postsaccadic

  1. Random Cell Identifiers Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bestak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite integration of advanced functions that enable Femto Access Points (FAPs to be deployed in a plug-and-play manner, the femtocell concept still cause several opened issues to be resolved. One of them represents an assignment of Physical Cell Identifiers (PCIs to FAPs. This paper analyses a random based assignment algorithm in LTE systems operating in diverse femtocell scenarios. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated by comparing the number of confusions for various femtocell densities, PCI ranges and knowledge of vicinity. Simulation results show that better knowledge of vicinity can significantly reduce the number of confusions events.

  2. A break in the obesity epidemic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visscher, T L S; Heitmann, B L; Rissanen, A;

    2015-01-01

    Recent epidemiologic papers are presenting prevalence data suggesting breaks and decreases in obesity rates. However, before concluding that the obesity epidemic is not increasing anymore, the validity of the presented data should be discussed more thoroughly. We had a closer look into the litera......Recent epidemiologic papers are presenting prevalence data suggesting breaks and decreases in obesity rates. However, before concluding that the obesity epidemic is not increasing anymore, the validity of the presented data should be discussed more thoroughly. We had a closer look...... into the literature presented in recent reviews to address the major potential biases and distortions, and to develop insights about how to interpret the presented suggestions for a potential break in the obesity epidemic. Decreasing participation rates, the use of reported rather than measured data and small sample...... sizes, or lack of representativeness, did not seem to explain presented breaks in the obesity epidemic. Further, available evidence does not suggest that stabilization of obesity rates is seen in higher socioeconomic groups only, or that urbanization could explain a potential break in the obesity...

  3. Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, M.E.

    1982-12-01

    These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed. (WHK)

  4. Breaking chaotic shift key communication via adaptive key identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ren Hai-Peng; Han Chong-Zhao; Liu Ding

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes an adaptive parameter identification method for breaking chaotic shift key communication from the transmitted signal in public channel. The sensitive dependence property of chaos on parameter mismatch is used for chaos adaptive synchronization and parameter identification. An index function about the synchronization error is defined and conjugate gradient method is used to minimize the index function and to search the transmitter's parameter(key). By using proposed method, secure key is recovered from transmitted signal generated by low dimensional chaos and hyper chaos switching communication. Multi-parameters can also be identified from the transmitted signal with noise.

  5. Barriers and facilitating communication skills for breaking bad news: from the specialists’ practice perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enna Catalina Payán

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Breaking bad news is one of a physician’s most difficult duties. There are several studies related to the patient’s needs, but few reflect on the doctors’ experience.Materials and method: A descriptive, cross-sectional research was carried out to study issues related to the process of delivering bad news which might act as barriers and facilitating skills from the doctor’s point of view. These issues were identified through a self-administered survey.Results: Participant doctors use different strategies to communicate bad news to their patients. Examples of these strategies are: to be familiar with the patients’ medical history, to ensure that there is enough time, to know the patient’s caregivers and/or relatives, to determine the patient’s level of knowledge about his/her condition, to use non-technical words, to give information in small pieces, to assess the patient’s understanding, to devise a joint action plan, among others.Conclusion: The communication barriers that were identified focused on the emotional issues of the communication process, particularly those related to the recognition of own emotions, and the limited training about communication strategies available to doctors. Consequently, there is a need to implement training programs that provide doctors with tools to facilitate the bad news communication process.

  6. PowerPoint 2013 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Doug

    2013-01-01

    Get up and running with this full-color guide to PowerPoint 2013! PowerPoint, the number one presentation software, has been revised and improved with the introduction of Microsoft Office 2013. With this all-new, full-color book by your side, you will learn how to take full advantage of all of PowerPoint's powerful and dynamic capabilities. Bestselling veteran For Dummies, author Doug Lowe breaks it all down so that you can create a powerful and effective slideshow presentation with the new wide-screen theme and variant that incorporates videos, pictures, and shapes, and all

  7. The quantum change point

    CERN Document Server

    Sentís, Gael; Calsamiglia, John; Chiribella, Giulio; Munoz-Tapia, Ramon

    2016-01-01

    Sudden changes are ubiquitous in nature. Identifying them is of crucial importance for a number of applications in medicine, biology, geophysics, and social sciences. Here we investigate the problem in the quantum domain, considering a source that emits particles in a default state, until a point where it switches to another state. Given a sequence of particles emitted by the source, the problem is to find out where the change occurred. For large sequences, we obtain an analytical expression for the maximum probability of correctly identifying the change point when joint measurements on the whole sequence are allowed. We also construct strategies that measure the particles individually and provide an online answer as soon as a new particle is emitted by the source. We show that these strategies substantially underperform the optimal strategy, indicating that quantum sudden changes, although happening locally, are better detected globally.

  8. Pure Gravity Mediation and Spontaneous B-L Breaking from Strong Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Babu, Kaladi S; Yanagida, Tsutomu T

    2015-01-01

    In pure gravity mediation (PGM), the most minimal scheme for the mediation of supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking to the visible sector, soft masses for the standard model gauginos are generated at one loop rather than via direct couplings to the SUSY-breaking field. In any concrete implementation of PGM, the SUSY-breaking field is therefore required to carry nonzero charge under some global or local symmetry. As we point out in this note, a prime candidate for such a symmetry might be B-L, the Abelian gauge symmetry associated with the difference between baryon number B and lepton number L. The F-term of the SUSY-breaking field then not only breaks SUSY, but also B-L, which relates the respective spontaneous breaking of SUSY and B-L at a fundamental level. As a particularly interesting consequence, we find that the heavy Majorana neutrino mass scale ends up being tied to the gravitino mass, Lambda_N ~ m_3/2. Assuming nonthermal leptogenesis to be responsible for the generation of the baryon asymmetry of the univer...

  9. Enhanced breaking of heavy quark spin symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Guo, Feng-Kun; Shen, Cheng-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Heavy quark spin symmetry is useful to make predictions on ratios of decay or production rates of systems involving heavy quarks. The breaking of spin symmetry is generally of the order of $O({\\Lambda_{\\rm QCD}/m_Q})$, with $\\Lambda_{\\rm QCD}$ the scale of QCD and $m_Q$ the heavy quark mass. In this paper, we propose a new mechanism to enhance the spin symmetry breaking. Taking the decays of the $\\Upsilon(10860)$ into the $\\chi_{bJ}\\omega\\, (J=0,1,2)$ as an example, we show that a small $S$- and $D$-wave mixing can induce a significant breaking of the spin symmetry relations for the ratios of the branching fractions of these decays, owing to an enhancement of the decays of the $D$-wave component due to nearby coupled channels.

  10. Supersymmetry breaking induced by radiative corrections

    CERN Document Server

    Bajc, Borut; Mede, Timon

    2012-01-01

    We show that simultaneous gauge and supersymmetry breaking can be induced by radiative corrections, a la Coleman-Weinberg. A local supersymmetry-breaking minimum is induced in the effective potential of a gauge non-singlet field, in a region where the tree-level potential is almost flat. Supersymmetry breaking is then transmitted to the MSSM through gauge and chiral messenger loops, thus avoiding the suppression of gaugino masses characteristic of direct gauge mediation models. The use of a single field ensures that no dangerous tachyonic scalar masses are generated at the one-loop level. We illustrate this mechanism with an explicit example based on an SU(5) model with a single adjoint. An interesting feature of the scenario is that the GUT scale is increased with respect to standard unification, thus allowing for a larger colour Higgs triplet mass, as preferred by the experimental lower bound on the proton lifetime.

  11. U(1) mediation of flux supersymmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the mediation of supersymmetry breaking triggered by background fluxes in Type II string compactifications with N = 1 supersymmetry. The mediation arises due to an U(1) vector multiplet coupling to both a hidden supersymmetry breaking flux sector and a visible D-brane sector. The required internal manifolds can be constructed by non-Kaehler resolutions of singular Calabi-Yau manifolds. The effective action encoding the U(1) coupling is then determined in terms of the global topological properties of the internal space. We investigate suitable local geometries for the hidden and visible sector in detail. This includes a systematic study of orientifold symmetries of del Pezzo surfaces realized in compact geometries after geometric transition. We construct compact examples admitting the key properties to realize flux supersymmetry breaking and U(1) mediation. Their toric realization allows us to analyze the geometry of curve classes and confirm the topological connection between the hidden and visible sector.

  12. Workshop on electroweak symmetry breaking: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinchliffe, I. (ed.)

    1984-10-01

    A theoretical workshop on electroweak symmetry breaking at the Superconducting Supercollider was held at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, June 4-22, 1984. The purpose of the workshop was to focus theoretical attention on the ways in which experimentation at the SSC could reveal manifestations of the phenomenon responsible for electroweak symmetry breaking. This issue represents, at present, the most compelling scientific argument for the need to explore the energy region to be made accessible by the SSC, and a major aim of the workshop was to involve a broad cross section of particle theorists in the ongoing process of sharpening the requirements for both accelerator and detector design that will ensure detection and identification of meaningful signals, whatever form the electroweak symmetry breaking phenomenon should actually take. Separate entries were prepared for the data base for the papers presented.

  13. Break-glass handling exceptional situations in access control

    CERN Document Server

    Petritsch, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Helmut Petritsch describes the first holistic approach to Break-Glass which covers the whole life-cycle: from access control modeling (pre-access), to logging the security-relevant system state during Break-Glass accesses (at-access), and the automated analysis of Break-Glass accesses (post-access). Break-Glass allows users to override security restrictions in exceptional situations. While several Break-Glass models specific to given access control models have already been discussed in research (e.g., extending RBAC with Break-Glass), the author introduces a generic Break-Glass model. The pres

  14. [Breaking immune tolerance in cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desbois, Mélanie; Champiat, Stéphane; Chaput, Nathalie

    2015-01-01

    The discovery and understanding of complex cellular interactions that govern the immune system contributed to the pharmacological targeting of anti-tumor immunity. The activity of immune effector cells, such as NK and T-cells, is regulated by a wide range of activating and inhibiting receptors or ligands. Drugs that target these receptors or ligands can modulate the immune response by exerting antagonistic or agonistic effects. Over the past decade, several immunomodulators have demonstrated clinical effectiveness, and three of them have already been approved for use in oncology. The development of these immunotherapy approaches presented unique challenges for safety and efficacy, requiring revising clinical response criteria and the establishment of guidelines to help oncologists to manage properly inflammatory toxicities. The introduction of these immunotherapies is a revolution in oncology. However, additional efforts in terms of optimizing treatment administration and identification of biomarkers are needed. Identifying the immunodynamics of various immunomodulators should allow a better understanding of anti-tumor and inflammatory mechanisms, and certainly give the opportunity to develop effective therapeutic combinations without potentiating adverse events. PMID:25609492

  15. Breaking bad news in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Konstantis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In a regional hospital, many patients are newly diagnosed with cancer. Breaking the bad news in these patients and their relatives is a tough task. Many doctors are not experienced in talking to patients about death or death-related diseases. In recent years, there have been great efforts to change the current situation. The aim of this study was to investigate the experience and education of medical personnel in breaking bad news in a secondary hospital. Materials and Methods: 59 doctors from General Hospital of Komotini, Greece were included in the study. All the doctors were in clinical specialties that treated cancer patients. A brief questionnaire was developed based on current guidelines such as Baile/SPIKES framework and the ABCDE mnemonic. Results: Residents are involved in delivering bad news less frequently than specialists. Only 21 doctors (35.59% had specific training on breaking bad news. 20 doctors (33.90% were aware of the available techniques and protocols on breaking bad news. 47 doctors (79.66% had a consistent plan for breaking bad news. 57 (96.61% delivered bad news in a quiet place, 53 (89.83% ensured no interruptions and enough time, 53 (89.83% used simple words and 54 (91.53% checked for understanding and did not rush through the news. 46 doctors (77.97% allowed relatives to determine patient′s knowledge about the disease. Conclusions: There were low rates of specific training in breaking bad news. However, the selected location, the physician′s speech and their plan were according to current guidelines.

  16. A UV-complete Composite Higgs model for Electroweak Symmetry Breaking: Minimal Conformal Technicolor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tacchi, Ruggero Altair

    The Large Hadron Collider is currently collecting data. One of the main goals of the experiment is to find evidence of the mechanism responsible for the breaking of the electroweak symmetry. There are many different models attempting to explain this breaking and traditionally most of them involve the use of supersymmetry near the scale of the breaking. This work is focused on exploring a viable model that is not based on a weakly coupled low scale supersymmetry sector to explain the electroweak symmetry breaking. We build a model based on a new strong interaction, in the fashion of theories commonly called "technicolor", name that is reminiscent of one of the first attempts of explaining the electroweak symmetry breaking using a strong interaction similar to the one whose charges are called colors. We explicitly study the minimal model of conformal technicolor, an SU(2) gauge theory near a strongly coupled conformal fixed point, with conformal symmetry softly broken by technifermion mass terms. Conformal symmetry breaking triggers chiral symmetry breaking in the pattern SU(4) → Sp (4), which gives rise to a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson that can act as a composite Higgs boson. There is an additional composite pseudoscalar A with mass larger than mh and suppressed direct production at LHC. We discuss the electroweak fit in this model in detail. A good fit requires fine tuning at the 10% level. We construct a complete, realistic, and natural UV completion of the model, that explains the origin of quark and lepton masses and mixing angles. We embed conformal technicolor in a supersymmetric theory, with supersymmetry broken at a high scale. The effective theory below the supersymmetry breaking scale is minimal conformal technicolor with an additional light technicolor gaugino that might give rise to an additional pseudo Nambu-Goldstone boson that is observable at the LHC.

  17. Gauge - Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking in String Compactifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diaconescu, Duiliu-Emanuel; /Rutgers U., Piscataway; Florea, Bogdan; Kachru, Shamit; Svrcek, Peter; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC

    2006-01-04

    We provide string theory examples where a toy model of a SUSY GUT or the MSSM is embedded in a compactification along with a gauge sector which dynamically breaks supersymmetry. We argue that by changing microscopic details of the model (such as precise choices of flux), one can arrange for the dominant mediation mechanism transmitting SUSY breaking to the Standard Model to be either gravity mediation or gauge mediation. Systematic improvement of such examples may lead to top-down models incorporating a solution to the SUSY flavor problem.

  18. R-Parity Breaking in Minimal Supergravity

    CERN Document Server

    Díaz, M A

    1997-01-01

    We consider the Minimal Supergravity Model with universality of scalar and gaugino masses plus an extra bilinear term in the superpotential which breaks R-Parity and lepton number. We explicitly check the consistency of this model with the radiative breaking of the electroweak symmetry. A neutrino mass is radiatively induced, and large Higgs-Lepton mixings are compatible with its experimental bound. We also study briefly the lightest Higgs mass. This one-parameter extension of SUGRA-MSSM is the simplest way of introducing R-parity violation.

  19. Polarimetric contrast microscopy by orthogonality breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the design and first implementation of an active polarimetric imaging system based on the recently introduced concept of polarimetric sensing by orthogonality breaking, which involves a specific crossed-polarization dual-frequency illumination. We describe the laser source architecture and microscope set-up devoted to visible imaging at 488 nm, as well as the specific homodyne detection chain required for orthogonality breaking measurements. The first polarimetric images obtained with this non-conventional approach are presented. The polarimetric contrasts observed validate the polarimetric sensitivity of the technique. (fast track communication)

  20. Report of Break Out Group 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alward, Randy; Carley, Kathleen M.; Madsen, Fredrik Huitfeldt;

    2006-01-01

    , action" (OODA) loop. The break out group discussed vulnerability presentation needs common across various application domains, particularly in support of network discovery and network analysis tasks in those domains. Finally, the break out group wished to determine whether there is a means...... of characterizing a vulnerability. This would take into account the potential for the vulnerability to be exploited as well as the potential impact on the operations supported by the network, and on the network structure itself, of a successful exploit of that vulnerability....

  1. Effective dissipation: breaking time-reversal symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Aidan I

    2016-01-01

    At molecular scales, fluctuations play a significant role and prevent biomolecular processes from always proceeding in a preferred direction, raising the question of how limited amounts of free energy can be dissipated to obtain directed progress. We examine the system and process characteristics that efficiently break time-reversal symmetry at fixed energy loss; in particular for a simple model of a molecular machine, an intermediate energy barrier produces unusually high asymmetry for a given dissipation. Such insight into symmetry-breaking factors that produce particularly high time asymmetry suggests generalizations to a broader class of systems.

  2. Chiral Symmetry Breaking from Center Vortices

    CERN Document Server

    Höllwieser, Roman; Schweigler, Thomas; Heller, Urs M

    2014-01-01

    We analyze the creation of near-zero modes from would-be zero modes of various topological charge contributions from classical center vortices in SU(2) lattice gauge theory. We show that colorful spherical vortex and instanton configurations have very similar Dirac eigenmodes and also vortex intersections are able to give rise to a finite density of near-zero modes, leading to chiral symmetry breaking via the Banks-Casher formula. We discuss the influence of the magnetic vortex fluxes on quarks and how center vortices may break chiral symmetry.

  3. Supersymmetry in a sector of Higgsless electroweak symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this thesis we have investigated phenomenological implications which arise for cosmology and collider physics when the electroweak symmetry breaking sector of warped higgsless models is extended to include warped supersymmetry with conserved R parity. The goal was to find the simplest supersymmetric extension of these models which still has a realistic light spectrum including a viable dark matter candidate. To accomplish this, we have used the same mechanism which is already at work for symmetry breaking in the electroweak sector to break supersymmetry as well, namely symmetry breaking by boundary conditions. While supersymmetry in five dimensions contains four supercharges and is therefore directly related to 4D N=2 supersymmetry, half of them are broken by the background leaving us with ordinary N=1 theory in the massless sector after Kaluza-Klein expansion. We thus use boundary conditions to model the effects of a breaking mechanism for the remaining two supercharges. The simplest viable scenario to investigate is a supersymmetric bulk and IR brane without supersymmetry on the UV brane. Even though parts of the light spectrum are effectively projected out by this mechanism, we retain the rich phenomenology of complete N=2 supermultiplets in the Kaluza-Klein sector. While the light supersymmetric spectrum consists of electroweak gauginos which get their O(100 GeV) masses from IR brane electroweak symmetry breaking, the light gluinos and squarks are projected out on the UV brane. The neutralinos, as mass eigenstates of the neutral bino-wino sector, are automatically the lightest gauginos, making them LSP dark matter candidates with a relic density that can be brought to agreement withWMAP measurements without extensive tuning of parameters. For chargino masses close to the experimental lower bounds at around mχ+∼100.. 110 GeV, the dark matter relic density points to LSP masses of around mχ∼90 GeV. At the LHC, the standard particle content of our model

  4. Supersymmetry in a sector of Higgsless electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knochel, Alexander Karl

    2009-05-11

    In this thesis we have investigated phenomenological implications which arise for cosmology and collider physics when the electroweak symmetry breaking sector of warped higgsless models is extended to include warped supersymmetry with conserved R parity. The goal was to find the simplest supersymmetric extension of these models which still has a realistic light spectrum including a viable dark matter candidate. To accomplish this, we have used the same mechanism which is already at work for symmetry breaking in the electroweak sector to break supersymmetry as well, namely symmetry breaking by boundary conditions. While supersymmetry in five dimensions contains four supercharges and is therefore directly related to 4D N=2 supersymmetry, half of them are broken by the background leaving us with ordinary N=1 theory in the massless sector after Kaluza-Klein expansion. We thus use boundary conditions to model the effects of a breaking mechanism for the remaining two supercharges. The simplest viable scenario to investigate is a supersymmetric bulk and IR brane without supersymmetry on the UV brane. Even though parts of the light spectrum are effectively projected out by this mechanism, we retain the rich phenomenology of complete N=2 supermultiplets in the Kaluza-Klein sector. While the light supersymmetric spectrum consists of electroweak gauginos which get their O(100 GeV) masses from IR brane electroweak symmetry breaking, the light gluinos and squarks are projected out on the UV brane. The neutralinos, as mass eigenstates of the neutral bino-wino sector, are automatically the lightest gauginos, making them LSP dark matter candidates with a relic density that can be brought to agreement withWMAP measurements without extensive tuning of parameters. For chargino masses close to the experimental lower bounds at around m{sub {chi}{sup +}}{approx}100.. 110 GeV, the dark matter relic density points to LSP masses of around m{sub {chi}}{approx}90 GeV. At the LHC, the

  5. Neutrino masses from SUSY breaking in radiative seesaw models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Antonio J.R. [University of Lisbon, Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2015-03-01

    Radiatively generated neutrino masses (m{sub ν}) are proportional to supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking, as a result of the SUSY non-renormalisation theorem. In this work, we investigate the space of SUSY radiative seesaw models with regard to their dependence on SUSY breaking (SUSY). In addition to contributions from sources of SUSY that are involved in electroweak symmetry breaking (SUSY{sub EWSB} contributions), and which are manifest from left angle F{sub H}{sup †} right angle = μ left angle anti H right angle ≠ 0 and left angle D right angle = g sum {sub H} left angle H{sup †} x {sub H} H right angle ≠ 0, radiatively generated m{sub ν} can also receive contributions from SUSY sources that are unrelated to EWSB (SUSY{sub EWS} contributions). We point out that recent literature overlooks pure-SUSY{sub EWSB} contributions (∝ μ/M) that can arise at the same order of perturbation theory as the leading order contribution from SUSY{sub EWS}. We show that there exist realistic radiative seesaw models in which the leading order contribution to m{sub ν} is proportional to SUSY{sub EWS}. To our knowledge no model with such a feature exists in the literature. We give a complete description of the simplest model topologies and their leading dependence on SUSY. We show that in one-loop realisations LLHH operators are suppressed by at least μ m{sub soft}/M{sup 3} or m{sub soft}{sup 2}/M{sup 3}. We construct a model example based on a oneloop type-II seesaw. An interesting aspect of these models lies in the fact that the scale of soft-SUSY effects generating the leading order m{sub ν} can be quite small without conflicting with lower limits on the mass of new particles. (orig.)

  6. Economics of Garlic Production in Baran District of Rajasthan; Break Even Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lokesh Kumar Meena; Chandra Sen; Arun jhajharia; N. K. Raghuwanshi

    2013-01-01

    The study focuses on economic analysis of garlic production in the Baran District of Rajasthan. The study is carried out to determine break even analysis and constraints of garlic production in the study area. Break even analysis is carried out to arrive at that minimum level at which optimum conditions of cost and returns is equated that is no profit no loss point. In this study selected small, medium and large farmers will not be at loss even if their actual yield of garlic is decline by 56...

  7. Re-examination of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking in Supersymmetry and Implications for Light Superpartners

    CERN Document Server

    Kane, G L; Nelson, B D; Wang, L T; Nelson, Brent D.; Wang, Lian-Tao

    2003-01-01

    We examine arguments that could avoid light superpartners as an implication of supersymmetric radiative electroweak symmetry breaking. We argue that, from the point of view of string theory and standard approaches to generating the mu-term, cancellations among parameters are not a generic feature. While the coefficients relating the Z-mass to parameters in the soft supersymmetry breaking Lagrangian can be made smaller, these same mechanisms lead to lighter superpartner masses at the electroweak scale. Consequently we strengthen the implication that gluinos, neutralinos, and charginos are light and likely to be produced at the Fermilab Tevatron and a linear collider.

  8. Ultra-large distance modification of gravity from Lorentz symmetry breaking at the Planck scale

    CERN Document Server

    Gorbunov, D S

    2005-01-01

    We present an extension of the Randall--Sundrum model in which, due to spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking, graviton mixes with bulk vector fields and becomes quasilocalized. The masses of KK modes comprising the four-dimensional graviton are naturally exponentially small. This allows to push the Lorentz breaking scale to as high as a few tenth of the Planck mass. The model does not contain ghosts or tachyons and does not exhibit the van Dam--Veltman--Zakharov discontinuity. The gravitational attraction between static point masses becomes gradually weaker with increasing of separation and gets replaced by repulsion (antigravity) at exponentially large distances.

  9. Ultra-large distance modification of gravity from Lorentz symmetry breaking at the Planck scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbunov, Dmitry S. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary prospect, 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Sibiryakov, Sergei M. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary prospect, 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2005-09-15

    We present an extension of the Randall-Sundrum model in which, due to spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking, graviton mixes with bulk vector fields and becomes quasilocalized. The masses of KK modes comprising the four-dimensional graviton are naturally exponentially small. This allows to push the Lorentz breaking scale to as high as a few tenth of the Planck mass. The model does not contain ghosts or tachyons and does not exhibit the van Dam-Veltman-Zakharov discontinuity. The gravitational attraction between static point masses becomes gradually weaker with increasing of separation and gets replaced by repulsion (antigravity) at exponentially large distances.

  10. Viable Gravity-Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Kribs, Graham D; Roy, Tuhin S

    2010-01-01

    We present a complete, viable model of gravity-mediated supersymmetry breaking that is safe from all flavor constraints. The central new idea is to employ a supersymmetry breaking sector without singlets, but with D-terms comparable to F-terms, causing supersymmetry breaking to be dominantly communicated through U(1)_R-symmetric operators. We construct a visible sector that is an extension of the MSSM where an \\emph{accidental} U(1)_R symmetry emerges naturally. Gauginos acquire Dirac masses from gravity-mediated D-terms, and tiny Majorana masses from anomaly-mediated contributions. Contributions to soft breaking scalar (mass)^2 arise from flavor-arbitrary gravity-induced F-terms plus one-loop finite flavor-blind contributions from Dirac gaugino masses. Renormalization group evolution of the gluino causes it to naturally increase nearly an order of magnitude larger than the squark masses. This hierarchy, combined with an accidentially U(1)_R-symmetric visible sector, nearly eliminates all flavor violation con...

  11. Where large deep-ocean waves break

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Haren, H.; Climatoribus, A.; Gostiaux, L.

    2015-01-01

    Underwater topography like seamounts causes the breaking of large “internal waves” with associated turbulent mixing strongly affecting the redistribution of sediment. Here ocean turbulence is characterized and quantified in the lowest 100?m of the water column at three nearby sites above the slope o

  12. Lifshitz-sector mediated SUSY breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a novel mechanism of SUSY breaking by coupling a Lorentz-invariant supersymmetric matter sector to non-supersymmetric gravitational interactions with Lifshitz scaling. The improved UV properties of Lifshitz propagators moderate the otherwise uncontrollable ultraviolet divergences induced by gravitational loops. This ensures that both the amount of induced Lorentz violation and SUSY breaking in the matter sector are controlled by ΛHL2/MP2, the ratio of the Hořava-Lifshitz cross-over scale ΛHL to the Planck scale MP. This ratio can be kept very small, providing a novel way of explicitly breaking supersymmetry without reintroducing fine-tuning. We illustrate our idea by considering a model of scalar gravity with Hořava-Lifshitz scaling coupled to a supersymmetric Wess-Zumino matter sector, in which we compute the two-loop SUSY breaking corrections to the masses of the light scalars due to the gravitational interactions and the heavy fields

  13. Fragmentation in DNA double-strand breaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DNA double strand breaks are important lesions induced by irradiations. Random breakage model or quantification supported by this concept is suitable to analyze DNA double strand break data induced by low LET radiation, but deviation from random breakage model is more evident in high LET radiation data analysis. In this work we develop a new method, statistical fragmentation model, to analyze the fragmentation process of DNA double strand breaks. After charged particles enter the biological cell, they produce ionizations along their tracks, and transfer their energies to the cells and break the cellular DNA strands into fragments. The probable distribution of the fragments is obtained under the condition in which the entropy is maximum. Under the approximation E≅E0 + E1l + E2l2, the distribution functions are obtained as exp(αl + βl2). There are two components, the one proportional to exp(βl2), mainly contributes to the low mass fragment yields, the other component, proportional to exp(αl), decreases slowly as the mass of the fragments increases. Numerical solution of the constraint equations provides parameters α and β. Experimental data, especially when the energy deposition is higher, support the statistical fragmentation model. (authors)

  14. Density Functional Simulation of a Breaking Nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakamura, A.; Brandbyge, Mads; Hansen, Lars Bruno;

    1999-01-01

    We study the deformation and breaking of an atomic-sized sodium wire using density functional simulations. The wire deforms through sudden atomic rearrangements and smoother atomic displacements. The conductance of the wire exhibits plateaus at integer values in units of 2e(2)/h corresponding...

  15. Dynamical Symmetry Breaking in RN Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Kotvytskiy

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that in the RN gravitation model, there is no dynamical symmetry breaking effect in the formalism of the Schwinger-Dyson equation (in flat background space-time. A general formula for the second variation of the gravitational action is obtained from the quantum corrections hμν (in arbitrary background metrics.

  16. Physical implications of dynamical symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some model-independent physical implications of a class of hypercolorbased theories of dynamical symmetry-breaking are described and discussed. The role which e+e- colliders can play, in distinguishing between such theories and the canonical methodology, is underlined

  17. Supersymmetry Breaking and the Cosmological Constant

    CERN Document Server

    Banks, T

    2014-01-01

    I review three attempts to explain the small value of the cosmological constant, and their connection to SUSY breaking. They are The String Landscape, Supersymmetric Large Extra Dimensions (SLED), and the Holographic Space-time Formalism invented by Fischler and myself.

  18. Two-stage perceptual learning to break visual crowding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Ziyun; Fan, Zhenzhi; Fang, Fang

    2016-01-01

    When a target is presented with nearby flankers in the peripheral visual field, it becomes harder to identify, which is referred to as crowding. Crowding sets a fundamental limit of object recognition in peripheral vision, preventing us from fully appreciating cluttered visual scenes. We trained adult human subjects on a crowded orientation discrimination task and investigated whether crowding could be completely eliminated by training. We discovered a two-stage learning process with this training task. In the early stage, when the target and flankers were separated beyond a certain distance, subjects acquired a relatively general ability to break crowding, as evidenced by the fact that the breaking of crowding could transfer to another crowded orientation, even a crowded motion stimulus, although the transfer to the opposite visual hemi-field was weak. In the late stage, like many classical perceptual learning effects, subjects' performance gradually improved and showed specificity to the trained orientation. We also found that, when the target and flankers were spaced too finely, training could only reduce, rather than completely eliminate, the crowding effect. This two-stage learning process illustrates a learning strategy for our brain to deal with the notoriously difficult problem of identifying peripheral objects in clutter. The brain first learned to solve the "easy and general" part of the problem (i.e., improving the processing resolution and segmenting the target and flankers) and then tackle the "difficult and specific" part (i.e., refining the representation of the target).

  19. French regulatory practice and reflections on the leak-before-break concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For nuclear units in the design phase, the vendor (FRAMATOME) and the utility (EDF) examine the possibility of applying the leak-before-break criterion to a certain number of circuits, particularly the primary circuit and various parts of the secondary circuit. EDF has not completed its reflection on the leak-before-break approach and consequently, French safety authorities have not been officially notified of any request for assessment of the acceptability of such an approach. Nevertheless, from a strict safety point of view, it is possible to determine minimal conditions required in the implementation of such a course of action. Firstly, removing pipe breaks from the design basis of the plant will significantly weaken the application of the defense in-depth concept. This must be counter-balanced by reinforced manufacturing non destructive examinations and a stringent in-service inspection. Secondly, the demonstration of the existence of leaks before breaks must be obtained with a high degree of certainty, which requires large investments in a certain number of fields. The exact methodology will be defined by the Vendor and the utility at a later stage. However, from our point of view, analysis should involve the following steps: Definition of a maximum size defect; analysis of evolution under normal loads; stability analysis, definition of the critical defect; Definition of the detectable defect. This paper develops each of these points, and specifies, for each discipline, the domains in which present knowledge must be expanded and deepened

  20. An integral effect test on the feedwater line break of APR1400 with the ATLAS facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An integral effect test on the feedwater line break (FLB) was performed with the ATLAS facility for an APR1400 as a typical secondary system transient. The objectives of the present FLB tests are to understand the accident progression of the FLB scenario based on the APR1400 preliminary safety analysis report (PSAR) and to assess the prediction capability of system analysis codes such as the MARS, RELAP5, TRACE and SPACE. The main concern of the present FLB test is the peak RCS pressure and the major parameters affecting the peak RCS pressure are the break size, the break location, potential for reverse flow, initial pressurizer level and the initial SG level. The present test is performed for a break on the pipe connected to the economizer with a typical break size. The initial steady-state conditions and the sequence of event of FLB scenario for the APR1400 were successfully simulated with the ATLAS facility. In the present paper, major thermal-hydraulic phenomena such as the system pressures, the collapsed water levels, and the break flow rate are presented and discussed. It could be concluded that the APR1400 has the capability of coping with the hypothetical FLB scenario with an adequate set of controlling devices and proper setpoints. This integral effect test data could also be used to evaluate the prediction capability of existing safety analysis codes of MARS, RELAP5 and SPACE and to identify any code deficiency for an FLB simulation. (author)

  1. Concrete Walls Crumble as Tunnel TI8 Breaks Through

    CERN Multimedia

    2001-01-01

    On Wednesday, October 3rd, the excitement in the tunnels deep beneath CERN was high as an exuberant crowd watched the second and last transfer tunnel (TI8) from the SPS break through to the LHC. The Director-General with the Mayors of Meyrin and Prévessin at the breakthrough point. The area where the break through was to occur did not look particularly special, just a concrete wall with bright orange paint sprayed in the centre. But the austere surroundings quickly faded from importance as a tremendous ruckus filled the corridor. Just minutes later the first pieces of the wall started popping off. The suspense in the room grew and eventually the spinning drill became readily visible to the entire crowd.... and that's when the real noise started, the noise of applause! 'This is the second time I have seen this happen but it is always moving because it shows our steps forward.' said Prof. Luciano Maiani. Technicians, physicists, and engineers chatted excitedly as the tunnel team climbed through...

  2. Electroweak symmetry breaking without the μ2 term

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goertz, Florian

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrate that from a low-energy perspective a viable breaking of the electroweak symmetry, as present in nature, can be achieved without the (negative sign) μ2 mass term in the Higgs potential, thereby avoiding completely the appearance of relevant operators, featuring coefficients with a positive mass dimension, in the theory. We show that such a setup is self-consistent and not ruled out by Higgs physics. In particular, we point out that it is the lightness of the Higgs boson that allows for the electroweak symmetry to be broken dynamically via operators of D ≥4 , consistent with the power expansion. Beyond that, we entertain how this scenario might even be preferred phenomenologically compared to the ordinary mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking, as realized in the Standard Model, and argue that it can be fully tested at the LHC. In the Appendix, we classify UV completions that could lead to such a setup, considering also the option of generating all scales dynamically.

  3. Quantum phase transitions with parity-symmetry breaking and hysteresis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenkwalder, A.; Spagnolli, G.; Semeghini, G.; Coop, S.; Landini, M.; Castilho, P.; Pezzè, L.; Modugno, G.; Inguscio, M.; Smerzi, A.; Fattori, M.

    2016-09-01

    Symmetry-breaking quantum phase transitions play a key role in several condensed matter, cosmology and nuclear physics theoretical models. Its observation in real systems is often hampered by finite temperatures and limited control of the system parameters. In this work we report, for the first time, the experimental observation of the full quantum phase diagram across a transition where the spatial parity symmetry is broken. Our system consists of an ultracold gas with tunable attractive interactions trapped in a spatially symmetric double-well potential. At a critical value of the interaction strength, we observe a continuous quantum phase transition where the gas spontaneously localizes in one well or the other, thus breaking the underlying symmetry of the system. Furthermore, we show the robustness of the asymmetric state against controlled energy mismatch between the two wells. This is the result of hysteresis associated with an additional discontinuous quantum phase transition that we fully characterize. Our results pave the way to the study of quantum critical phenomena at finite temperature, the investigation of macroscopic quantum tunnelling of the order parameter in the hysteretic regime and the production of strongly quantum entangled states at critical points.

  4. Spontaneous breaking of Lorentz symmetry for canonical gravity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gielen, Steffen [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Gravitationsphysik (Albert-Einstein-Institut), Golm (Germany); Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, Ontario (Canada); Wise, Derek [Institut fuer Theoretische Physik III, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen (Germany)

    2012-07-01

    In Hamiltonian formulations of general relativity, in particular Ashtekar variables which serve as the classical starting point for loop quantum gravity, Lorentz covariance is a subtle issue which has been the focus of some debate, while at the same time being crucial with regard to possible experimental tests. After reviewing the sources of difficulty, we present a Lorentz covariant formulation in which which we generalise the notion of a foliation of spacetime usually used in the Hamiltonian formalism to a field of ''local observers'' which specify a time direction only locally. This field spontaneously breaks the local SO(3,1) symmetry down to a subgroup SO(3), in a way similar to systems in condensed matter and particle physics. The formalism is analogous to that in MacDowell-Mansouri gravity, where SO(4,1) is spontaneously broken to SO(3,1). We show that the apparent breaking of SO(3,1) to SO(3) is not in conflict with Lorentz covariance. We close by outlining other possible applications of the formalism of local observer, especially with regard to phenomenology of quantum gravity.

  5. An analysis of oil production by OPEC countries: Persistence, breaks, and outliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pestana Barros, Carlos, E-mail: cbarros@iseg.utl.p [Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao and Research Unit on Complexity and Economics, Technical University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal); Gil-Alana, Luis A., E-mail: alana@unav.e [University of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Payne, James E., E-mail: jepayne@ilstu.ed [Department of Economics, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61790-4200 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    This study examines the time series behaviour of oil production for OPEC member countries within a fractional integration modelling framework recognizing the potential for structural breaks and outliers. The analysis is undertaken using monthly data from January 1973 to October 2008 for 13 OPEC member countries. The results indicate there is mean reverting persistence in oil production with breaks identified in 10 out of the 13 countries examined. Thus, shocks affecting the structure of OPEC oil production will have persistent effects in the long run for all countries, and in some cases the effects are expected to be permanent. - Research Highlights: {yields}Mean reverting persistence in oil production with breaks identified in 10 out of the 13 countries examined. {yields} Standard analysis based on cointegration techniques and involving oil production should be examined in the more general context of fractional cointegraton. {yields} Analysis of outliers did not alter the main conclusions of the study.

  6. An analysis of oil production by OPEC countries: Persistence, breaks, and outliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study examines the time series behaviour of oil production for OPEC member countries within a fractional integration modelling framework recognizing the potential for structural breaks and outliers. The analysis is undertaken using monthly data from January 1973 to October 2008 for 13 OPEC member countries. The results indicate there is mean reverting persistence in oil production with breaks identified in 10 out of the 13 countries examined. Thus, shocks affecting the structure of OPEC oil production will have persistent effects in the long run for all countries, and in some cases the effects are expected to be permanent. - Research Highlights: →Mean reverting persistence in oil production with breaks identified in 10 out of the 13 countries examined. → Standard analysis based on cointegration techniques and involving oil production should be examined in the more general context of fractional cointegraton. → Analysis of outliers did not alter the main conclusions of the study.

  7. GOBLIN computer code. Comparison between calculations and TLTA small break test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    GOBLIN calcuations have been performed for two simulation tests of the boiling water reactor (BWR) small break loss-of-coolant accidents (LOCAs) which were conducted in the two loop test apparatus (TLTA). The first test investigated the small break with nondegraded emergency core coolant (ECC) systems and the second test studied the same small break but with degraded ECC systems in which the high pressure core spray (HPCS) was assumed unavailable. Very good agreement between test data and calculations is achieved. The second test is the most challenging from code comparison point of view and the code prediction of the complicated mass distribution pattern which changes with time is very satisfactory. In the first test and to some extent late in the second test multidimensional subchannel effects are evident in the core bundle region. These are not and cannot be reproduced by the code since the bundle model of GOBLIN is strictly one-dimensional. (Author)

  8. Investigation on the Use of a Multiphase Eulerian CFD solver to simulate breaking waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomaselli, Pietro D.; Christensen, Erik Damgaard

    2015-01-01

    The main challenge in CFD multiphase simulations of breaking waves is the wide range of interfacial length scales occurring in the flow: from the free surface measurable in meters down to the entrapped air bubbles with size of a fraction of a millimeter. This paper presents a preliminary...... investigation on a CFD model capable of handling this problem. The model is based on a solver, available in the open-source CFD toolkit OpenFOAM, which combines the Eulerian multi-fluid approach for dispersed flows with a numerical interface sharpening method. The solver, enhanced with additional formulations...... for mass and momentum transfer among phases, was satisfactorily tested against an experimental bubble column flow. The model was then used to simulate the propagation of a laboratory solitary breaking wave. The motion of the free surface was successfully reproduced up to the breaking point. Further...

  9. Break-in and Performance Issues on a single cell PBI-based PEM Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen; Jespersen, Jesper Lebæk

    Depending on the application in question and the load cycle of operation, fuel cell degradation can be a serious problem. Fuel cell degradation of PBI-based MEA's and fuel cells in general is quite complex. The rate of degradation depends on several parameters, where the operating temperature...... and the current drawn from the fuel cell are of great importance. One must therefore choose the point of operation carefully in order for the fuel cell to fulfil the requirements for lifetime perform-ance of the system. Break-in of fuel cells is often done in scientific experiments to improve the performance...... of the fuel cell, even though break-in of a fuel cell implemented in a commercial application would most likely not be feasible. In the present work a commercially available PBI-based high temperature MEA is subject to a break-in procedure, as specified by the manufacturer. The cell was operated at 160 °C...

  10. Using rates to measure mixed modulus-anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Conley, J A; Glaser, L; Kraemer, M; Tattersall, J

    2011-01-01

    If SUSY is discovered at the LHC, the task will immediately turn to determining the model of SUSY breaking. Here, we employ a Mixed Modulus-Anomaly Mediated SUSY Breaking (MMAMSB) model with very similar LHC phenomenology to the more conventionally studied Constrained Minimal SUSY Model (CMSSM) and minimal Anomaly Mediated SUSY Breaking (mAMSB) models. We then study whether the models can be distinguished and measured. If we only fit to the various mass edges and mass end-points from cascade decay chains that are normally studied, a unique determination and measurement of the model is problematic without substantial amounts of LHC data. However, if event rate information is included, we can quickly distinguish and measure the correct SUSY model and exclude alternatives.

  11. Distinctive signatures of space-time diffeomorphism breaking in EFT of inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Bartolo, Nicola; Ricciardone, Angelo; Tasinato, Gianmassimo

    2015-01-01

    The effective field theory of inflation is a powerful tool for obtaining model independent predictions common to large classes of inflationary models. It requires only information about the symmetries broken during the inflationary era, and on the number and nature of fields that drive inflation. In this paper, we consider the case for scenarios that simultaneously break time reparameterization and spatial diffeomorphisms during inflation. We examine how to analyse such systems using an effective field theory approach, and we discuss several observational consequences for the statistics of scalar and tensor modes. For example, examining the three point functions, we show that this symmetry breaking pattern can lead to an enhanced amplitude for the squeezed bispectra, and to a distinctive angular dependence between their three wavevectors. We also discuss how our results indicate prospects for constraining the level of spatial diffeomorphism breaking during inflation.

  12. Distinctive signatures of space-time diffeomorphism breaking in EFT of inflation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartolo, Nicola; Cannone, Dario; Ricciardone, Angelo; Tasinato, Gianmassimo

    2016-03-01

    The effective field theory of inflation is a powerful tool for obtaining model independent predictions common to large classes of inflationary models. It requires only information about the symmetries broken during the inflationary era, and on the number and nature of fields that drive inflation. In this paper, we consider the case for scenarios that simultaneously break time reparameterization and spatial diffeomorphisms during inflation. We examine how to analyse such systems using an effective field theory approach, and we discuss several observational consequences for the statistics of scalar and tensor modes. For example, examining the three point functions, we show that this symmetry breaking pattern can lead to an enhanced amplitude for the squeezed bispectra, and to a distinctive angular dependence between their three wavevectors. We also discuss how our results indicate prospects for constraining the level of spatial diffeomorphism breaking during inflation.

  13. Universality and Symmetry Breaking in Conformally Reduced Quantum Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bonanno, Alfio

    2012-01-01

    The scaling properties of quantum gravity are discussed by employing a class of proper-time regulators in the functional flow equation for the conformal factor within the formalism of the background field method. Renormalization group trajectories obtained by projecting the flow on a flat topology are more stable than those obtained from a projection on a spherical topology. In the latter case the ultraviolet flow can be characterized by a Hopf bifurcation with an ultraviolet attractive limiting cycle. Although the possibility of determining the infrared flow for an extended theory space can be severely hampered due to the conformal factor instability, we present a robust numerical approach to study the flow structure around the non-gaussian fixed point as an inverse-problem strategy. In particular it is shown the possibility of having a spontaneous breaking of the diffeomorphism invariance can be realized with non-local functionals of the volume operator.

  14. Equation of state of hot nuclei before break-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Following the method developed by the authors, recently, the equation of state of hot nuclei (238U* in concrete) before break-up was investigated numerically. The isotherms are drawn in the plane of the general pressure P versus volume VRT. They are similar to those of Van der Waals gas. The critical temperature of phase transition should correspond to the isotherm with one truning point only. It turns out that the data of mas yield distribution can be reproduced by many pairs of parameters T and VRT (freeze-out temperature and freezeout volume) varying in certain range. For each isotherm (each T), the data are always best reproduced by the value of VRT located at the maximum general pressure within two phases coexistence region

  15. Structural topography-mediated high temperature wetting symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jing; Liu, Yahua; Hao, Chonglei; Li, Minfei; Chaudhury, Manoj K; Yao, Shuhuai

    2015-01-01

    Directed motion of liquid droplets is of considerable importance in various industrial processes. Despite extensive advances in this field of research, our understanding and the ability to control droplet dynamics at high temperature remain limited, in part due to the emergence of complex wetting states intertwined by the phase change process at the triple-phase interfaces. Here we show that two concurrent wetting states (Leidenfrost and contact boiling) can be manifested in a single droplet above its boiling point rectified by the presence of asymmetric textures. The breaking of the wetting symmetry at high temperature subsequently leads to the preferential motion towards the region with higher heat transfer coefficient. We demonstrate experimentally and analytically that the droplet vectoring is intricately dependent on the interplay between the structural topography and its imposed thermal state. Our fundamental understanding and the ability to control the droplet dynamics at high temperature represent an ...

  16. Spontaneous breaking of spatial symmetries in collective neutrino oscillations

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, Huaiyu

    2014-01-01

    A dense neutrino medium can experience collective oscillations or self-induced flavor transformation through nonlinear neutrino-neutrino refraction. To make the problem of collective neutrino oscillations more tractable, all previous studies on this subject have assumed some spatial symmetry or symmetries in the neutrino medium (e.g., translation symmetries in the early universe and spherical symmetry in core-collapse supernovae). We point out that the collective oscillation modes studied in such models are very special. Using a simple toy model we show that spatial symmetries can be broken spontaneously in collective neutrino oscillations. We also show that the spatial-symmetry-breaking (SSB) modes of neutrino oscillations can exist for both neutrino mass hierarchies and even in the regimes where collective neutrino oscillations were previously thought to be suppressed. This finding calls for study of collective neutrino oscillations in multi-dimensional models.

  17. Searching for cosmological signatures of the Einstein equivalence principle breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Holanda, R F L

    2016-01-01

    Modifications of gravity generated by a multiplicative coupling of a scalar field to the electromagnetic Lagrangian lead to a breaking of Einstein equivalence principle (EEPB) as well as to variations of fundamental constants. In these theoretical frameworks, deviations of standard values of the fine structure constant, $\\Delta \\alpha/\\alpha=\\phi$, and of the cosmic distance duality relation, $D_L(1+z)^{-2}/D_A=\\eta=1$, where $D_L$ and $D_A$ are the luminosity and angular diameter distances, respectively, are unequivocally linked. In this paper, we search for cosmological signatures of the EEPB by using angular diameter distance from galaxy clusters, obtained via their Sunyaev-Zeldovich effect (SZE) and X-ray observations, and distance modulus of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). The crucial point here is that we take into account the dependence of the SZE/X-ray technique with $\\phi$ and $\\eta$. Our new results show no indication of the EEPB.

  18. $\\mu$ term and supersymmetry breaking from six dimensional theory

    CERN Document Server

    Adachi, Yuki; Yamashita, Toshifumi

    2014-01-01

    We propose a new next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM) which is on a six-dimensional spacetime compactified on a $T^2/Z_3$ orbifold. In this model, three gauge singlet fields $N, S_1$ and $S_2$ in addition to the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) fields are introduced. These fields are localized at some fixed points except for the singlet $N$ and the gauge fields. The $\\mu$ parameter is provided from the vacuum expectation value (vev) of $N$. The $F$ terms get vevs simultaneously, and the gauginos mediate the supersymmetry breaking to the MSSM sector. Both of these parameters are strongly suppressed due to the profile of $N$. Thus these parameters induced from those of the order of the so-called GUT scale can become close to the electroweak scale without unnatural fine tuning.

  19. Searching for cosmological signatures of the Einstein equivalence principle breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holanda, R. F. L.; Barros, K. N. N. O.

    2016-07-01

    Modifications of gravity generated by a multiplicative coupling of a scalar field to the electromagnetic Lagrangian lead to a breaking of the Einstein equivalence principle (EEPB), as well as to variations of fundamental constants. In these theoretical frameworks, deviations of standard values of the fine structure constant, Δ α /α =ϕ , and of the cosmic distance duality relation, DL(1 +z )-2/DA=η =1 , where DL and DA are the luminosity and angular diameter distances, respectively, are unequivocally linked. In this paper, we search for cosmological signatures of the EEPB by using angular diameter distance from galaxy clusters, obtained via their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) and x-ray observations, and distance modulus of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). The crucial point here is that we take into account the dependence of the SZE/x-ray technique with ϕ and η . Our new results show no indication of the EEPB.

  20. μ term and supersymmetry breaking from 6D theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose a new next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model (NMSSM), which is on a 6D spacetime compactified on a T2/Z3 orbifold. In this model, three gauge singlet fields N, S1, and S2 in addition to the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM) fields are introduced. These fields are localized at some fixed points, except for the singlet N and the gauge fields. The μ parameter is provided from the vacuum expectation value (VEV) of N. The F terms get VEVs simultaneously, and the gauginos mediate the supersymmetry breaking to the MSSM sector. Both of these parameters are strongly suppressed due to the profile of N. Thus, these parameters, induced from those on the order of the so-called Grand Unified Theory (GUT) scale, can become close to the electroweak scale without unnatural fine tuning

  1. Breaking the sound barrier in AdS/CFT

    CERN Document Server

    Hoyos, Carlos; Fernández, David Rodríguez; Vuorinen, Aleksi

    2016-01-01

    It has been conjectured that the speed of sound in holographic models with UV fixed points has an upper bound set by the value of the quantity in conformal field theory. If true, this would set stringent constraints for the presence of strongly coupled quark matter in the cores of physical neutron stars, as the existence of two-solar-mass stars appears to demand a very stiff Equation of State. In this article, we present a family of counterexamples to the speed of sound conjecture, consisting of strongly coupled theories at finite density. The theories we consider include ${\\cal N}=4$ super Yang-Mills at finite R-charge density and non-zero gaugino masses, while the holographic duals are Einstein-Maxwell theories with a minimally coupled scalar in a charged black hole geometry. We show that for a small breaking of conformal invariance, the speed of sound approaches the conformal value from above at large chemical potentials.

  2. Algorithms to identify failure pattern

    OpenAIRE

    Poudel, Bhuwan Krishna Som

    2013-01-01

    This project report was written for ?Algorithms to Identify Failure Pattern? at NTNU (Norwegian University of Science and Technology), IME (Faculty of Information Technology, Mathematics and Electrical Engineering) and IDI (Department of Computer Science).In software application, there are three types of failure pattern: point pattern, block pattern and stripe pattern. The purpose of the report is to prepare an algorithm that identifies the pattern in a software application. Only theoretical ...

  3. Radiation-induced DNA strand breaks and the relationship between strand breaks and fecundity in mosquitofish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mosquitofish (Gambusia affines) were collected from a small pond on the US DOE reservation that is contaminated with 137Cs, 90Sr and other radionuclides. Fish from non-contaminated populations were also collected. DNA was isolated from both the liver and the blood and examined for DNA single- and double-strand breaks by gel electrophoresis. In general, both single- and double-strand DNA breaks were more prevalent in fish from radionuclide-contaminated sites than from uncontaminated sites. In addition, there were more double-strand than single-strand breaks in DNA from contaminated fish, and more strand breaks in blood cell than in liver DNA. Also, fecundity and number of malformed embryos were determined in fish from all sites. It was found that, for fish from the contaminated site, the number of DNA strand breaks was negatively correlated with fecundity, and that females with malformed embryos in their broods had more DNA strand breaks than did females with no malformed embryos. These findings have implications for both ecological risk assessment and evolutionary ecology

  4. Symmetry-Break in Voronoi Tessellations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valerio Lucarini

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available We analyse in a common framework the properties of the Voronoi tessellations resulting from regular 2D and 3D crystals and those of tessellations generated by Poisson distributions of points, thus joining on symmetry breaking processes and the approach to uniform random distributions of seeds. We perturb crystalline structures in 2D and 3D with a spatial Gaussian noise whose adimensional strength is α and analyse the statistical properties of the cells of the resulting Voronoi tessellations using an ensemble approach. In 2D we consider triangular, square and hexagonal regular lattices, resulting into hexagonal, square and triangular tessellations, respectively. In 3D we consider the simple cubic (SC, body-centred cubic (BCC, and face-centred cubic (FCC crystals, whose corresponding Voronoi cells are the cube, the truncated octahedron, and the rhombic dodecahedron, respectively. In 2D, for all values α>0, hexagons constitute the most common class of cells. Noise destroys the triangular and square tessellations, which are structurally unstable, as their topological properties are discontinuous in α=0. On the contrary, the honeycomb hexagonal tessellation is topologically stable and, experimentally, all Voronoi cells are hexagonal for small but finite noise with α<0.12. Basically, the same happens in the 3D case, where only the tessellation of the BCC crystal is topologically stable even against noise of small but finite intensity. In both 2D and 3D cases, already for a moderate amount of Gaussian noise (α>0.5, memory of the specific initial unperturbed state is lost, because the statistical properties of the three perturbed regular tessellations are indistinguishable. When α>2, results converge to those of Poisson-Voronoi tessellations. In 2D, while the isoperimetric ratio increases with noise for the perturbed hexagonal tessellation, for the perturbed triangular and square tessellations it is optimised for specific value of noise intensity

  5. Experimental Study of Pore Water Pressure and Bed Profile Change Under Regular Breaking Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Yong-zhou; JIANG Chang-bo; ZHAO Li-ping; PAN Yun; LI Qing-feng

    2012-01-01

    There lies a close relationship between the seabed destruction and the distribution of pore water pressure under the action of breaking wave.The experiments were carried out in a wave flume with a 1∶30 sloping sandy seabed to study regular breaking wave induced pore water pressure.A wide range of measurements from the regular wave runs were reported,including time series of wave heights,pore pressures.The video records were analysed to measure the time development of the seabed form and the characteristics of the orbital motion of the sand in the wave breaking region.The pore water pressure in the breaker zone showed the time variation depending on the wave phases including wave breaking and bore propagation.The time-averaged pore water pressure was higher near the seabed surface.The peak values of pore water pressure increase significantly at the breaking point.The direction of pore water pressure difference forces in the breaker zone is of fundamental importance for a correct description of the sediment dynamics.The upwardsdirected pressure differences may increase sand transport by reducing the effective weight of the sediment,thereby increasing the bed form evolution.The seabed configuration changed greatly at the wave breaking zone and a sand bar was generated remarkably.The amplitude of the pore water pressure changed with the seabed surface:The results are to improve the understanding of sand transport mechanisms and seabed responses due to breaking regular waves over a sloping sandy bed.

  6. Leak before break detection-annulus gas monitoring system evolution and operating experience at KGS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWR) at RAPS 1 and 2 and MAPS have provision for detection of pressure tube leak by indirect method. The reactor vessel (calandria) is housed in calandria vault (C/V) filled with air and C/V moisture element indicates the water leak from calandria tube or pressure tube. Further, detection of leak is a cumbersome process. From NAPS onwards, calandria is housed in C/V filled with water, annulus between calandria tube and pressure tube is filled with CO2 and annulus gas monitoring system (AGMS) is provided by design for detection of any pressure tube leak. The design was improved and AGMS for Kaiga 1 and 2 and RAPS 3 and 4 is having re-circulation mode of operation. The design provides for monitoring dew point of annulus gas (CO2) for indicating the leak and later to identify the pressure tube/calandria tube having leak. The paper deals with operating experience of AGMS at Kaiga generating station (KGS). During the commissioning and initial power operation at KGS, problems were encountered in re-circulation mode. These problems were high radiation field near AGMS piping, high temperature on blower body, blower bearing failure and system leaks. Design modifications were carried out for effective performance of the system for detecting leak before break

  7. Symmetry breaking indication for supergravity inflation in light of the Planck 2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Tianjun [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, and Kavli Institute for Theoretical Physics China (KITPC), Institute of Theoretical Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190 (China); School of Physical Electronics, University of Electronic Science and Technology of China, Chengdu 610054 (China); Li, Zhijin [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Nanopoulos, Dimitri V. [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Astroparticle Physics Group, Houston Advanced Research Center (HARC), Mitchell Campus, Woodlands, TX 77381 (United States); Academy of Athens, Division of Natural Sciences, 28 Panepistimiou Avenue, Athens 10679 (Greece)

    2015-09-01

    Supergravity (SUGRA) theories with exact global U(1) symmetry or shift symmetry in Kähler potential provide natural frameworks for inflation. However, quadratic inflation is disfavoured by the new results on primordial tensor fluctuations from the Planck Collaboration. To be consistent with the new Planck data, we point out that the explicit symmetry breaking is needed, and study these two SUGRA inflation in detail. For SUGRA inflation with global U(1) symmetry, the symmetry breaking term leads to a trigonometric modulation on inflaton potential. Coefficient of the U(1) symmetry breaking term is of order 10{sup −2}, which is sufficient large to improve the inflationary predictions while its higher order corrections are negligible. Such models predict sizeable tensor fluctuations and highly agree with the Planck results. In particular, the model with a linear U(1) symmetry breaking term predicts the tensor-to-scalar ratio around r∼0.01 and running spectral index α{sub s}∼−0.004, which comfortably fit with the Planck observations. For SUGRA inflation with breaking shift symmetry, the inflaton potential is modulated by an exponential factor. The modulated linear and quadratic models are consistent with the Planck observations. In both types of models the tensor-to-scalar ratio can be of order 10{sup −2}, which will be tested by the near future observations.

  8. Symmetry breaking indication for supergravity inflation in light of the Planck 2015

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supergravity (SUGRA) theories with exact global U(1) symmetry or shift symmetry in Kähler potential provide natural frameworks for inflation. However, quadratic inflation is disfavoured by the new results on primordial tensor fluctuations from the Planck Collaboration. To be consistent with the new Planck data, we point out that the explicit symmetry breaking is needed, and study these two SUGRA inflation in detail. For SUGRA inflation with global U(1) symmetry, the symmetry breaking term leads to a trigonometric modulation on inflaton potential. Coefficient of the U(1) symmetry breaking term is of order 10−2, which is sufficient large to improve the inflationary predictions while its higher order corrections are negligible. Such models predict sizeable tensor fluctuations and highly agree with the Planck results. In particular, the model with a linear U(1) symmetry breaking term predicts the tensor-to-scalar ratio around r∼0.01 and running spectral index αs∼−0.004, which comfortably fit with the Planck observations. For SUGRA inflation with breaking shift symmetry, the inflaton potential is modulated by an exponential factor. The modulated linear and quadratic models are consistent with the Planck observations. In both types of models the tensor-to-scalar ratio can be of order 10−2, which will be tested by the near future observations

  9. LIDAR, Point Clouds, and their Archaeological Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Devin A [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    It is common in contemporary archaeological literature, in papers at archaeological conferences, and in grant proposals to see heritage professionals use the term LIDAR to refer to high spatial resolution digital elevation models and the technology used to produce them. The goal of this chapter is to break that association and introduce archaeologists to the world of point clouds, in which LIDAR is only one member of a larger family of techniques to obtain, visualize, and analyze three-dimensional measurements of archaeological features. After describing how point clouds are constructed, there is a brief discussion on the currently available software and analytical techniques designed to make sense of them.

  10. Fractional Branes and Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Franco, S; Saad, F; Uranga, Angel M; Franco, Sebastian; Hanany, Amihay; Saad, Fouad; Uranga, Angel M.

    2006-01-01

    We study the dynamics of fractional branes at toric singularities, including cones over del Pezzo surfaces and the recently constructed Y^{p,q} theories. We find that generically the field theories on such fractional branes show dynamical supersymmetry breaking, due to the appearance of non-perturbative superpotentials. In special cases, one recovers the known cases of supersymmetric infrared behaviors, associated to SYM confinement (mapped to complex deformations of the dual geometries, in the gauge/string correspondence sense) or N=2 fractional branes. In the supersymmetry breaking cases, when the dynamics of closed string moduli at the singularity is included, the theories show a runaway behavior (involving moduli such as FI terms or equivalently dibaryonic operators), rather than stable non-supersymmetric minima. We comment on the implications of this gauge theory behavior for the infrared smoothing of the dual warped throat solutions with 3-form fluxes, describing duality cascades ending in such field th...

  11. The Radiative Z2 Breaking Twin Higgs

    CERN Document Server

    Yu, Jiang-Hao

    2016-01-01

    In twin Higgs model, the Higgs boson mass is protected by a $Z_2$ symmetry. The $Z_2$ symmetry needs to be broken either explicitly or spontaneously to obtain misalignment between electroweak and new physics vacua. We propose a novel $Z_2$ breaking mechanism, in which the $Z_2$ is spontaneously broken by radiative corrections to the Higgs potential. Two twin Higgses with different vacua are needed, and vacuum misalignment is realized by opposite but comparable contributions from gauge and Yukawa interactions to the potential. Due to fully radiative symmetry breaking, the Higgs sector is completely determined by twin Higgs vacuum, Yukawa and gauge couplings. There are eight pseudo-Goldstone bosons: the Higgs boson, inert doublet Higgs, and three twin scalars. We show the 125 GeV Higgs mass and constraints from Higgs coupling measurements could be satisfied.

  12. Mechanics of breaking coal by water jet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Z.; Xi, B.; Zhao, Y.; Zhao, L. [Taiyuan University of Technology, Taiyuan (China)

    2008-09-15

    It is presumed that the elastic modulus and compressive strength of inhomogeneous rock conform to the Weibull distribution. The methods of breaking inhomogeneous rock by water jet and the threshold pressure of the water jet were deduced using percolation theory. Continuous drilling in the inhomogeneous coal by water jet was numerically simulated by the finite element method and an experiment of breaking coal by water jet was carried out. The study indicated that under the pressure of water jets, the low strength cells in inhomogeneous rock are first destroyed and a crack is created. The effect of a water wedge occurring by the water jet entering the crack space produces a tensile stress concentration at the tip of a crack, so cracks expand rapidly and converge gradually. Eventually the rock is fragmented and a cracked pit forms. The length of a crack in coal caused by a water jet at 60 MPa is over 0.5 m. 8 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Dynamics of Symmetry Breaking and Tachyonic Preheating

    CERN Document Server

    Felder, G; Greene, P B; Kofman, L A; Linde, Andrei D; Tkachev, Igor I; Felder, Gary; Garcia-Bellido, Juan; Greene, Patrick B.; Kofman, Lev; Linde, Andrei; Tkachev, Igor

    2001-01-01

    We reconsider the old problem of the dynamics of spontaneous symmetry breaking using 3d lattice simulations, and develop a theory of tachyonic preheating, which occurs due to the spinodal instability of the scalar field. Tachyonic preheating is so efficient that symmetry breaking typically completes within a single oscillation of the field distribution as it rolls towards the minimum of its effective potential. As an application of this theory we consider preheating in the hybrid inflation scenario, including SUSY-motivated F-term and D-term inflationary models. We show that preheating in hybrid inflation is typically tachyonic and the stage of oscillations of a homogeneous component of the scalar fields driving inflation ends after a single oscillation. Our results may also be relevant for the theory of the formation of disoriented chiral condensates in heavy ion collisions.

  14. Four Generations: SUSY and SUSY Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Godbole, Rohini M; Wingerter, Akin

    2009-01-01

    We revisit four generations within the context of supersymmetry. We compute the perturbativity limits for the fourth generation Yukawa couplings and show that if the masses of the fourth generation lie within reasonable limits of their present experimental lower bounds, it is possible to have perturbativity only up to scales around 1000 TeV. Such low scales are ideally suited to incorporate gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking, where the mediation scale can be as low as 10-20 TeV. The minimal messenger model, however, is highly constrained. While lack of electroweak symmetry breaking rules out a large part of the parameter space, a small region exists, where the fourth generation stau is tachyonic. General gauge mediation with its broader set of boundary conditions is better suited to accommodate the fourth generation.

  15. A Fourth Chiral Generation And Susy Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Wingerter, Akin

    2011-01-01

    We revisit four generations within the context of supersymmetry. We compute the perturbativity limits for the fourth generation Yukawa couplings and show that if the masses of the fourth generation lie within reasonable limits of their present experimental lower bounds, it is possible to have perturbativity only up to scales around 1000 TeV, i.e. the current experimental bounds and perturbative unification are mutually exclusive. Such low scales are ideally suited to incorporate gauge mediated supersymmetry breaking, where the mediation scale can be as low as 10-20 TeV. The minimal messenger model, however, is highly constrained. Lack of electroweak symmetry breaking rules out a large part of the parameter space, and in the remaining part, the fourth generation stau is tachyonic.

  16. Electroweak symmetry breaking: Higgs/whatever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the first of these two lectures the Higgs mechanism is reviewed in its most general form, which does not necessarily require the existence of Higgs bosons. The general consequences of the hypothesis that electroweak symmetry breaking is due to the Higgs mechanism are deduced just from gauge invariance and unitarity. In the second lecture the general properties are illustrated with three specific models: the Weinberg-Salam model, its minimal supersymmetric extension, and technicolor. The second lecture concludes with a discussion of the experiment signals for strong WW scattering, whose presence or absence will allow us to determine whether the symmetry breaking sector lies above or below 1 TeV. 57 refs

  17. Symmetry breaking in non conservative systems

    CERN Document Server

    Martínez-Pérez, N E

    2016-01-01

    We apply Noether's theorem to show how the invariances of conservative systems are broken for nonconservative systems, in the variational formulation of Galley. This formulation considers a conservative action, extended by the inclusion of a time reversed sector and a nonconservative generalized potential. We assume that this potential is invariant under the symmetries of the initial conservative system. The breaking occurs because the time reversed sector requires inverse symmetry transformations, under which the nonconservative potential is not invariant. The resulting violation of the conservation laws is consistent with the equations of motion. We generalize this formulation for fermionic and sypersymmetric systems. In the case of a supersymmetric oscillator, the effect of damping is that the bosonic and fermionic components become different frequencies. Considering that initially the nonconservative action is invariant under supersymmetry, and that the breaking is associated to an instability, this resul...

  18. Cosmology of biased discrete symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gelmini, Graciela B.; Gleiser, Marcelo; Kolb, Edward W.

    1988-01-01

    The cosmological consequences of spontaneous breaking of an approximate discrete symmetry are studied. The breaking leads to formation of proto-domains of false and true vacuum separated by domain walls of thickness determined by the mass scale of the model. The cosmological evolution of the walls is extremely sensitive to the magnitude of the biasing; several scenarios are possible, depending on the interplay between the surface tension on the walls and the volume pressure from the biasing. Walls may disappear almost immediately after they form, or may live long enough to dominate the energy density of the Universe and cause power-law inflation. Limits are obtained on the biasing that characterizes each possible scenario.

  19. Isospin breaking in octet baryon mass splittings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Najjar, J. [Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Pleiter, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Juelich Supercomputer Centre; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Division; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics

    2012-06-15

    Using an SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion in the quark mass, we determine the QCD component of the nucleon, Sigma and Xi mass splittings of the baryon octet due to up-down (and strange) quark mass differences in terms of the kaon mass splitting. Provided the average quark mass is kept constant, the expansion coefficients in our procedure can be determined from computationally cheaper simulations with mass degenerate sea quarks and partially quenched valence quarks. Both the linear and quadratic terms in the SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion are considered; it is found that the quadratic terms only change the result by a few percent, indicating that the expansion is highly convergent.

  20. Isospin breaking in octet baryon mass splittings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using an SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion in the quark mass, we determine the QCD component of the nucleon, Sigma and Xi mass splittings of the baryon octet due to up-down (and strange) quark mass differences in terms of the kaon mass splitting. Provided the average quark mass is kept constant, the expansion coefficients in our procedure can be determined from computationally cheaper simulations with mass degenerate sea quarks and partially quenched valence quarks. Both the linear and quadratic terms in the SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion are considered; it is found that the quadratic terms only change the result by a few percent, indicating that the expansion is highly convergent.

  1. Collective neutrino oscillations and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duan, Huaiyu

    2015-08-01

    Neutrino oscillations in a hot and dense astrophysical environment such as a core-collapse supernova pose a challenging, seven-dimensional flavor transport problem. To make the problem even more difficult (and interesting), neutrinos can experience collective oscillations through nonlinear refraction in the dense neutrino medium in this environment. Significant progress has been made in the last decade towards the understanding of collective neutrino oscillations in various simplified neutrino gas models with imposed symmetries and reduced dimensions. However, a series of recent studies seem to have "reset" this progress by showing that these models may not be compatible with collective neutrino oscillations because the latter can break the symmetries spontaneously if they are not imposed. We review some of the key concepts of collective neutrino oscillations by using a few simple toy models. We also elucidate the breaking of spatial and directional symmetries in these models because of collective oscillations.

  2. Collective neutrino oscillations and spontaneous symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Duan, Huaiyu

    2015-01-01

    Neutrino oscillations in a hot and dense astrophysical environment such as a core-collapse supernova pose a challenging, seven-dimensional flavor transport problem. To make the problem even more difficult (and interesting), neutrinos can experience collective oscillations through nonlinear refraction in the dense neutrino medium in this environment. Significant progress has been made in the last decade towards the understanding of collective neutrino oscillations in various simplified neutrino gas models with imposed symmetries and reduced dimensions. However, a series of recent studies seem to have "reset" this progress by showing that these models may not be compatible with collective neutrino oscillations because the latter can break the symmetries spontaneously if they are not imposed. We review some of the key concepts of collective neutrino oscillations by using a few simple toy models. We also elucidate the breaking of spatial and directional symmetries in these models because of collective oscillation...

  3. Large eddy simulation of breaking waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Deigaard, Rolf

    2001-01-01

    the steepening and the overturning of the wave. At a given instant, the model domain is extended to three dimensions, and the two-dimensional flow field develops spontaneously three-dimensional flow features with turbulent eddies. After a few wave periods, stationary (periodic) conditions are achieved......A numerical model is used to simulate wave breaking, the large scale water motions and turbulence induced by the breaking process. The model consists of a free surface model using the surface markers method combined with a three-dimensional model that solves the flow equations. The turbulence...... is described by large eddy simulation where the larger turbulent features are simulated by solving the flow equations, and the small scale turbulence that is not resolved by the flow model is represented by a sub-grid model. A simple Smagorinsky sub-grid model has been used for the present simulations...

  4. Boost Breaking in the EFT of Inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Delacretaz, Luca V; Senatore, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    If time-translations are spontaneously broken, so are boosts. This symmetry breaking pattern can be non-linearly realized by either just the Goldstone boson of time translations, or by four Goldstone bosons associated with time translations and boosts. In this paper we extend the Effective Field Theory of Multifield Inflation to consider the case in which the additional Goldstone bosons associated with boosts are light and coupled to the Goldstone boson of time translations. The symmetry breaking pattern forces a coupling to curvature so that the mass of the additional Goldstone bosons is predicted to be equal to $\\sqrt{2}H$ in the vast majority of the parameter space where they are light. This pattern therefore offers a natural way of generating self-interacting particles with Hubble mass during inflation. After constructing the general effective Lagrangian, we study how these particles mix and interact with the curvature fluctuations, generating potentially detectable non-Gaussian signals.

  5. Precision Agriculture Equipment Ownership versus Custom Hire: A Break-even Land Area Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Gandonou, Jean-Marc; Dillon, Carl; Shearer, Scott; Stombaugh, Tim

    2006-01-01

    Identifying the least-cost strategy of obtaining a technology is important. This study determined the break-even cropped area necessary to economically justify the purchase of Precision Agriculture (PA) equipment versus the custom hiring of the PA services. The results suggest that a commercial Kentucky grain farmers would purchase the PA equipment.

  6. Coherent States and Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in Light Front Scalar Field Theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vary, J.P.; /Iowa State U. /LLNL, Livermore /SLAC; Chakrabarti, D.; /Florida U.; Harindranath, A.; /Saha Inst.; Lloyd, R.; /Arkansas State U.; Martinovic, L.; /Bratislava,; Spence, J.R.; /Iowa State U.

    2005-12-14

    Recently developed nuclear many-body techniques provide novel results when applied to constituent quark models and to light-front scalar field theory. We show how spontaneous symmetry breaking arises and is consistent with a coherent state ansatz in a variational treatment. The kink and the kink-antikink topological features are identified and the onset of symmetry restoration is demonstrated.

  7. Music and Video Gaming during Breaks

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Shuyan; Schad, Daniel J.; Kuschpel, Maxim S.; Michael A Rapp; Heinz, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Different systems for habitual versus goal-directed control are thought to underlie human decision-making. Working memory is known to shape these decision-making systems and their interplay, and is known to support goal-directed decision making even under stress. Here, we investigated if and how decision systems are differentially influenced by breaks filled with diverse everyday life activities known to modulate working memory performance. We used a within-subject design where young adult...

  8. Wave breaking in tapered holey fibers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuguang Li; Lei Zhang; Bo Fu; Yi Zheng; Ying Han; Xingtao Zhao

    2011-01-01

    We numerically study the propagation of 1-ps laser pulse in three tapered holey fibers (THFs). The curvature indices of the concave, linear, and convex tapers are 2.0, 1.0, and 0.5, respectively. The central wavelength, located in the normal dispersion regime, is 800 nm. The nonlinear coefficient of the THFs increases from the initial 0.095 m-1· W-1 to the final 0.349 m-l·W-1. Wave breaking accompanied by oscillatory structures occurs near pulse edges, and sidelobes appear in the pulse spectrum. With the increase in propagation distance z, the pulse shape becomes broader and the pulse spectrum flattens. A concave THF is advantageous to the generation of wave breaking and enables easier achievement of super fiat spectra at short lengths.%@@ We numerically study the propagation of 1-ps laser pulse in three tapered holey fibers (THFs).The curvature indices of the concave, linear, and convex tapers are 2.0, 1.0, and 0.5, respectively.The central wavelength, located in the normal dispersion regime, is 800 nm.The nonlinear coefficient of the THFs increases from the initial 0.095 m-1.W-1 to the final 0.349 m-1.W-1.Wave breaking accompanied by oscillatory structures occurs near pulse edges, and sidelobes appear in the pulse spectrum.With the increase in propagation distance z, the pulse shape becomes broader and the pulse spectrum flattens.A concave THF is advantageous to the generation of wave breaking and enables easier achievement of super flat spectra at short lengths.

  9. Soft branes in supersymmetry-breaking backgrounds

    OpenAIRE

    McGuirk, Paul; Shiu, Gary; Ye, Fang

    2012-01-01

    We revisit the analysis of effective field theories resulting from non-supersymmetric perturbations to supersymmetric flux compactifications of the type-IIB superstring with an eye towards those resulting from the backreaction of a small number of anti-D3-branes. Independently of the background, we show that the low-energy Lagrangian describing the fluctuations of a stack of probe D3-branes exhibits soft supersymmetry breaking, despite perturbations to marginal operators that were not fully c...

  10. Breaking democracy with non renormalizable mass terms

    CERN Document Server

    Silva-Marcos, Joaquim I

    2001-01-01

    The exact democratic structure for the quark mass matrix, resulting from the action of the family symmetry group $A_{3L}\\times A_{3R}$, is broken by the vacuum expectation values of heavy singlet fields appearing in non renormalizable dimension 6 operators. Within this specific context of breaking of the family symmetry we formulate a very simple ansatz which leads to correct quark masses and mixings.

  11. Flavour Violation in Anomaly Mediated Supersymmetry Breaking

    OpenAIRE

    Allanach, B. C.; Hiller, G; Jones, D. R. T.; Slavich, P.(LPTHE, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, Sorbonne Universités, 4 Place Jussieu, 75252, Paris, France)

    2009-01-01

    32 pages, 8 figures International audience We study squark flavour violation in the anomaly mediated supersymmetry broken (AMSB) minimal supersymmetric standard model. Analytical expressions for the three-generational squark mass matrices are derived. We show that the anomaly-induced soft breaking terms have a decreasing amount of squark flavour violation when running from the GUT to the weak scale. Taking into account inter-generational squark mixing, we work out non-trivial constraint...

  12. Electroweak Symmetry Breaking Beyond the Standard Model

    OpenAIRE

    Bhattacharyya, Gautam

    2012-01-01

    In this talk, I shall address two key issues related to electroweak symmetry breaking. First, how fine-tuned different models are that trigger this phenomenon? Second, even if a light Higgs boson exists, does it have to be necessarily elementary? After a brief introduction, I shall first review the fine-tuning aspects of the MSSM, NMSSM, generalized NMSSM and GMSB scenarios. I shall then compare and contrast the little Higgs, composite Higgs and the Higgsless models. Finally, I shall summariz...

  13. How does DNA break during chromosomal translocations?

    OpenAIRE

    Nambiar, Mridula; Raghavan, Sathees C.

    2011-01-01

    Chromosomal translocations are one of the most common types of genetic rearrangements and are molecular signatures for many types of cancers. They are considered as primary causes for cancers, especially lymphoma and leukemia. Although many translocations have been reported in the last four decades, the mechanism by which chromosomes break during a translocation remains largely unknown. In this review, we summarize recent advances made in understanding the molecular mechanism of chromosomal t...

  14. The Beam Break-Up Numerical Simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beam Break-Up (BBU) is a severe constraint in accelerator design, limiting beam current and quality. The control of BBU has become the focus of much research in the design of the next generation collider, recirculating and linear induction accelerators and advanced accelerators. Determining the effect on BBU of modifications to cavities, the focusing elements or the beam is frequently beyond the ability of current analytic models. A computer code was written to address this problem. The Beam Break-Up Numerical Simulator (BBUNS) was designed to numerically solve for beam break-up (BBU) due to an arbitrary transverse wakefield. BBUNS was developed to be as user friendly as possible on the Cray computer series. The user is able to control all aspects of input and output by using a single command file. In addition, the wakefield is specified by the user and read in as a table. The program can model energy variations along and within the beam, focusing magnetic field profiles can be specified, and the graphical output can be tailored. In this note we discuss BBUNS, its structure and application. Included are detailed instructions, examples and a sample session of BBUNS. This program is available for distribution. 50 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs

  15. Dormancy Breaking in Ormosia arborea Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilma Pereira Gonçalves

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ormosia arborea is a tree species planted in urban areas and used to restore degraded areas. Its seeds are dormant and propagation is difficult. This study compares different dormancy breaking methods and physiological seed quality and seedling production. The seeds were germinated in sand in the laboratory of the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil. The following dormancy breaking treatments were applied: control (intact seeds, 100°C water immersion; boiling water immersion followed by 24 hours of soaking; scarification with number 100 and number 50 sandpaper opposite from root emergence; sulfuric acid immersion for 1 hour, 50, 45, and 30 minutes. Seed immersion in 100°C and boiling water did not break the dormancy. The study species showed a greater vigor of seedling when its seeds were submitted to treatments associated with tegument rupturing by sandpaper or sulfuric acid. On the other hand, seed scarification with sulfuric acid for 1 hour, 50, 45, and 30 minutes or sandpaper favored seed germination and vigor.

  16. The Beam Break-Up Numerical Simulator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Travish, G.A.

    1989-11-01

    Beam Break-Up (BBU) is a severe constraint in accelerator design, limiting beam current and quality. The control of BBU has become the focus of much research in the design of the next generation collider, recirculating and linear induction accelerators and advanced accelerators. Determining the effect on BBU of modifications to cavities, the focusing elements or the beam is frequently beyond the ability of current analytic models. A computer code was written to address this problem. The Beam Break-Up Numerical Simulator (BBUNS) was designed to numerically solve for beam break-up (BBU) due to an arbitrary transverse wakefield. BBUNS was developed to be as user friendly as possible on the Cray computer series. The user is able to control all aspects of input and output by using a single command file. In addition, the wakefield is specified by the user and read in as a table. The program can model energy variations along and within the beam, focusing magnetic field profiles can be specified, and the graphical output can be tailored. In this note we discuss BBUNS, its structure and application. Included are detailed instructions, examples and a sample session of BBUNS. This program is available for distribution. 50 refs., 18 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Kinematic dynamo, supersymmetry breaking, and chaos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ovchinnikov, Igor V.; Enßlin, Torsten A.

    2016-04-01

    The kinematic dynamo (KD) describes the growth of magnetic fields generated by the flow of a conducting medium in the limit of vanishing backaction of the fields onto the flow. The KD is therefore an important model system for understanding astrophysical magnetism. Here, the mathematical correspondence between the KD and a specific stochastic differential equation (SDE) viewed from the perspective of the supersymmetric theory of stochastics (STS) is discussed. The STS is a novel, approximation-free framework to investigate SDEs. The correspondence reported here permits insights from the STS to be applied to the theory of KD and vice versa. It was previously known that the fast KD in the idealistic limit of no magnetic diffusion requires chaotic flows. The KD-STS correspondence shows that this is also true for the diffusive KD. From the STS perspective, the KD possesses a topological supersymmetry, and the dynamo effect can be viewed as its spontaneous breakdown. This supersymmetry breaking can be regarded as the stochastic generalization of the concept of dynamical chaos. As this supersymmetry breaking happens in both the diffusive and the nondiffusive cases, the necessity of the underlying SDE being chaotic is given in either case. The observed exponentially growing and oscillating KD modes prove physically that dynamical spectra of the STS evolution operator that break the topological supersymmetry exist with both real and complex ground state eigenvalues. Finally, we comment on the nonexistence of dynamos for scalar quantities.

  18. CP breaking in $S(3)$ flavoured Higgs model

    CERN Document Server

    Barradas-Guevara, E; Rodríguez-Jáuregui, E

    2015-01-01

    We analyze the Higgs sector of the minimal $S(3)$-invariant extension of the Standard Model including CP violation arising from the spontaneous breaking of the electroweak symmetry. This extended Higgs sector includes three $SU(2)$ doublets Higgs fields with complex vev's provide an interesting scenario to analyze the Higgs masses spectrum, trilinear self-couplings and CP violation. We present how the spontaneous electroweak symmetry breaking coming from three $S(3)$ Higgs fields gives an interesting scenario with nine physical Higgs and three Goldstone bosons when spontaneous CP violation arises from the Higgs field $S(3)$ singlet $H_S$. Furthermore, numerical analysis of the Higgs masses and trilinear self-couplings is presented, particularly we find a physical solution for the scenario in which spontaneous CPB is provided by the single field $H_S$. The scalar Higgs $H_4^0$ is identified whose mass is 125 GeV and $\\lambda_{H_{4}^0 H_{4}^0 H_{4}^0} \\sim \\lambda_{h^0 h^0 h^0}^{SM}$ in good agreement with the ...

  19. Healthy breaks: tasty tips for the under fives

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2014-01-01

    Today the Public Health Agency is launching a new resource pack designed to assist nursery schools and playgroups deliver a healthy breaks scheme.All nursery schools and playgroups in Northern Ireland will receive the pack - 'Healthy breaks for pre-school children' - which includes a poster and information leaflets for parents explaining why a healthy break is so important for pre-school children and some tips and ideas for healthy nutritious breaks.Judith Hanvey, Regional Food in Schools Co-...

  20. Phenomenological approach to symmetry breaking pattern of democratic mass matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Harada, J

    2002-01-01

    We investigate the symmetry breaking pattern of the democratic mass matrix model, which leads to the small flavor mixing in quark sector and bi-large mixing in lepton sector. We present the symmetry breaking matrices in quark sector which are determined by alternative ways instead of conventional ansatz. These matrices might be useful for understanding the origin of democratic symmetry and its breaking.

  1. 24 CFR 982.315 - Family break-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Family break-up. 982.315 Section... SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Leasing a Unit § 982.315 Family break-up... assistance in the program if the family breaks up. The PHA administrative plan must state PHA policies on...

  2. 75 FR 80073 - Reasonable Break Time for Nursing Mothers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-21

    ... Hour Division RIN 1235-ZA00 Reasonable Break Time for Nursing Mothers AGENCY: Wage and Hour Division... Standards Act (FLSA) that requires employers to provide reasonable break time and a place for nursing... considers how best to help employers and employees understand the requirements of the break time for...

  3. An analysis of oil production by OPEC countries. Persistence, breaks, and outliers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barros, Carlos Pestana [Instituto Superior de Economia e Gestao and Research Unit on Complexity and Economics, Technical University of Lisbon, Lisbon (Portugal); Gil-Alana, Luis A. [University of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Payne, James E. [Department of Economics, Illinois State University, Normal, IL 61790-4200 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    This study examines the time series behaviour of oil production for OPEC member countries within a fractional integration modelling framework recognizing the potential for structural breaks and outliers. The analysis is undertaken using monthly data from January 1973 to October 2008 for 13 OPEC member countries. The results indicate there is mean reverting persistence in oil production with breaks identified in 10 out of the 13 countries examined. Thus, shocks affecting the structure of OPEC oil production will have persistent effects in the long run for all countries, and in some cases the effects are expected to be permanent. (author)

  4. Spawning rings of exceptional points out of Dirac cones

    CERN Document Server

    Zhen, Bo; Igarashi, Yuichi; Lu, Ling; Kaminer, Ido; Pick, Adi; Chua, Song-Liang; Joannopoulos, John D; Soljačić, Marin

    2015-01-01

    The Dirac cone underlies many unique electronic properties of graphene and topological insulators, and its band structure--two conical bands touching at a single point--has also been realized for photons in waveguide arrays, atoms in optical lattices, and through accidental degeneracy. Deformations of the Dirac cone often reveal intriguing properties; an example is the quantum Hall effect, where a constant magnetic field breaks the Dirac cone into isolated Landau levels. A seemingly unrelated phenomenon is the exceptional point, also known as the parity-time symmetry breaking point, where two resonances coincide in both their positions and widths. Exceptional points lead to counter-intuitive phenomena such as loss-induced transparency, unidirectional transmission or reflection, and lasers with reversed pump dependence or single-mode operation. These two fields of research are in fact connected: here we discover the ability of a Dirac cone to evolve into a ring of exceptional points, which we call an "exceptio...

  5. Bond breaking in a Morse chain under tension: Fragmentation patterns, higher index saddles, and bond healing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauguière, F. A. L.; Collins, P.; Ezra, G. S.; Wiggins, S.

    2013-04-01

    We investigate the fragmentation dynamics of an atomic chain under tensile stress. We have classified the location, stability type (indices), and energy of all equilibria for the general n-particle chain, and have highlighted the importance of saddle points with index >1. We show that for an n = 2-particle chain under tensile stress the index 2 saddle plays a central role in organizing the dynamics. We apply normal form theory to analyze phase space structure and dynamics in a neighborhood of the index 2 saddle. We define a phase dividing surface (DS) that enables us to classify trajectories passing through a neighborhood of the saddle point using the values of the integrals associated with the normal form. We also generalize our definition of the dividing surface and define an extended dividing surface (EDS), which is used to sample and classify all trajectories that pass through a phase space neighborhood of the index 2 saddle at total energies less than that of the saddle. Classical trajectory simulations are used to study fragmentation patterns for the n = 2 chain under tension. That is, we investigate the relative probability for breaking one bond versus concerted fission of several (two, in this case) bonds. Initial conditions for trajectories are obtained by sampling the EDS at constant energy. We sample trajectories at fixed energies both above and below the energy of the saddle. The fate of trajectories (single versus multiple bond breakage) is explored as a function of the location of the initial condition on the EDS, and a connection made to the work of Chesnavich on collision-induced dissociation. A significant finding is that we can readily identify trajectories that exhibit bond healing. Such trajectories pass outside the nominal (index 1) transition state for single bond dissociation, but return to the potential well region, possibly several times, before ultimately dissociating.

  6. 20. Yüzyılın Son Çeyreğinde Yaşanan Jeopolitik Kırılma Noktası ile Başlayan 21. Yüzyıl, Yeni Tarihin Ne Kadar Başlangıcıdır? 21st Century; Initiated With The Geopolitical Breaking Point Occurred At The Last Quarter Of 20th Century; Beginning Of The New History In What Extent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laziza Nurpeiis

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available With the collapse of the USSR in 1990, many global problemshave arisen. One of the most crucial issues has been the replacement ofthe stability sustained by Cold War that affected the 20th centurydeeply, the bipolar world system, nuclear and ballistic weapons with achaotic environment of asymmetric features. This new stage not onlyaffected the political vital constraints of all societies but also showed theneed of geopolitical theories dealing with problems that can arise.The incapability in dealing with uncertainties of power at all levelscaused a lack of compiling long and mid-term plans.Energy sources of the former Soviet territory, mergedcommunities, social issues, various underground resources, issues ofethnic conflicts and radical terrorist organizations, put the whole worldinto a chaotic environment.Therefore, an important breaking point in 1990 was experiencedby all countries. This is such a point that the near and distant pastaccumulations will remain ineffective and new strategic and geopoliticalapproaches are required. The main problem is revolved around twoquestions. Will the geo-strategic theories of 20th century that are basedon two power poles be available in the new era of asymmetric chaos?Or, are theories, built with the new geostrategic perception needed? 1990 yılında SSCB’nin dağılması ile ortaya birçok küresel sorun çıkmıştır. Bu sorunların en başında da 20’inci yüzyıla damgasını vuran Soğuk Savaş, iki kutuplu dünya düzeni, nükleer ve balistik silahlara dayalı denge ortamının yok olması ve yerine asimetrik özelliklere sahip kaotik bir ortamın çıkması vardır. Yeni başlayan süreç, hem bütün toplumların siyasi/politik yaşamsal desteklerini ve dayanaklarını ortadan kaldıracak şekilde sarsmış, hem de ortaya çıkan problem sahaları ile mücadele edebilecek jeopolitik teorilerin eksikliği hissedilmiştir. Özellikle her seviyedeki gücün yeni başlayan sürecin bilinmezliği ile

  7. Break-through of Mass Integration in Textile Industry through Development of Generic Water Recycle Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wenzel, Henrik

    2003-01-01

    dyehouse, Trevira Neckelmann A/S, has now for two consecutive years successfully implemented direct water recycling saving 40 % water. Mass Integration and water pinch techniques were used to identify the potentials and combined with textile intelligence to achieve the best system design for the reuse......As a result of a long term South African – Danish research co-operation on Cleaner Production in textile industry, a number of generic and widely applicable water recycle schemes for textile wet processing has been developed, and the first break-through of water recycling has been achieved. Textile...... conservatism and consideration for product quality in the industry have till recently prevented water reuse from breaking through in practice. A four year research program on industrial water reuse, however, recently resulted in the first break-through of water reuse in Danish textile industry: one polyester...

  8. The Emergence of Topological Nodal Points in Photonic Crystal with Mirror Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    He, Wen-Yu

    2014-01-01

    We show that topological nodal points can emerge in photonic crystal possessing mirror symmetry. The mechanism of generating topological nodal points is discussed in a two-dimensional photonic square lattice, in which four topological nodal points split out naturally after the touching of two bands with different parity. The emergence of such nodal points, characterized by vortex structure in momentum space, is attributed to the unavoidable band crossing protected by mirror symmetry. The topological nodes can be unbuckled through breaking the mirror symmetry and a photonic Chern insulator can be achieved through time reversal symmetry breaking. The joint effect of breaking time reversal symmetry and breaking inversion symmetry is further found to strengthen the finite size effect, providing ways to engineer helical edge states.

  9. Sparticle spectrum and constraints in anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking models

    CERN Document Server

    Huitu, K; Pandita, P N

    2002-01-01

    We study in detail the particle spectrum in anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking models in which supersymmetry breaking terms are induced by super-Weyl anomaly. We investigate the minimal anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking models, gaugino assisted supersymmetry breaking models, as well as models with additional residual non-decoupling D-term contributions due to an extra U(1) gauge symmetry at high energy scale. We derive sum rules for the sparticle masses in these models which can help in differentiating between them. We also obtain the sparticle spectrum numerically, and compare and contrast the results so obtained for the different types of anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking models.

  10. Single particles accelerate final stages of capillary break up

    CERN Document Server

    Lindner, Anke; Wagner, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Droplet formation of suspensions is present in many industrial and technological processes such as coating and food engineering. Whilst the finite time singularity of the minimum neck diameter in capillary break-up of simple liquids can be described by well known self-similarity solutions, the pinching of non-Brownian suspension depends in a complex way on the particle dynamics in the thinning thread. Here we focus on the very dilute regime where the filament contains only isolated beads to identify the physical mechanisms leading to the pronounced acceleration of the filament thinning observed. This accelerated regime is characterized by an asymmetric shape of the filament with an enhanced curvature that depends on the size and the spatial distribution of the particles within the capillary thread.

  11. Fuel breaks affect nonnative species abundance in Californian plant communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriam, K.E.; Keeley, J.E.; Beyers, J.L.

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the abundance of nonnative plants on fuel breaks and in adjacent untreated areas to determine if fuel treatments promote the invasion of nonnative plant species. Understanding the relationship between fuel treatments and nonnative plants is becoming increasingly important as federal and state agencies are currently implementing large fuel treatment programs throughout the United States to reduce the threat of wildland fire. Our study included 24 fuel breaks located across the State of California. We found that nonnative plant abundance was over 200% higher on fuel breaks than in adjacent wildland areas. Relative nonnative cover was greater on fuel breaks constructed by bulldozers (28%) than on fuel breaks constructed by other methods (7%). Canopy cover, litter cover, and duff depth also were significantly lower on fuel breaks constructed by bulldozers, and these fuel breaks had significantly more exposed bare ground than other types of fuel breaks. There was a significant decline in relative nonnative cover with increasing distance from the fuel break, particularly in areas that had experienced more numerous fires during the past 50 years, and in areas that had been grazed. These data suggest that fuel breaks could provide establishment sites for nonnative plants, and that nonnatives may invade surrounding areas, especially after disturbances such as fire or grazing. Fuel break construction and maintenance methods that leave some overstory canopy and minimize exposure of bare ground may be less likely to promote nonnative plants. ?? 2006 by the Ecological Society of America.

  12. LARGE EDDY SIMLIATION WAVE BREAKING OVER MUDDY SEABED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Yi; NIU Xiao-jing; YU Xi-ping

    2012-01-01

    The Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of the wave breaking over a muddy seabed is carried out with a Coupled Level Set and Volume Of Fluid (CLSVOF) method to capture the interfaces.The effects of the mud on the wave breaking are studied.The existence of a mud layer beneath an otherwise rigid bottom is found to have a similar effect as an increase of the water depth.As compared with the case of a simple rigid bottom,the inception of the wave breaking is evidently delayed and the breaking intensity is mnch reduced.The dissipation of the wave energy is shown to have very different rates before,during and after the breaking.Before and after the breaking,the mud plays an important role.During the breaking,however,the turbulence as well as the entrainment of the air also dissipate a large amount of energy.

  13. On inflation, cosmological constant, and SUSY breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Linde, Andrei

    2016-01-01

    We consider a broad class of inflationary models of two unconstrained chiral superfields, the stabilizer $S$ and the inflaton $\\Phi$, which can describe inflationary models with nearly arbitrary potentials. These models include, in particular, the recently introduced theories of cosmological attractors, which provide an excellent fit to the latest Planck data. We show that by adding to the superpotential of the fields $S$ and $\\Phi$ a small term depending on a nilpotent chiral superfield $P$ one can break SUSY and introduce a small cosmological constant without affecting main predictions of the original inflationary scenario.

  14. SU(3) flavour breaking and baryon structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, A.N.; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Pleiter, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Juelich Supercomputing Centre (JSC); Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Shanahan, P.; Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Stueben, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Regionales Rechenzentrum; Collaboration: QCDSF/UKQCD Collaboration

    2013-11-15

    We present results from the QCDSF/UKQCD collaboration for hyperon electromagnetic form factors and axial charges obtained from simulations using N{sub f}=2+1 flavours of O(a)-improved Wilson fermions. We also consider matrix elements relevant for hyperon semileptonic decays. We find flavour-breaking effects in hyperon magnetic moments which are consistent with experiment, while our results for the connected quark spin content indicates that quarks contribute more to the spin of the {Xi} baryon than they do to the proton.

  15. Breaking of Cooper pairs in 108Pd

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatinejad, A.; Kakavand, T.; Razavi, R.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, breaking of Cooper pairs in 108Pd is investigated within the canonical ensemble framework and the BCS model. Our results show an evidence of two phase transitions, which are related to neutron and proton systems. Also, with consideration of pairing interaction, the role of neutron and proton systems in entropy, spin cutoff parameter and as a result in the moment of inertia are investigated. The results show minor role for the proton system at low temperatures and approximately equal roles for both neutron and proton systems after the critical temperature. Good agreement was observed between obtained results and the experimental data.

  16. NASA Shared Services Center breaks ground

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    NASA officials and elected leaders were on hand for the groundbreaking ceremony of the NASA Shared Services Center Feb. 24, 2006, on the grounds of Stennis Space Center. The NSSC provides agency centralized administrative processing, human resources, procurement and financial services. From left, Louisiana Economic Development Secretary Mike Olivier, Stennis Space Center Director Rick Gilbrech, Computer Sciences Corp. President Michael Laphen, NASA Deputy Administrator Shana Dale, Rep. Gene Taylor, Sen. Trent Lott, Mississippi Gov. Haley Barbour, NASA Administrator Mike Griffin and Shared Services Center Executive Director Arbuthnot use golden shovels to break ground at the site.

  17. De Sitter uplift with Dynamical Susy Breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retolaza, Ander; Uranga, Angel

    2016-04-01

    We propose the use of D-brane realizations of Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking (DSB) gauge sectors as sources of uplift in compactifications with moduli stabilization onto de Sitter vacua. This construction is fairly different from the introduction of anti D-branes, yet allows for tunably small contributions to the vacuum energy via their embedding into warped throats. The idea is explicitly exemplified by the embedding of the 1-family SU(5) DSB model in a local warped throat with fluxes, which we discuss in detail in terms of orientifolds of dimer diagrams.

  18. De Sitter Uplift with Dynamical Susy Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Retolaza, Ander

    2015-01-01

    We propose the use of D-brane realizations of Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking (DSB) gauge sectors as sources of uplift in compactifications with moduli stabilization onto de Sitter vacua. This construction is fairly different from the introduction of anti D-branes, yet allows for tunably small contributions to the vacuum energy via their embedding into warped throats. The idea is explicitly exemplified by the embedding of the 1-family $SU(5)$ DSB model in a local warped throat with fluxes, which we discuss in detail in terms of orientifolds of dimer diagrams.

  19. Percolation picture of nucleus break-up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The production of nuclear fragments in multifragmentation and spallation reactions is viewed as a percolation phenomenon. A model of nuclear percolation is proposed. The criteria for linkage of nucleons to a cluster are defined in real and momentum spaces. In addition, ''compactness'' conditions are imposed to the clusters in both spaces. This model behaves in many respects as a two-dimensional site percolation model, exhibiting a rather well defined percolation threshold at psub(c) approximately 0.6. The concentration p is related to the number of fast particles leaving the nuclear volume. We discuss possible experimental signatures of this new break-up mechanism

  20. Implications of Local Chiral Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    La, H S

    2003-01-01

    The spontaneous symmetry breaking of a local chiral symmetry to its diagonal vector symmetry naturally realizes a complete geometrical structure more general than that of Yang-Mills (YM) theory, rather similar to that of gravity. A good example is the Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) with respect to the Chiral Color model. Also, a new anomaly-free particle content for a Chiral Color model is introduced: the Chiral Color can be realized without introducing whole new generations of quarks and leptons, but by simply enlarging each generation with new exotic fermions.

  1. Electroweak symmetry breaking beyond the Standard Model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Gautam Bhattacharyya

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, two key issues related to electroweak symmetry breaking are addressed. First, how fine-tuned different models are that trigger this phenomenon? Second, even if a light Higgs boson exists, does it have to be necessarily elementary? After a brief introduction, the fine-tuning aspects of the MSSM, NMSSM, generalized NMSSM and GMSB scenarios shall be reviewed, then the little Higgs, composite Higgs and the Higgsless models shall be compared. Finally, a broad overview will be given on where we stand at the end of 2011.

  2. Break WEP Faster with Statistical Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Chaabouni, Rafik

    2006-01-01

    The Wired Equivalent Protocol is nowadays considered as unsafe. However the only academic research that tries to break WEP has been done by Fluhrer, Mantin and Shamir, who have published a report on a specific attack. Nevertheless, an unknown person under the pseudonym Korek has published 17 attacks, which are now used by both AirCrack and WepLab. For a network with average load traffic, the FMS attack would need roughfly 40 days in order to find the key (4 millions packets needed), whereas K...

  3. Extraordinary transmission caused by symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Hu, Dan; Liu, Ming; Zhang, Yan

    2011-01-01

    The terahertz transmission properties of H-shaped annular apertures arrays (AAAs) are investigated experimentally and numerically. It is found the only odd order resonances mode are observed in the symmetrical structures but both odd and even order resonances can be shown in the asymmetrical structures. Breaking the symmetry in H- shaped AAAs by gradual displacing from H-shaped to U-shaped AAAs allows an intensity modulation depth of 99% of the second order resonance. Simulation results verify the experimental conclusion well. This result provides a tremendous opportunities for terahertz wavelength tunable filters, sensing, and near-field imaging.

  4. Rotation Breaking Induced by ELMs on EAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, H.; Xu, G.; Sun, Y.;

    Spontaneous rotation has been observed in LHCD H-mode plasmas with type III ELMs (edge localized modes) on EAST, and it revealed that type III ELMs can induce the loss of both core and edge toroidal rotation. Here we work on the breaking mechanism during the ELMs. Several large tokamaks have...... of magnetic surface, thus generate NTV (neoclassical toroidal viscosity) torque that affects toroidal rotation. We adopt 1cm maximum edge magnetic surface displacement from experimental observation, and our calculation shows that the edge torque is about 0.35 N/m2, and the core very small. The expected...

  5. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in a classical particle

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez, L A; Sanchez, Luis Alberto; Mahecha, Jorge

    2003-01-01

    Due to the fact that only matter fields have phase, frequently is believed that the gauge principle can induce gauge fields only in quantum systems. But this is not necessary. This paper, of pedagogical scope, presents a classical system constituted by a particle in a classical potential, which is used as a model to illustrate the gauge principle and the spontaneous symmetry breaking. Those concepts appear in the study of second order phase transitions. Ferroelectricity, ferromagnetism, superconductivity, plasmons in a free electron gas, and the mass of vector bosons in the gauge field Yang-Mills theories, are some of the phenomena in which these transitions occur.

  6. Cascading Multicriticality in Nonrelativistic Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Griffin, Tom; Horava, Petr; Yan, Ziqi

    2015-01-01

    Without Lorentz invariance, spontaneous global symmetry breaking can lead to multicritical Nambu-Goldstone modes with a higher-order low-energy dispersion $\\omega\\sim k^n$ ($n=2,3,\\ldots$), whose naturalness is protected by polynomial shift symmetries. Here we investigate the role of infrared divergences and the nonrelativistic generalization of the Coleman-Hohenberg-Mermin-Wagner (CHMW) theorem. We find novel cascading phenomena with large hierarchies between the scales at which the value of $n$ changes, leading to an evasion of the "no-go" consequences of the relativistic CHMW theorem.

  7. Breaking Barriers in Polymer Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, Lonnie J [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Post, Brian K [ORNL; Lind, Randall F [ORNL; Lloyd, Peter D [ORNL; Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL; Blue, Craig A [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) enables the creation of complex structures directly from a computer-aided design (CAD). There are limitations that prevent the technology from realizing its full potential. AM has been criticized for being slow and expensive with limited build size. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a large scale AM system that improves upon each of these areas by more than an order of magnitude. The Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system directly converts low cost pellets into a large, three-dimensional part at a rate exceeding 25 kg/h. By breaking these traditional barriers, it is possible for polymer AM to penetrate new manufacturing markets.

  8. New Mechanisms For Transmission Of Supersymmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, S P

    2004-01-01

    We considered new mechanisms for transmission of supersymmetry breaking and their phenomenological consequences. Specifically, we investigated the scalar mass corrections via five-dimensional supergravity loops and explored the possibility that supersymmetry is an accidental symmetry of Nature. We find that both these lead to phenomenologically viable scenarios. In the former, the negative slepton mass-squared masses arising from minimal anomaly mediation is cured. In the latter, which constitutes a paradigm shift, we find a more natural framework for low-energy supersymmetry than the conventional picture.

  9. Climate: toward the breaking point? New scientific data on climate crisis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This publication first outlines the scientific consensus on climate change and briefly presents the main predictions published in the fourth IPCC assessment report. A table indicates impacts of average temperature increase from 0 to 5 degrees on water, on ecosystems, on food production, on coastal areas, on health and on the occurrence of some peculiar phenomena. By discussing data related to the evolution of polar ice coverage, and by quoting some press articles, it notices that impacts are occurring earlier and at lower temperatures than foreseen, and outlines the increasing concern related to temperature increase. Based on measurements and IPCC predictions, it shows that greenhouse gas emissions are increasing rapidly, and that atmospheric concentrations exceed the forecasts. It indicates the components of the climate system which may together result in reaching a critical warming level (ocean and ground carbon sink are becoming carbon sources, methane will be released by the permafrost, methane hydrates are becoming carbon sources, ocean acidification). This synthesis finally discusses a possible capping of temperature increase and possible outcomes

  10. The gravity dual to a quantum critical point with spontaneous symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Gubser, Steven S

    2008-01-01

    We consider zero temperature solutions to the Abelian Higgs model coupled to gravity with a negative cosmological constant. With appropriate choices of parameters, the geometry contains two copies of anti-de Sitter space, one describing conformal invariance in the ultraviolet, and one in the infrared. The effective speed of signal propagation is smaller in the infrared. Green's functions and associated transport coefficients can have unusual power law scaling in the infrared. We provide an example in which the real part of the conductivity scales approximately as omega^3.5 for small omega.

  11. ArtBreak Group Counseling for Children: Framework, Practice Points, and Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziff, Katherine; Ivers, Nathaniel N.; Shaw, Edward G.

    2016-01-01

    Child social/emotional development and mitigation of child stress are receiving continued emphasis in the literature. While choice-based group art studios have a long association with mental health, documentation on their potential for supporting children is limited. This article describes an elementary school counseling intervention designed to…

  12. Nearly finished LHC particle smasher breaks at support point to magnets

    CERN Multimedia

    Atkins, William

    2007-01-01

    "The proton-proton Large Hadron Collider (LHC) particle accelerator is being built at Geneva, Switzerland's CERN - the world's largest particle physics laboratory. However, a support assembly structure for critical magnets failed while being tested on March 27, 2007." (1/2 page)

  13. Characteristic slepton signal in anomaly mediated SUSY breaking models via gauge boson fusion at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Datta, A; Datta, Anindya; Huitu, Katri

    2003-01-01

    We point out that slepton pairs produced via gauge boson fusion in anomaly mediated supersymmetry breaking (AMSB) model have very characteristic and almost clean signal at the Large Hadron Collider. In this letter, we discuss how one lepton associated with missing energy and produced in between two high-$p_T$ and high-mass forward jets can explore quite heavy sleptons in this scenario.

  14. Inversion-symmetry-breaking-activated shear Raman bands in $T'$-MoTe$_2$

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Shao-Yu; Goldstein, Thomas; Ramasubramaniam, Ashwin; Yan, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Type-II Weyl fermion nodes, located at the touching points between electron and hole pockets, have been recently predicted to occur in distorted octahedral ($T'$) transition metal dichalcogenide semimetals, contingent upon the condition that the layered crystal has the noncentrosymmetric orthorhombic ($T'_{or}$) stacking. Here, we report on the emergence of two shear Raman bands activated by inversion symmetry breaking in $T'$-MoTe$_2$ due to sample cooling. Polarization and crystal orientati...

  15. Double-Ended Break Test of an 8.5 inch Direct Vessel Injection Line using the ATLAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A thermal-hydraulic integral effect test facility, ATLAS (Advanced Thermal-hydraulic Test Loop for Accident Simulation), has been constructed at the Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI). It is a 1/2 reduced height and 1/288-volume scaled test facility with respect to the APR1400, an evolutionary pressurized water reactor developed by the Korean industry. In 2008, an integral effect test for simulating a guillotine break of a DVI line of the APR1400 was carried out as the first DVI test item, named as SB-DVI-03, on May, 2008. With an improvement on the break flow measuring system, the second DVI test for a guillotine break of a DVI line of the APR1400, named as SB-DVI-08, was conducted for repeatability. The present data is the first integral effect test data of its kind for simulating a DVI line break accident. It will help in understanding the thermal hydraulic phenomena occurring during the DVI line break accident. A post-test calculation was performed with a best-estimate safety analysis code MARS 3.1 to examine its prediction capability and to identify any code deficiencies for the thermal hydraulic phenomena occurring during the DVI line break accidents. The present integral effect test data will be used to validate the current safety analysis methodology for the DVI line break accident

  16. Spontaneous spherical symmetry breaking in atomic confinement

    CERN Document Server

    Sveshnikov, K

    2016-01-01

    The effect of spontaneous breaking of initial SO(3) symmetry is shown to be possible for an H-like atom in the ground state, when it is confined in a spherical box under general boundary conditions of "not going out" through the box surface (i.e. third kind or Robin's ones), for a wide range of physically reasonable values of system parameters. The reason is that such boundary conditions could yield a large magnitude of electronic wavefunction in some sector of the box boundary, what in turn promotes atomic displacement from the box center towards this part of the boundary, and so the underlying SO(3) symmetry spontaneously breaks. The emerging Goldstone modes, coinciding with rotations around the box center, restore the symmetry by spreading the atom over a spherical shell localized at some distances from the box center. Atomic confinement inside the cavity proceeds dynamically -- due to the boundary condition the deformation of electronic wavefunction near the boundary works as a spring, that returns the at...

  17. Hyperscaling violation and electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elander, Daniel, E-mail: pelander@purdue.edu [Department of Physics, Purdue University, 525 Northwestern Avenue, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2036 (United States); Lawrance, Robert; Piai, Maurizio [Department of Physics, College of Science, Swansea University, Singleton Park, Swansea, Wales (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-15

    We consider a class of simplified models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking built in terms of their five-dimensional weakly-coupled gravity duals, in the spirit of bottom-up holography. The sigma-model consists of two abelian gauge bosons and one real, non-charged scalar field coupled to gravity in five dimensions. The scalar potential is a simple exponential function of the scalar field. The background metric resulting from solving the classical equations of motion exhibits hyperscaling violation, at least at asymptotically large values of the radial direction. We study the spectrum of scalar composite states of the putative dual field theory by fluctuating the sigma-model scalars and gravity, and discuss in which cases we find a parametrically light scalar state in the spectrum. We model the spontaneous breaking of the (weakly coupled) gauge symmetry to the diagonal subgroup by the choice of IR boundary conditions. We compute the mass spectrum of spin-1 states, and the precision electroweak parameter S as a function of the hyperscaling coefficient. We find a general bound on the mass of the lightest spin-1 resonance, by requiring that the indirect bounds on the precision parameters be satisfied, that implies that precision electroweak physics excludes the possibility of a techni-rho meson with mass lighter than several TeV.

  18. Hyperscaling violation and electroweak symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We consider a class of simplified models of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking built in terms of their five-dimensional weakly-coupled gravity duals, in the spirit of bottom-up holography. The sigma-model consists of two abelian gauge bosons and one real, non-charged scalar field coupled to gravity in five dimensions. The scalar potential is a simple exponential function of the scalar field. The background metric resulting from solving the classical equations of motion exhibits hyperscaling violation, at least at asymptotically large values of the radial direction. We study the spectrum of scalar composite states of the putative dual field theory by fluctuating the sigma-model scalars and gravity, and discuss in which cases we find a parametrically light scalar state in the spectrum. We model the spontaneous breaking of the (weakly coupled) gauge symmetry to the diagonal subgroup by the choice of IR boundary conditions. We compute the mass spectrum of spin-1 states, and the precision electroweak parameter S as a function of the hyperscaling coefficient. We find a general bound on the mass of the lightest spin-1 resonance, by requiring that the indirect bounds on the precision parameters be satisfied, that implies that precision electroweak physics excludes the possibility of a techni-rho meson with mass lighter than several TeV

  19. On chiral symmetry breaking, topology and confinement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shuryak, Edward

    2014-08-15

    We start with the relation between the chiral symmetry breaking and gauge field topology. New lattice results further enhance the notion of Zero Mode Zone, a very narrow strip of states with quasizero Dirac eigenvalues. Then we move to the issue of “origin of mass” and Brown–Rho scaling: a number of empirical facts contradicts to the idea that masses of quarks and such hadrons as ρ,N decrease near T{sub c}. We argue that while at T=0 the main contribution to the effective quark mass is chirally odd m{sub χ/}, near T{sub c} it rotates to chirally-even component m{sub χ}, because “infinite clusters” of topological solitons gets split into finite ones. Recent progress in understanding of topology require introduction of nonzero holonomy 〈A{sub 0}〉≠0, which splits instantons into N{sub c} (anti)selfdual “instanton–dyons”. Qualitative progress, as well as first numerical studies of the dyon ensemble are reported. New connections between chiral symmetry breaking and confinement are recently understood, since instanton–dyons generate holonomy potential with a minimum at confining value, if the ensemble is dense enough.

  20. Chip breaking system for automated machine tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arehart, Theodore A.; Carey, Donald O.

    1987-01-01

    The invention is a rotary selectively directional valve assembly for use in an automated turret lathe for directing a stream of high pressure liquid machining coolant to the interface of a machine tool and workpiece for breaking up ribbon-shaped chips during the formation thereof so as to inhibit scratching or other marring of the machined surfaces by these ribbon-shaped chips. The valve assembly is provided by a manifold arrangement having a plurality of circumferentially spaced apart ports each coupled to a machine tool. The manifold is rotatable with the turret when the turret is positioned for alignment of a machine tool in a machining relationship with the workpiece. The manifold is connected to a non-rotational header having a single passageway therethrough which conveys the high pressure coolant to only the port in the manifold which is in registry with the tool disposed in a working relationship with the workpiece. To position the machine tools the turret is rotated and one of the tools is placed in a material-removing relationship of the workpiece. The passageway in the header and one of the ports in the manifold arrangement are then automatically aligned to supply the machining coolant to the machine tool workpiece interface for breaking up of the chips as well as cooling the tool and workpiece during the machining operation.

  1. Retinal breaks due to intravitreal ocriplasmin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva RA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ruwan A Silva, Darius M Moshfeghi, Theodore Leng Byers Eye Institute at Stanford, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA, USA Abstract: Ocriplasmin represents a new treatment option for numerous vitreoretinopathies involving an abnormal vitreomacular interface. While the drug may circumvent the traditional risks of surgical treatment, pharmacologic vitreolysis is not devoid of risk itself. This report presents two cases, one of vitreomacular traction syndrome and the other of a full-thickness macular hole, both of which were treated with an intravitreal injection of ocriplasmin. Notably, in both cases, vitreomacular traction of the macula appears to have been alleviated; however, failure to completely relieve vitreoretinal traction from the peripheral retina generated retinal breaks with one patient eventually developing a macula-involving retinal detachment. Thus, even in instances of ‘successful’ pharmacologic treatment of vitreomacular traction, continued follow-up evaluation is essential. Keywords: posterior vitreous detachment, retinal detachment, vitreomacular traction, ocriplasmin, retinal break, macular hole, laser retinopexy

  2. Spitzer View of Lyman Break Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Magdis, Georgios E

    2007-01-01

    Using a combination of deep MID-IR observations obtained by IRAC, MIPS and IRS on board Spitzer we investigate the MID-IR properties of Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) at z~3, establish a better understanding of their nature and attempt a complete characterisation of the population. With deep mid-infrared and optical observations of ~1000 LBGs covered by IRAC/MIPS and from the ground respectively, we extend the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of the LBGs to mid-infrared. Spitzer data reveal for the first time that the mid-infrared properties of the population are inhomogeneous ranging from those with marginal IRAC detections to those with bright rest-frame near-infrared colors and those detected at 24mu MIPS band revealing the newly discovered population of the Infrared Luminous Lyman Break Galaxies (ILLBGs). To investigate this diversity, we examine the photometric properties of the population and we use stellar population synthesis models to probe the stellar content of these galaxies. We find that a fract...

  3. Cosmological constant in SUGRA models and the multiple point principle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tiny order of magnitude of the cosmological constant is sought to be explained in a model involving the following ingredients: supersymmetry breaking in N=1 supergravity and the multiple point principle. We demonstrate the viability of this scenario in the minimal SUGRA model. (author)

  4. Examining the Knowledge and Capacity of Elementary Teachers to Implement Classroom Physical Activity Breaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danae M. DINKEL

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined teachers’ zone of proximal development for classroom physical activity breaks by assessing teachers’ knowledge and capacity for implementing classroom physical activity breaks. Five school districts of various sizes (n=346 teachers took part in a short online survey. Descriptive statistics were calculated and chi-square analyses were used to identify differences between districts. Almost all teachers utilized classroom physical activity to some extent. A third of teachers who stated they implemented classroom physical activity, experienced barriers to implementation. A majority of teachers were interested in learning more about classroom physical activity. There were significant differences between districts on the number of days per week classroom physical activity was integrated, the frequency of collaboration that occurred between teachers, the percentage of teachers who experienced barriers, and preferred delivery method of professional development. These findings support the importance of identifying teachers’ zone of proximal development to increase the use of classroom physical activity breaks. Understanding teachers’ knowledge and capacity for implementing classroom physical activity breaks can allow educational professionals to shift the implementation of classroom physical activity beyond sporadic use by isolated teachers and schools to a more systematic and consistent delivery across classrooms and throughout districts.

  5. Method for detecting DNA strand breaks in mammalian cells using the Deinococcus radiodurans PprA protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a previous study, we identified the novel protein PprA that plays a critical role in the radiation resistance of Deinococcus radiodurans. In this study, we focussed on the ability of PprA protein to recognize and bind to double-stranded DNA carrying strand breaks, and attempted to visualize radiation-induced DNA strand breaks in mammalian cultured cells by employing PprA protein using an immunofluorescence technique. Increased PprA protein binding to CHO-K1 nuclei immediately following irradiation suggests the protein is binding to DNA strand breaks. By altering the cell permeabilization conditions, PprA protein binding to CHO-K1 mitochondria, which is probably resulted from DNA strand break immediately following irradiation, was also detected. The method developed and detailed in this study will be useful in evaluating DNA damage responses in cultured cells, and could also be applicable to genotoxic tests in the environmental and pharmaceutical fields

  6. Probabilistic Models for the Probability of Wave Breaking and Whitecap Coverage Based on Kinematic Breaking Criterion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑桂珍; 徐德伦

    2004-01-01

    More and more researches show that neither the critical downward acceleration nor the critical slope of water waves is a universal constant. On the contrary, they vary with particular wave conditions. This fact renders the models either for the probability of wave breaking B or for the whitecap coverage W based on these criteria difficult to apply. In this paper and the one which follows we seek to develop models for the prediction of both B and W based on the kinematical criterion. First, several joint probabilistic distribution functions (PDFs) of wave characteristics are derived, based on which the breaking properties B and W are estimated. The estimation is made on the assumption that a wave breaks if the horizontal velocity of water particles at its crest exceeds the local wave celerity, and whitecapping occurs in regions of fluid where water particles travel faster than the waves. The consequent B and W depend on wave spectral moments of orders 0 to 4.Then the JONSWAP spectrum is used to represent the fetch-limited sea waves in deep water, so as to relate the probability of wave breaking and the whitecap coverage with wind parameters. To this end, the time-averaging technique proposed by Glazman (1986) is applied to the estimation of the spectral moments involved, and furthermore, the theoretical models are compared with available observations collected from published literature. From the comparison, the averaging time scale is determined. The final models show that the probability of wave breaking as well as the whitecap coverage depends on the dimensionless fetch. The agreement between these models and the database is reasonable.

  7. Inflation and reheating in theories with spontaneous scale invariance symmetry breaking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Vanzo, Luciano

    2016-07-01

    We study a scale-invariant model of quadratic gravity with a nonminimally coupled scalar field. We focus on cosmological solutions and find that scale invariance is spontaneously broken and a mass scale naturally emerges. Before the symmetry breaking, the Universe undergoes an inflationary expansion with nearly the same observational predictions of Starobinsky's model. At the end of inflation, the Hubble parameter and the scalar field converge to a stable fixed point through damped oscillations and the usual Einstein-Hilbert action is recovered. The oscillations around the fixed point can reheat the Universe in various ways, and we study in detail some of these possibilities.

  8. Measurement of Wave Chaotic Eigenfunctions in the Time-Reversal Symmetry-Breaking Crossover Regime

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, S H; Wu, D H; Bridgewater, A; Anlage, S M; Chung, Seok-Hwan; Gokirmak, Ali; Wu, Dong-Ho; Anlage, Steven M.

    1999-01-01

    We present experimental results on eigenfunctions of a wave chaotic system in the continuous crossover regime between time-reversal symmetric and time-reversal symmetry-broken states. The statistical properties of the eigenfunctions of a two-dimensional microwave resonator are analyzed as a function of an experimentally determined time-reversal symmetry breaking parameter. We test four theories of eigenfunction statistics in the crossover regime. We also find a universal correlation between the one-point and two-point statistical parameters for the crossover eigenfunctions.

  9. Cloud properties during active and break spells of the West African summer monsoon from CloudSat-CALIPSO measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efon, E.; Lenouo, A.; Monkam, D.; Manatsa, D.

    2016-07-01

    High resolution of daily rainfall dataset from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) was used to identify active and break cloud formation periods. The clouds were characterized based on CloudSat-CALIPSO satellite images over West Africa during the summer monsoon during the period 2006-2010. The active and break periods are defined as the periods during the peak monsoon months of June to August when the normalized anomaly of rainfall over the monsoon core zone is greater than 0.9 or less than -0.9 respectively, provided the criteria is satisfied for at least three consecutive days. It is found that about 90% of the break period and 66.7% of the active spells lasted 3-4 days. Active spells lasting duration of about a week were observed while no break spell had such a long span. Cloud macrophysical (cloud base height (CBH), cloud top height (CTH) and cloud geometric depth (∆H), microphysical (cloud liquid water content, (LWC), liquid number concentration (LNC), liquid effective radius, ice water content (IWC), ice number concentration (INC) and ice effective radius) and radiative (heating rate properties) over South Central West Africa (5-15°N; 15°W-10°E) during the active and break spells were also analyzed. High-level clouds are more predominant during the break periods compared to the active periods. Active spells have lower INC compared to the break spells. Liquid water clouds are observed to have more radiative forcing during the active than break periods while ice phase clouds bring more cooling effect during the break spells compared to the active spells.

  10. Behavioural breaks in the heterogeneous agent model: The impact of herding, overconfidence, and market sentiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kukacka, Jiri; Barunik, Jozef

    2013-12-01

    The main aim of this work is to incorporate selected findings from behavioural finance into a Heterogeneous Agent Model using the Brock and Hommes (1998) [34] framework. Behavioural patterns are injected into an asset pricing framework through the so-called ‘Break Point Date’, which allows us to examine their direct impact. In particular, we analyse the dynamics of the model around the behavioural break. Price behaviour of 30 Dow Jones Industrial Average constituents covering five particularly turbulent US stock market periods reveals interesting patterns in this aspect. To replicate it, we apply numerical analysis using the Heterogeneous Agent Model extended with the selected findings from behavioural finance: herding, overconfidence, and market sentiment. We show that these behavioural breaks can be well modelled via the Heterogeneous Agent Model framework and they extend the original model considerably. Various modifications lead to significantly different results and model with behavioural breaks is also able to partially replicate price behaviour found in the data during turbulent stock market periods.

  11. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF DAM-BREAK FLOW IN CASCADE RESERVOIRS WITH STEEP BOTTOM SLOPE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Yang; XU Wei-lin; LUO Shu-jing; CHEN Hua-yong; LI Nai-wen; XU Ling-jun

    2011-01-01

    Dam break can cause a significant disaster in the downstream,especially,in a valley with cascade reservoirs,which would aggravate the disaster extent.The experimental studies of the dam-break flow of cascade reservoirs are few and far between at the present.Most of related studies concern the failure of a single dam..This article presents an experimental study of the characteristics of an instantly filled dam-break flow of cascade reservoirs in a rectangular glass flume with a steep bottom slope.A new method was used to simulate the sudden collapse of the dam.A series of sensors for automatic water-levels were deployed to record the rapid water depth fluctuation.The experimental results show that,the ratio of the initial water depth of the downstream reservoir to that of the upstream reservoir would greatly affect the flood peak water depth in the downstream reservoir area and in the stream channel behind the downstream dam,while the influence of the dam spacing is insignificant.In addition,the comparison between the single reservoir and the cascade reservoirs shows some difference in the dam-break flow pattern and the stage hydrograph at the corresponding gauging points.

  12. Confinement/deconfinement transition from symmetry breaking in gauge/gravity duality

    CERN Document Server

    Čubrović, Mihailo

    2016-01-01

    We study the confinement/deconfinement transition in a strongly coupled system triggered by an independent symmetry-breaking quantum phase transition in gauge/gravity duality. The gravity dual is an Einstein-scalar-dilaton system with AdS near-boundary behavior and soft wall interior at zero scalar condensate. We study the cases of neutral and charged condensate separately. In the former case the condensation breaks the discrete $\\mathbb{Z}_2$ symmetry while a charged condensate breaks the continuous $U(1)$ symmetry. After the condensation of the order parameter, the non-zero vacuum expectation value of the scalar couples to the dilaton, changing the soft wall geometry into a non-confining and anisotropically scale-invariant infrared metric. In other words, the formation of long-range order is immediately followed by the deconfinement transition and the two critical points coincide. The confined phase has a scale -- the confinement scale (energy gap) which vanishes in the deconfined case. Therefore, the break...

  13. Symmetry breaking of particle trajectories due to magnetic interactions in a dilute suspension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunha, F.R., E-mail: frcunha@unb.br [Vortex Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics of Complex Flows and Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Faculdade de Tecnologia, Universidade de Brasilia, Campus Universitario Darcy Ribeiro, 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Gontijo, R.G., E-mail: rafaelgabler@gmail.com [Vortex Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics of Complex Flows and Departamento de Engenharia Mecanica, Faculdade de Tecnologia, Universidade de Brasilia, Campus Universitario Darcy Ribeiro, 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil); Sobral, Y.D., E-mail: ydsobral@unb.br [Vortex Laboratory of Fluid Mechanics of Complex Flows and Departamento de Matematica, Instituto de Ciencias Exatas, Universidade de Brasilia, Campus Universitario Darcy Ribeiro, 70910-900 Brasilia, DF (Brazil)

    2013-01-15

    This work presents a numerical study of the relative trajectories of two magnetic particles interacting in a dilute suspension. The suspension is composed of magnetic spherical particles of different radius and density immersed in a Newtonian fluid. The particles settle relative to one another under the action of gravity and, when in close proximity, exert on each other magnetic force and torque due to their permanent magnetization. The equations of motion for both translation and rotation of the particles are solved and particle inertia is included in the calculation. The numerical simulations are based on the direct computations of the hydrodynamic and of the magnetic interactions between the rigid particles in the regime of non-zero Stokes number. A detailed study of the relative trajectories of two magnetic particles in a dilute suspension allows us to explore irreversible interactions that lead to particle aggregation and particle migration induced by the breaking of the time reversibility of the creeping flow due to magnetic effects. The calculation shows that the rotation of the particles produced by magnetic interactions change significantly the dynamics of collisions of magnetic particle. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Relative trajectories of magnetic particles. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic interactions of particles under a gravity field. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Magnetic interactions break relative trajectories reversibility. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Particle Rotation decrease the rate of aggregation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dispersion in a magnetic suspension due to magnetic interactions.

  14. Sulforaphane induces DNA single strand breaks in cultured human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sestili, Piero, E-mail: piero.sestili@uniurb.it [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomolecolari, Via Maggetti, 21, Universita degli Studi di Urbino ' Carlo Bo' , 61029 Urbino, PU (Italy); Paolillo, Marco [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomolecolari, Via Maggetti, 21, Universita degli Studi di Urbino ' Carlo Bo' , 61029 Urbino, PU (Italy); Lenzi, Monia [Dipartimento di Farmacologia, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, Via Irnerio 48, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Colombo, Evelin; Vallorani, Luciana; Casadei, Lucia; Martinelli, Chiara [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomolecolari, Via Maggetti, 21, Universita degli Studi di Urbino ' Carlo Bo' , 61029 Urbino, PU (Italy); Fimognari, Carmela [Dipartimento di Farmacologia, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, Via Irnerio 48, 40126 Bologna (Italy)

    2010-07-07

    Sulforaphane (SFR), an isothiocyanate from cruciferous vegetables, possesses growth-inhibiting and apoptosis-inducing activities in cancer cell lines. Recently, SFR has been shown to promote the mitochondrial formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human cancer cell lines. The present study was undertaken to see whether SFR-derived ROS might cause DNA damage in cultured human cells, namely T limphoblastoid Jurkat and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). 1-3 h treatments with 10-30 {mu}M SFR elicited intracellular ROS formation (as assayed with dihydrorhodamine, DHR, oxidation) as well as DNA breakage (as assessed with fast halo assay, FHA). These effects lacked cell-type specificity, since could be observed in both Jurkat and HUVEC. Differential-pH FHA analysis of damaged DNA showed that SFR causes frank DNA single strand breaks (SSBs); no DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) were found within the considered treatment times (up to 3 h). SFR-derived ROS were formed at the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) level: indeed rotenone or myxothiazol (MRC Complex I and III inhibitors, respectively) abrogated ROS formation. Furthermore ROS were not formed in Jurkat cells pharmacologically depleted of respiring mitochondria (MRC-/Jurkat). Formation of ROS was causally linked to the induction of SSBs: indeed all the experimental conditions capable of preventing ROS formation also prevented the damage of nuclear DNA from SFR-intoxicated cells. As to the toxicological relevance of SSBs, we found that their prevention slightly but significantly attenuated SFR cytotoxicity, suggesting that high-dose SFR toxicity is the result of a complex series of events among which GSH depletion seems to play a pivotal role. In conclusion, the present study identifies a novel mechanism contributing to SFR toxicity which - since DNA damage is a prominent mechanism underlying the cytotoxic activity of established antineoplastic agents - might help to exploit the therapeutic value

  15. Statistical model on the surface elevation of waves with breaking

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    In the surface wind drift layer with constant momentum flux, two sets of the consistent surface eleva- tion expressions with breaking and occurrence conditions for breaking are deduced from the first in- tegrals of the energy and vortex variations and the kinetic and mathematic breaking criterions, then the expression of the surface elevation with wave breaking is established by using the Heaviside function. On the basis of the form of the sea surface elevation with wave breaking and the understanding of small slope sea waves, a triple composite function of real sea waves is presented including the func- tions for the breaking, weak-nonlinear and basic waves. The expression of the triple composite func- tion and the normal distribution of basic waves are the expected theoretical model for surface elevation statistics.

  16. Symmetry Breaking in MILP Formulations for Unit Commitment Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, Ricardo M.

    2015-12-11

    This paper addresses the study of symmetry in Unit Commitment (UC) problems solved by Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) formulations, and using Linear Programming based Branch & Bound MILP solvers. We propose three sets of symmetry breaking constraints for UC MILP formulations exhibiting symmetry, and its impact on three UC MILP models are studied. The case studies involve the solution of 24 instances by three widely used models in the literature, with and without symmetry breaking constraints. The results show that problems that could not be solved to optimality within hours can be solved with a relatively small computational burden if the symmetry breaking constraints are assumed. The proposed symmetry breaking constraints are also compared with the symmetry breaking methods included in two MILP solvers, and the symmetry breaking constraints derived in this work have a distinct advantage over the methods in the MILP solvers.

  17. Magnetic rotation and chiral symmetry breaking

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ashok Kumar Jain; Amita

    2001-08-01

    The deformed mean field of nuclei exhibits various geometrical and dynamical symmetries which manifest themselves as various types of rotational and decay patterns. Most of the symmetry operations considered so far have been defined for a situation wherein the angular momentum coincides with one of the principal axes and the principal axis cranking may be invoked. New possibilities arise with the observation of rotational features in weakly deformed nuclei and now interpreted as magnetic rotational bands. More than 120 MR bands have now been identified by filtering the existing data. We present a brief overview of these bands. The total angular momentum vector in such bands is tilted away from the principal axes. Such a situation gives rise to several new possibilities including breaking of chiral symmetry as discussed recently by Frauendorf. We present the outcome of such symmetries and their possible experimental verification. Some possible examples of chiral bands are presented.

  18. Symmetry breaking: The standard model and superstrings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, M.K.

    1988-08-31

    The outstanding unresolved issue of the highly successful standard model is the origin of electroweak symmetry breaking and of the mechanism that determines its scale, namely the vacuum expectation value (vev)v that is fixed by experiment at the value v = 4m//sub w//sup 2///g/sup 2/ = (..sqrt..2G/sub F/)/sup /minus/1/ approx. = 1/4 TeV. In this talk I will discuss aspects of two approaches to this problem. One approach is straightforward and down to earth: the search for experimental signatures, as discussed previously by Pierre Darriulat. This approach covers the energy scales accessible to future and present laboratory experiments: roughly (10/sup /minus/9/ /minus/ 10/sup 3/)GeV. The second approach involves theoretical speculations, such as technicolor and supersymmetry, that attempt to explain the TeV scale. 23 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Gravitino condensation, supersymmetry breaking and inflation

    CERN Document Server

    Houston, N

    2015-01-01

    Motivated by dualistic considerations of the reality of quark condensation in quantum chromodynamics, and the connections of supergravity to the exotic physics of string and M-theory, in this thesis we investigate the dynamical breaking of local supersymmetry via gravitino condensation. We firstly demonstrate non-perturbative gravitino mass generation via this mechanism in flat spacetime, and from this derive the condensate mode wavefunction renormalisation. By then calculating the full canonically normalised one-loop effective potential for the condensate mode about a de Sitter background, we demonstrate that, contrary to claims in the literature, this process may both occur and function in a phenomenologically viable manner. In particular, we find that outside of certain unfortunate gauge choices, the stability of the condensate is intimately tied via gravitational degrees of freedom to the sign of the tree-level cosmological constant. Furthermore, we find that the energy density liberated may provide the n...

  20. Thick brane solitons breaking $Z_2$ symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Peyravi, Marzieh; Lobo, Francisco S N

    2015-01-01

    New soliton solutions for thick branes in 4 + 1 dimensions are considered in this article. In particular, brane models based on the sine-Gordon (SG), $\\varphi^{4}$ and $\\varphi^{6}$ scalar fields are investigated; in some cases $Z_{2}$ symmetry is broken. Besides, these soliton solutions are responsible for supporting and stabilizing the thick branes. In these models, the origin of the symmetry breaking resides in the fact that the modified scalar field potential may have non-degenerate vacuua and these non-degenerate vacuua determine the cosmological constant on both sides of the brane. At last, in order to explore the particle motion in the neighborhood of the brane, the geodesic equations along the fifth dimension are studied.

  1. Supersymmetry Breaking, Gauge Mediation, and the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, David [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)

    2015-04-14

    Gauge mediated SUSY breaking (GMSB) is a promising class of supersymmetric models that automatically satisfies the precision constraints. Prior work of Meade, Seiberg and Shih in 2008 established the full, model-independent parameter space of GMSB, which they called "General Gauge Mediation" (GGM). During the first half of 2010-2015, Shih and his collaborators thoroughly explored the parameter space of GGM and established many well-motivated benchmark models for use by the experimentalists at the LHC. Through their work, the current constraints on GGM from LEP, the Tevatron and the LHC were fully elucidated, together with the possible collider signatures of GMSB at the LHC. This ensured that the full discovery potential for GGM could be completely realized at the LHC.

  2. Medium effect on charge symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examine the nuclear medium effect on charge symmetry breaking (CSB) caused by isospin mixing of two neutral vector mesons interacting with nucleons in the nuclear medium. Isospin mixing is assumed to occur through the transition between isoscalar and isovector mesons. We use a quantum hadrodynamic nuclear model in the mean-field approximation for the meson fields involved. We find that (i) charge symmetry is gradually restored in nuclear matter in β equilibrium as the nucleon density increases; (ii) when the system departs from β equilibrium, CSB is much enhanced because the isospin mixing depends strongly on the nucleon isovector density; (iii) this leads to the symmetry energy coefficient of 32MeV, of which more than 50 percent arises from the mesonic mean fields; (iv) the Nolen-Schiffer anomaly regarding the masses of neighboring mirror nuclei can be resolved by considering these aspects of CSB in nuclear medium. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  3. Supersymmetry Breaking, Gauge Mediation, and the LHC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauge mediated SUSY breaking (GMSB) is a promising class of supersymmetric models that automatically satisfies the precision constraints. Prior work of Meade, Seiberg and Shih in 2008 established the full, model-independent parameter space of GMSB, which they called 'General Gauge Mediation' (GGM). During the first half of 2010-2015, Shih and his collaborators thoroughly explored the parameter space of GGM and established many well-motivated benchmark models for use by the experimentalists at the LHC. Through their work, the current constraints on GGM from LEP, the Tevatron and the LHC were fully elucidated, together with the possible collider signatures of GMSB at the LHC. This ensured that the full discovery potential for GGM could be completely realized at the LHC.

  4. Symmetry Breaking And The Nilpotent Dirac Equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowlands, Peter

    2004-08-01

    A multivariate 4-vector representation for space-time and a quaternion representation for mass and the electric, strong and weak charges leads to a nilpotent form of the Dirac equation, which packages the entire physical information available about a fermion state. The nilpotent state vector breaks the symmetry between the strong, electric and weak interactions, by associating their respective charges with vector, scalar and pseudoscalar operators, leading directly to the SU(3) × SU(2)L × U(1) symmetry, and to particle structures and mass-generating states. In addition, the nilpotent Dirac equation has just three solutions for spherically-symmetric distance-dependent potentials, and these correspond once again to those that would be expected for the three interactions: linear for the strong interaction; inverse linear for the electromagnetic; and a harmonic oscillator-type solution, which can be equated with the dipolar annihilation and creation mechanisms of the weak interaction.

  5. Dirac Gauginos in Low Scale Supersymmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Goodsell, Mark D

    2014-01-01

    It has been claimed that Dirac gaugino masses are necessary for realistic models of low-scale supersymmetry breaking, and yet very little attention has been paid to the phenomenology of a light gravitino when gauginos have Dirac masses. We begin to address this deficit by investigating the couplings and phenomenology of the gravitino in the effective Lagrangian approach. We pay particular attention to the phenomenology of the scalar octets, where new decay channels open up. This leads us to propose a new simplified effective scenario including only light gluinos, sgluons and gravitinos, allowing the squarks to be heavy -- with the possible exception of the third generation. Finally, we comment on the application of our results to Fake Split Supersymmetry.

  6. Dirac gauginos in low scale supersymmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodsell, Mark D., E-mail: mark.goodsell@lpthe.jussieu.fr [Sorbonne Universités, UPMC Univ. Paris 06, UMR 7589, LPTHE, F-75005, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589, LPTHE, F-75005, Paris (France); Tziveloglou, Pantelis, E-mail: pantelis.tziveloglou@vub.ac.be [Theoretische Natuurkunde and IIHE, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, B-1050 Brussels (Belgium); International Solvay Institutes, Brussels (Belgium)

    2014-12-15

    It has been claimed that Dirac gaugino masses are necessary for realistic models of low-scale supersymmetry breaking, and yet very little attention has been paid to the phenomenology of a light gravitino when gauginos have Dirac masses. We begin to address this deficit by investigating the couplings and phenomenology of the gravitino in the effective Lagrangian approach. We pay particular attention to the phenomenology of the scalar octets, where new decay channels open up. This leads us to propose a new simplified effective scenario including only light gluinos, sgluons and gravitinos, allowing the squarks to be heavy – with the possible exception of the third generation. Finally, we comment on the application of our results to Fake Split Supersymmetry.

  7. Cosmic acceleration from Abelian symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss a consistent theory for a self-interacting vector field, breaking an Abelian symmetry in such a way to obtain an interesting behavior for its longitudinal polarization. In an appropriate decoupling limit, the dynamics of the longitudinal mode is controlled by Galileon interactions. The full theory away from the decoupling limit does not propagate ghost modes, and can be investigated in regimes where non-linearities become important. When coupled to gravity, this theory provides a candidate for dark energy, since it admits de Sitter cosmological solutions characterized by a technically natural value for the Hubble parameter. We also consider the homogeneous evolution when, besides the vector, additional matter in the form of perfect fluids is included. We find that the vector can have an important role in characterizing the universe expansion

  8. Information Content of Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Gleiser, Marcelo

    2012-01-01

    We propose a measure of order in the context of nonequilibrium field theory and argue that this measure, which we call relative configurational entropy (RCE), may be used to quantify the emergence of coherent low-entropy configurations, such as time-dependent or time-independent topological and nontopological spatially-extended structures. As an illustration, we investigate the nonequilibrium dynamics of spontaneous symmetry-breaking in three spatial dimensions. In particular, we focus on a model where a real scalar field, prepared initially in a symmetric thermal state, is quenched to a broken-symmetric state. For a certain range of initial temperatures, spatially-localized, long-lived structures known as oscillons emerge in synchrony and remain until the field reaches equilibrium again. We show that the RCE correlates with the number-density of oscillons, thus offering a quantitative measure of the emergence of nonperturbative spatiotemporal patterns that can be generalized to a variety of physical systems.

  9. Black Holes and Abelian Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Chagoya, Javier; Tasinato, Gianmassimo

    2016-01-01

    Black hole configurations offer insights on the non-linear aspects of gravitational theories, and can suggest testable predictions for modifications of General Relativity. In this work, we examine exact black hole configurations in vector-tensor theories, originally proposed to explain dark energy by breaking the Abelian symmetry with a non-minimal coupling of the vector to gravity. We are able to evade the no-go theorems by Bekenstein on the existence of regular black holes in vector-tensor theories with Proca mass terms, and exhibit regular black hole solutions with a profile for the longitudinal vector polarization, characterised by an additional charge. We analytically find the most general static, spherically symmetric black hole solutions with and without a cosmological constant, and study in some detail their features, such as how the geometry depends on the vector charges. We also include angular momentum, and find solutions describing slowly-rotating black holes. Finally, we extend some of these solu...

  10. Self-breaking retarded acid emulsion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scherubel, G.A.

    1979-02-20

    A subterranean formation is acidized with an acid-in-oil emulsion consisting of an aqueous acidizing solution, an oil, an alkyl C/sub 8/ to C/sub 18/ primary fatty amine, and at least one diethanolamide of at least one C/sub 8/ to C/sub 18/ fatty acid. The present invention is an improved acid-in-oil acidizing emulsion, and acidizing method such as an emulsion, the emulsion being of the type containing an effective amount of at least one C/sub 8/ to C/sub 18/ primary amine as a cationic surfactant to increase the normal reaction. The diethanolamine is a nonionic surfactant which causes the emulsion to break as the acidizing capacity of the emulsion becomes substantially depleted, i.e., spent, on the formation. 41 claims.

  11. Unit roots, nonlinearities and structural breaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Niels; Kruse, Robinson; Teräsvirta, Timo;

    One of the most influential research fields in econometrics over the past decades concerns unit root testing in economic time series. In macro-economics much of the interest in the area originate from the fact that when unit roots are present, then shocks to the time series processes have a...... persistent effect with resulting policy implications. From a statistical perspective on the other hand, the presence of unit roots has dramatic implications for econometric model building, estimation, and inference in order to avoid the so-called spurious regression problem. The present paper provides a...... selective review of contributions to the field of unit root testing over the past three decades. We discuss the nature of stochastic and deterministic trend processes, including break processes, that are likely to affect unit root inference. A range of the most popular unit root tests are presented and...

  12. Sandwich-type gated mechanical break junctions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We introduce a new device architecture for the independent mechanical and electrostatic tuning of nanoscale charge transport. In contrast to previous gated mechanical break junctions with suspended source-drain electrodes, the devices presented here prevent an electromechanical tuning of the electrode gap by the gate. This significant improvement originates from a direct deposition of the source and the drain electrodes on the gate dielectric. The plasma-enhanced native oxide on the aluminum gate electrode enables measurements at gate voltages up to 1.8 V at cryogenic temperatures. Throughout the bending-controlled tuning of the source-drain distance, the electrical continuity of the gate electrode is maintained. A nanoscale island in the Coulomb blockade regime serves as a first experimental test system for the devices, in which the mechanical and electrical control of charge transport is demonstrated.

  13. Dynamical Breaking of Generalized Yang-Mills Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGDian-Fu; SONGHe-Shan

    2004-01-01

    The dynamical breaking of a generalized Yang-Mills theory is discussed. It is shown, in terms of the Nambu Jona-Lasinio mechanism, that the gauge symmetry breaking can be realized dynamically in the generalized Yang-Mills theory. The combination of the generalized Yang-Mills theory and the NJL mechanism provides a way to overcome the difficulties related to the Higgs field and the Higgs mechanism in the usual spontaneous symmetry breaking theory.

  14. Dynamical Breaking of Generalized Yang-Mills Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dian-Fu; SONG He-Shah

    2004-01-01

    The dynamical breaking of a generalized Yang-Mills theory is discussed. It is shown, in terms of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio mechanism, that the gauge symmetry breaking can be realized dynamically in the generalized Yang-Mills theory. The combination of the generalized Yang-Mills theory and the NJL mechanism provides a way to overcome the difficulties related to the Higgs field and the Higgs mechanism in the usual spontaneous symmetry breaking theory.

  15. Three-Dimensional Simulations of Deep-Water Breaking Waves

    CERN Document Server

    Brucker, Kyle A; Dommermuth, Douglas G; Adams, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The formulation of a canonical deep-water breaking wave problem is introduced, and the results of a set of three-dimensional numerical simulations for deep-water breaking waves are presented. In this paper fully nonlinear progressive waves are generated by applying a normal stress to the free surface. Precise control of the forcing allows for a systematic study of four types of deep-water breaking waves, characterized herein as weak plunging, plunging, strong plunging, and very strong plunging.

  16. Supersymmetric Unification with Radiative Breaking of R-parity

    CERN Document Server

    Romão, J C; Valle, José W F

    1997-01-01

    We show how R-parity can break spontaneously as a result of radiative corrections in unified N=1 supergravity models. We illustrate this with a concrete rank-four unified model, where the spontaneous breaking of R-parity is accompanied by the existence of a physical majoron. We determine the resulting supersymmetric particle mass spectrum and show that R-parity-breaking signals may be detectable at LEP200.

  17. Distributed Decision Making in Combined Vehicle Routing and Break Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, Christoph Manuel; Kopfer, Herbert; Kok, Adrianus Leendert; Schutten, Marco

    2009-01-01

    The problem of combined vehicle routing and break scheduling comprises three subproblems: clustering of customer requests, routing of vehicles, and break scheduling. In practice, these subproblems are usually solved in the interaction between planners and drivers. We consider the case that the planner performs the clustering and the drivers perform the routing and break scheduling. To analyze this problem, we embed it into the framework of distributed decision making proposed by Schneeweiss (...

  18. Breaking Gaussian incompatibility on continuous variable quantum systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We characterise Gaussian quantum channels that are Gaussian incompatibility breaking, that is, transform every set of Gaussian measurements into a set obtainable from a joint Gaussian observable via Gaussian postprocessing. Such channels represent local noise which renders measurements useless for Gaussian EPR-steering, providing the appropriate generalisation of entanglement breaking channels for this scenario. Understanding the structure of Gaussian incompatibility breaking channels contributes to the resource theory of noisy continuous variable quantum information protocols

  19. Breaking Gaussian incompatibility on continuous variable quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: teiko.heinosaari@utu.fi [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Kiukas, Jukka, E-mail: jukka.kiukas@aber.ac.uk [Department of Mathematics, Aberystwyth University, Penglais, Aberystwyth, SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom); Schultz, Jussi, E-mail: jussi.schultz@gmail.com [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy)

    2015-08-15

    We characterise Gaussian quantum channels that are Gaussian incompatibility breaking, that is, transform every set of Gaussian measurements into a set obtainable from a joint Gaussian observable via Gaussian postprocessing. Such channels represent local noise which renders measurements useless for Gaussian EPR-steering, providing the appropriate generalisation of entanglement breaking channels for this scenario. Understanding the structure of Gaussian incompatibility breaking channels contributes to the resource theory of noisy continuous variable quantum information protocols.

  20. Bayesian Analysis of Dynamic Multivariate Models with Multiple Structural Breaks

    OpenAIRE

    Sugita, Katsuhiro

    2006-01-01

    This paper considers a vector autoregressive model or a vector error correction model with multiple structural breaks in any subset of parameters, using a Bayesian approach with Markov chain Monte Carlo simulation technique. The number of structural breaks is determined as a sort of model selection by the posterior odds. For a cointegrated model, cointegrating rank is also allowed to change with breaks. Bayesian approach by Strachan (Journal of Business and Economic Statistics 21 (2003) 185) ...

  1. Simulation of dike-break processes in the Yellow River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Although dike-break and dam-break processes have similar unsteady and discontinuous hydrodynamic characteristics, there are significant differences. In general, dam-break simulations focus on the flood discharge, whereas dike-break simulations are required to provide detailed information on the hydraulic and breach evolution processes, such as pit-scour and breach-expansion. In order to overcome the difficulties inherent in applying existing dam-break models to dike-breaks, this paper presents an integrated model that combines the shallow water, sediment transport, riverbed deformation and breach-expansion equations. A Godunov-type finite volume method is used for the flow simulation, based on a fixed quadtree grid system. The hydrodynamic aspects of the model are validated for an idealized rectangular dam break. A representative reach in the Yellow River is selected at a location where there is a significant risk of a dike-break, and full-scale topographic and hydrologic data are available. Typical dike-break processes are successfully simulated, with predicted hydraulic characteristics and terrain changes qualitatively in agreement with laboratory data. The modeling study is of practical importance for implementation of engineering countermeasures in the Yellow River, such as breach blocking and head wrapping.

  2. Breaking of modulated wave trains: energy and spectra evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vita, Francesco; Verzicco, Roberto; Iafrati, Alessandro

    2016-04-01

    The breaking of free surface waves plays an important role on the gas, heat, momentum and energy exchanges taking place across the air-sea interface. The breaking is also responsible for the dissipation of a large fraction of the wave energy, and it represents the most important dissipation term in wave forecasting approaches. In spite of its relevance, there are many aspects of the phenomenon which are still obscure. For the practical applications the dissipated energy fraction and the changes operated to the pre-breaking spectrum are the most interesting aspects. The progress in the understanding of the breaking was hindered by some inherent technical difficulties featuring its experimental investigation. Even laboratory experiments do not help substantially as most of them exploit the superposition of linear waves and the dispersive focusing to induce breaking and only few studies uses the modulational instability. The two breaking processes display substantial differences. In the dispersive focusing case the breaking occur as a single event and all the energy is dissipated within few wave periods after the onset. In the modulational instability case, the breaking happens in several events, each one lasting short fraction of the wave period Tp, with a recurrence period of about 2 Tp. Furthermore, the results available in litterature display a large scatter in the energy dissipation of each breaking event. In order to achieve a better understanding of the phenomenon the breaking generated by modulational instability is here investigated numerically by the two-fluids approach using the open source Gerris code which solves the Navier-Stokes equations with a Volume of Fluid (VOF) technique to describe the interface dynamics. The solution is initialized as a fundamental wave component with two sideband disturbances and it is left to evolve in a computational domain with periodic boundary conditions. It is shown that several breaking events occur before the breaking

  3. Theoretical and Experimental Study of Breaking Wave on Sloping Bottoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Kuei-Sen; CHEN Yang-Yih; LI Meng-Syue; HSU Hung-Chu

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the continuous evolution of breaking wave for the surface water waves propagating on a sloping beach. A Lagrangian asymptotic solution is derived. According to the solution coupled with the wave breaking criteria and the equations of water particles motion, the wave deformation and the continuous wave breaking processes for the progressive water waves propagating on a sloping bottom can be derived. A series of experiments are also conducted to compare with the theoretical solution. The results show that the present solution can reasonably describe the plunging or spilling wave breaking phenomenon.

  4. Phenomena identification and ranking tables for Westinghouse AP600 small break loss-of-coolant accident, main steam line break, and steam generator tube rupture scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, G.E.; Fletcher, C.D.; Davis, C.B. [and others

    1997-06-01

    This report revision incorporates new experimental evidence regarding AP600 behavior during small break loss-of-coolant accidents. This report documents the results of Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) efforts for the Westinghouse AP600 reactor. The purpose of this PIRT is to identify important phenomena so that they may be addressed in both the experimental programs and the RELAP5/MOD3 systems analysis computer code. In Revision of this report, the responses of AP600 during small break loss-of-coolant accident, main steam line break, and steam generator tube rupture accident scenarios were evaluated by a committee of thermal-hydraulic experts. Committee membership included Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory staff and recognized thermal-hydraulic experts from outside of the laboratory. Each of the accident scenarios was subdivided into separate, sequential periods or phases. Within each phase, the plant behavior is controlled by, at most, a few thermal-hydraulic processes. The committee identified the phenomena influencing those processes, and ranked & influences as being of high, medium, low, or insignificant importance. The primary product of this effort is a series of tables, one for each phase of each accident scenario, describing the thermal-hydraulic phenomena judged by the committee to be important, and the relative ranking of that importance. The rationales for the phenomena selected and their rankings are provided. This document issue incorporates an update of the small break loss-of-coolant accident portion of the report. This revision is the result of the release of experimental evidence from AP600-related integral test facilities (ROSA/AP600, OSU, and SPES) and thermal-hydraulic expert review. The activities associated with this update were performed during the period from June 1995 through November 1996. 8 refs., 26 figs., 42 tabs.

  5. Phenomena identification and ranking tables for Westinghouse AP600 small break loss-of-coolant accident, main steam line break, and steam generator tube rupture scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report revision incorporates new experimental evidence regarding AP600 behavior during small break loss-of-coolant accidents. This report documents the results of Phenomena Identification and Ranking Table (PIRT) efforts for the Westinghouse AP600 reactor. The purpose of this PIRT is to identify important phenomena so that they may be addressed in both the experimental programs and the RELAP5/MOD3 systems analysis computer code. In Revision of this report, the responses of AP600 during small break loss-of-coolant accident, main steam line break, and steam generator tube rupture accident scenarios were evaluated by a committee of thermal-hydraulic experts. Committee membership included Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory staff and recognized thermal-hydraulic experts from outside of the laboratory. Each of the accident scenarios was subdivided into separate, sequential periods or phases. Within each phase, the plant behavior is controlled by, at most, a few thermal-hydraulic processes. The committee identified the phenomena influencing those processes, and ranked ampersand influences as being of high, medium, low, or insignificant importance. The primary product of this effort is a series of tables, one for each phase of each accident scenario, describing the thermal-hydraulic phenomena judged by the committee to be important, and the relative ranking of that importance. The rationales for the phenomena selected and their rankings are provided. This document issue incorporates an update of the small break loss-of-coolant accident portion of the report. This revision is the result of the release of experimental evidence from AP600-related integral test facilities (ROSA/AP600, OSU, and SPES) and thermal-hydraulic expert review. The activities associated with this update were performed during the period from June 1995 through November 1996. 8 refs., 26 figs., 42 tabs

  6. Breaking cover: neural responses to slow and fast camouflage-breaking motion

    OpenAIRE

    Yin, Jiapeng; Gong, Hongliang; An, Xu; Chen, Zheyuan; Lu, Yiliang; Andolina, Ian M.; McLoughlin, Niall; Wang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Primates need to detect and recognize camouflaged animals in natural environments. Camouflage-breaking movements are often the only visual cue available to accomplish this. Specifically, sudden movements are often detected before full recognition of the camouflaged animal is made, suggesting that initial processing of motion precedes the recognition of motion-defined contours or shapes. What are the neuronal mechanisms underlying this initial processing of camouflaged motion in the primate vi...

  7. On spontaneous breaking of conformal symmetry by probe flavour D-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We explore the possibilities of breaking conformal symmetry spontaneously by introducing flavour branes into conformal holographic backgrounds in the probe limit. A prototype model of such a mechanism is based on placing D7-D-bar7 configuration in the Klebanov-Witten conifold based model. In this paper we generalize this model. We conjecture on the required topology of the backgrounds and the corresponding probe brane embeddings. We identify several models that obey these requirements and admit spontaneous breaking of conformal invariance. These include type IIB conifold based examples, dual to defect field theories based on the conifold, and type IIA constructions based on the ABJM model. We identify the dilaton, the corresponding Goldstone boson, discuss its effective action and address the 'a-term'. We briefly discuss the relevance of these models to the pseudo dilaton

  8. One-Dimensional Horizontal Boussinesq Model Enhanced for Non-Breaking and Breaking Waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DONG Guo-hai; MA Xiao-zhou; TENG Bin

    2008-01-01

    Based on a set of fully nonlinear Boussinesq equations up to the order of O(μ2, ε3μ2) (where ε is the ratio of wave amplitude to water depth and μ is the ratio of water depth to wave length) a numerical wave model is formulated. The model's linear dispersion is acceptably accurate to μ≌1.0, which is confirmed by comparisons between the simulated and measured time series of the regular waves propagating on a submerged bar. The moving shoreline is treated numerically by replacing the solid beach with a permeable beach. Run-up of nonbreaking waves is verified against the analytical solution for nonlinear shallow water waves. The inclusion of wave breaking is fulfilled by introducing an eddy term in the momentum equation to serve as the breaking wave force term to dissipate wave energy in the surf zone. The model is applied to cross-shore motions of regular waves including various types of breaking on plane sloping beaches. Comparisons of the model test results comprising spatial distribution of wave height and mean water level with experimental data are presented.

  9. A Microscopic View of Oil Slick Break-Up and Emulsion Formation in Breaking Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Law, J.; Shahrokhi, H.; Shaw, J. M.

    1996-11-01

    The hydrodynamic behaviour of oil spills in breaking waves determines the appropriateness and effectiveness of remedial measures during clean-up operations. Oil slicks either disperse as fine drops or form water in oil emulsions when exposed to breaking waves. However, there is little agreement with respect to the controlling variables or mechanisms for emulsification or dispersion and predictions are unreliable. For example, predicted energy dissipation rates in breaking waves are too low to account for the drop sizes encountered experimentally[1]. In this paper, we assess the impact of hydrodynamics and physical properties on the formation of dispersions or emulsions. The maximum stable drop size for dispersions arising from oil slicks and water in oil emulsions are shown to be controlled by Raleigh-Taylor instability or the prevalent local shear stress. Data from four experimental studies[2-5], with a broad range of physical properties were fitted quantitatively. As high shear events are intermittent, stable water in oil emulsions can be formed by dispersion inversion near the water air interface or by water entrained by gas bubbles passing through oil slicks. 1) Li & Garrett, 19th AMOP, Calgary AB, 1, 185-198 (1996). 2) Lin et al., Report CG-D-54-78, U.S. Coast Guard, Washington D.C. (1978). 3) Buist, MASc Thesis, University of Toronto (1979). 4) Wallace et al., 9th AMOP, Edmonton AB, 2, 421-429, June 10-12 (1986). 5) Ross Environmental Research Ltd., Ottawa ON, Report EE-96, (1987).

  10. THE BUD BREAK PROCESS AND ITS VARIATION AMONG LOCAL POPULATIONS OF BOREAL BLACK SPRUCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio eRossi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Phenology of local populations can exhibit adaptations to the current environmental conditions resulting from a close interaction between climate and genotype. The bud break process and its variations among populations were analysed in greenhouse by monitoring the growth resumption in black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill. BSP] seedlings originating from seeds of five stands across the closed boreal forest in Quebec, Canada. Bud break lasted 15 days and occurred earlier and quicker in northern provenances. Provenance explained between 10.2 and 32.3% of the variance in bud break, while the families accounted for a smaller but still significant part of the variance. The late occurrence of one phenological phase corresponded to a delayed occurrence of the others according to linear relationships. A causal model was proposed in the form of a chain of events with each phase of bud break being related to the previous and successive one, while no link was observed between non-adjacent phases. The adaptation of black spruce populations along the latitudinal gradient points towards a strategy based on rapid physiological processes triggered by temperature increase inducing high metabolic activity. The variation observed in bud break reflects an evolutionary trade-off between maximization of security and taking advantage of the short growing season. This work provides evidence of the phenological adaptations of black spruce to its local environmental conditions while retaining sizeable genetic diversity within populations. Because of the multigenic nature of phenology, this diversity should provide some raw material for adaptation to changing local environmental conditions.

  11. The bud break process and its variation among local populations of boreal black spruce

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Sergio; Bousquet, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Phenology of local populations can exhibit adaptations to the current environmental conditions resulting from a close interaction between climate and genotype. The bud break process and its variations among populations were analyzed in greenhouse by monitoring the growth resumption in black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP] seedlings originating from seeds of five stands across the closed boreal forest in Quebec, Canada. Bud break lasted 15 days and occurred earlier and quicker in northern provenances. Provenance explained between 10.2 and 32.3% of the variance in bud break, while the families accounted for a smaller but still significant part of the variance. The late occurrence of one phenological phase corresponded to a delayed occurrence of the others according to linear relationships. A causal model was proposed in the form of a chain of events with each phase of bud break being related to the previous and successive one, while no link was observed between non-adjacent phases. The adaptation of black spruce populations along the latitudinal gradient points toward a strategy based on rapid physiological processes triggered by temperature increase inducing high metabolic activity. The variation observed in bud break reflects an evolutionary trade-off between maximization of security and taking advantage of the short growing season. This work provides evidence of the phenological adaptations of black spruce to its local environmental conditions while retaining sizeable genetic diversity within populations. Because of the multigenic nature of phenology, this diversity should provide some raw material for adaptation to changing local environmental conditions. PMID:25389430

  12. The bud break process and its variation among local populations of boreal black spruce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Sergio; Bousquet, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Phenology of local populations can exhibit adaptations to the current environmental conditions resulting from a close interaction between climate and genotype. The bud break process and its variations among populations were analyzed in greenhouse by monitoring the growth resumption in black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP] seedlings originating from seeds of five stands across the closed boreal forest in Quebec, Canada. Bud break lasted 15 days and occurred earlier and quicker in northern provenances. Provenance explained between 10.2 and 32.3% of the variance in bud break, while the families accounted for a smaller but still significant part of the variance. The late occurrence of one phenological phase corresponded to a delayed occurrence of the others according to linear relationships. A causal model was proposed in the form of a chain of events with each phase of bud break being related to the previous and successive one, while no link was observed between non-adjacent phases. The adaptation of black spruce populations along the latitudinal gradient points toward a strategy based on rapid physiological processes triggered by temperature increase inducing high metabolic activity. The variation observed in bud break reflects an evolutionary trade-off between maximization of security and taking advantage of the short growing season. This work provides evidence of the phenological adaptations of black spruce to its local environmental conditions while retaining sizeable genetic diversity within populations. Because of the multigenic nature of phenology, this diversity should provide some raw material for adaptation to changing local environmental conditions. PMID:25389430

  13. Two-sublattice fermionic Ising spin glass model in a transverse field: Asymmetric replica symmetry breaking solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmer, F.M. [Laboratorio de Mecanica Estatistica e Teoria da Materia Condensada, UFSM, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Department of Fisica, UDESC, 89223-100 Joinville, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: zimmer@mail.ufsm.br; Magalhaes, S.G. [Laboratorio de Mecanica Estatistica e Teoria da Materia Condensada, UFSM, 97105-900 Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)

    2008-07-15

    We investigate a two-sublattice fermionic infinite-range Ising spin glass (SG) model in a transverse field {gamma} by one-step replica symmetry breaking (1S-RSB) theory. In this model, a parallel magnetic field H breaks the symmetry of the sublattices. It destroys the antiferromagnetic (AF) order, but it can favor a non-ergodic mixed phase (SG+AF) characterizing an asymmetric RSB region. The {gamma} field introduces a quantum spin flip mechanism that suppresses the magnetic orders leading them to quantum critical points. The competition between disorder and quantum fluctuations is analyzed by 1S-RSB solution in the asymmetric RSB region.

  14. Relationship between Age and the Ability to Break Scored Tablets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notenboom, Kim; Vromans, Herman; Schipper, Maarten; Leufkens, Hubert G. M.; Bouvy, Marcel L.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Practical problems with the use of medicines, such as difficulties with breaking tablets, are an often overlooked cause for non-adherence. Tablets frequently break in uneven parts and loss of product can occur due to crumbling and powdering. Health characteristics, such as the presence of peripheral neuropathy, decreased grip strength and manual dexterity, can affect a patient's ability to break tablets. As these impairments are associated with aging and age-related diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and arthritis, difficulties with breaking tablets could be more prevalent among older adults. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between age and the ability to break scored tablets. Methods: A comparative study design was chosen. Thirty-six older adults and 36 young adults were systematically observed with breaking scored tablets. Twelve different tablets were included. All participants were asked to break each tablet by three techniques: in between the fingers with the use of nails, in between the fingers without the use of nails and pushing the tablet downward with one finger on a solid surface. It was established whether a tablet was broken or not, and if broken, whether the tablet was broken accurately or not. Results: The older adults experienced more difficulties to break tablets compared to the young adults. On average, the older persons broke 38.1% of the tablets, of which 71.0% was broken accurately. The young adults broke 78.2% of the tablets, of which 77.4% was broken accurately. Further analysis by mixed effects logistic regression revealed that age was associated with the ability to break tablets, but not with the accuracy of breaking. Conclusions: Breaking scored tablets by hand is less successful in an elderly population compared to a group of young adults. Health care providers should be aware that tablet breaking is not appropriate for all patients and for all drugs. In case tablet breaking is unavoidable, a

  15. Genome-Wide Translocation Sequencing Reveals Mechanisms of Chromosome Breaks and Rearrangements in B Cells

    OpenAIRE

    Chiarle, Roberto; Zhang, Yu; Frock, Richard L.; Lewis, Susanna M.; Molinie, Benoit; Ho, Yu-Jui; Myers, Darienne R; Choi, Vivian W.; Compagno, Mara; Malkin, Daniel J.; Neuberg, Donna; Monti, Stefano; Giallourakis, Cosmas C.; Gostissa, Monica; Alt, Frederick W.

    2011-01-01

    While chromosomal translocations are common pathogenetic events in cancer, mechanisms that promote them are poorly understood. To elucidate translocation mechanisms in mammalian cells, we developed high throughput, genome-wide translocation sequencing (HTGTS). We employed HTGTS to identify tens of thousands of independent translocation junctions involving fixed I-SceI meganuclease-generated DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) within the c-myc oncogene or IgH locus of B lymphocytes induced for Act...

  16. Identification of Saccharomyces cerevisiae DNA ligase IV: involvement in DNA double-strand break repair.

    OpenAIRE

    Teo, S H; Jackson, S P

    1997-01-01

    DNA ligases catalyse the joining of single and double-strand DNA breaks, which is an essential final step in DNA replication, recombination and repair. Mammalian cells have four DNA ligases, termed ligases I-IV. In contrast, other than a DNA ligase I homologue (encoded by CDC9), no other DNA ligases have hitherto been identified in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here, we report the identification and characterization of a novel gene, LIG4, which encodes a protein with strong homology to mammalian ...

  17. Evaluation of DNA Double Strand Breaks Repair Efficiency in Head and Neck Cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Walczak, Anna; Rusin, Pawel; Dziki, Lukasz; Zielinska-Blizniewska, Hanna; Olszewski, Jurek; Majsterek, Ireneusz

    2012-01-01

    Head and neck cancers (head and neck squamous cell carcinomas [HNSCC]) are a heterogeneous group of neoplasms with varying presenting symptoms, treatment, and expected outcome. There is a need to find an effective way of its treatment at the molecular level. Thus, we should identify the mechanism of cancer cell response to damaging agents' activity, especially at DNA level. Our major goal was to evaluate the efficacy of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) repair in HTB-43 and SCC-25 cancer cell l...

  18. Symmetry breaking: a tool to unveil the topology of chaotic scattering with three degrees of freedom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Christof; Zapfe, W. P. Karel; Merlo, Olivier; Seligman, T. H.

    2010-12-01

    We shall use symmetry breaking as a tool to attack the problem of identifying the topology of chaotic scatteruing with more then two degrees of freedom. specifically we discuss the structure of the homoclinic/heteroclinic tangle and the connection between the chaotic invariant set, the scattering functions and the singularities in the cross section for a class of scattering systems with one open and two closed degrees of freedom.

  19. Orthogonality-breaking sensing model based on the instantaneous Stokes vector and the Mueller calculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Quijano, Noé; Fade, Julien; Roche, Muriel; Parnet, François; Alouini, Mehdi

    2016-04-01

    Polarimetric sensing by orthogonality breaking has been recently proposed as an alternative technique for performing direct and fast polarimetric measurements using a specific dual-frequency-dual-polarization (DFDP) source. Based on the instantaneous Stokes-Mueller formalism to describe the high-frequency evolution of the DFDP beam intensity, we thoroughly analyze the interaction of such a beam with birefringent, dichroic, and depolarizing samples. This allows us to confirm that orthogonality breaking is produced by the sample diattenuation, whereas this technique is immune to both birefringence and diagonal depolarization. We further analyze the robustness of this technique when polarimetric sensing is performed through a birefringent waveguide, and the optimal DFDP source configuration for fiber-based endoscopic measurements is subsequently identified. Finally, we consider a stochastic depolarization model based on an ensemble of random linear diattenuators, which makes it possible to understand the progressive vanishing of the detected orthogonality-breaking signal as the spatial heterogeneity of the sample increases, thus confirming the insensitivity of this method to diagonal depolarization. The fact that the orthogonality-breaking signal is exclusively due to the sample dichroism is an advantageous feature for the precise decoupled characterization of such an anisotropic parameter in samples showing several simultaneous effects.

  20. Orthogonality-breaking sensing model based on the instantaneous Stokes vector and the Mueller calculus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Quijano, Noé; Fade, Julien; Roche, Muriel; Parnet, François; Alouini, Mehdi

    2016-04-01

    Polarimetric sensing by orthogonality breaking has been recently proposed as an alternative technique for performing direct and fast polarimetric measurements using a specific dual-frequency dual-polarization (DFDP) source. Based on the instantaneous Stokes-Mueller formalism to describe the high-frequency evolution of the DFDP beam intensity, we thoroughly analyze the interaction of such a beam with birefringent, dichroic and depolarizing samples. This allows us to confirm that orthogonality breaking is produced by the sample diattenuation, whereas this technique is immune to both birefringence and diagonal depolarization. We further analyze the robustness of this technique when polarimetric sensing is performed through a birefringent waveguide, and the optimal DFDP source configuration for fiber-based endoscopic measurements is subsequently identified. Finally, we consider a stochastic depolarization model based on an ensemble of random linear diattenuators, which makes it possible to understand the progressive vanishing of the detected orthogonality breaking signal as the spatial heterogeneity of the sample increases, thus confirming the insensitivity of this method to diagonal depolarization. The fact that the orthogonality breaking signal is exclusively due to the sample dichroism is an advantageous feature for the precise decoupled characterization of such an anisotropic parameter in samples showing several simultaneous effects.

  1. Raising the SUSY-breaking scale naturally in a Goldstone-Higgs model

    CERN Document Server

    Alanne, Tommi; Sannino, Francesco; Thomsen, Anders Eller

    2016-01-01

    We show that by marrying the elementary-Goldstone-Higgs scenario and supersymmetry it is possible to raise the scale of supersymmetry breaking to several TeVs while keeping the relevant features of a natural supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model. This is achieved by first enhancing the global symmetries of the super-Higgs sector to SU(4) and then embedding the electroweak sector and the Standard-Model fermions. We determine the conditions under which the model achieves a vacuum such that the resulting Higgs is a pseudo-Goldstone boson. The main results are: the supersymmetry-breaking scale is identified with the spontaneous-symmetry-breaking scale of SU(4) which is several TeVs above the radiatively induced electroweak scale; intriguingly the global symmetry of the Higgs sector predicts the existence of two super-Higgs multiplets with one mass eigenstate playing the role of the pseudo-Goldstone Higgs; the symmetry-breaking dynamics fixes $\\tan\\beta = 1$ and requires a supplementary singlet chiral sup...

  2. Exploring the Overabundance of ULXs in Metal- and Dust-poor Local Lyman Break Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu-Zych, Antara R.; Lehmer, Bret; Fragos, Tassos; Hornschemeier, Ann; Yukita, Mihoko; Zezas, Andreas; Ptak, Andy

    2016-02-01

    We have studied high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) populations within two low-metallicity, starburst galaxies, Haro 11 and VV 114. These galaxies serve as analogs to high-redshift (z\\gt 2) Lyman break galaxies and, within the larger sample of Lyman break analogs (LBAs), they are sufficiently nearby (crowded lower-luminosity HMXBs using the star-forming galaxy XLF and then vary the XLF normalizations and bright-end slopes until we reproduce the observed point source luminosity distributions. We find that these LBAs have a shallower bright-end slope ({γ }2=1.90) than the standard XLF ({γ }2=2.73). If we conservatively assume that the brightest X-ray source from each galaxy is powered by an accreting supermassive black hole rather than an HMXB and eliminate these sources from consideration, the luminosity distribution becomes poorly constrained but does appear to be consistent with a standard XLF.

  3. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in the O(4) scalar model on a lattice

    CERN Document Server

    Demchik, Vadim; Skalozub, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    The spontaneous symmetry breaking in the four component scalar $\\lambda \\phi^4$ model (O(4) model) is investigated on a lattice dependently on the value of the coupling constant $\\lambda$. A general approach for dealing with this phenomenon is developed. In the spherical coordinates in the internal space of the scalar field, the Goldstone modes are integrated out by the saddle point method that reduces the functional integral of the model to the effective one component theory convenient for lattice investigations. The partition function of the model is calculated analytically up to the one-loop order. Monte Carlo simulations are performed with a QCDGPU software package on a HGPU cluster. It is shown that for $\\lambda < 10^{-5}$ the scalar field condensate does not create. For larger values of coupling symmetry breaking happens. Qualitatively, this is similar to that of observed already in the O(1) model.

  4. Naturalistic field study of the restart break in US commercial motor vehicle drivers: Truck driving, sleep, and fatigue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparrow, Amy R; Mollicone, Daniel J; Kan, Kevin; Bartels, Rachel; Satterfield, Brieann C; Riedy, Samantha M; Unice, Aaron; Van Dongen, Hans P A

    2016-08-01

    Commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers in the US may start a new duty cycle after taking a 34-h restart break. A restart break provides an opportunity for sleep recuperation to help prevent the build-up of fatigue across duty cycles. However, the effectiveness of a restart break may depend on its timing, and on how many nighttime opportunities for sleep it contains. For daytime drivers, a 34-h restart break automatically includes two nighttime periods. For nighttime drivers, who are arguably at increased risk of fatigue, a 34-h restart break contains only one nighttime period. To what extent this is relevant for fatigue depends in part on whether nighttime drivers revert back to a nighttime-oriented sleep schedule during the restart break. We conducted a naturalistic field study with 106 CMV drivers working their normal schedules and performing their normal duties. These drivers were studied during two duty cycles and during the intervening restart break. They provided a total of 1260days of data and drove a total of 414,937 miles during the study. Their duty logs were used to identify the periods when they were on duty and when they were driving and to determine their duty cycles and restart breaks. Sleep/wake patterns were measured continuously by means of wrist actigraphy. Fatigue was assessed three times per day by means of a brief psychomotor vigilance test (PVT-B) and a subjective sleepiness scale. Data from a truck-based lane tracking and data acquisition system were used to compute lane deviation (variability in lateral lane position). Statistical analyses focused on 24-h patterns of duty, driving, sleep, PVT-B performance, subjective sleepiness, and lane deviation. Duty cycles preceded by a restart break containing only one nighttime period (defined as 01:00-05:00) were compared with duty cycles preceded by a restart break containing more than one nighttime period. During duty cycles preceded by a restart break with only one nighttime period, drivers

  5. Benchmarking Density Functional Theory Approaches for the Description of Symmetry-Breaking in Long Polymethine Dyes

    KAUST Repository

    Gieseking, Rebecca L.

    2016-04-25

    Long polymethines are well-known experimentally to symmetry-break, which dramatically modifies their linear and nonlinear optical properties. Computational modeling could be very useful to provide insight into the symmetry-breaking process, which is not readily available experimentally; however, accurately predicting the crossover point from symmetric to symmetry-broken structures has proven challenging. Here, we benchmark the accuracy of several DFT approaches relative to CCSD(T) geometries. In particular, we compare analogous hybrid and long-range corrected (LRC) functionals to clearly show the influence of the functional exchange term. Although both hybrid and LRC functionals can be tuned to reproduce the CCSD(T) geometries, the LRC functionals are better performing at reproducing the geometry evolution with chain length and provide a finite upper limit for the gas-phase crossover point; these methods also provide good agreement with the experimental crossover points for more complex polymethines in polar solvents. Using an approach based on LRC functionals, a reduction in the crossover length is found with increasing medium dielectric constant, which is related to localization of the excess charge on the end groups. Symmetry-breaking is associated with the appearance of an imaginary frequency of b2 symmetry involving a large change in the degree of bond-length alternation. Examination of the IR spectra show that short, isolated streptocyanines have a mode at ~1200 cm-1 involving a large change in bond-length alternation; as the polymethine length or the medium dielectric increases, the frequency of this mode decreases before becoming imaginary at the crossover point.

  6. Shear stresses and mean flow in shoaling and breaking waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stive, M.J.F.; De Vriend, H.J.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the vertical, wave averaged distributions of shear stresses and Eulerian flow in normally incident, shoaling and breaking waves. It is found that shear stresses are solely due to wave amplitude variations, which can be caused by shoaling, boundary layer dissipation and/or breaking wav

  7. Experimental Study on Coal-Breaking Pressure for Compressed Air

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on lab model experiments and through the limit analysis, the theoretical formula of calculauoncoal-breaking pressure with compressed air was derived. The experimental result shows that blasting pressure mustexceed 84.0 MPa to break coal with compressive strength of 13.2 MPa. The research provides an important theoretical basis for the design of airshooting mining and industrial tests.

  8. 46 CFR 176.704 - Breaking of safety valve seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breaking of safety valve seals. 176.704 Section 176.704... TONS) INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION Repairs and Alterations § 176.704 Breaking of safety valve seals... the seal on a boiler safety valve on a vessel is broken....

  9. 46 CFR 115.704 - Breaking of safety valve seals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Breaking of safety valve seals. 115.704 Section 115.704... CERTIFICATION Repairs and Alterations § 115.704 Breaking of safety valve seals. The owner, managing operator, or master shall notify the cognizant OCMI as soon as practicable after the seal on a boiler safety valve...

  10. Mediation of Supersymmetry Breaking via Anti-Generation Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Ito, M

    2000-01-01

    In the context of the weakly coupled heterotic string, we propose a new model of mediating supersymmetry breaking. The breakdown of supersymmetry in the hidden sector is transmitted to anti-generation fields via gravitational interactions. Subsequent transmission of the breaking to the MSSM sector occurs via gauge interactions. It is shown that the mass spectra of superparticles are phenomenologically viable.

  11. "Old Dead Guys": Using Activity Breaks to Teach History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holles, Joseph H.

    2009-01-01

    The people and history of chemical engineering surround us: Gibbs free energy, Arrhenius Equation, and Reynolds number. Since these seminal figures appear in almost every classroom lecture, they provide an opportunity for a historically focused activity break. Each activity break provides the students with an image of the historical figure along…

  12. Spontaneous Breaking of Spatial and Spin Symmetry in Spinor Condensates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherer, M.; Lücke, B.; Gebreyesus, G.;

    2010-01-01

    Parametric amplification of quantum fluctuations constitutes a fundamental mechanism for spontaneous symmetry breaking. In our experiments, a spinor condensate acts as a parametric amplifier of spin modes, resulting in a twofold spontaneous breaking of spatial and spin symmetry in the amplified...

  13. Break-Dance: An Unusual Cause of Hammer Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report the case of a young break-dancer presenting with hammer syndrome. This syndrome has been correlated with many professional and recreational activities but this is, to our knowledge, the first description of hammer syndrome caused by break-dancing. The etiology, diagnosis and treatment modalities of this rare syndrome are considered

  14. Unstable volatility functions: the break preserving local linear estimator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Isabel; Gijbels, Irene

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the break preserving local linear (BPLL) estimator for the estimation of unstable volatility functions. Breaks in the structure of the conditional mean and/or the volatility functions are common in Finance. Markov switching models (Hamilton, 1989) and t...

  15. Mechanisms of supersymmetry breaking in the minimal supersymmetric standard model

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Probir Roy

    2003-02-01

    We provide a bird’s eyeview of current ideas on supersymmetry breaking mechanisms in the MSSM. The essentials of gauge, gravity, anomaly and gaugino/higgsino mediation mechanisms are covered briefly and the phenomenology of the associated models is touched upon. A few statement are also made on braneworld supersymmetry breaking.

  16. Young Children's Interpretations of Page Breaks in Contemporary Picture Storybooks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipe, Lawrence R.; Brightman, Anne E.

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on a study of the responses of a second-grade class to the page breaks in contemporary picturebooks. In a picturebook, the text and accompanying illustrations are divided into a series of facing pages called openings, and the divisions between the openings are called page breaks or turns. Unlike a novel, in which the page…

  17. General Analysis of U-Spin Breaking in B Decays

    OpenAIRE

    Jung, Martin; Mannel, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the breaking of U-spin on a group theoretical basis. Due to the simple behaviour of the weak effective hamiltonian under U-spin and the unique structure of the breaking terms such a group theoretical analysis leads to a manageable number of parameters. Several applications are discussed, including the decays B -> J/psi K and B -> D K.

  18. General analysis of U-spin breaking in B decays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We analyze the breaking of U-spin on a group theoretical basis. Because of the simple behavior of the weak effective Hamiltonian under U-spin and the unique structure of the breaking terms such a group theoretical analysis leads to a manageable number of parameters. Several applications are discussed, including the decays B→J/ψK and B→DK.

  19. Salam-Weinberg symmetry breaking with superheavy Higgs particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We discuss here the possibility of the breaking of the Salam-Weinberg symmetry by Higgs particles which are superheavy. The symmetry-breaking is associated with a nonzero vacuum expectation value of fermion condensates. This mechanism, if operative in nature, will imply the absence of Higgs particles at the weak scale. (author)

  20. ANALYSIS OF MEN'S AND WOMEN'S BASKETBALL FAST-BREAKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ignacio Refoyo

    2009-01-01

    opposition. For men, some dependence relationships were found between the fast break result and the following variables: duration, completion area, and opposition to its completion. For women, the results revealed a weak association between the fast break result and the opposition to its completion.