Sample records for break points identified

  1. A new approach to assess COPD by identifying lung function break-points. (United States)

    Eriksson, Göran; Jarenbäck, Linnea; Peterson, Stefan; Ankerst, Jaro; Bjermer, Leif; Tufvesson, Ellen


    COPD is a progressive disease, which can take different routes, leading to great heterogeneity. The aim of the post-hoc analysis reported here was to perform continuous analyses of advanced lung function measurements, using linear and nonlinear regressions. Fifty-one COPD patients with mild to very severe disease (Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] Stages I-IV) and 41 healthy smokers were investigated post-bronchodilation by flow-volume spirometry, body plethysmography, diffusion capacity testing, and impulse oscillometry. The relationship between COPD severity, based on forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1), and different lung function parameters was analyzed by flexible nonparametric method, linear regression, and segmented linear regression with break-points. Most lung function parameters were nonlinear in relation to spirometric severity. Parameters related to volume (residual volume, functional residual capacity, total lung capacity, diffusion capacity [diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide], diffusion capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide/alveolar volume) and reactance (reactance area and reactance at 5Hz) were segmented with break-points at 60%-70% of FEV1. FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) and resonance frequency had break-points around 80% of FEV1, while many resistance parameters had break-points below 40%. The slopes in percent predicted differed; resistance at 5 Hz minus resistance at 20 Hz had a linear slope change of -5.3 per unit FEV1, while residual volume had no slope change above and -3.3 change per unit FEV1 below its break-point of 61%. Continuous analyses of different lung function parameters over the spirometric COPD severity range gave valuable information additional to categorical analyses. Parameters related to volume, diffusion capacity, and reactance showed break-points around 65% of FEV1, indicating that air trapping starts to dominate in moderate COPD (FEV1 =50%-80%). This may have an

  2. Model Breaking Points Conceptualized (United States)

    Vig, Rozy; Murray, Eileen; Star, Jon R.


    Current curriculum initiatives (e.g., National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers 2010) advocate that models be used in the mathematics classroom. However, despite their apparent promise, there comes a point when models break, a point in the mathematical problem space where the model cannot,…

  3. Consistency of Trend Break Point Estimator with Underspecified Break Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Yang


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the consistency of trend break point estimators when the number of breaks is underspecified. The consistency of break point estimators in a simple location model with level shifts has been well documented by researchers under various settings, including extensions such as allowing a time trend in the model. Despite the consistency of break point estimators of level shifts, there are few papers on the consistency of trend shift break point estimators in the presence of an underspecified break number. The simulation study and asymptotic analysis in this paper show that the trend shift break point estimator does not converge to the true break points when the break number is underspecified. In the case of two trend shifts, the inconsistency problem worsens if the magnitudes of the breaks are similar and the breaks are either both positive or both negative. The limiting distribution for the trend break point estimator is developed and closely approximates the finite sample performance.

  4. Aluminum break-point contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinemann, Martina; Groot, R.A. de


    Ab initio molecular dynamics is used to study the contribution of a single Al atom to an aluminum breakpoint contact during the final stages of breaking and the initial stages of the formation of such a contact. A hysteresis effect is found in excellent agreement with experiment and the form of the


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Yusuf


    Full Text Available Break event point or the break-even point can be defined as a situation where the operating company does not make a profit and not a loss. The goal is to provide the knowledge to increase knowledge about the break event point (the point of principal and its relationship with the company profit and to know how the results of the. Analysis break event point is very important for the leadership of the company to determine the production rate how much the cost will be equal to the amount of sales or in other words to determine the break event point we will determine the relationship between sales, production, selling price, cost, loss or profit, making it easier for leaders to take discretion.DOI: 10.15408/ess.v4i1.1955 

  6. Radiative symmetry breaking from interacting UV fixed points (United States)

    Abel, Steven; Sannino, Francesco


    It is shown that the addition of positive mass-squared terms to asymptotically safe gauge-Yukawa theories with perturbative UV fixed points leads to calculable radiative symmetry breaking in the IR. This phenomenon, and the multiplicative running of the operators that lies behind it, is akin to the radiative symmetry breaking that occurs in the supersymmetric standard model.

  7. Wave Kinematics and Sediment Suspension at Wave Breaking Point. (United States)


    Cayley , A. 1895, An Elementary Treatise on Elliptic Functions, George BeTl an Sons, London. Dally, W. R., 1980, A Numerical Model for Beach Profile...were studied in the laboratory. - The flow field concerns mainly the drift velocity on sloping beach. The drift velocity profiles as well as the treat the breaking point as a natural boundary for various studies of surf zone problems. The breaking point itself, however, has not been widely

  8. Nearshore bars and the break-point hypothesis (United States)

    Sallenger, A.H.; Howd, P.A.


    The set of hypotheses calling for bar formation at the break point was tested with field data. During two different experiments, waves were measured across the surf zone coincident with the development of a nearshore bar. We use a criterion, based on the wave height to depth ratio, to determine the offshore limit of the inner surf zone. During the first experiment, the bar became better developed and migrated offshore while remaining well within the inner surf zone. During the second experiment, the surf zone was narrower and we cannot rule out the possibility of break point processes contributing to bar development. We conclude that bars are not necessarily coupled with the break point and can become better developed and migrate offshore while being in the inner surf zone landward from initial wave breaking in the outer surf zone. ?? 1989.

  9. Cedar Breaks National Monument Vegetation Mapping Project - Field Plot, Observation Points and Accuracy Assessment Points (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This point file contains 282 point locations of field plot and observation data used by, and collected for, the vegetation mapping project for Cedar Breaks National...

  10. BreakPoint Surveyor: a pipeline for structural variant visualization. (United States)

    Wyczalkowski, Matthew A; Wylie, Kristine M; Cao, Song; McLellan, Michael D; Flynn, Jennifer; Huang, Mo; Ye, Kai; Fan, Xian; Chen, Ken; Wendl, Michael C; Ding, Li


    BreakPoint Surveyor (BPS) is a computational pipeline for the discovery, characterization, and visualization of complex genomic rearrangements, such as viral genome integration, in paired-end sequence data. BPS facilitates interpretation of structural variants by merging structural variant breakpoint predictions, gene exon structure, read depth, and RNA-sequencing expression into a single comprehensive figure. Source code and sample data freely available for download at, distributed under the GNU GPLv3 license, implemented in R, Python and BASH scripts, and supported on Unix/Linux/OS X operating systems. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  11. Identification of Intensity Ratio Break Points from Photon Arrival Trajectories in Ratiometric Single Molecule Spectroscopy (United States)

    Bingemann, Dieter; Allen, Rachel M.


    We describe a statistical method to analyze dual-channel photon arrival trajectories from single molecule spectroscopy model-free to identify break points in the intensity ratio. Photons are binned with a short bin size to calculate the logarithm of the intensity ratio for each bin. Stochastic photon counting noise leads to a near-normal distribution of this logarithm and the standard student t-test is used to find statistically significant changes in this quantity. In stochastic simulations we determine the significance threshold for the t-test’s p-value at a given level of confidence. We test the method’s sensitivity and accuracy indicating that the analysis reliably locates break points with significant changes in the intensity ratio with little or no error in realistic trajectories with large numbers of small change points, while still identifying a large fraction of the frequent break points with small intensity changes. Based on these results we present an approach to estimate confidence intervals for the identified break point locations and recommend a bin size to choose for the analysis. The method proves powerful and reliable in the analysis of simulated and actual data of single molecule reorientation in a glassy matrix. PMID:22837704

  12. Multiple Break-Points Detection in Array CGH Data via the Cross-Entropy Method. (United States)

    Priyadarshana, W J R M; Sofronov, Georgy


    Array comparative genome hybridization (aCGH) is a widely used methodology to detect copy number variations of a genome in high resolution. Knowing the number of break-points and their corresponding locations in genomic sequences serves different biological needs. Primarily, it helps to identify disease-causing genes that have functional importance in characterizing genome wide diseases. For human autosomes the normal copy number is two, whereas at the sites of oncogenes it increases (gain of DNA) and at the tumour suppressor genes it decreases (loss of DNA). The majority of the current detection methods are deterministic in their set-up and use dynamic programming or different smoothing techniques to obtain the estimates of copy number variations. These approaches limit the search space of the problem due to different assumptions considered in the methods and do not represent the true nature of the uncertainty associated with the unknown break-points in genomic sequences. We propose the Cross-Entropy method, which is a model-based stochastic optimization technique as an exact search method, to estimate both the number and locations of the break-points in aCGH data. We model the continuous scale log-ratio data obtained by the aCGH technique as a multiple break-point problem. The proposed methodology is compared with well established publicly available methods using both artificially generated data and real data. Results show that the proposed procedure is an effective way of estimating number and especially the locations of break-points with high level of precision. Availability: The methods described in this article are implemented in the new R package breakpoint and it is available from the Comprehensive R Archive Network at

  13. A new criterion for identifying breaks in monsoon conditions over the Indian subcontinent

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.; Dessai, U.R.P.

    The presence or absence of prolonged breaks over the Indian subcontinent during the mid monsoon months of July and August decides the fate of the monsoon rainfall. Using a new criterion for identifying the breaks, we have catalogued them...

  14. Breaking Bad Habits: Teaching Effective PowerPoint Use to Working Graduate Students (United States)

    Vik, Gretchen N.


    One interesting aspect of teaching students to use PowerPoint and similar graphics packages effectively is that graduate students who are already in the workforce often have bad presentation habits that they need to break. In this article, the author discusses ways of breaking these bad habits. Using storyboards is one way to keep students from…

  15. arXiv Radiative symmetry breaking from interacting UV fixed points

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, Steven


    It is shown that the addition of positive mass-squared terms to asymptotically safe gauge-Yukawa theories with perturbative UV fixed points leads to calculable radiative symmetry breaking in the IR. This phenomenon, and the multiplicative running of the operators that lies behind it, is akin to the radiative symmetry breaking that occurs in the supersymmetric standard model.

  16. Hydrogen bond breaking in aqueous solutions near the critical point (United States)

    Mayanovic, Robert A.; Anderson, Alan J.; Bassett, William A.; Chou, I.-Ming


    The nature of water-anion bonding is examined using X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy on a 1mZnBr2/6m NaBr aqueous solution, to near critical conditions. Analyses show that upon heating the solution from 25??C to 500??C, a 63% reduction of waters occurs in the solvation shell of ZnBr42-, which is the predominant complex at all pressure-temperature conditions investigated. A similar reduction in the hydration shell of waters in the Br- aqua ion was found. Our results indicate that the water-anion and water-water bond breaking mechanisms occurring at high temperatures are essentially the same. This is consistent with the hydration waters being weakly hydrogen bonded to halide anions in electrolyte solutions. ?? 2001 Elsevier Science B.V.

  17. Retrospective analysis of the financial break-even point for intrathecal morphine pump use in Korea. (United States)

    Kim, Eun Kyoung; Shin, Ji Yeon; Castañeda, Anyela Marcela; Lee, Seung Jae; Yoon, Hyun Kyu; Kim, Yong Chul; Moon, Jee Youn


    The high cost of intrathecal morphine pump (ITMP) implantation may be the main obstacle to its use. Since July 2014, the Korean national health insurance (NHI) program began paying 50% of the ITMP implantation cost in select refractory chronic pain patients. The aims of this study were to investigate the financial break-even point and patients' satisfaction in patients with ITMP treatment after the initiation of the NHI reimbursement. We collected data retrospectively or via direct phone calls to patients who underwent ITMP implantation at a single university-based tertiary hospital between July 2014 and May 2016. Pain severity, changes in the morphine equivalent daily dosage (MEDD), any adverse events, and patients' satisfaction were determined. We calculated the financial break-even point of ITMP implantation via investigating the patient's actual medical costs and insurance information. During the studied period, 23 patients received ITMP implantation, and 20 patients were included in our study. Scores on an 11-point numeric rating scale (NRS) for pain were significantly reduced compared to the baseline value (P break-even point was 28 months for ITMP treatment after the NHI reimbursement policy. ITMP provided effective chronic pain management with improved satisfaction and reasonable financial break-even point of 28 months with 50% financial coverage by NHI program.

  18. Localisation of aphidicolin-induced break points in Holstein-Friesian cattle (Bos taurus using RBG-banding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mernies Beatriz


    Full Text Available Abstract Fragile sites (FS seem to play a role in genome instability and may be involved in karyotype evolution and chromosome aberrations. The majority of common fragile sites are induced by aphidicolin. Aphidicolin was used at two different concentrations (0.15 and 0.30 μM to study the occurrence of FS in the cattle karyotype. In this paper, a map of aphidicolin induced break points and fragile sites in cattle chromosomes was constructed. The statistical analysis indicated that any band with three or more breaks was significantly damaged (P r = 0.54. On the contrary, 21 FS were identified on negative R bands while 9 FS were located on positive R bands.

  19. Near Point of Convergence Break for Different Age Groups in Turkish Population with Normal Binocular Vision: Normative Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihat Sayın


    Full Text Available Purpose: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the near point of convergence break in Turkish population with normal binocular vision and to obtain the normative data for the near point of convergence break in different age groups. Such database has not been previously reported. Material and Method: In this prospective study, 329 subjects with normal binocular vision (age range, 3-72 years were evaluated. The near point of convergence break was measured 4 times repeatedly with an accommodative target. Mean values of near point of convergence break were provided for these age groups (≤10, 11-20, 21-30, 31-40, 41-50, 51-60, and >60 years old. A statistical comparison (one-way ANOVA and post-hoc test of these values between age groups was performed. A correlation between the near point of convergence break and age was evaluated by Pearson’s correlation test. Results: The mean value for near point of convergence break was 2.46±1.88 (0.5-14 cm. Specifically, 95% of measurements in all subjects were 60 year-old age groups in the near point of convergence break values (p=0.0001, p=0.0001, p=0.006, p=0.001, p= 0.004. A mild positive correlation was observed between the increase in near point of convergence break and increase of age (r=0.355 (p<0.001. Discussion: The values derived from a relatively large study population to establish a normative database for the near point of convergence break in the Turkish population with normal binocular vision are in relevance with age. This database has not been previously reported. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2013; 43: 402-6

  20. Odd-Parity Superconductivity near an Inversion Breaking Quantum Critical Point in One Dimension (United States)

    Ruhman, Jonathan; Kozii, Vladyslav; Fu, Liang


    We study how an inversion-breaking quantum critical point affects the ground state of a one-dimensional electronic liquid with repulsive interaction and spin-orbit coupling. We find that regardless of the interaction strength, the critical fluctuations always lead to a gap in the electronic spin sector. The origin of the gap is a two-particle backscattering process, which becomes relevant due to renormalization of the Luttinger parameter near the critical point. The resulting spin-gapped state is topological and can be considered as a one-dimensional version of a spin-triplet superconductor. Interestingly, in the case of a ferromagnetic critical point, the Luttinger parameter is renormalized in the opposite manner, such that the system remains nonsuperconducting.

  1. Using machine learning to identify structural breaks in single-group interrupted time series designs. (United States)

    Linden, Ariel; Yarnold, Paul R


    Single-group interrupted time series analysis (ITSA) is a popular evaluation methodology in which a single unit of observation is being studied, the outcome variable is serially ordered as a time series and the intervention is expected to 'interrupt' the level and/or trend of the time series, subsequent to its introduction. Given that the internal validity of the design rests on the premise that the interruption in the time series is associated with the introduction of the treatment, treatment effects may seem less plausible if a parallel trend already exists in the time series prior to the actual intervention. Thus, sensitivity analyses should focus on detecting structural breaks in the time series before the intervention. In this paper, we introduce a machine-learning algorithm called optimal discriminant analysis (ODA) as an approach to determine if structural breaks can be identified in years prior to the initiation of the intervention, using data from California's 1988 voter-initiated Proposition 99 to reduce smoking rates. The ODA analysis indicates that numerous structural breaks occurred prior to the actual initiation of Proposition 99 in 1989, including perfect structural breaks in 1983 and 1985, thereby casting doubt on the validity of treatment effects estimated for the actual intervention when using a single-group ITSA design. Given the widespread use of ITSA for evaluating observational data and the increasing use of machine-learning techniques in traditional research, we recommend that structural break sensitivity analysis is routinely incorporated in all research using the single-group ITSA design. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  2. Breaking Bat (United States)

    Aguilar, Isaac-Cesar; Kagan, David


    The sight of a broken bat in Major League Baseball can produce anything from a humorous dribbler in the infield to a frightening pointed projectile headed for the stands. Bats usually break at the weakest point, typically in the handle. Breaking happens because the wood gets bent beyond the breaking point due to the wave sent down the bat created…

  3. Break-Even Points of Battery Energy Storage Systems for Peak Shaving Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Rahmann


    Full Text Available In the last few years, several investigations have been carried out in the field of optimal sizing of energy storage systems (ESSs at both the transmission and distribution levels. Nevertheless, most of these works make important assumptions about key factors affecting ESS profitability such as efficiency and life cycles and especially about the specific costs of the ESS, without considering the uncertainty involved. In this context, this work aims to answer the question: what should be the costs of different ESS technologies in order to make a profit when considering peak shaving applications? The paper presents a comprehensive sensitivity analysis of the interaction between the profitability of an ESS project and some key parameters influencing the project performance. The proposed approach determines the break-even points for different ESSs considering a wide range of life cycles, efficiencies, energy prices, and power prices. To do this, an optimization algorithm for the sizing of ESSs is proposed from a distribution company perspective. From the results, it is possible to conclude that, depending on the values of round trip efficiency, life cycles, and power price, there are four battery energy storage systems (BESS technologies that are already profitable when only peak shaving applications are considered: lead acid, NaS, ZnBr, and vanadium redox.

  4. Break Point Distribution on Chromosome 3 of Human Epithelial Cells exposed to Gamma Rays, Neutrons and Fe Ions (United States)

    Hada, M.; Saganti, P. B.; Gersey, B.; Wilkins, R.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Wu, H.


    Most of the reported studies of break point distribution on the damaged chromosomes from radiation exposure were carried out with the G-banding technique or determined based on the relative length of the broken chromosomal fragments. However, these techniques lack the accuracy in comparison with the later developed multicolor banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) technique that is generally used for analysis of intrachromosomal aberrations such as inversions. Using mBAND, we studied chromosome aberrations in human epithelial cells exposed in vitro to both low or high dose rate gamma rays in Houston, low dose rate secondary neutrons at Los Alamos National Laboratory and high dose rate 600 MeV/u Fe ions at NASA Space Radiation Laboratory. Detailed analysis of the inversion type revealed that all of the three radiation types induced a low incidence of simple inversions. Half of the inversions observed after neutron or Fe ion exposure, and the majority of inversions in gamma-irradiated samples were accompanied by other types of intrachromosomal aberrations. In addition, neutrons and Fe ions induced a significant fraction of inversions that involved complex rearrangements of both inter- and intrachromosome exchanges. We further compared the distribution of break point on chromosome 3 for the three radiation types. The break points were found to be randomly distributed on chromosome 3 after neutrons or Fe ions exposure, whereas non-random distribution with clustering break points was observed for gamma-rays. The break point distribution may serve as a potential fingerprint of high-LET radiation exposure.

  5. Identifying knickpoints using elevation breaks and offsets in slope-area scaling (United States)

    Peifer Bezerra, Daniel; Persano, Cristina


    passive margin river system, the Quadrilátero Ferrífero - Brazil, that exhibits (i) high relief (max. relief is 1400 m, max. elevation is 2080 m); (ii) presence of knickpoints; (iii) an absence of Quaternary glaciation. Therefore, we seek to test the different methods of identification of knickpoints in a mountainous landscape where we had field constraints of knickpoints. There are two main criteria for the identification of knickpoints: (1) elevation/gradient breaks or; (2) offsets in trends of slope-area scaling. Both of those criteria are somehow subjective as the values for the breaks in (1) as well as the regression limits for the slope-area scaling (2) are arbitrary. We show that the use of those different criteria prescribes different results; the knickpoints identified for both methods are not interchangeable. The method (1) define a higher number of knickpoints than (2) that are more easily identified in the field than the knickpoints that stem from (2). Many times the knickpoints identified from (1) are subsequent, meaning that they are a knickzone rather than a knickpoint. The method (2) is more robust for the characterization of knickzones than (1). We suggest a combined approach for the identification of knickpoints as well as arbitrary values for defining it.

  6. An algorithm to locate optimal bond breaking points on a potential energy surface for applications in mechanochemistry and catalysis (United States)

    Bofill, Josep Maria; Ribas-Ariño, Jordi; García, Sergio Pablo; Quapp, Wolfgang


    The reaction path of a mechanically induced chemical transformation changes under stress. It is well established that the force-induced structural changes of minima and saddle points, i.e., the movement of the stationary points on the original or stress-free potential energy surface, can be described by a Newton Trajectory (NT). Given a reactive molecular system, a well-fitted pulling direction, and a sufficiently large value of the force, the minimum configuration of the reactant and the saddle point configuration of a transition state collapse at a point on the corresponding NT trajectory. This point is called barrier breakdown point or bond breaking point (BBP). The Hessian matrix at the BBP has a zero eigenvector which coincides with the gradient. It indicates which force (both in magnitude and direction) should be applied to the system to induce the reaction in a barrierless process. Within the manifold of BBPs, there exist optimal BBPs which indicate what is the optimal pulling direction and what is the minimal magnitude of the force to be applied for a given mechanochemical transformation. Since these special points are very important in the context of mechanochemistry and catalysis, it is crucial to develop efficient algorithms for their location. Here, we propose a Gauss-Newton algorithm that is based on the minimization of a positively defined function (the so-called σ -function). The behavior and efficiency of the new algorithm are shown for 2D test functions and for a real chemical example.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akhsyim Afandi


    Full Text Available There was a question whether monetary policy works through bank lending channelrequired a monetary-induced change in bank loans originates from the supply side. Mostempirical studies that employed vector autoregressive (VAR models failed to fulfill thisrequirement. Aiming to offer a solution to this identification problem, this paper developed afive-variable vector error correction (VEC model of two separate bank credit markets inIndonesia. Departing from previous studies, the model of each market took account of onestructural break endogenously determined by implementing a unit root test. A cointegrationtest that took account of one structural break suggested two cointegrating vectors identifiedas bank lending supply and demand relations. The estimated VEC system for both marketssuggested that bank loans adjusted more strongly in the direction of the supply equation.

  8. Pig model of pulmonary embolism: where is the hemodynamic break point? (United States)

    Kudlička, J; Mlček, M; Hála, P; Lacko, S; Janák, D; Hrachovina, M; Malík, J; Bělohlávek, J; Neužil, P; Kittnar, O


    Early recognition of collapsing hemodynamics in pulmonary embolism is necessary to avoid cardiac arrest using aggressive medical therapy or mechanical cardiac support. The aim of the study was to identify the maximal acute hemodynamic compensatory steady state. Overall, 40 dynamic obstructions of pulmonary artery were performed and hemodynamic data were collected. Occlusion of only left or right pulmonary artery did not lead to the hemodynamic collapse. When gradually obstructing the bifurcation, the right ventricle end-diastolic area expanded proportionally to pulmonary artery mean pressure from 11.6 (10.1, 14.1) to 17.8 (16.1, 18.8) cm(2) (p<0.0001) and pulmonary artery mean pressure increased from 22 (20, 24) to 44 (41, 47) mmHg (p<0.0001) at the point of maximal hemodynamic compensatory steady state. Similarly, mean arterial pressure decreased from 96 (87, 101) to 60 (53, 78) mmHg (p<0.0001), central venous pressure increased from 4 (4, 5) to 7 (6, 8) mmHg (p<0.0001), heart rate increased from 92 (88, 97) to 147 (122, 165) /min (p<0.0001), continuous cardiac output dropped from 5.2 (4.7, 5.8) to 4.3 (3.7, 5.0) l/min (p=0.0023), modified shock index increased from 0.99 (0.81, 1.10) to 2.31 (1.99, 2.72), p<0.0001. In conclusion, instead of continuous cardiac output all of the analyzed parameters can sensitively determine the individual maximal compensatory response to obstructive shock. We assume their monitoring can be used to predict the critical phase of the hemodynamic status in routine practice.

  9. Break through of tunnel TI2 into the LEP near Point 2

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud


    The breakthrough was of the injection tunnel TI2 into the LEP tunnel near the existing cavern UJ23 at Point 2. Work was carried out by contractor TWASB and supervised by Engineer BRI. The breakthrough was made with tunnelling machine called a road header. Two new caverns, RH23 and UJ22 will be built at the location of the breakthrough. These caverns will allow the installation of magnets from shaft PMI2 and also the injection of the beam into the LHC.

  10. Breaking of axial symmetry in excited nuclei as identified in experimental data (United States)

    Junghans, Arnd R.; Grosse, Eckart; Massarczyk, Ralph


    A phenomenological prediction for radiative neutron capture is presented and compared to recent compilations of Maxwellian averaged cross sections and average radiative widths. Photon strength functions and nuclear level densities near the neutron separation energy are extracted from data without the assumption of axial symmetry - at variance to common usage. A satisfactory description is reached with a small number of global parameters when theoretical predictions on triaxiality (from constrained HFB calculations with the Gogny D1S interaction) are inserted into conventional calculations of radiative neutron capture. The photon strength is parametrized using the sum of three Lorentzians (TLO) in accordance to the dipole sum rule. The positions and widths are accounted for by the droplet model with surface dissipation without locally adjusted parameters. Level densities are influenced strongly by the significant collective enhancement based on the breaking of axial symmetry. With the less stringent requirement of invariance against rotation by 180∘ a global set of parameters which allows to describe the photon strength function and the level densities in the nuclear mass range from mass number 50 < A < 250 is found.

  11. Breaking of axial symmetry in excited nuclei as identified in experimental data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junghans Arnd R.


    Full Text Available A phenomenological prediction for radiative neutron capture is presented and compared to recent compilations of Maxwellian averaged cross sections and average radiative widths. Photon strength functions and nuclear level densities near the neutron separation energy are extracted from data without the assumption of axial symmetry – at variance to common usage. A satisfactory description is reached with a small number of global parameters when theoretical predictions on triaxiality (from constrained HFB calculations with the Gogny D1S interaction are inserted into conventional calculations of radiative neutron capture. The photon strength is parametrized using the sum of three Lorentzians (TLO in accordance to the dipole sum rule. The positions and widths are accounted for by the droplet model with surface dissipation without locally adjusted parameters. Level densities are influenced strongly by the significant collective enhancement based on the breaking of axial symmetry. With the less stringent requirement of invariance against rotation by 180∘ a global set of parameters which allows to describe the photon strength function and the level densities in the nuclear mass range from mass number 50 < A < 250 is found.

  12. A systematic, critical review of manual palpation for identifying myofascial trigger points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myburgh, Corrie; Larsen, Anders Holsgaard; Hartvigsen, Jan


    To determine the reproducibility of manual palpation in identifying trigger points based on a systematic review of available literature.......To determine the reproducibility of manual palpation in identifying trigger points based on a systematic review of available literature....

  13. Analysis of temperature data over semi-arid Botswana: trends and break points (United States)

    Mphale, Kgakgamatso; Adedoyin, Akintayo; Nkoni, Godiraone; Ramaphane, Galebonwe; Wiston, Modise; Chimidza, Oyapo


    Climate change is a global challenge which impacts negatively on sustainable rural livelihoods, public health and economic development, more especially for communities in Southern Africa. Assessment of indices that signify climate change can inform formulation of relevant adaptation strategies and policies for the communities. Diurnal temperature range (DTR) is acknowledged as an expedient measure of the scourge as it is sensitive to variations in radiative energy balance. In this study, a long-term (1961-2010) daily temperature data obtained from nine (9) synoptic stations in Botswana were analyzed for monotonic trends and epochal changes in annual maximum (T max), minimum (T min) temperatures and DTR time series. Most of the considered stations were along the Kalahari Transect, a region which is at high risk of extensive environmental change due to climate change. Mann-Kendall trend and Lepage tests were applied for trend and change point analysis, respectively. The statistical analysis shows that stations in the southern part of the country experienced significant negative trends in annual DTR at the rate of -0.09 to -0.30 °C per decade due to steeper warming rates in annual T min than annual T max trends. On the contrary, stations in the northern part of the country experienced positive trends in annual DTR brought about by either a decreasing annual T min trend which outstripped annual T max or annual T max which outpaced annual T min. The increasing trends in DTR varied from 0.25 to 0.67 °C per decade. For most of the stations, the most significant annual DTR trends change point was in 1982 which coincided with the reversal of atmospheric circulation patterns.

  14. Breaking barriers to interoperability: assigning spatially and temporally unique identifiers to spaces and buildings. (United States)

    Pyke, Christopher R; Madan, Isaac


    The real estate industry routinely uses specialized information systems for functions, including design, construction, facilities management, brokerage, tax assessment, and utilities. These systems are mature and effective within vertically integrated market segments. However, new questions are reaching across these traditional information silos. For example, buyers may be interested in evaluating the design, energy efficiency characteristics, and operational performance of a commercial building. This requires the integration of information across multiple databases held by different institutions. Today, this type of data integration is difficult to automate and propone to errors due, in part, to the lack of generally accepted building and spaces identifiers. Moving forward, the real estate industry needs a new mechanism to assign identifiers for whole buildings and interior spaces for the purpose of interoperability, data exchange, and integration. This paper describes a systematic process to identify activities occurring at building or within interior spaces to provide a foundation for exchange and interoperability. We demonstrate the application of the approach with a prototype Web application. This concept and demonstration illustrate the elements of a practical interoperability framework that can increase productivity, create new business opportunities, and reduce errors, waste, and redundancy. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

  15. Attractive force-driven superhardening of graphene membranes as a pin-point breaking of continuum mechanics (United States)

    Ashino, Makoto; Wiesendanger, Roland


    Bending at the nanometre scale can substantially modify the mechanical, chemical and electronic properties of graphene membranes. The subsequent response of chemical bonds leads to deviations from plate idealisation in continuum mechanics. However, those phenomena have thus far been investigated exclusively by measuring the electronic properties of graphene deformed by compressing and stretching with local-probe techniques. Here, we report that the interatomic-attractive forces applied on the convexly-curved graphene by the probe tip give rise to a pin-point breaking of the plate idealisation in the continuum mechanics, facilitating atomically-localised enhancements in its chemical reactivity and mechanical strength. Thorough characterisations were conducted by atomic force microscopy and force field spectroscopy on hollow nanotubes, rolled-up graphene, with different diameters. Their topmost parts supplied well-defined curvatures of the convex graphene. We found that a significant enhancement in the out-of-plane Young’s modulus from 13 to 163 GPa, “superhardening”, was realised with the nonlinear transition of bond configurations. Our findings provide a fundamental understanding of the relationships between the structure of atomistic membranes and the dynamic behaviour of approaching exterior atoms or molecules and their subsequent interplay with chemical and mechanical properties. Thus, these results encourage the application of such membranes in functionally-controllable materials or devices.

  16. Ergodicity breaking and conformational hysteresis in the dynamics of a polymer tethered at a surface stagnation point. (United States)

    Beck, Victor A; Shaqfeh, Eric S G


    We study the dynamics of long chain polymer molecules tethered to a plane wall and subjected to a stagnation point flow. Using a combination of theory and numerical techniques, including Brownian dynamics (BD), we demonstrate that a chain conformation hysteresis exists even for freely draining (FD) chains. Hydrodynamic interactions (HI) between the polymer and the wall are included in the BD simulations. We find qualitative agreement between the FD and HI simulations, with both exhibiting simultaneous coiled and stretched states for a wide range of fixed flow strengths. The range of state coexistence is understood by considering an equivalent projected equilibrium problem of a two state reaction. Using this formalism, we construct Kramers rate theory (from the inverse mean first passage time for a Markov process) for the hopping transition from coil to stretch and stretch to coil. The activation energy for this rate is found to scale proportionally to chain length or Kuhn step number. Thus, in the limit of infinite chain size the hopping rates at a fixed value of the suitably defined Deborah number approach zero and the states are "frozen." We present the results that demonstrate this "ergodicity breaking."

  17. Modelling the association of dengue fever cases with temperature and relative humidity in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia-A generalised linear model with break-point analysis. (United States)

    Alkhaldy, Ibrahim


    The aim of this study was to examine the role of environmental factors in the temporal distribution of dengue fever in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The relationship between dengue fever cases and climatic factors such as relative humidity and temperature was investigated during 2006-2009 to determine whether there is any relationship between dengue fever cases and climatic parameters in Jeddah City, Saudi Arabia. A generalised linear model (GLM) with a break-point was used to determine how different levels of temperature and relative humidity affected the distribution of the number of cases of dengue fever. Break-point analysis was performed to modelled the effect before and after a break-point (change point) in the explanatory parameters under various scenarios. Akaike information criterion (AIC) and cross validation (CV) were used to assess the performance of the models. The results showed that maximum temperature and mean relative humidity are most probably the better predictors of the number of dengue fever cases in Jeddah. In this study three scenarios were modelled: no time lag, 1-week lag and 2-weeks lag. Among these scenarios, the 1-week lag model using mean relative humidity as an explanatory variable showed better performance. This study showed a clear relationship between the meteorological variables and the number of dengue fever cases in Jeddah. The results also demonstrated that meteorological variables can be successfully used to estimate the number of dengue fever cases for a given period of time. Break-point analysis provides further insight into the association between meteorological parameters and dengue fever cases by dividing the meteorological parameters into certain break-points. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Electroweak breaking and supersymmetry breaking

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We discuss the clash between the absence of fine tuning in the Higgs potential and a sufficient suppression of flavour changing neutral current transitions in supersymmetric extensions of the standard model. It is pointed out that horizontal U ( 1 ) symmetry combined with the D -term supersymmetry breaking provides a ...

  19. Identifying entry points to improve fertilizer use efficiency in Taihu Basin, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Li; Feng, S.; Reidsma, P.; Qu, F.; Heerink, N.


    Overuse of fertilizers in China causes environmental problems and high costs for farmers. In this paper we aim to identify entry points to improve fertilizer use efficiency in Taihu Basin, China. We use stochastic frontier analysis to estimate the technical and fertilizer use efficiency of rice

  20. Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate End-points (ECLIPSE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestbo, J; Anderson, W; Coxson, H O


    . Evaluation of COPD Longitudinally to Identify Predictive Surrogate End-points (ECLIPSE) is a 3-yr longitudinal study with four specific aims: 1) definition of clinically relevant COPD subtypes; 2) identification of parameters that predict disease progression in these subtypes; 3) examination of biomarkers...

  1. A Combined Control Chart for Identifying Out–Of–Control Points in Multivariate Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marroquín–Prado E.


    Full Text Available The Hotelling's T2 control chart is widely used to identify out–of–control signals in multivariate processes. However, this chart is not sensitive to small shifts in the process mean vec tor. In this work we propose a control chart to identify out–of–control signals. The proposed chart is a combination of Hotelling's T2 chart, M chart proposed by Hayter et al. (1994 and a new chart based on Principal Components. The combination of these charts identifies any type and size of change in the process mean vector. Us ing simulation and the Average Run Length (ARL, the performance of the proposed control chart is evaluated. The ARL means the average points within control before an out–of–control point is detected, The results of the simulation show that the proposed chart is more sensitive that each one of the three charts individually

  2. Sales Spotter: An Algorithm to Identify Sale Prices in Point-of-Sale Data


    Iqbal A. Syed


    This paper develops an algorithm, called the sales spotter, which identifies the sale prices in the transaction price series provided in point-of-sale data. The goal of the sales spotter is to identify the maximum number of sale prices while minimizing the incorrect attribution of non-sale price reductions to sale prices. The spotter is developed and the values of its parameters are selected by analysing around 7.5 million agged sales in a US supermarket scanner data. At the optimal values of...

  3. Using Soluble Reactive Phosphorus and Ammonia to Identify Point Source Discharge from Large Livestock Facilities (United States)

    Borrello, M. C.; Scribner, M.; Chessin, K.


    A growing body of research draws attention to the negative environmental impacts on surface water from large livestock facilities. These impacts are mostly in the form of excessive nutrient loading resulting in significantly decreased oxygen levels. Over-application of animal waste on fields as well as direct discharge into surface water from facilities themselves has been identified as the main contributor to the development of hypoxic zones in Lake Erie, Chesapeake Bay and the Gulf of Mexico. Some regulators claim enforcement of water quality laws is problematic because of the nature and pervasiveness of non-point source impacts. Any direct discharge by a facility is a violation of permits governed by the Clean Water Act, unless the facility has special dispensation for discharge. Previous research by the principal author and others has shown runoff and underdrain transport are the main mechanisms by which nutrients enter surface water. This study utilized previous work to determine if the effects of non-point source discharge can be distinguished from direct (point-source) discharge using simple nutrient analysis and dissolved oxygen (DO) parameters. Nutrient and DO parameters were measured from three sites: 1. A stream adjacent to a field receiving manure, upstream of a large livestock facility with a history of direct discharge, 2. The same stream downstream of the facility and 3. A stream in an area relatively unimpacted by large-scale agriculture (control site). Results show that calculating a simple Pearson correlation coefficient (r) of soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP) and ammonia over time as well as temperature and DO, distinguishes non-point source from point source discharge into surface water. The r value for SRP and ammonia for the upstream site was 0.01 while the r value for the downstream site was 0.92. The control site had an r value of 0.20. Likewise, r values were calculated on temperature and DO for each site. High negative correlations

  4. Nutritional strategies of Latino farmworker families with preschool children: identifying leverage points for obesity prevention. (United States)

    Quandt, Sara A; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Trejo, Grisel; Arcury, Thomas A


    Obesity and overweight are significant problems for children in the US, particularly for Hispanic children. This paper focuses on the children in families of immigrant Hispanic farmworkers, as farm work is the portal though which many immigrants come to the US. This paper (1) describes a model of the nutritional strategies of child feeding in farmworker families; and (2) uses this model to identify leverage points for efforts to improve the nutritional status of these children. In-depth interviews were conducted in Spanish with 33 mothers of 2-5 year old children in farmworker families recruited in North Carolina in 2010-2011. The purposive sample was balanced by farmworker status (migrant or seasonal), child age, and child gender. Interviews were transcribed and translated. Multiple coders and a team approach to analysis were used. Nutritional strategies centered on domains of procuring food, using food, and maintaining food security. The content of these domains reflected environmental factors (e.g., rural isolation, shared housing), contextual factors (e.g., beliefs about appropriate food, parenting style), and available resources (e.g., income, government programs). Environmental isolation and limited access to resources decrease the amount and diversity of household food supplies. Parental actions (parental sacrifices, reduced dietary variety) attempt to buffer children. Use of government food sources is valuable for eligible families. Leverage points are suggested that would change nutritional strategy components and lower the risk of overweight and obesity. Further prospective research is needed to verify the nutritional strategy identified and to test the ability of leverage points to prevent childhood obesity in this vulnerable population. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scorte Carmen


    Full Text Available Management accounting and cost calculation in the hospitality industry is a pathless land. The prezent article is a starting point of a long scientific approach on the domain of the hospitality industry and on the managerial accounting in this area. Our intention is to put the spot light back on the thorny problem of applying Financial Accounting and specifically its implementation in the hospitality industry. One aim of this article is to provide a picture of CVP analysis in decision making with customizing the hospitality industry. To cope with the crisis period, the competition and to achieve the expected profits of the hospitality industry ,managers have the possibility to apply CVP analysis, one of the most simple and useful analytical tools. This paper will address the basic version of the CVP model, exemplifying the main indicators of the particular model for the hospitality industry that can help guide decision-making.

  6. Study protocol: identifying and delivering point-of-care information to improve care coordination. (United States)

    Hysong, Sylvia J; Che, Xinxuan; Weaver, Sallie J; Petersen, Laura A


    The need for deliberately coordinated care is noted by many national-level organizations. The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) recently transitioned primary care clinics nationwide into Patient Aligned Care Teams (PACTs) to provide more accessible, coordinated, comprehensive, and patient-centered care. To better serve this purpose, PACTs must be able to successfully sequence and route interdependent tasks to appropriate team members while also maintaining collective situational awareness (coordination). Although conceptual frameworks of care coordination exist, few explicitly articulate core behavioral markers of coordination or the related information needs of team members attempting to synchronize complex care processes across time for a shared patient population. Given this gap, we partnered with a group of frontline primary care personnel at ambulatory care sites to identify the specific information needs of PACT members that will enable them to coordinate their efforts to provide effective, coordinated care. The study has three objectives: (1) development of measurable, prioritized point-of-care criteria for effective PACT coordination; (2) identifying the specific information needed at the point of care to optimize coordination; and (3) assessing the effect of adopting the aforementioned coordination standards on PACT clinicians' coordination behaviors. The study consists of three phases. In phase 1, we will employ the Productivity Measurement and Enhancement System (ProMES), a structured approach to performance measure creation from industrial/organizational psychology, to develop coordination measures with a design team of 6-10 primary care personnel; in phase 2, we will conduct focus groups with the phase 1 design team to identify point-of-care information needs. Phase 3 is a two-arm field experiment (n PACT = 28/arm); intervention arm PACTs will receive monthly feedback reports using the measures developed in phase 1 and attend brief monthly

  7. Nbs1 ChIP-Seq Identifies Off-Target DNA Double-Strand Breaks Induced by AID in Activated Splenic B Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyne Khair


    Full Text Available Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID is required for initiation of Ig class switch recombination (CSR and somatic hypermutation (SHM of antibody genes during immune responses. AID has also been shown to induce chromosomal translocations, mutations, and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs involving non-Ig genes in activated B cells. To determine what makes a DNA site a target for AID-induced DSBs, we identify off-target DSBs induced by AID by performing chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP for Nbs1, a protein that binds DSBs, followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-Seq. We detect and characterize hundreds of off-target AID-dependent DSBs. Two types of tandem repeats are highly enriched within the Nbs1-binding sites: long CA repeats, which can form Z-DNA, and tandem pentamers containing the AID target hotspot WGCW. These tandem repeats are not nearly as enriched at AID-independent DSBs, which we also identified. Msh2, a component of the mismatch repair pathway and important for genome stability, increases off-target DSBs, similar to its effect on Ig switch region DSBs, which are required intermediates during CSR. Most of the off-target DSBs are two-ended, consistent with generation during G1 phase, similar to DSBs in Ig switch regions. However, a minority are one-ended, presumably due to conversion of single-strand breaks to DSBs during replication. One-ended DSBs are repaired by processes involving homologous recombination, including break-induced replication repair, which can lead to genome instability. Off-target DSBs, especially those present during S phase, can lead to chromosomal translocations, deletions and gene amplifications, resulting in the high frequency of B cell lymphomas derived from cells that express or have expressed AID.

  8. Inter- and Intraexaminer Reliability in Identifying and Classifying Myofascial Trigger Points in Shoulder Muscles. (United States)

    Nascimento, José Diego Sales do; Alburquerque-Sendín, Francisco; Vigolvino, Lorena Passos; Oliveira, Wandemberg Fortunato de; Sousa, Catarina de Oliveira


    To determine inter- and intraexaminer reliability of examiners without clinical experience in identifying and classifying myofascial trigger points (MTPs) in the shoulder muscles of subjects asymptomatic and symptomatic for unilateral subacromial impact syndrome (SIS). Within-day inter- and intraexaminer reliability study. Physical therapy department of a university. Fifty-two subjects participated in the study, 26 symptomatic and 26 asymptomatic for unilateral SIS. Two examiners, without experience for assessing MTPs, independent and blind to the clinical conditions of the subjects, assessed bilaterally the presence of MTPs (present or absent) in 6 shoulder muscles and classified them (latent or active) on the affected side of the symptomatic group. Each examiner performed the same assessment twice in the same day. Reliability was calculated through percentage agreement, prevalence- and bias-adjusted kappa (PABAK) statistics, and weighted kappa. Intraexaminer reliability in identifying MTPs for the symptomatic and asymptomatic groups was moderate to perfect (PABAK, .46-1 and .60-1, respectively). Interexaminer reliability was between moderate and almost perfect in the 2 groups (PABAK, .46-.92), except for the muscles of the symptomatic group, which were below these values. With respect to MTP classification, intraexaminer reliability was moderate to high for most muscles, but interexaminer reliability was moderate for only 1 muscle (weighted κ=.45), and between weak and reasonable for the rest (weighted κ=.06-.31). Intraexaminer reliability is acceptable in clinical practice to identify and classify MTPs. However, interexaminer reliability proved to be reliable only to identify MTPs, with the symptomatic side exhibiting lower values of reliability. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Identifying weak points of urban drainage systems by means of VulNetUD. (United States)

    Möderl, M; Kleidorfer, M; Sitzenfrei, R; Rauch, W


    This article presents the development and application of the software tool VulNetUD. VulNetUD is a tool for GIS-based identification of vulnerable sites of urban drainage systems (UDS) using hydrodynamic simulations undertaken using EPA SWMM. The benefit of the tool is the output of different vulnerability maps rating sewer surcharging, sewer flooding, combined sewer overflow (CSO) efficiency and CSO emissions. For this, seven predefined performance indicators are used to evaluate urban drainage systems under abnormal, critical and future conditions. The application on a case study highlights the capability of the tool to identify weak points of the urban drainage systems. Thereby it is possible to identify urban drainage system components which cause the highest performance decrease across the entire system. The application of the method on a real world case study shows for instance that a reduction of catchment areas which are located upstream of CSOs with relatively less capacity in the downstream sewers achieves the highest increases efficiency of the system. Finally, the application of VulNetUD is seen as a valuable tool for managers and operators of waste water utilities to improve the efficiency of their systems. Additionally vulnerability maps generated by VulNetUD support risk management e.g. decision making in urban development planning or the development of rehabilitation strategies.

  10. Pointing and Reference in Sign Language and Spoken Language: Anchoring vs. Identifying (United States)

    Barberà, Gemma; Zwets, Martine


    In both signed and spoken languages, pointing serves to direct an addressee's attention to a particular entity. This entity may be either present or absent in the physical context of the conversation. In this article we focus on pointing directed to nonspeaker/nonaddressee referents in Sign Language of the Netherlands (Nederlandse Gebarentaal,…

  11. Cut points for identifying clinically significant diabetes distress in adolescents with type 1 diabetes using the PAID-T

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagger, Virginia; Hendrieckx, Christel; Cameron, Fergus


    OBJECTIVE To establish cut point(s) for the Problem Areas in Diabetes-teen version (PAID-T) scale to identify adolescents with clinically meaningful, elevated diabetes distress. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Data were available from the Diabetes Management and Impact for Long-term Empowerment and S...

  12. Universality class of replica symmetry breaking, scaling behavior, and the low-temperature fixed-point order function of the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick model. (United States)

    Oppermann, R; Schmidt, M J


    A scaling theory of replica symmetry breaking (RSB) in the Sherrington-Kirkpatrick (SK) model is presented in the framework of critical phenomena for the scaling regime of large RSB orders kappa , small temperatures T , and small (homogeneous) magnetic fields H . We employ the pseudodynamical picture [R. Oppermann, M. J. Schmidt, and D. Sherrington, Phys. Rev. Lett. 98, 127201 (2007)], where two critical points CP1 and CP2 are associated with the order function's pseudodynamical limits lim_{a-->infinity}q(a)=1 and lim_{a-->0}q(a)=0 at (T=0 , H=0 , 1kappa=0) . CP1 - and CP2 -dominated contributions to the free energy functional F[q(a)] require an unconventional scaling hypothesis. We determine the scaling contributions in accordance with detailed numerical self-consistent solutions for up to 200 orders of RSB. Power laws, scaling functions, and crossover lines are obtained. CP1 -dominated behavior is found for the nonequilibrium susceptibility, which decays like chi_{1}=kappa;{-53}f_{1}(Tkappa;{-53}) , for the entropy, which obeys S(T=0) approximately chi_{1};{2} , and for the subclass of diverging parameters a_{i}=kappa;{53}f_{a_{i}}(Tkappa;{-53}) [describing Parisi box sizes m_{i}(T) identical witha_{i}(T)T ], with f_{1}(zeta) approximately zeta and f_{a_{i}}(zeta) approximately 1zeta for zeta-->infinity , while f(0) is finite. CP2 -dominated behavior, controlled by the magnetic field H while temperature is irrelevant, is retrieved in the plateau height (or width) of the order function q(a) according to q_{pl}(H)=kappa;{-1}f_{pl}(H;{23}kappa;{-1}) with f_{pl}mid R:(zeta)mid R:_{zeta-->infinity} approximately zeta and f_{pl}(0) finite. Divergent characteristic RSB orders kappa_{CP1}(T) approximately T;{-35} and kappa_{CP2}(H) approximately H;{-23} , respectively, describe the crossover from mean field SK- to RSB-critical behavior with rational-valued exponents extracted with high precision from our RSB data. The order function q(a) is obtained as a fixed-point

  13. [Validation of cut points of skeletal muscle mass index for identifying sarcopenia in Chilean older people]. (United States)

    Lera, Lydia; Ángel, Bárbara; Sánchez, Hugo; Picrin, Yaisy; Hormazabal, María José; Quiero, Andrea; Albala, Cecilia


    To estimate and validate cut-off points of skeletal muscle mass index (SMI) in Chilean population, for using in an algorithm for a diagnosis of sarcopenia developed by European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older People (EWGSOP). Secondary analysis of Cross-sectional data in 440 Chilean older subjects to estimate cut-off points of SMI determined by DEXA and predicted by an anthropometric equation. Afterward a cross-sectional validation in a sample of 164 older people was performed. Anthropometric measures, self-reported health status, physical performance tests and DEXA were carried out. Decreased muscle strength was defined as handgrip strength <15 kg in women and <27 kg in male. Cut-off points of SMI were defined as values under 20th percentile for DEXA measures and estimated through ROC curves for the anthropometric model. Biological validity of the algorithm was tested by contrasting the diagnosis with physical performance tests and functionality. Cut-off points of SMI obtained by DEXA were 7.19 kg/m² in men and 5.77 kg/m² in women and 7.45 kg/ m² and 5.88 kg/m², respectively for the predicted by the model. Sensibility and specificity of estimations vs DEXA measures were 80% and 92% in men and 77% and 89% in women. We obtained cut-off points of SMI for DEXA and for a prediction equation for older adults Chilean, with good sensibility and specificity for the measurement by DEXA. It will allow to apply the EWGSOP algorithm to the early diagnosis of sarcopenia and to develop programs for prevention, delay or reversion this syndrome. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. A Combined Control Chart for Identifying Out–Of–Control Points in Multivariate Processes


    Marroquín–Prado E.; Cantú–Sifuentes M.


    The Hotelling's T2 control chart is widely used to identify out–of–control signals in multivariate processes. However, this chart is not sensitive to small shifts in the process mean vec tor. In this work we propose a control chart to identify out–of–control signals. The proposed chart is a combination of Hotelling's T2 chart, M chart proposed by Hayter et al. (1994) and a new chart based on Principal Components. The combination of these charts identifies any type and size of change in the pr...

  15. African American Young Adult Smoking Initiation: Identifying Intervention Points and Prevention Opportunities (United States)

    Cheney, Marshall K.; Mansker, Jacqueline


    Background: African Americans have one of the lowest smoking rates as teens yet have one of the highest smoking rates as adults. Approximately 40% of African Americans who have ever smoked started smoking between the ages of 18 and 21. Purpose: This study aimed to identify why African American young adults began smoking in young adulthood and what…

  16. Detecting Structural Breaks using Hidden Markov Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ntantamis, Christos

    Testing for structural breaks and identifying their location is essential for econometric modeling. In this paper, a Hidden Markov Model (HMM) approach is used in order to perform these tasks. Breaks are defined as the data points where the underlying Markov Chain switches from one state to another....... The estimation of the HMM is conducted using a variant of the Iterative Conditional Expectation-Generalized Mixture (ICE-GEMI) algorithm proposed by Delignon et al. (1997), that permits analysis of the conditional distributions of economic data and allows for different functional forms across regimes...

  17. Trauma center finances and length of stay: identifying a profitability inflection point. (United States)

    Fakhry, Samir M; Couillard, Debbie; Liddy, Casey T; Adams, David; Norcross, E Douglass


    Trauma centers frequently report unfavorable financial results for the care of injured patients. Many variables contribute to these results. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship of adult trauma patient hospital length of stay (LOS) to trauma center profitability. The trauma registry of a Level I trauma center was queried for patients older than 18 years for the period July 1, 2003 to June 30, 2008. Hospital financial records were matched to patient trauma registry data. There were 7,990 patients who met selection criteria: 71% were men, mean age was 40 years, mean Injury Severity Score was 12 +/-10, 84.2% of injuries were blunt, and mean LOS was 6.23 days. In the 5 years of the study, total charges were $329,315,191, total costs were $137,680,039, and overall profit was $7,644,894. Total costs rose each year and percent collections fell. The bulk of the profit was realized from patients with LOS profitability as LOS increased. A notable "inflection point" at 11 days defined the cohort of profitable patients. Trauma patient LOS correlates closely with profitability. In this center, the vast majority of profit was realized from patients with LOS profitability and reflects the current reimbursement environment, which rewards shorter LOS over severity and quality. Copyright 2010 American College of Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Institutional point-of-care glucometer identifies population trends in blood glucose associated with war. (United States)

    Boaz, Mona; Matas, Zipora; Chaimy, Tova; Landau, Zohar; Bar Dayan, Yosefa; Berlovitz, Yitzhak; Wainstein, Julio


    Acute physiological stress has been shown to impair glucose homeostasis. War is a period of acute psychological stress, and its effect on glucose control is unknown. In this study random point-of-care (POC) glucose levels were measured using an automated, institutional glucometer in hospitalized adult patients prior to versus during the Israeli Pillar of Defense campaign (November 7-10, 2012). Random POC glucose values measured with the institutional blood glucose monitoring system were obtained 1 week prior to the Pillar of Defense campaign (November 7-10, 2012) and compared with values to those obtained during the first 4 days of the war (November 14-17, 2012). In total, 3,573 POC glucose measures were included: 1,865 during the pre-war period and 1,708 during the campaign. POC glucose measures were significantly higher during the war compared with the week preceding the war: 9.7±4.7 versus 9.3±4.2 mmol/L (P=0.02). In a general linear model, period (pre-war vs. during war) persisted as a significant predictor of POC glucose even after controlling for age, sex, and department type (internal medicine vs. surgical). Acute stress, such as a wartime situation, is associated with a significant increase in random blood glucose values in a population of hospitalized adults. Long-term follow-up of the individuals hospitalized during these two periods can reveal differences in morbidity and mortality trends.

  19. A Web-based Tool for Identifying Strategic Intervention Points in Complex Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiris Moschoyiannis


    Full Text Available Steering a complex system towards a desired outcome is a challenging task. The lack of clarity on the system's exact architecture and the often scarce scientific data upon which to base the operationalisation of the dynamic rules that underpin the interactions between participant entities are two contributing factors. We describe an analytical approach that builds on Fuzzy Cognitive Mapping (FCM to address the latter and represent the system as a complex network. We apply results from network controllability to address the former and determine minimal control configurations - subsets of factors, or system levers, which comprise points for strategic intervention in steering the system. We have implemented the combination of these techniques in an analytical tool that runs in the browser, and generates all minimal control configurations of a complex network. We demonstrate our approach by reporting on our experience of working alongside industrial, local-government, and NGO stakeholders in the Humber region, UK. Our results are applied to the decision-making process involved in the transition of the region to a bio-based economy.

  20. Subtraction electrocardiography: Detection of ischemia-induced ST displacement without the need to identify the J point. (United States)

    Ter Haar, C Cato; Man, Sum-Che; Maan, Arie C; Schalij, Martin J; Swenne, Cees A


    When triaging a patient with acute chest pain at first medical contact, an electrocardiogram (ECG) is routinely made and inspected for signs of myocardial ischemia. The guidelines recommend comparison of the acute and an earlier-made ECG, when available. No concrete recommendations for this comparison exist, neither is known how to handle J-point identification difficulties. Here we present a J-point independent method for such a comparison. After conversion to vectorcardiograms, baseline and acute ischemic ECGs after 3minutes of balloon occlusion during elective PCI were compared in 81 patients of the STAFF III ECG database. Baseline vectorcardiograms were subtracted from ischemic vectorcardiograms using either the QRS onsets or the J points as synchronization instants, yielding vector magnitude difference signals, ΔH. Output variables for the J-point synchronized differences were ΔH at the actual J point and at 20, 40, 60 and 80ms thereafter. Output variables for the onset-QRS synchronized differences were the ΔH at 80, 100, 120, 140 and 160ms after onset QRS. Finally, linear regressions of all combinations of ΔHJ+… versus ΔHQRS+… were made, and the best combination was identified. The highest correlation, 0.93 (p<0.01), was found between ΔH 40ms after the J point and 160ms after the onset of the QRS complex. With a ΔH ischemia threshold of 0.05mV, 66/81 (J-point synchronized differences) and 68/81 (onset-QRS synchronized differences) subjects were above the ischemia threshold, corresponding to sensitivities of 81% and 84%, respectively. Our current study opens an alternative way to detect cardiac ischemia without the need for human expertise for determination of the J point by measuring the difference vector magnitude at 160ms after the onset of the QRS complex. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. The Break

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Anete Mikkala Camille


    The chapter elaborates on how to deal with one of the major challenges facing organizations worldwide; Stress. The Break enacts a quantum approach to meet the challenges by proposing a combination of three different quantum storytelling technologies; protreptic mentoring, walking and material...... storytelling to enact fruitful breakings of patterns unbecoming. The claim being, that the hamster wheel of Work-life anno 2016 needs reconfiguration and the simple yet fruitful manner by which this is done is through acknowledging the benefits of bodies, spaces and artifacts – and the benefits of actually...... taking a break, discontinuing for a moment in order to continue better, wiser and more at ease. Both within and as part of the daily routines, and – now and then – outside these routines in the majesty of nature with time to explore and redirect the course of life in companionships with fellow man...

  2. A model of intrinsic symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Li [Research Center for Quantum Manipulation, Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, Sheng [Department of Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Zhejiang 310004 (China); George, Thomas F., E-mail: [Office of the Chancellor and Center for Nanoscience, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Sun, Xin, E-mail: [Research Center for Quantum Manipulation, Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)


    Different from the symmetry breaking associated with a phase transition, which occurs when the controlling parameter is manipulated across a critical point, the symmetry breaking presented in this Letter does not need parameter manipulation. Instead, the system itself suddenly undergoes symmetry breaking at a certain time during its evolution, which is intrinsic symmetry breaking. Through a polymer model, it is revealed that the origin of the intrinsic symmetry breaking is nonlinearity, which produces instability at the instance when the evolution crosses an inflexion point, where this instability breaks the original symmetry.

  3. What is the best time point to identify patients at risk of developing persistent low back pain? (United States)

    Melloh, Markus; Elfering, Achim; Käser, Anja; Rolli Salathé, Cornelia; Crawford, Rebecca J; Barz, Thomas; Zweig, Thomas; Aghayev, Emin; Röder, Christoph; Theis, Jean-Claude


    Early identification of patients at risk of developing persistent low back pain (LBP) is crucial. Aim of this study was to identify in patients with a new episode of LBP the time point at which those at risk of developing persistent LBP can be best identified. Prospective cohort study of 315 patients presenting to a health practitioner with a first episode of acute LBP. Primary outcome measure was functional limitation. Patients were assessed at baseline, three, six, twelve weeks and six months looking at factors of maladaptive cognition as potential predictors. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed for all time points. The best time point to predict the development of persistent LBP at six months was the twelve-week follow-up (sensitivity 78%; overall predictive value 90%). Cognitions assessed at first visit to a health practitioner were not predictive. Maladaptive cognitions at twelve weeks appear to be suitable predictors for a transition from acute to persistent LBP. Already three weeks after patients present to a health practitioner with acute LBP cognitions might influence the development of persistent LBP. Therefore, cognitive-behavioral interventions should be considered as early adjuvant LBP treatment in patients at risk of developing persistent LBP.

  4. Accuracy of different cutoff points of body mass index to identify overweight according to body fat values estimated by DEXA. (United States)

    Anzolin, Caroline Cristina; Silva, Diego Augusto Santos; Zanuto, Edner Fernando; Cayres, Suziane Ungari; Codogno, Jamile Sanches; Costa Junior, Paulo; Machado, Dalmo Roberto Lopes; Christofaro, Diego Giulliano Destro

    To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of different cutoff points of body mass index for predicting overweight/obesity according to body fat values estimated by DEXA among Brazilian adolescents. Cross-sectional study including 229 male adolescents aged 10-15 years, in which body adiposity and anthropometric measures were assessed. Nutritional status was classified by BMI according to cutoff points described in scientific literature. Moderate agreements were observed between body fat estimated by DEXA and cutoffs proposed by Cole et al. (K=0.61), Conde and Monteiro (K=0.65), Must et al. (K=0.61) and WHO (K=0.63). The BMI in continuous form showed good agreement with the Dexa (ICC=0.72). The highest sensitivity was observed for cutoff by Conde and Monteiro (0.74 [0.62, 0.84]) and the highest specificity by Cole et al. (0.98 [0.94, 0.99]). For the areas under the ROC curve of cutoff points analyzed, significant difference comparing the cutoff points by Cole et al. and Conde and Monteiro (0.0449 [0.00294, 0.0927]) was observed. The cutoff proposed by Conde and Monteiro was more sensitive in identifying overweight and obesity when compared to the reference method, and the cutoff proposed by Cole et al. presented the highest specificity for such outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Accuracy of different cutoff points of body mass index to identify overweight according to body fat values estimated by DEXA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Cristina Anzolin

    Full Text Available Abstract: Objective: To evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of different cutoff points of body mass index for predicting overweight/obesity according to body fat values estimated by DEXA among Brazilian adolescents. Methods: Cross-sectional study including 229 male adolescents aged 10-15 years, in which body adiposity and anthropometric measures were assessed. Nutritional status was classified by BMI according to cutoff points described in scientific literature. Results: Moderate agreements were observed between body fat estimated by DEXA and cutoffs proposed by Cole et al. (K = 0.61, Conde and Monteiro (K = 0.65, Must et al. (K = 0.61 and WHO (K = 0.63. The BMI in continuous form showed good agreement with the Dexa (ICC = 0.72. The highest sensitivity was observed for cutoff by Conde and Monteiro (0.74 [0.62, 0.84] and the highest specificity by Cole et al. (0.98 [0.94, 0.99]. For the areas under the ROC curve of cutoff points analyzed, significant difference comparing the cutoff points by Cole et al. and Conde and Monteiro (0.0449 [0.00294, 0.0927] was observed. Conclusions: The cutoff proposed by Conde and Monteiro was more sensitive in identifying overweight and obesity when compared to the reference method, and the cutoff proposed by Cole et al. presented the highest specificity for such outcomes.

  6. The Break

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Anete Mikkala Camille; Larsen, Jens


    that language and the social has been granted too much power on the dispense of the bodily, physical and biological – or in short, in dispense of the material. The break To be or not to be poses the theoretical notion of dis-/continuity (Barad, 2007, 2010) from the quantum approach to storytelling (Strand 2012...... and euro each year. The paper tries to explore new ways to deal with these challenges through a quantum approach to storytelling where the enactment of core values, bodies, spaces and artifacts positions managers and CEO’s from major Scandinavian organizations in sites where they can re-evaluate their life...... stones on a table in an office of a municipality in Denmark. Silence….. Rebuilding rooms for taking breaks with the inclusion of different activities such as a game of soccer or a hike seems to provide the tools to rework these imbalances or enslaving patterns. Break……. The attempt at meeting...

  7. Handgrip Strength Cutoff Points to Identify Mobility Limitation in Community-dwelling Older People and Associated Factors. (United States)

    Vasconcelos, K S de Souza; Dias, J M Domingues; Bastone, A de Carvalho; Vieira, R Alvarenga; Andrade, A C de Souza; Perracini, M Rodrigues; Guerra, R Oliveira; Dias, R Corrêa


    Sarcopenia is defined as a progressive and generalized loss of skeletal muscle mass and strength. The specific threshold of muscle weakness that leads to mobility limitations has not been identified. To determine the best cutoff point of handgrip strength for identifying mobility limitation and to investigate the factors associated with muscle weakness and mobility limitation in community-dwelling older people. Transversal study. Cities of Belo Horizonte, Barueri and Santa Cruz in Brazil. 1374 community-dwelling older people from the Frailty study in Brazilian older people (FIBRA Study). Outcomes included muscle weakness determined according to gender-specific handgrip strength cutoff points generated by Receiver Operating Characteristic curves, mobility limitation defined as a gait speed ≤ 0.8 m/s; and a combination of both muscle weakness and mobility limitation. Associated factors included socio-demographic variables, lifestyle, anthropometrics, health conditions, use of health services and disability. The cutoff points of handgrip strength with the best balancing between sensitivity and specificity for mobility limitation were 25.8 kgf for men (sensitivity 69%, specificity 73%) and 17.4 kgf (sensitivity 60%, specificity 66%) for women. Age and disability in instrumental activities of daily living were associated with all outcomes. Women had greater odds of mobility limitation than men. Physical inactivity, body fat, diabetes, depression, sleeping disturbances, number of medications and occurrence of falls remained as significant associated factors in the final model. Handgrip strength can be a useful tool to identify mobility limitation in clinical practice. Interventions to prevent or minimize impacts of sarcopenia should stimulate physical activity and improvement of body composition in addition to the management of chronic diseases and disabilities.

  8. Assessing the connection between health and education: identifying potential leverage points for public health to improve school attendance. (United States)

    Gase, Lauren N; Kuo, Tony; Coller, Karen; Guerrero, Lourdes R; Wong, Mitchell D


    We examined multiple variables influencing school truancy to identify potential leverage points to improve school attendance. A cross-sectional observational design was used to analyze inner-city data collected in Los Angeles County, California, during 2010 to 2011. We constructed an ordinal logistic regression model with cluster robust standard errors to examine the association between truancy and various covariates. The sample was predominantly Hispanic (84.3%). Multivariable analysis revealed greater truancy among students (1) with mild (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.57; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.22, 2.01) and severe (AOR = 1.80; 95% CI = 1.04, 3.13) depression (referent: no depression), (2) whose parents were neglectful (AOR = 2.21; 95% CI = 1.21, 4.03) or indulgent (AOR = 1.71; 95% CI = 1.04, 2.82; referent: authoritative parents), (3) who perceived less support from classes, teachers, and other students regarding college preparation (AOR = 0.87; 95% CI = 0.81, 0.95), (4) who had low grade point averages (AOR = 2.34; 95% CI = 1.49, 4.38), and (5) who reported using alcohol (AOR = 3.47; 95% CI = 2.34, 5.14) or marijuana (AOR = 1.59; 95% CI = 1.06, 2.38) during the past month. Study findings suggest depression, substance use, and parental engagement as potential leverage points for public health to intervene to improve school attendance.

  9. Whole exome sequencing identifies the first STRADA point mutation in a patient with polyhydramnios, megalencephaly, and symptomatic epilepsy syndrome (PMSE). (United States)

    Bi, Weimin; Glass, Ian A; Muzny, Donna M; Gibbs, Richard A; Eng, Christine M; Yang, Yaping; Sun, Angela


    Polyhydramnios, megalencephaly, and symptomatic epilepsy syndrome (PMSE) is an ultra rare neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by severe, infantile-onset intractable epilepsy, neurocognitive delay, macrocephaly, and craniofacial dysmorphism. The molecular diagnosis of this condition has thus far only been made in 16 Old Order Mennonite patients carrying a homozygous 7 kb founder deletion of exons 9-13 of STRADA. We performed clinical whole exome sequencing (WES) on a 4-year-old Indian male with global developmental delay, history of failure to thrive, infantile spasms, repetitive behaviors, hypotonia, low muscle mass, marked joint laxity, and dysmorphic facial features including tall forehead, long face, arched eyebrows, small chin, wide mouth, and tented upper lip. A homozygous single nucleotide duplication, c.842dupA (p.D281fs), in exon 10 of STRADA was identified. Sanger sequencing confirmed the mutation in the individual and identified both parents as carriers. In light of the molecular discoveries, the patient's clinical phenotype was considered to be a good fit for PMSE. We identified for the first time a homozygous point mutation in STRADA causing PMSE. Additional bi-allelic mutations related to PMSE thus far have not been observed in Baylor ∼6,000 consecutive clinical WES cases, supporting the rarity of this disorder. Our findings may have treatment implications for the patient since previous studies have shown rapamycin as a potential therapeutic agent for the seizures and cognitive problems in PMSE patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. A point-based angular analysis model for identifying attributes of spaces at nodes in street networks (United States)

    Jeong, Sang Kyu; Ban, Yong Un


    The effects of the axial map as the key representation of the original space syntax have been questioned by some researchers because of the map's discontinuity. To address this concern, angular segment analysis (ASA) was introduced. ASA calculates spatial depths by considering the turning angles of path segments in a street network. However, ASA cannot calculate the attributes of nodes connected to path segments in the network because it analyzes spaces by linear representation, as in the original space syntax. Because the attributes of the two ends (nodes) of a given path segment (link) are not equal to each other, and because they can affect pedestrian and vehicle movement and land use in a street network, the identification of the attributes at nodes (points) would be helpful in the detailed analysis of spaces in the network consisting of nodes and the segments connecting them. Accordingly, this study aims to develop an extended analysis model that can calculate the attributes of spaces at the nodes, including terminuses, bends, and junctions, in the network. To achieve this end, in this study we developed algorithms for a point-based angular analysis (PAA) to find the attributes of spaces at nodes (points), in contrast to ASA, which analyzes spaces using linear representations. As a result, this methodology can obtain distinct values for the attributes of two nodes at the ends of a path segment, through the calculation of spatial depths weighted by considering the turning angles and distances (lengths) along consecutive nodes for a route in the network. Through our methodology, it was identified that spatial configurations of street network affect the social and symbolic centralities of nodes in the network.

  11. In situ sequencing identifies TMPRSS2-ERG fusion transcripts, somatic point mutations and gene expression levels in prostate cancers. (United States)

    Kiflemariam, Sara; Mignardi, Marco; Ali, Muhammad Akhtar; Bergh, Anders; Nilsson, Mats; Sjöblom, Tobias


    Translocations contribute to the genesis and progression of epithelial tumours and in particular to prostate cancer development. To better understand the contribution of fusion transcripts and visualize the clonal composition of multifocal tumours, we have developed a technology for multiplex in situ detection and identification of expressed fusion transcripts. When compared to immunohistochemistry, TMPRSS2-ERG fusion-negative and fusion-positive prostate tumours were correctly classified. The most prevalent TMPRSS2-ERG fusion variants were visualized, identified, and quantitated in human prostate cancer tissues, and the ratio of the variant fusion transcripts could for the first time be directly determined by in situ sequencing. Further, we demonstrate concurrent in situ detection of gene expression, point mutations, and gene fusions of the prostate cancer relevant targets AMACR, AR, TP53, and TMPRSS2-ERG. This unified approach to in situ analyses of somatic mutations can empower studies of intra-tumoural heterogeneity and future tissue-based diagnostics of mutations and translocations. Copyright © 2014 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  12. Glycoproteomics: identifying the glycosylation of prostate specific antigen at normal and high isoelectric points by LC-MS/MS. (United States)

    Song, Ehwang; Mayampurath, Anoop; Yu, Chuan-Yih; Tang, Haixu; Mechref, Yehia


    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a biomarker to diagnose prostate cancer. PSA testing has been widely used to detect and screen prostate cancer. However, in the diagnostic gray zone, the PSA test does not clearly distinguish between benign prostate hypertrophy and prostate cancer due to their overlap. To develop more specific and sensitive candidate biomarkers for prostate cancer, an in-depth understanding of the biochemical characteristics of PSA (such as glycosylation) is needed. PSA has a single glycosylation site at Asn69, with glycans constituting approximately 8% of the protein by weight. Here, we report the comprehensive identification and quantitation of N-glycans from two PSA isoforms using LC-MS/MS. There were 56 N-glycans associated with PSA, whereas 57 N-glycans were observed in the case of the PSA-high isoelectric point (pI) isoform (PSAH). Three sulfated/phosphorylated glycopeptides were detected, the identification of which was supported by tandem MS data. One of these sulfated/phosphorylated N-glycans, HexNAc5Hex4dHex1s/p1 was identified in both PSA and PSAH at relative intensities of 0.52 and 0.28%, respectively. Quantitatively, the variations were monitored between these two isoforms. Because we were one of the laboratories participating in the 2012 ABRF Glycoprotein Research Group (gPRG) study, those results were compared to that presented in this study. Our qualitative and quantitative results summarized here were comparable to those that were summarized in the interlaboratory study.

  13. Glycoproteomics: Identifying the Glycosylation of Prostate Specific Antigen at Normal and High Isoelectric Points by LC–MS/MS (United States)


    Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is currently used as a biomarker to diagnose prostate cancer. PSA testing has been widely used to detect and screen prostate cancer. However, in the diagnostic gray zone, the PSA test does not clearly distinguish between benign prostate hypertrophy and prostate cancer due to their overlap. To develop more specific and sensitive candidate biomarkers for prostate cancer, an in-depth understanding of the biochemical characteristics of PSA (such as glycosylation) is needed. PSA has a single glycosylation site at Asn69, with glycans constituting approximately 8% of the protein by weight. Here, we report the comprehensive identification and quantitation of N-glycans from two PSA isoforms using LC–MS/MS. There were 56 N-glycans associated with PSA, whereas 57 N-glycans were observed in the case of the PSA-high isoelectric point (pI) isoform (PSAH). Three sulfated/phosphorylated glycopeptides were detected, the identification of which was supported by tandem MS data. One of these sulfated/phosphorylated N-glycans, HexNAc5Hex4dHex1s/p1 was identified in both PSA and PSAH at relative intensities of 0.52 and 0.28%, respectively. Quantitatively, the variations were monitored between these two isoforms. Because we were one of the laboratories participating in the 2012 ABRF Glycoprotein Research Group (gPRG) study, those results were compared to that presented in this study. Our qualitative and quantitative results summarized here were comparable to those that were summarized in the interlaboratory study. PMID:25327667

  14. Blinking and tear break-up during four visual tasks. (United States)

    Himebaugh, Nikole L; Begley, Carolyn G; Bradley, Arthur; Wilkinson, Jenni A


    This study investigates the relationship between blinking, tear film break-up, and ocular symptoms for normal and dry eye subjects performing four different visual tasks. Sixteen control and sixteen dry eye subjects performed four visual tasks (looking straight ahead, watching a movie, identifying rapidly changing letters, and playing a computer game) while blink patterns and fluorescein images of the tear film were videotaped. Pre and posttesting symptom questionnaires, querying the intensity of nine symptoms of ocular irritation, were completed by all subjects. Blink rate and blink amplitude were computed from digitized videos. The percentage of tear film break-up before the blink was calculated. Dry eye subjects had a significantly higher blink rate (p = 0.017, t-test). Both groups blinked significantly less during the game and letter tasks (p break-up in normal subjects was typically inferior; whereas dry eye subjects showed more tear break-up centrally and superiorly. Real-time video recording of tear break-up and blink behavior pointed to complex interaction between the two. Dry eye subjects shifted more toward intense ocular symptoms at posttesting (p break-up during normal visual tasks may explain the increased level of ocular discomfort symptoms reported at the end of the day, particularly in dry eye patients.

  15. Breaking Bad

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harlev, Mikkel Alexander; Sun Yin, Haohua; Langenheldt, Klaus Christian


    Blockchain by using Supervised Machine Learning to predict the type of yet-unidentified entities. We utilised a sample of 434 entities with ≈ 200 million transactions), whose identity and type had been revealed, as training set data and built classifiers differentiating among 10 categories. Our main...... finding is that we can indeed predict the type of a yet-identified entity. Using the Gradient Boosting algorithm, we achieve an accuracy of 77% and F1-score of ≈ 0.75. We discuss our novel approach of Supervised Machine Learning for uncovering Blockchain anonymity and its potential applications...

  16. Characterization of migraineurs presenting interictal widespread pressure hyperalgesia identified using a tender point count: a cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Toriyama, Toshihide; Horiuchi, Tetsuyoshi; Hongo, Kazuhiro


    Migraineurs exhibit pain hypersensitivity throughout the body during and between migraine headaches. Migraine is classified as a central sensitivity syndrome, typified by fibromyalgia showing widespread pressure hyperalgesia determined by a tender point. This study was performed to examine whether: 1) there is a subgroup of episodic migraineurs with widespread pressure hyperalgesia during and between attacks; 2) if such a subgroup exists, what is the prevalence and what is the difference between groups with interictal widespread hyperalgesia and acute allodynia regarding the demographic and clinical characteristics of migraine. This was a cross-sectional study. A total of 176 consecutive episodic migraineurs and 132 age- and sex-matched controls were recruited. The presence of widespread pressure hyperalgesia was investigated using manual tender point survey. To classify a subject's response as widespread pressure hyperalgesia, the cutoff value for responders was defined as the positive tender point count below which 95% of controls responded. Based on the number of positive tender points in controls, the cutoff value of tender point count for pressure hyperalgesia responders was 7. Of the 176 subjects, interictal widespread pressure hyperalgesia and acute allodynia were observed in 74 (42%) and 115 (65.3%) patients, respectively. Univariate analysis indicated that risk factors associated with interictal widespread pressure hyperalgesia were female gender, younger age at migraine onset, higher frequency of migraine attacks, severe headache impact, cutaneous allodynia and depression. Multivariate logistic regression analysis confirmed that independent risk factors associated with interictal widespread pressure hyperalgesia were female gender, higher frequency of migraine attack and younger age at onset. Interictal widespread pressure hyperalgesia was common (42%) in the episodic migraineurs and was associated with younger age at onset, female gender, and higher

  17. Sensitivity Analysis and Parameter Identifiability of the Land Surface Model JULES at the point scale in permeable catchments (United States)

    Bakopoulou, C.; Bulygina, N.; Butler, A. P.; McIntyre, N. R.


    Land surface models (LSMs) are recognised as important components of Global Circulation Models (GCMs). Simulating exchanges of the moisture, carbon and energy between land surface and atmosphere in a consistent manner requires physics-based LSMs of high complexity, fine vertical resolution and a large number of parameters that need to be estimated. The "physics" that is incorporated in such models is generally based on our knowledge of point (or very small) scale hydrological processes. Therefore, while larger GCM grid-scale performance may be the ultimate goal, the ability of the model to simulate the point-scale processes is, intuitively, a pre-requisite for its reliable use at larger scales. Critical evaluation of model performance and parameter uncertainty at point scales is therefore a rational starting point for critical evaluation of LSMs; and identification of optimal parameter sets at the point scale is a significant stage of the model evaluation at larger scales. The Joint UK Land Environment Simulator (JULES) is a complex LSM, which is used to represent surface exchanges in the UK Met Office's forecast and climate change models. This complexity necessitates a large number of model parameters (in total 108) some of which are incapable of being measured directly at large (i.e. kilometer) scales. For this reason, a parameter sensitivity analysis is a vital confidence building process within the framework of every LSM, and as a part of the calibration strategy. The problem of JULES parameter estimation and uncertainty at the point scale with a view to assessing the accuracy and the uncertainty in the default parameter values is addressed. The sensitivity of the JULES output of soil moisture is examined using parameter response surface analysis. The implemented technique is based on the Regional Sensitivity Analysis method (RSA), which evaluates the model response surface over a region of parameter space using Monte Carlo sampling. The modified version of RSA

  18. Appropriate waist circumference cut points for identifying insulin resistance in black youth: a cross sectional analysis of the 1986 Jamaica birth cohort

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tulloch-Reid Marshall K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background While the International Diabetes Federation (IDF has ethnic specific waist circumference (WC cut-points for the metabolic syndrome for Asian populations it is not known whether the cut-points for black populations should differ from those for European populations. We examined the validity of IDF WC cut points for identifying insulin resistance (IR, the underlying cause of the metabolic syndrome, in predominantly black, young Jamaican adults. Methods Participants from a 1986 birth cohort were evaluated between 2005 and 2007 when they were 18-20 years old. Trained observers took anthropometric measurements and collected a fasting blood sample. IR was assessed using the homeostasis model assessment computer programme (HOMA-IR. Sex specific quartiles for IR were generated using HOMA-IR values and participants in the highest quartile were classified as "insulin resistant". Receiver operator characteristic (ROC curves were used to estimate the best WC to identify insulin resistance. The sensitivity and specificity of these values were compared with the IDF recommended WC cut-points. Results Data from 707 participants (315 males; 392females were analysed. In both sexes those with IR were more obese, had higher mean systolic blood pressure, glucose and triglycerides and lower mean HDL cholesterol. The WC was a good predictor of IR with an ROC area under the curve (95% CI of 0.71(0.64,0.79 for men and 0.72(0.65,0.79 for women. Using the Youden Index (J the best WC cut point for identifying IR in male participants was 82 cm (sensitivity 45%, specificity 93%, J 0.38 while the standard cut point of 94 cm had a sensitivity of 14% and specificity of 98% (J 0.12. In the female participants 82 cm was also a good cut point for identifying IR (sensitivity 52%, specificity 87%, J 0.39 and was similar to the standard IDF 80 cm cut point (sensitivity 53%, specificity 82%, J 0.35. Conclusions The WC that identified IR in young black men is lower

  19. Videofluoroscopy Instrument to Identify the Tibiofemoral Contact Point Migration for Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction Follow-up: CINARTRO (United States)

    Simini, F.; Santos, D.; Francescoli, L.


    We measure the Tibiofemoral contact point migration to offer clinicians a tool to evaluate Anterior Cruciate Ligament reconstruction. The design of the tool includes a C arm with fluoroscopy, image acquisition and processing system, interactive software and report generation for the clinical record. The procedure samples 30 images from the videofluoroscopy describing 2 seconds movements of hanging-to-full-extension of the knee articulation. A geometrical routine implemented in the original equipment (CINARTRO) helps capture tibial plateau and femoral condile profile by interaction with the user. The tightness or looseness of the knee is expressed by the migration given in terms of movement of the femur along the tibial plateau, as a percentage. We automatically create clinical reports in standard Clinical Document Architecture or CDA format. A special phantom was developed to correct the “pin cushion effect” in Rx images. Five cases of broken ACL patients were measured giving meaningful results for clinical follow up. Tibiofemoral contact point migration was measured as 60% of the tibial plateau, with standard deviation of 6% for healthy knees, 4% when injured and 1% after reconstruction.

  20. Point to a Referent, and Say, "What Is This?" Gesture as a Potential Cue to Identify Referents in a Discourse (United States)

    So, Wing Chee; Lim, Jia Yi


    This study explored whether caregivers' gestures followed the discourse-pragmatic principle of information status of referents (given vs. new) and how their children responded to those gestures when identifying referents. Ten Chinese-speaking and eight English-speaking caregivers were videotaped while interacting spontaneously with their children.…

  1. A new point mutation in the ND1 mitochondrial gene identified in a type II diabetic patient

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalinin, V.N. [Research Center of Medical Genetics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Schmidt, W.; Olek, K. [Institut fuer Molekularbiologische Diagnostik, Bonn (Germany)] [and others


    A novel mutation in a mitochondrial gene was identified in a patient with type II diabetes mellitus. G-to-A transition was localized at the nt3316 position of gene ND1 and resulted in alanine threonine replacement at position 4 of mitochondrial NAD-H-dehydrogenase. 6 refs., 2 figs.

  2. Development and application of a green fluorescent protein (GFP) expressing E. coli O103 surrogate for tracking contamination through grinding and identifying persistent points of contamination (United States)

    Objective: To 1.) develop and validate an easily trackable E. coli O157:H7/non-O157 STEC surrogate that can be detected to the same level of sensitivity as E. coli O157:H7; and 2.) apply the trackable surrogate to model contamination passage through grinding and identify points where contamination ...

  3. Local Activity Principle:. the Cause of Complexity and Symmetry Breaking (United States)

    Mainzer, Klaus


    The principle of local activity is precisely the missing concept to explain the emergence of complex patterns in a homogeneous medium. Leon O. Chua discovered and defined this principle in the theory of nonlinear electronic circuits in a mathematically rigorous way. The local principle can be generalized and proven at least for the class of nonlinear reaction-diffusion systems in physics, chemistry, biology and brain research. Recently, it was realized by memristors for nanoelectronic device applications in technical brains. In general, the emergence of complex patterns and structures is explained by symmetry breaking in homogeneous media. The principle of local activity is the cause of symmetry breaking in homogeneous media. We argue that the principle of local activity is really fundamental in science and can even be identified in quantum cosmology as symmetry breaking of local gauge symmetries generating the complexity of matter and forces in our universe. Finally, we consider applications in economic, financial, and social systems with the emergence of equilibrium states, symmetry breaking at critical points of phase transitions and risky acting at the edge of chaos. In any case, the driving causes of symmetry breaking and the emergence of complexity are locally active elements, cells, units, or agents.

  4. Identifying acceptability and price points for purchasing micronutrient powders for children 2 to 5 years old in Nepal. (United States)

    Gunnala, Rajni; Perrine, Cria G; Subedi, Giriraj; Mebrahtu, Saba; Dahal, Pradiumna; Jefferds, Maria Elena


    Little is known about purchasing micronutrient powders (MNP) for children 2-5 years. We describe acceptability for purchasing and price points for MNP for children 2-5 years among caregivers living in districts where free MNP are distributed for children 6-23 months. Crosssectional surveys conducted 3 months after MNP program implementation in 2 districts; 15 months after implementation in 2 different districts. Chi square tests and logistic regression describe associations among sociodemographics and program exposure factors and acceptability of purchasing MNP among 1,261 mothers of children 6-23 months who had heard of MNP. Overall, 77.5% and 86.1% of mothers reported acceptability for purchasing MNP in the 3 and 15 month surveys, respectively. Positive pricing attitude (PPA) about paying 150 Nepali rupees for 60 sachets of MNP was reported by 66.3% and 73.4% of mothers. Acceptability for purchasing MNP in both time periods increased with higher wealth quintile and higher maternal education; PPA increased with higher maternal education. Controlling for socio-demographics, program exposure factors associated with acceptability for purchasing MNP included: lack of perceived barriers to MNP intake and health worker counselling (3 month surveys); knowledge of benefits of MNP intake and lack of perceived barriers to MNP intake (15 month surveys). Mothers reported acceptability for purchasing MNP and PPA for older children in Nepal. Differences in acceptability were found across socio-demographics and program exposures. Use of these results and further exploration into actual purchasing behaviour can inform future MNP distribution methods in Nepal.

  5. Implications of career break from personal and company perspectives


    Vuorinen, Niina


    The objective of this study is to show the implications that career breaks have on individuals and employers. The intensions are to identify personal motivations for career breaks, and if the breaks change the careers of the people taking them. Furthermore, this study intends to understand how career breaks are viewed by employers, and if career breaks are becoming more acceptable internationally. The theoretical framework was based on description of work and careers both from employee an...

  6. Robot-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy: a costs and break-even point analysis for decision-making in a university hospital and a regional healthcare system in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Fabbro


    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Robotic Assisted Radical Prostatectomy (RALP is one of the most expensive urological innovations. Prices of the “Da Vinci System” range from € 761.105 to € 1.902.762 for each unit, without taking into account the cost of maintenance and the use of additional devices. We evaluated outcomes, and costs retrospectively, comparing RALP to open retro-pubic radical prostatectomy (RRP performed in our hospital between December 2009 and December 2010.METHODS: We compared 53 RALP, and 50 RRP in terms of costs, and clinical outcomes. We also implemented a Break Even Analysis in order to evaluate if the public reimbursement covered the total cost of RALP.RESULTS: According to our analysis, RALP showed lower hospitalization (p < 0,0001, higher early continence rate  (p < 0,0001, better potency rate in nerve sparing procedures  (p < 0,0142, and required no transfusions. Excluding the cost of purchasing and maintenance, single case costs were € 6.046,08 for RALP and € 4.834,11 for RRP, respectively. Considering the affordability of the technology, the point where the total revenue is sufficient to cover the total costs is an average of 60 cases performed per year, only in presence of additional reimbursement.CONCLUSIONS: Although our clinical analysis shows better results in favour of RALP, the economical analysis shows that RALP's costs are consistently higher than RRP. Considering also the purchasing costs, we demonstrate that the health gain of the technology does not necessarily offset the higher costs, even in a large, university hospital (1.000 beds. 

  7. Glycemic Excursions in Type 1 Diabetes in Pregnancy: A Semiparametric Statistical Approach to Identify Sensitive Time Points during Gestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Resmi Gupta


    Full Text Available Aim. To examine the gestational glycemic profile and identify specific times during pregnancy that variability in glucose levels, measured by change in velocity and acceleration/deceleration of blood glucose fluctuations, is associated with delivery of a large-for-gestational-age (LGA baby, in women with type 1 diabetes. Methods. Retrospective analysis of capillary blood glucose levels measured multiple times daily throughout gestation in women with type 1 diabetes was performed using semiparametric mixed models. Results. Velocity and acceleration/deceleration in glucose levels varied across gestation regardless of delivery outcome. Compared to women delivering LGA babies, those delivering babies appropriate for gestational age exhibited significantly smaller rates of change and less variation in glucose levels between 180 days of gestation and birth. Conclusions. Use of innovative statistical methods enabled detection of gestational intervals in which blood glucose fluctuation parameters might influence the likelihood of delivering LGA baby in mothers with type 1 diabetes. Understanding dynamics and being able to visualize gestational changes in blood glucose are a potentially useful tool to assist care providers in determining the optimal timing to initiate continuous glucose monitoring.

  8. Double Field Theory description of heterotic gauge symmetry enhancing-breaking (United States)

    Aldazabal, G.; Andrés, E.; Mayo, M.; Penas, V.


    A Double Field Theory (DFT) description of gauge symmetry enhancing-breaking in the heterotic string is presented. The construction, based on previous results for the bosonic string, relies on the extension of the tangent frame of DFT. The fluxes of a Scherk-Schwarz like generalized toroidal compactification are moduli dependent and become identified with the structure constants of the enhanced group at fixed "self-dual" points in moduli space. Slight displacements from such points provide the breaking of the symmetry, gauge bosons acquiring masses proportional to fluxes. The inclusion of fermions is also discussed.

  9. Small Break Air Ingress Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Oh; Eung Soo Kim


    The small break air-ingress experiment, described in this report, is designed to investigate air-ingress phenomena postulated to occur in pipes in a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTRs). During this experiment, air-ingress rates were measured for various flow and break conditions through small holes drilled into a pipe of the experimental apparatus. The holes were drilled at right angles to the pipe wall such that a direction vector drawn from the pipe centerline to the center of each hole was at right angles with respect to the pipe centerline. Thus the orientation of each hole was obtained by measuring the included angle between the direction vector of each hole with respect to a reference line anchored on the pipe centerline and pointing in the direction of the gravitational force. Using this reference system, the influence of several important parameters on the air ingress flow rate were measured including break orientation, break size, and flow velocity . The approach used to study the influence of these parameters on air ingress is based on measuring the changes in oxygen concentrations at various locations in the helium flow circulation system as a function of time using oxygen sensors (or detectors) to estimate the air-ingress rates through the holes. The test-section is constructed of a stainless steel pipe which had small holes drilled at the desired locations.

  10. A national assessment of underground natural gas storage: identifying wells with designs likely vulnerable to a single-point-of-failure (United States)

    Michanowicz, Drew R.; Buonocore, Jonathan J.; Rowland, Sebastian T.; Konschnik, Katherine E.; Goho, Shaun A.; Bernstein, Aaron S.


    The leak of processed natural gas (PNG) from October 2015 to February 2016 from the Aliso Canyon storage facility, near Los Angeles, California, was the largest single accidental release of greenhouse gases in US history. The Interagency Task Force on Natural Gas Storage Safety and California regulators recently recommended operators phase out single-point-of-failure (SPF) well designs. Here, we develop a national dataset of UGS well activity in the continental US to assess regulatory data availability and uncertainty, and to assess the prevalence of certain well design deficiencies including single-point-of-failure designs. We identified 14 138 active UGS wells associated with 317 active UGS facilities in 29 states using regulatory and company data. State-level wellbore datasets contained numerous reporting inconsistencies that limited data concatenation. We identified 2715 active UGS wells across 160 facilities that, like the failed well at Aliso Canyon, predated the storage facility, and therefore were not originally designed for gas storage. The majority (88%) of these repurposed wells are located in OH, MI, PA, NY, and WV. Repurposed wells have a median age of 74 years, and the 2694 repurposed wells constructed prior to 1979 are particularly likely to exhibit design-related deficiencies. An estimated 210 active repurposed wells were constructed before 1917—before cement zonal isolation methods were utilized. These wells are located in OH, PA, NY, and WV and represent the highest priority related to potential design deficiencies that could lead to containment loss. This national baseline assessment identifies regulatory data uncertainties, highlights a potentially widespread vulnerability of the natural gas supply chain, and can aid in prioritization and oversight for high-risk wells and facilities.

  11. The Mercy unique device identifier demonstration project: Implementing point of use product identification in the cardiac catheterization laboratories of a regional health system. (United States)

    Drozda, Joseph P; Dudley, Curtis; Helmering, Paul; Roach, James; Hutchison, Lisa


    Mercy, a 4 state health system, conducted an FDA-sponsored demonstration whereby prototype unique device identifiers (UDIs) of coronary stents were implemented in its electronic information systems for safety surveillance and research. To accomplish this, a multi-disciplinary team implemented a point of use barcode scanning inventory management system in all 5 Mercy cardiac catheterization laboratories. The system's potential for improving inventory management and tracking Cath Lab supplies was felt to be sufficiently compelling for system deployment outside of the context of the demonstration. Further, it was felt to be useful for all Cath Lab renewable supplies and not just coronary stents. Benefits included preventing procedure delays, lowering costs, and increasing revenue. Finally, the system is extensible to all implanted medical devices and generalizable to most hospitals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. High-resolution melt analysis to identify and map sequence-tagged site anchor points onto linkage maps: a white lupin (Lupinus albus) map as an exemplar. (United States)

    Croxford, Adam E; Rogers, Tom; Caligari, Peter D S; Wilkinson, Michael J


    * The provision of sequence-tagged site (STS) anchor points allows meaningful comparisons between mapping studies but can be a time-consuming process for nonmodel species or orphan crops. * Here, the first use of high-resolution melt analysis (HRM) to generate STS markers for use in linkage mapping is described. This strategy is rapid and low-cost, and circumvents the need for labelled primers or amplicon fractionation. * Using white lupin (Lupinus albus, x = 25) as a case study, HRM analysis was applied to identify 91 polymorphic markers from expressed sequence tag (EST)-derived and genomic libraries. Of these, 77 generated STS anchor points in the first fully resolved linkage map of the species. The map also included 230 amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLP) loci, spanned 1916 cM (84.2% coverage) and divided into the expected 25 linkage groups. * Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses performed on the population revealed genomic regions associated with several traits, including the agronomically important time to flowering (tf), alkaloid synthesis and stem height (Ph). Use of HRM-STS markers also allowed us to make direct comparisons between our map and that of the related crop, Lupinus angustifolius, based on the conversion of RFLP, microsatellite and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers into HRM markers.

  13. Booster Breaks in the workplace: participants’ perspectives on health-promoting work breaks (United States)

    Taylor, Wendell C.; King, Kathryn E.; Shegog, Ross; Paxton, Raheem J.; Evans-Hudnall, Gina L.; Rempel, David M.; Chen, Vincent; Yancey, Antronette K.


    Increasing sedentary work has been associated with greater cardiovascular and metabolic risk, as well as premature mortality. Interrupting the sedentary workday with health-promoting work breaks can counter these negative health effects. To examine the potential sustainability of work-break programs, we assessed the acceptance of these breaks among participants in a Booster Break program. We analyzed qualitative responses from 35 participants across five worksites where one 15-min physical activity break was taken each workday. Two worksites completed a 1-year intervention and three worksites completed a 6-month intervention. Responses to two open-ended questions about the acceptance and feasibility of Booster Breaks were obtained from a survey administered after the intervention. Three themes for benefits and two themes for barriers were identified. The benefit themes were (i) reduced stress and promoted enjoyment, (ii) increased health awareness and facilitated behavior change, and (iii) enhanced workplace social interaction. The barrier themes were the need for (iv) greater variety in Booster Break routines and (v) greater management support. This study provides empirical support for the acceptance and feasibility of Booster Breaks during the workday. Emphasizing the benefits and minimizing the barriers are strategies that can be used to implement Booster Breaks in other workplaces. PMID:23466367

  14. Child personality facets and overreactive parenting as predictors of aggression and rule-breaking trajectories from childhood to adolescence. (United States)

    Becht, Andrik I; Prinzie, Peter; Deković, Maja; van den Akker, Alithe L; Shiner, Rebecca L


    This study examined trajectories of aggression and rule breaking during the transition from childhood to adolescence (ages 9-15), and determined whether these trajectories were predicted by lower order personality facets, overreactive parenting, and their interaction. At three time points separated by 2-year intervals, mothers and fathers reported on their children's aggression and rule breaking (N = 290, M age = 8.8 years at Time 1). At Time 1, parents reported on their children's personality traits and their own overreactivity. Growth mixture modeling identified three aggression trajectories (low decreasing, high decreasing, and high increasing) and two rule-breaking trajectories (low and high). Lower optimism and compliance and higher energy predicted trajectories for both aggression and rule breaking, whereas higher expressiveness and irritability and lower orderliness and perseverance were unique risk factors for increasing aggression into adolescence. Lower concentration was a unique risk factor for increasing rule breaking. Parental overreactivity predicted higher trajectories of aggression but not rule breaking. Only two Trait × Overreactivity interactions were found. Our results indicate that personality facets could differentiate children at risk for different developmental trajectories of aggression and rule breaking.

  15. In silico reversal of repeat-induced point mutation (RIP identifies the origins of repeat families and uncovers obscured duplicated genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hane James K


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Repeat-induced point mutation (RIP is a fungal genome defence mechanism guarding against transposon invasion. RIP mutates the sequence of repeated DNA and over time renders the affected regions unrecognisable by similarity search tools such as BLAST. Results DeRIP is a new software tool developed to predict the original sequence of a RIP-mutated region prior to the occurrence of RIP. In this study, we apply deRIP to the genome of the wheat pathogen Stagonospora nodorum SN15 and predict the origin of several previously uncharacterised classes of repetitive DNA. Conclusions Five new classes of transposon repeats and four classes of endogenous gene repeats were identified after deRIP. The deRIP process is a new tool for fungal genomics that facilitates the identification and understanding of the role and origin of fungal repetitive DNA. DeRIP is open-source and is available as part of the RIPCAL suite at

  16. On breaks of the Indian monsoon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    of rainfall over the monsoon zone. The rainfall criteria are chosen so as to ensure a large over- lap with the traditional breaks documented by Ramamurthy (1969) and De et al (1998). We have identified these rainbreaks for 1901–89. We have also identified active spells on the basis of rainfall over the Indian monsoon zone.

  17. Detecting structural breaks in time series via genetic algorithms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doerr, Benjamin; Fischer, Paul; Hilbert, Astrid


    Detecting structural breaks is an essential task for the statistical analysis of time series, for example, for fitting parametric models to it. In short, structural breaks are points in time at which the behaviour of the time series substantially changes. Typically, no solid background knowledge ...

  18. Superconducting properties of lithographic lead break junctions (United States)

    Weber, David; Scheer, Elke


    We have fabricated mechanically controlled break junction samples made of lead (Pb) by means of state-of-the-art nanofabrication methods: electron beam lithography and physical vapour deposition. The electrical and magnetic properties were characterized in a {}3{He} cryostat and showed a hard superconducting gap. Temperature and magnetic field dependence of tunnel contacts were compared and quantitatively described by including either thermal broadening of the density of states or pair breaking in the framework of a Skalski model, respectively. We show point contact spectra of few-atom contacts and present tunneling spectra exhibiting a superconducting double-gap structure.

  19. Analysis of economic break-even point of the biogas utilization for electrical power conversion: case study in a swine terminated unit; Analise do ponto de equilibrio economico da utilizacao do biogas para conversao em energia eletrica: estudo de caso em unidade de terminacao de suinos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cervi, Ricardo Ghantous; Pinotti, Elvio Brasil [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (UNESP), Registro, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agrarias do Vale do Ribeira], e-mails:,; Esperancini, Maura Seiko Tsutsui; Bueno, Osmar de Carvalho [Universidade Estadual Paulista Julio de Mesquita Filho (FCA/UNESP), Botucatu, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Agronomicas. Dept. de Gestao e Tecnologia Agroindustrial], e-mails:,


    This work aimed to develop a study to estimate the break-even point in financial units of the electrical power generation using biogas from swine wastes. The analyzed biodigester is a continuous tubular model with brick concrete duct and plastic covering with a gasometer, and where the waste of 2,300 fattening pigs are deposited daily. The initial investment estimate for the installation was R$ 51,537.17. The system annual costs were R$ 5,708.20, for maintenance, R$ 4,390.40 for depreciation and R$ 1,366.77 for interests. It was noticed that with an average of consumption of 17.1 kW.hour{sup -1} the system presents an annual loss of R$ 1,592.14 because the consumption of 27.85 kW.hour{sup -1} is the minimum that should be consumed to achieve a corresponded financial break-even point of R$ 15,054.40.year{sup -1}. It was concluded that the correct technical dimensioning greatly influences on the economic results. (author)

  20. Fourier transform coupled tryptophan scanning mutagenesis identifies a bending point on the lipid-exposed δM3 transmembrane domain of the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (United States)

    Caballero-Rivera, Daniel; Cruz-Nieves, Omar A; Oyola-Cintrón, Jessica; Torres-Núñez, David A; Otero-Cruz, José D


    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a member of a family of ligand-gated ion channels that mediate diverse physiological functions, including fast synaptic transmission along the peripheral and central nervous systems. Several studies have made significant advances toward determining the structure and dynamics of the lipid-exposed domains of the nAChR. However, a high-resolution atomic structure of the nAChR still remains elusive. In this study, we extended the Fourier transform coupled tryptophan scanning mutagenesis (FT-TrpScanM) approach to gain insight into the secondary structure of the δM3 transmembrane domain of the Torpedo californica nAChR, to monitor conformational changes experienced by this domain during channel gating, and to identify which lipid-exposed positions are linked to the regulation of ion channel kinetics. The perturbations produced by periodic tryptophan substitutions along the δM3 transmembrane domain were characterized by two-electrode voltage clamp and 125I-labeled α-bungarotoxin binding assays. The periodicity profiles and Fourier transform spectra of this domain revealed similar helical structures for the closed- and open-channel states. However, changes in the oscillation patterns observed between positions Val-299 and Val-304 during transition between the closed- and open-channel states can be explained by the structural effects caused by the presence of a bending point introduced by a Thr-Gly motif at positions 300–301. The changes in periodicity and localization of residues between the closed-and open-channel states could indicate a structural transition between helix types in this segment of the domain. Overall, the data further demonstrate a functional link between the lipid-exposed transmembrane domain and the nAChR gating machinery. PMID:21785268

  1. Fourier transform coupled tryptophan scanning mutagenesis identifies a bending point on the lipid-exposed δM3 transmembrane domain of the Torpedo californica nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. (United States)

    Caballero-Rivera, Daniel; Cruz-Nieves, Omar A; Oyola-Cintrón, Jessica; Torres-Núñez, David A; Otero-Cruz, Jose D; Lasalde-Dominicci, José A


    The nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) is a member of a family of ligand-gated ion channels that mediate diverse physiological functions, including fast synaptic transmission along the peripheral and central nervous systems. Several studies have made significant advances toward determining the structure and dynamics of the lipid-exposed domains of the nAChR. However, a high-resolution atomic structure of the nAChR still remains elusive. In this study, we extended the Fourier transform coupled tryptophan scanning mutagenesis (FT-TrpScanM) approach to gain insight into the secondary structure of the δM3 transmembrane domain of the Torpedo californica nAChR, to monitor conformational changes experienced by this domain during channel gating, and to identify which lipid-exposed positions are linked to the regulation of ion channel kinetics. The perturbations produced by periodic tryptophan substitutions along the δM3 transmembrane domain were characterized by two-electrode voltage clamp and (125)I-labeled α-bungarotoxin binding assays. The periodicity profiles and Fourier transform spectra of this domain revealed similar helical structures for the closed- and open-channel states. However, changes in the oscillation patterns observed between positions Val-299 and Val-304 during transition between the closed- and open-channel states can be explained by the structural effects caused by the presence of a bending point introduced by a Thr-Gly motif at positions 300-301. The changes in periodicity and localization of residues between the closed-and open-channel states could indicate a structural transition between helix types in this segment of the domain. Overall, the data further demonstrate a functional link between the lipid-exposed transmembrane domain and the nAChR gating machinery.

  2. A Preliminary Investigation of Caffeinated Alcohol Use During Spring Break. (United States)

    Linden-Carmichael, Ashley N; Lau-Barraco, Cathy


    Caffeinated alcoholic beverages (e.g., Red Bull and vodka) are popular but associated with negative consequences. CABs may be particularly popular during Spring Break, a potentially risky social event. We aimed to identify the prevalence of Spring Break caffeinated alcohol use, determine how caffeinated alcohol use Spring Break drinking habits differ from usual, and examine the association between Spring Break caffeinated alcohol use and alcohol-related problems. Data were collected from 95 college students during March of 2013 and 2014. Students completed questionnaires of their alcohol and caffeinated alcohol use before and during Spring Break and Spring Break alcohol-related problems. Approximately 54% of students used caffeinated alcohol during Spring Break. Spring Break caffeinated alcohol use was associated with more alcohol-related problems, even after controlling for other alcohol consumed and Spring Break vacation status. Caffeinated alcoholic beverages are commonly consumed during Spring Break and their use uniquely predicted harms. Prevention efforts placed on caffeinated alcoholic beverage users may be helpful in reducing Spring Break-related harms.

  3. Breaking News as Radicalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartley, Jannie Møller

    The aim of the paper is to make explicit how the different categories are applied in the online newsroom and thus how new categories can be seen as positioning strategies in the form of radicalisations of already existing categories. Thus field theory provides us with tools to analyse how online...... journalists are using the categorisations to create hierarchies within the journalistic field in order to position themselves as specialists in what Tuchman has called developing news, aiming and striving for what today is know as breaking news and the “exclusive scoop,” as the trademark of online journalism...... in a media environment where immediacy rules (Domingo 2008a). Following this research the primary focus of this paper is the category breaking news and Tuchmans developing news, but as they are all connected the analysis will also draw upon the other categories in Tuchmans typology. The theoretical framework...

  4. Routinizing Breaking News

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartley, Jannie Møller


    This chapter revisits seminal theoretical categorizations of news proposed three decades earlier by US sociologist Gaye Tuchman. By exploring the definition of ”breaking news” in the contemporary online newsrooms of three Danish news organisations, the author offers us a long overdue re......-theorization of journalistic practice in the online context and helpfully explores well-evidenced limitations to online news production, such as the relationship between original reporting and the use of ”shovelware.”...

  5. A Value Chain Analysis of ghost nets in the Arafura Sea: identifying trans-boundary stakeholders, intervention points and livelihood trade-offs. (United States)

    Butler, J R A; Gunn, R; Berry, H L; Wagey, G A; Hardesty, B D; Wilcox, C


    Lost or discarded fishing nets are a significant component of marine debris which has trans-boundary impacts in large marine ecosystems. Such 'ghost nets' cause the by-catch of marine fauna and require retrieval from coastlines where they wash up. Identifying the causes of discarded nets and feasible intervention points requires analysis of a complex value chain and the stakeholders within it, yet no studies have attempted this. In this paper we combine Value Chain Analysis, commonly applied to understand value-adding for a commodity, with elements of Life Cycle Assessment and social network analysis to examine the drivers, stakeholders, economic, environmental and social costs and benefits in the life of a trawl net. We use the Arafura Sea as a case study, which is shared by Indonesia, Papua New Guinea and Australia, and is the focus of a Trans-boundary Diagnostic Assessment (TDA) within the Arafura-Timor Seas Ecosystem Action program (ATSEA). We follow a trawl net through four sub-systems: manufacture of webbing in South Korea, fishing and loss by an Indonesian vessel, retrieval as ghost net on the northern Australian coastline by Indigenous rangers, and disposal or re-cycling as 'GhostNet Art' by Indigenous artists. Primary stakeholders along the value chain incur economic and social benefits, and economic and environmental costs. There is an anomaly in the chain between Indonesian fishermen and Indigenous rangers, artists and communities due to the lack of market linkages between these primary stakeholders. The first 'nexus of influence' where reductions in net losses and environmental costs can be achieved is through interactions between GhostNets Australia, the World Wide Fund for Nature and the Australian Government, which can influence Indonesian fishery management institutions and fishing crews. The second nexus is via the international art market which by publicising GhostNet Art can raise awareness amongst fish consumers about the impacts of ghost nets

  6. Pure gravity mediation and spontaneous B–L breaking from strong dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaladi S. Babu


    Full Text Available In pure gravity mediation (PGM, the most minimal scheme for the mediation of supersymmetry (SUSY breaking to the visible sector, soft masses for the standard model gauginos are generated at one loop rather than via direct couplings to the SUSY-breaking field. In any concrete implementation of PGM, the SUSY-breaking field is therefore required to carry nonzero charge under some global or local symmetry. As we point out in this note, a prime candidate for such a symmetry might be B–L, the Abelian gauge symmetry associated with the difference between baryon number B and lepton number L. The F-term of the SUSY-breaking field then not only breaks SUSY, but also B–L, which relates the respective spontaneous breaking of SUSY and B–L at a fundamental level. As a particularly interesting consequence, we find that the heavy Majorana neutrino mass scale ends up being tied to the gravitino mass, ΛN∼m3/2. Assuming nonthermal leptogenesis to be responsible for the generation of the baryon asymmetry of the universe, this connection may then explain why SUSY necessarily needs to be broken at a rather high energy scale, so that m3/2≳1000 TeV in accord with the concept of PGM. We illustrate our idea by means of a minimal model of dynamical SUSY breaking, in which B–L is identified as a weakly gauged flavor symmetry. We also discuss the effect of the B–L gauge dynamics on the superparticle mass spectrum as well as the resulting constraints on the parameter space of our model. In particular, we comment on the role of the B–L D-term.

  7. Path-breaking books in regional science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waldorf, BS

    This article presents a collection of regional science books that long-standing members of the Regional Science Association International (RSAI) identified as path-breaking books. The most frequently nominated books include the "classics" by Isard, the seminal books in urban economics by Alonso,

  8. Long Memory and Structural Breaks in Realized Volatility: An Irreversible Markov Switching Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nonejad, Nima

    This paper proposes a model that simultaneously captures long memory and structural breaks. We model structural breaks through irreversible Markov switching or so-called change-point dynamics. The parameters subject to structural breaks and the unobserved states which determine the position of th...

  9. Break the Pattern!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Cathrine; Trentemøller, Stine

    Break the Pattern! A critical enquiry into three scientific workplace cultures: Hercules, Caretakers and Worker Bees is the third publication of the international three year long project "Understanding Puzzles in the Gendered European Map" (UPGEM). By contrasting empirical findings from academic ...... (physics in culture) and discuss how physics as and in culture influence the perception of science, of work and family life, of the interplay between religion and science as well as how physics as culture can either hinder or promote the career of female scientists....

  10. DNA breaks early in replication in B cell cancers (United States)

    Research by scientists at the NCI has identified a new class of DNA sites in cells that break early in the replication process. They found that these break sites correlate with damage often seen in B cell cancers, such as diffuse large B cell lymphoma.

  11. Bootstrap Dynamical Symmetry Breaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Shu Hou


    Full Text Available Despite the emergence of a 125 GeV Higgs-like particle at the LHC, we explore the possibility of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking by strong Yukawa coupling of very heavy new chiral quarks Q . Taking the 125 GeV object to be a dilaton with suppressed couplings, we note that the Goldstone bosons G exist as longitudinal modes V L of the weak bosons and would couple to Q with Yukawa coupling λ Q . With m Q ≳ 700  GeV from LHC, the strong λ Q ≳ 4 could lead to deeply bound Q Q ¯ states. We postulate that the leading “collapsed state,” the color-singlet (heavy isotriplet, pseudoscalar Q Q ¯ meson π 1 , is G itself, and a gap equation without Higgs is constructed. Dynamical symmetry breaking is affected via strong λ Q , generating m Q while self-consistently justifying treating G as massless in the loop, hence, “bootstrap,” Solving such a gap equation, we find that m Q should be several TeV, or λ Q ≳ 4 π , and would become much heavier if there is a light Higgs boson. For such heavy chiral quarks, we find analogy with the π − N system, by which we conjecture the possible annihilation phenomena of Q Q ¯ → n V L with high multiplicity, the search of which might be aided by Yukawa-bound Q Q ¯ resonances.

  12. Water Distribution Lines, City of Emporia Water distribution. The point feature identifies valves, reducers, tees, etc. The line feature indicates the size of the line. We have water meters identified. Valves and meters are in process of being GPSed., Published in 2010, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, City of Emporia / Lyon County Government. (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Water Distribution Lines dataset current as of 2010. City of Emporia Water distribution. The point feature identifies valves, reducers, tees, etc. The line feature...

  13. Unstable volatility functions: the break preserving local linear estimator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Isabel; Gijbels, Irene

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the break preserving local linear (BPLL) estimator for the estimation of unstable volatility functions. Breaks in the structure of the conditional mean and/or the volatility functions are common in Finance. Markov switching models (Hamilton, 1989......) and threshold models (Lin and Terasvirta, 1994) are amongst the most popular models to describe the behaviour of data with structural breaks. The local linear (LL) estimator is not consistent at points where the volatility function has a break and it may even report negative values for finite samples....... The estimator presented in this paper generalises the classical LL. The BPLL maintains the desirable properties of the LL with regard to the bias and the boundary estimation, it estimates the breaks consistently and it ensures that the volatility estimates are always positive....

  14. Prophylactic treatment of retinal breaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blindbæk, Søren Leer; Grauslund, Jakob


    Prophylactic treatment of retinal breaks has been examined in several studies and reviews, but so far, no studies have successfully applied a systematic approach. In the present systematic review, we examined the need of follow-up after posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) - diagnosed by slit...... breaks. Additional retinal breaks were only revealed at follow-up in patients where a full retinal examination was compromised at presentation by, for example, vitreous haemorrhage. Asymptomatic and symptomatic retinal breaks progressed to rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in 0-13.8% and 35...

  15. Electroweak breaking in supersymmetric models

    CERN Document Server

    Ibáñez, L E


    We discuss the mechanism for electroweak symmetry breaking in supersymmetric versions of the standard model. After briefly reviewing the possible sources of supersymmetry breaking, we show how the required pattern of symmetry breaking can automatically result from the structure of quantum corrections in the theory. We demonstrate that this radiative breaking mechanism works well for a heavy top quark and can be combined in unified versions of the theory with excellent predictions for the running couplings of the model. (To be published in ``Perspectives in Higgs Physics'', G. Kane editor.)

  16. Numt-mediated double-strand break repair mitigates deletions during primate genome evolution.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einat Hazkani-Covo


    Full Text Available Non-homologous end joining (NHEJ is the major mechanism of double-strand break repair (DSBR in mammalian cells. NHEJ has traditionally been inferred from experimental systems involving induced double strand breaks (DSBs. Whether or not the spectrum of repair events observed in experimental NHEJ reflects the repair of natural breaks by NHEJ during chromosomal evolution is an unresolved issue. In primate phylogeny, nuclear DNA sequences of mitochondrial origin, numts, are inserted into naturally occurring chromosomal breaks via NHEJ. Thus, numt integration sites harbor evidence for the mechanisms that act on the genome over evolutionary timescales. We have identified 35 and 55 lineage-specific numts in the human and chimpanzee genomes, respectively, using the rhesus monkey genome as an outgroup. One hundred and fifty two numt-chromosome fusion points were classified based on their repair patterns. Repair involving microhomology and repair leading to nucleotide additions were detected. These repair patterns are within the experimentally determined spectrum of classical NHEJ, suggesting that information from experimental systems is representative of broader genetic loci and end configurations. However, in incompatible DSBR events, small deletions always occur, whereas in 54% of numt integration events examined, no deletions were detected. Numts show a statistically significant reduction in deletion frequency, even in comparison to DSBR involving filler DNA. Therefore, numts show a unique mechanism of integration via NHEJ. Since the deletion frequency during numt insertion is low, native overhangs of chromosome breaks are preserved, allowing us to determine that 24% of the analyzed breaks are cohesive with overhangs of up to 11 bases. These data represent, to the best of our knowledge, the most comprehensive description of the structure of naturally occurring DSBs. We suggest a model in which the sealing of DSBs by numts, and probably by other filler

  17. Breaking soliton equations and negative-order breaking soliton ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We develop breaking soliton equations and negative-order breaking soliton equations of typical and higher orders. The recursion operator of the KdV equation is used to derive these models.We establish the distinctdispersion relation for each equation. We use the simplified Hirota's method to obtain multiple soliton ...

  18. Targeted next-generation sequencing detects point mutations, insertions, deletions and balanced chromosomal rearrangements as well as identifies novel leukemia-specific fusion genes in a single procedure. (United States)

    Grossmann, V; Kohlmann, A; Klein, H-U; Schindela, S; Schnittger, S; Dicker, F; Dugas, M; Kern, W; Haferlach, T; Haferlach, C


    DNA sequence enrichment from complex genomic samples using microarrays enables targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS). In this study, we combined 454 shotgun pyrosequencing with long oligonucleotide sequence capture arrays. We demonstrate the detection of mutations including point mutations, deletions and insertions in a cohort of 22 patients presenting with acute leukemias and myeloid neoplasms. Importantly, this one-step methodological procedure also allowed the detection of balanced chromosomal aberrations, including translocations and inversions. Moreover, the genomic representation of only one of the partner genes of a chimeric fusion on the capture platform also permitted identification of the novel fusion partner genes. Using acute myeloid leukemias harboring RUNX1 abnormalities as a model system, three novel chromosomal fusion sequences and KCNMA1 as a novel RUNX1 fusion partner gene were detected. This assay has the strong potential to become an important method for the comprehensive genetic characterization of particular leukemias and other malignancies harboring complex genomes.

  19. Skills Associated with Line Breaks in Elite Rugby Union

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve den Hollander, James Brown, Michael Lambert, Paul Treu, Sharief Hendricks


    Full Text Available The ability of the attacking team to break through the defensive line is a key indicator of success as it creates opportunities to score tries. The aim of this study was to analyse line breaks and identify the associated skills and playing characteristics. The 2013 Super Rugby season (125 games was analysed, in which 362 line breaks were identified and coded using variables that assessed team patterns and non-contact attacking skills in the phases preceding the line break. There was an average of 3 line breaks per game, with 39% of line breaks resulting in a try. Line breaks occurred when the ball-carrier was running fast [61%, x2(4 = 25.784, p = 0.000, Cramer’s v = 0.1922, weak]. At a moderate distance, short lateral passes (19% and skip passes (15% attributed to the highest percentage of line breaks [x2(26 = 50.899, p = 0.036, Cramer’s v = 0.2484, moderate]. Faster defensive line speeds resulted in more line breaks [x2(12 = 61.703, p < 0.001, Cramer’s v = 0.3026, moderate]. Line breaks are associated with overall team success and try scoring opportunities. Awareness of the defenders line speed and depth, fast running speed when receiving the ball and quick passing between attackers to the outside backs creates line break opportunities. During training, coaches should emphasise the movement speed of the ball between attackers and manipulate the speed and distance of the defenders.

  20. Anomalous U(1) as a mediator of Supersymmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Dvali, Gia; Dvali, Gia; Pomarol, Alex


    We point out that an anomalous gauge U(1) symmetry is a natural candida= te for being the mediator and messenger of supersymmetry breaking. It facilitate= s dynamical supersymmetry breaking even in the flat limit. Soft masses are induced by both gravity and the U(1) gauge interactions giving an unusual= mass hierarchy in the sparticle spectrum which suppresses flavor violations. T= his scenario does not suffer from the Polonyi problem.

  1. Framework for an asymptotically safe standard model via dynamical breaking (United States)

    Abel, Steven; Sannino, Francesco


    We present a consistent embedding of the matter and gauge content of the Standard Model into an underlying asymptotically safe theory that has a well-determined interacting UV fixed point in the large color/flavor limit. The scales of symmetry breaking are determined by two mass-squared parameters with the breaking of electroweak symmetry being driven radiatively. There are no other free parameters in the theory apart from gauge couplings.

  2. Teaching medical students how to break bad news


    Garg, A. (Abhishek); Buckman, R.; Kason, Y


    PROGRAM OBJECTIVE: To teach medical students to break bad news to patients and their families empathically and competently. SETTING: Seven teaching hospitals affiliated with the University of Toronto since 1987. PARTICIPANTS: All medical students in their third preclinical year. PROGRAM: The course presents a 6-point protocol to guide students in breaking bad news and comprises 2 half-day (3-hour) teaching sessions. Each session incorporates a video presentation, a discussion period and small...

  3. Quantum break-time of de Sitter (United States)

    Dvali, Gia; Gómez, César; Zell, Sebastian


    The quantum break-time of a system is the time-scale after which its true quantum evolution departs from the classical mean field evolution. For capturing it, a quantum resolution of the classical background—e.g., in terms of a coherent state—is required. In this paper, we first consider a simple scalar model with anharmonic oscillations and derive its quantum break-time. Next, following [1], we apply these ideas to de Sitter space. We formulate a simple model of a spin-2 field, which for some time reproduces the de Sitter metric and simultaneously allows for its well-defined representation as quantum coherent state of gravitons. The mean occupation number N of background gravitons turns out to be equal to the de Sitter horizon area in Planck units, while their frequency is given by the de Sitter Hubble parameter. In the semi-classical limit, we show that the model reproduces all the known properties of de Sitter, such as the redshift of probe particles and thermal Gibbons-Hawking radiation, all in the language of quantum S-matrix scatterings and decays of coherent state gravitons. Most importantly, this framework allows to capture the 1/N-effects to which the usual semi-classical treatment is blind. They violate the de Sitter symmetry and lead to a finite quantum break-time of the de Sitter state equal to the de Sitter radius times N. We also point out that the quantum-break time is inversely proportional to the number of particle species in the theory. Thus, the quantum break-time imposes the following consistency condition: older and species-richer universes must have smaller cosmological constants. For the maximal, phenomenologically acceptable number of species, the observed cosmological constant would saturate this bound if our Universe were 10100 years old in its entire classical history.

  4. Ras activation and symmetry breaking during Dictyostelium chemotaxis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kortholt, Arjan; Keizer-Gunnink, Ineke; Kataria, Rama; Van Haastert, Peter J. M.


    Central to chemotaxis is the molecular mechanism by which a shallow spatial gradient of chemoattractant induces symmetry breaking of activated signaling molecules. Previously, we have used Dictyostelium mutants to investigate the minimal requirements for chemotaxis, and identified a basal signaling

  5. Breaking bad news to people with a learning disability. (United States)

    Read, S

    This article identifies the difficulties often associated with breaking bad news, from a nursing perspective. The additional considerations involved in breaking bad news to people with learning disabilities are identified, and a six-step protocol (Buckman, 1991) is introduced and explored in relation to this client group. Effective communication is seen to be crucial when working with people with a learning disability, and a system for accurate listening is offered (Conboy-Hill, 1992). Finally, recommendations for helping professionals to learn how to break bad news sensitively to this client group are suggested. They include multi-agency working, education and training opportunities, standard statements, resources, support and research initiatives.

  6. Hartree-Fock symmetry breaking around conical intersections. (United States)

    Jake, Lena C; Henderson, Thomas M; Scuseria, Gustavo E


    We study the behavior of Hartree-Fock (HF) solutions in the vicinity of conical intersections. These are here understood as regions of a molecular potential energy surface characterized by degenerate or nearly degenerate eigenfunctions with identical quantum numbers (point group, spin, and electron numbers). Accidental degeneracies between states with different quantum numbers are known to induce symmetry breaking in HF. The most common closed-shell restricted HF instability is related to singlet-triplet spin degeneracies that lead to collinear unrestricted HF solutions. Adding geometric frustration to the mix usually results in noncollinear generalized HF (GHF) solutions, identified by orbitals that are linear combinations of up and down spins. Near conical intersections, we observe the appearance of coplanar GHF solutions that break all symmetries, including complex conjugation and time-reversal, which do not carry good quantum numbers. We discuss several prototypical examples taken from the conical intersection literature. Additionally, we utilize a recently introduced magnetization diagnostic to characterize these solutions, as well as a solution of a Jahn-Teller active geometry of H8+2.

  7. A Point Source of a Different Color: Identifying a Gap in United States Regulatory Policy for “Green” CSO Treatment Using Constructed Wetlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeno F. Levy


    Full Text Available Up to 850 billion gallons of untreated combined sewer overflow (CSO is discharged into waters of the United States each year. Recent changes in CSO management policy support green infrastructure (GI technologies as “front of the pipe” approaches to discharge mitigation by detention/reduction of urban stormwater runoff. Constructed wetlands for CSO treatment have been considered among suites of GI solutions. However, these wetlands differ fundamentally from other GI technologies in that they are “end of the pipe” treatment systems that discharge from a point source, and are therefore regulated in the U.S. under the National Pollution Discharge Elimination System (NPDES. We use a comparative regulatory analysis to examine the U.S. policy framework for CSO treatment wetlands. We find in all cases that permitting authorities have used best professional judgment to determine effluent limits and compliance monitoring requirements, referencing technology and water quality-based standards originally developed for traditional “grey” treatment systems. A qualitative comparison with Europe shows less stringent regulatory requirements, perhaps due to institutionalized design parameters. We recommend that permitting authorities develop technical guidance documents for evaluation of “green” CSO treatment systems that account for their unique operational concerns and benefits with respect to sustainable development.

  8. Core break-off mechanism (United States)

    Myrick, Thomas M. (Inventor)


    A mechanism for breaking off and retaining a core sample of a drill drilled into a ground substrate has an outer drill tube and an inner core break-off tube sleeved inside the drill tube. The break-off tube breaks off and retains the core sample by a varying geometric relationship of inner and outer diameters with the drill tube. The inside diameter (ID) of the drill tube is offset by a given amount with respect to its outer diameter (OD). Similarly, the outside diameter (OD) of the break-off tube is offset by the same amount with respect to its inner diameter (ID). When the break-off tube and drill tube are in one rotational alignment, the two offsets cancel each other such that the drill can operate the two tubes together in alignment with the drill axis. When the tubes are rotated 180 degrees to another positional alignment, the two offsets add together causing the core sample in the break-off tube to be displaced from the drill axis and applying shear forces to break off the core sample.

  9. CTNNB1 Mutations in Ovarian Microcystic Stromal Tumors: Identification of a Novel Deletion Mutation and the Use of Pyrosequencing to Identify Reported Point Mutation. (United States)

    Na, Kiyong; Kim, Eun Kyung; Jang, Wonjun; Kim, Hyun-Soo


    Microcystic stromal tumor (MCST) is a rare stromal tumor of the ovary. In this study, we describe clinicopathological characteristics and results of mutational analyses of the CTNNB1gene in two cases of ovarian MCST and we provide a thorough review of previously published cases alongside our current cases and clarify the clinicopathological characteristics of ovarian MCST. Patients' age was 33 and 31 years, respectively. One patient presented with fever and low abdominal pain, whereas a pelvic mass was incidentally detected in another patient. Grossly, the cut surface of the tumors was mixed solid and cystic. Histologically, the tumor characteristically displayed numerous microcysts, solid cellular areas, and intervening hyalinized stroma. Areas of moderate-to-severe nuclear pleomorphism with occasional multinucleated giant cells and bizarre nuclei were noted in one of the two cases. Immunohistochemically, both cases demonstrated diffuse and strong β-catenin expression in the nuclei and the cytoplasm. The tumor cells were also diffusely positive for CD10, vimentin, Wilms tumor 1, and cyclin D1. The tumor cells were consistently negative for E-cadherin, inhibin-α, calretinin, estrogen receptor, and progesterone receptor. Mutational analyses using direct sequencing and pyrosequencing methods exhibited a single nucleotide mutation in CTNNB1 exon 3 (c.122C>T) in one case. We also found a novel deletion mutation in the same exon (c.88_99delTACCTGGACTCT) in another case. We demonstrated a previously reported CTNNB1 point-mutation using pyrosequencing and a novel deletion mutation in ovarian MCSTs. The review of the literature of previously published cases in combination with our current cases clarifies the clinicopathological characteristics of ovarian MCST and the comprehensive analysis of these cases would expand our knowledge regarding ovarian MCST. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  10. Optimal cut-off points on the health anxiety inventory, illness attitude scales and whiteley index to identify severe health anxiety.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erik Hedman

    Full Text Available Health anxiety can be viewed as a dimensional phenomenon where severe health anxiety in form of DSM-IV hypochondriasis represents a cut-off where the health anxiety becomes clinically significant. Three of the most reliable and used self-report measures of health anxiety are the Health Anxiety Inventory (HAI, the Illness Attitude Scales (IAS and the Whiteley Index (WI. Identifying the optimal cut-offs for classification of presence of a diagnosis of severe health anxiety on these measures has several advantages in clinical and research settings. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate the HAI, IAS and WI as proximal diagnostic instruments for severe health anxiety defined as DSM-IV hypochondriasis.We investigated sensitivity, specificity and predictive value on the HAI, IAS and WI using a total of 347 adult participants of whom 158 had a diagnosis of severe health anxiety, 97 had obsessive-compulsive disorder and 92 were healthy non-clinical controls. Diagnostic assessments were conducted using the Anxiety Disorder Interview Schedule.Optimal cut-offs for identifying a diagnosis of severe health anxiety was 67 on the HAI, 47 on the IAS, and 5 on the WI. Sensitivity and specificity were high, ranging from 92.6 to 99.4%. Positive and negative predictive values ranged from 91.6 to 99.4% using unadjusted prevalence rates.The HAI, IAS and WI have very good properties as diagnostic indicators of severe health anxiety and can be used as cost-efficient proximal estimates of the diagnosis.



    Ilija Nedić


    World sugar consumption has been recording a steady growth in the past 70 years and, according to all relevant estimates, it will continue to grow also in the next decade, which puts sugar in the category of the most significant foods and commodities in the world. Of the total world sugar production, around 77% is derived from sugar cane and 23% from sugar beet. Brazil has been the world leader in sugar production for a long period of time, producing white sugar from sugar cane only, whereas ...

  12. History of Maltreatment in Childhood and Subsequent Parenting Stress in At-Risk, First-Time Mothers: Identifying Points of Intervention During Home Visiting. (United States)

    Shenk, Chad E; Ammerman, Robert T; Teeters, Angelique R; Bensman, Heather E; Allen, Elizabeth K; Putnam, Frank W; Van Ginkel, Judith B


    Home visiting is an effective preventive intervention that can improve parenting outcomes for at-risk, new mothers, thereby optimizing subsequent child development. A history of maltreatment in childhood is common in mothers participating in home visiting, yet the extent to which such a history is related to parenting outcomes during home visiting is unknown. The current study evaluated whether mothers with a history of maltreatment in childhood respond less favorably to home visiting by examining the direct and indirect pathways to subsequent parenting stress, a key parenting outcome affecting child development. First-time mothers (N = 220; age range = 16-42) participating in one of two home visiting programs, Healthy Families America or Nurse Family Partnership, were evaluated at enrollment and again at 9-and 18-month post-enrollment assessments. Researchers administered measures of maternal history of maltreatment in childhood, depressive symptoms, social support, and parenting stress. Maternal history of maltreatment in childhood predicted worsening parenting stress at the 18-month assessment. Mediation modeling identified two indirect pathways, one involving social support at enrollment and one involving persistent depressive symptoms during home visiting, that explained the relation between a history of maltreatment in childhood and parenting stress at the 18-month assessment. Ways to improve the preventive effects of home visiting for mothers with a history of maltreatment in childhood through the identification of relevant intervention targets and their ideal time of administration are discussed.

  13. Breaking the Rules in Style. (United States)

    Romano, Tom


    Describes how allowing students to break the rules of standard writing can increase students' creativity in their written expression. Discusses several traits of this alternate style, or "Grammar B," including sentence fragments, double voice, lists, and spelling variations. (MM)

  14. Breaking Bad News in Veterinary Medicine. (United States)

    Nickels, Bonnie McCracken; Feeley, Thomas Hugh


    The patient-provider relationship in the context of veterinary medicine represents a unique opportunity for studying how bad news is communicated to pet owners by conducting structured interviews with veterinarians. A sample of 44 veterinarians' responses was recorded and content-analyzed in an effort to identify themes among providers in their clinical experience of breaking bad news (BBN). Two coders revealed several themes in the data that were organized by three overarching areas: (1) breaking bad news in general, (2) euthanasia, and (3) social support. The findings from interviews indicated the COMFORT model (Villagran, Goldsmith, Wittenberg-Lyles, & Baldwin, 2010) in medical education provided a useful framework to organize the communication of BBN in veterinary medicine. Results were discussed in relation to future research in patient-provider communication and COMFORT's potential value for training students in veterinarian education.

  15. Breaking up Sedentary Behavior: Perceptions from Cancer Survivors (United States)

    Paxton, Raheem J.; Anderson, Alexandra; Sakar, Sonali; Taylor, Wendell C.


    Background Limited data exist on the benefits of, barriers to, and potential strategies to break up time spent sitting in cancer survivors. Such data will be meaningful given the consequences of prolonged sitting. Objectives To conduct a mixed method research study consisting of semi-structured telephone interviews to identify recurrent themes associated with prolonged sitting in cancer survivors. Methods African American breast cancer survivors (N = 31) were recruited from a local tumor registry. Telephone interviews were conducted and group consensus processes were used to identify recurrent themes. The a priori categories were benefits, barriers, and potential strategies to breaking up prolonged periods of sitting. Results Recurrent themes contributing most to prolonged sitting were leisure time interest (45%: e.g., watching television and reading) and health challenges (27%: e.g., pain and fatigue). Most (66%) women perceived improved health as benefits to breaking up time spent sitting. Nonetheless, many (41%) survivors reported health (e.g., pain and fatigue) as the biggest challenge to breaking up time spent sitting. Engaging in light intensity activities (e.g., staying active, keep moving) was the most commonly reported strategy for breaking up prolonged sitting. Conclusions African American breast cancer survivors identified the benefits and barriers to breaking up time spent sitting as well as potential strategies to breaking up time-spent sitting. Implications for practice Clinicians are integral in promoting breaks from prolonged sitting throughout the initial phases of the cancer continuum. Successful studies will begin with early intervention in the clinical setting, following with interventions during the recovery phase. PMID:26713501

  16. On breaks of the Indian monsoon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Further, there are three or four active-break cycles in a season according to Webster et al (1998) which implies a time scale of about 40 days for which Goswami and Mohan (2000), and Annamalai and Slingo (2001) have studied breaks and active minus break fluctuations. On the other hand, neither the traditional breaks ...

  17. Isospin breaking from diquark clustering (United States)

    Gibbs, W. R.; Dedonder, Jean-Pierre


    Background: Although SU(2) isospin symmetry is generally assumed in the basic theory of the strong interaction, a number of significant violations have been observed in scattering and bound states of nucleons. Many of these violations can be attributed to the electromagnetic interaction but the question of how much of the violation is due to it remains open. Purpose: To establish the connection between diquark clustering in the two-nucleon system and isospin breaking from the Coulomb interaction between the members of diquark pairs. Method: A schematic model based on clustering of quarks in the interior of the confinement region of the two-nucleon system is introduced and evaluated. In this model the Coulomb interaction is the source of all isospin breaking. It draws on a picture of the quark density based on the diquark-quark model of hadron structure which has been investigated by a number of groups. Results: The model produces three isospin breaking potentials connecting the unbroken value of the low-energy scattering amplitude to those of the p p , n n , and n p singlet channels. A simple test of the potentials in the three-nucleon energy difference problem yields results in agreement with the known binding energy difference. Conclusion: The illustrative model suggests that the breaking seen in the low-energy nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction may be understood in terms of the Coulomb force between members of diquark clusters. It allows the prediction of the charge symmetry breaking interaction and the n n scattering length from the well measured n p singlet scattering length. Values of the n n scattering length around -18 fm are favored. Since the model is based on the quark picture, it can be easily extended, in the SU(3) limit, to calculate isospin breaking in the strange sector in the corresponding channels. A natural consequence of isospin breaking from diquark clustering is that the breaking in the strange sector, as measured by the separation energy

  18. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture ...

  19. Simulation of breaking waves using the high-order spectral method with laboratory experiments: wave-breaking energy dissipation (United States)

    Seiffert, Betsy R.; Ducrozet, Guillaume


    We examine the implementation of a wave-breaking mechanism into a nonlinear potential flow solver. The success of the mechanism will be studied by implementing it into the numerical model HOS-NWT, which is a computationally efficient, open source code that solves for the free surface in a numerical wave tank using the high-order spectral (HOS) method. Once the breaking mechanism is validated, it can be implemented into other nonlinear potential flow models. To solve for wave-breaking, first a wave-breaking onset parameter is identified, and then a method for computing wave-breaking associated energy loss is determined. Wave-breaking onset is calculated using a breaking criteria introduced by Barthelemy et al. (J Fluid Mech, submitted) and validated with the experiments of Saket et al. (J Fluid Mech 811:642-658, 2017). Wave-breaking energy dissipation is calculated by adding a viscous diffusion term computed using an eddy viscosity parameter introduced by Tian et al. (Phys Fluids 20(6): 066,604, 2008, Phys Fluids 24(3), 2012), which is estimated based on the pre-breaking wave geometry. A set of two-dimensional experiments is conducted to validate the implemented wave breaking mechanism at a large scale. Breaking waves are generated by using traditional methods of evolution of focused waves and modulational instability, as well as irregular breaking waves with a range of primary frequencies, providing a wide range of breaking conditions to validate the solver. Furthermore, adjustments are made to the method of application and coefficient of the viscous diffusion term with negligible difference, supporting the robustness of the eddy viscosity parameter. The model is able to accurately predict surface elevation and corresponding frequency/amplitude spectrum, as well as energy dissipation when compared with the experimental measurements. This suggests the model is capable of calculating wave-breaking onset and energy dissipation

  20. Simulation of breaking waves using the high-order spectral method with laboratory experiments: wave-breaking energy dissipation (United States)

    Seiffert, Betsy R.; Ducrozet, Guillaume


    We examine the implementation of a wave-breaking mechanism into a nonlinear potential flow solver. The success of the mechanism will be studied by implementing it into the numerical model HOS-NWT, which is a computationally efficient, open source code that solves for the free surface in a numerical wave tank using the high-order spectral (HOS) method. Once the breaking mechanism is validated, it can be implemented into other nonlinear potential flow models. To solve for wave-breaking, first a wave-breaking onset parameter is identified, and then a method for computing wave-breaking associated energy loss is determined. Wave-breaking onset is calculated using a breaking criteria introduced by Barthelemy et al. (J Fluid Mech, submitted) and validated with the experiments of Saket et al. (J Fluid Mech 811:642-658, 2017). Wave-breaking energy dissipation is calculated by adding a viscous diffusion term computed using an eddy viscosity parameter introduced by Tian et al. (Phys Fluids 20(6): 066,604, 2008, Phys Fluids 24(3), 2012), which is estimated based on the pre-breaking wave geometry. A set of two-dimensional experiments is conducted to validate the implemented wave breaking mechanism at a large scale. Breaking waves are generated by using traditional methods of evolution of focused waves and modulational instability, as well as irregular breaking waves with a range of primary frequencies, providing a wide range of breaking conditions to validate the solver. Furthermore, adjustments are made to the method of application and coefficient of the viscous diffusion term with negligible difference, supporting the robustness of the eddy viscosity parameter. The model is able to accurately predict surface elevation and corresponding frequency/amplitude spectrum, as well as energy dissipation when compared with the experimental measurements. This suggests the model is capable of calculating wave-breaking onset and energy dissipation

  1. supersymmetry breaking with extra dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 497-511 supersymmetry breaking with extra dimensions. FABIO ZWIRNER. Theory Division, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland. On leave from: Physics ... theory which accounts for all the observed interactions at the presently available ... For some standard reviews of sUsY and of the MssM, with lists.

  2. Code breaking in the pacific

    CERN Document Server

    Donovan, Peter


    Covers the historical context and the evolution of the technically complex Allied Signals Intelligence (Sigint) activity against Japan from 1920 to 1945 Describes, explains and analyzes the code breaking techniques developed during the war in the Pacific Exposes the blunders (in code construction and use) made by the Japanese Navy that led to significant US Naval victories

  3. Breaking Carbon Lock-in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Driscoll, Patrick Arthur


    This central focus of this paper is to highlight the ways in which path dependencies and increasing returns (network effects) serve to reinforce carbon lock-in in large-scale road transportation infrastructure projects. Breaking carbon lock-in requires drastic changes in the way we plan future...

  4. Baryon and chiral symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorsky, A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow, Russia and Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Krikun, A. [NORDITA, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University Stockholm, Sweden and Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow (Russian Federation)


    We briefly review the generalized Skyrmion model for the baryon recently suggested by us. It takes into account the tower of vector and axial mesons as well as the chiral symmetry breaking. The generalized Skyrmion model provides the qualitative explanation of the Ioffe’s formula for the baryon mass.

  5. Breaking Rules–Making Bonds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 1. Breaking Rules - Making Bonds. A G Samuelson. General Article Volume 21 Issue 1 January 2016 pp 43-48. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Keywords.

  6. Sediment transport under breaking waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob; Mayer, Stefan


    generated at the surface where the wave breaks as well as the turbulence generated near the bed due to the wave-motion and the undertow. In general, the levels of turbulent kinetic energy are found to be higher than experiments show. This results in an over prediction of the sediment transport. Nevertheless...

  7. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barklow, T.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burdman, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Chivukula, R.S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics


    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.

  8. Evolution of the genetic code through progressive symmetry breaking. (United States)

    Lenstra, Reijer


    Evolution of the genetic code in an early RNA world is dependent on the steadily improving specificity of the coevolving protein synthesis machinery for codons, anticodons, tRNAs and amino acids. In the beginning, there is RNA but the machinery does not distinguish yet between the codons, which therefore all encode the same information. Synonymous codons are equivalent under a symmetry group that exchanges (permutes) the codons without affecting the code. The initial group changes any codon into any other by permuting the order of the bases in the triplet as well as by replacing the four RNA bases with each other at every codon position. This group preserves the differences between codons, known as Hamming distances, with a 1-distance corresponding to a single point mutation. Stepwise breaking of the group into subgroups divides the 64 codons into progressively smaller subsets - blocks of equivalent codons under the smaller symmetry groups, with each block able to encode a different message. This formalism prescribes how the evolving machinery increasingly differentiates between codons. The model indicates that primitive ribosomes first identified a unique mRNA reading frame to break the group permuting the order of the bases and subsequently enforced increasingly stringent codon-anticodon basepairing rules to break the subgroups permuting the four bases at each codon position. The modern basepairing rules evolve in five steps and at each step the number of codon blocks doubles. The fourth step generates 16 codon blocks corresponding with the 16 family boxes of the standard code and the last step splits these boxes into 32 blocks of commonly two, but rarely one or three, synonymous codons. The evolving codes transmit at most one message per codon block and as the number of messages increases so does the specificity of the code and of protein synthesis. The selective advantage conferred by better functioning proteins drives the symmetry breaking process. Over time

  9. Picnic Tables within the Designated Picnic Area at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (pcnctbl) (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This coverage contains the individual picnic areas (as points where the picnic tables are generally located) within the only designated picnic area at Cedar Breaks...

  10. Higgsless approach to electroweak symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Grojean, Christophe


    Higgsless models are an attempt to achieve a breaking of the electroweak symmetry via boundary conditions at the end-points of a fifth dimension compactified on an interval, as an alternative to the usual Higgs mechanism. There is no physical Higgs scalar in the spectrum and the perturbative unitarity violation scale is delayed via the exchange of massive spin-1 KK resonances. The correct mass spectrum is reproduced in a model in warped space, which inherits a custodial symmetry from a left–right gauge symmetry in the bulk. Phenomenological challenges as well as collider signatures are presented. From the AdS/CFT perspective, this model appears as a weakly coupled dual to walking technicolour models.

  11. Usefulness of whole blood, plasma, peritoneal fluid, and peritoneal fluid supernatant glucose concentrations obtained by a veterinary point-of-care glucometer to identify septic peritonitis in dogs with peritoneal effusion. (United States)

    Koenig, Amie; Verlander, Lindsey Lane


    To evaluate the usefulness of a veterinary point-of-care glucometer for identification of septic peritonitis in dogs with peritoneal effusion (PE). Prospective clinical evaluation. 39 dogs with PE. Blood and peritoneal fluid convenience samples were collected concurrently in all dogs at the time of initial evaluation. A veterinary point-of-care glucometer was used to measure glucose concentration in heparinized whole blood, plasma, peritoneal fluid, and peritoneal fluid supernatant samples. Seventeen dogs had confirmed septic peritonitis, and 22 dogs had nonseptic PE. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and accuracy of identification of dogs with septic peritonitis were calculated for glucose concentration differences for whole blood versus peritoneal fluid (WB-PF), plasma versus peritoneal fluid (P-PF), and plasma versus peritoneal fluid supernatant (P-PFS). With a cutoff of > 20 mg/dL, the glucose concentration difference for WB-PF was an insensitive indicator of septic peritonitis (sensitivity, 41.2%; specificity, 100%). In comparison, the glucose concentration differences for P-PF and P-PFS had a higher sensitivity for septic peritonitis (88.2% and 82.4%, respectively) but a lower specificity (80% and 77.8%, respectively). With a glucose concentration difference cutoff of ≥ 38 mg/dL, specificity, positive predictive value, and accuracy of P-PF and P-PFS improved. Determination of the glucose concentration difference for WB-PF with the veterinary point-of-care glucometer was not useful in identifying all dogs with septic peritonitis. A glucose concentration difference of ≥ 38 mg/dL for P-PF or P-PFS, however, supported an accurate diagnosis of septic peritonitis in dogs with PE.

  12. Breaking through the tranfer tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud


    This image shows the tunnel boring machine breaking through the transfer tunnel into the LHC tunnel. Proton beams will be transferred from the SPS pre-accelerator to the LHC at 450 GeV through two specially constructed transfer tunnels. From left to right: LHC Project Director, Lyn Evans; CERN Director-General (at the time), Luciano Maiani, and Director for Accelerators, Kurt Hubner.

  13. Models of electroweak symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Pomarol, Alex


    This chapter present models of electroweak symmetry breaking arising from strongly interacting sectors, including both Higgsless models and mechanisms involving a composite Higgs. These scenarios have also been investigated in the framework of five-dimensional warped models that, according to the AdS/CFT correspondence, have a four-dimensional holographic interpretation in terms of strongly coupled field theories. We explore the implications of these models at the LHC.

  14. Mechanics of lithographically defined break junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwe, SAG; van der Giessen, E; van der Molen, SJ; Dulic, D; Trouwborst, ML; van Wees, BJ

    We investigate the mechanics of lithographically defined mechanically controllable break junctions, both theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that the relationship between controlled deflection and junction opening depends on the details of the break junction geometry. As a result the

  15. Patterns and breaking points in the distribution of benthic algae along the temperate Pacific coast of South America Patrones y puntos de quiebre en la distribución de algas bentónicas a lo largo de la costa Pacífica de Sudamérica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available According to biogeographic studies made two decades ago, marine benthic algal species of the Pacific temperate coast of South America could be grouped into five components according to their geographic affinities. Each of these components was distributed differentially along the coastline between 4º and 56ºS and thus, their contribution to the overall flora varied depending on the latitude. Species composition changed at specific latitudes in such a way that three groups could be observed: from 4 to 6ºS, from 6 to 30ºS and from 30 to 55ºS. Since 1980, new information on marine algae along this coastline allows a review of the previous phytogeographic characterization. The presence/absence of algal species, separated by division and geographic affinity, was recorded for each degree of latitude from 4º to 56ºS and used to analyze the similarity in species composition and possible changes in distribution patterns. Results show the same five geographic components detected 20 years ago with similar distributions. Differences observed are a further southward intrusion of subtropical elements, a decrease in endemic species number and relative contribution to the flora at the southern tip of South America, and two breaking points in species composition at 12º and 42ºS. Another two breaking points occur at 20ºS and at 33ºS in Phaeophyta and Rhodophyta species composition respectively. The inclusion of single-record species does not affect significantly the distribution of species along this coastlineDe acuerdo a estudios biogeográficos realizados hace 20 años, las especies de algas marinas bentónicas de la costa temperada del Pacífico de Sudamérica se agrupan en 5 componentes de distinta afinidad geográfica. Cada uno de estos componentes posee una distribución diferencial a lo largo de estas costas entre los 4º y los 55ºS. De esta forma su contribución a la flora varía dependiendo de la latitud. La composición de las especies

  16. Thermal-Hydraulic Integral Effect Test with ATLAS for an Intermediate Break Loss of Coolant Accident at a Pressurizer Surge Line

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Kyoung Ho; Seok Cho; Park, Hyun Sik; Choi, Nam Hyun; Park, Yu Sun; Kim, Jong Rok; Bae, Byoung Uhn; Kim, Yeon Sik; Kim, Kyung Doo; Choi, Ki Yong; Song, Chul Hwa [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    The main objectives of this test were not only to provide physical insight into the system response of the APR1400 during the pressurizer surge line break accident but also to produce an integral effect test data to validate the SPACE code. In order to simulate a double-ended guillotine break of a pressurizer surge line in the APR1400, the IB-SUR-01R test was performed with ATLAS. The major thermal-hydraulic phenomena such as the system pressures, the collapsed water levels, and the break flow rate were presented and discussed. Despite the core was uncovered, no excursion in the cladding temperature was observed. The pressurizer surge line break can be classified as a hot leg break from a break location point of view. Compared with a cold leg break, coolability in the core may be better in case of a hot leg break due to the enhanced flow in the core region. This integral effect test data will be used to evaluate the prediction capability of existing safety analysis codes of the MARS and the RELAP5 as well as the SPACE code. Furthermore, this data can be utilized to identify any code deficiency for an IBLOCA simulation, especially for DVI-adapted plants. Redefinition of break size for design basis accident (DBA) based on risk information is being extensively investigated due to the potential for safety benefits and unnecessary burden reduction from current LBLOCA (large break loss of coolant accident)-based ECC (Emergency Core Cooling) Acceptance Criteria. As a transition break size (TBS), the rupture of medium-size pipe is considered to be more important than ever in risk-informed regulation (RIR)-relevant safety analysis. As plants age, are up-rated, and continue to seek improved operating efficiencies, the small break and intermediate break LOCA (IBLOCA) can become a concern. In particular, IBLOCA with DVI (Direct Vessel Injection) features will be addressed to support redefinition of a design-basis LOCA. With an aim of expanding code validation to address small

  17. Dynamic breaking of a single gold bond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pobelov, Ilya V.; Lauritzen, Kasper Primdal; Yoshida, Koji


    . Conversely, if the force is loaded rapidly it is more likely that the maximum breaking force is measured. Paradoxically, no clear differences in breaking force were observed in experiments on gold nanowires, despite being conducted under very different conditions. Here we explore the breaking behaviour...

  18. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... en español Blog About OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point The Tipping Point by ... danger death electrical fall furniture head injury product safety television tipover tv Watch the video in Adobe ...

  19. Can we Identify the Heart Rate Deflection Point and Rating of Perceived Exertion Threshold during the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test Level 1 in University Basketball Players? A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymczak Conde Juan Henrique


    Full Text Available Purpose. The aim of the study was to identify the heart rate deflection point (HRDP and the rating of perceived exertion (RPE threshold (DmaxRPE during the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Test level 1 (Yo-Yo IR1 in university basketball players. Methods. Eleven male university basketball athletes performed two incremental tests, interspersed by seven days, in a random crossover pattern: (1 the treadmill test with the initial velocity of 6 km ‧ h-1, increments of 1 km ‧ h-1 each 2 minutes, and pauses of 15 seconds between the stages; (2 the Yo-Yo IR1. Results. During the Yo-Yo IR1, the HRDP and the DmaxRPE were identified only in six and seven subjects, respectively. In the treadmill test, the HRDP and the DmaxRPE were found in 11 and 10 individuals, respectively. Additionally, there were no differences between the velocity of occurrence of the HRDP and the DmaxRPE recognized in the treadmill test and in the Yo-Yo IR1 (p > 0.05. Conclusions. The results suggest that if the goal is to determine aerobic capacity by the HRDP and the DmaxRPE, Yo-Yo IR1 should not be used. Instead, the treadmill test is a reliable tool.

  20. Determination of times maximum insulation in case of internal flooding by pipe break; Determinacion de los tiempos maximos de aislamiento en caso de inundacion interna por rotura de tuberia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varas, M. I.; Orteu, E.; Laserna, J. A.


    This paper demonstrates the process followed in the preparation of the Manual of floods of Cofrentes NPP to identify the allowed maximum time available to the central in the isolation of a moderate or high energy pipe break, until it affects security (1E) participating in the safe stop of Reactor or in pools of spent fuel cooling-related equipment , and to determine the recommended isolation mode from the point of view of the location of the break or rupture, of the location of the 1E equipment and human factors. (Author)

  1. Maintaining cold chain integrity: Temperature breaks within fruit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South Africa is among the top 10 fruit-exporting countries in the world. The South African fruit industry has identifi ed temperature breaks along the fruit export cold chain that result in the deterioration of fruit quality, loss of market credibility, and fi nancial losses. Seventy percent (70%) of South African fruit exports are shipped ...

  2. Mechanism for Mechanical Wave Break in the Heart Muscle (United States)

    Weise, L. D.; Panfilov, A. V.


    Using a reaction-diffusion-mechanics model we identify a mechanism for mechanical wave break in the heart muscle. For a wide range of strengths and durations an external mechanical load causes wave front dissipation leading to formation and breakup of spiral waves. We explain the mechanism, and discuss under which conditions it can cause or abolish cardiac arrhythmias.

  3. Taking breaks from work: an exploratory inquiry. (United States)

    Strongman, K T; Burt, C D


    Two studies concerned with taking breaks from either mental or physical work are presented. In the first study, a questionnaire was given to 101 students in which they answered questions about their own break taking and that of others. They also completed a time management questionnaire and scales about procrastination, self-esteem, and work overload. In the second study, 17 students kept detailed diaries of their daily break-taking behavior over a 6-week period. Results are discussed in terms of the types of reasons given for taking breaks and the possible discrepancies between such reasons and the actual activities engaged in during breaks.

  4. Infra-red fixed points in supersymmetry

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    malization group (RG) running of the parameters is dominated by infra-red stable fixed points. Typically, these fixed points are for ratios like Yukawa couplings to the gauge cou- pling, or in the context of supersymmetric models, the supersymmetry breaking trilinear. A-parameter to the gaugino mass, etc. These ratios do not ...

  5. Bacterial Populations Related to Gerbera (Gerbera jamesonii L. Stem Break

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.M. Balestra


    Full Text Available Bacterial distribution, both external (epiphytic and internal (endophytic, on Gerbera jamesonii L. cv. Provence and its relationship to gerbera stem break and ethylene production were investigated. The greatest number of epiphytic bacteria was found at capitulum level and 20 cm below. Three genera of bacteria were identified: Acinetobacter, Bacillus and Pantoea. A silver-nitrate solution greatly reduced ethylene production in cut flowers. The use of acid fuchsin solution revealed an occlusion of the xylem vessels, probably due to bacterial cells. The bacteria Acinetobacter, Pantoea and Bacillus appeared to be involved in stem break once their populations reached 105 cfu g-1 of stem tissue.

  6. Functional work breaks in a high-demanding work environment: an experimental field study. (United States)

    Scholz, André; Ghadiri, Argang; Singh, Usha; Wendsche, Johannes; Peters, Theo; Schneider, Stefan


    Work breaks are known to have positive effects on employees' health, performance and safety. Using a sample of twelve employees working in a stressful and cognitively demanding working environment, this experimental field study examined how different types of work breaks (boxing, deep relaxation and usual breaks) affect participants' mood, cognitive performance and neurophysiological state compared to a control condition without any break. In a repeated measures experimental design, cognitive performance was assessed using an auditory oddball test and a Movement Detection Test. Brain cortical activity was recorded using electroencephalography. Individual's mood was analysed using a profile of mood state. Although neurophysiological data showed improved relaxation of cortical state after boxing (vs. 'no break' and 'deep relaxation'), neither performance nor mood assessment showed similar results. It remains questionable whether there is a universal work break type that has beneficial effects for all individuals. Practitioner Summary: Research on work breaks and their positive effects on employees' health and performance often disregards break activities. This experimental field study in a stressful working environment investigated the effect of different work break activities. A universal work break type that is beneficial for this workplace could not be identified.

  7. A primary school active break programme (ACTI-BREAK): study protocol for a pilot cluster randomised controlled trial. (United States)

    Watson, Amanda; Timperio, Anna; Brown, Helen; Hesketh, Kylie D


    carried out. The ACTI-BREAK programme has been designed to be a time-efficient, feasible and appealing approach to physical activity promotion for schools. This study will assess required teacher time commitment and the potential for the ACTI-BREAK programme to improve academic-related outcomes and school-day physical activity levels with the potential for a full-scale trial in the future. Australia New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, identifier ACTRN12617000602325 . Retrospectively registered on 27 April 2017.

  8. Leaders break ground for INFINITY (United States)


    Community leaders from Mississippi and Louisiana break ground for the new INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center facility during a Nov. 20 ceremony. Groundbreaking participants included (l to r): Gottfried Construction representative John Smith, Mississippi Highway Commissioner Wayne Brown, INFINITY board member and Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise, Stennis Director Gene Goldman, Studio South representative David Hardy, Leo Seal Jr. family representative Virginia Wagner, Hancock Bank President George Schloegel, Mississippi Rep. J.P. Compretta, Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians representative Charlie Benn and Louisiana Sen. A.G. Crowe.

  9. History of electroweak symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Kibble, T W B


    In this talk, I recall the history of the development of the unified electroweak theory, incorporating the symmetry-breaking Higgs mechanism, as I saw it from my standpoint as a member of Abdus Salam's group at Imperial College. I start by describing the state of physics in the years after the Second World War, explain how the goal of a unified gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions emerged, the obstacles encountered, in particular the Goldstone theorem, and how they were overcome, followed by a brief account of more recent history, culminating in the historic discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012.

  10. CSNI specialist meeting on leak-before-break in nuclear reactor piping: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    On September 1 and 2, 1983, the CSNI subcommittee on primary system integrity held a special meeting in Monterey, California, on the subject of leak-before-break in nuclear reactor piping systems. The purpose of the meeting was to provide an international forum for the exchange of ideas, positions, and research results; to identify areas requiring additional research and development; and to determine the general attitude toward acceptance of the leak-before-break concept. The importance of the leak-before-break issue was evidenced by excellent attendance at the meeting and through active participation by the meeting attendees. Approximately 125 people representing fifteen different nations attended the meeting. The meeting was divided into four technical sessions addressing the following areas: Application of Piping Fracture Mechanics to Leak-Before Break, Leak Rate and Leak Detection, Leak-Before-Break Studies, Methods and Results, Current and Proposed Positions on Leak-Before-Break.

  11. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in the composite-vector-boson model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garavaglia, T.


    Spontaneous symmetry breaking is discussed in the Abelian, QED-like, composite-vector-boson model. When the auxiliary vector field has a nonzero vacuum expectation value, a global symmetry, Lorentz invariance, is broken. It is shown that the regularization of the saddle-point conditions for the quantum fluctuation generating functional is consistent only with a spacelike vacuum expectation value for the auxiliary vector field.

  12. Boundary breaking for interdisciplinary learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Kidron


    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to contribute to the body of knowledge on processesby which students develop interdisciplinary understanding of contents, as well as to suggest technology-enhanced means for supporting them in these processes in the context of higher education. In doing so, we suggest a rethinking of three traditional practices that tend to characterise typical higher education instruction: (1 compartmentalisation of disciplines; (2 traditional pedagogy; and (3 traditional hierarchies based on levels of expertise. Our high-level conjecture was that meaningful dialogue with peers and experts supports both the deepening of ideas in one knowledge domain and the formation of connections between ideas from several domains, both of which are required for the development of interdisciplinary understanding. We developed the Boundary Breaking for Interdisciplinary Learning (BBIL model, which harnesses technology to break boundaries between disciplines, learners and organisational levels of hierarchy. Findings indicate that 36 undergraduate students who participated in an interdisciplinary online course that implemented the BBIL model have significantly improved their interdisciplinary understanding of the course contents. This study illustrates how innovative use of available, free and low-cost technology can produce a ‘positive disruption’ in higher education instruction.

  13. EARLY BUD-BREAK1 (EBB1) defines a conserved mechanism for control of bud-break in woody perennials. (United States)

    Busov, Victor; Carneros, Elena; Yakovlev, Igor


    Bud-break is an environmentally and economically important trait in trees, shrubs and vines from temperate latitudes. Poor synchronization of bud-break timing with local climates can lead to frost injuries, susceptibility to pests and pathogens and poor crop yields in fruit trees and vines. The rapid climate changes outpace the adaptive capacities of plants to respond through natural selection. This is particularly true for trees which have long generation cycle and thus the adaptive changes are significantly delayed. Therefore, to devise appropriate breeding and conservation strategies, it is imperative to understand the molecular underpinnings that govern dormancy mechanisms. We have recently identified and characterized the poplar EARLY BUD-BREAK 1 (EBB1) gene. EBB1 is a positive regulator of bud-break and encodes a transcription factor from the AP2/ERF family. Here, using comparative and functional genomics approaches we show that EBB1 function in regulation of bud-break is likely conserved across wide range of woody perennial species with importance to forestry and agriculture.

  14. Fixed Points

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 5; Issue 5. Fixed Points - From Russia with Love - A Primer of Fixed Point Theory. A K Vijaykumar. Book Review Volume 5 Issue 5 May 2000 pp 101-102. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  15. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... OnSafety CPSC Stands for Safety The Tipping Point Home > 60 Seconds of Safety (Videos) > The Tipping Point ... 24 hours a day. For young children whose home is a playground, it’s the best way to ...

  16. On Supersymmetry Breaking in String Theory and its Realization in Brane Worlds

    CERN Document Server

    Mayr, Peter


    We use string duality to describe instanton induced spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in string compactifications with additional background fields. Dynamical supersymmetry breaking by space-time instantons in the heterotic string theory is mapped to a tree level breaking in the type II string which can be explicitly calculated by geometric methods. It is argued that the instanton corrections resurrect the no-go theorem on partial supersymmetry breaking. The point particle limit describes the non-perturbative scalar potential of a SYM theory localized on a hypersurface of space-time. The N=0 vacuum displays condensation of magnetic monopoles and confinement. The supersymmetry breaking scale is determined by $M_{str}$, which can be in the TeV range, and the geometry transverse to the gauge theory.

  17. Anatomy of new SUSY breaking holographic RG flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Argurio, Riccardo [Physique Théorique et Mathématique andInternational Solvay Institutes, Université Libre de Bruxelles,C.P. 231, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Musso, Daniele [International Center of Theoretical Physics (ICTP),Strada Costiera 11, I 34014 Trieste (Italy); Redigolo, Diego [Physique Théorique et Mathématique andInternational Solvay Institutes, Université Libre de Bruxelles,C.P. 231, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); Sorbonne Universités, UPMC University Paris 06, UMR 7589, LPTHE,F-75005, Paris (France); CNRS, UMR 7589, LPTHE,F-75005, Paris (France)


    We find and thoroughly study new supergravity domain wall solutions which are holographic realizations of supersymmetry breaking strongly coupled gauge theories. We set ourselves in an N=2 gauged supergravity with a minimal content in order to reproduce a dual N=1 effective SCFT which has a U(1){sub R} symmetry, a chiral operator whose components are responsible for triggering the RG flow, and an additional U(1){sub F} symmetry. We present a full three dimensional parameter space of solutions, which generically break supersymmetry. Some known solutions are recovered for specific sets of values of the parameters, with the new solutions interpolating between them. The generic backgrounds being singular, we provide a stability test of their dual theories by showing that there are no tachyonic resonances in the two point correlators. We compute the latter by holographic renormalization. We also carefully analyze the appearance of massless modes, such as the dilaton and the R axion, when the respective symmetries are spontaneously broken, and their lifting when the breaking is explicit. We further comment on the application of such class of backgrounds as archetypes of strongly coupled hidden sectors for gauge mediation of supersymmetry breaking. In particular, we show that it is possible to model in this way all types of hierarchies between the visible sector gaugino and sfermion masses.

  18. Stress fracture of the ulna in a break-dancer. (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Hsu; Kuo, Chun-Lin; Lin, Leou-Chyr; Wang, Shyu-Jye; Lee, Chian-Her


    Break dancing is a popular activity in teenagers and is associated with severe trauma to bones and tissues. We report the first known case of a break dancer with an ulnar stress fracture. Such injuries occur in a variety of sports due to substantial stress on the ulna and repetitive excessive rotation of the forearm. In this study we describe a patient who experienced an ulnar stress fracture during break dancing training. The diagnosis was established by history and physical examination. Initial radiographic findings were negative. However, radiographs taken 3 months after initial presented revealed callus formation over the ulnar shaft. This suggested that readjustment is required in break dancing training protocols. It is important to increase awareness of this injury among physicians to expedite the diagnosis and to prevent the possibility of conversion to an overt fracture in the future. Key pointsStress fractures should not be ignored when the patient changes exercise loading.A thoroughly detailed clinical history, physical examination, and plain radiographs were used diagnostically in this clinical case.The best methods for the treatment of stress fractures include readjustment training protocols to prevent conversion to overt fractures.

  19. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... see news reports about horrible accidents involving young children and furniture, appliance and tv tip-overs. The ...

  20. Tipping Point

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Point by CPSC Blogger September 22, 2009 appliance child Childproofing CPSC danger death electrical fall furniture head ... TV falls with about the same force as child falling from the third story of a building. ...

  1. Perceptions of rule-breaking related to marine ecosystem health.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Slater

    Full Text Available Finding effective solutions to manage marine resources is high on political and conservation agendas worldwide. This is made more urgent by the rate of increase in the human population and concomitant resource pressures in coastal areas. This paper links empirical socio-economic data about perceptions of marine resource health to the breaking of marine management rules, using fisheries as a case study. The relationship between perceived rule-breaking (non-compliance with regulations controlling fishing and perceived health of inshore marine environments was investigated through face-to-face interviews with 299 heads of households in three Tanzanian coastal communities in November and December 2011. Awareness of rules controlling fishing activity was high among all respondents. Fishers were able to describe more specific rules controlling fishing practices than non-fishers (t = 3.5, df = 297, p<0.01. Perceived breaking of fishing regulations was reported by nearly half of all respondents, saying "some" (32% of responses or "most" (15% of responses people break fishing rules. Ordinal regression modelling revealed a significant linkage (z= -3.44, p<0.001 in the relationship between respondents' perceptions of deteriorating marine health and their perception of increased rule-breaking. In this paper, inferences from an empirical study are used to identify and argue the potential for using perceptions of ecosystem health and level of rule-breaking as a means to guide management measures. When considering different management options (e.g. Marine Protected Areas, policy makers are advised to take account of and utilise likely egoistic or altruistic decision-making factors used by fishers to determine their marine activities.

  2. Time-varying droplet configuration determines break-up probability of drops within a concentrated emulsion (United States)

    Khor, Jian Wei; Kim, Minkyu; Schütz, Simon S.; Schneider, Tobias M.; Tang, Sindy K. Y.


    This paper aims to identify the origin of the probability of break-up of drops within a concentrated emulsion flowing as a 2D monolayer through a tapered microchannel into a constriction. Although the concentrated emulsion is complex involving many-body interactions, all break-up events occur between two drops pinching each other as they enter the constriction under the conditions tested. Whether break-up occurs or not depends strongly on the relative position between the two drops at the entrance of the constriction. There exist a critical offset between the initial positions of the two drops below which break-up always occurs and another critical offset above which no break-up occurs. In between these two critical offsets, there is a narrow bistable region where both break-up and non-break-up events are observed. For a flowing concentrated emulsion, the relative position between two droplets entering the constriction varies stochastically. The frequency of occurrence of drop pairs having specific offsets, together with the critical offset values for break-up, determines the break-up probability in the flowing emulsion.

  3. Parental Break-Ups and Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing, Agnete S.; Dich, Nadya; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie


    Background: Parental break-up is wide spread, and the effects of parental break-up on children’s well-being are known. The evidence regarding child age at break-up and subsequent family arrangements is inconclusive. Aim: to estimate the effects of parental break-up on stress in pre...... on parental break-up and post break-up family arrangements. Results: Twenty-one percent of the children had experienced a parental break-up at age 11, and those who had experienced parental break-up showed a higher risk of stress (OR:1.72, 95%CI:1.55;1.91) regardless of the child’s age at break-up. Children...... living in a new family with stepparents (OR = 1.63, 95%CI:1.38;1.92), or shared between the parents (OR = 1.48, 95%CI:1.26;1.75) reported higher stress than children of intact families. Single parent families reported markedly higher stress levels than children in intact families (OR = 2.18, 95%CI:1...

  4. Give me a better break: Choosing workday break activities to maximize resource recovery. (United States)

    Hunter, Emily M; Wu, Cindy


    Surprisingly little research investigates employee breaks at work, and even less research provides prescriptive suggestions for better workday breaks in terms of when, where, and how break activities are most beneficial. Based on the effort-recovery model and using experience sampling methodology, we examined the characteristics of employee workday breaks with 95 employees across 5 workdays. In addition, we examined resources as a mediator between break characteristics and well-being. Multilevel analysis results indicated that activities that were preferred and earlier in the work shift related to more resource recovery following the break. We also found that resources mediated the influence of preferred break activities and time of break on health symptoms and that resource recovery benefited person-level outcomes of emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behavior. Finally, break length interacted with the number of breaks per day such that longer breaks and frequent short breaks were associated with more resources than infrequent short breaks. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. Break-Even Cost for Residential Photovoltaics in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R. M.; Ong, S.; Roberts, B.


    Grid parity--or break-even cost--for photovoltaic (PV) technology is defined as the point where the cost of PV-generated electricity equals the cost of electricity purchased from the grid. Break-even cost is expressed in $/W of an installed system. Achieving break-even cost is a function of many variables. Consequently, break-even costs vary by location and time for a country, such as the United States, with a diverse set of resources, electricity prices, and other variables. In this report, we analyze PV break-even costs for U.S. residential customers. We evaluate some key drivers of grid parity both regionally and over time. We also examine the impact of moving from flat to time-of-use (TOU) rates, and we evaluate individual components of the break-even cost, including effect of rate structure and various incentives. Finally, we examine how PV markets might evolve on a regional basis considering the sensitivity of the break-even cost to four major drivers: technical performance, financing parameters, electricity prices and rates, and policies. We find that local incentives rather than ?technical? parameters are in general the key drivers of the break-even cost of PV. Additionally, this analysis provides insight about the potential viability of PV markets.

  6. Modelling Inflation Uncertainty with Structural Breaks Case of Turkey (1994–2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pınar Göktaş


    Full Text Available In recent years, the importance attached to the concept of volatility has increased and become a phenomenon frequently encountered in every field ranging from financial markets to macroeconomic indicators. In this study, inflation data obtained from CPI index for the period of 1994:01–2013:12 in Turkey was used to determine the best representative of the inflation uncertainty. To realize this, both symmetric and asymmetric GARCH-type models were employed. Since there are many factors that may lead to structural change within the economic course of Turkey, a structural break in the series has first been investigated. By administering Bai-Perron structural break test, two different break points both in mean and variance have been detected to be in February 2002 and in June 2001, respectively. The inclusion of those break points to the related equations, appropriate forecasting models were projected. Moreover it was found that, while in the periods prior to the break in both variance and mean the inflation itself was the reason for inflation uncertainty, following the dates of the break, the relationship changed bidirectionally. In the meantime, when the series was taken as a whole without considering the break, bidirectional causality relationship was also detected in the series.

  7. Using wavelet spectrum analysis to resolve breaking events in the wind wave time series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. Liu


    Full Text Available This paper presents the development of a new approach, based on wavelet spectrum analysis, for the detection of breaking waves in a time series of surface wave fluctuations. The approach is shown to be capable of producing equivalent wave breaking statistics as field measurements based on detection of whitecaps at a fixed point of observation. This wavelet-based approach is applicable to both deep water and finite depth environments. Based on applications of this approach to the analysis of available field data, a novel classification of wave breaking processes that consists of incipient, developing, and subsiding phases is proposed.

  8. arXiv Framework for an asymptotically safe Standard Model via dynamical breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Abel, Steven


    We present a consistent embedding of the matter and gauge content of the Standard Model into an underlying asymptotically safe theory that has a well-determined interacting UV fixed point in the large color/flavor limit. The scales of symmetry breaking are determined by two mass-squared parameters with the breaking of electroweak symmetry being driven radiatively. There are no other free parameters in the theory apart from gauge couplings.

  9. Teaching medical students how to break bad news. (United States)

    Garg, A; Buckman, R; Kason, Y


    PROGRAM OBJECTIVE: To teach medical students to break bad news to patients and their families empathically and competently. Seven teaching hospitals affiliated with the University of Toronto since 1987. All medical students in their third preclinical year. The course presents a 6-point protocol to guide students in breaking bad news and comprises 2 half-day (3-hour) teaching sessions. Each session incorporates a video presentation, a discussion period and small-group teaching, consisting of exercises followed by 4 different role-playing scenarios conducted with the use of standardized patients. The course was evaluated through 2 questionnaires, 1 administered before and 1 after the course, which measured changes in the students' attitude and strategy. Questionnaires were administered during 5 of the years since the course was started. A total of 914 precourse and 503 postcourse questionnaires were completed, of which 359 matched pairs of precourse and postcourse questionnaires were analysed to study any changes due to the course. Precourse questionnaires showed that 68% of the students had thought about the task of breaking bad news often or very often. Of the 56% of students who had seen clinicians performing this task, 75% felt that they had seen good examples. The proportion of the students who had a plan for how to conduct such an interview rose from 49% before the course to 92% after it, and the proportion who felt they might be reasonably competent in breaking bad news rose from 23% before the course to 74% after it. The subject of breaking bad news is important to medical students, and it is practicable to design a course to teach the basic techniques involved. Most students perceive such a course as enjoyable and useful and find that it increases their sense of competence and their ability to formulate a strategy for such situations.

  10. Distribution of X-ray induced chromosome rearrangement breaks along the polytene chromosomes of Anopheles messeae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleshkova, G.N. (Tomskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Nauchno-Issledovatel' skij Inst. Biologii i Biofiziki)


    Distribution of chromosomal aberrations localization along polytene chromosomes (aoutosomes) of salivary glands of malarial mosquito. Anopheles messeae is presented. Induced aberrations in F/sub 1/ posterity from X-ray irradiated fecundated females are studied. Points of breaks of inversions and translocations are localized separately. There are no considerable differences in the distribution character of two types of aberrations. Over the length of autosomes the breaks are more frequent in distal halves, their frequency in proximal parts anally in near centromeric regions of chromosomes is reduced. Concentration of breaks in certain ''hot points'' of the chromosomes is pointed out. Comparison of distribution of actual and expected frequencies of break points according to chi/sup 2/ criterion revealed highly fiducial discrepancies, testifying to uneven participation of different regions of chromosomes in aberration formation. Similarities and differences of the data obtained from analogous ones, demonstrated in Drosophila, as well as possible reasons for the distribution unevennes are discussed. On the basis of analysis of intrinsic and literature data a supposition is made that the ''hot points'' (break concentrations) can be considered as localizaion markers of intercalary heterochromatin.

  11. Effects of Rest-Break Intention on Rest-Break Frequency and Work-Related Fatigue. (United States)

    Blasche, Gerhard; Pasalic, Sanja; Bauböck, Verena-Maria; Haluza, Daniela; Schoberberger, Rudolf


    The present paper presents findings from two studies addressing the effects of the employee's intention to have rest breaks on rest-break frequency and the change of well-being during a workday. Rest breaks are effective in avoiding an accumulation of fatigue during work. However, little is known about individual differences in rest-break behavior. In Study 1, the association between rest-break intention and the daily number of rest breaks recorded over 4 consecutive workdays was determined by generalized linear model in a sample of employees ( n = 111, 59% females). In Study 2, professional geriatric nurses ( n = 95 females) who worked over two consecutive 12-hour day shifts recorded well-being (fatigue, distress, effort motivation) at the beginning and the end of their shifts. The effect of rest-break intention on the change of well-being was determined by multilevel modeling. Rest-break intention was positively associated with the frequency of rest breaks (Study 1) and reduced the increase of fatigue and distress over the workday (Study 2). The results indicate that individual differences account for the number of breaks an employee takes and, as a consequence, for variations in the work-related fatigue and distress. Strengthening rest-break intentions may help to increase rest-break behavior to avoid the buildup of fatigue and distress over a workday.

  12. Electroweak Symmetry Breaking without the $\\mu^2$ Term

    CERN Document Server

    Goertz, Florian


    We demonstrate that from a low energy perspective a viable electroweak symmetry breaking can be achieved without the (negative sign) $\\mu^2$ mass term in the Higgs potential, thereby avoiding completely the appearance of relevant operators. We show that such a setup is self consistent and not ruled out by Higgs physics. In particular, we point out that it is the lightness of the Higgs boson that allows for the electroweak symmetry to be broken dynamically via operators of $D\\geq 4$, consistent with the power expansion. Beyond that, we entertain how this scenario might even be preferred phenomenologically compared to the ordinary mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking, as realized in the Standard Model, and argue that it can be fully tested at the LHC. In an appendix, we classify UV completions that could lead to such a setup, considering also the option of generating all scales dynamically.

  13. Breaking of PT Symmetry in Bounded and Unbounded Scattering Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philipp Ambichl


    Full Text Available PT-symmetric scattering systems with balanced gain and loss can undergo a symmetry-breaking transition in which the eigenvalues of the nonunitary scattering matrix change their phase shifts from real to complex values. We relate the PT-symmetry-breaking points of such an unbounded scattering system to those of the underlying bounded systems. In particular, we show how the PT thresholds in the scattering matrix of the unbounded system translate into analogous transitions in the Robin boundary conditions of the corresponding bounded systems. Based on this relation, we argue and then confirm that the PT transitions in the scattering matrix are, under very general conditions, entirely insensitive to a variable coupling strength between the bounded region and the unbounded asymptotic region, a result that can be tested experimentally and visualized using the concept of Smith charts.

  14. Breaking of PT Symmetry in Bounded and Unbounded Scattering Systems (United States)

    Ambichl, Philipp; Makris, Konstantinos G.; Ge, Li; Chong, Yidong; Stone, A. Douglas; Rotter, Stefan


    PT-symmetric scattering systems with balanced gain and loss can undergo a symmetry-breaking transition in which the eigenvalues of the non-unitary scattering matrix change their phase shifts from real to complex values. We relate the PT-symmetry breaking points of such an unbounded scattering system to those of underlying bounded systems. In particular, we show how the PT-thresholds in the scattering matrix of the unbounded system translate into analogous transitions in the Robin boundary conditions of the corresponding bounded systems. Based on this relation, we argue and then confirm that the PT-transitions in the scattering matrix are, under very general conditions, entirely insensitive to a variable coupling strength between the bounded region and the unbounded asymptotic region, a result that can be tested experimentally and visualized using the concept of Smith charts.

  15. Mechanisms of supersymmetry breaking in the minimal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mechanisms of supersymmetry breaking in the minimal supersymmetric standard model ... Supersymmetry breaking; MSSM; mechanisms. ... The essentials of gauge, gravity, anomaly and gaugino/higgsino mediation mechanisms are covered briefly and the phenomenology of the associated models is touched upon.

  16. SU(3) breaking in hyperon beta decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, M. (Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of High Energy Physics)


    The symmetry breaking in the hyperon semi-leptonic decays is analyzed with the constraint that vertical strokeV{sub us}vertical stroke is given by K{sub e3}. The mechanism of symmetry breaking of Donoghue, Holstein and Klimt and the one-loop corrected vector form factors of Krause are compared with data. (orig.).

  17. SU(3) breaking in hyperon beta decays (United States)

    Roos, M.


    The symmetry breaking in the hyperon semi-leptonic decays is analyzed with the constraint the | us| is given by K e3. The mechanisms of symmetry breaking of Donoghue, Holstein and Klimt and the one-loop corrected vector form factors of Krause are compared with data.

  18. Structural Break Tests Robust to Regression Misspecification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abi Morshed, Alaa; Andreou, E.; Boldea, Otilia


    Structural break tests developed in the literature for regression models are sensitive to model misspecification. We show - analytically and through simulations - that the sup Wald test for breaks in the conditional mean and variance of a time series process exhibits severe size distortions when the

  19. Mathematical models of spontaneous symmetry breaking


    Sardanashvily, G.


    The Higgs mechanism of mass generation is the main ingredient in the contemporary Standard Model and its various generalizations. However, there is no comprehensive theory of spontaneous symmetry breaking. We summarize the relevant mathematical results characterizing spontaneous symmetry breaking phenomena in algebraic quantum theory, axiomatic quantum field theory, group theory, and classical gauge theory.

  20. Symmetry breaking signaling mechanisms during cell polarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruurs, LJM|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413640779


    Breaking of cellular symmetry in order to establish an apico-basal polarity axis initiates de novo formation of cell polarity. However, symmetry breaking provides a formidable challenge from a signaling perspective, because by definition no spatial cues are present to instruct axis establishment.

  1. Development of a clinical prediction rule for identifying women with tension-type headache who are likely to achieve short-term success with joint mobilization and muscle trigger point therapy. (United States)

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Cleland, Joshua A; Palomeque-del-Cerro, Luis; Caminero, Ana Belén; Guillem-Mesado, Amparo; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo


    To identify prognostic factors from the history and physical examination in women with tension-type headache (TTH) who are likely to experience self-perceived clinical improvement following a multimodal physical therapy session including joint mobilization and muscle trigger point (TrP) therapies. No definitive therapeutic intervention is available for TTH. It would be useful for clinicians to have a clinical prediction rule for selecting which TTH patients may experience improved outcomes following a multimodal physical therapy program. Women diagnosed with pure TTH by 3 experienced neurologists according to the International Headache Society criteria from different neurology departments were included. They underwent a standardized examination (neck mobility, pressure pain thresholds, total tenderness score, presence of muscle TrPs, Medical Outcomes Study 36-Item Short Form, the Neck Disability Index [NDI], the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Headache Disability Inventory) and then a multimodal physical therapy session including joint mobilization and TrP therapies. The treatment session included a 30-second grade III or IV central posterior-anterior nonthrust mobilization applied from T4 to T1 thoracic vertebrae, at C7-T1 cervico-thoracic junction and C1-C2 vertebrae for an overall intervention time of 5 minutes Different TrP techniques, particularly soft tissue stroke, pressure release, or muscle energy were applied to head and neck-shoulder muscles (temporalis, suboccipital, upper trapezius, splenius capitis, semispinalis capitis, sternocleidomastoid) to inactivate active muscle TrPs. Participants were classified as having achieved a successful outcome 1 week after the session based on their self-perceived recovery. Potential prognostic variables were entered into a stepwise logistic regression model to determine the most accurate set of variables for prediction of success. Data for 76 subjects were included in the analysis, of which 36 experienced a

  2. Climatology of the stratospheric polar vortex and planetary wave breaking (United States)

    Baldwin, Mark P.; Holton, James R.


    The distribution of Ertel's potential vorticity (PV) on the 850 K isentropic surface is used to establish a climatology for the transient evolution of the planetary scale circulation in the Northern Hemisphere winter midstratosphere. PV distributions are computed from gridded NMC daily temperature and height maps for the 10 and 30 mb levels, and show that a very good approximation for 850 K PV can be derived from 10 mb heights and temperatures alone. It is assumed that reversals of the latitudinal gradient of PV, localized in longitude and latitude may be regarded as signatures of planetary wave breaking. Wave breaking identified by such signatures tends to occur mainly in the vicinity of the Aleutian anticyclone, with a secondary maximum over Europe. The area of the polar vortex, defined as the area enclosed by PV contours greater than a certain critical value, is strongly influenced by wave breaking. Erosion of the polar vortex due to transport and mixing of PV leads to a preconditioned state, when defined in terms of vortex area, that always occurs prior to major stratospheric warmings. During winters with little PV transport or mixing, the vortex area evolves rather uniformly in response to radiative forcing. During winters with major sudden warmings, the wave breaking signature as defined here first appears at low values of PV, then rapidly moves toward higher values as the vortex area is reduced and the 'surf-zone' structure becomes well defined.

  3. Symmetry Breaking in Hofstadter's Butterfly in graphene (United States)

    Forsythe, Carlos; Dean, Cory; Wang, Lei; Maher, Patrick; Ghahari, Fereshte; Moon, Pilkyung; Koshino, Mikito; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Shepard, Ken; Hone, Jim; Kim, Philip


    We will present magnetotransport measurements in hBN encapsulated bilayer graphene devices where one of hBN substrates provides a weak modulation of lattice potential. Under a strong magnetic field, interplay between periodic electric potential and quantizing magnetic field lead to a fractal energy spectrum known as Hofstadter's butterfly. In graphene, while spin and layer symmetry breakings are expected in dual gated devices under large magnetic fields, valley symmetry breaking in the Hofstadter regime is not so easily understood. We will present the observance of these measured gaps along with a discussion of symmetry breaking in our BLG-hBN devices. Further quantitative analysis of these breakings will be presented through the temperature dependence of quantized conductance at these gaps. Through careful modulation of temperature and electron density, we have extracted a range of activation energies associated with symmetry breakings. the speaker acknowledges support from the Columbia Optics and Quantum Electronics IGERT under NSF grant DGE-1069420

  4. Research progress on dam-break floods

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jiansong


    Because of the catastrophic effects downstream of dam-break failure, more and more researchers around the world have been working on the study of dam-break flows to accurately forecast the downstream inundation mapping. With the rapid development of computer hardware and computing techniques, numerical study on dam-break flows has been a popular research subject. In the paper, the numerical methodologies used to solve the governing partial differential equations of dam-break flows are classified and summarized, and their characteristics and applications are discussed respectively. Furthermore, the fully-developed mathematical models developed in recent decades are reviewed, and also introduced the authors\\' on-going work. Finally, some possible future developments on modeling the dam-break flows and some solutions are presented and discussed. © 2011 IEEE.

  5. Big break for charge symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, G A


    Two new experiments have detected charge-symmetry breaking, the mechanism responsible for protons and neutrons having different masses. Symmetry is a crucial concept in the theories that describe the subatomic world because it has an intimate connection with the laws of conservation. The theory of the strong interaction between quarks - quantum chromodynamics - is approximately invariant under what is called charge symmetry. In other words, if we swap an up quark for a down quark, then the strong interaction will look almost the same. This symmetry is related to the concept of sup i sospin sup , and is not the same as charge conjugation (in which a particle is replaced by its antiparticle). Charge symmetry is broken by the competition between two different effects. The first is the small difference in mass between up and down quarks, which is about 200 times less than the mass of the proton. The second is their different electric charges. The up quark has a charge of +2/3 in units of the proton charge, while ...

  6. Comparison of rapid MMP-8 and interleukin-6 point-of-care tests to identify intra-amniotic inflammation/infection and impending preterm delivery in patients with preterm labor and intact membranes. (United States)

    Chaemsaithong, Piya; Romero, Roberto; Docheva, Nikolina; Chaiyasit, Noppadol; Bhatti, Gaurav; Pacora, Percy; Hassan, Sonia S; Yeo, Lami; Erez, Offer


    Among patients presenting with preterm labor and intact membranes, those with intra-amniotic inflammation have adverse obstetrical and neonatal outcomes. The diagnosis of intra-amniotic inflammation can easily be made by detecting an elevated concentration of the cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 or the enzyme neutrophil collagenase, also known as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8. The diagnostic performances of MMP-8 and IL-6 enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests are similar. Recently, a rapid test has become available for point-of-care determination of either MMP-8 or IL-6. The objectives of this study were to compare the diagnostic indices and predictive values between the rapid MMP-8 and IL-6 tests for the identification of intra-amniotic inflammation in patients with preterm labor and intact membranes. We performed a retrospective cohort study including 124 women with singleton pregnancies who presented with symptoms of preterm labor and underwent transabdominal amniocentesis for the evaluation of microbial invasion of the amniotic cavity (MIAC). MIAC was defined according to amniotic fluid culture results (aerobic and anaerobic bacteria as well as genital Mycoplasmas). Amniotic fluid white blood cell (WBC) counts were determined using a hemocytometer chamber. An elevated amniotic fluid MMP-8 concentration was assessed using Yoon's MMP-8 Check ® (cutoff: 10 ng/mL). An elevated amniotic fluid IL-6 concentration was scored when there was a positive result for the lateral flow-based immunoassay (cutoff: ≥745 pg/mL and ≥1000 pg/mL). In order to objectively compare rapid MMP-8 and rapid IL-6 tests to identify intra-amniotic inflammation, an amniotic fluid WBC count of ≥50 cells/mm 3 was used to define intra-amniotic inflammation. (1) The rapid tests had the same sensitivity for the detection of intra-amniotic inflammation [85.7% (18/21) for all]; (2) the specificity of the rapid MMP-8 test was higher than that of the rapid IL-6 test (cutoff: 745

  7. Improving long term driving comfort by taking breaks - How break activity affects effectiveness. (United States)

    Sammonds, George M; Mansfield, Neil J; Fray, Mike


    During long duration journeys, drivers are encouraged to take regular breaks. The benefits of breaks have been documented for safety; breaks may also be beneficial for comfort. The activity undertaken during a break may influence its effectiveness. Volunteers completed 3 journeys on a driving simulator. Each 130 min journey included a 10 min break after the first hour. During the break volunteers either stayed seated, left the simulator and sat in an adjacent room, or took a walk on a treadmill. The results show a reduction in driver discomfort during the break for all 3 conditions, but the effectiveness of the break was dependent on activity undertaken. Remaining seated in the vehicle provided some improvement in comfort, but more was experienced after leaving the simulator and sitting in an adjacent room. The most effective break occurred when the driver walked for 10 min on a treadmill. The benefits from taking a break continued until the end of the study (after a further hour of driving), such that comfort remained the best after taking a walk and worst for those who remained seated. It is concluded that taking a break and taking a walk is an effective method for relieving driving discomfort. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Breaking Free with Wireless Networks. (United States)

    Fleischman, John


    Discusses wireless local area networks (LANs) which typically consist of laptop computers that connect to fixed access points via infrared or radio signals. Topics include wide area networks; personal area networks; problems, including limitations of available bandwidth, interference, and security concerns; use in education; interoperability;…

  9. Amphiphilic nanoparticles suppress droplet break-up in a concentrated emulsion flowing through a narrow constriction. (United States)

    Gai, Ya; Kim, Minkyu; Pan, Ming; Tang, Sindy K Y


    This paper describes the break-up behavior of a concentrated emulsion comprising drops stabilized by amphiphilic silica nanoparticles flowing in a tapered microchannel. Such geometry is often used in serial droplet interrogation and sorting processes in droplet microfluidics applications. When exposed to high viscous stresses, drops can undergo break-up and compromise their physical integrity. As these drops are used as micro-reactors, such compromise leads to a loss in the accuracy of droplet-based assays. Here, we show droplet break-up is suppressed by replacing the fluoro-surfactant similar to the one commonly used in current droplet microfluidics applications with amphiphilic nanoparticles as droplet stabilizer. We identify parameters that influence the break-up of these drops and demonstrate that break-up probability increases with increasing capillary number and confinement, decreasing nanoparticle size, and is insensitive to viscosity ratio within the range tested. Practically, our results reveal two key advantages of nanoparticles with direct applications to droplet microfluidics. First, replacing surfactants with nanoparticles suppresses break-up and increases the throughput of the serial interrogation process to 3 times higher than that in surfactant system under similar flow conditions. Second, the insensitivity of break-up to droplet viscosity makes it possible to process samples having different composition and viscosities without having to change the channel and droplet geometry in order to maintain the same degree of break-up and corresponding assay accuracy.

  10. Key Impact Factors on Dam Break Fatalities (United States)

    Huang, D.; Yu, Z.; Song, Y.; Han, D.; Li, Y.


    Dam failures can lead to catastrophes on human society. However, there is a lack of research about dam break fatalities, especially on the key factors that affect fatalities. Based on the analysis of historical dam break cases, most studies have used the regression analysis to explore the correlation between those factors and fatalities, but without implementing optimization to find the dominating factors. In order to understand and reduce the risk of fatalities, this study has proposed a new method to select the impact factors on the fatality. It employs an improved ANN (Artificial Neural Network) combined with LOOCV (Leave-one-out cross-validation) and SFS (Stepwise Forward Selection) approach to explore the nonlinear relationship between impact factors and life losses. It not only considers the factors that have been widely used in the literature but also introduces new factors closely involved with fatalities. Dam break cases occurred in China from 1954 to 2013 are summarized, within which twenty-five cases are selected with a comprehensive coverage of geographic position and temporal variation. Twelve impact factors are taken into account as the inputs, i.e., severity of dam break flood (SF), population at risk (PR), public understanding of dam break (UB), warning time (TW), evacuation condition (EC), weather condition during dam break (WB), dam break mode (MB), water storage (SW), building vulnerability (VB), dam break time (TB), average distance from the affected area to the dam (DD) and preventive measures by government (PG).From those, three key factors of SF, MB and TB are chosen. The proposed method is able to extract the key factors, and the derived fatality model performs well in various types of dam break conditions.

  11. Breaking of longitudinal Akhiezer-Polovin waves. (United States)

    Verma, Prabal Singh; Sengupta, Sudip; Kaw, Predhiman


    The breaking of longitudinal Akhiezer-Polovin (AP) waves is demonstrated using a one-dimensional simulation based on the Dawson sheet model. It is found that the AP longitudinal waves break through the process of phase mixing at an amplitude well below the breaking amplitude for AP waves, when subjected to arbitrarily small longitudinal perturbations. Results from the simulation show a good agreement with the Dawson phase mixing formula modified to include relativistic mass variation effects. This result may be of direct relevance to the laser- or particle-beam plasma wakefield experiments.

  12. Cilia in Left-Right Symmetry Breaking. (United States)

    Shinohara, Kyosuke; Hamada, Hiroshi


    Visceral organs of vertebrates show left-right (L-R) asymmetry with regard to their position and morphology. Cilia play essential role in generating L-R asymmetry. A number of genes required for L-R asymmetry have now been identified in vertebrates, including human, many of which contribute to the formation and motility of cilia. In the mouse embryo, breaking of L-R symmetry occurs in the ventral node, where two types of cilia (motile and immotile) are present. Motile cilia are located at the central region of the node, and generate a leftward fluid flow. These motile cilia at the node are unique in that they rotate in the clockwise direction, unlike other immotile cilia such as airway cilia that show planar beating. The second type of cilia essential for L-R asymmetry is immotile cilia that are peripherally located immotile cilia. They sense a flow-dependent signal, which is either chemical or mechanical in nature. Although Ca 2+ signaling is implicated in flow sensing, the precise mechanism remains unknown. Copyright © 2017 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  13. Aeration and bubble measurements of coastal breaking waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Nobuhito [Disaster Prevention Research Institute, Kyoto University, Gokasho, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011 (Japan); Kakuno, Shohachi [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka City University, 3-3-138 Sugimoto, Sumiyoshi-ku, Osaka 558-8585 (Japan)], E-mail:


    The air entrainment process of surf zone waves is studied experimentally to understand as a first step of two-phase characteristics of surf zone breaking waves. A set of laboratory experiments of free surface elevation, water velocity, void fraction and bubble distribution is conducted simultaneously for regular gravity wave breaking on a plane slope. The in situ data are collected by using a measurement array of wave gages, a dual-tip resistivity void fraction probe and an acoustic Doppler velocimeter. Two-dimensional projected bubble size measurements are conduced by the high speed camera with imaging technique. The experimental data show a linear relationship between the void fraction and turbulent intensity. In addition, the bubble size distributions are proportional to the bubble size to the power of -1 and -3.4 independent of the distance from breaking point and water depth. The length scale separating two power laws is the Hinze scale which corresponds to the wave energy dissipation scale. This result will be important for modeling and implication for the study of surf zone dynamics.

  14. Water Breaking: Understand This Sign of Labor (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Labor and delivery, postpartum care Water breaking worries? Prepare yourself for childbirth by getting the facts about this important sign of labor. By Mayo Clinic Staff If you're ...

  15. 'Dynamical Supersymmetry Breaking, with Flavor'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig, Nathaniel; Essig, Rouven; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC; Franco, Sebastian; Kachru, Shamit; /Santa Barbara, KITP /UC, Santa Barbara; Torroba, Gonzalo; /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SLAC /Santa Barbara, KITP /UC, Santa Barbara


    We explore calculable models with low-energy supersymmetry where the flavor hierarchy is generated by quark and lepton compositeness, and where the composites emerge from the same sector that dynamically breaks supersymmetry. The observed pattern of Standard Model fermion masses and mixings is obtained by identifying the various generations with composites of different dimension in the ultraviolet. These 'single-sector' supersymmetry breaking models give rise to various spectra of soft masses which are, in many cases, quite distinct from what is commonly found in models of gauge or gravity mediation. In typical models which satisfy all flavor-changing neutral current constraints, both the first and second generation sparticles have masses of order 20 TeV, while the stop mass is a few TeV. In other cases, all sparticles obtain masses of order a few TeV predominantly from gauge mediation, even though the first two generations are composite.

  16. Emergent Electroweak Symmetry Breaking with Composite W, Z Bosons

    CERN Document Server

    Cui, Yanou; Wells, James D


    We present a model of electroweak symmetry breaking in a warped extra dimension where electroweak symmetry is broken at the UV (or Planck) scale. An underlying conformal symmetry is broken at the IR (or TeV) scale generating masses for the electroweak gauge bosons without invoking a Higgs mechanism. By the AdS/CFT correspondence the W,Z bosons are identified as composite states of a strongly-coupled gauge theory, suggesting that electroweak symmetry breaking is an emergent phenomenon at the IR scale. The model satisfies electroweak precision tests with reasonable fits to the S and T parameter. In particular the T parameter is sufficiently suppressed since the model naturally admits a custodial SU(2) symmetry. The composite nature of the W,Z-bosons provide a novel possibility of unitarizing WW scattering via form factor suppression. Constraints from LEP and the Tevatron as well as discovery opportunities at the LHC are discussed for these composite electroweak gauge bosons.

  17. Structural Breaks, Parameter Stability and Energy Demand Modeling in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusegun A. Omisakin


    Full Text Available This paper extends previous studies in modeling and estimating energy demand functions for both gasoline and kerosene petroleum products for Nigeria from 1977 to 2008. In contrast to earlier studies on Nigeria and other developing countries, this study specifically tests for the possibility of structural breaks/regime shifts and parameter instability in the energy demand functions using more recent and robust techniques. In addition, the study considers an alternative model specification which primarily captures the price-income interaction effects on both gasoline and kerosene demand functions. While the conventional residual-based cointegration tests employed fail to identify any meaningful long run relationship in both functions, the Gregory-Hansen structural break cointegration approach confirms the cointegration relationships despite the breakpoints. Both functions are also found to be stable under the period studied.The elasticity estimates also follow the a priori expectation being inelastic both in the long- and short run for the two functions.

  18. Porter’s five forces reconsideration: Model of joint MBA programmes and schools’ fusion in the industry of Management Education as a counter point of competitive environment model : COMMUNICATION POUR LA BIENNALE 2015 « COOPERER » Identifiant : N° 448


    Nguyen, Thi Thu Tra


    International audience; In the scope of our doctoral research, business education is considered as an industry where business schools act as firms. Our thesis focuses on the strategic management field, with aims to explore how schools revisit their MBA curricula. Within this framework, joint and merged MBA programmes have been analysed as a counter point of Porter’s five forces (1980): rivalry among competitors, entry barriers, substitutions’ threats, buyers’ and suppliers’ bargaining power. ...

  19. Breaking Through in Migrant Education. (United States)

    Cardenas, Blandina

    When the "theory of incompatibilities" was first elaborated more than 30 years ago, it identified five characteristics that schools needed to address to improve migrant education, but it failed to recognize the moral and cognitive strengths elicited in many youth by the harsh migrant experience. The theory posited five interdependent…

  20. Alleyway Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde Nielsen, Espen; Kruse Aagaard, Anders


    topografier. Alleyway Points består af en række eksperimenter, som søger at udforske denne sammenvævning af disse to parallelle domæner gennem en pendulering imellem det fysiske og det digitale. En gyde danner rammen om disse forsøg, hvor den etablerede punktsky i sig selv bliver anskuet som en digital......Forskelligartede former for fotogrammetri og 3D-scanning muliggør indfangelse af den fysiske verden i det digitale domæne. Dette har vist sig instrumentelt i et utal af forskellige henseender. Når virkeligheden bliver digitaliseret, bliver den frigjort fra sine materielle forpligtigelser: der er...... dialog og pendulering mellem de to domæner, hvor grænsen mellem, hvad der kan anskues som det virkelige og repræsentionen deraf, bliver gradvis mere utydelig. Dette adskiller sig fra to dominerende diskurser inden for arbejdsgange mellem det virkelige og det digitale, der ofte er ensrettede bevægelser...

  1. Arctic climate tipping points. (United States)

    Lenton, Timothy M


    There is widespread concern that anthropogenic global warming will trigger Arctic climate tipping points. The Arctic has a long history of natural, abrupt climate changes, which together with current observations and model projections, can help us to identify which parts of the Arctic climate system might pass future tipping points. Here the climate tipping points are defined, noting that not all of them involve bifurcations leading to irreversible change. Past abrupt climate changes in the Arctic are briefly reviewed. Then, the current behaviour of a range of Arctic systems is summarised. Looking ahead, a range of potential tipping phenomena are described. This leads to a revised and expanded list of potential Arctic climate tipping elements, whose likelihood is assessed, in terms of how much warming will be required to tip them. Finally, the available responses are considered, especially the prospects for avoiding Arctic climate tipping points.

  2. MTE1 Functions with MPH1 in Double-Strand Break Repair. (United States)

    Yimit, Askar; Kim, TaeHyung; Anand, Ranjith P; Meister, Sarah; Ou, Jiongwen; Haber, James E; Zhang, Zhaolei; Brown, Grant W


    Double-strand DNA breaks occur upon exposure of cells to ionizing radiation and certain chemical agents or indirectly through replication fork collapse at DNA damage sites. If left unrepaired, double-strand breaks can cause genome instability and cell death, and their repair can result in loss of heterozygosity. In response to DNA damage, proteins involved in double-strand break repair by homologous recombination relocalize into discrete nuclear foci. We identified 29 proteins that colocalize with recombination repair protein Rad52 in response to DNA damage. Of particular interest, Ygr042w/Mte1, a protein of unknown function, showed robust colocalization with Rad52. Mte1 foci fail to form when the DNA helicase gene MPH1 is absent. Mte1 and Mph1 form a complex and are recruited to double-strand breaks in vivo in a mutually dependent manner. MTE1 is important for resolution of Rad52 foci during double-strand break repair and for suppressing break-induced replication. Together our data indicate that Mte1 functions with Mph1 in double-strand break repair. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  3. The difficulties experienced by nurses and healthcare staff involved in the process of breaking bad news. (United States)

    Warnock, Clare; Buchanan, Jean; Tod, Angela Mary


    The aim of this study was to explore the difficulties experienced by nurses and healthcare professionals when engaging in the process of breaking bad news. The challenges faced by staff when breaking bad news have previously been researched in relation to particular settings or participants. This study involved staff from diverse settings and roles to develop broader insights into the range of difficulties experienced in clinical practice. The study used a descriptive survey design involving self-reported written accounts and framework analysis. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire containing a free text section that asked participants to describe a difficult experience they had encountered when involved in the process of breaking bad news. Data were collected from healthcare staff from hospital, community, hospice and care home settings attending training days on breaking bad news between April 2011 and April 2014. Multiple inter-related factors presented challenges to staff engaging in activities associated with breaking bad news. Traditional subjects such as diagnostic and treatment information were described but additional topics were identified such as the impact of illness and care at the end of life. A descriptive framework was developed that summarizes the factors that contribute to creating difficult experiences for staff when breaking bad news. The framework provides insights into the scope of the challenges faced by staff when they engage in the process of breaking bad news. This provides the foundation for developing interventions to support staff that more closely matches their experiences in clinical practice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Brane to brane gravity mediation of supersymmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Rattazzi, Riccardo; Strumia, A; Rattazzi, Riccardo; Scrucca, Claudio A.; Strumia, Alessandro


    We extend the results of Mirabelli and Peskin to supergravity. We study the compactification on S_1/Z_2 of Zucker's off-shell formulation of 5D supergravity and its coupling to matter at the fixed points. We clarify some issues related to the off-shell description of supersymmetry breaking a la Scherk-Schwarz (here employed only as a technical tool) discussing how to deal with singular gravitino wave functions. We then consider `visible' and `hidden' chiral superfields localized at the two different fixed points and communicating only through 5D supergravity. We compute the one-loop corrections that mix the two sectors and the radion superfield. Locality in 5D ensures the calculability of these effects, which transmit supersymmetry breaking from the hidden to the visible sector. In the minimal set-up visible-sector scalars get a universal squared mass m_0^2 < 0. In general (e.g. in presence of a sizable gravitational kinetic term localized on the hidden brane) the radion-mediated contribution to m_0^2 can ...

  5. Supernatural supersymmetry: Phenomenological implications of anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Jonathan L. [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Moroi, Takeo [School of Natural Sciences, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)


    We discuss the phenomenology of supersymmetric models in which supersymmetry breaking terms are induced by the super-Weyl anomaly. Such a scenario is envisioned to arise when supersymmetry breaking takes place in another world, i.e., on another brane. We review the anomaly-mediated framework and study in detail the minimal anomaly-mediated model parametrized by only 3+1 parameters: M{sub aux}, m{sub 0}, tan {beta}, and sgn({mu}). The renormalization group equations exhibit a novel ''focus point'' (as opposed to fixed point) behavior, which allows squark and slepton masses far above their usual naturalness bounds. We present the superparticle spectrum and highlight several implications for high energy colliders. Three lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) candidates exist: the W-ino, the stau, and the tau sneutrino. For the W-ino LSP scenario, light W-ino triplets with the smallest possible mass splittings are preferred; such W-inos are within reach of run II Fermilab Tevatron searches. Finally, we study a variety of sensitive low energy probes, including b{yields}s{gamma}, the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the electric dipole moments of the electron and neutron. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  6. Supernatural supersymmetry: Phenomenological implications of anomaly-mediated supersymmetry breaking (United States)

    Feng, Jonathan L.; Moroi, Takeo


    We discuss the phenomenology of supersymmetric models in which supersymmetry breaking terms are induced by the super-Weyl anomaly. Such a scenario is envisioned to arise when supersymmetry breaking takes place in another world, i.e., on another brane. We review the anomaly-mediated framework and study in detail the minimal anomaly-mediated model parametrized by only 3+1 parameters: Maux, m0, tan β, and sgn(μ). The renormalization group equations exhibit a novel ``focus point'' (as opposed to fixed point) behavior, which allows squark and slepton masses far above their usual naturalness bounds. We present the superparticle spectrum and highlight several implications for high energy colliders. Three lightest supersymmetric particle (LSP) candidates exist: the W-ino, the stau, and the tau sneutrino. For the W-ino LSP scenario, light W-ino triplets with the smallest possible mass splittings are preferred; such W-inos are within reach of run II Fermilab Tevatron searches. Finally, we study a variety of sensitive low energy probes, including b-->sγ, the anomalous magnetic moment of the muon, and the electric dipole moments of the electron and neutron.

  7. Breaking new ground: the story of Dagmar Berne. (United States)

    Moorhead, Robert


    In 1885 a young country girl enrolled in medicine at Sydney University. She was the first woman in Australia to enroll in a medical school. The medical school at this time was heavily influenced by academics who had graduated from the University of Edinburgh. At one point in her medical education she experienced difficulties with her examinations, the reasons for which are a point for debate. Under the mentorship of a famous British female medical practitioner who was visiting Australia at the time, she continued her studies in the United Kingdom. Here she was successful and returned to practice in New South Wales in 1895. Her experience of medical education was not without suffering. This young woman became part of an international group of women who at the time were trying to break into a field dominated by men.

  8. Leptogenesis after chaotic sneutrino inflation and the supersymmetry breaking scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredrik Björkeroth


    Full Text Available We discuss resonant leptogenesis arising from the decays of two nearly-degenerate right-handed neutrinos, identified as the inflaton and stabiliser superfields in a model of chaotic sneutrino inflation. We compare an analytical estimate of the baryon asymmetry ηB in the Boltzmann approximation to a numerical solution of the full density matrix equations, and find that the analytical result fails to capture the correct physics in certain regions of parameter space. The observed baryon asymmetry can be realised for a breaking of the mass degeneracy as small as O(10−8. The origin of such a small mass splitting is explained by considering supersymmetry (SUSY breaking in supergravity, which requires a constant in the superpotential of the order of the gravitino mass m3/2 to cancel the cosmological constant. This yields additional terms in the (sneutrino mass matrices, lifting the degeneracy and linking ηB to the SUSY breaking scale. We find that achieving the correct baryon asymmetry requires a gravitino mass m3/2≥O(100 TeV.

  9. Planar cell polarity breaks bilateral symmetry by controlling ciliary positioning. (United States)

    Song, Hai; Hu, Jianxin; Chen, Wen; Elliott, Gene; Andre, Philipp; Gao, Bo; Yang, Yingzi


    Defining the three body axes is a central event of vertebrate morphogenesis. Establishment of left-right (L-R) asymmetry in development follows the determination of dorsal-ventral and anterior-posterior (A-P) body axes, although the molecular mechanism underlying precise L-R symmetry breaking in reference to the other two axes is still poorly understood. Here, by removing both Vangl1 and Vangl2, the two mouse homologues of a Drosophila core planar cell polarity (PCP) gene Van Gogh (Vang), we reveal a previously unrecognized function of PCP in the initial breaking of lateral symmetry. The leftward nodal flow across the posterior notochord (PNC) has been identified as the earliest event in the de novo formation of L-R asymmetry. We show that PCP is essential in interpreting the A-P patterning information and linking it to L-R asymmetry. In the absence of Vangl1 and Vangl2, cilia are positioned randomly around the centre of the PNC cells and nodal flow is turbulent, which results in disrupted L-R asymmetry. PCP in mouse, unlike what has been implicated in other vertebrate species, is not required for ciliogenesis, cilium motility, Sonic hedgehog (Shh) signalling or apical docking of basal bodies in ciliated tracheal epithelial cells. Our data suggest that PCP acts earlier than the unidirectional nodal flow during bilateral symmetry breaking in vertebrates and provide insight into the functional mechanism of PCP in organizing the vertebrate tissues in development.

  10. Chiral symmetry and chiral-symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peskin, M.E.


    These lectures concern the dynamics of fermions in strong interaction with gauge fields. Systems of fermions coupled by gauge forces have a very rich structure of global symmetries, which are called chiral symmetries. These lectures will focus on the realization of chiral symmetries and the causes and consequences of thier spontaneous breaking. A brief introduction to the basic formalism and concepts of chiral symmetry breaking is given, then some explicit calculations of chiral symmetry breaking in gauge theories are given, treating first parity-invariant and then chiral models. These calculations are meant to be illustrative rather than accurate; they make use of unjustified mathematical approximations which serve to make the physics more clear. Some formal constraints on chiral symmetry breaking are discussed which illuminate and extend the results of our more explicit analysis. Finally, a brief review of the phenomenological theory of chiral symmetry breaking is presented, and some applications of this theory to problems in weak-interaction physics are discussed. (WHK)

  11. Breaking the silence surrounding rape. (United States)

    Ramsay, S


    This article documents the turning points in the rape issue, which led to the acknowledgement of its prevalence in the world, especially in South Africa. November 25 marked the first day of the "Take a Stand" movement in South Africa, which coincided with the International Day Against Violence Against Women. This movement involves peaceful protests and poster campaigns, followed by months of sustained news coverage of rape. This was launched by a coalition of organizations, including women's groups, churches, businesses, and trades unions, that are speaking out against all forms of sexual violence. In the international community, rape is starting to be taken seriously. In 1996, sexual assault was cited as a crime against humanity by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. In addition, a forum in London, UK, on November 25, discussed rape issues and recommendations on how to prevent such violence were given. The need for a change in legal systems, which currently discourage women from taking legal actions, was also recognized. In view of this, the medical community is challenged to provide sensitive and appropriate help to women who have been assaulted.

  12. Breaking Object Correspondence Across Saccadic Eye Movements Deteriorates Object Recognition. (United States)

    Poth, Christian H; Herwig, Arvid; Schneider, Werner X


    Visual perception is based on information processing during periods of eye fixations that are interrupted by fast saccadic eye movements. The ability to sample and relate information on task-relevant objects across fixations implies that correspondence between presaccadic and postsaccadic objects is established. Postsaccadic object information usually updates and overwrites information on the corresponding presaccadic object. The presaccadic object representation is then lost. In contrast, the presaccadic object is conserved when object correspondence is broken. This helps transsaccadic memory but it may impose attentional costs on object recognition. Therefore, we investigated how breaking object correspondence across the saccade affects postsaccadic object recognition. In Experiment 1, object correspondence was broken by a brief postsaccadic blank screen. Observers made a saccade to a peripheral object which was displaced during the saccade. This object reappeared either immediately after the saccade or after the blank screen. Within the postsaccadic object, a letter was briefly presented (terminated by a mask). Observers reported displacement direction and letter identity in different blocks. Breaking object correspondence by blanking improved displacement identification but deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. In Experiment 2, object correspondence was broken by changing the object's contrast-polarity. There were no object displacements and observers only reported letter identity. Again, breaking object correspondence deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. These findings identify transsaccadic object correspondence as a key determinant of object recognition across the saccade. This is in line with the recent hypothesis that breaking object correspondence results in separate representations of presaccadic and postsaccadic objects which then compete for limited attentional processing resources (Schneider, 2013). Postsaccadic object recognition is

  13. Breaking object correspondence across saccadic eye movements deteriorates object recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian H. Poth


    Full Text Available Visual perception is based on information processing during periods of eye fixations that are interrupted by fast saccadic eye movements. The ability to sample and relate information on task-relevant objects across fixations implies that correspondence between presaccadic and postsaccadic objects is established. Postsaccadic object information usually updates and overwrites information on the corresponding presaccadic object. The presaccadic object representation is then lost. In contrast, the presaccadic object is conserved when object correspondence is broken. This helps transsaccadic memory but it may impose attentional costs on object recognition. Therefore, we investigated how breaking object correspondence across the saccade affects postsaccadic object recognition. In Experiment 1, object correspondence was broken by a brief postsaccadic blank screen. Observers made a saccade to a peripheral object which was displaced during the saccade. This object reappeared either immediately after the saccade or after the blank screen. Within the postsaccadic object, a letter was briefly presented (terminated by a mask. Observers reported displacement direction and letter identity in different blocks. Breaking object correspondence by blanking improved displacement identification but deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. In Experiment 2, object correspondence was broken by changing the object’s contrast-polarity. There were no object displacements and observers only reported letter identity. Again, breaking object correspondence deteriorated postsaccadic letter recognition. These findings identify transsaccadic object correspondence as a key determinant of object recognition across the saccade. This is in line with the recent hypothesis that breaking object correspondence results in separate representations of presaccadic and postsaccadic objects which then compete for limited attentional processing resources (Schneider, 2013. Postsaccadic

  14. Ras activation and symmetry breaking during Dictyostelium chemotaxis. (United States)

    Kortholt, Arjan; Keizer-Gunnink, Ineke; Kataria, Rama; Van Haastert, Peter J M


    Central to chemotaxis is the molecular mechanism by which a shallow spatial gradient of chemoattractant induces symmetry breaking of activated signaling molecules. Previously, we have used Dictyostelium mutants to investigate the minimal requirements for chemotaxis, and identified a basal signaling module providing activation of Ras and F-actin at the leading edge. Here, we show that Ras activation after application of a pipette releasing the chemoattractant cAMP has three phases, each depending on specific guanine-nucleotide-exchange factors (GEFs). Initially a transient activation of Ras occurs at the entire cell boundary, which is proportional to the local cAMP concentrations and therefore slightly stronger at the front than in the rear of the cell. This transient Ras activation is present in gα2 (gpbB)-null cells but not in gβ (gpbA)-null cells, suggesting that Gβγ mediates the initial activation of Ras. The second phase is symmetry breaking: Ras is activated only at the side of the cell closest to the pipette. Symmetry breaking absolutely requires Gα2 and Gβγ, but not the cytoskeleton or four cAMP-induced signaling pathways, those dependent on phosphatidylinositol (3,4,5)-triphosphate [PtdIns(3,4,5)P3], cGMP, TorC2 and PLA2. As cells move in the gradient, the crescent of activated Ras in the front half of the cell becomes confined to a small area at the utmost front of the cell. Confinement of Ras activation leads to cell polarization, and depends on cGMP formation, myosin and F-actin. The experiments show that activation, symmetry breaking and confinement of Ras during Dictyostelium chemotaxis uses different G-protein subunits and a multitude of Ras GEFs and GTPase-activating proteins (GAPs).

  15. Rule-making, rule breaking? Law breaking by government in the Netherlands and the United Kingdom

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huberts, L.W.J.C.; van Montfort, A.J.G.M.; Doig, A.; Clark, D.


    This article concerns a relatively novel issue: rule breaking and unlawful conduct by government bodies; to which degree does it occur, what is the nature of this misconduct, what are the underlying motives, and what are the consequences and possible solutions? Rule and law breaking is harmful for

  16. Jet simulations and gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerten, H. J.; Meliani, Z.; Wijers, Ramj; Keppens, R.


    The conventional derivation of the gamma-ray burst afterglow jet break time uses only the blast wave fluid Lorentz factor and therefore leads to an achromatic break. We show that in general gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks are chromatic across the self-absorption break. Depending on

  17. Jet simulations and gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eerten, H. J.; Meliani, Z.; Wijers, R.A.M.J.; Keppens, R.


    The conventional derivation of the gamma-ray burst afterglow jet break time uses only the blast wave fluid Lorentz factor and therefore leads to an achromatic break. We show that in general gamma-ray burst afterglow jet breaks are chromatic across the self-absorption break. Depending on

  18. 19 CFR 149.4 - Bulk and break bulk cargo. (United States)


    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Bulk and break bulk cargo. 149.4 Section 149.4... TREASURY (CONTINUED) IMPORTER SECURITY FILING § 149.4 Bulk and break bulk cargo. (a) Bulk cargo exempted.... (b) Break bulk cargo exempted from time requirement. For break bulk cargo that is exempt from the...

  19. Double-strand breaks and the concept of short- and long-term epigenetic memory. (United States)

    Orlowski, Christian; Mah, Li-Jeen; Vasireddy, Raja S; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C


    Double-strand breaks represent an extremely cytolethal form of DNA damage and thus pose a serious threat to the preservation of genetic and epigenetic information. Though it is well-known that double-strand breaks such as those generated by ionising radiation are among the principal causative factors behind mutations, chromosomal aberrations, genetic instability and carcinogenesis, significantly less is known about the epigenetic consequences of double-strand break formation and repair for carcinogenesis. Double-strand break repair is a highly coordinated process that requires the unravelling of the compacted chromatin structure to facilitate repair machinery access and then restoration of the original undamaged chromatin state. Recent experimental findings have pointed to a potential mechanism for double-strand break-induced epigenetic silencing. This review will discuss some of the key epigenetic regulatory processes involved in double-strand break (DSB) repair and how incomplete or incorrect restoration of chromatin structure can leave a DSB-induced epigenetic memory of damage with potentially pathological repercussions.

  20. Rest break organization in geriatric care and turnover: a multimethod cross-sectional study. (United States)

    Wendsche, Johannes; Hacker, Winfried; Wegge, Jürgen; Schrod, Nadine; Roitzsch, Katharina; Tomaschek, Anne; Kliegel, Matthias


    Various determinants of nurses' work motivation and turnover behavior have been examined in previous studies. In this research, we extend this work by investigating the impact of care setting (nursing homes vs. home care services) and the important role of rest break organization. We aimed to identify direct and indirect linkages between geriatric care setting, rest break organization, and registered nurses' turnover assessed over a period of one year. We designed a multimethod cross-sectional study. 80 nursing units (n=45 nursing homes, n=35 home care) in 51 German geriatric care services employing 597 registered nurses. We gathered documentary, interview, and observational data about the organization of rest breaks, registered nurses' turnover, and additional organizational characteristics (type of ownership, location, nursing staff, clients, and client-to-staff-ratio). The findings show that the rest break system in geriatric nursing home units is more regularly as well as collectively organized and causes less unauthorized rest breaks than in home care units. Moreover, the feasibility of collective rest breaks was, as predicted, negatively associated with registered nurses' turnover and affected indirectly the relation between care setting and registered nurses' turnover. Care setting, however, had no direct impact on turnover. Furthermore, registered nurses' turnover was higher in for-profit care units than in public or non-profit units. This study reveals significant differences in rest break organization as a function of geriatric care setting and highlights the role of collective rest breaks for nursing staff retention. Our study underlines the integration of organizational context variables and features of rest break organization for the analysis of nursing turnover. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Break-glass handling exceptional situations in access control

    CERN Document Server

    Petritsch, Helmut


    Helmut Petritsch describes the first holistic approach to Break-Glass which covers the whole life-cycle: from access control modeling (pre-access), to logging the security-relevant system state during Break-Glass accesses (at-access), and the automated analysis of Break-Glass accesses (post-access). Break-Glass allows users to override security restrictions in exceptional situations. While several Break-Glass models specific to given access control models have already been discussed in research (e.g., extending RBAC with Break-Glass), the author introduces a generic Break-Glass model. The pres

  2. 'Checkmating HIV&AIDS': Using chess to break the silence in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this article, I give an account of my 'Checkmating HIV&AIDS' action research project, which was an attempt to break the 'culture of silence' concerning HIV&AIDS and sex and sexuality in my classroom. In this project, I focused specifically on one code of sport, namely chess, and I point out and discuss the potential of ...

  3. Workshop on electroweak symmetry breaking: proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinchliffe, I. (ed.)


    A theoretical workshop on electroweak symmetry breaking at the Superconducting Supercollider was held at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, June 4-22, 1984. The purpose of the workshop was to focus theoretical attention on the ways in which experimentation at the SSC could reveal manifestations of the phenomenon responsible for electroweak symmetry breaking. This issue represents, at present, the most compelling scientific argument for the need to explore the energy region to be made accessible by the SSC, and a major aim of the workshop was to involve a broad cross section of particle theorists in the ongoing process of sharpening the requirements for both accelerator and detector design that will ensure detection and identification of meaningful signals, whatever form the electroweak symmetry breaking phenomenon should actually take. Separate entries were prepared for the data base for the papers presented.

  4. A break in the obesity epidemic?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Visscher, T L S; Heitmann, B L; Rissanen, A


    epidemic. However, follow-ups of short duration may, in part, explain the apparent break or decrease in the obesity epidemic. On the other hand, a single focus on body mass index (BMI) ⩾25 or ⩾30 kg m(-)(2) is likely to mask a real increase in the obesity epidemic. And, in both children and adults, trends......Recent epidemiologic papers are presenting prevalence data suggesting breaks and decreases in obesity rates. However, before concluding that the obesity epidemic is not increasing anymore, the validity of the presented data should be discussed more thoroughly. We had a closer look...... into the literature presented in recent reviews to address the major potential biases and distortions, and to develop insights about how to interpret the presented suggestions for a potential break in the obesity epidemic. Decreasing participation rates, the use of reported rather than measured data and small sample...

  5. Supersymmetry breaking in spatially modulated vacua (United States)

    Nitta, Muneto; Sasaki, Shin; Yokokura, Ryo


    We study spontaneous supersymmetry breaking in spatially modulated stable or metastable vacua in supersymmetric field theories. Such spatial modulation can be realized in a higher derivative chiral model for which vacuum energies are positive, negative, or zero, depending on the model parameters. There appears a Nambu-Goldstone boson associated with the spontaneous breaking of the translational and U (1 ) symmetries without the quadratic kinetic term and with a quartic derivative term in the modulated direction, and a gapless Higgs mode. We show that there appears a Goldstino associated with the supersymmetry breaking at a metastable vacuum, where energy is positive, while it becomes a fermionic ghost in the negative energy vacuum, and zero norm state and disappears from the physical sector in the zero energy vacuum.

  6. On Supersymmetry Breaking in Intersecting Brane Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, M


    We discuss a framework to analyze the transmission of supersymmetry breaking in models of intersecting D-branes. Generically, different intersections preserve different fractions of an extended bulk supersymmetry, thus breaking supersymmetry completely but in a nonlocal way. We analyze this mechanism in a 5D toy model where two brane intersections, which are separated in the fifth dimension, break different halves of an extended {Nu} = 2 supersymmetry. The sector of the theory on one brane intersection feels the breakdown of the residual {Nu} = 1 supersymmetry only through two-loop interactions involving a coupling to fields from the other intersection. We compute the diagrams that contribute to scalar masses on one intersection and find that the masses are proportional to the compactification scale up to logarithmic corrections. We also compute the three-loop diagrams relevant to the Casimir energy between the two intersections and find a repulsive Casimir force.

  7. Breaking bad news in cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apostolos Konstantis


    Full Text Available Objective: In a regional hospital, many patients are newly diagnosed with cancer. Breaking the bad news in these patients and their relatives is a tough task. Many doctors are not experienced in talking to patients about death or death-related diseases. In recent years, there have been great efforts to change the current situation. The aim of this study was to investigate the experience and education of medical personnel in breaking bad news in a secondary hospital. Materials and Methods: 59 doctors from General Hospital of Komotini, Greece were included in the study. All the doctors were in clinical specialties that treated cancer patients. A brief questionnaire was developed based on current guidelines such as Baile/SPIKES framework and the ABCDE mnemonic. Results: Residents are involved in delivering bad news less frequently than specialists. Only 21 doctors (35.59% had specific training on breaking bad news. 20 doctors (33.90% were aware of the available techniques and protocols on breaking bad news. 47 doctors (79.66% had a consistent plan for breaking bad news. 57 (96.61% delivered bad news in a quiet place, 53 (89.83% ensured no interruptions and enough time, 53 (89.83% used simple words and 54 (91.53% checked for understanding and did not rush through the news. 46 doctors (77.97% allowed relatives to determine patient′s knowledge about the disease. Conclusions: There were low rates of specific training in breaking bad news. However, the selected location, the physician′s speech and their plan were according to current guidelines.

  8. PowerPoint 2013 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Lowe, Doug


    Get up and running with this full-color guide to PowerPoint 2013! PowerPoint, the number one presentation software, has been revised and improved with the introduction of Microsoft Office 2013. With this all-new, full-color book by your side, you will learn how to take full advantage of all of PowerPoint's powerful and dynamic capabilities. Bestselling veteran For Dummies, author Doug Lowe breaks it all down so that you can create a powerful and effective slideshow presentation with the new wide-screen theme and variant that incorporates videos, pictures, and shapes, and all

  9. Model for chiral symmetry breaking in QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Govaerts, J.; Weyers, J.; Mandula, J.E.


    A recently proposed model for dynamical breaking of chiral symmetry in QCD is extended and developed for the calculation of pion and chiral symmetry breaking parameters. The pion is explicitly realized as a massless Goldstone boson and as a bound state of the constituent quarks. We compute, in the limit of exact chiral symmetry, Msub(Q), the constituent quark mass, fsub(..pi..), the pion decay coupling, , the constituent quark loop density, 2//msub(q), the ratio of the Goldstone boson mass squared to the bare quark mass, and sub(..pi..), the pion electromagnetic charge radius squared.

  10. Electromagnetic radiation under explicit symmetry breaking. (United States)

    Sinha, Dhiraj; Amaratunga, Gehan A J


    We report our observation that radiation from a system of accelerating charges is possible only when there is explicit breaking of symmetry in the electric field in space within the spatial configuration of the radiating system. Under symmetry breaking, current within an enclosed area around the radiating structure is not conserved at a certain instant of time resulting in radiation in free space. Electromagnetic radiation from dielectric and piezoelectric material based resonators are discussed in this context. Finally, it is argued that symmetry of a resonator of any form can be explicitly broken to create a radiating antenna.

  11. La poetica degli spazi di Breaking Bad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Martin


    Full Text Available Breaking Bad (2008-2013 produced, thanks to the creativity of Vince Gilligan and his writing room, some of the most emblematic characters in the history of contemporary television. Also, the writers of Breaking Bad were able to devise places and spaces that play important symbolic functions: spaces of mediation, spaces of transit, sacred spaces. This article investigates the meanings and characteristics of some of these settings: the swimming pool, the White family home, the meth lab. The analysis considers also the relation between characters and spaces, paying particular attention to the places inhabited by the main character, Walter White.

  12. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in gauge theories. (United States)

    Kibble, T W B


    The aim of this historical article is to describe the development of the idea of spontaneous symmetry breaking in gauge theories as seen from my perspective as a member of Abdus Salam's group at Imperial College London, UK. Beginning with an account of particle physics in the years after the Second World War, I describe early attempts at constructing a unified theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions, the obstacles encountered and how they were eventually overcome with the mass-generating mechanism incorporating the idea of spontaneous symmetry breaking, one of whose features is the now-famous Higgs boson.

  13. Distributions of Low- and High-LET Radiation-Induced Breaks in Chromosomes are Associated with Inter- and Intrachromosome Exchanges (United States)

    Hada, Megumi; Zhang, Ye; Feiveson, Alan; Cucinotta, Francis A.; Wu, Honglu


    To study the breakpoint along the length of the chromosome induced by low- and high-LET radiations, we exposed human epithelial cells in vitro to Cs-137 rays at both low and high dose rates, secondary neutrons at a low dose rate, and 600 MeV/u Fe ions at a high dose rate. The location of the breaks was identified using the multicolor banding in situ hybridization (mBAND) that paints Chromosome 3 in 23 different colored bands. The breakpoint distributions were found to be similar between rays of low and high dose rates and between the two high-LET radiation types. Detailed analysis of the chromosome break ends involved in inter- and intrachromosome exchanges revealed that only the break ends participating in interchromosome exchanges contributed to the hot spots found for low-LET. For break ends participating in intrachromosome exchanges, the distributions for all four radiation scenarios were similar with clusters of breaks found in three regions. Analysis of the locations of the two break ends in Chromosome 3 that joined to form an intrachromosome exchange demonstrated that two breaks with a greater genomic separation may be more likely to rejoin than two closer breaks, indicating that chromatin folding can play an important role in the rejoining of chromosome breaks. Our study demonstrated that the gene-rich regions do not necessarily contain more breaks. The breakpoint distribution depends more on the likelihood that a break will join with another break in the same chromosome or in a different chromosome.

  14. Supersymmetry in a sector of Higgsless electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knochel, Alexander Karl


    In this thesis we have investigated phenomenological implications which arise for cosmology and collider physics when the electroweak symmetry breaking sector of warped higgsless models is extended to include warped supersymmetry with conserved R parity. The goal was to find the simplest supersymmetric extension of these models which still has a realistic light spectrum including a viable dark matter candidate. To accomplish this, we have used the same mechanism which is already at work for symmetry breaking in the electroweak sector to break supersymmetry as well, namely symmetry breaking by boundary conditions. While supersymmetry in five dimensions contains four supercharges and is therefore directly related to 4D N=2 supersymmetry, half of them are broken by the background leaving us with ordinary N=1 theory in the massless sector after Kaluza-Klein expansion. We thus use boundary conditions to model the effects of a breaking mechanism for the remaining two supercharges. The simplest viable scenario to investigate is a supersymmetric bulk and IR brane without supersymmetry on the UV brane. Even though parts of the light spectrum are effectively projected out by this mechanism, we retain the rich phenomenology of complete N=2 supermultiplets in the Kaluza-Klein sector. While the light supersymmetric spectrum consists of electroweak gauginos which get their O(100 GeV) masses from IR brane electroweak symmetry breaking, the light gluinos and squarks are projected out on the UV brane. The neutralinos, as mass eigenstates of the neutral bino-wino sector, are automatically the lightest gauginos, making them LSP dark matter candidates with a relic density that can be brought to agreement withWMAP measurements without extensive tuning of parameters. For chargino masses close to the experimental lower bounds at around m{sub {chi}{sup +}}{approx}100.. 110 GeV, the dark matter relic density points to LSP masses of around m{sub {chi}}{approx}90 GeV. At the LHC, the

  15. Does artificial UV use prior to spring break protect students from sunburns during spring break? (United States)

    Dennis, Leslie K; Lowe, John B


    Dark-skinned individuals are less likely than light-skinned individuals to become sunburned or develop skin cancer. Some have extrapolated this relationship and surmised that developing and maintaining a tan will reduce the risk of sunburns and melanoma. In order to examine whether this strategy indeed protects against sunburns, we surveyed college students about both their tanning habits prior to spring break and their spring break activities. Sorority and fraternity students were recruited after spring break. Analyses examined associations between potential risk factors and the development of one or more sunburns during spring break. As expected, the risk of obtaining a sunburn increased with: time spent in the sun during spring break; light complexion, as assessed by various sun-sensitivity factors; and lack of sunscreen use. We also found that tanning using an artificial UV source during the 10 weeks prior to spring break was not associated with reduced risk of sunburns during spring-break, but rather with a marginal increase in this risk. These data provide evidence that maintaining a tan may not provide protection from sunburns. Public health messages need to address this misconception, stating clearly that a tan does not protect against or reduce the chances of developing a sunburn. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Primary vitrectomy with perfluoro-n-octane use in the treatment of pseudophakic retinal detachment with undetected retinal breaks. (United States)

    Brazitikos, P D; D'Amico, D J; Tsinopoulos, I T; Stangos, N T


    This report describes the results of a prospective trial to evaluate the efficacy of pars plana vitrectomy (PPV) in conjunction with perfluoro-n-octane (PFO) as initial treatment of pseudophakic retinal detachment (RD) with no breaks diagnosed preoperatively. Fourteen consecutive eyes presenting with pseudophakic RD in which retinal breaks could not be identified preoperatively underwent primary PPV, internal microsurgical identification of the retinal breaks with endoillumination and noncontact wide angle viewing system, PFO retinal reattachment, transscleral cryopexy or endolaser treatment of breaks, PFO-air exchange, and final injection of 20% sulfur hexafluoride. In five eyes, a scleral buckle was also used. Mean follow-up period was 18 months. In 13 of the 14 eyes in which no breaks had been identified preoperatively, breaks were diagnosed during surgery. Perfluoro-n-octane retinal attachment facilitated accurate microscopic treatment of retinal breaks. The retina was reattached with a single operation in all eyes. Eleven eyes had final visual acuity of 20/60 or better. Complications were minimal. Pars plana vitrectomy in conjunction with PFO expression of subretinal fluid is effective in the initial treatment of pseudophakic RD with no preoperative diagnosis of retinal breaks.

  17. Neutrino masses from SUSY breaking in radiative seesaw models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueiredo, Antonio J.R. [University of Lisbon, Centro de Fisica Teorica de Particulas (CFTP), Instituto Superior Tecnico, Lisbon (Portugal)


    Radiatively generated neutrino masses (m{sub ν}) are proportional to supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking, as a result of the SUSY non-renormalisation theorem. In this work, we investigate the space of SUSY radiative seesaw models with regard to their dependence on SUSY breaking (SUSY). In addition to contributions from sources of SUSY that are involved in electroweak symmetry breaking (SUSY{sub EWSB} contributions), and which are manifest from left angle F{sub H}{sup †} right angle = μ left angle anti H right angle ≠ 0 and left angle D right angle = g sum {sub H} left angle H{sup †} x {sub H} H right angle ≠ 0, radiatively generated m{sub ν} can also receive contributions from SUSY sources that are unrelated to EWSB (SUSY{sub EWS} contributions). We point out that recent literature overlooks pure-SUSY{sub EWSB} contributions (∝ μ/M) that can arise at the same order of perturbation theory as the leading order contribution from SUSY{sub EWS}. We show that there exist realistic radiative seesaw models in which the leading order contribution to m{sub ν} is proportional to SUSY{sub EWS}. To our knowledge no model with such a feature exists in the literature. We give a complete description of the simplest model topologies and their leading dependence on SUSY. We show that in one-loop realisations LLHH operators are suppressed by at least μ m{sub soft}/M{sup 3} or m{sub soft}{sup 2}/M{sup 3}. We construct a model example based on a oneloop type-II seesaw. An interesting aspect of these models lies in the fact that the scale of soft-SUSY effects generating the leading order m{sub ν} can be quite small without conflicting with lower limits on the mass of new particles. (orig.)

  18. Firm break-up and performance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kočenda, Evžen; Hanousek, Jan


    Roč. 13, č. 2 (2012), s. 121-143 ISSN 1435-6104 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA402/09/1595 Institutional support: PRVOUK-P23 Keywords : break-up of firms * corporate performance * ownership changes Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 0.588, year: 2012

  19. Density Functional Simulation of a Breaking Nanowire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nakamura, A.; Brandbyge, Mads; Hansen, Lars Bruno


    We study the deformation and breaking of an atomic-sized sodium wire using density functional simulations. The wire deforms through sudden atomic rearrangements and smoother atomic displacements. The conductance of the wire exhibits plateaus at integer values in units of 2e(2)/h corresponding...

  20. Dynamical Symmetry Breaking in RN Quantum Gravity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. T. Kotvytskiy


    Full Text Available We show that in the RN gravitation model, there is no dynamical symmetry breaking effect in the formalism of the Schwinger-Dyson equation (in flat background space-time. A general formula for the second variation of the gravitational action is obtained from the quantum corrections hμν (in arbitrary background metrics.

  1. Duality and supersymmetry breaking in string theory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferrara, S. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland) California Univ., Los Angeles (USA)); Magnoli, N.; Veneziano, G. (European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland)); Taylor, T.R. (Northeastern Univ., Boston, MA (USA))


    Target-space duality is incorporated in previously proposed effective actions describing non-perturbative supersymmetry breaking in string theory via gaugino condensation. Duality-preserving vacua with broken supersymmetry and fixed unified coupling constant do generically occur. The question of the vanishing of the cosmological constant is also briefly addressed. (orig.).

  2. Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking in Nonrelativistic Systems (United States)

    Watanabe, Haruki

    The subject of condensed matter physics is very rich --- there are an infinite number of parameters producing a diversity of exciting phenomena. As a theorist, my goal is to distill general principles out of this complexity --- to construct theories that can coherently explain many known examples altogether. This thesis is composed of several attempts to develop such theories in topics related to spontaneously symmetry breaking. A remarkable feature of many-body interacting systems is that although they are described by equations respecting various symmetries, they may spontaneously organize into a state that explicitly breaks symmetries. Examples are numerous: various types of crystalline and magnetic orders, Bose-Einstein condensates of cold atoms, superfluids of liquid helium, chiral symmetry in QCD, neutron stars, and cosmic inflation. These systems with spontaneously broken continuous symmetries have gapless excitations, so called Nambu-Goldstone bosons (NGBs). Although the properties of NGBs are well understood in Lorentz-invariant systems, surprisingly, some basic properties of NGBs such as their number and dispersion in nonrelativistic systems have not been discussed from a general perspective. In the first part of this thesis, we solve this issue by developing and analyzing an effective Lagrangian that coherently captures the low-energy, long-distance physics of many different symmetry-breaking states all at once. Next, we examine whether these NGBs originating from spontaneous symmetry breaking remain to be well-defined excitations inside a metal, where low-energy electrons near Fermi surface can collide with them. Our result is a one equation criterion that specifies whether the interactions between electrons and NGBs can be ignored, or whether it completely changes their character. In the latter case, unusual phases of matter such as non-Fermi liquids may arise; in that case, NGBs are overdamped and cannot form particle-like excitations in spite of the

  3. Ultra-large distance modification of gravity from Lorentz symmetry breaking at the Planck scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorbunov, Dmitry S. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary prospect, 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation); Sibiryakov, Sergei M. [Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, 60th October Anniversary prospect, 7a, 117312 Moscow (Russian Federation)


    We present an extension of the Randall-Sundrum model in which, due to spontaneous Lorentz symmetry breaking, graviton mixes with bulk vector fields and becomes quasilocalized. The masses of KK modes comprising the four-dimensional graviton are naturally exponentially small. This allows to push the Lorentz breaking scale to as high as a few tenth of the Planck mass. The model does not contain ghosts or tachyons and does not exhibit the van Dam-Veltman-Zakharov discontinuity. The gravitational attraction between static point masses becomes gradually weaker with increasing of separation and gets replaced by repulsion (antigravity) at exponentially large distances.

  4. Using runoff slope-break to determine dominate factors of runoff decline in Hutuo River Basin, North China. (United States)

    Tian, Fei; Yang, Yonghui; Han, Shumin


    Water resources in North China have declined sharply in recent years. Low runoff (especially in the mountain areas) has been identified as the main factor. Hutuo River Basin (HRB), a typical up-stream basin in North China with two subcatchments (Ye and Hutuo River Catchments), was investigated in this study. Mann-Kendall test was used to determine the general trend of precipitation and runoff for 1960-1999. Then Sequential Mann-Kendall test was used to establish runoff slope-break from which the beginning point of sharp decline in runoff was determined. Finally, regression analysis was done to illustrate runoff decline via comparison of precipitation-runoff correlation for the period prior to and after sharp runoff decline. This was further verified by analysis of rainy season peak runoff flows. The results are as follows: (1) annual runoff decline in the basin is significant while that of precipitation is insignificant at alpha=0.05 confidence level; (2) sharp decline in runoff in Ye River Catchment (YRC) occurred in 1968 while that in Hutuo River Catchment (HRC) occurred in 1978; (3) based on the regression analysis, human activity has the highest impact on runoff decline in the basin. As runoff slope-breaks in both Catchments strongly coincided with increase in agricultural activity, agricultural water use is considered the dominate factor of runoff decline in the study area.

  5. Development of a predictive methodology for identifying high radon exhalation potential areas; Mise au point d'une methodologie predictive des zones a fort potentiel d'exhalation du radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ielsch, G


    Radon 222 is a radioactive natural gas originating from the decay of radium 226 which itself originates from the decay of uranium 23 8 naturally present in rocks and soil. Inhalation of radon gas and its decay products is a potential health risk for man. Radon can accumulate in confined environments such as buildings, and is responsible for one third of the total radiological exposure of the general public to radiation. The problem of how to manage this risk then arises. The main difficulty encountered is due to the large variability of exposure to radon across the country. A prediction needs to be made of areas with the highest density of buildings with high radon levels. Exposure to radon varies depending on the degree of confinement of the habitat, the lifestyle of the occupants and particularly emission of radon from the surface of the soil on which the building is built. The purpose of this thesis is to elaborate a methodology for determining areas presenting a high potential for radon exhalation at the surface of the soil. The methodology adopted is based on quantification of radon exhalation at the surface, starting from a precise characterization of the main local geological and pedological parameters that control the radon source and its transport to the ground/atmosphere interface. The methodology proposed is innovative in that it combines a cartographic analysis, parameters integrated into a Geographic Information system, and a simplified model for vertical transport of radon by diffusion through pores in the soil. This methodology has been validated on two typical areas, in different geological contexts, and gives forecasts that generally agree with field observations. This makes it possible to identify areas with a high exhalation potential within a range of a few square kilometers. (author)

  6. Low Scale Supersymmetry Breaking and its LHC Signatures

    CERN Document Server

    Dudas, Emilian; Tziveloglou, Pantelis


    We study the most general extension of the MSSM Lagrangian that includes scenarios in which supersymmetry is spontaneously broken at a low scale f. The spurion that parametrizes supersymmetry breaking in the MSSM is promoted to a dynamical superfield involving the goldstino, with (and without) its scalar superpartner, the sgoldstino. The low energy effective Lagrangian is written as an expansion in terms of m_{SUSY}/sqrt{f}, where m_{SUSY} is the induced supersymmetry breaking scale, and contains, in addition to the usual MSSM Lagrangian with the soft terms, couplings involving the component fields of the goldstino superfield and the MSSM fields. This Lagrangian can provide significant corrections to the usual couplings in the Standard Model and the MSSM. We study how these new corrections affect the Higgs couplings to gauge bosons and fermions, and how LHC bounds can be used in order to constrain f. We also discuss that, from the effective field theory point of view, the couplings of the goldstino interactio...

  7. Concrete Walls Crumble as Tunnel TI8 Breaks Through

    CERN Multimedia


    On Wednesday, October 3rd, the excitement in the tunnels deep beneath CERN was high as an exuberant crowd watched the second and last transfer tunnel (TI8) from the SPS break through to the LHC. The Director-General with the Mayors of Meyrin and Prévessin at the breakthrough point. The area where the break through was to occur did not look particularly special, just a concrete wall with bright orange paint sprayed in the centre. But the austere surroundings quickly faded from importance as a tremendous ruckus filled the corridor. Just minutes later the first pieces of the wall started popping off. The suspense in the room grew and eventually the spinning drill became readily visible to the entire crowd.... and that's when the real noise started, the noise of applause! 'This is the second time I have seen this happen but it is always moving because it shows our steps forward.' said Prof. Luciano Maiani. Technicians, physicists, and engineers chatted excitedly as the tunnel team climbed through...

  8. Low-scale inflation and supersymmetry breaking in racetrack models (United States)

    Allahverdi, Rouzbeh; Dutta, Bhaskar; Sinha, Kuver


    In many moduli stabilization schemes in string theory, the scale of inflation appears to be of the same order as the scale of supersymmetry breaking. For low-scale supersymmetry breaking, therefore, the scale of inflation should also be low, unless this correlation is avoided in specific models. We explore such a low-scale inflationary scenario in a racetrack model with a single modulus in type IIB string theory. Inflation occurs near a point of inflection in the Kähler modulus potential. Obtaining acceptable cosmological density perturbations leads to the introduction of magnetized D7-branes sourcing nonperturbative superpotentials. The gravitino mass, m3/2, is chosen to be around 30 TeV, so that gravitinos that are produced in the inflaton decay do not affect big-bang nucleosynthesis. Supersymmetry is communicated to the visible sector by a mixture of anomaly and modulus mediation. We find that the two sources contribute equally to the gaugino masses, while scalar masses are decided mainly by anomaly contribution. This happens as a result of the low scale of inflation and can be probed at the LHC.

  9. Using the breakage matrix approach for monitoring the break release in the wheat flour milling process. (United States)

    Bojanić, Nemanja; Fišteš, Aleksandar; Rakić, Dušan; Takači, Aleksandar; Došenović, Tatjana


    The breakage matrix approach is a mathematical tool to relate input and output particle size distribution from a milling operation. Adjustment of the break release in the flour milling process is extremely important because it affects granulation and quality characteristics of the stock and hence the total results and balance of the mill. In this study the breakage matrix approach has been used for the purpose of controlling the release on the front passages of the break system in the flour milling process. It has been established that, for any particle size distribution of wheat, it is possible to predict break releases together with the distribution of the release size fractions by using the breakage matrices. Also, the reversibility of this approach is examined, that is the possibility to identify the wheat particle size distribution that would result in desired break releases and/or the desired yields of different sized intermediate stocks under the given set of milling conditions. It is confirmed that the breakage matrix approach can be successfully used to predict the break releases. The reverse breakage matrix concept allows the determination of the wheat particle size distribution which would result in a targeted break release. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Symmetry breaking and un-breaking in microhydrodynamical systems: Swimming, pumping and bio-ballistics (United States)

    Roper, Marcus Leigh

    This thesis describes the numerical and asymptotic analysis of symmetry breaking phenomena in three fluid dynamical systems. The first part concerns modeling of a micrometer sized swimming device, comprising a filament composed of superparamagnetic micron-sized beads and driven by an applied magnetic field. The swimming mechanics are deciphered in order to show how actuation by a spatially-homogeneous but temporally-varying torque leads to propagation of a bending wave along the filament and thence to propulsion. Absence of swimming unless the lateral symmetry of the filament is broken by tethering one end to a high drag body is explained. The model is used to determine whether, and to what extent, the micro-swimmer behaves like a flagellated eukaryotic cell. The second part concerns modeling of locomotion using a reversible stroke. Although forbidden at low Reynolds numbers, such symmetric gaits are favored by some microscopic planktonic swimmers. We analyze the constraints upon generation of propulsive force by such swimmers using a numerical model for a flapped limb. Effective locomotion is shown to be possible at arbitrarily low rates of energy expenditure, escaping a formerly postulated time-symmetry constraint, if the limb is shaped in order to exploit slow inertial-streaming eddies. Finally we consider the evolution of explosively launched ascomycete spores toward perfect projectile shapes---bodies that are designed to experience minimum drag in flight---using the variance of spore shapes between species in order to quantify the stiffness of the drag minimization constraint. A surprising observation about the persistent fore-aft symmetry of perfect projectiles, even up to Reynolds numbers great enough that the flow around the projectile is highly asymmetric, points both toward a model for spore ontogeny and to a novel linear approximation for moderate Reynolds flows.

  11. Investigation on the Use of a Multiphase Eulerian CFD solver to simulate breaking waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomaselli, Pietro D.; Christensen, Erik Damgaard


    The main challenge in CFD multiphase simulations of breaking waves is the wide range of interfacial length scales occurring in the flow: from the free surface measurable in meters down to the entrapped air bubbles with size of a fraction of a millimeter. This paper presents a preliminary...... investigation on a CFD model capable of handling this problem. The model is based on a solver, available in the open-source CFD toolkit OpenFOAM, which combines the Eulerian multi-fluid approach for dispersed flows with a numerical interface sharpening method. The solver, enhanced with additional formulations...... for mass and momentum transfer among phases, was satisfactorily tested against an experimental bubble column flow. The model was then used to simulate the propagation of a laboratory solitary breaking wave. The motion of the free surface was successfully reproduced up to the breaking point. Further...

  12. Break-in and Performance Issues on a single cell PBI-based PEM Fuel Cell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kær, Søren Knudsen; Jespersen, Jesper Lebæk

    of the fuel cell, even though break-in of a fuel cell implemented in a commercial application would most likely not be feasible. In the present work a commercially available PBI-based high temperature MEA is subject to a break-in procedure, as specified by the manufacturer. The cell was operated at 160 °C......Depending on the application in question and the load cycle of operation, fuel cell degradation can be a serious problem. Fuel cell degradation of PBI-based MEA's and fuel cells in general is quite complex. The rate of degradation depends on several parameters, where the operating temperature...... and the current drawn from the fuel cell are of great importance. One must therefore choose the point of operation carefully in order for the fuel cell to fulfil the requirements for lifetime perform-ance of the system. Break-in of fuel cells is often done in scientific experiments to improve the performance...

  13. Turbulence generation by mountain wave breaking in flows with directional wind shear (United States)

    Vittoria Guarino, Maria; Teixeira, Miguel A. C.


    In this study, wave breaking, and the potential for the generation of turbulence in the atmosphere, is investigated using high-resolution numerical simulations of idealized atmospheric flows with directional wind shear over a three-dimensional isolated mountain. These simulations, which use the WRF-ARW model, differ in degree of flow non-linearity and directional wind shear intensity, quantified through the dimensionless mountain height and the Richardson number of the incoming flow. The aim is to predict wave breaking occurrence based on large-scale variables. The simulation results have been used to produce a regime diagram representing a description of wave breaking behavior in parameter space. By selecting flow overturning occurrence as a discriminating factor, it was possible to split the regime diagram in two sub-regions representing: a non-wave breaking regime and a wave breaking regime. The regime diagram shows that in the presence of directional shear wave breaking may occur over lower mountains that in a constant-wind case. When mountain waves break, the associated convective instability can lead to turbulence generation (known as Clear Air Turbulence or CAT in a non-cloudy atmosphere), thus, regions within the simulation domain where wave breaking and potential development of CAT are expected have been identified. The extent of these regions is variable and increases with the background shear intensity. In contrast with constant-wind flows, where wave breaking occurs in the stream-wise direction aligned with the mountain, for the helical wind profiles considered in this study as prototypes of flows with directional wind shear, flow overturning regions have a more three-dimensional geometry. The analysis of the model outputs, supported by theoretical arguments, suggest the existence of a link between wave breaking and the relative orientation of the incoming wind vector and the horizontal velocity perturbation vector. In particular, in a wave breaking

  14. Downslope flow across the Ross Sea shelf break (Antarctica) (United States)

    Bergamasco, A.; Budillon, G.; Carniel, S.; Defendi, V.; Meloni, R.; Paschini, E.; Sclavo, M.; Spezie, G.


    The analysis of some high-resolution hydrological data sets acquired during the 1997, 1998, 2001 and 2003 austral summers across the Ross Sea continental shelf break are here presented. The main focus of these cruises carried out in the framework of the Italian National Antarctic Program was the investigation of the downslope flow of the dense waters originated inside the Ross Sea. Such dense waters, flow near the bottom and, reaching the continental shelf break, ventilate the deep ocean. Two Antarctic continental shelf mechanisms can originate dense and deep waters. The former mechanism involves the formation, along the Victoria Land coasts, of a dense and saline water mass, the High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW). The HSSW formation is linked to the rejection of salt into the water column as sea ice freezes, especially during winter, in the polynya areas, where the ice is continuously pushed offshore by the strong katabatic winds. The latter one is responsible of the formation of a supercold water mass, the Ice Shelf Water (ISW). The salt supplied by the HSSW recirculated below the Ross Ice Shelf, the latent heat of melting and the heat sink provided by the Ross Ice Shelf give rise to plumes of ISW, characterized by temperatures below the sea-surface freezing point. The dense shelf waters migrate to the continental shelf-break, spill over the shelf edge and descend the continental slope as a shelf-break gravity current, subject to friction and possibly enhanced by topographic channelling. Friction, in particular, breaks the constraint of potential vorticity conservation, counteracting the geostrophic tendency for along slope flow. The density-driven downslope motion or cascading entrains ambient water, namely the lower layer of the CDW, reaches a depth where density is the same and spreads off-slope. In fact, the cascading event is inhibited by friction without entrainment. The downslope processes are important for the ocean and climate system because they play a

  15. Searching for cosmological signatures of the Einstein equivalence principle breaking (United States)

    Holanda, R. F. L.; Barros, K. N. N. O.


    Modifications of gravity generated by a multiplicative coupling of a scalar field to the electromagnetic Lagrangian lead to a breaking of the Einstein equivalence principle (EEPB), as well as to variations of fundamental constants. In these theoretical frameworks, deviations of standard values of the fine structure constant, Δ α /α =ϕ , and of the cosmic distance duality relation, DL(1 +z )-2/DA=η =1 , where DL and DA are the luminosity and angular diameter distances, respectively, are unequivocally linked. In this paper, we search for cosmological signatures of the EEPB by using angular diameter distance from galaxy clusters, obtained via their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) and x-ray observations, and distance modulus of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). The crucial point here is that we take into account the dependence of the SZE/x-ray technique with ϕ and η . Our new results show no indication of the EEPB.

  16. Symmetry breaking of zero energy landau level in monolayer graphene (United States)

    Zhao, Yue; Cadden-Zimansky, Paul; Ghahari, Fereshte; Kim, Philip


    We experimentally study the nature of the symmetry breaking of the zero energy landau level (LL) in monolayer graphene using Corbino geometry and Hall bar geometry devices. At high magnetic fields, in the absence of the edge state channel connection in Corbino devices, we observe a gap opening in ν = 0 QH state whose gap is independent of in-plane magnetic field. In Hall-bar geometry devices where edge state connection is allowed, we observe similar QH Insulator behavior independent of the in-plane magnetic field, indicating that the observed insulating behavior at the charge neutrality point of monolayer graphene at high magnetic field is originated from the degeneracy lifting of the zero LL via the valley pseudospin polarization rather spin polarization.

  17. The bud break process and its variation among local populations of boreal black spruce. (United States)

    Rossi, Sergio; Bousquet, Jean


    Phenology of local populations can exhibit adaptations to the current environmental conditions resulting from a close interaction between climate and genotype. The bud break process and its variations among populations were analyzed in greenhouse by monitoring the growth resumption in black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP] seedlings originating from seeds of five stands across the closed boreal forest in Quebec, Canada. Bud break lasted 15 days and occurred earlier and quicker in northern provenances. Provenance explained between 10.2 and 32.3% of the variance in bud break, while the families accounted for a smaller but still significant part of the variance. The late occurrence of one phenological phase corresponded to a delayed occurrence of the others according to linear relationships. A causal model was proposed in the form of a chain of events with each phase of bud break being related to the previous and successive one, while no link was observed between non-adjacent phases. The adaptation of black spruce populations along the latitudinal gradient points toward a strategy based on rapid physiological processes triggered by temperature increase inducing high metabolic activity. The variation observed in bud break reflects an evolutionary trade-off between maximization of security and taking advantage of the short growing season. This work provides evidence of the phenological adaptations of black spruce to its local environmental conditions while retaining sizeable genetic diversity within populations. Because of the multigenic nature of phenology, this diversity should provide some raw material for adaptation to changing local environmental conditions.

  18. Rotation Breaking Induced by ELMs on EAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, H.; Xu, G.; Sun, Y.

    Spontaneous rotation has been observed in LHCD H-mode plasmas with type III ELMs (edge localized modes) on EAST, and it revealed that type III ELMs can induce the loss of both core and edge toroidal rotation. Here we work on the breaking mechanism during the ELMs. Several large tokamaks have...... discovered ELMs' filamentary structures. It revealed that the ELMs are filamentary perturbations of positive density formed along the local field lines close to the LCFS. Currents flowing in the filaments induce magnetic perturbations, which break symmetry of magnetic field strength and lead to deformation...... of magnetic surface, thus generate NTV (neoclassical toroidal viscosity) torque that affects toroidal rotation. We adopt 1cm maximum edge magnetic surface displacement from experimental observation, and our calculation shows that the edge torque is about 0.35 N/m2, and the core very small. The expected...

  19. Mechanochemical symmetry breaking in Hydra aggregates. (United States)

    Mercker, Moritz; Köthe, Alexandra; Marciniak-Czochra, Anna


    Tissue morphogenesis comprises the self-organized creation of various patterns and shapes. Although detailed underlying mechanisms are still elusive in many cases, an increasing amount of experimental data suggests that chemical morphogen and mechanical processes are strongly coupled. Here, we develop and test a minimal model of the axis-defining step (i.e., symmetry breaking) in aggregates of the Hydra polyp. Based on previous findings, we combine osmotically driven shape oscillations with tissue mechanics and morphogen dynamics. We show that the model incorporating a simple feedback loop between morphogen patterning and tissue stretch reproduces a wide range of experimental data. Finally, we compare different hypothetical morphogen patterning mechanisms (Turing, tissue-curvature, and self-organized criticality). Our results suggest the experimental investigation of bigger (i.e., multiple head) aggregates as a key step for a deeper understanding of mechanochemical symmetry breaking in Hydra. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Kondo Effect in Bare Electromigrated Break Junctions (United States)

    Houck, Andrew; Labaziewicz, Jarek


    Electromigrated break junctions are one of only a very few systems currently available that provide sub-nanometer electrode gaps in a gated geometry. They have been used in several experiments over the past few years to measure transport through nanometer-scale objects such as single molecules. Our measurements show that the electromigrated electrode system--even by itself, without added nanoparticles-- is richer than previously thought. This talk will present gate- dependent transport measurements of Kondo impurities in bare gold break junctions, generated with high yield using an electromigration process that is actively controlled. An unexpected behavior of the splitting is observed in the crossover regime, where spin splitting is of the same order as the Kondo temperature. The Kondo resonances observed here may be due to atomic-scale metallic grains formed during electromigration.

  1. Multiscale Simulation of Breaking Wave Impacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindberg, Ole

    The purpose of this project is to make an accurate, robust, geometric flexible and efficient model for calculation of forces on structures from nonlinear ocean waves and breaking wave impacts. Accurate prediction of the extreme forces on wind turbine foundations, breakwaters and tidal or wave power...... devises are important for enhancement structural designs. The proposed model is based on an incompressible and inviscid flow approximation and the governing equations are applied in an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian moving frame of reference (ALE). The Runge-Kutta method (RK) is used for time integration...... compare reasonably well. The incompressible and inviscid ALE-WLS model is coupled with the potential flow model of Engsig-Karup et al. [2009], to perform multiscale calculation of breaking wave impacts on a vertical breakwater. The potential flow model provides accurate calculation of the wave...

  2. Soft Supersymmetry Breaking in KKLT Flux Compactification

    CERN Document Server

    Choi, Kiwoon; Nilles, Hans Peter; Olechowski, Marek; Choi, Kiwoon; Falkowski, Adam; Nilles, Hans Peter; Olechowski, Marek


    We examine the structure of soft supersymmetry breaking terms in KKLT models of flux compactification with low energy supersymmetry. Moduli are stabilized by fluxes and nonperturbative dynamics while a de Sitter vacuum is obtained by adding supersymmetry breaking anti-branes. We discuss the characteristic pattern of mass scales in such a set-up as well as some features of 4D N=1 supergravity breakdown by anti-branes. Anomaly mediation is found to always give an important contribution and one can easily arrange for flavor-independent soft terms. In its most attractive realization, the modulus mediation is comparable to the anomaly mediation, yielding a quite distinctive sparticle spectrum. In addition, the axion component of the modulus/dilaton superfield dynamically cancels the relative CP phase between the contributions of anomaly and modulus mediation, thereby avoiding dangerous SUSY CP violation.

  3. Missed retinal breaks in rhegmatogenous retinal detachment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Takkar


    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the causes and associations of missed retinal breaks (MRBs and posterior vitreous detachment (PVD in patients with rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD. METHODS: Case sheets of patients undergoing vitreo retinal surgery for RRD at a tertiary eye care centre were evaluated retrospectively. Out of the 378 records screened, 253 were included for analysis of MRBs and 191 patients were included for analysis of PVD, depending on the inclusion criteria. Features of RRD and retinal breaks noted on examination were compared to the status of MRBs and PVD detected during surgery for possible associations. RESULTS: Overall, 27% patients had MRBs. Retinal holes were commonly missed in patients with lattice degeneration while missed retinal tears were associated with presence of complete PVD. Patients operated for cataract surgery were significantly associated with MRBs (P=0.033 with the odds of missing a retinal break being 1.91 as compared to patients with natural lens. Advanced proliferative vitreo retinopathy (PVR and retinal bullae were the most common reasons for missing a retinal break during examination. PVD was present in 52% of the cases and was wrongly assessed in 16%. Retinal bullae, pseudophakia/aphakia, myopia, and horse shoe retinal tears were strongly associated with presence of PVD. Traumatic RRDs were rarely associated with PVD. CONCLUSION: Pseudophakic patients, and patients with retinal bullae or advanced PVR should be carefully screened for MRBs. Though Weiss ring is a good indicator of PVD, it may still be over diagnosed in some cases. PVD is associated with retinal bullae and pseudophakia, and inversely with traumatic RRD.

  4. Continental underplating after slab break-off (United States)

    Magni, V.; Allen, M. B.; van Hunen, J.; Bouilhol, P.


    We present three-dimensional numerical models to investigate the dynamics of continental collision, and in particular what happens to the subducted continental lithosphere after oceanic slab break-off. We find that in some scenarios the subducting continental lithosphere underthrusts the overriding plate not immediately after it enters the trench, but after oceanic slab break-off. In this case, the continental plate first subducts with a steep angle and then, after the slab breaks off at depth, it rises back towards the surface and flattens below the overriding plate, forming a thick horizontal layer of continental crust that extends for about 200 km beyond the suture. This type of behaviour depends on the width of the oceanic plate marginal to the collision zone: wide oceanic margins promote continental underplating and marginal back-arc basins; narrow margins do not show such underplating unless a far field force is applied. Our models show that, as the subducted continental lithosphere rises, the mantle wedge progressively migrates away from the suture and the continental crust heats up, reaching temperatures >900 °C. This heating might lead to crustal melting, and resultant magmatism. We observe a sharp peak in the overriding plate rock uplift right after the occurrence of slab break-off. Afterwards, during underplating, the maximum rock uplift is smaller, but the affected area is much wider (up to 350 km). These results can be used to explain the dynamics that led to the present-day crustal configuration of the India-Eurasia collision zone and its consequences for the regional tectonic and magmatic evolution.

  5. Systems with Symmetry Breaking and Restoration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav I. Yukalov


    Full Text Available Statistical systems, in which spontaneous symmetry breaking can be accompanied by spontaneous local symmetry restoration, are considered. A general approach to describing such systems is formulated, based on the notion of weighted Hilbert spaces and configuration averaging. The approach is illustrated by the example of a ferroelectric with mesoscopic fluctuations of paraelectric phase. The influence of the local symmetry restoration on the system characteristics, such as sound velocity and Debye-Waller factor, is discussed.

  6. Breaking democracy with non renormalizable mass terms

    CERN Document Server

    Silva-Marcos, Joaquim I


    The exact democratic structure for the quark mass matrix, resulting from the action of the family symmetry group $A_{3L}\\times A_{3R}$, is broken by the vacuum expectation values of heavy singlet fields appearing in non renormalizable dimension 6 operators. Within this specific context of breaking of the family symmetry we formulate a very simple ansatz which leads to correct quark masses and mixings.

  7. Microwave-assisted rock breaking modelling and application

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Monchusi, B


    Full Text Available As part of the ongoing development of novel mining methods, the CSIR has developed alternative methods to break rocks. In this case, we show the application of microwave energy to break narrow tabular ore bodies....

  8. Dormancy Breaking in Ormosia arborea Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilma Pereira Gonçalves


    Full Text Available Ormosia arborea is a tree species planted in urban areas and used to restore degraded areas. Its seeds are dormant and propagation is difficult. This study compares different dormancy breaking methods and physiological seed quality and seedling production. The seeds were germinated in sand in the laboratory of the Universidade Estadual de Santa Cruz, Ilhéus, Bahia, Brazil. The following dormancy breaking treatments were applied: control (intact seeds, 100°C water immersion; boiling water immersion followed by 24 hours of soaking; scarification with number 100 and number 50 sandpaper opposite from root emergence; sulfuric acid immersion for 1 hour, 50, 45, and 30 minutes. Seed immersion in 100°C and boiling water did not break the dormancy. The study species showed a greater vigor of seedling when its seeds were submitted to treatments associated with tegument rupturing by sandpaper or sulfuric acid. On the other hand, seed scarification with sulfuric acid for 1 hour, 50, 45, and 30 minutes or sandpaper favored seed germination and vigor.

  9. LIDAR, Point Clouds, and their Archaeological Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Devin A [ORNL


    It is common in contemporary archaeological literature, in papers at archaeological conferences, and in grant proposals to see heritage professionals use the term LIDAR to refer to high spatial resolution digital elevation models and the technology used to produce them. The goal of this chapter is to break that association and introduce archaeologists to the world of point clouds, in which LIDAR is only one member of a larger family of techniques to obtain, visualize, and analyze three-dimensional measurements of archaeological features. After describing how point clouds are constructed, there is a brief discussion on the currently available software and analytical techniques designed to make sense of them.

  10. Meta-analysis of the relationship between breaks in sedentary behavior and cardiometabolic health. (United States)

    Chastin, Sebastien F M; Egerton, Thorlene; Leask, C; Stamatakis, Emmanuel


    The concept of "breaks" in sedentary behavior has emerged as a potential modifier of detrimental effects on adiposity caused by sedentary behavior. The existing research investigating the relationship between breaks in sedentary behavior with adiposity and cardiometabolic health in adults was systematically reviewed and quantitatively synthesized by this study. Observational and experimental studies that examined the relationships between the frequency of interruptions of sedentary behavior and markers of adiposity and cardiometabolic health in adults were identified by a systematic search of the literature. A meta-analysis was conducted by using the inverse variance method for experimental trials and a Bayesian posterior probability of existence of an association between breaks with adiposity and cardiometabolic markers for observational studies. It was revealed by the pooled results from nine experimental studies that breaks in sedentary periods of at least light intensity may have a positive effect on glycemia but not on lipidemia for adults. It is unclear whether this effect is independent of total sitting time. However, the 10 identified observational studies showed an association with breaks, which was independent of total sedentary time, but only for obesity metrics. The theory that interrupting bouts of sedentary behavior with light-intensity activity might help control adiposity and postprandial glycemia was supported by the evidence. Further investigations with better methods of measuring sedentary behavior patterns and improved study designs are necessary to confirm this preliminary evidence. © 2015 The Obesity Society.

  11. Identifying Enterprise Leverage Points in Defense Acquisition Program Performance (United States)


    will proceed. During this incubation period, if you will, certain projects are expected to be killed, while others that show promise will be...2007 May 21]. 50. Wikipedia. Product-Market Growth Matrix. 2007 May 8 [cited 2007 May 21]. 51. Lin, C.H. and P.J. Hsieh, A fuzzy decision support...the fuzzy weighted average in strategic portfolio management. Decision Sciences, 2005. 36(3): p. 489-511. 53. Wikipedia. Contribution margin

  12. 24 CFR 982.315 - Family break-up. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Family break-up. 982.315 Section... SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Leasing a Unit § 982.315 Family break-up... assistance in the program if the family breaks up. The PHA administrative plan must state PHA policies on how...

  13. 75 FR 80073 - Reasonable Break Time for Nursing Mothers (United States)


    ... public comment on any and all issues concerning the reasonable break time for nursing mothers law. The... Hour Division RIN 1235-ZA00 Reasonable Break Time for Nursing Mothers AGENCY: Wage and Hour Division... Standards Act (FLSA) that requires employers to provide reasonable break time and a place for nursing...

  14. Morphological composition of web-break inducing shives in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Web-breaks during paper production cause a serious inconvenience in production process and increase cost of production. Earlier studies indicate that web breaks occur at tensions far below the ultimate tensile strength values determined by tensile testing in the laboratory. It was also reported that most of the web-breaks ...

  15. 24 CFR 904.108 - Break-even amount. (United States)


    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Break-even amount. 904.108 Section... LOW RENT HOUSING HOMEOWNERSHIP OPPORTUNITIES Turnkey III Program Description § 904.108 Break-even amount. (a) Definition. The term “break-even amount” as used herein means the minimum average monthly...

  16. Break-Even Income Analysis of Pharmacy Graduates Compared to High School and College Graduates. (United States)

    Chisholm-Burns, Marie A; Gatwood, Justin; Spivey, Christina A; Dickey, Susan E


    Objective. To project the net cumulative income break-even point between practicing pharmacists and those who enter the workforce directly after high school graduation or after obtaining a bachelor's degree. Methods. Markov modeling and break-even analysis were conducted. Estimated costs of education were used in calculating net early career earnings of high school graduates, bachelor's degree holders, pharmacists without residency training, and pharmacists with residency training. Results. Models indicate that over the first 10 years of a pharmacist's career, they accumulate net earnings of $716 345 to $1 064 840, depending on cost of obtaining the PharmD degree and career path followed. In the break-even analysis, all pharmacy career tracks surpassed net cumulative earnings of high school graduates by age 33 and bachelor's degree holders by age 34. Conclusion. Regardless of the chosen pharmacy career track and the typical cost of obtaining a PharmD degree, the model under study assumptions demonstrates that pharmacy education has a positive financial return on investment, with a projected break-even point of less than 10 years upon career entry.

  17. Entropy in DNA Double-Strand Break, Detection and Signaling (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Schindler, Christina; Heermann, Dieter


    In biology, the term entropy is often understood as a measure of disorder - a restrictive interpretation that can even be misleading. Recently it has become clearer and clearer that entropy, contrary to conventional wisdom, can help to order and guide biological processes in living cells. DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are among the most dangerous lesions and efficient damage detection and repair is essential for organism viability. However, what remains unknown is the precise mechanism of targeting the site of damage within billions of intact nucleotides and a crowded nuclear environment, a process which is often referred to as recruitment or signaling. Here we show that the change in entropy associated with inflicting a DSB facilitates the recruitment of damage sensor proteins. By means of computational modeling we found that higher mobility and local chromatin structure accelerate protein association at DSB ends. We compared the effect of different chromatin architectures on protein dynamics and concentrations in the vicinity of DSBs, and related these results to experiments on repair in heterochromatin. Our results demonstrate how entropy contributes to a more efficient damage detection. We identify entropy as the physical basis for DNA double-strand break signaling.

  18. Care farms as a short-break service for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ferwerda-van Zonneveld, R.T.; Oosting, S.J.; Kijlstra, A.


    Farms are enjoying an increasing popularity as a short-break service for children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASDs). The characteristics required on such care farms are currently unknown. To identify these characteristics, farmers of seven Dutch care farms with livestock were interviewed using a

  19. 20. Yüzyılın Son Çeyreğinde Yaşanan Jeopolitik Kırılma Noktası ile Başlayan 21. Yüzyıl, Yeni Tarihin Ne Kadar Başlangıcıdır? 21st Century; Initiated With The Geopolitical Breaking Point Occurred At The Last Quarter Of 20th Century; Beginning Of The New History In What Extent?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laziza Nurpeiis


    Full Text Available With the collapse of the USSR in 1990, many global problemshave arisen. One of the most crucial issues has been the replacement ofthe stability sustained by Cold War that affected the 20th centurydeeply, the bipolar world system, nuclear and ballistic weapons with achaotic environment of asymmetric features. This new stage not onlyaffected the political vital constraints of all societies but also showed theneed of geopolitical theories dealing with problems that can arise.The incapability in dealing with uncertainties of power at all levelscaused a lack of compiling long and mid-term plans.Energy sources of the former Soviet territory, mergedcommunities, social issues, various underground resources, issues ofethnic conflicts and radical terrorist organizations, put the whole worldinto a chaotic environment.Therefore, an important breaking point in 1990 was experiencedby all countries. This is such a point that the near and distant pastaccumulations will remain ineffective and new strategic and geopoliticalapproaches are required. The main problem is revolved around twoquestions. Will the geo-strategic theories of 20th century that are basedon two power poles be available in the new era of asymmetric chaos?Or, are theories, built with the new geostrategic perception needed? 1990 yılında SSCB’nin dağılması ile ortaya birçok küresel sorun çıkmıştır. Bu sorunların en başında da 20’inci yüzyıla damgasını vuran Soğuk Savaş, iki kutuplu dünya düzeni, nükleer ve balistik silahlara dayalı denge ortamının yok olması ve yerine asimetrik özelliklere sahip kaotik bir ortamın çıkması vardır. Yeni başlayan süreç, hem bütün toplumların siyasi/politik yaşamsal desteklerini ve dayanaklarını ortadan kaldıracak şekilde sarsmış, hem de ortaya çıkan problem sahaları ile mücadele edebilecek jeopolitik teorilerin eksikliği hissedilmiştir. Özellikle her seviyedeki gücün yeni başlayan sürecin bilinmezliği ile

  20. Lyman Break Galaxies at z<3 in the Ultraviolet Hubble Ultradeep Field (United States)

    Kurczynski, Peter; Gawiser, E. J.; Teplitz, H. I.; Rafelski, M.; Bond, N. A.; Ravindranath, S.; De Mello, D. F.; UVUDF Team


    UV dropout selection is an established photometric method of identifying star-forming galaxies at z > 3. Using recent, deep UV imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope (UV-UDF), we extend UV dropout selection at z ~ 1.7, 2.1, 2.7 and detect hundreds of Lyman-Break Galaxies to a depth of AB ~ 28. Using panchromatic imaging and spectroscopy, we confirm the general success of this dropout-selection method. These candidates enable evolutionary studies of the luminosity functions, UV spectral slopes, dust content, and clustering of Lyman Break Galaxies during the epoch of peak cosmic star formation.

  1. The Emergence of Dirac points in Photonic Crystals with Mirror Symmetry (United States)

    He, Wen-Yu; Chan, C. T.


    We show that Dirac points can emerge in photonic crystals possessing mirror symmetry when band gap closes. The mechanism of generating Dirac points is discussed in a two-dimensional photonic square lattice, in which four Dirac points split out naturally after the touching of two bands with different parity. The emergence of such nodal points, characterized by vortex structure in momentum space, is attributed to the unavoidable band crossing protected by mirror symmetry. The Dirac nodes can be unbuckled through breaking the mirror symmetry and a photonic analog of Chern insulator can be achieved through time reversal symmetry breaking. Breaking time reversal symmetry can lead to unidirectional helical edge states and breaking mirror symmetry can reduce the band gap to amplify the finite size effect, providing ways to engineer helical edge states. PMID:25640993

  2. (Dys)Zphilia or a custodial breaking Higgs at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Farina, Marco; Salvioni, Ennio


    Electroweak precision measurements established that custodial symmetry is preserved to a good accuracy in the gauge sector after electroweak symmetry breaking. However, recent LHC results might be interpreted as pointing towards Higgs couplings that do not respect such symmetry. Motivated by this possibility, we reconsider the presence of an explicitly custodial breaking coupling in a generic Higgs parameterization. After briefly commenting on the large UV sensitivity of the T parameter to such a coupling, we perform a fit to results of Higgs searches at LHC and Tevatron, and find that the apparent enhancement of the ZZ channel with respect to WW can be accommodated. Two degenerate best-fit points are present, which we label `Zphilic' and `dysZphilic' depending on the sign of the hZZ coupling. Finally we highlight some measurements at future linear colliders that may remove such degeneracy.

  3. Magnetism and local symmetry breaking in a Mott insulator with strong spin orbit interactions. (United States)

    Lu, L; Song, M; Liu, W; Reyes, A P; Kuhns, P; Lee, H O; Fisher, I R; Mitrović, V F


    Study of the combined effects of strong electronic correlations with spin-orbit coupling (SOC) represents a central issue in quantum materials research. Predicting emergent properties represents a huge theoretical problem since the presence of SOC implies that the spin is not a good quantum number. Existing theories propose the emergence of a multitude of exotic quantum phases, distinguishable by either local point symmetry breaking or local spin expectation values, even in materials with simple cubic crystal structure such as Ba 2 NaOsO 6 . Experimental tests of these theories by local probes are highly sought for. Our local measurements designed to concurrently probe spin and orbital/lattice degrees of freedom of Ba 2 NaOsO 6 provide such tests. Here we show that a canted ferromagnetic phase which is preceded by local point symmetry breaking is stabilized at low temperatures, as predicted by quantum theories involving multipolar spin interactions.

  4. Double-ended break probability estimate for the 304 stainless steel main circulation piping of a production reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mehta, H.S. [General Electric Co., San Jose, CA (United States); Daugherty, W.L.; Awadalla, N.G.; Sindelar, R.L. [Westinghouse Savannah River Co., Aiken, SC (United States)


    The large break frequency resulting from intergranular stress corrosion cracking in the main circulation piping of the Savannah River Site (SRS) production reactors has been estimated. Four factors are developed to describe the likelihood that a crack exists that is not identified by ultrasonic inspection, and that grows to instability prior to growing through-wall and being detected by the ensuing leakage. The estimated large break frequency is 3.4 {times} 10{sup {minus}8} per reactor-year.

  5. Breaking Barriers in Polymer Additive Manufacturing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Love, Lonnie J [ORNL; Duty, Chad E [ORNL; Post, Brian K [ORNL; Lind, Randall F [ORNL; Lloyd, Peter D [ORNL; Kunc, Vlastimil [ORNL; Peter, William H [ORNL; Blue, Craig A [ORNL


    Additive Manufacturing (AM) enables the creation of complex structures directly from a computer-aided design (CAD). There are limitations that prevent the technology from realizing its full potential. AM has been criticized for being slow and expensive with limited build size. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) has developed a large scale AM system that improves upon each of these areas by more than an order of magnitude. The Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system directly converts low cost pellets into a large, three-dimensional part at a rate exceeding 25 kg/h. By breaking these traditional barriers, it is possible for polymer AM to penetrate new manufacturing markets.

  6. Large eddy simulation of breaking waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Deigaard, Rolf


    . The incoming waves are specified by a flux boundary condition. The waves are approaching in the shore-normal direction and are breaking on a plane, constant slope beach. The first few wave periods are simulated by a two-dimensional model in the vertical plane normal to the beach line. The model describes...... of the turbulence (the characteristic size of the eddies resolved by the model) is similar in the horizontal and the vertical direction. It is found to be of the order one half of the water depth....

  7. Parity breaking medium and squeeze operators (United States)

    Andrianov, A. A.; Kolevatov, S. S.; Soldati, R.


    The transition between a Minkowski space region and a parity breaking medium domain is thoroughly discussed. The requirement of continuity of the field operator content across the separating boundary of the two domains leads to Bogolyubov transformations, squeezed pairs states and squeeze operators that turn out to generate a functional SU(2) algebra. According to this algebraic approach, the reflection and transmission probability amplitude across the separating boundary are computed. The probability rate of the emission or absorption of squeezed pairs out of the vacuum (generalization of the Sauter-Schwinger-Nikishov formula) is obtained.

  8. Electroweak Symmetry Breaking (3/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    The focus of the lectures will be on the role of the Higgs boson in the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking, both in the Standard Model and in models of New Physics. In particular, I will discuss how a determination of its couplings to matter and gauge fields can give important information on the nature and origin of the Higgs boson. I will thus review the picture on Higgs couplings implied by the current experimental data and examine further interesting processes that can be measured in the future.

  9. Electroweak Symmetry Breaking (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    The focus of the lectures will be on the role of the Higgs boson in the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking, both in the Standard Model and in models of New Physics. In particular, I will discuss how a determination of its couplings to matter and gauge fields can give important information on the nature and origin of the Higgs boson. I will thus review the picture on Higgs couplings implied by the current experimental data and examine further interesting processes that can be measured in the future.

  10. Electroweak Symmetry Breaking (2/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    The focus of the lectures will be on the role of the Higgs boson in the mechanism of electroweak symmetry breaking, both in the Standard Model and in models of New Physics. In particular, I will discuss how a determination of its couplings to matter and gauge fields can give important information on the nature and origin of the Higgs boson. I will thus review the picture on Higgs couplings implied by the current experimental data and examine further interesting processes that can be measured in the future.

  11. Unit roots, nonlinearities and structural breaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haldrup, Niels; Kruse, Robinson; Teräsvirta, Timo

    a persistent effect with resulting policy implications. From a statistical perspective on the other hand, the presence of unit roots has dramatic implications for econometric model building, estimation, and inference in order to avoid the so-called spurious regression problem. The present paper provides...... a selective review of contributions to the field of unit root testing over the past three decades. We discuss the nature of stochastic and deterministic trend processes, including break processes, that are likely to affect unit root inference. A range of the most popular unit root tests are presented...

  12. Report of Break Out Group 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alward, Randy; Carley, Kathleen M.; Madsen, Fredrik Huitfeldt


    To help understand a network and its ability to continue operating when under attack, the break out group discussed issues that need to be considered when presenting network vulnerability information to an analyst, manager or commander in effective support of that person's "observe, orient, decid...... of characterizing a vulnerability. This would take into account the potential for the vulnerability to be exploited as well as the potential impact on the operations supported by the network, and on the network structure itself, of a successful exploit of that vulnerability....

  13. NASA Shared Services Center breaks ground (United States)


    NASA officials and elected leaders were on hand for the groundbreaking ceremony of the NASA Shared Services Center Feb. 24, 2006, on the grounds of Stennis Space Center. The NSSC provides agency centralized administrative processing, human resources, procurement and financial services. From left, Louisiana Economic Development Secretary Mike Olivier, Stennis Space Center Director Rick Gilbrech, Computer Sciences Corp. President Michael Laphen, NASA Deputy Administrator Shana Dale, Rep. Gene Taylor, Sen. Trent Lott, Mississippi Gov. Haley Barbour, NASA Administrator Mike Griffin and Shared Services Center Executive Director Arbuthnot use golden shovels to break ground at the site.

  14. On inflation, cosmological constant, and SUSY breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Linde, Andrei [Department of Physics and SITP, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)


    We consider a broad class of inflationary models of two unconstrained chiral superfields, the stabilizer S and the inflaton Φ, which can describe inflationary models with nearly arbitrary potentials. These models include, in particular, the recently introduced theories of cosmological attractors, which provide an excellent fit to the latest Planck data. We show that by adding to the superpotential of the fields S and Φ a small term depending on a nilpotent chiral superfield P one can break SUSY and introduce a small cosmological constant without affecting main predictions of the original inflationary scenario.

  15. SU(3) flavour breaking and baryon structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, A.N.; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Kobe, Hyogo (Japan); Pleiter, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Juelich Supercomputing Centre (JSC); Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Institut fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Div.; Shanahan, P.; Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ., SA (Australia). CSSM, School of Chemistry and Physics; Schierholz, G. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Stueben, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Regionales Rechenzentrum; Collaboration: QCDSF/UKQCD Collaboration


    We present results from the QCDSF/UKQCD collaboration for hyperon electromagnetic form factors and axial charges obtained from simulations using N{sub f}=2+1 flavours of O(a)-improved Wilson fermions. We also consider matrix elements relevant for hyperon semileptonic decays. We find flavour-breaking effects in hyperon magnetic moments which are consistent with experiment, while our results for the connected quark spin content indicates that quarks contribute more to the spin of the {Xi} baryon than they do to the proton.

  16. Nearly finished LHC particle smasher breaks at support point to magnets

    CERN Document Server

    Atkins, William


    "The proton-proton Large Hadron Collider (LHC) particle accelerator is being built at Geneva, Switzerland's CERN - the world's largest particle physics laboratory. However, a support assembly structure for critical magnets failed while being tested on March 27, 2007." (1/2 page)

  17. ArtBreak Group Counseling for Children: Framework, Practice Points, and Results (United States)

    Ziff, Katherine; Ivers, Nathaniel N.; Shaw, Edward G.


    Child social/emotional development and mitigation of child stress are receiving continued emphasis in the literature. While choice-based group art studios have a long association with mental health, documentation on their potential for supporting children is limited. This article describes an elementary school counseling intervention designed to…

  18. A perfectly conducting surface in electrodynamics with Lorentz symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, L.H.C. [UNESP, Campus de Guaratingueta, DFQ, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil); Barone, F.A. [IFQ, Universidade Federal de Itajuba, Itajuba, MG (Brazil)


    In this paper we consider a model which exhibits explicit Lorentz symmetry breaking due to the presence of a single background vector v{sup μ} coupled to the gauge field. We investigate such a theory in the vicinity of a perfectly conducting plate for different configurations of v{sup μ}. First we consider no restrictions on the components of the background vector and we treat it perturbatively up to second order. Next, we treat v{sup μ} exactly for two special cases: the first one is when it has only components parallel to the plate, and the second one when it has a single component perpendicular to the plate. For all these configurations, the propagator for the gauge field and the interaction force between the plate and a point-like electric charge are computed. Surprisingly, it is shown that the image method is valid in our model and we argue that it is a non-trivial result. We show there arises a torque on the mirror with respect to its positioning in the background field when it interacts with a point-like charge. It is a new effect with no counterpart in theories with Lorentz symmetry in the presence of a perfect mirror. (orig.)

  19. Project Trust: breaking down barriers between middle school children. (United States)

    Batiuk, Mary Ellen; Boland, James A; Wilcox, Norma


    This paper analyzes the success of a camp retreat weekend called Project Trust involving middle school students and teachers. The goal of the camp is to break down barriers between cliques identified as active in the school. The camp focuses on building team relationships across clique membership and incorporates elements of peace education and conflict resolution. A treatment group (campers) and comparison group (noncampers) were administered an adaptation of the Bogardus Social Distance Test and the Piers-Harris Children's Self-Concept Scale before and after the camp. Attendance was found to lower social distance scores for nine of the ten groups/cliques. Campers also had higher self-concept scores after the retreat.

  20. Break Even Analysis of Poultry Egg Production in Rural Area in Southeast Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eryanti Niu


    Full Text Available This research aimed to analyze break-even point and margin of safety of poultry egg production in the rural area in Southeast Sulawesi. The research used a case study approach by using questionnaire1, in-depth interviews, and observation to collect data and information from a small-scale poultry egg producing enterprise which was selected purposively with the consideration that the farm is located in rural area and had less than 1.000 laying hens. Data were analyzed using costs and returns, break-even point, and margin of safety ratio. Research results show that the enterprise record net income of Rp9.232.165,00. R/C ratio of 1,32 means that the enterprise would earn a revenue of Rp1,32 for every one rupiah it invested. Break even sales are Rp3.374.474,00 and break even volume was 140,60 kg. The egg production is far above both the break-even sales and units, meaning that the enterprise earns a profit from egg production. The margin of safety is Rp34.750.526,00 or 91,15%, indicating a high level of safety in the enterprise. In view of its profitability and the importance of poultry egg production in the generation of employment and fulfillment of protein needs of the population, local government and other stakeholders are suggested to take measures to promote poultry egg production in rural areas by providing technical assistance program for small-scale poultry farmers at the community level and improving managerial skills in the poultryegg production.

  1. Emulsion for hydraulically breaking the gas layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matveev, D.F.; Kendis, M.Sh.; Polkovnichenko, I.T.; Yaroshenko, N.A.; Zhadanova, K.M.


    Acid monoesters and diesters of alkyl phosphates based on primary fatty alcohols of the C /sub 12/ -C /sub 16/ fraction are added as emulsifiers to an emulsion for hydraulically breaking the gas layer with a view to increasing its thermal stability. The components have the following ratio: hydrocarbon mixture, 9.8-20.6%; acid monoesters and diesters, 0.3-0.6%; aqueous fraction, 25.7-38.8%, and sand, 40-60%. In preparing the composition, the emulsifier is dissolved in a hydrocarbon liquid at 50/sup 0/C. Then, an aqueous phase is gradually added while stirring at a rate of 8,000-10,000 revolutions per minute for 30 min. Afterwards, sand is added. Tests of the mixtures for hydraulic breakage have been carried out in the laboratory by the KTs-5 consistometer. The plastic viscosity of the emulsions were determined in the absence of sand by the Reotest-2 device. The mixture which is proposed has heightened (up to 130/sup 0/C) thermal stability as compared with the known one (diesel fuel, water, ethanolamide of free fatty acids): the emulsions in a mixture with sand decompose at 70/sup 0/C. The high thermal stability of the mixture makes it possible to use hydraulic breakage in a wider range. The gas yield of the borehole doubles as a result of hydraulically breaking the productive layer by the given mixture.

  2. Chiral symmetry breakings in supersymmetric QCD

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shinmura, Mamoru; Yamawaki, Koichi (Nagoya Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics)


    It is argued that spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking in supersymmetric QCD is due to the boson pair condensation instead of the fermion pair condensation in sharp contrast to the ordinary QCD. We further construct a low energy effective Lagrangian for supersymmetric QCD, which realizes the symmetry breaking, SU(N) sub(L) x SU(N) sub(R) x U(1) sub(V) x U(1) sub(X) down to SU(N) sub(V) x U(1) sub(V), in the massless limit. Our Lagrangian has no singular behaviour in the massless limit, supersymmetry being preserved independently of the quark mass m. It is shown that linear masses (instead of quadratic masses) of the pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone bosons are proportional to the quark mass and supersymmetric variants of Dashen's formulae are all saturated by the condensations -- O(m..lambda../sup 2/) and -- O (..lambda../sup 2/) for m -- 0.

  3. Rock Directed Breaking Under the Impulse Load (United States)

    Khomeriki, Sergo; Mataradze, Edgar; Chikhradze, Nikoloz; Losaberidze, Marine; Khomeriki, Davit; Shatberashvili, Grigol


    In the work the problem of directed chipping of facing stone material by means of managing of explosion process is considered. The technology of the mining of decorative stone by the use of explosion energy means the very rapid transfer of potential energy of elastic deformations to kinetic energy. As a result, the explosion impulse, in the expanse of the inertia of rock massive, does not cause the increase of existing cracks. In the course of explosion, the shock wave is propagated by ultrasonic velocity and in this case the medium parameters (pressure, density, temperature, velocity) increase in spurts. In spite of this fact the all three conservation laws of mechanics remain valid on basis of three laws the equations are derived by which the parameters of shock wave may be defined by means of the rock physical-mechanical properties. The load on the body volume at breaking under explosion acts over very small period of the time. Therefore, stressed-deformed state of the rock was studied when the impulse load acts on the boundary. It was considered that the mining of the blocks of facing stone is performed from the hard rocks. This means that the breaking proceeds in the zone of elastic deformation. In the conditions of mentioned assumptions, the expression of the stress tensor and displacement of vector components initiated by stressed-deformed state in the rock are written.

  4. Break-induced replication is highly inaccurate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Deem


    Full Text Available DNA must be synthesized for purposes of genome duplication and DNA repair. While the former is a highly accurate process, short-patch synthesis associated with repair of DNA damage is often error-prone. Break-induced replication (BIR is a unique cellular process that mimics normal DNA replication in its processivity, rate, and capacity to duplicate hundreds of kilobases, but is initiated at double-strand breaks (DSBs rather than at replication origins. Here we employed a series of frameshift reporters to measure mutagenesis associated with BIR in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrate that BIR DNA synthesis is intrinsically inaccurate over the entire path of the replication fork, as the rate of frameshift mutagenesis during BIR is up to 2,800-fold higher than during normal replication. Importantly, this high rate of mutagenesis was observed not only close to the DSB where BIR is less stable, but also far from the DSB where the BIR replication fork is fast and stabilized. We established that polymerase proofreading and mismatch repair correct BIR errors. Also, dNTP levels were elevated during BIR, and this contributed to BIR-related mutagenesis. We propose that a high level of DNA polymerase errors that is not fully compensated by error-correction mechanisms is largely responsible for mutagenesis during BIR, with Pol δ generating many of the mutagenic errors. We further postulate that activation of BIR in eukaryotic cells may significantly contribute to accumulation of mutations that fuel cancer and evolution.

  5. Molecular Basis for DNA Double-Strand Break Annealing and Primer Extension by an NHEJ DNA Polymerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nigel C. Brissett


    Full Text Available Nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ is one of the major DNA double-strand break (DSB repair pathways. The mechanisms by which breaks are competently brought together and extended during NHEJ is poorly understood. As polymerases extend DNA in a 5′-3′ direction by nucleotide addition to a primer, it is unclear how NHEJ polymerases fill in break termini containing 3′ overhangs that lack a primer strand. Here, we describe, at the molecular level, how prokaryotic NHEJ polymerases configure a primer-template substrate by annealing the 3′ overhanging strands from opposing breaks, forming a gapped intermediate that can be extended in trans. We identify structural elements that facilitate docking of the 3′ ends in the active sites of adjacent polymerases and reveal how the termini act as primers for extension of the annealed break, thus explaining how such DSBs are extended in trans. This study clarifies how polymerases couple break-synapsis to catalysis, providing a molecular mechanism to explain how primer extension is achieved on DNA breaks.

  6. Impact of rest breaks on musculoskeletal discomfort of Chikan embroiderers of West Bengal, India: a follow up field study (United States)

    Chakrabarty, Sabarni; Sarkar, Krishnendu; Dev, Samrat; Das, Tamal; Mitra, Kalpita; Sahu, Subhashis; Gangopadhyay, Somnath


    Objectives: This study aimed to determine risk factors that predict musculoskeletal discomfort in Chikan embroiderers of West Bengal, India, and to compare the effect of two rest break schedules to reduce these symptoms. Methods: The Nordic musculoskeletal questionnaire was performed on 400 Chikan embroiderers at baseline containing questions on job autonomy, working behavior, and work stress factors. Relative risk was calculated to identify prognostic factors for musculoskeletal discomfort in different body regions. Two groups of workers received two rest break schedules for 4 months and compared in a between-subject design. Outcome variables were scores of Body Part Discomfort (BPD) scale. Results: Chikan embroiderers are afflicted with musculoskeletal discomfort mainly in the lower back, neck/shoulder and wrist/forearm region, which is attributed to their prolonged working timeinvolving hands and wrists, being in a static seating posture. Rigidity in working methods, prolonged working time, inadequate rest break during the working day, dissatisfaction regarding earning, monotonous work, static sitting posture, and repetitive movement of wrist and forearm were the significant predictors of these symptom developments. Rest break schedule 1 with more frequent and shorter breaks had more significant improvement on the severity of these musculoskeletal discomforts. Conclusions: Chikan embroiderers perform a highly dreary occupation and various ergonomics conditions work as predictors for developing musculoskeletal discomforts among them. Design of proper rest break schedule involving shorter and frequent breaks was competent for reducing these discomforts to a certain extent. PMID:27265529

  7. 'Jet breaks' and 'missing breaks' in the X-Ray afterglow of Gamma Ray Bursts

    CERN Document Server

    Dado, Shlomo; De Rújula, Alvaro


    The X-ray afterglows (AGs) of Gamma-Ray Bursts (GRBs) and X-Ray Flashes (XRFs) have, after the fast decline phase of their prompt emission, a temporal behaviour varying between two extremes. A large fraction of these AGs has a 'canonical' light curve which, after an initial shallow-decay 'plateau' phase, 'breaks smoothly' into a fast power-law decline. Very energetic GRBs, contrariwise, appear not to have a 'break', their AG declines like a power-law from the start of the observations. Breaks and 'missing breaks' are intimately related to the geometry and deceleration of the jets responsible for GRBs. In the frame of the 'cannonball' (CB) model of GRBs and XRFs, we analyze the cited extreme behaviours (canonical and pure power-law) and intermediate cases spanning the observed range of X-ray AG shapes. We show that the entire panoply of X-ray light-curve shapes --measured with Swift and other satellites-- are as anticipated, on very limpid grounds, by the CB model. We test the expected correlations between the...

  8. Tear film break-up time in rabbits. (United States)

    Wei, Xiaojia E; Markoulli, Maria; Zhao, Zhenjun; Willcox, Mark D P


    Rabbits have a longer inter-blink time (approximately 10 minutes) compared with humans (five to eight seconds), suggesting that rabbits have a much more stable tear film. Using fluorescein, the tear break-up time of rabbits has been reported to be similar to that of humans. This study set out to measure the tear break-up time in rabbits using non-invasive methods and to establish the pattern of tear break-up compared to humans. The tear break-up time was measured and the pattern of tear break-up was observed in six New Zealand White rabbits on two separate occasions using both the Keeler Tearscope-plus(TM) and a slitlamp biomicroscope. The mean rabbit tear break-up time was 29.8 ± 3.4 (SD) minutes. This contrasts with the reports of human tear break-up time of eight to 30 seconds. The tear breaking spread very slowly and was often restricted to the area of the initial break. Rabbit tears have a significantly higher tear break-up time than humans and this aligns with previously demonstrated differences in inter-blink time between rabbits and humans. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of tear stability may lead to novel ways of increasing human tear film stability. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2012 Optometrists Association Australia.

  9. Seafloor off Pleasure Point, Santa Cruz County, California (United States)

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Golden, Nadine E.; Gibbons, Helen


    The seafloor off Pleasure Point, Santa Cruz County, California, is extremely varied, with sandy flats, boulder fields, faults, and complex bedrock ridges. These ridges support rich marine ecosystems; some of them form the "reefs" that produce world-class surf breaks. Colors indicate seafloor depth, from red-orange (about 2 meters or 7 feet) to magenta (25 meters or 82 feet)

  10. Break-Even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassard, H.; Denholm, P.; Ong, S.


    This paper examines the break-even cost for residential rooftop solar water heating (SWH) technology, defined as the point where the cost of the energy saved with a SWH system equals the cost of a conventional heating fuel purchased from the grid (either electricity or natural gas). We examine the break-even cost for the largest 1,000 electric and natural gas utilities serving residential customers in the United States as of 2008. Currently, the break-even cost of SWH in the United States varies by more than a factor of five for both electricity and natural gas, despite a much smaller variation in the amount of energy saved by the systems (a factor of approximately one and a half). The break-even price for natural gas is lower than that for electricity due to a lower fuel cost. We also consider the relationship between SWH price and solar fraction and examine the key drivers behind break-even costs. Overall, the key drivers of the break-even cost of SWH are a combination of fuel price, local incentives, and technical factors including the solar resource location, system size, and hot water draw.

  11. Child personality facets and overreactive parenting as predictors of aggression and rule-breaking trajectories from childhood to adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becht, Andrik I.; Prinzie, Peter; Dekovic, Maja; van den Akker, Alithe L.; Shiner, Rebecca L.


    This study examined trajectories of aggression and rule breaking during the transition from childhood to adolescence (ages 9–15), and determined whether these trajectories were predicted by lower order personality facets, overreactive parenting, and their interaction. At three time points separated

  12. Child personality facets and overreactive parenting as predictors of aggression and rule-breaking trajectories from childhood to adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Becht, A.I.; Prinzie, P.; Deković, M.; van den Akker, A.L.; Shiner, R.L.


    This study examined trajectories of aggression and rule breaking during the transition from childhood to adolescence (ages 9-15), and determined whether these trajectories were predicted by lower order personality facets, overreactive parenting, and their interaction. At three time points separated

  13. Symmetry Breaking in MILP Formulations for Unit Commitment Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Lima, Ricardo


    This paper addresses the study of symmetry in Unit Commitment (UC) problems solved by Mixed Integer Linear Programming (MILP) formulations, and using Linear Programming based Branch & Bound MILP solvers. We propose three sets of symmetry breaking constraints for UC MILP formulations exhibiting symmetry, and its impact on three UC MILP models are studied. The case studies involve the solution of 24 instances by three widely used models in the literature, with and without symmetry breaking constraints. The results show that problems that could not be solved to optimality within hours can be solved with a relatively small computational burden if the symmetry breaking constraints are assumed. The proposed symmetry breaking constraints are also compared with the symmetry breaking methods included in two MILP solvers, and the symmetry breaking constraints derived in this work have a distinct advantage over the methods in the MILP solvers.

  14. Examining the knowledge and capacity of elementary teachers to implement classroom physical activity breaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danae M. Dinkel


    Full Text Available This study examined teachers’ zone of proximal development for classroom physical activity breaks by assessing teachers’ knowledge and capacity for implementing classroom physical activity breaks. Five school districts of various sizes (n=346 teachers took part in a short online survey. Descriptive statistics were calculated and chi-square analyses were used to identify differences between districts. Almost all teachers utilized classroom physical activity to some extent. A third of teachers who stated they implemented classroom physical activity, experienced barriers to implementation. A majority of teachers were interested in learning more about classroom physical activity. There were significant differences between districts on the number of days per week classroom physical activity was integrated, the frequency of collaboration that occurred between teachers, the percentage of teachers who experienced barriers, and preferred delivery method of professional development. These findings support the importance of identifying teachers’ zone of proximal development to increase the use of classroom physical activity breaks. Understanding teachers’ knowledge and capacity for implementing classroom physical activity breaks can allow educational professionals to shift the implementation of classroom physical activity beyond sporadic use by isolated teachers and schools to a more systematic and consistent delivery across classrooms and throughout districts.

  15. Examining the Knowledge and Capacity of Elementary Teachers to Implement Classroom Physical Activity Breaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danae M. DINKEL


    Full Text Available This study examined teachers’ zone of proximal development for classroom physical activity breaks by assessing teachers’ knowledge and capacity for implementing classroom physical activity breaks. Five school districts of various sizes (n=346 teachers took part in a short online survey. Descriptive statistics were calculated and chi-square analyses were used to identify differences between districts. Almost all teachers utilized classroom physical activity to some extent. A third of teachers who stated they implemented classroom physical activity, experienced barriers to implementation. A majority of teachers were interested in learning more about classroom physical activity. There were significant differences between districts on the number of days per week classroom physical activity was integrated, the frequency of collaboration that occurred between teachers, the percentage of teachers who experienced barriers, and preferred delivery method of professional development. These findings support the importance of identifying teachers’ zone of proximal development to increase the use of classroom physical activity breaks. Understanding teachers’ knowledge and capacity for implementing classroom physical activity breaks can allow educational professionals to shift the implementation of classroom physical activity beyond sporadic use by isolated teachers and schools to a more systematic and consistent delivery across classrooms and throughout districts.

  16. Supersymmetry Breaking, Gauge Mediation, and the LHC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shih, David [Rutgers Univ., New Brunswick, NJ (United States)


    Gauge mediated SUSY breaking (GMSB) is a promising class of supersymmetric models that automatically satisfies the precision constraints. Prior work of Meade, Seiberg and Shih in 2008 established the full, model-independent parameter space of GMSB, which they called "General Gauge Mediation" (GGM). During the first half of 2010-2015, Shih and his collaborators thoroughly explored the parameter space of GGM and established many well-motivated benchmark models for use by the experimentalists at the LHC. Through their work, the current constraints on GGM from LEP, the Tevatron and the LHC were fully elucidated, together with the possible collider signatures of GMSB at the LHC. This ensured that the full discovery potential for GGM could be completely realized at the LHC.

  17. Break the silence: Let's talk about AIDS. (United States)


    The organizers of the Confederation of East and Central Africa Football Associations¿ (CECAFA) Youth Tournament in Kenya will organize a campaign on AIDS prevention. ¿Break the Silence: Let¿s Talk About AIDS¿ is the campaign slogan, which will be used before, during, and after the 2-week football tournament. The campaign will involve an estimated 300 players and coaches and millions of fans who will attend, watch television, or listen to radios. AIDS prevention efforts linked to the tournament include: radio and television AIDS prevention spots featuring famous football players; campaign orientation and training in AIDS outreach and education for coaches and team managers; telephone hotlines for HIV/AIDS counseling through public phone booths and health information booths; AIDS information caravans to support community awareness rallies about AIDS prevention; and a minute of silence at the beginning of all matches to commemorate soccer heroes and other loved ones who have died of AIDS.

  18. Quantum Measurement Driven by Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking (United States)

    Morikawa, M.; Nakamichi, A.


    Quantum mechanics cannot be applied within a closed system. Inevitable measurement process in quantum mechanics is usually treated separately from the basic principles of the framework and requires outside observer of the system. In this paper, we propose that the quantum measurement process is actually a physical process associated with the ubiquitous mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking. Based on this proposal, we construct a quantum measurement model in which the mixed state evolves into a pure state as the dynamical pro-coherence process. Furthermore, the classically distinguishable pointer parameter emerges as the c-number order parameter in the formalism of closed time-path quantum field theory. We also discuss the precision of the measurement and the possible deduction of the Born probability postulate.

  19. Spontaneous breaking of continuous translational invariance (United States)

    Watanabe, Haruki; Brauner, Tomáš


    Unbroken continuous translational invariance is often taken as a basic assumption in discussions of spontaneous symmetry breaking (SSB), which singles out SSB of translational invariance itself as an exceptional case. We present a framework that allows us to treat translational invariance on the same footing as other symmetries. It is shown that existing theorems on SSB can be straightforwardly extended to this general case. As a concrete application, we analyze the Nambu-Goldstone modes in a (ferromagnetic) supersolid. We prove on the ground of the general theorems that the Bogoliubov mode stemming from a spontaneously broken internal U(1) symmetry and the longitudinal phonon due to a crystalline order are distinct physical modes.

  20. Physical Model of Cellular Symmetry Breaking (United States)

    van der Gucht, Jasper; Sykes, Cécile


    Cells can polarize in response to external signals, such as chemical gradients, cell–cell contacts, and electromagnetic fields. However, cells can also polarize in the absence of an external cue. For example, a motile cell, which initially has a more or less round shape, can lose its symmetry spontaneously even in a homogeneous environment and start moving in random directions. One of the principal determinants of cell polarity is the cortical actin network that underlies the plasma membrane. Tension in this network generated by myosin motors can be relaxed by rupture of the shell, leading to polarization. In this article, we discuss how simplified model systems can help us to understand the physics that underlie the mechanics of symmetry breaking. PMID:20066077

  1. Superradiance with local phase-breaking effects (United States)

    Shammah, Nathan; Lambert, Neill; Nori, Franco; De Liberato, Simone


    We study the superradiant evolution of a set of N two-level systems spontaneously radiating under the effect of phase-breaking mechanisms. We investigate the dynamics generated by nonradiative losses and pure dephasing, and their interplay with spontaneous emission. Our results show that in the parameter region relevant to many solid-state cavity quantum electrodynamics experiments, even with a dephasing rate much faster than the radiative lifetime of a single two-level system, a suboptimal collective superfluorescent burst is still observable. We also apply our theory to the dilute excitation regime, often used to describe optical excitations in solid-state systems. In this regime, excitations can be described in terms of bright and dark bosonic quasiparticles. We show how the effect of dephasing and losses in this regime translate into intermode scattering rates and quasiparticle lifetimes.

  2. Symmetry breaking: The standard model and superstrings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, M.K.


    The outstanding unresolved issue of the highly successful standard model is the origin of electroweak symmetry breaking and of the mechanism that determines its scale, namely the vacuum expectation value (vev)v that is fixed by experiment at the value v = 4m//sub w//sup 2///g/sup 2/ = (..sqrt..2G/sub F/)/sup /minus/1/ approx. = 1/4 TeV. In this talk I will discuss aspects of two approaches to this problem. One approach is straightforward and down to earth: the search for experimental signatures, as discussed previously by Pierre Darriulat. This approach covers the energy scales accessible to future and present laboratory experiments: roughly (10/sup /minus/9/ /minus/ 10/sup 3/)GeV. The second approach involves theoretical speculations, such as technicolor and supersymmetry, that attempt to explain the TeV scale. 23 refs., 5 figs.

  3. Breaking Gaussian incompatibility on continuous variable quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinosaari, Teiko, E-mail: [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Kiukas, Jukka, E-mail: [Department of Mathematics, Aberystwyth University, Penglais, Aberystwyth, SY23 3BZ (United Kingdom); Schultz, Jussi, E-mail: [Turku Centre for Quantum Physics, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Turku, FI-20014 Turku (Finland); Dipartimento di Matematica, Politecnico di Milano, Piazza Leonardo da Vinci 32, I-20133 Milano (Italy)


    We characterise Gaussian quantum channels that are Gaussian incompatibility breaking, that is, transform every set of Gaussian measurements into a set obtainable from a joint Gaussian observable via Gaussian postprocessing. Such channels represent local noise which renders measurements useless for Gaussian EPR-steering, providing the appropriate generalisation of entanglement breaking channels for this scenario. Understanding the structure of Gaussian incompatibility breaking channels contributes to the resource theory of noisy continuous variable quantum information protocols.

  4. Covalent bond symmetry breaking and protein secondary structure


    Lundgren, Martin; Niemi, Antti J.


    Both symmetry and organized breaking of symmetry have a pivotal r\\^ole in our understanding of structure and pattern formation in physical systems, including the origin of mass in the Universe and the chiral structure of biological macromolecules. Here we report on a new symmetry breaking phenomenon that takes place in all biologically active proteins, thus this symmetry breaking relates to the inception of life. The unbroken symmetry determines the covalent bond geometry of a sp3 hybridized ...

  5. Random Cell Identifiers Assignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Bestak


    Full Text Available Despite integration of advanced functions that enable Femto Access Points (FAPs to be deployed in a plug-and-play manner, the femtocell concept still cause several opened issues to be resolved. One of them represents an assignment of Physical Cell Identifiers (PCIs to FAPs. This paper analyses a random based assignment algorithm in LTE systems operating in diverse femtocell scenarios. The performance of the algorithm is evaluated by comparing the number of confusions for various femtocell densities, PCI ranges and knowledge of vicinity. Simulation results show that better knowledge of vicinity can significantly reduce the number of confusions events.

  6. Characteristics of replication-independent endogenous double-strand breaks in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. (United States)

    Pongpanich, Monnat; Patchsung, Maturada; Thongsroy, Jirapan; Mutirangura, Apiwat


    Replication-independent endogenous double-strand breaks (RIND-EDSBs) occur in both humans and yeast in the absence of inductive agents and DNA replication. In human cells, RIND-EDSBs are hypermethylated, preferentially retained in the heterochromatin and unbound by γ-H2AX. In single gene deletion yeast strains, the RIND-EDSB levels are altered; the number of RIND-EDSBs is higher in strains with deletions of histone deacetylase, endonucleases, topoisomerase, or DNA repair regulators, but lower in strains with deletions of the high-mobility group box proteins or Sir2. In summary, RIND-EDSBs are different from pathologic DSBs in terms of their causes and consequences. In this study, we identified the nucleotide sequences surrounding RIND-EDSBs and investigated the features of these sequences as well as their break locations. In recent work, we detected RIND-EDSBs using ligation mediated PCR. In this study, we sequenced RIND-EDSB PCR products of resting state Saccharomyces cerevisiae using next-generation sequencing to analyze RIND-EDSB sequences. We found that the break locations are scattered across a number of chromosomes. The number of breaks correlated with the size of the chromosomes. Most importantly, the break occurrences had sequence pattern specificity. Specifically, the majority of the breaks occurred immediately after the sequence "ACGT" (P = 2.2E-156). Because the "ACGT" sequence does not occur primarily in the yeast genome, this specificity of the "ACGT" sequence cannot be attributed to chance. RIND-EDSBs occur non-randomly; that is, they are produced and retained by specific mechanisms. Because these particular mechanisms regulate their generation and they possess potentially specific functions, RIND-EDSBs could be epigenetic marks.

  7. Line-breaking algorithm enhancement in inverse typesetting paradigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Přichystal


    Full Text Available High quality text preparing using computer desktop publishing systems usually uses line-breaking algorithm which cannot make provision for line heights and typeset paragraph accurately when composition width, page break, line index or other object appears. This article deals with enhancing of line-breaking algorithm based on optimum-fit algorithm. This algorithm is enhanced with calculation of immediate typesetting width and thus solves problem of forced change. Line-breaking algorithm enhancement causes expansion potentialities of high-quality typesetting in cases that have not been yet covered with present typesetting systems.

  8. Optical chirality breaking in a bilayered chiral metamaterial. (United States)

    Zhao, Jianxing; Fu, Yuegang; Liu, Zhiying; Zhou, Jianhong


    We propose a planar optical bilayered chiral metamaterial, which consists of periodic metallic arrays of two L-shaped structures and a nanorod twisted on both sides of a dielectric slab, to investigate the optical chirality breaking effect by using finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method. Even the metamaterial is with chiral symmetry, an optical chirality breaking window in the asymmetric transmission pass band is obtained in chiral metamaterial structure. We analyze the plasmonic mode properties and attribute the mechanism of the optical chirality breaking effect to the plasmonic analogue of EIT. The optical chirality breaking window can be modulated by changing the geometric parameters of the nanorods in the structure.

  9. Soft supersymmetry-breaking terms from supergravity and superstring models

    CERN Document Server

    Brignole, A; Muñoz, C


    We review the origin of soft supersymmetry-breaking terms in N=1 supergravity models of particle physics. We first consider general formulae for those terms in general models with a hidden sector breaking supersymmetry at an intermediate scale. The results for some simple models are given. We then consider the results obtained in some simple superstring models in which particular assumptions about the origin of supersymmetry breaking are made. These are models in which the seed of supersymmetry breaking is assumed to be originated in the dilaton/moduli sector of the theory.

  10. Breaking Resilience for a Sustainable Future: Thoughts for the Anthropocene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Glaser


    Full Text Available Strong resilience of a system usually enables the protection of a status quo. Most resilience studies assume that resilience-building is the central objective of sustainability work. Even though transformation has become a central theme in development and social-ecological debates, questions surrounding the weakening resilience of undesired system states are rarely analyzed. We suggest that resilience studies not only serve to protect systems and feedbacks we want to maintain, but may also help to understand and overcome chronic, undesirable,—and thus wicked—resilience. This contribution focuses on reef fisheries in the Spermonde Island Archipelago in Indonesia, based on social and ecological studies between 2004 and 2016. We identify a number of interlocking wickedly resilient vicious cycles as predominant drivers of the impoverishment of fishing households and the overexploited, polluted and degraded state of the coral reefs that fishers' livelihoods depend on. We argue that, more often than not in the Anthropocene, breaking resilience has a central role in the pursuit of sustainable human-nature relations. Therefore, the link between the resilience and the transformation debates needs to be much more explicitly made. Breaking interlocking, wicked resilience at multiple levels is needed to move toward sustainable human-nature relations from the local to the global level. There are lacunae in debate, literature, and research practice as to when, where and how wicked resilience might need to be weakened. A more complete resilience lens is particularly needed under Anthropocene conditions to support the unmaking of chronically resilient, anthropogenic systems.

  11. Sulforaphane induces DNA single strand breaks in cultured human cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sestili, Piero, E-mail: [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomolecolari, Via Maggetti, 21, Universita degli Studi di Urbino ' Carlo Bo' , 61029 Urbino, PU (Italy); Paolillo, Marco [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomolecolari, Via Maggetti, 21, Universita degli Studi di Urbino ' Carlo Bo' , 61029 Urbino, PU (Italy); Lenzi, Monia [Dipartimento di Farmacologia, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, Via Irnerio 48, 40126 Bologna (Italy); Colombo, Evelin; Vallorani, Luciana; Casadei, Lucia; Martinelli, Chiara [Dipartimento di Scienze Biomolecolari, Via Maggetti, 21, Universita degli Studi di Urbino ' Carlo Bo' , 61029 Urbino, PU (Italy); Fimognari, Carmela [Dipartimento di Farmacologia, Universita degli Studi di Bologna, Via Irnerio 48, 40126 Bologna (Italy)


    Sulforaphane (SFR), an isothiocyanate from cruciferous vegetables, possesses growth-inhibiting and apoptosis-inducing activities in cancer cell lines. Recently, SFR has been shown to promote the mitochondrial formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human cancer cell lines. The present study was undertaken to see whether SFR-derived ROS might cause DNA damage in cultured human cells, namely T limphoblastoid Jurkat and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). 1-3 h treatments with 10-30 {mu}M SFR elicited intracellular ROS formation (as assayed with dihydrorhodamine, DHR, oxidation) as well as DNA breakage (as assessed with fast halo assay, FHA). These effects lacked cell-type specificity, since could be observed in both Jurkat and HUVEC. Differential-pH FHA analysis of damaged DNA showed that SFR causes frank DNA single strand breaks (SSBs); no DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) were found within the considered treatment times (up to 3 h). SFR-derived ROS were formed at the mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) level: indeed rotenone or myxothiazol (MRC Complex I and III inhibitors, respectively) abrogated ROS formation. Furthermore ROS were not formed in Jurkat cells pharmacologically depleted of respiring mitochondria (MRC-/Jurkat). Formation of ROS was causally linked to the induction of SSBs: indeed all the experimental conditions capable of preventing ROS formation also prevented the damage of nuclear DNA from SFR-intoxicated cells. As to the toxicological relevance of SSBs, we found that their prevention slightly but significantly attenuated SFR cytotoxicity, suggesting that high-dose SFR toxicity is the result of a complex series of events among which GSH depletion seems to play a pivotal role. In conclusion, the present study identifies a novel mechanism contributing to SFR toxicity which - since DNA damage is a prominent mechanism underlying the cytotoxic activity of established antineoplastic agents - might help to exploit the therapeutic value

  12. Breaks in the Breaks: An Analysis of Divorce Rates in Europe


    González-Val, Rafael; Marcén, Miriam


    This paper explores the frequency of permanent shocks in divorce rates for 16 European countries during the period 1930 to 2006, by examining whether the divorce rate is a stationary series, exhibits a unit root, or is stationary around a process subject to structural breaks. A clear finding from this analysis is that not all shocks have transitory effects on the divorce rate. Results provide evidence of both stationarity around occasional shocks which have permanent effects, and of a unit ro...

  13. Breaking sod or breaking even? Flax on the northern Great Plains and Prairies, 1889-1930. (United States)

    MacFayden, Joshua D


    A new thirst for paint and color in cities made extensive flax production profitable in the northern Great Plains and Prairies and contributed to the cultivation of the most fragile grassland ecosystems. The production of flax seed for linseed oil became an early spin-off of the Prairie wheat economy but, unlike wheat, flax vanished from old land after one or two rotations and reappeared in districts with the most new breaking. Officials explained the migrant crop as preparing native grasslands for cultivation or exhausting soil in old land, but farmers brought flax to their new breaking for other reasons. Producers would only put flax on any land when a range of economic and environmental conditions were in place. It was never sown without promise of adequately high prices or in the absence of affordable seed and other inputs. When price allowed, it usually appeared on new breaking because it could be planted later and transported further without upsetting the balance of other activities and without farmers learning many new techniques. Scientists discovered that diseased soil drove flax off old land, not soil exhaustion. Circumventing the disease was possible but costly, and farmers simply replaced flax with the next most lucrative commodity.

  14. Relationship between Age and the Ability to Break Scored Tablets. (United States)

    Notenboom, Kim; Vromans, Herman; Schipper, Maarten; Leufkens, Hubert G M; Bouvy, Marcel L


    Practical problems with the use of medicines, such as difficulties with breaking tablets, are an often overlooked cause for non-adherence. Tablets frequently break in uneven parts and loss of product can occur due to crumbling and powdering. Health characteristics, such as the presence of peripheral neuropathy, decreased grip strength and manual dexterity, can affect a patient's ability to break tablets. As these impairments are associated with aging and age-related diseases, such as Parkinson's disease and arthritis, difficulties with breaking tablets could be more prevalent among older adults. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between age and the ability to break scored tablets. A comparative study design was chosen. Thirty-six older adults and 36 young adults were systematically observed with breaking scored tablets. Twelve different tablets were included. All participants were asked to break each tablet by three techniques: in between the fingers with the use of nails, in between the fingers without the use of nails and pushing the tablet downward with one finger on a solid surface. It was established whether a tablet was broken or not, and if broken, whether the tablet was broken accurately or not. The older adults experienced more difficulties to break tablets compared to the young adults. On average, the older persons broke 38.1% of the tablets, of which 71.0% was broken accurately. The young adults broke 78.2% of the tablets, of which 77.4% was broken accurately. Further analysis by mixed effects logistic regression revealed that age was associated with the ability to break tablets, but not with the accuracy of breaking. Breaking scored tablets by hand is less successful in an elderly population compared to a group of young adults. Health care providers should be aware that tablet breaking is not appropriate for all patients and for all drugs. In case tablet breaking is unavoidable, a patient's ability to break tablets should

  15. Splicing stimulates siRNA formation at Drosophila DNA double-strand breaks. (United States)

    Merk, Karin; Breinig, Marco; Böttcher, Romy; Krebs, Stefan; Blum, Helmut; Boutros, Michael; Förstemann, Klaus


    DNA double-strand breaks trigger the production of locus-derived siRNAs in fruit flies, human cells and plants. At least in flies, their biogenesis depends on active transcription running towards the break. Since siRNAs derive from a double-stranded RNA precursor, a major question is how broken DNA ends can generate matching sense and antisense transcripts. We performed a genome-wide RNAi-screen in cultured Drosophila cells, which revealed that in addition to DNA repair factors, many spliceosome components are required for efficient siRNA generation. We validated this observation through site-specific DNA cleavage with CRISPR-cas9 followed by deep sequencing of small RNAs. DNA breaks in intron-less genes or upstream of a gene's first intron did not efficiently trigger siRNA production. When DNA double-strand breaks were induced downstream of an intron, however, this led to robust siRNA generation. Furthermore, a downstream break slowed down splicing of the upstream intron and a detailed analysis of siRNA coverage at the targeted locus revealed that unspliced pre-mRNA contributes the sense strand to the siRNA precursor. Since splicing factors are stimulating the response but unspliced transcripts are entering the siRNA biogenesis, the spliceosome is apparently stalled in a pre-catalytic state and serves as a signaling hub. We conclude that convergent transcription at DNA breaks is stimulated by a splicing dependent control process. The resulting double-stranded RNA is converted into siRNAs that instruct the degradation of cognate mRNAs. In addition to a potential role in DNA repair, the break-induced transcription may thus be a means to cull improper RNAs from the transcriptome of Drosophila melanogaster. Since the splicing factors identified in our screen also stimulated siRNA production from high copy transgenes, it is possible that this surveillance mechanism serves in genome defense beyond DNA double-strand breaks.

  16. Circumpolar Deep Water transport and current structure at the Amundsen Sea shelf break (United States)

    Assmann, Karen M.; Wåhlin, Anna K.; Heywood, Karen J.; Jenkins, Adrian; Kim, Tae Wan; Lee, Sang Hoon


    The West Antarctic Ice Sheet has been losing mass at an increasing rate over the past decades. Ocean heat transport to the ice-ocean interface has been identified as an important contributor to this mass loss and the role it plays in ice sheet stability makes it crucial to understand its drivers in order to make accurate future projections of global sea level. While processes closer to the ice-ocean interface modulate this heat transport, its ultimate source is located in the deep basin off the continental shelf as a core of relatively warm, salty water underlying a colder, fresher shallow surface layer. To reach the marine terminating glaciers and the base of floating ice shelves, this warm, salty water mass must cross the bathymetric obstacle of the shelf break. Glacial troughs that intersect the Amundsen shelf break and deepen southwards towards the ice shelf fronts have been shown to play an important role in transporting warm, salty Circumpolar Deep Water (CDW) towards the ice shelves. North of the shelf break, circulation in the Amundsen Sea occupies an intermediate regime between the eastward Antarctic Circumpolar Current that impinges on the shelf break in the Bellingshausen Sea and the westward southern limb of the Ross Gyre that follows the shelf break in the Ross Sea. Hydrographic and mooring observations and numerical model results at the mouth of the central shelf break trough leading to Pine Island and Thwaites Glaciers show a westward wind-driven shelf break current overlying an eastward undercurrent that turns onto the shelf in the trough. It is thought that the existence of the latter feature facilitates the on-shelf transport of CDW. A less clearly defined shelf break depression further west acts as the main pathway for CDW to Dotson and eastern Getz Ice shelves. Model results indicate that a similar eastward undercurrent exists here driving the on-shelf transport of CDW. Two moorings on the upper slope east of the trough entrance show a

  17. Natural Cold Baryogenesis from Strongly Interacting Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Konstandin, Thomas


    The mechanism of "cold electroweak baryogenesis" has been so far unpopular because its proposal has relied on the ad-hoc assumption of a period of hybrid inflation at the electroweak scale with the Higgs acting as the waterfall field. We argue here that cold baryogenesis can be naturally realized without the need to introduce any slow-roll potential. Our point is that composite Higgs models where electroweak symmetry breaking arises via a strongly first-order phase transition provide a well-motivated framework for cold baryogenesis. In this case, reheating proceeds by bubble collisions and we argue that this can induce changes in Chern-Simons number, which in the presence of new sources of CP violation commonly lead to baryogenesis. We illustrate this mechanism using as a source of CP violation an effective dimension-six operator which is free from EDM constraints, another advantage of cold baryogenesis compared to the standard theory of electroweak baryogenesis. Our results are general as they do not rely on...

  18. Understanding the Points of Fables. (United States)

    Dorfman, Marcy H.; Brewer, William F.


    Proposes a model of the reader's understanding of simple narrative texts, such as fables. Tests this model by using point generation and fable comprehension data from adult subjects. Identifies three components needed for understanding a fable's moral. Argues that data support the theory propounded. (HB)

  19. Age and gender effects on DNA strand break repair in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garm, Christian; Moreno-Villanueva, Maria; Bürkle, Alexander


    Exogenous and endogenous damage to DNA is constantly challenging the stability of our genome. This DNA damage increase the frequency of errors in DNA replication, thus causing point mutations or chromosomal rearrangements and has been implicated in aging, cancer, and neurodegenerative diseases....... Therefore, efficient DNA repair is vital for the maintenance of genome stability. The general notion has been that DNA repair capacity decreases with age although there are conflicting results. Here, we focused on potential age-associated changes in DNA damage response and the capacities of repairing DNA...... single-strand breaks (SSBs) and double-strand breaks (DSBs) in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs). Of these lesions, DSBs are the least frequent but the most dangerous for cells. We have measured the level of endogenous SSBs, SSB repair capacity, γ-H2AX response, and DSB repair capacity...

  20. Ultrafast-laser dicing of thin silicon wafers: strategies to improve front- and backside breaking strength (United States)

    Domke, Matthias; Egle, Bernadette; Stroj, Sandra; Bodea, Marius; Schwarz, Elisabeth; Fasching, Gernot


    Thin 50-µm silicon wafers are used to improve heat dissipation of chips with high power densities. However, mechanical dicing methods cause chipping at the edges of the separated dies that reduce the mechanical stability. Thermal load changes may then lead to sudden chip failure. Recent investigations showed that the mechanical stability of the cut chips could be increased using ultrashort-pulsed lasers, but only at the laser entrance (front) side and not at the exit (back) side. The goal of this study was to find strategies to improve both front- and backside breaking strength of chips that were cut out of an 8″ wafer with power metallization using an ultrafast laser. In a first experiment, chips were cut by scanning the laser beam in single lines across the wafer using varying fluencies and scan speeds. Three-point bending tests of the cut chips were performed to measure front and backside breaking strengths. The results showed that the breaking strength of both sides increased with decreasing accumulated fluence per scan. Maximum breaking strengths of about 1100 MPa were achieved at the front side, but only below 600 MPa were measured for the backside. A second experiment was carried out to optimize the backside breaking strength. Here, parallel line scans to increase the distance between separated dies and step cuts to minimize the effect of decreasing fluence during scribing were performed. Bending tests revealed that breaking strengths of about 1100 MPa could be achieved also on the backside using the step cut. A reason for the superior performance could be found by calculating the fluence absorbed by the sidewalls. The calculations suggested that an optimal fluence level to minimize thermal side effects and periodic surface structures was achieved due to the step cut. Remarkably, the best breaking strengths values achieved in this study were even higher than the values obtained on state of the art ns-laser and mechanical dicing machines. This is the first

  1. Naturalistic field study of the restart break in US commercial motor vehicle drivers: Truck driving, sleep, and fatigue. (United States)

    Sparrow, Amy R; Mollicone, Daniel J; Kan, Kevin; Bartels, Rachel; Satterfield, Brieann C; Riedy, Samantha M; Unice, Aaron; Van Dongen, Hans P A


    Commercial motor vehicle (CMV) drivers in the US may start a new duty cycle after taking a 34-h restart break. A restart break provides an opportunity for sleep recuperation to help prevent the build-up of fatigue across duty cycles. However, the effectiveness of a restart break may depend on its timing, and on how many nighttime opportunities for sleep it contains. For daytime drivers, a 34-h restart break automatically includes two nighttime periods. For nighttime drivers, who are arguably at increased risk of fatigue, a 34-h restart break contains only one nighttime period. To what extent this is relevant for fatigue depends in part on whether nighttime drivers revert back to a nighttime-oriented sleep schedule during the restart break. We conducted a naturalistic field study with 106 CMV drivers working their normal schedules and performing their normal duties. These drivers were studied during two duty cycles and during the intervening restart break. They provided a total of 1260days of data and drove a total of 414,937 miles during the study. Their duty logs were used to identify the periods when they were on duty and when they were driving and to determine their duty cycles and restart breaks. Sleep/wake patterns were measured continuously by means of wrist actigraphy. Fatigue was assessed three times per day by means of a brief psychomotor vigilance test (PVT-B) and a subjective sleepiness scale. Data from a truck-based lane tracking and data acquisition system were used to compute lane deviation (variability in lateral lane position). Statistical analyses focused on 24-h patterns of duty, driving, sleep, PVT-B performance, subjective sleepiness, and lane deviation. Duty cycles preceded by a restart break containing only one nighttime period (defined as 01:00-05:00) were compared with duty cycles preceded by a restart break containing more than one nighttime period. During duty cycles preceded by a restart break with only one nighttime period, drivers

  2. Active and break spells of the Indian summer monsoon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we suggest criteria for the identification of active and break events of the Indian summer monsoon on the basis of recently derived high resolution daily gridded rainfall dataset over India (1951–2007). Active and break events are defined as periods during the peak monsoon months of July and August, in which ...

  3. Breaking Bad News for Patients with Gastro-Intestinal Malignancy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No patient was told about the prognosis and the chances of cure. Conclusion: Sympathy over-ride empathy in communicating bad news to Sudanese patients suffering of cancer. Patient education and training in breaking the bad news is needed. Key words: Communication skills, breaking bad news, truth telling, Sudan.

  4. Global increase in record-breaking monthly-mean temperatures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coumou, Dim; Robinson, Alexander; Rahmstorf, Stefan

    The last decade has produced record-breaking heat waves in many parts of the world. At the same time, it was globally the warmest since sufficient measurements started in the 19th century. Here we show that, worldwide, the number of local record-breaking monthly temperature extremes is now on

  5. 27 CFR 19.282 - Breaking Government locks. (United States)


    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Breaking Government locks... Breaking Government locks. Where affixed, Government locks shall not be removed without the authorization... obtain authorization from an appropriate TTB officer, Government locks may be removed, by the proprietor...

  6. Should I Give the Exam before or after the Break? (United States)

    O'Connor, Kevin J.


    This study was designed to help faculty make decisions about when to administer an exam in relation to an in-semester break. Students in multiple sections of an undergraduate educational psychology class were assigned to take an exam either before or after a scheduled 5-day break (Thursday-Monday). A multiple regression analysis revealed the break…

  7. Distributed Decision Making in Combined Vehicle Routing and Break Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meyer, Christoph Manuel; Kopfer, Herbert; Kok, A.L.; Schutten, Johannes M.J.


    The problem of combined vehicle routing and break scheduling comprises three subproblems: clustering of customer requests, routing of vehicles, and break scheduling. In practice, these subproblems are usually solved in the interaction between planners and drivers. We consider the case that the

  8. Breaking the spores of Ganoderma lucidum by fermentation with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, fermentation of G. lucidum with Lactobacillus plantarum was applied to break down the sporoderm. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to characterize the spores. The broken spores were found on the 3rd day and complete breaking on the 5th day of fermentation. Lactic acid, acetic acid and ...

  9. The Year Zero: Iconoclastic Breaks with the Past

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Baets, Antoon


    Some regimes try to force a complete break with the past and even to start from the year zero. Throughout history, such iconoclastic breaks were meant to erase, once and for all, the entire past or to destroy as many of its relics and symbols as possible, and either to reach orregain some faraway

  10. Breaking waves on a dynamic Hele-Shaw beach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhove, Onno; van der Horn, Bram; van der Horn, Avraham/Bram; van der Meer, Roger M.; Zweers, Wout; Thornton, Anthony Richard

    We report the formation of quasi-steady beaches and dunes via breaking waves in our tabletop ‘Hele-Shaw’ beach experiment. Breaking waves are generated by a wave maker, and zeolite particles act as sand. The tank is narrow, just over one-particle diameter wide, creating a quasi-2D set-up. Classical

  11. Late-breaking papers of EuroGP-99

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    W.B. Langdon; R. Poli; P. Nordin; T. Fogarty


    textabstractThis booklet contains the late-breaking papers of the Second European Workshop on Genetic Programming (EuroGP'99) held in G'oteborg Sweden 26--27~May~1999. EuroGP'99 was one of the EvoNet workshops on evolutionary computing, EvoWorkshops'99. The purpose of the late-breaking papers was to

  12. 36 CFR 7.52 - Cedar Breaks National Monument. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cedar Breaks National Monument. 7.52 Section 7.52 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.52 Cedar Breaks National Monument. (a...

  13. Break-up characteristics of gelled propellant simulants with various gelling agent contents (United States)

    Lee, Inchul; Koo, Jaye


    Gel propulsion systems have many advantages with respect to high performance, the energy management of liquid propulsion systems, storability, high density impulse, and low leakage of liquid propellants. The atomization process provides sufficient contact surface area between the gelled fuel and oxidizer jets. It is important to study how injection characteristics of gelled propellants are related with break-up and spray distribution. The break-up and mixing processes are very important in achieving maximum efficiency and necessitate the careful study of combustion instability. Gelled propellants are non-Newtonian fluids in which the viscosity is a function of the shear rate, and they have a high dynamic shear viscosity which depends on the amount of gelling agent contents. The present study has focused on the break-up process, wave development of ligament and liquid sheets formed by impinging jets with various gelling agent contents. Especially, the break-up processes of the impinging jets at the initial conditions are studied. The break-up process of like-on-like doublet impinging jets are experimentally characterized using non-Newtonian liquids which are mixed by ionized water 98.5 wt%, Carbopol 941 0.5wt% or 1.0wt%, and NaOH(concentration 10%) 1.0wt%. For the like-on-like doublet injector, the generation of a liquid sheet at the impinging point of two jets was observed. The spray shape with elliptical pattern is distributed in a perpendicular direction to the momentum vectors of the jets. Gelled propellant simulants with high viscosity jets are more stable and produce less pronounced surface waves than low viscosity jets. Generally, the break-up length decreased due to the increasing Reynolds number. However, surface waves and atomized droplets increased. Gelled propellant simulants from like-on-like doublet impinging jets have the spray shape of closed rim patterns at low pressure. Also, the rim patterns of spray have no disturbances on the spray sheet. As the

  14. Low-scale SUSY breaking and the (s)goldstino physics

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, I.


    For a 4D N=1 supersymmetric model with a low SUSY breaking scale (f) and general Kahler potential K(Phi^i,Phi_j^*) and superpotential W(Phi^i) we study, in an effective theory approach, the relation of the goldstino superfield to the (Ferrara-Zumino) superconformal symmetry breaking chiral superfield X. In the presence of more sources of supersymmetry breaking, we verify the conjecture that the goldstino superfield is the (infrared) limit of X for zero-momentum and Lambda->\\infty. (Lambda is the effective cut-off scale). We then study the constraint X^2=0, which in the one-field case is known to decouple a massive sgoldstino and thus provide an effective superfield description of the Akulov-Volkov action for the goldstino. In the presence of additional fields that contribute to SUSY breaking we identify conditions for which X^2=0 remains valid, in the effective theory below a large but finite sgoldstino mass. The conditions ensure that the effective expansion (in 1/Lambda) of the initial Lagrangian is not in ...

  15. Orthogonality-breaking sensing model based on the instantaneous Stokes vector and the Mueller calculus (United States)

    Ortega-Quijano, Noé; Fade, Julien; Roche, Muriel; Parnet, François; Alouini, Mehdi


    Polarimetric sensing by orthogonality breaking has been recently proposed as an alternative technique for performing direct and fast polarimetric measurements using a specific dual-frequency dual-polarization (DFDP) source. Based on the instantaneous Stokes-Mueller formalism to describe the high-frequency evolution of the DFDP beam intensity, we thoroughly analyze the interaction of such a beam with birefringent, dichroic and depolarizing samples. This allows us to confirm that orthogonality breaking is produced by the sample diattenuation, whereas this technique is immune to both birefringence and diagonal depolarization. We further analyze the robustness of this technique when polarimetric sensing is performed through a birefringent waveguide, and the optimal DFDP source configuration for fiber-based endoscopic measurements is subsequently identified. Finally, we consider a stochastic depolarization model based on an ensemble of random linear diattenuators, which makes it possible to understand the progressive vanishing of the detected orthogonality breaking signal as the spatial heterogeneity of the sample increases, thus confirming the insensitivity of this method to diagonal depolarization. The fact that the orthogonality breaking signal is exclusively due to the sample dichroism is an advantageous feature for the precise decoupled characterization of such an anisotropic parameter in samples showing several simultaneous effects.

  16. Silicene nanomeshes: bandgap opening by bond symmetry breaking and uniaxial strain. (United States)

    Jia, Tian-Tian; Fan, Xin-Yu; Zheng, Meng-Meng; Chen, Gang


    Based on the first-principles calculations, we have investigated in detail the bandgap opening of silicene nanomeshes. Different to the mechanism of bandgap opening induced by the sublattice equivalence breaking, the method of degenerate perturbation through breaking the bond symmetry could split the π-like bands in the inversion symmetry preserved silicene nanomeshes, resulting into the πa1 - πa2 and πz1 - πz2 band sets with sizable energy intervals. Besides the bandgap opening in the nanomeshes with Dirac point being folded to Γ point, the split energy intervals are however apart away from Fermi level to leave the semimetal nature unchanged for the other nanomeshes with Dirac points located at opposite sides of Γ point as opposite pseudo spin wave valleys. A mass bandgap could be then opened at the aid of uniaxial strain to transfer the nanomesh to be semiconducting, whose width could be continuously enlarged until reaching its maximum Emax. Moreover, the Emax could also be tuned by controlling the defect density in silicene nanomeshes. These studies could contribute to the understanding of the bandgap engineering of silicene-based nanomaterials to call for further investigations on both theory and experiment.

  17. Breaking Wave Impact Pressure on a Vertical Wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Rajasekaran


    Full Text Available Offshore and coastal structures experience wave impact loads particularly due to breaking waves throughout its design period. In the present paper, an experimental program has been devised to improve our perceptive of the physics and the characteristics of impact pressures due to breaking waves on a vertical wall. The salient features of the study such as model details, breaking wave simulation, the impact and dynamic pressure variation along the depth of the wall are presented. The maximum impact pressure magnitude is found to be of the order of ten times that of the non-breaking dynamic pressure and it always occurred above the still water level for different intensities of breaking waves considered. The minimum pressure rise time is observed to be 0.235 ms.

  18. Stochastic chiral symmetry breaking process besides the deterministic one. (United States)

    Silva-Dias, L; López-Castillo, A


    In chiral symmetry breaking, populations with initial enantiomeric excess (EE) are probabilistically favored if statistical fluctuation is present, as in nature. Stochastic methods correctly describe chiral symmetry breaking by taking into account the quantitative enantiomeric difference (excess or deficiency) and the statistical fluctuation amplitude, which is inversely proportional to the absolute size of the populations involved. From this, we obtain a law, which indicates that such a favoring probability decreases exponentially [P(EE) = 1/(e(αEE) + 1)] with an initial enantiomeric deficiency mediated by statistical fluctuation. Obviously, chiral symmetry breaking equally favors populations without enantiomeric excess [P(0) = 1/2]. However, if deterministic methods are considered, chiral symmetry breaking will strictly favor the population with an initial enantiomeric excess (EE). To study these stochastic chiral symmetry breaking processes the autocatalytic Frank model was considered. Summarizing, our results show that the initial enantiomeric excesses are not entirely responsible for the final state configuration of autocatalytic finite systems.

  19. Rice Research to Break Yield Barriers (United States)

    Verma, Vivek; Ramamoorthy, Rengasamy; Kohli, Ajay; Kumar, Prakash P.


    The world’s population continues to expand and it is expected to cross 9 billion by 2050. This would significantly amplify the demand for food, which will pose serious threats to global food security. Additional challenges are being imposed due to a gradual decrease in the total arable land and global environmental changes. Hence, it is of utmost importance to review and revise the existing food production strategies by incorporating novel biotechnological approaches that can help to break the crop yield barriers in the near future. In this review, we highlight some of the concerns hampering crop yield enhancements. The review also focuses on modern breeding techniques based on genomics as well as proven biotechnological approaches that enable identification and utilization of candidate genes. Another aspect of discussion is the important area of research, namely hormonal regulation of plant development, which is likely to yield valuable regulatory genes for such crop improvement efforts in the future. These strategies can serve as potential tools for developing elite crop varieties for feeding the growing billions.

  20. Breaking the Ceiling of Human Maximal Lifespan. (United States)

    Ben-Haim, Moshe Shay; Kanfi, Yariv; Mitchel, Sarah J; Maoz, Noam; Vaughan, Kelli; Amariglio, Ninette; Lerrer, Batia; de Cabo, Rafael; Rechavi, Gideon; Cohen, Haim Y


    While average human life expectancy has increased dramatically in the last century, the maximum lifespan has only modestly increased. These observations prompted the notion that human lifespan might have reached its maximal natural limit of ~115 years. To evaluate this hypothesis, we conducted a systematic analysis of all-cause human mortality throughout the 20 th century. Our analyses revealed that, once cause of death is accounted for, there is a proportional increase in both median age of death and maximum lifespan. To examine whether pathway targeted aging interventions affected both median and maximum lifespan, we analyzed hundreds of interventions performed in multiple organisms (yeast, worms, flies, and rodents). Three criteria: median, maximum, and last survivor lifespans were all significantly extended, and to a similar extent. Altogether, these findings suggest that targeting the biological/genetic causes of aging can allow breaking the currently observed ceiling of human maximal lifespan. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  1. Warped Electroweak Breaking Without Custodial Symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Cabrer, Joan A; Quiros, Mariano


    We propose an alternative to the introduction of an extra gauge (custodial) symmetry to suppress the contribution of KK modes to the T parameter in warped theories of electroweak breaking. The mechanism is based on a general class of warped 5D metrics and a Higgs propagating in the bulk. The metrics are nearly AdS in the UV region but depart from AdS in the IR region, towards where KK fluctuations are mainly localized, and have a singularity outside the slice between the UV and IR branes. This gravitational background is generated by a bulk stabilizing scalar field which triggers a natural solution to the hierarchy problem. Depending on the model parameters, gauge-boson KK modes can be consistent with present bounds on EWPT for m > 1 TeV at 95% CL. The model contains a light Higgs mode which unitarizes the four-dimensional theory. The reduction in the precision observables can be traced back to a large wave function renormalization for this mode.

  2. Golden Probe of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Yi; Spiropulu, Maria; Stolarski, Daniel; Vega-Morales, Roberto


    The ratio of the Higgs couplings to $WW$ and $ZZ$ pairs, $\\lambda_{WZ}$, is a fundamental parameter in electroweak symmetry breaking as well as a measure of the (approximate) custodial symmetry possessed by the gauge boson mass matrix. We show that Higgs decays to four leptons are sensitive, via tree level/1-loop interference effects, to both the magnitude and, in particular, overall sign of $\\lambda_{WZ}$. Determining this sign requires interference effects, as it is nearly impossible to measure with rate information. Furthermore, simply determining the sign effectively establishes the custodial representation of the Higgs boson. We find that $h\\to4\\ell$ ($4\\ell \\equiv 2e2\\mu, 4e, 4\\mu$) decays have excellent prospects of directly establishing the overall sign at a high luminosity 13 TeV LHC. We also examine the ultimate LHC sensitivity in $h\\to4\\ell$ to the magnitude of $\\lambda_{WZ}$. Our results are independent of other measurements of the Higgs boson couplings and, in particular, largely free of assumpti...

  3. Dynamical Local Chirality and Chiral Symmetry Breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Alexandru, Andrei


    We present some of the reasoning and results substantiating the notion that spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking (SChSB) in QCD is encoded in local chiral properties of Dirac eigenmodes. Such association is possible when viewing chirality as a dynamical effect, measured with respect to the benchmark of statistically independent left-right components. Following this rationale leads to describing local chiral behavior by a taylor-made correlation, namely the recently introduced correlation coefficient of polarization C_A. In this language, correlated modes (C_A>0) show dynamical preference for local chirality while anti-correlated modes (C_A<0) favor anti-chirality. Our conclusion is that SChSB in QCD can be viewed as dominance of low-energy correlation (chirality) over anti-correlation (anti-chirality) of Dirac sea. The spectral range of local chirality, chiral polarization scale Lambda_ch, is a dynamically generated scale in the theory associated with SChSB. One implication of these findings is briefly dis...

  4. Chiral symmetry breaking in unstirred crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szurgot, M. [Center of Mathematics and Physics, Technical University of Lodz (Poland)


    Statistics of nucleation of chiral forms of sodium bromate from unstirred aqueous solutions was studied. It was established that bimodal, trimodal and unimodal distributions of enantiomers are obtained in unstirred crystallization. It was also found out that probabilities of the creation of L or D crystals and racemates R, as well as the presence of D, L, and R peaks in distributions depend on crystallizer size, supersaturation and temperature. Nucleation at low supersaturations in small, closed crystallizers leads to the formation of pure enantiomers, and to bimodal distributions with D and L peaks at any temperature. At high supersaturations in large, open crystallizers the formation of racemates and unimodal distributions with racemate R peaks results. In open crystallizers at the lowest temperatures and at the highest temperatures used in crystallization from aqueous solution racemates of sodium bromate are preferentially formed, but in a wide range of intermediate-temperatures apart from racemates, pure enantiomers are efficiently formed which leads to trimodal distributions. The spontaneous formation of pure enantiomers in crystallization from unstirred, unseeded solutions is caused by the chiral symmetry breaking phenomenon, the same as that discovered in stirred crystallization. The conservation of chiral symmetry is, in unstirred crystallization, one of the two possibilities, and the other one is the breakage of symmetry. Both of them occur in nature. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  5. LHC Report: a break from luminosity production

    CERN Multimedia

    Jan Uythoven for the LHC team


    The LHC has been in great shape over the last few months, delivering over 20 fb-1 of integrated luminosity before the ICHEP conference in Chicago at the beginning of August. This is not much below the 25 fb-1 target for the whole of 2016. With this success in mind, a break in luminosity production was taken for six days, starting on 26 July 2016, for a machine development period.   This year, 20 days of the LHC schedule are devoted to machine development with the aim of carrying out detailed studies of the accelerator. The 20 days are divided over five different periods, called MD blocks. They can be seen as an investment in the future, so the machine can produce collisions more efficiently in the months and years to come. A detailed programme is worked out for each MD block, whereby different specialist teams are assigned periods of four to twelve hours, depending on the topic, to perform their previously approved tests. The MD program continues 24 hours per day, as in normal physics operation. One...

  6. Generalized geometry and partial supersymmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triendl, Hagen Mathias


    This thesis consists of two parts. In the first part we use the formalism of (exceptional) generalized geometry to derive the scalar field space of SU(2) x SU(2)-structure compactifications. We show that in contrast to SU(3) x SU(3) structures, there is no dynamical SU(2) x SU(2) structure interpolating between an SU(2) structure and an identity structure. Furthermore, we derive the scalar manifold of the low-energy effective action for consistent Kaluza-Klein truncations as expected from N = 4 supergravity. In the second part we then determine the general conditions for the existence of stable Minkowski and AdS N = 1 vacua in spontaneously broken gauged N = 2 supergravities and construct the general solution under the assumption that two appropriate commuting isometries exist in the hypermultiplet sector. Furthermore, we derive the low-energy effective action below the scale of partial supersymmetry breaking and show that it satisfies the constraints of N = 1 supergravity. We then apply the discussion to special quaternionic-Kaehler geometries which appear in the low-energy limit of SU(3) x SU(3)-structure compactifications and construct Killing vectors with the right properties. Finally we discuss the string theory realizations for these solutions. (orig.)

  7. Benchmarking Density Functional Theory Approaches for the Description of Symmetry-Breaking in Long Polymethine Dyes

    KAUST Repository

    Gieseking, Rebecca L.


    Long polymethines are well-known experimentally to symmetry-break, which dramatically modifies their linear and nonlinear optical properties. Computational modeling could be very useful to provide insight into the symmetry-breaking process, which is not readily available experimentally; however, accurately predicting the crossover point from symmetric to symmetry-broken structures has proven challenging. Here, we benchmark the accuracy of several DFT approaches relative to CCSD(T) geometries. In particular, we compare analogous hybrid and long-range corrected (LRC) functionals to clearly show the influence of the functional exchange term. Although both hybrid and LRC functionals can be tuned to reproduce the CCSD(T) geometries, the LRC functionals are better performing at reproducing the geometry evolution with chain length and provide a finite upper limit for the gas-phase crossover point; these methods also provide good agreement with the experimental crossover points for more complex polymethines in polar solvents. Using an approach based on LRC functionals, a reduction in the crossover length is found with increasing medium dielectric constant, which is related to localization of the excess charge on the end groups. Symmetry-breaking is associated with the appearance of an imaginary frequency of b2 symmetry involving a large change in the degree of bond-length alternation. Examination of the IR spectra show that short, isolated streptocyanines have a mode at ~1200 cm-1 involving a large change in bond-length alternation; as the polymethine length or the medium dielectric increases, the frequency of this mode decreases before becoming imaginary at the crossover point.

  8. RELAP5 simulation of surge line break accident using combined and best estimate plus uncertainty approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kristof, Marian [AiNS, Na hlinach 51, 917 01 Trnava (Slovakia); Department of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia)], E-mail:; Kliment, Tomas [VUJE a.s., Okruzna 5, 918 64 Trnava (Slovakia); Petruzzi, Alessandro [Nuclear Research Group of San Piero a Grado, University of Pisa (Italy); Lipka, Jozef [Department of Nuclear Physics and Technology, Slovak University of Technology, Ilkovicova 3, 812 19 Bratislava (Slovakia)


    Licensing calculations in a majority of countries worldwide still rely on the application of combined approach using best estimate computer code without evaluation of the code models uncertainty and conservative assumptions on initial and boundary, availability of systems and components and additional conservative assumptions. However best estimate plus uncertainty (BEPU) approach representing the state-of-the-art in the area of safety analysis has a clear potential to replace currently used combined approach. There are several applications of BEPU approach in the area of licensing calculations, but some questions are discussed, namely from the regulatory point of view. In order to find a proper solution to these questions and to support the BEPU approach to become a standard approach for licensing calculations, a broad comparison of both approaches for various transients is necessary. Results of one of such comparisons on the example of the VVER-440/213 NPP pressurizer surge line break event are described in this paper. A Kv-scaled simulation based on PH4-SLB experiment from PMK-2 integral test facility applying its volume and power scaling factor is performed for qualitative assessment of the RELAP5 computer code calculation using the VVER-440/213 plant model. Existing hardware differences are identified and explained. The CIAU method is adopted for performing the uncertainty evaluation. Results using combined and BEPU approaches are in agreement with the experimental values in PMK-2 facility. Only minimal difference between combined and BEPU approached has been observed in the evaluation of the safety margins for the peak cladding temperature. Benefits of the CIAU uncertainty method are highlighted.

  9. When does taking a break help in negotiations? The influence of breaks and social motivation on negotiation processes and outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harinck, F.; de Dreu, C.K.W.


    Most negotiations are interrupted from time to time to reflect on the negotiation or to do other pressing tasks. This study investigated how these breaks and the thoughts during these breaks influence subsequent negotiation behavior. Prosocially motivated dyads, with a tendency to think

  10. RANS-VOF modeling of hydrodynamics and sand transport under full-scale non-breaking and breaking waves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernandez Mora, Maria de Los Angeles; Ribberink, Jan S.; van der Zanden, Joep; van der Werf, Jebbe J.; Jacobsen, N.G.; Lynett, P.; Lynett, Patrick


    A 2D RANS-VOF model is used to simulate the flow and sand transport for two different full-scale laboratory experiments: i) non-breaking waves over a horizontal sand bed (Schretlen et al., 2011) and ii) plunging breaking waves over a barred mobile bed profile (Van der Zanden et al., 2016). For the





    Technology has brought about unique changes in education as a whole, how people communicate; research, preference and social interaction. It presents before the society a growing recognition of the recent and wider possibilities in the new era. The proposed study identified the impact of technology in breaking barriers towards women’s liberation in Open Distance Learning (ODL) to contribute towards enhancing women empowerment. The two concepts Open Distance Learning (ODL) and Distance Educati...

  12. Wave breaking in the surf zone and deep-water in a non-hydrostatic RANS model. Part 1: Organized wave motions (United States)

    Derakhti, Morteza; Kirby, James T.; Shi, Fengyan; Ma, Gangfeng


    We examine wave-breaking predictions ranging from shallow- to deep-water conditions using a non-hydrostatic σ-coordinate RANS model NHWAVE as described in Derakhti et al. (2016a), comparing results both with corresponding experiments and with the results of a volume-of-fluid (VOF)/Navier-Stokes solver (Ma et al., 2011; Derakhti and Kirby, 2014a,b). Our study includes regular and irregular depth-limited breaking waves on planar and barred beaches as well as steepness-limited unsteady breaking focused wave packets in intermediate and deep water. In Part 1 of this paper, it is shown that the model resolves organized wave motions in terms of free-surface evolution, spectral evolution, organized wave velocity evolution and wave statistics, using a few vertical σ-levels. In addition, the relative contribution of modeled physical dissipation and numerical dissipation to the integral breaking-induced wave energy loss is discussed. In steepness-limited unsteady breaking focused wave packets, the turbulence model has not been triggered, and all the dissipation is imposed indirectly by the numerical scheme. Although the total wave-breaking-induced energy dissipation is underestimated in the unsteady wave packets, the model is capable of predicting the dispersive and nonlinear properties of different wave packet components before and after the break point, as well as the overall wave height decay and the evolution of organized wave velocity field and power spectrum density over the breaking region. In Part 2 (Derakhti et al., 2016b), model reproduction of wave-breaking-induced turbulence and mean circulation is examined in detail. The same equations and numerical methods are used for the various depth regimes, and no ad-hoc treatment, such as imposing hydrostatic conditions, is involved in triggering breaking. Vertical grid resolution in all simulated cases is at least an order of magnitude coarser than that of typical VOF-based simulations.

  13. Hydraulic Response of Caisson Breakwaters in Multidirectional Breaking and Non-Breaking Waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbech, J.; Kofoed, Jens Peter; Hald, Tue


    The present paper concerns the results and findings of a physical study on wave impacts on vertical caisson breakwaters situated in irregular, multidirectional breaking seas. The study has taken place as part of the framework programme "Dynamic of Structures" financially supported by the Danish...... Technical Research Council, during the period of January '97 to December '97. The tests were carried out in the 3D wave basin at the Hydraulics and Coastal Engineering Laboratory, Aalborg University. The objective of the study was to asses the effects of wave obliquity and multidirectionality on the wave...

  14. Breaks in the Breaks: A Time-Series Analysis of Divorce Rates


    González-Val, Rafael; Marcén, Miriam


    The economic literature examining changes in divorce rates is not conclusive since legal reforms have been found to have permanent, transitory or no effect on divorce rates. This paper studies differences in divorce rates among 16 European countries from 1930 to 2006, by exploiting time-series analysis. We find that 37.5% of the divorce rate’s series are stationary, so that any shock had a transitory effect. However, we also detect structural breaks in the average divorce rate for each countr...

  15. The importance of wave break events for synoptic-scale buildups of Northern Hemisphere zonal available potential energy (United States)

    Bowley, Kevin; Atallah, Eyad; Gyakum, John


    Zonal available potential energy (ZAPE) is an estimate of the amount of potential energy in the atmosphere available for conversion to kinetic energy, providing a good proxy for the overall strength of the general circulation. Previous studies have estimated total hemispheric ZAPE, ZAPE generation, and conversion to kinetic energy, and proposed physical mechanisms to describe the annual ZAPE cycle as well as short term (sub-seasonal to synoptic) APE depletion events. Large, short term modulations of ZAPE have been shown to be associated with impactful weather events in the mid- and high-latitudes, including severe cyclones and high-amplitude ridging and blocking events In this study, we examine the association of significant synoptic time-scale increases in ZAPE with dynamic tropopause wave break events. ZAPE buildup events are determined using a 1979-2011 daily Northern Hemisphere (20˚ -85˚ N) ZAPE climatology calculated from the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) Department of Energy (DOE) Reanalysis 2 global reanalysis dataset in an isobaric framework. To diagnose the importance of wave breaks in the troposphere, we objectively identify wave breaks using potential temperature on the dynamic tropopause, identifying and tracking both anti-cyclonic (LC1) and cyclonic (LC2) wave breaks during the 1979-2011 period. Our results indicate that LC1 wave break events in the equatorward jet exit regions appear to play an important role in ZAPE buildup events. The formation of these anti-cyclonic wave break events result in the development of statistically significant warm-core high pressure anomalies in these regions, acting to reduce baroclinic conversions. We will further demonstrate that changes in LC2 wave break activity in the climatological storm track during ZAPE buildup events are indicative of notable changes to the regions of significant cyclone activity, which are occurring in response to shifts and elongations of the jet stream.

  16. "I'll Break His Goddamned Hands" (United States)

    Hicks, Randall


    This year, the author embarked on a tenure-track appointment as a chemistry professor. He considers himself very fortunate. As he advances into this next phase of his career, he has reflected on how he reached this point. The author's own experience leads him to believe that precious few first-generation students ultimately become chemistry…

  17. Nutrition. You can break the diarrhoea circle. (United States)


    During a diarrheal episode, the body cannot absorb nutrients as well as it can when it is healthy. Nutrient intake may fall as much as 33% during the first days of a diarrheal episode. Loss of appetite or vomiting often occurs, or mothers may follow traditional beliefs or incorrect recommendations and feed the child less. This contributes to malnutrition, which, in turn, facilitates infections (e.g., diarrhea) because the body does not have the nutrients to fight infections. In fact, malnourished children usually have longer and more severe episodes of acute diarrhea (14 days) than well-nourished children. Good nutrition before, during, and after diarrhea can break the cycle of malnutrition and diarrhea. If a child develops dehydration, oral rehydration therapy (ORT) should be administered and feeding (other than breast feeding) should be suspended for a few hours. ORT may include home fluids (e.g., soup). Caretakers should resume feeding within 4-6 hours after ORT begins. The children should receive at least 6 small meals a day during and after diarrhea. Severely malnourished children should continue to receive food, especially potassium-rich foods (e.g., bananas and coconut water) during ORT. Rehydration should last longer (12-24 hours) in severely malnourished children. Growth slows down during diarrhea regardless of food intake. During the recovery period, the very hungry children may consume as much as 2 times the amount normally eaten. Caretakers should provide an extra meal for a recovering child for 2 weeks. Breast feeding should continue at least at the same level during diarrhea. Non-breast-fed infants should continue to receive undiluted animal milk or formula during acute diarrhea. Older infants (=or 4 months) who are already receiving soft or solid foods should continue to receive them during diarrhea. Adding 1-2 teaspoonfuls of vegetable oil (e.g., red palm oil) to staple foods increases the energy content.

  18. PCB-Based Break-Out Box (United States)

    Lee, Jason H.


    Break-out boxes (BOBs) are necessary for all electrical integration/cable checkouts and troubleshooting. Because the price of a BOB is high, and no work can be done without one, often the procedure stops, simply waiting for a BOB. A less expensive BOB would take less time in the integration, testing, and troubleshooting process. The PCB-based BOB works and looks the same as a standard JPL BOB, called Gold Boxes. The only differences between the old BOB and the new PCB-based BOB is that the new one has 80 percent of its circuitry in a printed circuit board. This process reduces the time for fabrication, thus making the BOBs less expensive. Moreover, because of its unique design, the new BOBs can be easily assembled and fixed. About 80 percent of the new PCB-based BOB is in a $22 (at the time of this reporting) custom-designed, yet commercially available PCB. This device has been used successfully to verify that BOB cables were properly made. Also, upon completion, the BOB was beeped out via a multimeter to ensure that all sockets on the connectors were properly connected to the respective banana jack. When compared to the Gold Box BOBs, the new BOB has many advantages. It is much more cost efficient, it delivers equal usability at substantially lower cost of the BOB, and the Gold Box is much heavier when compared to the new BOB. The new BOB is also a bit longer and much more versatile in that connectors are easily changeable and if a banana jack is broken, it can be replaced instead of throwing away an entire BOB.

  19. The Points Of Language (United States)

    Meier, Richard P.; Lillo-Martin, Diane


    Signed languages display a variety of pointing signs that serve the functions of deictic and anaphoric pronouns, possessive and reflexive pronouns, demonstratives, locatives, determiners, body part labels, and verb agreement. We consider criteria for determining the linguistic status of pointing signs. Among those criteria are conventionality, indexicality, phonological compositionality, being subject to grammatical constraints, and marking the kinds of grammatical distinctions expected of pronouns. We conclude that first-person points meet all these proposed criteria, but that nonfirst person points are in part gestural. Lastly, we review evidence for the grammaticization over time of systems of pointing signs within signed languages. PMID:28603596

  20. Record breaking bursts in a fiber bundle model of creep rupture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsa eDanku


    Full Text Available We investigate the statistics of record breaking events in the time series of cracklingbursts in a fiber bundle model of the creep rupture of heterogeneous materials. In the model fibers break due to two mechanisms: slowly accumulating damage triggers bursts of immediate breakings analogousto acoustic emissions in experiments. The rupture process accelerates such that the size of breaking avalanches increases while the waiting time between consecutive events decreases towards failure.Record events are defined as bursts which have a larger size than all previous events in the time series.We analyze the statistics of records focusing on the limit of equal load sharing (ELS of the model and compare the results to the record statistics of sequences of independent identically distributed random variables. Computer simulations revealed that the number of records grows with the logarithm of the event number except for the close vicinity of macroscopic failure where an exponential dependence isevidenced. The two regimes can be attributed to the dominance of disorder with small burst sizesand to stress enhancements giving rise efficient triggering of extended bursts, respectively.Both the size of records and the increments between consecutive record eventsare characterized by power law distributions with a common exponent 1.33 significantly differentfrom the usual ELS burst size exponents of fiber bundles. The distribution of waiting times followsthe same behavior, however, with two distinct exponents for low and high loads. Studying the evolution of records we identify a load dependent characteristic scale of the systemwhich separates slow down and acceleration of record breaking as failure is approached.

  1. Record breaking bursts in a fiber bundle model of creep rupture (United States)

    Danku, Zsuzsa; Kun, Ferenc


    We investigate the statistics of record breaking events in the time series of cracklingbursts in a fiber bundle model of the creep rupture of heterogeneous materials. In the model fibers break due to two mechanisms: slowly accumulating damage triggers bursts of immediate breakings analogousto acoustic emissions in experiments. The rupture process accelerates such that the size of breaking avalanches increases while the waiting time between consecutive events decreases towards failure.Record events are defined as bursts which have a larger size than all previous events in the time series.We analyze the statistics of records focusing on the limit of equal load sharing (ELS) of the model and compare the results to the record statistics of sequences of independent identically distributed random variables. Computer simulations revealed that the number of records grows with the logarithm of the event number except for the close vicinity of macroscopic failure where an exponential dependence isevidenced. The two regimes can be attributed to the dominance of disorder with small burst sizesand to stress enhancements giving rise efficient triggering of extended bursts, respectively.Both the size of records and the increments between consecutive record eventsare characterized by power law distributions with a common exponent 1.33 significantly differentfrom the usual ELS burst size exponents of fiber bundles. The distribution of waiting times followsthe same behavior, however, with two distinct exponents for low and high loads. Studying the evolution of records we identify a load dependent characteristic scale of the systemwhich separates slow down and acceleration of record breaking as failure is approached.

  2. [XPS analysis of beads formed by fuse breaking of electric copper wire]. (United States)

    Wu, Ying; Meng, Qing-Shan; Wang, Xin-Ming; Gao, Wei; Di, Man


    The in-depth composition of beads formed by fuse breaking of the electric copper wire in different circumstances was studied by XPS with Ar+ ion sputtering. In addition, the measured Auger spectra and the calculated Auger parameters were compared for differentiation of the substances of Cu and Cu2O. Corresponding to the sputtering depth, the molten product on a bead induced directly by fuse breaking of the copper wire without cover may be distinguished as three portions: surface layer with a drastic decrease in carbon content; intermediate layer with a gentle change in oxygen content and gradually diminished carbon peak, and consisting of Cu2O; transition layer without Cu2O and with a rapid decrease in oxygen content. While the molten product on a bead formed by fuse breaking of the copper wire after its insulating cover had been burned out may be distinguished as two portions: surface layer with carbon content decreasing quickly; subsurface layer without Cu2O and with carbon and oxygen content decreasing gradually. Thus, it can be seen that there was an obvious interface between the layered surface product and the substrate for the first type of bead, while as to the second type of bead there was no interface. As a result, the presence of Cu2O and the quantitative results can be used to identify the molten product on a bead induced directly by fuse breaking of the copper wire without cover and the molten product on a bead formed by fuse breaking of the cupper wire after its insulating cover had been burned out, as a complementary technique for the judgments of fire cause.

  3. An automatic system for elaboration of chip breaking diagrams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jan Lasson; De Chiffre, Leonardo


    A laboratory system for fully automatic elaboration of chip breaking diagrams has been developed and tested. The system is based on automatic chip breaking detection by frequency analysis of cutting forces in connection with programming of a CNC-lathe to scan different feeds, speeds and cutting...... depths. An evaluation of the system based on a total of 1671 experiments has shown that unfavourable snarled chips can be detected with 98% certainty which indeed makes the system a valuable tool in chip breakability tests. Using the system, chip breaking diagrams can be elaborated with a previously...

  4. Flavour breaking effects in the pseudoscalar meson decay constants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bornyakov, V.G. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino (Russian Federation); Institute of Theoretical and Experimental Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Far Eastern Federal Univ., Vladivostok (Russian Federation). School of Biomedicine; Horsley, R. [Edinburgh Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Physics and Astronomy; Nakamura, Y. [RIKEN Advanced Institute for Computational Science, Hyogo (Japan); Perlt, H.; Schiller, A. [Leipzig Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Pleiter, D. [Forschungszentrum Juelich (Germany). Juelich Supercomputing Centre; Regensburg Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Theoretische Physik; Rakow, P.E.L. [Liverpool Univ. (United Kingdom). Theoretical Physics Division; Schierholz, G. [DESY Hamburg (Germany); Stueben, H. [Hamburg Univ. (Germany). Regionales Rechenzentrum; Zanotti, J.M. [Adelaide Univ. (Australia). CSSM, Dept. of Physics; Collaboration: QCDSF-UKQCD Collaborations


    The SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion in up, down and strange quark masses is extended from hadron masses to meson decay constants. This allows a determination of the ratio of kaon to pion decay constants in QCD. Furthermore when using partially quenched valence quarks the expansion is such that SU(2) isospin breaking effects can also be determined. It is found that the lowest order SU(3) flavour symmetry breaking expansion (or Gell-Mann-Okubo expansion) works very well. Simulations are performed for 2+1 flavours of clover fermions at four lattice spacings.

  5. Spontaneous symmetry breaking in spinor Bose-Einstein condensates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherer, Manuel; Lücke, Bernd; Peise, Jan


    We present an analytical model for the theoretical analysis of spin dynamics and spontaneous symmetry breaking in a spinor Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). This allows for an excellent intuitive understanding of the processes and provides good quantitative agreement with the experimental results...... in the creation efficiency of these atom pairs can be traced back to excitation modes of this confinement. The understanding of these excitation modes allows for a detailed characterization of the symmetry-breaking mechanism, showing how a twofold spontaneous breaking of spatial and spin symmetry can occur....... In addition, a detailed account of the experimental methods for the preparation and analysis of spinor quantum gases is given....

  6. Automatic assessment of tear film break-up dynamics. (United States)

    Ramos, L; Barreira, N; Pena-Verdeal, H; Giráldez, M J


    Dry eye syndrome is a common disorder of the tear film which affects a remarkable percentage of the population. The Break-Up Time (BUT) is a clinical test used for the diagnosis of this disease, which computes the time the first tear film break-up appears. This work describes a fully automatic methodology to compute the BUT measurement and evaluate the break-up dynamics until the final blink. This analysis provides useful additional information for the assessment of tear film stability.

  7. Unified models of the QCD axion and supersymmetry breaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keisuke Harigaya


    Full Text Available Similarities between the gauge meditation of supersymmetry breaking and the QCD axion model suggest that they originate from the same dynamics. We present a class of models where supersymmetry and the Peccei–Quinn symmetry are simultaneously broken. The messengers that mediate the effects of these symmetry breakings to the Standard Model are identical. Since the axion resides in the supersymmetry breaking sector, the saxion and the axino are heavy. We show constraints on the axion decay constant and the gravitino mass.

  8. Spontaneous symmetry breaking, self-trapping, and Josephson oscillations

    CERN Document Server


    This volume collects a a number of contributions on spontaneous symmetry breaking. Current studies in this general field are going ahead at a full speed. The book present review chapters which give an overview on the major break throughs of recent years. It covers a number of different physical settings which are introduced when a nonlinearity is added to the underlying symmetric problems and its strength exceeds a certain critical value. The corresponding loss of symmetry, called spontaneous symmetry breaking, alias self-trapping into asymmetric states is extensively discussed in this book.

  9. Development of a coupled level set and immersed boundary method for predicting dam break flows (United States)

    Yu, C. H.; Sheu, Tony W. H.


    Dam-break flow over an immersed stationary object is investigated using a coupled level set (LS)/immersed boundary (IB) method developed in Cartesian grids. This approach adopts an improved interface preserving level set method which includes three solution steps and the differential-based interpolation immersed boundary method to treat fluid-fluid and solid-fluid interfaces, respectively. In the first step of this level set method, the level set function ϕ is advected by a pure advection equation. The intermediate step is performed to obtain a new level set value through a new smoothed Heaviside function. In the final solution step, a mass correction term is added to the re-initialization equation to ensure the new level set is a distance function and to conserve the mass bounded by the interface. For accurately calculating the level set value, the four-point upwinding combined compact difference (UCCD) scheme with three-point boundary combined compact difference scheme is applied to approximate the first-order derivative term shown in the level set equation. For the immersed boundary method, application of the artificial momentum forcing term at points in cells consisting of both fluid and solid allows an imposition of velocity condition to account for the presence of solid object. The incompressible Navier-Stokes solutions are calculated using the projection method. Numerical results show that the coupled LS/IB method can not only predict interface accurately but also preserve the mass conservation excellently for the dam-break flow.

  10. Symmetry Breaking in a random passive scalar (United States)

    Kilic, Zeliha; McLaughlin, Richard; Camassa, Roberto


    We consider the evolution of a decaying passive scalar in the presence of a gaussian white noise fluctuating shear flow. We focus on deterministic initial data and establish the short, intermediate, and long time symmetry properties of the evolving point wise probability measure for the random passive scalar. Analytical results are compared directly to Monte Carlo simulations. Time permitting we will compare the predictions to experimental observations.

  11. The absence of a dense potential core in supercritical injection: A thermal break-up mechanism (United States)

    Banuti, Daniel T.; Hannemann, Klaus


    Certain experiments in quasi-isobaric supercritical injection remain unexplained by the current state of theory: Without developing a constant value potential core as expected from the mechanical view of break-up, density is observed to drop immediately upon entering the chamber. Furthermore, this phenomenon has never been captured in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) despite having become a de facto standard case for real fluid CFD validation. In this paper, we present strong evidence for a thermal jet disintegration mechanism (in addition to classical mechanical break-up) which resolves both the theoretical and the computational discrepancies. A new interpretation of supercritical jet disintegration is introduced, based on pseudo-boiling, a nonlinear supercritical transition from gas-like to liquid-like states. We show that thermal disintegration may dominate classical mechanical break-up when heat transfer takes place in the injector and when the fluid state is sufficiently close to the pseudo-boiling point. A procedure which allows to capture subsided cores with standard CFD is provided and demonstrated.

  12. Tear film break-up time evaluated by real-time Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensing. (United States)

    Mihashi, Toshifumi; Hirohara, Yoko; Koh, Shizuka; Ninomiya, Sayuri; Maeda, Naoyuki; Fujikado, Takashi


    To develop a novel method for measuring tear break-up time (BUT) by continuously measuring higher order wavefront aberrations using a Hartmann-Shack (H-S) aberrometer. Wavefront aberrations up to the sixth order for a 4-mm pupil were measured in six eyes of six normal subjects using an H-S aberrometer. The aberrometry was performed once every second for up to 50 s under topical anesthesia. The sequence of the points was divided into two stages, and the BUT was defined as the wavefront border of the stages (WFBUT). The WFBUT was compared with the BUT by the conventional fluorescein method (FLBUT) or by the disruption of placid-ring images (PLBUT). In three eyes, the WFBUT (average, 10.9 +/- 1.1 s) was shorter than the PLBUT (average, 17.5 +/- 2.5 s), while in the other three eyes the WFBUT (average, 21.5 +/- 2.2 s) was longer than PLBUT (average, 8.1 +/- 2.2 s). The FLBUT was shorter than WFBUT or PLBUT in most cases. The tear break-up time measured by H-S aberrometer may be used as a practical measure of tear break-up.

  13. Large-eddy simulation of cavitating nozzle flow and primary jet break-up

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Örley, F., E-mail:; Trummler, T.; Mihatsch, M. S.; Schmidt, S. J.; Adams, N. A. [Institute of Aerodynamics and Fluid Mechanics, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Hickel, S. [Institute of Aerodynamics and Fluid Mechanics, Technische Universität München, Boltzmannstr. 15, 85748 Garching bei München (Germany); Chair of Computational Aerodynamics, Faculty of Aerospace Engineering, TU Delft, Kluyverweg 1, 2629 HS Delft (Netherlands)


    We employ a barotropic two-phase/two-fluid model to study the primary break-up of cavitating liquid jets emanating from a rectangular nozzle, which resembles a high aspect-ratio slot flow. All components (i.e., gas, liquid, and vapor) are represented by a homogeneous mixture approach. The cavitating fluid model is based on a thermodynamic-equilibrium assumption. Compressibility of all phases enables full resolution of collapse-induced pressure wave dynamics. The thermodynamic model is embedded into an implicit large-eddy simulation (LES) environment. The considered configuration follows the general setup of a reference experiment and is a generic reproduction of a scaled-up fuel injector or control valve as found in an automotive engine. Due to the experimental conditions, it operates, however, at significantly lower pressures. LES results are compared to the experimental reference for validation. Three different operating points are studied, which differ in terms of the development of cavitation regions and the jet break-up characteristics. Observed differences between experimental and numerical data in some of the investigated cases can be caused by uncertainties in meeting nominal parameters by the experiment. The investigation reveals that three main mechanisms promote primary jet break-up: collapse-induced turbulent fluctuations near the outlet, entrainment of free gas into the nozzle, and collapse events inside the jet near the liquid-gas interface.

  14. Chilling-responsive DEMETER-LIKE DNA demethylase mediates in poplar bud break. (United States)

    Conde, Daniel; Le Gac, Anne-Laure; Perales, Mariano; Dervinis, Christopher; Kirst, Matias; Maury, Stéphane; González-Melendi, Pablo; Allona, Isabel


    Annual dormancy-growth cycle is a developmental and physiological process essential for the survival of deciduous trees in temperate and boreal forests. Seasonal control of shoot growth in woody perennials requires specific genetic programmes responding to environmental signals. The environmental-controlled mechanisms that regulate the shift between winter dormancy and the growth-promoting genetic programmes are still unknown. Here, we show that dynamics in genomic DNA methylation levels are involved in the regulation of dormancy-growth cycle in poplar. The reactivation of growth in the apical shoot during bud break process in spring is preceded by a progressive reduction of genomic DNA methylation in apex tissue. The induction in apex tissue of a chilling-dependent poplar DEMETER-LIKE 10 (PtaDML10) DNA demethylase precedes shoot growth reactivation. Transgenic poplars showing downregulation of PtaDML8/10 caused delayed bud break. Genome-wide transcriptome and methylome analysis and data mining revealed that the gene targets of DEMETER-LIKE-dependent DNA demethylation are genetically associated with bud break. These data point to a chilling-dependent DEMETER-like DNA demethylase mechanisms being involved in the shift from winter dormancy to a condition that precedes shoot apical vegetative growth in poplar. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Breaking Abbe's diffraction resolution limit in fluorescence microscopy with stimulated emission depletion beams of various shapes. (United States)

    Klar, T A; Engel, E; Hell, S W


    We report on the generation of various hole-centered beams in the focal region of a lens and investigate their effectiveness to break the diffraction barrier in fluorescence microscopy by stimulated emission. Patterning of the phase of the stimulating beam across the entrance pupil of the objective lens produces point-spread-functions with twofold, fourfold, and circular symmetry, which narrow down the focal spot to 65-100 nm. Comparison with high-resolution confocal images exhibits a resolution much beyond the diffraction barrier. Particles that are only 65-nm apart are resolved with focused light.

  16. Theories of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking : A Post LHC Run-I Perspective (1/3)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva


    Lecture 1 : The Brout-Englert-Higgs Theory of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking The goal of this lecture is to put the discovery of the Higgs boson in historical context and qualitatively discuss the importance and meaning of its discovery. Claims that the BEH theory has its roots in the theory developments of superconductivity will be considered. Viability of the theory from several points of view will be assessed. First, has the theory been established yet as correct? Second, is the theory stable to vacuum fluctuations? And finally, is the theory natural?

  17. Breaking bad news is a teachable skill in pediatric residents: A feasibility study of an educational intervention. (United States)

    Reed, Suzanne; Kassis, Karyn; Nagel, Rollin; Verbeck, Nicole; Mahan, John D; Shell, Richard


    Patients and physicians identify communication of bad news as a skill in need of improvement. Our objectives were to measure change in performance of first-year pediatric residents in the delivery of bad news after an educational intervention and to measure if changes in performance were sustained over time. Communication skills of 29 residents were assessed via videotaped standardized patient (SP) encounters at 3 time points: baseline, immediately post-intervention, and 3 months post-intervention. Educational intervention used was the previously published "GRIEV_ING Death Notification Protocol." The intraclass correlation coefficient demonstrated substantial inter-rater agreement with the assessment tool. Performance scores significantly improved from baseline to immediate post-intervention. Performance at 3 months post-intervention showed no change in two subscales and small improvement in one subscale. We concluded that breaking bad news is a complex and teachable skill that can be developed in pediatric residents. Improvement was sustained over time, indicating the utility of this educational intervention. This study brings attention to the need for improved communication training, and the feasibility of an education intervention in a large training program. Further work in development of comprehensive communication curricula is necessary in pediatric graduate medical education programs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Geodesics on Point Clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongchuan Yu


    Full Text Available We present a novel framework to compute geodesics on implicit surfaces and point clouds. Our framework consists of three parts, particle based approximate geodesics on implicit surfaces, Cartesian grid based approximate geodesics on point clouds, and geodesic correction. The first two parts can effectively generate approximate geodesics on implicit surfaces and point clouds, respectively. By introducing the geodesic curvature flow, the third part produces smooth and accurate geodesic solutions. Differing from most of the existing methods, our algorithms can converge to a given tolerance. The presented computational framework is suitable for arbitrary implicit hypersurfaces or point clouds with high genus or high curvature.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Hsu Chen


    Full Text Available Break dancing is a popular activity in teenagers and is associated with severe trauma to bones and tissues. We report the first known case of a break dancer with an ulnar stress fracture. Such injuries occur in a variety of sports due to substantial stress on the ulna and repetitive excessive rotation of the forearm. In this study we describe a patient who experienced an ulnar stress fracture during break dancing training. The diagnosis was established by history and physical examination. Initial radiographic findings were negative. However, radiographs taken 3 months after initial presented revealed callus formation over the ulnar shaft. This suggested that readjustment is required in break dancing training protocols. It is important to increase awareness of this injury among physicians to expedite the diagnosis and to prevent the possibility of conversion to an overt fracture in the future

  20. Effective photon mass by Super and Lorentz symmetry breaking

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bonetti, Luca; dos Santos Filho, Luís R; Helayël-Neto, José A; Spallicci, Alessandro D.A.M


    .... Thus, we extract a massive Carroll–Field–Jackiw photon term in the Lagrangian and show that the effective mass is proportional to the breaking vector and moderately dependent on the direction of observation...

  1. Chip breaking for an automated accurate turning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, M.W. (BDM Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Abbatiello, L.A. (Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (USA))


    Based upon a survey of chip breakup information, the various methods have been evaluated for application to automated accurate turning systems. Many chip breaking methods work well on shafts or cylinders but fail to break chips for an entire inside or outside contouring cut. Many metals produce straight or snarled chip forms at small depths of cut, feed rates, or moderate surface speeds. These chip forms can be a cause of workpiece and tool damage. Such forms also interfere with on-machine gaging, part transfer, and tool change. Often the chip wraps around the tool holder and is difficult to remove even in manual operation. Computer analysis now makes it possible to get the most of each types of chip breaking system. Reliable ship breaking is urgently needed for automated systems, especially those operating in an unmanned mode. 83 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Chip breaking and control for a precision automated turning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnham, M.W. (BDM International, Inc., McLean, VA (USA)); Abbatiello, L.A. (Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., Oak Ridge, TN (USA))


    Chip breaking and control is essential to automatic operation of precision turning systems. Failure to transfer parts and system jams can occur if chip fragments are not continuously removed. Surface damage and tool breakage also result from chips that are permitted to wrap around the tool. Also, with increasing environmental concerns, chip handling and recycling are becoming major issues in manufacturing. New information on a variety of mechanisms for breaking chips and methods for removal from the system are discussed. Some of the chip breaking methods are evaluated for the range of cutting in which they are effective. Chip curl and chip breaking analyzed carefully by Nakayama and others is expanded to more fully understand the ways in which chips can be broken. 23 figs.

  3. Footprints of Buildings at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (footprints) (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This is an Arc/INFO coverage consisting of 10 polygons representing the buildings' footprints at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah. The footprints were collected...

  4. Approximate equations at breaking for nearshore wave transformation coefficients

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Chandramohan, P.; Nayak, B.U.; SanilKumar, V.

    Based on small amplitude wave theory approximate equations are evaluated for determining the coefficients of shoaling, refraction, bottom friction, bottom percolation and viscous dissipation at breaking. The results obtainEd. by these equations...

  5. Could dynamical Lorentz symmetry breaking induce the superluminal neutrinos?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nojiri, Shin' ichi [Nagoya University, Department of Physics, Nagoya (Japan); Nagoya University, Kobayashi-Maskawa Institute for the Origin of Particles and the Universe, Nagoya (Japan); Odintsov, Sergei D. [Facultat de Ciencies, Institucio Catalana de Recerca i Estudis Avancats (ICREA) and Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (IEEC-CSIC), Campus UAB, Bellaterra (Barcelona) (Spain); Tomsk State Pedagogical University, Tomsk (Russian Federation)


    A toy fermion model coupled to the Lagrange multiplier constraint field is proposed. The possibility of superluminal neutrino propagation as a result of dynamical Lorentz symmetry breaking is studied. (orig.)

  6. Recurring genomic breaks in independent lineages support genomic fragility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hannenhalli Sridhar


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent findings indicate that evolutionary breaks in the genome are not randomly distributed, and that certain regions, so-called fragile regions, are predisposed to breakages. Previous approaches to the study of genomic fragility have examined the distribution of breaks, as well as the coincidence of breaks with segmental duplications and repeats, within a single species. In contrast, we investigate whether this regional fragility is an inherent genomic characteristic and is thus conserved over multiple independent lineages. Results We do this by quantifying the extent to which certain genomic regions are disrupted repeatedly in independent lineages. Our investigation, based on Human, Chimp, Mouse, Rat, Dog and Chicken, suggests that the propensity of a chromosomal region to break is significantly correlated among independent lineages, even when covariates are considered. Furthermore, the fragile regions are enriched for segmental duplications. Conclusion Based on a novel methodology, our work provides additional support for the existence of fragile regions.

  7. Spontaneous Breaking of Spatial and Spin Symmetry in Spinor Condensates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scherer, M.; Lücke, B.; Gebreyesus, G.


    Parametric amplification of quantum fluctuations constitutes a fundamental mechanism for spontaneous symmetry breaking. In our experiments, a spinor condensate acts as a parametric amplifier of spin modes, resulting in a twofold spontaneous breaking of spatial and spin symmetry in the amplified...... broken, but phase squeezing prevents spin-symmetry breaking. If, however, nondegenerate spin modes contribute to the amplification, quantum interferences lead to spin-dependent density profiles and hence spontaneously formed patterns in the longitudinal magnetization....... clouds. Our experiments permit a precise analysis of the amplification in specific spatial Bessel-like modes, allowing for the detailed understanding of the double symmetry breaking. On resonances that create vortex-antivortex superpositions, we show that the cylindrical spatial symmetry is spontaneously...

  8. Breaking supercontinents; no need to choose between passive or active (United States)

    Wolstencroft, Martin; Davies, J. Huw


    Much debate has centred on whether continental break-up is predominantly caused by active upwelling in the mantle (e.g. plumes) or by long-range extensional stresses in the lithosphere. We propose the hypothesis that global supercontinent break-up events should always involve both. The fundamental principle involved is the conservation of mass within the spherical shell of the mantle, which requires a return flow for any major upwelling beneath a supercontinent. This shallow horizontal return flow away from the locus of upwelling produces extensional stress. We demonstrate this principle with numerical models, which simultaneously exhibit both upwellings and significant lateral flow in the upper mantle. For non-global break-up the impact of the finite geometry of the mantle will be less pronounced, weakening this process. This observation should motivate future studies of continental break-up to explicitly consider the global perspective, even when observations or models are of regional extent.

  9. Stroma Breaking Theranostic Nanoparticles for Targeted Pancreatic Cancer Therapy (United States)

    This project develops a dual-targeted and stroma breaking theranostic nanoparticle platform to address an unmet, clinical challenge of poor drug delivery efficiency in the application of nanomedicine to cancer therapy.

  10. ATLAS diboson excess from low scale supersymmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petersson, Christoffer [Department of Fundamental Physics, Chalmers University of Technology,412 96 Göteborg (Sweden); Physique Théorique et Mathématique, Université Libre de Bruxelles,C.P. 231, 1050 Brussels (Belgium); International Solvay Institutes,1050 Brussels (Belgium); Torre, Riccardo [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Università di Padova and INFN Sezione di Padova,Via Marzolo 8, I-35131 Padova (Italy)


    We provide an interpretation of the recent ATLAS diboson excess in terms of a class of supersymmetric models in which the scale of supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking is in the few TeV range. The particle responsible for the excess is the scalar superpartner of the Goldstone fermion associated with SUSY breaking, the sgoldstino. This scalar couples strongly to the Standard Model vector bosons and weakly to the fermions, with all coupling strengths determined by ratios of soft SUSY breaking parameters over the SUSY breaking scale. Explaining the ATLAS excess selects particular relations and ranges for the gaugino masses, while imposing no constraints on the other superpartner masses. Moreover, this signal hypothesis predicts a rate in the Zγ final state that is expected to be observable at the LHC Run II already with a few fb{sup −1} of integrated luminosity.

  11. A two-dimensional dam-break flood plain model (United States)

    Hromadka, T.V.; Berenbrock, C.E.; Freckleton, J.R.; Guymon, G.L.


    A simple two-dimensional dam-break model is developed for flood plain study purposes. Both a finite difference grid and an irregular triangle element integrated finite difference formulation are presented. The governing flow equations are approximately solved as a diffusion model coupled to the equation of continuity. Application of the model to a hypothetical dam-break study indicates that the approach can be used to predict a two-dimensional dam-break flood plain over a broad, flat plain more accurately than a one-dimensional model, especially when the flow can break-out of the main channel and then return to the channel at other downstream reaches. ?? 1985.

  12. Utilities at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah (utilpnt) (United States)

    National Park Service, Department of the Interior — This feature class represents various types of utilities, including water- and power-related utilities, at Cedar Breaks National Monument, Utah. The utilities were...

  13. Non-minimal scalar multiplets, supersymmetry breaking and dualities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farakos, Fotis; Hulík, Ondřej; Kočí, Pavel; Unge, Rikard von [Institute for Theoretical Physics, Masaryk University,611 37 Brno (Czech Republic)


    We study supersymmetry breaking in theories with non-minimal multiplets (such as the complex linear or CNM multiplets), by using superspace higher derivative terms which give rise to new supersymmetry breaking vacuum solutions on top of the standard supersymmetric vacuum. We illustrate the decoupling of the additional massive sectors inside the complex linear and the CNM multiplets and show that only the Goldstino sector is left in the low energy limit. We also discuss the duality between non-minimal scalar multiplets and chiral multiplets in the presence of superspace higher derivatives. From the superspace Noether procedure we calculate the supercurrents, and we show that in the supersymmetry breaking vacuum the chiral superfield X which enters the Ferrara-Zumino supercurrent conservation equation does indeed flow in the IR to the chiral constrained Goldstino superfield. We also provide a description of the Goldstino sector in terms of the Samuel-Wess superfield for the supersymmetry breaking mechanism at hand.

  14. Dam-Break Flood Analysis Upper Hurricane Reservoir, Hartford, Vermont

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Acone, Scott


    .... Various dam break flood conditions were modeled and inundation maps developed. Based on this analysis the dam is rated a Class 2 or significant hazard category in terms of its potential to cause downstream damage...

  15. Mind the Gap: Women in STEM Career Breaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Mavriplis


    Full Text Available There are two issues related to women and pathways to STEM careers. Recruitment to the field is one aspect. The second issue is the retention of women in STEM fields. This paper reports on the structured interviews with 14 women who have taken career breaks sometime after receiving their PhD in order to understand the pressures in place to take such breaks, how women remain connected (or not to their field during the break and issues related to re-entering the field after a career break. Suggestions based on the interviews include enhancements for women’s preparation for STEM fields and changes to the STEM culture itself. We suggest the inclusion workshops to detail what they might expect in their career and a provision for networking opportunities. We urge changes in the fee structure for society membership, differences in how resumes are reviewed as well as changes in maternity and child care leave.

  16. Analysis of the effects of postulated pipe breaks on the LOFT containment building and on building TAN 650

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosby, W.R.


    This report presents the results of analyses of the consequences of pipe whips and jets occurring as a result of pipe breaks postulated to occur in the LOFT main steam and feedwater lines both inside and adjacent to the LOFT Containment Vessel and Building TAN 650. Pipe whip and jet cases resulting in breach of containment or damage to Building TAN 650 are identified.

  17. What Makes or Breaks Provider--Researcher Collaborations in HIV Research? A Mixed Method Analysis of Providers' Willingness to Partner (United States)

    Pinto, Rogerio M.


    Research is lacking about what makes or breaks collaboration between researchers and HIV services providers. This study identified factors that influence providers' levels of willingness to collaborate in HIV prevention scientific research. Survey measures were grounded in in-depth interview data and included providers' "willingness to…

  18. Different modes of continental break-up triggered by a sole mantle plume: a 2D and 3D numerical study (United States)

    Beniest, Anouk; Koptev, Alexander; Leroy, Sylvie; Burov, Evgueni


    from the point of impingement and can be interpreted as aborted rifts, observed along passive margins. Our modelling demonstrates that both simple and perfectly symmetric preliminary settings as well as complex initial setups can result in a variety of break-up systems.

  19. Spontaneous mirror-symmetry breaking induces inverse energy cascade in 3D active fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Słomka, Jonasz


    Classical turbulence theory assumes that energy transport in a 3D turbulent flow proceeds through a Richardson cascade whereby larger vortices successively decay into smaller ones. By contrast, an additional inverse cascade characterized by vortex-mergers exists in 2D fluids and gases, with profound implications for meteorological flows and fluid mixing. The possibility of a helicity-driven inverse cascade in 3D fluids had been rejected in the 1970s based on equilibrium-thermodynamic arguments. Recently, however, it was proposed that certain symmetry breaking processes could potentially trigger a 3D inverse cascade, but no physical system exhibiting this phenomenon has been identified to date. Here, we present direct analytical and numerical evidence for the existence of a robust inverse energy cascade in an experimentally validated 3D active fluid model, describing microbial suspension flows that spontaneously break mirror-symmetry. We show analytically that self-organized scale selection, a generic feature ...

  20. Orthogonality breaking sensing model based on the instantaneous Stokes vector and the Mueller calculus

    CERN Document Server

    Ortega-Quijano, Noé; Roche, Muriel; Parnet, François; Alouini, Mehdi


    Polarimetric sensing by orthogonality breaking has been recently proposed as an alternative technique for performing direct and fast polarimetric measurements using a specific dual-frequency dual-polarization (DFDP) source. Based on the instantaneous Stokes-Mueller formalism to describe the high-frequency evolution of the DFDP beam intensity, we thoroughly analyze the interaction of such a beam with birefringent, dichroic and depolarizing samples. This allows us to confirm that orthogonality breaking is produced by the sample diattenuation, whereas this technique is immune to both birefringence and diagonal depolarization. We further analyze the robustness of this technique when polarimetric sensing is performed through a birefringent waveguide, and the optimal DFDP source configuration for fiber-based endoscopic measurements is subsequently identified. Finally, we consider a stochastic depolarization model based on an ensemble of random linear diattenuators, which makes it possible to understand the progress...

  1. Confinement/deconfinement transition from symmetry breaking in gauge/gravity duality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Čubrović, Mihailo [Institute for Theoretical Physics, University of Cologne,Zülpicher Strasse 77, D-50937, Cologne (Germany)


    We study the confinement/deconfinement transition in a strongly coupled system triggered by an independent symmetry-breaking quantum phase transition in gauge/gravity duality. The gravity dual is an Einstein-scalar-dilaton system with AdS near-boundary behavior and soft wall interior at zero scalar condensate. We study the cases of neutral and charged condensate separately. In the former case the condensation breaks the discrete ℤ{sub 2} symmetry while a charged condensate breaks the continuous U(1) symmetry. After the condensation of the order parameter, the non-zero vacuum expectation value of the scalar couples to the dilaton, changing the soft wall geometry into a non-confining and anisotropically scale-invariant infrared metric. In other words, the formation of long-range order is immediately followed by the deconfinement transition and the two critical points coincide. The confined phase has a scale — the confinement scale (energy gap) which vanishes in the deconfined case. Therefore, the breaking of the symmetry of the scalar (ℤ{sub 2} or U(1)) in turn restores the scaling symmetry in the system and neither phase has a higher overall symmetry than the other. When the scalar is charged the phase transition is continuous which goes against the Ginzburg-Landau theory where such transitions generically only occur discontinuously. This phenomenon has some commonalities with the scenario of deconfined criticality. The mechanism we have found has applications mainly in effective field theories such as quantum magnetic systems. We briefly discuss these applications and the relation to real-world systems.

  2. Modeling outer-sphere disorder in the symmetry breaking of PPV. (United States)

    Liu, L Angela; Yaron, David J


    Disorder plays an important role in the photophysics of conjugated polymers such as poly(para-phenylene vinylene) (PPV). The dipole moments measured by electroabsorption spectroscopy for a centrosymmetric system such as PPV provide a direct quantitative measure of disorder-induced symmetry breaking. Although inner-sphere (structural) disorder is present, outer-sphere (environmental) disorder dominates the symmetry breaking in PPV. This paper develops and compares six models of outer-sphere disorder that differ in their representation of the electrostatic environment of PPV in glassy solvents. The most detailed model is an all-atom description of the solvent glass and this model forms the basis for comparison of the less detailed models. Four models are constructed in which multipoles are placed at points on a lattice. These lattice models differ in the degree to which they include correlation between the lattice spacings and the orientations of the multipoles. A simple model that assigns random Gaussian-distributed electrostatic potentials to each atom in the PPV molecule is also considered. Comparison of electronic structure calculations of PPV in these electrostatic environments using the all-atom model as a benchmark reveals that dipole and quadrupole lattices provide reasonable models of organic glassy solvents. Including orientational correlation among the solvent molecules decreases the effects of outer-sphere disorder, whereas including correlation in the lattice spacings increases the effects. Both the dipole and quadrupole moments of the solvent molecules can have significant effects on the symmetry breaking and these effects are additive. This additivity provides a convenient means for predicting the effects of various glassy solvents based on their multipole moments. The results presented here suggest that electrostatic disorder can account for the observed symmetry breaking in organic glasses. Furthermore, the lattice models are in general agreement

  3. Automatic first-break picking using the instantaneous traveltime attribute

    KAUST Repository

    Saragiotis, Christos


    Picking the first breaks is an important step in seismic processing. The large volume of the seismic data calls for automatic and objective picking. We introduce a new automatic first-break picker, which uses specifically designed time windows and an iterative procedure based on the instantaneous traveltime attribute. The method is fast as it only uses a few FFT\\'s per trace. We demonstrate the effectiveness of this automatic method by applying it on real test data.

  4. Some geological and geophysical aspects in electric rock breaking

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Henry, G


    Full Text Available in mining Novel mining methods autonomous narrow reef miner (<50 cm high) CMI Carlow Road Campus Rock breaker (non-explosive; ore processor) 3D scanner ? mapping Roof sounding device Underground navigation How rock breaks ? CSIR 2011 Slide 3... Marx generator transformer From: Ilgner (2006) Single ?shot high voltage electric rock breaking (2003) ? CSIR 2011 Slide10 Inefficient Comminution by Compression (-) (+) Water Direct Comminution by Explosion (-) (+) 6 mm Screen Water...

  5. 11Li structural information from inclusive break-up measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-García J. P.


    Full Text Available Structure information of 11Li halo nucleus has been obtained from the inclusive break-up measurements of the 11Li+208Pb reactions at energies around the Coulomb barrier (Elab = 24.3 and 29.8 MeV. The effective break-up energy and the slope of B(E1 distribution close to the threshold have been extracted from the experimental data.

  6. Measurement of Entrained Air Bubbles and Vortices in Breaking Waves


    大塚, 淳一; 渡部, 靖憲; Junichi, Otsuka; Yasunori, Watanabe; 北海道大学大学院工学研究科; School of Engineering, Hokkaido University


    Breaking waves produce numbers of vortices through a jet splashing process and also entrain many air bubbles, forming complicated air-water two-phase turbulent flow field in a surf zone. In this research, a simultaneous velocity measurement technique of water and bubble flows in breaking waves is developed for characterizing water-bubble interactions within vortices in a surf zone. The bubbles and neutral buoyant tracers are separately recorded by two different digital video cameras on the ba...

  7. Fuel weight and removal costs in fuel-break construction (United States)

    James L. Murphy


    Three major fuel types were sampled during fuel-break construction on the west side of the Sierra Nevada, California. Fuel weight per acre ranged from 12.2. to 420.6 tons per acre on average. Fuel-break construction removed 27.9 to 40.5 percent of teh total fuel; costs ranged from $141.29 to $148.38 per acre and $1.16 to $4.43 per ton.

  8. Lorentz symmetry breaking effects on relativistic EPR correlations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belich, H. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Fisica e Quimica, Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Furtado, C.; Bakke, K. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Caixa Postal 5008, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)


    Lorentz symmetry breaking effects on relativistic EPR (Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen) correlations are discussed. From the modified Maxwell theory coupled to gravity, we establish a possible scenario of the Lorentz symmetry violation and write an effective metric for the Minkowski spacetime. Then we obtain the Wigner rotation angle via the Fermi-Walker transport of spinors and consider the WKB (Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin) approximation in order to study the influence of Lorentz symmetry breaking effects on the relativistic EPR correlations. (orig.)

  9. Majorana Fermions, Supersymmetry Breaking, and Born-Infeld Theory

    CERN Document Server

    Ferrara, Sergio; Yeranyan, Armen


    This review is devoted to highlight some aspects of the relevance of Majorana fermions in rigid supersymmetry breaking in four spacetime dimensions. After introducing some basic facts on spinors, and on their symmetries and reality properties, we consider Goldstino actions describing partial breaking of rigid supersymmetry, then focussing on Born-Infeld non-linear theory, its duality symmetry, and its supersymmetric extensions, also including multi-field generalizations exhibiting doubly self-duality.

  10. Concepts of Electroweak Symmetry Breaking and Higgs Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez-Bock, M; Mühlleitner, M; Spira, M; Zerwas, P M


    We present an introduction to the basic concepts of electroweak symmetry breaking and Higgs physics within the Standard Model and its supersymmetric extensions. A brief overview will also be given on alternative mechanisms of electroweak symmetry breaking. In addition to the theoretical basis, the present experimental status of Higgs physics and prospects at the Tevatron, the LHC and e+e- linear colliders are discussed.

  11. Concepts of electroweak symmetry breaking and Higgs physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Bock, M. [Benemerita Univ., Puebla (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica; Mondragon, M. [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, Mexico City (Mexico). Inst. de Fisica; Muehlleitner, M. [Laboratoire d' Annecy-Le-Vieux de Physique Theorique, 74 (France)]|[CERN - European Organization for Nuclear Research, Geneva (Switzerland). Theory Div.; Spira, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Zerwas, P.M. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)]|[RWTH Aachen (Germany). Inst. Theor. Physik E]|[Univ. Paris- Sud, Orsay (France). Laboratoire de Physique Theorique


    We present an introduction to the basic concepts of electroweak symmetry breaking and Higgs physics within the Standard Model and its supersymmetric extensions. A brief overview will also be given on alternative mechanisms of electroweak symmetry breaking. In addition to the theoretical basis, the present experimental status of Higgs physics and prospects at the Tevatron, the LHC and e{sup +}e{sup -} linear colliders are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Supersymmetry breaking from superstrings and the gauge hierarchy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaillard, M.K. (Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (USA) California Univ., Berkeley, CA (USA). Dept. of Physics)


    The gauge hierarchy problem is reviewed and a class of effective field theories obtained from superstrings is described. These are characterized by a classical symmetry, related to the space-time duality of string theory, that is responsible for the suppression of observable supersymmetry breaking effects. At the quantum level, the symmetry is broken by anomalies that provide the seed of observable supersymmetry breaking, and an acceptably large gauge hierarchy may be generated. 39 refs.

  13. Break-even zones for cable yarding by log size (United States)

    Chris B. LeDoux


    The use of cable logging to extract small pieces of residue wood may result in low rates of production and a high cost per unit of wood produced. However, the logging manager can improve yarding productivity and break-even in cable residue removal operations by using the proper planning techniques. In this study, break-even zones for specific young-growth stands were...

  14. Effects of symmetry breaking in finite quantum systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birman, J.L. [Department of Physics, City College, City University of New York, New York, NY 10031 (United States); Nazmitdinov, R.G. [Departament de Fisica, Universitat de les Illes Balears, Palma de Mallorca 07122 (Spain); Bogolubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation); Yukalov, V.I., E-mail: [Bogolubov Laboratory of Theoretical Physics, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, Dubna 141980 (Russian Federation)


    The review considers the peculiarities of symmetry breaking and symmetry transformations and the related physical effects in finite quantum systems. Some types of symmetry in finite systems can be broken only asymptotically. However, with a sufficiently large number of particles, crossover transitions become sharp, so that symmetry breaking happens similarly to that in macroscopic systems. This concerns, in particular, global gauge symmetry breaking, related to Bose–Einstein condensation and superconductivity, or isotropy breaking, related to the generation of quantum vortices, and the stratification in multicomponent mixtures. A special type of symmetry transformation, characteristic only for finite systems, is the change of shape symmetry. These phenomena are illustrated by the examples of several typical mesoscopic systems, such as trapped atoms, quantum dots, atomic nuclei, and metallic grains. The specific features of the review are: (i) the emphasis on the peculiarities of the symmetry breaking in finite mesoscopic systems; (ii) the analysis of common properties of physically different finite quantum systems; (iii) the manifestations of symmetry breaking in the spectra of collective excitations in finite quantum systems. The analysis of these features allows for the better understanding of the intimate relation between the type of symmetry and other physical properties of quantum systems. This also makes it possible to predict new effects by employing the analogies between finite quantum systems of different physical nature.

  15. Nickel Curie Point Engine (United States)

    Chiaverina, Chris; Lisensky, George


    Ferromagnetic materials such as nickel, iron, or cobalt lose the electron alignment that makes them attracted to a magnet when sufficient thermal energy is added. The temperature at which this change occurs is called the "Curie temperature," or "Curie point." Nickel has a Curie point of 627 K, so a candle flame is a sufficient…

  16. Holographic Three point Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bissi, Agnese

    gravitons and a point like graviton and its dual counterpart, namely two Schur polynomials and a single trace chiral primary. Secondly we compute the one loop correction to planar, non extremal three point functions of two heavy and one light operators, both from the gauge and string side in the Frolov...

  17. Point of View. (United States)

    Davis, Jonathan; Davis, Lisa


    Presents a learning activity plan for teachers or librarians that helps students comprehend the author's craft element of "point of view." Focus is on first and third person point of view. Outlines student motivation methods, the procedure, extension/application activities, and assessment. Includes an activity worksheet. (AEF)

  18. To Break or Not To Break: Sex Chromosome Hemizygosity During Meiosis in Caenorhabditis. (United States)

    Van, Mike V; Larson, Braden J; Engebrecht, JoAnne


    Meiotic recombination establishes connections between homologous chromosomes to promote segregation. Hemizygous regions of sex chromosomes have no homologous chromosome to recombine with, yet must be transmitted through meiosis. An extreme case of hemizygosity exists in the genus Caenorhabditis, where males have a single X chromosome that completely lacks a homologous partner. To determine whether similar strategies have evolved to accommodate hemizygosity of the X during male meiosis in Caenorhabditis with distinct modes of sexual reproduction, we examined induction and processing of meiotic double strand breaks (DSBs) in androdioecious (hermaphrodite/male) Caenorhabditis elegans and C. briggsae, and gonochoristic (female/male) C. remanei and C. brenneri Analysis of the recombinase RAD-51 suggests more meiotic DSBs are induced in gonochoristic vs. androdioecious species. However, in late prophase in all species, chromosome pairs are restructured into bivalents around a single axis, suggesting that the holocentric nature of Caenorhabditis chromosomes dictates a single crossover per bivalent regardless of the number of DSBs induced. Interestingly, RAD-51 foci were readily observed on the X chromosome of androdioecious male germ cells, while very few were detected in gonochoristic male germ cells. As in C. elegans, the X chromosome in C. briggsae male germ cells undergoes transient pseudosynapsis and flexibility in DSB repair pathway choice. In contrast, in C. remanei and C. brenneri male germ cells, the X chromosome does not undergo pseudosynapsis and appears refractory to SPO-11-induced breaks. Together our results suggest that distinct strategies have evolved to accommodate sex chromosome hemizygosity during meiosis in closely related Caenorhabditis species. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  19. Retinal detachment with a break at pars plicata associated with congenital malformation of the lens-zonule-ciliary body complex. (United States)

    Tsai, Fang-Yi; Lau, Ling-Ing; Chen, Shih-Jen; Lee, Fenq-Lih


    Retinal detachment with a break at the pars plicata associated with congenital malformation of lens-zonule-ciliary body complex is rare; most reports are of young Japanese male patients with atopic dermatitis. The present case report is the first to describe the condition in a Chinese patient with no atopic dermatitis or trauma history. A 22-year-old male presented with blurred vision in the left eye for 4 months. Fundus examination revealed shallow lower temporal retinal detachment. Further examination with scleral indentation under maximal pupil dilatation identified a break at the far periphery beyond the ora serrata and pars plana. Gonioscopy revealed a pars plicata break at the nonpigmented ciliary epithelium associated with congenital ciliary process hypoplasia and subtle lens defect at the same meridian. The retina was successfully reattached after segmental scleral buckling, cryopexy, and laser photocoagulation.

  20. Developmental pathways from childhood aggression-disruptiveness, chronic peer rejection, and deviant friendships to early-adolescent rule breaking. (United States)

    Ettekal, Idean; Ladd, Gary W


    Childhood aggression-disruptiveness (AD), chronic peer rejection, and deviant friendships were examined as predictors of early-adolescent rule-breaking behaviors. Using a sample of 383 children (193 girls and 190 boys) who were followed from ages 6 to 14, peer rejection trajectories were identified and incorporated into a series of alternative models to assess how chronic peer rejection and deviant friendships mediate the association between stable childhood AD and early-adolescent rule breaking. There were multiple mediated pathways to rule breaking that included both behavioral and relational risk factors, and findings were consistent for boys and girls. Results have implications for better understanding the influence of multiple social processes in the continuity of antisocial behaviors from middle childhood to early adolescence. © 2014 The Authors. Child Development © 2014 Society for Research in Child Development, Inc.

  1. Phase segregation and spontaneous symmetry breaking in a bidirectional two-channel non-conserving model with narrow entrances (United States)

    Sharma, Natasha; Gupta, A. K.


    Motivated by connections between the inputs and outputs of several transport mechanisms and multi-species functionalities, we studied an open system of a two-species totally asymmetric simple exclusion process with narrow entrances, which assimilate the synergy of the particles with the surrounding environment through Langmuir kinetics (LK). We analyzed the model within the framework of mean-field theory, and examined complex phenomena such as boundary-induced phase transitions and spontaneous symmetry breaking for variant conditions of attachment and detachment rates. Based on the theoretical investigations we obtained the phase boundaries for various symmetric and asymmetric phases. Our finding displays a prolific behavior, highlighting the significant effect of LK rates on symmetry breaking. It is found that for lower orders of LK rates, the number of symmetrical and asymmetrical phases increases notably, while for their higher orders symmetry breaking disappears, revealing that the presence of bulk non-conserving processes can resume/break the uniformity between two species. The critical value of LK rates beyond which the asymmetrical phases disappears is identified. The theoretical findings are explored by extensive Monte Carlo simulations. The effect of the system size and symmetry breaking incident on the Monte Carlo simulation results has also been examined based on particle density histograms.

  2. Epithelial rotation is preceded by planar symmetry breaking of actomyosin and protects epithelial tissue from cell deformations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivana Viktorinová


    Full Text Available Symmetry breaking is involved in many developmental processes that form bodies and organs. One of them is the epithelial rotation of developing tubular and acinar organs. However, how epithelial cells move, how they break symmetry to define their common direction, and what function rotational epithelial motions have remains elusive. Here, we identify a dynamic actomyosin network that breaks symmetry at the basal surface of the Drosophila follicle epithelium of acinar-like primitive organs, called egg chambers, and may represent a candidate force-generation mechanism that underlies the unidirectional motion of this epithelial tissue. We provide evidence that the atypical cadherin Fat2, a key planar cell polarity regulator in Drosophila oogenesis, directs and orchestrates transmission of the intracellular actomyosin asymmetry cue onto a tissue plane in order to break planar actomyosin symmetry, facilitate epithelial rotation in the opposite direction, and direct the elongation of follicle cells. In contrast, loss of this rotational motion results in anisotropic non-muscle Myosin II pulses that are disorganized in plane and causes cell deformations in the epithelial tissue of Drosophila eggs. Our work demonstrates that atypical cadherins play an important role in the control of symmetry breaking of cellular mechanics in order to facilitate tissue motion and model epithelial tissue. We propose that their functions may be evolutionarily conserved in tubular/acinar vertebrate organs.

  3. Epithelial rotation is preceded by planar symmetry breaking of actomyosin and protects epithelial tissue from cell deformations. (United States)

    Viktorinová, Ivana; Henry, Ian; Tomancak, Pavel


    Symmetry breaking is involved in many developmental processes that form bodies and organs. One of them is the epithelial rotation of developing tubular and acinar organs. However, how epithelial cells move, how they break symmetry to define their common direction, and what function rotational epithelial motions have remains elusive. Here, we identify a dynamic actomyosin network that breaks symmetry at the basal surface of the Drosophila follicle epithelium of acinar-like primitive organs, called egg chambers, and may represent a candidate force-generation mechanism that underlies the unidirectional motion of this epithelial tissue. We provide evidence that the atypical cadherin Fat2, a key planar cell polarity regulator in Drosophila oogenesis, directs and orchestrates transmission of the intracellular actomyosin asymmetry cue onto a tissue plane in order to break planar actomyosin symmetry, facilitate epithelial rotation in the opposite direction, and direct the elongation of follicle cells. In contrast, loss of this rotational motion results in anisotropic non-muscle Myosin II pulses that are disorganized in plane and causes cell deformations in the epithelial tissue of Drosophila eggs. Our work demonstrates that atypical cadherins play an important role in the control of symmetry breaking of cellular mechanics in order to facilitate tissue motion and model epithelial tissue. We propose that their functions may be evolutionarily conserved in tubular/acinar vertebrate organs.

  4. Why Older Adults Spend Time Sedentary and Break Their Sedentary Behavior: A Mixed Methods Approach Using Life-Logging Equipment. (United States)

    Dontje, Manon L; Leask, Calum F; Harvey, Juliet; Skelton, Dawn A; Chastin, Sebastien F M


    Older adults are recommended to reduce their sedentary time to promote healthy ageing. To develop effective interventions identifying when, why, and how older adults are able to change their sitting habits is important. The aim of this mixed-method study was to improve our understanding of reasons for (breaking) sedentary behavior in older adults. Thirty older adults (74.0 (±5.3) years old, 73% women) were asked about their believed reasons for (breaking) sedentary behavior, and about their actual reasons when looking at a personal storyboard with objective records of activPAL monitor data and time-lapse camera pictures showing all their periods of sedentary time in a day. The most often mentioned believed reason for remaining sedentary was television/radio (mentioned by 48.3%), while eating/drinking was most often mentioned as actual reason (96.6%). Only 17.2% believed that food/tea preparation was a reason to break up sitting, while this was an actual reason for 82.8% of the study sample. Results of this study show that there is a discrepancy between believed and actual reasons for (breaking) sedentary behaviour. These findings suggest developing interventions utilizing the actual reasons for breaking sedentary behaviour to reduce sedentary time in older adults.

  5. Explosive Ice Multiplication Induced by multiplicative-Noise fluctuation of Mechanical Break-up in Ice-Ice Collisions (United States)

    Yano, Jun-Ichi; Phillips, Vaughan


    The number of ice fragments generated by break-up of large graupel in collisions with small graupel fluctuates randomly due to fluctuations in relative sizes and densities of colliding graupel particles and the stochastic nature of fracture propagation. This paper investigates an impact of the stochasticity of break-up on ice multiplication. When both the rate of generation of primary ice and the initial number concentration of ice-crystals are low, the system most likely loses all the initial ice and graupel due to a lack of sustaining sources. Even randomness does not change this mean evolution of the system in its phase-space. However, a fluctuation of ice break-up number gives a small but finite chance that substantial ice crystal fragments are generated by break-up of large graupel. That, in turn, generates more large graupel. This multiplicative process due to fluctuations potentially leads to a small but finite chance of explosive growth of ice number. A rigorous stochastic analysis demonstrates this point quantitatively. The randomness considered here belongs to a particular category called "multiplicative" noise, because the noise amplitude is proportional to a given physical state. In order to contrast the multiplicative-noise nature of ice break-up with a standard "additive" noise process, fluctuation of the primary ice generation rate is also considered as an example of the latter. These processes are examined by taking the Fokker-Planck equation that explicitly describes evolution of the probability distribution with time. As an important conclusion, stability in the phase-space of the cloud-microphysical system of break-up in ice-ice collisions is substantially altered by the multiplicative noise.



    Poux, Florent; Neuville, Romain; Hallot, Pierre; Billen, Roland


    Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmenta...

  7. Interesting Interest Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aanæs, Henrik; Dahl, Anders Lindbjerg; Pedersen, Kim Steenstrup


    Not all interest points are equally interesting. The most valuable interest points lead to optimal performance of the computer vision method in which they are employed. But a measure of this kind will be dependent on the chosen vision application. We propose a more general performance measure based...... position. The LED illumination provides the option for artificially relighting the scene from a range of light directions. This data set has given us the ability to systematically evaluate the performance of a number of interest point detectors. The highlights of the conclusions are that the fixed scale...

  8. Do acupuncture points exist?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan Xiaohui; Zhang Xinyi [Department of Physics, Surface Physics Laboratory (State Key Laboratory), and Synchrotron Radiation Research Center of Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Liu Chenglin [Physics Department of Yancheng Teachers' College, Yancheng 224002 (China); Dang, Ruishan [Second Military Medical University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Huang Yuying; He Wei [Beijing Synchrotron Radiation Facility, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Ding Guanghong [Shanghai Research Center of Acupuncture and Meridian, Pudong, Shanghai 201203 (China)


    We used synchrotron x-ray fluorescence analysis to probe the distribution of four chemical elements in and around acupuncture points, two located in the forearm and two in the lower leg. Three of the four acupuncture points showed significantly elevated concentrations of elements Ca, Fe, Cu and Zn in relation to levels in the surrounding tissue, with similar elevation ratios for Cu and Fe. The mapped distribution of these elements implies that each acupuncture point seems to be elliptical with the long axis along the meridian. (note)

  9. Determine point-to-point networking interactions using regular expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantin S. Deev


    Full Text Available As Internet growth and becoming more popular, the number of concurrent data flows start to increasing, which makes sense in bandwidth requested. Providers and corporate customers need ability to identify point-to-point interactions. The best is to use special software and hardware implementations that distribute the load in the internals of the complex, using the principles and approaches, in particular, described in this paper. This paper represent the principles of building system, which searches for a regular expression match using computing on graphics adapter in server station. A significant computing power and capability to parallel execution on modern graphic processor allows inspection of large amounts of data through sets of rules. Using the specified characteristics can lead to increased computing power in 30…40 times compared to the same setups on the central processing unit. The potential increase in bandwidth capacity could be used in systems that provide packet analysis, firewalls and network anomaly detectors.

  10. Publication point indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elleby, Anita; Ingwersen, Peter


    The paper presents comparative analyses of two publication point systems, The Norwegian and the in-house system from the interdiscplinary Danish Institute for International Studies (DIIS), used as case in the study for publications published 2006, and compares central citation-based indicators...... with novel publication point indicators (PPIs) that are formalized and exemplified. Two diachronic citation windows are applied: 2006-07 and 2006-08. Web of Science (WoS) as well as Google Scholar (GS) are applied to observe the cite delay and citedness for the different document types published by DIIS......, journal articles, book chapters/conference papers and monographs. Journal Crown Indicator (JCI) calculations was based on WoS. Three PPIs are proposed: thePublication Point Ratio (PPR), which measures the sum of obtained publiacation points over the sum of the ideal pointws for the same set of documents...

  11. Triple Point Topological Metals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziming Zhu


    Full Text Available Topologically protected fermionic quasiparticles appear in metals, where band degeneracies occur at the Fermi level, dictated by the band structure topology. While in some metals these quasiparticles are direct analogues of elementary fermionic particles of the relativistic quantum field theory, other metals can have symmetries that give rise to quasiparticles, fundamentally different from those known in high-energy physics. Here, we report on a new type of topological quasiparticles—triple point fermions—realized in metals with symmorphic crystal structure, which host crossings of three bands in the vicinity of the Fermi level protected by point group symmetries. We find two topologically different types of triple point fermions, both distinct from any other topological quasiparticles reported to date. We provide examples of existing materials that host triple point fermions of both types and discuss a variety of physical phenomena associated with these quasiparticles, such as the occurrence of topological surface Fermi arcs, transport anomalies, and topological Lifshitz transitions.

  12. Point/Counterpoint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ungar, David; Ernst, Erik


    Point Argument: "Dynamic Languages (in Reactive Environments) Unleash Creativity," by David Ungar. For the sake of creativity, the profession needs to concentrate more on inventing new and better dynamic languages and environments and less on improving static languages. Counterpoint Argument...

  13. Iowa Geologic Sampling Points (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — Point locations of geologic samples/files in the IGS repository. Types of samples include well cuttings, outcrop samples, cores, drillers logs, measured sections,...

  14. Bedrock Outcrop Points Compilation (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — A compilation of bedrock outcrops as points and/or polygons from 1:62,500 and 1:24,000 geologic mapping by the Vermont Geological Survey, the United States...

  15. Allegheny County Address Points (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This dataset contains address points which represent physical address locations assigned by the Allegheny County addressing authority. Data is updated by County...

  16. National Wetlands Inventory Points (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Wetland point features (typically wetlands that are too small to be as area features at the data scale) mapped as part of the National Wetlands Inventory (NWI). The...

  17. Mesospheric Mountain Wave Breaking and Oceanic Wave Signatures During DEEPWAVE (United States)

    Taylor, M. J.; Pautet, P. D.; Fritts, D. C.; Doyle, J. D.; Eckermann, S. D.; Williams, B. P.; Kaifler, B.; Bossert, K.; Criddle, N.


    DEEPWAVE is an international program designed to quantify gravity wave (GW) dynamics and effects from the ground to the upper mesosphere in unprecedented detail utilizing a range of airborne and ground-based measurements. DEEPWAVE was based on the South Island, New Zealand, to provide access to well-documented, but little understood, New Zealand and Tasmania "hotspots" as identified in satellite stratospheric measurements. Deep orographic GWs over New Zealand were a primary target, but multiple flights were also conducted over the Southern Ocean and Tasman Sea to quantify deep GW arising from convection, jet streams, and frontal systems. This presentation highlights new airborne and ground-based results obtained using an Advanced OH Mesospheric Temperature Mapper (AMTM) which creates high-quality intensity and temperature maps of a broad spectrum of mesospheric GWs. Two AMTM's were employed, one sited at the NIWA Observatory, Lauder (45°S), on the South Island, and one on the NSF GV Gulfstream aircraft which was supplemented by two side viewing IR OH imagers providing large field, ~900 km cross-track, GW maps. These instruments formed part of a comprehensive measurements capability including airborne Rayleigh and Na lidars, dropsondes, ground-based Rayleigh lidar, all-sky imagers and wind measurements. A total of 25 long duration (typically 7-8 hours) nighttime flights were conducted creating an exceptionally rich data set. Here we focus on two key initial findings (a) discovery of large amplitude, mesospheric mountain waves and their intermittent wave breaking signatures, and (b) first measurements of large-field open-ocean mesospheric GW and their near-identical stratospheric wave signatures using AIRS satellite and model forecasting data.

  18. The early use of break-bone fever (Quebranta huesos, 1771) and dengue (1801) in Spanish. (United States)

    Rigau-Pérez, J G


    The appellation of break-bone fever for dengue is attributed to the popular name given to the disease in the first described epidemic of an illness that is clinically compatible with dengue in Philadelphia in 1780. The origin of the word dengue as the name of an illness is currently attributed to the Swahili phrase Ka dinga pepo, thought to have crossed from Africa to the Caribbean in 1827; in Cuba this phrase was popularly identified with the Spanish word dengue. This article presents documents from Spanish archives that indicate the use of quebranta huesos (break-bone) by a physician in Puerto Rico to describe a febrile illness in 1771, and the use of the term dengue by the Queen of Spain in 1801 to describe an acute febrile illness with bone and joint pains, hemorrhage, and jaundice. These texts are evidence of a more generalized use of the term break-bone than previously recognized, and conversely, the specifically Spanish origin of dengue as the name for an illness.

  19. The Reach of the Fermilab Tevatron and CERN LHC for Gaugino Mediated SUSY Breaking Models

    CERN Document Server

    Baer, Howard W; Krupovnickas, T; Tata, Xerxes; Baer, Howard; Belyaev, Alexander; Krupovnickas, Tadas; Tata, Xerxes


    In supersymmetric models with gaugino mediated SUSY breaking (inoMSB), it is assumed that SUSY breaking on a hidden brane is communicated to the visible brane via gauge superfields which propagate in the bulk. This leads to GUT models where the common gaugino mass $m_{1/2}$ is the only soft SUSY breaking term to receive contributions at tree level. To obtain a viable phenomenology, it is assumed that the gaugino mass is induced at some scale $M_c$ beyond the GUT scale, and that additional renormalization group running takes place between $M_c$ and $M_{GUT}$ as in a SUSY GUT. We assume an SU(5) SUSY GUT above the GUT scale, and compute the SUSY particle spectrum expected in models with inoMSB. We use the Monte Carlo program ISAJET to simulate signals within the inoMSB model, and compute the SUSY reach including cuts and triggers approriate to Fermilab Tevatron and CERN LHC experiments. We find no reach for SUSY by the Tevatron collider in the trilepton channel. %either with or without %identified tau leptons. ...

  20. Day night variations in the demersal nekton assemblage on the Mediterranean shelf-break (United States)

    Carpentieri, P.; Colloca, F.; Ardizzone, G. D.


    The composition of the demersal nekton assemblage inhabiting the Mediterranean shelf-break of west-central Italy was examined to investigate the diel variation in species composition and abundance. Fish were obtained during four 24-h sampling periods that represented the four annual seasons. Thirty-two hauls (eight in each season) were conducted in a shelf-break area at 140-160 m depth. The density of fish, crustaceans, and decapods exhibited differences on short- and long-term time scales: multidimensional scaling suggested that season and light intensity may be important factors influencing fish assemblage composition. At the diel scale two main assemblages separating nocturnal and diurnal hauls were identified. The typical assemblage structure of shelf-break bottoms was represented during daylight by species such as Merluccius merluccius, Capros aper, Serranus hepatus, Macroramphosus scolopax and Trisopterus minutus capelanus. At night, the assemblage showed a drastic change due to the increase of small nektobenthic species, Argentina sphyraena and Glossanodon leioglossus, together with cave-dwelling fish ( Gnathophis mystax, Chlopsis bicolor, Nettastoma melanurum) and nektobenthic crustaceans (i.e., Parapenaeus longirostris and Solenocera membranacea). The above-mentioned differences in species composition may be related to changes in vertical distribution for trophic needs ( M. merluccius) and/or in the shoal structure ( A. sphyraena and G. leioglossus). The lack of data on the pattern of trawl catchability of Mediterranean species during the day may lead to an inaccurate estimation of species abundance when only diurnal trawl survey data are used.

  1. Indexing Moving Points

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Agarwal, Pankaj K.; Arge, Lars Allan; Erickson, Jeff


    We propose three indexing schemes for storing a set S of N points in the plane, each moving along a linear trajectory, so that any query of the following form can be answered quickly: Given a rectangle R and a real value t, report all K points of S that lie inside R at time t. We first present...... an indexing structure that, for any given constant >0, uses O(N/B) disk blocks and answers a query in O((N/B)1/2+ +K/B) I/Os, where B is the block size. It can also report all the points of S that lie inside R during a given time interval. A point can be inserted or deleted, or the trajectory of a point can...... be changed, in O(logB2 N) I/Os. Next, we present a general approach that improves the query time if the queries arrive in chronological order, by allowing the index to evolve over time. We obtain a tradeoff between the query time and the number of times the index needs to be updated as the points move. We...

  2. Analysis of break test of 54 cluster fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Mitsuo; Kawamata, Nobuhiro; Kamoshida, Hiroshi


    A break test of down pipe and main steam tube of 54 cluster fuels were carried out in the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) in fiscal 1996. The safety evaluation code for `Fugen` was investigated by analysing the break tests by RELAP 5 code. The tests were carried out by ATR safety experimental facility which was consisted of steam drum, lower header, pressure tube, inlet tube, riser, recirculation pump and non-return valve. Break is modified by breaking a rupture disk in both cases of test. Pressure, pressure difference, temperature, water level and flow rate at channel inlet were measured. The results proved the following: The safety evaluation code for `Fugen` estimated the higher temperature of cladding tube after dry out. A return model of the best evaluation for `Fugen` was confirmed to make reappear dry out and quenching phenomena of temperature behavior of cladding tube under the experimental conditions. RELAP 5 code made a reproduction of heat transfer fluid phenomena of LOCA experiment modifying break of down pipe of Fugen. The result proved that the code is also able to use for LOCA analysis of ATR system. (S.Y.)

  3. Double strand break repair functions of histone H2AX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scully, Ralph, E-mail:; Xie, Anyong


    Chromosomal double strand breaks provoke an extensive reaction in neighboring chromatin, characterized by phosphorylation of histone H2AX on serine 139 of its C-terminal tail (to form “γH2AX”). The γH2AX response contributes to the repair of double strand breaks encountered in a variety of different contexts, including those induced by ionizing radiation, physiologically programmed breaks that characterize normal immune cell development and the pathological exposure of DNA ends triggered by telomere dysfunction. γH2AX also participates in the evolutionarily conserved process of sister chromatid recombination, a homologous recombination pathway involved in the suppression of genomic instability during DNA replication and directly implicated in tumor suppression. At a biochemical level, the γH2AX response provides a compelling example of how the “histone code” is adapted to the regulation of double strand break repair. Here, we review progress in research aimed at understanding how γH2AX contributes to double strand break repair in mammalian cells.

  4. Break-induced telomere synthesis underlies alternative telomere maintenance. (United States)

    Dilley, Robert L; Verma, Priyanka; Cho, Nam Woo; Winters, Harrison D; Wondisford, Anne R; Greenberg, Roger A


    Homology-directed DNA repair is essential for genome maintenance through templated DNA synthesis. Alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) necessitates homology-directed DNA repair to maintain telomeres in about 10-15% of human cancers. How DNA damage induces assembly and execution of a DNA replication complex (break-induced replisome) at telomeres or elsewhere in the mammalian genome is poorly understood. Here we define break-induced telomere synthesis and demonstrate that it utilizes a specialized replisome, which underlies ALT telomere maintenance. DNA double-strand breaks enact nascent telomere synthesis by long-tract unidirectional replication. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) loading by replication factor C (RFC) acts as the initial sensor of telomere damage to establish predominance of DNA polymerase δ (Pol δ) through its POLD3 subunit. Break-induced telomere synthesis requires the RFC-PCNA-Pol δ axis, but is independent of other canonical replisome components, ATM and ATR, or the homologous recombination protein Rad51. Thus, the inception of telomere damage recognition by the break-induced replisome orchestrates homology-directed telomere maintenance.

  5. Physical activity breaks and facilities in US secondary schools. (United States)

    Hood, Nancy E; Colabianchi, Natalie; Terry-McElrath, Yvonne M; O'Malley, Patrick M; Johnston, Lloyd D


    Research on physical activity breaks and facilities (indoor and outdoor) in secondary schools is relatively limited. School administrators and students in nationally representative samples of 8th (middle school) and 10th/12th grade (high school) students were surveyed annually from 2008-2009 to 2011-2012. School administrators reported information about physical activity breaks and facilities. Students self-reported height, weight, and physical activity. The prevalence of physical activity breaks and indoor and outdoor facilities (dichotomized by median split) differed significantly by region of the country, school size, student race/ethnicity, and school socioeconomic status (SES). Breaks were associated with lower odds of overweight (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 0.91, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.83-1.00) and obesity (AOR = 0.86, 95% CI: 0.75-0.99) among middle school students. Among low-SES middle school students and schools, higher indoor facilities were associated with lower rates of overweight and obesity. Among high school students, higher indoor and outdoor facilities were associated with 19-42% higher odds of moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. Physical activity breaks and school facilities may help to address high rates of overweight/obesity and low physical activity levels among secondary students, especially lower-SES students. Students in all schools should have equal access to these resources. © 2014, American School Health Association.

  6. Phase transition – Break down the walls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wandahl, Søren


    . In a popular term this problem is often called “over the wall syndrome”. The manufacturing industry has worked with this for many years, in e.g. integrated product development, concurrent engineering, supply chain management, etc. Now the construction industry needs to focus more on these crucial inter......-phase issues of the construction process. This research first identifies the problems theoretically, and looks into which framework to be used in understanding of the phase transition problem. This combined with data from interviews reveal 8 major issues in phase transition, which decrease the value...

  7. TEDxCERN breaks the rules

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony


    On Friday, 9 October, TEDxCERN brought together 14 ‘rule-breakers’ to explore ideas that push beyond the boundaries of academia. They addressed a full house of 600 audience members, as well as thousands watching the event online.   TEDxCERN broke all the rules this year - starting with its choice of venue. The CMS construction hall at Point 5 was converted into a gala-centre, complete with soundstage and dance floor. It was a stunning transformation that also brought to life the hall’s to-scale photo of the CMS detector. The image served as the back-drop to a light-projection show entitled “Turbulence” by artist François Moncarey (see the video). From star-singer Imogen Heap to CERN’s own Edda Gschwendtner, the line-up of speakers was as diverse as it was educational. They discussed using tangible interfaces that allow human interaction via e-devices and the potential of 3D technology as a means of revo...

  8. Breaking Into the Nuclear and Nucleosynthesis Codes (United States)

    Pamfiloff, Eugene


    In 1964, astrophysicists John N. Bahcall showed that there was no evidence in support of the stellar model regarding the fusion of plasma protons into helium nuclei and provided a plan to measure the neutrino emission from the sun for that proof of concept. For every four protons that would fuse into helium, two e-neutrinos should be emitted. But sadly the tests failed, as only 25% of the predicted flux was discerned. Subsequent attempts to modify the stellar and particle models to account for the missing neutrinos left inconclusive results. To find that supportive evidence, a study of the reverse of fusion comprising 2753 unstable isotopes was undertaken. This provided an archive of new information. That data disclosed both confirmations of many contemporary theories and assumptions for which no factual basis existed, as well as contradictions of several models and other universally accepted conclusions. These confirmations and contradictions are expressed in three formats under the above title. They include a power-point presentation, a paper that briefly describes some notable results, and the sum of the findings are detailed in a recent book. One of the primary topics of this work is in reference to the methods by which positively charged particles assemble into multi-particle nuclei, specifically those containing the highest quantity of nucleons. Although it is subject to peer review, nevertheless several persistent problems in stellar and nuclear physics have been unraveled by this research. For additional information, contact the author.

  9. Atypical Role for PhoU in Mutagenic Break Repair under Stress in Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet L Gibson

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of mutagenesis activated by stress responses drive pathogen/host adaptation, antibiotic and anti-fungal-drug resistance, and perhaps much of evolution generally. In Escherichia coli, repair of double-strand breaks (DSBs by homologous recombination is high fidelity in unstressed cells, but switches to a mutagenic mode using error-prone DNA polymerases when the both the SOS and general (σS stress responses are activated. Additionally, the σE response promotes spontaneous DNA breakage that leads to mutagenic break repair (MBR. We identified the regulatory protein PhoU in a genetic screen for functions required for MBR. PhoU negatively regulates the phosphate-transport and utilization (Pho regulon when phosphate is in excess, including the PstB and PstC subunits of the phosphate-specific ABC transporter PstSCAB. Here, we characterize the PhoU mutation-promoting role. First, some mutations that affect phosphate transport and Pho transcriptional regulation decrease mutagenesis. Second, the mutagenesis and regulon-expression phenotypes do not correspond, revealing an apparent new function(s for PhoU. Third, the PhoU mutagenic role is not via activation of the σS, SOS or σE responses, because mutations (or DSBs that restore mutagenesis to cells defective in these stress responses do not restore mutagenesis to phoU cells. Fourth, the mutagenesis defect in phoU-mutant cells is partially restored by deletion of arcA, a gene normally repressed by PhoU, implying that a gene(s repressed by ArcA promotes mutagenic break repair. The data show a new role for PhoU in regulation, and a new regulatory branch of the stress-response signaling web that activates mutagenic break repair in E. coli.

  10. Zebularine induces replication-dependent double-strand breaks which are preferentially repaired by homologous recombination. (United States)

    Orta, Manuel Luis; Pastor, Nuria; Burgos-Morón, Estefanía; Domínguez, Inmaculada; Calderón-Montaño, José Manuel; Huertas Castaño, Carlos; López-Lázaro, Miguel; Helleday, Thomas; Mateos, Santiago


    Zebularine is a second-generation, highly stable hydrophilic inhibitor of DNA methylation with oral bioavailability that preferentially target cancer cells. It acts primarily as a trap for DNA methyl transferases (DNMTs) protein by forming covalent complexes between DNMT protein and zebularine-substrate DNA. It's well documented that replication-blocking DNA lesions can cause replication fork collapse and thereby to the formation of DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). DSB are dangerous lesions that can lead to potentially oncogenic genomic rearrangements or cell death. The two major pathways for repair of DSB are non-homologous end joining (NHEJ) and homologous recombination (HR). Recently, multiple functions for the HR machinery have been identified at arrested forks. Here we investigate in more detail the importance of the lesions induced by zebularine in terms of DNA damage and cytotoxicity as well as the role of HR in the repair of these lesions. When we examined the contribution of NHEJ and HR in the repair of DSB induced by zebularine we found that these breaks were preferentially repaired by HR. Also we show that the production of DSB is dependent on active replication. To test this, we determined chromosome damage by zebularine while transiently inhibiting DNA synthesis. Here we report that cells deficient in single-strand break (SSB) repair are hypersensitive to zebularine. We have observed more DSB induced by zebularine in XRCC1 deficient cells, likely to be the result of conversion of SSB into toxic DSB when encountered by a replication fork. Furthermore we demonstrate that HR is required for the repair of these breaks. Overall, our data suggest that zebularine induces replication-dependent DSB which are preferentially repaired by HR. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. 26 CFR 1.410(a)-8T - Year of service; break in service (temporary). (United States)


    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Year of service; break in service (temporary). 1...)-8T Year of service; break in service (temporary). (a)-(b) (c) Breaks in service. (1) (2) Employees...-year break in service under a plan which provides that after not more than 2 years of service each...

  12. Sensing with Superconducting Point Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Argo Nurbawono


    Full Text Available Superconducting point contacts have been used for measuring magnetic polarizations, identifying magnetic impurities, electronic structures, and even the vibrational modes of small molecules. Due to intrinsically small energy scale in the subgap structures of the supercurrent determined by the size of the superconducting energy gap, superconductors provide ultrahigh sensitivities for high resolution spectroscopies. The so-called Andreev reflection process between normal metal and superconductor carries complex and rich information which can be utilized as powerful sensor when fully exploited. In this review, we would discuss recent experimental and theoretical developments in the supercurrent transport through superconducting point contacts and their relevance to sensing applications, and we would highlight their current issues and potentials. A true utilization of the method based on Andreev reflection analysis opens up possibilities for a new class of ultrasensitive sensors.

  13. Strand break formation in plasmid DNA irradiated in aqueous solution: effect of medium temperature and hydroxyl radical scavenger concentration. (United States)

    Tomita, H; Kai, M; Kusama, T; Aoki, Y


    Plasmid pBR322 DNA (4363 base pairs) in aerobic aqueous solution was irradiated with 60Co gamma-radiation. The change of diffusion coefficients (D) of chemical species, rate constants (k) of radical-DNA interaction and solubilities of O2 in water cannot be ignored when a temperature varies more than a few tens of centigrade. It is important to examine the variation of the yields of DNA strand breaks as a function of temperature in order to analyze the mechanisms of DNA strand breaks from the chemical point of view. Hence, we observed the change of the yield of strand breaks with temperatures between -20 and 42 degrees C by agarose gel electrophoresis. We also observed the change of the yield of strand breaks with the concentration of OH scavenger (Tris) from 1 mmol dm-3 to 100 mmol dm-3 and summarized it with previous experiments. This summarization indicated that the order of the lifetime of OH radical in cellular environment is several nanosecond. This value is consistent with the measurement of the lifetime of 8.7 nanosecond for OH radical in mammalian cell (Roots, R. and Okada, S. (1975) Radiat. Res. 64, 306-320).

  14. The Supersymmetric Standard Models with a Pseudo-Dirac Gluino from Hybrid $F-$ and $D-$Term Supersymmetry Breakings

    CERN Document Server

    Ding, Ran; Staub, Florian; Tian, Chi; Zhu, Bin


    We propose the Supersymmetric Standard Models (SSMs) with a pseudo-Dirac gluino from hybrid $F-$ and $D-$term supersymmetry (SUSY) breakings. Similar to the SSMs before the LHC, all the supersymmetric particles in the Minimal SSM (MSSM) obtain the SUSY breaking soft terms from the traditional gravity mediation and have masses within about 1 TeV except gluino. To evade the LHC SUSY search constraints, the gluino also has a heavy Dirac mass above 3 TeV from $D-$term SUSY breaking. Interestingly, such a heavy Dirac gluino mass will not induce the electroweak fine-tuning problem. We realize such SUSY breakings via an anomalous $U(1)_X$ gauge symmetry inspired from string models. To maintain the gauge coupling unification and increase the Higgs boson mass, we introduce extra vector-like particles. We study the viable parameter space which satisfies all the current experimental constraints, and present a concrete benchmark point. This kind of models not only preserves the merits of pre-LHC SSMs such as naturalness,...

  15. Double-stranded DNA breaks hidden in the neutral Comet assay suggest a role of the sperm nuclear matrix in DNA integrity maintenance. (United States)

    Ribas-Maynou, J; Gawecka, J E; Benet, J; Ward, W S


    We used a mouse model in which sperm DNA damage was induced to understand the relationship of double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) breaks to sperm chromatin structure and to the Comet assay. Sperm chromatin fragmentation (SCF) produces dsDNA breaks located on the matrix attachment regions, between protamine toroids. In this model, epididymal sperm induced to undergo SCF can religate dsDNA breaks while vas deferens sperm cannot. Here, we demonstrated that the conventional neutral Comet assay underestimates the epididymal SCF breaks because the broken DNA ends remain attached to the nuclear matrix, causing the DNA to remain associated with the dispersion halo, and the Comet tails to be weak. Therefore, we term these hidden dsDNA breaks. When the Comet assay was modified to include an additional incubation with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) and dithiothreitol (DTT) after the conventional lysis, thereby solubilizing the nuclear matrix, the broken DNA was released from the matrix, which resulted in a reduction of the sperm head halo and an increase in the Comet tail length, exposing the hidden dsDNA breaks. Conversely, SCF-induced vas deferens sperm had small halos and long tails with the conventional neutral Comet assay, suggesting that the broken DNA ends were not tethered to the nuclear matrix. These results suggest that the attachment to the nuclear matrix is crucial for the religation of SCF-induced DNA breaks in sperm. Our data suggest that the neutral Comet assay identifies only dsDNA breaks that are released from the nuclear matrix and that the addition of an SDS treatment can reveal these hidden dsDNA breaks.

  16. Break-even analysis of costs for controlling Toxoplasma gondii infections in slaughter pigs via a serological surveillance program in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Asseldonk, van M.; Wagenberg, van C.P.A.; Wisselink, H.J.


    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a food safety hazard which causes a substantial human disease burden and cost-of-illness. Infected pig meat is a common source of toxoplasmosis. A break-even analysis was conducted to estimate the point for which the intervention cost at fattening pig farms

  17. Modulated Tool-Path (MTP) Chip Breaking System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, K. B.


    The Modulated Tool-Path (MTP) Chip Breaking System produces user-selectable chip lengths and workpiece finishes and is compatible with any material, workpiece shape, and depth of cut. The MTP chip breaking system consistently creates the desired size of chips regardless of workpiece size, shape, or material, and the machine operator does not need to make any adjustments during the machining operation. The system's programmer configures the part program that commands the machine tool to move in a specific fashion to deliver the desired part size, shape, chip length, and workpiece surface finish. The MTP chip breaking system helps manufacturers avoid the detrimental effects of continuous chips, including expensive repair costs, delivery delays, and hazards to personnel.

  18. Analysis of dam break waves; Analyse av dambruddsboelger

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midttoemme, Grethe Holm (ed.)


    The project objective was to improve knowledge and methodology for dam break wave calculations in relation to current practice and NVE's current requirements. The reason was the experience of flood in Troendelag in 2006, which indicated that NVE's policies was not good enough for small and / or erosion prone rivers. The project has shown that erosion processes can be at least as large consequences as the dam break flood, and that degree of detail with respect to terrain data and the choice of roughness is important for the results in a watercourse as Lauvsnes waterway. It is also shown that the results from the use of 2D model may differ significantly from results from the 1D model. The report is making recommendations for updating guidelines for dam break wave calculations. (AG)

  19. Dynamical chiral symmetry breaking and Bethe-Salpeter equation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naito, Kenichi [Tokyo Inst. of Tech. (Japan)


    {pi} meson, (pseudo) Nambu-Goldstone particle caused by a spontaneous breaking of chiral symmetry, was studied by use of Bethe-Salpeter (BS) equation in the limits of effective model as a bound state of quark and antiquark. The effective model has nonlocal interaction and proved to satisfy the Gell-Mann-Oaks-Renner (GMOR) mass formula by treating correct Noether current in spite of loss of local chiral invariance of interaction term. GMOR mass formula: M{sub {pi}}{sup 2}f{sub {pi}}{sup 2}{approx_equal}-2m{sub 0} was realized as the result of the dynamical breaking and the clear breaking of chiral symmetry. M{sub {pi}}, f{sub {pi}}, m{sub 0}, and indicate mass of pseudo scalar meson, decay constant, mass of quark and vacuum condensation of quark and antiquark. (S.Y.)

  20. CNN for breaking text-based CAPTCHA with noise (United States)

    Liu, Kaixuan; Zhang, Rong; Qing, Ke


    A CAPTCHA ("Completely Automated Public Turing test to tell Computers and Human Apart") system is a program that most humans can pass but current computer programs could hardly pass. As the most common type of CAPTCHAs , text-based CAPTCHA has been widely used in different websites to defense network bots. In order to breaking textbased CAPTCHA, in this paper, two trained CNN models are connected for the segmentation and classification of CAPTCHA images. Then base on these two models, we apply sliding window segmentation and voting classification methods realize an end-to-end CAPTCHA breaking system with high success rate. The experiment results show that our method is robust and effective in breaking text-based CAPTCHA with noise.