Sample records for break galaxy close

  1. Lyman-break galaxies: high mass or low?


    Weatherley, Stephen J.; Warren, Stephen J


    We reassess the hypothesis that Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) at redshifts z~3 mark the centres of the most massive dark matter haloes at that epoch. First we reanalyse the kinematic measurements of Pettini et al., and of Erb et al., of the rest-frame optical emission lines of LBGs. We compare the distribution of the ratio of the rotation velocity to the central line width, against the expected distribution for galaxies with random inclination angles, modelled as singular isothermal spheres. Th...

  2. Mixing of Primordial Gas in Lyman Break Galaxies


    Pan, Liubin; Scalo, John


    Motivated by an interpretation of $z \\sim 3$ objects by Jimenez and Haiman (2006), we examine processes that control the fraction of primordial ($Z = 0$) gas, and so primordial stars, in high-SFR Lyman break galaxies. A primordial fraction different from 1 or 0 requires microscopic diffusion catalyzed by a velocity field with timescale comparable to the duration of star formation. The only process we found that satisfies this requirement for LBGs without fine-tuning is turbulence-enhanced mix...

  3. X-Ray Emission from Ultraviolet Luminous Galaxies and Lyman Break Galaxies (United States)

    Hornschemeier, Ann; Ptak, A. F.; Salim, S.; Heckman, T. P.; Overzier, R.; Mallery, R.; Rich, M.; Strickland, D.; Grimes, J.


    We present results from an XMM mini-survey of GALEX-selected Ultraviolet-Luminous Galaxies (UVLGs) that appear to include an interesting subset that are analogs to the distant (3Break Galaxies (LBGs). The 2-10 kev X-ray emission of LBGs appear to be broadly similar to that of galaxies in the local Universe, possibly indicating similarity in the production of accreting binaries over large evolutionary timescales in the Universe. We have detected luminous X-ray emission from one UVLG that permits basic X-ray spectroscopic analysis, and have direct X-ray constraints on a total of 6 UVLGs. We find evidence for likely large scatter in the assumed X-ray/star-formation rate relation for LBGs.

  4. Lyman Break Galaxies at z<3 in the Ultraviolet Hubble Ultradeep Field (United States)

    Kurczynski, Peter; Gawiser, E. J.; Teplitz, H. I.; Rafelski, M.; Bond, N. A.; Ravindranath, S.; De Mello, D. F.; UVUDF Team


    UV dropout selection is an established photometric method of identifying star-forming galaxies at z > 3. Using recent, deep UV imaging with the Hubble Space Telescope (UV-UDF), we extend UV dropout selection at z ~ 1.7, 2.1, 2.7 and detect hundreds of Lyman-Break Galaxies to a depth of AB ~ 28. Using panchromatic imaging and spectroscopy, we confirm the general success of this dropout-selection method. These candidates enable evolutionary studies of the luminosity functions, UV spectral slopes, dust content, and clustering of Lyman Break Galaxies during the epoch of peak cosmic star formation.

  5. How do spiral arm contrasts relate to bars, disc breaks and other fundamental galaxy properties? (United States)

    Bittner, Adrian; Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Elmegreen, Bruce G.; Athanassoula, Evangelie; Elmegreen, Debra M.; Bosma, Albert; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos


    We investigate how the properties of spiral arms relate to other fundamental galaxy properties, including bars and disc breaks. We use previously published measurements of those properties, and our own measurements of arm and bar contrasts for a large sample of galaxies, using 3.6 μm images from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies. Flocculent galaxies are clearly distinguished from other spiral arm classes, especially by their lower stellar mass and surface density. Multi-armed and grand-design galaxies are similar in most of their fundamental parameters, excluding some bar properties and the bulge-to-total ratio. Based on these results, we revisit the sequence of spiral arm classes, and discuss classical bulges as a necessary condition for standing spiral wave modes in grand-design galaxies. We find a strong correlation between bulge-to-total ratio and bar contrast, and a weaker correlation between arm and bar contrasts. Barred and unbarred galaxies exhibit similar arm contrasts, but the highest arm contrasts are found exclusively in barred galaxies. Interestingly, the bar contrast, and its increase from flocculent to grand-design galaxies, is systematically more significant than that of the arm contrast. We corroborate previous findings concerning a connection between bars and disc breaks. In particular, in grand-design galaxies, the bar contrast correlates with the normalized disc break radius. This does not hold for other spiral arm classes or the arm contrast. Our measurements of arm and bar contrast and radial contrast profiles are publicly available.

  6. Comparing Local Starbursts to High-Redshift Galaxies: A Search for Lyman-Break Analogs (United States)

    Petty, Sara M.; de Mello, Duila F.; Gallagher III, John S.; Gardner, Jonathan; Lotz, Jennifer M.; Mountain, C. Matt; Smith, Linda J.


    We compare the restframe far-ultraviolet (FUV) morphologies of 8 nearby interacting and starburst galaxies (Arp 269, M 82, Mrk 08, NGC 0520, NGC 1068, NGC 3079, NGC 3310, NGC 7673) with 54 galaxies at z approx.1.5 and 46 galaxies at z approx.4 in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) images taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys onboard the Hubble Space Telescope. We calculate the Gini coefficient (G), the second order moment of 20% of the brightest pixels (M20), and the S ersic index (n). We find that 20% (11/54) of z approx.1.5 and 37% (17/46) of z approx.4 galaxies are bulge-like, using G and M20. We also find approx.70% of the z approx.1.5 and z approx.4 galaxies have exponential disks with n > 0.8. The 2D profile combined with the nonparametric methods provides more detail, concerning the nature of disturbed systems, such as merger and post-merger types. We also provide qualitative descriptions of each galaxy system and at each redshift. We conclude that Mrk 08, NGC 3079, and NGC 7673 have similar morphologies as the starburst FUV restframe galaxies and Lyman-break galaxies at z approx.1.5 and 4, and determine that they are Lyman-break analogs.

  7. Near-IR Spectroscopy of Lyman Break Galaxies in Two QSO Fields (United States)

    Moth, Pimol; Elston, Richard J.


    Recently there have been numerous detections of z>=3 galaxies using the Lyman break technique [8] allowing for direct observations of galaxies in a young state. We propose to conduct a comprehensive study of the properties of these Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) using near-IR spectroscopy to study the rest-frame optical emission lines H(beta), [OII] (lambda) 3727, and [OIII] (lambda)$(lambda) 4959, 5007. Observations of these emission lines will allow us to determine the source of excitations (AGN vs. star formation), star formation rates, chemical abundances, and nuclear velocity dispersions of LBGs in the fields of Q1244+1129 and Q1451+1223. By supplementing our near-IR observations with available observations of QSO absorption line spectra, we can constrain the total halo mass of each absorbing galaxy and consequently constrain the bias of galaxy formation. Ultimately, we will combine the information obtained from these spectra with existing HST NICMOS and WFPC-2 observations and galaxy formation models to determine the nature of LBGs. The 4-m coupled with the multi-slit capability of FLAMINGOS make it now efficient to carry out a comprehensive study of these LBGs. Study of these galaxies, when the universe was 10% of its current age, is crucial in our efforts to better understand galaxy formation and evolution.

  8. Starbursts From 30 Doradus to Lyman Break Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Grijs, Richard


    Starbursts are important features of early galaxy evolution. Many of the distant, high-redshift galaxies we are able to detect are in a starbursting phase, often apparently provoked by a violent gravitational interaction with another galaxy. In fact, if we did not know that major starbursts existed, these conference proceedings testify that we would indeed have difficulties explaining the key properties of the Universe! These conference proceedings cover starbursts from the small-scale star-forming regions in nearby galaxies to galaxy-wide events at high redshifts; one of the major themes of the conference proved to be "scalability", i.e., can we scale up the small-scale events to describe the physics on larger scales. The key outcome of this meeting – and these proceedings – is a resounding "yes" as answer to this fundamental, yet profound question. The enhanced synergy facilitated by the collaboration among observers using cutting-edge ground and space-based facilities, theorists and modellers has made ...



    These four close-up views are taken from a head-on collision between two spiral galaxies, called the Antennae galaxies, seen at image center. The scale bar at the top of each image is 1,500 light-years across. [Left images] The collision triggers the birth of new stars in brilliant blue star clusters, the brightest of which contains roughly a million stars. The star clusters are blue because they are very young, the youngest being only a few million years old, a mere blink of the eye on the astronomical time scale. [Right images] These close-up views of the cores of each galaxy show entrapped dust and gas funneled into the center. The nucleus of NGC 4038 (lower right) is obscured by dust which dims and reddens starlight by scattering the shorter, bluer wavelengths. This is also the reason the young star clusters in the dusty regions appear red instead of blue. This natural-color image is a composite of four separately filtered images taken with the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2), on January 20, 1996. Resolution is 15 light-years per pixel (picture element). Credit: Brad Whitmore (STScI), and NASA

  10. Spectroscopic Confirmation of Two Lyman Break Galaxies at Redshift Beyond 7 (United States)

    Vanzella, E.; Pentericci, L.; Fontana, A.; Grazian, A.; Castellano, M.; Boutsia, K.; Cristiani, S.; Dickinson, M.; Gallozzi, S.; Giallongo, E.; Giavalisco, M.; Maiolino, R.; Moorwood, A.; Paris, D.; Santini, P.


    We report the spectroscopic confirmation of two Lyman break galaxies at redshift >7. The galaxies were observed as part of an ultra-deep spectroscopic campaign with FORS2 at the ESO/VLT for the confirmation of z ~= 7 "z-band dropout" candidates selected from our VLT/Hawk-I imaging survey. Both galaxies show a prominent emission line at 9735 Å and 9858 Å, respectively: the lines have fluxes of ~(1.6-1.2) × 10-17 erg s-1 cm-2 and exhibit a sharp decline on the blue side and a tail on the red side. The asymmetry is quantitatively comparable to the observed asymmetry in z ~ 6 Lyα lines, where absorption by neutral hydrogen in the intergalactic medium (IGM) truncates the blue side of the emission-line profile. We carefully evaluate the possibility that the galaxies are instead at lower redshift and we are observing either [O II], [O III], or Hα emission: however from the spectroscopic and the photometric data we conclude that there are no other plausible identifications, except for Lyα at redshift >7, implying that these are two of the most robust redshift determination for galaxies in the reionization epoch. Based on their redshifts and broadband photometry, we derive limits on the star formation rate and on the ultraviolet spectral slopes of the two galaxies. We argue that these two galaxies alone are unlikely to have ionized the IGM in their surroundings.


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    Basu-Zych, Antara R.; Lehmer, Bret D.; Hornschemeier, Ann E.; Ptak, Andrew F. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Code 662, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Goncalves, Thiago S. [Observatorio do Valongo, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Ladeira Pedro Antonio 43, Saude, Rio de Janeiro-RJ, CEP 22240-060 (Brazil); Fragos, Tassos [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Heckman, Timothy M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, 3400 North Charles Street, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Overzier, Roderik A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 1 University Station C1400, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Schiminovich, David, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, Columbia University, 550 West 120th Street, New York, NY 10027 (United States)


    Our knowledge of how X-ray emission scales with star formation at the earliest times in the universe relies on studies of very distant Lyman break galaxies (LBGs). In this paper, we study the relationship between the 2-10 keV X-ray luminosity (L{sub X}), assumed to originate from X-ray binaries (XRBs), and star formation rate (SFR) in ultraviolet (UV) selected z < 0.1 Lyman break analogs (LBAs). We present Chandra observations for four new Galaxy Evolution Explorer selected LBAs. Including previously studied LBAs, Haro 11 and VV 114, we find that LBAs demonstrate L{sub X}/SFR ratios that are elevated by {approx}1.5{sigma} compared to local galaxies, similar to the ratios found for stacked LBGs in the early universe (z > 2). Unlike some of the composite LBAs studied previously, we show that these LBAs are unlikely to harbor active galactic nuclei, based on their optical and X-ray spectra and the spatial distribution of the X-rays in three spatially extended cases. Instead, we expect that high-mass X-ray binaries (HMXBs) dominate the X-ray emission in these galaxies, based on their high specific SFRs (sSFRs {identical_to} SFR/M{sub *} {>=} 10{sup -9} yr{sup -1}), which suggest the prevalence of young stellar populations. Since both UV-selected populations (LBGs and LBAs) have lower dust attenuations and metallicities compared to similar samples of more typical local galaxies, we investigate the effects of dust extinction and metallicity on the L{sub X}/SFR for the broader population of galaxies with high sSFRs (>10{sup -10} yr{sup -1}). The estimated dust extinctions (corresponding to column densities of N{sub H} < 10{sup 22} cm{sup -2}) are expected to have insignificant effects on observed L{sub X}/SFR ratio for the majority of galaxy samples. We find that the observed relationship between L{sub X}/SFR and metallicity appears consistent with theoretical expectations from XRB population synthesis models. Therefore, we conclude that lower metallicities, related to

  12. Investigating HST/WFC3 Selected Lyman Break Galaxies at z=1-3 (United States)

    Hathi, Nimish P.; McCarthy, P. J.; Cohen, S. H.; Ryan, R. E.; Windhorst, R. A.; Yan, H.; Rutkowski, M. J.; Koekemoer, A. M.; O'Connell, R. W.; SOC, WFC3


    The Lyman break technique is widely used to select high redshift (z>3) galaxies, but the lack of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at zlight on the physical properties of higher redshift LBGs, whose spectroscopic and photometric studies are very challenging because of their faint magnitudes and lack of high resolution rest-frame optical photometry. The peak epoch of global star-formation rate at z=1-3 is now accessible using the dropout technique with the WFC3 UVIS channel. The availability of extensive multi-wavelength photometric data, and access to rest-frame optical spectroscopy at z=1-3 will tremendously increase our physical understanding of LBGs. We have selected LBG candidates using the WFC3 UVIS filters (F225W, F275W, F336W) that bracket the Lyman break at z=1-3 in the GOODS-S field using the WFC3 Early Release Science Observations. I will present results from our studies of rest-UV luminosity functions and SED analysis of these LBGs at z=1-3, and infer possible evolutionary trends. This work is based on Early Release Science observations made by the WFC3 Scientific Oversight Committee (STScI/NASA grant HST-GO-11359.08-A). This research is (partially) supported by a grant from the American Astronomical Society.

  13. A Lyman Break Galaxy in the Epoch of Reionization from Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Grism Spectroscopy (United States)

    Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Stern, Daniel K.; Gardner, Jonathan P.; Dickinson, Mark; Pirzkal, Norbert; Spinrad, Hyron; Reddy, Naveen; Dey, Arjun; Hathi, Nimish; hide


    Slitless grism spectroscopy from space offers dramatic advantages for studying high redshift galaxies: high spatial resolution to match the compact sizes of the targets, a dark and uniform sky background, and simultaneous observation over fields ranging from five square arcminutes (HST) to over 1000 square arcminutes (Euclid). Here we present observations of a galaxy at z = 6.57 the end of the reioinization epoch identified using slitless HST grism spectra from the PEARS survey (Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically) and reconfirmed with Keck + DEIMOS. This high redshift identification is enabled by the depth of the PEARS survey. Substantially higher redshifts are precluded for PEARS data by the declining sensitivity of the ACS grism at greater than lambda 0.95 micrometers. Spectra of Lyman breaks at yet higher redshifts will be possible using comparably deep observations with IR-sensitive grisms.


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    Comeron, Sebastien; Salo, Heikki; Laurikainen, Eija; Laine, Jarkko [Astronomy Division, Department of Physics, University of Oulu, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 (Finland); Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert [Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille-LAM, Universite d' Aix-Marseille and CNRS, UMR7326, 38 rue F. Joliot-Curie, F-13388 Marseille Cedex 13 (France); Knapen, Johan H. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna (Spain); Gadotti, Dimitri A. [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Sheth, Kartik; Munoz-Mateos, Juan Carlos; Kim, Taehyun [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Hinz, Joannah L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Regan, Michael W. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Gil de Paz, Armando [Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, Madrid (Spain); Menendez-Delmestre, Karin [Observatorio do Valongo, Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro, Ladeira Pedro Antonio, 43, Saude CEP 20080-090, Rio de Janeiro-RJ-Brazil (Brazil); Seibert, Mark; Ho, Luis C. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA (United States); Mizusawa, Trisha [Department of Physics and Space Sciences, Florida Institute of Technology, 150 W. University Boulevard, Melbourne, FL 32901 (United States); Holwerda, Benne [European Space Agency, ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2200-AG, Noordwijk (Netherlands)


    Breaks in the radial luminosity profiles of galaxies have until now been mostly studied averaged over disks. Here, we study separately breaks in thin and thick disks in 70 edge-on galaxies using imaging from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies. We built luminosity profiles of the thin and thick disks parallel to midplanes and we found that thin disks often truncate (77%). Thick disks truncate less often (31%), but when they do, their break radius is comparable with that in the thin disk. This suggests either two different truncation mechanisms-one of dynamical origin affecting both disks simultaneously and another one only affecting the thin disk-or a single mechanism that creates a truncation in one disk or in both depending on some galaxy property. Thin disks apparently antitruncate in around 40% of galaxies. However, in many cases, these antitruncations are an artifact caused by the superposition of a thin disk and a thick disk, with the latter having a longer scale length. We estimate the real thin disk antitruncation fraction to be less than 15%. We found that the ratio of the thick and thin stellar disk mass is roughly constant (0.2 < M{sub T} /M{sub t} < 0.7) for circular velocities v{sub c} > 120 km s{sup -1}, but becomes much larger at smaller velocities. We hypothesize that this is due to a combination of a high efficiency of supernova feedback and a slower dynamical evolution in lower-mass galaxies causing stellar thin disks to be younger and less massive than in higher-mass galaxies.

  15. Evidence for Black Hole Growth in Local Analogs to Lyman Break Galaxies (United States)

    Jia, Jianjun; Ptak, Andrew; Heckman, Timothy M.; Overzier, Roderik A.; Hornschemeier, Ann; LaMassa, Stephanie M.


    We have used XMM-Newton to observe six Lyman break analogs (LBAs): members of the rare population of local galaxies that have properties that are very similar to distant Lyman break galaxies. Our six targets were specifically selected because they have optical emission-line properties that are intermediate between starbursts and Type 2 (obscured) active galactic nuclei (AGNs). Our new X-ray data provide an important diagnostic of the presence of an AGN. We find X-ray luminosities of order 10(sup 42) erg per second and ratios of X-ray to far-IR lummositles that are higher than values in pure starburst galaxies by factors ranging from approximately 3 to 30. This strongly suggests the presence of an AGN in at least some of the galaxies. The ratios of the luminosities of the hard (2-10 keV) X-ray to [O III] emission line are low by about an order of magnitude compared with Type 1 AGN, but are consistent with the broad range seen in Type 2 AGN. Either the AGN hard X-rays are significantly obscured or the [O III] emission is dominated by the starburst. We searched for an iron emission line at approximately 6.4 ke V, which is a key feature of obscured AGNs, but only detected emission at the approximately 2sigma level. Finally, we find that the ratios of the mid-infrared (24 micrometer) continuum to [O III]lambda 5007 luminosities in these LBAs are higher than the values for Type 2 AGN by an average of 0.8 dex. Combining all these clues, we conclude that an AGN is likely to be present, but that the bolometric luminosity is produced primarily by an intense starburst. If these black holes are radiating at the Eddington limit, their masses would lie in the range of 10(sup 5) - 10(sup 6) solar mass. These objects may offer ideal local laboratories to investigate the processes by which black holes grew in the early universe.

  16. Strong Clustering of Lyman Break Galaxies around Luminous Quasars at Z ˜ 4 (United States)

    García-Vergara, Cristina; Hennawi, Joseph F.; Barrientos, L. Felipe; Rix, Hans-Walter


    In the standard picture of structure formation, the first massive galaxies are expected to form at the highest peaks of the density field, which constitute the cores of massive proto-clusters. Luminous quasars (QSOs) at z ˜ 4 are the most strongly clustered population known, and should thus reside in massive dark matter halos surrounded by large overdensities of galaxies, implying a strong QSO-galaxy cross-correlation function. We observed six z ˜ 4 QSO fields with VLT/FORS, exploiting a novel set of narrow-band filters custom designed to select Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) in a thin redshift slice of {{Δ }}z˜ 0.3, mitigating the projection effects that have limited the sensitivity of previous searches for galaxies around z≳ 4 QSOs. We find that LBGs are strongly clustered around QSOs, and present the first measurement of the QSO-LBG cross-correlation function at z ˜ 4, on scales of 0.1≲ R≲ 9 {h}-1 {Mpc} (comoving). Assuming a power-law form for the cross-correlation function ξ ={(r/{r}0{QG})}γ , we measure {r}0{QG}={8.83}-1.51+1.39 {h}-1 {Mpc} for a fixed slope of γ =2.0. This result is in agreement with the expected cross-correlation length deduced from measurements of the QSO and LBG auto-correlation function, and assuming a deterministic bias model. We also measure a strong auto-correlation of LBGs in our QSO fields, finding {r}0{GG}={21.59}-1.69+1.72 {h}-1 {Mpc} for a fixed slope of γ =1.5, which is ˜4 times larger than the LBG auto-correlation length in blank fields, providing further evidence that QSOs reside in overdensities of LBGs. Our results qualitatively support a picture where luminous QSOs inhabit exceptionally massive ({M}{halo}> {10}12 {M}⊙ ) dark matter halos at z ˜ 4.


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    Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Cohen, Seth; Zheng Zhenya [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287 (United States); Stern, Daniel [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, 4800 Oak Grove Drive, Pasadena, CA 91109 (United States); Dickinson, Mark [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ (United States); Pirzkal, Norbert; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton; Peth, Michael A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD (United States); Spinrad, Hyron [University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States); Reddy, Naveen [University of California, Riverside, CA (United States); Hathi, Nimish [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, Pasadena, CA (United States); Budavari, Tamas [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD (United States); Ferreras, Ignacio [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Gardner, Jonathan P. [NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Astrophysics Science Division, Observational Cosmology Laboratory, Code 665, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Gronwall, Caryl [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, and Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Haiman, Zoltan [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Kuemmel, Martin [Universitaets-Sternwarte Muenchen, Scheinerstr. 1, D-81679 Muenchen (Germany); Meurer, Gerhardt, E-mail: [International Centre for Radio Astronomy Research, University of Western Australia, M468, 35 Stirling Highway, Crawley, WA 6009 (Australia); and others


    We present observations of a luminous galaxy at z = 6.573-the end of the reionization epoch-which has been spectroscopically confirmed twice. The first spectroscopic confirmation comes from slitless Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys grism spectra from the PEARS survey (Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically), which show a dramatic continuum break in the spectrum at rest frame 1216 A. The second confirmation is done with Keck + DEIMOS. The continuum is not clearly detected with ground-based spectra, but high wavelength resolution enables the Ly{alpha} emission line profile to be determined. We compare the line profile to composite line profiles at z = 4.5. The Ly{alpha} line profile shows no signature of a damping wing attenuation, confirming that the intergalactic gas is ionized at z = 6.57. Spectra of Lyman breaks at yet higher redshifts will be possible using comparably deep observations with IR-sensitive grisms, even at redshifts where Ly{alpha} is too attenuated by the neutral intergalactic medium to be detectable using traditional spectroscopy from the ground.

  18. CLUES to the past: Local Group progenitors amongst high-redshift Lyman break galaxies (United States)

    Dayal, Pratika; Libeskind, Noam I.; Dunlop, James S.


    We use state-of-the-art numerical simulations to explore the observability and the expected physical properties of the progenitors of the Local Group galaxies at z ≃ 6-8, within 1 billion years of the big bang. We find that the most massive progenitors of the Milky Way (MW) and Andromeda (M31) at z ≃ 6 and 7 are predicted to have absolute ultraviolet (UV) continuum magnitudes MUV ≃ -17 to -18, suggesting that their analogues lie close to the detection limits of the deepest near-infrared (IR) surveys conducted to date [i.e. Hubble Space Telescope Wide Field Camera 3/IR Ultra Deep Field (UDF)12]. This in turn confirms that the majority of currently known z ≃ 6-8 galaxies are expected to be the seeds of present-day galaxies which are more massive than L* spirals. We also discuss the properties of the Local Group progenitors at these early epochs, extending down to absolute magnitudes MUV ≃ -13. The most massive MW/M31 progenitors at z ≃ 7 have stellar masses M* ≃ 107.5-8 M⊙, stellar metallicities Z* ˜ 3-6 per cent Z⊙, and predicted observed UV continuum slopes β ≃ -2.4 to -2.5.

  19. Differential evolution of the UV luminosity function of Lyman break galaxies from z ~ 5 to 3 (United States)

    Iwata, I.; Ohta, K.; Tamura, N.; Akiyama, M.; Aoki, K.; Ando, M.; Kiuchi, G.; Sawicki, M.


    We report the ultraviolet luminosity function (UVLF) of Lyman break galaxies at z ~ 5 derived from a deep and wide survey using the prime focus camera of the 8.2 m Subaru telescope (Suprime-Cam). Target fields consist of two blank regions of the sky, namely, the region including the Hubble Deep Field-North and the J0053+1234 region, and the total effective surveyed area is 1290 arcmin2. Applications of carefully determined colour selection criteria in V - Ic and Ic - z' yield a detection of 853 z ~ 5 candidates with z'AB ~ L*z=3) LBGs from that at z ~ 3, while there is a significant decline in the LF's faint end with increasing look-back time. This result means that the evolution of the number densities is differential with UV luminosity: the number density of UV luminous objects remains almost constant from z ~ 5 to 3 (the cosmic age is about 1.2 to 2.1 Gyr) while the number density of fainter objects gradually increases with cosmic time. This trend becomes apparent thanks to the small uncertainties in number densities both in the bright and faint parts of LFs at different epochs that are made possible by the deep and wide surveys we use. We discuss the origins of this differential evolution of the UVLF along the cosmic time and suggest that our observational findings are consistent with the biased galaxy evolution scenario: a galaxy population hosted by massive dark haloes starts active star formation preferentially at early cosmic time, while less massive galaxies increase their number density later. We also calculated the UV luminosity density by integrating the UVLF and at z ~ 5 found it to be 38.8+6.7-4.1 per cent of that at z ~ 3 for the luminosity range L > 0.1L*z=3. By combining our results with those from the literature, we find that the cosmic UV luminosity density marks its peak at and then slowly declines towards higher redshift. Based on data collected at Subaru Telescope and partly obtained from the SMOKA science archive at Astronomical Data Analysis

  20. The Strong Gravitationally Lensed Herschel Galaxy HLock01: Optical Spectroscopy Reveals a Close Galaxy Merger with Evidence of Inflowing Gas (United States)

    Marques-Chaves, Rui; Pérez-Fournon, Ismael; Gavazzi, Raphael; Martínez-Navajas, Paloma I.; Riechers, Dominik; Rigopoulou, Dimitra; Cabrera-Lavers, Antonio; Clements, David L.; Cooray, Asantha; Farrah, Duncan; Ivison, Rob J.; Jiménez-Ángel, Camilo E.; Nayyeri, Hooshang; Oliver, Seb; Omont, Alain; Scott, Douglas; Shu, Yiping; Wardlow, Julie


    The submillimeter galaxy (SMG) HERMES J105751.1+573027 (hereafter HLock01) at z = 2.9574 ± 0.0001 is one of the brightest gravitationally lensed sources discovered in the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey. Apart from the high flux densities in the far-infrared, it is also extremely bright in the rest-frame ultraviolet (UV), with a total apparent magnitude m UV ≃ 19.7 mag. We report here deep spectroscopic observations with the Gran Telescopio Canarias of the optically bright lensed images of HLock01. Our results suggest that HLock01 is a merger system composed of the Herschel-selected SMG and an optically bright Lyman break-like galaxy (LBG), separated by only 3.3 kpc in projection. While the SMG appears very massive (M * ≃ 5 × 1011 M ⊙), with a highly extinguished stellar component (A V ≃ 4.3 ), the LBG is a young, lower-mass (M * ≃ 1 × 1010 M ⊙), but still luminous (10× {L}UV}* ) satellite galaxy. Detailed analysis of the high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) rest-frame UV spectrum of the LBG shows complex kinematics of the gas, exhibiting both blueshifted and redshifted absorption components. While the blueshifted component is associated with strong galactic outflows from the massive stars in the LBG, as is common in most star-forming galaxies, the redshifted component may be associated with gas inflow seen along a favorable sightline to the LBG. We also find evidence of an extended gas reservoir around HLock01 at an impact parameter of 110 kpc, through the detection of C II λλ1334 absorption in the red wing of a bright Lyα emitter at z ≃ 3.327. The data presented here highlight the power of gravitational lensing in high S/N studies to probe deeply into the physics of high-z star-forming galaxies.

  1. Integral-field spectroscopy of a Lyman-Break Galaxy at z=3.2: evidence for merging


    Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Lehnert, M. D.; Davies, R. I.; Verma, A.; Eisenhauer, F.


    We present spatially-resolved, rest-frame optical spectroscopy of a z~3 Lyman-break galaxy (LBG), Q0347-383 C5, obtained with SINFONI on the VLT. This galaxy, among the ~10% brightest LBGs, is only the second z~3 LBG observed with an integral-field spectrograph. It was first described by Pettini et al. (2001), who obtained WFPC2 F702W imaging and longslit spectroscopy in the K-band. We find that the emission line morphology is dominated by two unresolved blobs at a projected distance of ~5 kp...

  2. Star Formation in Damped Lyman-alpha systems and the Outskirts of Lyman Break Galaxies (United States)

    Rafelski, Marc Alexander

    In this thesis we begin to unify two pictures of the high redshift universe: absorption line systems such as damped Lyman alpha systems (DLAs) that provide the fuel for star formation, and compact star forming regions such as Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) which form the majority of stars. Wolfe & Chen (2006) find that the in situ star formation in DLAs is less than 5% of what is expected from the Kennicutt-Schmidt (KS) relation, but they do not constrain DLAs associated with bright star-forming regions such as LBGs. In this work we search for spatially-extended star formation in the outskirts of LBGs at z ∼3. To this end, we create a sample of z ∼3 LBGs in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF) by using photometric redshifts enabled by the introduction of an extremely deep u -band image. By stacking these galaxies, we find spatially extended low surface brightness emission around LBGs in the V -band image of the UDF, corresponding to the z ∼3 rest-frame far-ultraviolet light, which is a sensitive measure of star formation rates (SFRs). We connect this emission around LBGs to the expected emission from DLAs, and the results suggest that the SFR efficiency in such gas at z ∼3 is between factors of 10 and 50 lower than predictions based on the KS relation. This decreased efficiency is likely due to the lower metallicity of DLA gas. In addition, we measure the metallicity evolution of DLAs out to z ∼5, and find a continued decrease of metallicity with increasing redshift and a metallicity "floor"' around one thousandth of the solar value. We also compare the metallicity distribution and chemistry of DLAs and halo stars, and find that they are not inconsistent. Lastly, we study the photometric variability of stars in the Galactic center in order to further our understanding of the massive young stars forming in the presence of a super massive black hole. All together, these results improve our understanding of star formation and provide constraints for models and

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Breaks in disc galaxy abundance gradients (Pilyugin+, 2017) (United States)

    Pilyugin, L. S.; Grebel, E. K.; Zinchenko, I. A.; Nefedyev, Y. A.; Vilchez, J. M.


    We constructed maps of the oxygen abundance in the discs of 134 spiral galaxies using the 2D spectroscopy of the DR3 of the CALIFA survey. Table 1 reports the adopted and derived parameter of galaxies. (1 data file).

  4. The Galaxy-Halo Connection in High-redshift Universe: Details and Evolution of Stellar-to-halo Mass Ratios of Lyman Break Galaxies on CFHTLS Deep Fields (United States)

    Ishikawa, Shogo; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Toshikawa, Jun; Tanaka, Masayuki; Hamana, Takashi; Niino, Yuu; Ichikawa, Kohei; Uchiyama, Hisakazu


    We present the results of clustering analyses of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z˜ 3, 4, and 5 using the final data release of the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey (CFHTLS). Deep- and wide-field images of the CFHTLS Deep Survey enable us to obtain sufficiently accurate two-point angular correlation functions to apply a halo occupation distribution analysis. The mean halo masses, calculated as ={10}11.7{--}{10}12.8 {h}-1 {M}⊙ , increase with the stellar-mass limit of LBGs. The threshold halo mass to have a central galaxy, {M}\\min , follows the same increasing trend as the low-z results, whereas the threshold halo mass to have a satellite galaxy, M 1, shows higher values at z=3{--}5 than z=0.5{--}1.5, over the entire stellar mass range. Satellite fractions of dropout galaxies, even at less massive halos, are found to drop sharply, from z = 2 down to less than 0.04, at z=3{--}5. These results suggest that satellite galaxies form inefficiently within dark halos at z=3{--}5, even for less massive satellites with {M}\\star pivot}, which is the halo mass at a peak in the star-formation efficiency, at 3 3. In addition, {M}{{h}}{pivot} and its normalization are found to be almost unchanged during 0< z< 5. Our study provides observational evidence that galaxy formation is ubiquitously most efficient near a halo mass of {M}{{h}}˜ {10}12 {M}⊙ over cosmic time.

  5. A close nuclear black-hole pair in the spiral galaxy NGC 3393. (United States)

    Fabbiano, G; Wang, Junfeng; Elvis, M; Risaliti, G


    The current picture of galaxy evolution advocates co-evolution of galaxies and their nuclear massive black holes, through accretion and galactic merging. Pairs of quasars, each with a massive black hole at the centre of its galaxy, have separations of 6,000 to 300,000 light years (refs 2 and 3; 1 parsec = 3.26 light years) and exemplify the first stages of this gravitational interaction. The final stages of the black-hole merging process, through binary black holes and final collapse into a single black hole with gravitational wave emission, are consistent with the sub-light-year separation inferred from the optical spectra and light-variability of two such quasars. The double active nuclei of a few nearby galaxies with disrupted morphology and intense star formation (such as NGC 6240 with a separation of about 2,600 light years and Mrk 463 with a separation of about 13,000 light years between the nuclei) demonstrate the importance of major mergers of equal-mass spiral galaxies in this evolution; such mergers lead to an elliptical galaxy, as in the case of the double-radio-nucleus elliptical galaxy 0402+379 (with a separation of about 24 light years between the nuclei). Minor mergers of a spiral galaxy with a smaller companion should be a more common occurrence, evolving into spiral galaxies with active massive black-hole pairs, but have hitherto not been seen. Here we report the presence of two active massive black holes, separated by about 490 light years, in the Seyfert galaxy NGC 3393 (50 Mpc, about 160 million light years). The regular spiral morphology and predominantly old circum-nuclear stellar population of this galaxy, and the closeness of the black holes embedded in the bulge, provide a hitherto missing observational point to the study of galaxy/black hole evolution. Comparison of our observations with current theoretical models of mergers suggests that they are the result of minor merger evolution. © 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights

  6. LSD: Lyman-break galaxies Stellar populations and Dynamics - I. Mass, metallicity and gas at z ~ 3.1 (United States)

    Mannucci, F.; Cresci, G.; Maiolino, R.; Marconi, A.; Pastorini, G.; Pozzetti, L.; Gnerucci, A.; Risaliti, G.; Schneider, R.; Lehnert, M.; Salvati, M.


    We present the first results of a project, Lyman-break galaxies Stellar populations and Dynamics (LSD), aimed at obtaining spatially resolved, near-infrared (IR) spectroscopy of a complete sample of Lyman-break galaxies at z ~ 3. Deep observations with adaptive optics resulted in the detection of the main optical lines, such as [OII] λ3727, Hβ and [OIII] λ5007, which are used to study sizes, star formation rates (SFRs), morphologies, gas-phase metallicities, gas fractions and effective yields. Optical, near-IR and Spitzer/Infrared Array Camera photometry are used to measure stellar mass. We obtain that morphologies are usually complex, with the presence of several peaks of emissions and companions that are not detected in broad-band images. Typical metallicities are 10-50 per cent solar, with a strong evolution of the mass-metallicity relation from lower redshifts. Stellar masses, gas fraction and evolutionary stages vary significantly among the galaxies, with less massive galaxies showing larger fractions of gas. In contrast with observations in the local universe, effective yields decrease with stellar mass and reach solar values at the low-mass end of the sample. This effect can be reproduced by gas infall with rates of the order of the SFRs. Outflows are present but are not needed to explain the mass-metallicity relation. We conclude that a large fraction of these galaxies is actively creating stars after major episodes of gas infall or merging. Based on observations collected with European Southern Observatory/Very Large Telescope (ESO/VLT) (proposals 075.A-0300 and 076.A-0711), with the Italian TNG, operated by FGG (INAF) at the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos, and with the Spitzer Space Telescope, operated by JPL (Caltech) under a contract with NASA.

  7. Unveiling the structure of barred galaxies at 3.6 μm with the Spitzer survey of stellar structure in galaxies (S{sup 4}G). I. Disk breaks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taehyun; Lee, Myung Gyoon [Astronomy Program, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Gadotti, Dimitri A.; Muñoz-Mateos, Juan-Carlos [European Southern Observatory, Casilla 19001, Santiago 19 (Chile); Sheth, Kartik [National Radio Astronomy Observatory/NAASC, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Athanassoula, E.; Bosma, Albert [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Madore, Barry F.; Ho, Luis C. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution of Washington, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Elmegreen, Bruce [IBM Research Division, T.J. Watson Research Center, Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 (United States); Knapen, Johan H.; Cisternas, Mauricio; Erroz-Ferrer, Santiago [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, E-38200 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Zaritsky, Dennis [University of Arizona, 933 N. Cherry Ave, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Comerón, Sébastien; Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki [Division of Astronomy, Department of Physical Sciences, University of Oulu, Oulu, FIN-90014 (Finland); Holwerda, Benne [European Space Agency, ESTEC, Keplerlaan 1, 2200-AG, Noordwijk (Netherlands); Hinz, Joannah L. [MMTO, University of Arizona, 933 North Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85721 (United States); Buta, Ron [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Alabama, Box 870324, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); and others


    We have performed two-dimensional multicomponent decomposition of 144 local barred spiral galaxies using 3.6 μm images from the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies. Our model fit includes up to four components (bulge, disk, bar, and a point source) and, most importantly, takes into account disk breaks. We find that ignoring the disk break and using a single disk scale length in the model fit for Type II (down-bending) disk galaxies can lead to differences of 40% in the disk scale length, 10% in bulge-to-total luminosity ratio (B/T), and 25% in bar-to-total luminosity ratios. We find that for galaxies with B/T ≥ 0.1, the break radius to bar radius, r {sub br}/R {sub bar}, varies between 1 and 3, but as a function of B/T the ratio remains roughly constant. This suggests that in bulge-dominated galaxies the disk break is likely related to the outer Lindblad resonance of the bar and thus moves outward as the bar grows. For galaxies with small bulges, B/T < 0.1, r {sub br}/R {sub bar} spans a wide range from 1 to 6. This suggests that the mechanism that produces the break in these galaxies may be different from that in galaxies with more massive bulges. Consistent with previous studies, we conclude that disk breaks in galaxies with small bulges may originate from bar resonances that may be also coupled with the spiral arms, or be related to star formation thresholds.

  8. Indirect Evidence for Escaping Ionizing Photons in Local Lyman Break Galaxy Analogs


    Alexandroff, Rachael; Heckman, Timothy; Borthakur, Sanchayeeta; Overzier, Roderik; Leitherer, Claus


    A population of early star-forming galaxies is the leading candidate for the re-ionization of the universe. It is still unclear what conditions and physical processes would enable a significant fraction of the ionizing photons to escape from these gas-rich galaxies. In this paper we present the results of the analysis of HST COS far-UV spectroscopy plus ancillary multi-waveband data of a sample of 22 low-redshift galaxies that are good analogs to typical star-forming galaxies at high-redshift...

  9. Note on Mediation of Supersymmetry Breaking from Closed to Open Strings

    CERN Document Server

    Antoniadis, Ignatios; Antoniadis, Ignatios; Taylor, Tomasz R.


    We discuss the mediation of supersymmetry breaking from closed to open strings, extending and improving previous analysis of the authors in Nucl. Phys. B 695 (2004) 103 [hep-th/0403293]. In the general case, we find the absence of anomaly mediation around any perturbative string vacuum. When supersymmetry is broken by Scherk-Schwarz boundary conditions along a compactification interval perpendicular to a stack of D-branes, the gaugino acquires a mass at two loops that behaves as $m_{1/2}\\sim g^4 m_{3/2}^3$ in string units, where $m_{3/2}$ is the gravitino mass and $g$ is the gauge coupling.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magdis, Georgios E.; Rigopoulou, D. [Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH (United Kingdom); Daddi, E.; Sargent, M.; Elbaz, D.; Gobat, R.; Tan, Q.; Aussel, H. [CEA, Laboratoire AIM, Irfu/SAp, F-91191 Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Dannerbauer, H. [Institut fuer Astronophysik, Universitaet Wien, Tuerkenschanzstrasse 17, A-1180 Wien (Austria); Feruglio, C. [IRAM-Institut de RadioAstronomie Millimetrique 300 rue de la Piscine, Domaine Universitaire, F-38406 Saint Martin d' Heres (France); Charmandaris, V. [Department of Physics and Institute of Theoretical and Computational Physics, University of Crete, GR-71003 Heraklion (Greece); Dickinson, M. [NOAO, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Reddy, N. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Riverside 900 University, Avenue Riverside, CA 92507 (United States)


    We present observations of the CO[J = 3 {yields} 2] emission toward two massive and infrared luminous Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z = 3.21 and z = 2.92, using the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer, placing first constraints on the molecular gas masses (M{sub gas}) of non-lensed LBGs. Their overall properties are consistent with those of typical (main-sequence) galaxies at their redshifts, with specific star formation rates {approx}1.6 and {approx}2.2 Gyr{sup -1}, despite their large infrared luminosities (L{sub IR} Almost-Equal-To (2-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 12} L{sub Sun }) derived from Herschel. With one plausible CO detection (spurious detection probability of 10{sup -3}) and one upper limit, we investigate the evolution of the molecular gas-to-stellar mass ratio (M{sub gas}/M{sub *}) with redshift. Our data suggest that the steep evolution of M{sub gas}/M{sub *} of normal galaxies up to z {approx} 2 is followed by a flattening at higher redshifts, providing supporting evidence for the existence of a plateau in the evolution of the specific star formation rate at z > 2.5.

  11. Deep Keck u-band imaging of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field: A catalog of z~3 Lyman Break Galaxies


    Rafelski, Marc; Wolfe, Arthur M.; Cooke, Jeff; Chen, Hsiao-Wen; Armandroff, Taft E.; Wirth, Gregory D.


    We present a sample of 407 z~3 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) to a limiting isophotal u-band magnitude of 27.6 mag in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UDF). The LBGs are selected using a combination of photometric redshifts and the u-band drop-out technique enabled by the introduction of an extremely deep u-band image obtained with the Keck I telescope and the blue channel of the LRIS spectrometer. The Keck u-band image, totaling 9 hours of integration time, has a one sigma depth of 30.7 mag arcsec^...

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Lyman break galaxies and LAEs HST photometry (Mostardi+, 2015) (United States)

    Mostardi, R. E.; Shapley, A. E.; Steidel, C. C.; Trainor, R. F.; Reddy, N. A.; Siana, B.


    The HS1549 galaxy sample discussed in Mostardi et al. (2013ApJ...779...65M) consists of 49 LBGs and 91 LAEs, all spectroscopically confirmed at z>=2.82. There are 9 objects part of both the LAE and LBG samples; for simplicity in displaying our data, we group these objects with the LBGs. The redshift limit of z>=2.82 ensures that the NB3420 filter is sensitive only to LyC emission, with no contamination from flux redward of the Lyman limit. Out of these galaxies, 5 LBGs and 7 LAEs have NB3420 detections within 1.9" of the non-ionizing UV (~1500 Å) centroid of the galaxy, indicating potential LyC emission if there is no lower-redshift galaxy contaminant along the line of sight. (1 data file).

  13. Detection of Lyman/alpha emission from a DLA galaxy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moller, P.; Fynbo, Johan Peter Uldall; Fall, S.M



  14. Dancing to ChaNGa: A Self-Consistent Prediction For Close SMBH Pair Formation Timescales Following Galaxy Mergers (United States)

    Tremmel, M.; Governato, F.; Volonteri, M.; Quinn, T. R.; Pontzen, A.


    We present the first self-consistent prediction for the distribution of formation timescales for close Supermassive Black Hole (SMBH) pairs following galaxy mergers. Using ROMULUS25, the first large-scale cosmological simulation to accurately track the orbital evolution of SMBHs within their host galaxies down to sub-kpc scales, we predict an average formation rate density of close SMBH pairs of 0.013 cMpc-3 Gyr-1. We find that it is relatively rare for galaxy mergers to result in the formation of close SMBH pairs with sub-kpc separation and those that do form are often the result of Gyrs of orbital evolution following the galaxy merger. The likelihood and timescale to form a close SMBH pair depends strongly on the mass ratio of the merging galaxies, as well as the presence of dense stellar cores. Low stellar mass ratio mergers with galaxies that lack a dense stellar core are more likely to become tidally disrupted and deposit their SMBH at large radii without any stellar core to aid in their orbital decay, resulting in a population of long-lived `wandering' SMBHs. Conversely, SMBHs in galaxies that remain embedded within a stellar core form close pairs in much shorter timescales on average. This timescale is a crucial, though often ignored or very simplified, ingredient to models predicting SMBH mergers rates and the connection between SMBH and star formation activity.

  15. Images From Hubbles's ACS Tell A Tale Of Two Record-Breaking Galaxy Clusters (United States)


    Looking back in time nearly 9 billion years, an international team of astronomers found mature galaxies in a young universe. The galaxies are members of a cluster of galaxies that existed when the universe was only 5 billion years old, or about 35 percent of its present age. This compelling evidence that galaxies must have started forming just after the big bang was bolstered by observations made by the same team of astronomers when they peered even farther back in time. The team found embryonic galaxies a mere 1.5 billion years after the birth of the cosmos, or 10 percent of the universe's present age. The "baby galaxies" reside in a still-developing cluster, the most distant proto-cluster ever found. The Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) aboard NASA's Hubble Space Telescope was used to make observations of the massive cluster, RDCS 1252.9-2927, and the proto-cluster, TN J1338-1942. Observations by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory yielded the mass and heavy element content of RDCS 1252, the most massive known cluster for that epoch. These observations are part of a coordinated effort by the ACS science team to track the formation and evolution of clusters of galaxies over a broad range of cosmic time. The ACS was built especially for studies of such distant objects. These findings further support observations and theories that galaxies formed relatively early in the history of the cosmos. The existence of such massive clusters in the early universe agrees with a cosmological model wherein clusters form from the merger of many sub-clusters in a universe dominated by cold dark matter. The precise nature of cold dark matter, however, is still not known. The first Hubble study estimated that galaxies in RDCS 1252 formed the bulk of their stars more than 11 billion years ago (at redshifts greater than 3). The results were published in the Oct. 20, 2003 issue of the Astrophysical Journal. The paper's lead author is John Blakeslee of the Johns Hopkins University in

  16. CO emissions from optically selected galaxies at z ˜ 0.1-0.2: Tight anti-correlation between molecular gas fraction and 4000 Å break strength (United States)

    Morokuma-Matsui, Kana; Baba, Junichi; Sorai, Kazuo; Kuno, Nario


    We performed 12CO(J = 1-0) (hereafter, CO) observations toward 12 normal star-forming galaxies with stellar masses of M⋆ = 1010.6-1011.3 M⊙ at z = 0.1-0.2 with the 45 m telescope at the Nobeyama Radio Observatory. The samples were selected with Dn(4000), that is, the strength of the 4000 Å break, instead of the commonly used far-infrared (FIR) flux. We successfully detected the CO emissions from eight galaxies with signal-to-noise ratio larger than three, demonstrating the effectiveness of the Dn(4000)-based sample selection. For the first time, we find a tight anti-correlation between Dn(4000) and molecular gas fraction (fmol) using literature data of nearby galaxies in which the galaxies with more fuel for star formation have younger stellar populations. We find that our CO-detected galaxies at z ˜ 0.1-0.2 also follow the same relation as nearby galaxies. This implies that the galaxies evolve along this Dn(4000)-fmol relation, and that Dn(4000) seems to be able to be used as a proxy for fmol, which requires many time-consuming observations. Based on the comparison with the model calculation with a population synthesis code, we find that star formation from metal enriched gas and its quenching in the early time are necessary to reproduce galaxies with large Dn(4000) and non-zero gas fraction.

  17. Integral-field spectroscopy of a Lyman-break galaxy at z = 3.2: evidence for merging (United States)

    Nesvadba, N. P. H.; Lehnert, M. D.; Davies, R. I.; Verma, A.; Eisenhauer, F.


    We present spatially-resolved, rest-frame optical spectroscopy of a z˜ 3 Lyman-break galaxy (LBG), Q0347-383 C5, obtained with SINFONI on the VLT. This galaxy, among the ˜ 10% brightest LBGs, is only the second z˜ 3 LBG observed with an integral-field spectrograph. It was first described by Pettini et al. (2001, ApJ, 554, 981), who obtained WFPC2 F702W imaging and longslit spectroscopy in the K-band. We find that the emission line morphology is dominated by two unresolved blobs at a projected distance of ˜ 5 kpc with a velocity offset of ˜ 33 km s-1. Velocity dispersions suggest that each blob has a mass of ˜ 1010 M⊙. Unlike Pettini et al. (2001), our spectra are deep enough to detect Hβ, and we derive star-formation rates of ˜ 20{-}40 M⊙ yr-1, and use the Hβ/[OIII] ratio to crudely estimate an oxygen abundance 12+[O/H]=7.9{-}8.6, which is in the range typically observed for LBGs. We compare the properties of Q0347-383 C5 with what is found for other LBGs, including the gravitationally lensed “arc+core” galaxy (Nesvadba et al. 2006, ApJ, 650, 661), and discuss possible scenarios for the nature of the source, namely disk rotation, a starburst-driven wind, disk fragmentation, and merging of two LBGs. We favor the merging interpretation for bright, extended LBGs like Q0347-383 C5, in broad agreement with predicted merger rates from hierarchical models.

  18. Influence of galaxy stellar mass and observed wavelength on disc breaks in S4G, NIRS0S, and SDSS data (United States)

    Laine, Jarkko; Laurikainen, Eija; Salo, Heikki


    Context. Breaks in the surface brightness profiles in the outer regions of galactic discs are thought to have formed by various internal (e.g. bar resonances) and external (e.g. galaxy merging) processes. By studying the disc breaks we aim to better understand what processes are responsible for the evolution of the outer discs of galaxies, and galaxies in general. Aims: We use a large well-defined sample to study how common the disc breaks are, and whether their properties depend on galaxy mass. By using both optical and infrared data we study whether the observed wavelength affects the break features as a function of galaxy mass and Hubble type. Methods: We studied the properties of galaxy discs using radial surface brightness profiles of 753 galaxies, obtained from the 3.6 μm images of the Spitzer Survey of Stellar Structure in Galaxies (S4G), and the Ks-band data from the Near InfraRed S0-Sa galaxy Survey (NIRS0S), covering a wide range of galaxy morphologies (-2 ≤ T ≤ 9) and stellar masses (8.5 ≲ log 10(M∗/M⊙) ≲ 11). In addition, optical Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) or Liverpool telescope data was used for 480 of these galaxies. Results: We find that in low-mass galaxies the single exponential profiles (Type I) are most common, and that their fraction decreases with increasing galaxy stellar mass. The fraction of down-bending (Type II) profiles increases with stellar mass, possibly due to more common occurrence of bar resonance structures. The up-bending (Type III) profiles are also more common in massive galaxies. The observed wavelength affects the scalelength of the disc of every profile type. Especially the scalelength of the inner disc (hI) of Type II profiles increases from infrared to u-band on average by a factor of 2.2. Consistent with the previous studies, but with a higher statistical significance, we find that Type II outer disc scalelengths (ho) in late-type and low mass galaxies (T > 4, log 10(M∗/M⊙) ≲ 10.5) are shorter in

  19. Properties of z ~ 3-6 Lyman break galaxies. II. Impact of nebular emission at high redshift (United States)

    de Barros, S.; Schaerer, D.; Stark, D. P.


    Context. To gain insight on the mass assembly and place constraints on the star formation history (SFH) of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs), it is important to accurately determine their properties. Aims: We estimate how nebular emission and different SFHs affect parameter estimation of LBGs. Methods: We present a homogeneous, detailed analysis of the spectral energy distribution (SED) of ~1700 LBGs from the GOODS-MUSIC catalogue with deep multi-wavelength photometry from the U band to 8 μm to determine stellar mass, age, dust attenuation, and star formation rate. Using our SED fitting tool, which takes into account nebular emission, we explore a wide parameter space. We also explore a set of different star formation histories. Results: Nebular emission is found to significantly affect the determination of the physical parameters for the majority of z ~ 3-6 LBGs. We identify two populations of galaxies by determining the importance of the contribution of emission lines to broadband fluxes. We find that ~65% of LBGs show detectable signs of emission lines, whereas ~35% show weak or no emission lines. This distribution is found over the entire redshift range. We interpret these groups as actively star-forming and more quiescent LBGs, respectively. We find that it is necessary to considerer SED fits with very young ages (affected by strong emission lines. Other arguments favouring episodic star formation and relatively short star formation timescales are also discussed. Considering nebular emission generally leads to a younger age, lower stellar mass, higher dust attenuation, higher star formation rate, and a large scatter in the SFR-M⋆ relation. Our analysis yields a trend of increasing specific star formation rate with redshift, as predicted by recent galaxy evolution models. Conclusions: The physical parameters of approximately two thirds of high redshift galaxies are significantly modified when we account for nebular emission. The SED models, which include nebular

  20. The {open_quotes}leak-before-break{close_quotes} applicability in decision support system {open_quotes}strength{close_quotes}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torop, V.M.; Orynyak, I.V. [Institute for Problems of Strength, Kiev (Ukraine); Kutovoy, O.L. [Institute of Structure Integrity, Kiev (Ukraine)


    A software decision support system, STRENGTH, for application of leak before break analysis, is described. The background methodology and sample application are outlined. The program allows multioptional computation of loading parameters for different types of defects, and variable properties for metals and welded joints. Structural strength is assessed, and service life predictions are made. The program is used to analyze specific defects identified by nondestructive testing.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Kuang-Han; Bradač, Maruša; Hoag, Austin; Cain, Benjamin; Lubin, L. M.; Knight, Robert I. [University of California Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Lemaux, Brian C. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Ryan, R. E. Jr.; Brammer, Gabriel B. [Aix Marseille Université, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, F-13388 Marseille (France); Castellano, Marco; Amorin, Ricardo; Fontana, Adriano; Merlin, Emiliano [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (Italy); Schmidt, Kasper B. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Schrabback, Tim [Argelander-Institut für Astronomie, Auf Dem Hügel 71, D-53121 Bonn (Germany); Treu, Tommaso [Department of Physics and Astronomy, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Gonzalez, Anthony H. [Department of Astronomy, University of Florida, 211 Bryant Space Science Center, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Linden, Anja von der, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics, Stanford University, 382 Via Pueblo Mall, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)


    We study the stellar population properties of the IRAC-detected 6 ≲ z ≲ 10 galaxy candidates from the Spitzer UltRa Faint SUrvey Program. Using the Lyman Break selection technique, we find a total of 17 galaxy candidates at 6 ≲ z ≲ 10 from Hubble Space Telescope images (including the full-depth images from the Hubble Frontier Fields program for MACS 1149 and MACS 0717) that have detections at signal-to-noise ratios  ≥ 3 in at least one of the IRAC 3.6 and 4.5 μm channels. According to the best mass models available for the surveyed galaxy clusters, these IRAC-detected galaxy candidates are magnified by factors of ∼1.2–5.5. Due to the magnification of the foreground galaxy clusters, the rest-frame UV absolute magnitudes M{sub 1600} are between −21.2 and −18.9 mag, while their intrinsic stellar masses are between 2 × 10{sup 8}M{sub ⊙} and 2.9 × 10{sup 9}M{sub ⊙}. We identify two Lyα emitters in our sample from the Keck DEIMOS spectra, one at z{sub Lyα} = 6.76 (in RXJ 1347) and one at z{sub Lyα} = 6.32 (in MACS 0454). We find that 4 out of 17 z ≳ 6 galaxy candidates are favored by z ≲ 1 solutions when IRAC fluxes are included in photometric redshift fitting. We also show that IRAC [3.6]–[4.5] color, when combined with photometric redshift, can be used to identify galaxies which likely have strong nebular emission lines or obscured active galactic nucleus contributions within certain redshift windows.

  2. Stellar Populations of Lyα Emitters at z = 4.86: A Comparison to z ~ 5 Lyman Break Galaxies (United States)

    Yuma, Suraphong; Ohta, Kouji; Yabe, Kiyoto; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Makiko; Ouchi, Masami; Iwata, Ikuru; Sawicki, Marcin


    We present a study of a stellar population of Lyα emitters (LAEs) at z = 4.86 in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey North (GOODS-N) field and its flanking field. The LAEs are selected based on optical narrowband (NB711) and broadband (V, Ic , and z') observations by the Suprime-Cam attached to the Subaru Telescope. With the publicly available Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) data in GOODS-N and further IRAC observations in the flanking fields, we select five LAEs that are not contaminated by neighboring objects in IRAC images and construct their observed spectral energy distributions (SEDs) with Ic , z', IRAC 3.6 μm, and 4.5 μm band photometries. The SEDs cover the rest-frame UV-to-optical wavelengths. We derive the stellar masses, ages, color excesses, and star formation rates (SFRs) of the five LAEs using an SED fitting method. Assuming a constant star formation history, we find that the stellar masses range from 108 to 1010 M sun with the median value of 2.5 × 109 M sun. The derived ages range from very young (7.4 Myr) to 437 Myr, with a median age of 25 Myr. The color excess E(B - V) is between 0.1and0.4 mag. SFRs are 55-209 M sun yr-1. A comparison of the stellar populations is made between 3 LAEs and 88 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) selected at the same redshift, in the same observed field, and down to the same limit of the rest-frame UV luminosity. These three LAEs are the brightest and reddest samples of all the LAE samples at z = 4.86. The LAEs are distributed at the relatively faint part of the UV-luminosity distribution of LBGs. Deriving the stellar properties of the LBGs by fitting their SEDs with the same model ensures that model difference does not affect the comparison. It is found that the stellar properties of the LAEs are located in the region where the properties of LBGs are distributed. On average, the LAEs show less dust extinction and lower SFRs than LBGs, while the stellar mass of LAEs lies nearly in the middle part of the mass

  3. Deep R-band counts of z ≈ 3 Lyman-break galaxy candidates with the LBT (United States)

    Boutsia, K.; Grazian, A.; Giallongo, E.; Castellano, M.; Pentericci, L.; Fontana, A.; Fiore, F.; Gallozzi, S.; Cusano, F.; Paris, D.; Speziali, R.; Testa, V.


    Aims: We present a deep multiwavelength imaging survey (UGR) in 3 different fields, Q0933, Q1623, and COSMOS, for a total area of ~1500 arcmin2. The data were obtained with the Large Binocular Camera on the Large Binocular Telescope. Methods: To select our Lyman-break galaxy (LBG) candidates, we adopted the well established and widely used color-selection criterion (U - G vs. G - R). One of the main advantages of our survey is that it has a wider dynamic color range for U-dropout selection than in previous studies. This allows us to fully exploit the depth of our R-band images, obtaining a robust sample with few interlopers. In addition, for 2 of our fields we have spectroscopic redshift information that is needed to better estimate the completeness of our sample and interloper fraction. Results: Our limiting magnitudes reach 27.0(AB) in the R band (5σ) and 28.6(AB) in the U band (1σ). This dataset was used to derive LBG candidates at z ≈ 3. We obtained a catalog with a total of 12 264 sources down to the 50% completeness magnitude limit in the R band for each field. We find a surface density of ~3 LBG candidates arcmin-2 down to R = 25.5, where completeness is ≥95% for all 3 fields. This number is higher than the original studies, but consistent with more recent samples. Observations were carried out using the Large Binocular Telescope at Mt. Graham, AZ. The LBT is an international collaboration among institutions in the United States, Italy, and Germany. LBT Corporation partners are The University of Arizona on behalf of the Arizona university system; Istituto Nazionale di Astrofisica, Italy; LBT Beteiligungsgesellschaft, Germany, representing the Max-Planck Society, the Astrophysical Institute Potsdam, and Heidelberg University; The Ohio State University; and The Research Corporation, on behalf of The University of Notre Dame, University of Minnesota, and University of Virginia.Full Tables A.1-A.3 are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http

  4. Spatially Resolved Analysis of the Interstellar Medium in the Cosmic Eye, a Lensed Lyman Break Galaxy at z=3.074 (United States)

    Ball, Catherine; Riechers, Dominik A.; Pavesi, Riccardo


    The [CII]/[NII] ratio combines the [CII] line, a tracer of photodissociation and HII regions emerging from the neutral and ionized phases of the interstellar medium (ISM), with [NII] emission, which only originates from the ionized ISM. In this, the [CII]/[NII] ratio can be used to separate the fractions of [CII] emission emerging from the different phases of the ISM. We present Atacama Large sub-Millimeter Array (ALMA) observations of the Cosmic Eye, a gravitationally lensed Lyman Break Galaxy (LBG). As an LBG, the Cosmic Eye represents a "normal" star forming galaxy in the z>2 universe. LBGs were host to the bulk of star formation during the peak epoch of star formation. Diagnosing star formation in these galaxies provides insight into the evolution of “normal” galaxies in a cosmic sense. The high magnification (30x) allows us to resolve the [CII] 158μm and the [NII] 205μm lines in detail, allowing for a position-resolved analysis of their ratio. We find variations of the line ratio across the galaxy, suggesting the galaxy’s internal structure affects this ratio. We consider the Cosmic Eye in the context of both higher redshift LBGs and local luminous and ultraluminous infrared galaxies, finding that the Cosmic Eye’s line ratio is similar to those of both higher- and lower- redshift galaxies. The Cosmic Eye’s global [CII]/[NII] ratio sits between two previous measurements of z>5 LBGs at low resolution, suggesting that the ratio may correlate more significantly with LFIR than with redshift in this epoch. Furthermore, the Cosmic Eye’s [CII]/[NII] ratio is similar to those of the nearby LIRG/ULIRGs, though we expect local [CII]/[NII] values to be lower due to their different metallicities and dust content. High-resolution studies like this one probe the evolution of [CII]/[NII] over cosmic time by examining the evolution of the ISM’s structure. With a better understanding of the [CII]/[NII] line ratio, we can more effectively use it as a probe of the

  5. Charge Symmetry Breaking In Neutron Proton Scattering To Deuteron And Neutral Pion Close To Threshold

    CERN Document Server

    Reitzner, S D


    The charge symmetry breaking (CSB) experiment using the CHARGEX facility and the SASP magnetic spectrometer at TRIUMF has measured the forward-backward scattering asymmetry (Afb) for np→dπ 0 at a neutron beam energy of 279.5 MeV. This reaction is sensitive to contributions not present in elastic scattering and therefore will complement previous measurements of CSB. Contributions to CSB in np→dπ 0 are predicted to be an order of magnitude greater than those found for elastic scattering. These contributions, which include η − π 0 and η′ − π0 mixing and the u - d quark mass difference in pion- nucleon scattering, are predicted to give values for Afb that range from (−35 to +60) × 10−4. A fb can be non-zero only if charge-symmetry is violated. Due to the nature of the observable and the realities of the experiment, Afb is obtained from a χ2 minimization procedure which compares data w...

  6. Belgian experience in applying the {open_quotes}leak-before-break{close_quotes} concept to the primary loop piping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerard, R.; Malekian, C.; Meessen, O. [Tractebel Energy Engineering, Brussels (Belgium)


    The Leak Before Break (LBB) concept allows to eliminate from the design basis the double-ended guillotine break of the primary loop piping, provided it can be demonstrated by a fracture mechanics analysis that a through-wall flaw, of a size giving rise to a leakage still well detectable by the plant leak detection systems, remains stable even under accident conditions (including the Safe Shutdown Earthquake (SSE)). This concept was successfully applied to the primary loop piping of several Belgian Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) units, operated by the Utility Electrabel. One of the main benefits is to permit justification of supports in the primary loop and justification of the integrity of the reactor pressure vessel and internals in case of a Loss Of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in stretch-out conditions. For two of the Belgian PWR units, the LBB approach also made it possible to reduce the number of large hydraulic snubbers installed on the primary coolant pumps. Last but not least, the LBB concept also facilitates the steam generator replacement operations, by eliminating the need for some pipe whip restraints located close to the steam generator. In addition to the U.S. regulatory requirements, the Belgian safety authorities impose additional requirements which are described in details in a separate paper. An novel aspect of the studies performed in Belgium is the way in which residual loads in the primary loop are taken into account. Such loads may result from displacements imposed to close the primary loop in a steam generator replacement operation, especially when it is performed using the {open_quote}two cuts{close_quotes} technique. The influence of such residual loads on the LBB margins is discussed in details and typical results are presented.

  7. Lyman-break Galaxies at z ∼ 3 in the Subaru Deep Field: Luminosity Function, Clustering, and [O III] Emission (United States)

    Malkan, Matthew A.; Cohen, Daniel P.; Maruyama, Miyoko; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Ly, Chun; Ishikawa, Shogo; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Hayashi, Masao; Motohara, Kentaro


    We combined deep U-band and optical/near-infrared imaging, in order to select Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs) at z∼ 3 using U ‑ V and V-{R}c colors in the Subaru Deep Field. The resulting sample of 5161 LBGs gives a UV luminosity function (LF) down to {M}{UV}=-18, with a steep faint-end slope of α =-1.78+/- 0.05. We analyze UV-to-NIR energy distributions (SEDs) from optical photometry and photometry on IR median-stacked images. In the stacks, we find a systematic background depression centered on the LBGs. This results from the difficulty of finding faint galaxies in regions with higher-than-average surface densities of foreground galaxies, so we corrected for this deficit. Best-fit stellar population models for the LBG SEDs indicate stellar masses and star formation rates of {{log}}10({M}* /{M}ȯ )≃ 10 and ≃ 50 M ⊙ yr‑1 at =24, down to {{log}}10({M}* /{M}ȯ )≃ 8 and ≃ 3 {M}ȯ yr‑1 at =27. The faint LBGs show a ∼1 mag excess over the stellar continuum in K-band. We interpret this excess flux as redshifted [O III]λ λ {4959,5007} lines. The observed excesses imply equivalent widths that increase with decreasing mass, reaching {{EW}}0([{{O}} {{iii}}]4959,5007+{{H}}β )≳ 1500 Å (rest-frame). Such strong [O III] emission is seen only in a miniscule fraction of local emission-line galaxies, but is probably universal in the faint galaxies that reionized the universe. Our halo occupation distribution analysis of the angular correlation function gives a halo mass of {{log}}10( /{h}-1{M}ȯ )=11.29+/- 0.12 for the full sample of LBGs, and {{log}}10( /{h}-1{M}ȯ )=11.49+/- 0.1 for the brightest half of the sample.

  8. First Results from Faint Infrared Grism Survey (Figs): First Simultaneous Detection of Ly Alpha Emission and Lyman Break From a Galaxy at Z =7.51 (United States)

    Tilvi, V.; Pirzkal, N.; Malhotra, S.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Rhoads, J. E.; Windhorst, R.; Grogin, N. A.; Koekemoer, A.; Zakamska, N. L.; Ryan, R.; hide


    Galaxies at high redshifts provide a valuable tool to study cosmic dawn, and therefore it is crucial to reliably identify these galaxies. Here, we present an unambiguous and first simultaneous detection of both the Lyman-Alpha emission and the Lyman break from a z = 7.512 +/- 0.004 galaxy, observed in the Faint Infrared Grism Survey (FIGS). These spectra, taken with G102 grism on Hubble SpaceTelescope (HST), show a significant emission line detection (6 Sigma) in two observational position angles (PA), with Lyman-Alpha line flux of 1.06 +/- 0.19 x 10(exp -17) erg s(exp -1) cm(exp -2). The line flux is nearly a factor of four higher than in the archival MOSFIRE spectroscopic observations. This is consistent with other recent observations implying that ground-based near-infrared spectroscopy underestimates total emission line fluxes, and if confirmed, can have strong implications for reionization studies that are based on ground-based Lyman-Alpha measurements. A 4-Alpha detection of the NV line in one PA also suggests a weak Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN), and if confirmed would make this source the highest-redshift AGN yet found.These observations from the Hubble Space Telescope thus clearly demonstrate the sensitivity of the FIGS survey, and the capability of grism spectroscopy to study the epoch of reionization.

  9. Stellar Populations of Lyman Break Galaxies at z approx. to 1-3 in the HST/WFC3 Early Release Science Observations (United States)

    Hathi, N. P.; Cohen, S. H.; Ryan, R. E., Jr.; Finkelstein, S. L.; McCarthy, P. J.; Windhorst, R. A.; Yan, H.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Rutkowski, M. J.; OConnell, R. W.; hide


    We analyze the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of Lyman break galaxies . (LBGs) at z approx = 1-3 selected using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) UVIS channel filters. These HST /WFC3 obse,rvations cover about 50 arcmin2 in the GOODS-South field as a part of the WFC3 Early Release Science program. These LBGs at z approx = 1-3 are selected using dropout selection criteria similar to high redshift LBGs. The deep multi-band photometry in this field is used to identify best-fit SED models, from which we infer the following results: (1) the photometric redshift estimate of these dropout selected LBGs is accurate to within few percent; (2) the UV spectral slope f3 is redder than at high redshift (z > 3), where LBGs are less dusty; (3) on average, LBGs at .z approx = 1-3 are massive, dustier and more highly star-forming, compared to LBGs at higher redshifts with similar luminosities, though their median values are similar within 1a uncertainties. This could imply that identical dropout selection technique, at all. redshifts, find physically similar galaxies; and (4) the stellar masses of these LBGs are directly proportional to their UV luminosities with a logarithmic slope of approx 0.46, and star-formation rates are proportional to their stellar masses with a logarithmic slope of approx 0.90. These relations hold true - within luminosities probed in this study - for LBGs from z approx = 1.5 to 5. The star-forming galaxies selected using other color-based techniques show similar correlations at z approx = 2, but to avoid any selection biases, and for direct comparison with LBGs at z > 3, a true Lyman break selection at z approx = 2 is essential. The future HST UV surveys,. both wider and deeper, covering a large luminosity range are important to better understand LBG properties, and their evolution.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hathi, N. P.; McCarthy, P. J. [Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Cohen, S. H.; Windhorst, R. A.; Rutkowski, M. J. [School of Earth and Space Exploration, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ 85287-1404 (United States); Ryan, R. E. Jr.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Bond, H. E. [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Finkelstein, S. L. [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Yan, H. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211 (United States); O' Connell, R. W. [Department of Astronomy, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA 22904-4325 (United States); Straughn, A. N.; Kimble, R. A. [NASA-Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Balick, B. [Department of Astronomy, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195-1580 (United States); Calzetti, D. [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Disney, M. J. [School of Physics and Astronomy, Cardiff University, Cardiff CF24 3AA (United Kingdom); Dopita, M. A. [Research School of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Australian National University, Weston Creek, ACT 2611 (Australia); Frogel, Jay A. [Astronomy Department, King Abdulaziz University, P.O. Box 80203, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia); Hall, D. N. B. [Institute for Astronomy, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Holtzman, J. A., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, New Mexico State University, Las Cruces, NM 88003 (United States); and others


    We analyze the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z {approx_equal} 1-3 selected using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) UVIS channel filters. These HST/WFC3 observations cover about 50 arcmin{sup 2} in the GOODS-South field as a part of the WFC3 Early Release Science program. These LBGs at z {approx_equal} 1-3 are selected using dropout selection criteria similar to high-redshift LBGs. The deep multi-band photometry in this field is used to identify best-fit SED models, from which we infer the following results: (1) the photometric redshift estimate of these dropout-selected LBGs is accurate to within few percent; (2) the UV spectral slope {beta} is redder than at high redshift (z > 3), where LBGs are less dusty; (3) on average, LBGs at z {approx_equal} 1-3 are massive, dustier, and more highly star forming, compared to LBGs at higher redshifts with similar luminosities (0.1L* {approx}< L {approx}< 2.5L*), though their median values are similar within 1{sigma} uncertainties. This could imply that identical dropout selection technique, at all redshifts, finds physically similar galaxies; and (4) the stellar masses of these LBGs are directly proportional to their UV luminosities with a logarithmic slope of {approx}0.46, and star formation rates are proportional to their stellar masses with a logarithmic slope of {approx}0.90. These relations hold true-within luminosities probed in this study-for LBGs from z {approx_equal} 1.5 to 5. The star-forming galaxies selected using other color-based techniques show similar correlations at z {approx_equal} 2, but to avoid any selection biases, and for direct comparison with LBGs at z > 3, a true Lyman break selection at z {approx_equal} 2 is essential. The future HST UV surveys, both wider and deeper, covering a large luminosity range are important to better understand LBG properties and their evolution.

  11. The Closed World of the Writing Classroom: Student Subjectivities as Created by, and Breaking out of, Bounds. (United States)

    Maxson, Jeffrey

    This paper discusses the emergent perspective in composition studies that sees discourse forms as producing material effects and writing classrooms and programs as part of an apparatus for producing subjective forms, which individual students are then induced to inhabit. The paper suggests that the closed circuit of the classroom is overdetermined…

  12. Modeling seasonal influenza outbreak in a closed college campus: impact of pre-season vaccination, in-season vaccination and holidays/breaks. (United States)

    Nichol, Kristin L; Tummers, Kate; Hoyer-Leitzel, Alanna; Marsh, Jennifer; Moynihan, Matt; McKelvey, Steven


    College and university students experience substantial morbidity from influenza and influenza-like illness, and they can benefit substantially from vaccination. Public health authorities encourage vaccination not only before the influenza season but also into and even throughout the influenza season. We conducted the present study to assess the impact of various vaccination strategies including delayed (i.e., in-season) vaccination on influenza outbreaks on a college campus. We used a Susceptible --> Infected --> Recovered (SIR) framework for our mathematical models to simulate influenza epidemics in a closed, college campus. We included both students and faculty/staff in the model and derived values for the model parameters from the published literature. The values for key model parameters were varied to assess the impact on the outbreak of various pre-season and delayed vaccination rates; one-way sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the sensitivity of the model outputs to changes in selected parameter values. In the base case, with a pre-season vaccination rate of 20%, no delayed vaccination, and 1 student index case, the total attack rate (total percent infected, TAR) was 45%. With higher pre-season vaccination rates TARs were lower. Even if vaccinations were given 30 days after outbreak onset, TARs were still lower than the TAR of 69% in the absence of vaccination. Varying the proportions of vaccinations given pre-season versus delayed until after the onset of the outbreak gave intermediate TAR values. Base case outputs were sensitive to changes in infectious contact rates and infectious periods and a holiday/break schedule. Delayed vaccination and holidays/breaks can be important adjunctive measures to complement traditional pre-season influenza vaccination for controlling and preventing influenza in a closed college campus.

  13. Modeling seasonal influenza outbreak in a closed college campus: impact of pre-season vaccination, in-season vaccination and holidays/breaks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristin L Nichol

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: College and university students experience substantial morbidity from influenza and influenza-like illness, and they can benefit substantially from vaccination. Public health authorities encourage vaccination not only before the influenza season but also into and even throughout the influenza season. We conducted the present study to assess the impact of various vaccination strategies including delayed (i.e., in-season vaccination on influenza outbreaks on a college campus. METHODS/FINDINGS: We used a Susceptible --> Infected --> Recovered (SIR framework for our mathematical models to simulate influenza epidemics in a closed, college campus. We included both students and faculty/staff in the model and derived values for the model parameters from the published literature. The values for key model parameters were varied to assess the impact on the outbreak of various pre-season and delayed vaccination rates; one-way sensitivity analyses were conducted to test the sensitivity of the model outputs to changes in selected parameter values. In the base case, with a pre-season vaccination rate of 20%, no delayed vaccination, and 1 student index case, the total attack rate (total percent infected, TAR was 45%. With higher pre-season vaccination rates TARs were lower. Even if vaccinations were given 30 days after outbreak onset, TARs were still lower than the TAR of 69% in the absence of vaccination. Varying the proportions of vaccinations given pre-season versus delayed until after the onset of the outbreak gave intermediate TAR values. Base case outputs were sensitive to changes in infectious contact rates and infectious periods and a holiday/break schedule. CONCLUSION: Delayed vaccination and holidays/breaks can be important adjunctive measures to complement traditional pre-season influenza vaccination for controlling and preventing influenza in a closed college campus.

  14. Consistency of Trend Break Point Estimator with Underspecified Break Number

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingjing Yang


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the consistency of trend break point estimators when the number of breaks is underspecified. The consistency of break point estimators in a simple location model with level shifts has been well documented by researchers under various settings, including extensions such as allowing a time trend in the model. Despite the consistency of break point estimators of level shifts, there are few papers on the consistency of trend shift break point estimators in the presence of an underspecified break number. The simulation study and asymptotic analysis in this paper show that the trend shift break point estimator does not converge to the true break points when the break number is underspecified. In the case of two trend shifts, the inconsistency problem worsens if the magnitudes of the breaks are similar and the breaks are either both positive or both negative. The limiting distribution for the trend break point estimator is developed and closely approximates the finite sample performance.

  15. Multiple Supernova Explosions in a Forming Galaxy

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Masayuki Umemura; Andrea Ferrara


    Ultra-high resolution hydrodynamic simulations using 1024 3 grid points are performed of a very large supernova burst in a forming galaxy, with properties similar to those inferred for Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs...

  16. Closing in on a Short-Hard Burst Progenitor: Constraints From Early-Time Optical Imaging and Spectroscopy of a Possible Host Galaxy of GRB 050509b

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloom, Joshua S.; Prochaska, J.X.; Pooley, D.; Blake, C.W.; Foley, R.J.; Jha, S.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; Granot, J.; Filippenko, A.V.; Sigurdsson, S.; Barth, A.J.; Chen,; Cooper, M.C.; Falco, E.E.; Gal, R.R.; Gerke, B.F.; Gladders, M.D.; Greene, J.E.; Hennanwi, J.; Ho, L.C.; Hurley, K.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron. Dept. /Lick Observ.


    The localization of the short-duration, hard-spectrum gamma-ray burst GRB050509b by the Swift satellite was a watershed event. Never before had a member of this mysterious subclass of classic GRBs been rapidly and precisely positioned in a sky accessible to the bevy of ground-based follow-up facilities. Thanks to the nearly immediate relay of the GRB position by Swift, we began imaging the GRB field 8 minutes after the burst and have continued during the 8 days since. Though the Swift X-ray Telescope (XRT) discovered an X-ray afterglow of GRB050509b, the first ever of a short-hard burst, thus far no convincing optical/infrared candidate afterglow or supernova has been found for the object. We present a re-analysis of the XRT afterglow and find an absolute position of R.A. = 12h36m13.59s, Decl. = +28{sup o}59'04.9'' (J2000), with a 1{sigma} uncertainty of 3.68'' in R.A., 3.52'' in Decl.; this is about 4'' to the west of the XRT position reported previously. Close to this position is a bright elliptical galaxy with redshift z = 0.2248 {+-} 0.0002, about 1' from the center of a rich cluster of galaxies. This cluster has detectable diffuse emission, with a temperature of kT = 5.25{sub -1.68}{sup +3.36} keV. We also find several ({approx}11) much fainter galaxies consistent with the XRT position from deep Keck imaging and have obtained Gemini spectra of several of these sources. Nevertheless we argue, based on positional coincidences, that the GRB and the bright elliptical are likely to be physically related. We thus have discovered reasonable evidence that at least some short-duration, hard-spectra GRBs are at cosmological distances. We also explore the connection of the properties of the burst and the afterglow, finding that GRB050509b was underluminous in both of these relative to long-duration GRBs. However, we also demonstrate that the ratio of the blast-wave energy to the {gamma}-ray energy is consistent with that

  17. Breaking Bat (United States)

    Aguilar, Isaac-Cesar; Kagan, David


    The sight of a broken bat in Major League Baseball can produce anything from a humorous dribbler in the infield to a frightening pointed projectile headed for the stands. Bats usually break at the weakest point, typically in the handle. Breaking happens because the wood gets bent beyond the breaking point due to the wave sent down the bat created…

  18. Galaxies at High Redshift (United States)

    Bauer, F. E.


    Recent years have seen tremendous progress in finding and charactering star-forming galaxies at high redshifts across the electromagnetic spectrum, giving us a more complete picture of how galaxies evolve, both in terms of their stellar and gas content, as well as the growth of their central supermassive black holes. A wealth of studies now demonstrate that star formation peaked at roughly half the age of the Universe and drops precariously as we look back to very early times, and that their central monsters apparently growth with them. At the highest-redshifts, we are pushing the boundaries via deep surveys at optical, X-ray, radio wavelengths, and more recently using gamma-ray bursts. I will review some of our accomplishments and failures. Telescope have enabled Lyman break galaxies to be robustly identified, but the UV luminosity function and star formation rate density of this population at z = 6 - 8 seems to be much lower than at z = 2 - 4. High escape fractions and a large contribution from faint galaxies below our current detection limits would be required for star-forming galaxies to reionize the Universe. We have also found that these galaxies have blue rest-frame UV colours, which might indicate lower dust extinction at z > 5. There has been some spectroscopic confirmation of these Lyman break galaxies through Lyman-α emission, but the fraction of galaxies where we see this line drops at z > 7, perhaps due to the onset of the Gunn-Peterson effect (where the IGM is opaque to Lyman-α).

  19. Modeling seasonal influenza outbreak in a closed college campus: impact of pre-season vaccination, in-season vaccination and holidays/breaks

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nichol, Kristin L; Tummers, Kate; Hoyer-Leitzel, Alanna; Marsh, Jennifer; Moynihan, Matt; McKelvey, Steven


    ...) vaccination on influenza outbreaks on a college campus. We used a Susceptible --> Infected --> Recovered (SIR) framework for our mathematical models to simulate influenza epidemics in a closed, college campus...

  20. The Break

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Anete Mikkala Camille


    The chapter elaborates on how to deal with one of the major challenges facing organizations worldwide; Stress. The Break enacts a quantum approach to meet the challenges by proposing a combination of three different quantum storytelling technologies; protreptic mentoring, walking and material...... storytelling to enact fruitful breakings of patterns unbecoming. The claim being, that the hamster wheel of Work-life anno 2016 needs reconfiguration and the simple yet fruitful manner by which this is done is through acknowledging the benefits of bodies, spaces and artifacts – and the benefits of actually...... taking a break, discontinuing for a moment in order to continue better, wiser and more at ease. Both within and as part of the daily routines, and – now and then – outside these routines in the majesty of nature with time to explore and redirect the course of life in companionships with fellow man...

  1. Electroweak breaking and supersymmetry breaking

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We discuss the clash between the absence of fine tuning in the Higgs potential and a sufficient suppression of flavour changing neutral current transitions in supersymmetric extensions of the standard model. It is pointed out that horizontal U ( 1 ) symmetry combined with the D -term supersymmetry breaking provides a ...

  2. The Break

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strand, Anete Mikkala Camille; Larsen, Jens


    that language and the social has been granted too much power on the dispense of the bodily, physical and biological – or in short, in dispense of the material. The break To be or not to be poses the theoretical notion of dis-/continuity (Barad, 2007, 2010) from the quantum approach to storytelling (Strand 2012...... and euro each year. The paper tries to explore new ways to deal with these challenges through a quantum approach to storytelling where the enactment of core values, bodies, spaces and artifacts positions managers and CEO’s from major Scandinavian organizations in sites where they can re-evaluate their life...... stones on a table in an office of a municipality in Denmark. Silence….. Rebuilding rooms for taking breaks with the inclusion of different activities such as a game of soccer or a hike seems to provide the tools to rework these imbalances or enslaving patterns. Break……. The attempt at meeting...

  3. The Disk Mass Project: breaking the disk-halo degeneracy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verheijen, Marc A. W.; Bershady, Matthew A.; Swaters, Rob A.; Andersen, David R.; Westfall, Kyle B.; DE JONG, R. S.


    Little is known about the content and distribution of dark matter in spiral galaxies. To break the degeneracy in galaxy rotation curve decompositions, which allows a wide range of dark matter halo density profiles, an independent measure of the mass surface density of stellar disks is needed. Here,

  4. Galaxy Formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sparre, Martin

    galaxies form stars throughout the history of the Universe, and secondly it is shown that observations of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) can be used to probe galaxies with active star formation in the early Universe. A conclusion from the hydrodynamical simulations is that the galaxies from the stateof......Galaxy formation is an enormously complex discipline due to the many physical processes that play a role in shaping galaxies. The objective of this thesis is to study galaxy formation with two different approaches: First, numerical simulations are used to study the structure of dark matter and how...... is important, since it helps constraining chemical evolution models at high redshift. A new project studying how the population of galaxies hosting GRBs relate to other galaxy population is outlined in the conclusion of this thesis. The core of this project will be to quantify how the stellar mass function...

  5. Active Galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kilerci Eser, Ece

    one is related to the mass estimates of supermassive black holes (SMBHs). Mass estimates of SMBHs are important to understand the formation and evolution of SMBHs and their host galaxies. Black hole masses in Type 1 AGN are measured with the reverberation mapping (RM) technique. Reverberation mapping......Galaxy formation and evolution is one of the main research themes of modern astronomy. Active galaxies such as Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) and Ultraluminous Infrared Galaxies (ULIRGs) are important evolutionary stages of galaxies. The ULIRG stage is mostly associated with galaxy mergers...... and interactions. During the interactions of gas-rich galaxies, the gas inflows towards the centers of the galaxies and can trigger both star formation and AGN activity. The ULIRG stage includes rapid star formation activity and fast black hole growth that is enshrouded by dust. Once the AGN emission...

  6. The Physical Origin of Long Gas Depletion Times in Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Semenov, Vadim [Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr.; Kravtsov, Andrey [Chicago U., KICP; Gnedin, Nickolay [Fermilab


    We present a model that elucidates why gas depletion times in galaxies are long compared to the time scales of the processes driving the evolution of the interstellar medium. We show that global depletion times are not set by any "bottleneck" in the process of gas evolution towards the star-forming state. Instead, depletion times are long because star-forming gas converts only a small fraction of its mass into stars before it is dispersed by dynamical and feedback processes. Thus, complete depletion requires that gas transitions between star-forming and non-star-forming states multiple times. Our model does not rely on the assumption of equilibrium and can be used to interpret trends of depletion times with the properties of observed galaxies and the parameters of star formation and feedback recipes in galaxy simulations. In particular, the model explains the mechanism by which feedback self-regulates star formation rate in simulations and makes it insensitive to the local star formation efficiency. We illustrate our model using the results of an isolated $L_*$-sized disk galaxy simulation that reproduces the observed Kennicutt-Schmidt relation for both molecular and atomic gas. Interestingly, the relation for molecular gas is close to linear on kiloparsec scales, even though a non-linear relation is adopted in simulation cells. This difference is due to stellar feedback, which breaks the self-similar scaling of the gas density PDF with the average gas surface density.

  7. A dusty, normal galaxy in the epoch of reionization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Watson, Darach; Christensen, Lise; Knudsen, Kirsten Kraiberg


    dust and molecules can be found in typical galaxies at this early epoch. Here we report thermal dust emission from an archetypal early universe star-forming galaxy, A1689-zD1. We detect its stellar continuum in spectroscopy and determine its redshift to be $z = 7.5\\pm0.2$ from a spectroscopic detection......Candidates for the modest galaxies that formed most of the stars in the early universe, at redshifts $z > 7$, have been found in large numbers with extremely deep restframe-UV imaging. But it has proved difficult for existing spectrographs to characterise them in the UV. The detailed properties...... of the Ly{\\alpha} break. A1689-zD1 is representative of the star-forming population during reionisation, with a total star-formation rate of about 12M$_\\odot$ yr$^{-1}$. The galaxy is highly evolved: it has a large stellar mass, and is heavily enriched in dust, with a dust-to-gas ratio close...

  8. Galaxy collisions: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miller, R.H.; Smith, B.F.


    Collisions of spherical galaxies were studied in a series of numerical experiments to see what happens when galaxies collide. Each experiment starts with two model galaxies, each consisting of 50,000 stars, moving toward each other along a specified orbit. Th series of experiments provides a systematic sampling of the parameter space spanned by the initial orbital energy and the initial angular momentum. Deeply penetrating collisions are emphasized. The collisions reported here scale to relative velocities as great as 500 km s/sup -1/, well into the range for collisions within clusters of galaxies. We find: (1) The galaxies contract momentarily to about half their original sizes shortly after close passage. This means that (a) the galaxies have ample time to respond dynamically during close passage; (b) energy first transfers into coherent mass flows within each galaxy; (c) in turn, (a) means that the impulsive and restricted three-body approximations, in which the response is ignored, are not valid for collisions of 1000 km s/sup -1/ or less. (2) The initial galaxies blend into a single dynamical system while they are near each other. This means that concepts such as energy transfer from orbital motion to internal degrees of freedom are not well defined until long after close approach, when two density maxima are well separated and each has settled down to a reasonably steady state.

  9. Growing Galaxies Gently (United States)


    of the flow of pristine gas from the surrounding space and the associated formation of new stars. They were very careful to make sure that their specimen galaxies had not been disturbed by interactions with other galaxies. The selected galaxies were very regular, smoothly rotating discs, similar to the Milky Way, and they were seen about two billion years after the Big Bang (at a redshift of around three). In galaxies in the modern Universe the heavy elements [1] are more abundant close to the centre. But when Cresci's team mapped their selected distant galaxies with the SINFONI spectrograph on the VLT [2] they were excited to see that in all three cases there was a patch of the galaxy, close to the centre, with fewer heavy elements, but hosting vigorously forming stars, suggesting that the material to fuel the star formation was coming from the surrounding pristine gas that is low in heavy elements. This was the smoking gun that provided the best evidence yet of young galaxies accreting primitive gas and using it to form new generations of stars. As Cresci concludes: "This study has only been possible because of the outstanding performance of the SINFONI instrument on the VLT. It has opened a new window for studying the chemical properties of very distant galaxies. SINFONI provides information not only in two spatial dimensions, but also in a third, spectral dimension, which allows us to see the internal motions inside galaxies and study the chemical composition of the interstellar gas." Notes [1] The gas filling the early Universe was almost all hydrogen and helium. The first generations of stars processed this primitive material to create heavier elements such as oxygen, nitrogen and carbon by nuclear fusion. When this material was subsequently spewed back into space by intense particle winds from massive young stars and supernova explosions the amounts of heavy elements in the galaxy gradually increased. Astronomers refer to elements other than hydrogen and

  10. Statistical study of some Lee galaxy groups (United States)

    Mohamed, Sabry A.; Fouad, Ahmed M.


    Compact groups of galaxies are systems of small number of galaxies close to each other. They are a good laboratory to study galaxy properties, such as structure, morphology and evolution which are affected by the environment and galaxy interactions. We applied the tree clustering technique (the Euclidean separation distance coefficients) to test the physical reality of groups and used certain criteria (Sabry et al., 2009) depending on the physical attributes of the galaxies. The sample of the data is the quintets groups of Lee compact groups of galaxies (Lee et al., 2004). It is based on a modified version of Hickson's criteria (Hickson, 1982). The results reveal the membership of each galaxy and how it is related to its group. The tables of groups and their members are included. Our results indicates that 12 Groups are real groups with real members while 18 Groups have one galaxy that has attribute discordant and should be discarded from its group.

  11. Galaxy Disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Kruit, P. C.; Freeman, K. C.

    The disks of disk galaxies contain a substantial fraction of their baryonic matter and angular momentum, and much of the evolutionary activity in these galaxies, such as the formation of stars, spiral arms, bars and rings, and the various forms of secular evolution, takes place in their disks. The

  12. An Exploration of Dusty Galaxies (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    Submillimeter galaxies i.e., galaxies that we detect in the submillimeter wavelength range are mysterious creatures. Its only within the last couple decades that weve had telescope technology capable of observing them, and were only now getting to the point where angular resolution limits allow us to examine them closely. A new study has taken advantage of new capabilities to explore the properties of a sample of 52 of thesegalaxies.Dusty Star FormationSubmillimeter galaxies are generally observed in the early universe. Though theyre faint in other wavebands, theyre extremely luminous in infrared and submillimeter their infrared luminosities are typically trillions of times the Suns luminosity. This is thought to be because these galaxies are very actively forming stars at rates of hundreds of times that of the Milky Way!Example 10 10 true-color images of ten submillimeter galaxies in the authors ALMA-identified sample. [Simpson et al. 2017]Submillimeter galaxies are also extremely dusty, so we dont see their star formation directly in optical wavelengths. Instead, we see the stellar light after its been absorbed and reemitted by interstellar dust lanes were indirectly observing heavily obscured star formation.Why look for submillimeter galaxies? Studying them can help us to learn about galaxy and star formation early in our universes history, and help us to understand how the universe has evolved into what we see locally today.Submillimeter StrugglesDue to angular resolution limitations in the past, we often couldnt pin down the exact locations of submillimeter galaxies, preventing us from examining them properly. But now a team of scientists has used the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter array (ALMA) to precisely locate 52 submillimeter galaxies identified by the Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array (SCUBA-2) in the UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey field.The precise locations made possible by ALMA allowed the team led by James Simpson (University of Edinburgh

  13. The kinematics of lopsided galaxies


    Noordermeer, Edo; Sparke, Linda S.; Levine, Stephen E.


    Lopsidedness is a common feature in galaxies, both in the distribution of light and in the kinematics. We investigate the kinematics of a model for lopsided galaxies that consists of a disc lying off-centre in a dark halo, and circling around the halo centre. We search for families of stable, closed, non-crossing orbits, and assume that gas in our galaxies moves on these orbits. Several of our models show strong lopsided gas kinematics, especially the ones in which the disc spins around its a...

  14. The mass content of the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Battaglia, G.; Helmi, A.; Tolstoy, E.; Irwin, M.; Andersen, J; BlandHawthorn, J; Nordstrom, B


    We present a new determination of the mass content of the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy, based on a novel approach which takes into account the two distinct stellar populations present in this galaxy. This method helps to partially break the well-known mass-anisotropy degeneracy present in the

  15. Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Longair, Malcolm S


    This second edition of Galaxy Formation is an up-to-date text on astrophysical cosmology, expounding the structure of the classical cosmological models from a contemporary viewpoint. This forms the background to a detailed study of the origin of structure and galaxies in the Universe. The derivations of many of the most important results are derived by simple physical arguments which illuminate the results of more advanced treatments. A very wide range of observational data is brought to bear upon these problems, including the most recent results from WMAP, the Hubble Space Telescope, galaxy surveys like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey and the 2dF Galaxy Redshift Survey, studies of Type 1a supernovae, and many other observations.

  16. Search for High Redshift Galaxy Clusters (United States)

    Haarsma, D. B.; Butler, A. R.; Donahue, M. E.; Bruch, S. S.


    Distant galaxy clusters are key to understanding many current questions in cosmology, structure formation, and galaxy evolution, yet few z>1 clusters have been identified. The ROSAT Optical X-ray Survey (Donahue et al. 2002 ApJ 569, 689) searched for galaxy clusters using both optical and x-ray detection methods. While many clusters appeared in both wavebands, 10 targets which showed extended x-ray emission (a unique signature of cluster gas) did not show significant I-band emission (expected from elliptical galaxies in the cluster). These targets may be galaxy clusters with redshift greater than 1, which would appear faint in I due to the 400 nm break in elliptical galaxy spectra. In J and K bands, such galaxies would be easier to detect, and in April 2005 we imaged the 10 fields in J and K with the FLAMINGOS camera on the NOAO 4m telescope. The infrared colors are useful in identifying clusters, because all elliptical galaxies in a cluster are expected to have similar colors (i.e. the red sequence). We report preliminary identifications of high redshift galaxy clusters in our sample.

  17. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): probing the merger histories of massive galaxies via stellar populations (United States)

    Ferreras, I.; Hopkins, A. M.; Gunawardhana, M. L. P.; Sansom, A. E.; Owers, M. S.; Driver, S.; Davies, L.; Robotham, A.; Taylor, E. N.; Konstantopoulos, I.; Brough, S.; Norberg, P.; Croom, S.; Loveday, J.; Wang, L.; Bremer, M.


    The merging history of galaxies can be traced with studies of dynamically close pairs. These consist of a massive primary galaxy and a less massive secondary (or satellite) galaxy. The study of the stellar populations of secondary (lower mass) galaxies in close pairs provides a way to understand galaxy growth by mergers. Here we focus on systems involving at least one massive galaxy - with stellar mass above 1011M⊙ in the highly complete Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey. Our working sample comprises 2692 satellite galaxy spectra (0.1 ≤ z ≤ 0.3). These spectra are combined into high S/N stacks, and binned according to both an 'internal' parameter, the stellar mass of the satellite galaxy (i.e. the secondary), and an 'external' parameter, selecting either the mass of the primary in the pair, or the mass of the corresponding dark matter halo. We find significant variations in the age of the populations with respect to environment. At fixed mass, satellites around the most massive galaxies are older and possibly more metal-rich, with age differences ˜1-2 Gyr within the subset of lower mass satellites (˜1010 M⊙). These variations are similar when stacking with respect to the halo mass of the group where the pair is embedded. The population trends in the lower mass satellites are consistent with the old stellar ages found in the outer regions of massive galaxies.

  18. Galaxy Evolution with Stellar Disks, Halos, and Streams in Nearby Galaxies (United States)

    Staudaher, Shawn M.

    This thesis begins with a deep-dive into the stellar properties of the nearby spiral galaxy, M 63, a member of the EDGES (Extended Disk Galaxy Exploration Science) survey. Deep ( 28 AB mag arcsec-2) 3.6 mum imaging from the Spitzer Space Telescope reveals that the spiral structure of this galaxy is enveloped by an extended stellar halo, the result of the accretion of smaller galaxies. The mass of this stellar halo agrees well with results from the latest large scale LambdaCDM based galaxy evolution models. M 63 is also host to a tidal stream, an actively accreting satellite. The mass of the progenitor satellite is large enough that only sixteen similarly sized accretion events would account for the mass in the stellar halo. In addition, the majority of satellite accretion must have happened in the past as the average accretion rate derived from the stellar halo is significantly larger than the average accretion rate derived from the more recent tidal stream. The scope of the thesis is then extended to include the full sample of 92 nearby galaxies from EDGES. This is the largest Spitzer Space Telescope survey to probe the extended stellar properties of nearby galaxies. The surface brightness profiles of EDGES galaxies contain an unprecedented number of breaks (transitions from one galactic component to the next) given the sample size of EDGES, proving that studies of break statistics are incomplete without significantly deep imaging. The surface brightness profiles are decomposed into their individual components and the stellar mass for each component is measured. Seven galaxies contain strong evidence for the presence of stellar halos, and the masses of these halos agree with predictions from LambdaCDM based galaxy evolution models. However, the lack of stellar halos in general may be evidence that simulations continue to suffer from the so-called "missing satellite problem", where the number of satellite galaxies is overpredicted compared to observations.

  19. Enhanced X-ray emission from Lyman Break Analogues and a Possible $L_{\\rm X}$--SFR--Metallicity Plane


    Brorby, Matthew; Kaaret, Philip; Prestwich, Andrea; Mirabel, I. Felix


    The source of energetic photons that heated and reionized the early Universe remains uncertain. Early galaxies had low metallicity and recent population synthesis calculations suggest that the number and luminosity of high-mass X-ray binaries are enhanced in star-forming galaxies with low metallicity, offering a potentially important and previously overlooked source of heating and reionization. Lyman break analogue (LBA) galaxies are local galaxies that strongly resemble the high-redshift, st...

  20. The Hooked Galaxy (United States)


    Life is not easy, even for galaxies. Some indeed get so close to their neighbours that they get rather distorted. But such encounters between galaxies have another effect: they spawn new generations of stars, some of which explode. ESO's VLT has obtained a unique vista of a pair of entangled galaxies, in which a star exploded. Because of the importance of exploding stars, and particularly of supernovae of Type Ia [1], for cosmological studies (e.g. relating to claims of an accelerated cosmic expansion and the existence of a new, unknown, constituent of the universe - the so called 'Dark Energy'), they are a preferred target of study for astronomers. Thus, on several occasions, they pointed ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) towards a region of the sky that portrays a trio of amazing galaxies. MCG-01-39-003 (bottom right) is a peculiar spiral galaxy, with a telephone number name, that presents a hook at one side, most probably due to the interaction with its neighbour, the spiral galaxy NGC 5917 (upper right). In fact, further enhancement of the image reveals that matter is pulled off MCG-01-39-003 by NGC 5917. Both these galaxies are located at similar distances, about 87 million light-years away, towards the constellation of Libra (The Balance). ESO PR Photo 22/06 ESO PR Photo 22/06 The Hooked Galaxy and its Companion NGC 5917 (also known as Arp 254 and MCG-01-39-002) is about 750 times fainter than can be seen by the unaided eye and is about 40,000 light-years across. It was discovered in 1835 by William Herschel, who strangely enough, seems to have missed its hooked companion, only 2.5 times fainter. As seen at the bottom left of this exceptional VLT image, a still fainter and nameless, but intricately beautiful, barred spiral galaxy looks from a distance the entangled pair, while many 'island universes' perform a cosmic dance in the background. But this is not the reason why astronomers look at this region. Last year, a star exploded in the vicinity of the hook

  1. Fire within the Antennae Galaxies (United States)


    This false-color image composite from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope reveals hidden populations of newborn stars at the heart of the colliding 'Antennae' galaxies. These two galaxies, known individually as NGC 4038 and 4039, are located around 68 million light-years away and have been merging together for about the last 800 million years. The latest Spitzer observations provide a snapshot of the tremendous burst of star formation triggered in the process of this collision, particularly at the site where the two galaxies overlap. The image is a composite of infrared data from Spitzer and visible-light data from Kitt Peak National Observatory, Tucson, Ariz. Visible light from stars in the galaxies (blue and green) is shown together with infrared light from warm dust clouds heated by newborn stars (red). The two nuclei, or centers, of the merging galaxies show up as yellow-white areas, one above the other. The brightest clouds of forming stars lie in the overlap region between and left of the nuclei. Throughout the sky, astronomers have identified many of these so-called 'interacting' galaxies, whose spiral discs have been stretched and distorted by their mutual gravity as they pass close to one another. The distances involved are so large that the interactions evolve on timescales comparable to geologic changes on Earth. Observations of such galaxies, combined with computer models of these collisions, show that the galaxies often become forever bound to one another, eventually merging into a single, spheroidal-shaped galaxy. Wavelengths of 0.44 microns are represented in blue, .70 microns in green and 8.0 microns in red. This image was taken on Dec. 24, 2003.

  2. S0 galaxies in Formax

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bedregal...[], A. G.; Aragón-Salamanca, A.; Merrifield, M. R.


    Galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD: galaxies: kinematics and dynamics Udgivelsesdato: Oct.1......Galaxies: elliptical and lenticular, cD: galaxies: kinematics and dynamics Udgivelsesdato: Oct.1...

  3. Galaxy Mergers and Dark Matter Halo Mergers in LCDM: Mass, Redshift, and Mass-Ratio Dependence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, Kyle R.; Bullock, James S.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; /UC, Irvine; Wechsler, Risa H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC


    We employ a high-resolution LCDM N-body simulation to present merger rate predictions for dark matter halos and investigate how common merger-related observables for galaxies - such as close pair counts, starburst counts, and the morphologically disturbed fraction - likely scale with luminosity, stellar mass, merger mass ratio, and redshift from z = 0 to z = 4. We provide a simple 'universal' fitting formula that describes our derived merger rates for dark matter halos a function of dark halo mass, merger mass ratio, and redshift, and go on to predict galaxy merger rates using number density-matching to associate halos with galaxies. For example, we find that the instantaneous merger rate of m/M > 0.3 mass ratio events into typical L {approx}> fL{sub *} galaxies follows the simple relation dN/dt {approx_equal} 0.03(1+f)Gyr{sup -1} (1+z){sup 2.1}. Despite the rapid increase in merger rate with redshift, only a small fraction of > 0.4L{sub *} high-redshift galaxies ({approx} 3% at z = 2) should have experienced a major merger (m/M > 0.3) in the very recent past (t < 100 Myr). This suggests that short-lived, merger-induced bursts of star formation should not contribute significantly to the global star formation rate at early times, in agreement with observational indications. In contrast, a fairly high fraction ({approx} 20%) of those z = 2 galaxies should have experienced a morphologically transformative merger within a virial dynamical time. We compare our results to observational merger rate estimates from both morphological indicators and pair-fraction based determinations between z = 0-2 and show that they are consistent with our predictions. However, we emphasize that great care must be made in these comparisons because the predicted observables depend very sensitively on galaxy luminosity, redshift, overall mass ratio, and uncertain relaxation timescales for merger remnants. We show that the majority of bright galaxies at z = 3 should have undergone a


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roediger, Joel C.; Courteau, Stephane [Department of Physics, Engineering Physics and Astronomy, Queen' s University, Kingston, Ontario (Canada); Sanchez-Blazquez, Patricia [Deptartamento de Fisica Teorica, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, E-28049 Madrid (Spain); McDonald, Michael, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, MA (United States)


    We present new stellar age profiles, derived from well-resolved optical and near-infrared images of 64 Virgo cluster disk galaxies, whose analysis poses a challenge for current disk galaxy formation models. Our ability to break the age-metallicity degeneracy and the significant size of our sample represent key improvements over complementary studies of field disk galaxies. Our results can be summarized as follows: first, and contrary to observations of disk galaxies in the field, these cluster galaxies are distributed almost equally amongst the three main types of disk galaxy luminosity profiles (I/II/III), indicating that the formation and/or survival of Type II breaks is suppressed within the cluster environment. Second, we find examples of statistically significant inversions ({sup U}-shapes{sup )} in the age profiles of all three disk galaxy types, reminiscent of predictions from high-resolution simulations of classically truncated Type II disks in the field. These features characterize the age profiles for only about a third ({<=}36%) of each disk galaxy type in our sample. An even smaller fraction of cluster disks ({approx}11% of the total sample) exhibit age profiles that decrease outward (i.e., negative age gradients). Instead, flat and/or positive age gradients prevail ({>=}50%) within our Type I, II, and III subsamples. These observations thus suggest that while stellar migrations and inside-out growth can play a significant role in the evolution of all disk galaxy types, other factors contributing to the evolution of galaxies can overwhelm the predicted signatures of these processes. We interpret our observations through a scenario whereby Virgo cluster disk galaxies formed initially like their brethren in the field but which, upon falling into the cluster, were transformed into their present state through external processes linked to the environment (e.g., ram-pressure stripping and harassment). Current disk galaxy formation models, which have largely

  5. SDSS-IV MaNGA: Global stellar population and gradients for about 2000 early-type and spiral galaxies on the mass-size plane (United States)

    Li, Hongyu; Mao, Shude; Cappellari, Michele; Ge, Junqiang; Long, R. J.; Li, Ran; Mo, HJ; Li, Cheng; Zheng, Zheng; Bundy, Kevin; Thomas, Daniel; Brownstein, Joel R.; Lopes, Alexandre Roman; Law, David R.; Drory, Niv


    We perform full spectrum fitting stellar population analysis and Jeans Anisotropic modelling (JAM) of the stellar kinematics for about 2000 early-type galaxies (ETGs) and spiral galaxies from the MaNGA DR14 sample. Galaxies with different morphologies are found to be located on a remarkably tight mass plane which is close to the prediction of the virial theorem, extending previous results for ETGs. By examining an inclined projection (`the mass-size' plane), we find that spiral and early-type galaxies occupy different regions on the plane, and their stellar population properties (i.e. age, metallicity and stellar mass-to-light ratio) vary systematically along roughly the direction of velocity dispersion, which is a proxy for the bulge fraction. Galaxies with higher velocity dispersions have typically older ages, larger stellar mass-to-light ratios and are more metal rich, which indicates that galaxies increase their bulge fractions as their stellar populations age and become enriched chemically. The age and stellar mass-to-light ratio gradients for low-mass galaxies in our sample tend to be positive (centregalaxies are negative. The metallicity gradients show a clear peak around velocity dispersion log10σe ≈ 2.0, which corresponds to the critical mass ˜3 × 1010M⊙ of the break in the mass-size relation. Spiral galaxies with large mass and size have the steepest gradients, while the most massive ETGs, especially above the critical mass M_crit≳ 2× 10^{11} M_{\\odot}, where slow rotator ETGs start dominating, have much flatter gradients. This may be due to differences in their evolution histories, e.g. mergers.

  6. Dwarf spheroidal galaxies: Keystones of galaxy evolution (United States)

    Gallagher, John S., III; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.


    Dwarf spheroidal galaxies are the most insignificant extragalactic stellar systems in terms of their visibility, but potentially very significant in terms of their role in the formation and evolution of much more luminous galaxies. We discuss the present observational data and their implications for theories of the formation and evolution of both dwarf and giant galaxies. The putative dark-matter content of these low-surface-brightness systems is of particular interest, as is their chemical evolution. Surveys for new dwarf spheroidals hidden behind the stars of our Galaxy and those which are not bound to giant galaxies may give new clues as to the origins of this unique class of galaxy.

  7. The HIX Galaxy Survey: The Most HI Rich Galaxies In The Southern Hemisphere (United States)

    Lutz, Katharina


    When comparing the gas content of galaxies with their current star formation rate, it has been found that the gas consumption time scale is much smaller than the age of galaxies. In addition, the metallicity within galaxies is much smaller than expected from closed box modelling of galaxies. These discrepancies suggest that galaxies must replenish their gas reservoirs by accretion of metal-poor gas from the intergalactic medium.In order to investigate this process of gas accretion in more detail we target local galaxies that host an atomic hydrogen (HI) disc at least 2.5 times more massive than expected from their optical properties using scaling relations. For this sample of galaxies, we have been collecting a multiwavelength data set consisting of deep ATCA HI interferometry, ANU SSO 2.3m WiFeS optical integral field spectroscopy and publicly available photometry from GALEX (ultraviolet), WISE and 2MASS (both infrared).We find that these galaxies are normal star-forming spiral galaxies. However, their specific angular momentum is higher than in control galaxies, which allows these galaxies to support a massive HI disc.With the help of the HI interferometry and the optical IFU spectra, we are searching for signs of recent gas accretion. These signs may include among other things non-circular motion of HI, warped or lopsided HI discs, both of which can be identified through tilted-ring modelling of the HI disc or inhomogeneities in the IFU-based metallicity maps.In my talk I will first compare the HI rich galaxies to the control sample and the general galaxy population. I will then move on to the most HI massive galaxy in our sample and discuss its HI kinematics and its gas-phase oxygen abundance distribution in more detail. To conclude I will give an outlook on the more detailed HI kinematics of the remaining HI rich sample.

  8. Secular Evolution in Disk Galaxies (United States)

    Kormendy, John


    Self-gravitating systems evolve toward the most tightly bound configuration that is reachable via the evolution processes that are available to them. They do this by spreading -- the inner parts shrink while the outer parts expand -- provided that some physical process efficiently transports energy or angular momentum outward. The reason is that self-gravitating systems have negative specific heats. As a result, the evolution of stars, star clusters, protostellar and protoplanetary disks, black hole accretion disks and galaxy disks are fundamentally similar. How evolution proceeds then depends on the evolution processes that are available to each kind of self-gravitating system. These processes and their consequences for galaxy disks are the subjects of my lectures and of this Canary Islands Winter School. I begin with a review of the formation, growth and death of bars. Then I review the slow (`secular') rearrangement of energy, angular momentum, and mass that results from interactions between stars or gas clouds and collective phenomena such as bars, oval disks, spiral structure and triaxial dark haloes. The `existence-proof' phase of this work is largely over: we have a good heuristic understanding of how nonaxisymmetric structures rearrange disk gas into outer rings, inner rings and stuff dumped onto the centre. The results of simulations correspond closely to the morphology of barred and oval galaxies. Gas that is transported to small radii reaches high densities. Observations confirm that many barred and oval galaxies have dense central concentrations of gas and star formation. The result is to grow, on timescales of a few Gyr, dense central components that are frequently mistaken for classical (elliptical-galaxy-like) bulges but that were grown slowly out of the disk (not made rapidly by major mergers). The resulting picture of secular galaxy evolution accounts for the richness observed in galaxy structure. We can distinguish between classical and pseudo

  9. Local starburst galaxies and their descendants. Statistics from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (United States)

    Bergvall, Nils; Marquart, Thomas; Way, Michael J.; Blomqvist, Anna; Holst, Emma; Ostlin, Goran; Zackrisson, Erik


    Despite strong interest in the starburst phenomenon in extragalactic astronomy, the concept remains ill-defined. Here we use a strict definition of starburst to examine the statistical properties of starburst galaxies in the local universe. We also seek to establish links between starburst galaxies, post-starburst (hereafter postburst) galaxies, and active galaxies. Data were selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR7. We applied a novel method of treating dust attenuation and derive star formation rates, ages, and stellar masses assuming a two-component stellar population model. Dynamical masses are calculated from the width of the H-alpha line. These masses agree excellently with the photometric masses. The mass (gas+stars) range is approximately 10( exp 9) - 10(exp 11.5) solar mass. As a selection criterion for starburst galaxies, we use, the birthrate parameter, b = SFR/SFR, requiring that b is greater than 3. For postburst galaxies, we use, the equivalent width of Hdelta in absorption with the criterion EW (sub Hdelta_abs) is greater than 6 A. Results. We find that only 1% of star-forming galaxies are starburst galaxies. They contribute 3-6% to the stellar production and are therefore unimportant for the local star formation activity. The median starburst age is 70 Myr roughly independent of mass, indicating that star formation is mainly regulated by local feedback processes. The b-parameter strongly depends on burst age. Values close to b = 60 are found at ages approximately 10 Myr, while almost no starbursts are found at ages greater than 1 Gyr. The median baryonic burst mass fraction of sub-L galaxies is 5% and decreases slowly towards high masses. The median mass fraction of the recent burst in the postburst sample is 5-10%. A smaller fraction of the postburst galaxies, however, originates in non-bursting galaxies. The age-mass distribution of the postburst progenitors (with mass fractions is greater than 3%) is bimodal with a break at logM(solar mass


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castellano, M.; Pentericci, L.; Fontana, A.; Merlin, E.; Grazian, A.; Pilo, S.; Amorin, R.; Giallongo, E.; Guaita, L.; Paris, D. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, Via Frascati 33, I-00040 Monte Porzio Catone (RM) (Italy); Dayal, P. [Institute for Computational Cosmology, Department of Physics, University of Durham, South Road, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Hutter, A. [Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Brammer, G.; Koekemoer, A. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Cristiani, S. [INAF—Osservatorio Astronomico di Trieste, Via G. B. Tiepolo 11, I-34143 Trieste (Italy); Dickinson, M. [National Optical Astronomy Observatories, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Ferrara, A.; Gallerani, S. [Scuola Normale Superiore, Piazza dei Cavalieri 7, I-56126 Pisa (Italy); Giavalisco, M. [Astronomy Department, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Maiolino, R., E-mail: [Cavendish Laboratory, University of Cambridge, 19 J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE (United Kingdom); and others


    We present an analysis of deep Hubble Space Telescope (HST) multi-band imaging of the BDF field specifically designed to identify faint companions around two of the few Lyα emitting galaxies spectroscopically confirmed at z ∼ 7. Although separated by only 4.4 proper Mpc these galaxies cannot generate H ii regions large enough to explain the visibility of their Lyα lines, thus requiring a population of fainter ionizing sources in their vicinity. We use deep HST and VLT-Hawk-I data to select z ∼ 7 Lyman break galaxies around the emitters. We select six new robust z ∼ 7 LBGs at Y ∼ 26.5–27.5 whose average spectral energy distribution is consistent with the objects being at the redshift of the close-by Lyα emitters. The resulting number density of z ∼ 7 LBGs in the BDF field is a factor of approximately three to four higher than expected in random pointings of the same size. We compare these findings with cosmological hydrodynamic plus radiative transfer simulations of a universe with a half neutral IGM: we find that indeed Lyα emitter pairs are only found in completely ionized regions characterized by significant LBG overdensities. Our findings match the theoretical prediction that the first ionization fronts are generated within significant galaxy overdensities and support a scenario where faint, “normal” star-forming galaxies are responsible for reionization.

  11. Using galaxy pairs to investigate the three-point correlation function in the squeezed limit (United States)

    Yuan, Sihan; Eisenstein, Daniel J.; Garrison, Lehman H.


    We investigate the three-point correlation function (3PCF) in the squeezed limit by considering galaxy pairs as discrete objects and cross-correlating them with the galaxy field. We develop an efficient algorithm using fast Fourier transforms to compute such cross-correlations and their associated pair-galaxy bias bp, g and the squeezed 3PCF coefficient Qeff. We implement our method using N-body cosmological simulations and a fiducial halo occupation distribution (HOD) and present the results in both the real space and redshift space. In real space, we observe a peak in bp, g and Qeff at pair separation of ˜2 Mpc, attributed to the fact that galaxy pairs at 2 Mpc separation trace the most massive dark matter haloes. We also see strong anisotropy in the bp, g and Qeff signals that track the large-scale filamentary structure. In redshift space, both the 2 Mpc peak and the anisotropy are significantly smeared out along the line of sight due to finger-of-God effect. In both the real space and redshift space, the squeezed 3PCF shows a factor of 2 variation, contradicting the hierarchical ansatz, but offering rich information on the galaxy-halo connection. Thus, we explore the possibility of using the squeezed 3PCF to constrain the HOD. When we compare two simple HOD models that are closely matched in their projected two-point correlation function (2PCF), we do not yet see a strong variation in the 3PCF that is clearly disentangled from variations in the projected 2PCF. Nevertheless, we propose that more complicated HOD models, e.g. those incorporating assembly bias, can break degeneracies in the 2PCF and show a distinguishable squeezed 3PCF signal.

  12. Active Galactic Nucleus Environments and Feedback to Neighboring Galaxies at z ˜ 5 Probed by Lyα Emitters (United States)

    Kikuta, Satoshi; Imanishi, Masatoshi; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Matsuda, Yuichi; Shimasaku, Kazuhiro; Nakata, Fumiaki


    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the high-redshift universe are thought to reside in overdense environments. However, recent works provide controversial results, partly due to the use of different techniques and possible suppression of nearby galaxy formation by AGN feedback. We conducted deep and wide-field imaging observations with the Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope and searched for Lyα emitters (LAEs) around two quasi-stellar objects (QSOs) at z ˜ 4.9 and a radio galaxy at z ˜ 4.5 by using narrowband filters to address these issues more robustly. In the QSO fields, we obtained additional broadband images to select Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z ˜ 5 for comparison. We constructed a photometric sample of 301 LAEs and 170 LBGs in total. A wide field of view (34‧ × 27‧, corresponding to 80 × 60 comoving Mpc2) of the Suprime-Cam enabled us to probe galaxies in the immediate vicinities of the AGNs and in the blank fields simultaneously and compare various properties of them in a consistent manner. The two QSOs are located near local density peaks (<2σ), and one of the QSOs has a close companion LAE with projected separation of 80 physical kpc. The radio galaxy is found to be near a void of LAEs. The number densities of LAEs/LGBs in a larger spatial scale around the AGNs are not significantly different from those in blank fields. No sign of feedback is found down to {L}{Lyα }˜ {10}41.8 {erg} {{{s}}}-1. Our results suggest that high-redshift AGNs are not associated with extreme galaxy overdensity and that this cannot be attributed to the effect of AGN feedback. Based on data collected at Subaru Telescope, which is operated by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan.

  13. Outskirts of spiral galaxies: result of a secular evolution process?. (United States)

    Bakos, J.; Trujillo, I.; Azzollini, R.; Beckman, J. E.; Pohlen, M.

    We present our recent results on the properties of the outskirts of disk galaxies. In particular, we focus on spiral galaxies with stellar disk truncations in their radial surface brightness profiles. Using SDSS, UDF and GOODS data we show how the position of the break (i.e., a direct estimator of the size of the stellar disk) evolves with time since z˜1. Our findings agree with an evolution on the radial position of the break by a factor of 1.3±0.1 in the last 8 Gyr for galaxies with similar stellar masses. We also present radial color gradients and how they evolve with time. At all redshift we find a radial inside-out bluing reaching a minimum at the position of the break radius, this minimum is followed by a reddening outwards. Our results constrain several galaxy disk formation models and favour a scenario where stars are formed inside the break radius and are relocated in the outskirts of galaxies through secular processes.

  14. HST Grism Observations of a Gravitationally Lensed Redshift 10 Galaxy


    Hoag, Austin; Bradač, Maruša; Brammer, Gabriel B.; Huang, Kuang-Han; Treu, Tommaso; Mason, Charlotte A.; Castellano, Marco; Di Criscienzo, Marcella; Jones, Tucker; Kelly, Patrick; Pentericci, Laura; Ryan, Russell; Schmidt, Kasper B.; Trenti, Michele


    We present deep spectroscopic observations of a Lyman-break galaxy candidate (hereafter MACS1149-JD) at $z\\sim10$ with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) WFC3/IR grisms. The grism observations were taken at 4 distinct position angles, totaling 34 orbits with the G141 grism, although only 19 of the orbits are relatively uncontaminated along the trace of MACS1149-JD. We fit a 3-parameter ($z$, F160W mag, and rest-frame Lyman-alpha equivalent width) Lyman-break galaxy template to the three least c...

  15. Key Impact Factors on Dam Break Fatalities (United States)

    Huang, D.; Yu, Z.; Song, Y.; Han, D.; Li, Y.


    Dam failures can lead to catastrophes on human society. However, there is a lack of research about dam break fatalities, especially on the key factors that affect fatalities. Based on the analysis of historical dam break cases, most studies have used the regression analysis to explore the correlation between those factors and fatalities, but without implementing optimization to find the dominating factors. In order to understand and reduce the risk of fatalities, this study has proposed a new method to select the impact factors on the fatality. It employs an improved ANN (Artificial Neural Network) combined with LOOCV (Leave-one-out cross-validation) and SFS (Stepwise Forward Selection) approach to explore the nonlinear relationship between impact factors and life losses. It not only considers the factors that have been widely used in the literature but also introduces new factors closely involved with fatalities. Dam break cases occurred in China from 1954 to 2013 are summarized, within which twenty-five cases are selected with a comprehensive coverage of geographic position and temporal variation. Twelve impact factors are taken into account as the inputs, i.e., severity of dam break flood (SF), population at risk (PR), public understanding of dam break (UB), warning time (TW), evacuation condition (EC), weather condition during dam break (WB), dam break mode (MB), water storage (SW), building vulnerability (VB), dam break time (TB), average distance from the affected area to the dam (DD) and preventive measures by government (PG).From those, three key factors of SF, MB and TB are chosen. The proposed method is able to extract the key factors, and the derived fatality model performs well in various types of dam break conditions.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotilainen, Jari K.; Olguín-Iglesias, Alejandro [Finnish Centre for Astronomy with ESO (FINCA), University of Turku, Väisäläntie 20, FI-21500 Piikkiö (Finland); León-Tavares, Jonathan; Baes, Maarten [Sterrenkundig Observatorium, Universiteit Gent, Krijgslaan 281-S9, B-9000 Gent (Belgium); Anórve, Christopher [Facultad de Ciencias de la Tierra y del Espacio de la Universidad Autónoma de Sinaloa, Blvd. de la Americas y Av. Universitarios S/N, Ciudad Universitaria, C.P. 80010, Culiacán Sinaloa, México (Mexico); Chavushyan, Vahram; Carrasco, Luis, E-mail: [Instituto Nacional de Astrofísica Óptica y Electrónica (INAOE), Apartado Postal 51 y 216, 72000 Puebla (Mexico)


    Supermassive black holes launching plasma jets at close to the speed of light, producing gamma-rays, have ubiquitously been found to be hosted by massive elliptical galaxies. Since elliptical galaxies are generally believed to be built through galaxy mergers, active galactic nuclei (AGN) launching relativistic jets are associated with the latest stages of galaxy evolution. We have discovered a pseudobulge morphology in the host galaxy of the gamma-ray AGN PKS 2004-447. This is the first gamma-ray emitter radio-loud AGN found to have been launched from a system where both the black hole and host galaxy have been actively growing via secular processes. This is evidence of an alternative black hole–galaxy co-evolutionary path to develop powerful relativistic jets, which is not merger driven.

  17. Merging Galaxies Create a Binary Quasar (United States)


    Observatory in California indicated that the object was likely a binary quasar in the midst of a galaxy merger. Carnegie's Mulchaey then used the 6.5 meter Baade-Magellan telescope at the Las Campanas observatory in Chile to obtain deeper images and more detailed spectroscopy of the merging galaxies. "Just because you see two galaxies that are close to each other in the sky doesn't mean they are merging," says Mulchaey. "But from the Magellan images we can actually see tidal tails, one from each galaxy, which suggests that the galaxies are in fact interacting and are in the process of merging." Thomas Cox, now a fellow at the Carnegie Observatories, corroborated this conclusion using computer simulations of the merging galaxies. When Cox's model galaxies merged, they showed features remarkably similar to what Mulchaey observed in the Magellan images. "The model verifies the merger origin for this binary quasar system," he says. "It also hints that this kind of galaxy interaction is a key component of the growth of black holes and production of quasars throughout our universe." * The authors of the paper published in the Astrophysical Journal are Paul J. Green of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Adam D. Myers of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Wayne A. Barkhouse of the University of North Dakota, John S. Mulchaey of the Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Vardha N. Bennert of the Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, Thomas J. Cox of the Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, Thomas L. Aldcroft of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, and Joan M. Wrobel of National Radio Astronomy Observatory, Socorro, NM. More information, including images and other multimedia, can be found at: and

  18. Measuring neutrino masses with a future galaxy survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen; Wong, Yvonne Y. Y.


    that the minimum mass sum of sum m_nu ~ 0.06 eV in the normal hierarchy can be detected at 1.5 sigma to 2.5 sigma significance, depending on the model complexity, using a combination of galaxy and cosmic shear power spectrum measurements in conjunction with CMB temperature and polarisation observations from Planck....... With better knowledge of the galaxy bias, the significance of the detection could potentially reach 5.4 sigma. Interestingly, neither Planck+shear nor Planck+galaxy alone can achieve this level of sensitivity; it is the combined effect of galaxy and cosmic shear power spectrum measurements that breaks...... the persistent degeneracies between the neutrino mass, the physical matter density, and the Hubble parameter. Notwithstanding this remarkable sensitivity to sum m_nu, Euclid-like shear and galaxy data will not be sensitive to the exact mass spectrum of the neutrino sector; no significant bias (sigma...

  19. Galaxy Formation through Filamentary Accretion at z = 6.1 (United States)

    Jones, G. C.; Willott, C. J.; Carilli, C. L.; Ferrara, A.; Wang, R.; Wagg, J.


    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations of the dust continuum and [C II] 158 μm line emission from the z = 6.0695 Lyman-Break Galaxy (LBG) WMH5. These observations at 0.″3 spatial resolution show a compact (˜3 kpc) main galaxy in dust and [C II] emission, with a “tail” of emission extending to the east by about 5 kpc (in projection). The [C II] tail is comprised predominantly of two distinct sub-components in velocity, separated from the core by ˜100 and 250 km s-1, with narrow intrinsic widths of about 80 km s-1, which we call “sub-galaxies.” The sub-galaxies themselves are extended east-west by about 3 kpc in individual channel images. The [C II] tail joins smoothly into the main galaxy velocity field. The [C II] line to continuum ratios are comparable for the main and sub-galaxy positions, within a factor two. In addition, these ratios are comparable to z˜ 5.5 LBGs. We conjecture that the WMH5 system represents the early formation of a galaxy through the accretion of smaller satellite galaxies, embedded in a smoother gas distribution, along a possibly filamentary structure. The results are consistent with current cosmological simulations of early galaxy formation and support the idea of very early enrichment with dust and heavy elements of the accreting material.

  20. Combining Galaxy-Galaxy Lensing and Galaxy Clustering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Youngsoo [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Krause, Elisabeth [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Dodelson, Scott [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Jain, Bhuvnesh [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Amara, Adam [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Becker, Matt [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Bridle, Sarah [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Clampitt, Joseph [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Crocce, Martin [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Honscheid, Klaus [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Gaztanaga, Enrique [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Sanchez, Carles [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States); Wechsler, Risa [Fermi National Accelerator Lab. (FNAL), Batavia, IL (United States)


    Combining galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering is a promising method for inferring the growth rate of large scale structure, a quantity that will shed light on the mechanism driving the acceleration of the Universe. The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a prime candidate for such an analysis, with its measurements of both the distribution of galaxies on the sky and the tangential shears of background galaxies induced by these foreground lenses. By constructing an end-to-end analysis that combines large-scale galaxy clustering and small-scale galaxy-galaxy lensing, we also forecast the potential of a combined probes analysis on DES datasets. In particular, we develop a practical approach to a DES combined probes analysis by jointly modeling the assumptions and systematics affecting the different components of the data vector, employing a shared halo model, HOD parametrization, photometric redshift errors, and shear measurement errors. Furthermore, we study the effect of external priors on different subsets of these parameters. We conclude that DES data will provide powerful constraints on the evolution of structure growth in the universe, conservatively/ optimistically constraining the growth function to 8%/4.9% with its first-year data covering 1000 square degrees, and to 4%/2.3% with its full five-year data covering 5000 square degrees.

  1. Morphology of Seyfert Galaxies


    Chen, Yen-Chen; Hwang, Chorng-Yuan


    We probed the relation between properties of Seyfert nuclei and morphology of their host galaxies. We selected Seyfert galaxies from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey with redshifts less 0.2 identified by the V\\'{e}ron Catalog (13th). We used the "{\\it{FracDev}}" parameter from SDSS galaxy fitting models to represent the bulge fractions of the Seyfert host galaxies. We found that the host galaxies of Seyfert 1 and Seyfert 2 are dominated by large bulge fractions, and Seyfert 2 galaxies are more li...

  2. A Zoo of Galaxies (United States)

    Masters, Karen L.


    We live in a universe filled with galaxies with an amazing variety of sizes and shapes. One of the biggest challenges for astronomers working in this field is to understand how all these types relate to each other in the background of an expanding universe. Modern astronomical surveys (like the Sloan Digital Sky Survey) have revolutionised this field of astronomy, by providing vast numbers of galaxies to study. The sheer size of the these databases made traditional visual classification of the types galaxies impossible and in 2007 inspired the Galaxy Zoo project (; starting the largest ever scientific collaboration by asking members of the public to help classify galaxies by type and shape. Galaxy Zoo has since shown itself, in a series of now more than 30 scientific papers, to be a fantastic database for the study of galaxy evolution. In this Invited Discourse I spoke a little about the historical background of our understanding of what galaxies are, of galaxy classification, about our modern view of galaxies in the era of large surveys. I finish with showcasing some of the contributions galaxy classifications from the Galaxy Zoo project are making to our understanding of galaxy evolution.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)


    Long slit absorption line spectroscopy has been obtained of the close to face-on Sc galaxy NGC 1566 and inclined Sb galaxy NGC 2815. These observations provided stellar radial velocities and stellar velocity dispersions as a function of radius for both galaxies. For NGC 1566 a radially decreasing

  4. The Unexpected Past of a Dwarf Galaxy (United States)


    in this way effectively `eats' the smaller one. Thus the Milky Way may contain the remains of many smaller galaxies it has met and consumed in the past. A natural consequence of this theory is that the Milky Way halo may at least partially consist of stars which originally belonged to these smaller galaxies. However, it is also possible that some of the halo stars formed during the early collapse of the gas cloud from which the Milky Way formed. Like the Milky Way, the two nearest, large spiral galaxies (the Andromeda nebula and M33 in the neighbouring Triangulum constellation) are also surrounded by halos of old stars. Contrarily, investigations of the smaller galaxies in the Local Group have until now not shown that they possess such halos. These dwarf galaxies greatly outnumber the large spiral galaxies - to date about two dozen are known - and they are considered to be the last survivors of the earlier cannibalism phase. The nearest are the well-known Magellanic Clouds, about 170,000 (Large Cloud) and 250,000 light years distant (Small Cloud). They can be seen with the unaided eye from the Southern hemisphere. Recent studies indicate that they orbit the Milky Way and that they may eventually fall prey to our galaxy in a future round of cannibalism. So far, no evidence has been found of an old halo around the Magellanic Clouds. This does not necessarily imply that all dwarf galaxies must likewise lack halos: it is also possible that the halos of the Magellanic Clouds were stripped away when they came too close to the Milky Way sometime in the past. The isolated WLM dwarf galaxy Down in the southern sky, in the constellation of Cetus (the Whale or the Sea Monster), lies a relative faint and distant, small galaxy which astronomers normally refer to as the WLM dwarf galaxy . It was first seen in 1909 by the famous astrophotographer Max Wolf on photographic plates obtained at the Heidelberg Observatory (Germany), but it was only in 1926 that its true nature was

  5. Hubble's Menagerie of Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    typ es form an evolutionary sequence: does one type of galaxy evolve into another? 1. T he D iscovery of G alaxies. A stronom ers began to ponder these issues only after they discovered w hat w as m eant by a galaxy. It w as in the 1920s that astronom ers realised that w e live in a separate galaxy, and that other galaxies w ...

  6. Alignment of galaxies relative to their local environment in SDSS-DR8


    Hirv, A.; Pelt, J.; Saar, E.; Tago, E.; Tamm, A.; Tempel, E.; Einasto, M.


    We study the alignment of galaxies relative to their local environment in SDSS-DR8 and, using these data, we discuss evolution scenarios for different types of galaxies. We defined a vector field of the direction of anisotropy of the local environment of galaxies. We summed the unit direction vectors of all close neighbours of a given galaxy in a particular way to estimate this field. We found the alignment angles between the spin axes of disc galaxies, or the minor axes of elliptical galaxie...

  7. Accretion by the Galaxy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binney, J.; Fraternali, F.; Reylé, C.; Robin, A.; Schultheis, M.

    Cosmology requires at least half of the baryons in the Universe to be in the intergalactic medium, much of which is believed to form hot coronae around galaxies. Star-forming galaxies must be accreting from their coronae. Hi observations of external galaxies show that they have Hi halos associated


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Benjamin F.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Stilp, Adrienne; Radburn-Smith, David [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Dolphin, Andrew [Raytheon, 1151 E. Hermans Road, Tucson, AZ 85706 (United States); Skillman, Evan D., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, University of Minnesota, 116 Church St. SE, Minneapolis, MN 55455 (United States)


    We present detailed analysis of color-magnitude diagrams of NGC 2403, obtained from a deep (m {approx}< 28) Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 observation of the outer disk of NGC 2403, supplemented by several shallow (m {approx}< 26) HST Advanced Camera for Surveys fields. We derive the spatially resolved star formation history of NGC 2403 out to 11 disk scale lengths. In the inner portions of the galaxy, we compare the recent star formation rates (SFRs) we derive from the resolved stars with those measured using GALEX FUV + Spitzer 24{mu} fluxes, finding excellent agreement between the methods. Our measurements also show that the radial gradient in recent SFR mirrors the disk exponential profile to 11 scale lengths with no break, extending to SFR densities a factor of {approx}100 lower than those that can be measured with GALEX and Spitzer ({approx}2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup -6} M{sub Sun} yr{sup -1} kpc{sup -2}). Furthermore, we find that the cumulative stellar mass of the disk was formed at similar times at all radii. We compare these characteristics of NGC 2403 to those of its ''morphological twins'', NGC 300 and M 33, showing that the structure and age distributions of the NGC 2403 disk are more similar to those of the relatively isolated system NGC 300 than to those of the Local Group analog M 33. We also discuss the environments and HI morphologies of these three nearby galaxies, comparing them to integrated light studies of larger samples of more distant galaxy disks. Taken together, the physical properties and evolutionary history of NGC 2403 suggest that the galaxy has had no close encounters with other M 81 group members and may be falling into the group for the first time.

  9. The effect of environment on the structure of disc galaxies (United States)

    Pranger, Florian; Trujillo, Ignacio; Kelvin, Lee S.; Cebrián, María


    We study the influence of environment on the structure of disc galaxies, using imfit to measure the g- and r-band structural parameters of the surface-brightness profiles for ˜700 low-redshift (z < 0.063) cluster and field disc galaxies with intermediate stellar mass (0.8 × 1010 M⊙ < M⋆ < 4 × 1010 M⊙) from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey, DR7. Based on this measurement, we assign each galaxy to a surface-brightness profile type (Type I ≡ single-exponential, Type II ≡ truncated, Type III ≡ antitruncated). In addition, we measure (g - r) rest frame colour for disc regions separated by the break radius. Cluster disc galaxies (at the same stellar mass) have redder (g - r) colour by ˜0.2 mag than field galaxies. This reddening is slightly more pronounced outside the break radius. Cluster disc galaxies also show larger global Sérsic-indices and are more compact than field discs, both by ˜15 per cent. This change is connected to a flattening of the (outer) surface-brightness profile of Type I and - more significantly - of Type III galaxies by ˜8 per cent and ˜16 per cent, respectively, in the cluster environment compared to the field. We find fractions of Type I, Type II and Type III of (6 ± 2) per cent, (66 ± 4) per cent and (29 ± 4) per cent in the field and (15_{-4}^{+7}) per cent, (56 ± 7) per cent and (29 ± 7) per cent in the cluster environment, respectively. We suggest that the larger abundance of Type I galaxies in clusters (matched by a corresponding decrease in the Type II fraction) could be the signature of a transition between Type II and Type I galaxies produced/enhanced by environment-driven mechanisms.

  10. Probing the Circumgalactic Gas around High Redshift Galaxies with VUDS (United States)

    Méndez-Hernández, Hugo; Cassata, Paolo; Ibar, Eduardo


    We probe the CGM of high redshift galaxies belonging to VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey. We used deep spectroscopy of different lines-of-sight around foreground galaxies to get useful information on the overall kinematics, chemical abundances, and (in some cases) estimates of the mass flux of cool material entrained in an in-outflow.We have selected a sample of 1244 close (0 150 kpc) galaxy pairs from the Vimos Ultra-Deep Survey (VUDS) to probe the circumgalactic medium (CGM) around galaxies at 2CIV, OISiII, CIV, AlII) out to galactocentric radii of ˜150 kpc on stacked spectra, and found that the CGM of galaxies at 2< z <5 are rich in metals even at ˜150 kpc away from the galaxies.

  11. Model Breaking Points Conceptualized (United States)

    Vig, Rozy; Murray, Eileen; Star, Jon R.


    Current curriculum initiatives (e.g., National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers 2010) advocate that models be used in the mathematics classroom. However, despite their apparent promise, there comes a point when models break, a point in the mathematical problem space where the model cannot,…

  12. Chemical evolution of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Matteucci, Francesca


    The term “chemical evolution of galaxies” refers to the evolution of abundances of chemical species in galaxies, which is due to nuclear processes occurring in stars and to gas flows into and out of galaxies. This book deals with the chemical evolution of galaxies of all morphological types (ellipticals, spirals and irregulars) and stresses the importance of the star formation histories in determining the properties of stellar populations in different galaxies. The topic is approached in a didactical and logical manner via galaxy evolution models which are compared with observational results obtained in the last two decades: The reader is given an introduction to the concept of chemical abundances and learns about the main stellar populations in our Galaxy as well as about the classification of galaxy types and their main observables. In the core of the book, the construction and solution of chemical evolution models are discussed in detail, followed by descriptions and interpretations of observations of ...

  13. Enhanced X-ray Emission from Early Universe Analog Galaxies (United States)

    Brorby, Matthew; Kaaret, Philip; Prestwich, Andrea H.; Mirabel, I. Felix; Feng, Hua


    X-rays from binaries containing compact objects may have played an important role in heating the early Universe. Here we discuss our findings from X-ray studies of blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCDs), Lyman break analogs (LBAs), and Green Pea galaxies (GP), all of which are considered local analogs to high redshift galaxies. We find enhanced X-ray emission per unit star-formation rate which strongly correlates with decreasing metallicity. We find evidence for the existence of a L_X-SFR-Metallicity plane for star-forming galaxies. The exact properties of X-ray emission in the early Universe affects the timing and morphology of reionization, both being observable properties of current and future radio observations of the redshifted 21cm signal from neutral hydrogen.

  14. Companions of Bright Barred Shapley Ames Galaxies


    Garcia-Barreto, J. Antonio; Carrillo, Rene; Vera-Villamizar, Nelson


    Companion galaxy environment for a subset of 78 bright and nearby barred galaxies from the Shapley Ames Catalog is presented. Among spiral barred galaxies there are Seyfert galaxies, galaxies with circumnuclear structures, galaxies not associated with any large scale galaxy cloud structure, galaxies with peculiar disk morphology (crooked arms) and galaxies with normal disk morphology; the list includes all Hubble types. The companion galaxy list includes number of companion galaxies within 20...

  15. A chronicle of galaxy mass assembly in the EAGLE simulation (United States)

    Qu, Yan; Helly, John C.; Bower, Richard G.; Theuns, Tom; Crain, Robert A.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Furlong, Michelle; McAlpine, Stuart; Schaller, Matthieu; Schaye, Joop; White, Simon D. M.


    We analyse the mass assembly of central galaxies in the Evolution and Assembly of Galaxies and their Environments (EAGLE) hydrodynamical simulations. We build merger trees to connect galaxies to their progenitors at different redshifts and characterize their assembly histories by focusing on the time when half of the galaxy stellar mass was assembled into the main progenitor. We show that galaxies with stellar mass M* < 1010.5 M⊙ assemble most of their stellar mass through star formation in the main progenitor (`in situ' star formation). This can be understood as a consequence of the steep rise in star formation efficiency with halo mass for these galaxies. For more massive galaxies, however, an increasing fraction of their stellar mass is formed outside the main progenitor and subsequently accreted. Consequently, while for low-mass galaxies, the assembly time is close to the stellar formation time, the stars in high-mass galaxies typically formed long before half of the present-day stellar mass was assembled into a single object, giving rise to the observed antihierarchical downsizing trend. In a typical present-day M* ≥ 1011 M⊙ galaxy, around 20 per cent of the stellar mass has an external origin. This fraction decreases with increasing redshift. Bearing in mind that mergers only make an important contribution to the stellar mass growth of massive galaxies, we find that the dominant contribution comes from mergers with galaxies of mass greater than one-tenth of the main progenitor's mass. The galaxy merger fraction derived from our simulations agrees with recent observational estimates.

  16. APEX Snaps First Close-up of Star Factories in Distant Universe (United States)


    For the first time, astronomers have made direct measurements of the size and brightness of regions of star-birth in a very distant galaxy, thanks to a chance discovery with the APEX telescope. The galaxy is so distant, and its light has taken so long to reach us, that we see it as it was 10 billion years ago. A cosmic "gravitational lens" is magnifying the galaxy, giving us a close-up view that would otherwise be impossible. This lucky break reveals a hectic and vigorous star-forming life for galaxies in the early Universe, with stellar nurseries forming one hundred times faster than in more recent galaxies. The research is published online today in the journal Nature. Astronomers were observing a massive galaxy cluster [1] with the Atacama Pathfinder Experiment (APEX) telescope, using submillimetre wavelengths of light, when they found a new and uniquely bright galaxy, more distant than the cluster and the brightest very distant galaxy ever seen at submillimetre wavelengths. It is so bright because the cosmic dust grains in the galaxy are glowing after being heated by starlight. The new galaxy has been given the name SMM J2135-0102. "We were stunned to find a surprisingly bright object that wasn't at the expected position. We soon realised it was a previously unknown and more distant galaxy being magnified by the closer galaxy cluster," says Carlos De Breuck from ESO, a member of the team. De Breuck was making the observations at the APEX telescope on the plateau of Chajnantor at an altitude of 5000 m in the Chilean Andes. The new galaxy SMM J2135-0102 is so bright because of the massive galaxy cluster that lies in the foreground. The vast mass of this cluster bends the light of the more distant galaxy, acting as a gravitational lens [2]. As with a telescope, it magnifies and brightens our view of the distant galaxy. Thanks to a fortuitous alignment between the cluster and the distant galaxy, the latter is strongly magnified by a factor of 32. "The magnification

  17. What Drives the Kinematic Evolution of Galaxies? (United States)

    Hung, Chao-Ling


    One important result from recent large integral field spectrograph (IFS) surveys is that the intrinsic velocity dispersion of galaxies increases at high redshift. While massive, rotation-dominated disks are already in place at z 2, they are dynamically hotter compared to spiral galaxies in the local Universe. Although several plausible mechanisms have been proposed (e.g., star formation feedback, elevated gas supply, or galaxy interaction), it remains unclear what is the fundamental driver of the velocity dispersion enhancement at high-z. We investigate the origin of this kinematic evolution using a suite of cosmological simulations from the FIRE (Feedback In Realistic Environments) project. Although the velocity dispersion of simulated galaxies is systematically lower compared to the observed values, the simulations successfully reproduce the observed trends between velocity dispersion, SFR, and redshift. In the FIRE simulations, the variation in velocity dispersion is highly dynamic across cosmic time, and it can vary significantly within a timescale of 100 Myr. These variations closely mirror the evolution of star formation and gas inflow histories. By cross-correlating any two parameters of velocity dispersion, gas inflow rates, and SFR, we show that the increase of gas inflowing into the galaxy lead to the subsequent star formation activities, and the enhancement of velocity dispersion follows closely in time with the increasing gas inflow rates and SFR.

  18. Breaking News as Radicalisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartley, Jannie Møller

    The aim of the paper is to make explicit how the different categories are applied in the online newsroom and thus how new categories can be seen as positioning strategies in the form of radicalisations of already existing categories. Thus field theory provides us with tools to analyse how online...... journalists are using the categorisations to create hierarchies within the journalistic field in order to position themselves as specialists in what Tuchman has called developing news, aiming and striving for what today is know as breaking news and the “exclusive scoop,” as the trademark of online journalism...... in a media environment where immediacy rules (Domingo 2008a). Following this research the primary focus of this paper is the category breaking news and Tuchmans developing news, but as they are all connected the analysis will also draw upon the other categories in Tuchmans typology. The theoretical framework...

  19. Routinizing Breaking News

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hartley, Jannie Møller


    This chapter revisits seminal theoretical categorizations of news proposed three decades earlier by US sociologist Gaye Tuchman. By exploring the definition of ”breaking news” in the contemporary online newsrooms of three Danish news organisations, the author offers us a long overdue re......-theorization of journalistic practice in the online context and helpfully explores well-evidenced limitations to online news production, such as the relationship between original reporting and the use of ”shovelware.”...

  20. Monolithic View of Galaxy Formation and Evolution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cesare Chiosi


    model galaxies closely resemble those of the real galaxies. In this context, we also try to cast light on the physical causes of the Stellar Mass-Radius Relation (MRR of galaxies. The MRR is the result of two complementary mechanisms: i.e., local physical processes that fix the stellar mass and the radius of each galaxy and cosmological global, statistical principles, which shape the distribution of galaxies in the MR-plane. Finally, we also briefly comment on the spectro-photometric properties of the model galaxies and how nicely they match the observational data. The picture emerging from this analysis is that the initial physical conditions of a proto-galaxy, i.e., nature, seem to play the dominant role in building up the ETGs we see today, whereas nurture by recurrent captures of small objects is a secondary actor of the fascinating and intriguing story of galaxy formation and evolution.

  1. Green Peas emit X-rays: Extreme Star Formation in Early Universe Analog Galaxies (United States)

    Brorby, Matthew; Kaaret, Philip


    Luminous compact galaxies (LCGs), Lyman Alpha Emitters (LAEs), and Lyman Break Analog galaxies (LBAs) are all used as proxies for star-forming galaxies in the early Universe (z ≥ 6). The X-ray emission from such galaxies has been found to be elevated compared to other star-forming galaxies in our local Universe. It has been suggested that this may be due to the lower metallicity seen in these proxies to high-redshift galaxies and the elevated X-ray emission may affect the heating and Reionization evolution of the early Universe. Our previous studies have suggested the existence of an LX-SFR-metallicity plane for all star-forming galaxies. We present these results in the context of our newest Joint Chandra/HST study containing the first X-ray detection of the Green Pea galaxies, a population of compact starburst galaxies discovered by volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo Project (Cardamone+2009). The galaxies were given the name Green Peas due to their compact size and green appearance in the gri composite images from SDSS. The green color is caused by a strong [OIII]λ5007Å emission line, an indicator of recent star formation. We observed a few of the most promising candidates with joint Chandra/HST observation and discuss our findings here.

  2. The Physical Origin of Galaxy Morphologies and Scaling Laws (United States)

    Steinmetz, Matthias; Navarro, Julio F.


    We propose a numerical study designed to interpret the origin and evolution of galaxy properties revealed by space- and ground-based imaging and spectroscopical surveys. Our aim is to unravel the physical processes responsible for the development of different galaxy morphologies and for the establishment of scaling laws such as the Tully-Fisher relation for spirals and the Fundamental Plane of ellipticals. In particular, we plan to address the following major topics: (1) The morphology and observability of protogalaxies, and in particular the relationship between primordial galaxies and the z approximately 3 'Ly-break' systems identified in the Hubble Deep Field and in ground-based searches; (2) The origin of the disk and spheroidal components in galaxies, the timing and mode of their assembly, the corresponding evolution in galaxy morphologies and its sensitivity to cosmological parameters; (3) The origin and redshift evolution of the scaling laws that link the mass, luminosity size, stellar content, and metal abundances of galaxies of different morphological types. This investigation will use state-of-the-art N-body/gasdynamical codes to provide a spatially resolved description of the galaxy formation process in hierarchically clustering universes. Coupled with population synthesis techniques. our models can be used to provide synthetic 'observations' that can be compared directly with observations of galaxies both nearby and at cosmologically significant distances. This study will thus provide insight into the nature of protogalaxies and into the formation process of galaxies like our own Milky Way. It will also help us to assess the cosmological significance of these observations within the context of hierarchical theories of galaxy formation and will supply a theoretical context within which current and future observations can be interpreted.

  3. Measuring neutrino masses with a future galaxy survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamann, Jan; Hannestad, Steen [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Aarhus, DK-8000 Aarhus C (Denmark); Wong, Yvonne Y.Y., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Institut für Theoretische Teilchenphysik und Kosmologie, RWTH Aachen, D-52056 Aachen (Germany)


    We perform a detailed forecast on how well a EUCLID-like photometric galaxy and cosmic shear survey will be able to constrain the absolute neutrino mass scale. Adopting conservative assumptions about the survey specifications and assuming complete ignorance of the galaxy bias, we estimate that the minimum mass sum of Σm{sub ν} ≅ 0.06 eV in the normal hierarchy can be detected at 1.5σ to 2.5σ significance, depending on the model complexity, using a combination of galaxy and cosmic shear power spectrum measurements in conjunction with CMB temperature and polarisation observations from PLANCK. With better knowledge of the galaxy bias, the significance of the detection could potentially reach 5.4σ. Interestingly, neither PLANCK+shear nor PLANCK+galaxy alone can achieve this level of sensitivity; it is the combined effect of galaxy and cosmic shear power spectrum measurements that breaks the persistent degeneracies between the neutrino mass, the physical matter density, and the Hubble parameter. Notwithstanding this remarkable sensitivity to Σm{sub ν}, EUCLID-like shear and galaxy data will not be sensitive to the exact mass spectrum of the neutrino sector; no significant bias ( < 1σ) in the parameter estimation is induced by fitting inaccurate models of the neutrino mass splittings to the mock data, nor does the goodness-of-fit of these models suffer any significant degradation relative to the true one (Δχ{sub eff}{sup 2} < 1)

  4. Galaxy formation and evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Mo, Houjun; White, Simon


    The rapidly expanding field of galaxy formation lies at the interface between astronomy, particle physics, and cosmology. Covering diverse topics from these disciplines, all of which are needed to understand how galaxies form and evolve, this book is ideal for researchers entering the field. Individual chapters explore the evolution of the Universe as a whole and its particle and radiation content; linear and nonlinear growth of cosmic structure; processes affecting the gaseous and dark matter components of galaxies and their stellar populations; the formation of spiral and elliptical galaxies; central supermassive black holes and the activity associated with them; galaxy interactions; and the intergalactic medium. Emphasizing both observational and theoretical aspects, this book provides a coherent introduction for astronomers, cosmologists, and astroparticle physicists to the broad range of science underlying the formation and evolution of galaxies.

  5. Classic Galaxy with Glamour (United States)


    This color composite image of nearby NGC 300 combines the visible-light pictures from Carnegie Institution of Washington's 100-inch telescope at Las Campanas Observatory (colored red and yellow), with ultraviolet views from NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. Galaxy Evolution Explorer detectors image far ultraviolet light (colored blue). This composite image traces star formation in progress. Young hot blue stars dominate the outer spiral arms of the galaxy, while the older stars congregate in the nuclear regions which appear yellow-green. Gases heated by hot young stars and shocks due to winds from massive stars and supernova explosions appear in pink, as revealed by the visible-light image of the galaxy. Located nearly 7 million light years away, NGC 300 is a member of a nearby group of galaxies known as the Sculptor Group. It is a spiral galaxy like our own Milky Way.

  6. Galaxy evolution. Galactic paleontology. (United States)

    Tolstoy, Eline


    Individual low-mass stars have very long lives, comparable to the age of the universe, and can thus be used to probe ancient star formation. At present, such stars can be identified and studied only in the Milky Way and in the very closest of our neighboring galaxies, which are predominantly small dwarf galaxies. These nearby ancient stars are a fossil record that can provide detailed information about the physical processes that dominated the epoch of galaxy formation and subsequent evolution.

  7. Galaxies: The Long Wavelength View

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fischer, J


    ... (more than 2 orders of magnitude) in the [C II]/FIR ratios in galaxies extending from blue compact dwarfs, to normal and starburst galaxies, down to elliptical and ultraluminous galaxies (ULICs...

  8. Galaxy Mergers and Some Consequences: The Cosmological Context (United States)

    Rodriguez-Gomez, Vicente

    The last few years have seen enormous progress in the field of galaxy formation and evolution. The latest generation of hydrodynamic cosmological simulations (e.g., the "Illustris" simulation) has been able to produce reasonably realistic populations of galaxies by tracking the evolution of dark matter, gas, stars, and black holes over a cosmological volume "representative" of the large-scale density field. However, such increasingly sophisticated cosmological simulations require equally sophisticated analysis tools. The first part of my thesis work consisted in developing a method for connecting galaxies across cosmic time, which results in data structures known as merger trees. My algorithm, known as SUBLINK, improves upon previous methods by making galaxies less likely to become "lost" during close interactions, and has been benchmarked in a merger tree code comparison project, with favorable results. The second part of my thesis work, and the main topic of this dissertation, consists of a series of essential and increasingly complex applications of my merger trees: (1) measuring the merger rate of galaxies, (2) finding out how galaxies acquire their stellar mass, and (3) investigating the impact of mergers on galaxy morphology. I will show how my analysis tools, in combination with the Illustris cosmological simulation, have made quantitative and statistically robust contributions to the field of galaxy formation and evolution, where galaxy mergers are known to play a fundamental role.

  9. The physical properties of Lyα emitting galaxies: not just primeval galaxies? (United States)

    Pentericci, L.; Grazian, A.; Fontana, A.; Castellano, M.; Giallongo, E.; Salimbeni, S.; Santini, P.


    Aims: We have analyzed a sample of Lyman break galaxies from z ~ 3.5 to z ~ 6 selected from the GOODS-S field as B, V, and i-dropouts, and with spectroscopic observations showing that they have the Lyα line in emission. Our main aim is to investigate their physical properties and their dependence on the emission line characteristic and to shed light on the relation between galaxies with Lyα emission and the general LBG population. Methods: The objects were selected from their optical continuum colors and then spectroscopically confirmed by the GOODS collaboration and other campaigns. From the public spectra we derived the main properties of the Lyα emission such as total flux and rest frame EW. We then used complete photometry, from U band to mid-infrared from the GOODS-MUSIC database, and through standard spectro-photometric techniques we derived the physical properties of the galaxies, such as total stellar mass, stellar ages, star formation rates, and dust content. Finally we investigated the relation between emission line and physical properties. Results: Although most galaxies are fit by young stellar populations, a small but non negligible fraction has SEDs that cannot be represented well by young models and require considerably older stellar component, up to ~1 Gyr. There is no apparent relation between age and EW: some of the oldest galaxies have high line EW, and should be also selected in narrow-band surveys. Therefore not all Lyα emitting galaxies are primeval galaxies in the very early stages of formation, as is commonly assumed. We also find a range of stellar populations, with masses from 5 × 108 M_⊙ to 5 × 1010 M_⊙ and SFR from few to 60 M_⊙ yr-1. Although there is no net correlation between mass and EW, we find a significant lack of massive galaxies with high EW, which could be explained if the most massive galaxies were either dustier and/or if they contained more neutral gas than less massive objects. Finally we find that more than

  10. Break the Pattern!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse, Cathrine; Trentemøller, Stine

    Break the Pattern! A critical enquiry into three scientific workplace cultures: Hercules, Caretakers and Worker Bees is the third publication of the international three year long project "Understanding Puzzles in the Gendered European Map" (UPGEM). By contrasting empirical findings from academic ...... (physics in culture) and discuss how physics as and in culture influence the perception of science, of work and family life, of the interplay between religion and science as well as how physics as culture can either hinder or promote the career of female scientists....

  11. Evolution of Compact Extreme Starburst Galaxies (United States)

    Lowenthal, James; Bershady, Matthew; Gallego, Jesus; Guzman, Rafael; Hameed, Salman; Koo, David


    The global SFR was tenfold greater at z=1 than at z=0, and "downsizing" scenarios of galaxy formation maintain that the strong evolution in SFR progresses from high- to low-mass systems with time. Meanwhile, large reservoirs of star formation previously hidden from the optical by obscuring dust are being uncovered in the IR and submm in diverse populations of galaxies over a wide range of redshift. We propose deep IRAC imaging and MIPS photometry of a unique sample of well-studied 26 extreme starburst galaxies, half of them nearby HII galaxies and the other half luminous compact blue galaxies (LCBGs) at redshift z~0.5. These intensely starforming but mostly low-mass systems, like their massive cousins the ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs), apparently evolve significantly: they can account for as much as 40% of the increase in global SFR observed between z=0 and z=1. They may also include local analogs of Lyman break galaxies at z~3, and are probably the same class of UV-bright starbursts recently observed in the local universe with GALEX. Coverage of our sample has two significant advantages over other multiwavelength surveys: spatially resolved HST/STIS-UV and optical imaging and spectroscopy, and high spectral and spatial resolution 2D spectroscopy with Keck/HIRES. Thus we can measure important physical parameters that are unavailable with the FLS, EGSS, GOODS, and other surveys. Our main science goal is (1) to use the mid- and far-IR emission to measure optically obscured star formation from z~1 to z=0 as a function of dynamical mass and rest-UV size and morphology; this will directly address inconsistencies in our current downsizing picture of galaxy evolution and the role of compact extreme starbursts. We also plan (2) to compare the SEDs of our samples to those of LBGs, to test the hypothesis that LCBGs include local analogs of LBGs; and (3) to measure the starbursts' stellar masses in the rest-NIR, which is necessary for analysis of SFH, b parameter

  12. 11Li structural information from inclusive break-up measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-García J. P.


    Full Text Available Structure information of 11Li halo nucleus has been obtained from the inclusive break-up measurements of the 11Li+208Pb reactions at energies around the Coulomb barrier (Elab = 24.3 and 29.8 MeV. The effective break-up energy and the slope of B(E1 distribution close to the threshold have been extracted from the experimental data.

  13. Forming disc galaxies in major mergers - III. The effect of angular momentum on the radial density profiles of disc galaxies (United States)

    Peschken, N.; Athanassoula, E.; Rodionov, S. A.


    We study the effect of angular momentum on the surface density profiles of disc galaxies, using high-resolution simulations of major mergers whose remnants have downbending radial density profiles (type II). As described in the previous papers of this series, in this scenario, most of the disc mass is acquired after the collision via accretion from a hot gaseous halo. We find that the inner and outer disc scalelengths, as well as the break radius, correlate with the total angular momentum of the initial merging system, and are larger for high-angular momentum systems. We follow the angular momentum redistribution in our simulated galaxies, and find that like the mass, the disc angular momentum is acquired via accretion, I.e. to the detriment of the gaseous halo. Furthermore, high-angular momentum systems give more angular momentum to their discs, which directly affects their radial density profile. Adding simulations of isolated galaxies to our sample, we find that the correlations are valid also for disc galaxies evolved in isolation. We show that the outer part of the disc at the end of the simulation is populated mainly by inside-out stellar migration, and that in galaxies with higher angular momentum, stars travel radially further out. This, however, does not mean that outer disc stars (in type II discs) were mostly born in the inner disc. Indeed, generally the break radius increases over time, and not taking this into account leads to overestimating the number of stars born in the inner disc.

  14. Candidate z~8-9 Galaxies from WFC3 Imaging


    Lorenzoni, Silvio; Bunker, Andrew; Wilkins, Stephen; Stanway, Elizabeth; Jarvis, Matt; Caruana, Joseph


    We present a search for galaxies at 7.6 < z < 9.8 using the latest Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) near-infrared data, based on the Lyman-break technique. We search for galaxies which have large (Y−J) colours (the ‘Y-drops’) on account of the Lyman α forest absorption, and with (J−H) colours inconsistent with being low-redshift contaminants. We identify 24 candidates at redshift z≈ 8–9 (15 are robust and a further nine more marginal but consistent with being high redshift) o...

  15. Mapping Dark Matter in Simulated Galaxy Clusters (United States)

    Bowyer, Rachel


    Galaxy clusters are the most massive bound objects in the Universe with most of their mass being dark matter. Cosmological simulations of structure formation show that clusters are embedded in a cosmic web of dark matter filaments and large scale structure. It is thought that these filaments are found preferentially close to the long axes of clusters. We extract galaxy clusters from the simulations "cosmo-OWLS" in order to study their properties directly and also to infer their properties from weak gravitational lensing signatures. We investigate various stacking procedures to enhance the signal of the filaments and large scale structure surrounding the clusters to better understand how the filaments of the cosmic web connect with galaxy clusters. This project was supported in part by the NSF REU grant AST-1358980 and by the Nantucket Maria Mitchell Association.

  16. Bootstrap Dynamical Symmetry Breaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Shu Hou


    Full Text Available Despite the emergence of a 125 GeV Higgs-like particle at the LHC, we explore the possibility of dynamical electroweak symmetry breaking by strong Yukawa coupling of very heavy new chiral quarks Q . Taking the 125 GeV object to be a dilaton with suppressed couplings, we note that the Goldstone bosons G exist as longitudinal modes V L of the weak bosons and would couple to Q with Yukawa coupling λ Q . With m Q ≳ 700  GeV from LHC, the strong λ Q ≳ 4 could lead to deeply bound Q Q ¯ states. We postulate that the leading “collapsed state,” the color-singlet (heavy isotriplet, pseudoscalar Q Q ¯ meson π 1 , is G itself, and a gap equation without Higgs is constructed. Dynamical symmetry breaking is affected via strong λ Q , generating m Q while self-consistently justifying treating G as massless in the loop, hence, “bootstrap,” Solving such a gap equation, we find that m Q should be several TeV, or λ Q ≳ 4 π , and would become much heavier if there is a light Higgs boson. For such heavy chiral quarks, we find analogy with the π − N system, by which we conjecture the possible annihilation phenomena of Q Q ¯ → n V L with high multiplicity, the search of which might be aided by Yukawa-bound Q Q ¯ resonances.

  17. Lopsided spiral galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Lopsided spiral galaxies · Outline of the talk: · Collaborators · Background : · Lopsided distribution highlighted first: Baldwin, Lynden-Bell, & Sancisi (1980) · Lopsidedness also seen in an edge-on galaxy : NGC 891 · Slide 7 · Origin of m=1 disk distribution? Early Theoretical models: · Disk response to a lopsided halo ...

  18. Galaxies in Fligh t

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the constellation of Corona Borealis, for example, there is a cluster containing some 400 galaxies. Our Milky Way is a member of a small cluster which embraces among others, the Andromeda Nebula and the two galaxies known as the Magellanic Clouds, which are of a relatively rare type that has no well- defined shape.

  19. Dark Matter Equilibria in Galaxies and Galaxy Systems (United States)

    Lapi, A.; Cavaliere, A.


    In the dark matter (DM) halos embedding galaxies and galaxy systems the "entropy" K ≡ σ2/ρ2/3 (a quantity that combines the radial velocity dispersion σ with the density ρ) is found from intensive N-body simulations to follow a power-law run K vprop r α throughout the halos' bulk, with α around 1.25. Taking up from phenomenology just that α≈ const. applies, we cut through the rich analytic contents of the Jeans equation describing the self-gravitating equilibria of the DM; we specifically focus on computing and discussing a set of novel physical solutions that we name α-profiles, marked by the entropy slope α itself, and by the maximal gravitational pull κcrit(α) required for a viable equilibrium to hold. We then use an advanced semianalytic description for the cosmological buildup of halos to constrain the values of α to within the narrow range 1.25-1.29 from galaxies to galaxy systems; these correspond to halos' current masses in the range 1011-1015 M sun. Our range of α applies since the transition time that—both in our semianalytic description and in state-of-the-art numerical simulations—separates two development stages: an early violent collapse that comprises a few major mergers and enforces dynamical mixing, followed by smoother mass addition through slow accretion. In our range of α we provide a close fit for the relation κcrit(α), and discuss a related physical interpretation in terms of incomplete randomization of the infall kinetic energy through dynamical mixing. We also give an accurate analytic representation of the α-profiles with parameters derived from the Jeans equation; this provides straightforward precision fits to recent detailed data from gravitational lensing in and around massive galaxy clusters, and thus replaces the empirical Navarro-Frenk-White formula relieving the related problems of high concentration and old age. We finally stress how our findings and predictions as to α and κcrit contribute to

  20. Dark energy in systems of galaxies (United States)

    Chernin, A. D.


    The precise observational data of the Hubble Space Telescope have been used to study nearby galaxy systems. The main result is the detection of dark energy in groups, clusters, and flows of galaxies on a spatial scale of about 1-10 Mpc. The local density of dark energy in these systems, which is determined by various methods, is close to the global value or even coincides with it. A theoretical model of the nearby Universe has been constructed, which describes the Local Group of galaxies with the flow of dwarf galaxies receding from this system. The key physical parameter of the group-flow system is zero gravity radius, which is the distance at which the gravity of dark matter is compensated by dark-energy antigravity. The model predicts the existence of local regions of space where Einstein antigravity is stronger than Newton gravity. Six such regions have been revealed in the data of the Hubble space telescope. The nearest of these regions is at a distance of 1-3 Mpc from the center of the Milky Way. Antigravity in this region is several times stronger than gravity. Quasiregular flows of receding galaxies, which are accelerated by the dark-energy antigravity, exist in these regions. The model of the nearby Universe at the scale of groups of galaxies (˜1 Mpc) can be extended to the scale of clusters (˜10 Mpc). The systems of galaxies with accelerated receding flows constitute a new and probably widespread class of metagalactic populations. Strong dynamic effects of local dark energy constitute the main characteristic feature of these systems.

  1. Shrouds of the Night - Galaxies and René Magritte (United States)

    Block, David L.; Freeman, Kenneth C.; Puerari, Ivâo

    In this review, we focus on a word which appears in the title of these conference proceedings: the term “galaxy”. We highlight the treachery of photographic or digital images of galaxies, by introducing the work of the Belgian surrealist artist René Magritte. We discuss his famous painting “The Treachery of Images” (La trahison des images, 1929), which portrays a pipe. Below it, Magritte painted these words, “Ceci n'est pas une pipe” (“This is not a pipe”). The painting is not a physical pipe, but rather a representation of a pipe. And so it is with galaxies and their masks: what we see is only a representation of what actually constitutes a galaxy. The definition of a galaxy given in the Hubble Atlas beautifully portrays the treachery of photographic images of galaxies, being then defined as closed dynamical systems, or island universes.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dullo, Bililign T.; Graham, Alister W., E-mail: [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn, Victoria 3122 (Australia)


    The inner and outer shapes and orientations of core-Sérsic galaxies may hold important clues to their formation and evolution. We have therefore measured the central and outer ellipticities and position angles for a sample of 24 core-Sérsic galaxies using archival Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images and data. By selecting galaxies with core-Sérsic break radii R{sub b} —a measure of the size of their partially depleted core—that are ≳ 0.''2, we find that the ellipticities and position angles are quite robust against HST seeing. For the bulk of the galaxies, there is a good agreement between the ellipticities and position angles at the break radii and the average outer ellipticities and position angles determined over R {sub e}/2 < R < R {sub e}, where R {sub e} is the spheroids' effective half light radius. However there are some interesting differences. We find a median ''inner'' ellipticity at R{sub b} of ε{sub med} = 0.13 ± 0.01, rounder than the median ellipticity of the ''outer'' regions ε{sub med} = 0.20 ± 0.01, which is thought to reflect the influence of the central supermassive black hole at small radii. In addition, for the first time we find a trend, albeit weak (2σ significance), such that galaxies with larger (stellar deficit-to-supermassive black hole) mass ratios—thought to be a measure of the number of major dry merger events—tend to have rounder inner and outer isophotes, suggesting a connection between the galaxy shapes and their merger histories. We show that this finding is not simply reflecting the well known result that more luminous galaxies are rounder, but it is no doubt related.



    Here is a sampling of 15 ultraluminous infrared galaxies viewed by NASA's Hubble Space Telescope. Hubble's sharp vision reveals more complexity within these galaxies, which astronomers are interpreting as evidence of a multiple-galaxy pileup. These images, taken by the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, are part of a three-year study of 123 galaxies within 3 billion light-years of Earth. The study was conducted in 1996, 1997, and 1999. False colors were assigned to these photos to enhance fine details within these coalescing galaxies. Credits: NASA, Kirk Borne (Raytheon and NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, Md.), Luis Colina (Instituto de Fisica de Cantabria, Spain), and Howard Bushouse and Ray Lucas (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md.)

  4. Gas accretion onto galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Davé, Romeel


    This edited volume presents the current state of gas accretion studies from both observational and theoretical perspectives, and charts our progress towards answering the fundamental yet elusive question of how galaxies get their gas. Understanding how galaxies form and evolve has been a central focus in astronomy for over a century. These studies have accelerated in the new millennium, driven by two key advances: the establishment of a firm concordance cosmological model that provides the backbone on which galaxies form and grow, and the recognition that galaxies grow not in isolation but within a “cosmic ecosystem” that includes the vast reservoir of gas filling intergalactic space. This latter aspect in which galaxies continually exchange matter with the intergalactic medium via inflows and outflows has been dubbed the “baryon cycle”. The topic of this book is directly related to the baryon cycle, in particular its least well constrained aspect, namely gas accretion. Accretion is a rare area of ast...

  5. Galaxy rotation curves with lognormal density distribution (United States)

    Marr, John H.


    The lognormal distribution represents the probability of finding randomly distributed particles in a micro canonical ensemble with high entropy. To a first approximation, a modified form of this distribution with a truncated termination may represent an isolated galactic disc, and this disc density distribution model was therefore run to give the best fit to the observational rotation curves for 37 representative galaxies. The resultant curves closely matched the observational data for a wide range of velocity profiles and galaxy types with rising, flat or descending curves in agreement with Verheijen's classification of `R', `F' and `D' type curves, and the corresponding theoretical total disc masses could be fitted to a baryonic Tully-Fisher relation. Nine of the galaxies were matched to galaxies with previously published masses, suggesting a mean excess dynamic disc mass of dex 0.61 ± 0.26 over the baryonic masses. Although questionable with regard to other measurements of the shape of disc galaxy gravitational potentials, this model can accommodate a scenario in which the gravitational mass distribution, as measured via the rotation curve, is confined to a thin plane without requiring a dark matter halo or the use of modified Newtonian dynamics.

  6. Hubble's deepest view ever of the Universe unveils earliest galaxies (United States)


    Hubble sees galaxies galore hi-res Size hi-res: 446 kb Credits: NASA, ESA, and S. Beckwith (STScI) and the HUDF Team Hubble sees galaxies galore Galaxies, galaxies everywhere - as far as the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope can see. This view of nearly 10,000 galaxies is the deepest visible-light image of the cosmos. Called the Hubble Ultra Deep Field, this galaxy-studded view represents a ‘deep’ core sample of the universe, cutting across billions of light-years. Hubble reveals galactic drama hi-res Size hi-res: 879 kb Credits: NASA, ESA, and S. Beckwith (STScI) and the HUDF Team Hubble reveals galactic drama A galactic brawl. A close encounter with a spiral galaxy. Blue wisps of galaxies. These close-up snapshots of galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field reveal the drama of galactic life. Here three galaxies just below centre are enmeshed in battle, their shapes distorted by the brutal encounter. Hubble reveals galactic drama hi-res Size hi-res: 886 kb Credits: NASA, ESA, and S. Beckwith (STScI) and the HUDF Team Hubble reveals galactic drama A galactic brawl. A close encounter with a spiral galaxy. Blue wisps of galaxies. These close-up snapshots of galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field reveal the drama of galactic life. Here three galaxies just below centre are enmeshed in battle, their shapes distorted by the brutal encounter. Hubble reveals galactic drama hi-res Size hi-res: 892 kb Credits: NASA, ESA, and S. Beckwith (STScI) and the HUDF Team Hubble reveals galactic drama A galactic brawl. A close encounter with a spiral galaxy. Blue wisps of galaxies. These close-up snapshots of galaxies in the Hubble Ultra Deep Field reveal the drama of galactic life. The galaxies in this panel were plucked from a harvest of nearly 10,000 galaxies in the Ultra Deep Field, the deepest visible-light image of the cosmos. This historic new view is actually made up by two separate images taken by Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and the Near Infrared Camera and

  7. The galaxy ancestor problem (United States)

    Disney, M. J.; Lang, R. H.


    The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) findsgalaxies whose Tolman dimming exceeds 10 mag. Could evolution alone explain these as our ancestor galaxies or could they be representatives of quite a different dynasty whose descendants are no longer prominent today? We explore the latter hypothesis and argue that surface brightness selection effects naturally bring into focus quite different dynasties from different redshifts. Thus, the HST z = 7 galaxies could be examples of galaxies whose descendants are both too small and too choked with dust to be recognizable in our neighbourhood easily today. Conversely, the ancestors of the Milky Way and its obvious neighbours would have completely sunk below the sky at z > 1.2, unless they were more luminous in the past, although their diffused light could account for the missing re-ionization flux. This Succeeding Prominent Dynasties Hypothesis (SPDH) fits the existing observations both naturally and well even without evolution, including the bizarre distributions of galaxy surface brightness found in deep fields, the angular size ˜(1 + z)-1 law, 'downsizing' which turns out to be an 'illusion' in the sense that it does not imply evolution, 'infant mortality', that is, the discrepancy between stars born and stars seen, the existence of 'red nuggets', and finally the recently discovered and unexpected excess of quasar absorption line damped Lyα systems at high redshift. If galaxies were not significantly brighter in the past and the SPDH were true, then a large proportion of galaxies could remain sunk from sight, possibly at all redshifts, and these sunken galaxies could supply the missing re-ionization flux. We show that fishing these sunken galaxies out of the sky by their optical emissions alone is practically impossible, even when they are nearby. More ingenious methods are needed to detect them. It follows that disentangling galaxy evolution through studying ever higher redshift galaxies may be a forlorn hope because one could

  8. Rotation Breaking Induced by ELMs on EAST

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiong, H.; Xu, G.; Sun, Y.

    Spontaneous rotation has been observed in LHCD H-mode plasmas with type III ELMs (edge localized modes) on EAST, and it revealed that type III ELMs can induce the loss of both core and edge toroidal rotation. Here we work on the breaking mechanism during the ELMs. Several large tokamaks have...... discovered ELMs' filamentary structures. It revealed that the ELMs are filamentary perturbations of positive density formed along the local field lines close to the LCFS. Currents flowing in the filaments induce magnetic perturbations, which break symmetry of magnetic field strength and lead to deformation...... of magnetic surface, thus generate NTV (neoclassical toroidal viscosity) torque that affects toroidal rotation. We adopt 1cm maximum edge magnetic surface displacement from experimental observation, and our calculation shows that the edge torque is about 0.35 N/m2, and the core very small. The expected...

  9. Application of break preclusion concept in German nuclear power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, E. [Energie-Versorgung Schwaben AG, Stuttgart (Germany); Maier, V. [Bayernwerk AG, Muenchen (Germany); Nagel, G. [PraussenElektra AG, Hannover (Germany)] [and others


    The break preclusion concept is based on {open_quotes}KTA rules{close_quotes}, {open_quotes}RSK guidelines{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}Rahmenspeziflkation Basissicherheit{close_quotes}. These fundamental rules containing for example requirements on material, design, calculation, manufacturing and testing procedures are explained and the technical realisation is shown by means of examples. The proof of the quality of these piping systems can be executed by means of fracture mechanics calculations by showing that in every case the leakage monitoring system already detect cracks which are clearly smaller than the critical crack. Thus the leak before break behavior and the break preclusion concept is implicitly affirmed. In order to further diminish conservativities in the fracture mechanics procedures, specific research projects are executed which are explained in this contribution.

  10. Making and Breaking Clouds (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    Molecular clouds which youre likely familiar with from stunning popular astronomy imagery lead complicated, tumultuous lives. A recent study has now found that these features must be rapidly built and destroyed.Star-Forming CollapseA Hubble view of a molecular cloud, roughly two light-years long, that has broken off of the Carina Nebula. [NASA/ESA, N. Smith (University of California, Berkeley)/The Hubble Heritage Team (STScI/AURA)]Molecular gas can be found throughout our galaxy in the form of eminently photogenic clouds (as featured throughout this post). Dense, cold molecular gas makes up more than 20% of the Milky Ways total gas mass, and gravitational instabilities within these clouds lead them to collapse under their own weight, resulting in the formation of our galaxys stars.How does this collapse occur? The simplest explanation is that the clouds simply collapse in free fall, with no source of support to counter their contraction. But if all the molecular gas we observe collapsed on free-fall timescales, star formation in our galaxy would churn a rate thats at least an order of magnitude higher than the observed 12 solar masses per year in the Milky Way.Destruction by FeedbackAstronomers have theorized that there may be some mechanism that supports these clouds against gravity, slowing their collapse. But both theoretical studies and observations of the clouds have ruled out most of these potential mechanisms, and mounting evidence supports the original interpretation that molecular clouds are simply gravitationally collapsing.A sub-mm image from ESOs APEX telescope of part of the Taurus molecular cloud, roughly ten light-years long, superimposed on a visible-light image of the region. [ESO/APEX (MPIfR/ESO/OSO)/A. Hacar et al./Digitized Sky Survey 2. Acknowledgment: Davide De Martin]If this is indeed the case, then one explanation for our low observed star formation rate could be that molecular clouds are rapidly destroyed by feedback from the very stars

  11. Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA): active galactic nuclei in pairs of galaxies (United States)

    Gordon, Yjan A.; Owers, Matt S.; Pimbblet, Kevin A.; Croom, Scott M.; Alpaslan, Mehmet; Baldry, Ivan K.; Brough, Sarah; Brown, Michael J. I.; Cluver, Michelle E.; Conselice, Christopher J.; Davies, Luke J. M.; Holwerda, Benne W.; Hopkins, Andrew M.; Gunawardhana, Madusha L. P.; Loveday, Jonathan; Taylor, Edward N.; Wang, Lingyu


    There exist conflicting observations on whether or not the environment of broad- and narrow-line active galatic nuclei (AGN) differ and this consequently questions the validity of the AGN unification model. The high spectroscopic completeness of the Galaxy and Mass Assembly (GAMA) survey makes it ideal for a comprehensive analysis of the close environment of galaxies. To exploit this, and conduct a comparative analysis of the environment of broad- and narrow-line AGN within GAMA, we use a double-Gaussian emission line fitting method to model the more complex line profiles associated with broad-line AGN. We select 209 type 1 (I.e. unobscured), 464 type 1.5-1.9 (partially obscured), and 281 type 2 (obscured) AGN within the GAMA II data base. Comparing the fractions of these with neighbouring galaxies out to a pair separation of 350 kpc h-1 and Δz except at separations less than 20 kpc h-1 where our observations suggest an excess of type 2 AGN in close pairs. We analyse the properties of the galaxies neighbouring our AGN and find no significant differences in colour or the star formation activity of these galaxies. Further to this, we find that Σ5 is also consistent between broad- and narrow-line AGN. We conclude that the observations presented here are consistent with AGN unification.

  12. The gravitational dynamics of galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    one could arrive at the number of galaxies of this size in the observable Universe – again around 1011. A few galaxies are bigger and brighter than our own, but many more are smaller, going down to dwarf galaxies which could be ten thousand times less luminous. Nevertheless, galaxies do form a distinct and unique unit ...

  13. Galactic accretion and the outer structure of galaxies in the CDM model (United States)

    Cooper, Andrew P.; D'Souza, Richard; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Wang, Jing; Boylan-Kolchin, Michael; Guo, Qi; Frenk, Carlos S.; White, Simon D. M.


    We have combined the semi-analytic galaxy formation model of Guo et al. with the particle-tagging technique of Cooper et al. to predict galaxy surface brightness profiles in a representative sample of ˜1900 massive dark matter haloes (1012-1014M⊙) from the Millennium II Λ cold dark matter N-body simulation. Here, we present our method and basic results focusing on the outer regions of galaxies, consisting of stars accreted in mergers. These simulations cover scales from the stellar haloes of Milky Way-like galaxies to the `cD envelopes' of groups and clusters, and resolve low surface brightness substructure such as tidal streams. We find that the surface density of accreted stellar mass around the central galaxies of dark matter haloes is well described by a Sèrsic profile, the radial scale and amplitude of which vary systematically with halo mass (M200). The total stellar mass surface density profile breaks at the radius where accreted stars start to dominate over stars formed in the galaxy itself. This break disappears with increasing M200 because accreted stars contribute more of the total mass of galaxies, and is less distinct when the same galaxies are averaged in bins of stellar mass, because of scatter in the relation between M⋆ and M200. To test our model, we have derived average stellar mass surface density profiles for massive galaxies at z ≈ 0.08 by stacking Sloan Digital Sky Survey images. Our model agrees well with these stacked profiles and with other data from the literature and makes predictions that can be more rigorously tested by future surveys that extend the analysis of the outer structure of galaxies to fainter isophotes. We conclude that it is likely that the outer structure of the spheroidal components of galaxies is largely determined by collisionless merging during their hierarchical assembly.

  14. Prophylactic treatment of retinal breaks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Blindbæk, Søren Leer; Grauslund, Jakob


    Prophylactic treatment of retinal breaks has been examined in several studies and reviews, but so far, no studies have successfully applied a systematic approach. In the present systematic review, we examined the need of follow-up after posterior vitreous detachment (PVD) - diagnosed by slit...... breaks. Additional retinal breaks were only revealed at follow-up in patients where a full retinal examination was compromised at presentation by, for example, vitreous haemorrhage. Asymptomatic and symptomatic retinal breaks progressed to rhegmatogenous retinal detachment (RRD) in 0-13.8% and 35...

  15. Electroweak breaking in supersymmetric models

    CERN Document Server

    Ibáñez, L E


    We discuss the mechanism for electroweak symmetry breaking in supersymmetric versions of the standard model. After briefly reviewing the possible sources of supersymmetry breaking, we show how the required pattern of symmetry breaking can automatically result from the structure of quantum corrections in the theory. We demonstrate that this radiative breaking mechanism works well for a heavy top quark and can be combined in unified versions of the theory with excellent predictions for the running couplings of the model. (To be published in ``Perspectives in Higgs Physics'', G. Kane editor.)

  16. A Cluster and a Sea of Galaxies (United States)


    A new wide-field image released today by ESO displays many thousands of distant galaxies, and more particularly a large group belonging to the massive galaxy cluster known as Abell 315. As crowded as it may appear, this assembly of galaxies is only the proverbial "tip of the iceberg", as Abell 315 - like most galaxy clusters - is dominated by dark matter. The huge mass of this cluster deflects light from background galaxies, distorting their observed shapes slightly. When looking at the sky with the unaided eye, we mostly only see stars within our Milky Way galaxy and some of its closest neighbours. More distant galaxies are just too faint to be perceived by the human eye, but if we could see them, they would literally cover the sky. This new image released by ESO is both a wide-field and long-exposure one, and reveals thousands of galaxies crowding an area on the sky roughly as large as the full Moon. These galaxies span a vast range of distances from us. Some are relatively close, as it is possible to distinguish their spiral arms or elliptical halos, especially in the upper part of the image. The more distant appear just like the faintest of blobs - their light has travelled through the Universe for eight billion years or more before reaching Earth. Beginning in the centre of the image and extending below and to the left, a concentration of about a hundred yellowish galaxies identifies a massive galaxy cluster, designated with the number 315 in the catalogue compiled by the American astronomer George Abell in 1958 [1]. The cluster is located between the faint, red and blue galaxies and the Earth, about two billion light-years away from us. It lies in the constellation of Cetus (the Whale). Galaxy clusters are some of the largest structures in the Universe held together by gravity. But there is more in these structures than the many galaxies we can see. Galaxies in these giants contribute to only ten percent of the mass, with hot gas in between galaxies

  17. The influence of halo evolution on galaxy structure (United States)

    White, Simon


    If Einstein-Newton gravity holds on galactic and larger scales, then current observations demonstrate that the stars and interstellar gas of a typical bright galaxy account for only a few percent of its total nonlinear mass. Dark matter makes up the rest and cannot be faint stars or any other baryonic form because it was already present and decoupled from the radiation plasma at z = 1000, long before any nonlinear object formed. The weak gravito-sonic waves so precisely measured by CMB observations are detected again at z = 4 as order unity fluctuations in intergalactic matter. These subsequently collapse to form today's galaxy/halo systems, whose mean mass profiles can be accurately determined through gravitational lensing. High-resolution simulations link the observed dark matter structures seen at all these epochs, demonstrating that they are consistent and providing detailed predictions for all aspects of halo structure and growth. Requiring consistency with the abundance and clustering of real galaxies strongly constrains the galaxy-halo relation, both today and at high redshift. This results in detailed predictions for galaxy assembly histories and for the gravitational arena in which galaxies live. Dark halos are not expected to be passive or symmetric but to have a rich and continually evolving structure which will drive evolution in the central galaxy over its full life, exciting warps, spiral patterns and tidal arms, thickening disks, producing rings, bars and bulges. Their growth is closely related to the provision of new gas for galaxy building.

  18. The dynamics of galaxy pairs in a cosmological setting (United States)

    Moreno, Jorge; Bluck, Asa F. L.; Ellison, Sara L.; Patton, David R.; Torrey, Paul; Moster, Benjamin P.


    We use the Millennium Simulation, and an abundance matching framework, to investigate the dynamical behaviour of galaxy pairs embedded in a cosmological context. Our main galaxy-pair sample, selected to have separations r ≤ 250 h-1 kpc, consists of over 1.3 million pairs at redshift z = 0, with stellar masses greater than 1010 M⊙, probing mass ratios down to 1:1000. We use dark matter halo membership and energy to classify our galaxy pairs. In terms of halo membership, central-satellite pairs tend to be in isolation (in relation to external more massive galaxies), are energetically bound to each other and are also weakly bound to a neighbouring massive galaxy. Satellite-satellite pairs, instead, inhabit regions in close proximity to a more massive galaxy, are energetically unbound and are often bound to that neighbour. We find that 60 per cent of our paired galaxies are bound to both their companion and to a third external object. Moreover, only 9 per cent of our pairs resemble the kind of systems described by idealized binary merger simulations in complete isolation. In sum, we demonstrate the importance of properly connecting galaxy pairs to the rest of the Universe.

  19. A Curious Pair of Galaxies (United States)


    The ESO Very Large Telescope has taken the best image ever of a strange and chaotic duo of interwoven galaxies. The images also contain some surprises -- interlopers both far and near. ESO PR Photo 11a/09 A Curious Pair of Galaxies ESO PR Video 11a/09 Arp 261 zoom in ESO PR Video 11b/09 Pan over Arp 261 Sometimes objects in the sky that appear strange, or different from normal, have a story to tell and prove scientifically very rewarding. This was the idea behind Halton Arp's catalogue of Peculiar Galaxies that appeared in the 1960s. One of the oddballs listed there is Arp 261, which has now been imaged in more detail than ever before using the FORS2 instrument on ESO's Very Large Telescope. The image proves to contain several surprises. Arp 261 lies about 70 million light-years distant in the constellation of Libra, the Scales. Its chaotic and very unusual structure is created by the interaction of two galaxies that are engaged in a slow motion, but highly disruptive close encounter. Although individual stars are very unlikely to collide in such an event, the huge clouds of gas and dust certainly do crash into each other at high speed, leading to the formation of bright new clusters of very hot stars that are clearly seen in the picture. The paths of the existing stars in the galaxies are also dramatically disrupted, creating the faint swirls extending to the upper left and lower right of the image. Both interacting galaxies were probably dwarfs not unlike the Magellanic Clouds orbiting our own galaxy. The images used to create this picture were not actually taken to study the interacting galaxies at all, but to investigate the properties of the inconspicuous object just to the right of the brightest part of Arp 261 and close to the centre of the image. This is an unusual exploding star, called SN 1995N, that is thought to be the result of the final collapse of a massive star at the end of its life, a so-called core collapse supernova. SN 1995N is unusual because

  20. Mysterious Blob Galaxies Revealed (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1Figure 2Figure 3 This image composite shows a giant galactic blob (red, figure 2) and the three merging galaxies NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope discovered within it (yellow, figure 3). Blobs are intensely glowing clouds of hot hydrogen gas that envelop faraway galaxies. They are about 10 times as large as the galaxies they surround. Visible-light images like the one shown in figure 2, reveal the vast extent of blobs, but don't provide much information about their host galaxies. Using its heat-seeking infrared eyes, Spitzer was able to see the dusty galaxies tucked inside one well-known blob located 11 billion light-years away. The findings reveal three monstrously bright galaxies, trillions of times brighter than the Sun, in the process of merging together (figure 3). Spitzer also observed three other blobs located in the same cosmic neighborhood, all of which were found to be glaringly bright. One of these blobs is also known to be a galactic merger, only between two galaxies instead of three. It remains to be seen whether the final two blobs studied also contain mergers. The Spitzer data were acquired by its multiband imaging photometer. The visible-light image was taken by the Blanco Telescope at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Chile.

  1. Dwarf galaxies : Important clues to galaxy formation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, E


    The smallest dwarf galaxies are the most straight forward objects in which to study star formation processes on a galactic scale. They are typically single cell star forming entities, and as small potentials in orbit around a much larger one they are unlikely to accrete much (if any) extraneous

  2. Breaking soliton equations and negative-order breaking soliton ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We develop breaking soliton equations and negative-order breaking soliton equations of typical and higher orders. The recursion operator of the KdV equation is used to derive these models.We establish the distinctdispersion relation for each equation. We use the simplified Hirota's method to obtain multiple soliton ...

  3. Probing Planets in Extragalactic Galaxies Using Quasar Microlensing


    Dai, Xinyu; Guerras, Eduardo


    Previously, planets have been detected only in the Milky Way galaxy. Here, we show that quasar microlensing provides a means to probe extragalactic planets in the lens galaxy, by studying the microlensing properties of emission close to the event horizon of the supermassive black hole of the background quasar, using the current generation telescopes. We show that a population of unbound planets between stars with masses ranging from Moon to Jupiter masses is needed to explain the frequent Fek...

  4. ACS Nearby Galaxy Survey (United States)

    Dalcanton, Julianne


    Existing HST observations of nearby galaxies comprise a sparse and highly non-uniform archive, making comprehensive comparative studies among galaxies essentially impossible. We propose to secure HST's lasting impact on the study of nearby galaxies by undertaking a systematic, complete, and carefully crafted imaging survey of ALL galaxies in the Local Universe outside the Local Group. The resulting images will allow unprecedented measurements of: {1} the star formation history {SFH} of a >100 Mpc^3 volume of the Universe with a time resolution of Delta[log{t}]=0.25; {2} correlations between spatially resolved SFHs and environment; {3} the structure and properties of thick disks and stellar halos; and {4} the color distributions, sizes, and specific frequencies of globular and disk clusters as a function of galaxy mass and environment. To reach these goals, we will use a combination of wide-field tiling and pointed deep imaging to obtain uniform data on all 72 galaxies within a volume-limited sample extending to 3.5 Mpc, with an extension to the M81 group. For each galaxy, the wide-field imaging will cover out to 1.5 times the optical radius and will reach photometric depths of at least 2 magnitudes below the tip of the red giant branch throughout the limits of the survey volume. One additional deep pointing per galaxy will reach SNR 10 for red clump stars, sufficient to recover the ancient SFH from the color-magnitude diagram. This proposal will produce photometric information for 100 million stars {comparable to the number in the SDSS survey} and uniform multi-color images of half a square degree of sky. The resulting archive will establish the fundamental optical database for nearby galaxies, in preparation for the shift of high-resolution imaging to the near-infrared.

  5. Accretion by the Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Binney J.


    Full Text Available Cosmology requires at least half of the baryons in the Universe to be in the intergalactic medium, much of which is believed to form hot coronae around galaxies. Star-forming galaxies must be accreting from their coronae. Hi observations of external galaxies show that they have Hi halos associated with star formation. These halos are naturally modelled as ensembles of clouds driven up by supernova bubbles. These models can fit the data successfully only if clouds exchange mass and momentum with the corona. As a cloud orbits, it is ablated and forms a turbulent wake where cold high-metallicity gas mixes with hot coronal gas causing the prompt cooling of the latter. As a consequence the total mass of Hi increases. This model has recently been used to model the Leiden-Argentina-Bonn survey of Galactic Hi. The values of the model’s parameters that are required to model NGC 891, NGC 2403 and our Galaxy show a remarkable degree of consistency, despite the very different natures of the two external galaxies and the dramatic difference in the nature of the data for our Galaxy and the external galaxies. The parameter values are also consistent with hydrodynamical simulations of the ablation of individual clouds. The model predicts that a galaxy that loses its cool-gas disc for instance through a major merger cannot reform it from its corona; it can return to steady star formation only if it can capture a large body of cool gas, for example by accreting a gas-rich dwarf. Thus the model explains how major mergers can make galaxies “red and dead.”

  6. Dust and gas in star-forming galaxies at z 3. Extending galaxy uniformity to 11.5 billion years (United States)

    Magdis, G. E.; Rigopoulou, D.; Daddi, E.; Bethermin, M.; Feruglio, C.; Sargent, M.; Dannerbauer, H.; Dickinson, M.; Elbaz, D.; Gomez Guijarro, C.; Huang, J.-S.; Toft, S.; Valentino, F.


    We present millimetre dust emission measurements of two Lyman-break galaxies at z 3 and construct for the first time fully sampled infrared spectral energy distributions (SEDs), from mid-IR to the Rayleigh-Jeans tail, of individually detected, unlensed, UV-selected, main sequence (MS) galaxies at z = 3. The SED modelling of the two sources confirms previous findings, based on stacked ensembles, of an increasing mean radiation field ⟨ U ⟩ with redshift, consistent with a rapidly decreasing gas metallicity in z> 2 galaxies. Complementing our study with CO[J = 3 → 2] emission line observations, we have measured the molecular gas mass reservoir (MH2) of the systems using three independent approaches: 1) CO line observations; 2) the dust to gas mass ratio vs. metallicity relation; and 3) a single band, dust emission flux on the Rayleigh-Jeans side of the SED. All techniques return consistent MH2 estimates within a factor of two or less, yielding gas depletion time-scales (τdep ≈ 0.35 Gyr) and gas-to-stellar mass ratios (MH2/M∗ ≈ 0.5-1) for our z 3 massive MS galaxies. The overall properties of our galaxies are consistent with trends and relations established at lower redshifts, extending the apparent uniformity of star-forming galaxies over the last 11.5 billion years. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments provided by European-led Principal Investigator consortia and with important participation from NASA.

  7. Updated Nearby Galaxy Catalog


    Karachentsev, Igor D.; Makarov, Dmitry I.; Kaisina, Elena I.


    We present an all-sky catalog of 869 nearby galaxies, having individual distance estimates within 11 Mpc or corrected radial velocities V_{LG} < 600 km/s. The catalog is a renewed and expanded version of the "Catalog of Neighboring Galaxies" by Karachentsev et al. (2004). It collects data on the following observables for the galaxies: angular diameters, apparent magnitudes in FUV-, B-, and K_s- bands, H_alpha and HI fluxes, morphological types, HI-line widths, radial velocities and distance e...

  8. Gas Kinematics In and Around Edge-on Galaxies from MaNGA Observations (United States)

    Bizyaev, D.


    Mapping Nearby Galaxies at APO (MaNGA) is a massive Integral Field Unit survey of a large number of relatively nearby galaxies that started in 2014 as a part of SDSS-IV at the Apache Point Observatory. After the first year of observations MaNGA has obtained IFU spectra of about a thousand of objects, with several dozens of edge-on galaxies among them. The two-dimensional spectra help us constrain parameters of galactic components with superior rotation curves. There is a significant fraction of galaxies in which the extra-planar gas emission is confidently detected. The extra-planar gas velocity fields in several galaxies show signs of lagging rotation with respect to the gas motion close to the galactic plane. We show progress of MaNGA survey in observations of edge-on galaxies and discuss their impact on our understanding of gas kinematics in and around spiral galaxies after finishing the survey.

  9. Core break-off mechanism (United States)

    Myrick, Thomas M. (Inventor)


    A mechanism for breaking off and retaining a core sample of a drill drilled into a ground substrate has an outer drill tube and an inner core break-off tube sleeved inside the drill tube. The break-off tube breaks off and retains the core sample by a varying geometric relationship of inner and outer diameters with the drill tube. The inside diameter (ID) of the drill tube is offset by a given amount with respect to its outer diameter (OD). Similarly, the outside diameter (OD) of the break-off tube is offset by the same amount with respect to its inner diameter (ID). When the break-off tube and drill tube are in one rotational alignment, the two offsets cancel each other such that the drill can operate the two tubes together in alignment with the drill axis. When the tubes are rotated 180 degrees to another positional alignment, the two offsets add together causing the core sample in the break-off tube to be displaced from the drill axis and applying shear forces to break off the core sample.

  10. A Catalog of Edge-on Disk Galaxies: From Galaxies with a Bulge to Superthin Galaxies


    Kautsch, S. J.; Grebel, E. K.; Barazza, F. D.; Gallagher, J. S.


    The formation and evolution of disk-dominated galaxies is difficult to explain, yet these objects exist. We therefore embarked on a study aimed at a better understanding of these enigmatic objects. We used data from the SDSS DR1 in order to identify edge-on galaxies with disks in a uniform, reproducible, automated fashion. We identified 3169 edge-on disk galaxies, which we subdivided into disk galaxies with bulge, intermediate types, and simple disk galaxies without any obvious bulge componen...

  11. An Empirically-Calibrated Model For Interpreting the Evolution of Galaxies During the Reionization Era


    Stark, Daniel P.; Loeb, Abraham; Ellis, Richard S.


    [Abridged] We develop a simple star formation model whose goal is to interpret the emerging body of observational data on star-forming galaxies at z>~6. The efficiency and duty cycle of the star formation activity within dark matter halos are determined by fitting the luminosity functions of Lya emitter and Lyman-break galaxies at redshifts z~5-6. Using our model parameters we predict the likely abundance of star forming galaxies at earlier epochs and compare these to the emerging data in the...

  12. 'Nomadic' nuclei of galaxies (United States)

    Silchenko, O. K.; Lipunov, V. M.


    In this paper the authors discuss observational and theoretical arguments in favour of hypothesis on "nomad life" of active nuclei inside and outside galaxies as well as its consequences. It may be the anisotropic collapse of a supermassive star, or the disruption of a supermassive binary system after the collapse of one companion that would give birth to such nuclei. The authors predict the existence of veritable quasi-stellar active objects without any ghost galaxies.

  13. Dark matter in galaxies


    Zasov, A. V.; Saburova, A. S.; Khoperskov, A. V.; Khoperskov, S. A.


    Dark matter in galaxies, its abundance, and its distribution remain a subject of long-standing discussion, especially in view of the fact that neither dark matter particles nor dark matter bodies have yet been found. Experts' opinions range from a very large number of completely dark galaxies exist to nonbaryonic dark matter does not exist at all in any significant amounts. We discuss astronomical evidence for the existence of dark matter and its connection with visible matter and examine att...

  14. Stellar disc truncations and extended haloes in face-on spiral galaxies (United States)

    Peters, S. P. C.; van der Kruit, P. C.; Knapen, J. H.; Trujillo, I.; Fliri, J.; Cisternas, M.; Kelvin, L. S.


    We use data from the IAC Stripe82 Legacy Project to study the surface photometry of 22 nearby, face-on to moderately inclined spiral galaxies. The reprocessed and combined Stripe 82 g',r' and I' images allow us to probe the galaxy down to 29-30 r'-magnitudes arcsec-2 and thus reach into the very faint outskirts of the galaxies. Truncations are found in three galaxies. An additional 15 galaxies are found to have an apparent extended stellar halo. Simulations show that the scattering of light from the inner galaxy by the point spread function (PSF) can produce faint structures resembling haloes, but this effect is insufficient to fully explain the observed haloes. The presence of these haloes and of truncations is mutually exclusive, and we argue that the presence of a stellar halo and/or light scattered by the PSF can hide truncations. Furthermore, we find that the onset of the stellar halo and the truncations scales tightly with galaxy size. Interestingly, the fraction of light does not correlate with dynamic mass. Nineteen galaxies are found to have breaks in their profiles, the radius of which also correlates with galaxy size.

  15. Lyman Break Analogs: Constraints on the Formation of Extreme Starbursts at Low and High Redshift (United States)

    Goncalves, Thiago S.; Overzier, Roderik; Basu-Zych, Antara; Martin, D. Christopher


    Lyman Break Analogs (LBAs), characterized by high far-UV luminosities and surface brightnesses as detected by GALEX, are intensely star-forming galaxies in the low-redshift universe (z approximately equal to 0.2), with star formation rates reaching up to 50 times that of the Milky Way. These objects present metallicities, morphologies and other physical properties similar to higher redshift Lyman Break Galaxies (LBGs), motivating the detailed study of LBAs as local laboratories of this high-redshift galaxy population. We present results from our recent integral-field spectroscopy survey of LBAs with Keck/OSIRIS, which shows that these galaxies have the same nebular gas kinematic properties as high-redshift LBGs. We argue that such kinematic studies alone are not an appropriate diagnostic to rule out merger events as the trigger for the observed starburst. Comparison between the kinematic analysis and morphological indices from HST imaging illustrates the difficulties of properly identifying (minor or major) merger events, with no clear correlation between the results using either of the two methods. Artificial redshifting of our data indicates that this problem becomes even worse at high redshift due to surface brightness dimming and resolution loss. Whether mergers could generate the observed kinematic properties is strongly dependent on gas fractions in these galaxies. We present preliminary results of a CARMA survey for LBAs and discuss the implications of the inferred molecular gas masses for formation models.

  16. Dwarf elliptical galaxies (United States)

    Ferguson, Henry C.; Binggeli, Bruno


    Dwarf elliptical (dE) galaxies, with blue absolute magnitudes typically fainter than M(sub B) = -16, are the most numerous type of galaxy in the nearby universe. Tremendous advances have been made over the past several years in delineating the properties of both Local Group satellite dE's and the large dE populations of nearby clusters. We review some of these advances, with particular attention to how well currently availiable data can constrain (a) models for the formation of dE's, (b) the physical and evolutionary connections between different types of galaxies that overlap in the same portion of the mass-spectrum of galaxies, (c) the contribution of dE's to the galaxy luminosity functions in clusters and the field, (d) the star-forming histories of dE's and their possible contribution to faint galaxy counts, and (e) the clustering properties of dE's. In addressing these issues, we highlight the extent to which selection effects temper these constraints, and outline areas where new data would be particularly valuable.

  17. Matching Supernovae to Galaxies (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    One of the major challenges for modern supernova surveys is identifying the galaxy that hosted each explosion. Is there an accurate and efficient way to do this that avoids investing significant human resources?Why Identify Hosts?One problem in host galaxy identification. Here, the supernova lies between two galaxies but though the centroid of the galaxy on the right is closer in angular separation, this may be a distant background galaxy that is not actually near the supernova. [Gupta et al. 2016]Supernovae are a critical tool for making cosmological predictions that help us to understand our universe. But supernova cosmology relies on accurately identifying the properties of the supernovae including their redshifts. Since spectroscopic followup of supernova detections often isnt possible, we rely on observations of the supernova host galaxies to obtain redshifts.But how do we identify which galaxy hosted a supernova? This seems like a simple problem, but there are many complicating factors a seemingly nearby galaxy could be a distant background galaxy, for instance, or a supernovas host could be too faint to spot.The authors algorithm takes into account confusion, a measure of how likely the supernova is to be mismatched. In these illustrations of low (left) and high (right) confusion, the supernova is represented by a blue star, and the green circles represent possible host galaxies. [Gupta et al. 2016]Turning to AutomationBefore the era of large supernovae surveys, searching for host galaxies was done primarily by visual inspection. But current projects like the Dark Energy Surveys Supernova Program is finding supernovae by the thousands, and the upcoming Large Synoptic Survey Telescope will likely discover hundreds of thousands. Visual inspection will not be possible in the face of this volume of data so an accurate and efficient automated method is clearly needed!To this end, a team of scientists led by Ravi Gupta (Argonne National Laboratory) has recently

  18. The Galaxy Evolution Probe (United States)

    Glenn, Jason; Galaxy Evolution Probe Team


    The Galaxy Evolution Probe (GEP) is a concept for a far-infrared observatory to survey large regions of sky for star-forming galaxies from z = 0 to beyond z = 3. Our knowledge of galaxy formation is incomplete and requires uniform surveys over a large range of redshifts and environments to accurately describe mass assembly, star formation, supermassive black hole growth, interactions between these processes, and what led to their decline from z ~ 2 to the present day. Infrared observations are sensitive to dusty, star-forming galaxies, which have bright polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission features and warm dust continuum in the rest-frame mid infrared and cooler thermal dust emission in the far infrared. Unlike previous far-infrared continuum surveys, the GEP will measure photometric redshifts commensurate with galaxy detections from PAH emission and Si absorption features, without the need for obtaining spectroscopic redshifts of faint counterparts at other wavelengths.The GEP design includes a 2 m diameter telescope actively cooled to 4 K and two instruments: (1) An imager covering 10 to 300 um with 25 spectral resolution R ~ 8 bands (with lower R at the longest wavelengths) to detect star-forming galaxies and measure their redshifts photometrically. (2) A 23 – 190 um, R ~ 250 dispersive spectrometer for redshift confirmation and identification of obscured AGN using atomic fine-structure lines. Lines including [Ne V], [O IV], [O III], [O I], and [C II] will probe gas physical conditions, radiation field hardness, and metallicity. Notionally, the GEP will have a two-year mission: galaxy surveys with photometric redshifts in the first year and a second year devoted to follow-up spectroscopy. A comprehensive picture of star formation in galaxies over the last 10 billion years will be assembled from cosmologically relevant volumes, spanning environments from field galaxies and groups, to protoclusters, to dense galaxy clusters.Commissioned by NASA, the

  19. H1 in RSA galaxies (United States)

    Richter, OTTO-G.


    The original Revised Shapley-Ames (RSA) galaxy sample of almost 1300 galaxies has been augmented with further bright galaxies from the RSA appendix as well as newer galaxy catalogs. A complete and homogeneous, strictly magnitude-limited all-sky sample of 2345 galaxies brighter than 13.4 in apparent blue magnitude was formed. New 21 cm H1 line observations for more than 600 RSA galaxies have been combined with all previously available H1 data from the literature. This new extentise data act allows detailed tests of widely accepted 'standard' reduction and analysis techniques.

  20. The environment of barred galaxies in the low-redshift universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Ye; Sodi, Bernardo Cervantes; Li, Cheng; Wang, Lixin; Wang, Enci, E-mail:, E-mail: [Partner Group of the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics at the Shanghai Astronomical Observatory and Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Nandan Road 80, Shanghai 200030 (China)


    We present a study of the environment of barred galaxies using a volume-limited sample of over 30,000 galaxies drawn from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We use four different statistics to quantify the environment: the projected two-point cross-correlation function, the background-subtracted number count of neighbor galaxies, the overdensity of the local environment, and the membership of our galaxies to galaxy groups to segregate central and satellite systems. For barred galaxies as a whole, we find a very weak difference in all the quantities compared to unbarred galaxies of the control sample. When we split our sample into early- and late-type galaxies, we see a weak but significant trend for early-type galaxies with a bar to be more strongly clustered on scales from a few 100 kpc to 1 Mpc when compared to unbarred early-type galaxies. This indicates that the presence of a bar in early-type galaxies depends on the location within their host dark matter halos. This is confirmed by the group catalog in the sense that for early-types, the fraction of central galaxies is smaller if they have a bar. For late-type galaxies, we find fewer neighbors within ∼50 kpc around the barred galaxies when compared to unbarred galaxies from the control sample, suggesting that tidal forces from close companions suppress the formation/growth of bars. Finally, we find no obvious correlation between overdensity and the bars in our sample, showing that galactic bars are not obviously linked to the large-scale structure of the universe.

  1. Quantum Measurement Driven by Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking (United States)

    Morikawa, M.; Nakamichi, A.


    Quantum mechanics cannot be applied within a closed system. Inevitable measurement process in quantum mechanics is usually treated separately from the basic principles of the framework and requires outside observer of the system. In this paper, we propose that the quantum measurement process is actually a physical process associated with the ubiquitous mechanism of spontaneous symmetry breaking. Based on this proposal, we construct a quantum measurement model in which the mixed state evolves into a pure state as the dynamical pro-coherence process. Furthermore, the classically distinguishable pointer parameter emerges as the c-number order parameter in the formalism of closed time-path quantum field theory. We also discuss the precision of the measurement and the possible deduction of the Born probability postulate.

  2. The Properties of the Massive Star-forming Galaxies with an Outside-in Assembly Mode (United States)

    Wang, Enci; Kong, Xu; Wang, Huiyuan; Wang, Lixin; Lin, Lin; Gao, Yulong; Liu, Qing


    Previous findings show that massive ({M}* > {10}10 {M}⊙ ) star-forming (SF) galaxies usually have an “inside-out” stellar mass assembly mode. In this paper, we have for the first time selected a sample of 77 massive SF galaxies with an “outside-in” assembly mode (called the “targeted sample”) from the Mapping Nearby Galaxies at the Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey. For comparison, two control samples are constructed from the MaNGA sample matched in stellar mass: a sample of 154 normal SF galaxies and a sample of 62 quiescent galaxies. In contrast to normal SF galaxies, the targeted galaxies appear to be smoother and more bulge-dominated and have a smaller size and higher concentration, star formation rate, and gas-phase metallicity as a whole. However, they have a larger size and lower concentration than quiescent galaxies. Unlike the normal SF sample, the targeted sample exhibits a slightly positive gradient of the 4000 Å break and a pronounced negative gradient of Hα equivalent width. Furthermore, the median surface mass density profile is between those of the normal SF and quiescent samples, indicating that the gas accretion of quiescent galaxies is not likely to be the main approach for the outside-in assembly mode. Our results suggest that the targeted galaxies are likely in the transitional phase from normal SF galaxies to quiescent galaxies, with rapid ongoing central stellar mass assembly (or bulge growth). We discuss several possible formation mechanisms for the outside-in mass assembly mode.

  3. An Elegant Galaxy in an Unusual Light (United States)


    A new image taken with the powerful HAWK-I camera on ESO's Very Large Telescope at Paranal Observatory in Chile shows the beautiful barred spiral galaxy NGC 1365 in infrared light. NGC 1365 is a member of the Fornax cluster of galaxies, and lies about 60 million light-years from Earth. NGC 1365 is one of the best known and most studied barred spiral galaxies and is sometimes nicknamed the Great Barred Spiral Galaxy because of its strikingly perfect form, with the straight bar and two very prominent outer spiral arms. Closer to the centre there is also a second spiral structure and the whole galaxy is laced with delicate dust lanes. This galaxy is an excellent laboratory for astronomers to study how spiral galaxies form and evolve. The new infrared images from HAWK-I are less affected by the dust that obscures parts of the galaxy than images in visible light (potw1037a) and they reveal very clearly the glow from vast numbers of stars in both the bar and the spiral arms. These data were acquired to help astronomers understand the complex flow of material within the galaxy and how it affects the reservoirs of gas from which new stars can form. The huge bar disturbs the shape of the gravitational field of the galaxy and this leads to regions where gas is compressed and star formation is triggered. Many huge young star clusters trace out the main spiral arms and each contains hundreds or thousands of bright young stars that are less than ten million years old. The galaxy is too remote for single stars to be seen in this image and most of the tiny clumps visible in the picture are really star clusters. Over the whole galaxy, stars are forming at a rate of about three times the mass of our Sun per year. While the bar of the galaxy consists mainly of older stars long past their prime, many new stars are born in stellar nurseries of gas and dust in the inner spiral close to the nucleus. The bar also funnels gas and dust gravitationally into the very centre of the galaxy

  4. EPA Statement on Flint Water Main Break, Boil Water Order (United States)

    FLINT, MICH. -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is working closely with the City of Flint and Michigan Department of Environmental Quality on the recent water main break and boil order. After the water transmission line broke on Feb. 9, EPA coordi

  5. Ultraluminous Infrared Mergers: Elliptical Galaxies in Formation? (United States)

    Genzel, R.; Tacconi, L. J.; Rigopoulou, D.; Lutz, D.; Tecza, M.


    We report high-quality near-IR spectroscopy of 12 ultraluminous infrared galaxy mergers (ULIRGs). Our new VLT and Keck data provide ~0.5" resolution, stellar and gas kinematics of these galaxies, most of which are compact systems in the last merger stages. We confirm that ULIRG mergers are ``ellipticals in formation.'' Random motions dominate their stellar dynamics, but significant rotation is common. Gasdynamics and stellar dynamics are decoupled in most systems. ULIRGs fall on or near the fundamental plane of hot stellar systems, and especially on its less evolution-sensitive, reff-σ projection. The ULIRG velocity dispersion distribution, their location in the fundamental plane, and their distribution of vrotsini/σ closely resemble those of intermediate-mass (~L*), elliptical galaxies with moderate rotation. As a group ULIRGs do not resemble giant ellipticals with large cores and little rotation. Our results are in good agreement with other recent studies indicating that disky ellipticals with compact cores or cusps can form through dissipative mergers of gas-rich disk galaxies while giant ellipticals with large cores have a different formation history. Based on observations at the European Southern Observatory, Chile (ESO 65.N-0266, 65.N-0289), and on observations at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, The University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Keck Observatory was made possible by the general financial support by the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  6. Simulated galaxy interactions as probes of merger spectral energy distributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanz, Lauranne; Zezas, Andreas; Smith, Howard A.; Ashby, Matthew L. N.; Fazio, Giovanni G.; Hernquist, Lars [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden St., Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Hayward, Christopher C. [Heidelberger Institut für Theoretische Studien, Schloss-Wolfsbrunnenweg 35, D-69118 Heidelberg (Germany); Brassington, Nicola, E-mail: [School of Physics, Astronomy and Mathematics, University of Hertfordshire, College Lane, Hatfield, AL10 9AB (United Kingdom)


    We present the first systematic comparison of ultraviolet-millimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of observed and simulated interacting galaxies. Our sample is drawn from the Spitzer Interacting Galaxy Survey and probes a range of galaxy interaction parameters. We use 31 galaxies in 14 systems which have been observed with Herschel, Spitzer, GALEX, and 2MASS. We create a suite of GADGET-3 hydrodynamic simulations of isolated and interacting galaxies with stellar masses comparable to those in our sample of interacting galaxies. Photometry for the simulated systems is then calculated with the SUNRISE radiative transfer code for comparison with the observed systems. For most of the observed systems, one or more of the simulated SEDs match reasonably well. The best matches recover the infrared luminosity and the star formation rate of the observed systems, and the more massive systems preferentially match SEDs from simulations of more massive galaxies. The most morphologically distorted systems in our sample are best matched to the simulated SEDs that are close to coalescence, while less evolved systems match well with the SEDs over a wide range of interaction stages, suggesting that an SED alone is insufficient for identifying the interaction stage except during the most active phases in strongly interacting systems. This result is supported by our finding that the SEDs calculated for simulated systems vary little over the interaction sequence.

  7. GMRT Low Radio Frequency Study of the Wolf Rayet Galaxy NGC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, we present the first low frequency (< 1.4 GHz) radio continuum study of a Wolf Rayet galaxy NGC 4214 using the Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT). We detect diffuse extended emission from the galaxy disk at 325 MHz and find that the radio emission closely follows the ultraviolet emission mapped by ...

  8. GMRT Low Radio Frequency Study of the Wolf Rayet Galaxy NGC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. In this paper, we present the first low frequency (< 1.4 GHz) radio continuum study of a Wolf Rayet galaxy NGC 4214 using the. Giant Meterwave Radio Telescope (GMRT). We detect diffuse extended emission from the galaxy disk at 325 MHz and find that the radio emis- sion closely follows the ultraviolet emission ...


    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silverman, J. D.; Kampczyk, P.; Jahnke, K.; Andrae, R.; Lilly, S. J.; Elvis, M.; Civano, F.; Mainieri, V.; Vignali, C.; Zamorani, G.; Nair, P.; Le Fevre, O.; de Ravel, L.; Bardelli, S.; Bongiorno, A.; Bolzonella, M.; Cappi, A.; Caputi, K.; Carollo, C. M.; Contini, T.; Coppa, G.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Halliday, C.; Hasinger, G.; Iovino, A.; Knobel, C.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Kovac, K.; Lamareille, F.; Le Borgne, J-F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Mignoli, M.; Pello, R.; Perez-Montero, E.; Ricciardelli, E.; Peng, Y.; Scodeggio, M.; Tanaka, M.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Zucca, E.; Brusa, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Comastri, A.; Finoguenov, A.; Fu, H.; Gilli, R.; Hao, H.; Ho, L. C.; Salvato, M.


    Close encounters between galaxies are expected to be a viable mechanism, as predicted by numerical simulations, by which accretion onto supermassive black holes can be initiated. To test this scenario, we construct a sample of 562 galaxies (M(*) > 2.5 x 10(10) M(circle dot)) in kinematic pairs over

  10. Revealing S0 Galaxies' Formation Histories Using the Stellar Kinematics of the Faint Outer Disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cortesi, A.; Merrifield, M. R.; Noordermeer, E.; Coccato, L.; Bamford, S.; Napolitano, N. R.; Arnaboldi, M.; Gerhard, O.; Romanowsky, A. J.; Das, P.; Douglas, N. G.; Kuijken, K.; Freeman, K. C.; Capaccioli, M.; Debattista, Victor P.; Popescu, Cristina C.

    Lenticular galaxies display the prominent disks that are characteristic of late-type galaxies, but contain no gas, dust or star formation like early-type systems. So are they more closely related to spiral or ellipticals?. One important clue to their origin is recorded in the kinematics. If they are

  11. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Velocity gradient and brightness in disc galaxies (Lelli+ 2013)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelli, F.; Fraternali, F.; Verheijen, Marcus


    For disc galaxies, a close relation exists between the distribution of light and the shape of the rotation curve. We quantify this relation by measuring the inner circular-velocity gradient dRV(0) for spiral and irregular galaxies with high-quality rotation curves. We find that dRV(0) correlates

  12. Seeing Baby Dwarf Galaxies (United States)


    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Visible/DSS Click on image for larger version Ultraviolet/GALEX Click on image for larger version Poster Version Click on image for larger version The unique ultraviolet vision of NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer reveals, for the first time, dwarf galaxies forming out of nothing more than pristine gas likely leftover from the early universe. Dwarf galaxies are relatively small collections of stars that often orbit around larger galaxies like our Milky Way. The forming dwarf galaxies shine in the far ultraviolet spectrum, rendered as blue in the call-out on the right hand side of this image. Near ultraviolet light, also obtained by the Galaxy Evolution Explorer, is displayed in green, and visible light from the blue part of the spectrum here is represented by red. The clumps (in circles) are distinctively blue, indicating they are primarily detected in far ultraviolet light. The faint blue overlay traces the outline of the Leo Ring, a huge cloud of hydrogen and helium that orbits around two massive galaxies in the constellation Leo (left panel). The cloud is thought likely to be a primordial object, an ancient remnant of material that has remained relatively unchanged since the very earliest days of the universe. Identified about 25 years ago by radio waves, the ring cannot be seen in visible light. Only a portion of the Leo Ring has been imaged in the ultraviolet, but this section contains the telltale ultraviolet signature of recent massive star formation within this ring of pristine gas. Astronomers have previously only seen dwarf galaxies form out of gas that has already been cycled through a galaxy and enriched with metals elements heavier than helium produced as stars evolve. The visible data come from the Digitized Sky Survey of the Space Telescope Science Institute in Baltimore, Md. The Leo Ring visible image (left

  13. Breaking the Rules in Style. (United States)

    Romano, Tom


    Describes how allowing students to break the rules of standard writing can increase students' creativity in their written expression. Discusses several traits of this alternate style, or "Grammar B," including sentence fragments, double voice, lists, and spelling variations. (MM)

  14. Dwarfs and Giants: Massive Stars in Little Dwarf Galaxies (United States)

    Andrews, Jennifer


    Dwarf galaxies are sensitive laboratories for testing theories of star formation and for investigating possible variations of the stellar Initial Mass Function (IMF). Establishing whether the IMF, in particular the upper end of the IMF (uIMF), is invariant or dependent upon the conditions of star formation is key for interpreting the vast majority of observations on galaxy evolution, and for understanding cosmic reionization. Low-metallicity dwarf galaxies are fairly isolated systems that are ideal locales to test the uIMF. We propose to obtain STIS UV/optical spectroscopy of 8 H-alpha bright stellar clusters in 4 dwarf galaxies within 3 Mpc to accurately determine their ages, masses, extinction, metallicity, and stellar content. We will use state of the art stellar synthesis models that include massive star specific evolutionary tracks, massive star rotation, and stochasticity to test whether dwarf galaxies really do have a top-light IMF. The success of this project relies on the spectroscopic UV capability of HST/STIS to isolate young compact star clusters and break the degeneracies between reddening and age.

  15. Tidal alignment of galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blazek, Jonathan; Vlah, Zvonimir; Seljak, Uroš


    We develop an analytic model for galaxy intrinsic alignments (IA) based on the theory of tidal alignment. We calculate all relevant nonlinear corrections at one-loop order, including effects from nonlinear density evolution, galaxy biasing, and source density weighting. Contributions from density weighting are found to be particularly important and lead to bias dependence of the IA amplitude, even on large scales. This effect may be responsible for much of the luminosity dependence in IA observations. The increase in IA amplitude for more highly biased galaxies reflects their locations in regions with large tidal fields. We also consider the impact of smoothing the tidal field on halo scales. We compare the performance of this consistent nonlinear model in describing the observed alignment of luminous red galaxies with the linear model as well as the frequently used "nonlinear alignment model," finding a significant improvement on small and intermediate scales. We also show that the cross-correlation between density and IA (the "GI" term) can be effectively separated into source alignment and source clustering, and we accurately model the observed alignment down to the one-halo regime using the tidal field from the fully nonlinear halo-matter cross correlation. Inside the one-halo regime, the average alignment of galaxies with density tracers no longer follows the tidal alignment prediction, likely reflecting nonlinear processes that must be considered when modeling IA on these scales. Finally, we discuss tidal alignment in the context of cosmic shear measurements.

  16. Galaxy clusters: Falling into line (United States)

    Sifón, Cristóbal


    Analysis of Hubble Space Telescope observations shows that the well-known alignment between the central galaxy of a galaxy cluster and its host cluster has been in place for at least ten billion years.

  17. Sumo Puff: Tidal debris or disturbed ultra-diffuse galaxy? (United States)

    Greco, Johnny P.; Greene, Jenny E.; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.; Leauthaud, Alexie; Huang, Song; Goulding, Andy D.; Strauss, Michael A.; Komiyama, Yutaka; Lupton, Robert H.; Miyazaki, Satoshi; Takada, Masahiro; Tanaka, Masayuki; Usuda, Tomonori


    We report the discovery of a diffuse stellar cloud with an angular extent ≳30″, which we term "Sumo Puff", in data from the Hyper Suprime-Cam Subaru Strategic Program (HSC-SSP). While we do not have a redshift for this object, it is in close angular proximity to a post-merger galaxy at redshift z = 0.0431 and is projected within a few virial radii (assuming similar redshifts) of two other ˜L⋆ galaxies, which we use to bracket a potential redshift range of 0.0055 dwarf galaxy with properties consistent with a quenched, disturbed, ultra-diffuse galaxy. We present a qualitative comparison with simulations that demonstrates the feasibility of forming a structure similar to this object in a merger event. Follow-up spectroscopy and/or deeper imaging to confirm the presence of the bridge of tidal material will be necessary to reveal the true nature of this object.

  18. Velocity-metallicity correlation for high-z DLA galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledoux, C.; Petitjean, P.; Fynbo, J.P.U.


    Galaxies: halos, galaxies: high-redshift, galaxies: ISM, quasars: absorption lines, cosmology: observations Udgivelsesdato: Oct.......Galaxies: halos, galaxies: high-redshift, galaxies: ISM, quasars: absorption lines, cosmology: observations Udgivelsesdato: Oct....

  19. Enhanced X-ray emission from Lyman break analogues and a possible LX-SFR-metallicity plane (United States)

    Brorby, M.; Kaaret, P.; Prestwich, A.; Mirabel, I. F.


    The source of energetic photons that heated and reionized the early Universe remains uncertain. Early galaxies had low metallicity and recent population synthesis calculations suggest that the number and luminosity of high-mass X-ray binaries are enhanced in star-forming galaxies with low metallicity, offering a potentially important and previously overlooked source of heating and reionization. Lyman break analogue (LBA) galaxies are local galaxies that strongly resemble the high-redshift, star-forming Lyman break galaxies and have been suggested as local analogues to these metal-deficient galaxies found in the early Universe. We studied a sample of 10 LBAs in order to measure the relation between star formation rate and X-ray luminosity. We found that for LBAs with metallicities in the range 12 + log10(O/H) = 8.15-8.80, the LX -SFR relation was log _{10} (L_X/SFR {[erg s^{-1} M_{⊙}^{-1} yr]}) = 39.85(± 0.10) in the 0.5-8 keV band with a dispersion of σ = 0.25 dex. This is an enhancement of nearly a factor of 2 in the L0.5-8 keV-SFR relation relative to results for nearby, near-solar metallicity galaxies. The enhancement is significant at the 98.2 per cent level (2.4σ). Our enhanced LX/SFR relation is consistent with the metallicity-dependent predicted value from population synthesis models. We discuss the possibility of an LX-SFR-metallicity plane for star-forming galaxies. These results are important to our understanding of reionization and the formation of early galaxies.

  20. PEARS Emission Line Galaxies (United States)

    Pirzkal, Nor; Rothberg, Barry; Ly, Chun; Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Grogin, Norman A.; Dahlen, Tomas; Meurer, Gerhardt R.; Walsh, Jeremy; Hathi, Nimish P.; hide


    We present a full analysis of the Probing Evolution And Reionization Spectroscopically (PEARS) slitless grism spectroscopic data obtained vl'ith the Advanced Camera for Surveys on HST. PEARS covers fields within both the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS) North and South fields, making it ideal as a random surveY of galaxies, as well as the availability of a wide variety of ancillary observations to support the spectroscopic results. Using the PEARS data we are able to identify star forming galaxies within the redshift volume 0 = 10(exp 9) Solar M decreases by an order of magnitude at z<=0.5 relative to the number at 0.5 < z < 0.9 in support of the argument for galaxy downsizing.

  1. Planck intermediate results: XLIII. Spectral energy distribution of dust in clusters of galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adam, R.; Ade, P. A R; Aghanim, N.


    Although infrared (IR) overall dust emission from clusters of galaxies has been statistically detected using data from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS), it has not been possible to sample the spectral energy distribution (SED) of this emission over its peak, and thus to break the degene...

  2. Double-Barred Galaxies


    Erwin, Peter


    I present a brief review of what is known about double-barred galaxies, where a small ("inner") bar is nested inside a larger ("outer") bar; the review is focused primarily on their demographics and photometric properties. Roughly 20% of S0--Sb galaxies are double-barred; they may be rarer in later Hubble types. Inner bars are typically ~ 500 pc in radius (~ 12% the size of outer bars), but sizes range from ~ 100 pc to > 1 kpc. The structure of at least some inner bars appears very similar to...

  3. Galaxy S II

    CERN Document Server

    Gralla, Preston


    Unlock the potential of Samsung's outstanding smartphone with this jargon-free guide from technology guru Preston Gralla. You'll quickly learn how to shoot high-res photos and HD video, keep your schedule, stay in touch, and enjoy your favorite media. Every page is packed with illustrations and valuable advice to help you get the most from the smartest phone in town. The important stuff you need to know: Get dialed in. Learn your way around the Galaxy S II's calling and texting features.Go online. Browse the Web, manage email, and download apps with Galaxy S II's 3G/4G network (or create you

  4. How does ionizing radiation escape from galaxies? (United States)

    Orlitova, Ivana


    Search for sources that reionized the Universe from z 15 to z 6 is one of the main drivers of present-day astronomy. Low-mass star-forming galaxies are the most favoured sources of ionizing photons, but the searches of escaping Lyman continuum (LyC) have not been extremely successful. Our team has recently detected prominent LyC escape from five Green Pea galaxies at redshift 0.3, using the HST/COS spectrograph, which represents a significant breakthrough. We propose here to study the LyC escape of the strongest among these leakers, J1152, with spatial resolution. From the comparison of the ionizing and non-ionizing radiation maps, and surface brightness profiles, we will infer the major mode in which LyC is escaping: from the strongest starburst, from the galaxy edge, through a hole along our line-of-sight, through clumpy medium, or directly from all the production sites due to highly ionized medium in the entire galaxy. In parallel, we will test the predictive power of two highly debated indirect indicators of LyC leakage: the [OIII]5007/[OII]3727 ratio, and Lyman-alpha. We predict that their spatial distribution should closely follow that of the ionizing continuum if column densities of the neutral gas are low. This combined study, which relies on the HST unique capabilities, will bring crucial information on the structure of the leaking galaxies, provide constraints for hydrodynamic simulations, and will lead to efficient future searches for LyC leakers across a large range of redshifts.

  5. The impact of galaxy harassment on the globular cluster systems of early-type cluster dwarf galaxies (United States)

    Smith, R.; Sánchez-Janssen, R.; Fellhauer, M.; Puzia, T. H.; Aguerri, J. A. L.; Farias, J. P.


    The dynamics of globular cluster systems (GCSs) around galaxies are often used to assess the total enclosed mass, and even to constrain the dark matter distribution. The GCS of a galaxy is typically assumed to be in dynamical equilibrium within the potential of the host galaxy. However cluster galaxies are subjected to a rapidly evolving and, at times, violently destructive tidal field. We investigate the impact of the harassment on the dynamics of GCs surrounding early-type cluster dwarfs, using numerical simulations. We find that the dynamical behaviour of the GCS is strongly influenced by the fraction of bound dark matter fDM remaining in the galaxy. Only when fDM falls to ˜15 per cent do stars and GCs begin to be stripped. Still the observed GC velocity dispersion can be used to measure the true enclosed mass to within a factor of 2, even when fDM falls as low as ˜3 per cent. This is possible partly because unbound GCs quickly separate from the galaxy body. However even the distribution of bound GCs may spatially expand by a factor of 2-3. Once fDM falls into the <3 per cent regime, the galaxy is close to complete disruption, and GCS dynamics can no longer be used to reliably estimate the enclosed mass. In this regime, the remaining bound GCS may spatially expand by a factor of 4 to 8. It may be possible to test if a galaxy is in this regime by measuring the dynamics of the stellar disc. We demonstrate that if a stellar disc is rotationally supported, it is likely that a galaxy has sufficient dark matter that the dynamics of the GCS can be used to reliably estimate the enclosed mass.

  6. Evidence for Reduced Species Star Formation Rates in the Centers of Massive Galaxies at zeta = 4 (United States)

    Jung, Intae; Finkelstein, Steven L.; Song, Mimi; Dickinson, Mark; Dekel, Avishai; Ferguson, Henry C.; Fontana, Adriano; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Lu, Yu; Mobasher, Bahram; hide


    We perform the first spatially-resolved stellar population study of galaxies in the early universe z equals 3.5 -6.5, utilizing the Hubble Space Telescope Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey (CANDELS) imaging dataset over the GOODS-S field. We select a sample of 418 bright and extended galaxies at z less than or approximately equal to 3.5-6.5 from a parent sample of approximately 8000 photometric-redshift selected galaxies from Finkelstein et al. We first examine galaxies at 3.5 less than or equal to z less than or approximately equal to 4.0 using additional deep K-band survey data from the HAWK-I UDS and GOODS Survey (HUGS) which covers the 4000 Angstrom break at these redshifts. We measure the stellar mass, star formation rate, and dust extinction for galaxy inner and outer regions via spatially-resolved spectral energy distribution fitting based on a Markov Chain Monte Carlo algorithm. By comparing specific star formation rates (sSFRs) between inner and outer parts of the galaxies we find that the majority of galaxies with the high central mass densities show evidence for a preferentially lower sSFR in their centers than in their outer regions, indicative of reduced sSFRs in their central regions. We also study galaxies at z approximately equal to 5 and 6 (here limited to high spatial resolution in the rest-frame ultraviolet only), finding that they show sSFRs which are generally independent of radial distance from the center of the galaxies. This indicates that stars are formed uniformly at all radii in massive galaxies at z approximately equal to 5-6, contrary tomassive galaxies at z. less than approximately equal to 4.

  7. The cosmological x-ray evolution of stars, AGN, and galaxies (United States)

    Watson, Casey R.

    It is of great importance for our understanding of galaxy evolution to determine whether there is a break or a continuum in these processes from the powerful quasars and starbursts of the past, to the seemingly dormant, "normal" galaxies more typical of the present epoch. To help settle the question, we combined optical data from the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey (NDWFS), X-ray data from the XBootes survey, and spectral information from the AGN and Galaxy Evolution Survey (AGES) in order to simultaneously obtain deep and wide coverage of the normal galaxy population. In this manner, my collaborators and I were able to bridge the gap in normal galaxy X-ray coverage between large- area local surveys and high redshift, small volume deep fields. In particular, I present the X-ray evolution of normal galaxies as a function of absolute optical luminosity, redshift, and spectral type over the largely unexplored redshift range 0 [Special characters omitted.] z [Special characters omitted.] 0.5. We use radial emission profiles of low redshift galaxies, hardness ratios, and X-ray to optical luminosity ratios to estimate the relative contributions of stellar and nuclear sources. These tests suggest that the X-ray emission from spectroscopically late-type galaxies is dominated by star formation, while that from early-type galaxies is dominated by AGN. To extend our analysis of AGN to higher redshifts, we investigated the X-ray luminosity evolution of 3316 red galaxies selected over a wide range in redshift (0.3 global decline in accretion onto the central, supermassive black holes of early-type galaxies has proceeded in a similar manner at both the faint and the bright (individually detectable) ends of the AGN luminosity function. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  8. What Are S0 Galaxies?


    Bergh, Sidney van den


    The data collected in the Shapley-Ames catalog of bright galaxies show that lenticular (S0) galaxies are typically about a magnitude fainter than both elliptical (E) and early spiral (Sa) galaxies. Hubble (1936) was therefore wrong to regard S0 galaxies as being intermediate between morphological types E and Sa. The observation that E5-E7 galaxies are significantly fainter than objects of sub-types E0-E5 suggests that many of the flattest 'ellipticals' may actually be misclassified lenticular...

  9. Galaxy Evolution Insights from Spectral Modeling of Large Data Sets from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoversten, Erik A. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)


    This thesis centers on the use of spectral modeling techniques on data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to gain new insights into current questions in galaxy evolution. The SDSS provides a large, uniform, high quality data set which can be exploited in a number of ways. One avenue pursued here is to use the large sample size to measure precisely the mean properties of galaxies of increasingly narrow parameter ranges. The other route taken is to look for rare objects which open up for exploration new areas in galaxy parameter space. The crux of this thesis is revisiting the classical Kennicutt method for inferring the stellar initial mass function (IMF) from the integrated light properties of galaxies. A large data set (~ 105 galaxies) from the SDSS DR4 is combined with more in-depth modeling and quantitative statistical analysis to search for systematic IMF variations as a function of galaxy luminosity. Galaxy Hα equivalent widths are compared to a broadband color index to constrain the IMF. It is found that for the sample as a whole the best fitting IMF power law slope above 0.5 M is Γ = 1.5 ± 0.1 with the error dominated by systematics. Galaxies brighter than around Mr,0.1 = -20 (including galaxies like the Milky Way which has Mr,0.1 ~ -21) are well fit by a universal Γ ~ 1.4 IMF, similar to the classical Salpeter slope, and smooth, exponential star formation histories (SFH). Fainter galaxies prefer steeper IMFs and the quality of the fits reveal that for these galaxies a universal IMF with smooth SFHs is actually a poor assumption. Related projects are also pursued. A targeted photometric search is conducted for strongly lensed Lyman break galaxies (LBG) similar to MS1512-cB58. The evolution of the photometric selection technique is described as are the results of spectroscopic follow-up of the best targets. The serendipitous discovery of two interesting blue compact dwarf galaxies is reported. These

  10. Galaxy-Wide Shocks in the H$\\alpha$ Emission of Nearby Galaxy Mergers (United States)

    Mortazavi, S. Alireza; Lotz, Jennifer M.


    We examine the properties of shocked gas produced as a result of binary galaxy interactions, using H$\\alpha$ emission in a sample 22 mergers observed with SparsePak Integral Field Unit (IFU) at Kitt Peak National Observatory (KPNO). Our sample consists of major and minor tidally interacting galaxies (mass ratio $1error of the fit parameters, and use the F-test to determine the best number of kinematic components for each fiber. We use both [N II]/H$\\alpha$ ratio and velocity dispersion of components to separate star-forming (HII) regions from shock-heated gas. We estimate the fraction of shocked H$\\alpha$ emission to the total H$\\alpha$ flux, $\\text{f}_\\text{shocked}$, and examine the spatial distribution of shocks. We find that close galaxy pairs have, on average, a higher shock fraction than wide pairs, and our coalesced mergers have the highest average $\\text{f}_\\text{shocked}$. Additionally, we find for the first time, correlations between mass ratio, mass of the companion, and $\\text{f}_\\text{shocked}$ in tidally interacting galaxy pairs. Among the non-coalesced systems in our sample, the galaxy pairs with more equal light ratio (stellar mass ratio) tend to have a higher average $\\text{f}_\\text{shocked}$. Also, the primary (more massive) companions are on average slightly more shocked than the secondary (less massive) ones. Utilizing dynamical models in the literature and this work, we inspect trends between $\\text{f}_\\text{shocked}$ and the reconstructed encounter parameters. In this very limited sample, we find that the orbital pericentric separation is correlated with shock fraction, consistent with shocks being produced by the chain of events caused by the tidal impulse during the first passage. These results lay a basis for furture analysis using the higher statistics provided by the on-going and future IFU galaxy surveys.

  11. Unveiling the Secret of a Virgo Dwarf Galaxy (United States)


    case of the seemingly inconspicuous dwarf galaxy IC 3382 , the astronomers made an amazing discovery. When the best fitting model was removed from the observed image, a neat and regular spiral structure appeared in the residual image, cf. PR Photo 11/00 ! Nothing like this has ever been seen before in a dwarf elliptical galaxy. The light associated with the spiral constitutes a 3% modulation of the surface brightness. To see this effect at all, requires the excellent image quality of FORS1 and ANTU. The origin of the spiral structure What is the cause for this faintest and smallest spiral ever discovered in a galaxy? Two possible explanations have been proposed by the astronomers. It has been known for several decades that the spiral patterns seen in disk galaxies, like for instance in the Milky Way galaxy, are "density waves". The patterns are due to collective oscillations in the gravitational field that moves the stars and gas back and forth. The presence of a spiral pattern in IC3328 implies that it harbours a thin disk. The available data do not allow to distinguish between a pure disk galaxy, or a disk embedded in a spheroidal mass distribution. Both configurations are known to exist. Transient spiral patterns, as that seen in the well-known, nearby galaxy Messier 51, can be generated by tidal interactions . In the present case, there are two close and faint dwarf galaxies which may have disturbed IC3328 in the past and thereby produced the spiral pattern we now see. If what we see is a pure disk galaxy, the exceptionally small amplitude of the spiral pattern suggests another possibility: it could be swing-amplified noise . A modest amount of cold lumpy gas in the disk may have provided some initial "graininess" which was then gradually amplified by a shearing effect of the stellar orbits in the disk to produce the striking spiral pattern we now see. More information about this project A research article about this discovery is being published in the European

  12. Separating galaxies from the cluster dark matter halo in Abell 611 (United States)

    Monna, A.; Seitz, S.; Geller, M. J.; Zitrin, A.; Mercurio, A.; Suyu, S. H.; Postman, M.; Fabricant, D. G.; Hwang, H. S.; Koekemoer, A.


    We investigate the mass content of galaxies in the core of the galaxy cluster Abell 611. We perform a strong lensing analysis of the cluster core and use velocity dispersion measurements for individual cluster members as additional constraints. Despite the small number of multiply-imaged systems and cluster members with central velocity dispersions available in the core of A611, the addition of velocity dispersion measurements leads to tighter constraints on the mass associated with the galaxy component, and as a result, on the mass associated with the dark matter halo. Without the spectroscopic velocity dispersions, we would overestimate the mass of the galaxy component by a factor of ∼1.5, or, equivalently, we would underestimate the mass of the cluster dark halo by ∼5 per cent. We perform an additional lensing analysis using surface brightness (SB) reconstruction of the tangential giant arc. This approach improves the constraints on the mass parameters of the five galaxies close to the arc by a factor up to ∼10. The resulting parameters are in good agreement with the σ-rtr scaling relation derived in the pointlike analysis. The galaxy velocity dispersions resulting from the SB analysis are consistent at the 1σ confidence level with the spectroscopic measurements. In contrast, the truncation radii for 2-3 galaxies depart significantly from the galaxy scaling relation and suggest differences in the stripping history from galaxy to galaxy.

  13. STarlight Absorption Reduction through a Survey of Multiple Occulting Galaxies (STARSMOG) (United States)

    Holwerda, Benne


    Dust absorption remains the poorest constrained parameter in both Cosmological distances and multi-wavelength studies of galaxy populations. A galaxy's dust distribution can be measured to great accuracy in the case of an overlapping pair of galaxies, i.e., when a foreground spiral galaxy accidentally overlaps a more distant, preferably elliptical galaxy. We have identified over 300 bona-fide overlapping pairs --well separated in redshift but close on the sky-- in the GAMA spectroscopic survey, taking advantage of its high completeness (98%) on small scales. We propose to map the fine-scale (~50pc) dust structure in these occulting galaxies, using HST/WFC3 SNAP observations. The resulting dust maps will (1) serve as an extinction probability for supernova lightcurve fits in similar type host galaxies, (2) strongly constrain the role of ISM structure in Spectral Energy Distribution models of spiral galaxies, and (3) map the level of ISM turbulence (through the spatial power-spectrum). We ask for SNAP observations with a parent list of 355 targets to ensure a complete and comprehensive coverage of each foreground galaxy mass, radius and inclination. The resulting extinction maps will serve as a library for SNIa measurements, galaxy SED modelling and ISM turbulence measurements.

  14. Featured Image: Identifying Weird Galaxies (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    Hoags Object, an example of a ring galaxy. [NASA/Hubble Heritage Team/Ray A. Lucas (STScI/AURA)]The above image (click for the full view) shows PanSTARRSobservationsof some of the 185 galaxies identified in a recent study as ring galaxies bizarre and rare irregular galaxies that exhibit stars and gas in a ring around a central nucleus. Ring galaxies could be formed in a number of ways; one theory is that some might form in a galaxy collision when a smaller galaxy punches through the center of a larger one, triggering star formation around the center. In a recent study, Ian Timmis and Lior Shamir of Lawrence Technological University in Michigan explore ways that we may be able to identify ring galaxies in the overwhelming number of images expected from large upcoming surveys. They develop a computer analysis method that automatically finds ring galaxy candidates based on their visual appearance, and they test their approach on the 3 million galaxy images from the first PanSTARRS data release. To see more of the remarkable galaxies the authors found and to learn more about their identification method, check out the paper below.CitationIan Timmis and Lior Shamir 2017 ApJS 231 2. doi:10.3847/1538-4365/aa78a3

  15. On breaks of the Indian monsoon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Further, there are three or four active-break cycles in a season according to Webster et al (1998) which implies a time scale of about 40 days for which Goswami and Mohan (2000), and Annamalai and Slingo (2001) have studied breaks and active minus break fluctuations. On the other hand, neither the traditional breaks ...

  16. Jets in Active Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    tended regions of emission. These jets, which occur across the electromagnetic spectrum, are powered by supermassive black holes in the centres of the host galaxies. Jets are seen on the scale of parsecs in the nuclear regions to those which power the giant radio sources extending over several mega- parsecs. These jets ...

  17. Formation of Triaxial Galaxy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jang-Hyeon Park


    Full Text Available Results of N-body simulation of dissipationless cold collapse of spherical gravitating system are presented. We compared the results with properties of elliptical galaxies. The system gradually evolved to triaxial system. The projected density profile is in good agreement with observations. In addition to triaxial instability, it seems that there is another instability.

  18. Outskirts of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Janice; Paz, Armando


    This book consists of invited reviews written by world-renowned experts on the subject of the outskirts of galaxies, an upcoming field which has been understudied so far. These regions are faint and hard to observe, yet hide a tremendous amount of information on the origin and early evolution of galaxies. They thus allow astronomers to address some of the most topical problems, such as gaseous and satellite accretion, radial migration, and merging. The book is published in conjunction with the celebration of the end of the four-year DAGAL project, an EU-funded initial training network, and with a major international conference on the topic held in March 2016 in Toledo. It thus reflects not only the views of the experts, but also the scientific discussions and progress achieved during the project and the meeting. The reviews in the book describe the most modern observations of the outer regions of our own Galaxy, and of galaxies in the local and high-redshift Universe. They tackle disks, haloes, streams, and a...

  19. The Mutable Galaxies -10 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Perhaps one could then compare this with what is observed in galaxies. Let us find out how this can be quantified in order to be able to compare with observations. The second type of stars tend to 'lock up' a fraction of mass since they do not recycle their processed material. Let us call this fraction the 'lock-up fraction', 0:. Let.

  20. Green valley galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim S.


    Full Text Available The “green valley” is a wide region separating the blue and the red peaks in the ultraviolet-optical color magnitude diagram, first revealed using GALEX UV photometry. The term was coined by Christopher Martin (Caltech, in 2005. Green valley highlights the discriminating power of UV to very low relative levels of ongoing star formation, to which the optical colors, including u−r, are insensitive. It corresponds to massive galaxies below the star-forming, “main” sequence, and therefore represents a critical tool for the study of the quenching of star formation and its possible resurgence in otherwise quiescent galaxies. This article reviews the results pertaining to (predominantly disk morphology, structure, environment, dust content and gas properties of green valley galaxies in the local universe. Their relationship to AGN is also discussed. Attention is given to biases emerging from defining the “green valley” using optical colors. We review various evolutionary scenarios and we present evidence for a new one, the quasi-static view of the green valley, in which the majority (but not all of galaxies currently in the green valley were only partially quenched in the distant past and now participate in a slow cosmic decline of star formation, which also drives down the activity on the main sequence, presumably as a result of the dwindling accretion/cooling onto galaxy disks. This emerging synthetic picture is based on the findings from Fang et al. (2012, Salim et al. (2012 and Martin et al. (2007, as well as other results.

  1. The Close AGN Reference Survey (CARS) (United States)

    Husemann, B.; Tremblay, G.; Davis, T.; Busch, G.; McElroy, R.; Neumann, J.; Urrutia, T.; Krumpe, M.; Scharwächter, J.; Powell, M.; Perez-Torres, M.; The CARS Team


    The role of active galactic nuclei (AGN) in the evolution of galaxies remains a mystery. The energy released by these accreting supermassive black holes can vastly exceed the entire binding energy of their host galaxies, yet it remains unclear how this energy is dissipated throughout the galaxy, and how that might couple to the galaxy's evolution. The Close AGN Reference Survey (CARS) is a multi-wavelength survey of a representative sample of luminous Type I AGN at redshifts 0.01 connection. These AGN are more luminous than very nearby AGN but are still close enough for spatially resolved mapping at sub-kpc scales with various state- of-the art facilities and instruments, such as VLT-MUSE, ALMA, JVLA, Chandra, SOFIA, and many more. In this article we showcase the power of CARS with examples of a multi-phase AGN outflow, diverse views on star formation activity and a unique changing-look AGN. CARS will provide an essential low-redshift reference sample for ongoing and forthcoming AGN surveys at high redshift.

  2. Isospin breaking from diquark clustering (United States)

    Gibbs, W. R.; Dedonder, Jean-Pierre


    Background: Although SU(2) isospin symmetry is generally assumed in the basic theory of the strong interaction, a number of significant violations have been observed in scattering and bound states of nucleons. Many of these violations can be attributed to the electromagnetic interaction but the question of how much of the violation is due to it remains open. Purpose: To establish the connection between diquark clustering in the two-nucleon system and isospin breaking from the Coulomb interaction between the members of diquark pairs. Method: A schematic model based on clustering of quarks in the interior of the confinement region of the two-nucleon system is introduced and evaluated. In this model the Coulomb interaction is the source of all isospin breaking. It draws on a picture of the quark density based on the diquark-quark model of hadron structure which has been investigated by a number of groups. Results: The model produces three isospin breaking potentials connecting the unbroken value of the low-energy scattering amplitude to those of the p p , n n , and n p singlet channels. A simple test of the potentials in the three-nucleon energy difference problem yields results in agreement with the known binding energy difference. Conclusion: The illustrative model suggests that the breaking seen in the low-energy nucleon-nucleon (NN) interaction may be understood in terms of the Coulomb force between members of diquark clusters. It allows the prediction of the charge symmetry breaking interaction and the n n scattering length from the well measured n p singlet scattering length. Values of the n n scattering length around -18 fm are favored. Since the model is based on the quark picture, it can be easily extended, in the SU(3) limit, to calculate isospin breaking in the strange sector in the corresponding channels. A natural consequence of isospin breaking from diquark clustering is that the breaking in the strange sector, as measured by the separation energy

  3. Break-induced replication is highly inaccurate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Deem


    Full Text Available DNA must be synthesized for purposes of genome duplication and DNA repair. While the former is a highly accurate process, short-patch synthesis associated with repair of DNA damage is often error-prone. Break-induced replication (BIR is a unique cellular process that mimics normal DNA replication in its processivity, rate, and capacity to duplicate hundreds of kilobases, but is initiated at double-strand breaks (DSBs rather than at replication origins. Here we employed a series of frameshift reporters to measure mutagenesis associated with BIR in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We demonstrate that BIR DNA synthesis is intrinsically inaccurate over the entire path of the replication fork, as the rate of frameshift mutagenesis during BIR is up to 2,800-fold higher than during normal replication. Importantly, this high rate of mutagenesis was observed not only close to the DSB where BIR is less stable, but also far from the DSB where the BIR replication fork is fast and stabilized. We established that polymerase proofreading and mismatch repair correct BIR errors. Also, dNTP levels were elevated during BIR, and this contributed to BIR-related mutagenesis. We propose that a high level of DNA polymerase errors that is not fully compensated by error-correction mechanisms is largely responsible for mutagenesis during BIR, with Pol δ generating many of the mutagenic errors. We further postulate that activation of BIR in eukaryotic cells may significantly contribute to accumulation of mutations that fuel cancer and evolution.

  4. Angular Momentum Evolution Of Disk Galaxies At High Redshift (United States)

    Okamura, Taku; Kazuhiro, Shimasaku; Ryota, Kawamata


    The stellar disk size of a galaxy depends on the fraction of the dark-halo mass settled as disk stars, m★= M★/Mdh, and the fraction of the dark-halo angular momentum transferred to the disk, j★ = J★/Jdh. Since j★ is also determined by various star-formation related mechanisms such as inflows and feedbacks, measuring j★ and m★ at high redshifts is needed to understand the formation history of disk galaxies. We use the 3D-HST GOODS-S, COSMOS, and AEGIS imaging data and photo-z catalogs to examine j★ and m★ for star-forming galaxies at z 2,3,4, when disks are actively forming. We find that the j★/m★ ratio is roughly constant at ≃ 0.8 for all three redshifts over the entire halo mass range examined. This high ratio is close to those of local disk galaxies but a factor of a few higher than predicted (at z 2) by galaxy formation models. We also find that a significant fraction of our galaxies appear to be unstable against bar formation.

  5. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectra of blue compact galaxies (Kong+, 2002) (United States)

    Kong, X.; Cheng, F. Z.; Weiss, A.; Charlot, S.


    This is the second paper in a series studying the star formation rates, stellar components, metallicities, and star formation histories and evolution of a sample of blue compact galaxies. We analyzed spectral properties of 97 blue compact galaxies, obtained with the Beijing Astronomical Observatory (China) 2.16m telescope, with spectral range 3580{AA}-7400{AA}. We classify the spectra according to their emission lines: 13 of the total 97 BCG sample are non-emission line galaxies (non-ELGs); 10 have AGN-like emission (AGNs), and 74 of them are star-forming galaxies (SFGs). Emission line fluxes and equivalent widths, continuum fluxes, the 4000A Balmer break index and equivalent widths of absorption lines are measured from the spectra. Please find more detail information in (5 data files).

  6. The Connection between Galaxies and Dark Matter Structures in the Local Universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reddick, Rachel M.; Wechsler, Risa H.; Tinker, Jeremy L.; Behroozi, Peter S.


    We provide new constraints on the connection between galaxies in the local Universe, identified by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and dark matter halos and their constituent substructures in the {Lambda}CDM model using WMAP7 cosmological parameters. Predictions for the abundance and clustering properties of dark matter halos, and the relationship between dark matter hosts and substructures, are based on a high-resolution cosmological simulation, the Bolshoi simulation. We associate galaxies with dark matter halos and subhalos using subhalo abundance matching, and perform a comprehensive analysis which investigates the underlying assumptions of this technique including (a) which halo property is most closely associated with galaxy stellar masses and luminosities, (b) how much scatter is in this relationship, and (c) how much subhalos can be stripped before their galaxies are destroyed. The models are jointly constrained by new measurements of the projected two-point galaxy clustering and the observed conditional stellar mass function of galaxies in groups. We find that an abundance matching model that associates galaxies with the peak circular velocity of their halos is in good agreement with the data, when scatter of 0.20 {+-} 0.03 dex in stellar mass at a given peak velocity is included. This confirms the theoretical expectation that the stellar mass of galaxies is tightly correlated with the potential wells of their dark matter halos before they are impacted by larger structures. The data put tight constraints on the satellite fraction of galaxies as a function of galaxy stellar mass and on the scatter between halo and galaxy properties, and rule out several alternative abundance matching models that have been considered. This will yield important constraints for galaxy formation models, and also provides encouraging indications that the galaxy - halo connection can be modeled with sufficient fidelity for future precision studies of the dark Universe.

  7. The VIMOS Ultra Deep Survey The role of HI kinematics and HI column density on the escape of Ly alpha photons in star-forming galaxies at 2 < z < 4

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Guaita, L.; Talia, M.; Pentericci, L.; Verhamme, A.; Cassata, P.; Lemaux, B. C.; Orlitová, Ivana; Ribeiro, B.; Schaerer, D.; Zamorani, G.; Garilli, B.; Le Brun, V.; Le Fevre, O.; Maccagni, D.; Tasca, L. A. M.; Thomas, R.; Vanzella, E.; Zucca, E.; Amorin, R.; Bardelli, S.; Castellano, M.; Grazian, A.; Hathi, N. P.; Koekemoer, A.; Marchi, F.


    Roč. 606, September (2017), A19/1-A19/17 E-ISSN 1432-0746 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ17-06217Y Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : lyman break galaxies * cosmic reionization * emitting galaxies Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 5.014, year: 2016

  8. The Stellar Kinematics of E+A Galaxies in SDSS IV-MaNGA (United States)

    Johnson, Amalya; Dudley, Raymond; Edwards, Kay; Gonzalez, Andrea; Kerrison, Nicole; Marinelli, Mariarosa; Melchert, Nancy; Ojanen, Winonah; Liu, Charles; SDSS-IV MaNGA


    E+A galaxies, hypothesized to be “transition” galaxies between the blue cloud and the red sequence, are valuable sources for studying the evolution of galaxies. Using data from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Mapping Nearby Galaxies at Apache Point Observatory (MaNGA) survey, a large scale integral field spectroscopic survey of nearby galaxies from 3600 to 10300 Å, we identifed galaxies that exhibitted E+A characteristics within their optical spectra. We analyzed the 2,812 galaxies thus far observed by MaNGA to identify those that showed evidence of a starburst about 1 billion years ago, followed by cessation of star formation and quenching of the galaxy. Through this process we identifed 39 E+A galaxies by directly looking at the optical spectra and ensuring they exhibited the necessary properties of an E+A spectra, including a strong break at the 4000 Å mark, little to no Hα emission and absorption through the Balmer series, and a blue slope of the continuum past ~5000 Å as the flux decreases. We analyzed the stellar kinematics of these galaxies to determine whether or not they were fast or slow rotators, a proposed indicator of a major merger in their recent past. Using Voronoi binned graphs from the MaNGA Marvin database, we measured their stellar rotation curves in order to more clearly show the range of velocities within the galaxies. Among our 39 E+A candidates, all but two exhibited significant, orderly rotation across the galaxy, and 29 out of 39 of our galaxies show rotation faster than 30 km/s. With the caveat that our selection process was biased toward galaxies with orderly rotation, this prevalence of rotation challenges the belief that all E+A galaxies are created from major mergers. This work was supported by grants AST-1460860 from the National Science Foundation and SDSS FAST/SSP-483 from the Alfred P. Sloan Foundation to the CUNY College of Staten Island.

  9. Observational hints of radial migration in disc galaxies from CALIFA (United States)

    Ruiz-Lara, T.; Pérez, I.; Florido, E.; Sánchez-Blázquez, P.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Sánchez-Menguiano, L.; Sánchez, S. F.; Lyubenova, M.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; van de Ven, G.; Marino, R. A.; de Lorenzo-Cáceres, A.; Catalán-Torrecilla, C.; Costantin, L.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Galbany, L.; García-Benito, R.; Husemann, B.; Kehrig, C.; Márquez, I.; Mast, D.; Walcher, C. J.; Zibetti, S.; Ziegler, B.; Califa Team


    Context. According to numerical simulations, stars are not always kept at their birth galactocentric distances but they have a tendency to migrate. The importance of this radial migration in shaping galactic light distributions is still unclear. However, if radial migration is indeed important, galaxies with different surface brightness (SB) profiles must display differences in their stellar population properties. Aims: We investigate the role of radial migration in the light distribution and radial stellar content by comparing the inner colour, age, and metallicity gradients for galaxies with different SB profiles. We define these inner parts, avoiding the bulge and bar regions and up to around three disc scale lengths (type I, pure exponential) or the break radius (type II, downbending; type III, upbending). Methods: We analysed 214 spiral galaxies from the CALIFA survey covering different SB profiles. We made use of GASP2D and SDSS data to characterise the light distribution and obtain colour profiles of these spiral galaxies. The stellar age and metallicity profiles were computed using a methodology based on full-spectrum fitting techniques (pPXF, GANDALF, and STECKMAP) to the Integral Field Spectroscopic CALIFA data. Results: The distributions of the colour, stellar age, and stellar metallicity gradients in the inner parts for galaxies displaying different SB profiles are unalike as suggested by Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Anderson-Darling tests. We find a trend in which type II galaxies show the steepest profiles of all, type III show the shallowest, and type I display an intermediate behaviour. Conclusions: These results are consistent with a scenario in which radial migration is more efficient for type III galaxies than for type I systems, where type II galaxies present the lowest radial migration efficiency. In such a scenario, radial migration mixes the stellar content, thereby flattening the radial stellar properties and shaping different SB profiles. However

  10. wft4galaxy: a workflow testing tool for galaxy. (United States)

    Piras, Marco Enrico; Pireddu, Luca; Zanetti, Gianluigi


    Workflow managers for scientific analysis provide a high-level programming platform facilitating standardization, automation, collaboration and access to sophisticated computing resources. The Galaxy workflow manager provides a prime example of this type of platform. As compositions of simpler tools, workflows effectively comprise specialized computer programs implementing often very complex analysis procedures. To date, no simple way to automatically test Galaxy workflows and ensure their correctness has appeared in the literature. With wft4galaxy we offer a tool to bring automated testing to Galaxy workflows, making it feasible to bring continuous integration to their development and ensuring that defects are detected promptly. wft4galaxy can be easily installed as a regular Python program or launched directly as a Docker container-the latter reducing installation effort to a minimum. Available at under the Academic Free License v3.0.

  11. Stellar streams and the galaxies they reside in (United States)

    Pearson, Sarah


    As galaxies collide, as smaller galaxies are disrupted by larger galaxies, or as clusters of stars orbit a galaxy, a gravitational tidal interaction unfolds and the systems tear apart into distinct morphological and kinematic structures. In my thesis, I have exploited these structures to understand various components of galaxies, such as the baryon cycle in dwarf galaxy interactions (Pearson et al. 2016, Pearson et al. 2017b). In this talk, I will focus on my thesis work related to the stellar stream emerging from the old, globular cluster, Palomar 5 (Pal 5), orbiting our own Milky Way. As the stellar stream members were once closely tied together in energy and angular momentum space, we can use their distribution in phase space to trace back where they were once located and what affected them along their paths. In particular, I will show that the mere existence of Pal 5’s thin stream can rule out a moderately triaxial potential model of our Galaxy (Pearson et al. 2015) and that the debris of Pal 5-like streams will spread much further in space in a triaxial potential (a mechanism which I dubbed “stream fanning”) . Additionally, I will show that the Milky Way's Galactic bar, can punch holes in stellar streams and explain the recently discovered length asymmetry between Pal 5’s leading and trailing arm (Pearson et al. 2017a). These holes grow and have locations along stellar streams dependent on the Galactic bar orientation, mass and rotational speed, which provides an intriguing methodology for studying our own Milky Way’s Galactic bar in more detail. The fact that the bar can create under densities in stellar streams, further demonstrates that we should be careful when interpreting gaps in stellar streams as indirect evidence of the existence of dark matter subhalos in our Galaxy.

  12. Caltech Faint Galaxy Redshift Survey. VIII. Analysis of the Field J0053+1234 (United States)

    Cohen, Judith G.; Blandford, Roger; Hogg, David W.; Pahre, Michael A.; Shopbell, Patrick L.


    The results of a spectroscopic investigation of a complete sample of objects with Ksincidence of emission lines in the luminous galaxies increases with redshift. The estimated dynamical masses of these redshift peaks, and the sky distribution of the galaxies within them, appear similar to groups or poor clusters of galaxies in the local universe at various stages of virialization. Some groups of galaxies therefore form at epochs z>1.5, and the galaxies in such groups appear to be coeval and to show little sign of ongoing star formation. The galaxies outside the redshift peaks are also clustered, albeit more weakly, are less luminous and more frequently exhibit strong emission lines. These ``isolated'' galaxies therefore appear, on average, to form stars at later epochs than the strongly clustered galaxies. The galaxy spectral energy distributions (SEDs) derived from our UBVRIK photometry are also very closely correlated with the galaxy spectral types and luminosities. These results have strong implications for the analysis of redshift surveys at intermediate redshift. The sample is used to investigate the evolution of the combined galaxy luminosity function back to z=0.8. No significant change is found in the characteristic luminosity L*, and only weak color changes are detected, consistent with passive evolution. The blue galaxy-luminosity function is more dwarf rich than the red galaxy-luminosity function. No significant change in the comoving density is found in this sample out to z~1.4, assuming that the objects without redshifts (16% of the sample) are galaxies, essentially all of which have z>0.8. This suggests that mergers are not important among the objects in this sample. A population of extremely red objects with (R-K)>5 mag exists in the infrared-selected sample; all four such objects with redshifts are found to be absorption-line galaxies with z~1. Most of the very red objects therefore appear to be galaxies with z>~1 that are not heavily reddened by

  13. Star formation quenching in green valley galaxies at 0.5 ≲ z ≲ 1.0 and constraints with galaxy morphologies (United States)

    Nogueira-Cavalcante, J. P.; Gonçalves, T. S.; Menéndez-Delmestre, K.; Sheth, K.


    We calculate the star formation quenching time-scales in green valley galaxies at intermediate redshifts (z ∼ 0.5-1) using stacked zCOSMOS spectra of different galaxy morphological types: spheroidal, disc-like, irregular and merger, dividing disc-like galaxies further into unbarred, weakly barred and strongly barred, assuming a simple exponentially decaying star formation history model and based on the H δ absorption feature and the 4000 Å break. We find that different morphological types present different star formation quenching time-scales, reinforcing the idea that the galaxy morphology is strongly correlated with the physical processes responsible for quenching star formation. Our quantification of the star formation quenching time-scale indicates that discs have typical time-scales 60 per cent to five times longer than that of galaxies presenting spheroidal, irregular or merger morphologies. Barred galaxies, in particular, present the slowest transition time-scales through the green valley. This suggests that although secular evolution may ultimately lead to gas exhaustion in the host galaxy via bar-induced gas inflows that trigger star formation activity, secular agents are not major contributors in the rapid quenching of galaxies at these redshifts. Galaxy interaction, associated with the elliptical, irregular and merger morphologies, contributes, to a more significant degree, to the fast transition through the green valley at these redshifts. In light of previous works suggesting that both secular and merger processes are responsible for the star formation quenching at low redshifts, our results provide an explanation to the recent findings that star formation quenching happened at a faster pace at z ∼ 0.8.

  14. supersymmetry breaking with extra dimensions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    physics pp. 497-511 supersymmetry breaking with extra dimensions. FABIO ZWIRNER. Theory Division, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland. On leave from: Physics ... theory which accounts for all the observed interactions at the presently available ... For some standard reviews of sUsY and of the MssM, with lists.

  15. Aluminum break-point contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinemann, Martina; Groot, R.A. de


    Ab initio molecular dynamics is used to study the contribution of a single Al atom to an aluminum breakpoint contact during the final stages of breaking and the initial stages of the formation of such a contact. A hysteresis effect is found in excellent agreement with experiment and the form of the

  16. Code breaking in the pacific

    CERN Document Server

    Donovan, Peter


    Covers the historical context and the evolution of the technically complex Allied Signals Intelligence (Sigint) activity against Japan from 1920 to 1945 Describes, explains and analyzes the code breaking techniques developed during the war in the Pacific Exposes the blunders (in code construction and use) made by the Japanese Navy that led to significant US Naval victories

  17. Breaking Carbon Lock-in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Driscoll, Patrick Arthur


    This central focus of this paper is to highlight the ways in which path dependencies and increasing returns (network effects) serve to reinforce carbon lock-in in large-scale road transportation infrastructure projects. Breaking carbon lock-in requires drastic changes in the way we plan future...

  18. Baryon and chiral symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorsky, A. [Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow, Russia and Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (MIPT), Dolgoprudny (Russian Federation); Krikun, A. [NORDITA, KTH Royal Institute of Technology and Stockholm University Stockholm, Sweden and Institute for Theoretical and Experimental Physics (ITEP), Moscow (Russian Federation)


    We briefly review the generalized Skyrmion model for the baryon recently suggested by us. It takes into account the tower of vector and axial mesons as well as the chiral symmetry breaking. The generalized Skyrmion model provides the qualitative explanation of the Ioffe’s formula for the baryon mass.

  19. Breaking Rules–Making Bonds

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 21; Issue 1. Breaking Rules - Making Bonds. A G Samuelson. General Article Volume 21 Issue 1 January 2016 pp 43-48. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: Keywords.

  20. Small Break Air Ingress Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang Oh; Eung Soo Kim


    The small break air-ingress experiment, described in this report, is designed to investigate air-ingress phenomena postulated to occur in pipes in a very high temperature gas-cooled reactor (VHTRs). During this experiment, air-ingress rates were measured for various flow and break conditions through small holes drilled into a pipe of the experimental apparatus. The holes were drilled at right angles to the pipe wall such that a direction vector drawn from the pipe centerline to the center of each hole was at right angles with respect to the pipe centerline. Thus the orientation of each hole was obtained by measuring the included angle between the direction vector of each hole with respect to a reference line anchored on the pipe centerline and pointing in the direction of the gravitational force. Using this reference system, the influence of several important parameters on the air ingress flow rate were measured including break orientation, break size, and flow velocity . The approach used to study the influence of these parameters on air ingress is based on measuring the changes in oxygen concentrations at various locations in the helium flow circulation system as a function of time using oxygen sensors (or detectors) to estimate the air-ingress rates through the holes. The test-section is constructed of a stainless steel pipe which had small holes drilled at the desired locations.

  1. Sediment transport under breaking waves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Damgaard; Hjelmager Jensen, Jacob; Mayer, Stefan


    generated at the surface where the wave breaks as well as the turbulence generated near the bed due to the wave-motion and the undertow. In general, the levels of turbulent kinetic energy are found to be higher than experiments show. This results in an over prediction of the sediment transport. Nevertheless...

  2. Strong coupling electroweak symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barklow, T.L. [Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Burdman, G. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Physics; Chivukula, R.S. [Boston Univ., MA (United States). Dept. of Physics


    The authors review models of electroweak symmetry breaking due to new strong interactions at the TeV energy scale and discuss the prospects for their experimental tests. They emphasize the direct observation of the new interactions through high-energy scattering of vector bosons. They also discuss indirect probes of the new interactions and exotic particles predicted by specific theoretical models.

  3. Unveiling the merger fraction, sizes and morphologies of the brightest z ~ 7 galaxies (United States)

    Bowler, Rebecca


    The study of ultra-high-redshift galaxies has undoubtedly been led by HST, with surveys such as the UDF, CANDELS and BoRG leading to the discovery of hundreds of Lyman-break galaxies at z > 6. Furthermore, the unrivalled near-infrared sensitivity and resolution of WFC3 has enabled the first measurement of galaxy size and morphology at the highest redshifts, showing that the faintest galaxies are extremely compact and revealing disturbed morphologies for a subset of objects. The galaxies studied to-date however, are predominantly sub-L* due to the small cosmological volumes probed by the HST imaging used to select them. Our recent work has exploited the combined 1.7 square degrees of the UltraVISTA and UDS surveys (Bowler et al. 2014, 2012) to select the first robust sample of 20 extremely bright (-23.0 < M_UV < -21.5) Lyman-break galaxies at z ~ 7. However, the available ground-based imaging is insufficient to reliably unveil the sizes and morphologies of this unique galaxy sample. Therefore, we propose to obtain follow-up imaging of the sample with HST, to utilize the unrivalled high-resolution imaging capabilities of WFC3 in answering the following key questions: i) what is the merger fraction amongst the brightest z ~ 7 galaxies? ii) how does this impact on the (currently controversial) form of the luminosity function at the bright end? iii) is there a strong size-luminosity relation already in place at z ~ 7?

  4. An Optimal Strategy for Accurate Bulge-to-disk Decomposition of Disk Galaxies (United States)

    Gao, Hua; Ho, Luis C.


    The development of two-dimensional (2D) bulge-to-disk decomposition techniques has shown their advantages over traditional one-dimensional (1D) techniques, especially for galaxies with non-axisymmetric features. However, the full potential of 2D techniques has yet to be fully exploited. Secondary morphological features in nearby disk galaxies, such as bars, lenses, rings, disk breaks, and spiral arms, are seldom accounted for in 2D image decompositions, even though some image-fitting codes, such as GALFIT, are capable of handling them. We present detailed, 2D multi-model and multi-component decomposition of high-quality R-band images of a representative sample of nearby disk galaxies selected from the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey, using the latest version of GALFIT. The sample consists of five barred and five unbarred galaxies, spanning Hubble types from S0 to Sc. Traditional 1D decomposition is also presented for comparison. In detailed case studies of the 10 galaxies, we successfully model the secondary morphological features. Through a comparison of best-fit parameters obtained from different input surface brightness models, we identify morphological features that significantly impact bulge measurements. We show that nuclear and inner lenses/rings and disk breaks must be properly taken into account to obtain accurate bulge parameters, whereas outer lenses/rings and spiral arms have a negligible effect. We provide an optimal strategy to measure bulge parameters of typical disk galaxies, as well as prescriptions to estimate realistic uncertainties of them, which will benefit subsequent decomposition of a larger galaxy sample.

  5. An Optimal Strategy for Accurate Bulge-to-disk Decomposition of Disk Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Hua [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ho, Luis C. [Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China)


    The development of two-dimensional (2D) bulge-to-disk decomposition techniques has shown their advantages over traditional one-dimensional (1D) techniques, especially for galaxies with non-axisymmetric features. However, the full potential of 2D techniques has yet to be fully exploited. Secondary morphological features in nearby disk galaxies, such as bars, lenses, rings, disk breaks, and spiral arms, are seldom accounted for in 2D image decompositions, even though some image-fitting codes, such as GALFIT, are capable of handling them. We present detailed, 2D multi-model and multi-component decomposition of high-quality R -band images of a representative sample of nearby disk galaxies selected from the Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey, using the latest version of GALFIT. The sample consists of five barred and five unbarred galaxies, spanning Hubble types from S0 to Sc. Traditional 1D decomposition is also presented for comparison. In detailed case studies of the 10 galaxies, we successfully model the secondary morphological features. Through a comparison of best-fit parameters obtained from different input surface brightness models, we identify morphological features that significantly impact bulge measurements. We show that nuclear and inner lenses/rings and disk breaks must be properly taken into account to obtain accurate bulge parameters, whereas outer lenses/rings and spiral arms have a negligible effect. We provide an optimal strategy to measure bulge parameters of typical disk galaxies, as well as prescriptions to estimate realistic uncertainties of them, which will benefit subsequent decomposition of a larger galaxy sample.

  6. The Arecibo Galaxy Environment Survey IX: the isolated galaxy sample

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Minchin, R.F.; Auld, R.; Davies, J.I.; Karachentsev, I.D.; Keenan, O.; Momjian, E.; Rodriguez, R.; Taber, T.; Taylor, Rhys


    Roč. 455, č. 4 (2016), s. 3430-3435 ISSN 0035-8711 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG14013; GA ČR GAP209/12/1795 Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : individual galaxies NGC 1156 * individual galaxies NGC 5523 * individual galaxies UGC 2082 Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 4.961, year: 2016

  7. Radio Galaxy Zoo: A Search for Hybrid Morphology Radio Galaxies (United States)

    Kapińska, A. D.; Terentev, I.; Wong, O. I.; Shabala, S. S.; Andernach, H.; Rudnick, L.; Storer, L.; Banfield, J. K.; Willett, K. W.; de Gasperin, F.; Lintott, C. J.; López-Sánchez, Á. R.; Middelberg, E.; Norris, R. P.; Schawinski, K.; Seymour, N.; Simmons, B.


    Hybrid morphology radio sources (HyMoRS) are a rare type of radio galaxy that display different Fanaroff-Riley classes on opposite sides of their nuclei. To enhance the statistical analysis of HyMoRS, we embarked on a large-scale search of these sources within the international citizen science project, Radio Galaxy Zoo (RGZ). Here, we present 25 new candidate hybrid morphology radio galaxies. Our selected candidates are moderate power radio galaxies ({L}{median}=4.7× {10}24 W Hz-1 sr-1) at redshifts 0.14 1 Mpc) radio galaxies, one resides at the center of a galaxy cluster, and one is hosted by a rare green bean galaxy. Although the origin of the hybrid morphology radio galaxies is still unclear, this type of radio source starts depicting itself as a rather diverse class. We discuss hybrid radio morphology formation in terms of the radio source environment (nurture) and intrinsically occurring phenomena (nature; activity cessation and amplification), showing that these peculiar radio galaxies can be formed by both mechanisms. While high angular resolution follow-up observations are still necessary to confirm our candidates, we demonstrate the efficacy of the RGZ in the pre-selection of these sources from all-sky radio surveys, and report the reliability of citizen scientists in identifying and classifying complex radio sources.

  8. Occurrence of LINER galaxies within the galaxy group environment (United States)

    Coldwell, Georgina V.; Pereyra, Luis; Alonso, Sol; Donoso, Emilio; Duplancic, Fernanda


    We study the properties of a sample of 3967 low-ionization nuclear emission-line region (LINER) galaxies selected from SDSS-DR7, with respect to their proximity to galaxy groups. The host galaxies of LINERs have been analysed and compared with a well-defined control sample of 3841 non-LINER galaxies matched in redshift, luminosity, colour, morphology, age and stellar mass content. We find no difference between LINER and control galaxies in terms of the colour and age of stellar population as a function of the virial mass and distance to the geometric centre of the group. However, we find that LINERs are more likely to populate low-density environments in spite of their morphology, which is typical of high-density regions such as rich galaxy clusters. For rich (poor) galaxy groups, the occurrence of LINERs is approximately two times lower (higher) than the occurrence of matched, non-LINER galaxies. Moreover, LINER hosts do not seem to follow the expected morphology-density relation in groups of high virial mass. The high frequency of LINERs in low-density regions could be due to the combination of a sufficient gas reservoir to power the low-ionization emission and/or enhanced galaxy interaction rates benefiting the gas flow towards their central regions.

  9. Galaxy clusters and cosmology

    CERN Document Server

    White, S


    Galaxy clusters are the largest coherent objects in Universe. It has been known since 1933 that their dynamical properties require either a modification of the theory of gravity, or the presence of a dominant component of unseen material of unknown nature. Clusters still provide the best laboratories for studying the amount and distribution of this dark matter relative to the material which can be observed directly -- the galaxies themselves and the hot,X-ray-emitting gas which lies between them.Imaging and spectroscopy of clusters by satellite-borne X -ray telescopes has greatly improved our knowledge of the structure and composition of this intergalactic medium. The results permit a number of new approaches to some fundamental cosmological questions,but current indications from the data are contradictory. The observed irregularity of real clusters seems to imply recent formation epochs which would require a universe with approximately the critical density. On the other hand, the large baryon fraction observ...

  10. Galaxy mapping the cosmos

    CERN Document Server

    Geach, James


    Each night, we are able to gaze up at the night sky and look at the thousands of stars that stretch to the end of our individual horizons. But the stars we see are only those that make up our own Milky Way galaxy-but one of hundreds of billions in the whole of the universe, each separated  by inconceivably huge tracts of empty space. In this book, astronomer James Geach tells the rich stories of both the evolution of galaxies and our ability to observe them, offering a fascinating history of how we've come to realize humanity's tiny place in the vast universe.             Taking us on a compel

  11. The Anatomy of Galaxies (United States)

    D'Onofrio, Mauro; Rampazzo, Roberto; Zaggia, Simone; Longair, Malcolm S.; Ferrarese, Laura; Marziani, Paola; Sulentic, Jack W.; van der Kruit, Pieter C.; Laurikainen, Eija; Elmegreen, Debra M.; Combes, Françoise; Bertin, Giuseppe; Fabbiano, Giuseppina; Giovanelli, Riccardo; Calzetti, Daniela; Moss, David L.; Matteucci, Francesca; Djorgovski, Stanislav George; Fraix-Burnet, Didier; Graham, Alister W. McK.; Tully, Brent R.

    Just after WWII Astronomy started to live its "Golden Age", not differently to many other sciences and human activities, especially in the west side countries. The improved resolution of telescopes and the appearance of new efficient light detectors (e.g. CCDs in the middle eighty) greatly impacted the extragalactic researches. The first morphological analysis of galaxies were rapidly substituted by "anatomic" studies of their structural components, star and gas content, and in general by detailed investigations of their properties. As for the human anatomy, where the final goal was that of understanding the functionality of the organs that are essential for the life of the body, galaxies were dissected to discover their basic structural components and ultimately the mystery of their existence.

  12. The Galaxy's Eating Habits (United States)

    Putman, M. E.; Thom, C.; Gibson, B. K.; Staveley-Smith, L.


    The possibility of a gaseous halo stream which was stripped from the Sagittarius dwarf galaxy is presented. The total mass of the neutral hydrogen along the orbit of the Sgr dwarf in the direction of the Galactic Anti-Center is 4 - 10 × 106 M⊙ (at 36 kpc, the distance to the stellar debris in this region). Both the stellar and gaseous components have negative velocities in this part of the sky, but the gaseous component extends to higher negative velocities. We suggest this gaseous stream was stripped from the main body of the dwarf 0.2 - 0.3 Gyr ago during its current orbit after a passage through a diffuse edge of the Galactic disk with a density > 10-4 cm-3. The gas would then represent the dwarf's last source of star formation fuel and explains how the galaxy was forming stars 0.5-2 Gyr ago.

  13. Galaxy pairs in the SDSS - XIII. The connection between enhanced star formation and molecular gas properties in galaxy mergers. (United States)

    Violino, Giulio; Ellison, Sara L.; Sargent, Mark; Coppin, Kristen E. K.; Scudder, Jillian M.; Mendel, Trevor J.; Saintonge, Amelie


    We investigate the connection between star formation and molecular gas properties in galaxy mergers at low redshift (z≤0.06). The study we present is based on IRAM 30-m CO(1-0) observations of 11 galaxies with a close companion selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS). The pairs have mass ratios ≤4, projected separations rp ≤30 kpc and velocity separations ΔV≤300 km s-1, and have been selected to exhibit enhanced specific star formation rates (sSFR). We calculate molecular gas (H2) masses, assigning to each galaxy a physically motivated conversion factor αCO, and we derive molecular gas fractions and depletion times. We compare these quantities with those of isolated galaxies from the extended CO Legacy Data base for the GALEX Arecibo SDSS Survey sample (xCOLDGASS, Saintonge et al. 2017) with gas quantities computed in an identical way. Ours is the first study which directly compares the gas properties of galaxy pairs and those of a control sample of normal galaxies with rigorous control procedures and for which SFR and H2 masses have been estimated using the same method. We find that the galaxy pairs have shorter depletion times and an average molecular gas fraction enhancement of 0.4 dex compared to the mass matched control sample drawn from xCOLDGASS. However, the gas masses (and fractions) in galaxy pairs and their depletion times are consistent with those of non-mergers whose SFRs are similarly elevated. We conclude that both external interactions and internal processes may lead to molecular gas enhancement and decreased depletion times.

  14. Exploring Our Galaxy's Thick Disk (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    What is the structure of the Milky Ways disk, and how did it form? A new study uses giant stars to explore these questions.A View from the InsideSchematic showing an edge-on, not-to-scale view of what we think the Milky Ways structurelookslike. The thick disk is shown in yellow and the thin disk is shown in green. [Gaba p]Spiral galaxies like ours are often observed to have disks consisting of two components: a thin disk that lies close to the galactic midplane, and a thick disk that extends above and below this. Past studies have suggested that the Milky Ways disk hosts the same structure, but our position embedded in the Milky Way makes this difficult to confirm.If we can measure the properties of a broad sample of distant tracer stars and use this to better understand the construction of the Milky Ways disk, then we can start to ask additional questions like, how did the disk components form? Formation pictures for the thick disk generally fall into two categories:Stars in the thick disk formed within the Milky Way either in situ or by migrating to their current locations.Stars in the thick disk formed in satellite galaxies around the Milky Way and then accreted when the satellites were disrupted.Scientists Chengdong Li and Gang Zhao (NAO Chinese Academy of Sciences, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences) have now used observations of giant stars which can be detected out to great distances due to their brightness to trace the properties of the Milky Ways thick disk and address the question of its origin.Best fits for the radial (top) and vertical (bottom) metallicity gradients of the thick-disk stars. [Adapted from Li Zhao 2017]Probing OriginsLi and Zhao used data from the Large Sky Area Multi-Object Fiber Spectroscopic Telescope (LAMOST) in China to examine a sample of 35,000 giant stars. The authors sorted these stars into different disk components halo, thin disk, and thick disk based on their kinematic properties, and then explored how the orbital and

  15. Luminous compact blue galaxies in the local Universe: A key reference for high-redshift studies (United States)

    Pérez Gallego, J.; Guzmán, R.; Castander, F. J.; Garland, C. A.; Pisano, D. J.


    Luminous Compact Blue Galaxies (LCBGs) are high surface brightness starburst galaxies, bluer than a typical Sbc and brighter than ˜0.25Lstar. LCBGs have evolved more than any other galaxy class in the last ˜8 Gyr, and are a major contributor to the observed enhancement of the UV luminosity density of the Universe at z≤1. Despite the key role LCBGs may play in galaxy evolution, their statistical properties are still largely unknown. We have selected a complete sample of ˜25 LCBGs within 100 Mpc, after investigating over 106 nearby galaxies from the DR1 of the SDSS database. This sample, although small, provides an excellent reference for comparison with current and future surveys of similar galaxies at high redshift, including the population of Lyman-break galaxies. We present preliminary results of this study using 3D spectroscopic observations obtained over a very wide range in wavelength, using WIYN/DENSEPAK in the optical, FISICA in the infrared, and the VLA at cm wavelengths.

  16. Black holes and galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Propst, Raphael J


    Galaxies are the basic unit of cosmology. The study of galaxy formation is concerned with the processes that formed a heterogeneous universe from a homogeneous beginning. The physics of galaxy formation is complicated because it deals with the dynamics of stars, thermodynamics of gas and energy production of stars. A black hole is a massive object whose gravitational field is so intense that it prevents any form of matter or radiation to escape. It is hypothesized that the most massive galaxies in the universe- "elliptical galaxies"- grow simultaneously with the supermassive black holes at their centers, giving us much stronger evidence that black holes control galaxy formation. This book reviews new evidence in the field.

  17. A Century of Galaxy Spectroscopy (United States)

    Rubin, Vera C.


    The first successful spectrum of a galaxy, M31, was obtained in 1898 and published in a two-page paper in the young Astrophysical Journal (Scheiner 1899). Thus the first century of galaxy spectroscopy and the first century of the Astrophysical Journal are almost coincident; I celebrate both in this paper. I describe the very early history of the determination of internal kinematics in spiral galaxies, often by quoting the astronomers' own published words. By mid-century, observations with improved optical and radio telescopes offered evidence that much of the matter in a galaxy is dark. As the century ends, research interests have enlarged to include study of spheroidal and disk galaxies with complex nuclear (and other) kinematics. These complicated velocity patterns are understood as the result of interactions, acquisitions, and mergers, and offer clear evidence of the important role of gravitational effects in galaxy evolution.

  18. Galaxies in the Early Universe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogager, Jens-Kristian

    in Chapter 3 is found to be a young, star-forming galaxy with evidence for strong outflows of gas. This suggests that the more evolved and metal-rich DLAs overlap with the faint end of the luminosity selected galaxies in terms of mass, metallicity, star formation rate, and age. DLAs are generally observed......Understanding how galaxies evolved from the early Universe through cosmic time is a fundamental part of modern astrophysics. In order to study this evolution it is important to sample the galaxies at various times in a consistent way through time. In regular luminosity selected samples, our...... analyses are biased towards the brightest galaxies at all times (as these are easier to observe and identify). A complementary method relies on the absorption imprint from neutral gas in galaxies, the so-called damped Ly absorbers (DLAs) seen towards distant bright objects. This thesis seeks to understand...

  19. Dust in External Galaxies


    Calzetti, Daniela


    Existing (Spitzer Space Telescope) and upcoming (Herschel Space Telescope) facilities are deepening our understanding of the role of dust in tracing the energy budget and chemical evolution of galaxies. The tools we are developing while exploring the local Universe will in turn become pivotal in the interpretation of the high redshift Universe when near--future facilities (the Atacama Large Millimeter Array [ALMA], the Sub--Millimeter Array [SMA], the Large Millimeter Telescope [LMT], the Jam...

  20. NGC 5291: Implications for the Formation of Dwarf Galaxies (United States)

    Malphrus, Benjamin K.; Simpson, Caroline E.; Gottesman, S. T.; Hawarden, Timothy G.


    The possible formation and evolution of dwarf irregular galaxies from material derived from perturbed evolved galaxies is addressed via an H I study of a likely example, the peculiar system NGC 5291. This system, located in the western outskirts of the cluster Abell 3574, contains the lenticular galaxy NGC 5291 which is in close proximity to a disturbed companion and is flanked by an extensive complex of numerous knots extending roughly 4 min north and 4 min south of the galaxy. In an initial optical and radio study, Longmore et al. (1979, MNRAS, 188, 285) showed that these knots have the spectra of vigorous star-forming regions, and suggested that some may in fact be young dwarf irregular galaxies. High resolution 21-cm line observations taken with the VLA are presented here and reveal that the H I distribution associated with this system encompasses not only the entire N-S complex of optical knots, but also forms an incomplete ring or tail that extends approximately 3 min to the west. The H I associated with NGC 5291 itself shows a high velocity range; the Seashell is not detected. The formation mechanism for this unusual system is unclear and two models - a large, low-luminosity ram-swept disk, and a ram-swept interaction-are discussed. The H I in the system contains numerous concentrations, mostly along the N-S arc of the star-forming complexes, which generally coincide with one or more optical knots; the larger H I features contain several x 10(exp 9) solar mass of gas. Each of the knots is compared to a set of criteria designed to determine if these objects are bound against their own internal kinetic energy and are tidally stable relative to the host galaxy. An analysis of the properties of the H I concentrations surrounding the optical star-forming complexes indicates that at least the largest of these is a bound system; it also possesses a stellar component. It is suggested that this object is a genuinely young dwarf irregular galaxy that has evolved from

  1. ARCHANGEL: Galaxy Photometry System (United States)

    Schombert, James


    ARCHANGEL is a Unix-based package for the surface photometry of galaxies. While oriented for large angular size systems (i.e. many pixels), its tools can be applied to any imaging data of any size. The package core contains routines to perform the following critical galaxy photometry functions: sky determination; frame cleaning; ellipse fitting; profile fitting; and total and isophotal magnitudes. The goal of the package is to provide an automated, assembly-line type of reduction system for galaxy photometry of space-based or ground-based imaging data. The procedures outlined in the documentation are flux independent, thus, these routines can be used for non-optical data as well as typical imaging datasets. ARCHANGEL has been tested on several current OS's (RedHat Linux, Ubuntu Linux, Solaris, Mac OS X). A tarball for installation is available at the download page. The main routines are Python and FORTRAN based, therefore, a current installation of Python and a FORTRAN compiler are required. The ARCHANGEL package also contains Python hooks to the PGPLOT package, an XML processor and network tools which automatically link to data archives (i.e. NED, HST, 2MASS, etc) to download images in a non-interactive manner.

  2. A model of intrinsic symmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ge, Li [Research Center for Quantum Manipulation, Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China); Li, Sheng [Department of Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Zhejiang 310004 (China); George, Thomas F., E-mail: [Office of the Chancellor and Center for Nanoscience, Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-St. Louis, St. Louis, MO 63121 (United States); Sun, Xin, E-mail: [Research Center for Quantum Manipulation, Department of Physics, Fudan University, Shanghai 200433 (China)


    Different from the symmetry breaking associated with a phase transition, which occurs when the controlling parameter is manipulated across a critical point, the symmetry breaking presented in this Letter does not need parameter manipulation. Instead, the system itself suddenly undergoes symmetry breaking at a certain time during its evolution, which is intrinsic symmetry breaking. Through a polymer model, it is revealed that the origin of the intrinsic symmetry breaking is nonlinearity, which produces instability at the instance when the evolution crosses an inflexion point, where this instability breaks the original symmetry.

  3. NCBI BLAST+ integrated into Galaxy


    Cock, Peter J.A.; John M. Chilton; Gr?ning, Bj?rn; James E. Johnson; Soranzo, Nicola


    Background The NCBI BLAST suite has become ubiquitous in modern molecular biology and is used for small tasks such as checking capillary sequencing results of single PCR products, genome annotation or even larger scale pan-genome analyses. For early adopters of the Galaxy web-based biomedical data analysis platform, integrating BLAST into Galaxy was a natural step for sequence comparison workflows. Findings The command line NCBI BLAST+ tool suite was wrapped for use within Galaxy. Appropriate...

  4. Searching for cosmological signatures of the Einstein equivalence principle breaking (United States)

    Holanda, R. F. L.; Barros, K. N. N. O.


    Modifications of gravity generated by a multiplicative coupling of a scalar field to the electromagnetic Lagrangian lead to a breaking of the Einstein equivalence principle (EEPB), as well as to variations of fundamental constants. In these theoretical frameworks, deviations of standard values of the fine structure constant, Δ α /α =ϕ , and of the cosmic distance duality relation, DL(1 +z )-2/DA=η =1 , where DL and DA are the luminosity and angular diameter distances, respectively, are unequivocally linked. In this paper, we search for cosmological signatures of the EEPB by using angular diameter distance from galaxy clusters, obtained via their Sunyaev-Zel'dovich effect (SZE) and x-ray observations, and distance modulus of type Ia supernovae (SNe Ia). The crucial point here is that we take into account the dependence of the SZE/x-ray technique with ϕ and η . Our new results show no indication of the EEPB.

  5. The Effects of Cluster Environment on the Chemical Evolution of Galaxies (United States)

    Pilyugin, L. S.; Ferrini, F.

    The values of oxygen deficiency have been derived for nine Virgo cluster spiral galaxies from the sample of Skillman et al (1996) which ranges from HI deficient spirals (three galaxies near the center of cluster) to spirals with normal HI contents (three galaxies at the periphery of cluster). The chemical properties of Virgo cluster spiral galaxies have been compared with chemical properties of field spiral galaxies considered by Pilyugin and Ferrini (1998). It has been found that the sample of spirals at the periphery of the cluster is a mixture of objects without, with moderate, and with significant oxygen abundance deficiency. It confirms the conclusion of Skillman et al (1996) that spirals at the periphery of the cluster are indistinguishable from field galaxies. All the spirals near the center of the cluster, within the limited sample here considered, have no oxygen deficiency, and are more advanced in evolution than spirals at the periphery of the cluster or than field spirals. These facts can be considered as a hint that, in the case of spiral galaxies near the center of a cluster, the cluster environment inhibits gas exchange between the galaxy and its surroundings at the present epoch and can slightly enhance the efficiency of star formation. The positions of Virgo spirals without oxygen abundance deficiency in the gas mass fraction μ -- O/H diagram agree closely with the positions of field spiral galaxies without oxygen abundance deficiency and are in agreement with the location of one-zone closed-box models. This is strong evidence in favour that the oxygen yield (or, in consequence, the initial mass function) in cluster spiral galaxies does not differ from that in spiral galaxies in the field.

  6. Dark-ages reionization and galaxy formation simulation-XI. Clustering and halo masses of high redshift galaxies (United States)

    Park, Jaehong; Kim, Han-Seek; Liu, Chuanwu; Trenti, Michele; Duffy, Alan R.; Geil, Paul M.; Mutch, Simon J.; Poole, Gregory B.; Mesinger, Andrei; Wyithe, J. Stuart B.


    We investigate the clustering properties of Lyman-break galaxies (LBGs) at z ∼ 6 - 8. Using the semi-analytical model MERAXES constructed as part of the dark-ages reionization and galaxy-formation observables from numerical simulation (DRAGONS) project, we predict the angular correlation function (ACF) of LBGs at z ∼ 6 - 8. Overall, we find that the predicted ACFs are in good agreement with recent measurements at z ∼ 6 and z ∼ 7.2 from observations consisting of the Hubble eXtreme Deep Field, the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and cosmic sssembly near-infrared deep extragalactic legacy survey field. We confirm the dependence of clustering on luminosity, with more massive dark matter haloes hosting brighter galaxies, remains valid at high redshift. The predicted galaxy bias at fixed luminosity is found to increase with redshift, in agreement with observations. We find that LBGs of magnitude MAB(1600) < -19.4 at 6 ≲ z ≲ 8 reside in dark matter haloes of mean mass ∼1011.0-1011.5 M⊙, and this dark matter halo mass does not evolve significantly during reionisation.

  7. Jet triggered Type Ia supernovae in radio-galaxies?


    Capetti, Alessandro


    We report the serendipitous discovery of a supernova (SN) in the nearby radio-galaxy 3C 78. Observations obtained with the STIS spectrograph on board the Hubble Space Telescope show, at a distance of 0.54 arcsec (300 pc) from the galaxy nucleus, a second bright source, not present in previous images. As this source was fortuitously covered by the spectrograph slit its spectrum was obtained and it is characteristic of a Type Ia SN. This SN is closely aligned with the radio-jet of 3C 78. Analys...

  8. AGN feedback in galaxy formation

    CERN Document Server

    Antonuccio-Delogu, Vincenzo


    During the past decade, convincing evidence has been accumulated concerning the effect of active galactic nuclei (AGN) activity on the internal and external environment of their host galaxies. Featuring contributions from well-respected researchers in the field, and bringing together work by specialists in both galaxy formation and AGN, this volume addresses a number of key questions about AGN feedback in the context of galaxy formation. The topics covered include downsizing and star-formation time scales in massive elliptical galaxies, the connection between the epochs of supermassive black h

  9. The evolution of the metallicity gradient and the star formation efficiency in disc galaxies (United States)

    Sillero, Emanuel; Tissera, Patricia B.; Lambas, Diego G.; Michel-Dansac, Leo


    We study the oxygen abundance profiles of the gas-phase components in hydrodynamical simulations of pre-prepared disc galaxies including major mergers, close encounters and isolated configurations. We analyse the evolution of the slope of oxygen abundance profiles and the specific star formation rate (sSFR) along their evolution. We find that galaxy-galaxy interactions could generate either positive or negative gas-phase oxygen profiles, depending on the state of evolution. Along the interaction, galaxies are found to have metallicity gradients and sSFR consistent with observations, on average. Strong gas inflows produced during galaxy-galaxy interactions or as a result of strong local instabilities in gas-rich discs are able to produce both a quick dilution of the central gas-phase metallicity and a sudden increase of the sSFR. Our simulations show that, during these events, a correlation between the metallicity gradients and the sSFR can be set up if strong gas inflows are triggered in the central regions in short time-scales. Simulated galaxies without experiencing strong disturbances evolve smoothly without modifying the metallicity gradients. Gas-rich systems show large dispersion along the correlation. The dispersion in the observed relation could be interpreted as produced by the combination of galaxies with different gas-richness and/or experiencing different types of interactions. Hence, our findings suggest that the observed relation might be the smoking gun of galaxies forming in a hierarchical clustering scenario.

  10. Study of galaxies in the Lynx-Cancer void - I. Sample description (United States)

    Pustilnik, S. A.; Tepliakova, A. L.


    The evolution of galaxies is influenced by the environment in which they reside. This effect should be strongest for the lowest-mass and -luminosity galaxies. To study dwarf galaxies in extremely low density environments, we have compiled a deep catalogue of dwarf galaxies in the nearby Lynx-Cancer void. This void hosts some of the most metal-poor dwarfs known to date. It borders the Local Volume at negative supergalactic Z(SGZ) coordinates and has a size of more than 16 Mpc. With a distance to its centre of only 18 Mpc, it is close enough to allow a search for the faintest dwarfs. Within the void 75 dwarf (-11.9 > MB > -18.0) and four subluminous (-18.0 > MB > -18.4) galaxies have been identified. We present the parameters of the void galaxies and a detailed analysis of the completeness of the catalogue as a function of magnitude and surface brightness. The catalogue appears almost complete to MB < -14 mag, but misses part of the fainter low surface brightness (LSB) face-on galaxies. This sample of void galaxies builds the basis of forthcoming observational studies that will provide insight into the main stellar population, H I mass-to-light ratio, metallicity and age for comparison with dwarfs in higher density regions. We briefly summarize the information on the unusual objects in the void and conclude that their concentration hints that voids are environments that are favourable for finding and studying unevolved dwarf galaxies.

  11. The distribution of early- and late-type galaxies in the Coma cluster (United States)

    Doi, M.; Fukugita, M.; Okamura, S.; Turner, E. L.


    The spatial distribution and the morohology-density relation of Coma cluster galaxies are studied using a new homogeneous photmetric sample of 450 galaxies down to B = 16.0 mag with quantitative morphology classification. The sample covers a wide area (10 deg X 10 deg), extending well beyond the Coma cluster. Morphological classifications into early- (E+SO) and late-(S) type galaxies are made by an automated algorithm using simple photometric parameters, with which the misclassification rate is expected to be approximately 10% with respect to early and late types given in the Third Reference Catalogue of Bright Galaxies. The flattened distribution of Coma cluster galaxies, as noted in previous studies, is most conspicuously seen if the early-type galaxies are selected. Early-type galaxies are distributed in a thick filament extended from the NE to the WSW direction that delineates a part of large-scale structure. Spiral galaxies show a distribution with a modest density gradient toward the cluster center; at least bright spiral galaxies are present close to the center of the Coma cluster. We also examine the morphology-density relation for the Coma cluster including its surrounding regions.

  12. The properties of the first galaxies in the BlueTides simulation (United States)

    Wilkins, Stephen M.; Feng, Yu; Di Matteo, Tiziana; Croft, Rupert; Lovell, Christopher C.; Waters, Dacen


    We employ the very large cosmological hydrodynamical simulation BlueTides to investigate the predicted properties of the galaxy population during the epoch of reionization (z > 8). BlueTides has a resolution and volume ((400/h ≈ 577)3 cMpc3) providing a population of galaxies that is well matched to depth and area of current observational surveys targeting the high-redshift Universe. At z = 8, BlueTides includes almost 160 000 galaxies with stellar masses >108 M⊙. The population of galaxies predicted by BlueTides closely matches observational constraints on both the galaxy stellar mass function and far-UV (150 nm) luminosity function. Galaxies in BlueTides are characterized by rapidly increasing star formation histories. Specific star formation rates decrease with redshift though remain largely insensitive to stellar mass. As a result of the enhanced surface density of metals, more massive galaxies are predicted to have higher dust attenuation resulting in a significant steepening of the observed far-UV luminosity function at high luminosities. The contribution of active supermassive black holes (SMBHs) to the UV luminosities of galaxies with stellar masses 109-10 M⊙ is around 3 per cent on average. Approximately 25 per cent of galaxies with M* ≈ 1010 M⊙ are predicted to have active SMBHs that contribute >10 per cent of the total UV luminosity.

  13. Why do Galaxies Stop Forming Stars? New Evidence for the Role of AGN-feedback in Driving Galaxy Bimodality (United States)

    Bluck, Asa; Teimoorinia, Hossen; Ellison, Sara L.; Mendel, Trevor


    One of the most striking features of the population of local galaxies is that the distributions of several key galaxy properties are highly bimodal (e.g. color and star formation rate). In general, high mass galaxies in dense environments, with bulge-dominated morphologies and pressure supported kinematics are more frequently passive (non-star forming) than lower mass galaxies in low density environments, with disc-dominated morphologies and rotationally supported kinematics. Understanding which, if any, of these correlations is causally related to the ‘quenching’ of star formation in galaxies remains an active and hotly debated area of investigation in modern astrophysics.Theoretically, a wealth of physical processes have been evoked to account for central galaxy quenching, including halo mass quenching from virial shocks, feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGN; in either the quasar or radio mode), stabilizing torques from central mass concentrations, feedback from supernovae, or even magnetic fields interacting with the hot gas halo.I will present strong new statistical evidence which suggests that the quenched fraction of local central galaxies is primarily related to their central kinematics (Bluck et al. 2016; 2017 in prep.). I will show that this is broadly consistent with quenching from AGN feedback, through a detailed comparison with a semi-analytic model and a cosmological hydrodynamical simulation.Using a sample of over half a million local galaxies from the SDSS DR7, we go on to develop a number of sophisticated techniques, including machine learning with artificial neural networks, to rank the importance of galaxy properties to quenching (Teimoorinia, Bluck & Ellison 2016). We find that properties closely correlated with the central supermassive black hole are highly favoured statistically to predict whether a galaxy will be star forming or not. Perhaps surprisingly, stellar mass and halo mass have no impact on star formation activity in central

  14. The luminosity function of field galaxies


    Mahtessian, A. P.


    Schmidt's method for construction of luminosity function of galaxies is generalized by taking into account the dependence of density of galaxies from the distance in the near Universe. The logarithmical luminosity function (LLF) of field galaxies depending on morphological type is constructed. We show that the LLF for all galaxies, and also separately for elliptical and lenticular galaxies can be presented by Schechter function in narrow area of absolute magnitudes. The LLF of spiral galaxies...

  15. SPT-GMOS: A Gemini/GMOS-South Spectroscopic Survey of Galaxy Clusters in the SPT-SZ Survey (United States)

    Bayliss, M. B.; Ruel, J.; Stubbs, C. W.; Allen, S. W.; Applegate, D. E.; Ashby, M. L. N.; Bautz, M.; Benson, B. A.; Bleem, L. E.; Bocquet, S.; Brodwin, M.; Capasso, R.; Carlstrom, J. E.; Chang, C. L.; Chiu, I.; Cho, H.-M.; Clocchiatti, A.; Crawford, T. M.; Crites, A. T.; de Haan, T.; Desai, S.; Dietrich, J. P.; Dobbs, M. A.; Doucouliagos, A. N.; Foley, R. J.; Forman, W. R.; Garmire, G. P.; George, E. M.; Gladders, M. D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Gupta, N.; Halverson, N. W.; Hlavacek-Larrondo, J.; Hoekstra, H.; Holder, G. P.; Holzapfel, W. L.; Hou, Z.; Hrubes, J. D.; Huang, N.; Jones, C.; Keisler, R.; Knox, L.; Lee, A. T.; Leitch, E. M.; von der Linden, A.; Luong-Van, D.; Mantz, A.; Marrone, D. P.; McDonald, M.; McMahon, J. J.; Meyer, S. S.; Mocanu, L. M.; Mohr, J. J.; Murray, S. S.; Padin, S.; Pryke, C.; Rapetti, D.; Reichardt, C. L.; Rest, A.; Ruhl, J. E.; Saliwanchik, B. R.; Saro, A.; Sayre, J. T.; Schaffer, K. K.; Schrabback, T.; Shirokoff, E.; Song, J.; Spieler, H. G.; Stalder, B.; Stanford, S. A.; Staniszewski, Z.; Stark, A. A.; Story, K. T.; Vanderlinde, K.; Vieira, J. D.; Vikhlinin, A.; Williamson, R.; Zenteno, A.


    We present the results of SPT-GMOS, a spectroscopic survey with the Gemini Multi-Object Spectrograph (GMOS) on Gemini South. The targets of SPT-GMOS are galaxy clusters identified in the SPT-SZ survey, a millimeter-wave survey of 2500 deg2 of the southern sky using the South Pole Telescope (SPT). Multi-object spectroscopic observations of 62 SPT-selected galaxy clusters were performed between 2011 January and 2015 December, yielding spectra with radial velocity measurements for 2595 sources. We identify 2243 of these sources as galaxies, and 352 as stars. Of the galaxies, we identify 1579 as members of SPT-SZ galaxy clusters. The primary goal of these observations was to obtain spectra of cluster member galaxies to estimate cluster redshifts and velocity dispersions. We describe the full spectroscopic data set and resulting data products, including galaxy redshifts, cluster redshifts, and velocity dispersions, and measurements of several well-known spectral indices for each galaxy: the equivalent width, W, of [O ii] λλ3727, 3729 and H-δ, and the 4000 Å break strength, D4000. We use the spectral indices to classify galaxies by spectral type (i.e., passive, post-starburst, star-forming), and we match the spectra against photometric catalogs to characterize spectroscopically observed cluster members as a function of brightness (relative to m ⋆). Finally, we report several new measurements of redshifts for ten bright, strongly lensed background galaxies in the cores of eight galaxy clusters. Combining the SPT-GMOS data set with previous spectroscopic follow-up of SPT-SZ galaxy clusters results in spectroscopic measurements for >100 clusters, or ˜20% of the full SPT-SZ sample.

  16. CANDELS: A Cosmic Quest for Distant Galaxies Offering Live Views of Galaxy Evolution (United States)

    Koo, David C.; CANDELS


    For decades, the study of distant galaxies has been pushing the frontiers of extra-galactic research, with observations from the best suite of telescopes and instruments and with theory from the most advanced computer simulations. This talk will focus on observations taken within the CANDELS fields to reveal the richness and complexity of this still-growing field. CANDELS (Cosmic Assembly Near-IR Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey) itself is the largest project ever taken by Hubble and is composed of optical and near-infrared images of five tiny regions of sky containing over 200,000 distant galaxies. All these regions, two of which are GOODS North and South, were already outstanding in possessing years of prior surveys taken by many teams worldwide and have continued to attract more and better spectra and panchromatic images from Keck, Hubble, Chandra, Spitzer, and other telescopes ranging from X-ray to radio. Combined together, the rich data within the CANDELS fields offer live views of galaxy evolution from “Cosmic Dawn” when the first infant galaxies and cosmic black holes were born, through “Cosmic Noon” during the peak of galaxy and black hole growth, and then to “Cosmic Afternoon” when star formation and black hole activities, morphologies, motions, and contents settled to those of our Milky Way and its zoo of cousins today. The talk will highlight some interesting discoveries from the last two periods and close with new mysteries challenging our field in the 21st century and future prospects for solving them.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyoung-Soo [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Ferguson, Henry C.; Dahlen, Tomas; Grogin, Norman [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Wiklind, Tommy [ALMA/ESO, Santiago (Chile); Dickinson, Mark E. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Giavalisco, Mauro; Guo, Yicheng [Department of Astronomy, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA 01003 (United States); Papovich, Casey [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Messias, Hugo [Departamento de Astronomia, Av. Esteban Iturra 6to piso, Facultad de Ciencias Fisicas y Matematicas, Universidad de Concepcion (Chile); Lin, Lihwai [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China)


    We investigate how star-forming galaxies typically assemble their masses at high redshift. Taking advantage of the deep multi-wavelength coverage of the GOODS data set, we select two of the largest samples of high-redshift star-forming galaxies based on their UV colors and measure stellar mass of individual galaxies. We use template-fitting photometry to obtain optimal estimates of the fluxes in lower-resolution ground-based and Spitzer images using prior information about galaxy positions, shapes, and orientations. By combining the data and realistic simulations to understand measurement errors and biases, we make a statistically robust determination of stellar mass function (SMF) of the UV-selected star-forming galaxies at z {approx} 4 and 5. We report a broad correlation between stellar mass and UV luminosity, such that more UV-luminous galaxies are, on average, also more massive. However, we show that the correlation has a substantial intrinsic scatter, particularly for UV-faint galaxies, evidenced by the fact there is a non-negligible number of UV faint but massive galaxies. Furthermore, we find that the low-mass end of the SMF does not rise as steeply as the UV luminosity function ({alpha}{sub UVLF} Almost-Equal-To - (1.7-1.8) while {alpha}{sub SMF} Almost-Equal-To - (1.3-1.4)) of the same galaxies. In a smooth and continuous formation scenario where star formation rates (SFRs) are sustained at the observed rates for a long time, these galaxies would have accumulated more stellar mass (by a factor of Almost-Equal-To 3) than observed and therefore the SMF would mirror more closely that of the UV luminosity function. The relatively shallow slope of the SMF is due to the fact that many of the UV-selected galaxies are not massive enough, and therefore are too faint in their rest-frame optical bands, to be detected in the current observations. Our results favor a more episodic formation history in which SFRs of low-mass galaxies vary significantly over cosmic time

  18. Intra-night optical variability characteristics of different classes of narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxies (United States)

    Kshama, S. K.; Paliya, Vaidehi S.; Stalin, C. S.


    In a first systematic effort to characterize the intra-night optical variability (INOV) of different classes of narrow-line Seyfert 1 (NLSy1) Galaxies, we have carried out observations on a sample of radio-loud (RL) and radio-quiet (RQ) NLSy1 galaxies. The RL-NLSy1 galaxies are further divided into γ-ray loud (GL) and γ-ray quiet (GQ) NLSy1 galaxies. Our sample consists of four sets, each set consisting of a RQ-NLSy1, a GQ-NLSy1 and a GL-NLSy1 galaxy, closely matched in redshift and optical luminosity. Our observations on both RQ- and GQ-NLSy1 galaxies consist of a total of 19 nights, whereas the data for GL-NLSy1 galaxies (18 nights) were taken from the literature published earlier by us. This enabled us to do a comparison of the duty cycle (DC) of different classes of NLSy1 galaxies. Using power-enhanced F-test, with a variability threshold of 1 per cent, we find DCs of about 55 per cent, 39 per cent and 0 per cent for GL-, GQ- and RQ-NLSy1 galaxies, respectively. The high DC and large amplitude of INOV (24.0 ± 13.7 per cent) shown by GL-NLSy1 galaxies relative to the other two classes might be due to their inner aligned relativistic jets having large bulk Lorentz factors. The null DC of RQ-NLSy1 galaxies could mean the presence of low power and/or largely misaligned jets in them. However, dividing RL-NLSy1 galaxies into low and high optical polarization sources, we find that sources with large polarization show somewhat higher DCs (69 per cent) and amplitudes (29 per cent) compared to those with low polarization. This points to a possible link between INOV and optical polarization.

  19. The origin and properties of massive prolate galaxies in the Illustris simulation (United States)

    Li, Hongyu; Mao, Shude; Emsellem, Eric; Xu, Dandan; Springel, Volker; Krajnović, Davor


    We study galaxy shapes in the Illustris cosmological hydrodynamic simulation. We find that massive galaxies have a higher probability of being prolate. For galaxies with stellar mass larger than 1011 M⊙, 35 out of total 839 galaxies are prolate. For 21 galaxies with stellar mass larger than 1012 M⊙, 9 are prolate, 4 are triaxial while the others are close to being oblate. There are almost no prolate galaxies with stellar mass smaller than 3 × 1011 M⊙. We check the merger history of the prolate galaxies, and find that they are formed by major dry mergers. All the prolate galaxies have at least one such merger, with most having mass ratios between 1:1 and 1:3. The gas fraction (gas mass to total baryon mass) of the progenitors is 0-3 per cent per cent for nearly all these mergers, except for one whose second progenitor contains ∼ 15 per cent gas mass, while its main progenitor still contains less than 5 per cent. For the 35 massive prolate galaxies that we find, 18 of them have minor-axis rotation, and their angular momenta mostly come from the spin angular momenta of the progenitors (usually that of the main progenitor). We analyse the merger orbits of these prolate galaxies and find that most of them experienced a nearly radial merger orbit. Oblate galaxies with major dry mergers can have either radial or circular merger orbits. We further discuss various properties of these prolate galaxies, such as spin parameter λR, spherical anisotropy parameter β, dark matter fraction, as well as inner density slopes for the stellar, dark matter and total mass distributions.

  20. Constraints on the star formation histories of galaxies from z ~ 1 to 0 (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Mei; Wild, Vivienne; Kauffmann, Guinevere; Blaizot, Jérémy; Davis, Marc; Noeske, Kai; Wang, Jian-Min; Willmer, Christopher


    We present a new method to estimate the average star formation rate per unit stellar mass (SSFR) of a stacked population of galaxies. We combine the spectra of 600-1000 galaxies with similar stellar masses and parametrize the star formation history of this stacked population using a set of exponentially declining functions. The strength of the hydrogen Balmer absorption-line series in the rest-frame wavelength range 3750-4150 Å is used to constrain the SSFR by comparing with a library of models generated using the BC03 stellar population code. Our method, based on a principal component analysis, can be applied in a consistent way to spectra drawn from local galaxy surveys and from surveys at z ~ 1, and is only weakly influenced by attenuation due to dust. We apply our method to galaxy samples drawn from Sloan Digital Sky Survey and DEEP2 to study the mass-dependent growth of galaxies from z ~ 1 to 0. We find that (i) high-mass galaxies have lower SSFRs than low-mass galaxies and (ii) the average SSFR has decreased from z = 1 to 0 by a factor of ~3-4, independent of galaxy mass. Additionally, at z ~ 1, our average SSFRs are a factor of 2-2.5 lower than those derived from multiwavelength photometry using similar data sets. We then compute the average time [in units of the Hubble time, tH(z)] needed by galaxies of a given mass to form their stars at their current rate. At both z = 0 and 1, this time-scale decreases strongly with stellar mass from values close to unity for galaxies with masses ~1010Msolar, to more than 10 for galaxies more massive than 1011Msolar. Our results are in good agreement with models in which active galactic nuclei feedback is more efficient at preventing gas from cooling and forming stars in high-mass galaxies.

  1. Exploring the Overabundance of ULXs in Metal- and Dust-Poor Local Lyman Break Analogs (United States)

    Basu-Zych, Antara R.; Lehmer, Bret; Fragos, Tassos; Hornschemeier, Ann; Yukita, Mihoko; Zezas, Andreas; Ptak, Andy


    We have studied high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) populations within two low-metallicity, starburst galaxies, Haro 11 and VV 114. These galaxies serve as analogs to high-redshift (z greater than 2) Lyman break galaxies and, within the larger sample of Lyman break analogs (LBAs), they are sufficiently nearby (less than 87 Mpc) to be spatially resolved by Chandra. Previous studies of the X-ray emission in LBAs have found that the 2-10 keV luminosity per star formation rate (SFR) in these galaxies is elevated, potentially because of their low metallicities (12 + log[O/H] = 8.3-8.4). Theoretically, the progenitors of XRBs forming in lower metallicity environments lose less mass from stellar winds over their lifetimes, producing more massive compact objects (i.e., neutron stars and black holes), and thus resulting in more numerous and luminous HMXBs per SFR. In this paper, we have performed an in-depth study of the only two LBAs that have spatially resolved 2-10 keV emission with Chandra to present the bright end of the X-ray luminosity distribution of HMXBs (L(sub X) approximately greater than 10(exp 39) erg s(exp -1); ultraluminous X-ray sources, ULXs) in these low-metallicity galaxies, based on eight detected ULXs. Compared with the star-forming galaxy X-ray luminosity function (XLF) presented by Mineo et al., Haro 11 and VV 114 host approximately equal to 4 times more L(sub X) greater than 10(exp 40) erg s(exp -1) sources than expected given their SFRs. We simulate the effects of source blending from crowded lower-luminosity HMXBs using the star-forming galaxy XLF and then vary the XLF normalizations and bright-end slopes until we reproduce the observed point source luminosity distributions. We find that these LBAs have a shallower bright-end slope (gamma(sub 2) = 1.90) than the standard XLF (gamma(sub 2) 2.73). If we conservatively assume that the brightest X-ray source from each galaxy is powered by an accreting supermassive black hole rather than an HMXB and

  2. Results from Stacking Grism Spectra of Galaxies at 0.6 PEARS) (United States)

    Joshi, Bhavin; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Windhorst, Rogier A.; PEARS Team, FIGS Team


    We present results from median stacking of low-resolution grism spectra for ~1700 galaxies at 0.6 < z < 1.2. The data are from the Probing Evolution And Reionization Survey (PEARS) which is a 200 orbit HST ACS G800L grism survey in GOODS-N and GOODS-S. The visible and near-IR coverage of the grism, 6000A to 9500A, provides rest-frame visible wavelength coverage from ~3000A to ~6000A for the redshift range of our sample. We median stack galaxies of similar rest-frame u-r color and stellar mass by selecting them based on their location in our u-r color vs stellar mass diagram. The grism spectra are stacked in bins of 0.3 in u-r color and 0.5 dex in stellar mass over a range of 0.0 < u-r < 3.0 and 7.0 < log(M) [M_sol] < 11.5 with an average of ~30 galaxies per bin. We find that blue cloud galaxies typically show bluer continua, Balmer breaks and also show H-beta and [OIII] emission lines that are blended together due to the low-resolution of the grism. Red sequence galaxies typically show strong 4000A breaks and redder continua and, at lower significance, also the G-band and Mgb absorption features characteristic of late type stars. We also observe that green valley galaxies, which form ~6% of the total sample, typically show weaker 4000A breaks and relatively flatter continua at wavelengths redder than 4000A.

  3. The dwarf galaxy population of nearby galaxy clusters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lisker, Thorsten; Wittmann, Carolin; Pak, Mina; Janz, Joachim; Bialas, Daniel; Peletier, Reynier; Grebel, Eva; Falcon Barroso, Jesus; Toloba, Elisa; Smakced Collaboration, Focus Collaboration

    The Fornax, Virgo, Ursa Major and Perseus galaxy clusters all have very different characteristics, in terms of their density, mass, and large-scale environment. We can regard these clusters as laboratories for studying environmental influence on galaxy evolution, using the sensitive low-mass

  4. Breaking through the tranfer tunnel

    CERN Multimedia

    Laurent Guiraud


    This image shows the tunnel boring machine breaking through the transfer tunnel into the LHC tunnel. Proton beams will be transferred from the SPS pre-accelerator to the LHC at 450 GeV through two specially constructed transfer tunnels. From left to right: LHC Project Director, Lyn Evans; CERN Director-General (at the time), Luciano Maiani, and Director for Accelerators, Kurt Hubner.

  5. Models of electroweak symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Pomarol, Alex


    This chapter present models of electroweak symmetry breaking arising from strongly interacting sectors, including both Higgsless models and mechanisms involving a composite Higgs. These scenarios have also been investigated in the framework of five-dimensional warped models that, according to the AdS/CFT correspondence, have a four-dimensional holographic interpretation in terms of strongly coupled field theories. We explore the implications of these models at the LHC.

  6. Mechanics of lithographically defined break junctions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vrouwe, SAG; van der Giessen, E; van der Molen, SJ; Dulic, D; Trouwborst, ML; van Wees, BJ

    We investigate the mechanics of lithographically defined mechanically controllable break junctions, both theoretically and experimentally. It is shown that the relationship between controlled deflection and junction opening depends on the details of the break junction geometry. As a result the

  7. Stellar Kinematics and Metallicities in the Draco and Ursa Minor Dwarf Spheroidal Galaxies from WHT/AF2-WYFFOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, S.; Irwin, M.; Tolstoy, E.; Lewis, J.; Hartke, J.; Skillen, I.; Barcells, M.; Trager, S.


    We present preliminary results from our chemo-dynamical survey of two Milky Way dwarf spheroidal (dSph) galaxies, Draco and Ursa Minor. The two galaxies have similar radial velocities and reside in close proximity in the outskirts of the Milky Way halo, yet exhibit noteworthy differences in their


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Almeida, J.; Morales-Luis, A. B. [Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Terlevich, R.; Terlevich, E. [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica, Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico); Cid Fernandes, R., E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Departamento de Fisica-CFM, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, P.O. Box 476, 88040-900 Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)


    We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is for general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means-based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to H II galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. We compare the mean ages of the stellar populations with those inferred using the code STARLIGHT. We also examine the estimated gas-phase metallicity with the metallicities obtained using electron-temperature-based methods. A number of byproducts follow from the analysis. There is a tight correlation between the age of the stellar population and the metallicity of the gas, which is stronger than the correlations between galaxy mass and stellar age, and galaxy mass and gas metallicity. The galaxy spectra are known to follow a one-dimensional sequence, and we identify the luminosity-weighted mean stellar age as the affine parameter that describes the sequence. All ASK classes happen to have a significant fraction of old stars, although spectrum-wise they are outshined by the youngest populations. Old stars are metal-rich or metal-poor depending on whether they reside in passive galaxies or in star-forming galaxies.

  9. Spectrum from Faint Galaxy IRAS F00183-7111 (United States)


    NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope has detected the building blocks of life in the distant universe, albeit in a violent milieu. Training its powerful infrared eye on a faint object located at a distance of 3.2 billion light-years, Spitzer has observed the presence of water and organic molecules in the galaxy IRAS F00183-7111. With an active galactic nucleus, this is one of the most luminous galaxies in the universe, rivaling the energy output of a quasar. Because it is heavily obscured by dust (see visible-light image in the inset), most of its luminosity is radiated at infrared wavelengths.The infrared spectrograph instrument onboard Spitzer breaks light into its constituent colors, much as a prism does for visible light. The image shows a low-resolution spectrum of the galaxy obtained by the spectrograph at wavelengths between 4 and 20 microns. Spectra are graphical representations of a celestial object's unique blend of light. Characteristic patterns, or fingerprints, within the spectra allow astronomers to identify the object's chemical composition and to determine such physical properties as temperature and density.The broad depression in the center of the spectrum denotes the presence of silicates (chemically similar to beach sand) in the galaxy. An emission peak within the bottom of the trough is the chemical signature for molecular hydrogen. The hydrocarbons (orange) are organic molecules comprised of carbon and hydrogen, two of the most common elements on Earth. Since it has taken more than three billion years for the light from the galaxy to reach Earth, it is intriguing to note the presence of organics in a distant galaxy at a time when life is thought to have started forming on our home planet.Additional features in the spectrum reveal the presence of water ice (blue), carbon dioxide ice (green) and carbon monoxide (purple) in both gas and solid forms. The magenta peak corresponds to singly ionized neon gas, a spectral line often used by astronomers as a

  10. Giant Galaxy Messier 87 finally sized up (United States)


    for the job". At a distance of approximately 50 million light-years, the Virgo Cluster is the nearest galaxy cluster. It is located in the constellation of Virgo (the Virgin) and is a relatively young and sparse cluster. The cluster contains many hundreds of galaxies, including giant and massive elliptical galaxies, as well as more homely spirals like our own Milky Way. The astronomers have proposed several explanations for the discovered "cut-off" of Messier 87's, such as collapse of dark matter nearby in the galaxy cluster. It might also be that another galaxy in the cluster, Messier 84, came much closer to Messier 87 in the past and dramatically perturbed it about a billion years ago. "At this stage, we can't confirm any of these scenarios," says Arnaboldi. "We will need observations of many more planetary nebulae around Messier 87". One thing the astronomers are sure about, however, is that Messier 87 and its neighbour Messier 86 are falling towards each other. "We may be observing them in the phase just before the first close pass", says Gerhard. "The Virgo Cluster is still a very dynamic place and many things will continue to shape its galaxies over the next billion years." More Information Planetary nebulae (PNe) are the spectacular final phase in the life of Sun-like stars, when the star ejects its outer layers into the surrounding space. Their name is a relic of an earlier era: early observers, using only small telescopes, thought that some of these nearby objects, such as the "Helix Nebula" resembled the discs of the giant planets in the Solar System. Planetary nebulae have strong emission lines, which make them relatively easy to detect at great distances, and also allow their radial velocities to be measured precisely. So planetary nebulae can be used to investigate the motions of stars in the faint outer regions of distant galaxies where velocity measurements are otherwise not possible. Moreover, planetary nebulae are representative of the stellar

  11. Temporal correlations and structural memory effects in break junction measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magyarkuti, A.; Lauritzen, Kasper Primdal; Balogh, Zoltan Imre


    that correlations between the opening and subsequent closing traces may indicate structural memory effects in atomic-sized metallic and molecular junctions. Applying these methods on measured and simulated gold metallic contacts as a test system, we show that the surface diffusion induced flattening of the broken......-molecule junctions, we demonstrate pronounced contact memory effects and recovery of the molecule for junctions breaking before atomic chains are formed. However, if chains are pulled the random relaxation of the chain and molecule after rupture prevents opening-closing correlations....

  12. Modelling wave-induced sea ice break-up in the marginal ice zone (United States)

    Montiel, F.; Squire, V. A.


    A model of ice floe break-up under ocean wave forcing in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) is proposed to investigate how floe size distribution (FSD) evolves under repeated wave break-up events. A three-dimensional linear model of ocean wave scattering by a finite array of compliant circular ice floes is coupled to a flexural failure model, which breaks a floe into two floes provided the two-dimensional stress field satisfies a break-up criterion. A closed-feedback loop algorithm is devised, which (i) solves the wave-scattering problem for a given FSD under time-harmonic plane wave forcing, (ii) computes the stress field in all the floes, (iii) fractures the floes satisfying the break-up criterion, and (iv) generates an updated FSD, initializing the geometry for the next iteration of the loop. The FSD after 50 break-up events is unimodal and near normal, or bimodal, suggesting waves alone do not govern the power law observed in some field studies. Multiple scattering is found to enhance break-up for long waves and thin ice, but to reduce break-up for short waves and thick ice. A break-up front marches forward in the latter regime, as wave-induced fracture weakens the ice cover, allowing waves to travel deeper into the MIZ.

  13. Modelling wave-induced sea ice break-up in the marginal ice zone. (United States)

    Montiel, F; Squire, V A


    A model of ice floe break-up under ocean wave forcing in the marginal ice zone (MIZ) is proposed to investigate how floe size distribution (FSD) evolves under repeated wave break-up events. A three-dimensional linear model of ocean wave scattering by a finite array of compliant circular ice floes is coupled to a flexural failure model, which breaks a floe into two floes provided the two-dimensional stress field satisfies a break-up criterion. A closed-feedback loop algorithm is devised, which (i) solves the wave-scattering problem for a given FSD under time-harmonic plane wave forcing, (ii) computes the stress field in all the floes, (iii) fractures the floes satisfying the break-up criterion, and (iv) generates an updated FSD, initializing the geometry for the next iteration of the loop. The FSD after 50 break-up events is unimodal and near normal, or bimodal, suggesting waves alone do not govern the power law observed in some field studies. Multiple scattering is found to enhance break-up for long waves and thin ice, but to reduce break-up for short waves and thick ice. A break-up front marches forward in the latter regime, as wave-induced fracture weakens the ice cover, allowing waves to travel deeper into the MIZ.

  14. 60 micron luminosity evolution of rich clusters of galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, D.M.; Rieke, G.H. (Steward Observatory, Tucson, AZ (USA))


    The average 60-micron flux has been determined for a collection of optically selected galaxy clusters at redshifts ranging from 0.30 to 0.92. The result, 26 mJy per cluster, represents the faintest flux determination known of using the IRAS data base. The flux from this set of clusters has been compared to the 60-micron flux from a sample of nearby galaxy clusters. It is found that the far-infrared luminosity evolution in cluster galaxies can be no more than a factor of 1.7 from z = 0.4 to the present epoch. This upper limit is close to the evolution predicted for simple aging of the stellar populations. Additional processes such as mergers, cannibalism, or enhanced rates of starbursts appear to occur at a low enough level that they have little influence on the far-infrared emission from clusters over this redshift range. 38 refs.

  15. Dynamic breaking of a single gold bond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pobelov, Ilya V.; Lauritzen, Kasper Primdal; Yoshida, Koji


    . Conversely, if the force is loaded rapidly it is more likely that the maximum breaking force is measured. Paradoxically, no clear differences in breaking force were observed in experiments on gold nanowires, despite being conducted under very different conditions. Here we explore the breaking behaviour...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Straatman, Caroline M. S.; Labbé, Ivo [Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, P.O. Box 9513, 2300 RA Leiden (Netherlands); Spitler, Lee R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Allen, Rebecca; Glazebrook, Karl; Kacprzak, Glenn G. [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Altieri, Bruno [European Space Astronomy Centre (ESAC)/ESA, Villanueva de la Cañada, 28691, Madrid (Spain); Brammer, Gabriel B. [European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Córdova 3107, Casilla 19001, Vitacura, Santiago (Chile); Dickinson, Mark; Inami, Hanae [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, Tucson, AZ (United States); Van Dokkum, Pieter [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Kawinwanichakij, Lalit; Mehrtens, Nicola; Papovich, Casey [George P. and Cynthia W. Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Kelson, Daniel D.; McCarthy, Patrick J.; Monson, Andy; Murphy, David; Persson, S. Eric; Quadri, Ryan, E-mail: [Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); and others


    We report the likely identification of a substantial population of massive M ∼ 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉} galaxies at z ∼ 4 with suppressed star formation rates (SFRs), selected on rest-frame optical to near-IR colors from the FourStar Galaxy Evolution Survey (ZFOURGE). The observed spectral energy distributions show pronounced breaks, sampled by a set of near-IR medium-bandwidth filters, resulting in tightly constrained photometric redshifts. Fitting stellar population models suggests large Balmer/4000 Å breaks, relatively old stellar populations, large stellar masses, and low SFRs, with a median specific SFR of 2.9 ± 1.8 × 10{sup –11} yr{sup –1}. Ultradeep Herschel/PACS 100 μm, 160 μm and Spitzer/MIPS 24 μm data reveal no dust-obscured SFR activity for 15/19(79%) galaxies. Two far-IR detected galaxies are obscured QSOs. Stacking the far-IR undetected galaxies yields no detection, consistent with the spectral energy distribution fit, indicating independently that the average specific SFR is at least 10 × smaller than that of typical star-forming galaxies at z ∼ 4. Assuming all far-IR undetected galaxies are indeed quiescent, the volume density is 1.8 ± 0.7 × 10{sup –5} Mpc{sup –3} to a limit of log{sub 10} M/M {sub ☉} ≥ 10.6, which is 10 × and 80 × lower than at z = 2 and z = 0.1. They comprise a remarkably high fraction (∼35%) of z ∼ 4 massive galaxies, suggesting that suppression of star formation was efficient even at very high redshift. Given the average stellar age of 0.8 Gyr and stellar mass of 0.8 × 10{sup 11} M {sub ☉}, the galaxies likely started forming stars before z = 5, with SFRs well in excess of 100 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}, far exceeding that of similarly abundant UV-bright galaxies at z ≥ 4. This suggests that most of the star formation in the progenitors of quiescent z ∼ 4 galaxies was obscured by dust.

  17. Nuclear activity in nearby galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Filho, Mercedes Esteves


    The main focus of this thesis has been the search for and study of low luminosity AGN. We have detected severa low luminosity AGN in nearby galaxies, revealing that this type of activity can occur in a broad range of galaxy types and powers. Furthermore, we have been able to establish importan

  18. Red galaxies at high redshift

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wuyts, Stijn Elisabeth Raphaël


    From its origin at the center of a star to the edge, through the surrounding gas and dust in the distant galaxy, through the intergalactic medium, traveling billions of light years only to be reflected by a mirror and captured by a detector; the little amount of light observed from galaxies in the

  19. Squelched Galaxies and Dark Halos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tully, R. Brent; Somerville, Rachel S.; Trentham, Neil; Verheijen, Marc A. W.


    There is accumulating evidence that the faint end of the galaxy luminosity function might be very different in different locations. The luminosity function might be rising in rich clusters and flat in regions of low density. If galaxies form according to the model of hierarchical clustering, then

  20. Dust tori in radio galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wolk, G.; Barthel, P. D.; Peletier, R. F.; Pel, J. W.

    Aims. We investigate the quasar - radio galaxy unification scenario and detect dust tori within radio galaxies of various types. Methods. Using VISIR on the VLT, we acquired sub-arcsecond (similar to 0.40 '') resolution N-band images, at a wavelength of 11.85 mu m, of the nuclei of a sample of 27

  1. Three types of galaxy disks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pohlen, M.; Erwin, P.; Trujillo, I.; Beckman, J. E.; Knapen, JH; Mahoney, TJ; Vazdekis, A


    We present our new scheme for the classification of radial stellar surface brightness profiles for disk galaxies. We summarize the current theoretical attempts to understand their origin and give an example of an application by comparing local galaxies with their counterparts at high redshift (z

  2. The gravitational dynamics of galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    called spheroidal or elliptical galaxies form a class more amenable to idealized models, we also have many disc .... use the apparent elliptical outline to infer the angle of inclination between the plane of the galaxy and the plane ..... of f along the trajectory of a given particle in phase space. The dynamical friction term clearly.

  3. Galaxy cluster's rotation (United States)

    Manolopoulou, M.; Plionis, M.


    We study the possible rotation of cluster galaxies, developing, testing, and applying a novel algorithm which identifies rotation, if such does exist, as well as its rotational centre, its axis orientation, rotational velocity amplitude, and, finally, the clockwise or counterclockwise direction of rotation on the plane of the sky. To validate our algorithms we construct realistic Monte Carlo mock rotating clusters and confirm that our method provides robust indications of rotation. We then apply our methodology on a sample of Abell clusters with z ≲ 0.1 with member galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey DR10 spectroscopic data base. After excluding a number of substructured clusters, which could provide erroneous indications of rotation, and taking into account the expected fraction of misidentified coherent substructure velocities for rotation, provided by our Monte Carlo simulation analysis, we find that ∼23 per cent of our clusters are rotating under a set of strict criteria. Loosening the strictness of the criteria, on the expense of introducing spurious rotation indications, we find this fraction increasing to ∼28 per cent. We correlate our rotation indicators with the cluster dynamical state, provided either by their Bautz-Morgan type or by their X-ray isophotal shape and find for those clusters showing rotation within 1.5 h^{-1}_{70} Mpc that the significance of their rotation is related to the dynamically younger phases of cluster formation but after the initial anisotropic accretion and merging has been completed. Finally, finding rotational modes in galaxy clusters could lead to the necessity of correcting the dynamical cluster mass calculations.

  4. Dusty Dwarfs Galaxies Occulting A Bright Background Spiral (United States)

    Holwerda, Benne


    The role of dust in shaping the spectral energy distributions of low mass disk galaxies remains poorly understood. Recent results from the Herschel Space Observatory imply that dwarf galaxies contain large amounts of cool (T 20K) dust, coupled with very modest optical extinctions. These seemingly contradictory conclusions may be resolved if dwarfs harbor a variety of dust geometries, e.g., dust at larger galactocentric radii or in quiescent dark clumps. We propose HST observations of six truly occulting dwarf galaxies drawn from the Galaxy Zoo catalog of silhouetted galaxy pairs. Confirmed, true occulting dwarfs are rare as most low-mass disks in overlap are either close satellites or do not have a confirmed redshift. Dwarf occulters are the key to determining the spatial extent of dust, the small scale structure introduced by turbulence, and the prevailing dust attenuation law. The recent spectroscopic confirmation of bona-fide low mass occulting dwarfs offers an opportunity to map dust in these with HST. What is the role of dust in the SED of these dwarf disk galaxies? With shorter feedback scales, how does star-formation affect their morphology and dust composition, as revealed from their attenuation curve? The resolution of HST allows us to map the dust disks down to the fine scale structure of molecular clouds and multi-wavelength imaging maps the attenuation curve and hence dust composition in these disks. We therefore ask for 2 orbits on each of 6 dwarf galaxies in F275W, F475W, F606W, F814W and F125W to map dust from UV to NIR to constrain the attenuation curve.

  5. Comparison between 2D and 3D codes in dynamical simulations of gas flow in barred galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perez, I.

    Context. One of the ways to determine the contribution of the dark halo to the gravitational potential of a galaxy is study non-circular (streaming) motions and the associated gas shocks in the bar region. These motions, determined by the potential in the inner parts, can break the disk-halo

  6. Galaxy NGC 1850 (United States)


    By spying on a neighboring galaxy, NASA's Hubble Space Telescope has captured an image of a young, globular-like star cluster -- a type of object unknown in our Milky Way Galaxy. The image, taken by Hubble's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2, is online at and The camera was designed and built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif. The double cluster NGC 1850 lies in a neighboring satellite galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud. It has two relatively young components. The main, globular-like cluster is in the center. A smaller cluster is seen below and to the right, composed of extremely hot, blue stars and fainter red T-Tauri stars. The main cluster is about 50 million years old; the smaller one is 4 million years old. A filigree pattern of diffuse gas surrounds NGC 1850. Scientists believe the pattern formed millions of years ago when massive stars in the main cluster exploded as supernovas. Hubble can observe a range of star types in NGC 1850, including the faint, low-mass T-Tauri stars, which are difficult to distinguish with ground-based telescopes. Hubble's fine angular resolution can pick out these stars, even in other galaxies. Massive stars of the OB type emit large amounts of energetic ultraviolet radiation, which is absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere. From Hubble's position above the atmosphere, it can detect this ultraviolet light. NGC 1850, the brightest star cluster in the Large Magellanic Cloud, is in the southern constellation of Dorado, called the Goldfish or the Swordfish. This image was created from five archival exposures taken by the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 between April 3, 1994 and February 6, 1996. More information about the Hubble Space Telescope is online at More information about the Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 is at The Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, Md., manages space

  7. Creating lenticular galaxies with mergers (United States)

    Querejeta, Miguel; Eliche-Moral, M. Carmen; Tapia, Trinidad; Borlaff, Alejandro; van de Ven, Glenn; Lyubenova, Mariya; Martig, Marie; Falcón-Barroso, Jesús; Méndez-Abreu, Jairo; Zamorano, Jaime; Gallego, Jesús


    Lenticular galaxies (S0s) represent the majority of early-type galaxies in the local Universe, but their formation channels are still poorly understood. While galaxy mergers are obvious pathways to suppress star formation and increase bulge sizes, the marked parallelism between spiral and lenticular galaxies (e.g. photometric bulge-disc coupling) seemed to rule out a potential merger origin. Here, we summarise our recent work in which we have shown, through N-body numerical simulations, that disc-dominated lenticulars can emerge from major mergers of spiral galaxies, in good agreement with observational photometric scaling relations. Moreover, we show that mergers simultaneously increase the light concentration and reduce the angular momentum relative to their spiral progenitors. This explains the mismatch in angular momentum and concentration between spirals and lenticulars recently revealed by CALIFA observations, which is hard to reconcile with simple fading mechanisms (e.g. ram-pressure stripping).

  8. Observing and Simulating Galaxy Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Karen Pardos

    , but 50% smaller _CO factors, with the latter decreasing towards the center of each model galaxy. In a second study, SÍGAME is adapted to model the fine-structure line of singly ionized carbon, [CII] at 158 _m, the most powerful emission line of neutral ISM. Applying SÍGAME to the same type of galaxies......It remains a quest for modern astronomy to answer what main mechanisms set the star formation rate (SFR) of galaxies. Massive galaxies present a good starting point for such a quest due to their relatively easy detection at every redshift. Since stars form out of cold and dense gas, a comprehensive...... model for galaxy evolution should explain any observed connection between SFR and the amount and properties of the molecular gas of the interstellar medium (ISM). In proposed models of that kind, an active galactic nucleus (AGN) phase is often invoked as the cause for the decrease or cease of star...

  9. Relic galaxies: where are they? (United States)

    Peralta de Arriba, L.; Quilis, V.; Trujillo, I.; Cebrián, M.; Balcells, M.


    The finding that massive galaxies grow with cosmic time fired the starting gun for the search of objects which could have survived up to the present day without suffering substantial changes (neither in their structures, neither in their stellar populations). Nevertheless, and despite the community efforts, up to now only one firm candidate to be considered one of these relics is known: NGC 1277. Curiously, this galaxy is located at the centre of one of the most rich near galaxy clusters: Perseus. Is its location a matter of chance? Should relic hunters focus their search on galaxy clusters? In order to reply this question, we have performed a simultaneous and analogous analysis using simulations (Millennium I-WMAP7) and observations (New York University Value-Added Galaxy Catalogue). Our results in both frameworks agree: it is more probable to find relics in high density environments.

  10. The Molecular Gas Contents Of Z=1.6 (Proto)-Cluster Galaxies And Their Last Gasp Of Star Formation (United States)

    Rudnick, Gregory


    In this talk I present two related topics. First, I discuss the constraints on the quenching efficiency and the age in stellar populations that we derive from deep HST G102 and G141 grism observations in a z=1.62 proto-cluster galaxy. We use the grism data to establish unambiguous membership for passive and star-forming galaxies and to measure the strength of the 4000-Angstrom break strength. We find a strongly mass-dependent passive fraction that is in excess of the field at the highest stellar masses. However, the strength of D4000 for passive galaxies is independent of mass and we interpret this as a lack of strong trends of stellar age with mass. We discuss possible explanations for our observations that there is no stellar age trend although more massive galaxies clearly quench more efficiently than lower mass galaxies. We then discuss the molecular gas properties in a set of 4 clusters at z=1.6. We find that most galaxies have gas fractions that are elevated with respect to the field for galaxies at similar redshift, stellar mass, and star formation rate. However, there is a significant cluster-to-cluster dispersion with galaxies in one cluster having molecular gas properties indistinguishable from the field. There is also some suggestion that the most quenched clusters have the lowest gas fractions but this requires more cluster molecular gas data to confirm this tentative picture.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zhaoyu [Department of Astronomy, School of Physics, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Ho, Luis C. [The Observatories of the Carnegie Institution for Science, 813 Santa Barbara Street, Pasadena, CA 91101 (United States); Barth, Aaron J. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4129 Frederick Reines Hall, University of California, Irvine, CA 92697-4575 (United States); Peng, Chien Y. [NRC Herzberg Institute of Astrophysics, 5071 West Saanich Road, Victoria, BC V9E 2E7 (Canada)


    The Carnegie-Irvine Galaxy Survey (CGS) is a comprehensive investigation of the physical properties of a complete, representative sample of 605 bright (B{sub T} {<=} 12.9 mag) galaxies in the southern hemisphere. This contribution describes the isophotal analysis of the broadband (BVRI) optical imaging component of the project. We pay close attention to sky subtraction, which is particularly challenging for some of the large galaxies in our sample. Extensive crosschecks with internal and external data confirm that our calibration and sky subtraction techniques are robust with respect to the quoted measurement uncertainties. We present a uniform catalog of one-dimensional radial profiles of surface brightness and geometric parameters, as well as integrated colors and color gradients. Composite profiles highlight the tremendous diversity of brightness distributions found in disk galaxies and their dependence on Hubble type. A significant fraction of S0 and spiral galaxies exhibit non-exponential profiles in their outer regions. We perform Fourier decomposition of the isophotes to quantify non-axisymmetric deviations in the light distribution. We use the geometric parameters, in conjunction with the amplitude and phase of the m = 2 Fourier mode, to identify bars and quantify their size and strength. Spiral arm strengths are characterized using the m = 2 Fourier profiles and structure maps. Finally, we utilize the information encoded in the m = 1 Fourier profiles to measure disk lopsidedness. The databases assembled here and in Paper I lay the foundation for forthcoming scientific applications of CGS.

  12. A multi-wavelength analysis of Hickson Compact Groups of galaxies (United States)

    Bitsakis, T.; Charmandaris, V.


    the effects of the group environment and the properties of the galaxy members are not instantaneous. Early on, the influence of close companions to group galaxies is similar to the one of galaxy pairs in the field. However, as the time progresses, the effects of tidal torques and minor merging, shape the morphology and star formation history of the group galaxies, leading to an increase of the fraction of early-type members and a rapid built up of the stellar mass in the remaining late-type galaxies.

  13. Large-scale galaxy bias (United States)

    Jeong, Donghui; Desjacques, Vincent; Schmidt, Fabian


    Here, we briefly introduce the key results of the recent review (arXiv:1611.09787), whose abstract is as following. This review presents a comprehensive overview of galaxy bias, that is, the statistical relation between the distribution of galaxies and matter. We focus on large scales where cosmic density fields are quasi-linear. On these scales, the clustering of galaxies can be described by a perturbative bias expansion, and the complicated physics of galaxy formation is absorbed by a finite set of coefficients of the expansion, called bias parameters. The review begins with a detailed derivation of this very important result, which forms the basis of the rigorous perturbative description of galaxy clustering, under the assumptions of General Relativity and Gaussian, adiabatic initial conditions. Key components of the bias expansion are all leading local gravitational observables, which include the matter density but also tidal fields and their time derivatives. We hence expand the definition of local bias to encompass all these contributions. This derivation is followed by a presentation of the peak-background split in its general form, which elucidates the physical meaning of the bias parameters, and a detailed description of the connection between bias parameters and galaxy (or halo) statistics. We then review the excursion set formalism and peak theory which provide predictions for the values of the bias parameters. In the remainder of the review, we consider the generalizations of galaxy bias required in the presence of various types of cosmological physics that go beyond pressureless matter with adiabatic, Gaussian initial conditions: primordial non-Gaussianity, massive neutrinos, baryon-CDM isocurvature perturbations, dark energy, and modified gravity. Finally, we discuss how the description of galaxy bias in the galaxies' rest frame is related to clustering statistics measured from the observed angular positions and redshifts in actual galaxy catalogs.

  14. Taking breaks from work: an exploratory inquiry. (United States)

    Strongman, K T; Burt, C D


    Two studies concerned with taking breaks from either mental or physical work are presented. In the first study, a questionnaire was given to 101 students in which they answered questions about their own break taking and that of others. They also completed a time management questionnaire and scales about procrastination, self-esteem, and work overload. In the second study, 17 students kept detailed diaries of their daily break-taking behavior over a 6-week period. Results are discussed in terms of the types of reasons given for taking breaks and the possible discrepancies between such reasons and the actual activities engaged in during breaks.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nierenberg, A. M.; Treu, T. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Barbara, CA 93106 (United States); Menci, N. [NAF-Osservatorio Astronomico di Roma, via di Frascati 33, I-00040 Monteporzio (Italy); Lu, Y. [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Stanford, CA 94309 (United States); Wang, W., E-mail: [Key Laboratory for Research in Galaxies and Cosmology of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Max-Planck-Institute Partner Group, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Nandan Road 80, Shanghai 200030 (China)


    The standard cosmological model based on cold dark matter (CDM) predicts a large number of subhalos for each galaxy-size halo. Matching the subhalos to the observed properties of luminous satellites of galaxies in the local universe poses a significant challenge to our understanding of the astrophysics of galaxy formation. We show that the cosmic evolution and host mass dependence of the luminosity function of satellites provide a powerful new diagnostic to disentangle astrophysical effects from variations in the underlying dark matter mass function. We illustrate this by comparing recent observations of satellites between redshifts 0.1 < z < 0.8 based on Hubble Space Telescope images, with predictions from three different state-of-the-art semi-analytic models applied to CDM power spectra, with one model also applied to a warm dark matter (WDM) spectrum. We find that even though CDM models provide a reasonable fit to the local luminosity function of satellites around galaxies comparable to the Milky Way, they do not reproduce the data as well for different redshifts and host galaxy stellar masses, indicating that further improvements in the description of star formation are likely needed. The WDM model matches the observed mass dependence and redshift evolution of satellite galaxies more closely, indicating that a modification of the underlying power spectrum may offer an alternative solution to this tension. We conclude by presenting predictions for the color distribution of satellite galaxies to demonstrate how future observations will be able to further distinguish between these models and to help constrain baryonic and non-baryonic physics.

  16. Neutrino masses and LFV from minimal breaking of U(3)^5 and U(2)^5 flavor symmetries

    CERN Document Server

    Blankenburg, Gianluca; Jones-Perez, Joel


    We analyze neutrino masses and Lepton Flavor Violation (LFV) in charged leptons with a minimal ansatz about the breaking of the U(3)^5 flavor symmetry, consistent with the U(2)^3 breaking pattern of quark Yukawa couplings, in the context of supersymmetry. Neutrino masses are expected to be almost degenerate, close to present bounds from cosmology and $0\

  17. Confronting semi-analytic galaxy models with galaxy-matter correlations observed by CFHTLenS (United States)

    Saghiha, Hananeh; Simon, Patrick; Schneider, Peter; Hilbert, Stefan


    Testing predictions of semi-analytic models of galaxy evolution against observations helps to understand the complex processes that shape galaxies. We compare predictions from the Garching and Durham models implemented on the Millennium Simulation (MS) with observations of galaxy-galaxy lensing (GGL) and galaxy-galaxy-galaxy lensing (G3L) for various galaxy samples with stellar masses in the range 0.5 ≤ M∗/ 1010M⊙ Durham models are strongly excluded by the observations at the 95% confidence level because they largely over-predict the amplitudes of the GGL and G3L signals, probably because they predict too many satellite galaxies in massive halos.

  18. Combining Galaxy-Galaxy Lensing and Galaxy Clustering: A Practical Approach (United States)

    Park, Youngsoo; Krause, Elisabeth; Dodelson, Scott; Jain, Bhuvnesh; Dark Energy Survey Collaboration


    Combining galaxy-galaxy lensing and galaxy clustering is a promising method for inferring the growth rate of large scale structure, a quantity that will shed light on the mechanism driving the acceleration of the Universe. The Dark Energy Survey (DES) is a prime candidate for such an analysis, with its measurements of both the distribution of galaxies on the sky and the tangential shears of background galaxies induced by these foreground lenses. By constructing an end-to-end analysis that combines large-scale galaxy clustering and small-scale galaxy-galaxy lensing, we forecast the potential of a combined probes analysis on DES datasets. In particular, we develop a practical approach to a DES combined probes analysis by jointly modeling the assumptions and systematics affecting the data vectors, employing a shared halo model, HOD parametrization, photometric redshift errors, and shear measurement errors. We also study the effect of external priors on different subsets of these parameters. We conclude that data from the first year of DES will provide powerful constraints on the evolution of structure growth in the universe, constraining the growth function to better than 5%.

  19. Lopsided Collections of Satellite Galaxies (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    You might think that small satellite galaxies would be distributed evenly around their larger galactic hosts but local evidence suggests otherwise. Are satellite distributions lopsided throughout the universe?Satellites in the Local GroupThe distribution of the satellite galaxies orbiting Andromeda, our neighboring galaxy, is puzzling: 21 out of 27 ( 80%) of its satellites are on the side of Andromeda closest to us. In a similar fashion, 4 of the 11 brightest Milky Way satellites are stacked on the side closest to Andromeda.It seems to be the case, then, that satellites around our pair of galaxies preferentially occupy the space between the two galaxies. But is this behavior specific to the Local Group? Or is it commonplace throughout the universe? In a recent study, a team of scientists led by Noam Libeskind (Leibniz Institute for Astrophysics Potsdam, Germany) set out to answer this question.Properties of the galaxies included in the authors sample. Left: redshifts for galaxy pairs. Right: Number of satellite galaxies around hosts. [Adapted from Libeskind et al. 2016]Asymmetry at LargeLibeskind and collaborators tested whether this behavior is common by searching through Sloan Digital Sky Survey observations for galaxy pairs that are similar to the Milky Way/Andromeda pair. The resulting sample consists of 12,210 pairs of galaxies, which have 46,043 potential satellites among them. The team then performed statistical tests on these observations to quantify the anisotropic distribution of the satellites around the host galaxies.Libeskind and collaborators find that roughly 8% more galaxies are seen within a 15 angle facing the other galaxy of a pair than would be expected in a uniform distribution. The odds that this asymmetric behavior is randomly produced, they show, are lower than 1 in 10 million indicating that the lopsidedness of satellites around galaxies in pairs is a real effect and occurs beyond just the Local Group.Caution for ModelingProbability that


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    We present the B-band Tully-Fisher relation for low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. These LSB galaxies follow the same Tully-Fisher relation as normal spiral galaxies. This implies that the mass-to-light ratio (M/L) of LSB galaxies is typically a factor of 2 larger than that of normal galaxies of

  1. Sweating the small stuff: simulating dwarf galaxies, ultra-faint dwarf galaxies, and their own tiny satellites (United States)

    Wheeler, Coral Rose

    We study dwarf satellite galaxy quenching using observations from the Geha et al. (2012) NSA/SDSS catalog together with CDM cosmological simulations to facilitate selection and interpretation. We show that fewer than 30% of dwarfs (M* ˜ 108.5-9.5 Msun ) identified as satellites within massive host halos (M host ˜ 1012.5-14 Msun) are quenched. We conclude that whatever the action triggering environmental quenching of dwarf satellites, the process must be highly inefficient. We investigate a series of simple, one-parameter quenching models in order to understand what is required to explain the low quenched fraction and conclude that either the quenching timescale is very long (> 9.5 Gyr, a "slow starvation" scenario) or that the environmental trigger is not well matched to accretion within the virial volume. We further present FIRE/Gizmo hydrodynamic zoom-in simulations of isolated dark matter halos, two each at the mass of classical dwarf galaxies (Mvir ˜ 1010 Msun) and ultra-faint galaxies (Mvir ˜ 10 9 Msun). The resulting central galaxies lie on an extrapolated abundance matching relation from M* ˜ 106 to 104 Msun without a break. Our dwarfs with M* ˜ 106 Msun each have 1-2 well-resolved satellites with M* = 3 - 200 x 103 Msun. Even our isolated ultra-faint galaxies have star-forming subhalos. We combine our results with the ELVIS simulations to show that targeting the ˜ 50 kpc regions around nearby isolated dwarfs could increase the chances of discovering ultra-faint galaxies by ˜35% compared to random pointings. The well-resolved ultra-faint galaxies in our simulations (M * ˜ 3 - 30 x 103 Msun) form within Mpeak ˜ 0.5 - 3 x 109 Msun halos. Each has a uniformly ancient stellar population (> 10 Gyr) owing to reionization-related quenching. More massive systems, in contrast, all have late-time star formation. Our results suggest that Mhalo ˜ 5 x 109 Msun is a probable dividing line between halos hosting reionization "fossils" and those hosting dwarfs

  2. Leaders break ground for INFINITY (United States)


    Community leaders from Mississippi and Louisiana break ground for the new INFINITY at NASA Stennis Space Center facility during a Nov. 20 ceremony. Groundbreaking participants included (l to r): Gottfried Construction representative John Smith, Mississippi Highway Commissioner Wayne Brown, INFINITY board member and Apollo 13 astronaut Fred Haise, Stennis Director Gene Goldman, Studio South representative David Hardy, Leo Seal Jr. family representative Virginia Wagner, Hancock Bank President George Schloegel, Mississippi Rep. J.P. Compretta, Mississippi Band of Choctaw Indians representative Charlie Benn and Louisiana Sen. A.G. Crowe.

  3. History of electroweak symmetry breaking

    CERN Document Server

    Kibble, T W B


    In this talk, I recall the history of the development of the unified electroweak theory, incorporating the symmetry-breaking Higgs mechanism, as I saw it from my standpoint as a member of Abdus Salam's group at Imperial College. I start by describing the state of physics in the years after the Second World War, explain how the goal of a unified gauge theory of weak and electromagnetic interactions emerged, the obstacles encountered, in particular the Goldstone theorem, and how they were overcome, followed by a brief account of more recent history, culminating in the historic discovery of the Higgs boson in 2012.

  4. Interstellar medium conditions in z 0.2 Lyman-break analogs (United States)

    Contursi, A.; Baker, A. J.; Berta, S.; Magnelli, B.; Lutz, D.; Fischer, J.; Verma, A.; Nielbock, M.; Grácia Carpio, J.; Veilleux, S.; Sturm, E.; Davies, R.; Genzel, R.; Hailey-Dunsheath, S.; Herrera-Camus, R.; Janssen, A.; Poglitsch, A.; Sternberg, A.; Tacconi, L. J.


    We present an analysis of far-infrared (FIR) [CII] and [OI] fine structure line and continuum observations obtained with Herschel/PACS, and 12CO(1-0) observations obtained with the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer, of Lyman-break analogs (LBAs) at z 0.2. The principal aim of this work is to determine the typical interstellar medium (ISM) properties of z 1-2 main sequence (MS) galaxies, with stellar masses between 109.5 and 1011M⊙, which are currently not easily detectable in all these lines even with ALMA and NOEMA. We perform PDR modeling and apply different infared diagnostics to derive the main physical parameters of the far-infrared (FIR)-emitting gas and dust and we compare the derived ISM properties to those of galaxies on and above the MS at different redshifts. We find that the ISM properties of LBAs are quite extreme (low gas temperature and high density and thermal pressure) with respect to those found in local normal spirals and more active local galaxies. LBAs have no [CII] deficit despite having the high specific star formation rates (sSFRs) typical of starbursts. Although LBAs lie above the local MS, we show that their ISM properties are more similar to those of high-redshift MS galaxies than of local galaxies above the main sequence. This data set represents an important reference for planning future ALMA [CII] observations of relatively low-mass MS galaxies at the epoch of the peak of the cosmic star formation.

  5. Galaxy bias from galaxy-galaxy lensing in the DES science verification data (United States)

    Prat, J.; Sánchez, C.; Miquel, R.; Kwan, J.; Blazek, J.; Bonnett, C.; Amara, A.; Bridle, S. L.; Clampitt, J.; Crocce, M.; Fosalba, P.; Gaztanaga, E.; Giannantonio, T.; Hartley, W. G.; Jarvis, M.; MacCrann, N.; Percival, W. J.; Ross, A. J.; Sheldon, E.; Zuntz, J.; Abbott, T. M. C.; Abdalla, F. B.; Annis, J.; Benoit-Lévy, A.; Bertin, E.; Brooks, D.; Burke, D. L.; Carnero Rosell, A.; Carrasco Kind, M.; Carretero, J.; Castander, F. J.; da Costa, L. N.; DePoy, D. L.; Desai, S.; Diehl, H. T.; Doel, P.; Eifler, T. F.; Evrard, A. E.; Fausti Neto, A.; Flaugher, B.; Frieman, J.; Gerdes, D. W.; Goldstein, D. A.; Gruen, D.; Gruendl, R. A.; Gutierrez, G.; Honscheid, K.; James, D. J.; Kuehn, K.; Kuropatkin, N.; Lahav, O.; Lima, M.; Marshall, J. L.; Melchior, P.; Menanteau, F.; Nord, B.; Plazas, A. A.; Reil, K.; Romer, A. K.; Roodman, A.; Sanchez, E.; Scarpine, V.; Schubnell, M.; Sevilla-Noarbe, I.; Smith, R. C.; Soares-Santos, M.; Sobreira, F.; Suchyta, E.; Swanson, M. E. C.; Tarle, G.; Thomas, D.; Walker, A. R.


    We present a measurement of galaxy-galaxy lensing around a magnitude-limited (iAB science verification (DES-SV) data. We split these lenses into three photometric-redshift bins from 0.2 to 0.8, and determine the product of the galaxy bias b and cross-correlation coefficient between the galaxy and dark matter overdensity fields r in each bin, using scales above 4 h-1 Mpc comoving, where we find the linear bias model to be valid given our current uncertainties. We compare our galaxy bias results from galaxy-galaxy lensing with those obtained from galaxy clustering and CMB lensing for the same sample of galaxies, and find our measurements to be in good agreement with those in Crocce et al., while, in the lowest redshift bin (z ∼ 0.3), they show some tension with the findings in Giannantonio et al. We measure b · r to be 0.87 ± 0.11, 1.12 ± 0.16 and 1.24 ± 0.23, respectively, for the three redshift bins of width Δz = 0.2 in the range 0.2 < z < 0.8, defined with the photometric-redshift algorithm BPZ. Using a different code to split the lens sample, TPZ, leads to changes in the measured biases at the 10-20 per cent level, but it does not alter the main conclusion of this work: when comparing with Crocce et al. we do not find strong evidence for a cross-correlation parameter significantly below one in this galaxy sample, except possibly at the lowest redshift bin (z ∼ 0.3), where we find r = 0.71 ± 0.11 when using TPZ, and 0.83 ± 0.12 with BPZ.

  6. Radio Loudness of AGNs: Host Galaxy Morphology and the Spin Paradigm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stawarz, L.; Sikora, M.; Lasota, J.-P.


    We investigate how the total radio luminosity of AGN-powered radio sources depends on their accretion luminosity and the central black hole mass. We find that AGNs form two distinct and well separated sequences on the radio-loudness -- Eddington-ratio plane. We argue that these sequences mark the real upper bounds of radio-loudness of two distinct populations of AGNs: those hosted respectively by elliptical and disk galaxies. Both sequences show the same dependence of the radio-loudness on the Eddington ratio (an increase with decreasing Eddington ratio), which suggests that another parameter in addition to the accretion rate must play a role in determining the jet production efficiency in active galactic nuclei, and that this parameter is related to properties of the host galaxy. The revealed host-related radio dichotomy breaks down at high accretion rates where the dominant fraction of luminous quasars hosted by elliptical galaxies is radio quiet. We argue that the huge difference between the radio-loudness reachable by AGNs in disc and elliptical galaxies can be explained by the scenario according to which the spin of a black hole determines the outflows power, and central black holes can reach large spins only in early type galaxies (following major mergers), and not (in a statistical sense) in spiral galaxies.

  7. Snapshot Survey of the Globular Cluster Populations of Isolated Early Type Galaxies (United States)

    Gregg, Michael


    We propose WFC3/UVIS snapshot observations of a sample of 75 isolated early type galaxiesresiding in cosmic voids or extremely low density regions. The primary aim is to usetheir globular cluster populations to reconstruct their evolutionary history, revealingif, how, and why void ellipticals differ from cluster ellipticals. The galaxies span arange of luminosities, providing a varied sample for comparison with the well-documentedglobular cluster populations in denser environments. This proposed WFC3 study of isolatedearly type galaxies breaks new ground by targeting a sample which has thus far receivedlittle attention, and, significantly, this will be the first such study with HST.Characterizing early type galaxies in voids and their GC systems promises to increase ourunderstanding of galaxy formation and evolution of galaxies in general because isolatedobjects are the best approximation to a control sample that we have for understanding theinfluence of environment on formation and evolution. Whether these isolated objects turnout to be identical to or distinct from counterparts in other regions of the Universe,they will supply insight into the formation and evolution of all galaxies. Parallel ACSimaging will help to characterize the near field environments of the sample.

  8. Predictions of ΛCDM eulerian hydrodynamic simulations on galaxy formation and evolution (United States)

    Nagamine, Kentaro


    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate the validity of the cold dark matter (CDM) model by comparing the predictions of large-scale hydrodynamic simulations with variety of available astronomical data on galaxies. The simulations we use include a heuristic star formation recipe which allows us to study galaxy formation without making any ad hoc assumptions on the bias of galaxy distribution relative to underlying dark matter distribution. Our simulation also have additional unique features of self-consistent treatment of supernovae feedback, ultra-violet radiation field, radiation shielding, metal enrichment and metal cooling. Furthermore, a population synthesis model is used to make predictions in terms of observable light. Firstly, we discuss star formation history, stellar metallicity distribution, mass function, luminosity function, and colors of galaxies in a ΛCDM universe, both in the local universe and as functions of time. Secondly, we study the evolution of Lyman Break Galaxies at redshift 3, with particular emphasis on their star formation history, merger history, and metallicity distribution. Finally, the cosmic Mach number and its environmental dependence on overdensity and galaxy mass and age is studied. The overall picture is that there is an impressive, though imperfect match between theory, numerical simulations, and observations.

  9. Do Nuclear Star Clusters and Supermassive Black Holes Follow the Same Host-Galaxy Correlations?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Erwin


    Full Text Available Studies have suggested that there is a strong correlation between the masses of nuclear star clusters (NSCs and their host galaxies, a correlation which is said to be an extension of the well-known correlations between supermassive black holes (SMBHs and their host galaxies. But careful analysis of disk galaxies—including 2D bulge/disk/bar decompositions—shows that while SMBHs correlate with the stellar mass of the bulge component of galaxies, the masses of NSCs correlate much better with the total galaxy stellar mass. In addition, the mass ratio MNSC/M⋆, tot for NSCs in spirals (at least those with Hubble types Sc and later is typically an order of magnitude smaller than the mass ratio MBH/M⋆, bul of SMBHs. The absence of a universal “central massive object” correlation argues against common formation and growth mechanisms for both SMBHs and NSCs. We also discuss evidence for a break in the NSC-host galaxy correlation, galaxies with Hubble types earlier than Sbc appear to host systematically more massive NSCs than do types Sc and later.

  10. Properties of Luminous Blue Compact Galaxies at z< 1 and the Global Star Formation Rate Density (United States)

    Lowenthal, James; Bershady, Matthew; Guzman, Rafael; Gallego, Jesus


    Luminous blue compact galaxies (LBCGs) are important to understand because they are implicated as significant contributers both to the high global SFR density observed at z~1 and to the strong evolution of field galaxies between z=1 and the present. However, we do not yet have a good measure of their SFRs - both individual and global. Are LBCGs at redshifts z> 0.4 the analogs of local H II galaxies or even of Lyman break galaxies at z~3? What are their metallicity and dust extinction properties? Access to Hα, the best SFR measure, is problematic for intermediate redshift. Here we propose to address the above questions by obtaining near-IR spectra with FLAMINGOS of a well- selected sample of LBCGs to measure Hα fluxes directly. With fluxes in hand, we will: (1) measure SFRs using the most direct indicator available; (2) compare Hα to O II SFRs to calibrate O II estimators for other samples; (3) calculate the contribution of our sample to the global SFR density; (4) use Hα/Hβ ratios to measure dust extinction; (5) combine EW(Hα) and K magnitudes to compute stellar masses; and (6) synthesize the above to investigate the putative link connecting H II galaxies today, LBCGs at moderate redshift, and LBGs at z~3. Our sample is selected from our ongoing studies of compact star-forming galaxies in the HDF-N and three other fields with deep HST, Keck, and optical spectroscopic data in hand.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborti, Sayan; Yadav, Naveen; Ray, Alak [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Tata Institute of Fundamental Research, 1 Homi Bhabha Road, Colaba, Mumbai 400005 (India); Cardamone, Carolin, E-mail: [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Bldg. 26-331, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)


    Green Peas are a new class of young, emission line galaxies that were discovered by citizen volunteers in the Galaxy Zoo project. Their low stellar mass, low metallicity, and very high star formation rates make Green Peas the nearby (z {approx} 0.2) analogs of the Lyman break galaxies which account for the bulk of the star formation in the early universe (z {approx} 2-5). They thus provide accessible laboratories in the nearby universe for understanding star formation, supernova feedback, particle acceleration, and magnetic field amplification in early galaxies. We report the first direct radio detection of Green Peas with low frequency Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope observations and our stacking detection with archival Very Large Array FIRST data. We show that the radio emission implies that these extremely young galaxies already have magnetic fields ({approx}> 30 {mu}G) even larger than that of the Milky Way. This is at odds with the present understanding of magnetic field growth based on amplification of seed fields by dynamo action over a galaxy's lifetime. Our observations strongly favor models with pregalactic magnetic fields at {mu}G levels.

  12. Spiral arms in CALIFA galaxies traced by non-circular velocities, abundances and extinctions (United States)

    Sakhibov, F.; Zinchenko, I. A.; Pilyugin, L. S.; Grebel, E. K.; Just, A.; Vílchez, J. M.


    We derive maps of the observed velocity of ionized gas, the oxygen abundance and the extinction (Balmer decrement) across the area of the four spiral galaxies NGC 36, NGC 180, NGC 6063 and NGC 7653 from integral field spectroscopy obtained by the Calar Alto Legacy Integral Field Area (CALIFA) survey. We searched for spiral arms through Fourier analysis of the spatial distribution of three tracers (non-circular motion, enhancement of the oxygen abundance and of the extinction) in the discs of our target galaxies. The spiral arms (two-armed logarithmic spirals in the deprojected map) are shown in each target galaxy for each tracer considered. The pitch angles of the spiral arms in a given galaxy obtained with the three different tracers are close to each other. The enhancement of the oxygen abundance in the spiral arms as compared to the abundance in the interarm regions at a given galactocentric distance is small, within a few per cent. We identified a metallicity gradient in our target galaxies. Both barred galaxies in our sample show flatter gradients than the two galaxies without bars. Galactic inclination, position angle of the major axis and the rotation curve were also obtained for each target galaxy using the Fourier analysis of the two-dimensional velocity map.

  13. Boundary breaking for interdisciplinary learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Kidron


    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to contribute to the body of knowledge on processesby which students develop interdisciplinary understanding of contents, as well as to suggest technology-enhanced means for supporting them in these processes in the context of higher education. In doing so, we suggest a rethinking of three traditional practices that tend to characterise typical higher education instruction: (1 compartmentalisation of disciplines; (2 traditional pedagogy; and (3 traditional hierarchies based on levels of expertise. Our high-level conjecture was that meaningful dialogue with peers and experts supports both the deepening of ideas in one knowledge domain and the formation of connections between ideas from several domains, both of which are required for the development of interdisciplinary understanding. We developed the Boundary Breaking for Interdisciplinary Learning (BBIL model, which harnesses technology to break boundaries between disciplines, learners and organisational levels of hierarchy. Findings indicate that 36 undergraduate students who participated in an interdisciplinary online course that implemented the BBIL model have significantly improved their interdisciplinary understanding of the course contents. This study illustrates how innovative use of available, free and low-cost technology can produce a ‘positive disruption’ in higher education instruction.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotz, Jennifer M.; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton M. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Papovich, Casey; Tran, Kim-Vy [George P. and Cynthia Woods Mitchell Institute for Fundamental Physics and Astronomy, and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Texas A and M University, College Station, TX (United States); Faber, S. M.; Guo Yicheng [UCO/Lick Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Kocevski, Dale [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY (United States); Lee, Kyoung-Soo [Department of Physics, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN (United States); McIntosh, Daniel [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Missouri-Kansas City, 5110 Rockhill Road, Kansas City, MO (United States); Momcheva, Ivelina [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Rudnick, Gregory [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas, Lawrence, KS (United States); Saintonge, Amelie [Max-Planck-Institut fuer extraterrestrische Physik, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Van der Wel, Arjen [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Astronomie, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Willmer, Christopher, E-mail: [Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States)


    We present the recent merger history of massive galaxies in a spectroscopically confirmed proto-cluster at z = 1.62. Using Hubble Space Telescope WFC3 near-infrared imaging from the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey, we select cluster and z {approx} 1.6 field galaxies with M{sub star} {>=} 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun }, to determine the frequency of double nuclei or close companions within projected separations less than 20 kpc co-moving. We find that four out of five spectroscopically confirmed massive proto-cluster galaxies have double nuclei, and 57 {sup +13}{sub -14}% of all M{sub star} {>=} 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 10} M{sub Sun} cluster candidates are observed in either close pair systems or have double nuclei. In contrast, only 11% {+-} 3% of the field galaxies are observed in close pair/double nuclei systems. After correcting for the contribution from random projections, the implied merger rate per massive galaxy in the proto-cluster is {approx}3-10 times higher than the merger rate of massive field galaxies at z {approx} 1.6. Close pairs in the cluster have minor merger stellar mass ratios (M{sub primary}: M{sub satellite} {>=} 4), while the field pairs consist of both major and minor mergers. At least half of the cluster mergers are gas-poor, as indicated by their red colors and low 24 {mu}m fluxes. Two of the double-nucleated cluster members have X-ray detected active galactic nuclei with L{sub x} > 10{sup 43} erg s{sup -1}, and are strong candidates for dual or offset super-massive black holes. We conclude that the massive z = 1.62 proto-cluster galaxies are undergoing accelerated assembly via minor mergers, and discuss the implications for galaxy evolution in proto-cluster environments.

  15. Temporal correlations and structural memory effects in break junction measurements (United States)

    Magyarkuti, A.; Lauritzen, K. P.; Balogh, Z.; Nyáry, A.; Mészáros, G.; Makk, P.; Solomon, G. C.; Halbritter, A.


    We review data analysis techniques that can be used to study temporal correlations among conductance traces in break junction measurements. We show that temporal histograms are a simple but efficient tool to check the temporal homogeneity of the conductance traces, or to follow spontaneous or triggered temporal variations, like structural modifications in trained contacts, or the emergence of single-molecule signatures after molecule dosing. To statistically analyze the presence and the decay time of temporal correlations, we introduce shifted correlation plots. Finally, we demonstrate that correlations between the opening and subsequent closing traces may indicate structural memory effects in atomic-sized metallic and molecular junctions. Applying these methods on measured and simulated gold metallic contacts as a test system, we show that the surface diffusion induced flattening of the broken junctions helps to produce statistically independent conductance traces at room temperature, whereas at low temperature repeating tendencies are observed as long as the contacts are not closed to sufficiently high conductance setpoints. Applying opening-closing correlation analysis on Pt-CO-Pt single-molecule junctions, we demonstrate pronounced contact memory effects and recovery of the molecule for junctions breaking before atomic chains are formed. However, if chains are pulled the random relaxation of the chain and molecule after rupture prevents opening-closing correlations.

  16. Galaxies into the Dark Ages (United States)

    Carilli, C. L.; Murphy, E. J.; Ferrara, A.; Dayal, P.


    We consider the capabilities of current and future large facilities operating at 2-3 mm wavelength to detect and image the [C II] 158 μm line from galaxies into the cosmic “dark ages” (z ˜ 10-20). The [C II] line may prove to be a powerful tool in determining spectroscopic redshifts, and galaxy dynamics, for the first galaxies. We emphasize that the nature, and even existence, of such extreme redshift galaxies, remains at the frontier of open questions in galaxy formation. In 40 hr, the Atacama Large Millimeter Array has the sensitivity to detect the integrated [C II] line emission from a moderate metallicity, active star-forming galaxy [{Z}A=0.2 {Z}⊙ ; star formation rate ({SFR})=5 {M}⊙ yr-1], at z = 10 at a significance of 6σ. The next-generation Very Large Array (ngVLA) will detect the integrated [C II] line emission from a Milky Way-like SFR galaxy ({Z}A=0.2 {Z}⊙ , {SFR}=1 {M}⊙ yr-1), at z = 15 at a significance of 6σ. Imaging simulations show that the ngVLA can determine rotation dynamics for active star-forming galaxies at z˜ 15, if they exist. Based on our very limited knowledge of the extreme redshift universe, we calculate the count rate in blind, volumetric surveys for [C II] emission at z˜ 10-20. The detection rates in blind surveys will be slow (of the order of unity per 40 hr pointing). However, the observations are well suited to commensal searches. We compare [C II] with the [O III] 88 μm line, and other ancillary information in high z galaxies that would aid these studies.

  17. Stellar populations of shell galaxies (United States)

    Carlsten, S. G.; Hau, G. K. T.; Zenteno, A.


    We present a study of the inner (out to ∼1 Reff) stellar populations of nine shell galaxies. We derive stellar population parameters from long-slit spectra by both analysing the Lick indices of the galaxies and by fitting single stellar population model spectra to the full galaxy spectra. The results from the two methods agree reasonably well. A few of the shell galaxies appear to have lower central Mg2 index values than the general population of galaxies of the same central velocity dispersion, which is possibly due to a past interaction event. Our sample shows a relation between central metallicity and velocity dispersion that is consistent with previous samples of non-shell galaxies. Analysing the metallicity gradients in our sample, we find an average gradient of -0.16 ± 0.10 dex decade-1 in radius. We compare this with formation models to constrain the merging history of shell galaxies. We argue that our galaxies likely have undergone major mergers but it is unclear whether the shells formed from these events or from separate minor mergers. Additionally, we find evidence for young stellar populations ranging in age from 500 Myr to 4-5 Gyr in four of the galaxies, allowing us to speculate on the age of the shells. For NGC 5670, we use a simple dynamical model to find the time required to produce the observed distribution of shells to be roughly consistent with the age of the young subpopulation, suggesting that the shells and subpopulation possibly formed from the same event.

  18. The Assembly of Galaxy Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berrier, Joel C.; Stewart, Kyle R.; Bullock, James S.; Purcell, Chris W.; Barton, Elizabeth J.; Wechsler, Risa H.


    We study the formation of fifty-three galaxy cluster-size dark matter halos (M = 10{sup 14.0-14.76} M{sub {circle_dot}}) formed within a pair of cosmological {Lambda}CDM N-body simulations, and track the accretion histories of cluster subhalos with masses large enough to host {approx} 0.1L{sub *} galaxies. By associating subhalos with cluster galaxies, we find the majority of galaxies in clusters experience no 'pre-processing' in the group environment prior to their accretion into the cluster. On average, {approx} 70% of cluster galaxies fall into the cluster potential directly from the field, with no luminous companions in their host halos at the time of accretion; and less than {approx} 12% are accreted as members of groups with five or more galaxies. Moreover, we find that cluster galaxies are significantly less likely to have experienced a merger in the recent past ({approx}< 6 Gyr) than a field halo of the same mass. These results suggest that local, cluster processes like ram-pressure stripping, galaxy harassment, or strangulation play the dominant role in explaining the difference between cluster and field populations at a fixed stellar mass; and that pre-evolution or past merging in the group environment is of secondary importance for setting cluster galaxy properties for most clusters. The accretion times for z = 0 cluster members are quite extended, with {approx} 20% incorporated into the cluster halo more than 7 Gyr ago and {approx} 20% within the last 2 Gyr. By comparing the observed morphological fractions in cluster and field populations, we estimate an approximate time-scale for late-type to early-type transformation within the cluster environment to be {approx} 6 Gyr.

  19. Surface photometry of new nearby dwarf galaxies


    Makarova, L. N.; Karachentsev, I. D.; Grebel, E. K.; Barsunova, O. Yu.


    We present CCD surface photometry of 16 nearby dwarf galaxies, many of which were only recently discovered. Our sample comprises both isolated galaxies and galaxies that are members of nearby galaxy groups. The observations were obtained in the Johnson B and V bands (and in some cases in Kron-Cousins I). We derive surface brightness profiles, total magnitudes, and integrated colors. For the 11 galaxies in our sample with distance estimates the absolute B magnitudes lie in the range of -10>Mb>...

  20. Star Formation Histories of Nearby Dwarf Galaxies


    Grebel, Eva K.


    Properties of nearby dwarf galaxies are briefly discussed. Dwarf galaxies vary widely in their star formation histories, the ages of their subpopulations, and in their enrichment history. Furthermore, many dwarf galaxies show evidence for spatial variations in their star formation history; often in the form of very extended old populations and radial gradients in age and metallicity. Determining factors in dwarf galaxy evolution appear to be both galaxy mass and environment. We may be observi...

  1. Thick Disks of Lenticular Galaxies


    Pohlen, M.; Balcells, M.; Luetticke, R.; Dettmar, R. -J.


    Thick disks are faint and extended stellar components found around several disk galaxies including our Milky Way. The Milky Way thick disk, the only one studied in detail, contains mostly old disk stars (~10 Gyr), so that thick disks are likely to trace the early stages of disk evolution. Previous detections of thick disk stellar light in external galaxies have been originally made for early-type, edge-on galaxies but detailed 2D thick/thin disk decompositions have been reported for only a sc...

  2. Samsung Galaxy Tabs for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Gookin, Dan


    A colorful, entertaining, and informative guide to the Samsung Galaxy family of tablets Samsung's bestselling Galaxy Tabs may come in multiple sizes, but they all share the wildly popular Android operating system and are packed with tons of top-notch tablet features. This full-color book shows you how to enjoy all the things your Galaxy Tab can do, regardless of model: browse the web, handle e-mail, manage your social media, make phone calls and video chat, read e-books, take and share photos, play music, and more. Author Dan Gookin, famous for his skill in demystifying technology, takes you

  3. Dark matter in elliptical galaxies (United States)

    Carollo, C. M.; Zeeuw, P. T. DE; Marel, R. P. Van Der; Danziger, I. J.; Qian, E. E.


    We present measurements of the shape of the stellar line-of-sight velocity distribution out to two effective radii along the major axes of the four elliptical galaxies NGC 2434, 2663, 3706, and 5018. The velocity dispersion profiles are flat or decline gently with radius. We compare the data to the predictions of f = f(E, L(sub z)) axisymmetric models with and without dark matter. Strong tangential anisotropy is ruled out at large radii. We conclude from our measurements that massive dark halos must be present in three of the four galaxies, while for the fourth galaxy (NGC 2663) the case is inconclusive.

  4. Symmetry breaking on density in escaping ants: experiment and alarm pheromone model. (United States)

    Li, Geng; Huan, Di; Roehner, Bertrand; Xu, Yijuan; Zeng, Ling; Di, Zengru; Han, Zhangang


    The symmetry breaking observed in nature is fascinating. This symmetry breaking is observed in both human crowds and ant colonies. In such cases, when escaping from a closed space with two symmetrically located exits, one exit is used more often than the other. Group size and density have been reported as having no significant impact on symmetry breaking, and the alignment rule has been used to model symmetry breaking. Density usually plays important roles in collective behavior. However, density is not well-studied in symmetry breaking, which forms the major basis of this paper. The experiment described in this paper on an ant colony displays an increase then decrease of symmetry breaking versus ant density. This result suggests that a Vicsek-like model with an alignment rule may not be the correct model for escaping ants. Based on biological facts that ants use pheromones to communicate, rather than seeing how other individuals move, we propose a simple yet effective alarm pheromone model. The model results agree well with the experimental outcomes. As a measure, this paper redefines symmetry breaking as the collective asymmetry by deducing the random fluctuations. This research indicates that ants deposit and respond to the alarm pheromone, and the accumulation of this biased information sharing leads to symmetry breaking, which suggests true fundamental rules of collective escape behavior in ants.

  5. Symmetry breaking on density in escaping ants: experiment and alarm pheromone model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geng Li

    Full Text Available The symmetry breaking observed in nature is fascinating. This symmetry breaking is observed in both human crowds and ant colonies. In such cases, when escaping from a closed space with two symmetrically located exits, one exit is used more often than the other. Group size and density have been reported as having no significant impact on symmetry breaking, and the alignment rule has been used to model symmetry breaking. Density usually plays important roles in collective behavior. However, density is not well-studied in symmetry breaking, which forms the major basis of this paper. The experiment described in this paper on an ant colony displays an increase then decrease of symmetry breaking versus ant density. This result suggests that a Vicsek-like model with an alignment rule may not be the correct model for escaping ants. Based on biological facts that ants use pheromones to communicate, rather than seeing how other individuals move, we propose a simple yet effective alarm pheromone model. The model results agree well with the experimental outcomes. As a measure, this paper redefines symmetry breaking as the collective asymmetry by deducing the random fluctuations. This research indicates that ants deposit and respond to the alarm pheromone, and the accumulation of this biased information sharing leads to symmetry breaking, which suggests true fundamental rules of collective escape behavior in ants.

  6. Modeling the Evolution of Galaxy Properties across Cosmic Time with Numerical Simulations (United States)

    Torrey, Paul A.

    We present a series of numerical galaxy formation studies which apply new numerical methods to produce increasingly realistic galaxy formation models. We first investigate the metallicity evolution of a large set of idealized hydrodynamical galaxy merger simulations of colliding galaxies. We find that inflows of metal-poor interstellar gas triggered by galaxy tidal interactions can account for the systematically lower central oxygen abundances observed in local interacting galaxies. We show the central metallicity evolution during merger events is determined by a competition between the inflow of low-metallicity gas and enrichment from star formation. We find a time-averaged depression in the galactic nuclear metallicity of ~0.07 dex for gas-poor disk-disk interactions, which explains the observed close pair mass-metallicity and separation-metallicity relationships. We then pioneer the impact of a novel hydro solver in our understanding of galaxy gas disk assembly by comparing the structural properties of galaxies formed in cosmological simulations using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) code GADGET with those using the moving-mesh code AREPO. We find that the cold gas disks formed using the moving mesh approach have systematically larger disk scale lengths and higher specific angular momenta than their GADGET counterparts across a wide range in halo masses. We articulate the numerical origins of these differences, and discuss the impact on large body of galaxy formation literature. We explore the performance of a recently implemented feedback model in AREPO which includes primordial and metal line radiative cooling with self-shielding corrections; stellar evolution with associated mass loss and chemical enrichment; feedback by stellar winds; black hole seeding, growth and merging; and AGN quasar- and radio-mode heating with a phenomenological prescription for AGN electro-magnetic feedback. We demonstrate that our feedback scheme is capable of producing

  7. Observations and Models of Galaxy Assembly Bias (United States)

    Campbell, Duncan A.


    The assembly history of dark matter haloes imparts various correlations between a halo’s physical properties and its large scale environment, i.e. assembly bias. It is common for models of the galaxy-halo connection to assume that galaxy properties are only a function of halo mass, implicitly ignoring how assembly bias may affect galaxies. Recently, programs to model and constrain the degree to which galaxy properties are influenced by assembly bias have been undertaken; however, the extent and character of galaxy assembly bias remains a mystery. Nevertheless, characterizing and modeling galaxy assembly bias is an important step in understanding galaxy evolution and limiting any systematic effects assembly bias may pose in cosmological measurements using galaxy surveys.I will present work on modeling and constraining the effect of assembly bias in two galaxy properties: stellar mass and star-formation rate. Conditional abundance matching allows for these galaxy properties to be tied to halo formation history to a variable degree, making studies of the relative strength of assembly bias possible. Galaxy-galaxy clustering and galactic conformity, the degree to which galaxy color is correlated between neighbors, are sensitive observational measures of galaxy assembly bias. I will show how these measurements can be used to constrain galaxy assembly bias and the peril of ignoring it.

  8. The infrared-dark dust content of high redshift galaxies (United States)

    Ferrara, A.; Hirashita, H.; Ouchi, M.; Fujimoto, S.


    We present a theoretical model aimed at explaining the IRX-β relation for high redshift (z ≳ 5) galaxies. Recent observations have shown that early Lyman-Break Galaxies, although characterized by a large ultraviolet (UV) attenuation (e.g. flat UV β slopes), show a striking far-infrared (FIR) deficit, i.e. they are `infrared-dark'. This marked deviation from the local IRX-β relation can be explained by the larger molecular gas content of these systems. While dust in the diffuse interstellar medium attains relatively high temperatures (Td ≃ 45 K for typical size a = 0.1 μm; smaller grains can reach Td ≳ 60 K), a sizable fraction of the dust mass is embedded in dense gas, and therefore remains cold. If confirmed, the FIR deficit might represent a novel, powerful indicator of the molecular content of high-z galaxies which can be used to pre-select candidates for follow-up deep CO observations. Thus, high-z CO line searches with ALMA might be much more promising than currently thought.

  9. UVES Investigates the Environment of a Very Remote Galaxy (United States)


    Surplus of Intergalactic Material May Be Young Supercluster Summary Observations with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) have enabled an international group of astronomers [1] to study in unprecedented detail the surroundings of a very remote galaxy, almost 12 billion light-years distant [2]. The corresponding light travel time means that it is seen at a moment only about 3 billion years after the Big Bang. This galaxy is designated MS 1512-cB58 and is the brightest known at such a large distance and such an early time. This is due to a lucky circumstance: a massive cluster of galaxies ( MS 1512+36 ) is located about halfway along the line-of-sight, at a distance of about 7 billion light-years, and acts as a gravitational "magnifying glass". Thanks to this lensing effect, the image of MS1512-cB58 appears 50 times brighter . Nevertheless, the apparent brightness is still as faint as magnitude 20.6 (i.e., nearly 1 million times fainter than what can be perceived with the unaided eye). Moreover, MS 1512-cB58 is located 36° north of the celestial equator and never rises more than 29° above the horizon at Paranal. It was therefore a great challenge to secure the present observational data with the UVES high-dispersion spectrograph on the 8.2-m VLT KUEYEN telescope . The extremely detailed UVES-spectrum of MS 1512-cB58 displays numerous signatures (absorption lines) of intergalactic gas clouds along the line-of-sight . Some of the clouds are quite close to the galaxy and the astronomers have therefore been able to investigate the distribution of matter in its immediate surroundings. They found an excess of material near MS 1512-cB58, possible evidence of a young supercluster of galaxies , already at this very early epoch. The new observations thus provide an invaluable contribution to current studies of the birth and evolution of structures in the early Universe. This is the first time this kind of observation has ever been done of a galaxy at such a large distance . All

  10. Concentrated Dark Matter at the Cores of Fossil Galaxies (United States)


    Researchers at the University of Birmingham have used the new generation of X-ray space observatories to study "fossil galaxies" - ancient galaxy groups in which all of the large galaxies have gradually merged to form one central giant galaxy. The astronomers discovered a remarkable concentration of dark and normal matter in the cores of these isolated star systems, compared with the mass distribution in normal galaxy groups. Many galaxies, including our Milky Way, reside in groups. Sometimes they experience close encounters with other members of the group. Computer simulations predict that such interactions cause large galaxies to spiral slowly towards the centre of the group, where they can merge to form a single giant galaxy, which progressively swallows all its neighbours. Since many galaxy groups possess extended halos of hot gas and dark matter, it was predicted ten years ago that a class of systems dubbed "fossil groups" should exist, in which all the major galaxies have merged to form one central giant galaxy. This would be surrounded by an X-ray-bright cloud of hot gas that extends outward to many galactic radii. "When we first discovered the large halos of hot gas in which some very compact groups of galaxies are embedded, we realised that just a few billion years of further evolution would leave a single, giant, merged galaxy sitting at the centre of a bright X-ray halo," said Trevor Ponman, the leader of the Birmingham group who made this prediction and then discovered the first fossil group in 1994. Theories also suggested that fossil groups which fall into even larger clusters of galaxies may account for the giant elliptical galaxies which are often found in the centres of such clusters. The Birmingham team has observed six likely "fossil groups" in the past two years, taking advantage of the sharp vision of NASA's Chandra X-Ray Space Observatory and the high sensitivity of ESA's orbiting XMM-Newton X-ray observatory. The six "fossil groups" are

  11. Chiral symmetry breaking in unstirred crystallization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szurgot, M. [Center of Mathematics and Physics, Technical University of Lodz (Poland)


    Statistics of nucleation of chiral forms of sodium bromate from unstirred aqueous solutions was studied. It was established that bimodal, trimodal and unimodal distributions of enantiomers are obtained in unstirred crystallization. It was also found out that probabilities of the creation of L or D crystals and racemates R, as well as the presence of D, L, and R peaks in distributions depend on crystallizer size, supersaturation and temperature. Nucleation at low supersaturations in small, closed crystallizers leads to the formation of pure enantiomers, and to bimodal distributions with D and L peaks at any temperature. At high supersaturations in large, open crystallizers the formation of racemates and unimodal distributions with racemate R peaks results. In open crystallizers at the lowest temperatures and at the highest temperatures used in crystallization from aqueous solution racemates of sodium bromate are preferentially formed, but in a wide range of intermediate-temperatures apart from racemates, pure enantiomers are efficiently formed which leads to trimodal distributions. The spontaneous formation of pure enantiomers in crystallization from unstirred, unseeded solutions is caused by the chiral symmetry breaking phenomenon, the same as that discovered in stirred crystallization. The conservation of chiral symmetry is, in unstirred crystallization, one of the two possibilities, and the other one is the breakage of symmetry. Both of them occur in nature. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CALIFA galaxies observational hints (Ruiz-Lara+, 2017) (United States)

    Ruiz-Lara, T.; Perez, I.; Florido, E.; Sanchez-Blazquez, P.; Mendez-Abreu, J.; Sanchez-Menguiano, L.; Sanchez, S. F.; Lyubenova, M.; Falcon-Barroso, J.; van de Ven, G.; Marino, R. A.; de Lorenzo-Caceres, A.; Catalan-Torrecilla, C.; Costantin, L.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Galbany, L.; Garcia-Benito, R.; Husemann, B.; Kehrig, C.; Marquez, I.; Mast, D.; Walcher, C. J.; Zibetti, S.; Ziegle, B.; Califa Team


    Characterisation of the sample of galaxies under analysis in the paper. The sample comprises 214 galaxies from the CALIFA survey. For each galaxy the name, equatorial coordinates, morphological type, presence of a bar, surface brightness profile type, inner disc scale length (kpc), outer disc scale length (kpc), and break radius in units of the inner disc scale length are given. Columns (1), (2), (3), and (4) from the CALIFA general sample characterisation (Walcher et al., 2014A&A...569A...1W). Columns (5), (6), (7), (8), (9), and (10) from the 2D decomposition performed in Mendez-Abreu et al. (2017, Cat. J/A+A/598/A32). (1 data file).

  13. Deep Grism Spectroscopy of High Redshift Galaxies with the HST GRAPES and PEARS Surveys (United States)

    Rhoads, James E.; Malhotra, S.; Pirzkal, N.; GRAPES Team; PEARS Team


    We have obtained the deepest slitless spectroscopic samples ever using the Hubble Space Telescope's Advanced Camera for Surveys, in two related projects, the "Grism ACS Program for Extragalactic Science" (GRAPES) and "Probing Evolution and Reionization Spectroscopically" (PEARS). In combination, these two programs obtained deep public spectroscopy of about 100 square arcminutes in the GOODS north and south fields. We are using these data to study galaxy evolution over a wide range of cosmic history. We are able to spectroscopically confirm Lyman break galaxies from redshift 4 to 6.5, down to AB magnitudes fainter than i=27.5. We use these samples to study a range of galaxy properties, including spatial clustering, Lyman alpha emitter fraction, and spatial extent of Lyman alpha emission.

  14. How Environment Affects Star Formation: Tracing Activity in High Redshift Galaxy Clusters (United States)

    Alberts, Stacey; Pope, A.; Brodwin, M.; Atlee, D. W.; Lin, Y.; Chary, R.; Dey, A.; Eisenhardt, P. R.; Gettings, D.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Jannuzi, B.; Mancone, C.; Moustakas, J.; Snyder, G. F.; Stanford, S. A.; Stern, D.; Weiner, B. J.; Zeimann, G.


    The emerging picture of the evolution of cluster galaxies indicates that the epoch of z>1 is a crucial period of active star formation and mass assembly in clusters. In this dissertation, I leverage a uniformly-selected cluster sample from the IRAC Shallow Cluster Survey (ISCS) with Herschel imaging to analyse the star formation (SF) activity in cluster galaxies over the past ten billion years. This analysis is two-fold: 1) using 274 clusters across the 9 square degree Bootes field, I perform a stacking analysis of mass-limited samples of cluster and field galaxies using wide-field Herschel observations over a long redshift baseline, z=0.3-1.5. I find that the average SF activity in cluster galaxies is evolving faster than in the field, with field-like SF in the cluster cores and enhanced SF activity in the cluster outskirts at z>1.2. By further breaking down my analysis by galaxy mass and type, I determine which mechanisms are capable of driving this evolution. 2) I use unique, deep Herschel imaging of 11 spectroscopically-confirmed clusters from z=1.1-1.8 to study the properties of individual infrared bright cluster galaxies as a function of redshift and cluster-centric radius. Combined with ancillary data, I determine the star formation, dust, and AGN properties of the most active cluster galaxies and tie the evolution of these properties back to the environment by comparing to field populations. By combining these two approaches, I constrain cluster galaxy properties during a pivotal epoch of dust-obscured star formation activity and mass assembly in some of the most extreme structures in the Universe.

  15. The cycle of interstellar dust in galaxies of different morphological types (United States)

    Calura, F.; Pipino, A.; Matteucci, F.


    Aims:We used chemical evolution models for galaxies of different morphological type to perform a detailed study of the evolution of the cosmic dust properties in different environments: the solar neighbourhood, elliptical galaxies and dwarf irregular galaxies. Thanks to the uptodate observations available in the solar vicinity, we intend to study the effects of dust in the chemical evolution of different types of galaxies and, at the same time, to refine investigation of the parameter space to satisfactorily fine-tune the parameters in our study. Methods: We have considered dust production from low and intermediate mass stars, supernovae Ia, supernovae II, and both dust destruction and dust accretion processes in a detailed model of chemical evolution for the solar vicinity. Then, by means of the same dust prescriptions, but adopting different galactic models (different star formation histories and the presence of galactic winds), we extended our study to ellipticals and dwarf irregular galaxies. In all these systems, dust evolution was calculated by means of chemical evolution models that relax the instantaneous recycling approximation and already reproduce the main features of the various galaxies. Results: We have investigated how the assumption of different star formation histories affects the dust production rates, dust depletion, the dust accretion, and destruction rates. We predict dust-to-gas and dust-to-metal ratios in very good agreement with those observed in the solar vicinity. We show how the inclusion of the dust treatment is helpful in solving the so-called Fe discrepancy, as observed in the hot gaseous halos of local ellipticals, and in reproducing the chemical abundances observed in the Lyman Break Galaxies. Finally, our new models can be very useful in future detailed spectro-photometric studies of galaxies.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Zhizheng; Kong, Xu; Fan, Lulu, E-mail:, E-mail: [Center of Astrophysics, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China)


    We present research on the morphologies, spectra, and environments of ≈2350 'green valley' galaxies at 0.2 < z < 1.0 in the COSMOS field. The bimodality of dust-corrected NUV–r {sup +} color is used to define 'green valley'; it removes dusty star-forming galaxies from galaxies that are truly transitioning between the blue cloud and the red sequence. Morphological parameters of green galaxies are intermediate between those of blue and red galaxy populations, both on the Gini-asymmetry and the Gini-M{sub 20} planes. Approximately 60%-70% of green disk galaxies have intermediate or big bulges, and only 5%-10% are pure disk systems, based on morphological classification using the Zurich Estimator of Structural Types. The obtained average spectra of green galaxies are intermediate between blue and red ones in terms of [O II], Hα, and Hβ emission lines. Stellar population synthesis on the average spectra shows that green galaxies are on average older than blue galaxies but younger than red galaxies. Green galaxies and blue galaxies have similar projected galaxy density (Σ{sub 10}) distributions at z > 0.7. At z < 0.7, the fractions of M{sub *} < 10{sup 10.0} M{sub ☉} green galaxies located in a dense environment are found to be significantly larger than those of blue galaxies. The morphological and spectral properties of green galaxies are consistent with the transitioning population between the blue cloud and the red sequence. The possible mechanisms for quenching star formation activities in green galaxies are discussed. The importance of active galactic nucleus feedback cannot be well constrained in our study. Finally, our findings suggest that environmental conditions, most likely starvation and harassment, significantly affect the transformation of M{sub *} < 10{sup 10.0} M{sub ☉} blue galaxies into red galaxies, especially at z < 0.5.

  17. Astronomy: Quasars signpost massive galaxies (United States)

    Bouwens, Rychard


    The neighbourhoods of extremely bright astronomical objects called quasars in the early Universe have been incompletely probed. Observations suggest that these regions harbour some of the most massive known galaxies. See Letter p.457

  18. Globular Clusters - Guides to Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Richtler, Tom; Joint ESO-FONDAP Workshop on Globular Clusters


    The principal question of whether and how globular clusters can contribute to a better understanding of galaxy formation and evolution is perhaps the main driving force behind the overall endeavour of studying globular cluster systems. Naturally, this splits up into many individual problems. The objective of the Joint ESO-FONDAP Workshop on Globular Clusters - Guides to Galaxies was to bring together researchers, both observational and theoretical, to present and discuss the most recent results. Topics covered in these proceedings are: internal dynamics of globular clusters and interaction with host galaxies (tidal tails, evolution of cluster masses), accretion of globular clusters, detailed descriptions of nearby cluster systems, ultracompact dwarfs, formations of massive clusters in mergers and elsewhere, the ACS Virgo survey, galaxy formation and globular clusters, dynamics and kinematics of globular cluster systems and dark matter-related problems. With its wide coverage of the topic, this book constitute...

  19. Secular Evolution of Spiral Galaxies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, Xiaolei


    It is now a well established fact that galaxies undergo significant morphological transformation during their lifetimes, manifesting as an evolution along the Hubble sequence from the late to the early Hubble types...

  20. Galaxy rotation curves with log-normal density distribution


    Marr, John H.


    The log-normal distribution represents the probability of finding randomly distributed particles in a micro canonical ensemble with high entropy. To a first approximation, a modified form of this distribution with a truncated termination may represent an isolated galactic disk, and this disk density distribution model was therefore run to give the best fit to the observational rotation curves for 37 representative galaxies. The resultant curves closely matched the observational data for a wid...

  1. Massive star clusters in galaxies. (United States)

    Harris, William E


    The ensemble of all star clusters in a galaxy constitutes its star cluster system. In this review, the focus of the discussion is on the ability of star clusters, particularly the systems of old massive globular clusters (GCs), to mark the early evolutionary history of galaxies. I review current themes and key findings in GC research, and highlight some of the outstanding questions that are emerging from recent work.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lotz, Jennifer M. [National Optical Astronomical Observatories, 950 N. Cherry Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85719 (United States); Jonsson, Patrik [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States); Cox, T. J. [Carnegie Observatories, Pasadena, CA (United States); Croton, Darren [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University of Technology, Hawthorn (Australia); Primack, Joel R. [Department of Physics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA (United States); Somerville, Rachel S. [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Dr., Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Stewart, Kyle, E-mail: [Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA (United States)


    Calculating the galaxy merger rate requires both a census of galaxies identified as merger candidates and a cosmologically averaged 'observability' timescale (T{sub obs}(z)) for identifying galaxy mergers. While many have counted galaxy mergers using a variety of techniques, (T{sub obs}(z)) for these techniques have been poorly constrained. We address this problem by calibrating three merger rate estimators with a suite of hydrodynamic merger simulations and three galaxy formation models. We estimate (T{sub obs}(z)) for (1) close galaxy pairs with a range of projected separations, (2) the morphology indicator G - M{sub 20}, and (3) the morphology indicator asymmetry A. Then, we apply these timescales to the observed merger fractions at z < 1.5 from the recent literature. When our physically motivated timescales are adopted, the observed galaxy merger rates become largely consistent. The remaining differences between the galaxy merger rates are explained by the differences in the ranges of the mass ratio measured by different techniques and differing parent galaxy selection. The major merger rate per unit comoving volume for samples selected with constant number density evolves much more strongly with redshift ({proportional_to}(1 + z){sup +3.0{+-}1.1}) than samples selected with constant stellar mass or passively evolving luminosity ({proportional_to}(1 + z){sup +0.1{+-}0.4}). We calculate the minor merger rate (1:4 close pairs from the 'total' merger rate determined by G - M{sub 20}. The implied minor merger rate is {approx}3 times the major merger rate at z {approx} 0.7 and shows little evolution with redshift.

  3. Parental Break-Ups and Stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dissing, Agnete S.; Dich, Nadya; Nybo Andersen, Anne-Marie


    Background: Parental break-up is wide spread, and the effects of parental break-up on children’s well-being are known. The evidence regarding child age at break-up and subsequent family arrangements is inconclusive. Aim: to estimate the effects of parental break-up on stress in pre...... on parental break-up and post break-up family arrangements. Results: Twenty-one percent of the children had experienced a parental break-up at age 11, and those who had experienced parental break-up showed a higher risk of stress (OR:1.72, 95%CI:1.55;1.91) regardless of the child’s age at break-up. Children...... living in a new family with stepparents (OR = 1.63, 95%CI:1.38;1.92), or shared between the parents (OR = 1.48, 95%CI:1.26;1.75) reported higher stress than children of intact families. Single parent families reported markedly higher stress levels than children in intact families (OR = 2.18, 95%CI:1...

  4. Physical properties of z ~ 4 LBGs: differences between galaxies with and without Lyα emission (United States)

    Pentericci, L.; Grazian, A.; Fontana, A.; Salimbeni, S.; Santini, P.; de Santis, C.; Gallozzi, S.; Giallongo, E.


    Aims:We analysed the physical properties of z ˜4 Lyman Break Galaxies observed in the GOODS-S survey, in order to investigate possible differences between galaxies where the Lyα is present in emission, and those where the line is absent or in absorption. Methods: The objects were selected from their optical color and then spectroscopically confirmed by Vanzella et al. (2005). From the public spectra we assessed the nature of the Lyα emission and divided the sample into galaxies with Lyα in emission and objects without a Lyα line (i.e. either absent or in absorption). We then used complete photometry, from U band to mid-infrared from the GOODS-MUSIC database, to study the observational properties of the galaxies, such as UV spectral slopes and optical to mid-infrared colors, and the possible differences between the two samples. Lastly, we used standard spectral fitting techniques to determine the physical properties of the galaxies, such as total stellar mass, stellar ages and so on, and again we looked at the possible differences between the two samples. Results: Our results indicate that LBG with Lyα in emission are on average a much younger and less massive population than the LBGs without Lyα emission. Both populations are forming stars very actively and are relatively dust free, although those with line emission seem to be even less dusty on average. We briefly discuss these results in the context of recent models for the evolution of Lyman break galaxies and Lyα emitters.

  5. Give me a better break: Choosing workday break activities to maximize resource recovery. (United States)

    Hunter, Emily M; Wu, Cindy


    Surprisingly little research investigates employee breaks at work, and even less research provides prescriptive suggestions for better workday breaks in terms of when, where, and how break activities are most beneficial. Based on the effort-recovery model and using experience sampling methodology, we examined the characteristics of employee workday breaks with 95 employees across 5 workdays. In addition, we examined resources as a mediator between break characteristics and well-being. Multilevel analysis results indicated that activities that were preferred and earlier in the work shift related to more resource recovery following the break. We also found that resources mediated the influence of preferred break activities and time of break on health symptoms and that resource recovery benefited person-level outcomes of emotional exhaustion, job satisfaction, and organizational citizenship behavior. Finally, break length interacted with the number of breaks per day such that longer breaks and frequent short breaks were associated with more resources than infrequent short breaks. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  6. Enhancement classification of galaxy images (United States)

    Jenkinson, John

    With the advent of astronomical imaging technology developments, and the increased capacity of digital storage, the production of photographic atlases of the night sky have begun to generate volumes of data which need to be processed autonomously. As part of the Tonantzintla Digital Sky Survey construction, the present work involves software development for the digital image processing of astronomical images, in particular operations that preface feature extraction and classification. Recognition of galaxies in these images is the primary objective of the present work. Many galaxy images have poor resolution or contain faint galaxy features, resulting in the misclassification of galaxies. An enhancement of these images by the method of the Heap transform is proposed, and experimental results are provided which demonstrate the image enhancement to improve the presence of faint galaxy features thereby improving classification accuracy. The feature extraction was performed using morphological features that have been widely used in previous automated galaxy investigations. Principal component analysis was applied to the original and enhanced data sets for a performance comparison between the original and reduced features spaces. Classification was performed by the Support Vector Machine learning algorithm.

  7. Star Formation in Tadpole Galaxies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Casiana Muñoz-Tuñon


    Full Text Available Tadpole Galaxies look like a star forming head with a tail structure to the side. They are also named cometaries. In a series of recent works we have discovered a number of issues that lead us to consider them extremely interesting targets. First, from images, they are disks with a lopsided starburst. This result is rmly  established with long slit spectroscopy in a nearby representative sample. They rotate with the head following the rotation pattern but displaced from the rotation center. Moreover, in a search for extremely metal poor (XMP galaxies, we identied tadpoles as the dominant shapes in the sample - nearly 80% of the local XMP galaxies have a tadpole morphology. In addition, the spatially resolved analysis of the metallicity shows the remarkable result that there is a metallicity drop right at the position of the head. This is contrary to what intuition would say and dicult to explain if star formation has happened from gas processed in the disk. The result could however be understood if the star formation is driven by pristine gas falling into the galaxy disk. If conrmed, we could be unveiling, for the rst time, cool  ows in action in our nearby world. The tadpole class is relatively frequent at high redshift - 10% of resolvable galaxies in the Hubble UDF but less than 1% in the local Universe. They are systems that could track cool ows and test models of galaxy formation.

  8. AGN feedback in dwarf galaxies? (United States)

    Dashyan, Gohar; Silk, Joseph; Mamon, Gary A.; Dubois, Yohan; Hartwig, Tilman


    Dwarf galaxy anomalies, such as their abundance and cusp-core problems, remain a prime challenge in our understanding of galaxy formation. The inclusion of baryonic physics could potentially solve these issues, but the efficiency of stellar feedback is still controversial. We analytically explore the possibility of feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in dwarf galaxies and compare AGN and supernova (SN) feedback. We assume the presence of an intermediate-mass black hole within low-mass galaxies and standard scaling relations between the relevant physical quantities. We model the propagation and properties of the outflow and explore the critical condition for global gas ejection. Performing the same calculation for SNe, we compare the ability of AGNs and SNe to drive gas out of galaxies. We find that a critical halo mass exists below which AGN feedback can remove gas from the host halo and that the critical halo mass for an AGN is greater than the equivalent for SNe in a significant part of the parameter space, suggesting that an AGN could provide an alternative and more successful source of negative feedback than SNe, even in the most massive dwarf galaxies.


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozza, V.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Udalski, A.


    Spitzer microlensing parallax observations of OGLE-2015-BLG-1212 decisively break a degeneracy between planetary and binary solutions that is somewhat ambiguous when only ground-based data are considered. Only eight viable models survive out of an initial set of 32 local minima in the parameter s...... space. These models clearly indicate that the lens is a stellar binary system possibly located within the bulge of our Galaxy, ruling out the planetary alternative. We argue that several types of discrete degeneracies can be broken via such space-based parallax observations....

  10. Spitzer Observations of OGLE-2015-BLG-1212 Reveal a New Path toward Breaking Strong Microlens Degeneracies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bozza, V.; Shvartzvald, Y.; Udalski, A.


    Spitzer microlensing parallax observations of OGLE-2015-BLG-1212 decisively break a degeneracy between planetary and binary solutions that is somewhat ambiguous when only ground-based data are considered. Only eight viable models survive out of an initial set of 32 local minima in the parameter s...... space. These models clearly indicate that the lens is a stellar binary system possibly located within the bulge of our Galaxy, ruling out the planetary alternative. We argue that several types of discrete degeneracies can be broken via such space-based parallax observations....

  11. Chemical Evolution Library for Galaxy Formation Simulation (United States)

    Saitoh, Takayuki R.


    We have developed a software library for chemical evolution simulations of galaxy formation under the simple stellar population (SSP) approximation. In this library, all of the necessary components concerning chemical evolution, such as initial mass functions, stellar lifetimes, yields from Type II and Type Ia supernovae, asymptotic giant branch stars, and neutron star mergers, are compiled from the literature. Various models are pre-implemented in this library so that users can choose their favorite combination of models. Subroutines of this library return released energy and masses of individual elements depending on a given event type. Since the redistribution manner of these quantities depends on the implementation of users’ simulation codes, this library leaves it up to the simulation code. As demonstrations, we carry out both one-zone, closed-box simulations and 3D simulations of a collapsing gas and dark matter system using this library. In these simulations, we can easily compare the impact of individual models on the chemical evolution of galaxies, just by changing the control flags and parameters of the library. Since this library only deals with the part of chemical evolution under the SSP approximation, any simulation codes that use the SSP approximation—namely, particle-base and mesh codes, as well as semianalytical models—can use it. This library is named “CELib” after the term “Chemical Evolution Library” and is made available to the community.

  12. Galaxy evolution in the metric of the cosmic web (United States)

    Kraljic, K.; Arnouts, S.; Pichon, C.; Laigle, C.; de la Torre, S.; Vibert, D.; Cadiou, C.; Dubois, Y.; Treyer, M.; Schimd, C.; Codis, S.; de Lapparent, V.; Devriendt, J.; Hwang, H. S.; Le Borgne, D.; Malavasi, N.; Milliard, B.; Musso, M.; Pogosyan, D.; Alpaslan, M.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Wright, A. H.


    The role of the cosmic web in shaping galaxy properties is investigated in the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) spectroscopic survey in the redshift range 0.03 ≤ z ≤ 0.25. The stellar mass, u - r dust corrected colour and specific star formation rate (sSFR) of galaxies are analysed as a function of their distances to the 3D cosmic web features, such as nodes, filaments and walls, as reconstructed by DisPerSE. Significant mass and type/colour gradients are found for the whole population, with more massive and/or passive galaxies being located closer to the filament and wall than their less massive and/or star-forming counterparts. Mass segregation persists among the star-forming population alone. The red fraction of galaxies increases when closing in on nodes, and on filaments regardless of the distance to nodes. Similarly, the star-forming population reddens (or lowers its sSFR) at fixed mass when closing in on filament, implying that some quenching takes place. These trends are also found in the state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulation HORIZON-AGN. These results suggest that on top of stellar mass and large-scale density, the traceless component of the tides from the anisotropic large-scale environment also shapes galactic properties. An extension of excursion theory accounting for filamentary tides provides a qualitative explanation in terms of anisotropic assembly bias: at a given mass, the accretion rate varies with the orientation and distance to filaments. It also explains the absence of type/colour gradients in the data on smaller, non-linear scales.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Erwin T.; Nagai, Daisuke; Avestruz, Camille [Department of Physics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Nelson, Kaylea [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Yale University, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Vikhlinin, Alexey, E-mail: [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)


    Galaxy clusters exhibit remarkable self-similar behavior which allows us to establish simple scaling relationships between observable quantities and cluster masses, making galaxy clusters useful cosmological probes. Recent X-ray observations suggested that self-similarity may be broken in the outskirts of galaxy clusters. In this work, we analyze a mass-limited sample of massive galaxy clusters from the Omega500 cosmological hydrodynamic simulation to investigate the self-similarity of the diffuse X-ray emitting intracluster medium (ICM) in the outskirts of galaxy clusters. We find that the self-similarity of the outer ICM profiles is better preserved if they are normalized with respect to the mean density of the universe, while the inner profiles are more self-similar when normalized using the critical density. However, the outer ICM profiles as well as the location of accretion shock around clusters are sensitive to their mass accretion rate, which causes the apparent breaking of self-similarity in cluster outskirts. We also find that the collisional gas does not follow the distribution of collisionless dark matter (DM) perfectly in the infall regions of galaxy clusters, leading to 10% departures in the gas-to-DM density ratio from the cosmic mean value. Our results have a number implications for interpreting observations of galaxy clusters in X-ray and through the Sunyaev–Zel’dovich effect, and their applications to cosmology.

  14. Submillimeter Galaxies as Progenitors of Compact Quiescent Galaxies (United States)

    Toft, S.; Smolcic, V.; Magnelli, B.; Karim, A.; Zirm, A.; Michalowski, M.; Capak, P.; Sheth, K.; Schawinski, K.; Krogager, J.-K.; hide


    Three billion years after the big bang (at redshift z = 2), half of the most massive galaxies were already old, quiescent systems with little to no residual star formation and extremely compact with stellar mass densities at least an order of magnitude larger than in low-redshift ellipticals, their descendants. Little is known about how they formed, but their evolved, dense stellar populations suggest formation within intense, compact starbursts 1-2 Gyr earlier (at 3 < z < 6). Simulations show that gas-rich major mergers can give rise to such starbursts, which produce dense remnants. Submillimeter-selected galaxies (SMGs) are prime examples of intense, gas-rich starbursts.With a new, representative spectroscopic sample of compact, quiescent galaxies at z = 2 and a statistically well-understood sample of SMGs, we show that z = 3-6 SMGs are consistent with being the progenitors of z = 2 quiescent galaxies, matching their formation redshifts and their distributions of sizes, stellar masses, and internal velocities. Assuming an evolutionary connection, their space densities also match if the mean duty cycle of SMG starbursts is 42(sup+40) -29 Myr (consistent with independent estimates), which indicates that the bulk of stars in these massive galaxies were formed in a major, early surge of star formation. These results suggest a coherent picture of the formation history of the most massive galaxies in the universe, from their initial burst of violent star formation through their appearance as high stellar-density galaxy cores and to their ultimate fate as giant ellipticals.

  15. Submillimeter galaxies as progenitors of compact quiescent galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toft, S.; Zirm, A.; Krogager, J.-K.; Man, A. W. S. [Dark Cosmology Centre, Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, Juliane Mariesvej 30, DK-2100 Copenhagen (Denmark); Smolčić, V.; Krpan, J. [Physics Department, University of Zagreb, Bijenička cesta 32, 10002 Zagreb (Croatia); Magnelli, B.; Karim, A. [Argelander Institute for Astronomy, Auf dem Hügel 71, Bonn, D-53121 (Germany); Michalowski, M. [Scottish Universities Physics Alliance, Institute for Astronomy, University of Edinburgh, Royal Observatory, Edinburgh, EH9 3HJ (United Kingdom); Capak, P. [Spitzer Science Center, 314-6 Caltech, 1201 East California Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Sheth, K. [National Radio Astronomy Observatory, 520 Edgemont Road, Charlottesville, VA 22903 (United States); Schawinski, K. [ETH Zurich, Institute for Astronomy, Department of Physics, Wolfgang-Pauli-Strasse 27, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Wuyts, S.; Lutz, D.; Staguhn, J.; Berta, S. [MPE, Postfach 1312, D-85741 Garching (Germany); Sanders, D. [Institute for Astronomy, 2680 Woodlawn Drive, University of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI 96822 (United States); Mccracken, H. [Institut dAstrophysique de Paris, UMR7095 CNRS, Universite Pierre et Marie Curie, 98 bis Boulevard Arago, F-75014 Paris (France); Riechers, D., E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, Cornell University, 220 Space Sciences Building, Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)


    Three billion years after the big bang (at redshift z = 2), half of the most massive galaxies were already old, quiescent systems with little to no residual star formation and extremely compact with stellar mass densities at least an order of magnitude larger than in low-redshift ellipticals, their descendants. Little is known about how they formed, but their evolved, dense stellar populations suggest formation within intense, compact starbursts 1-2 Gyr earlier (at 3 < z < 6). Simulations show that gas-rich major mergers can give rise to such starbursts, which produce dense remnants. Submillimeter-selected galaxies (SMGs) are prime examples of intense, gas-rich starbursts. With a new, representative spectroscopic sample of compact, quiescent galaxies at z = 2 and a statistically well-understood sample of SMGs, we show that z = 3-6 SMGs are consistent with being the progenitors of z = 2 quiescent galaxies, matching their formation redshifts and their distributions of sizes, stellar masses, and internal velocities. Assuming an evolutionary connection, their space densities also match if the mean duty cycle of SMG starbursts is 42{sub −29}{sup +40} Myr (consistent with independent estimates), which indicates that the bulk of stars in these massive galaxies were formed in a major, early surge of star formation. These results suggest a coherent picture of the formation history of the most massive galaxies in the universe, from their initial burst of violent star formation through their appearance as high stellar-density galaxy cores and to their ultimate fate as giant ellipticals.

  16. ALMA Partners Break Ground on World's Largest Millimeter Wavelength Telescope (United States)


    space through which light cannot penetrate." Wayne Van Citters, Division Director for the NSF's Division of Astronomical Sciences represented Dr. Colwell at this ceremony. "ALMA will be a giant leap forward for our studies of this relatively little explored spectral window towards the Universe," said Dr. Catherine Cesarsky, Director General of ESO. "With ESO leading the European part of this ambitious and forward-looking project, the impact of ALMA will be felt in wide circles on our continent. Together with our partners in North America and Chile, we are all looking forward to the truly outstanding opportunities that will be offered by ALMA, also to young scientists and engineers." SCIENCE WITH ALMA ALMA will receive millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelength electromagnetic radiation from space. This portion of the spectrum, which is more energetic than most radio waves yet less energetic than visible and infrared light, holds the key to understanding a great variety of fundamental processes, including planet and star formation, and the formation and evolution of galaxies and galaxy clusters in the early Universe. The possibility to detect emission from organic and other molecules in space is of particularly high interest. "ALMA will push the limits of engineering to provide a telescope array at a fantastic site for astronomers to peer at the beginnings of the Universe, galaxies, stars and planets, and perhaps even life," said Dr. Fred K.Y. Lo, director of the National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). The millimeter and sub-millimeter radiation that ALMA will study is able to penetrate the vast clouds of dust and gas that populate interstellar and intergalactic space, revealing previously hidden details about astronomical objects. This energy, however, is blocked by atmospheric moisture here on Earth. To conduct research in this critical portion of the spectrum, astronomers need a site that is very dry, and preferably at a very high altitude where the atmosphere is

  17. Do Galaxies Follow Darwinian Evolution? (United States)


    Using VIMOS on ESO's Very Large Telescope, a team of French and Italian astronomers have shown the strong influence the environment exerts on the way galaxies form and evolve. The scientists have for the first time charted remote parts of the Universe, showing that the distribution of galaxies has considerably evolved with time, depending on the galaxies' immediate surroundings. This surprising discovery poses new challenges for theories of the formation and evolution of galaxies. The 'nature versus nurture' debate is a hot topic in human psychology. But astronomers too face similar conundrums, in particular when trying to solve a problem that goes to the very heart of cosmological theories: are the galaxies we see today simply the product of the primordial conditions in which they formed, or did experiences in the past change the path of their evolution? ESO PR Photo 17/06 ESO PR Photo 45/06 Galaxy Distribution in Space In a large, three-year long survey carried out with VIMOS [1], the Visible Imager and Multi-Object Spectrograph on ESO's VLT, astronomers studied more than 6,500 galaxies over a wide range of distances to investigate how their properties vary over different timescales, in different environments and for varying galaxy luminosities [2]. They were able to build an atlas of the Universe in three dimensions, going back more than 9 billion years. This new census reveals a surprising result. The colour-density relation, that describes the relationship between the properties of a galaxy and its environment, was markedly different 7 billion years ago. The astronomers thus found that the galaxies' luminosity, their initial genetic properties, and the environments they reside in have a profound impact on their evolution. "Our results indicate that environment is a key player in galaxy evolution, but there's no simple answer to the 'nature versus nurture' problem in galaxy evolution," said Olivier Le Fèvre from the Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille

  18. Galaxy bias from galaxy-galaxy lensing in the DES Science Verification Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prat, J.; et al.


    We present a measurement of galaxy-galaxy lensing around a magnitude-limited ($i_{AB} < 22.5$) sample of galaxies selected from the Dark Energy Survey Science Verification (DES-SV) data. We split these lenses into three photometric-redshift bins from 0.2 to 0.8, and determine the product of the galaxy bias $b$ and cross-correlation coefficient between the galaxy and dark matter overdensity fields $r$ in each bin, using scales above 4 Mpc/$h$ comoving, where we find the linear bias model to be valid given our current uncertainties. We compare our galaxy bias results from galaxy-galaxy lensing with those obtained from galaxy clustering (Crocce et al. 2016) and CMB lensing (Giannantonio et al. 2016) for the same sample of galaxies, and find our measurements to be in good agreement with those in Crocce et al. (2016), while, in the lowest redshift bin ($z\\sim0.3$), they show some tension with the findings in Giannantonio et al. (2016). Our results are found to be rather insensitive to a large range of systematic effects. We measure $b\\cdot r$ to be $0.87\\pm 0.11$, $1.12 \\pm 0.16$ and $1.24\\pm 0.23$, respectively for the three redshift bins of width $\\Delta z = 0.2$ in the range $0.2galaxy sample, except possibly at the lowest redshift bin ($z\\sim 0.3$), where we find $r = 0.71 \\pm 0.11$ when using TPZ, and $0.83 \\pm 0.12$ with BPZ, assuming the difference between the results from the two probes can be solely attributed to the cross-correlation parameter.

  19. Making Galaxies: One Star at a Time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abel, Tom


    In the age of precision cosmology the fundamental parameters of our world model are being measured to unprecedented accuracy. In particular, measurements of the cosmic microwave background radiation detail the state of the universe only 400,000 years after the big bang. Unfortunately, we have no direct observational evidence about the following few hundred million years, the so called dark ages. However, we do know from the composition of the highest redshift galaxies that it is there where the earliest and first galaxies are being formed. From a physics point of view these earliest times are much easier to understand and model because the chemical composition of the early gas is simpler and the first galaxies are much smaller than the ones found nearby. The absence of strong magnetic fields, cosmic rays, dust grains and UV radiation fields clearly also helps. The first generation of structure formation is as such a problem extremely well suited for direct ab initio calculations using supercomputers. In this colloquium I will discuss the rich physics of the formation of the first objects as computed via ab initio Eulerian cosmological adaptive mesh refinement calculations. We find the first generation of stars to be massive and to form in isolation with mass between 30 and 300 times the mass of the sun. Remarkably the relevant mass scales can all be understood analytically from the microscopic properties of atomic and molecular hydrogen. The UV radiation from these stars photo-evaporates their parent clouds within their lifetimes contributing significantly to cosmological reionization. Their supernovae distribute the first heavy elements over thousands of light years and enrich the intergalactic medium. As we are beginning to illuminate these earliest phases of galaxy formation many new questions arise and become addressable with our novel numerical techniques. How and where are the earliest magnetic fields made? How do the first super-massive black holes form

  20. Objective identification of informative wavelength regions in galaxy spectra

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yip, Ching-Wa; Szalay, Alexander S.; Budavári, Tamás; Wyse, Rosemary F. G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, The Johns Hopkins University, 3701 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Mahoney, Michael W. [Department of Mathematics, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Csabai, István; Dobos, Laszlo, E-mail:, E-mail:, E-mail: [Department of Physics of Complex Systems, Eötvös Loránd University, H-1117 Budapest (Hungary)


    Understanding the diversity in spectra is the key to determining the physical parameters of galaxies. The optical spectra of galaxies are highly convoluted with continuum and lines that are potentially sensitive to different physical parameters. Defining the wavelength regions of interest is therefore an important question. In this work, we identify informative wavelength regions in a single-burst stellar population model using the CUR Matrix Decomposition. Simulating the Lick/IDS spectrograph configuration, we recover the widely used D {sub n}(4000), Hβ, and Hδ {sub A} to be most informative. Simulating the Sloan Digital Sky Survey spectrograph configuration with a wavelength range 3450-8350 Å and a model-limited spectral resolution of 3 Å, the most informative regions are: first region—the 4000 Å break and the Hδ line; second region—the Fe-like indices; third region—the Hβ line; and fourth region—the G band and the Hγ line. A principal component analysis on the first region shows that the first eigenspectrum tells primarily the stellar age, the second eigenspectrum is related to the age-metallicity degeneracy, and the third eigenspectrum shows an anti-correlation between the strengths of the Balmer and the Ca K and H absorptions. The regions can be used to determine the stellar age and metallicity in early-type galaxies that have solar abundance ratios, no dust, and a single-burst star formation history. The region identification method can be applied to any set of spectra of the user's interest, so that we eliminate the need for a common, fixed-resolution index system. We discuss future directions in extending the current analysis to late-type galaxies. ASCII formatted tables of the regional eigenspectra are available.

  1. The statistical investigation of the First and Second Byurakan survey galaxies and their neighbors (United States)

    Nazaryan, Tigran A.


    In the thesis we study close pairs of galaxies with the aim of understanding the influence of gravitational interaction on nuclear activity and star formation of paired galaxies. For this purpose we investigate dependences of integral parameters of galaxies, their star formation and properties of nuclei on kinematic parameters of systems and their large-scale environment. The thesis has an introduction, three main chapters, a summary, lists of abbreviations and references, and three appendices. In the first chapter, the methods of selection of sample of pairs of galaxies and measurements of physical parameters of the First Byurakan Survey (Markarian) galaxies and their neighbors are presented, and the databases in appendices A and B are described, which contain parameters of neighbors of Markarian galaxies measured by us, and the parameters of pairs having Markarian galaxies, based on the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) data. The selection effects of sample of pairs are discussed, and the statistical comparison of Markarian galaxies and their neighbors is done. The results of statistical study of star formation and activity of nuclei in pairs having Markarian galaxies are presented, as well as the correlations between properties of galaxies in pairs and the physical mechanisms behind them. In the second chapter, the results of statistical study of the Second Byurakan Survey (SBS) galaxies and their neighbors, and star formation and activity of nuclei in those pairs are presented and discussed. In the third chapter, possibilities of using supernovae as indicators of star formation are discussed, the sample of supernovae in pairs of galaxies is presented, and study of star formation in pairs of interacting galaxies by means of that sample of supernovae is done. Also а conclusion about the nature of progenitors of different types of supernovae is made. The short summary of main results of the study concludes the thesis. The thesis has 158 pages. The main results

  2. Globular Clusters for Faint Galaxies (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna


    The origin of ultra-diffuse galaxies (UDGs) has posed a long-standing mystery for astronomers. New observations of several of these faint giants with the Hubble Space Telescope are now lending support to one theory.Faint-Galaxy MysteryHubble images of Dragonfly 44 (top) and DFX1 (bottom). The right panels show the data with greater contrast and extended objects masked. [van Dokkum et al. 2017]UDGs large, extremely faint spheroidal objects were first discovered in the Virgo galaxy cluster roughly three decades ago. Modern telescope capabilities have resulted in many more discoveries of similar faint galaxies in recent years, suggesting that they are a much more common phenomenon than we originally thought.Despite the many observations, UDGs still pose a number of unanswered questions. Chief among them: what are UDGs? Why are these objects the size of normal galaxies, yet so dim? There are two primary models that explain UDGs:UDGs were originally small galaxies, hence their low luminosity. Tidal interactions then puffed them up to the large size we observe today.UDGs are effectively failed galaxies. They formed the same way as normal galaxies of their large size, but something truncated their star formation early, preventing them from gaining the brightness that we would expect for galaxies of their size.Now a team of scientists led by Pieter van Dokkum (Yale University) has made some intriguing observations with Hubble that lend weight to one of these models.Globulars observed in 16 Coma-cluster UDGs by Hubble. The top right panel shows the galaxy identifications. The top left panel shows the derived number of globular clusters in each galaxy. [van Dokkum et al. 2017]Globulars GaloreVan Dokkum and collaborators imaged two UDGs with Hubble: Dragonfly 44 and DFX1, both located in the Coma galaxy cluster. These faint galaxies are both smooth and elongated, with no obvious irregular features, spiral arms, star-forming regions, or other indications of tidal interactions

  3. Effects of Rest-Break Intention on Rest-Break Frequency and Work-Related Fatigue. (United States)

    Blasche, Gerhard; Pasalic, Sanja; Bauböck, Verena-Maria; Haluza, Daniela; Schoberberger, Rudolf


    The present paper presents findings from two studies addressing the effects of the employee's intention to have rest breaks on rest-break frequency and the change of well-being during a workday. Rest breaks are effective in avoiding an accumulation of fatigue during work. However, little is known about individual differences in rest-break behavior. In Study 1, the association between rest-break intention and the daily number of rest breaks recorded over 4 consecutive workdays was determined by generalized linear model in a sample of employees ( n = 111, 59% females). In Study 2, professional geriatric nurses ( n = 95 females) who worked over two consecutive 12-hour day shifts recorded well-being (fatigue, distress, effort motivation) at the beginning and the end of their shifts. The effect of rest-break intention on the change of well-being was determined by multilevel modeling. Rest-break intention was positively associated with the frequency of rest breaks (Study 1) and reduced the increase of fatigue and distress over the workday (Study 2). The results indicate that individual differences account for the number of breaks an employee takes and, as a consequence, for variations in the work-related fatigue and distress. Strengthening rest-break intentions may help to increase rest-break behavior to avoid the buildup of fatigue and distress over a workday.

  4. Galaxy Zoo: Mergers - Dynamical models of interacting galaxies (United States)

    Holincheck, Anthony J.; Wallin, John F.; Borne, Kirk; Fortson, Lucy; Lintott, Chris; Smith, Arfon M.; Bamford, Steven; Keel, William C.; Parrish, Michael


    The dynamical history of most merging galaxies is not well understood. Correlations between galaxy interaction and star formation have been found in previous studies, but require the context of the physical history of merging systems for full insight into the processes that lead to enhanced star formation. We present the results of simulations that reconstruct the orbit trajectories and disturbed morphologies of pairs of interacting galaxies. With the use of a restricted three-body simulation code and the help of citizen scientists, we sample 105 points in parameter space for each system. We demonstrate a successful recreation of the morphologies of 62 pairs of interacting galaxies through the review of more than 3 million simulations. We examine the level of convergence and uniqueness of the dynamical properties of each system. These simulations represent the largest collection of models of interacting galaxies to date, providing a valuable resource for the investigation of mergers. This paper presents the simulation parameters generated by the project. They are now publicly available in electronic format at Though our best-fitting model parameters are not an exact match to previously published models, our method for determining uncertainty measurements will aid future comparisons between models. The dynamical clocks from our models agree with previous results of the time since the onset of star formation from starburst models in interacting systems and suggest that tidally induced star formation is triggered very soon after closest approach.

  5. X-Ray Binaries in Local Analogs to the First Galaxies (United States)

    Brorby, Matthew G.


    The focus of this dissertation is to investigate the effect of metallicity on high-mass X-ray binary (HMXB) formation and evolution as a means to understand the evolution of the early Universe (z > 6). Understanding the population and X-ray output of HMXBs are vital to modelling the heating and ionization morphology of the intergalactic medium during the epoch of reionization. Current X-ray instruments are unable to directly detect very high redshift HMXBs, making it impossible to constrain population sizes in this way. Instead certain local galaxies may be used as analogs to infer the properties of galaxies in the early Universe. These local analogs should have properties consistent with those expected for the first galaxies, such as low-metallicity, compact morphology, and intense recent star formation. I present an X-ray population study of 25 blue compact dwarf galaxies (BCD), using multiwavelength data and Bayesian analysis techniques. We find a significant enhancement of the HMXB population in low-metallicity environments and suggest the same may be true in the early Universe. I continue the investigation of HMXB populations in a sample of 10 moderate metallicity (Z ≥ 0.3, Z solar masses), local star-forming galaxies known as Lyman Break Analogs (LBAs). I find evidence of a LX-SFR-metallicity plane in the combined sample of BCDs, LBAs, and regular star-forming galaxies. Then I study a third type of local analog to early Universe galaxies, the Green Pea galaxies. These are a subclass of luminous compact galaxies (LCGs) which show strong [OIII]lambda5007A emission indicative of extreme, recent star-formation. This pilot study was carried out to look, for the first time in X-rays, at this recently established class of galaxies and use them to test the LX-SFR-metallicity plane. Determining the spectral properties of bright HMXBs in low-metallicity environments also has important implications for models of X-ray heating leading up to the Epoch of Reionization. I

  6. Mechanisms of supersymmetry breaking in the minimal ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mechanisms of supersymmetry breaking in the minimal supersymmetric standard model ... Supersymmetry breaking; MSSM; mechanisms. ... The essentials of gauge, gravity, anomaly and gaugino/higgsino mediation mechanisms are covered briefly and the phenomenology of the associated models is touched upon.

  7. SU(3) breaking in hyperon beta decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, M. (Helsinki Univ. (Finland). Dept. of High Energy Physics)


    The symmetry breaking in the hyperon semi-leptonic decays is analyzed with the constraint that vertical strokeV{sub us}vertical stroke is given by K{sub e3}. The mechanism of symmetry breaking of Donoghue, Holstein and Klimt and the one-loop corrected vector form factors of Krause are compared with data. (orig.).

  8. SU(3) breaking in hyperon beta decays (United States)

    Roos, M.


    The symmetry breaking in the hyperon semi-leptonic decays is analyzed with the constraint the | us| is given by K e3. The mechanisms of symmetry breaking of Donoghue, Holstein and Klimt and the one-loop corrected vector form factors of Krause are compared with data.

  9. Structural Break Tests Robust to Regression Misspecification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abi Morshed, Alaa; Andreou, E.; Boldea, Otilia


    Structural break tests developed in the literature for regression models are sensitive to model misspecification. We show - analytically and through simulations - that the sup Wald test for breaks in the conditional mean and variance of a time series process exhibits severe size distortions when the

  10. Mathematical models of spontaneous symmetry breaking


    Sardanashvily, G.


    The Higgs mechanism of mass generation is the main ingredient in the contemporary Standard Model and its various generalizations. However, there is no comprehensive theory of spontaneous symmetry breaking. We summarize the relevant mathematical results characterizing spontaneous symmetry breaking phenomena in algebraic quantum theory, axiomatic quantum field theory, group theory, and classical gauge theory.

  11. Symmetry breaking signaling mechanisms during cell polarization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruurs, LJM|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/413640779


    Breaking of cellular symmetry in order to establish an apico-basal polarity axis initiates de novo formation of cell polarity. However, symmetry breaking provides a formidable challenge from a signaling perspective, because by definition no spatial cues are present to instruct axis establishment.

  12. Giant Galaxy's Violent Past Comes Into Focus (United States)


    Long-exposure images of the giant elliptical galaxy M87 by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory, together with radio observations, have provided spectacular evidence of repetitive outbursts from the vicinity of the galaxy's supermassive black hole. Magnetized rings, bubbles, plumes and jets ranging in size from a few thousand to a few hundred thousand light years point to ongoing violent activity for hundreds of millions of years. "The hot X-ray emitting gas extending for hundreds of thousands of light years around M87 reveals a record of episodes of black hole activity," said Paul Nulsen of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA) in Cambridge, Mass. and an author of an Astrophysical Journal paper describing the latest Chandra observations. "With these detailed observations, we are beginning to understand how the central supermassive black hole transfers enormous amounts of energy over vast reaches of space." M87, located in the middle of the Virgo galaxy cluster, is surrounded by an extensive atmosphere of multi-million degree Celsius gas. Chandra's long-exposure image has allowed astronomers to see in more detail structures discovered by previous observations with Chandra and other X-ray telescopes, to discover new features, and to make specific comparisons with radio images, which trace the presence of high-energy electrons in a magnetic field." X-ray Image of M87 Chandra X-ray Image of M87, Close-Up The picture that emerges is one in which the infall of material toward a central supermassive black hole produces a magnetized jet of high-energy particles that blasts away from the vicinity of the black hole at near the speed of light. As a jet plows into the surrounding gas, a buoyant, magnetized bubble of high-energy particles is created, and an intense sound wave rushes ahead of the expanding bubble. In Chandra's image of M87, X-rays from the jet dominate the central region of the galaxy. The jet is thought to be pointed at a small angle toward the

  13. Enhancing the view of a million galaxies (United States)


    archive already includes radio maps that further extend the range of wavelengths covered by the survey and provide information on the powerful quasars, the centres of distant galaxies which are releasing large amounts of energy. Although the SXDS data are already a treasure trove of information, their scientific value will multiply when planned observations at wavelengths that complement the existing data are concluded. These include ultraviolet, infrared and sub-millimetre images as well as optical spectra from a wide range of international facilities. In five years, when the survey is scheduled to be complete, the SXDS should allow astronomers to place strong constraints on the cosmological models that determine the ultimate fate of the Universe, providing insights into both its past and future. Note to Editors The coordinated release issued by the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan can be found at the following address: More on the Subaru/XMM-Newton Deep Survey The SXDS is a project of international collaboration involving astronomers from the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, Tokyo, Japan, the University of Tokyo, Japan, the Institute of Space and Astronautical Science, Sagamihara, Japan, the University of Durham, United Kingdom, and Tohoku University, Sendai, Japan, working in close collaboration with the XMM-Newton Survey Science Centre led by the University of Leicester, United Kingdom. For more information about the SXDS project and the data please visit: Direct public access to the XMM-Newton data is also possible at: More about XMM-Newton XMM-Newton can detect more X-ray sources than any previous satellite and is helping to solve many cosmic mysteries of the violent Universe, from black holes to the formation of galaxies. It was launched on 10 December 1999, using an Ariane-5 rocket from French Guiana. It is

  14. What drives the kinematic evolution of star-forming galaxies? (United States)

    Hung, Chao-Ling


    One important result from recent large integral field spectrograph (IFS) surveys is that the intrinsic velocity dispersion of galaxies increases with redshift. Massive, rotationdominated discs are already in place at z ∼ 2, but they are dynamically hotter than spiral galaxies in the local Universe. Although several plausible mechanisms for this elevated velocity dispersion (e.g. star formation feedback, elevated gas supply, or more frequent galaxy interactions) have been proposed, the fundamental driver of the velocity dispersion enhancement at high redshift remains unclear. We investigate the origin of this kinematic evolution using a suite of cosmological simulations from the FIRE (Feedback In Realistic Environments) project. These simulations reproduce the observed trends between intrinsic velocity dispersion (σ intr), SFR, and z. In both the observed and simulated galaxies, σ intr is positively correlated with SFR. σ intr increases with redshift out to z ∼ 1 and then flattens beyond that. In the FIRE simulations, σ intr can vary significantly on timescales of ≲ 100 Myr. These variations closely mirror the time evolution of the SFR and gas inflow rate ( Ṁ gas). By cross-correlating pairs of σ intr Ṁ gas, and SFR, we show that the increased gas inflow leads to subsequent enhanced star formation, and enhancements in σ intr tend to temporally coincide with increases in Ṁ gas and SFR.

  15. Star Formation Activity of Barred Spiral Galaxies (United States)

    Kim, Eunbin; Hwang, Ho Seong; Chung, Haeun; Lee, Gwang-Ho; Park, Changbom; Cervantes Sodi, Bernardo; Kim, Sungsoo S.


    We study the star formation activity of nearby galaxies with bars using a sample of late-type galaxies at 0.02≤slant z≤slant 0.05489 and {M}rgas in strongly barred galaxies are smaller than those in non-barred galaxies, and the gas metallicity is higher in strongly barred galaxies than in non-barred galaxies. The gas properties of weakly barred galaxies again show no difference from those of non-barred galaxies. We stack the optical spectra of barred and non-barred galaxies in several mass bins and fit to the stacked spectra with a spectral fitting code, STARLIGHT. We find no significant difference in stellar populations between barred and non-barred galaxies for both strongly and weakly barred galaxies. Our results are consistent with the idea that the star formation activity of barred galaxies was enhanced in the past along with significant gas consumption, and is currently lower than or similar to that of non-barred galaxies. The past star formation enhancement depends on the strength of bars.

  16. To Break or Not To Break: Sex Chromosome Hemizygosity During Meiosis in Caenorhabditis. (United States)

    Van, Mike V; Larson, Braden J; Engebrecht, JoAnne


    Meiotic recombination establishes connections between homologous chromosomes to promote segregation. Hemizygous regions of sex chromosomes have no homologous chromosome to recombine with, yet must be transmitted through meiosis. An extreme case of hemizygosity exists in the genus Caenorhabditis, where males have a single X chromosome that completely lacks a homologous partner. To determine whether similar strategies have evolved to accommodate hemizygosity of the X during male meiosis in Caenorhabditis with distinct modes of sexual reproduction, we examined induction and processing of meiotic double strand breaks (DSBs) in androdioecious (hermaphrodite/male) Caenorhabditis elegans and C. briggsae, and gonochoristic (female/male) C. remanei and C. brenneri Analysis of the recombinase RAD-51 suggests more meiotic DSBs are induced in gonochoristic vs. androdioecious species. However, in late prophase in all species, chromosome pairs are restructured into bivalents around a single axis, suggesting that the holocentric nature of Caenorhabditis chromosomes dictates a single crossover per bivalent regardless of the number of DSBs induced. Interestingly, RAD-51 foci were readily observed on the X chromosome of androdioecious male germ cells, while very few were detected in gonochoristic male germ cells. As in C. elegans, the X chromosome in C. briggsae male germ cells undergoes transient pseudosynapsis and flexibility in DSB repair pathway choice. In contrast, in C. remanei and C. brenneri male germ cells, the X chromosome does not undergo pseudosynapsis and appears refractory to SPO-11-induced breaks. Together our results suggest that distinct strategies have evolved to accommodate sex chromosome hemizygosity during meiosis in closely related Caenorhabditis species. Copyright © 2016 by the Genetics Society of America.

  17. Galaxy interactions trigger rapid black hole growth: An unprecedented view from the Hyper Suprime-Cam survey (United States)

    Goulding, Andy D.; Greene, Jenny E.; Bezanson, Rachel; Greco, Johnny; Johnson, Sean; Leauthaud, Alexie; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Medezinski, Elinor; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.


    Collisions and interactions between gas-rich galaxies are thought to be pivotal stages in their formation and evolution, causing the rapid production of new stars, and possibly serving as a mechanism for fueling supermassive black holes (BHs). Harnessing the exquisite spatial resolution (˜0{^''.}5) afforded by the first ˜170 deg2 of the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) survey, we present our new constraints on the importance of galaxy-galaxy major mergers (1 : 4) in growing BHs throughout the last ˜8 Gyr. Utilizing mid-infrared observations in the WISE all-sky survey, we robustly select active galactic nuclei (AGN) and mass-matched control galaxy samples, totaling ˜140000 spectroscopically confirmed systems at i < 22 mag. We identify galaxy interaction signatures using a novel machine-learning random forest decision tree technique allowing us to select statistically significant samples of major mergers, minor mergers / irregular systems, and non-interacting galaxies. We use these samples to show that galaxies undergoing mergers are a factor of ˜2-7 more likely to contain luminous obscured AGN than non-interacting galaxies, and this is independent of both stellar mass and redshift to z < 0.9. Furthermore, based on our comparison of AGN fractions in mass-matched samples, we determine that the most luminous AGN population (LAGN ≳ 1045 erg s-1) systematically reside in merging systems over non-interacting galaxies. Our findings show that galaxy-galaxy interactions do, on average, trigger luminous AGN activity substantially more often than in secularly evolving non-interacting galaxies, and we further suggest that the BH growth rate may be closely tied to the dynamical time of the merger system.

  18. Measuring Alignments between Galaxies and the Cosmic Web at z ˜ 2-3 Using IGM Tomography (United States)

    Krolewski, Alex; Lee, Khee-Gan; Lukić, Zarija; White, Martin


    Many galaxy formation models predict alignments between galaxy spin and the cosmic web (I.e., directions of filaments and sheets), leading to an intrinsic alignment between galaxies that creates a systematic error in weak-lensing measurements. These effects are often predicted to be stronger at high redshifts (z ≳ 1) that are inaccessible to massive galaxy surveys on foreseeable instrumentation, but IGM tomography of the Lyα forest from closely spaced quasars and galaxies is starting to measure the z ˜ 2-3 cosmic web with requisite fidelity. Using mock surveys from hydrodynamical simulations, we examine the utility of this technique, in conjunction with coeval galaxy samples, to measure alignment between galaxies and the cosmic web at z ˜ 2.5. We show that IGM tomography surveys with ≲5 h -1 Mpc sightline spacing can accurately recover the eigenvectors of the tidal tensor, which we use to define the directions of the cosmic web. For galaxy spins and shapes, we use a model parameterized by the alignment strength, {{Δ }} , with respect to the tidal tensor eigenvectors from the underlying density field, and also consider observational effects such as errors in the galaxy position angle, inclination, and redshift. Measurements using the upcoming ˜1 deg2 CLAMATO tomographic survey and 600 coeval zCOSMOS-Deep galaxies should place 3σ limits on extreme alignment models with {{Δ }} ˜ 0.1, but much larger surveys encompassing >10,000 galaxies, such as Subaru PFS, will be required to constrain models with {{Δ }} ˜ 0.03. These measurements will constrain models of galaxy-cosmic web alignment and test tidal torque theory at z ˜ 2, improving our understanding of the physics of intrinsic alignments.

  19. Symmetry Breaking in Hofstadter's Butterfly in graphene (United States)

    Forsythe, Carlos; Dean, Cory; Wang, Lei; Maher, Patrick; Ghahari, Fereshte; Moon, Pilkyung; Koshino, Mikito; Taniguchi, Takashi; Watanabe, Kenji; Shepard, Ken; Hone, Jim; Kim, Philip


    We will present magnetotransport measurements in hBN encapsulated bilayer graphene devices where one of hBN substrates provides a weak modulation of lattice potential. Under a strong magnetic field, interplay between periodic electric potential and quantizing magnetic field lead to a fractal energy spectrum known as Hofstadter's butterfly. In graphene, while spin and layer symmetry breakings are expected in dual gated devices under large magnetic fields, valley symmetry breaking in the Hofstadter regime is not so easily understood. We will present the observance of these measured gaps along with a discussion of symmetry breaking in our BLG-hBN devices. Further quantitative analysis of these breakings will be presented through the temperature dependence of quantized conductance at these gaps. Through careful modulation of temperature and electron density, we have extracted a range of activation energies associated with symmetry breakings. the speaker acknowledges support from the Columbia Optics and Quantum Electronics IGERT under NSF grant DGE-1069420

  20. Research progress on dam-break floods

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Jiansong


    Because of the catastrophic effects downstream of dam-break failure, more and more researchers around the world have been working on the study of dam-break flows to accurately forecast the downstream inundation mapping. With the rapid development of computer hardware and computing techniques, numerical study on dam-break flows has been a popular research subject. In the paper, the numerical methodologies used to solve the governing partial differential equations of dam-break flows are classified and summarized, and their characteristics and applications are discussed respectively. Furthermore, the fully-developed mathematical models developed in recent decades are reviewed, and also introduced the authors\\' on-going work. Finally, some possible future developments on modeling the dam-break flows and some solutions are presented and discussed. © 2011 IEEE.

  1. Supermassive black holes do not correlate with dark matter haloes of galaxies. (United States)

    Kormendy, John; Bender, Ralf


    Supermassive black holes have been detected in all galaxies that contain bulge components when the galaxies observed were close enough that the searches were feasible. Together with the observation that bigger black holes live in bigger bulges, this has led to the belief that black-hole growth and bulge formation regulate each other. That is, black holes and bulges coevolve. Therefore, reports of a similar correlation between black holes and the dark matter haloes in which visible galaxies are embedded have profound implications. Dark matter is likely to be non-baryonic, so these reports suggest that unknown, exotic physics controls black-hole growth. Here we show, in part on the basis of recent measurements of bulgeless galaxies, that there is almost no correlation between dark matter and parameters that measure black holes unless the galaxy also contains a bulge. We conclude that black holes do not correlate directly with dark matter. They do not correlate with galaxy disks, either. Therefore, black holes coevolve only with bulges. This simplifies the puzzle of their coevolution by focusing attention on purely baryonic processes in the galaxy mergers that make bulges.

  2. Induced and natural break sites in the chromosomes of Hawaiian Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonzetich, J.; Lyttle, T.W.; Carson, H.L.


    Gamma-irradiation of a laboratory strain of the Hawaiian species of Drosophila heteroneura yielded 310 breaks in the five major acrocentric polytene chromosomes. Their map positions conform to the Poisson distribution, unlike most of the 436 natural breaks mapped in 105 closely related species endemic to Hawaii. Genome element E is longer and has more induced breaks than the others. Both in Hawaiian and related species groups, this element shows increased polymorphism and fixation of naturally occurring inversions. The X chromosome (element A) also accumulates many natural breaks; the majority of the resulting aberrations become fixed rather than remain as polymorphisms. Although size may play a small role in initial break distribution, the major effects relative to the establishment of a rearrangement in natural populations are ascribed to the interaction of selection and drift. Nonconformance of the natural breaks to the Poisson distribution appears to be due to the tendency for breaks to accumulate both in the proximal euchromatic portion of each arm and in heterochromatic regions that are not replicated in the polytene chromosomes.

  3. The difficulties experienced by nurses and healthcare staff involved in the process of breaking bad news. (United States)

    Warnock, Clare; Buchanan, Jean; Tod, Angela Mary


    The aim of this study was to explore the difficulties experienced by nurses and healthcare professionals when engaging in the process of breaking bad news. The challenges faced by staff when breaking bad news have previously been researched in relation to particular settings or participants. This study involved staff from diverse settings and roles to develop broader insights into the range of difficulties experienced in clinical practice. The study used a descriptive survey design involving self-reported written accounts and framework analysis. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire containing a free text section that asked participants to describe a difficult experience they had encountered when involved in the process of breaking bad news. Data were collected from healthcare staff from hospital, community, hospice and care home settings attending training days on breaking bad news between April 2011 and April 2014. Multiple inter-related factors presented challenges to staff engaging in activities associated with breaking bad news. Traditional subjects such as diagnostic and treatment information were described but additional topics were identified such as the impact of illness and care at the end of life. A descriptive framework was developed that summarizes the factors that contribute to creating difficult experiences for staff when breaking bad news. The framework provides insights into the scope of the challenges faced by staff when they engage in the process of breaking bad news. This provides the foundation for developing interventions to support staff that more closely matches their experiences in clinical practice. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Big break for charge symmetry

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, G A


    Two new experiments have detected charge-symmetry breaking, the mechanism responsible for protons and neutrons having different masses. Symmetry is a crucial concept in the theories that describe the subatomic world because it has an intimate connection with the laws of conservation. The theory of the strong interaction between quarks - quantum chromodynamics - is approximately invariant under what is called charge symmetry. In other words, if we swap an up quark for a down quark, then the strong interaction will look almost the same. This symmetry is related to the concept of sup i sospin sup , and is not the same as charge conjugation (in which a particle is replaced by its antiparticle). Charge symmetry is broken by the competition between two different effects. The first is the small difference in mass between up and down quarks, which is about 200 times less than the mass of the proton. The second is their different electric charges. The up quark has a charge of +2/3 in units of the proton charge, while ...

  5. Goldstone mode and pair-breaking excitations in atomic Fermi superfluids (United States)

    Hoinka, Sascha; Dyke, Paul; Lingham, Marcus G.; Kinnunen, Jami J.; Bruun, Georg M.; Vale, Chris J.


    Spontaneous symmetry breaking is a central paradigm of elementary particle physics, magnetism, superfluidity and superconductivity. According to Goldstone's theorem, phase transitions that break continuous symmetries lead to the existence of gapless excitations in the long-wavelength limit. These Goldstone modes can become the dominant low-energy excitation, showing that symmetry breaking has a profound impact on the physical properties of matter. Here, we present a comprehensive study of the elementary excitations in a homogeneous strongly interacting Fermi gas through the crossover from a Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer (BCS) superfluid to a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of molecules using two-photon Bragg spectroscopy. The spectra exhibit a discrete Goldstone mode, associated with the broken-symmetry superfluid phase, as well as pair-breaking single-particle excitations. Our techniques yield a direct determination of the superfluid pairing gap and speed of sound in close agreement with strong-coupling theories.

  6. The Thousand-Ruby Galaxy (United States)


    ESO's Wide Field Imager has captured the intricate swirls of the spiral galaxy Messier 83, a smaller look-alike of our own Milky Way. Shining with the light of billions of stars and the ruby red glow of hydrogen gas, it is a beautiful example of a barred spiral galaxy, whose shape has led to it being nicknamed the Southern Pinwheel. Messier 83, M83 ESO PR Photo 25/08 Spiral Galaxy Messier 83 This dramatic image of the galaxy Messier 83 was captured by the Wide Field Imager at ESO's La Silla Observatory, located high in the dry desert mountains of the Chilean Atacama Desert. Messier 83 lies roughly 15 million light-years away towards the huge southern constellation of Hydra (the sea serpent). It stretches over 40 000 light-years, making it roughly 2.5 times smaller than our own Milky Way. However, in some respects, Messier 83 is quite similar to our own galaxy. Both the Milky Way and Messier 83 possess a bar across their galactic nucleus, the dense spherical conglomeration of stars seen at the centre of the galaxies. This very detailed image shows the spiral arms of Messier 83 adorned by countless bright flourishes of ruby red light. These are in fact huge clouds of glowing hydrogen gas. Ultraviolet radiation from newly born, massive stars is ionising the gas in these clouds, causing the great regions of hydrogen to glow red. These star forming regions are contrasted dramatically in this image against the ethereal glow of older yellow stars near the galaxy's central hub. The image also shows the delicate tracery of dark and winding dust streams weaving throughout the arms of the galaxy. Messier 83 was discovered by the French astronomer Nicolas Louis de Lacaille in the mid 18th century. Decades later it was listed in the famous catalogue of deep sky objects compiled by another French astronomer and famous comet hunter, Charles Messier. Recent observations of this enigmatic galaxy in ultraviolet light and radio waves have shown that even its outer desolate regions

  7. Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA): A “No Smoking” Zone for Giant Elliptical Galaxies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Khosroshahi, Habib G.; Raouf, Mojtaba; Miraghaei, Halime; Brough, Sarah; Croton, Darren J.; Driver, Simon; Graham, Alister; Baldry, Ivan; Brown, Michael; Prescott, Matt; Wang, Lingyu


    We study the radio emission of the most massive galaxies in a sample of dynamically relaxed and unrelaxed galaxy groups from the Galaxy and Mass Assembly survey. The dynamical state of the group is defined by the stellar dominance of the brightest group galaxy (BGG), e.g., the luminosity gap between

  8. The Road to Galaxy Formation

    CERN Document Server

    Keel, William C


    The formation of galaxies is one of the greatest puzzles in astronomy, the solution is shrouded in the depths of space and time, but has profound implications for the universe we observe today. The book discusses the beginnings of the process from cosmological observations and calculations, considers the broad features of galaxies that we need to explain and what we know of their later history. The author compares the competing theories for galaxy formation and considers the progress expected from new generations of powerful telescopes both on earth and in space. In this second edition the author has retained the observationally-based approach of the first edition, a feature which was particularly well-reviewed: Writing in Nature, Carlton Baugh noted in February 2003 that “It is refreshing, in a market dominated by theorists, to come across a book on galaxy formation written from an observational perspective. The Road to Galaxy Formation should prove to be a handy primer on observations for graduate student...

  9. Three intervening galaxy absorbers towards GRB 060418

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellison, S. L.; Vreeswijk, P.; Ledoux, C.


    Dust, extinction: galaxies: ISM: quasars: absorption lines: gamma-rays: bursts Udgivelsesdato: 10 August......Dust, extinction: galaxies: ISM: quasars: absorption lines: gamma-rays: bursts Udgivelsesdato: 10 August...

  10. Cosmology: Photons from dwarf galaxy zap hydrogen (United States)

    Erb, Dawn K.


    The detection of photons sufficiently energetic to ionize neutral hydrogen, coming from a compact, star-forming galaxy, offers clues to how the first generation of galaxies may have reionized hydrogen gas in the early Universe. See Letter p.178


    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — DATA MINING THE GALAXY ZOO MERGERS STEVEN BAEHR, ARUN VEDACHALAM, KIRK BORNE, AND DANIEL SPONSELLER Abstract. Collisions between pairs of galaxies usually end in the...

  12. The Optical Identification of the Luminous Radio Galaxy 0409-752 (United States)

    Alvarez, H.; Aparici, J.; May, J.; Navarrete, M.


    We have identified the radio source 0409 - 752 with a faint (V = 21.6) galaxy which has emission lines of [O II] 3727 (strong), [O III] 4959, 5007 (strong) and [Ne III] 3869 (weak), consistent with a redshift of 0.694. Assuming a cosmological redshift, and using different values for H_0_ and q_0_, we have computed the absolute luminosity in the range 45-8400 MHz. A careful comparison with radio galaxies Cyg A and 3C 295, taken as reference because they are luminous and their spectra are accurately known in that frequency range, shows that 0409 - 752 is even slightly more powerful. The ratio of radio to optical luminosities for 0409 - 752 is very close to the highest known for radio galaxies. We found that the IRAS point source 04099 - 7514 is actually associated to a S0 galaxy in the field.

  13. Improving long term driving comfort by taking breaks - How break activity affects effectiveness. (United States)

    Sammonds, George M; Mansfield, Neil J; Fray, Mike


    During long duration journeys, drivers are encouraged to take regular breaks. The benefits of breaks have been documented for safety; breaks may also be beneficial for comfort. The activity undertaken during a break may influence its effectiveness. Volunteers completed 3 journeys on a driving simulator. Each 130 min journey included a 10 min break after the first hour. During the break volunteers either stayed seated, left the simulator and sat in an adjacent room, or took a walk on a treadmill. The results show a reduction in driver discomfort during the break for all 3 conditions, but the effectiveness of the break was dependent on activity undertaken. Remaining seated in the vehicle provided some improvement in comfort, but more was experienced after leaving the simulator and sitting in an adjacent room. The most effective break occurred when the driver walked for 10 min on a treadmill. The benefits from taking a break continued until the end of the study (after a further hour of driving), such that comfort remained the best after taking a walk and worst for those who remained seated. It is concluded that taking a break and taking a walk is an effective method for relieving driving discomfort. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Ammonia Thermometry of Star Forming Galaxies


    Mangum, Jeffrey G.; Darling, Jeremy; Henkel, Christian; Menten, Karl M.; MacGregor, Meredith; Svoboda, Brian E.; Schinnerer, Eva


    With a goal toward deriving the physical conditions in external galaxies, we present a study of the ammonia (NH$_3$) emission and absorption in a sample of star forming systems. Using the unique sensitivities to kinetic temperature afforded by the excitation characteristics of several inversion transitions of NH$_3$, we have continued our characterization of the dense gas in star forming galaxies by measuring the kinetic temperature in a sample of 23 galaxies and one galaxy offset position se...

  15. The SLUGGS survey: wide-field stellar kinematics of early-type galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Jacob A. [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Romanowsky, Aaron J.; Brodie, Jean P.; Woodley, Kristin A. [University of California Observatories, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Forbes, Duncan A.; Blom, Christina; Kartha, Sreeja S.; Pastorello, Nicola; Pota, Vincenzo; Usher, Christopher [Centre for Astrophysics and Supercomputing, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122 (Australia); Strader, Jay [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824 (United States); Spitler, Lee R. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Faculty of Sciences, Macquarie University, Sydney, NSW 2109 (Australia); Foster, Caroline, E-mail: [Australian Astronomical Observatory, P.O. Box 915, North Ryde, NSW (Australia)


    We present stellar kinematics of 22 nearby early-type galaxies (ETGs), based on two-dimensional (2D) absorption line stellar spectroscopy out to ∼2-4 R {sub e} (effective radii), as part of the ongoing SLUGGS Survey. The galaxies span a factor of 20 in intrinsic luminosity, as well as a full range of environment and ETG morphology. Our data consist of good velocity resolution (σ{sub inst} ∼ 25 km s{sup –1}) integrated stellar-light spectra extracted from the individual slitlets of custom made Keck/DEIMOS slitmasks. We extract stellar kinematics measurements (V, σ, h {sub 3}, and h {sub 4}) for each galaxy. Combining with literature values from smaller radii, we present 2D spatially resolved maps of the large-scale kinematic structure in each galaxy. We find that the kinematic homogeneity found inside 1 R {sub e} often breaks down at larger radii, where a variety of kinematic behaviors are observed. While central slow rotators remain slowly rotating in their halos, central fast rotators show more diversity, ranging from rapidly increasing to rapidly declining specific angular momentum profiles in the outer regions. There are indications that the outer trends depend on morphological type, raising questions about the proposed unification of the elliptical and lenticular (S0) galaxy families in the ATLAS{sup 3D} survey. Several galaxies in our sample show multiple lines of evidence for distinct disk components embedded in more slowly rotating spheroids, and we suggest a joint photometric-kinematic approach for robust bulge-disk decomposition. Our observational results appear generally consistent with a picture of two-phase (in-situ plus accretion) galaxy formation.

  16. Bulk gauge fields in warped space and localized supersymmetry breaking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chacko, Z.; Ponton, Eduardo


    We consider five dimensional supersymmetric warped scenarios in which the Standard Model quark and lepton fields are localized on the ultraviolet brane, while the Standard Model gauge fields propagate in the bulk. Supersymmetry is assumed to be broken on the infrared brane. The relative sizes of supersymmetry breaking effects are found to depend on the hierarchy between the infrared scale and the weak scale. If the infrared scale is much larger than the weak scale the leading supersymmetry breaking effect on the visible brane is given by gaugino mediation. The gaugino masses at the weak scale are proportional to the square of the corresponding gauge coupling, while the dominant contribution to the scalar masses arises from logarithmically enhanced radiative effects involving the gaugino mass that are cutoff at the infrared scale. While the LSP is the gravitino, the NLSP which is the stau is stable on collider time scales. If however the infrared scale is close to the weak scale then the effects of hard supersymmetry breaking operators on the scalar masses can become comparable to those from gaugino mediation. These operators alter the relative strengths of the couplings of gauge bosons and gauginos to matter, and give loop contributions to the scalar masses that are also cutoff at the infrared scale. The gaugino masses, while exhibiting a more complicated dependence on the corresponding gauge coupling, remain hierarchical and become proportional to the corresponding gauge coupling in the limit of strong supersymmetry breaking. The scalar masses are finite and a loop factor smaller than the gaugino masses. The LSP remains the gravitino.

  17. Magnetogravitodynamics model of galaxy formation (United States)

    Greyber, Howard D.


    Unless the tau neutrino is discovered to have an appropriate size mass, the theories of galaxy formation involving only gravity may not fit the observations. A model within the Big Bang hypothesis is described with processes occurring after ``Breakout'' that lead to the concentration of matter along thin spatially curved current sheets. When a critical density is reached, gravitational collapse occurs, forming galaxies in many places along thin spatially curved sheets surrounding huge voids, in a cellular structure, as in the observations by Geller, Huchra et al. The origin of a primordial magnetic field concentrated in the sheets is explained. The model predicts that much of the missing dark matter is located along the thin spatially curved sheets of galaxies.

  18. Statistics of the galaxy distribution

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez, Vicent J


    Over the last decade, statisticians have developed new statistical tools in the field of spatial point processes. At the same time, observational efforts have yielded a huge amount of new cosmological data to analyze. Although the main tools in astronomy for comparing theoretical results with observation are statistical, in recent years, cosmologists have not been generally aware of the developments in statistics and vice versa.Statistics of the Galaxy Distribution describes both the available observational data on the distribution of galaxies and the applications of spatial statistics in cosmology. It gives a detailed derivation of the statistical methods used to study the galaxy distribution and the cosmological physics needed to formulate the statistical models. Because the prevalent approach in cosmological statistics has been frequentist, the authors focus on the most widely used of these methods, but they also explore Bayesian techniques that have become popular in large-scale structure studies.Describi...

  19. Formation of dwarf ellipticals and dwarf irregular galaxies by interaction of giant galaxies under environmental influence


    Chattopadhyay, Tanuka; Debsarma, Suma; Karmakar, Pradip; Davoust, Emmanuel


    A model is proposed for the formation of gas-rich dwarf irregular galaxies and gas-poor, rotating dwarf elliptical galaxies following the interaction between two giant galaxies as a function of space density. The formation of dwarf galaxies is considered to depend on a random variable, the tidal index theta, an environmental parameter defined by Karachentsev et al. (2004), such that for theta less than zero, the formation of dwarf irregular galaxy is assured whereas for theta greater than zer...

  20. Dark matter in low surface brightness galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Blok, WJG; McGaugh, SS; Persic, M; Salucci, P


    Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies form a large population of disc galaxies that extend the Hubble sequence towards extreme late-types. They are only slowly evolving, and still in an early evolutionary state. The Tully-Fisher relation and rotation curves of LSB galaxies both show that LSB

  1. Central condensations in Seyfert galaxies. Pt. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afanas' ev, V.L.; Pimonov, A.A.; Terebizh, V.Yu. (AN SSSR, Nizhnij Arkhyz. Spetsial' naya Astrofizicheskaya Observatoriya)


    Results of observations with scanning photometer of 7 normal and 17 Seyfert galaxies show that in the Seyfert galaxies a central regions of 3-4 kpc in size exist noted for the high stellar density. A correlation between the volume luminosity of spherical component and the luminosity of the galaxy nucleus is found.


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies are galaxies dominated by an exponential disc whose central surface brightness is much fainter than the value of mu(B)(0) = 21.65 +/- 0.30 mag arcsec(-2) found by Freeman. In this paper we present broadband photometry of a sample of 21 late-type LSB galaxies.

  3. Resolving gas-phase metallicity in galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, D.J.


    Galaxies are environments where gas coalesces, cools, and is converted into stars. However, it remains unclear the exact mechanisms through which galaxies acquire, redistribute and lose their gas. The fresh gas that flows into galaxies is primarily composed of Hydrogen and Helium. But because a

  4. The extraordinary structural evolution of massive galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Szomoru, Daniel


    Galaxies have changed drastically over the past 10 billion years. This thesis deals with these changes, focusing on evolution in the structure of very massive galaxies with a range of stellar population properties. The main subjects addressed are the rapid changes in the sizes of old galaxies, the

  5. Galaxies with "rows": A new catalog (United States)

    Butenko, M. A.; Khoperskov, A. V.


    Galaxies with "rows" in Vorontsov-Velyaminov's terminology stand out among the variety of spiral galactic patterns. A characteristic feature of such objects is the sequence of straight-line segments that forms the spiral arm. In 2001 A. Chernin and co-authors published a catalog of such galaxies which includes 204 objects from the Palomar Atlas. In this paper, we supplement the catalog with 276 objects based on an analysis of all the galaxies from the New General Catalogue and Index Catalogue. The total number of NGC and IC galaxies with rows is 406, including the objects of Chernin et al. (2001). The use of more recent galaxy images allowed us to detect more "rows" on average, compared with the catalog of Chernin et al. When comparing the principal galaxy properties we found no significant differences between galaxies with rows and all S-typeNGC/IC galaxies.We discuss twomechanisms for the formation of polygonal structures based on numerical gas-dynamic and collisionless N-body calculations, which demonstrate that a spiral pattern with rows is a transient stage in the evolution of galaxies and a system with a powerful spiral structure can pass through this stage. The hypothesis of A. Chernin et al. (2001) that the occurrence frequency of interacting galaxies is twice higher among galaxies with rows is not confirmed for the combined set of 480 galaxies. The presence of a central stellar bar appears to be a favorable factor for the formation of a system of "rows".

  6. X-ray Galaxy Clusters & Cosmology (United States)

    Ettori, Stefano


    I present a summary of the four lectures given on these topics: (i) Galaxy Clusters in a cosmological context: an introduction; (ii) Galaxy Clusters in X-ray: how and what we observe, limits and prospects; (iii) X-ray Galaxy Clusters and Cosmology: total mass, gas mass & systematics; (iv) Properties of the ICM: scaling laws and metallicity.

  7. Stars at Low Metallicity in Dwarf Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tolstoy, Eline; Battaglia, Giuseppina; Cole, Andrew; Hunt, LK; Madden, S; Schneider, R


    Dwarf galaxies offer an opportunity to understand the properties of low metallicity star formation both today and at the earliest times at the, epoch of the formation of the first stars. Here we concentrate on two galaxies in the Local Group: the dwarf irregular galaxy Leo A, which has been the

  8. The Metallicity of Void Dwarf Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kreckel, K.; Croxall, K.; Groves, B.; van de Weygaert, R.; Pogge, R. W.

    The current ΛCDM cosmological model predicts that galaxy evolution proceeds more slowly in lower density environments, suggesting that voids are a prime location to search for relatively pristine galaxies that are representative of the building blocks of early massive galaxies. To test the

  9. Dark Matter in Low Surface Brightness Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, W. J. G. de; McGaugh, S. S.


    Abstract: Low Surface Brightness (LSB) galaxies form a large population of disc galaxies that extend the Hubble sequence towards extreme late-types. They are only slowly evolving, and still in an early evolutionary state. The Tully-Fisher relation and rotation curves of LSB galaxies both show that

  10. 10 billion years of massive Galaxies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Taylor, Edward Nairne Cunningham


    The most massive galaxies in the local universe are not forming new stars -- but we don’t know why. As a step towards figuring out why big galaxies stop forming stars, we set out to measure when they stop forming stars. By looking at the colors of massive galaxies have changed over 10 billion

  11. AMICO: optimized detection of galaxy clusters in photometric surveys (United States)

    Bellagamba, Fabio; Roncarelli, Mauro; Maturi, Matteo; Moscardini, Lauro


    We present Adaptive Matched Identifier of Clustered Objects (AMICO), a new algorithm for the detection of galaxy clusters in photometric surveys. AMICO is based on the Optimal Filtering technique, which allows to maximize the signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of the clusters. In this work, we focus on the new iterative approach to the extraction of cluster candidates from the map produced by the filter. In particular, we provide a definition of membership probability for the galaxies close to any cluster candidate, which allows us to remove its imprint from the map, allowing the detection of smaller structures. As demonstrated in our tests, this method allows the deblending of close-by and aligned structures in more than 50 per cent of the cases for objects at radial distance equal to 0.5 × R200 or redshift distance equal to 2 × σz, being σz the typical uncertainty of photometric redshifts. Running AMICO on mocks derived from N-body simulations and semi-analytical modelling of the galaxy evolution, we obtain a consistent mass-amplitude relation through the redshift range of 0.3 slope of ∼0.55 and a logarithmic scatter of ∼0.14. The fraction of false detections is steeply decreasing with S/N and negligible at S/N > 5.

  12. Galaxy Mergers Moulding the CGM (United States)

    Hani, Maan H.; Sparre, Martin; Ellison, Sara L.; Torrey, Paul; Vogelsberger, Mark


    Galaxies are surrounded by sizeable gas reservoirs which host a significant amount of metals: the circum-galactic medium (CGM). The CGM acts as a mediator between the galaxy and the extra-galactic medium. However, our understanding of how galaxy mergers, a major evolutionary transformation, impact the CGM remains deficient. We present a theoretical study of the effect of galaxy mergers on the CGM: We use hydrodynamical cosmological zoom-in simulations of a major merger selected from the Illustris project such that the z=0 descendant is a Milky Way-like galaxy, and then re-simulated at a 40 times higher mass resolution. We include post-processing ionization modelling. This work demonstrates the effect the merger has on the characteristic size of the CGM, its metallicity and the predicted covering fraction of various commonly observed gas-phase species, such as H I, C IV and O VI. We show that merger-induced outflows can increase the CGM metallicity by 0.2-0.3 dex within 0.5 Gyr post-merger. These effects last up to 6 Gyr post-merger. While the merger increases the total metal covering fractions by factors of 2-3, the covering fractions of commonly observed UV ions decrease due to the hard ionizing radiation from the active galactic nucleus. The case study of the single simulated major merger presented in this work demonstrates the significant impact that a galaxy interaction can have on the size, metallicity and observed column densities of the CGM (Hani et al. in prep).

  13. Repair of DNA strand breaks in a minichromosome in vivo: kinetics, modeling, and effects of inhibitors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slawomir Kumala

    Full Text Available To obtain an overall picture of the repair of DNA single and double strand breaks in a defined region of chromatin in vivo, we studied their repair in a ~170 kb circular minichromosome whose length and topology are analogous to those of the closed loops in genomic chromatin. The rate of repair of single strand breaks in cells irradiated with γ photons was quantitated by determining the sensitivity of the minichromosome DNA to nuclease S1, and that of double strand breaks by assaying the reformation of supercoiled DNA using pulsed field electrophoresis. Reformation of supercoiled DNA, which requires that all single strand breaks have been repaired, was not slowed detectably by the inhibitors of poly(ADP-ribose polymerase-1 NU1025 or 1,5-IQD. Repair of double strand breaks was slowed by 20-30% when homologous recombination was supressed by KU55933, caffeine, or siRNA-mediated depletion of Rad51 but was completely arrested by the inhibitors of nonhomologous end-joining wortmannin or NU7441, responses interpreted as reflecting competition between these repair pathways similar to that seen in genomic DNA. The reformation of supercoiled DNA was unaffected when topoisomerases I or II, whose participation in repair of strand breaks has been controversial, were inhibited by the catalytic inhibitors ICRF-193 or F11782. Modeling of the kinetics of repair provided rate constants and showed that repair of single strand breaks in minichromosome DNA proceeded independently of repair of double strand breaks. The simplicity of quantitating strand breaks in this minichromosome provides a usefull system for testing the efficiency of new inhibitors of their repair, and since the sequence and structural features of its DNA and its transcription pattern have been studied extensively it offers a good model for examining other aspects of DNA breakage and repair.

  14. Spatially resolved analysis of superluminous supernovae PTF 11hrq and PTF 12dam host galaxies (United States)

    Cikota, Aleksandar; De Cia, Annalisa; Schulze, Steve; Vreeswijk, Paul M.; Leloudas, Giorgos; Gal-Yam, Avishay; Perley, Daniel A.; Cikota, Stefan; Kim, Sam; Patat, Ferdinando; Lunnan, Ragnhild; Quimby, Robert; Yaron, Ofer; Yan, Lin; Mazzali, Paolo A.


    Superluminous supernovae (SLSNe) are the most luminous supernovae in the Universe. They are found in extreme star-forming galaxies and are probably connected with the death of massive stars. One hallmark of very massive progenitors would be a tendency to explode in very dense, UV-bright and blue regions. In this paper, we investigate the resolved host galaxy properties of two nearby hydrogen-poor SLSNe, PTF 11hrq and PTF 12dam. For both galaxies Hubble Space Telescope multifilter images were obtained. Additionally, we perform integral field spectroscopy of the host galaxy of PTF 11hrq using the Very Large Telescope Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer (VLT/MUSE), and investigate the line strength, metallicity and kinematics. Neither PTF 11hrq nor PTF 12dam occurred in the bluest part of their host galaxies, although both galaxies have overall blue UV-to-optical colours. The MUSE data reveal a bright starbursting region in the host of PTF 11hrq, although far from the SN location. The SN exploded close to a region with disturbed kinematics, bluer colour, stronger [O iii] and lower metallicity. The host galaxy is likely interacting with a companion. PTF 12dam occurred in one of the brightest pixels, in a starbursting galaxy with a complex morphology and a tidal tail, where interaction is also very likely. We speculate that SLSN explosions may originate from stars generated during star formation episodes triggered by interaction. High-resolution imaging and integral field spectroscopy are fundamental for a better understanding of SLSNe explosion sites and how star formation varies across their host galaxies.

  15. CANDELS Sheds Light on the Environmental Quenching of Low-mass Galaxies (United States)

    Guo, Yicheng; Bell, Eric F.; Lu, Yu; Koo, David C.; Faber, Sandra M.; CANDELS


    We investigate the environmental quenching of galaxies, especially those with stellar masses (M*) smaller than 10^9.5 M⊙, beyond the local universe. Essentially all local low-mass quenched galaxies (QGs) are believed to live close to massive central galaxies, which is a demonstration of environmental quenching. We use CANDELS data to test whether or not such a dwarf QG--massive central galaxy connection exists beyond the local universe. For this purpose, we only need a statistically representative, rather than a complete, sample of low-mass galaxies, which enables our study out to z > 1.5. For each low-mass galaxy, we measure the projected distance (dproj) to its nearest massive (M* > 10^10.5 M⊙) neighbor within a redshift range. At a given z and M*, the environmental quenching effect is considered to be observed if the dproj distribution of QGs is significantly skewed toward lower values than that of star-forming galaxies (SFGs). For galaxies with 10^8 M⊙ distributions of quenched and star-forming populations is detected up to z ˜ 1. Also, about 10% of the quenched galaxies in our sample are located between two and four virial radii (R_Vir) of the massive halos. The median projected distance from low-mass QGs to their massive neighbors (dproj/R_Vir) decreases with satellite M* at M* 10^9.5 M⊙. This trend suggests a smooth, if any, transition of the quenching timescale around M* of 10^9.5 M⊙ at 0.5 < z < 1.0.

  16. Relations between the Sizes of Galaxies and Their Dark Matter Halos at Redshifts 0 < z < 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Kuang-Han [University of California Davis, 1 Shields Avenue, Davis, CA 95616 (United States); Fall, S. Michael; Ferguson, Henry C.; Grogin, Norman; Koekemoer, Anton [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Van der Wel, Arjen [Max Planck Institute for Astronomy, Koenigstuhl 17, D-69117 Heidelberg (Germany); Lee, Seong-Kook [Center for the Exploration of the Origin of the Universe, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Pérez-González, Pablo G. [Departamento de Astrofísica, Facultad de CC. Física, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28040, Madrid (Spain); Wuyts, Stijn, E-mail: [Department of Physics, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath, BA2 7AY (United Kingdom)


    We derive relations between the effective radii R {sub eff} of galaxies and the virial radii R {sub 200} {sub c} of their dark matter halos over the redshift range 0 < z < 3. For galaxies, we use the measured sizes from deep images taken with Hubble Space Telescope for the Cosmic Assembly Near-infrared Deep Extragalactic Legacy Survey; for halos, we use the inferred sizes from abundance matching to cosmological dark matter simulations via a stellar mass–halo mass (SMHM) relation. For this purpose, we derive a new SMHM relation based on the same selection criteria and other assumptions as for our sample of galaxies with size measurements. As a check on the robustness of our results, we also derive R {sub eff}–R {sub 200} {sub c} relations for three independent SMHM relations from the literature. We find that galaxy R {sub eff} is proportional on average to halo R {sub 200} {sub c}, confirming and extending to high redshifts the z = 0 results of Kravtsov. Late-type galaxies (with low Sérsic index and high specific star formation rate (sSFR)) follow a linear R {sub eff}– R {sub 200} {sub c} relation, with effective radii at 0.5 < z < 3 close to those predicted by simple models of disk formation; at z < 0.5, the sizes of late-type galaxies appear to be slightly below this prediction. Early-type galaxies (with high Sérsic index and low sSFR) follow a roughly parallel R {sub eff}– R {sub 200} {sub c} relation, ∼0.2–0.3 dex below the one for late-type galaxies. Our observational results, reinforced by recent hydrodynamical simulations, indicate that galaxies grow quasi-homologously with their dark matter halos.

  17. Breaking of longitudinal Akhiezer-Polovin waves. (United States)

    Verma, Prabal Singh; Sengupta, Sudip; Kaw, Predhiman


    The breaking of longitudinal Akhiezer-Polovin (AP) waves is demonstrated using a one-dimensional simulation based on the Dawson sheet model. It is found that the AP longitudinal waves break through the process of phase mixing at an amplitude well below the breaking amplitude for AP waves, when subjected to arbitrarily small longitudinal perturbations. Results from the simulation show a good agreement with the Dawson phase mixing formula modified to include relativistic mass variation effects. This result may be of direct relevance to the laser- or particle-beam plasma wakefield experiments.

  18. The HIX galaxy survey II: HI kinematics of HI eXtreme galaxies (United States)

    Lutz, K. A.; Kilborn, V. A.; Koribalski, B. S.; Catinella, B.; Józsa, G. I. G.; Wong, O. I.; Stevens, A. R. H.; Obreschkow, D.; Dénes, H.


    By analysing a sample of galaxies selected from the HI Parkes All Sky Survey (HIPASS) to contain more than 2.5 times their expected HI content based on their optical properties, we investigate what drives these HI eXtreme (HIX) galaxies to be so HI-rich. We model the H I kinematics with the Tilted Ring Fitting Code TiRiFiC and compare the observed HIX galaxies to a control sample of galaxies from HIPASS as well as simulated galaxies built with the semi-analytic model DARK SAGE. We find that (1) H I discs in HIX galaxies are more likely to be warped and more likely to host H I arms and tails than in the control galaxies, (2) the average H I and average stellar column density of HIX galaxies is comparable to the control sample, (3) HIX galaxies have higher H I and baryonic specific angular momenta than control galaxies, (4) most HIX galaxies live in higher-spin haloes than most control galaxies. These results suggest that HIX galaxies are H I-rich because they can support more H I against gravitational instability due to their high specific angular momentum. The majority of the HIX galaxies inherits their high specific angular momentum from their halo. The H I content of HIX galaxies might be further increased by gas-rich minor mergers. This paper is based on data obtained with the Australia Telescope Compact Array (ATCA) through the large program C 2705.

  19. Escape of ionizing radiation from star-forming regions in Young galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Razoumov, A; Sommer-Larsen, Jesper


    Galaxies: Formation, Galaxies: Intergalactic Medium, ISM: H II Regions, Radiative Transfer Udgivelsesdato: Nov. 10......Galaxies: Formation, Galaxies: Intergalactic Medium, ISM: H II Regions, Radiative Transfer Udgivelsesdato: Nov. 10...

  20. Deconvolution of Window Effect in Galaxy Power Spectrum Analysis (United States)

    Sato, T.; Hütsi, G.; Yamamoto, K.


    We developed a new method of deconvolving the smearing effect of the survey window in the analysis of the galaxy multipole power spectra from a redshift survey. This method is based on the deconvolution theorem, and is compatible with the use of the fast Fourier transform. It is possible to measure the multipole power spectra deconvolved from the window effect efficiently. Applying this method to the luminous red galaxy sample of the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7 as well as mock catalogues, we demonstrate how the method works properly. By this deconvolution technique, the amplitude of the multipole power spectrum is corrected. Besides, the covariance matrices of the deconvolved power spectra become quite close to the diagonal form. This is also advantageous in the study of the BAO signature.

  1. Dwarfs and Giants in the local flows of galaxies. (United States)

    Chernin, A. D.; Emelyanov, N. V.; Karachentsev, I. D.

    We use recent Hubble Space Telescope data on nearby dwarf and giant galaxies to study the dynamical structure and evolutionary trends of the local expansion flows of galaxies. It is found that antigravity of dark energy dominates the force field of the flows and makes them expand with acceleration. It also cools the flows and introduces to them the nearly linear velocity-distance relation with the time-rate close to the global Hubble's factor. There are grounds to expect that this is the universal physical regularity that is common not only for the nearby flows we studied here, but also for all the expansion flows of various spatial scales from the 1 Mpc scale and up to the scale of the global cosmological expansion.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lauer, Tod R. [National Optical Astronomy Observatory, P.O. Box 26732, Tucson, AZ 85726 (United States); Postman, Marc [Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Strauss, Michael A.; Graves, Genevieve J.; Chisari, Nora E. [Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States)


    the metric plane show no correlation with either the spatial or velocity offset from the cluster center. The luminosity difference between the BCG and second-ranked galaxy, M2, increases as the peculiar velocity of the BCG within the cluster decreases. Further, when M2 is a close luminosity ''rival'' of the BCG, the galaxy that is closest to either the velocity or X-ray center of the cluster is most likely to have the larger α. We conclude that the inner portions of the BCGs are formed outside the cluster, but interactions in the heart of the galaxy cluster grow and extend the envelopes of the BCGs.

  3. Watching a Cannibal Galaxy Dine (United States)


    A new technique using near-infrared images, obtained with ESO's 3.58-metre New Technology Telescope (NTT), allows astronomers to see through the opaque dust lanes of the giant cannibal galaxy Centaurus A, unveiling its "last meal" in unprecedented detail - a smaller spiral galaxy, currently twisted and warped. This amazing image also shows thousands of star clusters, strewn like glittering gems, churning inside Centaurus A. Centaurus A (NGC 5128) is the nearest giant, elliptical galaxy, at a distance of about 11 million light-years. One of the most studied objects in the southern sky, by 1847 the unique appearance of this galaxy had already caught the attention of the famous British astronomer John Herschel, who catalogued the southern skies and made a comprehensive list of nebulae. Herschel could not know, however, that this beautiful and spectacular appearance is due to an opaque dust lane that covers the central part of the galaxy. This dust is thought to be the remains of a cosmic merger between a giant elliptical galaxy and a smaller spiral galaxy full of dust. Between 200 and 700 million years ago, this galaxy is indeed believed to have consumed a smaller spiral, gas-rich galaxy - the contents of which appear to be churning inside Centaurus A's core, likely triggering new generations of stars. First glimpses of the "leftovers" of this meal were obtained thanks to observations with the ESA Infrared Space Observatory , which revealed a 16 500 light-year-wide structure, very similar to that of a small barred galaxy. More recently, NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope resolved this structure into a parallelogram, which can be explained as the remnant of a gas-rich spiral galaxy falling into an elliptical galaxy and becoming twisted and warped in the process. Galaxy merging is the most common mechanism to explain the formation of such giant elliptical galaxies. The new SOFI images, obtained with the 3.58-metre New Technology Telescope at ESO's La Silla Observatory

  4. Samsung Galaxy S5 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Hughes, Bill


    Explore Samsung's next generation Galaxy smartphone Do you want an easy-to-follow guide to everything your new Galaxy S5 smartphone can do? From the basics of texting and accessing the Internet to the most advanced features and new software apps, Samsung Galaxy S5 For Dummies makes the need for tech support obsolete. The Galaxy S5 is designed to be faster and more powerful than ever. This latest release in the market-leading line of smartphones is full of new features for you to explore with the help of Samsung Galaxy S5 For Dummies. With over 1 million apps available for the Google Android o

  5. Star-Formation Histories of MUSCEL Galaxies (United States)

    Young, Jason; Kuzio de Naray, Rachel; Xuesong Wang, Sharon


    The MUSCEL program (MUltiwavelength observations of the Structure, Chemistry and Evolution of LSB galaxies) uses combined ground-based/space-based data to determine the spatially resolved star-formation histories of low surface brightness (LSB) galaxies. LSB galaxies are paradoxical in that they are gas rich but have low star-formation rates. Here we present our observations and fitting technique, and the derived histories for select MUSCEL galaxies. It is our aim to use these histories in tandem with velocity fields and metallicity profiles to determine the physical mechanism(s) that give these faint galaxies low star-formation rates despite ample gas supplies.

  6. Investigating Galaxy Merger Signatures with IGNITE (United States)

    Zagursky, Matthew J.; Lotz, J. M.


    I present the software package IGNITE, the Interacting Galaxy Non-Interactive Tail Extractor. Its purpose is to locate tidal tails and quantify their morphological and photometric properties. I demonstrate the effective use of IGNITE on the case galaxy of NGC 2623 and report the photometric and morphological signatures of tidal tails in this galaxy. The future of the IGNITE package is a merge with other successful software packages aimed at quantifying merging galaxies to further enhance the accuracy of the quantitative measurements of morphologies and photometry profiles of merging galaxy candidates

  7. Galaxy Evolution in Clusters Since z ~ 1 (United States)

    Aragón-Salamanca, A.

    Galaxy clusters provide some of the most extreme environments in which galaxies evolve, making them excellent laboratories to study the age old question of "nature" vs. "nurture" in galaxy evolution. Here I review some of the key observational results obtained during the last decade on the evolution of the morphology, structure, dynamics, star-formation history and stellar populations of cluster galaxies since the time when the Universe was half its present age. Many of the results presented here have been obtained within the ESO Distant Cluster Survey (EDisCS) and Space Telescope A901/02 Galaxy Evolution Survey (STAGES) collaborations.

  8. PROFILER: 1D galaxy light profile decomposition (United States)

    Ciambur, Bogdan C.


    Written in Python, PROFILER analyzes the radial surface brightness profiles of galaxies. It accurately models a wide range of galaxies and galaxy components, such as elliptical galaxies, the bulges of spiral and lenticular galaxies, nuclear sources, discs, bars, rings, and spiral arms with a variety of parametric functions routinely employed in the field (Sérsic, core-Sérsic, exponential, Gaussian, Moffat and Ferrers). In addition, Profiler can employ the broken exponential model (relevant for disc truncations or antitruncations) and two special cases of the edge-on disc model: namely along the major axis (in the disc plane) and along the minor axis (perpendicular to the disc plane).

  9. Modelling high resolution ALMA observations of strongly lensed highly star forming galaxies detected by Herscheltype="fn" rid="fn1" /> (United States)

    Dye, S.; Furlanetto, C.; Dunne, L.; Eales, S. A.; Negrello, M.; Nayyeri, H.; van der Werf, P. P.; Serjeant, S.; Farrah, D.; Michałowski, M. J.; Baes, M.; Marchetti, L.; Cooray, A.; Riechers, D. A.; Amvrosiadis, A.


    We have modelled ˜0.1 arcsec resolution ALMA imaging of six strong gravitationally lensed galaxies detected by the Herschel Space Observatory. Our modelling recovers mass properties of the lensing galaxies and, by determining magnification factors, intrinsic properties of the lensed sub-millimetre sources. We find that the lensed galaxies all have high ratios of star formation rate to dust mass, consistent with or higher than the mean ratio for high redshift sub-millimetre galaxies and low redshift ultra-luminous infra-red galaxies. Source reconstruction reveals that most galaxies exhibit disturbed morphologies. Both the cleaned image plane data and the directly observed interferometric visibilities have been modelled, enabling comparison of both approaches. In the majority of cases, the recovered lens models are consistent between methods, all six having mass density profiles that are close to isothermal. However, one system with poor signal to noise shows mildly significant differences.

  10. Cosmic-ray spectrum in the local Galaxy (United States)

    Neronov, Andrii; Malyshev, Denys; Semikoz, Dmitri V.


    Aims: We study the spectral properties of the cosmic-ray spectrum in the interstellar medium within 1 kpc distance from the Sun. Methods: We used eight-year exposure data of molecular clouds of the Gould Belt obtained with the Fermi-LAT telescope to precisely measure the cosmic-ray spectrum at different locations in the local Galaxy. We compared this measurement with the direct measurements of the cosmic-ray flux in and around the solar system obtained by Voyager and AMS-02 or PAMELA. Results: We find that the average cosmic-ray spectrum in the local Galaxy in the 1-100 GeV range is well described by a broken power-law in rigidity with a low-energy slope of 2.33+0.06-0.08 and a break at 18+7-4 GV, with a slope change by 0.59 ± 0.11. This result is consistent with an earlier analysis of the γ-ray signal from the Gould Belt clouds based on a shorter exposure of Fermi-LAT and with a different event selection. The break at 10-20 GV is also consistent with the combined Voyager + AMS-02 measurements in/around the solar system. The slope of the spectrum below the break agrees with the slope of the average cosmic-ray spectrum in the inner part of the disk of the Milky Way that was previously derived from the Fermi-LAT γ-ray data. We conjecture that it is this slope of 2.33 and not the locally measured softer slope of 2.7-2.8 that is determined by the balance between a steady-state injection of cosmic rays with a power-law slope of 2-2.1 that is due to Fermi acceleration and the energy-dependent propagation of cosmic-ray particles through the turbulent interstellar magnetic field with a Kolmogorov turbulence spectrum. The approximation of a continuous-in-time injection of cosmic rays at a constant rate breaks down, which causes the softening of the spectrum at higher energies.

  11. Water Breaking: Understand This Sign of Labor (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Labor and delivery, postpartum care Water breaking worries? Prepare yourself for childbirth by getting the facts about this important sign of labor. By Mayo Clinic Staff If you're ...

  12. A near-infrared census of the multicomponent stellar structure of early-type dwarf galaxies in the Virgo cluster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janz, J.; Laurikainen, E.; Salo, H. [Division of Astronomy, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 3000, FI-90014 University of Oulu (Finland); Lisker, T.; Hansson, K. S. A.; Meyer, H. T.; Paudel, S. [Astronomisches Rechen-Institut, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Mönchhofstraße 12-14, D-69120 Heidelberg (Germany); Peletier, R. F.; Den Brok, M. [Kapteyn Astronomical Institute, University of Groningen, P.O. Box 800, 9700 AV Groningen (Netherlands); Niemi, S.-M. [Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT (United Kingdom); Toloba, E. [UCO/Lick Observatory, University of California, Santa Cruz, 1156 High Street, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Hensler, G. [University of Vienna, Department of Astrophysics, Türkenschanzstraße 17, 1180 Vienna (Austria); Falcón-Barroso, J.; Ryś, A. [Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, Vía Láctea s/n, La Laguna, Tenerife (Spain); Boselli, A., E-mail: [CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d' Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, Aix Marseille Université, F-13388 Marseille (France)


    The fraction of star-forming to quiescent dwarf galaxies varies from almost infinity in the field to zero in the centers of rich galaxy clusters. What is causing this pronounced morphology-density relation? What do quiescent dwarf galaxies look like when studied in detail, and what conclusions can be drawn about their formation mechanism? Here we study a nearly magnitude-complete sample (–19 < M{sub r} < –16 mag) of 121 Virgo cluster early types with deep near-infrared images from the SMAKCED project. We fit two-dimensional models with optional inner and outer components, as well as bar and lens components (in ∼15% of the galaxies), to the galaxy images. While a single Sérsic function may approximate the overall galaxy structure, it does not entirely capture the light distribution of two-thirds of our galaxies, for which multicomponent models provide a better fit. This fraction of complex galaxies shows a strong dependence on luminosity, being larger for brighter objects. We analyze the global and component-specific photometric scaling relations of early-type dwarf galaxies and discuss similarities with bright early and late types. The dwarfs' global galaxy parameters show scaling relations that are similar to those of bright disk galaxies. The inner components are mostly fitted with Sérsic n values close to 1. At a given magnitude, they are systematically larger than the bulges of spirals, suggesting that they are not ordinary bulges. We argue that the multicomponent structures in early-type dwarfs are mostly a phenomenon inherent to the disks and may indeed stem from environmental processing.

  13. Galaxy interactions trigger rapid black hole growth: An unprecedented view from the Hyper Suprime-Cam survey (United States)

    Goulding, Andy D.; Greene, Jenny E.; Bezanson, Rachel; Greco, Johnny; Johnson, Sean; Leauthaud, Alexie; Matsuoka, Yoshiki; Medezinski, Elinor; Price-Whelan, Adrian M.


    Collisions and interactions between gas-rich galaxies are thought to be pivotal stages in their formation and evolution, causing the rapid production of new stars, and possibly serving as a mechanism for fueling supermassive black holes (BHs). Harnessing the exquisite spatial resolution (˜0{^''.}5) afforded by the first ˜170 deg2 of the Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) survey, we present our new constraints on the importance of galaxy-galaxy major mergers (1 : 4) in growing BHs throughout the last ˜8 Gyr. Utilizing mid-infrared observations in the WISE all-sky survey, we robustly select active galactic nuclei (AGN) and mass-matched control galaxy samples, totaling ˜140000 spectroscopically confirmed systems at i forest decision tree technique allowing us to select statistically significant samples of major mergers, minor mergers / irregular systems, and non-interacting galaxies. We use these samples to show that galaxies undergoing mergers are a factor of ˜2-7 more likely to contain luminous obscured AGN than non-interacting galaxies, and this is independent of both stellar mass and redshift to z based on our comparison of AGN fractions in mass-matched samples, we determine that the most luminous AGN population (LAGN ≳ 1045 erg s-1) systematically reside in merging systems over non-interacting galaxies. Our findings show that galaxy-galaxy interactions do, on average, trigger luminous AGN activity substantially more often than in secularly evolving non-interacting galaxies, and we further suggest that the BH growth rate may be closely tied to the dynamical time of the merger system.

  14. Chemistry and Kinematics of the Late-forming Dwarf Irregular Galaxies Leo A, Aquarius, and Sagittarius DIG (United States)

    Kirby, Evan N.; Rizzi, Luca; Held, Enrico V.; Cohen, Judith G.; Cole, Andrew A.; Manning, Ellen M.; Skillman, Evan D.; Weisz, Daniel R.


    We present Keck/DEIMOS spectroscopy of individual stars in the relatively isolated Local Group dwarf galaxies Leo A, Aquarius, and the Sagittarius dwarf irregular galaxy. The three galaxies—but especially Leo A and Aquarius—share in common delayed star formation histories (SFHs) relative to many other isolated dwarf galaxies. The stars in all three galaxies are supported by dispersion. We found no evidence of stellar velocity structure, even for Aquarius, which has rotating H I gas. The velocity dispersions indicate that all three galaxies are dark-matter-dominated, with dark-to-baryonic mass ratios ranging from {4.4}-0.8+1.0 (SagDIG) to {9.6}-1.8+2.5 (Aquarius). Leo A and SagDIG have lower stellar metallicities than Aquarius, and they also have higher gas fractions, both of which would be expected if Aquarius were further along in its chemical evolution. The metallicity distribution of Leo A is inconsistent with a closed or leaky box model of chemical evolution, suggesting that the galaxy was pre-enriched or acquired external gas during star formation. The metallicities of stars increased steadily for all three galaxies, but possibly at different rates. The [α/Fe] ratios at a given [Fe/H] are lower than that of the Sculptor dwarf spheroidal galaxy, which indicates more extended SFHs than Sculptor, consistent with photometrically derived SFHs. Overall, the bulk kinematic and chemical properties for the late-forming dwarf galaxies do not diverge significantly from those of less delayed dwarf galaxies, including dwarf spheroidal galaxies. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  15. Rapidly star-forming galaxies adjacent to quasars at redshifts exceeding 6. (United States)

    Decarli, R; Walter, F; Venemans, B P; Bañados, E; Bertoldi, F; Carilli, C; Fan, X; Farina, E P; Mazzucchelli, C; Riechers, D; Rix, H-W; Strauss, M A; Wang, R; Yang, Y


    The existence of massive (1011 solar masses) elliptical galaxies by redshift z ≈ 4 (refs 1, 2, 3; when the Universe was 1.5 billion years old) necessitates the presence of galaxies with star-formation rates exceeding 100 solar masses per year at z > 6 (corresponding to an age of the Universe of less than 1 billion years). Surveys have discovered hundreds of galaxies at these early cosmic epochs, but their star-formation rates are more than an order of magnitude lower. The only known galaxies with very high star-formation rates at z > 6 are, with one exception, the host galaxies of quasars, but these galaxies also host accreting supermassive (more than 109 solar masses) black holes, which probably affect the properties of the galaxies. Here we report observations of an emission line of singly ionized carbon ([C ii] at a wavelength of 158 micrometres) in four galaxies at z > 6 that are companions of quasars, with velocity offsets of less than 600 kilometres per second and linear offsets of less than 100 kiloparsecs. The discovery of these four galaxies was serendipitous; they are close to their companion quasars and appear bright in the far-infrared. On the basis of the [C ii] measurements, we estimate star-formation rates in the companions of more than 100 solar masses per year. These sources are similar to the host galaxies of the quasars in [C ii] brightness, linewidth and implied dynamical mass, but do not show evidence for accreting supermassive black holes. Similar systems have previously been found at lower redshift. We find such close companions in four out of the twenty-five z > 6 quasars surveyed, a fraction that needs to be accounted for in simulations. If they are representative of the bright end of the [C ii] luminosity function, then they can account for the population of massive elliptical galaxies at z ≈ 4 in terms of the density of cosmic space.

  16. Emission line galaxy pairs up to z=1.5 from the WISP survey (United States)

    Teplitz, Harry I.; Dai, Yu Sophia; Malkan, Matthew Arnold; Scarlata, Claudia; Colbert, James W.; Atek, Hakim; Bagley, Micaela B.; Baronchelli, Ivano; Bedregal, Alejandro; Beck, Melanie; Bunker, Andrew; Dominguez, Alberto; Hathi, Nimish P.; Henry, Alaina L.; Mehta, Vihang; Pahl, Anthony; Rafelski, Marc; Ross, Nathaniel; Rutkowski, Michael J.; Siana, Brian D.; WISPs Team


    We present a sample of spectroscopically identified emission line galaxy pairs up to z=1.5 from WISPs (WFC3 Infrared Spectroscopic Parallel survey) using high resolution direct and grism images from HST. We searched ~150 fields with a covered area of ~600 arcmin^2, and a comoving volume of > 400 Gpc^3 at z=1-2, and found ~80 very close physical pairs (projected separation Dp < 50 h^{-1}kpc, relative velocity d_v < 500 kms^{-1}), and ~100 close physical pairs (50 < Dp < 100 h^{-1}kpc, d_v < 1000 kms^{-1}) of emission line galaxies, including two dozen triplets and quadruples. In this poster we present the multi-wavelength data, star formation rate (SFR), mass ratio, and study the merger rate evolution with this special galaxy pair sample.

  17. Blueberry Galaxies: The Lowest Mass Young Starbursts (United States)

    Yang, Huan; Malhotra, Sangeeta; Rhoads, James E.; Wang, Junxian


    Searching for extreme emission line galaxies allows us to find low-mass metal-poor galaxies that are good analogs of high redshift Lyα emitting galaxies. These low-mass extreme emission line galaxies are also potential Lyman-continuum leakers. Finding them at very low redshifts (z≲ 0.05) allows us to be sensitive to even lower stellar masses and metallicities. We report on a sample of extreme emission line galaxies at z≲ 0.05 (blueberry galaxies). We selected them from SDSS broadband images on the basis of their broadband colors and studied their properties with MMT spectroscopy. From the entire SDSS DR12 photometric catalog, we found 51 photometric candidates. We spectroscopically confirm 40 as blueberry galaxies. (An additional seven candidates are contaminants, and four remain without spectra.) These blueberries are dwarf starburst galaxies with very small sizes (<1 kpc) and very high ionization ([O III]/[O II] ˜ 10-60). They also have some of the lowest stellar masses ({log}(M/{M}⊙ )˜ 6.5{--}7.5) and lowest metallicities (7.1< 12+{log}({{O}}/{{H}})< 7.8) of starburst galaxies. Thus, they are small counterparts to green pea galaxies and high redshift Lyα emitting galaxies.

  18. Thefts, break-ins, etc.

    CERN Multimedia

    Property Protection Group


    TAKING PRECAUTIONS IS THE BEST MEANS OF PROTECTION On the eve of CERN's annual end of year closure, it is in your own interest, that of your colleagues and that of the Organization, that the following recommendations be followed: 1. MONEY, VALUABLES & KEYS: Do not leave money or valuables in your office or your lockers. Keys and their copies should be removed or kept in a safe place. 2. DOORS & WINDOWS: Lock office, workshop, meeting-room doors etc. when you leave. Also close the windows if they are easily accessible from outside. 3. REPORTING INCIDENTS: Each crime solved could prevent another from being perpetrated. Please report any thefts, losses, objects gone missing and other incidents to the CERN Fire Brigade (tel. 74848) and keep them informed of any important developments (objects found, new clues, suspicious people or vehicles etc.). The Property Protection Group would like to wish you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year! Property Protection Group Tel. 72848

  19. The Cambridge photographic atlas of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    König, Michael


    Galaxies - the Milky Way's siblings - offer a surprising variety of forms and colours. Displaying symmetrical spiral arms, glowing red nebulae or diffuse halos, even the image of a galaxy can reveal much about its construction. All galaxies consist of gas, dust and stars, but the effects of gravity, dark matter and the interaction of star formation and stellar explosions all influence their appearances. This volume showcases more than 250 of the most beautiful galaxies within an amateur's reach and uses them to explain current astrophysical research. It features fantastic photographs, unique insights into our knowledge, tips on astrophotography and essential facts and figures based on the latest science. From the Andromeda Galaxy to galaxy clusters and gravitational lenses, the nature of galaxies is revealed through these stunning amateur photographs. This well illustrated reference atlas deserves a place on the bookshelves of astronomical imagers, observers and armchair enthusiasts.

  20. Colours, luminosity functions and counts of galaxies (United States)

    Saracco, P.; Chincarini, G.; Iovino, A.


    Standard models for deep galaxy counts are based on luminosity functions (LFs) that have a relatively flat faint end (alpha~-1.0). Galaxy counts in the B band exceed the prediction of such models from a factor of 2 to more than a factor of 5, forcing the introduction of strong luminosity and/or density evolution. Recently Marzke, Huchra & Geller, using the CfA redshift survey sample, found that the number of galaxies in the range -16<2.5 for dwarf galaxies, we reproduce well also the observed K-band deep galaxy counts. This assumption is supported by the strong correlation we found between B-K colour of galaxies and their infrared absolute magnitude: galaxies become bluer with decreasing luminosity.

  1. Star formation suppression in compact group galaxies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alatalo, K.; Appleton, P. N.; Lisenfeld, U.


    on poststarburst galaxies with molecular reservoirs, indicates that galaxies do not need to expel their molecular reservoirs prior to quenching SF and transitioning from blue spirals to red early-type galaxies. This may imply that SF quenching can occur without the need to starve a galaxy of cold gas first.......We present CO(1-0) maps of 12 warm H-2-selected Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs), covering 14 individually imaged warm H2 bright galaxies, with the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter Astronomy. We found a variety of molecular gas distributions within the HCGs, including regularly rotating disks......, bars, rings, tidal tails, and possibly nuclear outflows, though the molecular gas morphologies are more consistent with spirals and earlytype galaxies than mergers and interacting systems. Our CO-imaged HCG galaxies, when plotted on the Kennicutt-Schmidt relation, shows star formation (SF) suppression...

  2. Galactic rings revisited. II. Dark gaps and the locations of resonances in early-to-intermediate-type disc galaxies (United States)

    Buta, Ronald J.


    Dark gaps are commonly seen in early-to-intermediate-type barred galaxies having inner and outer rings or related features. In this paper, the morphologies of 54 barred and oval ringed galaxies have been examined with the goal of determining what the dark gaps are telling us about the structure and evolution of barred galaxies. The analysis is based mainly on galaxies selected from the Galaxy Zoo 2 data base and the Catalogue of Southern Ringed Galaxies. The dark gaps between inner and outer rings are of interest because of their likely association with the L4 and L5 Lagrangian points that would be present in the gravitational potential of a bar or oval. Since the points are theoretically expected to lie very close to the corotation resonance (CR) of the bar pattern, the gaps provide the possibility of locating corotation in some galaxies simply by measuring the radius rgp of the gap region and setting rCR=rgp. With the additional assumption of generally flat rotation curves, the locations of other resonances can be predicted and compared with observed morphological features. It is shown that this `gap method' provides remarkably consistent interpretations of the morphology of early-to-intermediate-type barred galaxies. The paper also brings attention to cases where the dark gaps lie inside an inner ring, rather than between inner and outer rings. These may have a different origin compared to the inner/outer ring gaps.

  3. Angular Momentum of Dwarf Galaxies (United States)

    Butler, Kirsty M.; Obreschkow, Danail; Oh, Se-Heon


    We present measurements of baryonic mass {M}{{b}} and specific angular momentum (sAM) {j}{{b}} in 14 rotating dwarf Irregular (dIrr) galaxies from the LITTLE THINGS sample. These measurements, based on 21 cm kinematic data from the Very Large Array and stellar mass maps from the Spitzer Space Telescope, extend previous AM measurements by more than two orders of magnitude in {M}{{b}}. The dwarf galaxies show systematically higher {j}{{b}} values than expected from the {j}{{b}}\\propto {M}{{b}}2/3 scaling of spiral galaxies, representative of a scale-free galaxy formation scenario. This offset can be explained by decreasing baryon mass fractions {f}{{M}}={M}{{b}}/{M}{dyn} (where {M}{dyn} is the dynamical mass) with decreasing {M}{{b}} (for {M}{{b}}< {10}11 {M}⊙ ). We find that the sAM of neutral atomic hydrogen (H I) alone is about 2.5 times higher than that of the stars. The M-j relation of H I is significantly steeper than that of the stars, as a direct consequence of the systematic variation of the H I fraction with {M}{{b}}.

  4. What powers luminous infrared galaxies?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lutz, D; Genzel, R; Sternberg, A; Netzer, H; Kunze, D; Rigopoulou, D; Sturm, E; Egami, E; Feuchtgruber, H; Moorwood, AFM; deGraauw, T


    Based on the initial data sets taken with the ISO short wavelength spectrometer (SWS) we present a first discussion of the source of luminosity of (ultra-)luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). By comparison of observations of 2.5-45 mu m lines to classical starbursts and active galactic nuclei and by

  5. Galaxy Classifications with Deep Learning (United States)

    Lukic, Vesna; Brüggen, Marcus


    Machine learning techniques have proven to be increasingly useful in astronomical applications over the last few years, for example in object classification, estimating redshifts and data mining. One example of object classification is classifying galaxy morphology. This is a tedious task to do manually, especially as the datasets become larger with surveys that have a broader and deeper search-space. The Kaggle Galaxy Zoo competition presented the challenge of writing an algorithm to find the probability that a galaxy belongs in a particular class, based on SDSS optical spectroscopy data. The use of convolutional neural networks (convnets), proved to be a popular solution to the problem, as they have also produced unprecedented classification accuracies in other image databases such as the database of handwritten digits (MNIST †) and large database of images (CIFAR ‡). We experiment with the convnets that comprised the winning solution, but using broad classifications. The effect of changing the number of layers is explored, as well as using a different activation function, to help in developing an intuition of how the networks function and to see how they can be applied to radio galaxy images.

  6. Interactions and Mergers of Galaxies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 12; Issue 3. Interactions and Mergers of Galaxies. S M Alladin S N Hasan. General Article Volume 12 Issue 3 March 2007 pp 13-26. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: ...

  7. Galaxies on Top of Quasars: Probing Dwarf Galaxies in the SDSS (United States)

    Straka, Lorrie; York, D. G.; Noterdaeme, P.; Srianand, R.; Bowen, D. V.; Khare, P.; Bishof, M.; Whichard, Z.; Kulkarni, V. P.


    Absorption lines from galaxies at intervening redshifts in quasar spectra are sensitive probes of metals and gas that are otherwise invisible due to distance or low surface brightness. However, in order to determine the environments these absorption lines arise in, we must detect these galaxies in emission as well. Galaxies on top of quasars (GOTOQs) are low-z galaxies found intervening with background quasars in the SDSS. These galaxies have been flagged for their narrow galactic emission lines present in quasar spectra in the SDSS. Typically, the low-z nature of these galaxies allows them to be easily detected in SDSS imaging. However, a number of GOTOQs (about 10%), despite being detected in spectral emission, are NOT seen in SDSS imaging. This implies that these may be dark galaxies, dwarf galaxies, or similarly low surface brightness galaxies. Additionally, about 25% of those detected in imaging are dwarf galaxies according to their L* values. Dwarf galaxies have long been underrepresented in observations compared to theory and are known to have large extents in dark matter. Given their prevalence here in our sample we must ask what role they play in quasar absorption line systems (QSOALS). Recent detections of 21-cm galaxies with few stars imply that aborted star formation in dark matter sub halos may produce QSOALS. Thus, this sub sample of galaxies offers a unique technique for probing dark and dwarf galaxies. The sample and its properties will be discussed, including star formation rates and dust estimates, as well as prospects for the future.

  8. Automatic Approach to Morphological Classification of Galaxies With Analysis of Galaxy Populations in Clusters (United States)

    Sultanova, Madina; Barkhouse, Wayne; Rude, Cody


    The classification of galaxies based on their morphology is a field in astrophysics that aims to understand galaxy formation and evolution based on their physical differences. Whether structural differences are due to internal factors or a result of local environment, the dominate mechanism that determines galaxy type needs to be robustly quantified in order to have a thorough grasp of the origin of the different types of galaxies. The main subject of my Ph.D. dissertation is to explore the use of computers to automatically classify and analyze large numbers of galaxies according to their morphology, and to analyze sub-samples of galaxies selected by type to understand galaxy formation in various environments. I have developed a computer code to classify galaxies by measuring five parameters from their images in FITS format. The code was trained and tested using visually classified SDSS galaxies from Galaxy Zoo and the EFIGI data set. I apply my morphology software to numerous galaxies from diverse data sets. Among the data analyzed are the 15 Abell galaxy clusters (0.03 software to examine the properties (e.g. luminosity functions, radial dependencies, star formation rates) of selected galaxies. Due to the large amount of data that will be available from wide-area surveys in the future, the use of computer software to classify and analyze the morphology of galaxies will be extremely important in terms of efficiency. This research aims to contribute to the solution of this problem.

  9. Break-up of droplets in a concentrated emulsion flowing through a narrow constriction. (United States)

    Rosenfeld, Liat; Fan, Lin; Chen, Yunhan; Swoboda, Ryan; Tang, Sindy K Y


    This paper describes the break-up of droplets in a concentrated emulsion during its flow as a 2D monolayer in a microchannel consisting of a narrow constriction. Analysis of the behavior of a large number of drops (N > 4000) shows that the number of break-ups increases with increasing flow rate, entrance angle to the constriction, and size of the drops relative to the width of the constriction. As single drops do not break at the highest flow rate used in the system, break-ups arise primarily from droplet-droplet interactions. Analysis of droplet properties at a high temporal resolution of 10 microseconds makes it possible to relate droplet deformation with droplet break-up probability. Similar to previous studies on single drops, no break-up is observed below a set of critical flow rates and droplet deformations. Unlike previous studies, however, not all drops undergo break-up above the critical values. Instead, the probability of droplet break-up increases with flow rate and the deformation of the drops. The probabilistic nature of the break-up process arises from the stochastic variations in the packing configuration of the drops as they enter the constriction. Local break-up dynamics involves two primary drops. A close look at the interactions between the pair of drops reveals that the competing time scales of droplet rearrangement relative to the relaxation of the opposing drop govern whether break-up occurs or not. Practically, these results can be used to calculate the maximum throughput of the serial interrogation process often employed in droplet microfluidics. For 40 pL-drops, the highest throughput with less than 1% droplet break-up was measured to be approximately 7000 drops per second. In addition, the results presented are useful for understanding the behavior of concentrated emulsions in applications such as mobility control in enhanced oil recovery, and for extrapolating critical parameters such as injection rates to ensure the stability of the

  10. Integral field observations of the blue compact galaxy Haro14. Star formation and feedback in dwarf galaxies (United States)

    Cairós, L. M.; González-Pérez, J. N.


    Context. Low-luminosity, gas-rich blue compact galaxies (BCG) are ideal laboratories to investigate the triggering and propagation of star formation in galaxies, the effects of massive stellar feedback within a shallow gravitational potential, and the enrichment of the interstellar medium. Aims: We aim to probe the morphology, stellar content, and kinematics, along with the nebular excitation and ionization mechanism, in the BCG Haro 14 by means of integral field observations. Methods: We observed Haro 14 at the Very Large Telescope, working with the Visible Multi-Object Spectrograph. From these data we build maps in continuum and in the brighter emission lines, produce line-ratio maps (interstellar extinction, density, and diagnostic-line ratios), and obtain the velocity and velocity dispersion fields. We also generate the integrated spectrum of the major H II regions and young stellar clusters identified in the maps to determine reliable physical parameters and oxygen abundances. Results: We find as follows: I) the current star formation in Haro 14 is spatially extended with the major H II regions placed along a linear (chain-like) structure, elongated in the north-south direction, and in a horseshoe-like curvilinear feature that extends about 760 pc eastward; the continuum emission is more concentrated and peaks close to the galaxy center; II) two different episodes of star formation are present in the central galaxy regions: the recent starburst, with ages ≤6 Myr and the intermediate-age clusters, with ages between 10 and 30 Myr; these stellar components rest on a several Gyr old underlying host galaxy; III) the Hα/Hβ pattern is inhomogeneous, with excess color values varying from E(B-V) = 0.04 up to E(B-V) = 1.09; iv) shocks play a significant role in the galaxy; and v) the velocity field displays a complicated pattern with regions of material moving toward us in the east and north galaxy areas. Conclusions: The morphology of Haro 14, its irregular

  11. Detecting stars, galaxies, and asteroids with Gaia (United States)

    de Bruijne, J. H. J.; Allen, M.; Azaz, S.; Krone-Martins, A.; Prod'homme, T.; Hestroffer, D.


    Context. Gaia is Europe's space astrometry mission, aiming to make a three-dimensional map of 1000 million stars in our Milky Way to unravel its kinematical, dynamical, and chemical structure and evolution. Aims: We present a study of Gaia's detection capability of objects, in particular non-saturated stars, double stars, unresolved external galaxies, and asteroids. Gaia's on-board detection software autonomously discriminates stars from spurious objects like cosmic rays and solar protons. For this, parametrised criteria of the shape of the point spread function are used, which need to be calibrated and tuned. This study aims to provide an optimum set of parameters for these filters. Methods: We developed a validated emulation of the on-board detection software, which has 20 free, so-called rejection parameters which govern the boundaries between stars on the one hand and sharp (high-frequency) or extended (low-frequency) events on the other hand. We evaluate the detection and rejection performance of the algorithm using catalogues of simulated single stars, resolved and unresolved double stars, cosmic rays, solar protons, unresolved external galaxies, and asteroids. Results: We optimised the rejection parameters, improving - with respect to the functional baseline - the detection performance of single stars and of unresolved and resolved double stars, while, at the same time, improving the rejection performance of cosmic rays and of solar protons. The optimised rejection parameters also remove the artefact of the functional-baseline parameters that the reduction of the detection probability of stars as a function of magnitude already sets in before the nominal faint-end threshold at G = 20 mag. We find, as a result of the rectangular pixel size, that the minimum separation to resolve a close, equal-brightness double star is 0.23 arcsec in the along-scan and 0.70 arcsec in the across-scan direction, independent of the brightness of the primary. To resolve double

  12. The evolution of the break preclusion concept for nuclear power plants in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, H. [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit, Koeln (Germany)


    In the updating of the Guidelines for PWR`s of the {open_quotes}Reaktor-Sicherheitskommission{close_quotes} (RSK) in 1981 the requirements on the design have been changed with respect to the postulated leaks and breaks in the primary pressure boundary. The major change was a revision in the requirements for pipe whip protection. As a logical consequence of the {open_quotes}concept of basic safety{close_quotes} a guillotine type break or any other break type resulting in a large opening is not postulated any longer for the calculation of reaction and jet forces. As an upper limit for a leak an area of 0, 1 A (A = open cross section of the pipe) is postulated. This decision was based on a general assessment of the present PWR system design in Germany. Since then a number of piping systems have been requalified in the older nuclear power plants to comply with the break preclusion concept. Also a number of extensions of the concept have been developed to cover also leak-assumptions for branch pipes. Furthermore due considerations have been given to other aspects which could contribute to a leak development in the primary circuit, like vessel penetrations, manhole covers, flanges, etc. Now the break preclusion concept originally applied to the main piping has been developed into an integrated concept for the whole pressure boundary within the containment and will be applied also in the periodic safety review of present nuclear power plants.

  13. The bud break process and its variation among local populations of boreal black spruce. (United States)

    Rossi, Sergio; Bousquet, Jean


    Phenology of local populations can exhibit adaptations to the current environmental conditions resulting from a close interaction between climate and genotype. The bud break process and its variations among populations were analyzed in greenhouse by monitoring the growth resumption in black spruce [Picea mariana (Mill.) BSP] seedlings originating from seeds of five stands across the closed boreal forest in Quebec, Canada. Bud break lasted 15 days and occurred earlier and quicker in northern provenances. Provenance explained between 10.2 and 32.3% of the variance in bud break, while the families accounted for a smaller but still significant part of the variance. The late occurrence of one phenological phase corresponded to a delayed occurrence of the others according to linear relationships. A causal model was proposed in the form of a chain of events with each phase of bud break being related to the previous and successive one, while no link was observed between non-adjacent phases. The adaptation of black spruce populations along the latitudinal gradient points toward a strategy based on rapid physiological processes triggered by temperature increase inducing high metabolic activity. The variation observed in bud break reflects an evolutionary trade-off between maximization of security and taking advantage of the short growing season. This work provides evidence of the phenological adaptations of black spruce to its local environmental conditions while retaining sizeable genetic diversity within populations. Because of the multigenic nature of phenology, this diversity should provide some raw material for adaptation to changing local environmental conditions.

  14. The influence of the environment in compact galaxy groups: an infrared perspective (United States)

    Charmandaris, V.; Bitsakis, T.


    We present a comprehensive study on the influence of the environment of compact galaxy groups to the evolution of their members using a multi-wavelength analysis, from the UV to the far-IR, on a sample of 32 Hickson Compact Groups (HCGs) containing 135 galaxies. Fitting the SEDs of all galaxies with the state-of-the-art model of da Cunha et al. (2008) we can accurately calculate their mass, SFR, and extinction, as well as estimate their infrared luminosity and dust content. We contrast our findings with control samples of field galaxies, early-stage interacting pairs, and galaxies in clusters. We find that classifying the evolutionary state of HCGs as dynamically ``old'' or ``young'' depending on whether or not they contain more than 25% or early-type galaxies is physical and consistent with past classifications based on their gas content. Late-type galaxies in dynamically ``young" groups have sSFR, as well as NUV-r and mid-infrared colors, which are similar to those of field and early stage interacting pairs. However, late-type galaxies in dynamically ``old'' groups have redder NUV-r colors, as they have likely experienced several tidal encounters in the past and built up their stellar mass, and they display lower sSFRs. Finally our model suggests that in 13 groups, 10 of which are dynamically ``old``, there is diffuse dust in the intragroup medium. All these evidence point to an evolutionary scenario in which it takes time for the group environment to visibly affect the properties of its members. Early on the influence of close companions to group galaxies is similar to the one of galaxy pairs in the field. However, as the time progresses, the effects of tidal torques and minor merging shape the morphology and star formation history of the group galaxies, leading to an increase of the fraction of early type members and a rapid built up of the stellar mass in the remaining late type galaxies.

  15. On the occurrence of galaxy harassment (United States)

    Bialas, D.; Lisker, T.; Olczak, C.; Spurzem, R.; Kotulla, R.


    Context. Tidal interactions of galaxies in galaxy clusters have been proposed as one potential explanation of the morphology-density relation at low masses. Earlier studies have shown that galaxy harassment is a suitable mechanism for inducing a morphological transformation from low-mass late-type disk galaxies to the abundant early-type galaxies. Aims: The efficiency of tidal transformation is expected to depend strongly on the orbit of a galaxy within the cluster halo. The orbit determines both the strength of the cluster's global tidal field and the probability of encounters with other cluster members. Here we aim to explore these dependencies. Methods: We use a combination of N-body simulation and Monte-Carlo method to study the efficiency of the transformation of late-type galaxies by tidal interactions on different orbits in a galaxy cluster. Additionally, we investigate the effect of an inclination between the disk of the infalling galaxy and its orbital plane. We compare our results to observational data to assess the possible relevance of such transformations for the existing cluster galaxy population. Results: We find that galaxies that entered a cluster from the outskirts are unlikely to be significantly transformed (stellar mass loss ≤6%). Closer to the cluster centre, tidal interactions are a more efficient mechanism (stellar mass loss up to 50%) for producing harassed galaxies. The inclination of the disk can reduce the mass loss significantly, yet it amplifies the thickening of the galaxy disk. Galaxies with smaller sizes on intermediate orbits are nearly unaffected by tidal interactions. The tidal influence on an infalling galaxy and the likelihood that it leads to galaxy harassment make a very stochastical process that depends on the galaxy's specific history. Conclusions: We conclude that harassment is a suitable mechanism that could explain the transformation of at least a fraction of galaxies inside galaxy clusters. However, the transformation

  16. Closing the gap between research and knowledge | CRDI - Centre ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    The approach encourages thinking across boundaries – geographic, disciplinary, and interest-based – and aims to break down the barriers between research and action. It also seeks to close the gap between local knowledge and that of outside specialists by drawing on the information, imagination, and skills of many ...

  17. The Solar System According to General Relativity: The Sun's Space Breaking Meets the Asteroid Strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borissova L.


    Full Text Available This study deals with the exact solution of Einstein’s field equations for a sphere of incompressible liquid without the additional limitation initially introduced in 1916 by Schwarzschild, by which the space-time metric must have no singularities. The ob- tained exact solution is then applied to the Universe, the Sun, and the planets, by the assumption that these objects can be approximated as spheres of incompressible liq- uid. It is shown that gravitational collapse of such a sphere is permitted for an object whose characteristics (mass, density, and size are close to the Universe. Meanwhile, there is a spatial break associated with any of the mentioned stellar objects: the break is determined as the approaching to infinity of one of the spatial components of the metric tensor. In particular, the break of the Sun’s space meets the Asteroid strip, while Jupiter’s space break meets the Asteroid strip from the outer side. Also, the space breaks of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars are located inside the Asteroid strip (inside the Sun’s space break.

  18. PIV measurements of velocities and accelerations under breaking waves on a slope (United States)

    Vested, Malene; Carstensen, Stefan; Damgaard Christensen, Erik


    Understanding the physics of breaking waves is an ongoing research topic, not only due to human curiosity, but also due to the influence breaking waves have on offshore structures. In recent years, the development in experimental methods has facilitated a new insight into the physics of breaking waves. In this study, we have investigated the wave kinematics under steep and breaking waves on a laboratory beach with a slope of 1/25. The velocity field was measured by use of Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) at a sample rate of 96Hz. The high sample rate allowed for the accelerations to be determined directly from the sampled velocities. It was found that both velocities and accelerations differ from the ones predicted from common wave theories such as streamfunction theory. This was especially evident at the top part of the wave close to the surface. This was not surprising, since the breaking event is a highly non-linear process. The results presented here may facilitate computations of the impact force on offshore structures and furthermore be used for validation of CFD models while altogether shedding light on the mechanisms behind breaking waves.

  19. The Solar System is According to General Relativity: The Sun's Space Breaking Meets the Asteroid Strip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borissova L.


    Full Text Available This study deals with the exact solution of Einstein's field equations for a sphere of incompressible liquid without the additional limitation initially introduced in 1916 by Schwarzschild, by which the space-time metric must have no singularities. The obtained exact solution is then applied to the Universe, the Sun, and the planets, by the assumption that these objects can be approximated as spheres of incompressible liquid. It is shown that gravitational collapse of such a sphere is permitted for an object whose characteristics (mass, density, and size are close to the Universe. Meanwhile, there is a spatial break associated with any of the mentioned stellar objects: the~break is determined as the approaching to infinity of one of the spatial components of the metric tensor. In particular, the break of the Sun's space meets the Asteroid strip, while Jupiter's space break meets the Asteroid strip from the outer side. Also, the space breaks of Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars are located inside the Asteroid strip (inside the Sun's space break.

  20. Booster Breaks in the workplace: participants’ perspectives on health-promoting work breaks (United States)

    Taylor, Wendell C.; King, Kathryn E.; Shegog, Ross; Paxton, Raheem J.; Evans-Hudnall, Gina L.; Rempel, David M.; Chen, Vincent; Yancey, Antronette K.


    Increasing sedentary work has been associated with greater cardiovascular and metabolic risk, as well as premature mortality. Interrupting the sedentary workday with health-promoting work breaks can counter these negative health effects. To examine the potential sustainability of work-break programs, we assessed the acceptance of these breaks among participants in a Booster Break program. We analyzed qualitative responses from 35 participants across five worksites where one 15-min physical activity break was taken each workday. Two worksites completed a 1-year intervention and three worksites completed a 6-month intervention. Responses to two open-ended questions about the acceptance and feasibility of Booster Breaks were obtained from a survey administered after the intervention. Three themes for benefits and two themes for barriers were identified. The benefit themes were (i) reduced stress and promoted enjoyment, (ii) increased health awareness and facilitated behavior change, and (iii) enhanced workplace social interaction. The barrier themes were the need for (iv) greater variety in Booster Break routines and (v) greater management support. This study provides empirical support for the acceptance and feasibility of Booster Breaks during the workday. Emphasizing the benefits and minimizing the barriers are strategies that can be used to implement Booster Breaks in other workplaces. PMID:23466367

  1. Spectroscopy of planetary atmospheres in our Galaxy (United States)

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Encrenaz, Thérèse; Coustenis, Athena


    About 20 years after the discovery of the first extrasolar planet, the number of planets known has grown by three orders of magnitude, and continues to increase at neck breaking pace. For most of these planets we have little information, except for the fact that they exist and possess an address in our Galaxy. For about one third of them, we know how much they weigh, their size and their orbital parameters. For less than 20, we start to have some clues about their atmospheric temperature and composition. How do we make progress from here? We are still far from the completion of a hypothetical Hertzsprung-Russell diagram for planets comparable to what we have for stars, and today we do not even know whether such classification will ever be possible or even meaningful for planetary objects. But one thing is clear: planetary parameters such as mass, radius and temperature alone do not explain the diversity revealed by current observations. The chemical composition of these planets is needed to trace back their formation history and evolution, as happened for the planets in our Solar System. As in situ measurements are and will remain off-limits for exoplanets, to study their chemical composition we will have to rely on remote sensing spectroscopic observations of their gaseous envelopes. In this paper, we critically review the key achievements accomplished in the study of exoplanet atmospheres in the past ten years. We discuss possible hurdles and the way to overcome those. Finally, we review the prospects for the future. The knowledge and the experience gained with the planets in our solar system will guide our journey among those faraway worlds.

  2. Thefts, break-ins, etc.

    CERN Multimedia

    Host States Relations Secretariat


    TAKING PRECAUTIONS IS THE BEST MEANS OF PROTECTION On the eve of CERN's annual end-of-year closure, it is in your own interest, that of your colleagues and that of the Organization, that the following recommendations be followed: 1. MONEY, VALUABLES & KEYS: Do not leave money or valuables in your office or your lockers. Keys and their copies should be removed or kept in a safe place. 2. DOORS & WINDOWS: Lock office, workshop, meeting-room doors etc. when you leave. Also close the windows if they are easily accessible from outside. 3. REPORTING INCIDENTS: Each crime solved could prevent another from being perpetrated. Please report any thefts, losses, objects gone missing and other incidents to the CERN Fire Brigade (tel. 74848) and keep them informed of any important developments (objects found, new clues, suspicious people or vehicles, etc.). The Host States Relations Service would like to wish you a Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year! Host States Relations Secretariat Tel. 72848

  3. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galaxies in the Lynx-Cancer void (Pustilnik+, 2011) (United States)

    Pustilnik, S. A.; Tepliakova, A. L.


    The evolution of galaxies is influenced by the environment in which they reside. This effect should be strongest for the lowest-mass and lowest-luminosity galaxies. To study dwarf galaxies in extremely low density environments, we have compiled a deep catalogue of dwarf galaxies in the nearby Lynx-Cancer void. This void hosts some of the most metal-poor dwarfs known to date. It borders the Local Volume at negative supergalactic Z(SGZ) coordinates and has a size of more than 16Mpc. With a distance to its centre of only 18Mpc, it is close enough to allow a search for the faintest dwarfs. Within the void 75 dwarf (-11.9>MB>-18.0) and four subluminous (-18.0>MB>-18.4) galaxies have been identified. We present the parameters of the void galaxies and a detailed analysis of the completeness of the catalogue as a function of magnitude and surface brightness. (3 data files).

  4. Upper limits on the mass and luminosity of Population III-dominated galaxies (United States)

    Yajima, Hidenobu; Khochfar, Sadegh


    We here derive upper limits on the mass and luminosity of Population III (POPIII) dominated proto-galaxies based on the collapse of primordial gas under the effect of angular momentum loss via Lyα radiation drag and the gas accretion on to a galactic centre. Our model predicts that POPIII-dominated galaxies at z ˜ 7 are hosted by haloes with Mh ˜ 1.5 × 108-1.1 × 109 M⊙, that they have Lyα luminosities of LLyα ˜ 3.0 × 1042-2.1 × 1043 erg s- 1, stellar mass of Mstar ˜ 0.8 × 105-2.5 × 106 M⊙ and outflowing gas with velocities Vout ˜ 40 km s- 1 due to Lyα radiation pressure. We show that the POPIII galaxy candidate CR7 violates the derived limits on stellar mass and Lyα luminosity and thus is unlikely to be a POPIII galaxy. POPIII-dominated galaxies at z ˜ 7 have He ii line emission that is ˜1-3 orders of magnitude lower than that of Lyα, they have high Lyα equivalent width of ≳ 300 Å and should be found close to bright star-forming galaxies. The He ii 1640 Å line is in comfortable reach of next generation telescopes, like the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) or Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT).

  5. A correlation between dark matter and neutral hydrogen in spiral galaxies (United States)

    Terekhova, N. A.


    We test the hypothesis put forward by Bosma (1981) that the surface density of dark matter is proportional to the surface density of HI, using decompositions of the rotation curves of a number of galaxies according to the THINGS, along with data for the galaxy NGC 6822. The rotation curves of these galaxies can be explained by assuming the existence of a massive gaseous disk in the absence of a dark halo, although the proportionality factor Σdark/ΣHI between the surface densities of dark matter and HI is different for different galaxies. However, there emerges the problem of the gravitational stability of galaxies whose stellar-velocity dispersions have been estimated, if the thickness of the dark-matter disk is similar to or less than the thickness of the stellar disk. The proportionality between Σ dark and ΣHI is probably due to the fact that the radial profiles of ΣHI for galaxies with flat rotational curves are close to the critical density of a gravitationally stable gaseous layer (ΣHI ˜ R -1), and Σdark( R) for a pseudo-isothermal halo obeys the same law.

  6. The Nature of Turbulence in the LITTLE THINGS Dwarf Irregular Galaxies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maier, Erin; Chien, Li-Hsin; Hollyday, Gigja [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Northern Arizona University, NAU Box 6010, Flagstaff, AZ 86011 (United States); Elmegreen, Bruce G. [IBM T. J. Watson Research Center, 1101 Kitchawan Road, Yorktown Heights, New York, NY 10598 (United States); Hunter, Deidre A. [Lowell Observatory, 1400 West Mars Hill Road, Flagstaff, AZ 86001 (United States); Simpson, Caroline E. [Department of Physics, Florida International University, CP 204, 11200 SW 8th Street, Miami, FL 33199 (United States)


    We present probability density functions and higher order (skewness and kurtosis) analyses of the galaxy-wide and spatially resolved distributions of H i column density in the LITTLE THINGS sample of dwarf irregular galaxies. This analysis follows that of Burkhart et al. for the Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC). About 60% of our sample have galaxy-wide values of kurtosis that are similar to that found for the SMC, with a range up to much higher values, and kurtosis increases with integrated star formation rate. Kurtosis and skewness were calculated for radial annuli and for a grid of 32 pixel × 32 pixel kernels across each galaxy. For most galaxies, kurtosis correlates with skewness. For about half of the galaxies, there is a trend of increasing kurtosis with radius. The range of kurtosis and skewness values is modeled by small variations in the Mach number close to the sonic limit and by conversion of H i to molecules at high column density. The maximum H i column densities decrease with increasing radius in a way that suggests molecules are forming in the weak-field limit, where H{sub 2} formation balances photodissociation in optically thin gas at the edges of clouds.

  7. Galaxy-galaxy and galaxy-cluster lensing with the SDSS and FIRST surveys (United States)

    Demetroullas, C.; Brown, M. L.


    We perform a galaxy-galaxy lensing study by correlating the shapes of ∼2.7 × 105 galaxies selected from the VLA FIRST (Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty centimetres) radio survey with the positions of ∼38.5 million Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) galaxies, ∼132 000 Brightest Cluster Galaxies (BCGs) and ∼78 000 SDSS galaxies that are also detected in the VLA FIRST survey. The measurements are conducted on angular scales θ ≲ 1200 arcsec. On scales θ ≲ 200 arcsec, we find that the measurements are corrupted by residual systematic effects associated with the instrumental beam of the VLA data. Using simulations, we show that we can successfully apply a correction for these effects. Using the three lens samples (the SDSS DR10 sample, the BCG sample and the SDSS-FIRST matched object sample), we measure a tangential shear signal that is inconsistent with 0 at the 10.2σ, 3.8σ and 9σ levels, respectively. Fitting an NFW model to the detected signals, we find that the ensemble mass profile of the BCG sample agrees with the values in the literature. However, the mass profiles of the SDSS DR10 and the SDSS-FIRST matched object samples are found to be shallower and steeper than results in the literature, respectively. The best-fitting Virial masses for the SDSS DR10, BCG and SDSS-FIRST matched samples, derived using an NFW model and allowing for a varying concentration factor, are M_{200}^SDSS-DR10 = (1.2 ± 0.4) × 10^{12} M_{⊙}, M_{200}^BCG = (1.4 ± 1.3) × 10^{13} M_{⊙} and M_{200}^SDSS-FIRST =8.0 ± 4.2 × 10^{13} M_{⊙}, respectively. These results are in good agreement (within ∼2σ) with values in the literature. Our findings suggest that for galaxies to be bright both in the radio and in the optical, they must be embedded in very dense environment on scales R ≲ 1 Mpc.

  8. An Interacting Galaxy System along a Filament in a Void

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beygu, B.; Kreckel, K.; van de Weijgaert, R.; van der Hulst, J. M.; van Gorkom, J. H.

    Cosmological voids provide a unique environment for the study of galaxy formation and evolution. The galaxy population in their interiors has properties significantly different from average field galaxies. As part of our Void Galaxy Survey (VGS), we have found a system of three interacting galaxies


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Cheng; Wang, Enci; Lin, Lin; Xiao, Ting [Partner Group of Max-Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Nandan Road 80, Shanghai 200030 (China); Bershady, Matthew A.; Tremonti, Christy A. [Department of Astronomy, University of Wisconsin–Madison, Madison, WI 53706 (United States); Bundy, Kevin; Cheung, Edmond [Kavli Institute for the Physics and Mathematics of the universe (Kavli IPMU, WPI), Todai Institutes for Advanced Study, the University of Tokyo, Kashiwa 277-8583 (Japan); Yan, Renbin [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY 40506 (United States); Bizyaev, Dmitry [Apache Point Observatory and New Mexico State University, P.O. Box 59, Sunspot, NM, 88349-0059 (United States); Blanton, Michael; Gelfand, Joseph [Center for Cosmology and Particle Physics, Department of Physics, New York University, 4 Washington Place, New York, NY 10003 (United States); Cales, Sabrina [Yale Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Physics Department, Yale University, P.O. Box 208120, New Haven, CT 06520-8120 (United States); Cherinka, Brian; Law, David R. [Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, ON M5S 3H4 (Canada); Drory, Niv [Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064 (United States); Emsellem, Eric [European Southern Observatory, Karl-Schwarzschild-Strasse 2, D-85748 Garching (Germany); Fu, Hai [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242 (United States); Lin, Lihwai [Institute of Astronomy and Astrophysics, Academia Sinica, Taipei 106, Taiwan (China); MacDonald, Nick, E-mail: [Department of Astronomy, Box 351580, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); and others


    We present an analysis of the data produced by the MaNGA prototype run (P-MaNGA), aiming to test how the radial gradients in recent star formation histories, as indicated by the 4000 Å break (D{sub n}(4000)), Hδ absorption (EW(Hδ{sub A})), and Hα emission (EW(Hα)) indices, can be useful for understanding disk growth and star formation cessation in local galaxies. We classify 12 galaxies observed on two P-MaNGA plates as either centrally quiescent (CQ) or centrally star-forming (CSF), according to whether D{sub n}(4000) measured in the central spaxel of each datacube exceeds 1.6. For each spaxel we generate both 2D maps and radial profiles of D{sub n}(4000), EW(Hδ{sub A}), and EW(Hα). We find that CSF galaxies generally show very weak or no radial variation in these diagnostics. In contrast, CQ galaxies present significant radial gradients, in the sense that D{sub n}(4000) decreases, while both EW(Hδ{sub A}) and EW(Hα) increase from the galactic center outward. The outer regions of the galaxies show greater scatter on diagrams relating the three parameters than their central parts. In particular, the clear separation between centrally measured quiescent and star-forming galaxies in these diagnostic planes is largely filled in by the outer parts of galaxies whose global colors place them in the green valley, supporting the idea that the green valley represents a transition between blue-cloud and red-sequence phases, at least in our small sample. These results are consistent with a picture in which the cessation of star formation propagates from the center of a galaxy outward as it moves to the red sequence.

  10. Do satellite galaxies trace matter in galaxy clusters ? (United States)

    Wang, Chunxiang; Li, Ran; Gao, Liang; Shan, Huanyuan; Kneib, Jean-Paul; Wang, Wenting; Chen, Gang; Makler, Martin; Pereira, Maria E. S.; Wang, Lin; Maia, Marcio AG; Erben, Thomas


    The spatial distribution of satellite galaxies encodes rich information of the structure and assembly history of galaxy clusters. In this paper, we select a redMaPPer cluster sample in SDSS Stripe 82 region with 0.1 ≤ z ≤ 0.33, 20 0.7. Using the high-quality weak lensing data from CS82 Survey, we constrain the mass profile of this sample. Then we compare directly the mass density profile with the satellite number density profile. We find that the total mass and number density profiles have the same shape, both well fitted by an NFW profile. The scale radii agree with each other within 1σ error (r_s,gal=0.34_{-0.03}^{+0.04}Mpc vs r_s=0.37_{-0.10}^{+0.15}Mpc ).