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Sample records for bread wheat triticum

  1. Stability analysis in bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The treatment consisted of twelve bread wheat genotypes, namely, Bolo (G8), Dand'a (G5), Gambo (G4), Gassay (G6), Hidase (G1), Huluka (G3), Kubsa (G12), Menze (G10), Ogolcho (G2), Shorima (G11), Tay (G7), and Tsehay (G9). The experiments were laid out as a randomized complete block design with three ...

  2. Response of bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) to application of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Highly soluble N fertilizers like urea may be lost from the soil plant system through leaching, volatilization, and denitrification thereby reduce yields and NUE of arable crops. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of slow nitrogen (N) releasing fertilizer (UREAStabil) on NUE and yields of bread wheat and ...

  3. Response of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to Application of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The bread wheat variety used for the experiment was Pica flor (kakaba), which is disease resistant, early maturing, and relatively high yielding, at Suluh kebele in Hawzien district. . Hidase variety, which is less susceptible to rust and has high grain yielding potential and disease resistant, was used at Atsela and Ayba in ...

  4. Combining Ability Analysis for Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice of promising genotypes from a diverse genetic base and subsequent utilization for hybridization is one of the strategies for improving productivity of bread wheat. The data from eight parents and their F1 progenies of half-diallel crosses were analyzed for combining ability for yield and yield related traits in triplicate ...

  5. Genetic control of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zine El Abidine Fellahi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Nine bread wheat genotypes were crossed under a partial diallel scheme, in which group 1 counted five lines and group 2 four lines. The 20 F1 ’s and their parents were evaluated in randomized complete block design with three replications at the Field Crop Institute-Agricultural Experimental Station of Setif (Algeria during the 2011/2012 cropping season. The results showed that the components associated with additive effects were more relevant than those associated with the dominance effects for these traits. Based on the KD /KR ratio, the dominant alleles are present in greater frequency in the first group of parents, while the opposite is true for the second group. Values of the gene proportion with positive and negative effects in the parents revealed an unequal distribution of dominant genes in the parents for almost all the traits except for number of grain per spike in the second group which showed an equal distribution.

  6. Impact of Triticum mosaic virus infection on hard winter wheat milling and bread baking quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rebecca A; Martin, T Joe; Seifers, Dallas L

    2012-03-15

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) is a newly discovered wheat virus. Information regarding the effect of wheat viruses on milling and baking quality is limited. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of TriMV infection on the kernel characteristics, milling yield and bread baking quality of wheat. Commercial hard winter varieties evaluated included RonL, Danby and Jagalene. The TriMV resistance of RonL is low, while that of Danby and Jagalene is unknown. KS96HW10-3, a germplasm with high TriMV resistance, was included as a control. Plots of each variety were inoculated with TriMV at the two- to three-leaf stage. Trials were conducted at two locations in two crop years. TriMV infection had no effect on the kernel characteristics, flour yield or baking properties of KS96HW10-3. The effect of TriMV on the kernel characteristics of RonL, Danby and Jagalene was not consistent between crop years and presumably an environmental effect. The flour milling and bread baking properties of these three varieties were not significantly affected by TriMV infection. TriMV infection of wheat plants did not affect harvested wheat kernel characteristics, flour milling properties or white pan bread baking quality. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Genetic architecture of seed longevity in bread wheat (Triticum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-01-20

    Jan 20, 2017 ... some non-congruency obtains between these two forms of testing for longevity. The genes underlying longevity appear to be independent of known genes determining dormancy and pre-harvest sprouting. [Arif MAR, Nagel M, Lohwasser U and Börner A 2017 Genetic architecture of seed longevity in bread ...

  8. Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat Triticum aestivum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-04-17

    Apr 17, 2012 ... its vegetative growth and seed productivity are sensi- tive to high ... sition of shoot meristem from vegetative-to-reproductive phase, in ...... Wheat crop usually follows summer sown rice or autumn planted potato crops. The crop cycle is of about 150 days for wheat seeded at the optimum sow- ing time in ...

  9. Assessment of genetic diversity among sixty bread wheat ( Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of genetic diversity among wheat cultivars is important to ensure that a continuous pool of cultivars with varying desirable traits is maintained. In view of this, a molecular study was conducted to assess the genetic diversity of sixty wheat cultivars using sixty microsatellite markers. Amplified alleles from each ...

  10. Assessment of genetic diversity among sixty bread wheat (Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mwale

    Assessment of genetic diversity among wheat cultivars is important to ensure that a continuous pool of cultivars with varying desirable traits is maintained. In view of this, a molecular study was conducted to assess the genetic diversity of sixty wheat cultivars using sixty microsatellite markers. Amplified alleles from each ...

  11. Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat Triticum aestivum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The semidominant Ppd-D1a mutation confers photoperiod-insensitivity or rapid flowering in wheat under short day and long day conditions. The objective of this study was to reveal the nature of interaction between Vrn-1 and Ppd-D1a mutations (active alleles of the respective genes vrn-1 and Ppd-D1b). Twelve Indian ...

  12. Yield and yield traits of durum wheat (Triticum durum desf. and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes under drought stress

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    Allahverdiyev Tofig

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Field experiment was conducted to study the effect of water stress on yield and yield traits of durum wheat and bread wheat genotypes. Water stress caused significant reduction in plant height (PH, peduncle length (PL, spike number/m2(SN, spike length (SL, spike width (SW, spikelets number/spike (SNS, spike mass (SM, grain number/spike (GNS, grain mass/spike (GMS, biological yield (BY, thousand kernel mass (TKM, grain yield (GY and harvest index (HI. Wheat traits such as SN, SM, BY, TKM, GY were more vulnerable to drought stress. Positive significant correlation of GY with SN, BY and HI under rain-fed condition was found. Genotypes of durum wheat were more sensitive to drought than that bread wheat genotypes. The significant and positive correlation of GY with Stress Tolerance Index (STI, Mean Productivity (MP and Geometric Mean Productivity (GMP indicated that these indices were more effective in identifying high yielding, drought tolerance genotypes.

  13. Genetic variability in anthocyanin composition and nutritional properties of blue, purple, and red bread (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum) wheats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficco, Donatella B M; De Simone, Vanessa; Colecchia, Salvatore A; Pecorella, Ivano; Platani, Cristiano; Nigro, Franca; Finocchiaro, Franca; Papa, Roberto; De Vita, Pasquale

    2014-08-27

    Renewed interest in breeding for high anthocyanins in wheat (Triticum ssp.) is due to their antioxidant potential. A collection of different pigmented wheats was used to investigate the stability of anthocyanins over three crop years. The data show higher anthocyanins in blue-aleurone bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), followed by purple- and red-pericarp durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. ssp. turgidum convar. durum), using cyanidin 3-O-glucoside as standard. HPLC of the anthocyanin components shows five to eight major anthocyanins for blue wheat extracts, compared to three anthocyanins for purple and red wheats. Delphinidin 3-O-rutinoside, delphinidin 3-O-glucoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside are predominant in blue wheat, with cyanidin 3-O-glucoside, peonidin 3-O-galactoside, and malvidin 3-O-glucoside in purple wheat. Of the total anthocyanins, 40-70% remain to be structurally identified. The findings confirm the high heritability for anthocyanins, with small genotype × year effects, which will be useful for breeding purposes, to improve the antioxidant potential of cereal-based foods.

  14. Evidence of intralocus recombination at the Glu-3 loci in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The low-molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs) are a class of wheat seed storage proteins that play a critical role in the determination of wheat flour bread-making quality. These proteins are encoded by multigene families located at the orthologous Glu-3 loci (Glu-A3, Glu-B3 and Glu-D3), on t...

  15. Assessment of genetic diversity among Syrian durum (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achtar, S; Moualla, M Y; Kalhout, A; Röder, M S; MirAli, N

    2010-11-01

    Genetic diversity among 49 wheat varieties (37 durum and 12 bread wheat) was assayed using 32 microsatellites representing 34 loci covering almost the whole wheat genome. The polymorphic information content (PIC) across the tested loci ranged from 0 to 0.88 with average values of 0.57 and 0.65 for durum and bread wheat respectively. B genome had the highest mean number of alleles (10.91) followed by A genome (8.3) whereas D genome had the lowest number (4.73). The correlation between PIC and allele number was significant in all genome groups accounting for 0.87, 074 and 0.84 for A, B and D genomes respectively, and over all genomes, the correlation was higher in tetraploid (0.8) than in hexaploid wheat varieties (0.5). The cluster analysis discriminated all varieties and clearly divided the two ploidy levels into two separate clusters that reflect the differences in genetic diversity within each cluster. This study demonstrates that microsatellites markers have unique advantages compared to other molecular and biochemical fingerprinting techniques in revealing the genetic diversity in Syrian wheat varieties that is crucial for wheat improvement.

  16. RNA-seq in grain unveils fate of neo- and paleopolyploidization events in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pont, Caroline; Murat, Florent; Confolent, Carole; Balzergue, Sandrine; Salse, Jérôme

    2011-12-02

    Whole genome duplication is a common evolutionary event in plants. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a good model to investigate the impact of paleo- and neoduplications on the organization and function of modern plant genomes. We performed an RNA sequencing-based inference of the grain filling gene network in bread wheat and identified a set of 37,695 non-redundant sequence clusters, which is an unprecedented resolution corresponding to an estimated half of the wheat genome unigene repertoire. Using the Brachypodium distachyon genome as a reference for the Triticeae, we classified gene clusters into orthologous, paralogous, and homoeologous relationships. Based on this wheat gene evolutionary classification, older duplicated copies (dating back 50 to 70 million years) exhibit more than 80% gene loss and expression divergence while recent duplicates (dating back 1.5 to 3 million years) show only 54% gene loss and 36 to 49% expression divergence. We suggest that structural shuffling due to duplicated gene loss is a rapid process, whereas functional shuffling due to neo- and/or subfunctionalization of duplicates is a longer process, and that both shuffling mechanisms drive functional redundancy erosion. We conclude that, as a result of these mechanisms, half the gene duplicates in plants are structurally and functionally altered within 10 million years of evolution, and the diploidization process is completed after 45 to 50 million years following polyploidization.

  17. Molecular characterization of lipoxygenase genes on chromosome 4BS in Chinese bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fuyan; Chen, Feng; Wu, Peipei; Zhang, Ning; Cui, Dangqun

    2015-08-01

    This study cloned two novel TaLox genes on chromosome of 4BS and developed a co-dominant marker, Lox-B23, in bread wheat that showed highly significant association with lipoxygenase activity. Lipoxygenase (Lox), a critical enzyme in the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, significantly influences the color and processing quality of wheat-based products. Two novel Lox genes, designated TaLox-B2 and TaLox-B3, were cloned on chromosome 4BS of Chinese bread wheat. The deduced amino acid sequence showed that both TaLox-B2 and TaLox-B3 genes encoded an 861-aa protein and possessed a lipoxygenase superfamily domain at the 170-838 interval. Two different TaLox-B2 alleles, designated TaLox-B2a and TaLox-B2b, were subsequently discovered. A co-dominant marker, Lox-B23, was developed based on sequences of TaLox-B2a, TaLox-B2b, and TaLox-B3 genes to precisely distinguish these three alleles in Chinese bread cultivars. Among five allelic combinations of Lox genes at Lox-B1, Lox-B2, and Lox-B3 loci, wheat cultivars with TaLox-B1a/TaLox-B2a/TaLox-B3a combination exhibited the highest Lox activity, whereas those with TaLox-B1a/TaLox-B2b/TaLox-B3b combination significantly showed the lowest Lox activity. A RIL population was used to evaluate the influence of TaLox-B3a gene on Lox activity. Results showed that TaLox-B3a gene could significantly increase the Lox activity in bread wheat. Physical mapping indicated that both TaLox-B2 and TaLox-B3 genes were located on chromosome 4BS in bread wheat. This study provides useful information to further understand the molecular and genetic bases of Lox activity in bread wheat.

  18. Differential Physiological Responses of Portuguese Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Genotypes under Aluminium Stress

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    Ana Luísa Garcia-Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The major limitation of cereal production in acidic soils is aluminium (Al phytotoxicity which inhibits root growth. Recent evidence indicates that different genotypes within the same species have evolved different mechanisms to cope with this stress. With these facts in mind, root responses of two highly Al tolerant Portuguese bread wheat genotypes—Barbela 7/72/92 and Viloso mole—were investigated along with check genotype Anahuac (Al sensitive, using different physiological and histochemical assays. All the assays confirmed that Barbela 7/72/92 is much more tolerant to Al phytotoxicity than Viloso Mole. Our results demonstrate that the greater tolerance to Al phytotoxicity in Barbela 7/72/92 than in Viloso Mole relies on numerous factors, including higher levels of organic acid (OAs efflux, particularly citrate efflux. This might be associated with the lower accumulation of Al in the root tips, restricting the Al-induced lipid peroxidation and the consequent plasma membrane integrity loss, thus allowing better root regrowth under Al stress conditions. Furthermore, the presence of root hairs in Barbela 7/72/92 might also help to circumvent Al toxicity by facilitating a more efficient uptake of water and nutrients, particularly under Al stress on acid soils. In conclusion, our findings confirmed that Portuguese bread wheat genotype Barbela 7/72/92 represents an alternative source of Al tolerance in bread wheat and could potentially be used to improve the wheat productivity in acidic soils.

  19. Dynamic metabolome profiling reveals significant metabolic changes during grain development of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Shoumin; Dong, Kun; Deng, Xiong; Zhou, Jiaxing; Xu, Xuexin; Han, Caixia; Zhang, Wenying; Xu, Yanhao; Wang, Zhimin; Yan, Yueming

    2016-08-01

    Metabolites in wheat grains greatly influence nutritional values. Wheat provides proteins, minerals, B-group vitamins and dietary fiber to humans. These metabolites are important to human health. However, the metabolome of the grain during the development of bread wheat has not been studied so far. In this work the first dynamic metabolome of the developing grain of the elite Chinese bread wheat cultivar Zhongmai 175 was analyzed, using non-targeted gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) for metabolite profiling. In total, 74 metabolites were identified over the grain developmental stages. Metabolite-metabolite correlation analysis revealed that the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, organic acids, amines and lipids was interrelated. An integrated metabolic map revealed a distinct regulatory profile. The results provide information that can be used by metabolic engineers and molecular breeders to improve wheat grain quality. The present metabolome approach identified dynamic changes in metabolite levels, and correlations among such levels, in developing seeds. The comprehensive metabolic map may be useful when breeding programs seek to improve grain quality. The work highlights the utility of GC/MS-based metabolomics, in conjunction with univariate and multivariate data analysis, when it is sought to understand metabolic changes in developing seeds. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  20. Genome-wide identification and analysis of the MADS-box gene family in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Yang, Yujie; Luo, Wei; Yang, Congcong; Ding, Puyang; Liu, Yaxi; Qiao, Linyi; Chang, Zhijian; Geng, Hongwei; Wang, Penghao; Jiang, Qiantao; Wang, Jirui; Chen, Guoyue; Wei, Yuming; Zheng, Youliang; Lan, Xiujin

    2017-01-01

    The MADS-box genes encode transcription factors with key roles in plant growth and development. A comprehensive analysis of the MADS-box gene family in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) has not yet been conducted, and our understanding of their roles in stress is rather limited. Here, we report the identification and characterization of the MADS-box gene family in wheat. A total of 180 MADS-box genes classified as 32 Mα, 5 Mγ, 5 Mδ, and 138 MIKC types were identified. Evolutionary analysis of the orthologs among T. urartu, Aegilops tauschii and wheat as well as homeologous sequences analysis among the three sub-genomes in wheat revealed that gene loss and chromosomal rearrangements occurred during and/or after the origin of bread wheat. Forty wheat MADS-box genes that were expressed throughout the investigated tissues and development stages were identified. The genes that were regulated in response to both abiotic stresses (i.e., phosphorus deficiency, drought, heat, and combined drought and heat) and biotic stresses (i.e., Fusarium graminearum, Septoria tritici, stripe rust and powdery mildew) were detected as well. A few notable MADS-box genes were specifically expressed in a single tissue and those showed relatively higher expression differences between the stress and control treatment. The expression patterns of considerable MADS-box genes differed from those of their orthologs in Brachypodium, rice, and Arabidopsis. Collectively, the present study provides new insights into the possible roles of MADS-box genes in response to stresses and will be valuable for further functional studies of important candidate MADS-box genes.

  1. Genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium in Chinese bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) revealed by SSR markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Chenyang; Wang, Lanfen; Ge, Hongmei; Dong, Yuchen; Zhang, Xueyong

    2011-02-18

    Two hundred and fifty bread wheat lines, mainly Chinese mini core accessions, were assayed for polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium (LD) based on 512 whole-genome microsatellite loci representing a mean marker density of 5.1 cM. A total of 6,724 alleles ranging from 1 to 49 per locus were identified in all collections. The mean PIC value was 0.650, ranging from 0 to 0.965. Population structure and principal coordinate analysis revealed that landraces and modern varieties were two relatively independent genetic sub-groups. Landraces had a higher allelic diversity than modern varieties with respect to both genomes and chromosomes in terms of total number of alleles and allelic richness. 3,833 (57.0%) and 2,788 (41.5%) rare alleles with frequencies of whole genome for locus pairs with r(2)>0.05 (Pwhole genome level was wheat genetic resources.

  2. Development and characterization of a new TILLING population of common bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

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    Liang Chen

    Full Text Available Mutagenesis is an important tool in crop improvement. However, the hexaploid genome of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. presents problems in identifying desirable genetic changes based on phenotypic screening due to gene redundancy. TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes, a powerful reverse genetic strategy that allows the detection of induced point mutations in individuals of the mutagenized populations, can address the major challenge of linking sequence information to the biological function of genes and can also identify novel variation for crop breeding. Wheat is especially well-suited for TILLING due to the high mutation densities tolerated by polyploids. However, only a few wheat TILLING populations are currently available in the world, which is far from satisfying the requirement of researchers and breeders in different growing environments. In addition, current TILLING screening protocols require costly fluorescence detection systems, limiting their use, especially in developing countries. We developed a new TILLING resource comprising 2610 M(2 mutants in a common wheat cultivar 'Jinmai 47'. Numerous phenotypes with altered morphological and agronomic traits were observed from the M(2 and M(3 lines in the field. To simplify the procedure and decrease costs, we use unlabeled primers and either non-denaturing polyacrylamide gels or agarose gels for mutation detection. The value of this new resource was tested using PCR with RAPD and Intron-spliced junction (ISJ primers, and also TILLING in three selected candidate genes, in 300 and 512 mutant lines, revealing high mutation densities of 1/34 kb by RAPD/ISJ analysis and 1/47 kb by TILLING. In total, 31 novel alleles were identified in the 3 targeted genes and confirmed by sequencing. The results indicate that this mutant population represents a useful resource for the wheat research community. We hope that the use of this reverse genetics resource will provide novel allelic

  3. Comparative Analysis of Phenolic Compound Characterization and Their Biosynthesis Genes between Two Diverse Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Varieties Differing for Chapatti (Unleavened Flat Bread) Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Monica; Sandhir, Rajat; Singh, Anuradha; Kumar, Pankaj; Mishra, Ankita; Jachak, Sanjay; Singh, Sukhvinder P.; Singh, Jagdeep; Roy, Joy

    2016-01-01

    Phenolic compounds (PCs) affect the bread quality and can also affect the other types of end-use food products such as chapatti (unleavened flat bread), now globally recognized wheat-based food product. The detailed analysis of PCs and their biosynthesis genes in diverse bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties differing for chapatti quality have not been studied. In this study, the identification and quantification of PCs using UPLC-QTOF-MS and/or MS/MS and functional genomics techniques such as microarrays and qRT-PCR of their biosynthesis genes have been studied in a good chapatti variety, “C 306” and a poor chapatti variety, “Sonalika.” About 80% (69/87) of plant phenolic compounds were tentatively identified in these varieties. Nine PCs (hinokinin, coutaric acid, fertaric acid, p-coumaroylqunic acid, kaempferide, isorhamnetin, epigallocatechin gallate, methyl isoorientin-2′-O-rhamnoside, and cyanidin-3-rutinoside) were identified only in the good chapatti variety and four PCs (tricin, apigenindin, quercetin-3-O-glucuronide, and myricetin-3-glucoside) in the poor chapatti variety. Therefore, about 20% of the identified PCs are unique to each other and may be “variety or genotype” specific PCs. Fourteen PCs used for quantification showed high variation between the varieties. The microarray data of 44 phenolic compound biosynthesis genes and 17 of them on qRT-PCR showed variation in expression level during seed development and majority of them showed low expression in the good chapatti variety. The expression pattern in the good chapatti variety was largely in agreement with that of phenolic compounds. The level of variation of 12 genes was high between the good and poor chapatti quality varieties and has potential in development of markers. The information generated in this study can be extended onto a larger germplasm set for development of molecular markers using QTL and/or association mapping approaches for their application in wheat breeding

  4. Proteome characterization of developing grains in bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Guangfang; Lv, Dongwen; Yan, Xing; Subburaj, Saminathan; Ge, Pei; Li, Xiaohui; Hu, Yingkao; Yan, Yueming

    2012-08-19

    The analyses of protein synthesis, accumulation and regulation during grain development in wheat are more complex because of its larger genome size compared to model plants such as Arabidopsis and rice. In this study, grains from two wheat cultivars Jimai 20 and Zhoumai 16 with different gluten quality properties were harvested at five development stages, and were used to displayed variable expression patterns of grain proteins. Proteome characterization during grain development in Chinese bread wheat cultivars Jimai 20 and Zhoumai 16 with different quality properties was investigated by 2-DE and tandem MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Identification of 117 differentially accumulated protein spots representing 82 unique proteins and five main expression patterns enabled a chronological description of wheat grain formation. Significant proteome expression differences between the two cultivars were found; these included 14 protein spots that accumulated in both cultivars but with different patterns and 27 cultivar-different spots. Among the cultivar-different protein spots, 14 accumulated in higher abundance in Jimai 20 than in Zhoumai 16, and included NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase, triticin precursor, LMW-s glutenin subunit and replication factor C-like protein. These proteins are likely to be associated with superior gluten quality. In addition, some proteins such as class II chitinase and peroxidase 1 with isoforms in developing grains were shown to be phosphorylated by Pro-Q Diamond staining and phosphorprotein site prediction. Phosphorylation could have important roles in wheat grain development. qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated that transcriptional and translational expression patterns of many genes were significantly different. Wheat grain proteins displayed variable expression patterns at different developmental stages and a considerable number of protein spots showed differential accumulation between two cultivars. Differences in seed storage proteins were considered

  5. Proteome characterization of developing grains in bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo Guangfang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The analyses of protein synthesis, accumulation and regulation during grain development in wheat are more complex because of its larger genome size compared to model plants such as Arabidopsis and rice. In this study, grains from two wheat cultivars Jimai 20 and Zhoumai 16 with different gluten quality properties were harvested at five development stages, and were used to displayed variable expression patterns of grain proteins. Results Proteome characterization during grain development in Chinese bread wheat cultivars Jimai 20 and Zhoumai 16 with different quality properties was investigated by 2-DE and tandem MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS. Identification of 117 differentially accumulated protein spots representing 82 unique proteins and five main expression patterns enabled a chronological description of wheat grain formation. Significant proteome expression differences between the two cultivars were found; these included 14 protein spots that accumulated in both cultivars but with different patterns and 27 cultivar-different spots. Among the cultivar-different protein spots, 14 accumulated in higher abundance in Jimai 20 than in Zhoumai 16, and included NAD-dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase, triticin precursor, LMW-s glutenin subunit and replication factor C-like protein. These proteins are likely to be associated with superior gluten quality. In addition, some proteins such as class II chitinase and peroxidase 1 with isoforms in developing grains were shown to be phosphorylated by Pro-Q Diamond staining and phosphorprotein site prediction. Phosphorylation could have important roles in wheat grain development. qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated that transcriptional and translational expression patterns of many genes were significantly different. Conclusions Wheat grain proteins displayed variable expression patterns at different developmental stages and a considerable number of protein spots showed differential accumulation between two

  6. Genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium in Chinese bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. revealed by SSR markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chenyang Hao

    Full Text Available Two hundred and fifty bread wheat lines, mainly Chinese mini core accessions, were assayed for polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium (LD based on 512 whole-genome microsatellite loci representing a mean marker density of 5.1 cM. A total of 6,724 alleles ranging from 1 to 49 per locus were identified in all collections. The mean PIC value was 0.650, ranging from 0 to 0.965. Population structure and principal coordinate analysis revealed that landraces and modern varieties were two relatively independent genetic sub-groups. Landraces had a higher allelic diversity than modern varieties with respect to both genomes and chromosomes in terms of total number of alleles and allelic richness. 3,833 (57.0% and 2,788 (41.5% rare alleles with frequencies of 0.05 (P<0.001 than the landraces. Mean LD decay distance for the landraces at the whole genome level was <5 cM, while a higher LD decay distance of 5-10 cM in modern varieties. LD decay distances were also somewhat different for each of the 21 chromosomes, being higher for most of the chromosomes in modern varieties (<5 ∼ 25 cM compared to landraces (<5 ∼ 15 cM, presumably indicating the influences of domestication and breeding. This study facilitates predicting the marker density required to effectively associate genotypes with traits in Chinese wheat genetic resources.

  7. Plant regeneration from mature embryo of commercial Indian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parmar, Sanjay Singh; Sainger, Manish; Chaudhary, Darshna; Jaiwal, Pawan K

    2012-04-01

    A simple, efficient, reproducible and comparatively genotype-independent in vitro plant regeneration protocol was developed for ten commercial Indian bread wheat cultivars using mature embryos as the explants. Three different auxins and five different combinations of growth regulators in a modified Murashige and Skoog's basal medium were assessed for their effect on callus induction and plant regeneration, respectively, in a high yielding and widely grown cultivar, PBW-343. The optimized conditions were further evaluated with nine other commercial cultivars. A simple novel approach of physical isolation of regenerable calli from non regenerable structures during the early callus phase was used to improve plant regeneration. Callus induced on 2.0 mg(-1) 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) showed a regeneration frequency of 86 % with 7.5 shoots per explants on hormone-free medium. A considerable improvement in the regeneration frequency (up to 97 %) and the average of shoots (19 shoots per explants) was obtained with a combination of thidiazuron (TDZ) and 2,4-D.

  8. New winter hardy winter bread wheat cultivar (Triticum aestivum L. Voloshkova

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    Л. М. Голик

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Creation of Initial raw for breeding of winter wheat by change of the development type under low temperatures influence was described. Seeds of spring wheat were vernalized in aluminum weighting bottle. By using low temperatures at sawing of M2-6 at the begin ind of optimal terms of sawing of winter wheat, new winter-hardy variety of Voloshkova was bred.

  9. Line × Tester Mating Design Analysis for Grain Yield and Yield Related Traits in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

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    Zine El Abidine Fellahi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Nine bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes were crossed in a line × tester mating design. The 20 F1's and their parents were evaluated in a randomized complete block design with three replications at the Field Crop Institute-Agricultural Experimental Station of Setif (Algeria during the 2011/2012 cropping season. The results indicated that sufficient genetic variability was observed for all characters studied. A899 × Rmada, A899 × Wifak, and A1135 × Wifak hybrids had greater grain yield mean than the parents. A901 line and the tester Wifak were good combiners for the number of grains per spike. MD is a good combiner for 1000-kernel weight and number of fertile tillers. HD1220 is a good general combiner to reduce plant height; Rmada is a good general combiner to shorten the duration of the vegetative growth period. A901 × Wifak is a best specific combiner to reduce plant height, to increase 1000-kernel weight and number of grains per spike. AA × MD is a best specific combiner to reduce duration of the vegetative period, plant height and to increase the number of kernels per spike. A899 × Wifak showed the highest heterosis for grain yield, accompanied with positive heterosis for the number of fertile tillers and spike length, and negative heterosis for 1000-kernel weight and the number of days to heading. σgca2/σsca2,  (σD2/σA21/2 low ratios and low to intermediate estimates of h2ns supported the involvement of both additive and nonadditive gene effects. The preponderance of non-additive type of gene actions clearly indicated that selection of superior plants should be postponed to later generation.

  10. Sowing terms of winter bread wheat variety-innovations (Triticum aestivum L. in the conditions of change of climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Л. Дергачов

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Results of studying of influence of sowing terms on productivity and indices of quality of grain of winter bread wheat variety-innovations of V.M. Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat of NAAS of Ukraine in the conditions of Right-bank Forest-steppe are shown. Negative correlation of productivity of varieties on average temperature of air during the sowing period is shown.

  11. Quality of grain and flour of foreign bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. under the conditions of south Dobrudzha region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chamurliyski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute One of the main directions of the breeding programs in common winter wheat, besides increasing productivity, is developing of cultivars with excellent baking properties. An important prerequisite for this is the involvement of new gene plasma of variable origin, which is adequate to the growing conditions and the desired breeding direction. The aim of investigation is study of some main properties related to the grain quality and the baking properties of bread wheat accessions of foreign origin under the conditions of the South Dobrudzha region. Twenty-five foreign bread wheat cultivars of various origins were investigated for a three year period. Cultivars Aglika, Enola, Pryaspa and Yantur were used as standards. Some indices related to the quality of grain and flour were analyzed at the Bread Making Laboratory of (DAI. The expression of the following parameters was followed: test weigh, % of protein, sedimentation, wet gluten yield, softening degree, pharinographic value, bread volume, and the quality index (QI was calculated. The cultivars, which demonstrated high grain quality, were the Romanian Faur, Moldovan Dobropolka, American Wahoo and the Ukrainian Zmina. Averaged for the three years, highest variation was found for the index pharinographic value. On the whole, the materials with origin from Romania, Ukraine and USA were characterized with high values of the quality indices. Cultivars Faur and Zmina can be successfully included in the breeding program of DAI for development of strong wheat varieties

  12. Characterization of new allele influencing flowering time in bread wheat introgressed from Triticum militinae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ivaničová, Zuzana; Jakobson, I.; Reis, D.; Šafář, Jan; Milec, Zbyněk; Abrouk, Michael; Doležel, Jaroslav; Jarve, K.; Valárik, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 5 (2016), s. 718-727 ISSN 1871-6784 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-07164S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : GENE-EXPRESSION * HEXAPLOID WHEAT * LIGHT QUALITY Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.813, year: 2016

  13. The in silico identification and characterization of a bread wheat/Triticum militinae introgression line

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abrouk, Michael; Balcárková, Barbora; Šimková, Hana; Komínková, Eva; Martis, M.M.; Jakobson, I.; Timofejeva, L.; Rey, Elodie; Vrána, Jan; Kilian, A.; Jarve, K.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Valárik, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 2 (2017), s. 249-256 ISSN 1467-7644 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-07164S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : crop improvement * powdery mildew * common wheat * chromosomes * genome * resistance * plant * recombination * evolution * barley * GenomeZipper * alien introgression * comparative analysis * chromosome rearrangement * chromosome translocation * linkage drag Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 7.443, year: 2016

  14. Characterization and expression patterns of key C4 photosynthetic pathway genes in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachir, Daoura Goudia; Saeed, Iqbal; Song, Quanhao; Linn, Tay Zar; Chen, Liang; Hu, Yin-Gang

    2017-06-01

    Wheat is a C3 plant with relatively low photosynthetic efficiency and is a potential target for C4 photosynthetic pathway engineering. Here we reported the characterization of four key C4 pathway genes and assessed their expression patterns and enzymatic activities at three growth stages in flag leaves of 59 bread wheat genotypes. The C4-like genes homologous to PEPC, NADP-ME, MDH, and PPDK in maize were identified in the A, B, and D sub-genomes of bread wheat, located on the long arms of chromosomes 3 and 5 (TaPEPC), short arms of chromosomes 1 and 3 (TaNADP-ME), long arms of chromosomes 1 and 7 (TaMDH), and long arms of chromosome 1 (TaPPDK), respectively. All the four C4-like genes were expressed in the flag leaves at the three growth stages with considerable variations among the 59 bread wheat genotypes. Significant differences were observed between the photosynthesis rates (A) of wheat genotypes with higher expressions of TaPEPC_5, TaNADP-ME_1, and TaMDH_7 at heading and middle grain-filling stages and those with intermediate and low expressions. Our results also indicated that the four C4 enzymes showed activity in the flag leaves and were obviously different among the 59 wheat genotypes. The activities of PEPcase and PPDK decreased at anthesis and slightly increased at grain-filling stage, while NADP-ME and MDH exhibited a decreasing trend at the three stages. The results of the current study could be very valuable and useful for wheat researchers in improving photosynthetic capacity of wheat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  15. A chromosome-based draft sequence of the hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) genome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mayer, K. F. X.; Rogers, J.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Pozniak, C.; Feuillet, C.; Lukaszewski, A.J.; Sourdille, P.; Kubaláková, Marie; Čihalíková, Jarmila; Dubská, Zdeňka; Vrána, Jan; Šperková, Romana; Šimková, Hana; Choulet, F.; Stein, N.; Praud, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 345, č. 6194 (2014) ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090; GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/12/2554; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : GENE-EXPRESSION * POLYPLOID WHEAT * AEGILOPS-TAUSCHII Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 33.611, year: 2014 http://gateway.isiknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=CCC&DestLinkType=FullRecord&UT=000339400700040

  16. Native and enzymatically modified wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) endogenous lipids in bread making: a focus on gas cell stabilization mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerits, Lien R; Pareyt, Bram; Masure, Hanne G; Delcour, Jan A

    2015-04-01

    Lipopan F and Lecitase Ultra lipases were used in straight dough bread making to study how wheat lipids affect bread loaf volume (LV) and crumb structure setting. Lipase effects on LV were dose and dough piece weight dependent. The bread quality improving mechanisms exerted by endogenous lipids were studied in terms of gluten network strengthening, which indirectly stabilizes gas cells, and in terms of direct interfacial gas cell stabilization. Unlike diacetyl tartaric esters of mono- and diacylglycerols (DATEM, used as control), lipase use did not impact dough extensibility. The effect on dough extensibility was therefore related to its lipid composition at the start of mixing. Both lipases and DATEM strongly increase the levels of polar lipids in dough liquor and their availability for and potential accumulation at gas cell interfaces. Lipases form lysolipids that emulsify other lipids. We speculate that DATEM competes with (endogenous) polar lipids for interacting with gluten proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Drought tolerance of some bread wheat genotypes in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low moisture stress is one of the most important abiotic constraints limiting bread wheat production and area expansion in Ethiopia. To alleviate this problem, evaluation of varieties in drought prone areas has been undertaken from 1996 to1998. In this study, eighteen bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties were tested at ...

  18. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Novel Genes Associated with Culm Cellulose Content in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simerjeet Kaur

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell wall formation is a complex, coordinated and developmentally regulated process. Cellulose is the most dominant constituent of plant cell walls. Because of its paracrystalline structure, cellulose is the main determinant of mechanical strength of plant tissues. As the most abundant polysaccharide on earth, it is also the focus of cellulosic biofuel industry. To reduce culm lodging in wheat and for improved ethanol production, delineation of the variation for stem cellulose content could prove useful. We present results on the analysis of the stem cellulose content of 288 diverse wheat accessions and its genome-wide association study (GWAS. Cellulose concentration ranged from 35 to 52% (w/w. Cellulose content was normally distributed in the accessions around a mean and median of 45% (w/w. Genome-wide marker-trait association study using 21,073 SNPs helped identify nine SNPs that were associated (p < 1E-05 with cellulose content. Four strongly associated (p < 8.17E-05 SNP markers were linked to wheat unigenes, which included β-tubulin, Auxin-induced protein 5NG4, and a putative transmembrane protein of unknown function. These genes may be directly or indirectly involved in the formation of cellulose in wheat culms. GWAS results from this study have the potential for genetic manipulation of cellulose content in bread wheat and other small grain cereals to enhance culm strength and improve biofuel production.

  19. The Effect of Cutting On The Yield and Yield Components of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    ÇELEN, A. Esen; SOYA, Hikmet

    1998-01-01

    In the research conducted in the fields of Field Crops Department of Faculty of Agriculture of Ege University, Bornova, İzmir, Turkey in 1993-94 and 1994-95, the effects of cutting treatments [a. uncut control, b. cutting at Zadoks stage 25 (main stem and 5 tillers), c. cutting at Zadoks stage 30 (at the end of tillering, pseudostem erection), and d. cutting at Zadoks stage 31 (first node detectable) ] on the seed yield and some yield components of two bread wheat cultivars (Cumhuriyet-75 and...

  20. Evaluation of the Effect of Crop Rotations on Yield and Yield Components of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Darya)

    OpenAIRE

    H. A. Fallahi; U. Mahmadyarov; H. Sabouri; M. Ezat-Ahmadi4

    2013-01-01

    Grain yield in wheat is influenced directly and indirectly by other plant characteristics. One of the main goals in wheat breeding programs is increase of grain yield. Considering the role of crop rotation in increasing grain yield, and in order to study the difference between crop rotations for wheat yield and yield components (Darya cultivar), an experiment was conducted with six rotation treatments (wheat-chickpea-wheat, wheat-cotton-wheat, wheat-watermelon-wheat, wheat-wheat-wheat, wheat-...

  1. Characterization of a Wheat Breeders' Array suitable for high-throughput SNP genotyping of global accessions of hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Alexandra M; Winfield, Mark O; Burridge, Amanda J; Downie, Rowena C; Benbow, Harriet R; Barker, Gary L A; Wilkinson, Paul A; Coghill, Jane; Waterfall, Christy; Davassi, Alessandro; Scopes, Geoff; Pirani, Ali; Webster, Teresa; Brew, Fiona; Bloor, Claire; Griffiths, Simon; Bentley, Alison R; Alda, Mark; Jack, Peter; Phillips, Andrew L; Edwards, Keith J

    2017-03-01

    Targeted selection and inbreeding have resulted in a lack of genetic diversity in elite hexaploid bread wheat accessions. Reduced diversity can be a limiting factor in the breeding of high yielding varieties and crucially can mean reduced resilience in the face of changing climate and resource pressures. Recent technological advances have enabled the development of molecular markers for use in the assessment and utilization of genetic diversity in hexaploid wheat. Starting with a large collection of 819 571 previously characterized wheat markers, here we describe the identification of 35 143 single nucleotide polymorphism-based markers, which are highly suited to the genotyping of elite hexaploid wheat accessions. To assess their suitability, the markers have been validated using a commercial high-density Affymetrix Axiom® genotyping array (the Wheat Breeders' Array), in a high-throughput 384 microplate configuration, to characterize a diverse global collection of wheat accessions including landraces and elite lines derived from commercial breeding communities. We demonstrate that the Wheat Breeders' Array is also suitable for generating high-density genetic maps of previously uncharacterized populations and for characterizing novel genetic diversity produced by mutagenesis. To facilitate the use of the array by the wheat community, the markers, the associated sequence and the genotype information have been made available through the interactive web site 'CerealsDB'. © 2016 The Authors. Plant Biotechnology Journal published by Society for Experimental Biology and The Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Delimitation of the Earliness per se D1 (Eps-D1) flowering gene to a subtelomeric chromosomal deletion in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zikhali, Meluleki; Wingen, Luzie U; Griffiths, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Earliness per se (Eps) genes account for the variation in flowering time when vernalization and photoperiod requirements are satisfied. Genomics and bioinformatics approaches were used to describe allelic variation for 40 Triticum aestivum genes predicted, by synteny with Brachypodium distachyon, to be in the 1DL Eps region. Re-sequencing 1DL genes revealed that varieties carrying early heading alleles at this locus, Spark and Cadenza, carry a subtelomeric deletion including several genes. The equivalent region in Rialto and Avalon is intact. A bimodal distribution in the segregating Spark X Rialto single seed descent (SSD) populations enabled the 1DL QTL to be defined as a discrete Mendelian factor, which we named Eps-D1. Near isogenic lines (NILs) and NIL derived key recombinants between markers flanking Eps-D1 suggest that the 1DL deletion contains the gene(s) underlying Eps-D1. The deletion spans the equivalent of the Triticum monoccocum Eps-A (m) 1 locus, and hence includes MODIFIER OF TRANSCRIPTION 1 (MOT1) and FTSH PROTEASE 4 (FTSH4), the candidates for Eps-A (m) 1. The deletion also contains T. aestivum EARLY FLOWERING 3-D1 (TaELF3-D1) a homologue of the Arabidopsis thaliana circadian clock gene EARLY FLOWERING 3. Eps-D1 is possibly a homologue of Eps-B1 on chromosome 1BL. NILs carrying the Eps-D1 deletion have significantly reduced total TaELF3 expression and altered TaGIGANTEA (TaGI) expression compared with wild type. Altered TaGI expression is consistent with an ELF3 mutant, hence we propose TaELF3-D1 as the more likely candidate for Eps-D1. This is the first direct fine mapping of Eps effect in bread wheat. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  3. Rheological study of mixed flour: wheat (Triticum vulgare, barley (Hordeum vulgare and potato (Solanum tuberosum for use in the preparation of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galo Sandoval

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With wheat flour imported and domestic wheat cereals produced in the country, and the potato tuber, a rheological study was performed to determine the most suitable proportions of substitution of wheat flour imported with the latter and its feasibility for making bread. We worked in mixtures of flour, wheat CWRS # 1 (red spring wheat in western Canada Cañicapa barley flour, wheat and potato Cojitambo Gabriela, from Ecuadorian cultures in proportions of 10, 20 and 30% (p / p. Masses from mixtures of flours were analyzed on a Brabender Farinograph, in order to determine the water absorption, development time, stability and rate of tolerance with a view to selecting the flour blends that have a behavior similar to CWRS wheat flour # 1. The best mixtures found were: wheat flour # 1 CWRS replaced with 10, 20 and 30% barley flour Cañicapa, and the mixture of wheat flour # 1 CWRS wheat flour in Cojitambo 30%. These flour mixes selected were also subjected to rheological analysis of their masses using a computer Mixolab. The breads made from flours selected were evaluated in a sensory panel. The breads more accepted by consumers were those containing 20 and 30% barley, followed by the group of those made with imported wheat with 30% wheat Cojitambo, and containing 10% of barley flour.

  4. Genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium studies on a 3.1-Mb genomic region of chromosome 3B in European and Asian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, C Y; Perretant, M R; Choulet, F; Wang, L F; Paux, E; Sourdille, P; Zhang, X Y; Feuillet, C; Balfourier, Francois

    2010-11-01

    Genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium (LD) were investigated in 376 Asian and European accessions of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). After a first and rapid screening about diversity and genetic structure at the whole genome scale using 70 simple sequence repeats (SSRs), we focused on a sequenced contig (ctg954) of 3.1 Mb located on the short arm of chromosome 3B of cv. Chinese Spring, using 32 SSRs and 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms. This contig is part of a multiple fungal resistance region. Mean polymorphism information content value on the 32 SSRs was slightly higher in the Asian genepool (0.396) than that for the European (0.329) pool. Compared with results at the whole genome scale, data from this 3.1-Mb region indicated similar trends in genetic diversity indices between both genepools. Population structure and molecular variance analyses demonstrated significant genetic differentiation and geographical subdivision in both groups of accessions. Concerning LD at the contig level, the European population had a significantly higher mean r(2) value (0.23) than the Asian population (0.18), indicating a stronger LD in the European material. With a mean of 1 marker every 74 kb, the resolution reached here allowed to perform a detailed comparative analysis of the LD and genetic diversity along the complete 3.1-Mb region in both genepools. A sliding-window approach revealed some interesting regions of the contig where LD is increasing when genetic diversity is decreasing. This study provides an in-depth understanding of molecular population genetics in European and Asian wheat gene pools, and prospects for association mapping of important sources of fungal disease resistance.

  5. Bread wheat progenitors:Aegilops tauschii(DD genome) andTriticum dicoccoides(AABB genome) reveal differential antioxidative response under water stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suneja, Yadhu; Gupta, Anil Kumar; Bains, Navtej Singh

    2017-01-01

    Antioxidant enzymes are known to play a significant role in scavenging reactive oxygen species and maintaining cellular homeostasis. Activity of four antioxidant enzymes viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) was examined in the flag leaves of nine Aegilops tauschii and three Triticum dicoccoides accessions along with two bread wheat cultivars under irrigated and rain-fed conditions. These accessions were shortlisted from a larger set on the basis of field performance for a set of morpho-physiological traits. At anthesis, significant differences were observed in enzyme activities in two environments. A 45% elevation in average GR activity was observed under rain-fed conditions. Genotypic variation was evident within each environment as well as in terms of response to stress environment. Aegilops tauschii accession 3769 (86% increase in SOD, 41% in CAT, 72% in APX, 48% in GR activity) and acc. 14096 (37% increase in SOD, 32% CAT, 25% APX, 42% GR) showed up-regulation in the activity of all the four studied antioxidant enzymes. Aegilops tauschii accessions-9809, 14189 and 14113 also seemed to have strong induction mechanism as elevated activity of at least three enzymes was observed in them under rain-fed conditions. T. dicoccoides , on the other hand, maintained active antioxidative machinery under irrigated condition with relatively lower induction under stress. A significant positive correlation (r = 0.760) was identified between change in the activity of CAT and GR under stress. Changes in plant height, spike length and grain weight were recorded under stress and non-stress conditions on the basis of which a cumulative tolerance index was deduced and accessions were ranked for drought tolerance. Overall, Ae. tauschii accession 3769, 14096, 14113 (DD-genome) and T. dicoccoides accession 7054 (AABB-genome) may be used as donors to combine beneficial stress adaptive traits of all the three sub

  6. Physicochemical and sensory evaluation of reinforce bread with partial replacement of wheat flour (Triticum aestivum) by corn (Zea mays) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) flours

    OpenAIRE

    Obregón, Antonio; Centro Latinoamericano de Enseñanza e Investigación en Bacteriología Alimentaria - CLEIBA. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Contreras, Eliana; Instituto de Investigación en Química Biológica, Microbiología y Biotecnología, “Marco Antonio Garrido Malo”. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Muñoz, Ana María; Instituto de Investigación en Química Biológica, Microbiología y Biotecnología, “Marco Antonio Garrido Malo”. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Ayquipa, Rita; Escuela Académica de Ciencia de los Alimentos. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Fernández, Wendy; Escuela Académica de Ciencia de los Alimentos. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.

    2014-01-01

    It was realized the sensorial evaluation and were studied the chemical composition and nutritional value of iron-fortified bread, with partial replacement of 10% of its wheat flour content by potato and corn flour, obtaining a bread with soft texture, palatable and very good acceptability for children of school age. The elaborated bread contains protein 13,10%; fat 9,80% and carbohydrates 50,32%, with an energy value of 341,88 kcal/100 g and an iron content 10,13 mg/100 g, that satisfies the ...

  7. Molecular characterization of TaSTOP1 homoeologues and their response to aluminium and proton (H(+)) toxicity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Oliveira, Ana Luísa; Benito, César; Prieto, Pilar; de Andrade Menezes, Regina; Rodrigues-Pousada, Claudina; Guedes-Pinto, Henrique; Martins-Lopes, Paula

    2013-09-13

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity is considered to be one of the major constraints affecting crop productivity on acid soils. Being a trait governed by multiple genes, the identification and characterization of novel transcription factors (TFs) regulating the expression of entire response networks is a very promising approach. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clone, localize, and characterize the TaSTOP1 gene, which belongs to the zinc finger family (Cys2His2 type) transcription factor, at molecular level in bread wheat. TaSTOP1 loci were cloned and localized on the long arm of homoeologous group 3 chromosomes [3AL (TaSTOP1-A), 3BL (TaSTOP1-B) and 3DL (TaSTOP1-D)] in bread wheat. TaSTOP1 showed four potential zinc finger domains and the homoeologue TaSTOP1-A exhibited transactivation activity in yeast. Expression profiling of TaSTOP1 transcripts identified the predominance of homoeologue TaSTOP1-A followed by TaSTOP1-D over TaSTOP1-B in root and only predominance of TaSTOP1-A in shoot tissues of two diverse bread wheat genotypes. Al and proton (H(+)) stress appeared to slightly modulate the transcript of TaSTOP1 homoeologues expression in both genotypes of bread wheat. Physical localization of TaSTOP1 results indicated the presence of a single copy of TaSTOP1 on homoeologous group 3 chromosomes in bread wheat. The three homoeologues of TaSTOP1 have similar genomic structures, but showed biased transcript expression and different response to Al and proton (H(+)) toxicity. These results indicate that TaSTOP1 homoeologues may differentially contribute under Al or proton (H(+)) toxicity in bread wheat. Moreover, it seems that TaSTOP1-A transactivation potential is constitutive and may not depend on the presence/absence of Al at least in yeast. Finally, the localization of TaSTOP1 on long arm of homoeologous group 3 chromosomes and the previously reported major loci associated with Al resistance at chromosome 3BL, through QTL and genome wide association mapping

  8. Molecular characterization of TaSTOP1 homoeologues and their response to aluminium and proton (H+) toxicity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Aluminium (Al) toxicity is considered to be one of the major constraints affecting crop productivity on acid soils. Being a trait governed by multiple genes, the identification and characterization of novel transcription factors (TFs) regulating the expression of entire response networks is a very promising approach. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to clone, localize, and characterize the TaSTOP1 gene, which belongs to the zinc finger family (Cys2His2 type) transcription factor, at molecular level in bread wheat. Results TaSTOP1 loci were cloned and localized on the long arm of homoeologous group 3 chromosomes [3AL (TaSTOP1-A), 3BL (TaSTOP1-B) and 3DL (TaSTOP1-D)] in bread wheat. TaSTOP1 showed four potential zinc finger domains and the homoeologue TaSTOP1-A exhibited transactivation activity in yeast. Expression profiling of TaSTOP1 transcripts identified the predominance of homoeologue TaSTOP1-A followed by TaSTOP1-D over TaSTOP1-B in root and only predominance of TaSTOP1-A in shoot tissues of two diverse bread wheat genotypes. Al and proton (H+) stress appeared to slightly modulate the transcript of TaSTOP1 homoeologues expression in both genotypes of bread wheat. Conclusions Physical localization of TaSTOP1 results indicated the presence of a single copy of TaSTOP1 on homoeologous group 3 chromosomes in bread wheat. The three homoeologues of TaSTOP1 have similar genomic structures, but showed biased transcript expression and different response to Al and proton (H+) toxicity. These results indicate that TaSTOP1 homoeologues may differentially contribute under Al or proton (H+) toxicity in bread wheat. Moreover, it seems that TaSTOP1-A transactivation potential is constitutive and may not depend on the presence/absence of Al at least in yeast. Finally, the localization of TaSTOP1 on long arm of homoeologous group 3 chromosomes and the previously reported major loci associated with Al resistance at chromosome 3BL, through QTL and genome wide

  9. Genome-wide analysis of the cellulose synthase-like (Csl) gene family in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Simerjeet; Dhugga, Kanwarpal S; Beech, Robin; Singh, Jaswinder

    2017-11-03

    Hemicelluloses are a diverse group of complex, non-cellulosic polysaccharides, which constitute approximately one-third of the plant cell wall and find use as dietary fibres, food additives and raw materials for biofuels. Genes involved in hemicellulose synthesis have not been extensively studied in small grain cereals. In efforts to isolate the sequences for the cellulose synthase-like (Csl) gene family from wheat, we identified 108 genes (hereafter referred to as TaCsl). Each gene was represented by two to three homeoalleles, which are named as TaCslXY_ZA, TaCslXY_ZB, or TaCslXY_ZD, where X denotes the Csl subfamily, Y the gene number and Z the wheat chromosome where it is located. A quarter of these genes were predicted to have 2 to 3 splice variants, resulting in a total of 137 putative translated products. Approximately 45% of TaCsl genes were located on chromosomes 2 and 3. Sequences from the subfamilies C and D were interspersed between the dicots and grasses but those from subfamily A clustered within each group of plants. Proximity of the dicot-specific subfamilies B and G, to the grass-specific subfamilies H and J, respectively, points to their common origin. In silico expression analysis in different tissues revealed that most of the genes were expressed ubiquitously and some were tissue-specific. More than half of the genes had introns in phase 0, one-third in phase 2, and a few in phase 1. Detailed characterization of the wheat Csl genes has enhanced the understanding of their structural, functional, and evolutionary features. This information will be helpful in designing experiments for genetic manipulation of hemicellulose synthesis with the goal of developing improved cultivars for biofuel production and increased tolerance against various stresses.

  10. Changes in allelic frequency over time in European bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties revealed using DArT and SSR markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orabi, Jihad; Jahoor, Ahmed; Backes, Gunter Martin

    2014-01-01

    the genetic diversity and allelic frequencies among the accessions based on spring- versus winter-wheat type as well as between landraces and cultivars. We also analyzed the changes in genetic diversity and allelic frequencies in these samples over time. We observed separation based on both vernalization type......A collection of 189 bread wheat landraces and cultivars, primarily of European origin, released between 1886 and 2009, was analyzed using two DNA marker systems. A set of 76 SSR markers and ~7,000 DArT markers distributed across the wheat genome were employed in these analyses. All of the SSR...... and release date. Interestingly, we detected a decrease in genetic diversity in wheat accessions released over the period from 1960 to 1980. However, our results also showed that modern plant breeding have succeeded in maintaining genetic diversity in modern wheat cultivars. Studying allelic frequencies using...

  11. Cultivar-specific high temperature stress responses in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) associated with physicochemical traits and defense pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Divya; Shekhar, Shubhendu; Agrawal, Lalit; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2017-04-15

    The increasing global temperature by 1°C is estimated to reduce the harvest index in a crop by 6%, and this would certainly have negative impact on overall plant metabolism. Wheat is one of the most important crops with global annual production of over 600million tonnes. We investigated an array of physicochemical and molecular indexes to unravel differential response of nine commercial wheat cultivars to high temperature stress (HTS). The reduced rate in relative water content, higher membrane stability, slow chlorophyll degradation and increased accumulation of proline and secondary metabolites ingrained higher thermotolerance in cv. Unnat Halna, among others. The altered expression of several stress-responsive genes, particularly the genes associated with photosynthesis, heat shock proteins and antioxidants impinge on the complexity of HTS-induced responses over different genetic backgrounds and connectivity of adaptive mechanisms. This may facilitate the targeted manipulation of metabolic routes in crops for agricultural and industrial exploitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Interaction of End-season Drought Stress and Organic Fertilizers on Yield of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Namarvari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of drought stress at different growth stages and nutrition systems were studied on yield and yield components of wheat (Chamran cv.. This experiment was carried out as split plot based on completely randomized blocks design with three replications at Research Farm of Ramin University of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Khuzestan province, Iran, during 2009-2010. Irrigation at three levels of I1 (irrigation cut-back from spike formation stage to harvesting, 55 zadox, I2 (irrigation cut-back in anthesis stage to harvesting, 65 zadox and I3 (full irrigation, control were in main plots, and fertilizer systems including chemical fertilizer (NPK, manure (M, biological fertilizer (B and manure + biological fertilizer (MB were in sub-plots. Results showed that drought stress and nutrition systems had significant effect on grain yield and biological yield (P<0.01 and fertilizer system affected harvest index (P<0.05. Maximum grain yield (5304 kg/ha was obtained in I3 treatment and minimum grain yield (3413 kg/ha was in I1 treatment. In fertilizer treatments, maximum grain yield (5081 kg/ha belonged to MB and minimum grain yield (3142 kg/ha to B treatments. According to the results, application of manure plus biological fertilizer improves grain yield of wheat, even under drought stress.

  13. Detection of soft wheat in semolina and durum wheat bread by analysis of DNA microsatellites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualone, Antonella; Montemurro, Cinzia; Grinn-Gofron, Agnieszka; Sonnante, Gabriella; Blanco, Antonio

    2007-05-02

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the analysis of DNA microsatellites for the detection of soft wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in semolina and durum wheat bread (prepared from Triticum turgidum L. var. durum). The results enabled selection of an efficient D-genome-specific repetitive DNA sequence to detect common wheat in semolina and breads by qualitative PCR with a threshold of 3 and 5%, respectively, lowered to 2.5% by real-time PCR. This is of major importance for checking during production of some typical products recently awarded the European Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) mark such as Altamura bread, which should not contain soft wheat flour. The feasibility of quantification of common wheat adulteration in semolina using real-time PCR was also demonstrated.

  14. First report of Fusarium hostae causing crown rot of wheat (Triticum spp.) in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crown rot disease of wheat is caused by a complex of Fusarium species. To identify species associated with crown rot in Turkey, crowns and stems of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (T. durum Desf.) were collected from the Central and Southeast Anatolia, Black Sea, Aegean, Mediterr...

  15. Association Analysis of Grain-setting Rates in Apical and Basal Spikelets in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Jie; Zhang, Yong; Shi, Weiping; Zhang, Boqiao; Zhang, Jingjuan; Xu, Yanhao; Cheng, Xiaoming; Cheng, Kai; Zhang, Xueyong; Hao, Chenyang; Cheng, Shunhe

    2015-01-01

    The rates of grain-setting in apical and basal spikelets in wheat directly affect the kernel number per spike (KNPS). In this study, 220 wheat lines from 18 Chinese provinces and five foreign countries were used as a natural population. Phenotypic analysis showed differences in grain-setting rates between apical and basal spikelets. The broad-sense heritability of grain-setting rate in apical spikelets (18.7–21.0%) was higher than that for basal spikelets (9.4–16.4%). Significant correlations were found between KNPS and grain numbers in apical (R2 = 0.40–0.45, P setting, 32 for apical spikelets, and 34 for basal spikelets. The SSR loci were located on 17 chromosomes, except 3A, 3D, 4A, and 7D, and explained 3.7–22.9% of the phenotypic variance. Four markers, Xcfa2153-1A202, Xgwm186-5A118, Xgwm156-3B319, and Xgwm537-7B210, showed the largest effects on grain numbers in apical and basal spikelets. High grain numbers in apical and basal spikelets were associated with elite alleles. Ningmai 9, Ning 0569, and Yangmai 18 with high grain-setting rates carried larger numbers of favorable alleles. Comparison of grain numbers in basal and apical spikelets of 35 Yangmai and Ningmai lines indicated that the Ningmai lines had better grain-setting rates (mean 21.4) than the Yangmai lines (16.5). PMID:26635852

  16. Sequential Path Analysis for Determination of Relationship Between Yield and Yield Components in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum.L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtasham MOHAMMADI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate 295 wheat genotypes in Alpha-Lattice design with two replications. The arithmetic mean and standard deviation of grain yield was 2706 and 950 (kg/ha,respectively. The results of correlation coefficients indicated that grain yield had significant and positive association with plant height, spike length, early growth vigor and agronomic score. Whereas there were negative correlation coefficients between grain yield and days to physiological maturity and canopy temperature before and during anthesis. Path analysis indicated agronomic score and plant height had high positive direct effects on grain yield, while canopy temperature before and during anthesis, and days to maturity, wes another trait having negative direct effect on grain yield. The results of sequential path analysis showed the traits that accounted as a criteria variable for high grain yield were agronomic score, plant height, canopy temperature, spike length, chlorophyll content and early growth vigor, which were determined as first, second and third order variables and had strong effects on grain yield via one or more paths. More important, as canopy temperature, agronomic score and early growth vigor can be evaluated quickly and easily, these traits may be used for evaluation of large populations.

  17. Computational Analysis Of Group 2 Late Embryogenesis Protein (Lea In Different Cultivar Of Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum

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    Rasouli Hassan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Late Embryogenesis abundant protein has a crucial role as the cold-acclimation process in the wheat. These proteins encoded by TaWdhn13 gene. This gene is transcriptionally activated and produces the accumulated proteins and metabolites and protection cell structure from freezing damage. The objectives of this study were to isolate the genomic DNA (g-DNA sequence of TaWdhn13, to analyze structure, conserved domains of the gene, and to found a basis for association analysis of the functional sites associated with computational analysis. We here report on the functional assignment to TaWdhn13 gene by computational analysis. The Three-Dimensional (3D model of LEA protein drawing by using the phyre 2 server. For identify the conserved domain and motif of these gene sequence we used the Conserved Domain Database and DNA Motif Searching Database, however, the conserved domains and motif has been recognized. The results showed TaWdhn13 conserved domain incudes: Dehydrin superfamily. Also, motifs structure for this gene includes: 2FE2S_FER_1 Motif, INTEGRIN_BETA Motif, VWFC_1 Motif, EGF_1 Motif and DEFENSIN Motif. Our results reveal that group 2 LEA proteins are most likely to function within the cell nucleus. The analysis of protein property showed that the protein had no trans-membrane domains. The isoelectric point of the protein was 3.41, which was charged with 5.34 negative electrons when pH value of the buffer was 7.0.

  18. Anthocyanins in purple and blue wheat grains and in resulting bread: quantity, composition, and thermal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, Pavel; Albreht, Alen; Skrt, Mihaela; Tremlová, Bohuslava; Ošťádalová, Martina; Šmejkal, Karel; Vovk, Irena; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar

    2015-01-01

    The anthocyanin composition of blue (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Skorpion) and purple wheat (Triticum aethiopicum JAKUBZ cv. Abyssinskaja arrasajta cv. Abyssinskaja arrasajta), cultivated in the Czech Republic, and of the prepared whole blue and purple wheat bread was determined. In blue and purple wheat, 19 and 26 anthocyanins, respectively, were tentatively identified by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The total content of anthocyanins determined in blue and purple wheat was 9.26 and 13.23 mgkg(-1), respectively. The breads were baked at 240 and 180 °C. Some significant differences in anthocyanins content were observed between breads prepared at different baking temperatures. The content of cyanidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside was determinated in starting material, whole meal flours and baked breads. These kinds of wheat are suitable for baking bread, since intake of anthocyanins may play an important role in the prevention of human diseases.

  19. Overexpression of avenin-like b proteins in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) improves dough mixing properties by their incorporation into glutenin polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fengyun; Li, Miao; Li, Tingting; Liu, Wei; Liu, Yunyi; Li, Yin; Hu, Wei; Zheng, Qian; Wang, Yaqiong; Li, Kexiu; Chang, Junli; Chen, Mingjie; Yang, Guangxiao; Wang, Yuesheng; He, Guangyuan

    2013-01-01

    Avenin-like b proteins are a small family of wheat storage proteins, each containing 18 or 19 cysteine residues. The role of these proteins, with high numbers of cysteine residues, in determining the functional properties of wheat flour is unclear. In the present study, two transgenic lines of the bread wheat overexpressing avenin-like b gene were generated to investigate the effects of Avenin-like b proteins on dough mixing properties. Sodium dodecyl sulfate sedimentation (SDSS) test and Mixograph analysis of these lines demonstrated that overexpression of Avenin-like b proteins in both transgenic wheat lines significantly increased SDSS volume and improved dough elasticity, mixing tolerance and resistance to extension. These changes were associated with the increased proportion of polymeric proteins due to the incorporation of overexpressed Avenin-like b proteins into the glutenin polymers. The results of this study were critical to confirm the hypothesis that Avenin-like b proteins could be integrated into glutenin polymers by inter-chain disulphide bonds, which could help understand the mechanism behind strengthening wheat dough strength.

  20. IPR 118 - Bread wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Riede

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat cultivar IPR 118 developed by IAPAR has a good yield potential and is widely adapted. It is earlymaturing and moderately tolerant to shattering and soil aluminum, moderately resistant to leaf rust and presents high glutenstrength for bread-making. The overall yield exceeded controls by 13%.

  1. Identification and characterization of high temperature stress responsive genes in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and their regulation at various stages of development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Harsh; Khurana, Neetika; Tyagi, Akhilesh K; Khurana, Jitendra P; Khurana, Paramjit

    2011-01-01

    To elucidate the effect of high temperature, wheat plants (Triticum aestivum cv. CPAN 1676) were given heat shock at 37 and 42°C for 2 h, and responsive genes were identified through PCR-Select Subtraction technology. Four subtractive cDNA libraries, including three forward and one reverse subtraction, were constructed from three different developmental stages. A total of 5,500 ESTs were generated and 3,516 high quality ESTs submitted to Genbank. More than one-third of the ESTs generated fall in unknown/no hit category upon homology search through BLAST analysis. Differential expression was confirmed by cDNA macroarray and by northern/RT-PCR analysis. Expression analysis of wheat plants subjected to high temperature stress, after 1 and 4 days of recovery, showed fast recovery in seedling tissue. However, even after 4 days, recovery was negligible in the developing seed tissue after 2 h of heat stress. Ten selected genes were analyzed in further detail including one unknown protein and a new heat shock factor, by quantitative real-time PCR in an array of 35 different wheat tissues representing major developmental stages as well as different abiotic stresses. Tissue specificity was examined along with cross talk with other abiotic stresses and putative signalling molecules.

  2. The Fusarium crown rot pathogen Fusarium pseudograminearum triggers a suite of transcriptional and metabolic changes in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jonathan J; Carere, Jason; Fitzgerald, Timothy L; Stiller, Jiri; Covarelli, Lorenzo; Xu, Qian; Gubler, Frank; Colgrave, Michelle L; Gardiner, Donald M; Manners, John M; Henry, Robert J; Kazan, Kemal

    2017-03-01

    Fusarium crown rot caused by the fungal pathogen Fusarium pseudograminearum is a disease of wheat and barley, bearing significant economic cost. Efforts to develop effective resistance to this disease have been hampered by the quantitative nature of resistance and a lack of understanding of the factors associated with resistance and susceptibility. Here, we aimed to dissect transcriptional responses triggered in wheat by F. pseudograminearum infection. We used an RNA-seq approach to analyse host responses during a compatible interaction and identified >2700 wheat genes differentially regulated after inoculation with F. pseudograminearum . The production of a few key metabolites and plant hormones in the host during the interaction was also analysed. Analysis of gene ontology enrichment showed that a disproportionate number of genes involved in primary and secondary metabolism, signalling and transport were differentially expressed in infected seedlings. A number of genes encoding pathogen-responsive uridine-diphosphate glycosyltransferases (UGTs) potentially involved in detoxification of the Fusarium mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) were differentially expressed. Using a F. pseudograminearum DON-non-producing mutant, DON was shown to play an important role in virulence during Fusarium crown rot. An over-representation of genes involved in the phenylalanine, tryptophan and tyrosine biosynthesis pathways was observed. This was confirmed through metabolite analyses that demonstrated tryptamine and serotonin levels are induced after F. pseudograminearum inoculation. Overall, the observed host response in bread wheat to F. pseudograminearum during early infection exhibited enrichment of processes related to pathogen perception, defence signalling, transport and metabolism and deployment of chemical and enzymatic defences. Additional functional analyses of candidate genes should reveal their roles in disease resistance or susceptibility. Better understanding of host

  3. The influence of Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci on dough rheology and bread-making properties in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) doubled haploid lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Monika; Krystkowiak, Karolina; Salmanowicz, Bolesław P; Adamski, Tadeusz; Krajewski, Paweł; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Surma, Maria

    2017-12-01

    The major determinants of wheat quality are Glu-1 and Glu-3 glutenin loci and environmental factors. Additive effects of alleles at the Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci, as well as their interactions, were evaluated for dough rheology and baking properties in four groups of wheat doubled haploid lines differing in high- and low-molecular-weight glutenin composition. Flour quality, Reomixer (Reologica Instruments, Lund, Sweden), dough extension, Farinograph (Brabender GmbH, Duisburg, Germany) and baking parameters were determined. Groups of lines with the alleles Glu-A3b and Glu-B3d were characterized by higher values of dough and baking parameters compared to those with the Glu-A3e and Glu-B3a alleles. Effects of interactions between allelic variants at the Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci on Reomixer parameters, dough extension tests and baking parameters were significant, although additive effects of individual alleles were not always significant. The allelic variants at Glu-B3 had a much greater effect on dough rheological parameters than the variants at Glu-A3 or Glu-D3 loci. The effect of allelic variations at the Glu-D3 loci on rheological parameters and bread-making quality was non-significant, whereas their interactions with a majority of alleles at the other Glu-1 × Glu-3 loci were significant. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Fast neutron radiation induced Glu-B1 deficient lines of an elite bread wheat variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five isogenic wheat lines deficient in high-molecular weight subunit (HMW-GS) proteins encoded by the B-genome were identified from a fast-neutron radiation-mutagenized population of Summit, an elite variety of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The mutant lines differ from the wild-type progenit...

  5. Aroma of Wheat Bread Crumb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Anja Niehues

    and VII. The longest fermentation times were generally found for doughs fermented with all baker’s yeasts at 5°C and the lowest yeast concentration (2.88•1014 CFU/kg flour). In Paper II, III and V wheat breads were produced for volatile analysis. The dough samples were fermented to equal height and baked...... containing the highest concentration of the majority of the compounds formed from yeast activity (e.g. 2,3-butanedione and phenylacetaldehyde), compared to doughs fermented at lower yeast concentrations (20 and 40 g/kg flour). A fermentation temIII perature at 5°C resulted in breads with the highest...... fermented at 5°C. In Paper III the effect of the type of commercial baker’s yeast (baker’s yeast I to VII, 2.88•1014 yeast CFU/kg flour) on bread aroma was investigated. Breads fermented by commercial baker’s yeast I to IV had the significantly highest concentration of 2,3-butanedione and 1-propanol...

  6. Consumer liking of refined and whole wheat breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakke, A; Vickers, Z

    2007-09-01

    Preference for refined bread is often cited as a reason for the relatively low consumption of whole wheat bread; only a few studies, however, have examined consumer preferences between refined and whole wheat breads, and the results of these studies are inconclusive. Our objective was to determine if refined wheat bread is preferred to whole wheat bread. We hypothesized that people would prefer refined wheat bread. We conducted a taste test with 89 people. They rated their liking of 9 different breads chosen to represent several comparisons between equivalent refined and whole wheat breads. The participants also rated the intensity of 6-n-propylthiouracil (PROP) and completed a questionnaire about their bread preferences and purchasing habits. We classified the participants by their bread preference and their PROP taster status, and then examined the liking patterns of these subgroups. People preferred refined bread to whole wheat bread when both were made using equivalent ingredients and procedures. They liked the commercial samples of refined and whole wheat breads equally well. When people were classified by their bread preference, those who preferred refined bread liked the refined bread better in all comparisons. PROP nontasters liked all refined and whole wheat breads equally. Sensory preferences are a barrier to whole wheat bread consumption, but ingredient or processing modifications can improve liking of whole wheat bread to the level of refined bread.

  7. Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Grain Protein Concentration Is Related to Early Post-Flowering Nitrate Uptake under Putative Control of Plant Satiety Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Taulemesse

    Full Text Available The strong negative correlation between grain protein concentration (GPC and grain yield (GY in bread wheat complicates the simultaneous improvement of these traits. However, earlier studies have concluded that the deviation from this relationship (grain protein deviation or GPD has strong genetic basis. Genotypes with positive GPD have an increased ability to uptake nitrogen (N during the post-flowering period independently of the amount of N taken up before flowering, suggesting that genetic variability for N satiety could enable the breakage of the negative relationship. This study is based on two genotypes markedly contrasted for GPD grown under semi-hydroponic conditions differentiated for nitrate availability both before and after flowering. This allows exploration of the genetic determinants of post-flowering N uptake (PANU by combining whole plant sampling and targeted gene expression approaches. The results highlights the correlation (r² = 0.81 with GPC of PANU occurring early during grain development (flowering-flowering + 250 degree-days independently of GY. Early PANU was in turn correlated (r² = 0.80 to the stem-biomass increment after flowering through its effect on N sink activity. Differences in early PANU between genotypes, despite comparable N statuses at flowering, suggest that genetic differences in N satiety could be involved in the establishment of the GPC. Through its strong negative correlation with genes implied in N assimilation, root nitrate concentration appears to be a good marker for evaluating instantaneous plant N demand, and may provide valuable information on the genotypic N satiety level. This trait may help breeders to identify genotypes having high GPC independently of their GY.

  8. Efeito da data de sementeira na produtividade de trigo mole (Triticum Aestivum L. em condições mediterrânicas Effect of the sowing date on bread wheat (Triticum Aestivum L. productivity under mediterranean conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Godinho Calado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A data de sementeira do trigo mole exerce uma influência relevante no crescimento e desenvolvimento da cultura, condicionando a sua produtividade. O seu efeito é, especial-mente, importante sob condições mediterrânicas. Por isso, neste trabalho procurou-se verificar a influência da data de sementeira no rendimento do trigo mole, a partir de um ensaio de quinze genótipos semeados em datas diferentes durante cinco anos (1994/95 a 1999/00 na região Alentejo. Com base na análise dos resultados conclui-se que a variação da época de sementeira em aproximadamente um mês, desde o fim de Outubro até ao fim de Novembro, pode permitir rendimentos viáveis do trigo mole nas zonas cerealíferas mediterrânicas, particularmente na região Alentejo. Todavia, as produções mais altas tendem a ser obtidas quando a sementeira é efectuada na primeira quinzena de Novembro. Ao avançar a sementeira para o mês de Dezembro decresce a produtividade e, em consequência, diminui a viabilidade da cultura.The sowing date of bread wheat has a great influence on the growth and development of the crop and its productivity, especially under Mediterranean conditions. This paper presents the results of trials conducted in the Alentejo region that studied the performance of fifteen wheat genotypes sown at different dates, repeated over 5 years (1994/95 to 1999/00. Despite a great variability between years, the results indicate that a satisfactory wheat productivity in the Alentejo can be obtained with sowing dates ranging from end of October until the end of November. Nonetheless, sowing dates in the first half of November tend to provide higher grain yields. Moving the sowing date into December results in reduced grain yields, thus compromising the economic viability of wheat growing.

  9. Making the Bread: Insights from Newly Synthesized Allohexaploid Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ai-li; Geng, Shuai-Feng; Zhang, Lian-quan; Liu, Deng-cai; Mao, Long

    2015-06-01

    Bread wheat (or common wheat, Triticum aestivum) is an allohexaploid (AABBDD, 2n = 6x = 42) that arose by hybridization between a cultivated tetraploid wheat T. turgidum (AABB, 2n = 4x = 28) and the wild goatgrass Aegilops tauschii (DD, 2n = 2x = 14). Polyploidization provided niches for rigorous genome modification at cytogenetic, genetic, and epigenetic levels, rendering a broader spread than its progenitors. This review summarizes the latest advances in understanding gene regulation mechanisms in newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat and possible correlation with polyploid growth vigor and adaptation. Cytogenetic studies reveal persistent association of whole-chromosome aneuploidy with nascent allopolyploids, in contrast to the genetic stability in common wheat. Transcriptome analysis of the euploid wheat shows that small RNAs are driving forces for homoeo-allele expression regulation via genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. The ensuing non-additively expressed genes and those with expression level dominance to the respective progenitor may play distinct functions in growth vigor and adaptation in nascent allohexaploid wheat. Further genetic diploidization of allohexaploid wheat is not random. Regional asymmetrical gene distribution, rather than subgenome dominance, is observed in both synthetic and natural allohexaploid wheats. The combinatorial effects of diverged genomes, subsequent selection of specific gene categories, and subgenome-specific traits are essential for the successful establishment of common wheat. Copyright © 2015 The Author. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. End-use quality of CIMMYT-derived soft kernel durum wheat germplasm. II. Dough strength and pan bread quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) is considered unsuitable for the majority of commercial bread production because its weak gluten strength combined with flour particle size and flour starch damage after milling are not commensurate with hexaploid wheat flours. Recently a new durum cultivar...

  11. TEXTURE ANALYSIS OF SPELT WHEAT BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Lacko - Bartošová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The bread quality is considerably dependent on the texture characteristic of bread crumb. Texture analysis is primarily concerned with the evaluation of mechanical characteristics where a material is subjected to a controlled force from which a deformation curve of its response is generated. It is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what are inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. This is why the texture analysis is one of the most helpful analytical methods of the product development. In the framework of our research during the years 2008 – 2009 were analyzed selected indicators of bread crumb for texture quality of three Triticum spelta L. cultivars – Oberkulmer Rotkorn, Rubiota and Franckenkorn grown in an ecological system at the locality of Dolna Malanta near Nitra. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus and expressed as crumb firmness (N, stiffness (N.mm-1 and relative elasticity (%.Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was measured in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Franckenkorn were the most firm and stiff. Relative elasticity confirmed that the lowest firmness and stiffness was found in Rubiota bread. The spelt grain can be a good source for making bread flour, but is closely dependent on choice of spelt variety.

  12. 21 CFR 136.180 - Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. 136.180... § 136.180 Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods whole wheat bread, graham bread, entire wheat bread, whole wheat rolls, graham rolls, entire wheat rolls, whole wheat buns, graham buns...

  13. Definition of the low molecular weight glutenin subunit gene family members in a set of standard bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS) are a class of seed storage proteins that play a major role in the determination of the viscoelastic properties of wheat dough. Most of the LMW-GSs are encoded by a multi-gene family located on the short arms of the homoeologous group 1 chromosomes, at...

  14. Resistance of Some Iraqi Bread Wheat Cultivars to Puccinia triticina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Al-Maaroof

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Brown rust (leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina is one of the most serious diseases of wheat worldwide. In Iraq the occurrence and distribution of brown rust is more regular and uniform than that of other wheat rusts. with yield losses as high as 44% on susceptible wheat cultivars in commercial fields. Recently several promising wheat (Triticum aestivum cultivars with different levels of rust resistance have been released in Iraq. The present work was conducted to postulate the resistance genes in twenty-two Iraqi bread wheat cultivars by testing them with thirteen Mexican races of P. triticina. ‘Thatcher’ near-isogenic lines were used as testers for known resistance genes. Ten day old seedling sets were artificially inoculated with each race, and the infection type was recorded ten days later. Field reactions of the cultivars with the predominantly Iraqi races were determined under field conditions for three years. Results revealed that the Iraqi wheat cultivars possessed brown rust resistance genes Lr1, 3, 10, 13, 16, 17, 23 and 26, either alone or in various combinations. The presence of unknown resistance genes was also postulated in some cultivars. Lr23, derived from Triticum turgidum var. durum, was present in 23% of tested cultivars, whereas Lr13 was present in 18%. The presence of Lr26 in ‘Al-Nour’ and ‘Hashemia’ indicated that they carried the 1BL.1RS wheat-rye translocation. ‘Al-Melad’ displayed resistant reactions to all races used in the study. ‘Tamuz 3’ and ‘Al- Nour’ displayed high adult-plant resistance to P. triticina in the field.

  15. Phytic acid, inorganic phosphorus, antioxidants in bread and durum wheat and their associations with agronomic traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Branković

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The phytic acid (PA, inorganic phosphorus (Pi, yellow pigment (YP, water soluble phenolics (WSPH and free protein sulfhydryl groups (PSH of 15 Triticum aestivum and 15 Triticum durum wheats grown at six different environments were evaluated for variability, intra- and inter- relations with agronomic traits. The most variable properties in bread wheat were YP and WSPH with coefficients of variation (CV amounting to 14.59% and 14.10%, respectively, while in durum wheat those were PSH and YP with CV of 17.59% and 15.02%, respectively. PA in durum wheat showed the least variability (CV 3.61%. Among others, positive associations were obtained between WSPH and YP in bread and durum wheat, YP and PSH, WSPH and PSH, yield (YLD and WSPH, YLD and PSH in durum wheat, while negative associations were recorded for PA and YP, PA and WSPH, YLD and antioxidants (YP and WSPH in bread wheat, PA and antioxidants, PA and YLD in durum wheat.

  16. The pangenome of hexaploid bread wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Montenegro, J. D.; Golicz, A. A.; Bayer, P.E.; Hurgobin, B.; Lee, H. T.; Chan, C. K. K.; Visendi, P.; Lai, K.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Batley, J.; Edwards, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 5 (2017), s. 1007-1013 ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : database * diversity * genome * pangenome * single nucleotide polymorphisms * Triticum aestivum * wheat Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.901, year: 2016

  17. TaRAR1 and TaSGT1 associate with TaHsp90 to function in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedling growth and stripe rust resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Guan-Feng; Fan, Renchun; Wang, Xianping; Wang, Daowen; Zhang, Xiangqi

    2015-04-01

    RAR1 and SGT1 are important co-chaperones of Hsp90. We previously showed that TaHsp90.1 is required for wheat seedling growth, and that TaHsp90.2 and TaHsp90.3 are essential for resistance (R) gene mediated resistance to stripe rust fungus. Here, we report the characterization of TaRAR1 and TaSGT1 genes in bread wheat. TaRAR1 and TaSGT1 each had three homoeologs, which were located on wheat groups 2 and 3 chromosomes, respectively. Strong inhibition of seedling growth was observed after silencing TaSGT1 but not TaRAR1. In contrast, decreasing the expression of TaRAR1 or TaSGT1 could all compromise R gene mediated resistance to stripe rust fungus infection. Protein-protein interactions were found among TaRAR1, TaSGT1 and TaHsp90. The N-terminus of TaHsp90, the CHORD-I and CHORD-II domains of TaRAR1 and the CS domain of TaSGT1 may be instrumental for the interactions among the three proteins. Based on this work and our previous study on TaHsp90, we speculate that the TaSGT1-TaHsp90.1 interaction is important for maintaining bread wheat seedling growth. The TaRAR1-TaSGT1-TaHsp90.2 and TaRAR1-TaSGT1-TaHsp90.3 interactions are involved in controlling the resistance to stripe rust disease. The new information obtained here should aid further functional investigations of TaRAR1-TaSGT1-TaHsp90 complexes in regulating bread wheat growth and disease resistance.

  18. Impact of Added Colored Wheat Bran on Bread Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Machálková

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The impact of colored wheat bran addition on bread quality was tested on wheat varieties with purple pericarp (Konini, Rosso and Karkulka and on a variety containing blue aleurone (Skorpion. The effect of 10 %, 15 % and 20 % bran addition on sensory evaluation, bread color and texture was compared to the characteristics of bread prepared from wheat variety Mulan. The addition of 10 % bran significantly increased the sensory evaluation scores of bread. Crumb characteristics were improved mainly by the addition of 10 % bran. Moreover, top-quality bread contained bran separated from wheat variety Konini.

  19. Rheology of Potato flour Mixes and Wheat to Make Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Fernando Sacón-Vera

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluate the rheological properties of flour mixes Ipomoea batata and Triticum vulgare for the preparation of bread dough, was the goal of this research for it a completely randomized design, as treatments sweet potato flour was used varieties are used: Toquecita, Guayaco Purple, Purple Ecuador, Brazil and Ina Purple in a 30/70 ratio (sweet potato flour / wheat flour respectively. The rheological variables: water absorption, development time, weakening of the dough stability, water absorption index (C1, mixing rate (C2, gluten strength index (C3, gel viscosity (C4, resistance index amylase (C5 and starch retro gradation index (C6 were evaluated with Mixolab equipment. The results showed that the variety Purple Brazil showed better characteristics of flours recommended premixes for the baking process in response to these indices

  20. Draft genome of the wheat A-genome progenitor Triticum urartu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Hong-Qing; Zhao, Shancen; Liu, Dongcheng; Wang, Junyi; Sun, Hua; Zhang, Chi; Fan, Huajie; Li, Dong; Dong, Lingli; Tao, Yong; Gao, Chuan; Wu, Huilan; Li, Yiwen; Cui, Yan; Guo, Xiaosen; Zheng, Shusong; Wang, Biao; Yu, Kang; Liang, Qinsi; Yang, Wenlong; Lou, Xueyuan; Chen, Jie; Feng, Mingji; Jian, Jianbo; Zhang, Xiaofei; Luo, Guangbin; Jiang, Ying; Liu, Junjie; Wang, Zhaobao; Sha, Yuhui; Zhang, Bairu; Wu, Huajun; Tang, Dingzhong; Shen, Qianhua; Xue, Pengya; Zou, Shenhao; Wang, Xiujie; Liu, Xin; Wang, Famin; Yang, Yanping; An, Xueli; Dong, Zhenying; Zhang, Kunpu; Zhang, Xiangqi; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Dvorak, Jan; Tong, Yiping; Wang, Jian; Yang, Huanming; Li, Zhensheng; Wang, Daowen; Zhang, Aimin; Wang, Jun

    2013-04-04

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, AABBDD) is one of the most widely cultivated and consumed food crops in the world. However, the complex polyploid nature of its genome makes genetic and functional analyses extremely challenging. The A genome, as a basic genome of bread wheat and other polyploid wheats, for example, T. turgidum (AABB), T. timopheevii (AAGG) and T. zhukovskyi (AAGGA(m)A(m)), is central to wheat evolution, domestication and genetic improvement. The progenitor species of the A genome is the diploid wild einkorn wheat T. urartu, which resembles cultivated wheat more extensively than do Aegilops speltoides (the ancestor of the B genome) and Ae. tauschii (the donor of the D genome), especially in the morphology and development of spike and seed. Here we present the generation, assembly and analysis of a whole-genome shotgun draft sequence of the T. urartu genome. We identified protein-coding gene models, performed genome structure analyses and assessed its utility for analysing agronomically important genes and for developing molecular markers. Our T. urartu genome assembly provides a diploid reference for analysis of polyploid wheat genomes and is a valuable resource for the genetic improvement of wheat.

  1. Quantitative traits in wheat ( Triticum aestivum L. cv. 'Novosadska ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of the use of different lime rates on the pH values and subsequently on the quantitative traits in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. 'Novosadska rana 5') was investigated on the pseudogley type of soil. Of the quantitative traits in wheat, spike length, number of spikes per m2, grain mass per spike, number of grains per ...

  2. MS26/CYP704B is required for anther and pollen wall development in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and combining mutations in all three homeologs causes male sterility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjit Singh

    Full Text Available Development of anthers and pollen represents an important aspect of the life cycle in flowering plants. Genes contributing to anther and pollen development have been widely studied in many plant species. Ms26/CYP704B genes play an important role in pollen development through biosynthesis of sporopollenin for pollen exine formation. To investigate the role of Ms26/CYP704B genes in anther and pollen development of bread wheat, mutations in the A-, B-, and D-homeologs of the putative Ms26/CYP704B gene were analyzed. Single and double homozygous mutants in any of the homeologs did not affect pollen development and male fertility. Triple homozygous mutants resulted in completely male sterile plants that were defective in pollen and anther development. Additionally, double homozygous-single heterozygous mutants were also male sterile although with varying levels of residual fertility. The fertility of these triple mutants was dependent upon the homeolog contributing the wild-type allele. Two heterologous Ms26/CYP704B genes, when transformed into a triple homozygous mutant background, completely restored male fertility, whereas a single gene was unable to restore fertility. Functional analysis of Ms26/CYP704B furthers the understanding of male fertility genes which can be utilized for the development of novel hybrid seed production systems in wheat.

  3. Molecular characterization of the citrate transporter gene TaMATE1 and expression analysis of upstream genes involved in organic acid transport under Al stress in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Oliveira, Ana Luísa; Martins-Lopes, Paula; Tolrá, Roser; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Tarquis, Marta; Guedes-Pinto, Henrique; Benito, César

    2014-11-01

    In bread wheat, besides malate, the importance of citrate efflux for Al tolerance has also been reported. For better understanding the Al tolerance mechanism in bread wheat, here, we performed both a molecular characterization of the citrate transporter gene TaMATE1 and an investigation on the upstream variations in citrate and malate transporter genes. TaMATE1 belong to multidrug transporter protein family, which are located on the long arm of homoeologous group 4 chromosomes (TaMATE1-4A, TaMATE1-4B TaMATE1-4D). TaMATE1 homoeologues transcript expression study exhibited the preponderance of homoeologue TaMATE1-4B followed by TaMATE1-4D whereas homoeologue TaMATE1-4A seemed to be silenced. TaMATE1, particularly homoeologue TaMATE1-4B and TaALMT1 transcripts were much more expressed in the root apices than in shoots of Al tolerant genotype Barbela 7/72/92 under both control and Al stress conditions. In addition, in both tissues of Barbela 7/72/92, higher basal levels of these gene transcripts were observed than in Anahuac (Al sensitive). Noticeably, the presence of a transposon in the upstream of TaMATE1-4B in Barbela 7/72/92 seems to be responsible for its higher transcript expression where it may confer citrate efflux. Thus, promoter variations (transposon in TaMATE1-4B upstream and type VI promoter in TaALMT1) associated with higher basal transcript expression of TaMATE1-4B and TaALMT1 clearly show how different mechanisms for Al tolerance operate simultaneously in a single genotype. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that Barbela 7/72/92 has favorable alleles for these organic acids transporter genes which could be utilized through genomic assisted selection to develop improved cultivars for acidic soils. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  4. Staling of wheat bread stored in modified atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Have; Hansen, A.

    2001-01-01

    Modified atmosphere packing (MAP) of bread is known to extend the microbial shelf-life. However, the effect of MAP on staling of bread is more questionable, and conflicting results are reported in the literature. To investigate the effect of BT AP, wheat bread was packed in modified atmosphere...... containing 100% CO2 and in a mixture gas of 50% CO2 and 50% N-2, respectively. The control bread was packed in atmospheric air. No significant effects of MAP were found during storage of bread for 7 days at 20 degreesC compared to control bread. when changes in bread firmness and starch retrogradation...... measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used as parameters for the staling rates. Ira addition, no significant differences were obtained in firmness between bread stored in 100% CO,, and in the mixture gas of CO2 and N-2 after 7 and 14 days, respectively. The present study thus...

  5. Buckwheat-enriched wheat bread: National market placement possibilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakač Marijana B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Quality parameters and the possibility of successful placement of buckwheat-enriched wheat bread on the national market are presented in this paper. Analysis of the market position of buckwheat-enriched wheat bread includes demands, offer and competition. Elements that affect the overall retail price of buckwheat-enriched wheat bread are given in details, along with SWOT analysis and marketing plan including target market, market supply and product marketing mix. According to all performed analyses it could be concluded that this product should be positioned on the national market, especially for people with special needs and requirements.

  6. Grain yield and agronomic characteristics of Romanian bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... In this study, fourteen bread wheat varieties, twelve of which were introduced into Turkey from. Romania, were evaluated for grain ... Romanian wheat varieties, to study the associations between yield and yield components, and to determine the most ...... Huerta-Espino J (1994). Rust diseases of wheat. In:.

  7. Transfer of soft kernel texture from Triticum aestivum to durum wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) is a leading cereal grain whose primary use is the production of semolina and then pasta. Its rich culinary relationship to humans is related, in part, to its very hard kernel texture. This very hard texture is due to the loss of the Puroindoline genes whi...

  8. Quality of wholemeal wheat bread enriched with green coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Gawlik-Dziki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific studies have revealed that bioactive components of coffee play a preventive role against various degenerative diseases. Green coffee, in particular, is characterized by its unique composition and properties. The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of green coffee (Coffea arabica beans (GCB addition on the quality and antioxidant properties (AA of the wholemeal bread. For bread preparation, flour form GCB, and wholemeal wheat flour, type 2000 were used. Wholemeal wheat flour was replaced with GCB flour at 1 to 5% levels. Loaf volume, texture, color and sensory properties of bread were determined. Furthermore, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were evaluated. The results showed that bread supplementation with GCB had little influence on the bread volume. The highest volume of bread was obtained with 3 and 4% of GCB flour. The texture properties of bread crumb (hardness, elasticity, cohesiveness and chewiness were slightly changed as a result of the GCB addition. The lightness of bread crumb decreased with the GCB addition (average from 46.3 to 42.6. Besides, the addition of GCB significantly enriched wheat bread with hydrophilic phenolic compounds. The phenolic compounds were highly bioaccessible in vitro. Moreover, the GCB addition enhanced antiradical activity of bread.

  9. ATTEMPT TO APPLY STABILIZED WHEAT GERM FOR BREAD SUPPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Gambuś

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The increased interest in rational nutrition causes, that from many years is observed a growing consumption of bread, and novel food supplemented with health promoting components. For the bread production in Poland mainly wheat and rye cake flours are used, depleted of a many valuable nutrients such as protein, dietary fibre, minerals and vitamins. Because of their unique chemical composition wheat germs are a particularly valuable resource, both for direct consumption and to enhance the nutritional value of food products. The aim of the study was to prepare wheat bread with a 10% addition of commercial stabilized wheat germs. Based on the obtained results, it was found that wheat germs, due to their unique chemical composition, were a particularly valuable resource to supplement the nutritional value of bread. However, germs had detrimental effect on mechanical properties of dough, and on bread quality. Texture of bread crumb and its chemical composition were analysed. It was shown, that germs subjected to fermentation process could be used in wheat bread production as dietary fibre and mineral compound supplement.

  10. Taxonomy Icon Data: bread wheat [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available icum_aestivum_S.png Triticum_aestivum_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Triticum+aesti...vum&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Triticum+aestivum&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy..._icon/icon.cgi?i=Triticum+aestivum&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Triticum+aestivum&t=NS ...

  11. Patterns of homoeologous gene expression shown by RNA sequencing in hexaploid bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leach, Lindsey J; Belfield, Eric J; Jiang, Caifu; Brown, Carly; Mithani, Aziz; Harberd, Nicholas P

    2014-04-11

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) has a large, complex and hexaploid genome consisting of A, B and D homoeologous chromosome sets. Therefore each wheat gene potentially exists as a trio of A, B and D homoeoloci, each of which may contribute differentially to wheat phenotypes. We describe a novel approach combining wheat cytogenetic resources (chromosome substitution 'nullisomic-tetrasomic' lines) with next generation deep sequencing of gene transcripts (RNA-Seq), to directly and accurately identify homoeologue-specific single nucleotide variants and quantify the relative contribution of individual homoeoloci to gene expression. We discover, based on a sample comprising ~5-10% of the total wheat gene content, that at least 45% of wheat genes are expressed from all three distinct homoeoloci. Most of these genes show strikingly biased expression patterns in which expression is dominated by a single homoeolocus. The remaining ~55% of wheat genes are expressed from either one or two homoeoloci only, through a combination of extensive transcriptional silencing and homoeolocus loss. We conclude that wheat is tending towards functional diploidy, through a variety of mechanisms causing single homoeoloci to become the predominant source of gene transcripts. This discovery has profound consequences for wheat breeding and our understanding of wheat evolution.

  12. Patterns of homoeologous gene expression shown by RNA sequencing in hexaploid bread wheat.

    KAUST Repository

    Leach, Lindsey J

    2014-04-11

    BACKGROUND: Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) has a large, complex and hexaploid genome consisting of A, B and D homoeologous chromosome sets. Therefore each wheat gene potentially exists as a trio of A, B and D homoeoloci, each of which may contribute differentially to wheat phenotypes. We describe a novel approach combining wheat cytogenetic resources (chromosome substitution \\'nullisomic-tetrasomic\\' lines) with next generation deep sequencing of gene transcripts (RNA-Seq), to directly and accurately identify homoeologue-specific single nucleotide variants and quantify the relative contribution of individual homoeoloci to gene expression. RESULTS: We discover, based on a sample comprising ~5-10% of the total wheat gene content, that at least 45% of wheat genes are expressed from all three distinct homoeoloci. Most of these genes show strikingly biased expression patterns in which expression is dominated by a single homoeolocus. The remaining ~55% of wheat genes are expressed from either one or two homoeoloci only, through a combination of extensive transcriptional silencing and homoeolocus loss. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that wheat is tending towards functional diploidy, through a variety of mechanisms causing single homoeoloci to become the predominant source of gene transcripts. This discovery has profound consequences for wheat breeding and our understanding of wheat evolution.

  13. Efficacy of various herbicides against weeds in wheat ( Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weeds are one of the most important factors that impose a great threat to the crop yield. In order to alleviate the weeds infestation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), the efficacy of various pre and post-emergence herbicides were tested during Rabi 2009 to 2010 at the Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, ...

  14. Genotype-dependent responses of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Genotype-dependent responses of wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings to drought, UV-B radiation and their combined stresses. ... and ascobate acid, AsA) exhibited differences under the tested stressful conditions in the two genotypes, indicating that they play significant roles in plant responses to these stresses.

  15. Seed-borne mycoflora of local and improved wheat ( Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three varieties each of local and improved wheat (Triticum sativum) cultivars were investigated for seed-borne pathogenic mycoflora using the plate technique and laid on completely randomized design. A total 99 fungal isolate grouped into five fungal species namely; Rhizopus nigricans, Mucor spp, Penillium jenseni, ...

  16. Diallel analysis of anther culture response in wheat ( Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The four wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes differing in their ability to produce embryogenic callus from anther culture were reciprocally crossed and inheritance of anther culture response [callus induction frequency (CIF, %), embryogenic callus induction frequency (ECIF, %), regeneration capacity of callus (RCC, %) ...

  17. The content of buckwheat flour in wheat bread

    OpenAIRE

    Psodorov Đorđe B.; Vujić Đura N.; Ačanski Marijana M.; Pastor Kristian A.; Razmovski Radojka N.; Kravić Snežana Ž.

    2014-01-01

    Seven samples of bread were prepared in a special way. Samples were made of a mixture of wheat and buckwheat flour in defined proportions. Carbohydrates from crumbs of bread were derivatized with BSTFA and analyzed by GC-MS. Multivariate analysis was applied. The purpose of this study was not the identification and quantification of carbohydrate composition. The results demonstrated a clear relation between the carbohydrate composition of the bread samples ...

  18. BREAD QUALITY SUBSTITUTED BY POTATO STARCH INSTEAD OF WHEAT FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nemar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wheat bread constitutes the most regularly consumed food in the World, the international market for wheat undergoes strong pressure and prices are unceasingly increasing. The aim of this study is to substitute wheat flour by potato starch in bread preparation. Mixtures flours were characterized for composition, damaged starch, and Alveograph properties. According to the results of alveograph parameters, they decrease with the rate of incorporation of potato starch. This decrease can be corrected by adding vital gluten. The results of physicochemical analysis showed a decrease in protein levels, an increase in moisture content (about 2% and carbohydrates levels due to the composition of potato starch. However, sensory analysis (p ≤ 0.05 showed that the addition 80% of potato starch leads to bread with better characteristics: taste, colour and odour, based on that, it is highly advisable as an ingredient in the standard preparation of wheat bread.

  19. Food label guide for whole wheat bread (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole grains, like the kind found in whole wheat bread, contain fiber and antioxidants such as Vitamin E and selenium, iron, magnesium, zinc and B vitamins. Fiber is a very beneficial nutrient that ...

  20. Bread Making Potential of Composite Flour of Wheat-Acha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bread-making potentials of composite flours containing 90% wheat and 10% acha enriched with 0-15% cowpea flour were investigated. Proximate composition and functional properties of the blends were studied using AOAC standard methods. Bread loaves were prepared from the blends using the straight dough method ...

  1. Wheat-based traditional flat breads of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parimala, K R; Sudha, M L

    2015-01-01

    Wheat forms the basic ingredient for various bakery and traditional products. Wheat-based flat breads are one of the traditional products prepared in different parts of the world. Different regions of the world have inherited different preparation methods since time immemorial, which has led to the existence of traditional flat breads'. Being traditional, only a few have been extensively studied scientifically. India, being the second largest producer of wheat, has a great saga of traditional flat breads with different tastes and texture. This review is a compiled information related to the research studies carried out on some of the wheat-based traditional flat breads of India namely chapati, puri, tandoori roti, parantha (whole-wheat flour based) and parotta, naan, bhatura, kulcha (refined wheat flour based) which indicates the magnitude of attention they have drawn among the food scientists. The review delves upon the developments and improvements brought about in the storage stability and realization of large-scale production of few of these flat breads which has helped considerably to cater to the growing demand in the domestic as well as international markets. The review also indicates the possibility and the tremendous scope available for technological developments for traditional flat breads.

  2. Buckwheat and quinoa seeds as supplements in wheat bread production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Mirjana A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the nutritional characteristics of wheat bread with the bread produced of wheat flour supplemented with quinoa and buckwheat seeds. Bread making properties of these blends were analyzed in order to investigate their ability to make moulded bread. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Will. and buckwheat seeds were grown in the vicinity of Belgrade, Serbia. The addition of pseudocereal seeds (at levels of 30% and 40% and a selected technological process, which included hydrothermal preparation of supplements, resulted with a valuable effect on nutritive value of breads. In comparison with the wheat bread that was used as control sample, the protein increase of 2% and the increase of crude fiber content at around 0.5% in 30% supplemented breads were registered. Furthermore, the incorporation of both seeds mixture at the level of 40%, increased the content of protein for 2.5% and fiber content for 0.4%. In regard to the starch, fat, and ash contents there were no major differences. The investigated breads were nutritionally superior to the wheat bread. Chemical composition of the selected seeds was also investigated. The results showed that the blends containing either 30% or 40% of selected seeds expressed high potential for the production of molded breads, as new baking products with enhanced nutritional composition. The applied technological procedure was modified in such way that for all blended combination of supplements it changed rheological properties of dough. Furthermore, it resulted in a good volume of breads with excellent sensory properties of aroma-odor and taste.

  3. Aroma of wheat porridge and bread-crumb is influenced by the wheat variety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starr, Gerrard; Hansen, Åse Solvej; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2015-01-01

    evaluation, from these eight were selected for bread evaluation. Porridge and bread results were compared. Variations were found in both evaluations. Five odour- and nine flavour descriptors were found to be common to both wheat porridge and bread. The results for two descriptors: "cocoa" and "oat porridge......" were correlated between the wheat porridge and bread samples. Analysis of whole-meal and low-extraction samples revealed that the descriptors "malt", "oat-porridge", "øllebrød", "cocoa" and "grain" mostly characterized wheat bran, while descriptors for "maize", "bean-shoots", "chamomile", "umami...

  4. Effects of Boron Fertilization on the Yield and Some Yield Components of Bread and Durum Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNEŞ, Aydın; ALPASLAN, Mehmet; İNAL, Ali

    2014-01-01

    A greenhouse and a 1-year field study were conducted during the cropping season on the effects of B on yield and some yield components of bread (Triticum aestivum L, cv. Bezostaja) and durum (Triticum durum L. cv. Kiziltan) wheat cultivars in a B-deficient soil (0.68 mg kg-1, NH4OAc extractable). Boron was applied as H3BO3 at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mg B kg-1 in the greenhouse study and 0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 kg B ha-1 in the field study. Shoot dry weights of Bezostaja and Kizilt...

  5. Quality Characteristics of bread made from Wheat and Fluted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bread fortified with fluted pumpkin seed flour was made; the seeds of fluted pumpkin were extracted and processed into raw dried flour. Appropriate quantities of wheat and fluted pumpkin flour (on dry weight basis) were measured and mixed to give the following blends, 90:10, 80:20, 60:40, 50:50, wheat/fluted pumpkin ...

  6. CD 122 - Bread wheat, suitable for cultivation across southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Franco

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The cultivar CD 122 was tested in the wheat-producing regions VCU 1, 2 and 3, with an average grain yield of 3,527 kg ha-1 when fungicide-treated, exceeding the average of the control cultivars by 5%. CD 122 is resistant to leaf rust and was classified as bread wheat.

  7. Starch and protein analysis of wheat bread enriched with phenolics-rich sprouted wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Michał; Dziki, Dariusz; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2017-08-01

    Wheat flour in the bread formula was replaced with sprouted wheat flour (SF) characterized by enhanced nutraceutical properties, at 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% levels. The addition of SF slightly increased the total protein content; however, it decreased their digestibility. Some qualitative and quantitative changes in the electrophoretic pattern of proteins were also observed; especially, in the bands corresponding with 27kDa and 15-17kDa proteins. These results were also confirmed by SE-HPLC technique, where a significant increase in the content of proteins and peptides (molecular masses breads with 20% of SF. Bread enriched with sprouted wheat flour had more resistant starch, but less total starch, compared to control bread. The highest in vitro starch digestibility was determined for the control bread. The studied bread with lowered nutritional value but increased nutritional quality can be used for special groups of consumers (obese, diabetic). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Homoeologous recombination-based transfer and molecular cytogenetic mapping of a wheat streak mosaic virus and Triticum mosaic virus resistance gene Wsm3 from Thinopyrum intermedium to wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilova, Tatiana V; Zhang, Guorong; Liu, Wenxuan; Friebe, Bernd; Gill, Bikram S

    2017-03-01

    Here, we report the production of a wheat- Thinopyrum intermedium recombinant stock conferring resistance to wheat streak mosaic virus and Triticum mosaic virus. Wheat streak mosaic caused by the wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) is an important disease of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) worldwide. To date, only three genes conferring resistance to WSMV have been named and two, Wsm1 and Wsm3, were derived from the distantly related wild relative Thinopyrum intermedium. Wsm3 is only available in the form of a compensating wheat-Th. intermedium whole-arm Robertsonian translocation T7BS·7S#3L. Whole-arm alien transfers usually suffer from linkage drag, which prevents their use in cultivar improvement. Here, we report ph1b-induced homoeologous recombination to shorten the Th. intermedium segment and recover a recombinant chromosome consisting of the short arm of wheat chromosome 7B, part of the long arm of 7B, and the distal 43% of the long arm derived from the Th. intermedium chromosome arm 7S#3L. The recombinant chromosome T7BS·7BL-7S#3L confers resistance to WSMV at 18 and 24 °C and also confers resistance to Triticum mosaic virus, but only at 18 °C. Wsm3 is the only gene conferring resistance to WSMV at a high temperature level of 24 °C. We also developed a user-friendly molecular marker that will allow to monitor the transfer of Wsm3 in breeding programs. Wsm3 is presently being transferred to adapted hard red winter wheat cultivars and can be used directly in wheat improvement.

  9. Pilot Study: Comparison of Sourdough Wheat Bread and Yeast-Fermented Wheat Bread in Individuals with Wheat Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laatikainen, Reijo; Koskenpato, Jari; Hongisto, Sanna-Maria; Loponen, Jussi; Poussa, Tuija; Huang, Xin; Sontag-Strohm, Tuula; Salmenkari, Hanne; Korpela, Riitta

    2017-01-01

    Many patients suspect wheat as being a major trigger of their irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. Our aim was to evaluate whether sourdough wheat bread baked without baking improvers and using a long dough fermentation time (>12 h), would result in lower quantities of alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATIs) and Fermentable, Oligo-, Di-, Mono-saccharides and Polyols (FODMAPs), and would be better tolerated than yeast-fermented wheat bread for subjects with IBS who have a poor subjective tolerance to wheat. The study was conducted as a randomised double-blind controlled 7-day study (n = 26). Tetrameric ATI structures were unravelled in both breads vs. baking flour, but the overall reduction in ATIs to their monomeric form was higher in the sourdough bread group. Sourdough bread was also lower in FODMAPs. However, no significant differences in gastrointestinal symptoms and markers of low-grade inflammation were found between the study breads. There were significantly more feelings of tiredness, joint symptoms, and decreased alertness when the participants ate the sourdough bread (p ≤ 0.03), but these results should be interpreted with caution. Our novel finding was that sourdough baking reduces the quantities of both ATIs and FODMAPs found in wheat. Nonetheless, the sourdough bread was not tolerated better than the yeast-fermented bread. PMID:29113045

  10. Pilot Study: Comparison of Sourdough Wheat Bread and Yeast-Fermented Wheat Bread in Individuals with Wheat Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reijo Laatikainen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Many patients suspect wheat as being a major trigger of their irritable bowel syndrome (IBS symptoms. Our aim was to evaluate whether sourdough wheat bread baked without baking improvers and using a long dough fermentation time (>12 h, would result in lower quantities of alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATIs and Fermentable, Oligo-, Di-, Mono-saccharides and Polyols (FODMAPs, and would be better tolerated than yeast-fermented wheat bread for subjects with IBS who have a poor subjective tolerance to wheat. The study was conducted as a randomised double-blind controlled 7-day study (n = 26. Tetrameric ATI structures were unravelled in both breads vs. baking flour, but the overall reduction in ATIs to their monomeric form was higher in the sourdough bread group. Sourdough bread was also lower in FODMAPs. However, no significant differences in gastrointestinal symptoms and markers of low-grade inflammation were found between the study breads. There were significantly more feelings of tiredness, joint symptoms, and decreased alertness when the participants ate the sourdough bread (p ≤ 0.03, but these results should be interpreted with caution. Our novel finding was that sourdough baking reduces the quantities of both ATIs and FODMAPs found in wheat. Nonetheless, the sourdough bread was not tolerated better than the yeast-fermented bread.

  11. Analysis of the bread wheat genome using whole-genome shotgun sequencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenchley, Rachel; Spannagl, Manuel; Pfeifer, Matthias; Barker, Gary L A; D'Amore, Rosalinda; Allen, Alexandra M; McKenzie, Neil; Kramer, Melissa; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Bolser, Dan; Kay, Suzanne; Waite, Darren; Trick, Martin; Bancroft, Ian; Gu, Yong; Huo, Naxin; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Sehgal, Sunish; Gill, Bikram; Kianian, Sharyar; Anderson, Olin; Kersey, Paul; Dvorak, Jan; McCombie, W Richard; Hall, Anthony; Mayer, Klaus F X; Edwards, Keith J; Bevan, Michael W; Hall, Neil

    2012-11-29

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a globally important crop, accounting for 20 per cent of the calories consumed by humans. Major efforts are underway worldwide to increase wheat production by extending genetic diversity and analysing key traits, and genomic resources can accelerate progress. But so far the very large size and polyploid complexity of the bread wheat genome have been substantial barriers to genome analysis. Here we report the sequencing of its large, 17-gigabase-pair, hexaploid genome using 454 pyrosequencing, and comparison of this with the sequences of diploid ancestral and progenitor genomes. We identified between 94,000 and 96,000 genes, and assigned two-thirds to the three component genomes (A, B and D) of hexaploid wheat. High-resolution synteny maps identified many small disruptions to conserved gene order. We show that the hexaploid genome is highly dynamic, with significant loss of gene family members on polyploidization and domestication, and an abundance of gene fragments. Several classes of genes involved in energy harvesting, metabolism and growth are among expanded gene families that could be associated with crop productivity. Our analyses, coupled with the identification of extensive genetic variation, provide a resource for accelerating gene discovery and improving this major crop.

  12. Genotype x Environment interaction for antioxidants and phytic acid contents in bread and durum wheat as influenced by climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Brankovic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants prevent oxidative stress and exert positive health effects. However, phytic acid among them decreases micronutrients absorption, representing also antinutrient to human and non-ruminant animals. Fifteen bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and 15 durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. genotypes were evaluated across six environments to determine contents of phytic acid (PA, inorganic P (Pi, total yellow pigment, total soluble phenolic compounds, free protein sulfhydryl groups (PSH, and also phytic acid P/Pi (Pp/Pi. The objective of this study was to quantify, for each trait the effects of environment, genotype, and their interaction; and the influence of climatic factors on the Genotype x Environment interaction (GEI by the use of the factorial regression. GEI (P < 0.001 prevailed as source of variation over genotype (P < 0.001 in determining PA content in bread and durum wheat (44.3% and 34.7% of sum of squares-SS, respectively, PSH content in bread and durum wheat (27% and 28.4% of SS, respectively and total soluble phenolic compounds content in durum wheat (35.5% of SS. The major contribution to the GEI represented climatic variables during stages of stem elongation for PA and phenolic compounds, and also flowering, fertilization, grain formation and grain filling for PSH. Total yellow pigment and Pi contents in bread and durum wheat were predominantly determined by genotype (P < 0.001. Models of climatic variables proved to be efficient in the explanation of more than 92% of the SS of GEI for PA and antioxidants contents.

  13. Leveraging from genotype by environment interaction for bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Developing high yielding and stable genotypes for wide and specific adaptation is important in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production. The objective of this study was to exploit the gains from genotype by environment interaction for increased bread wheat production in eastern Africa. Thirty-three advanced bread wheat ...

  14. Use of Avocado (Persea americana M. Paste in Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Man

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bread is the staple food for most people around the world, it being consumed since ancient times. Because of it’s major importance in the diet, over the last years, the trend of enrich the nutritional quality was developed, by replacing the chemical fortification of foods with an intake of bioactive compounds from fruits, vegetables and cereals. The avocado is useful in human nutrition as a source of various nutrients and especially as source of energy and monounsaturated fatty acids. This paper belongs to a more complex study, which aiming the evaluation of enriched bread for breakfast prepared with an addition of avocado paste (12% as a source of biologically active components in nutrition. Bread produced from 100% wheat flour served as the control. The seasoned bread for breakfast and the control samples were subjected to physico-chemical and organoleptic analyses. Addition of avocado paste (AP in bread has improved physicochemical and sensory attributes.

  15. Nutritional properties of einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, Alyssa; Brandolini, Andrea

    2014-03-15

    The hulled wheat einkorn (Triticum monococcum L. ssp. monococcum), a staple food of early farmers for many thousand years, today is cropped only in small areas of the Mediterranean region and continental Europe. Increasing attention to the nutritional quality of foods has fostered renewed interest in this low-impact crop. The reappraisal of einkorn quality evidenced that this ancient wheat has some dietary advantages over polyploid wheats. Einkorn wholemeal is poor in dietary fibre but rich in proteins, lipids (mostly unsaturated fatty acids), fructans and trace elements (including zinc and iron). The good concentration of several antioxidant compounds (carotenoids, tocols, conjugated polyphenols, alkylresorcinols and phytosterols) and low β-amylase and lipoxygenase activities (which limit antioxidant degradation during food processing) contribute to the excellent nutritional properties of its flour, superior to those of other wheats. Conversely, einkorn has relatively low bound polyphenol content and high polyphenol oxidase activity. In spite of eliciting weaker toxic reactions than other Triticum species, einkorn is not suitable for coeliacs. Current trends towards the consumption of functional foods suggest that this cereal may still play a significant role in human consumption, especially in the development of new or special foods with superior nutritional quality. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Classifying Ethiopian Tetraploid Wheat ( Triticum turgidum L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty five accessions of Ethiopian tetraploid wheat (T. turgidum L.) landraces were grown in the greenhouse at IFA Tulln, Austria during spring 2009 for DNA extraction. The same accessions were already grown in spring 2008 at BOKU Vienna, Austraia for their phenotypical characterisation. DNA was extracted from each ...

  17. The content of buckwheat flour in wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psodorov Đorđe B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven samples of bread were prepared in a special way. Samples were made of a mixture of wheat and buckwheat flour in defined proportions. Carbohydrates from crumbs of bread were derivatized with BSTFA and analyzed by GC-MS. Multivariate analysis was applied. The purpose of this study was not the identification and quantification of carbohydrate composition. The results demonstrated a clear relation between the carbohydrate composition of the bread samples and the type of flour used for their production.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31066 i br. III 46005

  18. Allelic variation of HMW glutenin subunits of Ethiopian bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High molecular weight glutenins are often effective in identifying wheat (Triticum aestivum) genotypes with good baking quality. The high molecular weight glutenin subunit composition of Ethiopian cultivars and advanced lines was investigated to determine their influence on quality. Three alleles at Glu-A1, five at Glu-B1 ...

  19. Heterotic performance of quality characteristics of bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heterosis has made a significant contribution to the improvement of many crops regarding yield, quality and resistance to pests. The low wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) productivity in Lesotho has necessitated exploitation of heterosis in commercial cultivars. Heterotic performance of 38 F1 and F2 progenies from 5 x 5 diallel ...

  20. Acrylamide-asparagine relationship in baked/toasted wheat and rye breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granby, Kit; Nielsen, Nikoline Juul; Hedegaard, Rikke V; Christensen, Tue; Kann, Mette; Skibsted, Leif H

    2008-08-01

    Acrylamide in baked and toasted wheat and rye bread was studied in relation to levels of asparagine in flour, dough, bread and toasts. Asparagine was consumed during bread preparation resulting in reduced acrylamide content in the products. In wheat bread, 12% of the asparagine initially present in the flour (0.14 g kg(-1)) remained after yeast fermentation and baking; for rye bread, 82% of asparagine remained after sourdough fermentation and baking. Asparagine present in untoasted wheat bread had totally reacted after hard toasting. Toasted wheat and rye bread slices contained 11-161 and 27-205 microg kg(-1) acrylamide, respectively, compared to untoasted wheat and rye bread with toasted bread.

  1. Effect of microparticulated wheat bran on the physical properties of bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Bum-Keun; Cho, Ah-Ra; Chun, Yong-Gi; Park, Dong-June

    2013-02-01

    Wheat bran and flour mixtures were used in a bread formulation to improve its quality characteristics. Wheat bran was microparticulated using a jet mill, and this microparticulated wheat bran (MWB) was substituted for a portion of wheat flour. As the MWB content increased, water-holding capacity, hardness and springiness increased while the swelling property decreased slightly. The hardness of bread containing MWB was lower than that made with commercial whole wheat flour (WWF). Bread containing 7% MWB had a higher specific volume (8.3%) than that of WWF bread. Enthalpy of dough decreased with increasing MWB content, and peak viscosity and breakdown decreased with increasing setback. Inner crust structures of bread containing MWB showed a slight reduction in gelatinization and gluten development in comparison with wheat bread. These results indicate that MWB could be used as a diet-enriching bread ingredient while maintaining bread quality.

  2. Bread Wheat Quality: Some Physical, Chemical and Rheological Characteristics of Syrian and English Bread Wheat Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abboud Al-Saleh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between breadmaking quality, kernel properties (physical and chemical, and dough rheology were investigated using flours from six genotypes of Syrian wheat lines, comprising both commercially grown cultivars and advanced breeding lines. Genotypes were grown in 2008/2009 season in irrigated plots in the Eastern part of Syria. Grain samples were evaluated for vitreousness, test weight, 1000-kernel weight and then milled and tested for protein content, ash, and water content. Dough rheology of the samples was studied by the determination of the mixing time, stability, weakness, resistance and the extensibility of the dough. Loaf baking quality was evaluated by the measurement of the specific weight, resilience and firmness in addition to the sensory analysis. A comparative study between the six Syrian wheat genotypes and two English flour samples was conducted. Significant differences were observed among Syrian genotypes in vitreousness (69.3%–95.0%, 1000-kernel weight (35.2–46.9 g and the test weight (82.2–88.0 kg/hL. All samples exhibited high falling numbers (346 to 417 s for the Syrian samples and 285 and 305 s for the English flours. A significant positive correlation was exhibited between the protein content of the flour and its absorption of water (r = 0.84 **, as well as with the vitreousness of the kernel (r = 0.54 *. Protein content was also correlated with dough stability (r = 0.86 **, extensibility (r = 0.8 **, and negatively correlated with dough weakness (r = −0.69 **. Bread firmness and dough weakness were positively correlated (r = 0.66 **. Sensory analysis indicated Doumah-2 was the best appreciated whilst Doumah 40765 and 46055 were the least appreciated which may suggest their suitability for biscuit preparation rather than bread making.

  3. Discrimination of volatiles of refined and whole wheat bread containing red and white wheat bran using an electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapirstein, Harry D; Siddhu, Silvi; Aliani, Michel

    2012-11-01

    The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the capability of electronic (E) nose technology to discriminate refined and whole wheat bread made with white or red wheat bran according to their headspace volatiles. Whole wheat flour was formulated with a common refined flour from hard red spring wheat, blended at the 15% replacement level with bran milled from representative samples of one hard red and 2 hard white wheats. A commercial formula was used for breadmaking. Results varied according to the nature of the sample, that is, crust, crumb, or whole slices. Bread crust and crumb were completely discriminated. Crumb of whole wheat bread made with red bran was distinct from other bread types. When misclassified, whole wheat bread crumb with white bran was almost invariably identified as refined flour bread crumb. Using crust as the basis for comparisons, the largest difference in volatiles was between refined flour bread and whole wheat bread as a group. When refined flour bread crust was misclassified, samples tended to be confused with whole white wheat crust. Samples prepared from whole bread slices were poorly discriminated in general. E-nose results indicated that whole wheat bread formulated with white bran was more similar in volatile makeup to refined flour bread compared to whole wheat bread made with red bran. The E-nose appears to be very capable to accommodate differentiation of bread volatiles whose composition varies due to differences in flour or bran type. Consumer preference of bread made using refined flour in contrast to whole wheat flour is partly due to the different aroma of whole wheat bread. This study used an electronic nose to analyze bread volatiles, and showed that whole wheat bread incorporating white bran was different from counterpart bread made using red bran, and was closer in volatile makeup to "white" bread made without bran. Commercial millers and bakers can take advantage of these results to formulate whole wheat flour

  4. Comparison of Leaf Sheath Transcriptome Profiles with Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuminori Takahashi

    Full Text Available Salinity stress has significant negative effects on plant biomass production and crop yield. Salinity tolerance is controlled by complex systems of gene expression and ion transport. The relationship between specific features of mild salinity stress adaptation and gene expression was analyzed using four commercial varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum that have different levels of salinity tolerance. The high-throughput phenotyping system in The Plant Accelerator at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility revealed variation in shoot relative growth rate and salinity tolerance among the four cultivars. Comparative analysis of gene expression in the leaf sheaths identified genes whose functions are potentially linked to shoot biomass development and salinity tolerance. Early responses to mild salinity stress through changes in gene expression have an influence on the acquisition of stress tolerance and improvement in biomass accumulation during the early "osmotic" phase of salinity stress. In addition, results revealed transcript profiles for the wheat cultivars that were different from those of usual stress-inducible genes, but were related to those of plant growth. These findings suggest that, in the process of breeding, selection of specific traits with various salinity stress-inducible genes in commercial bread wheat has led to adaptation to mild salinity conditions.

  5. Comparison of Leaf Sheath Transcriptome Profiles with Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress

    KAUST Repository

    Takahashi, Fuminori

    2015-08-05

    Salinity stress has significant negative effects on plant biomass production and crop yield. Salinity tolerance is controlled by complex systems of gene expression and ion transport. The relationship between specific features of mild salinity stress adaptation and gene expression was analyzed using four commercial varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) that have different levels of salinity tolerance. The high-throughput phenotyping system in The Plant Accelerator at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility revealed variation in shoot relative growth rate and salinity tolerance among the four cultivars. Comparative analysis of gene expression in the leaf sheaths identified genes whose functions are potentially linked to shoot biomass development and salinity tolerance. Early responses to mild salinity stress through changes in gene expression have an influence on the acquisition of stress tolerance and improvement in biomass accumulation during the early “osmotic” phase of salinity stress. In addition, results revealed transcript profiles for the wheat cultivars that were different from those of usual stress-inducible genes, but were related to those of plant growth. These findings suggest that, in the process of breeding, selection of specific traits with various salinity stress-inducible genes in commercial bread wheat has led to adaptation to mild salinity conditions.

  6. Comparison of Leaf Sheath Transcriptome Profiles with Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trittermann, Christine; Berger, Bettina; Roy, Stuart J.; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Tester, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress has significant negative effects on plant biomass production and crop yield. Salinity tolerance is controlled by complex systems of gene expression and ion transport. The relationship between specific features of mild salinity stress adaptation and gene expression was analyzed using four commercial varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) that have different levels of salinity tolerance. The high-throughput phenotyping system in The Plant Accelerator at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility revealed variation in shoot relative growth rate and salinity tolerance among the four cultivars. Comparative analysis of gene expression in the leaf sheaths identified genes whose functions are potentially linked to shoot biomass development and salinity tolerance. Early responses to mild salinity stress through changes in gene expression have an influence on the acquisition of stress tolerance and improvement in biomass accumulation during the early “osmotic” phase of salinity stress. In addition, results revealed transcript profiles for the wheat cultivars that were different from those of usual stress-inducible genes, but were related to those of plant growth. These findings suggest that, in the process of breeding, selection of specific traits with various salinity stress-inducible genes in commercial bread wheat has led to adaptation to mild salinity conditions. PMID:26244554

  7. Comparison of Leaf Sheath Transcriptome Profiles with Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Fuminori; Tilbrook, Joanne; Trittermann, Christine; Berger, Bettina; Roy, Stuart J; Seki, Motoaki; Shinozaki, Kazuo; Tester, Mark

    2015-01-01

    Salinity stress has significant negative effects on plant biomass production and crop yield. Salinity tolerance is controlled by complex systems of gene expression and ion transport. The relationship between specific features of mild salinity stress adaptation and gene expression was analyzed using four commercial varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) that have different levels of salinity tolerance. The high-throughput phenotyping system in The Plant Accelerator at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility revealed variation in shoot relative growth rate and salinity tolerance among the four cultivars. Comparative analysis of gene expression in the leaf sheaths identified genes whose functions are potentially linked to shoot biomass development and salinity tolerance. Early responses to mild salinity stress through changes in gene expression have an influence on the acquisition of stress tolerance and improvement in biomass accumulation during the early "osmotic" phase of salinity stress. In addition, results revealed transcript profiles for the wheat cultivars that were different from those of usual stress-inducible genes, but were related to those of plant growth. These findings suggest that, in the process of breeding, selection of specific traits with various salinity stress-inducible genes in commercial bread wheat has led to adaptation to mild salinity conditions.

  8. Production of haploid plants from ten hybrids of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. through wide hybridization with maize (Zea mays L. Producción de plantas haploides a partir de 10 híbridos de trigo para pan (Triticum aestivum L. mediante hibridación interespecífica con maíz (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E. Torres

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to obtain haploid plants of bread wheat through wide hybridization with maize. The experimental material included ten bread wheat hybrids (female parent and one population of maize (pollen donor. Two assays were carried out in two different seasons (summer and winter. Wheat spikes were manually emasculated, each spike was pollinated twice with fresh pollen of maize and a solution of 2,4-D (100 mg l-1 was sprayed on pollinated florets and injected in the upper internode. Fifteen and 21 days after pollination caryopses were removed and surface sterilized. Embryos were cultured in tubes containing B5 medium. The ten hybrid combinations produced caryopses, but only eight of these hybrids produced embryos and, in six of them, the recovered embryos developed into haploid plantlets. The results showed that there is genotypic influence of the wheat parents on the percentage of haploid embryo formation, in accordance with the results obtained by other authors. Regardless of the genotype, the sowing season and the harvest date, 69.4% of the pollinated flowers gave place to the formation of caryopses, 5.5% of these caryopses developed into presumably haploid embryos (for their morphological phenotypes and 26.1 % of the recovered embryos developed into haploid plantlets.El objetivo del presente trabajo fue obtener plantas haploides de trigo para pan mediante hibridación interespecífica con maíz. Se utilizaron 10 híbridos de trigo para pan (madre y una población de maíz (donante de polen; se llevaron a cabo dos ensayos en distintas estaciones de cultivo. Cada espiga de trigo fue emasculada manualmente y polinizada dos veces con polen fresco de maíz; las flores polinizadas se pulverizaron con una solución de 2,4-D (100 mg l-1, la que también se inyectó en la base de la espiga. Las semillas se cosecharon a los 15 y 21 días posteriores a la polinización. Los embriones recuperados se colocaron en tubos conteniendo medio de

  9. The Na+ transporter, TaHKT1;5-D, limits shoot Na+ accumulation in bread wheat

    KAUST Repository

    Byrt, Caitlin Siobhan

    2014-10-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has a major salt tolerance locus, Kna1, responsible for the maintenance of a high cytosolic K+/Na+ ratio in the leaves of salt stressed plants. The Kna1 locus encompasses a large DNA fragment, the distal 14% of chromosome 4DL. Limited recombination has been observed at this locus making it difficult to map genetically and identify the causal gene. Here, we decipher the function of TaHKT1;5-D, a candidate gene underlying the Kna1 locus. Transport studies using the heterologous expression systems Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that TaHKT1;5-D is a Na+-selective transporter. Transient expression in Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll protoplasts and in situ polymerase chain reaction indicated that TaHKT1;5-D is localised on the plasma membrane in the wheat root stele. RNA interference-induced silencing decreased the expression of TaHKT1;5-D in transgenic bread wheat lines which led to an increase in the Na+ concentration in the leaves. This indicates that TaHKT1;5-D retrieves Na+ from the xylem vessels in the root and has an important role in restricting the transport of Na+ from the root to the leaves in bread wheat. Thus, TaHKT1;5-D confers the essential salinity tolerance mechanism in bread wheat associated with the Kna1 locus via shoot Na+ exclusion and is critical in maintaining a high K+/Na+ ratio in the leaves. These findings show there is potential to increase the salinity tolerance of bread wheat by manipulation of HKT1;5 genes.

  10. Effects of Bread Making and Wheat Germ Addition on the Natural Deoxynivalenol Content in Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Isabel; Blesa, Jesús; Herrera, Marta; Ariño, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is a type-B trichothecene mycotoxin produced by several field fungi such as Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum and known to have various toxic effects. This study investigated the effect of the bread making process on the stability of DON in common bread and wheat germ-enriched bread using naturally contaminated ingredients at the level of 560 µg/kg. The concentration of DON and its evolution during bread making were determined by immunoaffinity column cleanup followed by liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). During the bread making process, DON was reduced by 2.1% after fermentation and dropped by 7.1% after baking, reaching a maximum reduction of 19.8% in the crust as compared with a decrease of 5.6% in the crumb. The addition of 15% wheat germ to the dough did not affect DON stability during bread making, showing an apparent increase of 3.5% after fermentation and a reduction by 10.2% after baking. PMID:24451845

  11. Nudging children towards whole wheat bread: a field experiment on the influence of fun bread roll shape on breakfast consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Ellen; Vrijhof, Milou; Polet, Ilse A; Vingerhoeds, Monique H; de Wijk, René A

    2014-09-02

    Many children do not eat enough whole grains, which may have negative health consequences. Intervention research is increasingly focusing on nudging as a way to influence food choices by affecting unconscious behavioural processes. The aim of this field study was to examine whether the shape of bread rolls is able to shift children's bread choices from white to whole wheat during breakfast to increase whole grain intake. In a between-subjects experiment conducted at twelve primary schools in the Netherlands, with school as the unit of condition assignment, children were exposed to an assortment of white and whole wheat bread rolls, both varying in shape (regular versus fun). Children were free to choose the type and number of bread rolls and toppings to eat during breakfast. Consumption of bread rolls was measured at class level via the number of bread rolls before and after breakfast. In addition, children (N = 1113) responded to a survey including questions about the breakfast. Results of the field experiment showed that about 76% of bread consumption consisted of white bread rolls. Consumption of white bread rolls did not differ according to shape (all P-values > 0.18). However, presenting fun-shaped whole wheat bread rolls almost doubled consumption of whole wheat bread (P = 0.001), particularly when the simultaneously presented white bread rolls had a regular shape (interaction P = 0.02). Survey results suggest that slight increases in perceived pleasure and taste are associated with these effects. Overall, presenting whole wheat bread in fun shapes may be helpful in increasing consumption of whole wheat bread in children. Future research could examine how improving the visual appeal of healthy foods may lead to sustained behaviour changes.

  12. Chemical Composition and Nutritional Value of Emmer Wheat (Triticum dicoccon Schrank: a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika ČURNÁ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Cereals represent the most important group of crops in the structure of plant production from the economic and agronomic point of view. Cereals are widely consumed and are a valuable sources of delivering components with biological activity to humans. They are one of the most abundant sources of protein and energy and are consumed as bread – a major staple food – in most countries throughout the world. The cultivated hulled wheats emmer, einkorn, and spelt, are among the most ancient Triticeae cultivated in the world and have long represented a staple food. However, the move in recent years toward more natural foods and sustainable agriculture and the rediscovery of ancient foods and flavours have brought renewed interest in these neglected species. Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccon Schrank is rich in resistant starch, minerals, fibre, carotenoids, antioxidant compounds, and poor in fats; it has been recognized as a very healthy cereal and is recommended in the diet for people suffering from allergies, colitis, diabetes and high blood cholesterol. For these reasons, research activities and selection programs are being conducted to assess the genetic, agronomic, nutritional and technological properties of emmer wheat. The main results of studies and the knowledge acquired about the chemical and nutritional composition (protein content, digestible carbohydrates, dietary fibre, lipids, vitamins, and minerals are reviewed in this paper.

  13. Effects of selected composite wheat flours on bread baking quality ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of selected composite wheat flours on bread baking quality. M Bhattacharjee, JO Othira, JK Wanjama, JO Maina. Abstract. No Abstract. Discovery and Innovation Vol. 18(2) 2006: 98-103. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  14. Optimisation of wheat-sprouted soybean flour bread using response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... 2005). With appropriate process optimization, breads with acceptable quality can be made with the addition of non- traditional ingredients (Siddiq et al, 2009). Wheat is a good source of calories and other nutrients but its protein is of lower nutritional quality than milk, soy, pea and lupin proteins as its protein ...

  15. Quality assessment of flour and bread from sweet potato wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to assess the quality of the flour and bread produced from sweet potato wheat composite flour blends. Matured and freshly harvested sweet potato (Ipomea batatas L.) was obtained from a local market in Akure, Nigeria. The tubers were thoroughly washed, peeled, washed again, drained, chipped, oven dried, ...

  16. Grain yield and agronomic characteristics of Romanian bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, fourteen bread wheat varieties, twelve of which were introduced into Turkey from Romania, were evaluated for grain yield and seven agronomic properties in Biga, Çanakkale in northwest part of Turkey in 2005 - 2006 and 2006 - 2007 growing seasons. The objectives of the research, carried out in a completely ...

  17. Intergenic spacer length variants in Old Portuguese bread wheat ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This study provides an event of high level of polymorphism / size variation and occurrence of 14 unique phenotypes in 48 landraces of Portuguese bread wheat cultivars for IGS-amplified products obtained by PCR-RFLP technique performed with TaqI. The attendant IGS polymorphism has been used to deduce affinities ...

  18. Optimisation of wheat-sprouted soybean flour bread using response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sprouted soybean flour on wheat bread was studied. Sprouting significantly increased the vitamin C content of soybean flour from 2.0 mg kg-1 to 3.25 mg kg-1. The sprouted soybean flour resulted in increased loaf volume, a firmer, spongy and more elastic loaf. However, increasing the sprouted soybean flour ...

  19. Response of bread wheat to increasing mustard meal nitrogen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mustard seed meal was evaluated on the field as source of nitrogen for bread wheat on Pellic Vertisol and Eutric Nitosol in a split plot design with three replications. Highly significant yield increases were obtained due to mustard meal nitrogen rates during all the experimental periods on the Vertisol. The increase in the ...

  20. Organic cultivation of Triticum turgidum subsp. durum is reflected in the flour-sourdough fermentation-bread axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Cavoski, Ivana; Turk, Jelena; Ercolini, Danilo; Nionelli, Luana; Pontonio, Erica; De Angelis, Maria; De Filippis, Francesca; Gobbetti, Marco; Di Cagno, Raffaella

    2015-05-01

    Triticum turgidum subsp. durum was grown according to four farming systems: conventional (CONV), organic with cow manure (OMAN) or green manure (OLEG), and without inputs (NOINPUT). Some chemical and technological characteristics differed between CONV and organic flours. As shown by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis, OMAN and OLEG flours showed the highest number of gliadins, and OMAN flour also had the highest number of high-molecular-mass glutenins. Type I sourdoughs were prepared at the laboratory level through a back-slopping procedure, and the bacterial ecology during sourdough preparation was described by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Before fermentation, the dough made with CONV flour showed the highest bacterial diversity. Flours were variously contaminated by genera belonging to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Mature sourdoughs were completely and stably dominated by lactic acid bacteria. The diversity of Firmicutes was the highest for mature sourdoughs made with organic and, especially, NOINPUT flours. Beta diversity analysis based on the weighted UniFrac distance showed differences between doughs and sourdoughs. Those made with CONV flour were separated from the other with organic flours. Lactic acid bacterium microbiota structure was qualitatively confirmed through the culturing method. As shown by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, yeasts belonging to the genera Saccharomyces, Candida, Kazachstania, and Rhodotorula occurred in all sourdoughs. Levels of bound phenolic acids and phytase and antioxidant activities differed depending on the farming system. Mature sourdoughs were used for bread making. Technological characteristics were superior in the breads made with organic sourdoughs. The farming system is another determinant affecting the sourdough microbiota. The organic cultivation of durum wheat was reflected along the flour-sourdough fermentation-bread axis. Copyright © 2015, American

  1. Study of the Character and Palatability on Whole Wheat Flour Bread

    OpenAIRE

    鈴木, 彩葉; 小池, 恵; Sayaha, Suzuki; Megumi, Koike

    2015-01-01

    Whole wheat flour is rich in dietary fiber and has disease preventive property. However, the flavor of whole wheat flour containing bread has prevented its wide use. We studied that make tasty whole wheat flour bread to take a dietary fiber daily. The blending proportions of whole wheat flour to bread making flour were 0, 20, 40, 60,80 and 100%. We examined their characteristics in weight, height, volume, physical properties and palatability in the sensory evaluation. Weight of the whole whea...

  2. The effect of a default-based nudge on the choice of whole wheat bread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van Ellen; Seijdell, Karen; Vingerhoeds, Monique H.; Wijk, de René A.; Trijp, van Hans C.M.

    2018-01-01

    Consumer choices are often influenced by the default option presented. This study examines the effect of whole wheat bread as a default option in a sandwich choice situation. Whole wheat bread consists of 100% whole grain and is healthier than other bread types that are commonly consumed, such as

  3. Identification and comprehensive analyses of the CBL and CIPK gene families in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Wang, Yan; Wang, Meng; Li, Tingting; Zhou, Yi; Wang, Xiatian; Wei, Shuya; He, Guangyuan; Yang, Guangxiao

    2015-11-04

    Calcineurin B-like (CBL) proteins belong to a unique group of calcium sensors in plant that decode the Ca(2+) signature by interacting with CBL-interacting protein kinases (CIPKs). Although CBL-CIPK complexes have been shown to play important roles in the responses to various stresses in plants, little is known about their functions in wheat. A total of seven TaCBL and 20 TaCIPK genes were amplified from bread wheat, Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring. Reverse-transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and in silico expression analyses showed that TaCBL and TaCIPK genes were expressed at different levels in different tissues, or maintained at nearly constant expression levels during the whole life cycle of the wheat plant. Some TaCBL and TaCIPK genes showed up- or down-regulated expressions during seed germination. Preferential interactions between TaCBLs and TaCIPKs were observed in yeast two-hybrid and bimolecular fluorescence complementation experiments. Analyses of a deletion series of TaCIPK proteins with amino acid variations at the C-terminus provided new insights into the specificity of the interactions between TaCIPKs and TaCBLs, and indicated that the TaCBL-TaCIPK signaling pathway is very complex in wheat because of its hexaploid genome. The expressions of many TaCBLs and TaCIPKs were responsive to abiotic stresses (salt, cold, and simulated drought) and abscisic acid treatment. Transgenic Arabidopsis plants overexpressing TaCIPK24 exhibited improved salt tolerance through increased Na(+) efflux and an enhanced reactive oxygen species scavenging capacity. These results contribute to our understanding of the functions of CBL-CIPK complexes and provide the basis for selecting appropriate genes for in-depth functional studies of CBL-CIPK in wheat.

  4. A fertile amphiploid between durum wheat (Triticum turgidum) and the x Agroticum amphiploid (Agropyron cristatum x T. tauschii).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soliman, M H; Rubiales, D; Cabrera, A

    2001-01-01

    Agropyron (Gaertn) is a genus of Triticeae which includes the crested wheatgrass complex, i.e. A. cristatum (L.) as representative species containing the P genome. This species is an important source for increase the genetic variability of both durum and bread wheat. Among the possible interesting features to be introgressed into wheat are resistance to wheat streak mosaic virus, rust diseases, and tolerance to drought, cold and moderate salinity. By crossing tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum conv durum, 2n = 4x = 28; AABB) with a fertile allotetraploid (2n = 4x = 28; DDPP) between diploid wheat (T. tauschii) and crested wheatgrass (A. cristatum L.), amphiploid plants were obtained. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) using both genomic DNA from A. cristatum and the repetitive probe pAs1, proved that the plants were true amphiploids with a chromosome number 2n = 8x = 56 and genomic constitution AABBDDPP. Using total genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) to study meiotic metaphase I, data on allosyndetic and autosyndetic chromosome pairing were obtained. The amphiploids were perennial like the male parent but their morphology was close to that of the wheat parent. They were resistant to wheat leaf rust and powdery mildew under field conditions.

  5. Identification of bitter compounds in whole wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Deshou; Peterson, Devin G

    2013-11-15

    Bitterness in whole wheat bread can negatively influence product acceptability and consumption. The overall goal of this project was to identify the main bitter compounds in a commercial whole wheat bread product. Sensory-guided fractionation of the crust (most bitter portion of the bread sample) utilising liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, ultra-filtration and 2-D offline RPLC revealed multiple bitter compounds existed. The compounds with the highest bitterness intensities were selected and structurally elucidated based on accurate mass-TOF, MS/MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Eight bitter compounds were identified: Acortatarins A, Acortatarins C, 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural(HMF), 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4(H)-pyran-4-one (DDMP), N-(1-deoxy-d-fructos-1-yl)-l-tryptophan (ARP), Tryptophol (TRO), 2-(2-formyl-5-(hydroxymethyl-1H-pyrrole-1-yl)butanoic acid (PBA) and Tryptophan (TRP). Based on the structures of these compounds, two main mechanisms of bitterness generation in wheat bread were supported, fermentation and Maillard pathways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Methylglyoxal alleviates cadmium toxicity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhong-Guang; Duan, Xiang-Qiu; Xia, Yan-Mei; Wang, Yue; Zhou, Zhi-Hao; Min, Xiong

    2017-02-01

    Methylglyoxal alleviates cadmium toxicity in wheat (Triticum aestivum L) by improving plant growth. For a long time, the reactive α, β-carbonyl ketoaldehyde methylglyoxal (CH3COCHO; MG) has been regarded as merely a toxic metabolite in plants, but, now, emerging as a signal molecule in plants. In this study, cadmium (Cd) stress decreased plant height, root length, fresh weight (FW), and dry weight (DW) in a concentration-dependent manner, indicating that Cd had toxic effects on the growth of wheat seedlings. The toxic effects of Cd were alleviated by exogenously applied MG in a dosage dependent fashion, and 700 mM MG reached significant differences, but this alleviating effect was eliminated by the treatment with N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, MG scavenger), suggesting that MG could mitigate Cd toxicity in wheat. This study reported for the first time that MG could alleviate Cd toxicity in wheat, uncovering a new possible physiological function for MG, and opening a novel line of research in plant stress biology.

  7. Analysis of the bread wheat genome using whole genome shotgun sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenchley, Rachel; Spannagl, Manuel; Pfeifer, Matthias; Barker, Gary L.A.; D’Amore, Rosalinda; Allen, Alexandra M.; McKenzie, Neil; Kramer, Melissa; Kerhornou, Arnaud; Bolser, Dan; Kay, Suzanne; Waite, Darren; Trick, Martin; Bancroft, Ian; Gu, Yong; Huo, Naxin; Luo, Ming-Cheng; Sehgal, Sunish; Kianian, Sharyar; Gill, Bikram; Anderson, Olin; Kersey, Paul; Dvorak, Jan; McCombie, Richard; Hall, Anthony; Mayer, Klaus F.X.; Edwards, Keith J.; Bevan, Michael W.; Hall, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Summary Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a globally important crop, accounting for 20% of the calories consumed by mankind. We sequenced its large and challenging 17 Gb hexaploid genome using 454 pyrosequencing and compared this with the sequences of diploid ancestral and progenitor genomes. Between 94,000-96,000 genes were identified, and two-thirds were assigned to the A, B and D genomes. High-resolution synteny maps identified many small disruptions to conserved gene order. We show the hexaploid genome is highly dynamic, with significant loss of gene family members upon polyploidization and domestication, and an abundance of gene fragments. Several classes of genes involved in energy harvesting, metabolism and growth are among expanded gene families that could be associated with crop productivity. Our analyses, coupled with the identification of extensive genetic variation, provide a new resource for accelerating gene discovery and improving this major crop. PMID:23192148

  8. Morphological and molecular characterisation confirm that Triticum monococcum s.s. is resistant to wheat leaf rust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anker, C.C.; Buntjer, J.B.; Niks, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    The three diploid wheat species Triticum monococcum, Triticum boeoticum and Triticum urartu differ in their reaction to wheat leaf rust, Puccinia triticina. In general, T. monococcum is resistant while T. boeoticum and T. urartu are susceptible. However, upon screening a large collection of diploid

  9. Long-term experiments as a platform for monitoring bread wheat quality

    OpenAIRE

    Thomsen, Ingrid K.

    2008-01-01

    Both winter wheat and spring wheat have the potential for producing grain of bread wheat quality under North European conditions. The two crops may due to their different growth length respond differently to previous use of green manure and to the soil organic matter content. To compare winter wheat and spring wheat for their ability to produce quality grain for bread production, both crops are included in a long-term experiment (LTE) at Askov Experimental Station. The LTE provides a unique p...

  10. Effect of Cassava Flour Characteristics on Properties of Cassava-Wheat-Maize Composite Bread Types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of wheat flour by other kinds of flour in bread making is economically important in South East Africa as wheat is mainly an imported commodity. Cassava is widely available in the region, but bread quality is impaired when large amounts of cassava are used in the bread formulation. Effect of differently processed cassavas (sun-dried, roasted and fermented on composite cassava-wheat-maize bread quality containing cassava levels from 20 to 40% (w/w was evaluated in combination with high-methylated pectin (HM-pectin added at levels of 1 to 3% (w/w according to a full factorial design. Addition of pectin to cassava flour made it possible to bake bread with acceptable bread quality even at concentration as high as 40%. In addition to cassava concentration, the type of cassava flour had the biggest effect on bread quality. With high level of cassava, bread with roasted cassava had a higher volume compared with sun-dried and fermented. The pectin level had a significant effect on improving the volume in high level roasted cassava bread. Crumb firmness similar to wheat bread could be obtained with sun-dried and roasted cassava flours. Roasted cassava bread was the only bread with crust colour similar to wheat bread.

  11. Development and Characterization of Wheat Bread with Lupin Flour

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Paula; Gonzaga, Marta; Batista, Luís; Beirão-Costa, Luísa; Guiné, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to develop an innovative food product with good textural and sensorial characteristics. The product, a new type of bread, was prepared with wheat (90%) and lupin (10%) flours, without the addition of any conservatives. Several experiences were also done to find the most appropriate proportion of lupin flour. The optimized product was characterized considering the rheological, physical-che...

  12. Yr10 gene polymorphism in bread wheat varieties | Temel | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yr10 gene polymorphism in bread wheat varieties. A Temel, F Sentürk-Akfirat, F Ertugrul, A Yumurtaci, Y Aydýn, T Talas-Ogras, N Gözükirmizi, N Bolat, Ö Yorgancilar, S Belen, M Yildirim, M Çakmak, E Özdemir, L Çetin, Z Mert, H Sipahi, S Albustan, K Akan, F Düsünceli, AA Uncuoglu3 ...

  13. Effects of fat replacement on properties of whole wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Matos Scheuer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bread characteristics are dependent upon the chemical composition and fiber content of the wheat flour used. A healthy diet can help prevent chronic diseases, where whole grains and fewer calories from fat are components of a healthy diet. The aims of this study were to determine the centesimal composition of wheat flour samples (whole, refined, and flour blends along with their farinographic parameters (water absorption, development time and stability and also to verify the specific volume, crumb texture profile and digital imaging of bread loaves made with 60% whole wheat flour and 3% fat or fat replacer. Increasing the whole wheat flour percentage in the blends also increased levels of protein, ash and insoluble fiber. All the farinographic parameters were also increased. Enzymatically modified starch was found to be an effective fat replacer in whole wheat loaves. The loaves made using fat replacer had the same specific volume and higher cell density as those made with fat, but exhibited different texture profile parameters such as higher hardness value and lower springiness value.

  14. Identification and characterization of more than 4 million intervarietal SNPs across the group 7 chromosomes of bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kaitao; Lorenc, Michał T; Lee, Hong Ching; Berkman, Paul J; Bayer, Philipp Emanuel; Visendi, Paul; Ruperao, Pradeep; Fitzgerald, Timothy L; Zander, Manuel; Chan, Chon-Kit Kenneth; Manoli, Sahana; Stiller, Jiri; Batley, Jacqueline; Edwards, David

    2015-01-01

    Despite being a major international crop, our understanding of the wheat genome is relatively poor due to its large size and complexity. To gain a greater understanding of wheat genome diversity, we have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms between 16 Australian bread wheat varieties. Whole-genome shotgun Illumina paired read sequence data were mapped to the draft assemblies of chromosomes 7A, 7B and 7D to identify more than 4 million intervarietal SNPs. SNP density varied between the three genomes, with much greater density observed on the A and B genomes than the D genome. This variation may be a result of substantial gene flow from the tetraploid Triticum turgidum, which possesses A and B genomes, during early co-cultivation of tetraploid and hexaploid wheat. In addition, we examined SNP density variation along the chromosome syntenic builds and identified genes in low-density regions which may have been selected during domestication and breeding. This study highlights the impact of evolution and breeding on the bread wheat genome and provides a substantial resource for trait association and crop improvement. All SNP data are publically available on a generic genome browser GBrowse at www.wheatgenome.info. © 2014 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Genetic variation of carotenoids in Chinese bread wheat cultivars and the effect of the 1BL.1RS translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenshuang LI,Shengnan ZHAI,Hui JIN,Weie WEN,Jindong LIU,Xianchun XIA,Zhonghu HE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoid content of wheat is an important criterion for prediction of the commercial and nutritional value of products made from bread wheat (Triticum aestivum cultivars. The objective of this study was to determine the major components of carotenoids in Chinese wheat using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC including lutein, zeaxanthin, α-carotene and β-carotene. Grain carotenoid content was investigated in 217 cultivars from three major Chinese wheat regions and from seven other countries grown in two environments. Genotype contributed to the majority of variation in carotenoid components. Lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations varied from 18.3 to 100.1, 4.9 to 12.0 and 0.9 to 48.7 μg per 100 g in wheat flour with an average of 40.2, 7.2 and 18.2 μg per 100 g, respectively. Lutein (61.3% was the main carotenoid component, followed by β-carotene (27.7% and zeaxanthin (11.0%. No α-carotene was detected. Total carotenoids, lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene were all higher in cultivars with the 1BL.1RS translocation compared to those without the translocation. This is the first report on assay of lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations for a large number of wheat cultivars. These data will be useful for genetic improvement of wheat carotenoid content and for understanding of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in wheat.

  16. Effect of Triticum turgidum subsp. turanicum wheat on irritable bowel syndrome: a double-blinded randomised dietary intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofi, Francesco; Whittaker, Anne; Gori, Anna Maria; Cesari, Francesca; Surrenti, Elisabetta; Abbate, Rosanna; Gensini, Gian Franco; Benedettelli, Stefano; Casini, Alessandro

    2014-06-14

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of a replacement diet with organic, semi-whole-grain products derived from Triticum turgidum subsp. turanicum (ancient) wheat on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms and inflammatory/biochemical parameters. A double-blinded randomised cross-over trial was performed using twenty participants (thirteen females and seven males, aged 18-59 years) classified as having moderate IBS. Participants received products (bread, pasta, biscuits and crackers) made either from ancient or modern wheat for 6 weeks in a random order. Symptoms due to IBS were evaluated using two questionnaires, which were compiled both at baseline and on a weekly basis during the intervention period. Blood analyses were carried out at the beginning and end of each respective intervention period. During the intervention period with ancient wheat products, patients experienced a significant decrease in the severity of IBS symptoms, such as abdominal pain (Pwheat products. Similarly, patients reported significant amelioration in the severity of gastrointestinal symptoms only after the ancient wheat intervention period, as measured by the intensity of pain (P= 0·001), the frequency of pain (Pwheat products, but not after the control period. In conclusion, significant improvements in both IBS symptoms and the inflammatory profile were reported after the ingestion of ancient wheat products.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A FUNCTIONAL PURPOSE WHIPPED BREAD WHOLE GRAIN WHEAT, RYE AND WHEAT BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the development of whipped bakery products enriched with dietary fiber, minerals, vitamins retinol, tocopherol, group, polyunsaturated fatty acids through the use of rye and wheat bran and flour of wholegrain wheat. The main raw material for enrichment whipped bakery products used wheat bran and rye. Choice of rye and wheat bran as supplementation prepared whipped bread is explained not only from the point of view of the rationality of the use of this secondary raw materials, but also its rich vitamin and mineral composition. Wheat bran contain the necessary man of b vitamins, including B1, B2, B6, PP and others. Found provitamin a (carotene and vitamin E (tocopherol. Bran is rich in mineral substances. Among them potassium, magnesium, chromium, zinc, copper, selenium and other trace elements. Thanks to this composition bran are essential dietary product. They are rich in insoluble fiber and can be useful to reduce the risk of developing colon cancer. Rye bran contain dietary fiber, tocopherol E, thiamin B1, Riboflavin B2, Pantothenic acid B5, B4 (choline, nicotinic acid B3, etc. In the bran rich set of microelements and macroelements such as iron, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, iodine, selenium, chromium, etc. the Introduction in the diet, bran rye contribute to the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, diabetes and anemia. They restore blood pressure, reduce blood sugar levels and improve the cardiovascular system. Flour from wholegrain wheat is the main supplier of bread protein and starch, while preserving the maximum of the original nutritional value of the grain, enriched whipped bread macro - and micronutrients. The analysis of the chemical composition of flour from wholegrain wheat, rye and wheat bran leads to the conclusion that the choice of these types of materials suitable for making the recipe whipped bakery products, because their use can increase the content in bread is not only the

  18. Identification of bitter compounds in whole wheat bread crumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Qing; Peterson, Devin G

    2016-07-15

    Consumer acceptability of whole wheat foods is challenged by negative bitter flavour attributes. In this study, bitter compounds in whole wheat bread crumb were investigated. Utilising sensory-guided multi-dimensional fractionation techniques, the compounds with the highest bitterness intensity in the crumb were purified and identified by LC-MS-ToF and NMR techniques. The main bitter compounds were reported to be L-tryptophan, Wessely-Moser isomers apigenin-6-C-galactoside-8-C-arabinoside & apigenin-6-C-arabinoside-8-C-galactoside, and 9,12,13-trihydroxy-trans-10-octadecenoic acid (pinellic acid). Sensory recombination experiments of the bitter compounds formulated at the concentrations determined in expectorated saliva after bread mastication indicated pinellic acid had the greatest contribution to the bitterness perception of the crumb. Quantitative analysis of pinellic acid in the raw flour was reported to be inherently low compared to bread; the concentration increased more than 30-fold after flour hydration and baking. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The effect of baking temperature and buckwheat flour addition on the selected properties of wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Selimović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wholegrain buckwheat flour was used to substitute 15 %, 30 % and 40 % of wheat flour to make buckwheat enriched wheat bread. Proximate composition, sensory evaluation, total phenols content and antioxidant activity of buckwheat enriched wheat breads were analysed and compared with wheat bread. Wholegrain buckwheat flour contained higher total phenols than wheat flour. The incorporation of buckwheat flour from 15 % to 40 % in bread samples increased the total phenols content from 0.25 (mg GA/g d.m. sample to 0.65 (mg GA/g d.m. sample, and antioxidant activity from 208.45 (µmol Fe2+/L extract to 354.45 (µmol Fe2+/L extract. Total phenols content decreased during the baking process, while the antioxidant activity increased. Bread samples with 15 %, 30 % and 40 % of wholegrain buckwheat flour showed lower lightness (L and whiteness index (WI values of crust and crumb colour compared to the wheat bread. Addition of buckwheat flour increased redness (a and yellowness (b colour values for crumb. Sensory results indicating that three breads with buckwheat flour were moderately acceptable. No differences were found in overall sensory attributes between buckwheat flour enriched bread samples with 15 % and wheat bread (control sample.

  20. Wheat bread biofortification with rootlets, a malting by-product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waters, Deborah M; Kingston, Wilma; Jacob, Fritz; Titze, Jean; Arendt, Elke K; Zannini, Emanuele

    2013-08-15

    Barley rootlets, a malting by-product, are currently discarded or used as fodder. In this study, milled rootlets and Lactobacillus plantarum FST 1.7-fermented rootlets were incorporated into wheat bread. The objective was to formulate a high-nutrition alternative to wholemeal breads with improved technological attributes. Chemical analyses showed that rootlets contribute nutrients and bioactive compounds, including proteins, amino acids, fatty acids, carbohydrates, dietary fibre, polyphenols and minerals. Rootlets are particularly rich in essential amino acids, especially lysine, the typically limiting essential amino acid of cereals. Additionally, rootlets offer potential dietary fibre health benefits such as protection against cardiovascular disease, cancers and digestive disorders. Breads prepared with a (fermented) rootlet inclusion level of up to 10% compared favourably with wholemeal breads from nutritive, technological and textural perspectives. Furthermore, they were well accepted by sensory panellists. Using rootlets as a food ingredient would have the added benefit of increasing this malting by-product's market value. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Sensory profiles of bread made from paired samples of organic and conventionally grown wheat grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, L E; Spaner, D; Wismer, W V

    2007-05-01

    The Canadian hard red spring wheat cultivar "Park" was grown in 2005 in Edmonton, AB, Canada on both conventionally and organically managed land, situated less than 1 km apart. Grains from the paired wheat samples were compared for cereal-grain-quality attributes. For sensory analysis, organically and conventionally produced wheat grains were milled into flour and baked into 60% whole wheat bread. Color, texture, taste, and aroma attributes of bread were compared using the sensory technique of descriptive analysis. Organic grain contained more wholemeal protein than conventional grain (P grain quality for yeast-leavened bread. Mixograph analysis revealed that conventional flour produced stronger bread dough than organic flour (P 0.05), but the panel perceived the organic bread to be more "dense" in texture (P < or = 0.05) with smaller air cells in the appearance of the crumb (P < or = 0.05) than conventional bread.

  2. Effect of Vitamin C Addition on some Quality Aspects of Wheat Bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The effect of vitamin C addition on some quality aspects of wheat bread was evaluated. Subjects/Materials and Methods: Wheat bread was produced using the straight dough method with addition of varying quantities of vitamin C (between 0.05 to 0.40g) as an improver, with the sample without vitamin C serving ...

  3. Fibre fortification of wheat bread: impact on mineral composition and bioaccessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Zita E; Pinto, Edgar; Almeida, Agostinho A; Pinho, Olívia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2017-05-24

    In this work, wheat bread was fortified with fibre enriched extracts recovered from agroindustry by-products, namely, elderberry skin, pulp and seeds (EE); orange peel (OE); pomegranate peel and interior membranes (PE); and spent yeast (YE). The impact of this fortification on the total and bioaccessible mineral composition of wheat breads, estimated mineral daily intake, and the relationship between bioaccessibility and dietary fibre was evaluated. Fortification with OE, EE, and PE improved the content of essential minerals in bread when compared to control bread. The exception was bread fortified with YE, which presented a mineral content similar to control bread, but its mineral bioaccessibility was significantly higher than in all the other bread formulations. The opposite was observed for PE bread, which presented a significant reduction of bioaccessible minerals. We concluded that the origin of the fibre rich extract must be carefully selected, to avoid potential negative impact on mineral bioaccessibility.

  4. Genetic architecture of seed longevity in bread wheat (Triticum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    73

    To assay for dormancy, a sample of 60 fresh ... germplasm panel, based on STRUCTURE software (Pritchard et al. 2000). The admixture ... The EMMA method (efficient mixed-model association) (Kang et al. 2008) was applied ...... chaperonin, DNA cytosine methyltransferase Zmet3, aldehyde dehydrogenase ALDH2,.

  5. Multiplex Real Time PCR For Detection of Wheat Streak Mosaic Virus and Triticum Mosaic Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and Triticum mosaic virus (TRIMV) are widespread throughout the southwestern Great Plains states. Using conventional diagnostics such as Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISA), these two viruses are commonly found together in infected wheat samples. Methods for m...

  6. Prehaustorial resistance to the wheat leaf rust fungus, Puccinia triticina, in Triticum monococcum (s.s.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anker, C.C.; Niks, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    Diploid wheat, Triticum monococcum s.l., is a host for the wheat leaf rust fungus, Puccinia triticina. Some accessions have been reported to show a high degree of prehaustorial resistance. This is non-hypersensitivity resistance, which acts before the formation of haustoria by the pathogen. To

  7. BREAD-MAKING QUALITY OF SLOVAK AND SERBIAN WHEAT VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Bojňanská

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The basic prerequisite for the production of bakery products of a good quality is the knowledge of the quality parameters of raw materials introduced in the production process and the ability to use their potential. The bread making properties of 17 pure European wheat cultivars were analysed. Baking experiments were carried out according to the methodology of the research workplace; 1000 g of flour was processed with the addition of salt, sugar and yeast. Fermentation for 35 minutes at 30 ° C was followed by the baking with steaming (at 240 ° C and then 220 ° C. During an experimental baking test the selected parameters: loaf volume (cm3, specific loaf volume (cm3.100g-1 loaf, volume efficiency (cm3.100g-1 flour, cambering (loaf height/width ratio, bread yield (%, bread yield baking loss (% in bread were evaluated. Loaf volume has been considered as the most important criterion for the bread-making quality. In the analysed samples (11 varieties of Slovak origin and 6 varieties of Serbian origin, the value of this parameter ranged from 3575 cm3 to 5575 cm3 with higher values occurred in Slovak varieties (average 4 640.91 cm3 compared to the Serbian varieties (average 4 363.33 cm3. Based on the complex evaluation of wheat varieties of the Slovak and Serbian origin assessing the selected quality parameters of the baking experiment it can be concluded that in terms of baking quality the three Slovak varieties IS Ezopus, Bonavita and Jarissa were the best. Therefore, they are recommended for cultivation and their subsequent use in the baking industry, in particular for the production of bread According to a baking quality the evaluated varieties can be sorted from best to worst in the following order: IS Ezopus (SK > Bonavita (SK > Jarissa (SK > IS Questor > Etida (SRB > Venistar (SK > Renesansa (SRB > IS Conditor (SK > IS Corvinus (SK > Zvezdana (SRB > Simonida (SRB > Viglanka (SK > IS Agape (SK > NS 40S (SRB > Panonnija (SRB > IS Escoria (SK

  8. Genetic diversity, population structure and marker-trait associations for agronomic and grain traits in wild diploid wheat Triticum urartu.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Luo, Guangbin; Yang, Wenlong; Li, Yiwen; Sun, Jiazhu; Zhan, Kehui; Liu, Dongcheng; Zhang, Aimin

    2017-07-01

    Wild diploid wheat, Triticum urartu (T. urartu) is the progenitor of bread wheat, and understanding its genetic diversity and genome function will provide considerable reference for dissecting genomic information of common wheat. In this study, we investigated the morphological and genetic diversity and population structure of 238 T. urartu accessions collected from different geographic regions. This collection had 19.37 alleles per SSR locus and its polymorphic information content (PIC) value was 0.76, and the PIC and Nei's gene diversity (GD) of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) were 0.86 and 0.88, respectively. UPGMA clustering analysis indicated that the 238 T. urartu accessions could be classified into two subpopulations, of which Cluster I contained accessions from Eastern Mediterranean coast and those from Mesopotamia and Transcaucasia belonged to Cluster II. The wide range of genetic diversity along with the manageable number of accessions makes it one of the best collections for mining valuable genes based on marker-trait association. Significant associations were observed between simple sequence repeats (SSR) or HMW-GSs and six morphological traits: heading date (HD), plant height (PH), spike length (SPL), spikelet number per spike (SPLN), tiller angle (TA) and grain length (GL). Our data demonstrated that SSRs and HMW-GSs were useful markers for identification of beneficial genes controlling important traits in T. urartu, and subsequently for their conservation and future utilization, which may be useful for genetic improvement of the cultivated hexaploid wheat.

  9. Making bread with sourdough improves mineral bioavailability from reconstituted whole wheat flour in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Hubert W; Duclos, Virgile; Coudray, Charles; Krespine, Virginie; Feillet-Coudray, Christine; Messager, Arnaud; Demigné, Christian; Rémésy, Christian

    2003-06-01

    We compared the effects of different kinds of bread fermentation on mineral bioavailability. Wistar rats were fed one of the following experimental diets for 21 d: control, reconstituted whole wheat flour (white flour plus bran), yeast bread, and sourdough bread. The apparent mineral absorption and intestinal fermentation were measured in each animal. Phytate contents in yeast and sourdough bread were lower than in reconstituted whole wheat flour (-52% and -71%, respectively). Total cecal pool of short-chain fatty acids, in particular the butyrate pool, was significantly increased by the ingestion of unrefined products. Calcium homeostasis was not modified by these nutritional conditions, whereas magnesium absorption was significantly greater in rats fed the control and sourdough diets than in those consuming whole wheat flour and yeast bread. Magnesium kidney excretion was slightly stimulated by sourdough bread. Compared with the control diet, iron balance was significantly reduced by reconstituted whole wheat flour diet. Yeast bread making counteracted the deleterious effects of whole wheat on iron absorption, whereas sourdough bread making enhanced iron absorption. Further, liver and plasma iron and transferrin saturation levels were lower in rats adapted to the flour diet than in other groups. Zinc absorption was strongly depressed in the presence of unprocessed reconstituted whole wheat flour in the diet, but yeast fermentation afforded a zinc assimilation comparable to the control diet, whereas the sourdough bread led to maximal zinc absorption. Copper absorption increased significantly when rats were fed the sourdough bread, whereas unprocessed whole flour depressed copper absorption (-41% versus control diet). Mineral bioavailability from reconstituted whole wheat flour can be improved by bread making. Although yeast fermentation minimizes the unfavorable effects of phytic acid, sourdough bread is a better source of available minerals, especially magnesium

  10. Structural and functional partitioning of bread wheat chromosome 3B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choulet, Frédéric; Alberti, Adriana; Theil, Sébastien; Glover, Natasha; Barbe, Valérie; Daron, Josquin; Pingault, Lise; Sourdille, Pierre; Couloux, Arnaud; Paux, Etienne; Leroy, Philippe; Mangenot, Sophie; Guilhot, Nicolas; Le Gouis, Jacques; Balfourier, Francois; Alaux, Michael; Jamilloux, Véronique; Poulain, Julie; Durand, Céline; Bellec, Arnaud; Gaspin, Christine; Safar, Jan; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Rogers, Jane; Vandepoele, Klaas; Aury, Jean-Marc; Mayer, Klaus; Berges, Hélène; Quesneville, Hadi; Wincker, Patrick; Feuillet, Catherine

    2014-07-18

    We produced a reference sequence of the 1-gigabase chromosome 3B of hexaploid bread wheat. By sequencing 8452 bacterial artificial chromosomes in pools, we assembled a sequence of 774 megabases carrying 5326 protein-coding genes, 1938 pseudogenes, and 85% of transposable elements. The distribution of structural and functional features along the chromosome revealed partitioning correlated with meiotic recombination. Comparative analyses indicated high wheat-specific inter- and intrachromosomal gene duplication activities that are potential sources of variability for adaption. In addition to providing a better understanding of the organization, function, and evolution of a large and polyploid genome, the availability of a high-quality sequence anchored to genetic maps will accelerate the identification of genes underlying important agronomic traits. Copyright © 2014, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  11. Organic Bread Wheat Production and Market in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, C.; Abecassis, J.; Carcea, M.

    2012-01-01

    organic production by a new transition and technical improvement. Bread wheat is grown in a variety of crop rotations and farming systems where four basic organic crop production systems have been defined. Weeds and nitrogen deficiency are considered to be the most serious threat inducing lowest grain...... yield under organic production. The choice of cultivar, green manure, fertilization and intercropping legumes – grain or forage – are efficient ways to obtain high grain quality and quantity. The economic viability of wheat production in Europe is also affected by subsidies from European Union agri......-environmental programs. Support has been granted to organic farming since the beginning of the 1990s. Direct payments from European regulation combined with premium prices paid by consumers had compensated the lowest crop production. In the European Union, the current cycle of the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) is due...

  12. Screening of bread wheat genotypes for drought tolerance using phenotypic and proline analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Learnmore Mwadzingeni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is one of the leading constraints to wheat (Triticum aestivum L. production globally. Breeding for drought tolerance using novel genetic resources is an important mitigation strategy. This study aimed to determine the level of drought tolerance among diverse bread wheat genotypes using agronomic traits and proline analyses and to establish correlation of proline content and agronomic traits under drought-stress conditions in order to select promising wheat lines for breeding. Ninety-six diverse genotypes including 88 lines from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT’s heat and drought nurseries, and eight local checks were evaluated under greenhouse and field conditions during 2014/15 and 2015/16 making four testing environments. The following phenotypic traits were collected after stress imposed during the heading to anthesis period: the number of days to heading (DTH, days to maturity (DTM, productive tiller number (TN, plant height (PH, spike length (SL, spikelet per spike (SPS, kernels per spike (KPS, thousand kernel weight (TKW and grain yield (GY and proline content (PC. Analysis of variance, Pearson’s correlation coefficient, principal component and stress tolerance index were calculated. Genotypes with high yield performance under stressed and optimum conditions maintained high values for yield components. Proline content significantly increased under stress, but weakly correlated with agronomic traits under both optimal and water limited conditions. The positive correlation observed between grain yield and proline content under-drought stress conditions provides evidence that proline accumulation might ultimately be considered as a tool for effective selection of drought tolerant genotypes. The study selected 12 genotypes with high grain yields under drought stressed conditions and favorable adaptive traits useful for breeding.

  13. Prediction of bread-making quality using size exclusion high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in the distribution of protein molecular weight in wheat (Triticum aestivum), influences breadmaking quality of wheat cultivars, resulting in either poor or good bread. The objective of this study was to predict breadmaking quality of wheat cultivars using size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography.

  14. Constipation is relieved more by rye bread than wheat bread or laxatives without increased adverse gastrointestinal effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holma, Reetta; Hongisto, Sanna-Maria; Saxelin, Maija; Korpela, Riitta

    2010-03-01

    Rye bread and lactobacilli modify the colonic environment and have the potential to relieve constipation and could be a safe and convenient alternative to laxatives. The effects of rye bread and cultured buttermilk with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) on bowel function and colon metabolism were investigated and compared with laxatives in 51 constipated adults. They were randomized to receive whole-grain rye bread (minimum 240 g/d), LGG (2 x 10(10) colony-forming units/d), whole-grain rye bread (minimum 240 g/d) + LGG (2 x 10(10) colony-forming units/d), white wheat bread (maximum 192 g/d), or laxatives (as usual for a participant) for 3 wk. Participants recorded their dietary habits, bowel function, and gastrointestinal symptoms. Fecal weight, pH, SCFA and bacterial enzyme activities, total intestinal transit time (TITT), and breath hydrogen were determined. Rye bread, compared with white wheat bread, shortened TITT by 23% (P = 0.040), increased weekly defecations by 1.4 (P = 0.014), softened feces [odds ratio (OR) 3.98; P = 0.037], eased defecation (OR 5.08; P = 0.018), increased fecal acetic acid and butyric acid contents by 24% (P = 0.044) and 63% (P bread reduced TITT by 41% (P = 0.006), fecal beta-glucuronidase activity by 38% (P = 0.033), and fecal pH by 0.31 units (P = 0.006). LGG did not relieve constipation or significantly affect colonic metabolism. Gastrointestinal adverse effects did not significantly differ among the study groups. In conclusion, rye bread relieves mild constipation and improves colonic metabolism compared with white wheat bread and commonly used laxatives without increasing gastrointestinal adverse effects.

  15. Genetic diversity and structure found in samples of Eritrean bread wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desta, Zeratsion Abera; Orabi, Jihad; Jahoor, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Genetic diversity and structure plays a key role in the selection of parents for crosses in plant breeding programmes. The aim of the present study was to analyse the genetic diversity and structure of Eritrean bread wheat accessions. We analysed 284 wheat accessions from Eritrea using 30 simple...... major groups. This is the first report of the genetic diversity and structure of Eritrean bread wheat....

  16. Production of wheat bread without preservatives using sourdough starters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denkova, Rositsa; Ilieva, Svetla; Denkova, Zapryana; Georgieva, Ljubka; Yordanova, Mariya; Nikolova, Dilyana; Evstatieva, Yana

    2014-01-01

    In order for the beneficial effects of sourdough application in breadmaking to take place a proper selection of lactic acid bacteria species and strains, an appropriate technology and effective control of the purity and activity of the selected cultures. Four symbiotic starters for sourdough for the production of bread were developed and probated in a production laboratory using the selected strains Lactobacillus brevis LBRZ7, L. buchneri LBRZ6, L. plantarum X2, L. paracasei RN5, L. sanfranciscensis R and L. fermentum LBRH10 and the probiotic strain Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii NBIMCC 327. The starter sourdoughs that include Propionibacterium freudenreichii ssp. shermanii NBIMCC 327 had greater antimicrobial activity against saprophytic microorganisms: Bacillus subtilis, B. mesentericus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium sp. and Rhizopus sp., but none of them inhibited the growth of bakery yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It was established that in order to prevent bacterial spoilage 10% of the selected starter sourdoughs had to be added in the breadmaking process, while for prevention of mold spoilage the necessary amount of starter sourdough had to be between 15% and 20%.The application of the developed starters for the production of wheat bread guarantees longer shelf life and no adverse alterations in the features of the final bread. PMID:26019574

  17. Comparative Evaluation of the Nutritional and Sensory Quality of Major Commercial Whole-wheat Breads in Nigerian Market

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Ndife; James Obiegbunna; Simeon Ajayi

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the nutritional, microbial and sensory profile of regularly consumed commercial whole wheat breads in Nigeria in order to offer an insight into the overall quality of these foods. Four major local brands of commercial whole wheat breads (samples A, B, C and D) were evaluated. The normal white bread (sample E) served as control. Results of the physical properties obtained, showed that the white bread (sample E) had higher values for bread volume (2850 cm3 ), specific volume ...

  18. Gamma radiation effects on commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agundez-Arvizu, Z. [Departamento de Ciencias Quimico Biologicas, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000 (Mexico); Fernandez-Ramirez, M.V. [Departamento de Ciencias Quimico Biologicas, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000 (Mexico); Arce-Corrales, M.E. [Departamento de Ciencias Quimico Biologicas, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000 (Mexico); Cruz-Zaragoza, E. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares-UNAM, A.P. 70-543, Mexico 04510 DF (Mexico); Melendrez, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora 83190 (Mexico); Chernov, V. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora 83190 (Mexico); Barboza-Flores, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora 83190 (Mexico)]. E-mail: mbarboza@cajeme.cifus.uson.mx

    2006-04-15

    Gamma irradiation is considered to be an alternative method for food preservation to prevent food spoilage, insect infestation and capable of reducing the microbial load. In the present investigation, commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour was irradiated at 1.0 kGy using a {sup 6}C Gammabeam 651 PT irradiator facility. No changes were detected in moisture, protein and ashes in gamma irradiated samples as compared to those of non-irradiated samples. Slight radiation effects were observed in the alveogram values and farinograph properties; the falling number decreased 11%, the absorption as well as the mixing tolerance were practically unchanged by irradiation. An increase of 15% in the stability value and a 29% in the dough development time were observed. Also the deformation energy decreased 7% with no change at all in the tenacity/extensibility factor. Total aerobic, yeast and mold counts were reduced 96%, 25% and 75%; respectively by the irradiation process. The obtained results confirm that gamma irradiation is effective in reducing the microbial load in bread making wheat flour without a significant change in the physicochemical and baking properties.

  19. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of multiple polyphenol oxidase genes in developing wheat (Triticum aestivum) kernels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polyphenol oxidase (PPO, EC 1.10.31) is a major cause of discoloring in raw dough containing wheat flour. Minimization of PPO activity has proven difficult because bread wheat is genetically complex, composed of the genomes of three grass species. The PPO-A1 and PPO-D1 genes, on chromosomes 2A and...

  20. Comparison of Antioxidant Properties of Refined and Whole Wheat Flour and Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lilei; Nanguet, Anne-Laure; Beta, Trust

    2013-11-26

    Antioxidant properties of refined and whole wheat flour and their resultant bread were investigated to document the effects of baking. Total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were employed to determine the content of ethanol extractable phenolic compounds. HPLC was used to detect the presence of phenolic acids prior to their confirmation using LC-MS/MS. Whole wheat flour showed significantly higher antioxidant activity than refined flour (p bread-making process with the TPC of whole wheat bread (1.50-1.65 mg/g) and white bread (0.79-1.03 mg/g) showing a respective reduction of 28% and 33% of the levels found in whole wheat and refined flour. Similarly, baking decreased DPPH radical scavenging capacity by 32% and 30%. ORAC values, however, indicated that baking increased the antioxidant activities of whole wheat and refined flour by 1.8 and 2.9 times, respectively. HPLC analysis showed an increase of 18% to 35% in ferulic acid after baking to obtain whole and refined wheat bread containing 330.1 and 25.3 µg/g (average), respectively. Whole wheat flour and bread were superior to refined flour and bread in in vitro antioxidant properties.

  1. Comparison of Antioxidant Properties of Refined and Whole Wheat Flour and Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilei Yu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant properties of refined and whole wheat flour and their resultant bread were investigated to document the effects of baking. Total phenolic content (TPC, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC were employed to determine the content of ethanol extractable phenolic compounds. HPLC was used to detect the presence of phenolic acids prior to their confirmation using LC-MS/MS. Whole wheat flour showed significantly higher antioxidant activity than refined flour (p < 0.05. There was a significant effect of the bread-making process with the TPC of whole wheat bread (1.50–1.65 mg/g and white bread (0.79–1.03 mg/g showing a respective reduction of 28% and 33% of the levels found in whole wheat and refined flour. Similarly, baking decreased DPPH radical scavenging capacity by 32% and 30%. ORAC values, however, indicated that baking increased the antioxidant activities of whole wheat and refined flour by 1.8 and 2.9 times, respectively. HPLC analysis showed an increase of 18% to 35% in ferulic acid after baking to obtain whole and refined wheat bread containing 330.1 and 25.3 µg/g (average, respectively. Whole wheat flour and bread were superior to refined flour and bread in in vitro antioxidant properties.

  2. Nudging children towards whole wheat bread: a field experiment on the influence of fun bread roll shape on breakfast consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Kleef, van, J.; Vrijhof, M.N.; Polet, I.A.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Wijk, van, C.A.Ph.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many children do not eat enough whole grains, which may have negative health consequences. Intervention research is increasingly focusing on nudging as a way to influence food choices by affecting unconscious behavioural processes. The aim of this field study was to examine whether the shape of bread rolls is able to shift children’s bread choices from white to whole wheat during breakfast to increase whole grain intake. Methods: In a between-subjects experiment conducted at twelv...

  3. Wheat bread enrichment with hard-to-cook bean extruded flours: nutritional and acceptance evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batista, Karla A; Prudêncio, Sandra H; Fernandes, Kátia F

    2011-01-01

    This study describes the enrichment of wheat bread with hard-to-cook black bean (BBEF) and cowpea (CEF) extruded flours. Breads containing 10% BBEF and 10% CEF presented increase of, respectively, 9% and 10% in protein content. In addition the fiber content was 2.6 higher in 10% BBEF bread and 2.2 higher in 10% CEF bread in comparison with standard bread. Despite protein and fiber increasing, the energetic value of substituted breads remained unchanged. An increase in the substitution to 15% resulted in decrease of specific volume and density of the breads. Results of sensory analysis to 10% BBEF bread presented overall appearance scores higher than standard bread and overall flavor acceptance very similar to standard. A total of 10% CEF bread presented similar appearance to those standard bread and 73% overall flavor acceptance. It is interesting to point out that distribution of 10% CEF bread overall flavor scores showed 3 distinct levels of consumer's sensibility. Practical Application: Breads enriched with extruded bean flours presented fiber and protein content improved and a very good consumer's acceptance. These results indicate that extruded bean flours constitute ingredients nutritionally and economically viable for technological application in breads elaboration, conferring improvement of nutritional characteristics without changing sensory attributes.

  4. Meiosis and fertility of F1 hybrids between hexaploid bread wheat and decaploid tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauhar, P P

    1995-05-01

    As the first step in the transfer of barely yellow dwarf virus resistance and salt tolerance from decaploid tall wheatgrass (Thinopyrum ponticum) into hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), octoploid intergeneric hybrids (2n = 8x = 56) were synthesized by crossing the tall wheatgrass cultivar 'Alkar' with wheat cvs. 'Fukuhokomugi' ('Fuko') and 'Chinese Spring'. ('Fuko' x 'Alkar') F1 hybrids were studied in detail. The F1 hybrids were perennial and generally resembled the male wheatgrass parent with regard to morphological features and gliadin profile. Most hybrids were euploid with 56 chromosomes and showed high chromosome pairing. On an average, in 6 hybrids 83.6% of the complement showed chiasmatic association, some between wheat and wheatgrass chromosomes. Such a high homoeologous pairing would be obtained if Ph1, the major homoeologous pairing suppressor in wheat, was somehow inactivated. Some of the 'Fuko' x 'Alkar' hybrids had high pollen fertility (18.5-42.0% with a mean of 31.5%) and high seed fertility (3-29 seeds wtih a mean of 12.3 seeds per spike), offering excellent opportunities for their direct backcrossing onto the wheat parent.

  5. Genes for resistance to wheat powdery mildew in derivatives of Triticum Timopheevi and T. Carthlicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Jensen, C. J.

    1972-01-01

    and/or Ml designated genes; a temporary designation, Ml f ,is proposed for this gene. Gene Ml f is closely associated with a gene conditioning resistance to the stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici), probably gene Sr9c. The winter wheat line TP 229 derived from Triticum carthlicum has......The winter wheat line TP 114 derived from CI 12633, a Triticum timopheevi derivative, has two unlinked dominant genes conditioning resistance to the powdery mildew fungus (Erysiphe graminis f. sp. tritici). One of the genes is identical to gene Pm2 (Ml u ). The other gene differs from the eleven Pm...

  6. Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Bread and Durum Wheat Using Freshly Isolated Immature Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huixia; Doherty, Angela; Jones, Huw D.

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of wheat is becoming a viable alternative to the more established biolistic protocols. It offers advantages in terms of simple, low-copy-number integrations and can be applied with similar efficiencies to specific durum wheat and spring and winter bread wheat types varieties.

  7. Whole wheat bread: Effect of bran fractions on dough and end-product quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of whole-wheat based products is encouraged due to its important nutritional elements that beneficial to human health. However, processing of whole-wheat based products, such as whole-wheat bread, results in poor end-product quality. Bran was postulated as the major problem. In this stud...

  8. The Impact of Novel Fermented Products Containing Extruded Wheat Material on the Quality of Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Vaiciulyte-Funk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus sakei MI806, Pediococcus pentosaceus MI810 and Pediococcus acidilactici MI807, able to produce bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances, were originally isolated from Lithuanian spontaneous rye sourdough and adapted in the novel fermentation medium containing extruded wheat material. The novel fermented products (50 and 65 % moisture content were stored at the temperatures used in bakeries (15 days at 30–35 °C in the summer period or 20 days under refrigeration conditions at 0–6 °C. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB was determined during the storage of fermented products for 15–20 days. Furthermore, the effect of novel fermented products stored under different conditions on wheat bread quality was examined. Extruded wheat material was found to have a higher positive effect on LAB growth compared to the control medium by lowering the reduction of LAB populations in fermented products with the extension of storage time and increase of temperature. During storage, lower variation and lower decrease in LAB count were measured in the novel fermented products with a moisture content of 65 % compared to those with 50 %. Furthermore, this humidity allows for the production of a product with higher moisture content in continuous production processes. The addition of the new fermented products with 65 % humidity to the wheat bread recipe (10 % of the quantity of flour had a significant effect on bread quality: it increased the acidity of the crumb and specific volume of the bread, and decreased the fractal dimension of the crumb pores and crumb firmness. Based on the microbiological investigations of fermented products during storage and baking tests, the conditions of LAB cultivation in novel fermentation media were optimized (time of cultivation approx. 20 days at 0–6 °C and approx. 10 days at 30–35 °C.

  9. Defatted Soy Flour Supplementation of Wheat Bread ameliorates Blood Chemistry and Oxidative Stress in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebuehi, O A T; Okafor, H K

    2015-01-01

    Bread is a convenience food made from wheat flour, which is derived from wheat and whose technology of which dates back to the ancient Egyptians. It is therefore of economic advantage if wheat importation to Nigeria can be reduced by substitution with other suitable materials. This led to the whole idea of composite flour, which is a mixture of wheat with other materials to form suitable flour for baking'purposes. The study is to ascertain the effect of supplementation of bread with defatted soy flour on blood chemistry and oxidative stress in Wistar rats. Wheat flour mixed with high quality defatted Soy flour at several ratios: 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40. The 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40 flour mixtures were used to prepare 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% Soya bread, respectively. The control bread (100%) was prepared with 100% wheat flour. Bread produced with these blends compared with regular 100% wheat bread and was tested for chemical and. organoleptic characteristics. Sixteen rats were randomly given codes and allocated to 2 different groups via tables with random numbers to feed on the 100% wheat blend and soy supplemented bread (90% wheat flour/10% soy flour) for 28 days. The weights and feedintake of the rats were computed on dailybasis. Blood was taken for biochemical assays and liver was used for antioxidant assay, that is activities of catalase, super oxider dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathine level. The activities of serum SOD and catalase were significantly increase (pbread as compared to the control, (wheat bread) and a significant decrease (pbread as compared to the control. There was a significant decrease (pbread.

  10. Utilization of deletion bins to anchor and order sequences along the wheat 7B chromosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has a large, complex and highly repetitive genome which is challenging to assemble into high quality pseudo-chromosomes. As part of the international effort to sequence the hexaploid bread wheat genome by the international wheat genome sequencing consortium (IWGSC)...

  11. Wheat Bread with Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) Pulp
as a Functional Food Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Dziki, Dariusz; Jakubczyk, Anna; Karaś, Monika; Różyło, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Summary In this study, a new application of pumpkin pulp in bread production is shown. The aim of this work is to determine the influence of the addition of fresh pumpkin pulp directly into wheat flour on physical, sensorial and biological properties of bread. The bioaccessibility of active compounds was also studied. An increase in the addition of pumpkin pulp from 5 to 20% (converted to dry matter) caused a decrease of bread volume and increase of crumb hardness and cohesiveness. The sensory characteristics of the bread showed that a partial replacement of wheat flour with up to 10% of pumpkin pulp gave satisfactory results. The taste, aroma and overall acceptability of control bread and bread containing 5 or 10% of pulp had the highest degree of liking. The addition of higher levels of pumpkin pulp caused an unpleasant aroma and taste. Pumpkin pulp is a good material to complement the bread with potentially bioaccessible phenolics (including flavonoids) and, especially, with peptides. The highest antioxidant activity was observed, in most cases, of the samples with added 10 and 15% of pumpkin pulp. The addition of the pulp significantly enriched the bread with potentially bioaccessible angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. The highest activity was determined in the bread with 15 and 20% pumpkin pulp. ACE inhibitors from the tested bread were highly bioaccessible in vitro. Pumpkin pulp seems to be a valuable source of active compounds to complement the wheat bread. Adding the pulp directly to the wheat flour gives satisfactory baking results and reduces the cost of production. Additionally, pumpkin pulp is sometimes treated as waste material after the acquisition of seeds, thus using it as bread supplement also has environmental and economic benefits. Key words: pumpkin, bread, texture, antioxidants, bioaccessibility in vitro, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition PMID:27904316

  12. Meiotic behaviour of tetraploid wheats (Triticum turgidum L.) and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Meiotic aberrations such as laggards, chromosome bridges, micronuclei, abnormal cytokines, chromatin pulling and meiotic restitution were observed and the studied genotypes were accordingly ranked as follows: triticale > synthetic hexaploid wheats > tetraploid wheats possessing meiotic restitution > tetraploid wheats ...

  13. Zinc biofortification of cereals: rice differs from wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    In their review, mainly focused on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), Palmgren et al. 1 M.G. Palmgren et al., Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions, Trends Plant Sci. 13 (2008), pp. 464–473. Article | PDF (905 K) | View

  14. Photosynthesis of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) in rainfed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . ... observed environments. These physiological results of wheat genotypes can be used to find adaptive and potential genotypes for changing environment. Keywords: Wheat, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, transpiration, environment.

  15. The effect of a default-based nudge on the choice of whole wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Ellen; Seijdell, Karen; Vingerhoeds, Monique H; de Wijk, René A; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2018-02-01

    Consumer choices are often influenced by the default option presented. This study examines the effect of whole wheat bread as a default option in a sandwich choice situation. Whole wheat bread consists of 100% whole grain and is healthier than other bread types that are commonly consumed, such as brown or white bread. A pilot survey (N = 291) examined the strength of combinations of toppings and bread type as carrier to select stimuli for the main study. In the main experimental study consisting of a two (bread type) by two (topping type) between-subjects design, participants (N = 226) were given a free sandwich at a university stand with either a relatively unhealthy deep-fried snack (croquette) or a healthy topping. About half of the participants were offered a whole wheat bun unless they asked for white bun, and the other half were offered a white bun unless they asked for a whole wheat bun. Regardless of the topping, the results show that when the whole wheat bun was the default option, 108 out of 115 participants (94%) decided to stick with this default option. When the default of bread offered was white, 89 out of 111 participants (80%) similarly chose to stick with this default. Across conditions, participants felt equally free to make a choice. The attractiveness of and willingness to pay for the sandwich were not affected by default type of bread. This study demonstrated a strong default effect of bread type. This clearly shows the benefit of steering consumers towards a healthier bread choice, by offering healthier default bread at various locations such as restaurants, schools and work place canteens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Optimization of Bread Preparation from Wheat Flour and Malted Rice Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subajiny VELUPPILLAI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of partially replacing wheat flour with malted rice flour in bread making was evaluated in several formulations, aiming to find a formulation for the production of malted rice-wheat bread with better nutritional quality and consumer acceptance. The whole grains of a local rice variety (Oryza sativa L. subsp. indica var. Mottaikaruppan were steeped in distilled water (12 h, 30°C and germinated for 3 days to obtain high content of soluble materials and amylase activity in bread making. The quality of bread was evaluated by considering the physical and sensorial parameters. When the wheat flour was substituted with malted rice flour, 35% substitution level and the malted rice flour from 3 days of germination was the best according to the physical and sensory qualities of bread. The quality of bread was improved by the addition of 20 g of margarine, 20 g of baking powder and 20 g of yeast in 1 kg of flour. Among different ratios of yeast and baking powder, 2:1 was the best. Bread improver containing amylases and oxidizing agents at the concentration of 40 g/kg was selected as the best concentration. When comparing the final formulation made in the bakery with wheat bread, malted rice-wheat bread contains more soluble dietary fiber (0.62%, insoluble dietary fiber (3.95%, total dietary fiber (4.57% and free amino acid content (0.64 g/kg than those in wheat bread (0.5%, 2.73%, 3.23% and 0.36 g/kg, respectively.

  17. Wheat Bread with Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L. Pulp as a Functional Food Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Różyło

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new application of pumpkin pulp in bread production is shown. The aim of this work is to determine the influence of the addition of fresh pumpkin pulp directly into wheat flour on physical, sensorial and biological properties of bread. The bioaccessibility of active compounds was also studied. An increase in the addition of pumpkin pulp from 5 to 20 % (converted to dry matter caused a decrease of bread volume and increase of crumb hardness and cohesiveness. The sensory characteristics of the bread showed that a partial replacement of wheat fl our with up to 10 % of pumpkin pulp gave satisfactory results. The taste, aroma and overall acceptability of control bread and bread containing 5 or 10 % of pulp had the highest degree of liking. The addition of higher levels of pumpkin pulp caused an unpleasant aroma and taste. Pumpkin pulp is a good material to complement the bread with potentially bioaccessible phenolics (including flavonoids and, especially, with peptides. The highest antioxidant activity was observed, in most cases, of the samples with added 10 and 15 % of pumpkin pulp. The addition of the pulp significantly enriched the bread with potentially bioaccessible angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors. The highest activity was determined in the bread with 15 and 20 % pumpkin pulp. ACE inhibitors from the tested bread were highly bioaccessible in vitro. Pumpkin pulp seems to be a valuable source of active compounds to complement the wheat bread. Adding the pulp directly to the wheat flour gives satisfactory baking results and reduces the cost of production. Additionally, pumpkin pulp is sometimes treated as waste material after the acquisition of seeds, thus using it as bread supplement also has environmental and economic benefi ts.

  18. Influence of dextran-producing Weissella cibaria on baking properties and sensory profile of gluten-free and wheat breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Anika; Hager, Anna-Sophie; Zannini, Emanuele; Czerny, Michael; Arendt, Elke K

    2014-02-17

    Breads based on gluten-free buckwheat, quinoa, sorghum and teff flours were produced with addition of 20% sourdough fermented with exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing Weissella cibaria MG1. Wheat bread was baked as a reference. Dough rheology, bread quality parameters and sensory properties of the sourdough-containing breads were compared to sourdough non-containing control breads of the respective flour. The specific volume remained unaffected by sourdough application. In buckwheat, sorghum, teff and wheat sourdough breads acidification increased crumb porosity compared to control breads. Crumb hardness was significantly reduced in buckwheat (-122%), teff (-29%), quinoa (-21%) and wheat sourdough breads (-122%). The staling rate was significantly reduced in buckwheat, teff and wheat sourdough breads. Water activity of the sourdough containing bread crumb was not influenced by the presence of EPS. Due to the presence of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and influence of acidification, the dough strength, AF, as measured by oscillation tests decreased significantly in sourdough-containing buckwheat, sorghum and wheat dough, but increased in sourdough-containing quinoa and teff dough. Microbial shelf-life was significantly prolonged neither for gluten-free sourdough nor for wheat sourdough breads. Scanning electron microscopy of control and sourdough bread crumbs did not show differences concerning structural starch features. In addition, the aroma of most bread was not improved by sourdough addition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Interaction between xylanase, glucose oxidase and ascorbic acid on the technological quality of whole wheat bread

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Silva, Camila Batista da; Almeida, Eveline Lopes; Chang, Yoon Kil

    2016-01-01

    ... (glucose oxidase and ascorbic acid) on the quality of whole wheat bread. The experiment was based on a central composite rotational design and the Response Surface Methodology was used to analyze the results...

  20. Rheological properties and microstructure of xylanase containing whole wheat bread dough

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghoshal, G; Shivhare, U S; Banerjee, U C

    2017-01-01

    The present research work was undertaken to investigate the effect of xylanase, produced by Penicillium citrinum, on rheological behavior of whole wheat bread dough at large and small deformation respectively...

  1. Evolution of bread-making quality of Spanish bread-wheat genotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, M.; Aparicio, N.; Ruiz-Paris, E.; Oliete, B.; Caballero, P. A.

    2009-07-01

    In this study, 36 Spanish wheat genotypes (five modern commercial cultivars, four cultivars introduced after the green revolution and 27 land races from northwestern Spain) were evaluated. Grain (yield, specific weight, protein content and falling number) and flour (yield, protein content, Zeleny index, wet gluten and gluten index) properties were analyzed. Dough behaviour during mixing (DoughLAB) and handling (alveograph) was also considered. An evolution in grain and flour properties was observed over time. In modern cultivars, grain yield was improved owing to higher grain production. In land races, higher grain yields were related to larger grain size. Unlike in land races, an inverse correlation between grain yield and protein content was found in modern cultivars. In addition, because of their high protein quality, modern cultivars surpassed land races in bread-making properties. Land races showed considerable variability in protein quality and scored lower curve configuration ratio values than other cultivars with similar strength. Cultivars introduced after the green revolution reached the highest levels of bread-making quality, a feature attributable to their high protein quality. (Author) 24 refs.

  2. Bioprocessing of Wheat Bran in Whole Wheat Bread Increases the Bioavailability of Phenolic Acids in Men and Exerts Antiinflammatory Effects ex Vivo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mateo Anson, N; Aura, A.M; Selinheimo, E; Mattila, I; Poutanen, K; van den Berg, R; Havenaar, R; Bast, A; Haenen, G.R.M.M

    2011-01-01

    ..., and ex vivo antiinflammatory properties. After consumption of a low phenolic acid diet for 3 d and overnight fasting, 8 healthy men consumed 300 g of whole wheat bread containing native bran (control bread...

  3. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A; Lazo-Vélez, Marco A; Serna-Sáldivar, Sergio O; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-01-01

    .... In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic...

  4. Unlocking the diversity of genebanks: whole-genome marker analysis of Swiss bread wheat and spelt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thomas; Schierscher-Viret, Beate; Fossati, Dario; Brabant, Cécile; Schori, Arnold; Keller, Beat; Krattinger, Simon G

    2017-11-04

    High-throughput genotyping of Swiss bread wheat and spelt accessions revealed differences in their gene pools and identified bread wheat landraces that were not used in breeding. Genebanks play a pivotal role in preserving the genetic diversity present among old landraces and wild progenitors of modern crops and they represent sources of agriculturally important genes that were lost during domestication and in modern breeding. However, undesirable genes that negatively affect crop performance are often co-introduced when landraces and wild crop progenitors are crossed with elite cultivars, which often limit the use of genebank material in modern breeding programs. A detailed genetic characterization is an important prerequisite to solve this problem and to make genebank material more accessible to breeding. Here, we genotyped 502 bread wheat and 293 spelt accessions held in the Swiss National Genebank using a 15K wheat SNP array. The material included both spring and winter wheats and consisted of old landraces and modern cultivars. Genome- and sub-genome-wide analyses revealed that spelt and bread wheat form two distinct gene pools. In addition, we identified bread wheat landraces that were genetically distinct from modern cultivars. Such accessions were possibly missed in the early Swiss wheat breeding program and are promising targets for the identification of novel genes. The genetic information obtained in this study is appropriate to perform genome-wide association studies, which will facilitate the identification and transfer of agriculturally important genes from the genebank into modern cultivars through marker-assisted selection.

  5. The structure of wheat bread influences the postprandial metabolic response in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W J; Sozer, Nesli

    2015-01-01

    Postprandial high glucose and insulin responses after starchy food consumption, associated with an increased risk of developing several metabolic diseases, could possibly be improved by altering food structure. We investigated the influence of a compact food structure; different wheat products...... or insulin-independent glucose disposal. These results demonstrate that the structure of wheat bread can influence the postprandial metabolic response, with a more compact structure being more beneficial for health. Bread-making technology should be further explored to create healthier products....

  6. Optimization of Bread Preparation from Wheat Flour and Malted Rice Flour

    OpenAIRE

    Subajiny VELUPPILLAI; Ketheeswary NITHYANANTHARAJAH; Seevaratnam VASANTHARUBA; Sandrasegarampillai BALAKUMAR; Vasanthy ARASARATNAM

    2010-01-01

    The feasibility of partially replacing wheat flour with malted rice flour in bread making was evaluated in several formulations, aiming to find a formulation for the production of malted rice-wheat bread with better nutritional quality and consumer acceptance. The whole grains of a local rice variety (Oryza sativa L. subsp. indica var. Mottaikaruppan) were steeped in distilled water (12 h, 30°C) and germinated for 3 days to obtain high content of soluble materials and amylase activity in brea...

  7. Thermo-mechanical and micro-structural properties of xylanase containing whole wheat bread

    OpenAIRE

    Ghoshal, G.; Shivhare, U. S.; Banerjee, U. C.

    2016-01-01

    Xylanase is a hemicellulase that can hydrolyses the complex polysaccharides. Hemicelluloses are main components of cell walls of cereal grains. Moreover, hemicelluloses are considered as potential sources of mono- and oligosaccharides. In this study, influence of xylanase on the physicochemical properties and sensory qualities of the whole wheat bread during storage was investigated. Studies of whole wheat bread on microstructure, texture, thermotics, Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM), X-Ra...

  8. Heat-shock effects on photosynthesis and sink-source dynamics in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schapendonk, A.H.C.M.; Xu, H.Y.; Putten, van der P.E.L.; Spiertz, J.H.J.

    2007-01-01

    To assess the mechanisms causing genotypic differences in heat tolerance of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), physiological responses to a heat shock in a vegetative (`end of tillering¿) or a reproductive (`early grain filling¿) stage were studied. Three cultivars ¿ Lavett, Ciano-79 and Attila ¿

  9. Inheritance of grain polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in multiple wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genetic backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity can cause discoloration of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) food products. Five crosses (PI 117635/Antelope; Fielder/NW03681; Fielder/Antelope; NW07OR1070/Antelope; NW07OR1066/OR2050272H) were selected to study the genetic inheritance of PPO activity. STS marker...

  10. In vitro effect of wheat bran (Triticum aestivum) extract on calcium oxalate urolithiasis crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekkoum, Khaled; Cheriti, Abdelkrim; Taleb, Safia

    2011-10-01

    Urolithiasis can lead to the loss of renal function in some cases. In this study, we tested the inhibiting effect of wheat bran (Triticum aestivum L) extract on calcium oxalate crystallization in a turbidimetric model, by FTIR spectroscopy, and polarized microscopy. The results show that this plant extract has a major inhibitory effect on calcium oxalate crystallization.

  11. Potassium applied under drought improves physiological and nutrient uptake performances of wheat (Triticum Aestivun L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raza, M.A.S.; Saleem, M.F.; Shah, G.M.; Jamil, M.; Khan, I.H.

    2013-01-01

    The physiological and nutrient uptake performance of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (Lasani-2008 and Auqab-2000) to foliar application of 1% potassium (K) at three different growth stages (tillering, flower initiation and grain filling) was investigated under water limited environment in

  12. Heat stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) : Effects on grain growth and quality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiertz, J.H.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Xu, H.; Primo Martin, C.; Don, C.; Putten, van der P.E.L.

    2006-01-01

    Heat stress effects on grain dry mass and quality were studied in spring wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.). Three cultivars were chosen with respect to heat tolerance: Lavett (genotype 1), selected for temperate growing conditions and two CIMMYT cultivars, Ciano-79 (genotype 2) and Attila

  13. Heat stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): Effects on grain growth and quality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiertz, J.H.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Xu, H.; Primo-Martin, C.; Don, C.; Putten, P.E.L. van der

    2006-01-01

    Heat stress effects on grain dry mass and quality were studied in spring wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.). Three cultivars were chosen with respect to heat tolerance: Lavett (genotype 1), selected for temperate growing conditions and two CIMMYT cultivars, Ciano-79 (genotype 2) and Attila

  14. Wheat ( Triticum aestivum L) response to manganese in a sand culture

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L) response to manganese in a sand culture. JS Tenywa, DJ Eckert. Abstract. No Abstract Available E. Afr. Agric. For. J Vol.68(2) 2002: 51-58. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/eaafj.v68i2.1776.

  15. CHROMOSOME LOCATION OF GENETIC FACTORS DETERMINIG PHYSIOLOGICAL AND BIOCHEMICAL PROCESSES ASSOCIATED WITH DROUGHT TOLERANCE IN WHEAT TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osipova S.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Drought tolerance is characterized as the most recalcitrant trait to improve for its complexity and considered target for genomic-assisted improvement. A profitable genetic strategy lies in the discovery and exploitation of quantitative trait loci (QTL involved in determining tolerance to water deficit at the cellular level. Enzymes of the antioxidant system participating in detoxification of reactive oxygen species accumulating under stress are the essential component of the common protective systems in cell. The same is lipoxygenase – a key enzyme of jasmonate-dependent signaling pathway initiating the development of adaptive programs in cell. Understanding of the genetic basis of wheat drought tolerance as a polygenic trait and identification of the QTL is facilitated by the availability of a number of sets of inter-varietal single chromosome substitution lines (ISCSLs in bread wheat Triticum aestivum L. Two sets of bread wheat ISCSLs were used in this study. In the first set, 'Saratovskaya' 29 (S29 / 'Janetzkis Probat' (JP, the recipient was a drought tolerant cultivar and the donor of individual pairs of homologous chromosomes was a sensitive one. In the second set, 'Chinese Spring' (CS / 'Synthetic 6x' (Syn 6x, the donor of separate chromosomes was a synthetic hexaploid wheat (T. dicoccoides X Ae. tauschii. In the set S29/JP the chromosomes of the second homoeological group and 4D chromosome were found to be critical for drought tolerance. A decrease of tolerance correlated with decreasing of antioxidant enzymes cumulative activity in leaves. In the set CS/Syn, chromosomes 4B and 4D were found to be critical for drought tolerance. The levels of LOX activity in leaves of both sets differently correlated with grain productivity but influenced positively on retaining a grain size under drought. Besides the structural genes for LOX biosynthesis situated on chromosomes of 4 and 5 homoeological groups, in both sets, the genetic factors on

  16. An addition of sourdough and whey proteins affects the nutritional quality of wholemeal wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeć, Aneta; Borczak, Barbara; Pysz, Mirosław; Sikora, Elżbieta; Sikora, Marek; Curic, Duska; Novotni, Dubravka

    2014-01-01

    Bread can be a good source of nutrients as well as non-nutrient compounds. This study was designed to assess the effect of adding of sourdough and whey proteins to wholemeal (WM) bread produced by bake-off technology on chemical composition and bioavailability of proteins, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and iron content in Wistar rats. Wholemeal breads were baked with using conventional or bake off technology. In breads chemical composition, selected minerals content, amino acid composition were measured. Five week-old Wistar rats (n = 30, male), were randomly divided into fi ve groups and fed with modified AIN-93G diets containing experimental breads. In animal study the nutritional value of breads' proteins and concentration of selected minerals in serum, liver and femoral bone, were measured. The body weight gain, biological value (BV) and net protein utilization (NPU) were significantly higher in rats fed with partially baked frozen wholemeal (PBF WM) bread with sourdough and whey proteins. The level of magnesium was significantly lower in serum of animals fed with the diet containing PBF WM bread with sourdough and whey proteins in comparison to rodents fed with conventional WM bread with sourdough. The content of iron was significantly higher in liver of rats fed with PBF WM with sourdough bread in comparison to the groups fed with conventional WM and conventional WM with sourdough breads. Sourdough addition can be recommended in a production of whole wheat partially baked frozen bread but its use is further more beneficial if it is fermented with whey proteins.

  17. Bread in the Economy of Qualities: The Creative Reconstitution of the Canada-UK Commodity Chain for Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnan, Andre

    2011-01-01

    This article traces the creative reconstitution of the Canada-UK wheat-bread commodity chain since the 1990s. In the mid-1990s, the Canadian Wheat Board (CWB) and a British bakery, Warburtons, pioneered an innovative identity-preserved sourcing relationship that ties contracted prairie wheat growers to consumers of premium bread in the United…

  18. miR156-Targeted SBP-Box Transcription Factors Interact with DWARF53 to RegulateTEOSINTE BRANCHED1andBARREN STALK1Expression in Bread Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Cheng, Xiliu; Liu, Pan; Sun, Jiaqiang

    2017-07-01

    Genetic and environmental factors affect bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) plant architecture, which determines grain yield. In this study, we demonstrate that miR156 controls bread wheat plant architecture. We show that overexpression of tae-miR156 in bread wheat cultivar Kenong199 leads to increased tiller number and severe defects in spikelet formation, probably due to the tae-miR156-mediated repression of a group of SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE ( SPL ) genes. Furthermore, we found that the expression of two genes TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 ( TaTB1 ) and BARREN STALK1 ( TaBA1 ), whose orthologous genes in diverse plant species play conserved roles in regulating plant architecture, is markedly reduced in the tae-miR156-OE bread wheat plants. Significantly, we demonstrate that the strigolactone (SL) signaling repressor DWARF53 (TaD53), which physically associates with the transcriptional corepressor TOPLESS, can directly interact with the N-terminal domains of miR156-controlled TaSPL3/17. Most importantly, TaSPL3/17-mediated transcriptional activation of TaBA1 and TaTB1 can be largely repressed by TaD53 in the transient expression system. Our results reveal potential association between miR156-TaSPLs and SL signaling pathways during bread wheat tillering and spikelet development. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Comparison of selected sensory properties of wholemeal breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markéta Bednářová

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare textural (firmness and sensory properties (surface colour, crumb colour, crumb texture, appearance, appearance and colour preferences between whole breads made from conventional wheat (Triticum aestivum, L. and whole breads made from unconventional wheat (Triticum aestivum, L., winter variety Skorpion, grains with blue aleuron. Wholemeal breads (control samples with marks C1, C2 and C3 were prepared of 100, 90 and 80 % amount of conventional wholemeal wheat flour to 0, 10 and 20% amount of smooth white flour made from conventional wheat using baker's experiment. Wholemeal breads (experimental samples with marks S1, S2 and S3 were prepared of unconventional wholemeal wheat flour to smooth white wheat flour in same ratio as control samples of breads. Our results showed, that negative evaluation of some sensory attributes of breads made from unconventional wheat correlated with increasing addition of wholemeal flour of this wheat. It was found that breads made from conventional wheat (100, 90 and 80% amount of conventional wholemeal flour were more acceptable in surface colour, colour and appearance preferences than these sensory attributes of breads made from unconventional wheat (same amount of wholemeal flour. Appearance and crumb colour of breads made from conventional wheat (100 and 90% amount of wholemeal flour were evaluated better than these attributes of breads made from blue coloured wheat (same amount of wholemeal flour. Appearance and crumb colour of both groups of whole wheat breads (80:20 was similarly evaluated. Crumb texture of breads made from conventional wheat (90% and 80% amount of wholemeal flour was worse than crumb texture of breads produced of same ratio of flour, but made from unconventional wheat. Breads with addition of 80% of wholemeal flour milled of blue coloured wheat were most acceptable in all of sensory attributes for evaluators. Significant difference (p <0.05 of crumb fimness

  20. Short-term storage evaluation of quality and antioxidant capacity in chestnut-wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Cirlini, Martina; Chiavaro, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Bread traditionally made from wheat is now often supplemented with alternative functional ingredients as chestnut flours; no data have been previously published about the staling of chestnut-containing bread. Thus short-term storage (3 days) for chestnut flour-supplemented soft wheat bread is evaluated by means of selected physicochemical properties (i.e. water dynamics, texture, colour, crumb grain characteristic, total antioxidant capacity). Bread prepared with a 20:80 ratio of chestnut:soft wheat flours maintained its moisture content in both crust and crumb. Crumb hardness, after baking, was found to be significantly higher than that of the soft wheat bread; it did not change during storage, whereas it significantly increased in the control bread until the end of the shelf life. The supplemented bread presented a heterogeneous crumb structure, with a significant decrease in the largest pores during shelf life, relative to the shrinkage of crumb grain. The control exhibited a significant redistribution of crumb holes, with a decrease in the smallest grain classes and an increase in the intermediate ones, most likely caused by cell wall thickening. The colour of the crumb remained unaltered in both breads. The crust of the control presented a significant decrease of a* (redness) and that of the supplemented bread exhibited a decrease of b* (yellowness). The antioxidant capacity was detected after day 1 of storage in the chestnut flour bread only. Chestnut flour supplementation could represent a feasible way of producing bread with improved characteristics, not only just after baking but also during shelf life. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Comprehensive Identification and Bread-Making Quality Evaluation of Common Wheat Somatic Variation Line AS208 on Glutenin Composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyun Liu

    Full Text Available High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs are important seed storage proteins in wheat (Triticum aestivum that determine wheat dough elasticity and processing quality. Clarification of the defined effectiveness of HMW-GSs is very important to breeding efforts aimed at improving wheat quality. To date, there have no report on the expression silencing and quality effects of 1Bx20 and 1By20 at the Glu-B1 locus in wheat. A wheat somatic variation line, AS208, in which both 1Bx20 and 1By20 at Glu-B1 locus were silenced, was developed recently in our laboratory. Evaluation of agronomic traits and seed storage proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC indicated that AS208 was highly similar to its parental cultivar Lunxuan987 (LX987, with the exception that the composition and expression of HMW-GSs was altered. The 1Bx20 and 1By20 in AS208 were further identified to be missing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR assays. Based on the PCR results for HMW-GS genes and their promoters in AS208 compared with LX987, 1Bx20 and 1By20 were speculated to be deleted in AS208 during in vitro culture. Quality analysis of this line with Mixograph, Farinograph, and Extensograph instruments, as well as analysis of bread-making quality traits, demonstrated that the lack of the genes encoding 1Bx20 and 1By20 caused various negative effects on dough processing and bread-making quality traits, including falling number, dough stability time, mixing tolerance index, crude protein values, wet gluten content, bread size, and internal cell structure. AS208 can potentially be used in the functional dissection of other HMW-GSs as a plant material with desirable genetic background, and in biscuit making industry as a high-quality weak gluten wheat source.

  2. Comprehensive Identification and Bread-Making Quality Evaluation of Common Wheat Somatic Variation Line AS208 on Glutenin Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lipu; Cao, Xinyou; Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Zhou, Yang; Yan, Yueming; Ye, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) are important seed storage proteins in wheat (Triticum aestivum) that determine wheat dough elasticity and processing quality. Clarification of the defined effectiveness of HMW-GSs is very important to breeding efforts aimed at improving wheat quality. To date, there have no report on the expression silencing and quality effects of 1Bx20 and 1By20 at the Glu-B1 locus in wheat. A wheat somatic variation line, AS208, in which both 1Bx20 and 1By20 at Glu-B1 locus were silenced, was developed recently in our laboratory. Evaluation of agronomic traits and seed storage proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) indicated that AS208 was highly similar to its parental cultivar Lunxuan987 (LX987), with the exception that the composition and expression of HMW-GSs was altered. The 1Bx20 and 1By20 in AS208 were further identified to be missing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assays. Based on the PCR results for HMW-GS genes and their promoters in AS208 compared with LX987, 1Bx20 and 1By20 were speculated to be deleted in AS208 during in vitro culture. Quality analysis of this line with Mixograph, Farinograph, and Extensograph instruments, as well as analysis of bread-making quality traits, demonstrated that the lack of the genes encoding 1Bx20 and 1By20 caused various negative effects on dough processing and bread-making quality traits, including falling number, dough stability time, mixing tolerance index, crude protein values, wet gluten content, bread size, and internal cell structure. AS208 can potentially be used in the functional dissection of other HMW-GSs as a plant material with desirable genetic background, and in biscuit making industry as a high-quality weak gluten wheat source. PMID:26765256

  3. GENETIC DETERMINATION OF THE NITROGEN SUPPLY OF SPRING WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitnikov M.N.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The maximum grain productivity can be achieved only taking into account plant biological needs. The need in mineral nutrients depends on the plant hereditary nature and environmental conditions. The greatest demand for nitrogen is characteristic in cereals for spring and winter wheat, the lowest one for barley and rye. The use of mineral nutrients in amounts exceeding plant needs does not result in yield increasing and can worsen the production quality. We were studying reaction of spring bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes to changes in nutrition soil conditions. In the experiment, ITMI mapping population consisting of 110 recombinant inbred lines was evaluated for a number of morphological, biological and economically important traits under different levels of the nitrogen supply. To create different soil nutrition level and to prevent leaching of fertilizers during the plant vegetation season we prepared trenches with depth 0.4 m, width 1 m and length 20 m; the bottoms of which were covered with plastic films. The trenches were filled with soil from the lower soil horizons. In first variant of the experiment, nutrient mixture on the basis of the physiological rate for cereals (N – 0.15 g, P - 0.1 g, K - 0.1 g of active substances per 1 kg of dry soil was applied. In the second variant, nitrogen dose was reduced half with the same phosphorus and potassium doses. Variant without fertilizers applying was used as a control. Thirty nine characters were analyzed during the all growing season. The combination of field and vegetation experiment conditions allowed approximating maximally to real conditions of the experiment and at the same time to control strictly plant vegetation. QTLs identified in our study can be differentiated as dependent and independent on environmental conditions. For example, some QTLs controlling such traits as a wax bloom, phenological phases, etc. are stable under different conditions of soil nutrition. QTLs of

  4. Effect of the Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. Flour Addition on Physicochemical Properties of Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Man

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea flour is a good source of proteins, fibers, minerals and other bioactive compounds and it could be an ideal ingredient for improve the nutritional value of bread and bakery products. The aim of this study was to supplement wheat flour (WF with various levels of chickpea flour (CF in order to obtain bread with good nutritional and quality characteristics. Four experimental variants obtained by substituting wheat flour with different proportions (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% of chickpea flour were used. The results showed a valuable increment in bread protein and fiber content. The volume of the breads decreased as the level of chickpea flour (CF increased due the dilution of gluten content in the blend and due to the interactions among fiber components, water and gluten. Nevertheless, substitution at 10%, 20% and 30%, gives parameter values at least as good as the control sample (WFB and produces acceptable bread, in terms of weight, volume and sensorial properties.

  5. A novel highly differentially expressed gene in wheat endosperm associated with bread quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, A.; Bundock, P. C.; Banks, P. M.; Fox, G.; Yin, X.; Henry, R. J.

    2015-01-01

    Analysis of gene expression in developing wheat seeds was used to identify a gene, wheat bread making (wbm), with highly differential expression (~1000 fold) in the starchy endosperm of genotypes varying in bread making quality. Several alleles differing in the 5’-upstream region (promoter) of this gene were identified, with one present only in genotypes with high levels of wbm expression. RNA-Seq analysis revealed low or no wbm expression in most genotypes but high expression (0.2-0.4% of total gene expression) in genotypes that had good bread loaf volume. The wbm gene is predicted to encode a mature protein of 48 amino acids (including four cysteine residues) not previously identified in association with wheat quality, possibly because of its small size and low frequency in the wheat gene pool. Genotypes with high wbm expression all had good bread making quality but not always good physical dough qualities. The predicted protein was sulphur rich suggesting the possibility of a contribution to bread loaf volume by supporting the crossing linking of proteins in gluten. Improved understanding of the molecular basis of differences in bread making quality may allow more rapid development of high performing genotypes with acceptable end-use properties and facilitate increased wheat production. PMID:26011437

  6. Higher bioavailability of iron from whole wheat bread compared with iron-fortified white breads in caco-2 cell model: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikooyeh, Bahareh; Neyestani, Tirang R

    2017-06-01

    Bread, as the staple food of Iranians, with average per capita consumption of 300 g d -1 , could potentially be a good vehicle for many fortificants, including iron. In this study, iron bioavailability from flat breads (three fortified and one whole wheat unfortified) was investigated using in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal digestion and absorption in a caco-2 cell model. Despite having a lower ferritin/protein ratio in comparison with fortified breads, whole wheat bread showed higher iron bioavailability than the other three types of bread. Assuming iron bioavailability from the ferrous sulfate supplement used as standard was about 10%, the estimated bioavailability of iron from the test breads was calculated as 5.0-8.0%. Whole wheat bread (∼8%), as compared with the fortified breads (∼5-6.5%), had higher iron bioavailability. Iron from unfortified whole wheat bread is more bioavailable than from three types of iron-fortified breads. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Thermo-mechanical and micro-structural properties of xylanase containing whole wheat bread

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    G. Ghoshal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Xylanase is a hemicellulase that can hydrolyses the complex polysaccharides. Hemicelluloses are main components of cell walls of cereal grains. Moreover, hemicelluloses are considered as potential sources of mono- and oligosaccharides. In this study, influence of xylanase on the physicochemical properties and sensory qualities of the whole wheat bread during storage was investigated. Studies of whole wheat bread on microstructure, texture, thermotics, Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD were conducted at ambient temperature of 25 and 4 °C respectively. During storage at different temperatures, bread containing xylanase exhibited less firmness but larger volume with whiter crumb color and longer shelf life as compared to control bread. Results of firmness, enthalpy, Fourier Transformation Infra Red (FTIR and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD studies suggested a lower staling rate of bread containing xylanase as compared to control one. Bread containing xylanase showed a smoother surface and more uniform pore size than the control. Significant differences in microstructure of control and bread containing xylanase were observed which might be attributed due to the change in water starch gluten interaction. These differences were also found to be interrelated to the textural properties of bread. Better sensory features were achieved in bread containing xylanase.

  8. Bran hydration and physical treatments improve the bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine and coarse bran particles of a hard red and a hard white wheat were used to study the influences of bran hydration and physical treatments such as autoclaving and freezing as well as their combinations on the dough properties and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF). For both h...

  9. Bran characteristics influencing quality attributes of whole wheat Chinese steamed bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the variations in the characteristics of brans obtained from a pilot-scale milling of 17 soft red winter wheat varieties and their influences on the quality of whole wheat northern-style Chinese steamed bread (CSB) prepared from blends of a base flour and brans of different w...

  10. Sensory Quality of Wheat and Cassava Breads as Affected by Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of some leguminous seed flours (LSF) on the quality of wheat and cassava breads were investigated. Three LSF, namely Brachystegia eurycoma, Detarium microcarpum, and Mucuna sloanei were added into wheat flour and cassava flour at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% of the flour basis. The different flour ...

  11. Microbiological, Nutritional, and Sensory Quality of Bread Produced from Wheat and Potato Flour Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udeme Joshua Josiah Ijah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrated uncooked potato (Irish and sweet flour was blended by weight with commercial wheat flour at 0 to 10% levels of substitution to make bread. Comparative study of the microbial and nutritional qualities of the bread was undertaken. The total aerobic bacterial counts ranged from 3.0 × 105 cfu/g to 1.09 × 106 cfu/g while the fungal counts ranged from 8.0 × 101 cfu/g to 1.20 × 103 cfu/g of the sample. Coliforms were not detected in the bread. Bacteria isolated were species of Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus while fungi isolates were species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Mucor. The mean sensory scores (color, aroma, taste, texture, and general acceptability were evaluated. The color of the bread baked from WF/IPF2 (wheat/Irish potato flour, 95 : 5% blend was preferred to WF (wheat flour, 100% while WF/SPF1 (wheat/sweet potato flour, 100% and WF/IPF1 (wheat/Irish potato flour, 90 : 10% aroma were preferred to WF. However, the bread baked from WF, WF/IPF2 (wheat flour/Irish potato flour, 95 : 5%, and WF/SPF2 (wheat/sweet potato flour, 95 : 5% was more acceptable than other blends. The use of hydrated potato flour in bread making is advantageous due to increased nutritional value, higher bread yield, and reduced rate of staling.

  12. Características tecnológicas de genótipos de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. cultivados no cerrado Technological characteristics of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes grown in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Carlos Gutkoski

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Realizou-se este estudo com o objetivo de estudar as características grau de extração, proteína bruta, número de queda, alveografia, farinografia, volume específico e escore de pontos dos pães obtidos de amostras de grãos de genótipos de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. plantados no cerrado brasileiro. Amostras de grãos de trigo dos genótipos Embrapa 22, Embrapa 42, Önix, Taurum e Fundacep 27, plantados no cerrado brasileiro, safra 2003/2004 foram avaliadas em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, no laboratório de Cereais do Centro de Pesquisa em Alimentação da Universidade de Passo Fundo, sendo os resultados experimentais analisados pelo emprego da análise de variância (Anova e nos modelos significativos as médias comparadas entre si pelo teste de Tukey a 5% de probabilidade de erro. As cultivares de trigo foram classificadas com base na alveografia e número de queda em melhorador, pão e brando. Nos trigos classificados como melhoradores as propriedades funcionais dos pães foram inferiores, o que define a utilização destas farinhas para mesclas com trigos de menor força de glúten. No cerrado brasileiro é possível produzir trigo classe melhorador.The aim of this study was to investigate the characteristics of flour extraction grade, protein content, falling number, alveography, farinography, specific volume and point score of bread made from samples of grain of wheat genotypes grown in the Brazilian Cerrado. Samples of wheat grains of genotypes Embrapa 22, Embrapa 42, Önix, Taurum and Fundacep 27, grown in the Brazilian Cerrado, 2003/2004 crop, were disposed in fully randomized design, in the Cereal Laboratory at the Centro de Pesquisa em Alimentação of the University of Passo Fundo. The results were analyzed by variance analysis and the means compared by Tukey's test at 5% error probability. The wheat cultivars were classified according to alveography and falling number in improved, bread and bland. In the wheat

  13. Effect of different iron compounds on wheat and gluten-free breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiskini, Alexandra; Kapsokefalou, Maria; Yanniotis, Stavros; Mandala, Ioanna

    2010-05-01

    Iron fortification of bread often results in sub-optimal quality of the final product due to undesirable changes in the physical characteristics and sensory properties of the bread. In this study both the form of iron (soluble, insoluble or encapsulated) and the type of bread (wheat or gluten-free) were varied in order to investigate the effect of iron and gluten on the product characteristics. The effect of iron on the quality characteristics of the breads investigated depended on iron type, but not on iron solubility. Colour, crust firmness, specific volume, cell number and uniformity as well as aroma were the attributes that were mainly affected in iron-enriched wheat bread. In some cases, specific volume was 30% lower than that of the control sample, while cell uniformity was significantly lower, as low as 50% of the control sample in some fortified samples. In gluten-free breads, differences between unfortified and fortified samples included colour, crust firmness, cell number, 'moisture' odour, metallic taste and stickiness. In some cases, the sensory scores were better for fortified samples. Differences due to iron fortification were less pronounced in gluten-free compared to wheat breads. The choice of the appropriate iron compound which will not cause adverse quality changes is still a challenge.

  14. Analytical and sensory studies on the release of sodium from wheat bread crumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pflaum, Tabea; Konitzer, Katharina; Hofmann, Thomas; Koehler, Peter

    2013-07-03

    As a basis for sodium reduction, interactions between sodium and wheat bread ingredients and their impact on salt perception in bread crumb were examined. The theoretical sodium binding capacities of wheat proteins revealed that a maximum amount of 0.24% NaCl (based on flour) could be bound in bread crumb by ionic interactions between sodium ions and acidic amino acid side chains. However, the sodium binding capacities of wheat proteins, determined by a magnetic beads assay and a sodium-selective electrode, were only about 0.002% NaCl. They were negligible concerning the sensory perception of saltiness, as 0.075 and 0.3% NaCl were the lowest noticeable differences using bread containing 0 and 1% NaCl as a reference, respectively. Extracting bread crumb in a mastication simulator with ultrapure water, buffer solutions, and artificial and human saliva revealed that interactions between sodium and wheat bread ingredients were sufficiently weak to enable complete sodium extraction during simulated mastication.

  15. Evaluation of Drought Tolerance of Bread Wheat Recombinant Inbred Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Zafar Naderi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluateresponse of bread wheat recombinant inbred lines to water deficit, a split plot experiment arranged in randomized complete block design (CRBD was conducted using eight recombinant inbred lines and their parental cultivars (Roshan and Super Head with three replications under three irrigation levels (80, 120 and 160 mm evaporation from class A pan at the Agriculture Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch during 2009. The results of analysis of variance data collected revealed significant difference among lines and irrigation levels for grain yield. While line × irrigation level interaction was non significant for grain yield. Based on SSI and TOL, drought tolerance indices lines number 1, 7, 41 and Roshan cultivar under 120 mm evaporation, and lines number 7 and 19 under 160 mm evaporation were the tolerant lines. Under both stress conditions according to STI, MP and GMP indices, lines number 37, 38 and Roshan cultivar were recognized as the tolerant lines to water deficiet. Cluster analyses based on grain yield and drought tolerance indices recognized the lines number 1, 30, 32, 37, 38, 41 and Roshan cultivar under 120 mm and lines number 30, 37 and 38 and Roshan under 160 mm evaporation as the most drought tolerants and higher producers.

  16. Molecular characterization of γ gliadin from durum wheat ( Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The gluten quality is one of the main factors affecting the quality of durum wheat. It depends primarily on its storage proteins composition (glutenins and gliadins). In order to set up and initiate a technological quality improvement program of durum wheat we have conducted a prospection of the different protein sequences of ...

  17. Weed biomass and economic yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum) as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yomi

    2012-01-24

    Jan 24, 2012 ... A study to investigate the efficacy of different herbicides on rainfed wheat was carried out at the experimental farm, of the University of Arid Agriculture, Rawalpindi during 2004 to 2007. Wheat variety. GA-2002 was planted as a test crop. The experiment was carried out in randomized complete block design ...

  18. Genetic evaluation of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SAM

    2014-04-30

    Apr 30, 2014 ... Several biotic and abiotic stresses such as spot blotch, leaf rust, terminal heat stress and drought stress have adverse impact on wheat productivity in the eastern regions of South Asia especially Eastern Gangetic Plains of India (Joshi et al., 2007). However, spot blotch is most serious constrain for the wheat ...

  19. Whole-genome profiling and shotgun sequencing delivers an anchored, gene-decorated, physical map assembly of bread wheat chromosome 6A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poursarebani, Naser; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Simková, Hana; Safář, Jan; Witsenboer, Hanneke; van Oeveren, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Mayer, Klaus F X; Stein, Nils; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2014-07-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most important staple food crop for 35% of the world's population. International efforts are underway to facilitate an increase in wheat production, of which the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC) plays an important role. As part of this effort, we have developed a sequence-based physical map of wheat chromosome 6A using whole-genome profiling (WGP™). The bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contig assembly tools fingerprinted contig (fpc) and linear topological contig (ltc) were used and their contig assemblies were compared. A detailed investigation of the contigs structure revealed that ltc created a highly robust assembly compared with those formed by fpc. The ltc assemblies contained 1217 contigs for the short arm and 1113 contigs for the long arm, with an L50 of 1 Mb. To facilitate in silico anchoring, WGP™ tags underlying BAC contigs were extended by wheat and wheat progenitor genome sequence information. Sequence data were used for in silico anchoring against genetic markers with known sequences, of which almost 79% of the physical map could be anchored. Moreover, the assigned sequence information led to the 'decoration' of the respective physical map with 3359 anchored genes. Thus, this robust and genetically anchored physical map will serve as a framework for the sequencing of wheat chromosome 6A, and is of immediate use for map-based isolation of agronomically important genes/quantitative trait loci located on this chromosome. © 2014 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Characteristics of cadmium uptake and membrane transport in roots of intact wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lian-Zhen; Tu, Chen; Peijnenburg, Willie J G M; Luo, Yong-Ming

    2017-02-01

    Wheat is one of several cereals that is capable of accumulating higher amounts of Cd in plant tissues. It is important to understand the Cd2+ transport processes in roots that result in excess Cd accumulation. Traditional destructive technologies have limited capabilities in analyzing root samples due to methodological limitations, and sometimes may result in false conclusions. The mechanisms of Cd2+ uptake into the roots of wheat seedlings (Triticum aestivum L.) were investigated by assessing the impact of various inhibitors and channel blockers on Cd accumulation as well as the real-time net Cd2+ flux at roots with the non-destructive scanning ion-selective electrode technique. The P-type ATPase inhibitor Na3VO4 (500 μM) had little effect on Cd uptake (p wheat, suggesting that Cd2+ uptake into wheat root cells is not directly dependent on H+ gradients. While, the uncoupler 2,4-dinitrophenol significantly limited Cd2+ uptake (p wheat, suggesting the existence of metabolic mediation in the Cd2+ uptake process by wheat. The Cd content at the whole-plant level in wheat was significantly (p wheat root via Ca2+ channels. In addition, our results suggested a role for protein synthesis in mediating Cd2+ uptake and transport by wheat. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Effect of high molecular weight glutenin subunit composition in common wheat on dough properties and steamed bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pingping; Jondiko, Tom O; Tilley, Michael; Awika, Joseph M

    2014-10-01

    Steamed bread is a popular staple food in Asia with different flour quality requirements from pan bread. Little is known about how glutenin characteristics affect steamed bread quality. This work investigated how deletions of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) influence gluten properties and Chinese steamed bread quality using 16 wheat lines grown in Texas. Although similar in protein content (134-140 mg g⁻¹), gluten composition and dough properties differed widely among the lines. Compared with non-deletion lines, deletion lines had lower (P bread quality (score, 60.8-65.0) with good elasticity and crumb structure. Deletion at Glu-B1y and/or Glu-D1y loci in high-strength hard wheat produced good dough properties for steamed bread. This suggests that wheat functionality for steamed bread can be improved by manipulating HMW-GS composition. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Improvement of the quality of whole wheat bread by supplementation of xylanase from Aspergillus foetidus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Amita R; Shah, R K; Madamwar, Datta

    2006-11-01

    The possible use of xylanase from Aspergillus foetidus MTCC 4898 as a bread improver was tested in whole wheat bread. The partially purified xylanase was used as an additive at 12 U/g during mixing of wheat flour. The effects of xylanase addition on the fermentation stage and the final bread quality were analyzed. Remarkable decrease (11%) in water absorption and increase in dough rising (28.5%) were noticed. Final moisture content of the bread was higher (40.5%) than control (32.3%). Improvements in volume (53%) and specific volume (56%) were also significant. Sensory evaluation indicated better flavour, taste, softness and overall acceptability. Texture profile analysis confirmed the rheological changes. Firmness was decreased by more than four folds. Improvements in cohesiveness and decline in springiness and gumminess were observed.

  3. BORON-NITROGEN RELATIONSHIP IN WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L.) GROWN WITH THE NUTRIENT SOLUTION

    OpenAIRE

    Mehmet ALPASLAN; Süleyman TABAN; Ali İNAL; A. Cihat KÜTÜK; İbrahim ERDAL

    1996-01-01

    The effects of boron applied 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 µg B/ml levels as boric acid (H3 BO3), and nitrogen applied 25, 100, 200, and 400 µg N/ml as ammonium nitrate (NH4 NO3), respectively, on the amount of dry matter yield, and boron, nitrogen and nitrate contents of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in perlite medium with Ruakura nutrient solution under greenhouse conditions were investigated. Dry matter yield and nitrate contents of wheat were decreased and boron content was increased with...

  4. Induction of pistil-like structures in suspension-derived callus cultures of wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunsinger, H; Schauz, K

    1987-10-01

    In the following a method for the induction of pistil-like structures in wheat suspension cultures (Triticum aestivum L.) is described. In young influorescences of plants, which were artificially infected with the wheat bunt fungi (Tilletia controversa), organogenic calli with pistil-like structures could be induced on loblolly pine medium + 3 mg/l 3,6-dichloro-2-methoxy benzoic acid. The yield of these structures in calli from a five-month-old suspension culture was up to 100 per gram of callus fresh mass.

  5. Whole-grain rye bread consumption by women correlates with plasma alkylresorcinols and increases their concentration compared with low-fiber wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linko, Anna-Maria; Juntunen, Katri S; Mykkänen, Hannu M; Adlercreutz, Herman

    2005-03-01

    Whole-grain rye and wheat products are rich in lignans, the precursors of enterolactone (ENL) and alkylresorcinols (ARs), which are phenolic lipids. In this crossover trial, we examined the effect of whole-grain rye bread compared with low-fiber wheat bread on plasma AR levels. Women (n = 39) aged 59 +/- 0.94 y (mean +/- SEM) were advised to consume rye (214 +/- 7.1 g/d) or wheat (178 +/- 6.5 g/d) bread (20% of total daily energy intake) in random order for 8 wk. The test periods were separated by an 8-wk washout period. ARs with different homologues and ENL were measured in plasma collected at the beginning (habitual diet) and end of the test bread periods. AR concentrations were higher (P bread (352 +/- 24.7 nmol/L) and habitual diet (97.7 +/- 12.1 and 88.3 +/- 8.7 nmol/L) periods than after the wheat bread period (36.6 +/- 4.2 nmol/L). Plasma AR concentrations were correlated with intake of rye bread (r = 0.34, P = 0.037), and with insoluble fiber from the whole diet during the rye (r = 0.39, P = 0.013) and wheat (r = 0.32, P = 0.047) bread periods. The plasma AR 17:0/21:0 ratio differed after the rye (0.84 +/- 0.04) and wheat (0.53 +/- 0.08) bread diet periods (P whole-grain rye intake, and their homologue pattern could be used as an indicator of the bread type consumed.

  6. Molecular changes in soy and wheat breads during storage as probed by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, Alessia; Tiziani, Stefano; Vodovotz, Yael

    2007-07-11

    Addition of raw ground almond has been shown to improve loaf quality (e.g., loaf specific volume) of soy bread. To better understand the effects of almond addition to soy bread and to follow these through storage, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy relaxation times and cross-relaxation experiments were performed. Spin-spin relaxation times of water protons were similar for the two soy breads, and therefore changes of water interactions with the other components of the soy breads (with and without almond) were not considered to be major contributors to the differences in loaf quality observed between these breads. Additionally, T2 values of water protons were found to have a similar decreasing trend during storage, especially up to day 3, for all of the products studied. On the other hand, during storage, lipid proton relaxation times exhibited only small changes in wheat and regular soy bread, whereas the soy-almond bread showed a major decrease of lipid proton mobility in particular after day 3 and up to day 10. These findings may indicate that, after a few days of storage, the lipid fraction contributes to better plasticization of the soy bread with almond, which can affect acceptability and storage stability of the final product. Thus, the higher amount of lipids introduced in the almond-enriched soy bread is likely to be responsible for the improved loaf quality and may significantly affect shelf stability of the soy-containing product.

  7. Effects of Wheat Gluten Hydrolysate and Its Ultrafiltration Fractions on Dough Properties and Bread Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouming Zhao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two fractions (50-K and permeate from a proteolytic hydrolysate (degree of hydrolysis, DH=3.8 % of wheat gluten were separated using ultrafiltration (UF membrane with molecular mass cut-off of 50 kDa. The effects of the wheat gluten hydrolysate (WGH and its UF fractions on the mixing behaviour and viscoelastic properties of wheat dough were presented. The WGH and its UF fractions modified the mixing properties of dough. The addition of these fractions improved the viscoelastic characteristics of wheat dough. A significant (p<0.05 effect of 50-K fraction on these characteristics of wheat dough was observed. After adding these fractions, the bread was considered acceptable by the sensory panel. Also, 50-K fraction resulted in significant (p<0.05 increase in the crumb firmness, while the bread made with wheat flour with WGH and permeate (P fraction showed softer crumbs compared to that of wheat flour. Moreover, these fractions had anti-staling properties for bread during storage. Hence, the wheat gluten hydrolysate and its UF fractions are the products with promising potential in the baking products.

  8. Nutritional and Nutraceutical Properties of Triticum dicoccum Wheat and Its Health Benefits: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanavath, Srinu; Prasada Rao, U J S

    2017-10-01

    Triticum dicoccum wheat is one of the ancient wheat species and is gaining popularity due to its suggested health benefits as well as its suitability for organic farming. In some parts of the world, certain traditional foods prepared with dicoccum wheat are preferred due to their better taste, texture, and flavor. It is rich in bioactive compounds and its starch has been reported to have slow digestibility. However, content and composition of bioactive compounds is reported to vary depending on the geographical location, seasonal variations, varieties used, and the analytical methods followed. Therefore, in the present study, we report the food uses, digestibility of starch, nutritional and nutraceutical compositions of dicoccum wheat grown in different parts of the world, and also its health benefits in ameliorating diabetes and celiac disease. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  9. Cultivar variations in cadmium and lead accumulation and distribution among 30 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weitao; Liang, Lichen; Zhang, Xue; Zhou, Qixing

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, heavy metal pollution in agricultural soil in China has received public concern. The concept of low-accumulation cultivars (LACs) was proposed to minimize the influx of pollutants to the human food chain. Variations in Cd and Pb accumulation, distribution, and tolerance among 30 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars were studied in a hydroponic experiment to preliminary identify LACs of Cd or Pb for further field experiments. Of the 30 wheat cultivars tested, 27 and 26 wheat cultivars showed no effect of the Cd/Pb treatments on the shoot and root biomass, respectively. The results showed that the tested wheat cultivars had considerable tolerance to Cd and Pb toxicity. Significant (p experiments.

  10. Improved fluorimetric measurement of uranium uptake and distribution in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borcia, Catalin [' ' Alexandru Ioan Cuza' ' Univ., Iasi (Romania). Dept. of Physics; Popa, Karin; Cecal, Alexandru [' ' Alexandru Ioan Cuza' ' Univ., Iasi (Romania). Dept. of Chemistry; Murariu, Manuela [' ' Petru Poni' ' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Iasi (Romania)

    2016-08-01

    Uranium uptake and (radio)toxicity was tested on spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a laboratory study using differently concentrated uranium nitrate solutions. Within these experiments, two analytical assays of uranium were comparatively tested: a fast and improved fluorimetric assay and the classical colorimetric (U(IV)-arsenazo(III) complexation) one. During the germination, the wheat seeds and plantlets supported well the uranium solutions of treatment within the entire concentration range (1 x 10{sup -4} -5 x 10{sup -3} M). Uranium proved to be non (radio)toxic to wheat as compared with other natural and anthropogenic radiocations, probably because its uptake by spring wheat during the germination is low. Indeed, only a small fraction of uranium administered was located within the roots, whereas the uranium content of the stems was negligible. A high correlation between the results obtained by two analytical methods was found. However, the fluorimetric assay proved to be more reliable and fast, and accurate.

  11. Optimization of mold wheat bread fortified with soy flour, pea flour and whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erben, Melina; Osella, Carlos A

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of replacing a selected wheat flour for defatted soy flour, pea flour and whey protein concentrate on both dough rheological characteristics and the performance and nutritional quality of bread. A mixture design was used to analyze the combination of the ingredients. The optimization process suggested that a mixture containing 88.8% of wheat flour, 8.2% of defatted soy flour, 0.0% of pea flour and 3.0% of whey protein concentrate could be a good combination to achieve the best fortified-bread nutritional quality. The fortified bread resulted in high protein concentration, with an increase in dietary fiber content and higher calcium levels compared with those of control (wheat flour 100%). Regarding protein quality, available lysine content was significantly higher, thus contributing with the essential amino acid requirement.

  12. The Impact of Parbaking on the Crumb Firming Mechanism of Fully Baked Tin Wheat Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivelle, Mieke A; Bosmans, Geertrui M; Delcour, Jan A

    2017-11-22

    The impact of parbaking on the quality and shelf life of large tin bread baked from 270 g of wheat flour was investigated using a proton nuclear magnetic resonance method combined with techniques that measure at different length scales. With increasing partial baking time, the resilience of fresh partially baked crumb increased because of its more extended amylose and gluten networks. During subsequent storage, the crumb became more firm due to an increased extent of amylopectin retrogradation and moisture redistribution. Although only amylopectin retrogradation was reversed during final baking, a fresh fully baked (FB) bread with reversed crumb softness was obtained. Furthermore, the rate of crumb firming during final storage of FB bread was not higher than that of conventionally baked bread. This was attributed to the high crumb to crust ratio of large tin bread which caused the crumb moisture content to remain sufficiently high despite nonreversible moisture redistribution during intermediate storage.

  13. Antioxidant capacity versus chemical safety of wheat bread enriched with pomegranate peel powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altunkaya, Arzu; Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Brimer, Leon

    2013-01-01

    Pomegranate peel powder (PP), a by-product of the pomegranate juice industry rich in polyphenols, was explored for use in bread production, due to its potential health effects. Wheat bread was prepared using different levels for replacement of flour with PP (0 to 10 g per 100 g flour) resulting...... in antioxidant levels expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values (TEAC) ranging from 1.8 to 6.8 µmol TEAC per g bread for fresh bread. TEAC remained constant during 5 days of storage in polyethylene bags at room temperature. The oxidative stability was evaluated by detection of radicals by direct...... electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, and peroxide value, and the highest capacity of scavenging of radicals (Fremy's salt) and the lowest content of peroxide values were found in bread with the highest percentage of PP. Safety evaluation was performed by the Artemia salina assay. An increased death...

  14. Intake of whole-grain and fiber-rich rye bread versus refined wheat bread does not differentiate intestinal microbiota composition in Finnish adults with metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lappi, J.; Salojärvi, J.; Kolehmainen, M.; Mykkänen, H.; Poutanen, K.; Vos, de W.M.; Salonen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Whole-grain (WG) foods rich in indigestible carbohydrates are thought to modulate the composition of the intestinal microbiota. We investigated in a randomized, parallel, 2-arm 12-wk intervention whether consumption of WG and fiber-rich rye breads compared with refined wheat breads affected the

  15. Molecular Features of Wheat Endosperm Arabinoxylan Inclusion in Functional Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Weili Li; Hui Hu; Qi Wang; Charles S. Brennan

    2013-01-01

    Arabinoxylan (AX) is a major dietary fibre component found in a variety of cereals. Numerous health benefits of arabinoxylans have been reported to be associated with their solubility and molecular features. The current study reports the development of a functional bread using a combination of AX-enriched material (AEM) and optimal commercial endoxylanase. The total AX content of bread was increased to 8.2 g per 100 g available carbohydrates. The extractability of AX in breads with and withou...

  16. IMAGE ANALYSIS OF BREAD CRUMB STRUCTURE IN RELATION TO GLUTEN STRENGTH OF WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Magdić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine bread slice medium part properties in relation to quality parameters with a focus on gluten strength. Since sensory evaluation of bread is time consuming, expensive and subjective in nature, computerized image analysis was applied as objective method of bread crumb quality evaluation. Gluten Index method was applied as fast and reliable tool for defining gluten strength of wheat. Significant (P90 Ana, Demetra, Klara, Srpanjka and Divana have shown trend to give unequal and bigger crumb grains while cultivars Golubica, Barbara, Žitarka, Kata and Sana with optimal gluten strength (GI= 60-90 have shown finer and uniform crumb grain.

  17. Durum wheat and allelopathy: toward wheat breeding for natural weed management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Iannucci, Anna; Papa, Roberto

    2013-09-24

    Wheat-derived foodstuffs represent about one-fifth of the calories consumed by humans worldwide. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important crops throughout the world, and it has been extensively studied for its allelopathic potential. In contrast, for allelopathy in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum), our knowledge is partial and fragmentary. Through highlighting recent advances in using allelopathy as a crop-breeding tool, we provide an overview of allelopathy in Triticum spp., to stimulate further coordinated breeding-oriented studies, to favor allelopathy exploitation for the sustainable cultivation of wheat, and in particular, to achieve improved biological weed control.

  18. Genetic analysis of differences in stomatal guard cell lengths of bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталия Петровна Ламари

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Variation in stomatal guard cell length of parental cultivars and its inheritance in F1 and F2 hybrids have been studied after crossing between contrast genotypes of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Analysis of F2 populations has shown the action of three non-allelic genes in control of stomatal guard cell length of parental cultivars

  19. Antioxidant capacity versus chemical safety of wheat bread enriched with pomegranate peel powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altunkaya, Arzu; Hedegaard, Rikke V; Brimer, Leon; Gökmen, Vural; Skibsted, Leif H

    2013-04-30

    Pomegranate peel powder (PP), a by-product of the pomegranate juice industry rich in polyphenols, was explored for use in bread production, due to its potential health effects. Wheat bread was prepared using different levels for replacement of flour with PP (0 to 10 g per 100 g flour) resulting in antioxidant levels expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values (TEAC) ranging from 1.8 to 6.8 μmol TEAC per g bread for fresh bread. TEAC remained constant during 5 days of storage in polyethylene bags at room temperature. The oxidative stability was evaluated by detection of radicals by direct electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, and peroxide value, and the highest capacity of scavenging of radicals (Fremy's salt) and the lowest content of peroxide values were found in bread with the highest percentage of PP. Safety evaluation was performed by the Artemia salina assay. An increased death rate of the brine shrimp larvae was found as a function of the replacement of wheat flour with PP in fortified bread providing a general screening method for the toxicological test of polyphenol fortified bread to be recommended for use in product development in addition to subjective evaluation. Based on both toxicological and subjective evaluations an addition of 2.5% PP is recommended for the actual product.

  20. Identification and Antioxidant Properties of Phenolic Compounds during Production of Bread from Purple Wheat Grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lilei; Beta, Trust

    2015-08-26

    Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of purple wheat varieties were investigated to document the effects of bread-making. Bread crust and crumb along with samples collected after mixing, 30 min fermenting, 65 min fermenting, and baking were examined. Free phenolic content (105.4 to 113.2 mg FAE/100 g) significantly (p 0.05) decreased after 30 min fermentation (7% to 9%) compared to the dough after mixing, but increased significantly (p bread crust demonstrated increased free (103% to 109%) but decreased bound (2% to 3%) phenolic content, whereas bread crumb exhibited a reversal of these results. Total anthocyanin content (TAC) significantly (p bread crust (0.8 to 4.4 mg cyn-3-glu equiv./100 g). p-Hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids were detected in free-phenolic extracts, while protocatechuic, caffeic syringic, and sinapic were additional acids in bound-phenolic extracts. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was the detectable anthocyanin in purple wheat. Bread-making significantly (p bread.

  1. Towards a generic architectural model of tillering in Gramineae, as exemplified by spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Evers, J.B.; Vos, J.; Fournier, C.; Andrieu, B.; Chelle, M.; Struik, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an architectural model of wheat (Triticum aestivum), designed to explain effects of light conditions at the individual leaf level on tillering kinetics. Various model variables, including blade length and curvature, were parameterized for spring wheat, and compared with winter

  2. leaf and stripe rust resistance among ethiopian grown wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ADMIN

    ABSTRACT: Ethiopian grown wheat varieties and lines were studied to identify germplasm sources possessing resistance to leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina and stripe rust (P. striiformis). Sixty-four lines were included of which 38 were bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2n=6x=42, AABBDD) and 26 durum wheat (T.

  3. Rheological properties and bread quality of frozen yeast-dough with added wheat fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Vivian; Ragaee, Sanaa M; Abdel-Aal, El-Sayed M

    2017-01-01

    The rheological characteristics of frozen dough are of great importance in bread-making quality. The effect of addition of commercial wheat aleurone and bran on rheological properties and final bread quality of frozen dough was studied. Wheat aleurone (A) and bran (B) containing 240 g kg-1 and 200 g kg-1 arabinoxylan (AX), respectively, were incorporated into refined wheat flour at 150 g kg-1 substitution level (composite A and B, respectively). Dough samples of composite A and B in addition to two reference dough samples, refined flour (ref A) and whole wheat flour (ref B) were stored at -18°C for 9 weeks. Frozen stored composite dough samples contained higher amounts of bound water, less freezable water and exhibited fewer modifications in gluten network during frozen storage based on data from differential scanning calorimetry and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Bread made from composite frozen dough had higher loaf volume compared to ref A or ref B throughout the storage period. The incorporation of wheat fiber into refined wheat flour produced dough with minimum alterations in its rheological properties during 9 weeks of frozen storage compared to refined and 100% wheat flour dough samples. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Effect of the addition of mixture of plant components on the mechanical properties of wheat bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Monika; Dziki, Dariusz; Biernacka, Beata; Różyło, Renata; Miś, Antoni; Hassoon, Waleed H.

    2017-10-01

    Instrumental methods of measuring the mechanical properties of bread can be used to determine changes in the properties of it during storage, as well as to determine the effect of various additives on the bread texture. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the mixture of plant components on the physical properties of wheat bread. In particular, the mechanical properties of the crumb and crust were studied. A sensory evaluation of the end product was also performed. The mixture of plant components included: carob fiber, milled grain red quinoa and black oat (1:2:2) - added at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 % - into wheat flour. The results showed that the increase of the addition of the proposed additive significantly increased the water absorption of flour mixtures. Moreover, the use of the mixture of plant components above 5% resulted in the increase of bread volume and decrease of crumb density. Furthermore, the addition of the mixture of plant components significantly affected the mechanical properties of bread crumb. The hardness of crumb also decreased as a result of the mixture of plant components addition. The highest cohesiveness was obtained for bread with 10% of additive and the lowest for bread with 25% of mixture of plant components. Most importantly, the enrichment of wheat flour with the mixture of plant components significantly reduced the crust failure force and crust failure work. The results of sensory evaluation showed that the addition of the mixture of plant components of up to 10% had little effect on bread quality.

  5. Genetic evaluation of spring wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The breeding objective of the present experiment is to identify genetically diverse wheat genotypes for developing high yielding and disease resistant variety for Eastern Gangetic Plains of India. Keywords: AUDPC, cluster analysis, dendrogram, genetic advance, yield, PCA and PCV African Journal of Biotechnology, Vol ...

  6. Analysis of genetic diversity in some durum wheat ( Triticum durum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An experiment was conducted to examine the magnitude of genetic diversity and characters contributing to genetic diversity among 23 durum wheat genotypes grown at Adet, northwest Ethiopia, in 2010 main cropping season. Genetic divergence was carried out according to Mahalanobis D2 statistics. Genetic distance ...

  7. Analysis of genetic divergence in Durum wheat (Triticum Durum Desf.)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A field experiment was conducted at Geregera and Kone testing sites of Sirinka Agricultural Research Center, northeastern Ethiopia. The objective of the experiment was to estimate the genetic divergence among durum wheat germplasm of diverse origin and clustering them into homogenous groups for further hybridization ...

  8. Exogenous salicylic acid alleviates the toxicity of chlorpyrifos in wheat plants (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caixia; Zhang, Qingming

    2017-03-01

    The role of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) in protecting wheat plants (Triticum aestivum) from contamination by the insecticide chlorpyrifos was investigated in this study. The wheat plants were grown in soils with different concentrations (5, 10, 20, and 40mgkg-1) of chlorpyrifos. When the third leaf emerged, the wheat leaves were sprayed with 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16mgL-1 of SA once a day for 6 days. The results showed that wheat exposed to higher concentrations of chlorpyrifos (≥20mgkg-1) caused declines in growth and chlorophyll content and altered the activities of a series of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Interestingly, treatments with different concentrations of SA mitigated the stress generated by chlorpyrifos and improved the measured parameters to varying degrees. Furthermore, a reverse transcription and quantitative PCR experiment revealed that the activities of SOD and CAT can be regulated by their target gene in wheat when treated with SA. We also found that SA is able to block the accumulation of chlorpyrifos in wheat. However, the effect of SA was related to its concentration. In this study, the application of 2mgL-1 of SA had the greatest ameliorating effect on chlorpyrifos toxicity in wheat plants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Search for diagnostic proteins to prove authenticity of organic wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zörb, Christian; Betsche, Thomas; Langenkämper, Georg

    2009-04-08

    Research comparing the biochemical composition of wheat grains from organic or conventional agriculture has used the targeted analytical approach. To obtain a more comprehensive record of the food's composition, we employed protein profiling techniques. Levels of 1049 proteins were recorded in wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Titlis) of two growing seasons from a rigorously controlled field trial in Switzerland, containing organic and conventional plots. Levels of 25 proteins were different between organic and conventional wheat in both years. Storage proteins, enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, a peroxidase, and proteins of unknown function were affected by the agricultural regime. Total protein content was lower in organic wheat. We consider these differences negligible with regard to nutrition in an average diet and propose that food quality of conventional and organic wheat grown in the field trial was equal. Applying various filters and calculations, one of which takes seasonal influences into account, 16 of the 25 proteins with different levels in organic and conventional wheat were retained. These 16 "diagnostic" proteins have the potential to afford a signature to prove authenticity of organic wheat.

  10. Effect of the addition of wheat bran stream on dough rheology and bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Banu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The milling by-products have high nutritional value and can be incorporated into white flour. This study was aimed at comparatively examining the rheological behaviour of the doughs made from wheat white flour with different levels (3-30% of bran streams incorporated and from wholewheat. The results indicated significant correlations between the ash content of the wheat bran streams incorporated into flour and Alveograph, Rheofermentograph and Mixolab parameters. The white flour sample with 25% wheat bran streams had the ash content similar to wholewheat, but the dough rheology was improved. The quality of the white flour bread with 25% wheat bran streams was improved compared to the wholemeal bread.

  11. Postprandial glucose metabolism and SCFA after consuming wholegrain rye bread and wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran in individuals with mild gastrointestinal symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappi, J; Mykkänen, H; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2014-01-01

    .05) and propionate (p = 0.009) at 30 min increased during both rye bread periods.ConclusionsBeneficial effects of WGR over white wheat bread on glucose and SCFA production were confirmed. The enrichment of the white wheat bread with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) yielded similar but not as pronounced effects than......BackgroundRye bread benefits glucose metabolism. It is unknown whether the same effect is achieved by rye bran-enriched wheat bread. We tested whether white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) and sourdough wholegrain rye bread (WGR) have similar effects on glucose metabolism...... were similar between the WGR and BRB + WW periods. When compared to the WW period, postprandial insulin concentration at 120 min was lower (p = 0.023) and the first-phase insulin secretion improved (p = 0.033) only after the WGR period, whereas postprandial concentrations of butyrate (p 

  12. Genetic characterization and expression analysis of wheat (Triticum aestivum) line 07OR1074 exhibiting very low polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) polyphenol oxidase (PPO) contributes to the time dependent discoloration of Asian noodles. Wheat contains multiple paralogous and orthologous PPO genes , Ppo-A1, Ppo-D1, Ppo-A2, Ppo-D2, and Ppo-B2, expressed in wheat kernels, Ppo-A1, Ppo-D1, Ppo-A2, Ppo-D2, and Ppo-B2. To d...

  13. Studies on certain aspects of seed-borne fungi. VI. Fungi associated with different cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Pandey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fungi associated with eight cultivars of wheat have been investigated. Twenty seven species were isolated from external and internal surface of all the wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars respectively. Out of five dominant and subdominant fungi anly Aspergillus terreus and Alternaria tenuis were able to colonize internally. The culture filtrates of test fungi reduced the germination of all wheat varieties up to different degrees.

  14. Molecular Features of Wheat Endosperm Arabinoxylan Inclusion in Functional Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Li

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Arabinoxylan (AX is a major dietary fibre component found in a variety of cereals. Numerous health benefits of arabinoxylans have been reported to be associated with their solubility and molecular features. The current study reports the development of a functional bread using a combination of AX-enriched material (AEM and optimal commercial endoxylanase. The total AX content of bread was increased to 8.2 g per 100 g available carbohydrates. The extractability of AX in breads with and without endoxylanase was determined. The results demonstrate that water-extractable AX (WE-AX increased progressively through the bread making process. The application of endoxylanase also increased WE-AX content. The presence of 360 ppm of endoxylanase had positive effects on the bread characteristics in terms of bread volume and firmness by converting the water unextractable (WU-AX to WE-AX. In addition, the molecular weight (Mw distribution of the WE-AX of bread with and without endoxylanase was characterized by size-exclusion chromatography. The results show that as the portion of WE-AX increased, the amount of high Mw WE-AX (higher than 100 kDa decreased, whereas the amount of low Mw WE-AX (lower than 100 kDa increased from 33.2% to 44.2% through the baking process. The low Mw WE-AX further increased to 75.5% with the application of the optimal endoxylanase (360 ppm.

  15. Molecular Features of Wheat Endosperm Arabinoxylan Inclusion in Functional Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weili; Hu, Hui; Wang, Qi; Brennan, Charles J.

    2013-01-01

    Arabinoxylan (AX) is a major dietary fibre component found in a variety of cereals. Numerous health benefits of arabinoxylans have been reported to be associated with their solubility and molecular features. The current study reports the development of a functional bread using a combination of AX-enriched material (AEM) and optimal commercial endoxylanase. The total AX content of bread was increased to 8.2 g per 100 g available carbohydrates. The extractability of AX in breads with and without endoxylanase was determined. The results demonstrate that water-extractable AX (WE-AX) increased progressively through the bread making process. The application of endoxylanase also increased WE-AX content. The presence of 360 ppm of endoxylanase had positive effects on the bread characteristics in terms of bread volume and firmness by converting the water unextractable (WU)-AX to WE-AX. In addition, the molecular weight (Mw) distribution of the WE-AX of bread with and without endoxylanase was characterized by size-exclusion chromatography. The results show that as the portion of WE-AX increased, the amount of high Mw WE-AX (higher than 100 kDa) decreased, whereas the amount of low Mw WE-AX (lower than 100 kDa) increased from 33.2% to 44.2% through the baking process. The low Mw WE-AX further increased to 75.5% with the application of the optimal endoxylanase (360 ppm). PMID:28239111

  16. Comparison of Antioxidant Properties of Refined and Whole Wheat Flour and Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Lilei Yu; Anne-Laure Nanguet; Trust Beta

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of refined and whole wheat flour and their resultant bread were investigated to document the effects of baking. Total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were employed to determine the content of ethanol extractable phenolic compounds. HPLC was used to detect the presence of phenolic acids prior to their confirmation using LC-MS/MS. Whole wheat flour showed significantly ...

  17. Uncovering leaf rust responsive miRNAs in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) using high-throughput sequencing and prediction of their targets through degradome analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dhananjay; Dutta, Summi; Singh, Dharmendra; Prabhu, Kumble Vinod; Kumar, Manish; Mukhopadhyay, Kunal

    2017-01-01

    Deep sequencing identified 497 conserved and 559 novel miRNAs in wheat, while degradome analysis revealed 701 targets genes. QRT-PCR demonstrated differential expression of miRNAs during stages of leaf rust progression. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is an important cereal food crop feeding 30 % of the world population. Major threat to wheat production is the rust epidemics. This study was targeted towards identification and functional characterizations of micro(mi)RNAs and their target genes in wheat in response to leaf rust ingression. High-throughput sequencing was used for transcriptome-wide identification of miRNAs and their expression profiling in retort to leaf rust using mock and pathogen-inoculated resistant and susceptible near-isogenic wheat plants. A total of 1056 mature miRNAs were identified, of which 497 miRNAs were conserved and 559 miRNAs were novel. The pathogen-inoculated resistant plants manifested more miRNAs compared with the pathogen infected susceptible plants. The miRNA counts increased in susceptible isoline due to leaf rust, conversely, the counts decreased in the resistant isoline in response to pathogenesis illustrating precise spatial tuning of miRNAs during compatible and incompatible interaction. Stem-loop quantitative real-time PCR was used to profile 10 highly differentially expressed miRNAs obtained from high-throughput sequencing data. The spatio-temporal profiling validated the differential expression of miRNAs between the isolines as well as in retort to pathogen infection. Degradome analysis provided 701 predicted target genes associated with defense response, signal transduction, development, metabolism, and transcriptional regulation. The obtained results indicate that wheat isolines employ diverse arrays of miRNAs that modulate their target genes during compatible and incompatible interaction. Our findings contribute to increase knowledge on roles of microRNA in wheat-leaf rust interactions and could help in rust

  18. Soft kernel durum wheat -- a new bakery ingredient?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bread wheat”, also known as “common wheat” (Triticum aestivum L.), is a leading cereal that sustains humankind. Current worldwide production stands at over 700 million metric tons produced from around 220 million hectares. In contrast, durum wheat (Triticum turgidum subsp. durum) is grown on about ...

  19. BORON-NITROGEN RELATIONSHIP IN WHEAT (Triticum aestivum L. GROWN WITH THE NUTRIENT SOLUTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet ALPASLAN

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of boron applied 0.01, 0.1, 1.0, and 10.0 µg B/ml levels as boric acid (H3 BO3, and nitrogen applied 25, 100, 200, and 400 µg N/ml as ammonium nitrate (NH4 NO3, respectively, on the amount of dry matter yield, and boron, nitrogen and nitrate contents of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown in perlite medium with Ruakura nutrient solution under greenhouse conditions were investigated. Dry matter yield and nitrate contents of wheat were decreased and boron content was increased with increasing boron application. Controversially, application of nitrogen increased dry matter yield, nitrogen and nitrate contents of wheat, while decreases in boron contents. Those effects of boron and nitrogen were found to be statistically significant (P

  20. Evaluation of genetic diversity of an algerian durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. collection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudour Leila

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. has been extensively cultivated in Algeria for many centuries. During this long period, the species encountered a large diversification implied by the great diversity of climates that led to great genetic diversity of the species. The purpose of this study is to improve the management of phytogenetic resources that can serve as potential breeders for the amelioration of wheat. The study aims at evaluating the diversity of 1019 accessions of durum wheat from different regions of Algeria and which are stored at the Constantine ITGC. The analysis of the results concerning phenological and morphophysiological characters revealed an important intra and intervarietal genetic variability. Subsequently it appeared that the 1019 accessions belong to 19 botanic varieties that differ mainly by the cob, silk and grain colours. Among the characters involved in this study, some appeared to have a direct connection with the adaptation to water stress and thus allowed us identifying the most resistant varieties.

  1. Reduction of acrylamide in whole-wheat bread by combining lactobacilli and yeast fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri Esfahani, Behnaz; Kadivar, Mahdi; Shahedi, Mohammad; Soleimanian-Zad, Sabihe

    2017-11-01

    This study mainly focuses on a strategy for reducing acrylamide content in whole-wheat bread by combining lactobacilli and yeast in sourdough breadmaking. Combinations of sourdough (fermented dough using different Lactobacillus strains including Lactobacillus plantarum PTCC 1896 [probiotic], L. sakei DSM 20,017, L. rhamnosus DSM 20,021, and L. delbrueckii DSM 20,081) and yeast, in comparison with yeast alone, were used for breadmaking. The results showed that acrylamide levels in breads fermented using sourdough+yeast were in all cases much lower (6.9-20 μg/kg on a dry weight basis [d.b.]) than those in the yeast-only fermented bread (47.6 μg/kg d.b.). Significant (p bread (r = 0.925, p breads and either the reducing sugar or free amino acid contents in dough samples. According to the different effects of Lactobacillus strains, it could be concluded that the acrylamide reducing potential of lactobacilli was strain-specific, with L. rhamnosus being the most effective. This suggests that sourdough fermentation with appropriate Lactobacillus strains can be used as an advantageous technology to reduce the acrylamide content of whole-wheat breads.

  2. Unlocking the diversity of genebanks: whole-genome marker analysis of Swiss bread wheat and spelt

    KAUST Repository

    Müller, Thomas

    2017-11-04

    Genebanks play a pivotal role in preserving the genetic diversity present among old landraces and wild progenitors of modern crops and they represent sources of agriculturally important genes that were lost during domestication and in modern breeding. However, undesirable genes that negatively affect crop performance are often co-introduced when landraces and wild crop progenitors are crossed with elite cultivars, which often limit the use of genebank material in modern breeding programs. A detailed genetic characterization is an important prerequisite to solve this problem and to make genebank material more accessible to breeding. Here, we genotyped 502 bread wheat and 293 spelt accessions held in the Swiss National Genebank using a 15K wheat SNP array. The material included both spring and winter wheats and consisted of old landraces and modern cultivars. Genome- and sub-genome-wide analyses revealed that spelt and bread wheat form two distinct gene pools. In addition, we identified bread wheat landraces that were genetically distinct from modern cultivars. Such accessions were possibly missed in the early Swiss wheat breeding program and are promising targets for the identification of novel genes. The genetic information obtained in this study is appropriate to perform genome-wide association studies, which will facilitate the identification and transfer of agriculturally important genes from the genebank into modern cultivars through marker-assisted selection.

  3. Whole-genome mapping of agronomic and metabolic traits to identify novel quantitative trait Loci in bread wheat grown in a water-limited environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Camilla B; Taylor, Julian D; Edwards, James; Mather, Diane; Bacic, Antony; Langridge, Peter; Roessner, Ute

    2013-07-01

    Drought is a major environmental constraint responsible for grain yield losses of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) in many parts of the world. Progress in breeding to improve complex multigene traits, such as drought stress tolerance, has been limited by high sensitivity to environmental factors, low trait heritability, and the complexity and size of the hexaploid wheat genome. In order to obtain further insight into genetic factors that affect yield under drought, we measured the abundance of 205 metabolites in flag leaf tissue sampled from plants of 179 cv Excalibur/Kukri F1-derived doubled haploid lines of wheat grown in a field experiment that experienced terminal drought stress. Additionally, data on 29 agronomic traits that had been assessed in the same field experiment were used. A linear mixed model was used to partition and account for nongenetic and genetic sources of variation, and quantitative trait locus analysis was used to estimate the genomic positions and effects of individual quantitative trait loci. Comparison of the agronomic and metabolic trait variation uncovered novel correlations between some agronomic traits and the levels of certain primary metabolites, including metabolites with either positive or negative associations with plant maturity-related or grain yield-related traits. Our analyses demonstrate that specific regions of the wheat genome that affect agronomic traits also have distinct effects on specific combinations of metabolites. This approach proved valuable for identifying novel biomarkers for the performance of wheat under drought and could facilitate the identification of candidate genes involved in drought-related responses in bread wheat.

  4. CHARACTERIZATION OF GLIADIN AND HMW GLUTENIN PROTEIN COMPOSITION IN COLOURED WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Šudyová

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is one of the most important grains in our daily diet. Coloured wheat contains natural anthocyanin compounds. Bioactive compounds in wheat have attracted increasingly more interest from breeders because of their benefits. It is important to fully understand protein properties of red, blue, purple, and yellow-coloured wheat in order to predict their potential uses for culturing new varieties. All 21 accessions originating from different geographical areas of world were evaluated for high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS and T1BL.1RS wheat-rye translocation using SDS-PAGE and A-PAGE. The data indicated the prevalence of the allele 1 (36%, allele 0 (30% and allele 2* (34% at the Glu-1A and five alleles, namely 7+8 (36%, 7+9 (29%, 20 (21%, 7 (12% and 17+18 (2% represented the Glu-1B. Existence of 2 alleles at the locus Glu-1D was revealed, in fact 21% of them showed the subunit pairs Glu-1D 5+10 correlated with good bread making properties. Protein subunit Glu-1A1 and Glu-1A2* were correlated positively with improved dough strength as compared to subunit null. On the chromosome Glu-1B subunit 17+18 and 7+8 were associated with slightly stronger gluten type than 7+9, whereas subunit 20 and 7 were associated with weak gluten properties. On the basis of electrophoretic separation of gliadin fraction it was found that only one genotype contained T1BL.1RS wheat-rye translocation. The Glu-1 quality score ranged from 4 to 10. Suitable accessions can be used for the crossing programs to improve colour and good technological quality of bread wheat.  doi:10.5219/161

  5. Genetics of leaf and stripe rust resistance in a bread wheat cultivar ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 87; Issue 2. Genetics of leaf and stripe rust resistance in a bread wheat cultivar Tonichi. Satinder Kaur U. K. Bansal Renu Khanna R. G. Saini. Research Note Volume 87 Issue 2 August 2008 pp 191-194 ...

  6. Quality and cost evaluation of bread produced from blends of wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This study was necessitated by the need to improve the nutritional quality of baked products, ensure their acceptability and the baker's profitability. Objective: The aim of the study therefore was to evaluate the quality and cost of bread produced from composite flours of wheat and partially defatted soy. Materials ...

  7. Fundamental and empirical rheological behaviour of wheat flour doughs and comparison with bread making performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A. M.; vanVliet, T; Vereijken, JM

    The rheological characteristics of wheat flour doughs from the cultivars Obelisk and Katepwa and of biscuit flour doughs, and also of biscuit flour doughs containing glutens isolated from cv. Obelisk and cv. Katepwa flour, were compared and discussed in relation to bread making performance. Four

  8. Quality Parameters Of Wheat Bread Enriched With Pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampuse Solvita

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin processing into puree, juice, candied fruit and pumpkin seed oil results in large amount of by-products. Pumpkins are rich in carotenes, vitamins, minerals, pectin and dietary fibre. The aim of the current study was to evaluate effect of pumpkin pomace and pumpkin residue powder on wheat bread quality. The total content of carotenes was analyzed by spectrophotometric method. The initial increase of pumpkin residue addition indicated increase in loaf volume, which started to decrease at higher amounts. Sensory evaluation (appearance; surface, crust; porosity; texture, crumb; taste, and flavour of wheat bread with pumpkin revealed very high consumer acceptance except sample with 50% pomace addition. Total carotene content and colour b* value in wheat bread increased by adding pumpkin by-products. It is recommended to add 5% and 10% of pumpkin powder and no more than 30% of pumpkin pomace (calculated per 100 kg of flour to dough for production of wheat bread with pumpkin by-product additions.

  9. Occurrence of biogenic amines in beers produced with malted organic Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mozzon, Massimo; Boselli, Emanuele; Obiedziński, Mieczysław W; Frega, Natale G

    2015-01-01

    Because several groups of microorganisms are able to decarboxylate amino acids, the presence of biogenic amines (BA) can be seen as an index of the microbiological quality of the brewing process. BAs were quantified for the first time in the intermediate products and craft beers produced with malted organic Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum) in a small size brewery in order to assess the possible presence of critical control points related to biological hazard in the brewing process. BA levels in beers produced exclusively from malted organic Emmer wheat were between 15.4 and 25.2 mg l(-1) in the samples of light beer (Lt) and between 8.9 and 15.3 mg l(-1) in double malt beers (DM) ready for consumption (the beers stored for 90 days at 1-2°C). Cadaverine and tyramine were the main BAs in the Lt and DM beers, respectively. Increased concentrations of BAs seemed to be more related to the heat treatment of the processing product during mashing and wort boiling, rather than to the fermentation process. Much lower concentrations were found in finished beers obtained from 50% malted organic Emmer wheat and 50% malted barley (up to 3.2 mg l(-1)) or from 30% malted Emmer wheat (up to 8.3 mg l(-1)). Thus, Emmer wheat malt can be a useful alternative to wheat and spelt for the production of beer with a limited content of BA, if the processing technology is kept under control.

  10. Volatile Compounds and Inositol Hexakisphosphate (IP6) Content in Wholemeal Wheat Bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohd Noor, Nor Qhairul Izzreen B

    In paper I and II, the influence of different fermentation temperature (8°C, 16°C and 32°C) and yeast level (2%, 4% and 6%) on the formation of volatile compounds in wholemeal wheat bread were investigated. The fermentation times were regulated to optimum bread height for each treatment......-methylbutanol. Fermentation with low yeast level (2%) resulted in bread with higher relative areas of 2- and 3-methylbutanal as well as (E)-2-nonenal and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal as important lipid oxidation compound in bread. Contrary, fermentation of bread with 6% yeast resulted in higher relative area...... stage of bread-making; after mixing, after fermentation and after baking. Around 60 to 70% of the initial value of IP6 in the flour (1002 mg/g) was reduced after dough mixing and additional 10 to 20% after fermentation. No further degradation of IP6 was observed in all bread after baking. Dough added...

  11. Fine organization of genomic regions tagged to the 5S rDNA locus of the bread wheat 5B chromosome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sergeeva, Ekaterina M; Shcherban, Andrey B; Adonina, Irina G; Nesterov, Michail A; Beletsky, Alexey V; Rakitin, Andrey L; Mardanov, Andrey V; Ravin, Nikolai V; Salina, Elena A

    2017-11-14

    The multigene family encoding the 5S rRNA, one of the most important structurally-functional part of the large ribosomal subunit, is an obligate component of all eukaryotic genomes. 5S rDNA has long been a favored target for cytological and phylogenetic studies due to the inherent peculiarities of its structural organization, such as the tandem arrays of repetitive units and their high interspecific divergence. The complex polyploid nature of the genome of bread wheat, Triticum aestivum, and the technically difficult task of sequencing clusters of tandem repeats mean that the detailed organization of extended genomic regions containing 5S rRNA genes remains unclear. This is despite the recent progress made in wheat genomic sequencing. Using pyrosequencing of BAC clones, in this work we studied the organization of two distinct 5S rDNA-tagged regions of the 5BS chromosome of bread wheat. Three BAC-clones containing 5S rDNA were identified in the 5BS chromosome-specific BAC-library of Triticum aestivum. Using the results of pyrosequencing and assembling, we obtained six 5S rDNA- containing contigs with a total length of 140,417 bp, and two sets (pools) of individual 5S rDNA sequences belonging to separate, but closely located genomic regions on the 5BS chromosome. Both regions are characterized by the presence of approximately 70-80 copies of 5S rDNA, however, they are completely different in their structural organization. The first region contained highly diverged short-type 5S rDNA units that were disrupted by multiple insertions of transposable elements. The second region contained the more conserved long-type 5S rDNA, organized as a single tandem array. FISH using probes specific to both 5S rDNA unit types showed differences in the distribution and intensity of signals on the chromosomes of polyploid wheat species and their diploid progenitors. A detailed structural organization of two closely located 5S rDNA-tagged genomic regions on the 5BS chromosome of bread

  12. Products deriving from microbial fermentation are linked to insulinaemic response in pigs fed breads prepared from whole-wheat grain and wheat and rye ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Serena, Anja

    2011-01-01

    The effects of wheat and rye breads made from whole-wheat grain (WWG), wheat aleurone flour (WAF) or rye aleurone flour (RAF) on net portal absorption of carbohydrate-derived nutrients (glucose, SCFA and lactate) and apparent insulin secretion were studied in a model experiment with catheterised...

  13. Genome-wide characterization of JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN transcription repressors in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yukun; Qiao, Linyi; Bai, Jianfang; Wang, Peng; Duan, Wenjing; Yuan, Shaohua; Yuan, Guoliang; Zhang, Fengting; Zhang, Liping; Zhao, Changping

    2017-02-13

    The JASMONATE-ZIM DOMAIN (JAZ) repressor family proteins are jasmonate co-receptors and transcriptional repressor in jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway, and they play important roles in regulating the growth and development of plants. Recently, more and more researches on JAZ gene family are reported in many plants. Although the genome sequencing of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and its relatives is complete, our knowledge about this gene family remains vacant. Fourteen JAZ genes were identified in the wheat genome. Structural analysis revealed that the TaJAZ proteins in wheat were as conserved as those in other plants, but had structural characteristics. By phylogenetic analysis, all JAZ proteins from wheat and other plants were clustered into 11 sub-groups (G1-G11), and TaJAZ proteins shared a high degree of similarity with some JAZ proteins from Aegliops tauschii, Brachypodium distachyon and Oryza sativa. The Ka/Ks ratios of TaJAZ genes ranged from 0.0016 to 0.6973, suggesting that the TaJAZ family had undergone purifying selection in wheat. Gene expression patterns obtained by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) revealed differential temporal and spatial regulation of TaJAZ genes under multifarious abiotic stress treatments of high salinity, drought, cold and phytohormone. Among these, TaJAZ7, 8 and 12 were specifically expressed in the anther tissues of the thermosensitive genic male sterile (TGMS) wheat line BS366 and normal control wheat line Jing411. Compared with the gene expression patterns in the normal wheat line Jing411, TaJAZ7, 8 and 12 had different expression patterns in abnormally dehiscent anthers of BS366 at the heading stage 6, suggesting that specific up- or down-regulation of these genes might be associated with the abnormal anther dehiscence in TGMS wheat line. This study analyzed the size and composition of the JAZ gene family in wheat, and investigated stress responsive and differential tissue-specific expression profiles of each

  14. Products deriving from microbial fermentation are linked to insulinaemic response in pigs fed breads prepared from whole-wheat grain and wheat and rye ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Jørgensen, Henry; Serena, Anja; Hendrickson, Jessica; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2011-02-01

    The effects of wheat and rye breads made from whole-wheat grain (WWG), wheat aleurone flour (WAF) or rye aleurone flour (RAF) on net portal absorption of carbohydrate-derived nutrients (glucose, SCFA and lactate) and apparent insulin secretion were studied in a model experiment with catheterised pigs. The breads were similar in dietary fibre (DF, 120-125 g/kg DM) but differed in arabinoxylans (50-62 g/kg), β-glucans (4-9 g/kg) and content of soluble DF (13-29 g/kg). Six pigs in a repeated 3 × 3 crossover design were fitted with catheters in the portal vein and the mesenteric artery and a portal flow probe. Pigs were fed three meals daily (at 09.00, 14.00 and 19.00 hours), and blood profiles were collected repeatedly from 08.30 until 19.00 hours once weekly. Net portal absorption of glucose was similar among breads and between meals. In contrast, insulin secretion was lowest (P bread (3·9 nmol/h), intermediate in pigs fed WAF bread (5·4 nmol/h) and highest in pigs fed WWG bread (5·9 nmol/h), indicating that RAF bread improved insulin economy. Portal concentrations of propionate, butyrate and valerate were high, intermediate and low (P breads, respectively. Insulin secretion was higher (P bread was able to improve insulin economy compared to WWG bread.

  15. Postprandial glucose metabolism and SCFA after consuming wholegrain rye bread and wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran in individuals with mild gastrointestinal symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappi, Jenni; Mykkänen, Hannu; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik; Kirjavainen, Pirkka; Katina, Kati; Pihlajamäki, Jussi; Poutanen, Kaisa; Kolehmainen, Marjukka

    2014-11-04

    Rye bread benefits glucose metabolism. It is unknown whether the same effect is achieved by rye bran-enriched wheat bread. We tested whether white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) and sourdough wholegrain rye bread (WGR) have similar effects on glucose metabolism and plasma level of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). Twenty-one (12 women) of 23 recruited subjects completed an intervention with a four-week run-in and two four-week test periods in cross-over design. White wheat bread (WW; 3% fibre) was consumed during the run-in, and WGR and BRB + WW (10% fibre) during the test periods. A meal test providing 51/33/11 E % from carbohydrates/fat/protein was conducted at the end of each period. Fasting and postprandial plasma samples were analysed for glucose, insulin, and SCFA. Glucose and insulin responses and plasma concentrations of SCFAs to the meal test were similar between the WGR and BRB + WW periods. When compared to the WW period, postprandial insulin concentration at 120 min was lower (p = 0.023) and the first-phase insulin secretion improved (p = 0.033) only after the WGR period, whereas postprandial concentrations of butyrate (p bread periods. Beneficial effects of WGR over white wheat bread on glucose and SCFA production were confirmed. The enrichment of the white wheat bread with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) yielded similar but not as pronounced effects than WGR when compared to WW alone. Postprandially measured glucose metabolism and concentrations of SCFAs provided additional information along with fasting measurements.

  16. Evaluation of cold tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    homa azizi

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine freezing tolerance of 14 wheat cultivars including Anza, Bezostaja, Pishtaz, Tous, Zagros, Zarrin, Shahryar, Falat, Qods, Glenson, Maron, Navid, Niknejad and MV-17 that were grown on field, samples of each cultivar after hardening in the field were harvested in 4-6 leave stages and trimmed to 2cm above and below the crowns and put on the thermogradient freezer. After freezing in the range of 0 to -20 oC, samples were transferred to the greenhouse and planted in the pots. Survival percentage, height, leaf area, chlorophyll content, dry weight, LT50 and DMT50 were determined after 3 weeks. Survival percentage after freezing was different in cultivars (P

  17. Maximizing the concentrations of wheat grain fructans in bread by exploring strategies to prevent their yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae )-mediated degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verspreet, Joran; Hemdane, Sami; Dornez, Emmie; Cuyvers, Sven; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2013-02-13

    The degradation of endogenous wheat grain fructans, oligosaccharides with possible health-promoting potential, during wheat whole meal bread making was investigated, and several strategies to prevent their degradation were evaluated. Up to 78.4 ± 5.2% of the fructans initially present in wheat whole meal were degraded during bread making by the action of yeast ( Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) invertase. The addition of sucrose to dough delayed fructan degradation but had no effect on final fructan concentrations. However, yeast growth conditions and yeast genotype did have a clear impact. A 3-fold reduction of fructan degradation could be achieved when the commercial bread yeast strain was replaced by yeast strains with lower sucrose degradation activity. Finally, fructan degradation during bread making could be prevented completely by the use of a yeast strain lacking invertase. These results show that the nutritional profile of bread can be enhanced through appropriate yeast technology.

  18. Metabolite profiling of wheat grains (Triticum aestivum L.) from organic and conventional agriculture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zörb, Christian; Langenkämper, Georg; Betsche, Thomas; Niehaus, Karsten; Barsch, Aiko

    2006-10-18

    In some European community countries up to 8% of the agricultural area is managed organically. The aim was to obtain a metabolite profile for wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grains grown under comparable organic and conventional conditions. These conditions cannot be found in plant material originating from different farms or from products purchased in supermarkets. Wheat grains from a long-term biodynamic, bioorganic, and conventional farming system from the harvest 2003 from Switzerland were analyzed. The presented data show that using a high throughput GC-MS technique, it was possible to determine relative levels of a set of 52 different metabolites including amino acids, organic acids, sugars, sugar alcohols, sugar phosphates, and nucleotides from wheat grains. Within the metabolites from all field trials, there was at the most a 50% reduction comparing highest and lowest mean values. The statistical analysis of the data shows that the metabolite status of the wheat grain from organic and mineralic farming did not differ in concentrations of 44 metabolites. This result indicates no impact or a small impact of the different farming systems. In consequence, we did not detect extreme differences in metabolite composition and quality of wheat grains.

  19. Comparison of organic and inorganic amendments for enhancing soil lead phytoextraction by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullah; Ghafoor, A; Zia, M H; Murtaza, G; Waraich, Ejaz Ahmad; Bibi, Sadia; Srivastava, P

    2010-09-01

    Phytoextraction has received increasing attention as a promising, cost-effective alternative to conventional engineering-based remediation methods for metal contaminated soils. In order to enhance the phytoremediative ability of green plants chelating agents are commonly used. Our study aims to evaluate whether, citric acid (CA) or elemental sulfur (S) should be used as an alternative to the ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)for chemically enhanced phytoextraction. Results showed that EDTA was more efficient than CA and S in solubilizing lead (Pb) from the soil. The application of EDTA and S increased the shoot biomass of wheat. However, application of CA at higher rates (30 mmol kg(-1)) resulted in significantly lower wheat biomass. Photosynthesis and transpiration rates increased with EDTA and S application, whereas these parameters were decreased with the application of CA. Elemental sulfur was ineffective for enhancing the concentration of Pb in wheat shoots. Although CA did not increase the Pb solubility measured at the end of experiment, however, it was more effective than EDTA in enhancing the concentration of Pb in the shoots of Triticum aestivum L. It was assumed that increase in Mn concentration to toxic levels in soil with CA addition might have resulted in unusual Pb concentration in wheat plants. The results of the present study suggest that under the conditions used in this experiment, CA at the highest dose was the best amendment for enhanced phytoextraction of Pb using wheat compared to either EDTA or S.

  20. Global transgenerational gene expression dynamics in two newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Bao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alteration in gene expression resulting from allopolyploidization is a prominent feature in plants, but its spectrum and extent are not fully known. Common wheat (Triticum aestivum was formed via allohexaploidization about 10,000 years ago, and became the most important crop plant. To gain further insights into the genome-wide transcriptional dynamics associated with the onset of common wheat formation, we conducted microarray-based genome-wide gene expression analysis on two newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat lines with chromosomal stability and a genome constitution analogous to that of the present-day common wheat. Results Multi-color GISH (genomic in situ hybridization was used to identify individual plants from two nascent allohexaploid wheat lines between Triticum turgidum (2n = 4x = 28; genome BBAA and Aegilops tauschii (2n = 2x = 14; genome DD, which had a stable chromosomal constitution analogous to that of common wheat (2n = 6x = 42; genome BBAADD. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression was performed for these allohexaploid lines along with their parental plants from T. turgidum and Ae. tauschii, using the Affymetrix Gene Chip Wheat Genome-Array. Comparison with the parental plants coupled with inclusion of empirical mid-parent values (MPVs revealed that whereas the great majority of genes showed the expected parental additivity, two major patterns of alteration in gene expression in the allohexaploid lines were identified: parental dominance expression and non-additive expression. Genes involved in each of the two altered expression patterns could be classified into three distinct groups, stochastic, heritable and persistent, based on their transgenerational heritability and inter-line conservation. Strikingly, whereas both altered patterns of gene expression showed a propensity of inheritance, identity of the involved genes was highly stochastic, consistent with the involvement of diverse Gene Ontology (GO

  1. Postprandial differences in the plasma metabolome of healthy Finnish subjects after intake of a sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread versus white wheat bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The mechanism behind the lowered postprandial insulin demand observed after rye bread intake compared to wheat bread is unknown. The aim of this study was to use the metabolomics approach to identify potential metabolites related to amino acid metabolism involved in this mechanism. Methods A sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread (RB) and a standard white wheat bread (WB) as a reference were served in random order to 16 healthy subjects. Test bread portions contained 50 g available carbohydrate. In vitro hydrolysis of starch and protein were performed for both test breads. Blood samples for measuring glucose and insulin concentrations were drawn over 4 h and gastric emptying rate (GER) was measured. Changes in the plasma metabolome were investigated by applying a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry metabolomics platform (GC×GC-TOF-MS). Results Plasma insulin response to RB was lower than to WB at 30 min (P = 0.004), 45 min (P = 0.002) and 60 min (P bread intake, and plasma glucose response was significantly higher at time point 90 min after RB than WB intake (P = 0.045). The starch hydrolysis rate was higher for RB than WB, contrary to the in vitro protein digestibility. There were no differences in GER between breads. From 255 metabolites identified by the metabolomics platform, 26 showed significant postprandial relative changes after 30 minutes of bread intake (p and q values bread intake. Conclusions A single meal of a low fibre sourdough rye bread producing low postprandial insulin response brings in several changes in plasma amino acids and their metabolites and some of these might have properties beneficial for health. PMID:22011443

  2. Antioxidant capacity and bioaccessibility of buckwheat-enhanced wheat bread phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szawara-Nowak, Dorota; Bączek, Natalia; Zieliński, Henryk

    2016-01-01

    The impact of an in vitro procedure that mimics the physiochemical changes occurring in gastric and small intestinal digestion on the antioxidant capacity and bioaccessibility of phenolic compounds from 16 types of buckwheat-enhanced wheat breads was assessed. The methodology was based on the Global Antioxidant Response (GAR) which combined bioaccessible antioxidant capacity of the soluble fraction from digestible portion measured by the standard Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity (TEAC) assay and antioxidant capacity of the insoluble fraction from the undigested portion by the QUENCHER method. The bioaccessibility of the phenolics was measured in the soluble fraction with Folin-Cicalteu reagent and in the insoluble fraction by modified QUENCHER method. The studies showed almost 20-fold higher GAR values as compared to the antioxidant capacity of the respective undigested reference breads. The bioaccessible antioxidant capacity of soluble fraction from digestible portion increased significantly whereas the undigested residue displayed antioxidant capacity that accounted for up to 15 % of the GAR. The bioaccessible phenolics accounted for up to 90 % of the total phenolics after digestion and were highly correlated with GAR results of buckwheat-enriched wheat breads. Our results indicate that in vitro digestion is the crucial step that releases of high amount of phenolic antioxidants. The combination of QUENCHER assay with Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC) and Total Phenolic Content (TPC) assay estimated on Folin-Ciocalteu reagent has been useful for the determination of the bioaccessible antioxidant activity and phenolics of the soluble and insoluble fraction of buckwheat-enhanced wheat breads.

  3. Effect of Partial Replacement of Wheat Flour with High Quality Cassava Flour on the Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, Sensory Quality, and Microbial Quality of Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleazu, Chinedum; Eleazu, Kate; Aniedu, Chinyere; Amajor, John; Ikpeama, Ahamefula; Ebenzer, Ike

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, wheat flour was mixed with high quality cassava flour (HQCF) in several ratios: 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40, and used to prepare 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI) cassava bread, respectively. 100% wheat bread was prepared as a control (100% wheat bread). Five bread samples were prepared per group. Antioxidant assays [i.e., 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging assay, reducing power assay] revealed that the bread samples had considerable antioxidant capacities. Substitution of wheat flour with HQCF at various concentrations resulted in dose dependent decreases in the mineral and protein contents of the resulting bread samples. The crude fiber content of the bread samples was minimal, while the carbohydrate content of the bread samples ranged from 43.86% to 48.64%. A 20% substitution of wheat flour with HQCF yielded bread samples with a general acceptability that was comparable to that of 100% wheat bread. The mean bacteria counts of the bread samples ranged from 2.0×103 CFU/mL to 1.4×104 CFU/mL, while the fungal counts ranged from 0 CFU/mL to 3×103 CFU/mL. There was a positive correlation between the DPPH antioxidant activities and the reducing powers of the bread samples (R2=0.871) and a positive correlation between the DPPH antioxidant activities and the flavonoid contents of the bread samples (R2=0.487). The higher microbial load of the NRCRI cassava bread samples indicates that these bread samples may have a shorter shelf life than the 100% wheat bread. The significant positive correlation between total flavonoid content and reducing power (R2=0.750) suggests that the flavonoids present in the lipophilic fractions of the bread samples could be responsible for the reductive capacities of the bread samples. PMID:25054110

  4. Concentrated arabinoxylan in wheat bread has beneficial effects as rye breads on glucose and changes in gene expressions in insulin-sensitive tissues of Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartvigsen, Merete Lindberg; Jeppesen, Per Bendix; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Njabe, Elvis Ngande; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach; Hermansen, Kjeld

    2013-05-29

    The health-promoting effects of dietary fiber may vary with content, structure, and composition in the diet. The aim was to study how low-fiber wheat bread (WB), wheat bread supplemented with wheat arabinoxylan (AX) or oat β-glucan (BG), whole meal rye bread (RM), and rye bread with kernels (RK) affected central parameters of glucose and lipid metabolism and gene changes of Zucker diabetic fatty rats. Blood glucose response areas after an oral glucose tolerance test were significantly lower after AX (mean ± SEM; 2117 ± 170 mmol/L·180 min), RM (1978 ± 206 mmol/L·180 min), and RK (2234 ± 262 mmol/L·180 min) breads than after WB (3586 ± 100 mmol/L·180 min; p wheat bread had beneficial effects on glycemic control as whole grain rye bread in this animal model.

  5. Mixture design of rice flour, maize starch and wheat starch for optimization of gluten free bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancebo, Camino M; Merino, Cristina; Martínez, Mario M; Gómez, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Gluten-free bread production requires gluten-free flours or starches. Rice flour and maize starch are two of the most commonly used raw materials. Over recent years, gluten-free wheat starch is available on the market. The aim of this research was to optimize mixtures of rice flour, maize starch and wheat starch using an experimental mixture design. For this purpose, dough rheology and its fermentation behaviour were studied. Quality bread parameters such as specific volume, texture, cell structure, colour and acceptability were also analysed. Generally, starch incorporation reduced G* and increased the bread specific volume and cell density, but the breads obtained were paler than the rice flour breads. Comparing the starches, wheat starch breads had better overall acceptability and had a greater volume than maize-starch bread. The highest value for sensorial acceptability corresponded to the bread produced with a mixture of rice flour (59 g/100 g) and wheat starch (41 g/100 g).

  6. Phytate negatively influences wheat dough and bread characteristics by interfering with cross-linking of glutenin molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of added phytate on dough properties and bread baking quality was studied to determine the role of phytate in the impaired functional properties of whole grain wheat flour for baking bread. Phytate addition to refined flour at a 1% level substantially increased mixograph mixing time, g...

  7. Dry-fractionation of wheat bran increases the bioaccessibility of phenolic acids in breads made from processed bran fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemery, Y.M.; Anson, N.M.; Havenaar, R.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.; Noort, M.W.J.; Rouau, X.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential of using ultra-fine grinding and electrostatic separation of wheat bran as methods to improve the bioaccessibility of para-coumaric acid (pCA), sinapic acid (SA) and ferulic acid (FA) from bran-rich breads. Bran fractions were produced and used to bake white bread,

  8. High molecular weight glutenin subunits of wheat : qualitative and quantitative variation in relation to bread-making quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolster, P.

    1992-01-01

    In view of the poor bread-making quality of the wheat grown in The Netherlands, only a small part of production is used for baking of bread. Therefore quality improvement is a major aim of plant breeding. Unfortunately, breeding for breadmaking quality is hampered by its complexity. The suitability

  9. Effect of fungicide on the development of wheat stem rust and yield ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stem rust caused by Puccinia graminis f.sp tritici Erik. & E. Henn. is a highly destructive disease of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The effects of fungicide application on stem rust (Puccinia graminis tritici) epidemics and yield of three bread wheat varieties varying in reaction to the disease were studied in two major wheat ...

  10. Organoleptic and glycemic properties of chickpea-wheat composite breads

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zafar, Tasleem A; Al-Hassawi, Fatima; Al-Khulaifi, Fatima; Al-Rayyes, Ghanima; Waslien, Carol; Huffman, Fatma G

    2015-01-01

    ...), WWB supplemented with chickpea flour at 25 % (25%ChB) and 35 % (35%ChB) levels. These breads were tested in healthy female subjects for acceptability and for effect on appetite, blood glucose, and physical discomfort in digestion...

  11. Plantain, banana and wheat flour composites in bread making ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research into the use of indigenous raw materials in the production of composite bread, cakes and confectionery products has been carried out in several African research institutes and universities. These investigations have proven beyond doubt the baking potentials of various tropical crops including plantain and banana ...

  12. Studies regarding the influence of brown flaxseed flour addition in wheat flour of a very good quality for bread making on bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Gabriela CODINA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to incorporate brown flaxseed into bread in order to improve it quality. For this purpose, different levels of whole ground brown flaxseed (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% were used to substitute wheat flour 650 type of a very good quality for bread making. The bread samples obtained were analyzed from the physical, colour, crumb cell, textural and sensory characteristics point of view. Samples containing 10% of brown flaxseed were with the highest values for loaf volume, porosity and elasticity. The control sample had lowerest redness and greenness value. The maximum hardness was found for bread with 20% brown flaxseed addition. With the increase level of brown flaxseed addition large cells can be noticed in crumb structure of bread. Samples containing 20% of flaxseed were rated poorest in tase, texture, overall acceptability, appearance. Our results indicated that brown flaxseed addition could be added to a typical bread formulation up to levels of 10% with a good overall acceptability offering promising healthy and nutritious alternative to consumers. Between bread flour characteristics at different brown flaxseed flour substitution levels principal component analysis shown significant correlations (p < 0.05 between bread physical characteristics (loaf volume, porosity, elasticity and bread  overall acceptability.

  13. Effect of textile wastewater on growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Najam-us-Sahar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Textile wastewater can be a good source of nutrients in addition to meet the crop water requirements in areas facing water shortage problem. The use of untreated industrial wastewater can be hazardous for end users and soil environment due to high concentration of pollutants. The toxic effects of wastewater could be reduced by dilution of these pollutants. A pot trial was conducted to evaluate the suitability of untreated textile wastewater at different dilution levels (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100% for improving growth, physiology and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Tap water (0 % dilution level was applied as control treatment. Results showed that textile effluents negatively affected growth and yield of wheat. Maximum reduction in growth, yield, chemical and physiological parameters of wheat was recorded on application of textile wastewater (100% wastewater dilution level. However, on dilution, inhibitory effects of textile wastewater on all measured parameters of wheat were significantly reduced. In addition, effects of 10% and 20% diluted textile effluent on growth and yield of wheat was statistically at par with control. So, it can be concluded that although textile wastewater imparts negative effects on wheat but on dilution it can be used for irrigation of wheat in areas facing water scarcity. However, dyes or their intermediates even in the diluted textile wastewater after entering into food chain may cause harm to human. Such wastewater could be used for biomass production of bioenergy crops and further studies are required to test toxicity impacts of textile wastewater on human through food chain.

  14. Agronomic traits and deoxynivalenol contamination of two tetraploid wheat species (Triticum turgidum spp. durum, Triticum turgidum spp. turanicum grown strictly under low input conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Dinelli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available An evaluation of the agronomic performance of two tetraploid wheat varieties (Triticum turgidum spp. durum, Claudio; Triticum turgidum spp. turanicum, Kamut® grown strictly under low input conditions was carried out over three consecutive cropping years. The study reported grain yield values ranging from 1.8 to 2.6 t ha-1. Productivity showed to be primarily affected by environmental conditions, while no differences were observed between the two genotypes. The study of the yield components highlighted that the durum wheat variety had a higher plant density than Kamut®, but this discrepancy was offset by a greater number of kernels per spike and the kernel weight of khorasan wheat. The investigated wheat genotypes were also analysed to assess the mycotoxin (DON levels of wholegrain semolina and the efficiency of cleaning treatments to reduce contamination. Results showed that both wheat varieties had a good hygienic and sanitary quality with a DON content ranging from 0.35 to 1.31 mg kg-1, which was lower than the maximum acceptable level set by the European regulation at 1.75 mg kg-1. In addition, our research work investigated the effects of premilling cleaning procedures, such as water washing and brushing, on mycotoxin levels, which yielded interesting results in terms of decontamination efficiency. These methods were particularly efficient with Kamut® semolina (46-93% DON reduction, suggesting that mycotoxins accumulate in this variety at more superficial levels than in the durum wheat variety. On the whole, our study provided additional knowledge on the traits to be further improved to respond to low input requirements and to enhance the potential adaptability of wheat genotypes to organic agriculture. Our results emphasized the need to develop wheat varieties that can provide adequate performance without high levels of nitrogen inputs by selecting specific traits, such as kernel weight, spike length and kernel/spike. This may help

  15. Recombinant Wheat Endoplasmic Reticulum Oxidoreductin 1 Improved Wheat Dough Properties and Bread Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guang; Wang, JingJing; Hou, Yi; Huang, Yan-Bo; Zhang, Ya-Ping; Li, Cunzhi; Li, Lin; Hu, Song-Qing

    2017-03-15

    Recombinant wheat endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin 1 (wEro1) with considerable ability was expressed in Escherichia coli. The functional roles of wEro1 in flour processing quality were investigated by farinographic, rheological, texture profile analysis, electrophoresis, size exclusion chromatography, scanning electron microscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. wEro1 exhibited an obvious oxidation activity of sulfhydryl groups in small molecule and protein. Addition of wEro1 could strengthen the processing quality of dough, indicated by the improved mixing characteristics, viscoelastic properties, and bread qualities. These improvement effects of wEro1 could be attributed to the formation of macromolecular gluten polymers and massive gluten networks by disulfide cross-linking. Additionally, the increased β-turn structure further demonstrated the enhancement of dough strength. Moreover, the amount of peroxide in dough was improved significantly from 2.36 to 2.82 μmol/g of flour with 0.15% wEro1 treatment. Therefore, the results suggested that wEro1 is a promising novel flour improver.

  16. Effect of consumption of micronutrient enriched wheat steamed bread on postprandial plasma glucose in healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su-Que, Lan; Ya-Ning, Meng; Xing-Pu, Li; Ye-Lun, Zhang; Guang-Yao, Song; Hui-Juan, Ma

    2013-05-17

    Steamed wheat bread have previously been shown to induce comparatively high postprandial plasma glucose responses, on the contrary, buckwheat products induced lower postprandial plasma glucose. The present study was to assess the effects of micronutrient enriched bread wheat variety Jizi439 and buckwheat on postprandial plasma glucose in healthy and diabetic subjects comparing with buckwheat and other bread wheat varieties. Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of bread wheat variety Jizi439 on the postprandial plasma glucose levels of the randomly selected subjects. The first experiment involved three types of steamed bread with equivalent of 50 g available carbohydrate fed to 10 normal weight young healthy subjects. Two types of steamed bread were made from two purple-grain bread wheat varieties, Jizi439 and Chu20, respectively, and the third type was made from the mixture of different white grain wheat varieties. Plasma glucose levels of each subject were measured at 15, 30, 45, 60, 120 min after eating. Glucose was used as a reference, the total area under curve (AUC) and glycemic index (GI) was calculated for test meal. The second experiment was performed among ten type 2 diabetics who were served equivalent of 50 g available carbohydrate of steamed bread made from Jizi 439, the mixture of white grain bread wheat and buckwheat, respectively. The plasma glucose increment was determined two hours thereafter. In the first experiment, consumption of the steamed bread made from Jizi439 resulted in the least increase in plasma glucose and the GI was significantly lower than that of Chu20 and the mixture. In the second experiment, the average of postprandial 2 h plasma glucose increment of Jizi439 was 2.46 mmol/L which was significantly lower than that of the mixture of white wheat but was not significantly different from buckwheat. The results indicated that consumption of Jizi439 steamed bread resulted in significantly lower plasma glucose in

  17. IMPROVING WHEAT TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. BY INTERSPECIFIC AND INTERGENERIC HYBRIDIZATION WITH POACEAE FAMILY SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czaplicki A.Z.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The related species of the family Poaceae (Triticeae are the source of unprecedented new genes that allow the extension of genetic variation of common wheat Triticum aestivum L. These species have similar homoeologous chromosomes and rDNA sequences very similar to T. aestivum L. [1-3]. This allows the introgression of alien genes and their incorporation into the genomes A, B and D of wheat, where they can function permanently in the wheat genetic systems. Many of them have already been transferred to the varieties of T. aestivum L. [4].The experimental material consisted of 28 lines of winter wheat obtained using the interspecific and intergeneric hybridization of T. aestivum L. with alien species T. durum Desf., T. timopheevii Zhuk., Lolium perenne L. and Aegilops speltoides Taush. Among them, 15 lines were developed from the cross-combination with tetraploid species (AABB T. durum Desf., 4 lines from the combination with other tetraploid species of different genome composition (AAGG T. timopheevii Zhuk., 4 lines from cross with L. perenne L. and 5 lines were the double hybrids (three-generic derived with two related species, T. durum Desf. (AABB and Ae. speltoides Taush (BB.The anther culture method was used for obtaining DH lines from these interspecific and intergeneric hybrids. In in vitro culture 124 green plants were regenerated. The method of cluster analysis grouped hybrids in terms of comprehensive general similarity of the studied traits.

  18. Structural and functional analysis of chitinase gene family in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A K; Pandey, Bharati; Tyagi, Chetna; Chakraborty, Ohika; Kumar, Amrender; Jain, A K

    2015-04-01

    Chitinases are the hydrolytic enzymes which protect plants against pathogen attack. However, the precise role of chitinases in disease resistance has not been explored in wheat. In the present study, in silico approach, including secondary structure analysis, detailed signature pattern study, cis-acting regulatory elements survey, evolutionary trends and three-dimensional molecular modeling was used for different chitinase classes of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Homology modeling of class I, II, IV and 3 chitinase proteins was performed using the template crystal structure. The model structures were further refined by molecular mechanics methods using different tools, such as Procheck, ProSA and Verify3D. Secondary structure studies revealed greater percentage of residues forming a helix conformation with specific signature pattern, similar to casein kinase II phosphorylation site, amidation site, N-myristoylation (N-MYR) site and protein kinase C phoshorylation site. The expression profile suggested that wheat chitinase gene was highly expressed in cell culture and callus. We found that wheat chitinases showed more functional similarity with rice and barley. The results provide insight into the evolution of the chitinase family, constituting a diverse array of pathogenesis-related proteins. The study also provides insight into the possible binding sites of chitinase proteins and may further enhance our knowledge of fungal resistance mechanism in plants.

  19. Effects of Earthworm (Eisenia fetida) and Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Straw Additions on Selected Properties of Petroleum-Contaminated Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac A. Callaham; Arthur J. Stewart; Clara Alarcon; Sara J. McMillen

    2002-01-01

    Current bioremediation techniques for petroleum-contaminated soils are designed to remove contaminants as quickly and efficiently as possible, but not necessarily with postremediation soil biological quality as a primary objective. To test a simple postbioremediation technique, we added earthworms (Eisenia fetida) or wheat (Triticum aestivum...

  20. Leaf primordia initiation, leaf emergence and tillering in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown under low phosphorus conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, D.; Pomar, M.C.; Goudriaan, J.

    1998-01-01

    In two simultaneous experiments we examined the effects of phosphorus (P) supply on leaf area development in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in sand with nutrient solutions. In Experiment 1 we studied leaf emergence, leaf elongation, tiller emergence, shoot growth, and P uptake under four levels

  1. Mixed cropping of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) landraces in the central highlands of Eritrea

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woldeamlak, A.

    2001-01-01

    A common cropping system in the central highlands of Eritrea is mixed cropping of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum); it is called hanfetz (Tigrigna word). Mixtures may give higher yield, better yield stability, better food quality and more animal feed. Factors affecting

  2. Use of student’s t statistic as a phenotype of relative consumption preference of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole-grain wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) products provide essential nutrients to humans, but bran attributes may hinder consumption. Differences in grain attributes including flabor/aroma can be indentified using the house mouse (Mus musculus L.) as a model system. A potential application of this mo...

  3. New durum wheat with soft kernel texture: end-use quality analysis of the Hardness locus in Triticum turgidum ssp. durum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat kernel texture dictates U.S. wheat market class. Durum wheat has limited demand and culinary end-uses compared to bread wheat because of its extremely hard kernel texture which precludes conventional milling. ‘Soft Svevo’, a new durum cultivar with soft kernel texture comparable to a soft whit...

  4. New durum wheat with soft kernel texture: milling performance and end-use quality analysis of the Hardness locus in Triticum turgidum ssp. durum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat kernel texture dictates U.S. wheat market class. Durum wheat has limited demand and culinary end-uses compared to bread wheat because of its extremely hard kernel texture which preclude conventional milling. ‘Soft Svevo’, a new durum cultivar with soft kernel texture comparable to a soft white...

  5. Biofortification with Iron and Zinc Improves Nutritional and Nutraceutical Properties of Common Wheat Flour and Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccolini, Valentina; Pellegrino, Elisa; Coccina, Antonio; Fiaschi, Anna Ida; Cerretani, Daniela; Sgherri, Cristina; Quartacci, Mike Frank; Ercoli, Laura

    2017-07-12

    The effect of field foliar Fe and Zn biofortification on concentration and potential bioavailability of Fe and Zn and health-promoting compounds was studied in wholemeal flour of two common wheat varieties (old vs modern). Moreover, the effect of milling and bread making was studied. Biofortification increased the concentration of Zn (+78%) and its bioavailability (+48%) in the flour of the old variety, whereas it was ineffective in increasing Fe concentration in both varieties. However, the old variety showed higher concentration (+41%) and bioavailability (+26%) of Fe than the modern one. As regard milling, wholemeal flour had higher Fe, Zn concentration and health-promoting compounds compared to white flour. Bread making slightly change Fe and Zn concentration but greatly increased their bioavailability (77 and 70%, respectively). All these results are of great support for developing a production chain of enriched functional bread having a protective role against chronic cardio-vascular diseases.

  6. Cassava Flour Substitution Modulates Glycemic Responses and Glycemic Index of Wheat Breads in Apparent Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okafor, Ebelechukwu N; Erukainure, Ochuko L; Ozumba, Augusta U; Adewale, Chris O; Kayode, Funmi O; Asieba, Godfrey O; Adesegha, Olubukola I; Elemo, Gloria N

    2017-07-04

    Different carbohydrate foods produce different glycemic responses even with little or no difference in macronutrient composition. Cassava constitutes one of the major staples in Nigeria. Four blends of cassava-wheat bread samples with 0, 10, 15, and 20% cassava flour inclusion were fed individually to groups of healthy human volunteers. Subjects were studied on separate occasions in the morning after a 10-12-hr overnight fast. Blood glucose responses were measured at intervals of 30 min over a period of 2 hr. Glucose was used as a reference food. There were normal glucose responses to the bread samples studied. Increase in cassava incorporation led to less significant glycemic responses. The glycemic index values ranged from 91-94. Results from this study indicate that the inclusion of cassava flour in bread production might not pose a threat to blood glucose response of individuals.

  7. The structure of wheat bread influences the postprandial metabolic response in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W J; Sozer, Nesli; Koehorst, Martijn; Holst, Jens J; Deacon, Carolyn F; Rehfeld, Jens F; Poutanen, Kaisa; Vonk, Roel J; Oudhuis, Lizette; Priebe, Marion G

    2015-10-01

    Postprandial high glucose and insulin responses after starchy food consumption, associated with an increased risk of developing several metabolic diseases, could possibly be improved by altering food structure. We investigated the influence of a compact food structure; different wheat products with a similar composition were created using different processing conditions. The postprandial glucose kinetics and metabolic response to bread with a compact structure (flat bread, FB) was compared to bread with a porous structure (control bread, CB) in a randomized, crossover study with ten healthy male volunteers. Pasta (PA), with a very compact structure, was used as the control. The rate of appearance of exogenous glucose (RaE), endogenous glucose production, and glucose clearance rate (GCR) was calculated using stable isotopes. Furthermore, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, several intestinal hormones and bile acids were analyzed. The structure of FB was considerably more compact compared to CB, as confirmed by microscopy, XRT analysis (porosity) and density measurements. Consumption of FB resulted in lower peak glucose, insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (ns) responses and a slower initial RaE compared to CB. These variables were similar to the PA response, except for RaE which remained slower over a longer period after PA consumption. Interestingly, the GCR after FB was higher than expected based on the insulin response, indicating increased insulin sensitivity or insulin-independent glucose disposal. These results demonstrate that the structure of wheat bread can influence the postprandial metabolic response, with a more compact structure being more beneficial for health. Bread-making technology should be further explored to create healthier products.

  8. Co-digestion of wheat and rye bread suspensions with source-sorted municipal biowaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chaoran, E-mail: Chaoran.Li3@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, Am Fasanengarten, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Mörtelmaier, Christoph, E-mail: Christoph.Moertelmaier@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, Am Fasanengarten, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Winter, Josef, E-mail: Josef.Winter@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, Am Fasanengarten, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Gallert, Claudia, E-mail: Claudia.Gallert@HS-Emden-Leer.de [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, Am Fasanengarten, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); University of Applied Science, Hochschule Emden-Leer, Faculty of Technology, Division Microbiology – Biotechnology, Constantiaplatz 4, D-26723 Emden (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Volatile fatty acid spectra of acidified WBS, RBS or FBS differ, but methanogenesis is similar. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Biogas improvement by co-digestion of wheat and rye bread. • Increased population density at high organic loading rates. • Less Pelotomaculum but increased numbers of Syntrophobacter and Smithella found in rye bread reactor. • Replacement of Methanosarcinales by acetate-oxidizers in rye bread co-digestion. • Increasing proportion of Methanomicrobiales in biowaste + rye bread reactor. - Abstract: Acidification of wheat bread (WBS), rye bread (RBS) and fresh biowaste suspensions (FBS), leading to lactate+acetate, lactate+acetate+n-buyrate, and acetate+propionate+n-butyrate, respectively, and biogas production as well as population dynamics were investigated. Co-fermentation of FBS (14 kg m{sup −3} d{sup −1} organic loading rate (OLR)) with WBS or RBS was stable up to an OLR of 22 kg m{sup −3} d{sup −1} and resulted in up to 3 times as much biogas. During co-fermentation at more than 20 kg m{sup −3} d{sup −1} OLR the total population increased more than 2-fold, but the originally low share of propionate-oxidizing bacteria significantly decreased. The proportion of methanogens also decreased. Whereas the proportion of Methanosarcinales to Methanomicrobiales in biowaste and biowaste+WBS remained constant, Methanosarcinales and in particular Methanosaeta spec. in the biowaste+RBS assay almost completely disappeared. Methanomicrobiales increased instead, indicating propionate oxidation via acetate cleavage to CO{sub 2} and hydrogen.

  9. Enrichment of Bread with Nutraceutical-Rich Mushrooms: Impact of Auricularia auricula (Mushroom) Flour Upon Quality Attributes of Wheat Dough and Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Biao; Zhao, Liyan; Yang, Wenjian; McClements, David Julian; Hu, Qiuhui

    2017-09-01

    Edible mushrooms contain a variety of bioactive molecules that may enhance human health and wellbeing. Consequently, there is increasing interest in fortifying functional foods with these nutraceutical-rich substances. However, incorporation of mushroom-based ingredients into foods should not adversely affect the quality attributes of the final product. In this study, the impact of incorporating powdered Auricularia auricula, a widely consumed edible mushroom, into bread products was examined. The rheological and structural properties of wheat dough and bread supplemented with 0% to 10% (w/w) A. auricula flour were measured. Supplementation of wheat doughs with A. auricula flour increased the peak viscosity and enhanced their water holding capacity. Rapid viscosity analysis showed that peak and final viscosities of the blended flour (wheat flour with A. auricula flour) were higher than wheat flour alone. However, dough stability and elastic modulus were reduced by blending wheat flour with A. auricula flour. SEM observation showed that doughs with up to 5% (w/w) A. auricula flour had acceptable gluten network microstructure. Characterization of the quality attributes of bread indicated that incorporation of A. auricula flour at levels >5% negatively impacted bread volume, height, texture, and appearance. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  10. A kaizen approach to food safety quality management in the value chain from wheat to bread

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a Management Science approach to quality management in food production. Aspects of food quality, product conformance and reliability/food safety are examined, starting with wheat and ending with its value chain transformation into bread. Protein qualities that influence glycemic index levels in bread are used to compare the value chains of France and the US. With Kaizen models the book shows how changes in these characteristics are the result of management decisions made by the wheat growers in response to government policy and industry strategy. Lastly, it provides step-by-step instructions on how to apply kaizen methodology and Deming's work on quality improvement to make the HACCPs (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) in food safety systems more robust.

  11. Impact of frozen storage time on the volatile profile of wheat bread crumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pico, Joana; Martínez, Mario M; Bernal, José; Gómez, Manuel

    2017-10-01

    The freezing of wheat bread before aroma analyses is a common practice in order to preserve loss of the volatile profile. However, the impact of the frozen storage time on the aroma profile has not been studied. For this purpose, the volatile profiles of wheat bread frozen for 1, 2 and 4weeks were analysed employing solvent extraction and static headspace methoologies with GC/MS. The results revealed that the freezing was effective to prevent the loss of volatiles during the first week. However, after two weeks, there was an increase of volatile compounds, probably generated by chemical reactions. Thus, a maximum of one week of frozen storage was recommended when using the solvent extraction methodology. When using the static headspace method, the samples should be analysed on the same day as preparation, since the extraction was surprisingly increased due to the starch retrogradation that occurred during freezing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Characterization of the effects of chia gels on wheat doughand bread rheology as well as the optimization of breadroll production with the Nelder-Mead simplex method

    OpenAIRE

    Zettel, Viktoria

    2016-01-01

    Chia (Salvia hispanica L.) is becoming increasingly popular as ingredient for baked goods. The aim of the first part of this thesis was to investigate the influence of gel from ground chia on the rheology of different wheat dough systems and the resulting baked goods. The evaluated products were wheat bread and sweet pan bread. The effects of chia incorporated as gel in wheat bread dough as hydrocolloid were characterized using empirical and fundamental rheological methods and differential...

  13. Properties and nutritional value of wheat bread enriched by hemp products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Švec

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hemp (Cannabis sativa is annual plant that is native to China and remained as important material for food, industrial  and medical purposes. As source of cannabinoids belongs to controversial, but due to its excellent nutritional profile, non-gluten protein, fat and fibre it has potential in bakery products. Addition of 5% - 20% of hemp press cake fine flour and fine wholemeal significantly increased dietary fibre content, but their influence on volume of laboratory baked bread was different. Reflecting actual dosage, both types of hemp press cake flour diminished bun sizes about 6% - 33%; volumes of bread containing hulled wholemeal were comparable to standard (mean 310 mL/100 g vs. 333 ml/100 g, respectively. Only dehulled wholemeal hemp form increased the bread specific volume (6% - 30%, especially as 10% fortification (434 mL/100 g. Six Canadian hemp products were added as 10% and 20% on wheat flour base, comprising fine hemp flour and coarse hemp powder, dehulled whole seeds, hulled hemp seeds with sea salt as well as 50% and 43% hemp protein concentrates (KP1-KP6, respectively. The higher level of KP1, KP2, KP5 and KP6, the lower bread specific volumes were determined (decrease about 9% - 48%. Soft increase in buns size caused by 10% and 20% KP3 (323 and 319 ml/100 g vs. 296 mL/100 g was insignificant. The effect of KP4 was reversely verifiable, magnifying the parameter about 25% and 17%, respectively. In terms of protein content in bread, a level 11.75% in wheat bread has risen to approx. 14.5% and 18.0% when 10% and 20% of KP3 and KP5, respectively, was included into bread recipe. All six Canadian hemp products increased dietary fibre content in bread, mainly owing to KP4 and both protein concentrates (up to 4 and 3 times, respectively. Incorporation of hemp flour up to the level of 10% positively affected bread sensorial properties.

  14. Cytogenetics and immature embryo culture at Embrapa Trigo breeding program: transfer of disease resistance from related species by artificial resynthesis of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Irene Baggio de Moraes Fernandes

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell, 2n = 6X = 42, AABBDD breeding programs aim to reorganize genotypes to achieve better yields, environmental adaptation and food quality. The necessary interdisciplinarity for breeding purposes requires an accurate choice of the most appropriate cellular and/or molecular strategies available to be integrated with agronomic approaches in order to overcome the genetic limitation of each cultivated species, at each agroecosystem. Cytogenetics has given a great contribution to wheat genetic studies and breeding, due to viability of chromosomal variants because of homoeology among genomes in this allohexaploid species and the genus Triticum. The level of development of cytogenetic techniques achieved over the last 60 years has set wheat apart from other cereal crops in terms of possibilities to introduce genetic material from other species. Cytogenetic approaches have been extensively used in chromosomal mapping and/or resistance gene transference from tribe Triticeae-related species. Monosomic analysis, entire chromosomes engineered through single additions and/or substitutions, reciprocal translocation through radiation or manipulation of homoeologous pairing, as well as synthesis of new amphiploids to allow homologous recombination by chiasmata evolved considerably since the past decades. The association of tissue culture and molecular biology techniques provides bread wheat breeding programs with a powerful set of biotechnological tools. However, knowledge on genetic system components, cytotaxonomical relationships, cytogenetic structure and evolutionary history of wheat species cannot be neglected. This information indicates the appropriate strategy to avoid isolation mechanisms in interspecific or intergeneric crosses, according to the genome constitution of the species the desired gene is to be transferred from. The development of amphiploids as "bridge" species is one of the available procedures

  15. Bread making properties of wheat flour supplemented with thermally processed hypoallergenic lupine flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillamon, E.; Cuadrado, C.; Pedrosa, M. M.; Varela, A.; Cabellos, B.

    2010-07-01

    In recent years there has been increased interest in using lupine for human nutrition due to its nutritional properties and health benefits. Moreover, lupine is used as an ingredient in bread making because of its functional and technological properties. However, a higher number of allergic reactions to this legume have recently been reported as a consequence of a more widespread consumption of lupine-based foods. In a previous study, several thermal treatments were applied to lupine seeds and flours resulting in reduced allergenicity. In order to study how this thermal processing (autoclaving and boiling) affects the bread making properties, raw and thermally processed lupine flours were used to replace 10% of wheat flour. The effect of supplementing wheat flour with lupine flour on physical dough properties, bread structure and sensory characteristics were analysed. The results indicated that thermally-treated lupine flours, had similar bread making and sensorial properties as untreated lupine flour. These thermal treatments could increase the potential use of lupine flour as a food ingredient while reducing the risk to provoke allergic reactions. (Author) 36 refs.

  16. Resistance Potential of Bread Wheat Genotypes Against Yellow Rust Disease Under Egyptian Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer F. Mahmoud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Yellow rust (stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most destructive foliar diseases of wheat in Egypt and worldwide. In order to identify wheat genotypes resistant to yellow rust and develop molecular markers associated with the resistance, fifty F₈ recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from a cross between resistant and susceptible bread wheat landraces were obtained. Artificial infection of Puccinia striiformis was performed under greenhouse conditions during two growing seasons and relative resistance index (RRI was calculated. Two Egyptian bread wheat cultivars i.e. Giza-168 (resistant and Sakha-69 (susceptible were also evaluated. RRI values of two-year trial showed that 10 RILs responded with RRI value >6 2 <6. However, only 7 RILs showed RRI value <2. Five RILs expressed hypersensitive type of resistance (R against the pathogen and showed the lowest Average Coefficient of Infection (ACI. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA with eight simple sequence repeat (SSR, eight sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP and sixteen random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers revealed that three SSR, three SRAP and six RAPD markers were found to be associated with the resistance to yellow rust. However, further molecular analyses would be performed to confirm markers associated with the resistance and suitable for marker-assisted selection. Resistant RILs identified in the study could be efficiently used to improve the resistance to yellow rust in wheat.

  17. Water footprint assessment along the wheat-bread value chain towards the sustainable use of freshwater in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohlotsane, Pascalina; Owusu-Sekyere, Enoch; Jordaan, Henry

    2017-04-01

    A significant amount of water is used in food production. The current increase in demand for food and impact of climate change place much pressure on the available water resources. South Africa is soon approaching complete utilisation of its available surface water, with irrigated agriculture accountable for about 63% of the country's available water use. This poses a threat to food security. Wheat is the largest winter cereal crop produced in South Africa, approximately 80% of this wheat is used to produce Bread. Bread consumption in South Africa is estimated at 2.8 billion loaves per annum. About 62 loaves of bread are consumed per person per annum with noticeable differences in preferences. Therefore, it is important to account for the amount of water used along the wheat-bread production chain. In this paper, we examined water footprint along the wheat-bread value chain. The water footprint concept provides an appropriate framework for analysis to find the link between the consumption of agricultural goods and the use of water resources. The paper employed the Global Water Footprint Standard approach to calculating the volumetric green, blue and grey water footprint along the wheat-bread value chain. Our findings reveal that wheat production at the farm level accounts for 99.95 percent of the total water footprint of the bread, while processing and wholesale levels only account for 0.56 per cent. Our findings highlight the importance of effective and efficient water use at the farm level for wheat production. Specifically, the total water footprint of wheat bread is 937.42m3.ton-1. The green water component was found to be 190.59m3.ton-1 and that of blue water was 745.28 m3.ton-1. Grey water footprint accounted for only 1.55 m3.ton-1. The results indicate that the amount of water used at farm level is the largest contributor to the total water footprint of bread. Given the blue water scarcity situation in South Africa, it is very critical for wheat producers to

  18. Bioavailability and metabolism of phenolic compounds from wholegrain wheat and aleurone-rich wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresciani, Letizia; Scazzina, Francesca; Leonardi, Roberto; Dall'Aglio, Elisabetta; Newell, Michael; Dall'Asta, Margherita; Melegari, Camilla; Ray, Sumantra; Brighenti, Furio; Del Rio, Daniele

    2016-11-01

    This work aimed at investigating absorption, metabolism, and bioavailability of phenolic compounds after consumption of wholegrain bread or bread enriched with an aleurone fraction. Two commercially available breads were consumed by 15 participants on three occasions and matched for either the amount of ferulic acid in the bread or the amount of bread consumed. Urine was collected for 48 h from all the volunteers for phenolic metabolite quantification. Blood samples were collected for 24 h following bread consumption in five participants. A total of 12 and 4 phenolic metabolites were quantified in urine and plasma samples, respectively. Metabolites were sulfate and glucuronic acid conjugates of phenolic acids, and high concentrations of ferulic acid-4'-O-sulfate, dihydroferulic acid-4'-O-sulfate, and dihydroferulic acid-O-glucuronide were observed. The bioavailability of ferulic acid was significantly higher from the aleurone-enriched bread when all ferulic acid metabolites were accounted for. The study shows that low amounts of aleurone-enriched bread resulted in equivalent plasma levels of ferulic acid as wholegrain bread. This could suggest that, if the absorbed phenolic metabolites after wholegrain product intake exert health benefits, equal levels could be reached through the consumption of lower doses of refined products enriched in aleurone fraction. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  19. Wheat bread enriched with green coffee - In vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability of phenolics and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Dziki, Dariusz; Baraniak, Barbara

    2017-04-15

    The potential bioaccessibility and bioavailability of phenolics, caffeine and antioxidant activity of wheat bread enriched with green coffee were studied. Supplementation enhanced nutraceutical potential by improving phenolic content and lipid protecting capacity. The simulated-digestion-released phenolics (mainly caffeic acid, syringic acid and vanillic acid) from bread, also caused significant qualitative changes (chlorogenic acids were cleaved and significant amounts of caffeic acid and ferulic acid were determined). Compared to the control, for the bread with 1% and 5% of the functional component the contents of phenolics were 1.6 and 3.33 times higher. Also, an approximately 2.3-fold increase in antioxidant activity was found in bread containing 5% of the supplement. The compounds responsible for antioxidant potential have high bioaccessibility but poor bioavailability. The qualitative composition of the phenolic fraction has a key role in developing the antioxidant potential of bread; however, caffeine and synergism between antioxidants are also important considerations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Physicochemical composition and glycemic index of whole grain bread produced from composite flours of quality protein maize and wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. Akanbi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study entails quality assessment of whole grain bread produced from composite flours of quality protein maize and wheat. Quality protein maize and wheat were processed into flours and mixed at various ratios for bread production. The proximate compositions, physical properties, glycemic response, functional and sensory properties of the samples were evaluated using standard methods. The result showed no significant difference (p<0.05 in the proximate composition parameters of the bread samples. The loaf height (2.50 - 3.95 cm, volume (291.00 - 415.00 cm3 and specific volume(1.72 - 2.42 cm3/g decreased significantly with increasing level of quality protein maize, however, loaf length was not affected by the substitution of quality protein maize. The result of the functional properties showed that final viscosity, water absorption and swelling capacity increased with increasing level of quality protein maize. The result of the glycemic response showed that the inclusion of quality protein maize resulted in decline in the blood glucose content (glycemic index of the products. The bread samples were generally acceptable however; bread with 100% wheat was the most preferred. The result of the sensory properties showed that there was significant difference (p<0.05 in the texture and taste of 100% wheat bread and the other samples. The study concluded that substitution of quality protein maize with wheat produced acceptable whole grain loaves that have positive effect on the reduction of blood glucose level.

  1. In vitro transcripts of wild-type and fluorescent protein-tagged triticum mosaic virus (family potyviridae) are biologically active in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) (genus Poacevirus, family Potyviridae) is a recently described eriophyid mite-transmitted wheat virus. In vitro RNA transcripts generated from full-length cDNA clones of TriMV proved infectious on wheat, and the progeny virus was efficiently transmitted by wheat curl m...

  2. Quality characteristics of northern-style Chinese steamed bread prepared from soft red winter wheat flours with waxy wheat flour substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality characteristics of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) prepared from two soft red winter (SRW) wheat flours blended with 0-30% waxy wheat flour (WWF) were determined to estimate the influence of starch amylose content. The increased proportion of WWF in blends raised mixograph absorption with insign...

  3. Study of Water Relations, Chlorophyll and their Correlations with Grain Yield in Wheat(Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Mokhtar Ghobadi; Saeed Khosravi; Danial Kahrizi; Firooz Shirvani

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this experiment was to study of water relations and chlorophyll in different wheat genotypes and their correlations with grain and biological yields. 21 genotypes of bread wheat were compared in a field experiment as randomized complete blocks design with four replications. The results showed that relative water deficit, relative water loss, excised leaf water retention, cell membrane stability, chlorophyll-a, chlorophyll-b, total chlorophyll, grain yield...

  4. Glycinebetaine applied under drought improved the physiological efficiency of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Study to find out the response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars to exogenous application of 100 mM glycinebetaine (GB at different growth stages (vegetative, flowering and grain filling was carried out under water limited environment, at the Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB, Faisalabad during 2008-09, to find out the best GB application stage for improvement in drought tolerance potential. The wire house experiment was laid out in completely randomized design. Data regarding various physiological and biochemical parameters of crop were recorded using standard procedures. The data so collected were analyzed statistically by using the Fisher’s analysis of variance technique and LSD at 5% probability was used to compare the differences among treatment means. Drought stress at all three critical growth stages adversely affected plant’s nutrient uptake and it also reduced the net photosynthesis rate (Pn and transpiration rate (E of wheat plant. Exogenous application of GB under drought at all three critical growth stages improved tolerance of wheat by reducing toxic nutrient’s uptake however, grain filling stage was found more responsive.

  5. Assessment of heritability and genetic advance for agronomic traits in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASSAN NIKKHAHKOUCHAKSARAEI

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the amount of heritability for desirable agronomic characteristics and the genetic progress associated with grain yield of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf., a split plot experiment was carried out with four replications during three cropping seasons (2009-2012. Three sowing dates (as environmental factor and six durum wheat varieties (as genotypic factor were considered as main and sub factors respectively. Analysis of variance showed interaction effects between genotypes and environments in days to ripening, plant height, spike length, number of grains per spike, number of spikes per unit area, grain mass and grain yield. The grain yield showed the highest positive correlation with number of grains per spike also grain mass (91 % and 85 %, respectively. A relatively high heritability of these traits (82.1 % and 82.2 %, respectively suggests that their genetic improvement is possible. The maximum genetic gain (19.6 % was observed for grain mass, indicating this trait should be a very important indicator for durum wheat breeders, although the climatic effects should not be ignored.

  6. Identification of Alleles of Puroindoline Genes and Their Effect on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Grain Texture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klára Štiasna

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Grain hardness is one of the most important quality characteristics of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. It is a significant property of wheat grains and relates to milling quality and end product quality. Grain hardness is caused by the presence of puroindoline genes (Pina and Pinb. A collection of 25 genotypes of wheat with unusual grain colour (blue aleurone, purple and white pericarp, yellow endosperm was studied by polymerase chain reaction (PCR for the diversity within Pina and Pinb (alleles: Pina-D1a, Pina-D1b, Pinb-D1a, Pinb- -D1b, Pinb-D1c and Pinb-D1d. The endosperm structure was determined by a non-destructive method using light transfl ectance meter and grain hardness by a texture analyser. Genotype Novosibirskaya 67 and isogenic ANK lines revealed hitherto unknown alleles at the locus for the annealing of primers of Pinb-D1. Allele Pinb-D1c was found to be absent from each genotype. The mealy endosperm ranged from 0 to 100 % and grain hardness from 15.10 to 26.87 N per sample.

  7. THE INFLUENCE OF PROCESSED PRODUCTS OF WHEAT GERM ON GRAIN BREAD QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and introduction of new types of bakery products with increased nutritional value is one of the basic and urgent problems in the bakery industry. The solution of it is the use of whole grains, as well as secondary products of their processing. The use of by-products of wheat germ (oil, oilcake, oilcake flour, which are rich in proteins and enhances the nutritional value of products is considered to be a promising area in the bakery industry. At the same time the program objectives products, developed in the framework of the "Strategy of development of the food processing industry of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2020"products, are expanding the production of cereal-based foods , and involving of secondary resources in the economy. These technologies are re-source efficient. They allow efficient use of by-products raw materials of the milling industry. The process for the preparation of grain bread on the basis of a thick sourdough from bioactivated wheat grain is known. However, despite all the advantages of grain breads with high amounts of dietary fiber, minerals and vitamins, they exhibit low levels of protein and lysine deficiency. At present larger preference is given to the raw materials of natural origin (millet, buckwheat and oatmeal flours, fruit puree, whole grains, oil, flour and wheat germ flakes, and etc. for foods enrichment in modern food science. Products of processing of wheat germ: oil, flakes, oilcake and oil-cake flour are widely used in bakery technology. To improve the nutritional value flour from wheat germ oilcake was used in the work. In the course of the research its positive effect on the quality of semi-finished and finished products was found. They differed from the control sample in a high content of antioxidants and better digestibility of proteins bread crumb.

  8. Heavy Metal Contents of Soils, Durum and Bread Wheats in Harran Plain, Southeast Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükkılıç Yanardaǧ, Asuman

    2013-04-01

    Soils are vital for regulating the biological effects and mobility of metals in nature. Iron and zinc are some of the essential nutrients for plants and animals, while other metals are potentially toxic such as lead and cadmium. Toxic heavy metals (HMs) can be taken up easily by organisms. HMs inputs to soil via the application of metal-contained fertilizers often exceed outputs in crops and drainage waters, thus toxic HMs content in many agricultural soils tends to be gradually increasing. Thus adverse human health effects due to soil-plant and plant-human transfer of HMs have been enhanced. HMs may cause harmful effects on human health due to the ingestion of food grain grown in soils. The objectives of this study were (1) to understand the chemistry of metals in soils for managing their agricultural and ecological impacts, (2) to identify metal uptakes of different genotypes of wheat. Concentrations of HMs (Cd, Zn, Ni, Mn, Cu, Mo, Pb) in wheat were investigated in different agricultural areas in Southeast, Turkey. The results showed that concentrations of HMs were in following order: Mn>Ni>Zn>Cu>Pb>Mo>Cd in surface and next to surface soil and Mn>Zn>Cu>Pb> Ni>Mo>Cd in wheat, respectively. HMs concentrations of several soil samples exceeded the permissible limits of Europe standard except for Ni and Mn. In addition, concentration of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb were higher in bread wheat than in durum wheat; however, concentration of Mn, Ni and Mo were higher in durum wheat than in bread wheat. Unusual amount of heavy metals found in some fertilizers used in the Southeast region of Turkey, it becomes an important subject to determine the amount of metals added to the soil every year. Heavy metals uptake by plants still remains to be an interest for researchers. As the heavy metals contents of plants were below the threshold levels, we conclude that the quality of wheat is high and it should receive attention in national and international markets. Keywords: Heavy Metals

  9. Removing celiac disease-related gluten proteins from bread wheat while retaining technological properties: a study with Chinese Spring deletion lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosch Dirk

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gluten proteins can induce celiac disease (CD in genetically susceptible individuals. In CD patients gluten-derived peptides are presented to the immune system, which leads to a CD4+ T-cell mediated immune response and inflammation of the small intestine. However, not all gluten proteins contain T-cell stimulatory epitopes. Gluten proteins are encoded by multigene loci present on chromosomes 1 and 6 of the three different genomes of hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum (AABBDD. Results The effects of deleting individual gluten loci on both the level of T-cell stimulatory epitopes in the gluten proteome and the technological properties of the flour were analyzed using a set of deletion lines of Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring. The reduction of T-cell stimulatory epitopes was analyzed using monoclonal antibodies that recognize T-cell epitopes present in gluten proteins. The deletion lines were technologically tested with respect to dough mixing properties and dough rheology. The results show that removing the α-gliadin locus from the short arm of chromosome 6 of the D-genome (6DS resulted in a significant decrease in the presence of T-cell stimulatory epitopes but also in a significant loss of technological properties. However, removing the ω-gliadin, γ-gliadin, and LMW-GS loci from the short arm of chromosome 1 of the D-genome (1DS removed T-cell stimulatory epitopes from the proteome while maintaining technological properties. Conclusion The consequences of these data are discussed with regard to reducing the load of T-cell stimulatory epitopes in wheat, and to contributing to the design of CD-safe wheat varieties.

  10. Molecular markers for drought tolerance in bread wheat | Ameen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers associated with drought tolerance was used in this study to characterize drought tolerance in six wheat genotypes with developed marker assisted drought tolerance. Four of them were tolerant and two were drought sensitive genotypes. The results indicate that tolerant ...

  11. Evaluation of bread wheat genotypes for salinity tolerance under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In two consecutive seasons (2007-08 and 2008-09), field experiments were conducted at Soil Salinity Research Institute, Pindi Bhattian and Biosaline Agricultural Research Station, Pakka Aana, Pakistan. During 2007-08, 103 wheat landrace genotypes were evaluated for salinity tolerance. During 2008-09, 47 selected ...

  12. allelic variation of hmw glutenin subunits of ethiopian bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    journal

    reduced subunits of glutenin proteins bands are separated: the high molecular weight (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) subunits (Payne et al.,1980; Jackson et al., 1983). The HMW glutenin subunits (GS) of wheat protein are quantitatively minor, but functionally an important group of gluten proteins in the process of ...

  13. Molecular markers for drought tolerance in bread wheat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... this stress arises from the changes in cellular gene expression profile ... loped through breeding for wide or specific adaptation. (Fisher et al. ..... Drought stress response in wheat, physiological and Molecular analysis of resistance and sensitive genotypes. Plant Cell Environ. 29:2143-2152. Rashed MA ...

  14. Differential agronomic responses of bread wheat cultivars to drought ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-04

    Apr 4, 2011 ... sub- institute Sararood and Mahidasht agricultural research center to study the effects of drought stress on yield and yield components of wheat cultivars under field conditions. The experimental design was split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications. Main plots consisted of ...

  15. Differential agronomic responses of bread wheat cultivars to drought ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... 2008 on dry land agriculture research sub- institute Sararood and Mahidasht agricultural research center to study the effects of drought stress on yield and yield components of wheat cultivars under field conditions. The experimental design was split plot based on randomized complete block design with three replications.

  16. Genetic analysis for high temperature tolerance in bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Heat stress, characterised by a trend in average temperature increase during anthesis and grain filling, leads to forced maturity is one of the major constraints of wheat production in arid and, semiarid regions of the world. This study examined the nature and magnitude of gene action for yield and its contributing characters ...

  17. Molecular markers for drought tolerance in bread wheat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... this study to characterize drought tolerance in six wheat genotypes with developed marker assisted drought tolerance. Four of ..... Abdel-Tawab FM, Eman MF, Bahieledin A, Asmhan AM, Moselihy. (2003). Marker RAPD and ISSR marker related to drought tolerance in Rice. Egypt. J. Genet. Cytol. 36:195- ...

  18. The effect of sewage sludge on heavy metal concentrations in wheat plant (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahbazi, Fatemeh; Ghasemi, Somayeh; Sodaiezadeh, Hamid; Ayaseh, Kobra; Zamani-Ahmadmahmoodi, Rasool

    2017-06-01

    The use of sewage sludge in agricultural soils can improve soil physical and chemical properties and soil fertility by increasing organic materials; however, the presence of heavy metals in sewage sludge is a significant problem for the quality of agricultural products and the environment. Most heavy metals, due to their inactive nature, are stable and can affect human health. This study investigates the effect of sewage sludge on the concentration of copper, zinc, cadmium, lead, iron, and manganese in two varieties of wheat, i.e., Sivand (Triticum aestivum cv. Sivand) and Roshan (Triticum aestivum cv. Roshan). Results were obtained from a factorial experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications and at three levels (0, 60, and 120 kg soil) and were carried out in a research greenhouse. This research concluded that in the treated seed and stem of Sivand variety, concentrations of Zn, Cd, Fe, and Mn were below the standard toxicity limit, and concentrations of Cu and Pb were above the standard limit. In the Roshan variety, the concentrations of Zn, Cd, Pb, Fe, and Mn were below the standard limit, and Cu concentration was above the standard. The results of this study lead to the recommendation that farmers avoid using sewage sludge in farming, as much as possible. Instead, it is far more appropriately employed as a fertilizer for green space, ornamental trees, and parks, where edible products for human consumption are not grown.

  19. When isolated at full receptivity, in vitro fertilized wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.) egg cells reveal [Ca2+]cyt oscillation of intracellular origin

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pónya, Zsolt; Corsi, Ilaria; Hoffmann, Richárd; Kovács, Melinda; Dobosy, Anikó; Kovács, Attila Zoltán; Cresti, Mauro; Barnabás, Beáta

    2014-01-01

    During in vitro fertilization of wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.) in egg cells isolated at various developmental stages, changes in cytosolic free calcium ([Ca2+]cyt) were observed. The dynamics of [Ca2...

  20. Forming of productivity of new soft winter wheat varieties (Triticum aestivum L. subject to phyto-virus pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. П. Петренкова

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The infection by phytoviruses and the productivity formation in the new varieties of winter bread wheat in the different years with virus damage were investigated. There were identified the varieties being more tolerant to the observed diseases, among these - the samples with different constituents of tolerance, which could be used in the breeding programs.

  1. Reduced-Gliadin Wheat Bread: An Alternative to the Gluten-Free Diet for Consumers Suffering Gluten-Related Pathologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Altamirano-Fortoul, Rossana; Real, Ana; Comino, Isabel; Sousa, Carolina; Rosell, Cristina M.; Barro, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Wheat flour cannot be tolerated by those who suffer allergies to gluten. Human pathologies associated with grain proteins have increased worldwide in recent years, and the only effective treatment available is a lifelong gluten-free diet, which is complicated to follow and detrimental to gut health. This manuscript describes the development of wheat bread potentially suitable for celiac patients and other gluten-intolerant individuals. We have made bread using wheat flour with very low content of the specific gluten proteins (near gliadin-free) that are the causal agents for pathologies such as celiac disease. Loaves were compared with normal wheat breads and rice bread. Organoleptic, nutritional, and immunotoxic properties were studied. The reduced-gliadin breads showed baking and sensory properties, and overall acceptance, similar to those of normal flour, but with up to 97% lower gliadin content. Moreover, the low-gliadin flour has improved nutritional properties since its lysine content is significantly higher than that of normal flour. Conservative estimates indicate that celiac patients could safely consume 67 grams of bread per day that is made with low-gliadin flour. However, additional studies, such as feeding trials with gluten-intolerant patients, are still needed in order to determine whether or not the product can be consumed by the general celiac population, as well as the actual tolerated amount that can be safely ingested. The results presented here offer a major opportunity to improve the quality of life for millions of sufferers of gluten intolerance throughout the world. PMID:24621595

  2. Utilization of a maltotetraose-producing amylase as a whole wheat bread improver: dough rheology and baking performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Woosung; Lee, Sung Ho; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Lee, Suyong

    2014-08-01

    A maltotetraose-producing enzyme (G4-amylase) was utilized to improve the baking performance of whole-grain wheat flour. Whole-grain bread dough prepared with G4-amylase showed reduced water absorption and increased development time, while the dough stability was not affected. Also, the G4-amylase-treated samples exhibited lower Mixolab torque values than the control upon heating and cooling. Rheological measurements showed the decreased ratio of Rmax /E and increased tan δ, clearly demonstrating that the viscous characteristics of whole-grain bread dough became dominant with increasing levels of G4-amylase. The use of G4-amylase produced whole-grain wheat breads with a variety of maltooligosaccharides, primarily maltotetraose that positively contributed to the bread volume (1.2-fold higher than the control). Moreover, G4-amylase delayed the crumb firming of whole-grain wheat bread during a 7-d storage period, showing that it can function as an antiretrogradation agent to enhance the quality attributes of whole-grain wheat bread. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Effect of Buckwheat Processing Products on Dough and Bread Quality Made from Whole-Wheat Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vira Drobot

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives a brief overview of the current nutritional status of the Ukrainian population and describes useful buckwheat properties. The objective of the paper is to study the effect of buckwheat processing products (flour and flakes on the technological process and quality of bread made from whole-wheat flour. This paper describes and analyzes research data on the rheological properties of dough samples which were determined by farinograph and amylograph. Investigation of structural and mechanical properties of dough showed an increase in water-absorbing capacity in all samples when adding buckwheat products. Moreover, dough made with buckwheat flakes has a lower value of mixing tolerance index (by 47 % than dough made from buckwheat flour, and a higher valorimetric value (by 20 %. Determination of dough properties by amylogram has shown that a sample containing buckwheat flakes has a higher maximum viscosity than a sample containing buckwheat flour. Determination of the gas-production and gas-retention capacity of dough is also presented, along with an analysis of the quality of finished products based on the results of laboratory baking tests. The samples of bread supplemented with buckwheat flakes have better shape stability (by 21 %, specific volume (by 12 % and porosity (by 11 % than bread made from buckwheat flour. The organoleptic evaluation of finished product quality has shown that bread supplemented with buckwheat flakes has a more fluffy-texture, elastic crumb and uniform porosity than bread made from buckwheat flour. Buckwheat flakes proved to have a better effect on parameters of the technological process and quality of bread when compared with buckwheat flour.

  4. Khorasan wheat population researching (Triticum turgidum, ssp. Turanicum (McKey in the minimum tillage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikanović Jela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Khorasan wheat occupies a special place in the group of new-old cereals (Triticum turgidum, ssp. Turanicum McKey. It is an ancient species, native to eastern Persia, that is very close to durum wheat by morphological characteristics. Investigations were carried out in agro ecological conditions of the eastern Srem, with two wheat populations with dark and bright awns as objects of study. The following morphological and productive characteristics were investigated: plant height (PH, spike length (SH, number of spikelets per spike (NSS, absolute weight (AW and grain weight per spike (GW, seed germination (G and grains yield (YG. Field micro-experiments were set on the carbonate chernozem soil type on loess plateau in 2011 and 2012. Hand wheat sowing was conducted in early March with drill row spacing of 12 cm. The experiment was established as complete randomized block system with four replications. Tending crops measures were not applied during the growing season. Plants were grown without usage of NPK mineral nutrients. Chemical crop protection measures were not applied, although powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis was appeared before plants spike formation in a small extent. The results showed that both populations have a genetic yield potential. In general, both populations manifested a satisfactory tolerance on lodging and there was no seed dispersal. Plants from bright awns population were higher, had longer spikes and larger number of spikelet’s per spike. However, plants from dark awns population had higher absolute weight and grains weight per spike, as well as grain yield per plant. Strong correlation connections were identified among the investigated characteristics. The determination of correlations, as well as direct and indirect affects, enabled easier understanding of the mutual relationships and their balancing in order to improve the yield per unit area. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31078 i br. TR 31022

  5. Silicon nanoparticles more effectively alleviated UV-B stress than silicon in wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Durgesh Kumar; Singh, Swati; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Prasad, Sheo Mohan; Dubey, Nawal Kishore; Chauhan, Devendra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    The role of silicon (Si) in alleviating biotic as well as abiotic stresses is well known. However, the potential of silicon nanoparticle (SiNP) in regulating abiotic stress and associated mechanisms have not yet been explored. Therefore, in the present study hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate whether Si or SiNp are more effective in the regulation of UV-B stress. UV-B (ambient and enhanced) radiation caused adverse effect on growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum) seedlings, which was accompanied by declined photosynthetic performance and altered vital leaf structures. Levels of superoxide radical and H2O2 were enhanced by UV-B as also evident from their histochemical stainings, which was accompanied by increased lipid peroxidation (LPO) and electrolyte leakage. Activities of superoxide dismutase and ascorbate peroxidase were inhibited by UV-B while catalase and guaiacol peroxidase, and all non-enzymatic antioxidants were stimulated by UV-B. Although, nitric oxide (NO) content was increased at all tested combinations, but its maximum content was observed under SiNps together with UV-B enhanced treatment. Pre-additions of SiNp as well as Si protected wheat seedlings against UV-B by regulating oxidative stress through enhanced antioxidants. Data indicate that SiNp might have protected wheat seedlings through NO-mediated triggering of antioxidant defense system, which subsequently counterbalance reactive oxygen species-induced damage to photosynthesis. Further, SiNp appear to be more effective in reducing UV-B stress than Si, which is related to its greater availability to wheat seedlings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Technological quality of dough and breads from commercial algarroba-wheat flour blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa, M J; Salinas, M V; Carbas, B; Ferrero, C; Brites, C; Puppo, M C

    2017-06-01

    Algarroba flour is used to supplement lysine-limiting systems such as wheat flour due to its amino acidic composition. The effects of adding up to 30% of this flour to wheat flour (W-A30) on dough characteristics and breadmaking performance were studied. Dough rheology was tested by farinograph, oscillatory rheometry and texture profile analyses. Molecular mobility was evaluated by nuclear magnetic resonance, and thermal properties were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry and viscoamylograph studies. Besides, different bread quality parameters were evaluated. Incorporation of algarroba flour resulted into increase in water absorption, development time and degree of softening, and decrease in stability of wheat flour, leading to softer, less adhesive and elastic dough, although at intermediate replacement levels cohesiveness improved. At the molecular level, a reduction of water activity and limited proton motion were observed in W-A30 samples, suggesting that protons were highly bound to the dough matrix. Dough samples with algarroba flour showed lower G' and G″ values than the control, although with the formation of a more elastic structure for W-A30. In addition, algarroba flour produced a protective effect on starch granule disruption and interfered with amylose-amylose association during cooling. The specific volume of breads decreased with the increase in algarroba level, W-A30 reaching the highest decrease (15%). Bread crumbs with algarroba flour exhibited higher values of hardness and resilience. The use of algarroba flour resulted in lower quality when compared to the control. However, algarroba flour at 20% level can be added to wheat flour to obtain bakery products of similar technological quality and with improved nutritional components.

  7. Path Analysis of Grain Yield and Yield Components and Some Agronomic Traits in Bread Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Janmohammadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of new bread wheat cultivars needs efficient tools to monitor trait association in a breeding program. This investigation was aimed to characterize grain yield components and some agronomic traits related to bread wheat grain yield. The efficiency of a breeding program depends mainly on the direction of the correlation between different traits and the relative importance of each component involved in contributing to grain yield. Correlation and path analysis were carried out in 56 bread wheat genotypes grown under field conditions of Maragheh, Iran. Observations were recorded on 18 wheat traits and correlation coefficient analysis revealed grain yield was positively correlated with stem diameter, spike length, floret number, spikelet number, grain diameter, grain length and 1000 seed weight traits. According to the variance inflation factor (VIF and tolerance as multicollinearity statistics, there are inconsistent relationships among the variables and all traits could be considered as first-order variables (Model I with grain yield as the response variable due to low multicollinearity of all measured traits. In the path coefficient analysis, grain yield represented the dependent variable and the spikelet number and 1000 seed weight traits were the independent ones. Our results indicated that the number of spikelets per spikes and leaf width and 1000 seed weight traits followed by the grain length, grain diameter and grain number per spike were the traits related to higher grain yield. The above mentioned traits along with their indirect causal factors should be considered simultaneously as an effective selection criteria evolving high yielding genotype because of their direct positive contribution to grain yield.

  8. A whole-genome shotgun approach for assembling and anchoring the hexaploid bread wheat genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Jarrod A; Mascher, Martin; Buluç, Aydın; Barry, Kerrie; Georganas, Evangelos; Session, Adam; Strnadova, Veronika; Jenkins, Jerry; Sehgal, Sunish; Oliker, Leonid; Schmutz, Jeremy; Yelick, Katherine A; Scholz, Uwe; Waugh, Robbie; Poland, Jesse A; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Stein, Nils; Rokhsar, Daniel S

    2015-01-31

    Polyploid species have long been thought to be recalcitrant to whole-genome assembly. By combining high-throughput sequencing, recent developments in parallel computing, and genetic mapping, we derive, de novo, a sequence assembly representing 9.1 Gbp of the highly repetitive 16 Gbp genome of hexaploid wheat, Triticum aestivum, and assign 7.1 Gb of this assembly to chromosomal locations. The genome representation and accuracy of our assembly is comparable or even exceeds that of a chromosome-by-chromosome shotgun assembly. Our assembly and mapping strategy uses only short read sequencing technology and is applicable to any species where it is possible to construct a mapping population.

  9. Genetics and mapping of a new leaf rust resistance gene in Triticum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    AMIT KUMAR SINGH

    Abstract. A Triticum timopheevii-derived bread wheat line, Selection G12, was screened with 40 pathotypes of leaf rust pathogen,. Puccinia triticina at seedling stage and with two most commonly prevalent pathotypes 77-5 and 104-2 at adult plant stage. Selection G12 showed resistance at both seedling and adult plant ...

  10. Study of improving the quality of bread and wheat-aegilops hybrids with the biotechnological ways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganbarzada, Aygun; Hasanova, Sudaba

    2016-08-01

    The great need of the people to bread demands to increase high qualitative grain plants. At present time for solving these problem different methods of biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology are widely used in the process of selection. To investigate biochemical peculiarities of wheat-aegilops hybrids and to define the correlative relation between these characteristics. To investigate the technological peculiarities of wheat- aegilops hybrids and to define the relation between their main biochemical and technological characteristics. The conclusion of this investigation showed the followings- the wheat-aegilops hybrids according to their morphological and biochemical characteristics have approached to wheats. The electrophoretic spectres of the wheat- aegilops hybrids which have stable for their morphological characteristics are homogeny and heterogenic. Hereditarily some group protein components have passed to their tribes from their parents. But spontaneous hybridisation results in taking part the components of other unknown wheats in these electrophoretic spectres. There is a relation between the electrophoretic spectres and the indications of the grain quality.

  11. PRODUCTION OF A NOVEL ROBERTSONIAN TRANSLOCATION FROM THINOPYRUM BESSARABICUM INTO BREAD WHEAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, S; Mirzaghaderi, G; Majdi, M

    2015-01-01

    Development of wheat-alien translocation lines will facilitate its practical utilization in wheat improvement. The objective of the present study was to produce compensating wheat--Thinopyrum bessarabicum whole arm Robertsonian translocations (RobTs) involving chromosomes 2B of wheat and 2E(b) of Th. bessarabicum through the mechanism of centric breakage-fusion. F2 population from crosses between DS2E(b)(2B) substitution line and bread wheat 'Roushan' (2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) as female parent were made. Forty one F2 lines (L1 to L41) were screened for their chromosome composition. Three 2E(b) specific PCR-based Landmark Unique Gene (PLUG) markers were used for screening F2 progeny derived from plants double-monosomic for chromosome 2B and 2E(b). Two Rob Ts (-5%) were observed among F2 plants. Homozygous translocation (T2E(b)S.2BL) with good plant vigor and full fertility were selected from F3 families. The T2E(b)S.2BL stock has longer awn than that of its parents. It is cytogenetically stable, and may be useful in wheat improvement.

  12. Shelf life assessment of industrial durum wheat bread as a function of packaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciardello, Fabio; Giannone, Virgilio; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Muratore, Giuseppe; Summo, Carmine; Giarnetti, Mariagrazia; Caponio, Francesco; Paradiso, Vito Michele; Pasqualone, Antonella

    2017-06-01

    This study compared the effect of different packaging systems on industrial durum wheat bread shelf-life, with regard to thermoformed packaging (TF) and flow-packaging (FP). Two TFs having different thickness and one FP were compared by assessing physico-chemical and sensorial properties and volatile compounds of sliced bread during 90days of storage. Texture, a w and bread moisture varied according to a first-order kinetic model, with FP samples ageing faster than TFs. Sensorial features such as consistency, stale odor, and sour odor, increased their intensity during storage. Furans decreased, whereas hexanal increased. The Principal Component Analysis of the whole dataset pointed out that the TF system at reduced thickness could be adopted up to 60days, without compromising the standard commercial life of industrial bread and allowing to save packaging material. The FP system would allow further saving, but it should be preferred when the expected product turnover is within 30days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of wheat-bran arabinoxylan as partial flour replacer on bread properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koegelenberg, Danika; Chimphango, Annie F A

    2017-04-15

    Effects on physical properties of white bread of adding crude (E1) and partially purified (E2) arabinoxylans (AX) from wheat bran to partially replace flour during baking, were investigated to identify optimal dosage. The E1 and E2 had molecular weights of 620,000 and 470,000Da with arabinose to xylose ratio of 0.7 and 0.6, respectively. However, ferulic acid of 1.5mg/100g, was detectable only in E1. The AXs were added to 100g white bread formulae at dosages of 0.8-1.2% with flour removal of 2-3%(w/w). The dough increased water absorption by 2% in the specified dosage range. An optimum dosage of 0.8% with 2.5% flour removal maintained similar weight, volume, height and firmness as standard white bread. At this dosage, AX addition in white bread holds both increased health and economic benefits because of combined roles as soluble dietary fibre and flour replacer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Chemical Composition and Quality Characteristics of Wheat Bread Supplemented with Leafy Vegetable Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Odunlade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the effect of supplementation of the leaf powders of Telfairia occidentalis, Amaranthus viridis, and Solanum macrocarpon on the chemical composition and the quality characteristics of wheat bread. The bread samples were supplemented with each of the vegetable leaf powders at 1%, 2%, and 3% during preparation. The bread samples were assayed for proximate composition, mineral composition, physical, sensory, and antioxidant properties using standard methods. The addition of vegetable powders significantly increased the protein (9.50 to 13.93%, fibre (1.81 to 4.00%, ash (1.05 to 2.38%, and fat (1.27 to 2.00%. Supplementation with vegetable powder however significantly decreased (p<0.05 the carbohydrate and moisture contents. Significant (p<0.05 increases were recorded for all evaluated minerals as the level of vegetable powder increased. Supplementation with vegetable powder caused significant decrease in total phenolic content, percentage DPPH inhibition, metal chelating ability, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total antioxidant capacity. Sensory results showed that there was significant decrease in sensory qualities with increasing supplementation. This therefore suggests that bread supplemented with vegetable powder could have more market penetration if awareness is highly created.

  15. Association of Agronomic Traits with SNP Markers in Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L. durum (Desf.)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xin; Ren, Jing; Ren, Xifeng; Huang, Sisi; Sabiel, Salih A I; Luo, Mingcheng; Nevo, Eviatar; Fu, Chunjie; Peng, Junhua; Sun, Dongfa

    2015-01-01

    Association mapping is a powerful approach to detect associations between traits of interest and genetic markers based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) in molecular plant breeding. In this study, 150 accessions of worldwide originated durum wheat germplasm (Triticum turgidum spp. durum) were genotyped using 1,366 SNP markers. The extent of LD on each chromosome was evaluated. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) markers with ten agronomic traits measured in four consecutive years was analyzed under a mix linear model (MLM). Two hundred and one significant association pairs were detected in the four years. Several markers were associated with one trait, and also some markers were associated with multiple traits. Some of the associated markers were in agreement with previous quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses. The function and homology analyses of the corresponding ESTs of some SNP markers could explain many of the associations for plant height, length of main spike, number of spikelets on main spike, grain number per plant, and 1000-grain weight, etc. The SNP associations for the observed traits are generally clustered in specific chromosome regions of the wheat genome, mainly in 2A, 5A, 6A, 7A, 1B, and 6B chromosomes. This study demonstrates that association mapping can complement and enhance previous QTL analyses and provide additional information for marker-assisted selection.

  16. Anatomical and morphological copper provision indexes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Weryszko-Chmielewska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The morphology and anatomy of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. stems under conditions of copper deficiency were investigated. Copper was supplied at 0, 5 and 125 mg per Mitscherlich pot. The lignification of tissues in plants from field experiments (0; 5; 10; 20 mg Cu/ha was also studied. Significant changes in stem and leaf morphology and anatomy were found along inhibition of inflorescence and flower development. The anthers produces sterile and deformed pollen grains. The diminished stability of stems was caused by the following anatomical changes: considerable reduction of steam diameter and culm wall thickness and decreased numbers and dimensions of sclerenchyma and parenchyma cells and layers. In addition, the size of vascular bundles and the diameter of xylem vessels were decreased and the sclerenchyma sheath around the vascular bundles was reduced. The epidermis and sclerenchyma cells had thinner walls. The absence of lignification of cells walls was observed most frequently in the peripheral tissues (epidermis, sclerenchyma and parenchyma. It was demonstrated that it was possible to histochemically determine the degree of stem lignification in the early phases of wheat development.

  17. Association of Agronomic Traits with SNP Markers in Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L. durum (Desf..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Hu

    Full Text Available Association mapping is a powerful approach to detect associations between traits of interest and genetic markers based on linkage disequilibrium (LD in molecular plant breeding. In this study, 150 accessions of worldwide originated durum wheat germplasm (Triticum turgidum spp. durum were genotyped using 1,366 SNP markers. The extent of LD on each chromosome was evaluated. Association of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP markers with ten agronomic traits measured in four consecutive years was analyzed under a mix linear model (MLM. Two hundred and one significant association pairs were detected in the four years. Several markers were associated with one trait, and also some markers were associated with multiple traits. Some of the associated markers were in agreement with previous quantitative trait loci (QTL analyses. The function and homology analyses of the corresponding ESTs of some SNP markers could explain many of the associations for plant height, length of main spike, number of spikelets on main spike, grain number per plant, and 1000-grain weight, etc. The SNP associations for the observed traits are generally clustered in specific chromosome regions of the wheat genome, mainly in 2A, 5A, 6A, 7A, 1B, and 6B chromosomes. This study demonstrates that association mapping can complement and enhance previous QTL analyses and provide additional information for marker-assisted selection.

  18. Ractopamine up take by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelver, Weilin L; DeSutter, Thomas M

    2015-08-01

    Ractopamine is a beta adrenergic agonist used as a growth promoter in swine, cattle and turkeys. To test whether ractopamine has the potential to accumulate in plants grown in contaminated soil, a greenhouse study was conducted with alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in two soils having different concentrations of organic matter (1.3% and 2.1%), amended with 0, 0.5, and 10 μg/g of ractopamine. Plant growth ranged from 2.7 to 8.8 g dry weight (dw) for alfalfa, and 8.7 to 40 g dw for wheat and was generally greater in the higher organic matter content soil. The uptake of ractopamine in plant tissues ranged from non-detectable to 897 ng/g and was strongly dependent on soil ractopamine concentration across soil and plant tissue. When adjusted to the total fortified quantities, the amount of ractopamine taken up by the plant tissue was low, <0.01% for either soil. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Differentiation of Bread Made with Whole Grain and Refined Wheat (T. aestivum) Flour Using LC/MS-based chromatographic Fingerprinting and Chemometric Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fuzzy chromatography mass spectrometric (FCMS) fingerprinting method combined with chemometric analysis was established to diffrentiate between whole wheat (WW) flours and refined wheat (RW) flour, and the breads made from them. The chemical compositions of the bread samples were profiled using h...

  20. CRUMB TEXTURE OF SPELT BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Korczyk-Szabó

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The bread quality is considerably dependent on the texture characteristic of bread crumb. Crumb texture is an important quality indicator, as consumer prefer different bread taste. Texture analysis is primarily concerned with the evaluation of mechanical characteristics where a material is subjected to a controlled force from which a deformation curve of its response is generated. It is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. This is why the texture analysis is one of the most helpful analytical methods of the product development. In the framework of our research during the years 2008 – 2009 were analyzed selected indicators for bread texture quality of five Triticum spelta L. varieties – Altgold, Oberkulmer Rotkorn, Ostro, Rubiota and Franckenkorn grown in an ecological system. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus (Stable Micro Systems, Surrey, UK, following the AACC (74-09 standard method and expressed as crumb firmness (N, stiffness (N.mm-1 and relative elasticity (%. Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was achieved in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Franckenkorn and Altgold were the most firm and stiff. Correlation analysis showed strong negative correlation between relative elasticity and bread crumb firmness as well as bread stiffness (-0.81++, -0.78++. The spelt grain can be a good source for making bread flour, but is closely dependent on choice of spelt variety. The spelt wheat bread crumb texture need further investigation as it can be a reliable quality parameter.

  1. Intake of whole-grain and fiber-rich rye bread versus refined wheat bread does not differentiate intestinal microbiota composition in Finnish adults with metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lappi, Jenni; Salojärvi, Jarkko; Kolehmainen, Marjukka; Mykkänen, Hannu; Poutanen, Kaisa; de Vos, Willem M; Salonen, Anne

    2013-05-01

    Whole-grain (WG) foods rich in indigestible carbohydrates are thought to modulate the composition of the intestinal microbiota. We investigated in a randomized, parallel, 2-arm 12-wk intervention whether consumption of WG and fiber-rich rye breads compared with refined wheat breads affected the microbiota composition in Finnish individuals aged 60 ± 6 y with metabolic syndrome. Fecal samples from 51 participants (25 males, 26 females) before and after the intervention were processed for the microbiota analysis using a phylogenetic microarray and quantitative polymerase chain reactions targeting the 16S rRNA gene. The intake of whole grains calculated from food records was higher in the group consuming rye breads (75 g) than in that consuming refined wheat breads (4 g; P whole grain intake. The intestinal microbiota composition did not significantly differ between the groups after the intervention. However, we detected a 37% decrease of Bacteroidetes (P wheat breads. In this group, the abundance of bacteria related to Bacteroides vulgatus, B. plebeius, and Prevotella tannerae decreased, whereas that of bacteria related to Collinsella and members of the Clostridium clusters IV and XI increased. In a multivariate regression analysis, the abundance of Bacteroides spp. was best explained by different fat compounds among dietary variables, whereas the main sugar-converting butyrate-producers were mostly associated with the intake of whole- and refined-grain bread and fiber. Our results indicate that the quality of grains has a minor effect on the intestinal microbiota composition in participants with metabolic syndrome and suggest that the dietary influence on the microbiota involves other dietary components such as fat.

  2. Genome-wide association study and genetic diversity analysis on nitrogen use efficiency in a Central European winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. collection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    István Monostori

    Full Text Available To satisfy future demands, the increase of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. yield is inevitable. Simultaneously, maintaining high crop productivity and efficient use of nutrients, especially nitrogen use efficiency (NUE, are essential for sustainable agriculture. NUE and its components are inherently complex and highly influenced by environmental factors, nitrogen management practices and genotypic variation. Therefore, a better understanding of their genetic basis and regulation is fundamental. To investigate NUE-related traits and their genetic and environmental regulation, field trials were evaluated in a Central European wheat collection of 93 cultivars at two nitrogen input levels across three seasons. This elite germplasm collection was genotyped on DArTseq® genotypic platform to identify loci affecting N-related complex agronomic traits. To conduct robust genome-wide association mapping, the genetic diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium were examined. Population structure was investigated by various methods and two subpopulations were identified. Their separation is based on the breeding history of the cultivars, while analysis of linkage disequilibrium suggested that selective pressures had acted on genomic regions bearing loci with remarkable agronomic importance. Besides NUE, genetic basis for variation in agronomic traits indirectly affecting NUE and its components, moreover genetic loci underlying response to nitrogen fertilisation were also determined. Altogether, 183 marker-trait associations (MTA were identified spreading over almost the entire genome. We found that most of the MTAs were environmental-dependent. The present study identified several associated markers in those genomic regions where previous reports had found genes or quantitative trait loci influencing the same traits, while most of the MTAs revealed new genomic regions. Our data provides an overview of the allele composition of bread wheat

  3. Comparative study of proline accumulation of Some varieties of Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf. under water Stress Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmina Semiani

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Proline accumulation, as a marker of resistance to the abiotic constraints, was evaluated on seventeen genotypes of Durum wheat (Triticum Durum Desf under water stress conditions. An experiment was implemented at INRAA research station located at Baraki, Algiers. The experimental design adopted is that of split plot design with water regime (irrigated and non irrigated treatments as main plots and varieties as sub plots and three repetitions. Proline accumulation was significantly increased under water stress (p<0.01. There was differences between varieties and their interaction with water regimes (p<0.001 and 04 groups were identified. When plants are subjected to water stress they increase their rate of proline, this enables to improve the capacity of the cell to maintain it turgor pressure at low water potential.   Key words: Durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf., Proline accumulation, resistance, water stress.

  4. Difference in postprandial GLP-1 response despite similar glucose kinetics after consumption of wheat breads with different particle size in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W J; Sozer, Nesli

    2017-01-01

    and metabolic response after their consumption. METHODS: Ten healthy male volunteers participated in a randomized, crossover study, consuming (13)C-enriched breads with different structures; a control bread (CB) made from wheat flour combined with wheat bran, and a kernel bread (KB) where 85 % of flour....... Interestingly, the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) response was much lower after KB compared to CB (iAUC, P

  5. Prediction and analysis of three gene families related to leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Fred Y.; Yang, Rong-Cai

    2017-01-01

    Background The resistance to leaf rust (Lr) caused by Puccinia triticina in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has been well studied over the past decades with over 70 Lr genes being mapped on different chromosomes and numerous QTLs (quantitative trait loci) being detected or mapped using DNA markers. Such resistance is often divided into race-specific and race-nonspecific resistance. The race-nonspecific resistance can be further divided into resistance to most or all races of the same pathogen an...

  6. Calidad panadera de nuevos genotipos de trigo pan Bread-making quality of new genotypes of bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Dubois

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la calidad panadera de los dos mejores genotipos de trigo pan obtenidos por selección recurrente por rendimiento (C1-00-83 y C3-00-42 y seis cultivares comerciales, cultivados en la región semiárida central argentina. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completamente aleatorizado con cuatro repeticiones. Se determinó peso hectolítrico, peso de mil semillas, contenido proteico, rendimiento en harina, gluten húmedo, parámetros alveográficos y panificación experimental. Las variables de calidad del genotipo C3-00-42 corresponden a un trigo de gran fuerza, muy tenaz, alta absorción de agua y buen volumen de pan, por consiguiente puede usarse como corrector de harinas débiles o para elaboraciones que requieran trigos fuertes. El genotipo C1-00-83 presentó los mejores valores de proteína, gluten y volumen del pan de todos los analizados, conjuntamente con un alto rendimiento en harina y gluten muy fuerte y bastante equilibrado. Los dos nuevos genotipos presentan excelentes características panaderas y ofrecen calidades industriales diferenciales.The bread- making quality of the two best genotypes of bread wheat obtained by recurrent selection by yield (C1-00-83 and C3-00-42 vs. six commercial cultivars from the Argentine central semiarid region were evaluated. A completely randomized block design with 4 repetitions was utilized. The parameters measured were: test weight, thousand kernel weight, grain proteins, yield flour, gluten test, alveograph parameters and baking test. The quality parameters of the C3-00-42 genotype corresponded to very tenacious strong gluten, with high water absorption and which produces good loaf volume. Therefore, it can be used to compensate weaker flours or to manufacture products that require strong wheat. The C1-00-83 genotype presented high yield in flour, very strong and almost balanced gluten and the best values in protein content, gluten and loaf volume of all those Trianalyzed. The two new

  7. Influence of endogenous ferulic acid in whole wheat flour on bread crust aroma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moskowitz, Marlene R; Bin, Qing; Elias, Ryan J; Peterson, Devin G

    2012-11-14

    The influence of wheat flour type (refined (RWF)/whole (WWF)) on bread crust aroma was investigated. Differences were characterized by aroma extract dilution analysis and quantified utilizing stable isotope surrogate standards. For RWF breads, five aroma compounds were higher in concentration, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2-phenylethanol, 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, and 2,4-dihyroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, by 4.0-, 3.0-, 2.1-, 1.7-, and 1.5-fold, respectively, whereas three compounds were lower, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, (E,E)-2,4-decadienal, and (E)-2-nonenal by 6.1-, 2.1-, and 1.8-fold, respectively. A trained sensory panel reported the perceived aroma intensity of characteristic fresh refined bread crust aroma was significantly higher in RWF compared to WWF crust samples. Addition of 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 2-phenylethanol, 2-acetyl-2-thiazoline, and 2,4-dihyroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone to the WWF crust (at concentrations equivalent to those in the RWF crust) increased the intensity of the fresh refined bread crust aroma attribute; no significant difference was reported when compared to RWF crust. The liberation of ferulic acid from WWF during baking was related to the observed reduction in these five aroma compounds and provides novel insight into the mechanisms of flavor development in WWF bread.

  8. Bioprocessing of wheat bran in whole wheat bread increases the bioavailability of phenolic acids in men and exerts antiinflammatory effects ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo Anson, Nuria; Aura, Anna-Marja; Selinheimo, Emilia; Mattila, Ismo; Poutanen, Kaisa; van den Berg, Robin; Havenaar, Robert; Bast, Aalt; Haenen, Guido R M M

    2011-01-01

    Whole grain consumption has been linked to a lower risk of metabolic syndrome, which is normally associated with a low-grade chronic inflammation. The benefits of whole grain are in part related to the inclusion of the bran, rich in phenolic acids and fiber. However, the phenols are poorly bioaccessible from the cereal matrix. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of bioprocessing of the bran in whole wheat bread on the bioavailability of phenolic acids, the postprandial plasma antioxidant capacity, and ex vivo antiinflammatory properties. After consumption of a low phenolic acid diet for 3 d and overnight fasting, 8 healthy men consumed 300 g of whole wheat bread containing native bran (control bread) or bioprocessed bran (bioprocessed bread) in a cross-over design. Urine and blood samples were collected for 24 h to analyze the phenolic acids and metabolites. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity was measured in plasma. Cytokines were measured in blood after ex vivo stimulation with LPS. The bioavailabilities of ferulic acid, vanillic acid, sinapic acid, and 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid from the bioprocessed bread were 2- to 3-fold those from the control bread. Phenylpropionic acid and 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid were the main colonic metabolites of the nonbioaccessible phenols. The ratios of pro-:antiinflammatory cytokines were significantly lower in LPS-stimulated blood after the consumption of the bioprocessed bread. In conclusion, bioprocessing can remarkably increase the bioavailability of phenolic acids and their circulating metabolites, compounds which have immunomodulatory effects ex vivo.

  9. Organization and evolution of transposable elements along the bread wheat chromosome 3B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daron, Josquin; Glover, Natasha; Pingault, Lise; Theil, Sébastien; Jamilloux, Véronique; Paux, Etienne; Barbe, Valérie; Mangenot, Sophie; Alberti, Adriana; Wincker, Patrick; Quesneville, Hadi; Feuillet, Catherine; Choulet, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The 17 Gb bread wheat genome has massively expanded through the proliferation of transposable elements (TEs) and two recent rounds of polyploidization. The assembly of a 774 Mb reference sequence of wheat chromosome 3B provided us with the opportunity to explore the impact of TEs on the complex wheat genome structure and evolution at a resolution and scale not reached so far. We develop an automated workflow, CLARI-TE, for TE modeling in complex genomes. We delineate precisely 56,488 intact and 196,391 fragmented TEs along the 3B pseudomolecule, accounting for 85% of the sequence, and reconstruct 30,199 nested insertions. TEs have been mostly silent for the last one million years, and the 3B chromosome has been shaped by a succession of bursts that occurred between 1 to 3 million years ago. Accelerated TE elimination in the high-recombination distal regions is a driving force towards chromosome partitioning. CACTAs overrepresented in the high-recombination distal regions are significantly associated with recently duplicated genes. In addition, we identify 140 CACTA-mediated gene capture events with 17 genes potentially created by exon shuffling and show that 19 captured genes are transcribed and under selection pressure, suggesting the important role of CACTAs in the recent wheat adaptation. Accurate TE modeling uncovers the dynamics of TEs in a highly complex and polyploid genome. It provides novel insights into chromosome partitioning and highlights the role of CACTA transposons in the high level of gene duplication in wheat.

  10. Development of a core collection of Triticum and Aegilops species for improvement of wheat for activity against chronic diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santra Meenakshi

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The objective of this study was to develop a core collection of Triticum and Aegilops species as a resource for the identification and characterization of wheat lines with preventive activity against chronic diseases. Given that cancer is the leading cause of mortality in the world and shares risk factors with obesity, type-2 diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, and given that wheat has been reported to protect against these diseases, the core collection was developed based on cancer prevalence. Methods The Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN database was used to identify Triticum and Aegilops species grown in regions of the world that vary in cancer prevalence based on the International Agency for Cancer Research GLOBOCAN world map of cancer statistics (2008. Cancer incidence data drove variety selection with secondary consideration of ploidy, center of origin, and climate. Results Analysis indicated that the geographic regions from which wheat is considered to have originated have a lower incidence of cancer than other geographic regions (P Conclusions A diverse core collection of wheat germplasm has been established from a range of regions worldwide. This core collection will be used to identify wheat lines with activity against chronic diseases using anticancer activity as a screening tool.

  11. A High Resolution Radiation Hybrid Map of Wheat Chromosome 4A

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Balcárková, Barbora; Frenkel, Z.; Škopová, Monika; Abrouk, Michael; Kumar, A.; Chao, S.; Kianian, S. F.; Akhunov, E.; Korol, A.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Valárik, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 7, JAN 10 (2017), č. článku 2063. ISSN 1664-462X R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-07164S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : triticum-aestivum l. * bread wheat * high-density * agronomic traits * tetraploid wheat * hexaploid wheat * polyploid wheat * genetic maps * genomes * recombination * endosperm radiation hybrid panel * radiation hybrid map * wheat chromosome 4A * chromosome deletion bin map * Triticum aestivum * SNP iSelect array Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 4.298, year: 2016

  12. Effect of Silicon application on Morpho-physiological Characteristics, Grain Yield and Nutrient Content of Bread Wheat under Water Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Karmollachaab

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of silicon application on some physiological characteristics, yield and yield components, and grain mineral contents of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum under water stress condition, an experiment was conducted in Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University, Khuzestan, in 2012. The experiment was arranged in split-plots design in RCBD (Completely Randomized Blocks Design with three replications. Treatments consisted of drought stress (irrigation after 25, 50 and 75% depletion of Available Water Content in main plots and silicon (0, 10, 20 and 30 Kg Si ha-1 arranged in sub-plots. Results showed that the effect of drought stress was significant on most traits and led to the increase of electrolyte leakage (EL, cuticular wax, leaf and grain silicon content and grain nitrogen content. But drought led to negative impacts on grain yield and its components, and leaf potassium content, i.e. moderate and severe stresses reduced yield by 17% and 38% compared to control, respectively. Effect of silicon application was significant on all traits except for spike per square meter. Silicon had the greatest impact on EL and led to 35% decrease in this trait. Also, silicon led to increase in leaf and grain silicon contents and grain K content and grain yield and yield components, when applied at 30 kg ha-1. Generally, application of 30 kg ha-1 of silicon led to 6 and 14% increases of grain yield at the presence of moderate and severe drought stresses, respectively. Thus, given the abundance of silicon it can be used as an ameliorating element for planting bread wheat in drought-prone conditions.

  13. Effect of high temperature on cell structure and gluten protein accumulation in the endosperm of the developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    High temperature during grain fill is one of the more significant environmental factors that alters wheat yield and flour quality. To identify endosperm responses to high temperature, cell structure and gluten protein composition were investigated in developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Butte ...

  14. The effect of high temperature on cell structure and gluten protein accumulation in the endosperm of the developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    High temperature during grain fill is one of the more significant environmental factors that alters wheat yield and flour quality. To identify endosperm responses to high temperature, cell structure and gluten protein composition were investigated in developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Butte ...

  15. Effect of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed color and hardness genes on the consumption preference of the house mouse (Mus musculus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background: Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain is a staple food and provides necessary nutrients for human health and nutrition. Yet, flavor differences among wheat varieties are not well understood. Grain flavor and consumption preference can be examined using the house mouse (Mus musculus L.) as a...

  16. Molecular analysis of phosphomannomutase (PMM genes reveals a unique PMM duplication event in diverse Triticeae species and the main PMM isozymes in bread wheat tissues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Shiwei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Phosphomannomutase (PMM is an essential enzyme in eukaryotes. However, little is known about PMM gene and function in crop plants. Here, we report molecular evolutionary and biochemical analysis of PMM genes in bread wheat and related Triticeae species. Results Two sets of homoeologous PMM genes (TaPMM-1 and 2 were found in bread wheat, and two corresponding PMM genes were identified in the diploid progenitors of bread wheat and many other diploid Triticeae species. The duplication event yielding PMM-1 and 2 occurred before the radiation of diploid Triticeae genomes. The PMM gene family in wheat and relatives may evolve largely under purifying selection. Among the six TaPMM genes, the transcript levels of PMM-1 members were comparatively high and their recombinant proteins were all enzymatically active. However, PMM-2 homoeologs exhibited lower transcript levels, two of which were also inactive. TaPMM-A1, B1 and D1 were probably the main active isozymes in bread wheat tissues. The three isozymes differed from their counterparts in barley and Brachypodium distachyon in being more tolerant to elevated test temperatures. Conclusion Our work identified the genes encoding PMM isozymes in bread wheat and relatives, uncovered a unique PMM duplication event in diverse Triticeae species, and revealed the main active PMM isozymes in bread wheat tissues. The knowledge obtained here improves the understanding of PMM evolution in eukaryotic organisms, and may facilitate further investigations of PMM function in the temperature adaptability of bread wheat.

  17. Seed priming and transgenerational drought memory improves tolerance against salt stress in bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabassum, Tahira; Farooq, Muhammad; Ahmad, Riaz; Zohaib, Ali; Wahid, Abdul

    2017-09-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the potential of seed priming following terminal drought on tolerance against salt stress in bread wheat. Drought was imposed in field sown wheat at reproductive stage (BBCH growth stage 49) and was maintained till physiological maturity (BBCH growth stage 83). Seeds of bread wheat, collected from crop raised under terminal drought and/or well-watered conditions, were subjected to hydropriming and osmopriming (with 1.5% CaCl2) and were sown in soil-filled pots. After stand establishment, salt stress treatments viz. 10 mM NaCl (control) and 100 mM NaCl were imposed. Seed from terminal drought stressed source had less fat (5%), and more fibers (11%), proteins (22%) and total soluble phenolics (514%) than well-watered seed source. Salt stress reduced the plant growth, perturbed water relations and decreased yield. However, an increase in osmolytes accumulation (4-18%), malondialdehyde (MDA) (27-35%) and tissue Na+ contents (149-332%) was observed under salt stress. The seeds collected from drought stressed crop had better tolerance against salt stress as indicated by better yield (28%), improved water relations (3-18%), osmolytes accumulation (21-33%), and less MDA (8%) and Na contents (35%) than progeny of well-watered crop. Seed priming, osmopriming in particular, further improved the tolerance against salt stress through improvement in leaf area, water relations, leaf proline, glycine betaine and grain yield while lowering MDA and Na+ contents. In conclusion, changed seed composition during terminal drought and seed priming improved the salt tolerance in wheat by modulating the water relations, osmolytes accumulation and lipid peroxidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. BREAD CRUMBS TEXTURE OF SPELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Korczyk – Szabó

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Texture analysis is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of bread crumb is important not only for quality assurance in the bakeries, but also for assessing the effects of changes in dough ingredients and processing condition and also for describing the changes in bread crumb during storage. Crumb cellular structure is an important quality criterion used in commercial baking and research laboratories to judge bread quality alongside taste, crumb colour and crumb physical texture. In the framework of our research during the years 2010 – 2011 were analyzed selected indicators of bread crumb for texture quality of three Triticum spelta L. cultivars – Altgold, Rubiota and Ostro grown in an ecological system. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus (Stable Micro Systems, Surrey, UK, following the AACC (74-09 standard and expressed as crumb firmness (N, stiffness (N.mm-1 and relative elasticity (%. Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was achieved in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Altgold and Ostro were the most firm and stiff. Correlation analysis showed strong negative correlation between relative elasticity and bread crumb firmness as well as bread stiffness (-0.65++, -0.66++. The spelt wheat bread crumb texture need further investigation as it can be a reliable quality parameter.

  19. Accumulation of phenanthrene by roots of intact wheat (Triticum acstivnm L. seedlings: passive or active uptake?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Ting-Hui

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are of particular concern due to their hydrophobic, recalcitrant, persistent, potentially carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic properties, and their ubiquitous occurrence in the environment. Most of the PAHs in the environment are present in surface soil. Plants grown in PAH-contaminated soils or water can become contaminated with PAHs because of their uptake. Therefore, they may threaten human and animal health. However, the mechanism for PAHs uptake by crop roots is little understood. It is important to understand exactly how PAHs are transported into the plant root system and into the human food chain, since it is beneficial in governing crop contamination by PAHs, remedying soils or waters polluted by PAHs with plants, and modeling potential uptake for risk assessment. Results The possibility that plant roots may take up phenanthrene (PHE, a representative of PAHs, via active process was investigated using intact wheat (Triticum acstivnm L. seedlings in a series of hydroponic experiments. The time course for PHE uptake into wheat roots grown in Hoagland solution containing 5.62 μM PHE for 36 h could be separated into two periods: a fast uptake process during the initial 2 h and a slow uptake component thereafter. Concentration-dependent PHE uptake was characterized by a smooth, saturable curve with an apparent Km of 23.7 μM and a Vmax of 208 nmol g-1 fresh weight h-1, suggesting a carrier-mediated uptake system. Competition between PHE and naphthalene for their uptake by the roots further supported the carrier-mediated uptake system. Low temperature and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP could inhibit PHE uptake equally, indicating that metabolism plays a role in PHE uptake. The inhibitions by low temperature and DNP were strengthened with increasing concentration of PHE in external solution within PHE water solubility (7.3 μM. The contribution of active uptake to total absorption was almost 40

  20. The Relationship Between Grain Hardness, Dough Mixing Parameters and Bread-Making Quality in Winter Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmanowicz, Bolesław P.; Adamski, Tadeusz; Surma, Maria; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Karolina, Krystkowiak; Kuczyńska, Anetta; Banaszak, Zofia; Ługowska, Bogusława; Majcher, Małgorzata; Obuchowski, Wiktor

    2012-01-01

    The influence of grain hardness, determined by using molecular markers and physical methods (near-infrared (NIR) technique and particle size index—PSI) on dough characteristics, which in turn were determined with the use of a farinograph and reomixer, as well as bread-making properties were studied. The material covered 24 winter wheat genotypes differing in grain hardness. The field experiment was conducted at standard and increased levels of nitrogen fertilization. Results of molecular analyses were in agreement with those obtained by the use of physical methods for soft-grained lines. Some lines classified as hard (by physical methods) appeared to have the wild-type Pina and Pinb alleles, similar to soft lines. Differences in dough and bread-making properties between lines classified as hard and soft on the basis of molecular data appeared to be of less significance than the differences between lines classified as hard and soft on the basis of physical analyses of grain texture. Values of relative grain hardness at the increased nitrogen fertilization level were significantly higher. At both fertilization levels the NIR parameter determining grain hardness was significantly positively correlated with the wet gluten and sedimentation values, with most of the rheological parameters and bread yield. Values of this parameter correlated with quality characteristics in a higher degree than values of particle size index. PMID:22605973

  1. Low-calorie bread baked with charred cellulose granules and wheat flour to eliminate toxic xanthene food dye in the alimentary canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabara, Aya; Yamane, Chihiro; Seguchi, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    We baked low-calorie bread by mixing charred cellulose granules with wheat flour, using the charred cellulose granules to eliminate toxic xanthene food dyes contained in processed foods from the alimentary canal. The size of the charred cellulose granules played an important role in determining good breadmaking properties in respect of the bread height (mm) and specific volume (SV, cm3/g). Charred cellulose granules with a diameter above 270 μm were blended with wheat flour at 10% to obtain bread with a lower caloric content (1020 kcal/gram of bread) than the control bread (1126 kcal) made solely from wheat flour. The charred cellulose granules taken out from the bread adsorbed toxic xanthene food dyes at around pH 6.5, such that toxic food dyes taken into the alimentary canal were excreted in the feces with the non-digestible cellulose granules.

  2. Investigation of The Relationship Between Grain Yield with Physiological Parameters in Some Bread Wheat Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet KARAMAN

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to analyze the relationships between grain yield with physiological parameters in some bread wheat varieties. For this purpose, ten bread wheat genotypes were grown in randomized complete block design with 3 replications under rainfall conditions in the experimental field of GAP International Agricultural Research and Training Center during the 2012-2013 growing season. The most high yielding varieties in this study, Pehlivan, Kate A-1, Cemre and Anapo, were observed as standing out in terms of flag leaf chlorophyll content (SPAD value, flag leaf ash ratio, leaf area index and grain filling period . The correlation analyses of the study showed positive and significant correlations between chlorophyll content of flag leaf at heading stage with chlorophyll content at flowering stage, between chlorophyll content of flag leaf at flowering and heading stages with chlorophyll content of flag leaf at milk stage and between grain filling rate with leaf area index, In addition, positive and significant correlations were identified between flag leaf ash ratio and NDVI reading prior to heading time with grain yield

  3. Sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of bread and cracker products made from red or white wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Challacombe, Carolyn A; Seetharaman, Koushik; Duizer, Lisa M

    2011-01-01

    Whole grain consumption is being promoted due to a number of associated health benefits. However, whole grain consumption is below recommendations possibly due to the presence of characteristic flavors that consumers find unacceptable. The objective of this study was to investigate the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of products made from commercial whole grain flours produced from red or white wheats, and with fine or coarse bran particle sizes. Descriptive analysis and consumer acceptance panels were used to characterize both low (cracker) and intermediate (bread) moisture products made with the flours. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to correlate the descriptive and consumer data. Sensory differences in whole grain products made from red or white wheat with small or large bran particles sizes and product moisture contents were observed. Bran particle size had a greater effect on the sensory properties of the whole grain products, particularly within the cracker; conversely bran particle size had little influence on consumer acceptance. Red wheat products were found to be more acceptable than the white wheat products. However, a number of color × bran particle interactions were observed in both the descriptive and consumer data. PLS regression demonstrated that consumers could be divided into groupings based upon certain attributes and characteristics. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. 100-year history of the development of bread winter wheat breeding programs

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    М. А. Литвиненко

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Review of the main achievements of the Wheat Breeding and Seed ProductionDepartment in the Plant Breeding and Genetic Institute – National Centre of Seed and Cultivar Investigation in the developing theoretical principles of breeding and creation of winter wheat varieties of different types during 100-year (1916–2016 period of breeding programs realization. Results. The main theoretical, methodical developments and breeding achievements of Wheat Breeding and Seed Production Department during 100-year (1916–2016 history have been considered. In the course of the Department activity, the research and metho­dology grounds of bread winter wheat breeding and seed production have been laid, 9 stages of breeding programs development have been accomplished. As a result, more than 130 varieties of different types have been created, 87 of them have been released in some periods or registered in the State registers of plants varieties of Ukraine and other countries and grown in the total sowing area about 220 million hectares.

  5. Evaluation of the technological characteristics and bread-making quality of alternative wheat cereals in comparison with common and durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualone, A; Piergiovanni, A R; Caponio, F; Paradiso, V M; Summo, C; Simeone, R

    2011-04-01

    The growing sensibility toward those foods that are characterized by natural and healthy features has raised the interest toward alternative wheat cereals. This research was carried out to compare the technological characteristics and the bread-making quality of Khorasan wheat, type Kamut and spelt (cv. Forenza), to those of common (cv. Rio) and durum wheat (cv. Norba). The results obtained show that both Forenza and Kamut gave an acceptable bread-making performance. A certain variability affected flour characteristics (protein content, carotenoid pigments and alveograph indices) over the 2 years of experimentation, due to environmental effects. This reflected on the corresponding breads but the statistical analysis indicated that, on the whole, Kamut bread was characterized by a high content of carotenoid pigments. Regarding sensory properties (profiled by means of 11 descriptors of visual appearance, texture, odor and flavor) and loaf volumes, breads from Forenza and Kamut appeared different from each other but similar to those obtained from Rio and Norba grown in the same environment, respectively.

  6. Novel nuclear-cytoplasmic interaction in wheat (Triticum aestivum) induces vigorous plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltani, Ali; Kumar, Ajay; Mergoum, Mohamed; Pirseyedi, Seyed Mostafa; Hegstad, Justin B; Mazaheri, Mona; Kianian, Shahryar F

    2016-03-01

    Interspecific hybridization can be considered an accelerator of evolution, otherwise a slow process, solely dependent on mutation and recombination. Upon interspecific hybridization, several novel interactions between nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes emerge which provide additional sources of diversity. The magnitude and essence of intergenomic interactions between nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes remain unknown due to the direction of many crosses. This study was conducted to address the role of nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions as a source of variation upon hybridization. Wheat (Triticum aestivum) alloplasmic lines carrying the cytoplasm of Aegilops mutica along with an integrated approach utilizing comparative quantitative trait locus (QTL) and epigenome analysis were used to dissect this interaction. The results indicate that cytoplasmic genomes can modify the magnitude of QTL controlling certain physiological traits such as dry matter weight. Furthermore, methylation profiling analysis detected eight polymorphic regions affected by the cytoplasm type. In general, these results indicate that novel nuclear-cytoplasmic interactions can potentially trigger an epigenetic modification cascade in nuclear genes which eventually change the genetic network controlling physiological traits. These modified genetic networks can serve as new sources of variation to accelerate the evolutionary process. Furthermore, this variation can synthetically be produced by breeders in their programs to develop epigenomic-segregating lines.

  7. Molecular markers validation to drought resistance in wheat meal (Triticum aestivum L. under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Julio

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to study the genetic resistance to drought and validate molecular markers co-localized with genes/QTLs for this factor, 16 varieties were evaluated as well as advanced lines of wheat meal (Triticum aestivum in two stages of crop development. Physiological parameters were considered: amount of chlorophyll (clo, wilting or severity degree (SEV and recovery (reco, morphological parameters: foliage dry matter (FDM and root dry matter (RDM, the integrated resistance mechanisms: water use efficiency (WUE, other parameters: number of grains (Ngrain and grain weight (Wgrain, biochemical parameters: Catalaza (CAT, Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX and Guaiacol Peroxidase (POX and three microsatellite markers (Xwmc603, Xwmc596, Xwmc9. Results showed significant differences for MSR and Ngrain. It was observed that Anzaldo, ERR2V.L-20, EARII2V.L-5, EARIZV.L-11, ERR2V.L-11 and EE2V.L-19 were the most resistant to drough water stress. There was a highly significant negative correlation between the MSR and Ngrain. All other variables showed low and non-significant correlations. In biochemical analyzes, the Anzaldo variety showed an increased enzymatic activity compared to controls in all cases (CAT-APX and POX, being the most resistant to water stress by drought. Finally, it was found that SSR markers (Xwmc596 and Xwmc9 are co-located with the gene / QTL of drought resistance and can be used for marker-assisted selection.

  8. Uptake, localization, and speciation of cobalt in Triticum aestivum L. (wheat) and Lycopersicon esculentum M. (tomato).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Richard N; Bakkaus, Estelle; Carrière, Marie; Khodja, Hicham; Proux, Olivier; Morel, Jean-Louis; Gouget, Barbara

    2010-04-15

    The root-to-shoot transfer, localization, and chemical speciation of Co were investigated in a monocotyledon (Triticum aestivum L., wheat) and a dicotyledon (Lycopersicon esculentum M., tomato) plant species grown in nutrient solution at low (5 muM) and high (20 muM) Co(II) concentrations. Cobalt was measured in the roots and shoots by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements were used to identify the chemical structure of Co within the plants and Co distribution in the leaves was determined by micro-PIXE (particle induced X-ray emission). Although the root-to-shoot transport was higher for tomato plants exposed to excess Co, both plants appeared as excluders. The oxidation state of Co(II) was not transformed by either plant in the roots or shoots and Co appeared to be present as Co(II) in a complex with carboxylate containing organic acids. Cobalt was also essentially located in the vascular system of both plant species indicating that neither responded to Co toxicity via sequestration in epidermal or trichome tissues as has been observed for other metals in metal hyperaccumulating plants.

  9. Effect of lactic acid fermentation of lupine wholemeal on acrylamide content and quality characteristics of wheat-lupine bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiene, Elena; Jakobsone, Ida; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Vidmantiene, Daiva; Pugajeva, Iveta; Bartkevics, Vadims

    2013-11-01

    The effect of supplementing wheat flour at a level of 15% with lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L.) wholemeal fermented by different lactic acid bacteria on acrylamide content in bread crumb as well as on bread texture and sensory characteristics was analysed. The use of fermented lupine resulted in a lower specific volume and crumb porosity of bread on an average by 14.1% and 10.5%, respectively, while untreated lupine lowered the latter parameters at a higher level (30.8% and 20.7%, respectively). The addition of lupine resulted in a higher by 43.3% acrylamide content compared to wheat bread (19.4 µg/kg dry weight (d.w.)). Results showed that acrylamide was significantly reduced using proteolytic Lactobacillus sakei and Pediococcus pentosaceus 10 strains for lupine fermentation. Although the bread supplemented with lupine spontaneous sourdough had the lowest level of acrylamide (15.6 µg/kg d.w.), it had the malodorous flavour and was unacceptable to the consumers. The lactofermentation could increase the potential use of lupine as a food ingredient while reducing acrylamide formation and enriching bread with high quality proteins.

  10. Selection and hydroponic growth of bread wheat cultivars for bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, V.; Feller, U.

    2013-08-01

    As part of the ESA-funded MELiSSA program, the suitability, the growth and the development of four bread wheat cultivars were investigated in hydroponic culture with the aim to incorporate such a cultivation system in an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Wheat plants can fulfill three major functions in space: (a) fixation of CO2 and production of O2, (b) production of grains for human nutrition and (c) production of cleaned water after condensation of the water vapor released from the plants by transpiration. Four spring wheat cultivars (Aletsch, Fiorina, Greina and CH Rubli) were grown hydroponically and compared with respect to growth and grain maturation properties. The height of the plants, the culture duration from germination to harvest, the quantity of water used, the number of fertile and non-fertile tillers as well as the quantity and quality of the grains harvested were considered. Mature grains could be harvested after around 160 days depending on the varieties. It became evident that the nutrient supply is crucial in this context and strongly affects leaf senescence and grain maturation. After a first experiment, the culture conditions were improved for the second experiment (stepwise decrease of EC after flowering, pH adjusted twice a week, less plants per m2) leading to a more favorable harvest (higher grain yield and harvest index). Considerably less green tillers without mature grains were present at harvest time in experiment 2 than in experiment 1. The harvest index for dry matter (including roots) ranged from 0.13 to 0.35 in experiment 1 and from 0.23 to 0.41 in experiment 2 with modified culture conditions. The thousand-grain weight for the four varieties ranged from 30.4 to 36.7 g in experiment 1 and from 33.2 to 39.1 g in experiment 2, while market samples were in the range of 39.4-46.9 g. Calcium levels in grains of the hydroponically grown wheat were similar to those from field-grown wheat, while potassium, magnesium

  11. Microscopic and Molecular Characterization of the Prehaustorial Resistance against Wheat Leaf Rust (Puccinia triticina) in Einkorn (Triticum monococcum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serfling, Albrecht; Templer, Sven E.; Winter, Peter; Ordon, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Puccinia triticina f. sp. tritici (Eriks.), the causal agent of leaf rust, causes substantial yield losses in wheat production. In wheat many major leaf rust resistance genes have been overcome by virulent races. In contrast, the prehaustorial resistance (phr) against wheat leaf rust detected in the diploid wheat Einkorn (Triticum monoccocum var. monococcum) accession PI272560 confers race-independent resistance against isolates virulent on accessions harboring resistance genes located on the A-genome of Triticum aestivum. Phr in PI272560 leads to abortion of fungal development during the formation of haustorial mother cells and to increased hydrogen peroxide concentration in comparison to the susceptible accession 36554 (Triticum boeoticum ssp. thaoudar var. reuteri). Increased peroxidase and endochitinase activity was detected in PI272560 within 6 h after inoculation (hai). Comparative transcriptome profiling using Massive Analysis of cDNA Ends (MACE) in infected and non-infected leaves detected 14220 differentially expressed tags in PI272560 and 15472 in accession 36554. Of these 2908 and 3004, respectively, could be assigned to Gene Ontology (GO) categories of which 463 were detected in both accessions and 311 were differentially expressed between the accessions. In accordance with the concept of non-host resistance in PI272560, genes with similarity to peroxidases, chitinases, β-1,3-glucanases and other pathogenesis-related genes were up-regulated within the first 8 hai, whereas up-regulation of such genes was delayed in 36554. Moreover, a Phosphoribulokinase gene contributing to non-host resistance in rice against stripe rust was exclusively expressed in the resistant accession PI272560. Gene expression underpinned physiological and phenotypic observations at the site of infection and are in accordance with the concept of non-host resistance. PMID:27881987

  12. Gradual Incorporation of Whole Wheat Flour into Bread Products for Elementary School Children Improves Whole Grain Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Renee A.; Sadeghi, Lelia; Schroeder, Natalia; Reicks, Marla M.; Marquart, Len

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Whole grain intake is associated with health benefits but current consumption by children is only about one-third of the recommended level. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of an innovative approach whereby the whole wheat content of bread products in school lunches was gradually increased to increase whole grain…

  13. Thermo-mechanic and sensory properties of wheat and rye breads produced with varying concentration of the additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Mirjana A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different concentrations of the complex additive containing emulsifiers, oxido-reductive substances and enzymes, on the rheological conditions of dough, and on the sensory properties of three groups of bread were investigated. The best initial quality and the lowest degree of protein network weakening had the dough obtained from mixed wheat and rye flours. The best expected baking properties were shown by the white wheat flour due to the least damage of its starch. The use of the additive has an effect on the absorption of water and on the majority of C-values of all sorts of flour. The amount of additive had a significant effect on the sensory properties of wheat bread crumb texture. Also, storage duration significantly affected (p <0.01 the sensory properties of integral wheat bread aroma-taste and the weighted mean score. The interaction of these two factors had no significant effect on any of sensory properties of the investigated groups of bread.

  14. Local trial network for organic wheat. A French multi-actors research project from grain to bread

    OpenAIRE

    Serpolay, Estelle; Chable, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    In West of France, the association Triptolème aims to develop farm seeds and cultivated biodiversity for organic agriculture and natural products for environment and human health. Scientists and practitioners of this association have built a participatory research project around wheat (PaysBlé) in order to explore diversity at different levels from grain to bread and try to link them.

  15. Eating Christmas Cookies, Whole-wheat Bread and Frozen Chicken in the Kindergarten: Doing Pedagogy by Other Means

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kontopodis, M.

    2013-01-01

    The study presented here explores eating as a pedagogical practice by paying attention to arrangements of things such as Christmas cookies, whole-wheat and white bread, frozen chicken, plates, chairs, tables, and freezers. Through a series of ethnographic research examples from German and Brazilian

  16. Balance sheet method assessment for nitrogen fertilization in bread wheat: I. yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Monotti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union the production of high quality wheat is mainly located in the Mediterranean regions where the climatic conditions positively affect protein concentration in the grain. High quality wheat calls for proper management of nitrogen fertilization, thus there is a need to verify whether the limitations imposed by local governments on maximum rate of nitrogen fertilization admitted may affect bread making quality. Trials were conducted in fourteen environments (E to study the effects of different nitrogen fertilizations on eight cultivars (C, belonging to four quality grades (Q. Nitrogen (N was applied to crops according to three rates/modalities: N1 corresponding to the maximum rate admitted calculated according to a balance sheet method and distributed at the stage of spike initiation; N2 with 50 kg ha-1 of nitrogen more than N1, also distributed at the stage of spike initiation; N3 with 50 kg ha-1 of nitrogen more than N1 but distributed at the stage of flag leaf appearance. The effects of environment, nitrogen and cultivar were significant for grain yield, test weight, 1000 kernel weight, heading time, plant height and for quality traits (protein content and alveograph indices. The existence of variability among cultivars and quality grades in the response to rate and timing of nitrogen fertilization was demonstrated by the significance of NxC and NxQ interactions. Dry matter and nitrogen contents of plant at anthesis and at harvest were significantly affected by the main sources of variation. High quality cultivars yielded more grain of better quality with higher N rates (N2 and N3 as compared to the maximum rate of nitrogen admitted by the local government (N1. These results demonstrated that the adopted balance sheet method for the calculation of N requirements of wheat crop adversely affects the full potential expression of the cultivars belonging to superior bread making quality grades.

  17. Reduced-gliadin wheat bread: an alternative to the gluten-free diet for consumers suffering gluten-related pathologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Gil-Humanes

    Full Text Available Wheat flour cannot be tolerated by those who suffer allergies to gluten. Human pathologies associated with grain proteins have increased worldwide in recent years, and the only effective treatment available is a lifelong gluten-free diet, which is complicated to follow and detrimental to gut health. This manuscript describes the development of wheat bread potentially suitable for celiac patients and other gluten-intolerant individuals. We have made bread using wheat flour with very low content of the specific gluten proteins (near gliadin-free that are the causal agents for pathologies such as celiac disease. Loaves were compared with normal wheat breads and rice bread. Organoleptic, nutritional, and immunotoxic properties were studied. The reduced-gliadin breads showed baking and sensory properties, and overall acceptance, similar to those of normal flour, but with up to 97% lower gliadin content. Moreover, the low-gliadin flour has improved nutritional properties since its lysine content is significantly higher than that of normal flour. Conservative estimates indicate that celiac patients could safely consume 67 grams of bread per day that is made with low-gliadin flour. However, additional studies, such as feeding trials with gluten-intolerant patients, are still needed in order to determine whether or not the product can be consumed by the general celiac population, as well as the actual tolerated amount that can be safely ingested. The results presented here offer a major opportunity to improve the quality of life for millions of sufferers of gluten intolerance throughout the world.

  18. Whole grain wheat sourdough bread does not affect plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in adults with normal or impaired carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, K A; Tucker, A J; Duncan, A M; Graham, T E; Robinson, L E

    2012-09-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest whole grain consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), possibly through alterations in glucose metabolism and subsequent effects on plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, a novel biomarker for CVD. Our aim was to investigate the effect of 6 wk of whole grain wheat sourdough bread consumption versus refined white bread on PAI-1. Normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic (NGI; n = 14; age 53 ± 6 y; BMI 26.5 ± 2.9 kg/m(2)) and hyperglycemic/hyperinsulinemic (HGI; n = 14; age 57 ± 7 y; BMI 35.7 ± 5.7 kg/m(2)) adults incorporated whole grain wheat sourdough (162.5 g) or white (168.8 g) bread into their diet, for 6 wk in a randomized crossover study. Pre- and post-intervention, fasting blood samples were analyzed for PAI-1 (primary outcome), as well as glucose, insulin and glucagon (secondary outcomes) at fasting and postprandially after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Anthropometric measures, fasting glucose, insulin, glucagon and PAI-1 antigen and activity were not different between treatments in either NGI or HGI adults. Glucose incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was lower (19%, P = 0.02) after 6 wk consumption of whole grain wheat sourdough bread compared to white bread in the HGI group, with no differences in insulin or glucagon iAUC in either group. Our data showed decreased glucose iAUC after an OGTT following 6 wk whole grain wheat bread consumption in adults with differing glycemic/insulinemic status, but no improvements in PAI-1 or fasting glycemic parameters. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Starch molecular fractionation of bread wheat varieties Fraccionamiento molecular del almidón de variedades trigo pan

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    V. Corcuera

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The starch composition of bread making wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum subsp. vulgare of the Argentine commercial varieties Buck Charrua, Buck Ombú, Buck Guaraní, Buck Catriel and Buck Poncho was analyzed by two different methods. One of these depends on the differential solubility of amylose and amylopectin in a water:butanol mixture whilst the other process is based on the use of the lectin Concanavalin A. These methods were complemented by spectrophotometric determinations to enable the identification of the á-D- glucanes and also improved the comparative quantitation of the amylose and amylopectin fractions. As a result of this, no significant variations for starch content (ANOVA, F4- 8= 0.7; p ≥ 0.05 were found among these varieties, although strong differences were found for amylose (ANOVA, F4- 8= 44.4; p ≥ 0.01 and amylopectin content (ANOVA, F4- 8= 77.1; p ≥ 0.01. These results and the fact that no differences were found for amylose (ANOVA, F2- 8= 0.3 and amylopectin among years within the same variety (ANOVA, F2- 8:0.8 at p ≥0.01 led to the conclusion that the diverse properties and end-uses of the starch mainly depend on the genotype, and that starch quality is null or scarcely influenced by the environment. This knowledge must be taken into account for wheat breeding purposes.Se analizó la composición del almidón de granos de trigo pan (Triticum aestivum subsp. v u l g a r e de las variedades comerciales argentinas Buck Charrúa, Buck Ombú, Buck Guaraní, Buck Catriel y Buck Poncho mediante dos métodos diferentes. Uno de ellos depende de la solubilidad diferencial de la amilosa y amilopectina en una mezcla de agua:butanol, mientras que el otro proceso está basado en el uso de la lectina Concanavalina A. Estos métodos fueron complementados mediante determinaciones espectrofotométricas que facilitaron la identificación de los á-D-glucanos y también permitieron mejorar la cuantificación comparativa de las fracciones

  20. Use of fungal proteases and selected sourdough lactic acid bacteria for making wheat bread with an intermediate content of gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Curiel, José Antonio; Nionelli, Luana; Vincentini, Olimpia; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Silano, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco; Coda, Rossana

    2014-02-01

    This study was aimed at combining the highest degradation of gluten during wheat flour fermentation with good structural and sensory features of the related bread. As estimated by R5-ELISA, the degree of degradation of immune reactive gluten was ca. 28%. Two-dimensional electrophoresis and RP-FPLC analyses showed marked variations of the protein fractions compared to the untreated flour. The comparison was also extended to in vitro effect of the peptic/tryptic-digests towards K562 and T84 cells. The flour with the intermediate content of gluten (ICG) was used for bread making, and compared to whole gluten (WG) bread. The chemical, structural and sensory features of the ICG bread approached those of the bread made with WG flour. The protein digestibility of the ICG bread was higher than that from WG flour. Also the nutritional quality, as estimated by different indexes, was the highest for ICG bread. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sensory Quality and Consumer Perception of Wheat Bread : Towards Sustainable Production and Consumption. Effects of Farming System, Year, Technology, Information and Values

    OpenAIRE

    Kihlberg, Iwona

    2004-01-01

    In order to study the effect of production systems aimed at sustainability on product quality and of sensory and non-sensory factors on product acceptance – the effect of farming system, year, milling and baking techniques on the sensory qualities of wheat bread as a model product was investigated using a descriptive test, and the effect of information and values on liking of bread using consumer tests. Whole wheat and white breads were baked with wheat grown in six lots in established conven...

  2. Characterization of Two HKT1;4 Transporters from Triticum monococcum to Elucidate the Determinants of the Wheat Salt Tolerance Nax1 QTL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tounsi, Sana; Ben Amar, Siwar; Masmoudi, Khaled; Sentenac, Hervé; Brini, Faiçal; Véry, Anne-Aliénor

    2016-10-01

    TmHKT1;4-A1 and TmHKT1;4-A2 are two Na(+) transporter genes that have been identified as associated with the salt tolerance Nax1 locus found in a durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum) line issued from a cross with T. monococcum. In the present study, we were interested in getting clues on the molecular mechanisms underpinning this salt tolerance quantitative trait locus (QTL). By analyzing the phylogenetic relationships between wheat and T. monococcum HKT1;4-type genes, we found that durum and bread wheat genomes possess a close homolog of TmHKT1;4-A1, but no functional close homolog of TmHKT1;4-A2. Furthermore, performing real-time reverse transcription-PCR experiments, we showed that TmHKT1;4-A1 and TmHKT1;4-A2 are similarly expressed in the leaves but that TmHKT1;4-A2 is more strongly expressed in the roots, which would enable it to contribute more to the prevention of Na(+) transfer to the shoots upon salt stress. We also functionally characterized the TmHKT1;4-A1 and TmHKT1;4-A2 transporters by expressing them in Xenopus oocytes. The two transporters displayed close functional properties (high Na(+)/K(+) selectivity, low affinity for Na(+), stimulation by external K(+) of Na(+) transport), but differed in some quantitative parameters: Na(+) affinity was 3-fold lower and the maximal inward conductance was 3-fold higher in TmHKT1;4-A2 than in TmHKT1;4-A1. The conductance of TmHKT1;4-A2 at high Na(+) concentration (>10 mM) was also shown to be higher than that of the two durum wheat HKT1;4-type transporters so far characterized. Altogether, these data support the hypothesis that TmHKT1;4-A2 is responsible for the Nax1 trait and provide new insight into the understanding of this QTL. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Japanese Society of Plant Physiologists. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Identification and characterization of genes on a single subgenome in the hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotype 'Chinese Spring'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jian; Zheng, Zhi; Stiller, Jiri; Lan, Xiu-Jin; Liu, Yaxi; Deng, Mei; Wang, Penghao; Pu, Zhien; Chen, Guangdeng; Jiang, Qian-Tao; Wei, Yuming; Zheng, You-Liang

    2017-03-01

    Gene loss during the formation of hexaploid bread wheat has been repeatedly reported. However, our knowledge on genome-wide analysis of the genes present on a single subgenome (SSG) in bread wheat is still limited. In this study, by analysing the 'Chinese Spring' chromosome arm shotgun sequences together with high-confidence gene models, we detected 433 genes on a SSG. Greater gene loss was observed in A and D subgenomes compared with B subgenome. More than 79% of the orthologs for these SSG genes were detected in diploid and tetraploid relatives of hexaploid wheat. Unexpectedly, no bias in expression breadth or in the distribution patterns of GO (gene ontology) terms for these genes was detected among the high-confidence genes. Further, network and KEGG (Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes) pathway analyses indicated that most of these genes were not functionally related to each other. Interestingly, 30.7% of these SSG genes were most highly expressed in root, showing biased distribution given the distribution of the whole high-confidence genes. Collectively, these results facilitate our understanding of the loss of the genes that were retained in a SSG during the formation of hexaploid wheat.

  4. Temporal transcriptome profiling reveals expression partitioning of homeologous genes contributing to heat and drought acclimation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhenshan; Xin, Mingming; Qin, Jinxia; Peng, Huiru; Ni, Zhongfu; Yao, Yingyin; Sun, Qixin

    2015-06-20

    Hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a globally important crop. Heat, drought and their combination dramatically reduce wheat yield and quality, but the molecular mechanisms underlying wheat tolerance to extreme environments, especially stress combination, are largely unknown. As an allohexaploid, wheat consists of three closely related subgenomes (A, B, and D), and was reported to show improved tolerance to stress conditions compared to tetraploid. But so far very little is known about how wheat coordinates the expression of homeologous genes to cope with various environmental constraints on the whole-genome level. To explore the transcriptional response of wheat to the individual and combined stress, we performed high-throughput transcriptome sequencing of seedlings under normal condition and subjected to drought stress (DS), heat stress (HS) and their combination (HD) for 1 h and 6 h, and presented global gene expression reprograms in response to these three stresses. Gene Ontology (GO) enrichment analysis of DS, HS and HD responsive genes revealed an overlap and complexity of functional pathways between each other. Moreover, 4,375 wheat transcription factors were identified on a whole-genome scale based on the released scaffold information by IWGSC, and 1,328 were responsive to stress treatments. Then, the regulatory network analysis of HSFs and DREBs implicated they were both involved in the regulation of DS, HS and HD response and indicated a cross-talk between heat and drought stress. Finally, approximately 68.4 % of homeologous genes were found to exhibit expression partitioning in response to DS, HS or HD, which was further confirmed by using quantitative RT-PCR and Nullisomic-Tetrasomic lines. A large proportion of wheat homeologs exhibited expression partitioning under normal and abiotic stresses, which possibly contributes to the wide adaptability and distribution of hexaploid wheat in response to various environmental constraints.

  5. Relay cropping of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) improves the profitability of cotton-wheat cropping system in Punjab, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjad, Aamer; Anjum, Shakeel Ahmad; Ahmad, Riaz; Waraich, Ejaz Ahmad

    2018-01-01

    Delayed sowing of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in cotton-based system reduces the productivity and profitability of the cotton-wheat cropping system. In this scenario, relay cropping of wheat in standing cotton might be a viable option to ensure the timely wheat sowing with simultaneous improvement in wheat yields and system profitability. This 2-year study (2012-2013 and 2013-2014) aimed to evaluate the influence of sowing dates and relay cropping combined with different management techniques of cotton sticks on the wheat yield, soil physical properties, and the profitability of the cotton-wheat system. The experiment consisted of five treatments viz. (S1) sowing of wheat at the 7th of November by conventional tillage (two disc harrows + one rotavator + two plankings) after the removal of cotton sticks, (S2) sowing of wheat at the 7th of November by conventional tillage (two disc harrows + two plankings) after the incorporation of cotton sticks in the field with a rotavator, (S3) sowing of wheat at the 7th of November as relay crop in standing cotton with broadcast method, (S4) sowing of wheat at the 15th of December by conventional tillage (two disc harrows + one rotavator + two plankings) after the removal of cotton sticks, and (S5) sowing of wheat at the 15th of December by conventional tillage (two disc harrows + two plankings) after the incorporation of cotton sticks in the field with a rotavator. The highest seed cotton yield was observed in the S5 treatment which was statistically similar with the S3 and S4 treatments; seed cotton yield in the S1 and S2 treatments has been the lowest in both years of experimentation. However, the S2 treatment produced substantially higher root length, biological yield, and grain yield of wheat than the other treatments. The lower soil bulk density at 0-10-cm depth was recorded in the S2 treatment which was statistically similar with the S5 treatment during both years of experimentation. The volumetric water contents, net

  6. Genome-Wide Association of Stem Water Soluble Carbohydrates in Bread Wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Dong

    Full Text Available Water soluble carbohydrates (WSC in stems play an important role in buffering grain yield in wheat against biotic and abiotic stresses; however, knowledge of genes controlling WSC is very limited. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS using a high-density 90K SNP array to better understand the genetic basis underlying WSC, and to explore marker-based breeding approaches. WSC was evaluated in an association panel comprising 166 Chinese bread wheat cultivars planted in four environments. Fifty two marker-trait associations (MTAs distributed across 23 loci were identified for phenotypic best linear unbiased estimates (BLUEs, and 11 MTAs were identified in two or more environments. Liner regression showed a clear dependence of WSC BLUE scores on numbers of favorable (increasing WSC content and unfavorable alleles (decreasing WSC, indicating that genotypes with higher numbers of favorable or lower numbers of unfavorable alleles had higher WSC content. In silico analysis of flanking sequences of trait-associated SNPs revealed eight candidate genes related to WSC content grouped into two categories based on the type of encoding proteins, namely, defense response proteins and proteins triggered by environmental stresses. The identified SNPs and candidate genes related to WSC provide opportunities for breeding higher WSC wheat cultivars.

  7. Genome-Wide Association of Stem Water Soluble Carbohydrates in Bread Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Liu, Jindong; Zhang, Yan; Geng, Hongwei; Rasheed, Awais; Xiao, Yonggui; Cao, Shuanghe; Fu, Luping; Yan, Jun; Wen, Weie; Zhang, Yong; Jing, Ruilian; Xia, Xianchun; He, Zhonghu

    2016-01-01

    Water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) in stems play an important role in buffering grain yield in wheat against biotic and abiotic stresses; however, knowledge of genes controlling WSC is very limited. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a high-density 90K SNP array to better understand the genetic basis underlying WSC, and to explore marker-based breeding approaches. WSC was evaluated in an association panel comprising 166 Chinese bread wheat cultivars planted in four environments. Fifty two marker-trait associations (MTAs) distributed across 23 loci were identified for phenotypic best linear unbiased estimates (BLUEs), and 11 MTAs were identified in two or more environments. Liner regression showed a clear dependence of WSC BLUE scores on numbers of favorable (increasing WSC content) and unfavorable alleles (decreasing WSC), indicating that genotypes with higher numbers of favorable or lower numbers of unfavorable alleles had higher WSC content. In silico analysis of flanking sequences of trait-associated SNPs revealed eight candidate genes related to WSC content grouped into two categories based on the type of encoding proteins, namely, defense response proteins and proteins triggered by environmental stresses. The identified SNPs and candidate genes related to WSC provide opportunities for breeding higher WSC wheat cultivars.

  8. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A.; Lazo-Vélez, Marco A.; Serna-Sáldivar, Sergio O.; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A.

    2016-01-01

    Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29) was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05). PMID:26901186

  9. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio A. Chávez-Santoscoy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29 was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05.

  10. Effect of different iron compounds on rheological and technological parameters as well as bioaccessibility of minerals in whole wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebellato, Ana Paula; Bussi, Jéssica; Silva, Joyce Grazielle Siqueira; Greiner, Ralf; Steel, Caroline Joy; Pallone, Juliana Azevedo Lima

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of iron compounds used in whole wheat flour (WWF) fortification, both on rheological properties of the dough and on bread technological quality. Furthermore, bioaccessibility of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and calcium (Ca) in the final breads was determined. Rheological properties (mainly dough development time, stability, mixing tolerance index, resistance to extension and ratio number) of the dough and the technological quality of bread (mainly oven spring and cut opening) were altered. However, producing roll breads fortified with different iron compounds was still possible. NaFeEDTA (ferric sodium ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid) proved to be the most effective iron compound in the fortification of WWF, since it presented the highest levels of solubility (44.80%) and dialysability (46.14%), followed by microencapsulated ferrous fumarate (FFm). On the other hand, the microencapsulated ferrous sulfate (FSm) and reduced iron presented the lowest solubility (5.40 and 18.30%, respectively) and dialysability (33.12 and 31.79%, respectively). Zn dialysis was positively influenced by NaFeEDTA, FSm, and ferrous fumarate. As for Ca, dialysis was positively influenced by FSm and negatively influenced by FFm. The data indicated that there is a competitive interaction for the absorption of these minerals in whole wheat roll breads, but all studied minerals can be considered bioaccessible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A; Lazo-Vélez, Marco A; Serna-Sáldivar, Sergio O; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-02-17

    Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29) was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05).

  12. Restoration of thiamine status with white or whole wheat bread in a thiamine-depleted rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batifoulier, F; Verny, M A; Besson, C; Chanliaud, E; Rémésy, C; Demigné, C

    2007-01-01

    Long-term thiamine deficiency has been largely documented, whilst little is known about effects of short-term depletion/repletion periods on thiamine vitamers status. Rats were submitted to short-term depletion (8 days) followed by different durations of repletion (3 or 14 days) with thiamine from bread (whole wheat bread or white bread, whole B and white B respectively) or corresponding controls. Short-term depletion drastically decreased plasma thiamine (-97%) and its urinary excretion (-77%). TDP (thiamine diphosphate) was strongly affected in liver (-67%) but less affected in cerebellum (-38%) or kidneys (-45%). Short-term repletion (3 days) with whole B diet or its control restored TDP at initial values in cerebellum and kidneys. A longer repletion (14 days) was required to restore liver TDP. Comparison of the diet groups indicates that thiamine status in tissues of rat fed whole B or white B diet was comparable to that of rats fed purified thiamine. Plasma thiamine concentration could not be restored at initial values in the bread groups or respective controls. In conclusion, thiamine in whole wheat bread appears effective in preventing marginal deficiencies and plasma thiamine is a less reliable indicator of thiamine status than tissue TDP levels.

  13. Wholegrain vs. refined wheat bread and pasta. Effect on postprandial glycemia, appetite, and subsequent ad libitum energy intake in young healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, M.; Jensen, M.G.; Riboldi, G.

    2010-01-01

    ) and wholegrain wheat pasta (WWP) and were served after an overnight fast. Appetite ratings and blood glucose were assessed for 180 min after which an ad libitum lunch meal was served and El measured. The 180 min glucose responses were similar for wholemeal and refined products, but pasta meals gave significantly......Wholegrain foods have received much attention in recent years, and have been proposed to play a role in energy regulation through lowering of postprandial glycemia and appetite. This randomized crossover single meal study in 16 Young adults Was Conducted to test the effect of iso-caloric meals...... based oil wholemeal wheat breads and pasta in comparison to similar refined wheat products on postprandial glycemia, appetite and ad libitum energy intake (EI). Test meals (50 g carbohydrates; 2MJ) consisted of refined wheat bread (RWB), wholegrain wheat bread (WWB), refined wheat pasta (RWP...

  14. Silicon alleviates Cd stress of wheat seedlings (Triticum turgidum L. cv. Claudio) grown in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, M; Meunier, J-D; Davidian, J-C; Pokrovsky, O S; Bovet, N; Keller, C

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the potential role of silicon in improving tolerance and decreasing cadmium (Cd) toxicity in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. durum) either through a reduced Cd uptake or exclusion/sequestration in non-metabolic tissues. For this, plants were grown in hydroponic conditions for 10 days either in presence or absence of 1 mM Si and for 11 additional days in various Cd concentrations (0, 0.5, 5.0 and 50 μM). After harvesting, morphological and physiological parameters as well as elemental concentrations were recorded. Cadmium caused reduction in growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments and mineral nutrient concentrations both in shoots and roots. Shoot and root contents of malate, citrate and aconitate increased, while contents of phosphate, nitrate and sulphate decreased with increasing Cd concentrations in plants. Addition of Si to the nutrient solution mitigated these adverse effects: Cd concentration in shoots decreased while concentration of Cd adsorbed at the root cell apoplasmic level increased together with Zn uptake by roots. Overall, total Cd uptake decreased in presence of Si. There was no co-localisation of Cd and Si either at the shoot or at the root levels. No Cd was detected in leaf phytoliths. In roots, Cd was mainly detected in the cortical parenchyma and Si at the endodermis level, while analysis of the outer thin root surface of the plants grown in the 50 μM Cd + 1 mM Si treatment highlighted non-homogeneous Cd and Si enrichments. These data strongly suggest the existence of a root localised protection mechanism consisting in armoring the root surface by Si- and Cd-bearing compounds and in limiting root-shoot translocation.

  15. Cellular and Subcellular Immunohistochemical Localization and Quantification of Cadmium Ions in Wheat (Triticum aestivum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    Full Text Available The distribution of metallic ions in plant tissues is associated with their toxicity and is important for understanding mechanisms of toxicity tolerance. A quantitative histochemical method can help advance knowledge of cellular and subcellular localization and distribution of heavy metals in plant tissues. An immunohistochemical (IHC imaging method for cadmium ions (Cd2+ was developed for the first time for the wheat Triticum aestivum grown in Cd2+-fortified soils. Also, 1-(4-Isothiocyanobenzyl-ethylenediamine-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid (ITCB-EDTA was used to chelate the mobile Cd2+. The ITCB-EDTA/Cd2+ complex was fixed with proteins in situ via the isothiocyano group. A new Cd2+-EDTA specific monoclonal antibody, 4F3B6D9A1, was used to locate the Cd2+-EDTA protein complex. After staining, the fluorescence intensities of sections of Cd2+-positive roots were compared with those of Cd2+-negative roots under a laser confocal scanning microscope, and the location of colloidal gold particles was determined with a transmission electron microscope. The results enable quantification of the Cd2+ content in plant tissues and illustrate Cd2+ translocation and cellular and subcellular responses of T. aestivum to Cd2+ stress. Compared to the conventional metal-S coprecipitation histochemical method, this new IHC method is quantitative, more specific and has less background interference. The subcellular location of Cd2+ was also confirmed with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The IHC method is suitable for locating and quantifying Cd2+ in plant tissues and can be extended to other heavy metallic ions.

  16. The alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on heat stress susceptibility of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Rosenqvist, Eva S. K.

    2013-01-01

    Wollenweber4 1Department of Bioenergy, Tamilnadu Agricultural University, Coimbatore, India. 2Department of Food Science, Aarhus University, Kirstinebjergvej 10, 5792 Årslev, Denmark 3Institute of Agricultural Sciences and Ecology, University of Copenhagen, Hojbakkegaard Allé 9, 2630 Taastrup, Denmark 4......Institute for Agroecology, Aarhus University, Forsøgsvej 1, 4200 Slagelse, Denmark *Presenting author This study analysed the alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on stress-induced decreases in photosynthesis and changes in carbohydrate metabolism in two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) of different...... crop performance under various climatic stresses....

  17. The alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on heat stress susceptibility of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shanmugam, S.; Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2013-01-01

    This study analysed the alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on stress-induced decreases in photosynthesis and changes in carbohydrate metabolism in two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) of different origin. The plants were grown in ambient (400 μl l−1) and elevated (800 μl l−1) CO2 with a day....../night temperature of 15/10 °C. At the growth stages of tillering, booting and anthesis, the plants were subjected to heat stress of 40 °C for three continuous days. Photosynthetic parameters, maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry (Fv/Fm) and contents of pigments and carbohydrates...

  18. Allometric analysis of the effects of density on reproductive allocation and Harvest Index in 6 varieties of wheat (Triticum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Xiao-liang; Weiner, Jacob; Qi, Lin

    2013-01-01

    allocation should be analyzed and interpreted allometrically because ratios or fractions such as Reproductive Effort or Harvest Index are size dependent. We investigated reproductive allocation of individuals in 6 varieties of Triticum (wheat) grown at a wide range of densities. We harvested leaves, stems...... are large may mean unintentional selection for a lower Harvest Index when individuals are smaller. We conclude that cereal breeders should focus on reproductive allometry when interpreting Harvest Index, and select for allometric patterns that are most advantageous in a given agronomic context, especially...

  19. Influence of xylanase addition on the characteristics of loaf bread prepared with white flour or whole grain wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Zafalon Jaekel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the influence of the addition of the enzyme xylanase (four concentrations: 0, 4, 8, and 12 g.100 kg-1 flour on the characteristics of loaf bread made with white wheat flour or whole grain wheat flour. Breads made from white flour and added with xylanase had higher specific volumes than those of the control sample (no enzyme; however, the specific volume did not differ significantly (p < 0.05 among the breads with different enzyme concentrations. All formulations made from whole grain wheat flour and added with xylanase also had specific volumes significantly higher than those of the control sample, and the highest value was found for the 8 g xylanase.100 kg-1 flour formulation. With respect to moisture content, the formulations with different enzyme concentrations showed small significant differences when compared to the control samples. In general, breads made with the addition of 8 g enzyme.100 kg-1 flour had the lowest firmness values, thus presenting the best technological characteristics.

  20. Interaction between xylanase, glucose oxidase and ascorbic acid on the technological quality of whole wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Batista da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to verify the performance of xylanase and its interaction with oxidants agents (glucose oxidase and ascorbic acid on the quality of whole wheat bread. The experiment was based on a central composite rotational design and the Response Surface Methodology was used to analyze the results. None of the xylanase, glucose oxidase or ascorbic acid concentrations within the studied range led to a significant difference in the specific volume. The highest moisture content and the lowest firmness values were reported in the bread with lower and intermediate levels of xylanase and larger amounts of glucose oxidase and ascorbic acid. This effect was observed mainly at the end of the storage period. A minimum amount of xylanase (from 33 to 63 EDX kg-1 flour showed to be essential for obtaining best results. Levels of ascorbic acid above 63mg kg-1 and glucose oxidase above 91 SRU kg-1 proved to be necessary to offer the beneficial effect of xylanase.

  1. Seed coating with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi as an ecotechnologicalapproach for sustainable agricultural production of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rui S; Rocha, Inês; Ma, Ying; Vosátka, Miroslav; Freitas, Helena

    2016-01-01

    The exploitation of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi has become of great interest in agriculture due to their potential roles in reducing the need for agrochemicals, while improving plant growth and nutrition. Nevertheless, the application of AM fungi by dispersing inocula in granular form to open agricultural fields is not feasible because nontargeted spreading of inocula over large surface areas results in high cost per plant. Seed coating has the potential to significantly reduce the amount of inoculum needed, resulting in cost reduction and increased efficiency. The aim of this study was to assess whether seed coating with AM fungal inoculum is a feasible delivery system for production of common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Wheat seeds were coated with inoculum of Rhizophagus irregularis BEG140 and grown under different fertilization conditions: (1) none, (2) partial, or (3) complete. Data indicated that mycorrhizal inoculation via seed coating significantly increased the dry weight of shoot and seed spikes of wheat associated with reduced fertilization. Assessment of nutritional status of wheat showed that plants inoculated with R. irregularis via seed coating displayed enhanced stem concentrations of potassium (K), sulfur (S), and zinc (Zn). There were no significant differences in root colonization between plants conventionally inoculated with R. irregularis in soil and those inoculated via seed coating. Seed coating with AM fungi may be as effective as conventional soil inoculation and may contribute to reduce the utilization of chemical fertilizers. The application of AM via seed coating is proposed as an ecotechnological approach for sustainable agricultural wheat production.

  2. Immunoblot quantification of three classes of proteinaceous xylanase inhibitors in different wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) cultivars and milling fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croes, Evi; Gebruers, Kurt; Luyten, Nikkie; Delcour, Jan A; Courtin, Christophe M

    2009-02-11

    In wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) grains, TAXI- (T. aestivum xylanase inhibitor), XIP- (xylanase inhibiting protein), and TLXI-type (thaumatin-like xylanase inhibitor) xylanase inhibitors (XIs) are expressed in considerable levels and under different forms. As these proteins have a significant impact on microbial xylanases frequently used in cereal-based biotechnological processes, knowledge of their quantitative and qualitative variability in wheat is of great interest. This paper reports the successful use of immunoquantification by Western blotting to determine the intercultivar variation in the three structurally different classes of XIs, as well as their distribution among various industrial milling fractions. TAXI and XIP protein levels in eight wheat cultivars ranged from 81 to 190 ppm and from 156 to 371 ppm, with average values of 133 and 235 ppm, respectively. Using immunoblotting, TLXI protein levels could be measured directly for the first time. They ranged from 51 to 150 ppm and amounted to 112 ppm on average. The three classes of XIs were distributed among different wheat milling fractions in a similar way, with 4 and 10 times higher concentrations in the aleurone-enriched fraction than in white flour and pericarp fractions, respectively. Immunoblot patterns suggested that the observed intercultivar and spatial variabilities within the wheat grain are not due to the presence or absence of specific members of the large polymorphic XI families but to differences in the overall level and/or proportions of the specific members.

  3. Effect of planting date and crop density of autumn wheat (Triticum aestivum L. on density and biomass of weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ghorbani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Weeds in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. fields have always been a big problem in Iran and worldwide and must be managed by non-chemical especially cultural methods. A field experiment as factorial based on a randomized complete block design with four replications in a 1000 m2 field in Research Farm of Shirvan College of Agriculture was conducted during 2007-2008. Treatments included wheat densities of 400, 600 and 800 plants.m-2and planting dates of 1st of Nov., 20th of Nov., and 1st of Dec 2007. The results represented that the presence of Rapistrum rogusum, Phalaris spp., Descurainia sophia, Alopecurus myosurides and Hordeum murinum dominance. Delay in planting of wheat increased relative density of weeds. The lowest relative frequency of weeds was observed in planting date of 1st of November. Increase in crop density significantly decreased weed biomass, while it showed little effect on weed density trend. Effect of planting date was also significant on weed biomass. The highest weed biomass occurred in the planting date of Dec. the 1st. In conclusion, delay in planting of wheat create more chance and space for weed establishment, and therefore planting dense (600 plants.m-2 and early in season of wheat is recommended for lower weed damage.

  4. Genome-wide analysis of WRKY transcription factors in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and differential expression under water deficit condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, Pan; Liu, Congcong; Kang, Jingquan; Lv, Jinyin

    2017-01-01

    WRKY proteins, which comprise one of the largest transcription factor (TF) families in the plant kingdom, play crucial roles in plant development and stress responses. Despite several studies on WRKYs in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), functional annotation information about wheat WRKYs is limited. Here, 171 TaWRKY TFs were identified from the whole wheat genome and compared with proteins from 19 other species representing nine major plant lineages. A phylogenetic analysis, coupled with gene structure analysis and motif determination, divided these TaWRKYs into seven subgroups (Group I, IIa-e, and III). Chromosomal location showed that most TaWRKY genes were enriched on four chromosomes, especially on chromosome 3B. In addition, 85 (49.7%) genes were either tandem (5) or segmental duplication (80), which suggested that though tandem duplication has contributed to the expansion of TaWRKY family, segmental duplication probably played a more pivotal role. Analysis of cis-acting elements revealed putative functions of WRKYs in wheat during development as well as under numerous biotic and abiotic stresses. Finally, the expression of TaWRKY genes in flag leaves, glumes, and lemmas under water-deficit condition were analyzed. Results showed that different TaWRKY genes preferentially express in specific tissue during the grain-filling stage. Our results provide a more extensive insight on WRKY gene family in wheat, and also contribute to the screening of more candidate genes for further investigation on function characterization of WRKYs under various stresses.

  5. UPLC-QTOF/MS metabolic profiling unveils urinary changes in humans after a whole grain rye versus refined wheat bread intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondia-Pons, Isabel; Barri, Thaer; Hanhineva, Kati

    2013-01-01

    Non-targeted urine metabolite profiling has not been previously exploited in the field of whole grain (WG) products. WG products, particularly rye, are important elements in a healthy Nordic diet. The aim of this study was to identify novel urinary biomarkers of WG rye bread (RB) intake...... in a randomised crossover study with RB versus refined wheat bread (WB)....

  6. Improvement of Fatty Acid Profile and Studio of Rheological and Technological Characteristics in Breads Supplemented with Flaxseed, Soybean, and Wheat Bran Flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana B. Osuna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional breads constitute an interesting alternative as vehicle of new essential fatty acids sources. The aim of this study was to improve the fatty acids (FA profile of bakery products, producing breads with low saturated fatty acid (SFA content and with high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA content, through partial substitution of wheat flour by other ingredients (soy flour, flax flour, and wheat bran and to analyze the effect of this change on the technological, rheological, and sensorial characteristics of breads. Flaxseed flour (FF, soybeans flour (SF, or wheat bran (WB was used to replace 50, 100, and 150 g kg−1 of wheat flour (WF in breads. FF or SF produced a decrease in monounsaturated and SFA and an increase of PUFA in these breads. Furthermore, breads replaced with FF presented considerable increase in the content of n3 FA, while, SF or WB contributed to rise of linoleic and oleic FA, respectively. The substitution percentage increase of FF, SF, or WB to formulation produced changes in the colour, rheological, textural, and technological characteristics of breads. This replacement resulted in improved lipid profile, being breads with 50 g kg−1 SF, the better acceptance, baking features, and enhanced fatty acid profile.

  7. Breadmaking performance and textural changes during storage of composite breads made from spelt wheat and different forms of amaranth grain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipčev, Bojana; Bodroža-Solarov, Marija; Pestorić, Mladenka; Šimurina, Olivera

    2017-04-01

    The objectives of the present study were to assess the baking properties of composite spelt wheat-amaranth blends and to study the staling of composite breads during a six-day storage. Different forms of amaranth grains were added to spelt bread formulation: native amaranth flour and flour from popped amaranth, including their scalded and non-scalded variants. Native amaranth flour (both scalded and non-scalded) gave loaves with the highest volume and contributed to significantly softer crumb but not in comparison to the control bread. Crumb resilience did not show significant differences among the breads but there were differences in the crumb stress relaxation parameters which indicated certain influence on the crumb viscoelastic properties. During storage, all samples developed firmer and less elastic crumbs. Drying loss and staling degree significantly increased with increased storage time. The staling rate was the highest in the bread with non-scalded amaranth flours (native and flour from popped amaranth). The changes in the crumb textural and elastic properties caused by staling turned significant after six days of storage. In general, inclusion of different forms of amaranth flour did not alter the staling of breads and they exerted similar behaviour during storage.

  8. Effect of processing on phenolic composition of dough and bread fractions made from refined and whole wheat flour of three wheat varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingjian; Luthria, Devanand; Fuerst, E Patrick; Kiszonas, Alecia M; Yu, Liangli; Morris, Craig F

    2014-10-29

    This study investigated the effect of breadmaking on the assay of phenolic acids from flour, dough, and bread fractions of three whole and refined wheat varieties. Comparison of the efficacy of two commonly used methods for hydrolysis and extraction of phenoilc acids showed that yields of total phenolic acids (TPA) were 5-17% higher among all varieties and flour types when samples were directly hydrolyzed in the presence of ascorbate and EDTA as compared to the method separating free, soluble conjugates and bound, insoluble phenolic acids. Ferulic acid (FA) was the predominant phenolic acid, accounting for means of 59 and 81% of TPA among all refined and whole wheat fractions, respectively. All phenolic acids measured were more abundant in whole wheat than in refined samples. Results indicated that the total quantified phenolic acids did not change significantly when breads were prepared from refined and whole wheat flour. Thus, the potential phytochemical health benefits of total phenolic acids appear to be preserved during bread baking.

  9. The role of seed size in the non-genetic variation exhibited in salt tolerance studies involving the bread wheat cv. chinese spring

    OpenAIRE

    P. K. Martin; R. M.D. Koebner

    2014-01-01

    The intention of this study was to confirm the role of seed size in the non-genetic variation exhibited during salinity tolerance experiments involving the bread wheat cv. Chinese Spring. The nutrient film/rockwool hydroponics technique was utilised. This study concluded that seed size does not play a significant role in the non-genetic variation generated during a study of salinity tolerance of the bread wheat cv. Chinese Spring.

  10. The role of seed size in the non-genetic variation exhibited in salt tolerance studies involving the bread wheat cv. chinese spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this study was to confirm the role of seed size in the non-genetic variation exhibited during salinity tolerance experiments involving the bread wheat cv. Chinese Spring. The nutrient film/rockwool hydroponics technique was utilised. This study concluded that seed size does not play a significant role in the non-genetic variation generated during a study of salinity tolerance of the bread wheat cv. Chinese Spring.

  11. Role of arbuscular mycorrhiza in alleviating salinity stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown under ambient and elevated CO2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, X.; Song, F.; Liu, S.

    2016-01-01

    Plant growth and development are influenced by future elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration and increased salinity stress. AM (arbuscular mycorrhiza) symbiosis has been shown to improve plant growth and resistance to environmental stresses. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential...... role of AM fungus in alleviating salinity stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plants grown under ambient and elevated CO2 concentrations. Wheat plants inoculated or not inoculated with AM fungus were grown in two glasshouses with different CO2 concentrations (400 and 700 μmol l−1) and salinity...... levels (0, 9.5 and 19.0 dS m−1). Results showed that salinity stress decreased and elevated CO2 increased AM colonization. AM inoculation increased plant dry weight under elevated CO2 and salinity stress. Stomatal conductance, density, size and aperture of AM plants were greater than non-AM plants. AM...

  12. Manipulating field margins to increase predation intensity in fields of winter wheat (Triticum eastivum)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansion-Vaquie, Agathe; Ferrante, Marco; Cook, S M

    2017-01-01

    .3) than in flower margins (mean = 30.7%, SD = 17.4). We found a significant positive relationship between the number of artificial caterpillars attacked by chewing insects, and activity density for large (≥15 mm) ground beetles. Predation of sentinel aphids in wheat fields did not vary significantly......, intraguild predation, hyperparasitism) may complicate the assumption that a higher density of natural enemies would increase the level of biological control. We investigated the natural enemy guild composition and the predation rate along flower vs. grass margins at the edge of winter wheat (Triticum...... to the two margin types: specialists (mostly parasitic wasps) were attracted by the flower margins, while generalists (ground beetles, rove beetles and spiders) were more active in grass margins. The number of artificial caterpillars attacked was significantly greater in grass margins (mean = 48.9%, SD = 24...

  13. Physico-chemical characteristics and sensory evaluation of wheat bread partially substituted with banana (Musa acuminata X balbisiana cv. Awak) pseudo-stem flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Lee-Hoon; Abdul Aziz, Noor Aziah; Azahari, Baharin

    2013-08-15

    The physico-chemical and sensorial properties of the control (BCtr), commercial wheat flour (CWF) bread substituted with 10% BPF (banana pseudo-stem flour) (B10BPF) and B10BPF with added 0.8% w/w (flour weight basis) xanthan gum (XG) or sodium carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) (B10BPFXG and B10BPFCMC, respectively) were examined. The proximate analyses revealed that the composite bread had significantly higher moisture, ash, crude fibre, soluble, insoluble and total dietary fibre contents but lower protein, fat and carbohydrate contents than the BCtr. Bread incorporated with BPF resulted in a lower volume, darker crumb and lighter crust colour than the BCtr. The addition of CMC improved the bread volume. All breads containing BPF had greater total phenolics, and antioxidant properties than the control bread. Sensory evaluation indicated that the B10BPFCMC bread had the highest acceptability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Evaluating Split Nitrogen Applications and In-Season Tests for Organic Winter Bread Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin H. Roche

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Achieving high grain yields and crude protein (CP standards in organic winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is challenging because ensuring that adequate nitrogen (N is available at key periods of wheat growth is difficult in organic systems. Split application regimes and in-season N management tests may improve organic production. In field trials conducted over four site-years in Maine and Vermont, USA, N application regimes were analyzed for their effects on organic winter wheat, N uptake, grain yield, and CP. Tiller density and tissue N tests were evaluated as in-season decision tools. Eight treatments arranged in a non-factorial design differed in terms of N application timing (pre-plant (PP, topdress at tillering (T1, and topdress at pre-stem extension (T2 and N rate. Treatments were: (1 an untreated check, (2 pre-plant N at a low rate of 78 kg N ha−1 (PPL, (3 pre-plant N at a high rate of 117 or 157 kg N ha−1 (PPH, (4 T178, (5 PPL + T139, (6 PPL + T239, (7 PPH + T239, and (8 PPL + T139 +T239. Responses to N treatments were variable among site-years, however some common results were identified. The PP-only treatments increased grain yields more than they increased CP. The T178 and PPH + T239 treatments were the most effective at increasing yield and CP, compared with the PP-only treatments. Tiller density and tissue N tests were good predictors of grain yield (r = 0.52, p < 0.001 and CP (r = 0.75, p < 0.001 respectively. Future work should test in-season decision tools using a wider range of tiller densities, and topdress N rates against tissue N measurements.

  15. Variations in content and extractability of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) Arabinoxylans associated with genetic and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccoritti, Roberto; Scalfati, Giulia; Cammerata, Alessandro; Sgrulletta, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Arabinoxylans (AX) represent the most abundant components of non-starch polysaccharides in wheat, constituting about 70% of cell wall polysaccharides. An important property of AX is their ability to form highly viscous water solutions; this peculiarity has a significant impact on the technological characteristics of wheat and determines the physiologically positive influence in consumption. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum), the raw material for pasta production, is one of the most important crops in Italy. As part of a large project aimed at improving durum wheat quality, the characterization of the nutritional and technological aspects of whole grains was considered. Particular attention was addressed to identify the best suited genotypes for the production of innovative types of pasta with enhanced functional and organoleptic properties. The objective of the present study was to investigate the genetic variability of AX by examining a group of durum wheat genotypes collected at two localities in Italy for two consecutive years. The environmental influence on AX content and extractability was also evaluated. Variability in the AX fraction contents was observed; the results indicated that AX fractions of durum wheat grain can be affected by the genotype and environment characteristics and the different contribution of genotype and environment to total variation was evidenced. The genotype × environment (G × E) interaction was significant for all examined traits, the variations due to G × E being lower than that of genotype or environment. The data and the statistical analysis allowed identification of the Italian durum wheat varieties that were consistently higher in total arabinoxilans; in addition, principal component analysis biplots illustrated that for arabinoxylan fractions some varieties responded differently in various environment climatic conditions.

  16. A Major Locus for Chloride Accumulation on Chromosome 5A in Bread Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Yusuf; Taylor, Julian; Rongala, Jay; Oldach, Klaus

    2014-01-01

    Chloride (Cl−) is an essential micronutrient for plant growth, but can be toxic at high concentrations resulting in reduced growth and yield. Although saline soils are generally dominated by both sodium (Na+) and Cl− ions, compared to Na+ toxicity, very little is known about physiological and genetic control mechanisms of tolerance to Cl− toxicity. In hydroponics and field studies, a bread wheat mapping population was tested to examine the relationships between physiological traits [Na+, potassium (K+) and Cl− concentration] involved in salinity tolerance (ST) and seedling growth or grain yield, and to elucidate the genetic control mechanism of plant Cl− accumulation using a quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis approach. Plant Na+ or Cl− concentration were moderately correlated (genetically) with seedling biomass in hydroponics, but showed no correlations with grain yield in the field, indicating little value in selecting for ion concentration to improve ST. In accordance with phenotypic responses, QTL controlling Cl− accumulation differed entirely between hydroponics and field locations, and few were detected in two or more environments, demonstrating substantial QTL-by-environment interactions. The presence of several QTL for Cl− concentration indicated that uptake and accumulation was a polygenic trait. A major Cl− concentration QTL (5A; barc56/gwm186) was identified in three field environments, and accounted for 27–32% of the total genetic variance. Alignment between the 5A QTL interval and its corresponding physical genome regions in wheat and other grasses has enabled the search for candidate genes involved in Cl− transport, which is discussed. PMID:24893005

  17. Effect of Recurrent Selection on Drought Tolerance and Related Morpho-Physiological Traits in Bread Wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramya P

    Full Text Available Drought is one of the major abiotic stresses affecting wheat yield. A recurrent selection program was conducted to improve the drought tolerance and yield of bread wheat using drought tolerant advanced breeding lines from a drought tolerant x susceptible cross (HI 1500 x HUW 510. The parental lines were evaluated for yield, biomass and harvest index (HI in addition to the drought adaptive traits like Canopy Temperature (CT, chlorophyll content and Normalized Difference Vegetative Index (NDVI. After three rounds of recurrent selection, the half sib progenies exhibited a marked reduction in CT, chlorophyll content and biomass; whereas improvement was noted for yield, HI and NDVI. Drought tolerance of the half-sib population appeared enhanced as indicated by drought indices and grain yield. Compared to base population, half-sibs showed better HI, grain filling and a significant (17.1% increase in grain yield under water stress conditions. Cooler canopies and increased early vigour might have contributed to drought tolerance. A favourable combination of gibberellin sensitive and insensitive Rhtalleles was observed in the recombinant progenies. However, increased yield under water stress had a negative trade off in reduction of biomass. The study also identified potential lines with high yield and drought tolerance for subsequent varietal development for water limited areas.

  18. Source-Sink Relationship in Wheat (Triticum aestivum and T. durum and Triticale (Triticale hexaploid Lart. Genotypes under Ahvaz Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Modhej

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the sink-source physiological relationship, current photosynthesis, contribution and remobilization of assimilates to grain yield in wheat and triticale genotypes, a field experiment was conducted in Iran, Ahvaz area on 2003-4. Treatments were two bread wheat (Simareh and Tawer, one durum wheat (Showa and two triticale (Juvanillo92 and Line 45 genotypes. Grain weight changes determined with removal of 50% spikelet from one spike side in main stem and tillers. Results indicated that the highest and the lowest grain yield were in Juvanilo92 and Line 45 genotypes. Higher grain yield in Juvanillo92 genotype was due to higher biological yield (1500 g.m-2, grain number per spike (65 floret per spikelet (2.3 and spikelet number per spike (28. In average, source limitation was 22 and 30.7% in wheat and triticale genotypes, respectively. Increase in grain weight in spikelet removal treatments compared to unmanipulated spike was 22.2 and 29% for main stem and tillers, respectively. It seems that this reaction was due to remobilization of assimilates from main stems to tillers by spikelets removal from main spikes. However, in desirable conditions, high yielding genotypes of wheat and triticale could be selected on the basis of the higher spike number and grain yield which are related to increase of source limitation.

  19. Study on the Immunoreactivity of Triticum monococcum (Einkorn) Wheat in Patients with Wheat-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis for the Production of Hypoallergenic Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Carla; Bolla, Michela; Chignola, Roberto; Senna, Gianenrico; Rossin, Giacomo; Caruso, Beatrice; Tomelleri, Carlo; Cecconi, Daniela; Brandolini, Andrea; Zoccatelli, Gianni

    2015-09-23

    Wheat [Triticum aestivum (T.a.)] ingestion can cause a specific allergic reaction, which is called wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). The major allergen involved is ω-5 gliadin, a gluten protein coded by genes located on the B genome. Our aim was to study the immunoreactivity of proteins in Triticum monococcum (einkorn, T.m.), a diploid ancestral wheat lacking B chromosomes, for possible use in the production of hypoallergenic foods. A total of 14 patients with a clear history of WDEIA and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) to ω-5 gliadin were enrolled. Skin prick test (SPT) with a commercial wheat extract and an in-house T.a. gluten diagnostic solution tested positive for 43 and 100% of the cases, respectively. No reactivity in patients tested with solutions prepared from four T.m. accessions was observed. The immunoblotting of T.m. gluten proteins performed with the sera of patients showed different IgE-binding profiles with respect to T.a., confirming the absence of ω-5 gliadin. A general lower immunoreactivity of T.m. gluten proteins with scarce cross-reactivity to ω-5 gliadin epitopes was assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Given the absence of reactivity by SPT and the limited cross-reactivity with ω-5 gliadin, T.m. might represent a potential candidate in the production of hypoallergenic bakery products for patients sensitized to ω-5 gliadin. Further analyses need to be carried out regarding its safety.

  20. Use of sourdough fermentation and mixture of wheat, chickpea, lentil and bean flours for enhancing the nutritional, texture and sensory characteristics of white bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Calasso, Maria; Campanella, Daniela; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-06-16

    This study aimed at investigating the addition of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours to wheat flour bread. Type I sourdough containing legumes or wheat-legume flours were prepared and propagated (back slopped) in laboratory, according to traditional protocols that are routinely used for making typical Italian breads. Based on kinetic of acidification and culture-dependent data, the wheat-legume sourdough was further characterized and selected for bread making. As determined by RAPD-PCR and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA gene analyses, lactic acid bacteria in wheat-legume sourdough included Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus fermentum, Weissella cibaria, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus coryneformis, Lactobacillus rossiae, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus parabuchneri and Lactobacillus paraplantarum. Two breads containing 15% (w/w) of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours were produced using selected wheat-legume sourdough (WLSB) and traditional wheat sourdough (WSB). Compared to wheat yeasted bread (WYB), the level of total free amino acids (FAA) was higher in WSB and WLSB. Phytase and antioxidant activities were the highest in WLSB. Compared to bread WYB, the addition of legume flours decreased the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) (WYB versus WSB). However, the dough fermentation with WSLB favored an increase of IVPD. According to the levels of carbohydrates, dietary fibers and resistant starch, WSB and WLSB showed lower values of hydrolysis index (HI) compared to WYB. As showed by texture and image analyses and sensory evaluation of breads, a good acceptability was found for WSB and, especially, WLSB breads. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Physical Mapping of Bread Wheat Chromosome 5A: An Integrated Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfina Barabaschi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The huge size, redundancy, and highly repetitive nature of the bread wheat [ (L.] genome, makes it among the most difficult species to be sequenced. To overcome these limitations, a strategy based on the separation of individual chromosomes or chromosome arms and the subsequent production of physical maps was established within the frame of the International Wheat Genome Sequence Consortium (IWGSC. A total of 95,812 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones of short-arm chromosome 5A (5AS and long-arm chromosome 5A (5AL arm-specific BAC libraries were fingerprinted and assembled into contigs by complementary analytical approaches based on the FingerPrinted Contig (FPC and Linear Topological Contig (LTC tools. Combined anchoring approaches based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR marker screening, microarray, and sequence homology searches applied to several genomic tools (i.e., genetic maps, deletion bin map, neighbor maps, BAC end sequences (BESs, genome zipper, and chromosome survey sequences allowed the development of a high-quality physical map with an anchored physical coverage of 75% for 5AS and 53% for 5AL with high portions (64 and 48%, respectively of contigs ordered along the chromosome. In the genome of grasses, [ (L. Beauv.], rice ( L., and sorghum [ (L. Moench] homologs of genes on wheat chromosome 5A were separated into syntenic blocks on different chromosomes as a result of translocations and inversions during evolution. The physical map presented represents an essential resource for fine genetic mapping and map-based cloning of agronomically relevant traits and a reference for the 5A sequencing projects.

  2. Impacts of phosphorus and zinc levels on phosphorus and zinc nutrition and phytic acid concentration in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xi-wen; Tian, Xiao-hong; Lu, Xin-chun; Cao, Yu-xian; Chen, Zi-hui

    2011-10-01

    Zinc (Zn) and phytic acid content in grain crops are directly related to their nutritional quality and therefore human health. To investigate the nutritional influences of phosphorus (P) and Zn levels on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), plants were grown hydroponically to maturity in chelator-buffered solutions. Appropriate amounts of P, coupled with sufficient Zn, increased P and Zn concentrations in wheat grain. The Zn supply decreased both phytic acid and the molar ratios of phytic acid to Zn in wheat grain with respect to the Zn(0) treatment. Furthermore, proportions of Zn and P content in the grain relative to that of the whole plant were improved. With increasing P, the proportion of Zn and P content in the grain relative to the whole plant decreased. P and Zn acted antagonistically in roots. Excess P inhibited Zn uptake in roots, while Zn decreased the transfer of P from roots to shoots. For P that had been transported to the shoots, supplemental Zn facilitated its transfer to the grain. Excess P decreased the distribution of Zn in grain, while Zn enhanced the uptake of Zn and P in grain, The combined application of Zn fertilizer with the extensive use of P fertilizer can effectively increase the P and Zn concentration and Zn bioavailability of wheat grain, and hence Zn nutritional quality. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Effect of lead stress on mineral content and growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum) and spinach (Spinacia oleracea) seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamhamdi, Mostafa; El Galiou, Ouiam; Bakrim, Ahmed; Nóvoa-Muñoz, Juan Carlos; Arias-Estévez, Manuel; Aarab, Ahmed; Lafont, René

    2013-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is the most common heavy metal contaminant in the environment. Pb is not an essential element for plants, but they absorb it when it is present in their environment, especially in rural areas when the soil is polluted by automotive exhaust and in fields contaminated with fertilizers containing heavy metal impurities. To investigate lead effects on nutrient uptake and metabolism, two plant species, spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and wheat (Triticum aestivum), were grown under hydroponic conditions and stressed with lead nitrate, Pb(NO3)2, at three concentrations (1.5, 3, and 15 mM). Lead is accumulated in a dose-dependent manner in both plant species, which results in reduced growth and lower uptake of all mineral ions tested. Total amounts and concentrations of most mineral ions (Na, K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe, Cu and Zn) are reduced, although Mn concentrations are increased, as its uptake is reduced less relative to the whole plant's growth. The deficiency of mineral nutrients correlates in a strong decrease in the contents of chlorophylls a and b and proline in both species, but these effects are less pronounced in spinach than in wheat. By contrast, the effects of lead on soluble proteins differ between species; they are reduced in wheat at all lead concentrations, whereas they are increased in spinach, where their value peaks at 3 mM Pb. The relative lead uptake by spinach and wheat, and the different susceptibility of these two species to lead treatment are discussed.

  4. Analysis of parametric approaches in qualitative land Suitability evaluation for irrigated wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivation at Neyshabur plain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. Bagherzadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Using parametric approaches for qualitative assessment of land suitability is a useful method for diagnosis of land capability and potential in optimum crop production. By using such methods will hope that to achieve sustainability in based on FAO land evaluation frame works and the presented tables of soil and climate requirements for agronomic crops. We studied qualitative land suitability for irrigated wheat (Triticum aestivum L. at Neyshabur plain. An interpolation function was used to map values to scores in terms of land qualities/characteristics for wheat cultivation and the evaluation was carried out according to parametric approaches of Storie, Square root and Kalogirou. The interpolation technique by GIS functions helped in managing the spatial data and visualizing the results. The land suitability degree for wheat at Neyshabour plain by Storie method ranged from 1.53–33.22, while Square root method fluctuated from 1.35 to 38.72 corresponds to N2 to S3 classes. Based on Kalogirou method Land degrees varied from 24.51 to 60.19 corresponds to N1 – S2 land suitability classes. Our results indicated that the most important limiting factor for irrigated wheat is soil physical properties. It was demonstrated that using Kalogirou method gives more reliable and realistic results compared to other parametric approaches.

  5. A complete mitochondrial genome of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Yumai), and fast evolving mitochondrial genes in higher plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Peng; Liu, Huitao; Lin, Qiang; Ding, Feng; Zhuo, Guoyin; Hu, Songnian; Liu, Dongcheng; Yang, Wenlong; Zhan, Kehui; Zhang, Aimin; Yu, Jun

    2009-12-01

    Plant mitochondrial genomes, encoding necessary proteins involved in the system of energy production, play an important role in the development and reproduction of the plant. They occupy a specific evolutionary pattern relative to their nuclear counterparts. Here, we determined the winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Yumai) mitochondrial genome in a length of 452 and 526 bp by shotgun sequencing its BAC library. It contains 202 genes, including 35 known protein-coding genes, three rRNA and 17 tRNA genes, as well as 149 open reading frames (ORFs; greater than 300 bp in length). The sequence is almost identical to the previously reported sequence of the spring wheat (T. aestivum cv. Chinese Spring); we only identified seven SNPs (three transitions and four transversions) and 10 indels (insertions and deletions) between the two independently acquired sequences, and all variations were found in non-coding regions. This result confirmed the accuracy of the previously reported mitochondrial sequence of the Chinese Spring wheat. The nucleotide frequency and codon usage of wheat are common among the lineage of higher plant with a high AT-content of 58%. Molecular evolutionary analysis demonstrated that plant mitochondrial genomes evolved at different rates, which may correlate with substantial variations in metabolic rate and generation time among plant lineages. In addition, through the estimation of the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates between orthologous mitochondrion-encoded genes of higher plants, we found an accelerated evolutionary rate that seems to be the result of relaxed selection.

  6. Effect of green manure crops and nitrogen fertilizer levels on dry matter remobilization efficiency in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. internodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gerami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of nitrogen rates and green manure crops on dry matter mobilization and mobilization efficiency indices of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. a field experiment was conducted in Agricultural Faculty of Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz during growing season of 2010-2011. The experimental design was split-plot based on randomized complete block with three replications. Main plot included four nitrogen rates (i.e. 0, 50, 100 and 150 kgN.ha-1 and sub-plot included six green manure crops containing millet (Pennisetum sp., amaranth (Amaranthus sp., sesbania (Sesbania sp., cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L., mung bean (Vigna radiata L. and fallow. This experiment was done at two stages. First, planting and turn down of green manure crops and then planting of wheat. The results showed that the maximum weight and specific weight of all stem internodes obtained from 0 to 20 days after wheat anthesis. Then, this trend decreased from 20 to 50 days after wheat anthesis due to remobilization of dry matter to grain. Mobilized dry matter was more in control (0 kg.N.h-1 than in high N application for peduncle (219 vs. 181 mg and penultimate (203 vs. 165 mg, while, was less in the lower internodes (403 vs. 407 mg. Generally, with increasing of nitrogen levels, dry matter mobilization efficiency was decreased by. So, the effect of green manure crops not limited only by soil properties, while influences the relationship between physiological sources and sink.

  7. Traditional and modern breeding methods of Triticum aestivum L. in the V. M. Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat

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    В. В. Кириленко

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available When creating Triticum aestivum L. varieties in V. M. Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat, intervarietal crossing was used as the basis for classical method of hybridization. Parental pairs were selected according to environmental and geographical principles. Crossing of lines selected by certain adaptive characteristics among themselves and with the local breeding varieties are widely used. The method of induced mutagenesis is one of the main factor of the evolutionary process which increases hundreds of times the frequency of altered forms occurrence. Thermal mutagenesis – selection of winter forms from spring varieties – is based on low temperature effect on spring wheat varieties (it was developed by V. M. Remeslo, the member of the Academy of Sciences. Method of intervarietal selection in winter wheat breeding provides creation of new varieties of this crop through mass selection of the best plants from local populations. At present, 10 varieties of winter wheat are included into the State Register of Plant Varieties Suitable for Dissemination in Ukraine, one variety – into the State Register of Breeding Achievements of the Russian Federation, seven varieties are passing state quality testing in these countries.

  8. Comparative studies of mitochondrial proteomics reveal an intimate protein network of male sterility in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuping; Zhang, Gaisheng; Zhang, Yingxin; Song, Qilu; Chen, Zheng; Wang, Junsheng; Guo, Jialin; Niu, Na; Wang, Junwei; Ma, Shoucai

    2015-10-01

    Plant male sterility has often been associated with mitochondrial dysfunction; however, the mechanism in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has not been elucidated. This study set out to probe the mechanism of physiological male sterility (PHYMS) induced by the chemical hybridizing agent (CHA)-SQ-1, and cytoplasmic male sterility (CMS) of wheat at the proteomic level. A total of 71 differentially expressed mitochondrial proteins were found to be involved in pollen abortion and further identified by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of fight/time of flight mass spectrometry). These proteins were implicated in different cellular responses and metabolic processes, with obvious functional tendencies toward the tricarboxylic acid cycle, the mitochondrial electron transport chain, protein synthesis and degradation, oxidation stress, the cell division cycle, and epigenetics. Interactions between identified proteins were demonstrated by bioinformatics analysis, enabling a more complete insight into biological pathways involved in anther abortion and pollen defects. Accordingly, a mitochondria-mediated male sterility protein network in wheat is proposed; this network was further confirmed by physiological data, RT-PCR (real-time PCR), and TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labelling) assay. The results provide intriguing insights into the metabolic pathway of anther abortion induced by CHA-SQ-1 and also give useful clues to identify the crucial proteins of PHYMS and CMS in wheat. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  9. Modulation of nonessential amino acid biosynthetic pathways in virulent Hessian fly larvae (Mayetiola destructor), feeding on susceptible host wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessian fly (Mayetiola destructor), an obligate plant-parasitic gall midge, is an important dipteran pest of wheat (Triticum aestivum). The insect employs an effector-based feeding strategy to reprogram the host plant to be nutritionally beneficial for the developing larva by inducing formation of p...

  10. The role of leaf epicuticular wax in the adaptation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to high temperatures and moisture deficit conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water deficit is one of the primary causes of decreasing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) yields globally, resulting in 50–90% yield reduction for at least 60 Mha of cropland in developing countries (Reynolds et al. 2000). Previous studies have identified associations in genomic regions with cooler cano...

  11. Lutein and lutein esters in whole grain flours made from 75 genotypes of 5 triticum species grown at multiple sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Jochen U; Wahl, Sabine; Würschum, Tobias; Longin, C Friedrich H; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2015-05-27

    Concentrations of lutein and lutein esters were determined in an ample collection of 75 wheat genotypes comprising bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), durum (Triticum durum Desf.), spelt (Triticum spelta L.), emmer (Triticum dicoccum Schrank), and einkorn (Triticum monococcum L.) grown in five different environments. Einkorn genotypes showed the highest total amounts of lutein (4.5-7.8 μg/g dry matter), followed by durum (2.0-4.6 μg/g), spelt (0.9-2.0 μg/g), emmer (0.8-1.9 μg/g), and bread wheat (0.7-2.0 μg/g). Due to the observed highly significant genetic variance and high heritability, lutein contents of wheat genotypes may be increased by future plant breeding. Detailed HPLC-DAD-APCI(±)-MS(n) data allowing the identification of six lutein monoesters and nine diesters are presented. Linoleic, palmitic, and oleic acids were the most abundant fatty acids in both the lutein esters and total free lipid fractions. Lutein esters were virtually absent in the tetraploid durum and emmer species, whereas their concentrations considerably differed among the genotypes belonging to the other species.

  12. The Effect of Different Zinc Application Methods on Yield and Grain Zinc Concentration of Bread Wheat Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatun Barut

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to elucidate the impacts of zinc (Zn treatments on growth, development, quality and yield of commonly sown bread wheat cultivars under field conditions of Çukurova Region. Three different bread wheat cultivars (Adana-99, Ceyhan-99 and Pandas were experimented in randomized complete blocks-split plots experimental design with 3 replications. Field experiments were performed by two different Zn application methods; via soil and via soil+foliage. In the both trials, 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 kg ha-1 pure Zn doses were applied to the soil. 0.4% ZnSO4.7H2O solution was used for foliar Zn applications. Current findings revealed that Zn treatments had significant effects on grain yield, grain Zn concentration, grain phosphorus (P concentration and thousand grain weight of bread wheat cultivars, but significant effects were not observed on grain protein concentrations. Soil+foliar Zn treatments were more effective in improving grain Zn concentrations. It was concluded that 10- 20 kg ha-1 Zn treatment was quite effective on grain Zn concentrations.

  13. Effect of heat treatment to sweet potato flour on dough properties and characteristics of sweet potato-wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Isela Carballo; Mu, Tai-Hua; Zhang, Miao; Ji, Lei-Lei

    2017-12-01

    The effect of heat treatment at 90, 100, 110 and 120 ℃ for 20 min to sweet potato flour on dough properties and characteristics of sweet potato-wheat bread was investigated. The lightness (L*) and a* of sweet potato flour samples after heat treatment were increased, while the b* were decreased significantly, as well as the particle size, volume and area mean diameter ( p sweet potato flour was observed, where the number of irregular granules increased as the temperature increased from 90 to 120 ℃. Compared with sweet potato flour samples without heat treatment and with heat treatment at 90, 100 and 120 ℃, the gelatinization temperature and enthalpy change of sweet potato flour at 110 ℃ were the lowest, which were 77.94 ℃ and 3.67 J/g, respectively ( p sweet potato flour increased significantly from 1199 ml without heat treatment to 1214 ml at 90 ℃ ( p sweet potato-wheat bread with sweet potato flour after heat treatment increased significantly, which was the largest at 90 ℃ (2.53 cm 3 /g) ( p sweet potato flour could be potentially used in wheat bread production.

  14. Supplementation of alkaline phytase (Ds11) in whole-wheat bread reduces phytate content and improves mineral solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yun-Jong; Park, Jiwon; Park, Ki-Hwan; Oh, Byung-Chul; Auh, Joong-Hyuck

    2011-08-01

    In this study, alkaline phytase was added to whole-wheat bread and the phytate content and mineral profiles were compared to commercially available acidic phytase. At neutral pH, some phytate (approximately 20%) was degraded by endogenous phytase in wheat flour, while 40% of phytate was hydrolyzed by alkaline phytase DS11 and a 35% reduction was observed with acidic phytase. Most of the enzymatic activity occurred during the proofing stage, and the rate of reaction depended on pH. DS11 phytase effectively degraded the phytate level within a 30 min treatment at pH 7; however, at least 60 min was needed with acidic phytase to achieve the same hydrolysis level. Mineral profiles were also dramatically affected by the phytate reduction. The biggest increase was observed in Fe²⁺ by the phytase treatment. The Fe²⁺ content increased 10-fold at pH 7 and 8-fold at pH 5 with alkaline phytase DS11. Alkaline phytase DS11 was shown to be effective at phytate reduction in whole-wheat bread preparation. Additionally, phytate degradation enhanced the mineral availability of bread. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Comparison of the effects of different heat treatment processes on rheological properties of cake and bread wheat flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucsella, Blanka; Takács, Ágnes; Vizer, Viktoria; Schwendener, Urs; Tömösközi, Sándor

    2016-01-01

    Dry and hydrothermal heat treatments are efficient for modifying the technological-functional and shelf-life properties of wheat milling products. Dry heat treatment process is commonly used to enhance the volume of cakes. Hydrothermal heat treatment makes wheat flours suitable as thickener agents. In this study, cake and bread wheat flours that differed in baking properties were exposed to dry (100 °C, 12 min) and hydrothermal (95 °C, 5 min, 5-20 l/h water) heat treatments. Rheological differences caused by the treatments were investigated in a diluted slurry and in a dough matrix. Dry heat treatment resulted in enhanced dough stability. This effect was significantly higher in the cake flour than the bread flour. Altered viscosity properties of the bread flour in the slurry matrix were also observed. The characteristics of hydrothermally treated samples showed matrix dependency: their viscosity increases in the slurry and decreases in the dough matrix. These results can support us to produce flour products with specific techno-functional properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization of textural, rheological, thermal, microstructural, and water mobility in wheat flour dough and bread affected by trehalose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bo; Li, Youqian; Ding, Shiyong; Yang, Jun

    2017-10-15

    The study aims to elucidate the effects of trehalose on the mechanical, thermal, and rheological properties of wheat flour dough and water distribution in bread. Texture profile analysis, DSC, farinograph, extensograph, and frequency sweep were applied in dough. The results from SEM revealed that the gluten film became less notable with the presence of trehalose. The kinetics of staling process, low-field 1 H NMR, and water-binding capacity were employed to characterize physicochemical properties of bread. Trehalose decreased the staling rate constant k, indicating an inhibitory effect on firming process in bread. Trehalose had the ability to retain water by hindering the interaction among water molecules, gluten and starch, thus relatively increasing the immobility of the part of water represented by T 22 in low-field 1 H NMR tests. Trehalose restricted water mobilization during storage, resulting in a better water-holding capacity. Our findings reveal that trehalose could be an improver in dough and bread-making performance, as well as an antistaling agent in bread. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Folate distribution in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum Desf.) pearled fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giordano, Debora; Reyneri, Amedeo; Blandino, Massimo

    2016-03-30

    Wholegrain cereals are an important source of folates. In this study, total folate was analysed in pearled fractions of barley and wheat cultivars employing AOAC Official Method 2004.05. In particular, the distribution of folate in the kernels was evaluated in three barley cultivars (two hulled types and a hulless one as well as two- and six-row types) and in a common and a durum wheat cultivar. A noticeable variation in the folate content was observed between the barley [653-1033 ng g(-1) dry matter (DM)] and wheat cultivars (1024-1119 ng g(-1) DM). The highest folate content was detected in the hulless barley cultivar (1033 ng g(-1) DM). A significant reduction in total folate, from 63% to 86%, was observed in all cultivars from the outermost to the innermost pearled fractions. Results proved that folates are mainly present in the germ and in the outer layers of the kernel. This is the first study reporting the folate distribution in kernels of both common and durum wheat and in a hulless barley cultivar. Results suggest that the pearling process could be useful for the selection of intermediate fractions that could be used in order to develop folate-enhanced ingredients and products. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Concentrated Arabinoxylan but Not Concentrated Beta-Glucan in Wheat Bread Has Similar Effects on Postprandial Insulin as Whole-Grain Rye in Porto-arterial Catheterized Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kirstine Lykke; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Lærke, Helle Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    The acute glycemic effects of concentrated dietary fibers (DF) versus whole-grain rye were studied in portoarterial catheterized pigs. Two white wheat breads with wheat arabinoxylan (AX) or oat beta-glucan (BG), two rye breads with intact rye kernels (RK) or milled rye (GR), and a low DF white...... min postprandial for AX and GR (74.4 and 129 pmol/min for AX and GR, respectively, compared to 738 pmol/min for WF, P effective in improving insulin economy, suggesting that arabinoxylan from wheat and rye induces similar outcomes in the metabolic...

  19. Crystallinity changes in wheat starch during the bread-making process: Starch crystallinity in the bread crust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primo-Martín, C.; Nieuwenhuijzen, N.H. van; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, T. van

    2007-01-01

    The crystallinity of starch in crispy bread crust was quantified using several different techniques. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) demonstrated the presence of granular starch in the crust and remnants of granules when moving towards the crumb. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

  20. Crystallinity changes in wheat starch during the bread-making process: starch crystallinity in the bread crust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primo-Martin, C.; Nieuwenhuijzen, van N.H.; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, van T.

    2007-01-01

    The crystallinity of starch in crispy bread crust was quantified using several different techniques. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) demonstrated the presence of granular starch in the crust and remnants of granules when moving towards the crumb. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

  1. Characterization of N-type glycosylation sites and glycan structures of Purple Acid Phosphatase Phytases from Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Welinder, Karen Gjesing

    2011-01-01

    ) Cloning and Characterization of Purple Acid Phosphatase Phytases from Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), Maize (Zea maize L.) and Rice (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Physiol. [in press, Jan 10, Epub ahead of print] Dionisio G., Brinch-Pedersen H., Welinder K.G., Jørgensen M. (2011b......., Skov L. Brinch-Pedersen H. (2011). The degradation of phytate by microbial and wheat phytases is dependent on the phytate matrix and the phytase origin. J. Sci. Food Agri. (in press). Dionisio G., Madsen C.K., Holm P.B., Welinder K.G., Jørgensen M., Stoger E., Arcalis E., Brinch-Pedersen H. (2011a......). Different site-specific N-glycan types in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) PAP phytase. Phytochemistry (in press)....

  2. Effects of modification and incorporation techniques on disintegrant properties of wheat (Triticum aestivum) starch in metronidazole tablet formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odeniyi, Michael Ayodele; Ayorinde, John O

    2014-01-01

    Natural polymers serve as cheap, non-toxic, biocompatible excipients in drug delivery. Starch from wheat (Triticum aestivum) was investigated as a disintegrant in metronidazole tablet formulations in comparison with sodium starch glycolate (SSG), a standard, synthetic but relatively more expensive disintegrant. Native wheat starch (NAS) was modified by pregelatinization (PGS) and microwave irradiation (MCW). The starches were characterized using swelling capacity, angle of repose, density measurements, Carr's index and Hausner's ratio. Metronidazole tablet formulations were made with the starches incorporated by intragranular (IG), extra-granular (EG) or intra/extragranular (IG/EG) methods. Tablet properties of crushing strength, disintegration time and dissolution tests were determined. Native wheat starch had better hydration capacity than the modified starches, with PGS having a higher swelling capacity than the MCW. Modified starches formed better compacts than both NAS and SSG as indicated by the higher crushing strength of tablets containing modified starches. Intragranular incorporation gave a higher crushing strength than both EG and IG/EG methods. The ranking for disintegration time of tablets was IG/EG > IG > EG among the incorporation methods and SSG > PGS > MCW > NAS among the starches (EG > IG/EG). The difference between IG/EG and EG was significant (p SSG > PGS). Native and modified wheat starches exhibited better disintegrant properties than sodium starch glycolate in metronidazole tablet formulations. The mode of disintegrant incorporation and modification of wheat starch had different effects on tablet properties of metronidazole formulations. The modification technique and method of disintegrant incorporation should be determined based on desired tablet properties.

  3. Putative fasciclin-like arabinogalactan-proteins (FLA) in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and rice (Oryza sativa): identification and bioinformatic analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faik, Ahmed; Abouzouhair, Jaouad; Sarhan, Fathey

    2006-11-01

    Putative plant adhesion molecules include arabinogalactan-proteins having fasciclin-like domains. In animal, fasciclin proteins participate in cell adhesion and communication. However, the molecular basis of interactions in plants is still unknown and none of these domains have been characterized in cereals. This work reports the characterization of 34 wheat (Triticum aestivum) and 24 rice (Oryza sativa) Fasciclin-Like Arabinogalactan-proteins (FLAs). Bioinformatics analyses show that cereal FLAs share structural characteristics with known Arabidopsis FLAs including arabinogalactan-protein and fasciclin conserved domains. At least 70% of the wheat and rice FLAs are predicted to be glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored to the plasma membranes. Expression analyses determined from the relative abundance of ESTs in the publicly available wheat EST databases and from RNA gel blots indicate that most of these genes are weakly expressed and found mainly in seeds and roots. Furthermore, most wheat genes were down regulated by abiotic stresses except for TaFLA9 and 12 where cold treatment induces their expression in roots. Plant fasciclin-like domains were predicted to have 3-D homology with FAS1 domain of the fasciclin I insect neural cell adhesion molecule with an estimated precision above 70%. The structural analysis shows that negatively charged amino acids are concentrated along the beta1-alpha3-alpha4-beta2 edges, while the positively charged amino acids are concentrated on the back side of the folds. This highly charged surface distribution could provide a way of mediating protein-protein interactions via electrostatic forces similar to many other adhesion molecules. The identification of wheat FLAs will facilitate studying their function in plant growth and development and their role in stress response.

  4. Genome-wide analysis of WRKY transcription factors in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and differential expression under water deficit condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan Ning

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background WRKY proteins, which comprise one of the largest transcription factor (TF families in the plant kingdom, play crucial roles in plant development and stress responses. Despite several studies on WRKYs in wheat (Triticum aestivum L., functional annotation information about wheat WRKYs is limited. Results Here, 171 TaWRKY TFs were identified from the whole wheat genome and compared with proteins from 19 other species representing nine major plant lineages. A phylogenetic analysis, coupled with gene structure analysis and motif determination, divided these TaWRKYs into seven subgroups (Group I, IIa–e, and III. Chromosomal location showed that most TaWRKY genes were enriched on four chromosomes, especially on chromosome 3B. In addition, 85 (49.7% genes were either tandem (5 or segmental duplication (80, which suggested that though tandem duplication has contributed to the expansion of TaWRKY family, segmental duplication probably played a more pivotal role. Analysis of cis-acting elements revealed putative functions of WRKYs in wheat during development as well as under numerous biotic and abiotic stresses. Finally, the expression of TaWRKY genes in flag leaves, glumes, and lemmas under water-deficit condition were analyzed. Results showed that different TaWRKY genes preferentially express in specific tissue during the grain-filling stage. Conclusion Our results provide a more extensive insight on WRKY gene family in wheat, and also contribute to the screening of more candidate genes for further investigation on function characterization of WRKYs under various stresses.

  5. A positive allelopathic effect of corn cockle, agrostemma githago, on wheat, triticum aestivum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, B.; Doll, H.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of com cockle on wheat was studied during germination and on adult plants in a growth chamber. Seedling length of wheat germinated together with corn cockle for 5 days increased 13%. Wheat growing together with corn cockle in pots to maturity had a statistically significant higher whea...

  6. First report of Fusarium redolens causing crown rot of wheat (Triticum spp.) in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusarium crown rot, caused by a complex of Fusarium spp., is a yield-limiting disease of wheat world-wide, especially in dry Mediterranean climates. In order to identify Fusarium species associated with crown rot of wheat, a survey was conducted in summer 2013 in the major wheat growing regions of T...

  7. Fluoranthene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, inhibits light as well as dark reactions of photosynthesis in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomar, Rupal Singh; Jajoo, Anjana

    2014-11-01

    The toxic effect of fluoranthene (FLT) on seed germination, growth of seedling and photosynthesis processes of wheat (Triticum aestivum) was investigated. Wheat seeds were exposed to 5 µM and 25 µM FLT concentrations for 25 days and it was observed that FLT had inhibiting effect on rate of seed germination. The germination rate of wheat seeds decreased by 11% at 25 µM FLT concentration. Root/shoot growth and biomass production declined significantly even at low concentrations of FLT. Chlorophyll a fluorescence and gas exchange parameters were measured after 25 days to evaluate the effects of FLT on Photosystem II (PSII) activity and CO2 assimilation rate. The process of CO2 assimilation decreased more effectively by FLT as compared to the yield of PSII. A negative correlation was found between plant net photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, carboxylation capacity and biomass production with FLT. It is concluded that inhibiting effects of FLT on photosynthesis are contributed more by inhibition in the process of CO2 fixation rather than inhibition of photochemical events. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Combining ability analysis for grain filling duration and yield traits in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell.

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    Kamaluddin

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available A diallel analysis of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell parents (n = 11 and their F1 (n = 55 and F2 (n = 55 offspring was carried out for the following four traits: grain filling duration (GFD, GFD for growing degree days (GDD, 1000 seed weight and seed yield per plant. Analysis of variance for general combining ability (GCA and specific combining ability (SCA displayed significant F1 and F2 general and specific combining ability effects for the four traits studied. For all the traits the GCA effects were relatively more important than the SCA effects, indicating that additive genetic effects were predominant. Crosses displaying high SCA effects for grain filling duration, seed weight and yield were observed to be derived from parents having various types of GCA effects (high x high, high x low, low x low and medium x low. The single seed descent method can be applied to exploit additive gene effects whereas dominance gene effects could be valuable in hybrid wheat breeding programs. Among the parents, genotypes from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (Centro Internacional de Mejoramiento de Maíz y Trigo, CIMMYT as well as South Asia were found to be superior general combiners for grain filling duration. Likewise, crosses involving diverse parents from CIMMYT and South Asia showed significant SCA effects for grain filling duration and other traits.

  9. Green manure addition to soil increases grain zinc concentration in bread wheat.

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    Forough Aghili

    Full Text Available Zinc (Zn deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower, ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF, and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg-1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg-1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg-1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil-1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil-1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs.

  10. Green manure addition to soil increases grain zinc concentration in bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghili, Forough; Gamper, Hannes A; Eikenberg, Jost; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H; Afyuni, Majid; Schulin, Rainer; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower), ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF), and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg-1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg-1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg-1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs.

  11. Economic Evaluation of Improved Irrigated Bread Wheat Varieties with National and International Origins and Its Impacts on Transfer of Supply Function

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    hormoz asadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Agricultural research is important and one of the determinant factors of development of technologies in agricultural sector. Among agricultural research disciplines, breeding programs, especially, wheat breeding programs are one of the applied approaches in improving of production and food security. Based on a study by Byerlee & Traxler (1995, economic benefits and Internal Rate of Return (IRR for Impact of International Wheat Improvement (for all breeding programs were estimated US$3.0 billion per year with internal rate of 53%, and economic benefits for Impact of International Wheat Improvement (Attributed to IWIN was estimated US$1.5 billion per year during 1966-90. Materials and methods The main objectives of this research were to determine shift of supply function of variety and impacts of breeding wheat varieties on reduction costs, and determination of economic return of released irrigated bread wheat in breeding program for the period of 1991-2000. Wheat varieties included; 23 varieties of released irrigated bread wheat by wheat breeding program of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII and Provincial Agricultural Research Centers. Ex-ante and Ex-post methods were used in this study. Measuring criteria for these methods were; quantity of shift in supply function, cost-benefit analysis and internal rate of return of varieties. For estimation of reduction costs and shift of supply function of varieties in breeding program were calculated following Brennan et al. (2002: Where: Cvb: Cost reduction due to breeding program, TCh: Cost production per ha, Yv (without: yield of check variety in breeding plots, Yv (with: yield of new variety in breeding plots, PSS: % supply shift in breeding program and Pw: price of wheat grain per kg For assessing economic criteria, Net Present Value (NPV, Cost-Benefit Analysis and Internal Rate of Return (IRR were used: Following Brennan et al (2002, gross benefit of irrigated bread wheat

  12. Study on the effects of wheat bran incorporation on water mobility and biopolymer behavior during bread making and storage using time-domain1H NMR relaxometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemdane, S; Jacobs, P J; Bosmans, G M; Verspreet, J; Delcour, J A; Courtin, C M

    2017-12-01

    Water binding is suggested to be key in the deleterious effect of wheat bran on bread quality. This study investigates water mobility and biopolymer behavior during bran-rich bread making and storage, using 1 H NMR. Coarse, ground, and pericarp-enriched bran were incorporated in bread dough, and their impact on freshly baked and stored bread properties was assessed. Compared to wheat flour control dough, bran incorporation resulted in a progressive immobilization of water during dough resting, which could be linked to changes in evolution of dough height during fermentation and oven rise. This, together with modified starch gelatinization behavior upon baking, can be related with the inferior quality of bran-rich breads. The impact was most pronounced with pericarp-enriched bran. Textural quality during storage was less affected for coarse or ground bran-rich bread compared to wheat flour bread, which could be principally attributed to retardation of amylopectin retrogradation in the presence of bran. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Genetic analyses using GGE model and a mixed linear model approach, and stability analyses using AMMI bi-plot for late-maturity alpha-amylase activity in bread wheat genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, Golam; Glover, Karl D; Krishnan, Padmanaban G; Wu, Jixiang; Berzonsky, William A; Fofana, Bourlaye

    2017-06-01

    Low falling number and discounting grain when it is downgraded in class are the consequences of excessive late-maturity α-amylase activity (LMAA) in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Grain expressing high LMAA produces poorer quality bread products. To effectively breed for low LMAA, it is necessary to understand what genes control it and how they are expressed, particularly when genotypes are grown in different environments. In this study, an International Collection (IC) of 18 spring wheat genotypes and another set of 15 spring wheat cultivars adapted to South Dakota (SD), USA were assessed to characterize the genetic component of LMAA over 5 and 13 environments, respectively. The data were analysed using a GGE model with a mixed linear model approach and stability analysis was presented using an AMMI bi-plot on R software. All estimated variance components and their proportions to the total phenotypic variance were highly significant for both sets of genotypes, which were validated by the AMMI model analysis. Broad-sense heritability for LMAA was higher in SD adapted cultivars (53%) compared to that in IC (49%). Significant genetic effects and stability analyses showed some genotypes, e.g. 'Lancer', 'Chester' and 'LoSprout' from IC, and 'Alsen', 'Traverse' and 'Forefront' from SD cultivars could be used as parents to develop new cultivars expressing low levels of LMAA. Stability analysis using an AMMI bi-plot revealed that 'Chester', 'Lancer' and 'Advance' were the most stable across environments, while in contrast, 'Kinsman', 'Lerma52' and 'Traverse' exhibited the lowest stability for LMAA across environments.

  14. Production of a high-nutritional-value functional food, the Update1 bread, with the supplementation of the wheat flour with high-protein-content raw food materials

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    Csapó J.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During our research, we added extracted soya bean meal, egg-white powder, gluten, wheat sourdough, and bamboo fibre to wheat flour in order to increase the quantity of the essential amino acid and the biological value of the wheat protein, producing such a functional, health-protecting, health-preservative food product which is suitable to satisfy the essential amino acid requirements of humans, assuming normal nutrition. Furthermore, we could produce such a food, which, on the one hand, was suitable to confine or prevent the essential amino acid’s malnutrition symptoms, while, on the other hand, when applied alone, to meet the consumers’ needs. During our work, we determined the protein content and amino acid composition of the wheat flour, of the additives used in bread baking, and in the bread both baked with supplementation (Update1 bread and without supplementation (normal bread, as well as the quantity of the Maillard reaction products (hydroxymethylfurfural. We calculated the biological value of the protein of different breads and evaluated the sensory characteristics of the produced functional food and the fortified bread, supplemented with high essential-amino-acid-containing additives.

  15. The Effect of Oat Fibre Powder Particle Size on the Physical Properties of Wheat Bread Rolls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurek, Marcin; Wyrwisz, Jarosław; Piwińska, Monika; Wierzbicka, Agnieszka

    2016-01-01

    Summary In response to the growing interest of modern society in functional food products, this study attempts to develop a bakery product with high dietary fibre content added in the form of an oat fibre powder. Oat fibre powder with particle sizes of 75 µm (OFP1) and 150 µm (OFP2) was used, substituting 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20% of the flour. The physical properties of the dough and the final bakery products were then measured. Results indicated that dough with added fibre had higher elasticity than the control group. The storage modulus values of dough with OFP1 most closely approximated those of the control group. The addition of OFP1 did not affect significantly the colour compared to the other samples. Increasing the proportion of oat fibre powder resulted in increased firmness, which was most prominent in wheat bread rolls with oat fibre powder of smaller particle sizes. The addition of oat fibre powder with smaller particles resulted in a product with the rheological and colour parameters that more closely resembled control sample. PMID:27904392

  16. The Effect of Oat Fibre Powder Particle Size on the Physical Properties of Wheat Bread Rolls

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    Jarosław Wyrwisz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to the growing interest of modern society in functional food products, this study attempts to develop a bakery product with high dietary fibre content added in the form of an oat fibre powder. Oat fibre powder with particle sizes of 75 μm (OFP1 and 150 μm (OFP2 was used, substituting 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 % of the flour. The physical properties of the dough and the fi nal bakery products were then measured. Results indicated that dough with added fibre had higher elasticity than the control group. The storage modulus values of dough with OFP1 most closely approximated those of the control group. The addition of OFP1 did not affect significantly the colour compared to the other samples. Increasing the proportion of oat fibre powder resulted in increased firmness, which was most prominent in wheat bread rolls with oat fibre powder of smaller particle sizes. The addition of oat fibre powder with smaller particles resulted in a product with the rheological and colour parameters that more closely resembled control sample.

  17. Comparative studies on storage stability of ferrous iron in whole wheat flour and flat bread (naan).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, Sahib; Shah, Hamid Ullah; Saleemullah; Riaz, Ayesha

    2007-02-01

    Whole wheat flour was fortified with premix containing ferrous sulfate, ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid and folic acid (20.0:20.0:1.5 ppm) and was stored at ambient temperature for 60 days. Naans (flat bread) were prepared from 0 ppm, 25 ppm, 50 ppm and 75 ppm ferrous iron-fortified flour samples at 10-day intervals and were analyzed for physicochemical constants and sensory evaluation. It was observed that flour containing 75 ppm ferrous sulfate contained the highest iron residues. The total iron in flour samples showed no significant difference, while ferrous iron significantly decreased in fortified flour (0.53-3.08%) and in the naans (0.42-3.48%) because of its oxidation to ferric iron during storage. The phytic acid content decreased (0.886-0.810%) significantly during the same storage period. Iron levels affected some sensory characteristics significantly (P naans, but not taste and flavor. The sensory attributes of naans illustrated that naans containing 50 ppm ferrous iron are more acceptable than those prepared with 75 ppm ferrous iron.

  18. Rheological properties and microstructure of xylanase containing whole wheat bread dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghoshal, G; Shivhare, U S; Banerjee, U C

    2017-06-01

    The present research work was undertaken to investigate the effect of xylanase, produced by Penicillium citrinum, on rheological behavior of whole wheat bread dough at large and small deformation respectively. Dough attributes including textural properties (penetration) and structure related characteristics (oscillatory tests) were evaluated. Change in visco-elastic properties of xylanase containing dough was evaluated by oscillatory and creep measurements. The flow experiments were conducted under steady-state condition with shear rate ranging from 0.01 to 100 s-1. Frequency sweep experiments were performed between 0.01 and 10 Hz. It revealed that in both control and xylanase containing dough formulation, the elastic modulus was higher than viscous modulus in the entire range of frequency. Our results represent the adequacy of fitting of dynamic moduli in Power law model and week gel model. Peleg model as well as six element Kelvin model described well the creep behaviour of control and xylanase-containing dough. Uniaxial extensibility was assessed by Kieffer dough and gluten extensibility rig. Lyophilized powder of untreated and xylanase treated doughs were tested under scanning electron microscope. FTIR spectra of lyophilized powder of untreated and xylanase treated dough were recorded in the range of 600-4000 cm-1.

  19. Dynamics of rhizosphere properties and antioxidative responses in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under cadmium stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yonghua; Wang, Li; Yang, Linsheng; Li, Hairong

    2014-04-01

    In this study, we performed a rhizobox experiment to examine the dynamic changes in the rhizosphere properties and antioxidant enzyme responses of Triticum aestivum L. under three levels of cadmium stress. A set of micro-techniques (i.e., Rhizobox and Rhizon SMS) were applied for the dynamically non-destructive collection of the rhizosphere soil solution to enable the observation at a high temporal resolution. The dynamics of soluble cadmium and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) in the rhizosphere soil solutions of the Triticum aestivum L. were characterised by the sequence week 0 after sowing (WAS0)0.05) and growth duration (p0.05). These results suggested the enhancement of DOC production and the greater antioxidant enzyme activities were two important protective mechanisms of Triticum aestivum L. under cadmium stress, whereas rhizosphere acidification might be an important mechanism for the mobilisation of soil cadmium. The results also revealed that plant-soil interactions strongly influence the soil solution chemistry in the rhizosphere of Triticum aestivum L., that, in turn, can stimulate chemical and biochemical responses in the plants. In most cases, these responses to cadmium stress were sensitive and might allow us to develop strategies for reducing the risks of the cadmium contamination to crop production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evidence of isolate-specificity in non-hypersensitive resistance in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) to wheat leaf rust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qamar, Maqsood; Niks, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    Isolate-specific aspect of non-hypersensitive resistance in wheat to wheat leaf rust was studied at seedling stage in the green house. Isolate-specific response of non-hypersensitive resistance was assessed from latency period (LP) and infection frequency (IF) of two single-pustule isolates of