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Sample records for bread wheat triticum

  1. Main varieties of bread (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum (Triticum durum Desf.) wheat.

    OpenAIRE

    Чебаков, М. П.

    2008-01-01

    Results of systematization and morphological characteristics of two wheat species-bread (Triticum aestivum L.) and hard (Triticum durum Desf.) are given. Detail descriptions of 55 main varieties of bread wheat and 32 varieties of hard wheat arep- resented in table version. In practical application these result enable plant breeders, seed producers and variety testers to determine wheat varieties easily sinse it is method for morphological systematics of wheat.

  2. Genetic analysis of preharvest sprouting tolerance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. emend. Thell.)

    OpenAIRE

    Yücel, Cemal; BALOCH, Faheem Shehzad; HATİPOĞLU, RÜŞTÜ; Özkan, Hakan

    2011-01-01

    Rains during grain ripening in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) can cause preharvest sprouting (PHS), which drastically affects the grain yield and the baking quality of flour. In the present study, to screen 7 cultivars and 4 lines of spring bread wheat for PHS, germination tests were conducted with seeds obtained from wet spikes harvested immediately after natural rainfall. Germination tests were carried out as 3 different treatments: 1) seeds immediately germinated after hand-threshing on samp...

  3. Comparison of foliar anatomy of ten bread wheat (triticum, poaceae) and ten barley (hordeum, poaceae) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study is to determine anatomical differences and classification of leaf and leaf cell characteristics (cuticle thickness, upper epidermis thickness, lower epidermis thickness, mesophyll thickness, parenchyma thickness and leaf thickness) between 10 bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) and 10 barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.). Classification of leaf characteristics in bread wheat and barley cultivars and relationship between leaf characteristics are made by principal component and correlation analyses. Highest thickness belongs to W8 Mufitbey cultivar in mesophyll and lower epidermis and W1 Sonmez 01 cultivar have the lowest thickness of upper epidermis in bread wheat. In Barley, B1 Ince cultivar has highest leaf thickness mesophyll and parenchyma; lowest thickness of cuticle is included B7 Cumhuriyet 50 cultivar. All other cultivars have homogenous contents of leaf characteristics. (author)

  4. RNA-seq in grain unveils fate of neo- and paleopolyploidization events in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Pont, Caroline; Murat, Florent; Confolent, Carole; Balzergue, Sandrine; Salse, Jérôme

    2011-01-01

    Background Whole genome duplication is a common evolutionary event in plants. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a good model to investigate the impact of paleo- and neoduplications on the organization and function of modern plant genomes. Results We performed an RNA sequencing-based inference of the grain filling gene network in bread wheat and identified a set of 37,695 non-redundant sequence clusters, which is an unprecedented resolution corresponding to an estimated half of the wheat g...

  5. Gamma rays induced variability in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was established in the experimental farm belonging to plant Research Department, Nuclear Research Center, Inchas to study the effect of gamma ray (0.200 and 300 Gy) on means of yield and yield attributes for irradiated populations of Giza 164 and Sakha 92, varieties in comparison with untreated control, Moreover, genetic variation was studied by estimate phenotypic, genotypic, coefficient of variation, heritability and genetic advance under selection of bread wheat varieties (Giza 164 and Sakha 92). 1- In -M1- generation: (1995-1996) on plant with morphological change (dwarfness) was identified in 300Gy dose of Giza 164 variety. Moreover, this varient was confirmed and segregated in M2 generation into three types of segregants (dwarf-semidwarf and tall stem). 2- Results showed that mean values of yield and yield attributes of irradiated populations in M2 of Giza 164 and Sakha 92 varieties were insignificantly increased. High magnitudes of G.C-V.%, Hb% and Gs% for number of spike/plant and number of grain/spike were obtained, however moderate magnitude was found for the weight of grains spike. The high values of heritability and genetic gains from selection for these triaits in the next generations. The correlation between grain yield and each of number of spike/plant and number of grain/spike were positive and highly significant however, it was positive and significant for weight grain/spike. Some variants with morphological changes i.e. dwarf, semidward, tall stem, earlly maturity and brown spike were selected in M2 generations. These variants surpassed their mother varieties for one or more of yield attributes suggesting the importance of further evaluation and confirmation of this variants in the next generations

  6. Induced mutations in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. Kharchia 65

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Through mutagenesis with gamma rays, mutants characterized by reduced plant height, square head, awnless ear, semisterile, amber seed colour and bold seeds were induced in bread wheat (Triticum aeastivum L.) cv. Kharchia 65. They were isolated in M2 derived from dry seeds treated with 20 kR, 30 kR and 40 kR of gamma rays of M1 population. In the M3 generation, some progenies with morphological mutants were also recovered. The pattern of segregation was found to be controlled by monogenic recessive control of mutant phenotypes, and showed a good fit for 3 normal: 1 mutant and 1 normal: 2 segregating and 1 mutant between and within the progenies respectively. (author)

  7. Utilization of Decorticated Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan L.) With Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Flours in Bread Making

    OpenAIRE

    Hassan, H. A.; Mustafa, A. I.; Ahmed, A R

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the use of decorticated pigeon pea flour in the development of protein rich - bread, suitable for general and specific nutritional purposes and to study the effect of incorporation of pigeon pea flour on the sensory evaluation and quality of bread produced. Decorticated Pigeon Pea Flour (DPPF) was incorporated with wheat flour (WF 72% Ext.) to replace 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of the wheat flour for bread making. Proximate composition, falling n...

  8. Breeding bread wheat cultivars for high protein content by transfer of protein genes from Triticum dicoccoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triticum dicoccoides sel. G-25, a selection of wild emmer with a protein content of 20.5% and a kernel weight of 31.5 mg, was used as the donor of protein genes. Since this selection is highly resistant to stripe rust, the object of the crossing programme was to transfer this resistance, together with the high protein potential, to durum and bread wheat cultivars susceptible to the disease. In the tetraploid lines obtained from the T. dicoccoides/T. durum cross, the protein values ranged from 17 to 22%. These lines had resistance to stripe rust from the wild emmer and to stem rust from the durum. After two further crosses between these tetraploid lines and T. aestivum cultivars, several lines were selected which combined good yield, high protein level and resistance to rust diseases. These lines attained protein levels of 14 to 19% in the whole grain and 14 to 17% in the flour, combined with yields of 4.5 to 6.0 t/ha. They had also inherited resistance to stem rust, and in some instances also to leaf rust, from the cultivated wheat parental lines. (author)

  9. Effect of Drought Stress on Some Physiological Traits of Durum (Triticum durum Desf. and Bread (Triticum aestivum L. Wheat Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tofig Allahverdiyev

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a wide-spread problem seriously influencing wheat production and quality worldwide. We aimed to study adaptive changes in physiological parameters of 6 durum and 7 bread wheat genotypes under drought stress. Water stress caused reduction of leaf gas exchange parameters-photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, transpiration rate as well leaf area, dry mass, relative water content, and chlorophyll content. Photosynthesis rate, chlorophyll content were higher in flag leaf of bread wheat genotypes. Photosynthesis rate positively correlated with leaf area, dry mass and relative water content.

  10. Characterization of new allele influencing flowering time in bread wheat introgressed from Triticum militinae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivaničová, Zuzana; Jakobson, Irena; Reis, Diana; Šafář, Jan; Milec, Zbyněk; Abrouk, Michael; Doležel, Jaroslav; Järve, Kadri; Valárik, Miroslav

    2016-09-25

    Flowering time variation was identified within a mapping population of doubled haploid lines developed from a cross between the introgressive line 8.1 and spring bread wheat cv. Tähti. The line 8.1 carried introgressions from tetraploid Triticum militinae in the cv. Tähti genetic background on chromosomes 1A, 2A, 4A, 5A, 7A, 1B and 5B. The most significant QTL for the flowering time variation was identified within the introgressed region on chromosome 5A and its largest effect was associated with the VRN-A1 locus, accounting for up to 70% of phenotypic variance. The allele of T. militinae origin was designated as VRN-A1f-like. The effect of the VRN-A1f-like allele was verified in two other mapping populations. QTL analysis identified that in cv. Tähti and cv. Mooni genetic background, VRN-A1f-like allele incurred a delay of 1.9-18.6 days in flowering time, depending on growing conditions. Sequence comparison of the VRN-A1f-like and VRN-A1a alleles from the parental lines of the mapping populations revealed major mutations in the promoter region as well as in the first intron, including insertion of a MITE element and a large deletion. The sequence variation allowed construction of specific diagnostic PCR markers for VRN-A1f-like allele determination. Identification and quantification of the effect of the VRN-A1f-like allele offers a useful tool for wheat breeding and for studying fine-scale regulation of flowering pathways in wheat. PMID:26899284

  11. Utilization of Decorticated Pigeon Pea (Cajanus cajan L. With Wheat (Triticum aestivum Flours in Bread Making

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.A. Hassan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to investigate the use of decorticated pigeon pea flour in the development of protein rich - bread, suitable for general and specific nutritional purposes and to study the effect of incorporation of pigeon pea flour on the sensory evaluation and quality of bread produced. Decorticated Pigeon Pea Flour (DPPF was incorporated with wheat flour (WF 72% Ext. to replace 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25% of the wheat flour for bread making. Proximate composition, falling number, gluten quality and quantity, tannins and phytic acid were determined for the flour blends (Composite flour. Bread proximate composition, sensory evaluation and specific volume were determined as well. Decortication of pigeon pea led to decrease in moisture, ash, tannins and phytic acid and increase in the protein and carbohydrates contents. The falling number (alpha amylase activity significantly increased over the control with the increasing level of DPPF. There were also significant reduction (p#0.05 on gluten quantity (wet and dry gluten and quality (gluten index. No significant differences were found in bread specific volume up to 10% addition of DPPF. The protein, ash, fat contents and calorific values for the bread were significantly increased (p#0.05 with incorporation of DPPF. Increasing levels of the replacement of DPPF resulted in a decrease in the organoleptic quality of the bread. The bread containing up to 15% DPPF was found to be the best in overall acceptability.

  12. EFFECT OF DROUGHT STRESS ON SOME PHYSIOLOGICAL TRAITS OF DURUM (TRITICUM DURUM DESF.) AND BREAD (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) WHEAT GENOTYPES

    OpenAIRE

    Tofig Allahverdiyev

    2015-01-01

    Drought is a wide-spread problem seriously influencing wheat production and quality worldwide. We aimed to study adaptive changes in physiological parameters of 6 durum and 7 bread wheat genotypes under drought stress. Water stress caused reduction of leaf gas exchange parameters-photosynthesis rate, stomatal conductance, intercellular CO2 concentration, transpiration rate as well leaf area, dry mass, relative water content, and chlorophyll content. Photosynthesis rate, chlorophyll content we...

  13. Analysis of the allohexaploid bread wheat genome (Triticum aestivum) using comparative whole genome shotgun sequencing

    Science.gov (United States)

    The large 17 Gb allopolyploid genome of bread wheat is a major challenge for genome analysis because it is composed of three closely- related and independently maintained genomes, with genes dispersed as small “islands” separated by vast tracts of repetitive DNA. We used a novel comparative genomi...

  14. Genetic variability and correlation analysis of bread wheat (triticum aestivum l.) accessions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental plot was conducted to test the variation with correlation of one hundred bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasms under the area of Plant Breeding and Genetics department, Faculty of Agriculture, Gomal University, Dera Ismail Khan, in the year 2006. All the germplasms were evaluated for the traits, spike length (cm), number of spike lets spike/sup -1/, grain yield plant/sup -1/sup (gm), 1000-grain weight (gm) and grain yield (Kg ha/sup -1/). Genetic diversity was statistically found for all the traits. Two germplasm [PARC/JICA 004275 (01)] had maximum spike length (cm) i.e., 22.4 (cm). Maximum variations were observed among the accessions for spike length (cm) with coefficient of variation 17.89%. The accession [PARC/JICA 004280 (01)] has maximum 31.8 number of spike lets spike/sup -1/ with coefficient of variation 18.45%. The entry [PARC/JICA 003845 (01)], [PARC/JICA 004279 (05)], [PARC/JICA 004274 (01)] and [PARC/JICA 004266 (04)] having greatest 1000-grain weight (g) i.e. (46.2, 46.1, 45.6 and 45.1 g) having greatest 1000-grain weight (g) with coefficient of variation 21.39%. The genotypes [PARC/JICA 004280 (01)], [PARC/JICA 004266 (05)] and [PARC/JICA 004267 (02)] had a maximum grain yield (kg ha/sup -1/) i.e., (5185, 5061 and 5051 kg ha/sup -1/) with coefficient of variation 11.75%. The spike length shows positive significant correlation with number of spike lets spike/sup -1/, grain yield plant-1 and grain yield (kg ha/sup -1/). While positive correlation was observed from spike length and 1000-grain weight. Number of spike lets spike/sup -1/ had highly significant correlation with grain yield plant/sup -1/and grain yield (kg ha/sup -1/). High significantly positive correlation was depicted from grain yield plant/sup -1/ and grain yield (kg ha/sup -1/) while, 1000-grain weight had positive highly significant correlation with grain yield (kg ha/sup -1/). (author)

  15. Identification of superior parents and hybrids from diallel crosses of bread wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Five parents of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) viz. TD-1, SKD-1, Marvi, Moomal and Mehran were crossed in a half diallel design; hence 10 F1 hybrids were developed. Parents alongwith hybrids were evaluated for combining ability and heterosis for tillers/plant, spike length, spike density, grains/spike, grain yield/plant and seed index. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications at Botanical Garden, Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Sindh Agriculture University,Tandojam, during 2010. The analysis of variance due to genotypes, parents, hybrids and parents vs. hybrids was significant for all the characters which revealed presence of significant amount of genetic variability in the material. The results also indicated significant differences among the parents for their general combining ability (GCA) and hybrids for specific combining ability (SCA) suggesting the importance of both additive and non-additive genes in the expression of traits studied. The greater magnitude of SCA variances over GCA were recorded for tillers/plant, grains/spike and grain yield/plant which indicated the importance of additive gene action while the involvement of non-additive genes was evident in the inheritance of spike length, spike density and seed index. Among the parents, generally TD-I, Mehran, Moomal and Marvi were the best general combiners for tillers/plant, spike length, spike density, grains/spike, grain yield/plant and seed index. Whereas, the hybrids like SKD-1 x Mehran, Marvi x Mehran, Marvix Moomal and TD-I x SKD-I were the best specific combiners for majority of yield traits. Positive heterosis was expressed by the hybrid SKD-1 x Moomal for tillers per plant; TD-I x Moomal for spike length; TD-1 x SKD-I for grains per spike; Marvi x Mehran for spike density and Marvi x Moomal for seed index. The best parents and hybrids could be effectively utilized in hybridization and selection programmes and also for hybrid crop

  16. Genetic control and heredity of harvest index and biological yield in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Golparvar Ahmad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Assessment of genetic control, mode of inheritance, general and specific combining abilities and effect of drought stress on genetic parameters of harvest index and biological yield traits in bread wheat were achieved by using Diallel mating design. Parents (eight cultivars) along with F1 progenies (28 crosses) were sown in a randomized complete blocks design with three replications under stress condition in Karadj Agricultural Research Center. The data wer...

  17. Genetic Diversity and Linkage Disequilibrium in Chinese Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Revealed by SSR Markers

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, Chenyang; Wang, Lanfen; Ge, Hongmei; Dong, Yuchen; Zhang, Xueyong

    2011-01-01

    Two hundred and fifty bread wheat lines, mainly Chinese mini core accessions, were assayed for polymorphism and linkage disequilibrium (LD) based on 512 whole-genome microsatellite loci representing a mean marker density of 5.1 cM. A total of 6,724 alleles ranging from 1 to 49 per locus were identified in all collections. The mean PIC value was 0.650, ranging from 0 to 0.965. Population structure and principal coordinate analysis revealed that landraces and modern varieties were two relativel...

  18. Molecular cloning, phylogenetic analysis, and expression profiling of endoplasmic reticulum molecular chaperone BiP genes from bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Jiantang; Hao, Pengchao; Chen, Guanxing; Han, Caixia; Li, Xiaohui; Zeller, Friedrich J; Hsam, Sai LK; Hu, Yingkao; Yan, Yueming

    2014-01-01

    Background The endoplasmic reticulum chaperone binding protein (BiP) is an important functional protein, which is involved in protein synthesis, folding assembly, and secretion. In order to study the role of BiP in the process of wheat seed development, we cloned three BiP homologous cDNA sequences in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), completed by rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE), and examined the expression of wheat BiP in wheat tissues, particularly the relationship between BiP expres...

  19. Effects of different priming applications on seed germination and some agromorphological characteristics of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Toklu, Faruk; BALOCH, FAHEEM SHAHZAD; Karaköy, Tolga; Özkan, Hakan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract: This study was conducted to determine the effects of some priming treatments on seed germination properties, grain yield, and several agromorphological characteristics of bread wheat. Two commonly grown bread wheat varieties, namely Adana-99 and Pandas, were selected for experimentation conducted during the 2007-08 and 2008-09 growing periods. The seeds of the Adana-99 and Pandas wheat varieties were primed with the following: (1) distilled water, (2) 100 ppm indole-3-acetic acid (I...

  20. Seed and Seedling Performance of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) as Influenced by Rate and In-Season Nitrogen Application

    OpenAIRE

    Deressa, Haile; Nigussie-Dechassa, R.

    2013-01-01

    Field and laboratory experiments were conducted in the wheat growing belt of southeastern Ethiopia to assess effects of rate and in-season N application on seed and seedling performance of local and improved bread wheat varieties. For the field experiments, a factorial combination of four N levels, two bread wheat varieties, and three times of N application were laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates. Laboratory tests were conducted in a Completely Randomized Des...

  1. GENETIC DIVERSITY OF WINTER BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. SSP. VULGARE

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    Sonja Petrović

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Diversity was analyzed based on agronomic and morphologic traits and molecular data. The main objectives of this study were: 1. to estimate genetic diversity of wheat germplasm using agronomic and morphologic traits and molecular markers, 2. to investigate the existence of genetic erosion within tested wheat germplasm, 3. to explore potential utilization of combination of agronomic, morphologic and molecular markers in plant breeding. Forty winter bread wheat varieties were used originating from Croatia, Austria, France, Italy and Russia. Field trial was conducted during two vegetation years (2007/2008, 2008/2009 in three replications according to randomized block design. Ten traits were included in agronomic and morphologic analysis. Composition of high molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW GS was evaluated for 16 varieties, whereas literature data are used for the rest. Starch composition analysis was based on amylose and amylopectin isolation, their quantity and ratio. For the SSR analysis 26 microsatellite primers were used, and for the AFLP analysis four primer combinations. Statistical analysis was performed using SAS Software 9.1.3, NTSYS ver.2.2., Arlequin ver2.0. and Powermarker ver.3.25. Analyzed varieties displayed highly significant differences (p<0,001 for all agronomic traits and for amylose/amylopectin ratio. High variability of HMW GS was found among varieties. Estimation of genetic diversity based on morphologic and molecular data were used to construct dendograms. AMOVA was used to evaluate variability based on molecular data. Genetic diversity was estimated among and within morphologic and molecular data. SSR and AFLP markers showed efficient discrimination power between highly related genotypes. Significant correlation was found out between two molecular methods which showed more accurate estimate of genetic diversity than by agronomic and morphologic data.

  2. The three pistils mutation enables to produce three kernels in a floret in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spontaneous mutation of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) producing three pistils (TP) in a floret is presented. The TP mutant was found in a spring Chinese landrace and can form up to three kernels in a floret and thus to increase grain number per spike. Restricted space in florets causes kernel flattening. Doublets or triplets of kernels form clusters where the basal parts arise from the receptacle and ventral groove of kernels is outside oriented. In some cases, these groups of kernels are visible after threshing. The TP mutant is determined by the dominant Pis1 gene located on long arm of chromosome 2D. The original Chinese landrace was grown in field tests at Kromeriz (Czech Republic) in 2007. Its yield was only 44 % in comparison with mean yield of check registered cultivars of spring wheat Vanek, Granny and SW Kadrilj (6.46 t.ha-1). TP wheat exhibited low resistance to fungal pathogens, low 1000-kernel weight (TKW) (27.9 g), low volume weight (75.4 kg.hl-1), lower germination vigour, high protein content (17.7 %) and was 10 and 7 days earlier at heading and maturity, respectively. The TP mutant was crossed to significant cultivars of winter wheat aiming to transfer the gene Pis1 to the genetic background of currently grown cultivars. TKW of the harvested F1 plants was around the average of parents. The TP can be used as a potential gene resource for increasing reproductive spike capacity (a kernel number per spike) and spike sink capacity. The significance of the Pis1 gene cannot be exactly evaluated unless the comparison of near-isogenic lines distinguishing in the TP trait and identical in genetic background is carried out. (author)

  3. Estimation of variability for yield parameters in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grown in Gangetic West Bengal

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    Badole Sachin Shankarrao, Subhra Mukherjee, A.K. Pal and D.K. De

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Thirty eight genotypes of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. collected from DWR, Karnal, Haryana were evaluated inRandomized Block Design with three replications at the Teaching Farm of the Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidyalaya in2008-09 crop season. Observations for eighteen different yield contributing characters viz., plant height, days to heading,flowering, maturity, tiller number per plant, length of spike, number of spikes per plant, and per meter square, number ofspikelets per spike, number of grains per spike, grain weight per spike, chlorophyll-a, b and total chlorophyll content, thousandgrain weight, grain protein content, yield per plant and grain weight per meter square were recorded. The genotypes exhibitedsignificant variation for all the characters studied. The estimate of PCV in all the traits studied were greater than those of theGCV, The close proximity between PCV and GCV values for most of the characters indicated less influence of environmenton the expression of the characters under study. Considering heritability, most of the characters showed high values. Highheritability coupled with high genetic advance (in % of mean were recorded for the grain weight per spike, per plant and permeter square, number of grains per spike, thousand grain weight and the grain protein content indicating the characters to beunder additive genetic control and also scope of improvement through direct selection.

  4. Molecular Characterization and Global Expression Analysis of Lectin Receptor Kinases in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Ajay K.; Singh, Kashmir; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Lectin receptor kinases (LRKs) play a critical role in plants during development and stress conditions, but a comprehensive analysis at genome level is still not carried out in Triticum aestivum. Herein, we performed the genome wide identification, characterization and expression analysis of these genes in T. aestivum (TaLRK). In-total 263 TaLRK genes were identified, which were further classified into three groups based on the nature of lectin domain. We identified, two TaLRKs consisted of calcium-dependent lectin (C-LRK), while 84 legume-lectin (L-LRK) and 177 bulb-lectin (B-LRK) domains. The L-LRK and B-LRK genes were distributed throughout the genome of T. aestivum. Most of the TaLRKs were clustered as homologs, which were distributed either in proximity on same chromosome or on homoeologous chromosomes of A, B and D sub-genomes. A total of 9 and 58 duplication events were also predicted in L-LRK and B-LRK, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis indicated conserved evolutionary relationship of homologous and orthologous genes from multiple plant species. Gene ontology analysis indicated TaLRKs role in binding, signaling and receptor activities. Most of the TaLRKs consisted of a trans-membrane domain and predicted to be localized in the plasma-membrane. A diverse expression pattern of TaLRK genes was found in various developmental stages and stress conditions. Some TaLRKs were found to be highly affected during a particular stress, which indicated a specialized role of each LRK gene in a specific stress condition. These results described various characteristic feature and expression pattern of TaLRK genes, which will pave the way for functional characterization in wheat. PMID:27111449

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation, evaporation retardants and transpiration suppressants on grain yield, nutrient uptake and moisture-use efficiency on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A field trial was conducted on 'Malaviya 37' bread wheat (Triticum aestivum Linn. emend. Fiori and Paol.) in 1982-83 and 1983-84. It included 4 dos es of gamma irradiation of seeds (0, 2.5, 4.5 and 6.5 kR) and 5 treatments of evaporation retardants and transpiration suppressants, viz. control, rice (Oryza sativa Linn.) straw, wheat straw, rice straw + phenyl mercuric acetate (150 ppm) and wheat straw + kaolin (6 per cent). Seed irradiation with gamma-rays at 6.5 kR and wheat straw + kaolin gave 11.76 and 61.37 per cent higher yield than the control respectively. For moisture-use efficiency and NPK uptake these treatments also showed the same trend. (author). 12 refs

  6. Proteome characterization of developing grains in bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Guo Guangfang; Lv Dongwen; Yan Xing; Subburaj Saminathan; Ge Pei; Li Xiaohui; Hu Yingkao; Yan Yueming

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The analyses of protein synthesis, accumulation and regulation during grain development in wheat are more complex because of its larger genome size compared to model plants such as Arabidopsis and rice. In this study, grains from two wheat cultivars Jimai 20 and Zhoumai 16 with different gluten quality properties were harvested at five development stages, and were used to displayed variable expression patterns of grain proteins. Results Proteome characterization during gra...

  7. A chromosome-based draft sequence of the hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) genome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mayer, K. F. X.; Rogers, J.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Pozniak, C.; Feuillet, C.; Lukaszewski, A.J.; Sourdille, P.; Kubaláková, Marie; Čihalíková, Jarmila; Dubská, Zdeňka; Vrána, Jan; Šperková, Romana; Šimková, Hana; Choulet, F.; Stein, N.; Praud, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 345, č. 6194 (2014). ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090; GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/12/2554; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : GENE-EXPRESSION * POLYPLOID WHEAT * AEGILOPS-TAUSCHII Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 33.611, year: 2014 http://gateway.isiknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=CCC&DestLinkType=FullRecord&UT=000339400700040

  8. Response of Different Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Genotypes to Post-Anthesis Water Deficit

    OpenAIRE

    Hamdollah ESKANDARI; Kamyar KAZEMI KAZEMI

    2010-01-01

    Resources of water are limited in many agricultural areas of West Asia. Therefore, effective use of this scarce resource is very important in this region. So, this research was conducted in 2009-2010 growing season at Research Farm of Agricultural Researches Center of Khuzestan, Iran, to investigate the effects of two irrigation regime (I1: normal irrigation and I2: no irrigation in post-anthesis growth stage) on grain yield of five wheat cultivars (�Chamran�, �S-78-11�, �A�, �S-80-18� and �S...

  9. Radiation-induced chromosome breakages in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meiosis and pollen fertility were studied in the M2 generation in four varieties of hexaploid wheat. Meiosis was characterized by the formation of interchange configurations, such as rings and chains of four chromosomes in several cells. Chromosomal aberrations showed linear relationship with gamma irradiation; 45 kR dose induced the highest chromosomal abnormalities. Most multivalents were interchange rings of four chromosomes. Translocations involving two pairs of homologous or nonhomologous chromosomes seemed to be higher in frequency than those involving more than two pairs of chromosomes. Anaphase abnormalities, such as laggards, bridges and fragments and unequal segregation of chromosomes, were frequently observed. Pollen fertility was considerably reduced in the M2 plants arising form the treatments of higher doses of gamma rays because of the induced chromosome interchanges. (author)

  10. Novel Structural and Functional Motifs in cellulose synthase (CesA) Genes of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Simerjeet; Dhugga, Kanwarpal S; Gill, Kulvinder; Singh, Jaswinder

    2016-01-01

    Cellulose is the primary determinant of mechanical strength in plant tissues. Late-season lodging is inversely related to the amount of cellulose in a unit length of the stem. Wheat is the most widely grown of all the crops globally, yet information on its CesA gene family is limited. We have identified 22 CesA genes from bread wheat, which include homoeologs from each of the three genomes, and named them as TaCesAXA, TaCesAXB or TaCesAXD, where X denotes the gene number and the last suffix s...

  11. ESTIMATION OF HETEROSIS IN DIFFERENT CROSSES OF BREAD WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAMTA SINGH

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Here we report some of the heterotic wheat crosses produced by crossing fifteen parents in a line x tester mating scheme. Analysis of variance revealed significant differences at 1% level of significance among the genotypes. Manifestation of heterosis was done over mid parent, better parent and the two standard checks i.e. UP 2684 and PBW 343. The generated data registered JUPIBJY/URES X UP 2572 as the best heterotic hybrid for harvest index against the checks UP 2684 and PBW 343 with the values of 27.39% and 50.54% respectively. Likewise HP 1749 X UP 2572 showed maximum heterosis (18.66% over the check PBW 343. The data provides information on heterotic advantage of important yield and associated components. The highest heterotic genotypes can be exploited in future breeding programs to attain self-sufficiency in food grains. However, comprehensive field evaluation over locations and years is advocated for the crosses having significant heterosis before their commercial exploitation.

  12. INDUCED GENETIC VARIABILITY AND SELECTION FOR HIGH YIELDING MUTANTS IN BREAD WHEAT(TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted during the two winter seasons of 2004/2005 and 2005/2006 at the experimental farm belonging to Plant Research Department, Nuclear Research Centre, AEA, Egypt.The aim of this study is to determine the effect of gamma rays(150, 200 and 250 Gy) on means of yield and its attributes for exotic wheat variety (vir-25) and induction of genetic variability that permits to perform visual selection through the irradiated populations, as well as to determine difference in seed protein patterns between vir-25 parent variety and some selectants in M2 generation.The results showed that the different doses of gamma rays had non-significant effect on mean value of yield/plant and significant effect on mean values of it's attributes. 0n the other hand, the considered genetic variability was generated as result of applying gamma irradiation. The highest amount of induced genetic variability was detected for number of grains/ spike, spike length and number of spikes/plant. Additionally, these three traits exhibited strong association with grain yield/plant, hence, they were used as a criterion for selection.Some variant plants were selected from radiation treatment 250 Gy, with 2-10 spikes per plant.These variant plants exhibited increasing in spike length and number of gains/spike.The results also revealed that protein electrophoresis were varied in the number and position of bands from genotype to another and various genotypes share bands with molecular weights 31.4 and 3.2 KD.Many bands were found to be specific for the genotype and the nine wheat mutants were characterized by the presence of bands of molecular weights: 151.9, 125.7, 14.1 and 5.7 KD at M-167.4, 21.7 and 8.2 at M-299.7 KD at M-3136.1, 97.6, 49.8, 27.9 and 20.6 KD at M-4 135.2, 95.3 and 28.1 KD at M-5 135.5, 67.7, 47.1, 32.3, 21.9 and 9.6 KD at M-6 126.1, 112.1, 103.3, 58.8, 20.9 and 12.1 KD at M-7 127.7, 116.6, 93.9, 55.0 and 47.4 KD at M-8 141.7, 96.1, 79.8, 68.9, 42.1, 32.7, 22.0 and 13

  13. Genetic variability, path-coefficient and correlation studies in twenty elite bread-wheat (triticum aestivum L.) lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty bread-wheat elite lines of diverse origin, developed by various research institutes in the country, were tested and evaluated at National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC) under optimum irrigated conditions. Significant variation was observed for all the traits studied viz: days to heading, days to maturity, kernel weight, test weight and grain yield. Genotypic and phenotypic correlations were computed and the direct and indirect contributions of each trait towards grain-yield were determined. Grain-yield showed significant association with test weight and kernel weight. Direct positive effects of kernel weight and test weight towards grain-yield suggest the effectiveness of these traits to select and identify the desirable wheat- genotypes for a target environment. (author)

  14. Allelic variations in Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci of historical and modern Iranian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ali Izadi-Darbandi; Bahman Yazdi-Samadi; Ali-Akbar Su-Boushehri; Mohsen Mohammadi

    2010-08-01

    Proline and glutamine-rich wheat seed endosperm proteins are collectively referred to as prolamins. They are comprised of HMW-GSs, LMW-GSs and gliadins. HMW-GSs are major determinants of gluten elasticity and LMW-GSs considerably affect dough extensibility and maximum dough resistance. The inheritance of glutenin subunits follows Mendelian genetics with multiple alleles in each locus. Identification of the banding patterns of glutenin subunits could be used as an estimate for screening high quality wheat germplasm. Here, by means of a two-step 1D-SDS-PAGE procedure, we identified the allelic variations in high and low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits in 65 hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars representing a historical trend in the cultivars introduced or released in Iran from the years 1940 to 1990. Distinct alleles 17 and 19 were detected for Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci, respectively. The allelic frequencies at the Glu-1 loci demonstrated unimodal distributions. At Glu-A1, Glu-B1 and Glu-D1, we found that the most frequent alleles were the null, 7 + 8, 2 + 12 alleles, respectively, in Iranian wheat cultivars. In contrast, Glu-3 loci showed bimodal or trimodal distributions. At Glu-A3, the most frequent alleles were c and e. At Glu-B3 the most frequent alleles were a, b and c. At Glu-D3 locus, the alleles b and a, were the most and the second most frequent alleles in Iranian wheat cultivars. This led to a significantly higher Nei coefficient of genetic variations in Glu-3 loci (0.756) as compared to Glu-1 loci (0.547). At Glu-3 loci, we observed relatively high quality alleles in Glu-A3 and Glu-D3 loci and low quality alleles at Glu-B3 locus.

  15. Heat-induced regulation of antioxidant defense system and nutrient accumulation in hexaploid bread wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ten cultivars (five registered S-24, Inqlab-91, Saher-2006, Fsd-2008, and Lasani, and five candidate cultivars P.B-18, M.P-65, S.H-20, AARI-10, and G.A-20) of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were examined for high temperature stress tolerance. Plants were grown in soil filled pots in the Botanical Garden of the Department of Botany University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan. Three different temperature regimes (30, 40 and 50 degree C) were applied at two different growth stages (tillering and boot) for three temperature durations 30, 60 and 90 min in a growth chamber. The leaf and root samples were collected after two weeks of temperature treatment and then analyzed for enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants as well as inorganic nutrients (N, P, K+, Ca2+). At the end, data obtained were statistically analyzed to distinguish heat tolerant from non-tolerant wheat cultivars. After appraisal of growth, antioxidant defense system and uptake of nutrients it was found that cvs. S-24, Inqlab-91, Saher-2006, Fsd-2008, Lasani and G.A-20 exhibited better thermo-tolerance capabilities than the other wheat cultivars (P.B-18, M.P-65, S.H-20, AARI-10). Among the thermo-tolerant wheat cultivars, G.A-20 and Lasani were superior in maintaining shoot fresh weights and shoot length, high antioxidant activities and better nutrient uptake at both tillering and boot stages. The response of all cultivars to heat stress applied at the tillering stage or boot stage was almost the same. (author)

  16. Path coefficient and correlation of yield and yield associated traits in candidate bread wheat (triticum aestivum l)lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yield and yield contributing traits were studied in candidate bread wheat lines to find out the genetic contribution of the different characters towards grain yield at NIFA, Peshawar during 2001-02. All the characteristics studied differed significantly from each other. Days to heading showed negative and significant correlation with harvest index and grain yield but was negative and non-significant with the biological yield. Days to maturity were negatively correlated at both genotypic and phenotypic levels with biological yield; harvest index and grain yield and level of correlations were significant with harvest index and grain yield. Plant height showed negative genotypic and phenotypic correlation with harvest index and grain yield. Biological yield had positive and significant genotypic and phenotypic correlations with harvest index and grain yield. Harvest index had positive and highly significant genotypic and phenotypic correlation with grain yield. Genotypic and phenotypic correlation coefficients revealed that important characters influencing grain yield are harvest index and biological yield. Path analysis showed the importance in order of harvest index, biological yield, plant height, days to maturity and days to heading with grain yield. (author)

  17. Rheological study of mixed flour: wheat (Triticum vulgare, barley (Hordeum vulgare and potato (Solanum tuberosum for use in the preparation of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galo Sandoval

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With wheat flour imported and domestic wheat cereals produced in the country, and the potato tuber, a rheological study was performed to determine the most suitable proportions of substitution of wheat flour imported with the latter and its feasibility for making bread. We worked in mixtures of flour, wheat CWRS # 1 (red spring wheat in western Canada Cañicapa barley flour, wheat and potato Cojitambo Gabriela, from Ecuadorian cultures in proportions of 10, 20 and 30% (p / p. Masses from mixtures of flours were analyzed on a Brabender Farinograph, in order to determine the water absorption, development time, stability and rate of tolerance with a view to selecting the flour blends that have a behavior similar to CWRS wheat flour # 1. The best mixtures found were: wheat flour # 1 CWRS replaced with 10, 20 and 30% barley flour Cañicapa, and the mixture of wheat flour # 1 CWRS wheat flour in Cojitambo 30%. These flour mixes selected were also subjected to rheological analysis of their masses using a computer Mixolab. The breads made from flours selected were evaluated in a sensory panel. The breads more accepted by consumers were those containing 20 and 30% barley, followed by the group of those made with imported wheat with 30% wheat Cojitambo, and containing 10% of barley flour.

  18. Changes in allelic frequency over time in European bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties revealed using DArT and SSR markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orabi, Jihad; Jahoor, Ahmed; Backes, Gunter Martin

    2014-01-01

    A collection of 189 bread wheat landraces and cultivars, primarily of European origin, released between 1886 and 2009, was analyzed using two DNA marker systems. A set of 76 SSR markers and ~7,000 DArT markers distributed across the wheat genome were employed in these analyses. All of the SSR mar...

  19. Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat Triticum aestivum: complementary interaction between vernalization-insensitive and photoperiod-insensitive mutations imparts very early flowering habit to spring wheat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Sushil Kumar; Vishakha Sharma; Swati Chaudhary; Anshika Tyagi; Poonam Mishra; Anupama Priyadarshini; Anupam Singh

    2011-04-01

    Time to flowering in the winter growth habit bread wheat is dependent on vernalization (exposure to cold conditions) and exposure to long days (photoperiod). Dominant Vrn-1 (Vrn-A1, Vrn-B1 and Vrn-D1) alleles are associated with vernalization-independent spring growth habit. The semidominant Ppd-D1a mutation confers photoperiod-insensitivity or rapid flowering in wheat under short day and long day conditions. The objective of this study was to reveal the nature of interaction between Vrn-1 and Ppd-D1a mutations (active alleles of the respective genes vrn-1 and Ppd-D1b). Twelve Indian spring wheat cultivars and the spring wheat landrace Chinese Spring were characterized for their flowering times by seeding them every month for five years under natural field conditions in New Delhi. Near isogenic Vrn-1 Ppd-D1 and Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a lines constructed in two genetic backgrounds were also phenotyped for flowering time by seeding in two different seasons. The wheat lines of Vrn-A1a Vrn-B1 Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1a, Vrn-A1a Vrn-B1 Ppd-D1a and Vrn-A1a Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1a (or Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a) genotypes flowered several weeks earlier than that of Vrn-A1a Vrn-B1 Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1b, Vrn-A1b Ppd-D1b and Vrn-D1 Ppd-D1b (or Vrn-1 Ppd-D1b) genotypes. The flowering time phenotypes of the isogenic vernalization-insensitive lines confirmed that Ppd-D1a hastened flowering by several weeks. It was concluded that complementary interaction between Vrn-1 and Ppd-D1a active alleles imparted super/very-early flowering habit to spring wheats. The early and late flowering wheat varieties showed differences in flowering time between short day and long day conditions. The flowering time in Vrn-1 Ppd-D1a genotypes was hastened by higher temperatures under long day conditions. The ambient air temperature and photoperiod parameters for flowering in spring wheat were estimated at 25°C and 12 h, respectively.

  20. Calidad física de grano de trigos harineros (Triticum aestivum L.mexicanos de temporal Physical quality from rainfall Mexican bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Micaela de la O Olán

    2012-04-01

    characteristics for marketing bread wheat. It is well known that environment affects some of its physical parameters; therefore the aim of this study was to determine environment influence in some physical quality parameters of three bread wheat populations developed by progenies from one single F2 to F6 seed, the first group was comprised by 69 lines of Rebeca F2000 x Salamanca S75 breed, the second was formed by 98 genotypes of Rebeca F2000 x Baviácora M92 breed, and the third was formed by 98 genotypes of Gálvez M87 x Rebeca F2000 breed, plus parents. The genotypes from the first group were sown at Roque, Guanajuato (autumn-winter 2006-2007 with normal (five irrigations and restricted (three irrigations irrigation. The genotypes of second and third breeds were sown at Santa Lucía de Prías and Chapingo, State of Mexico (2006 spring-summer. The following variables were assessed: hectolitre weight (kg hL-¹, grain hardness (%, and protein content in grain (%. An analysis of variance and frequencies histogram were made and means with least significant difference were compared. The genotypes showed highly significant differences for all physical quality variables assessed, and this also occurred for hectolitre weight and protein content in grain for humidity levels and localities. In the hectolitre weight frequency histograms the three population groups show trend towards normal distribution which sugge sts that such variable involves high amount of genes and it is strongly affected by environment. Genotypes with better hectolitre weight than parents were identified; therefore materials are available to make selection.

  1. Aroma of Wheat Bread Crumb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Anja Niehues

    Understanding how the dough fermentation conditions influence the wheat bread production time and the bread aroma is important for the bread industry. The overall purpose of this PhD project is to investigate the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature on...... dough expansion and aroma in bread crumb. In Paper I the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature on dough expansion were investigated. Wheat doughs were fermented by seven commercial baker’s yeasts (baker’s yeast I to VII) at different yeast concentrations (2...... VII. The longest fermentation times were generally found for doughs fermented with all baker’s yeasts at 5°C and the lowest yeast concentration (2.88•1014 CFU/kg flour). In Paper II, III and V wheat breads were produced for volatile analysis. The dough samples were fermented to equal height and baked...

  2. A comprehensive study on dehydration-induced antioxidative responses during germination of Indian bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em Thell) cultivars collected from different agroclimatic zones

    OpenAIRE

    Garg, Bharti; Jaiswal, Jai P.; Misra, Shrilekha; Tripathi, Bhumi Nath; Prasad, Manoj

    2012-01-01

    To explore the adaptability of bread wheat to dehydration stress, we screened 28 cultivars collected from different agroclimatic zones, on the basis of malonaldehyde content as biochemical marker in roots of wheat seedlings during germination and classified them as highly tolerant, tolerant, sensitive and highly sensitive. From this primary screening, ten cultivars that showed differential responses to dehydration stress were selected to understand the biochemical and physiological basis of s...

  3. Isolation of ABA-responsive mutants in allohexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): Drawing connections to grain dormancy, preharvest sprouting, and drought tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes the isolation of Wheat ABA-responsive mutants (Warm) in Chinese spring background of allohexaploid Triticum aestivum. The plant hormone abscisic acid (ABA) is required for the induction of seed dormancy, the induction of stomatal closure and drought tolerance, and is associated...

  4. Elucidation of defense-related signaling responses to spot blotch infection in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Ranabir; Sharaff, Murali; Pradhan, Maitree; Sethi, Avinash; Bandyopadhyay, Tirthankar; Mishra, Vinod K; Chand, Ramesh; Chowdhury, Apurba K; Joshi, Arun K; Pandey, Shree P

    2016-04-01

    Spot blotch disease, caused by Bipolaris sorokiniana, is an important threat to wheat, causing an annual loss of ~17%. Under epidemic conditions, these losses may be 100%, yet the molecular responses of wheat to spot blotch remain almost uncharacterized. Moreover, defense-related phytohormone signaling genes have been poorly characterized in wheat. Here, we have identified 18 central components of salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), ethylene (ET), and enhanced disease susceptibility 1 (EDS1) signaling pathways as well as the genes of the phenylpropanoid pathway in wheat. In time-course experiments, we characterized the reprogramming of expression of these pathways in two contrasting genotypes: Yangmai #6 (resistant to spot blotch) and Sonalika (susceptible to spot blotch). We further evaluated the performance of a population of recombinant inbred lines (RILs) by crossing Yangmai#6 and Sonalika (parents) and subsequent selfing to F10 under field conditions in trials at multiple locations. We characterized the reprogramming of defense-related signaling in these RILs as a consequence of spot blotch attack. During resistance to spot blotch attack, wheat strongly elicits SA signaling (SA biogenesis as well as the NPR1-dependent signaling pathway), along with WRKY33 transcription factor, followed by an enhanced expression of phenylpropanoid pathway genes. These may lead to accumulation of phenolics-based defense metabolites that may render resistance against spot blotch. JA signaling may synergistically contribute to the resistance. Failure to elicit SA (and possibly JA) signaling may lead to susceptibility against spot blotch infection in wheat. PMID:26932764

  5. Sequencing chromosome 5D of Aegilops tauschii and comparison with its allopolyploid descendant bread wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Akpinar, B. A.; Lucas, S. J.; Vrána, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Budak, H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 6 (2015), s. 740-752. ISSN 1467-7644 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : D genome donor of wheat * chromosome 5D * comparative genomics Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.752, year: 2014

  6. Assessment of Drought Tolerance Indices and their Relation with ISSR Markers in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Behnam FIROOZI; Sofalian, Omid; Majid SHOKRPOUR; Ali RASOULZADEH; Fatemeh AHMADPOOR

    2012-01-01

    Water stress is one of the most important environmental abiotic stress that reduced crop yield especially in arid and semi arid regions of the world. In order to identifying drought tolerance, 39 cultivars of spring, facultative and winter type wheat varieties were planted as subplots within the irrigation plots (main plots) in a randomized complete block design with three replications in a research filed of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Iran. In 2/3 continuous irr...

  7. Chromosomal location of genomic SSR markers associated with yellow rust resistance in Turkish bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    F. Senturk Akfirat; F. Ertugrul; S. Hasancebi; Y. Aydin; K. Akan; Z. Mert; M. Cakir; A. Altinkut Uncuoglu

    2013-08-01

    We have previously reported Xgwm382 as a diagnostic marker for disease resistance against yellow rust in Izgi2001 × ES14 F2 population. Among the same earlier tested 230 primers, one SSR marker (Xgwm311) also amplified a fragment which is present in the resistant parent and in the resistant bulks, but absent in the susceptible parent and in the susceptible bulks. To understand the chromosome group location of these diagnostic markers, Xgwm382 and Xgwm311, in the same population, we selected 16 SSR markers mapped only in one genome of chromosome group 2 around 1–21 cM distance to these diagnostic markers based on the SSR consensus map of wheat. Out of 16 SSRs, Xwmc658 identified resistant F2 individuals as a diagnostic marker for yellow rust disease and provided the location of Xgwm382 and Xgwm311 on chromosome 2AL in our plant material.

  8. Marker-assisted selection of highmolecular weight glutenin alleles related to bread-making quality in Iranian common wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ali Izadi-Darbandi; Bahman Yazdi-Samadi

    2012-08-01

    Bread-making quality in hexaploid wheats is a complex trait. It has been shown that the amount and composition of protein can influence dough rheological properties. The high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenins are encoded by a complex locus, Glu-1, on the long arm of group-1 homoeologus chromosome of the A, B and D genomes. In this work we used PCR-based DNA markers as a substitution tool to distinguish wheat bread-making quality. We detected PCR-based DNA markers for coding sequence of Glu-A1x, Glu-B1x and Glu-D1x to be 2300 bp, 2400 bp and 2500 bp respectively. DNA markers related to coding sequence of Glu-A1y, Glu-B1y and Glu-D1y were; 1800 bp, 2100 bp and 1950 bp, however, the repetitive region of their coding sequence were shown to be about 1300 bp, 1500 bp and 1600 bp. The results demonstrate that the size variation was due to different lengths of the central repetitive domain. Good or poor bread-making quality in wheat is associated with two allelic pairs of Glu-D1, designated 1Dx5-1Dy10 and IDx2-1Dy12. The 1Bx7 allele has moderate-to-good quality score. The specific DNA markers, of 450 bp, 576 bp, 612 bp and 2400 bp respectively were characterized for 1Dx5, 1Dy10, 1Dy12 and 1Bx7 alleles. These markers are very important in screening of wheat for bread-making quality.

  9. Sequential Path Analysis for Determination of Relationship Between Yield and Yield Components in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum.L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtasham MOHAMMADI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate 295 wheat genotypes in Alpha-Lattice design with two replications. The arithmetic mean and standard deviation of grain yield was 2706 and 950 (kg/ha,respectively. The results of correlation coefficients indicated that grain yield had significant and positive association with plant height, spike length, early growth vigor and agronomic score. Whereas there were negative correlation coefficients between grain yield and days to physiological maturity and canopy temperature before and during anthesis. Path analysis indicated agronomic score and plant height had high positive direct effects on grain yield, while canopy temperature before and during anthesis, and days to maturity, wes another trait having negative direct effect on grain yield. The results of sequential path analysis showed the traits that accounted as a criteria variable for high grain yield were agronomic score, plant height, canopy temperature, spike length, chlorophyll content and early growth vigor, which were determined as first, second and third order variables and had strong effects on grain yield via one or more paths. More important, as canopy temperature, agronomic score and early growth vigor can be evaluated quickly and easily, these traits may be used for evaluation of large populations.

  10. Detection of QTLs for traits associated with pre-harvest sprouting resistance in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Liangzi; Hayashi, Kazuki; Tokui, Mayumi; Mori, Masahiko; Miura, Hideho; Onishi, Kazumitsu

    2016-03-01

    Pre-harvest sprouting (PHS) is one of the serious problems for wheat production, especially in rainy regions. Although seed dormancy is the most critical trait for PHS resistance, the control of heading time should also be considered to prevent seed maturation during unfavorable conditions. In addition, awning is known to enhance water absorption by the spike, causing PHS. In this study, we conducted QTL analysis for three PHS resistant related traits, seed dormancy, heading time and awn length, by using recombinant inbred lines from 'Zenkouji-komugi' (high PHS resistance) × 'Chinese Spring' (weak PHS resistance). QTLs for seed dormancy were detected on chromosomes 1B (QDor-1B) and 4A (QDor-4A), in addition to a QTL on chromosome 3A, which was recently cloned as TaMFT-3A. In addition, the accumulation of the QTLs and their epistatic interactions contributed significantly to a higher level of dormancy. QDor-4A is co-located with the Hooded locus for awn development. Furthermore, an effective QTL, which confers early heading by the Zenkouji-komugi allele, was detected on the short arm of chromosome 7B, where the Vrn-B3 locus is located. Understanding the genetic architecture of traits associated with PHS resistance will facilitate the marker assisted selection to breed new varieties with higher PHS resistance. PMID:27162497

  11. Computational Analysis Of Group 2 Late Embryogenesis Protein (Lea In Different Cultivar Of Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasouli Hassan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Late Embryogenesis abundant protein has a crucial role as the cold-acclimation process in the wheat. These proteins encoded by TaWdhn13 gene. This gene is transcriptionally activated and produces the accumulated proteins and metabolites and protection cell structure from freezing damage. The objectives of this study were to isolate the genomic DNA (g-DNA sequence of TaWdhn13, to analyze structure, conserved domains of the gene, and to found a basis for association analysis of the functional sites associated with computational analysis. We here report on the functional assignment to TaWdhn13 gene by computational analysis. The Three-Dimensional (3D model of LEA protein drawing by using the phyre 2 server. For identify the conserved domain and motif of these gene sequence we used the Conserved Domain Database and DNA Motif Searching Database, however, the conserved domains and motif has been recognized. The results showed TaWdhn13 conserved domain incudes: Dehydrin superfamily. Also, motifs structure for this gene includes: 2FE2S_FER_1 Motif, INTEGRIN_BETA Motif, VWFC_1 Motif, EGF_1 Motif and DEFENSIN Motif. Our results reveal that group 2 LEA proteins are most likely to function within the cell nucleus. The analysis of protein property showed that the protein had no trans-membrane domains. The isoelectric point of the protein was 3.41, which was charged with 5.34 negative electrons when pH value of the buffer was 7.0.

  12. Anthocyanins in purple and blue wheat grains and in resulting bread: quantity, composition, and thermal stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartl, Pavel; Albreht, Alen; Skrt, Mihaela; Tremlová, Bohuslava; Ošťádalová, Martina; Šmejkal, Karel; Vovk, Irena; Ulrih, Nataša Poklar

    2015-01-01

    The anthocyanin composition of blue (Triticum aestivum L., cv. Skorpion) and purple wheat (Triticum aethiopicum JAKUBZ cv. Abyssinskaja arrasajta cv. Abyssinskaja arrasajta), cultivated in the Czech Republic, and of the prepared whole blue and purple wheat bread was determined. In blue and purple wheat, 19 and 26 anthocyanins, respectively, were tentatively identified by liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The total content of anthocyanins determined in blue and purple wheat was 9.26 and 13.23 mgkg(-1), respectively. The breads were baked at 240 and 180 °C. Some significant differences in anthocyanins content were observed between breads prepared at different baking temperatures. The content of cyanidin-3-glucoside, delphinidin-3-glucoside and pelargonidin-3-glucoside was determinated in starting material, whole meal flours and baked breads. These kinds of wheat are suitable for baking bread, since intake of anthocyanins may play an important role in the prevention of human diseases. PMID:26088282

  13. Assessment of Drought Tolerance Indices and their Relation with ISSR Markers in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam FIROOZI

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Water stress is one of the most important environmental abiotic stress that reduced crop yield especially in arid and semi arid regions of the world. In order to identifying drought tolerance, 39 cultivars of spring, facultative and winter type wheat varieties were planted as subplots within the irrigation plots (main plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications in a research filed of Faculty of Agriculture, University of Mohaghegh Ardabili, Iran. In 2/3 continuous irrigation stress level, based on stress susceptibility, geometric mean productivity and harmonic indices, �Sepahan�, �Karaj 3�, �Bahar� and �Yavaroos� were known as the best varieties; and in 1/3 continuous irrigation stress level, based on the mentioned indices, �Hirmand�, �Bahar�, �Yavaroos� and �Marvdasht� were the best one. According to biplot resulted from principle coordinate analysis, in 2/3 continuous irrigation �Moghan 1�, �Golestan�, �Kavir�, �Maroon�, �Karkheh�, �Chanaab�, �10�, �6�, �Bahar� and �Sepahan�; and in 1/3 continuous irrigation �Golestan�, �10�, �Niknejad�, �Maroon�, �Darab�, �Falat�, �Arta�, �Marvdasht�, �Bahar� and �Hirmand� were identified as the most tolerant cultivars. According to multiple regression analysis in subject of agronomic traits, 43, 33 and 25 informative ISSR markers identified in control, 2/3 and 1/3 continuous irrigation conditions, respectively. Also among these markers, there were significant relationship between P12L3 and P21L3 markers with plant height and spike length; P4L1 and P22L1 markers with flag leaf length; P19L4 markers and number of node; P30L4 markers and awn length; P10L1 and P22L1 with peduncle to plant height ratio in all of stress and non-stress conditions.

  14. The Dıfferences of Spike Development on Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Em Thell. in the Tekirdağ Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İ. Atılgan Helvacıoğlu , S. Şehirali

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The research was conducted in experiment fields of Field Crop Department of Tekirdağ Ağricultural Faculty at Trakya University in growing seasons of 2001-2002 and 2002-2003 based on random block of experiment desing with four replications. Two bread wheat cultivars (Pehlivan and Sana were used as the material in this research. The main stem length, tiller numbers, apex developments and the number of circles on apex were measured as physical properties. In the physical properties the difference of bread wheat varieties on main stem development, tiller numbers, apex developments and the number of circles on apex were significant. Achived data evince that earlyriser and mid-riser wheat varieties which complete apex growing more faster, are more convenient for Trakya Region. However, it is determined that wheat varieties which completes apex growing more later, are not convenient for this region. In apex growing the exess number of circles on apex shows that spikelet numbers will be more.

  15. Molecular organization and comparative analysis of chromosome 5B of the wild wheat ancestor Triticum dicoccoides

    OpenAIRE

    Akpınar, Bala Anı; Akpinar, Bala Ani; Yüce, Meral; Yuce, Meral; Lucas, Stuart J.; Vrana, Jan; Buresova, Veronika; Dolezel, Jaroslav; Budak, Hikmet

    2015-01-01

    Wild emmer wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides is the wild relative of Triticum turgidum, the progenitor of durum and bread wheat, and maintains a rich allelic diversity among its wild populations. The lack of adequate genetic and genomic resources, however, restricts its exploitation in wheat improvement. Here, we report next-generation sequencing of the flow-sorted chromosome 5B of T. dicoccoides to shed light into its genome structure, function and organization by exploring the repet...

  16. IPR 118 - Bread wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Riede

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat cultivar IPR 118 developed by IAPAR has a good yield potential and is widely adapted. It is earlymaturing and moderately tolerant to shattering and soil aluminum, moderately resistant to leaf rust and presents high glutenstrength for bread-making. The overall yield exceeded controls by 13%.

  17. Quality of Bread from Composite Flour of Sorghum and Hard White Winter Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    R.F. Abdelghafor; A.I. Mustafa, A.M.H. Ibrahim and P.G. Krishnan

    2011-01-01

    This study was carried out to investigate the baking properties of whole, decorticated sorghum- (Sorghum bicolor) - wheat (Triticum aestivum Desf.) composite flours as well as to determine the physical characteristics and organoleptic quality of pan and balady breads made from those flours. Whole and decorticated sorghum flours were used to replace 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% by weight of bread wheat flour. Sensory evaluation results showed that up to 20% wheat replacement with whole or decorticate...

  18. Mechanism of Resistance in two Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Lines to Russian Wheat Aphid (Diuraphis Noxia: Homoptra: Aphididae) in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia) is a recent pest of small cereals that is causing severe yield losses in farmers' fields and farmers have demanded a resistant wheat line. In wheat the pest causes both direct and indirect damage resulting in losses of up to 90%. Control of the aphid is a major constraint in the production of wheat in Kenya requiring the use of more than one systematic insecticide application.This cost is prohibitive.Breeding wheat for resistance to Russian wheat is the cheapest alternative and is the international trend. The use of Russian wheat aphid resistant cultivars may reduce the impact of these pest on cereal production. A study was therefore conducted in Kenya to understand and determine the genetics of inheritance pattern of D. noxia present in two new sources of resistance (RWA 8 and RWA 16). These two new sources would be potential donors of D. noxia resistance in breeding programmes. The two resistant donors with unknown resistance genes for Diuraphis noxia were crossed with susceptible Kenyan commercial wheat cultivar, Heroe. Resistant reaction of F1,BC1 and F2 indicated that resistance in the two lines differed. Resistant in RWA 8 may be controlled by a single dominant genes while RWA 16 by two incomplete dominant genes. It is unknown wether these genes are identical to any known, designated resistance genes. However, their resistance has been shown to be effective on the RWA population in Kenya. As studies continue on these genes at molecular level, it is recommended that resistant populations are carried on through the breeding programme to possibly identify and release a resistant variety for commercial production

  19. Comparative phosphoproteome analysis of the developing grains in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under well-watered and water-deficit conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Ma, Cao-Ying; Lv, Dong-Wen; Zhen, Shou-Min; Li, Xiao-Hui; Yan, Yue-Ming

    2014-10-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum), one of the most important cereal crops, is often threatened by drought. In this study, water deficit significantly reduced the height of plants and yield of grains. To explore further the effect of drought stress on the development and yield of grains, we first performed a large scale phosphoproteome analysis of developing grains in wheat. A total of 590 unique phosphopeptides, representing 471 phosphoproteins, were identified under well-watered conditions. Motif-X analysis showed that four motifs were enriched, including [sP], [Rxxs], [sDxE], and [sxD]. Through comparative phosphoproteome analysis between well-watered and water-deficit conditions, we found that 63 unique phosphopeptides, corresponding to 61 phosphoproteins, showed significant changes in phosphorylation level (≥2-fold intensities). Functional analysis suggested that some of these proteins may be involved in signal transduction, embryo and endosperm development of grains, and drought response and defense under water-deficit conditions. Moreover, we also found that some chaperones may play important roles in protein refolding or degradation when the plant is subjected to water stress. These results provide a detailed insight into the stress response and defense mechanisms of developmental grains at the phosphoproteome level. They also suggested some potential candidates for further study of transgenosis and drought stress as well as incorporation into molecular breeding for drought resistance. PMID:25145454

  20. Characterization of zinc uptake, binding, and translocation in intact seedlings of bread and durum wheat cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) cultivars exhibit lower Zn efficiency than comparable bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. To understand the physiological mechanism(s) that confers Zn efficiency, this study used 65Zn to investigate ionic Zn2+ root uptake, binding, and translocation to shoots in seedlings of bread and durum wheat cultivars. Time-dependent Zn2+ accumulation during 90 min was greater in roots of the bread wheat cultivar. Zn2+ cell wall binding was not different in the two cultivars. In each cultivar, concentration-dependent Zn2+ influx was characterized by a smooth, saturating curve, suggesting a carrier-mediated uptake system. At very low solution Zn2+ activities, Zn2+ uptake rates were higher in the bread wheat cultivar. As a result, the Michaelis constant for Zn2+ uptake was lower in the bread wheat cultivar (2.3 micromolar) than in the durum wheat cultivar (3.9 micromolar). Low temperature decreased the rate of Zn2+ influx, suggesting that metabolism plays a role in Zn2+ uptake. Ca inhibited Zn2+ uptake equally in both cultivars. Translocation of Zn to shoots was greater in the bread wheat cultivar, reflecting the higher root uptake rates. The study suggests that lower root Zn2+ uptake rates may contribute to reduced Zn efficiency in durum wheat varieties under Zn-limiting conditions

  1. Quality of Bread from Composite Flour of Sorghum and Hard White Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.F. Abdelghafor

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the baking properties of whole, decorticated sorghum- (Sorghum bicolor - wheat (Triticum aestivum Desf. composite flours as well as to determine the physical characteristics and organoleptic quality of pan and balady breads made from those flours. Whole and decorticated sorghum flours were used to replace 0, 5, 10, 15, and 20% by weight of bread wheat flour. Sensory evaluation results showed that up to 20% wheat replacement with whole or decorticated sorghum flour produced acceptable pan and balady breads. Decreases, however, were noted in all sensory properties except odor.

  2. Submergence sensitivity of durum wheat, bread wheat and barley at the germination stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iduna Arduini

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Soil waterlogging at initial growth stages can cause heavy yield losses of winter cereals. Therefore, the screening for submergence tolerance traits in seeds of commercial varieties is of high concern worldwide. Ten Italian varieties of durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf., bread wheat (T. aestivum L. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. were investigated for their ability to germinate in submerged conditions and to recover after submergence periods of three to 15 days. Submergence prevented germination and decreased germinability, at rates that increased with duration of submergence. Sensitivity ranked in the order: barley >durum wheat >bread wheat. We related the higher sensitivity of barley to its slower germination and slightly higher leakage of electrolytes, whereas the percentage of abnormal seedlings was lower than in other species. It was less than 4%, compared to less than 15 and 8% in durum wheat and bread wheat, respectively. Wide varietal differences were found in all species. According to variety, after 6-day submergence, germinability ranged from 2 to 42% in barley, from 5 to 80% in durum wheat, and from 30 to 77% in bread wheat. Varieties with more than 40% seed survival were three, six and seven per species, in the same order. The differential submergence sensitivity of varieties indicates a potential to select for waterlogging tolerance within Italian genotypes of winter cereal crops.

  3. In vivo evaluation of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars for moisture stress

    OpenAIRE

    S. Tamiru

    2014-01-01

    In Ethiopia, wheat productivity is constrained by water stress especially at germination and seedling stage. The objective of this research was to determine the effect of moisture stress on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars. Four wheat cultivars (Danda’a, Kubsa, Huluka and Local) were treated with six levels of water stress (0, 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 g L-1) using PEG-6000. The experiment was arranged factorally in completely randomized design with three replications. Data on germin...

  4. Volume, texture, and molecular mechanism behind the collapse of bread made with different levels of hard waxy wheat flours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Physico-chemical properties of bread baked by partially replacing wild type wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) flour (15, 30, and 45%) with two waxy wheat flours having different dough properties were investigated. Substitution with waxy wheat flour resulted in higher loaf volume and softer loaves. Howeve...

  5. Using Ridge Regression Models to Estimate Grain Yield from Field Spectral Data in Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L. Grown under Three Water Regimes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Hernandez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant breeding based on grain yield (GY is an expensive and time-consuming method, so new indirect estimation techniques to evaluate the performance of crops represent an alternative method to improve grain yield. The present study evaluated the ability of canopy reflectance spectroscopy at the range from 350 to 2500 nm to predict GY in a large panel (368 genotypes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. through multivariate ridge regression models. Plants were treated under three water regimes in the Mediterranean conditions of central Chile: severe water stress (SWS, rain fed, mild water stress (MWS; one irrigation event around booting and full irrigation (FI with mean GYs of 1655, 4739, and 7967 kg∙ha−1, respectively. Models developed from reflectance data during anthesis and grain filling under all water regimes explained between 77% and 91% of the GY variability, with the highest values in SWS condition. When individual models were used to predict yield in the rest of the trials assessed, models fitted during anthesis under MWS performed best. Combined models using data from different water regimes and each phenological stage were used to predict grain yield, and the coefficients of determination (R2 increased to 89.9% and 92.0% for anthesis and grain filling, respectively. The model generated during anthesis in MWS was the best at predicting yields when it was applied to other conditions. Comparisons against conventional reflectance indices were made, showing lower predictive abilities. It was concluded that a Ridge Regression Model using a data set based on spectral reflectance at anthesis or grain filling represents an effective method to predict grain yield in genotypes under different water regimes.

  6. Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Grain Protein Concentration Is Related to Early Post-Flowering Nitrate Uptake under Putative Control of Plant Satiety Level.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Taulemesse

    Full Text Available The strong negative correlation between grain protein concentration (GPC and grain yield (GY in bread wheat complicates the simultaneous improvement of these traits. However, earlier studies have concluded that the deviation from this relationship (grain protein deviation or GPD has strong genetic basis. Genotypes with positive GPD have an increased ability to uptake nitrogen (N during the post-flowering period independently of the amount of N taken up before flowering, suggesting that genetic variability for N satiety could enable the breakage of the negative relationship. This study is based on two genotypes markedly contrasted for GPD grown under semi-hydroponic conditions differentiated for nitrate availability both before and after flowering. This allows exploration of the genetic determinants of post-flowering N uptake (PANU by combining whole plant sampling and targeted gene expression approaches. The results highlights the correlation (r² = 0.81 with GPC of PANU occurring early during grain development (flowering-flowering + 250 degree-days independently of GY. Early PANU was in turn correlated (r² = 0.80 to the stem-biomass increment after flowering through its effect on N sink activity. Differences in early PANU between genotypes, despite comparable N statuses at flowering, suggest that genetic differences in N satiety could be involved in the establishment of the GPC. Through its strong negative correlation with genes implied in N assimilation, root nitrate concentration appears to be a good marker for evaluating instantaneous plant N demand, and may provide valuable information on the genotypic N satiety level. This trait may help breeders to identify genotypes having high GPC independently of their GY.

  7. Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Grain Protein Concentration Is Related to Early Post-Flowering Nitrate Uptake under Putative Control of Plant Satiety Level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taulemesse, François; Le Gouis, Jacques; Gouache, David; Gibon, Yves; Allard, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    The strong negative correlation between grain protein concentration (GPC) and grain yield (GY) in bread wheat complicates the simultaneous improvement of these traits. However, earlier studies have concluded that the deviation from this relationship (grain protein deviation or GPD) has strong genetic basis. Genotypes with positive GPD have an increased ability to uptake nitrogen (N) during the post-flowering period independently of the amount of N taken up before flowering, suggesting that genetic variability for N satiety could enable the breakage of the negative relationship. This study is based on two genotypes markedly contrasted for GPD grown under semi-hydroponic conditions differentiated for nitrate availability both before and after flowering. This allows exploration of the genetic determinants of post-flowering N uptake (PANU) by combining whole plant sampling and targeted gene expression approaches. The results highlights the correlation (r² = 0.81) with GPC of PANU occurring early during grain development (flowering-flowering + 250 degree-days) independently of GY. Early PANU was in turn correlated (r² = 0.80) to the stem-biomass increment after flowering through its effect on N sink activity. Differences in early PANU between genotypes, despite comparable N statuses at flowering, suggest that genetic differences in N satiety could be involved in the establishment of the GPC. Through its strong negative correlation with genes implied in N assimilation, root nitrate concentration appears to be a good marker for evaluating instantaneous plant N demand, and may provide valuable information on the genotypic N satiety level. This trait may help breeders to identify genotypes having high GPC independently of their GY. PMID:26886933

  8. IDENTIFICATION OF TECHNOLOGICALLY IMPORTANT GENES AND THEIR PRODUCTS IN THE COLLECTION OF BREAD WHEAT GENOTYPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milan Chňapek

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is the second most cultivated crop on the world and is very important plant for feed not only mankind but also animals. Because of this is necessary to develop new varieties with better properties. Bread making quality of wheat grain is one of the most important paramaters for quality evaluation. Sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE of wheat storage proteins and allelic specific polymerase chain reaction (AS-PCR are analysis suitable for identification, differentiation and characterization of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. There were analysed 16 genotypes of new varieties of bread wheat in our work by SDS-PAGE and obtained results were verified by AS-PCR. Analysed genotypes of bread wheat genotypes were homogenous and single line with very good bread making quality. Our results confirmed hypothesis, that cultivated bread wheat genotypes are uniformed with high production and quality but there is a risk of sensitivity to environmental conditions. SDS-PAGE analyses of wheat grain proteins are fast and not very expensive technique, which provide us information of bread making quality of grains. However, there is possibility of environmental influence on protein synthesis and because of this is necessary to couple these analysis with analysis of DNA.

  9. Making the Bread: Insights from Newly Synthesized Allohexaploid Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ai-li; Geng, Shuai-Feng; Zhang, Lian-quan; Liu, Deng-cai; Mao, Long

    2015-06-01

    Bread wheat (or common wheat, Triticum aestivum) is an allohexaploid (AABBDD, 2n = 6x = 42) that arose by hybridization between a cultivated tetraploid wheat T. turgidum (AABB, 2n = 4x = 28) and the wild goatgrass Aegilops tauschii (DD, 2n = 2x = 14). Polyploidization provided niches for rigorous genome modification at cytogenetic, genetic, and epigenetic levels, rendering a broader spread than its progenitors. This review summarizes the latest advances in understanding gene regulation mechanisms in newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat and possible correlation with polyploid growth vigor and adaptation. Cytogenetic studies reveal persistent association of whole-chromosome aneuploidy with nascent allopolyploids, in contrast to the genetic stability in common wheat. Transcriptome analysis of the euploid wheat shows that small RNAs are driving forces for homoeo-allele expression regulation via genetic and epigenetic mechanisms. The ensuing non-additively expressed genes and those with expression level dominance to the respective progenitor may play distinct functions in growth vigor and adaptation in nascent allohexaploid wheat. Further genetic diploidization of allohexaploid wheat is not random. Regional asymmetrical gene distribution, rather than subgenome dominance, is observed in both synthetic and natural allohexaploid wheats. The combinatorial effects of diverged genomes, subsequent selection of specific gene categories, and subgenome-specific traits are essential for the successful establishment of common wheat. PMID:25747845

  10. Efeito da data de sementeira na produtividade de trigo mole (Triticum Aestivum L. em condições mediterrânicas Effect of the sowing date on bread wheat (Triticum Aestivum L. productivity under mediterranean conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Godinho Calado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A data de sementeira do trigo mole exerce uma influência relevante no crescimento e desenvolvimento da cultura, condicionando a sua produtividade. O seu efeito é, especial-mente, importante sob condições mediterrânicas. Por isso, neste trabalho procurou-se verificar a influência da data de sementeira no rendimento do trigo mole, a partir de um ensaio de quinze genótipos semeados em datas diferentes durante cinco anos (1994/95 a 1999/00 na região Alentejo. Com base na análise dos resultados conclui-se que a variação da época de sementeira em aproximadamente um mês, desde o fim de Outubro até ao fim de Novembro, pode permitir rendimentos viáveis do trigo mole nas zonas cerealíferas mediterrânicas, particularmente na região Alentejo. Todavia, as produções mais altas tendem a ser obtidas quando a sementeira é efectuada na primeira quinzena de Novembro. Ao avançar a sementeira para o mês de Dezembro decresce a produtividade e, em consequência, diminui a viabilidade da cultura.The sowing date of bread wheat has a great influence on the growth and development of the crop and its productivity, especially under Mediterranean conditions. This paper presents the results of trials conducted in the Alentejo region that studied the performance of fifteen wheat genotypes sown at different dates, repeated over 5 years (1994/95 to 1999/00. Despite a great variability between years, the results indicate that a satisfactory wheat productivity in the Alentejo can be obtained with sowing dates ranging from end of October until the end of November. Nonetheless, sowing dates in the first half of November tend to provide higher grain yields. Moving the sowing date into December results in reduced grain yields, thus compromising the economic viability of wheat growing.

  11. Impact of the D genome and quantitative trait loci on quantitative traits in a spring durum by spring bread wheat cross

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desirable agronomic traits are similar for common hexaploid (6X) bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, 2n = 6x = 42, genome, AABBDD) and tetraploid (4X) durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum, 2n = 4x = 28, genome, AABB). However, they are genetically isolated from each other due to an unequal number of ge...

  12. TEXTURE ANALYSIS OF SPELT WHEAT BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magdaléna Lacko - Bartošová

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The bread quality is considerably dependent on the texture characteristic of bread crumb. Texture analysis is primarily concerned with the evaluation of mechanical characteristics where a material is subjected to a controlled force from which a deformation curve of its response is generated. It is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what are inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. This is why the texture analysis is one of the most helpful analytical methods of the product development. In the framework of our research during the years 2008 – 2009 were analyzed selected indicators of bread crumb for texture quality of three Triticum spelta L. cultivars – Oberkulmer Rotkorn, Rubiota and Franckenkorn grown in an ecological system at the locality of Dolna Malanta near Nitra. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus and expressed as crumb firmness (N, stiffness (N.mm-1 and relative elasticity (%.Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was measured in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Franckenkorn were the most firm and stiff. Relative elasticity confirmed that the lowest firmness and stiffness was found in Rubiota bread. The spelt grain can be a good source for making bread flour, but is closely dependent on choice of spelt variety.

  13. 21 CFR 136.180 - Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. 136.180... § 136.180 Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods whole wheat bread, graham bread, entire wheat bread, whole wheat rolls, graham rolls, entire wheat rolls, whole wheat buns, graham...

  14. Genotype x Environment interaction for antioxidants and phytic acid contents in bread and durum wheat as influenced by climate

    OpenAIRE

    Gordana Brankovic; Vesna Dragičević; Dejan Dodig; Miroslav Zoric; Desimir Knežević; Sladana Žilić; Srbislav Denčić; Gordana Šurlan

    2015-01-01

    Antioxidants prevent oxidative stress and exert positive health effects. However, phytic acid among them decreases micronutrients absorption, representing also antinutrient to human and non-ruminant animals. Fifteen bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and 15 durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) genotypes were evaluated across six environments to determine contents of phytic acid (PA), inorganic P (Pi), total yellow pigment, total soluble phenolic compounds, free protein sulfhydryl groups (PSH), ...

  15. Assessment of Triticale (Triticosecale ) X Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum) Genotypes for Drought Tolerance Based on Morpho-Physiological, Grain Yield and Drought Tolerance Indices Under Non-Irrigated and Irrigated Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Kumar S; Mittal R K; Dhiman R; Gupta D

    2014-01-01

    Wheat being important staple crop urges the need to evaluate and develop new drought-tolerant varieties to sustain its productivity under changing climatic conditions. Therefore, this study was conducted to assess the differential morpho-physiological, grain yield and drought tolerance indices responses of 27 triticale x bread wheat genotypes along with eight checks under non-irrigated and irrigated environments in randomized complete block design with three replications. Data ...

  16. Response of Bread Wheat Genotypes to Immature Embryo Culture, Callus Induction and Drought Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Parvin Elyasi; Ezatollah Farshadfar; Mostafat Aghaee

    2012-01-01

    In order to evaluate the response of twenty genotypes of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to callus induction and in vitro drought stress. The immature embryos of wheat were used in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD) with six replications for callus induction and a 20×2 factorial experiment based on CRD design with three replications was carried out for response of genotypes to in vitro drought stress at the Agricultural College of Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran during 2010-2011. Signi...

  17. Association of puroindoline b-2 variants with grain traits, yield components and flag leaf size in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties of Yellow and Huai Valley of China

    Science.gov (United States)

    A total of 169 wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties (landraces and cultivars) were used to asses the relationship between Puroindoline D1 alleles and Puroindoline b-B2 variants and grain hardness, other grain traits, grain yield components, and flag leaf size. Results indicated that the average SK...

  18. Evolution of the BBAA component of bread wheat during its history at the allohexaploid level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huakun; Zhu, Bo; Qi, Bao; Gou, Xiaowan; Dong, Yuzhu; Xu, Chunming; Zhang, Bangjiao; Huang, Wei; Liu, Chang; Wang, Xutong; Yang, Chunwu; Zhou, Hao; Kashkush, Khalil; Feldman, Moshe; Wendel, Jonathan F; Liu, Bao

    2014-07-01

    Subgenome integrity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum; BBAADD) makes possible the extraction of its BBAA component to restitute a novel plant type. The availability of such a ploidy-reversed wheat (extracted tetraploid wheat [ETW]) provides a unique opportunity to address whether and to what extent the BBAA component of bread wheat has been modified in phenotype, karyotype, and gene expression during its evolutionary history at the allohexaploid level. We report here that ETW was anomalous in multiple phenotypic traits but maintained a stable karyotype. Microarray-based transcriptome profiling identified a large number of differentially expressed genes between ETW and natural tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum), and the ETW-downregulated genes were enriched for distinct Gene Ontology categories. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis showed that gene expression differences between ETW and a set of diverse durum wheat (T. turgidum subsp durum) cultivars were distinct from those characterizing tetraploid cultivars per se. Pyrosequencing revealed that the expression alterations may occur to either only one or both of the B and A homoeolog transcripts in ETW. A majority of the genes showed additive expression in a resynthesized allohexaploid wheat. Analysis of a synthetic allohexaploid wheat and diverse bread wheat cultivars revealed the rapid occurrence of expression changes to the BBAA subgenomes subsequent to allohexaploidization and their evolutionary persistence. PMID:24989045

  19. Changes in abundance of an abscisic acid-responsive, early cysteine-labeled metallothionein transcript during pollen embryogenesis in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, T L; Crawford, R L

    1996-12-01

    A clone for an embryoid-abundant, early cysteine-labeled metallothionein (EcMt) gene has been isolated from a wheat pollen embryoid cDNA library. The transcript of this gene was only expressed in embryogenic microspores, pollen embryoids, and developing zygotic embryos of wheat. Accumulation of the EcMt mRNA showed a direct and positive correlation with an increase of the plant hormone, abscisic acid (ABA) in developing pollen embryoids. Treating cultures with an inhibitor of ABA biosynthesis, fluridone, suppressed not only ABA accumulation but also the appearance of the EcMt gene transcript and the ability of microspores to form embryoids. These results suggest that the EcMt gene may act as a molecular marker for pollen embryogenesis because ABA biosynthesis is accompanied by the increased expression of the EcMt transcript that coincides with the differentiation of pollen embryoids in wheat anther cultures. PMID:8980534

  20. Grain dormancy loss is associated with changes in ABA and GA sensitivity and hormone accumulation in bread wheat, Triticum aestivum (L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowledge about the hormonal control of seed dormancy and dormancy loss is essential in wheat, because low seed dormancy at maturity is associated with the problem of preharvest sprouting (PHS) when rain occurs before harvest. Low GA (gibberellin) hormone sensitivity and high ABA (abscisic acid) sen...

  1. The impact of vernalization requirement, photoperiod sensitivity, and earliness per se on grain protein content of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In wheat, a shorter pre-anthesis phase is often associated with increased grain protein content (GPC) but decreased grain yield. Cultivar differences in pre-anthesis development are mainly determined by vernalization requirement, photoperiod sensitivity and earliness per se. This research examines w...

  2. Characterization of Quantitative Loci for Morphological and Anatomical Root Traits on the Short Arm of Chromosome 1 of Rye in Bread Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Sundrish

    2009-01-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the second most cultivated cereal crop after rice. Many present day bread wheats carry a centric rye-wheat translocation 1RS.1BL in place of chromosome 1B. The increased grain yield of translocation lines is positively associated with root biomass. To map loci controlling root characteristics, homoeologous recombinants of 1RS with 1BS were used to generate an integrated genetic map comprised of 20 phenotypic and molecular markers, with an average spacing ...

  3. Detection of two major grain yield QTL in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under heat, drought and high yield potential environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Dion; Reynolds, Matthew; Mullan, Daniel; Izanloo, Ali; Kuchel, Haydn; Langridge, Peter; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2012-11-01

    A large proportion of the worlds' wheat growing regions suffers water and/or heat stress at some stage during the crop growth cycle. With few exceptions, there has been no utilisation of managed environments to screen mapping populations under repeatable abiotic stress conditions, such as the facilities developed by the International Wheat and Maize Improvement Centre (CIMMYT). Through careful management of irrigation and sowing date over three consecutive seasons, repeatable heat, drought and high yield potential conditions were imposed on the RAC875/Kukri doubled haploid population to identify genetic loci for grain yield, yield components and key morpho-physiological traits under these conditions. Two of the detected quantitative trait loci (QTL) were located on chromosome 3B and had a large effect on canopy temperature and grain yield, accounting for up to 22 % of the variance for these traits. The locus on chromosome arm 3BL was detected under all three treatments but had its largest effect under the heat stress conditions, with the RAC875 allele increasing grain yield by 131 kg ha(-1) (or phenotypically, 7 % of treatment average). Only two of the eight yield QTL detected in the current study (including linkage groups 3A, 3D, 4D 5B and 7A) were previously detected in the RAC875/Kukri doubled haploid population; and there were also different yield components driving grain yield. A number of discussion points are raised to understand differences between the Mexican and southern Australian production environments and explain the lack of correlation between the datasets. The two key QTL detected on chromosome 3B in the present study are candidates for further genetic dissection and development of molecular markers. PMID:22772727

  4. Contaminants in organically and conventionally produced winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Pussemier, Luc; Harcz, Peter; De Temmerman, Ludwig; De Voghel, Simon; Waegeneers, Nadia; Wilmart, Olivier; Vromman, Valérie; Schmit, Jean-François; Moons, Emmanuelle; Van Peteghem, Carlos; De Saeger, Sarah; Schneider, Yves Jacques; Larondelle, Yvan

    2007-01-01

    Abstract A database has been compiled with the levels of important contaminants (mycotoxins, heavy metals and pesticides) measured from 2002 to 2005 in winter wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in Belgium according to the organic and conventional farming systems. Assuming no further change in contaminant levels during cereal processing and during the preparation of foodstuffs, conservative intakes are estimated for the consumers of cereal based products such as flour, bread, breakfast...

  5. Evaluation of seedling characteristics of wheat (triticum aestivum L.) through canonical correlation analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Erayman, Mustafa; Abeyo, Bekele Geleta; Baenziger, P. Stephen; Budak, Hikmet; Eskridge, Kent M

    2006-01-01

    To examine the seedling characteristics of nine different bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties, several variables regarding seedling size and germination characteristics were analyzed using canonical correlation analysis. Significantly correlated first canonical variate pairs indicated that the variables within each set such as coleoptile length, shoot length and fresh weight within size set, and emergence rate index and germination percentage can be regarded as main factors for vigor...

  6. Characterization of cadmium binding, uptake, and translocation in intact seedlings of bread and durum wheat cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High Cd content in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) grain grown in the United States and Canada presents potential health and economic problems for consumers and growers. In an effort to understand the biological processes that result in excess Cd accumulation, root Cd uptake and xylem translocation to shoots in seedlings of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat cultivars were studied. Whole-plant Cd accumulation was somewhat greater in the bread wheat cultivar, but this was probably because of increased apoplastic Cd binding. Concentration-dependent 109Cd2+-influx kinetics in both cultivars were characterized by smooth, nonsaturating curves that could be dissected into linear and saturable components. The saturable component likely represented carrier-mediated Cd influx across root-cell plasma membranes (Michaelis constant, 20-40 nM; maximum initial velocity, 26-29 nmol g-1 fresh weight h-1), whereas linear Cd uptake represented cell wall binding of 109Cd. Cd translocation to shoots was greater in the bread wheat cultivar than in the durum cultivar because a larger proportion of root-absorbed Cd moved to shoots. Our results indicate that excess Cd accumulation in durum wheat grain is not correlated with seedling-root influx rates or root-to-shoot translocation, but may be related to phloem-mediated Cd transport to the grain

  7. Analysis of the bread wheat genome using whole-genome shotgun sequencing

    OpenAIRE

    Brenchley R.; Brenchley, Rachel; Spannagl M.; Spannagl, Manuel; Pfeifer M; Pfeifer, Matthias; Barker, Gary L. A.; Barker G.L.A.; D'Amore R.; D'Amore, Rosalinda; Allen A.M.; Allen, Alexandra M.; McKenzie, Neil; McKenzie N.; Kramer, Melissa

    2012-01-01

    Summary Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a globally important crop, accounting for 20% of the calories consumed by mankind. We sequenced its large and challenging 17 Gb hexaploid genome using 454 pyrosequencing and compared this with the sequences of diploid ancestral and progenitor genomes. Between 94,000-96,000 genes were identified, and two-thirds were assigned to the A, B and D genomes. High-resolution synteny maps identified many small disruptions to conserved gene order. We show the h...

  8. Staling of wheat bread stored in modified atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Have; Hansen, A.

    2001-01-01

    Modified atmosphere packing (MAP) of bread is known to extend the microbial shelf-life. However, the effect of MAP on staling of bread is more questionable, and conflicting results are reported in the literature. To investigate the effect of BT AP, wheat bread was packed in modified atmosphere...... containing 100% CO2 and in a mixture gas of 50% CO2 and 50% N-2, respectively. The control bread was packed in atmospheric air. No significant effects of MAP were found during storage of bread for 7 days at 20 degreesC compared to control bread. when changes in bread firmness and starch retrogradation...

  9. PCR markers for Triticum speltoides leaf rust resistance gene Lr51 and their use to develop isogenic hard red spring wheat lines

    OpenAIRE

    Helguera, M; Vanzetti, L.; Soria, M; Khan, I A; Kolmer, J.; Dubcovsky, Jorge

    2005-01-01

    New leaf rust resistance genes are needed in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to provide additional sources of resistance to the highly variable and dynamic leaf rust pathogen Puccinia triticina Eriks. Leaf rust resistance gene Lr51, located within a segment of Triticum speltoides Taush chromosome IS translocated to the long arm of chromosome 1B of bread wheat, is resistant to the current predominant races of leaf rust in the USA. The objectives of this study were to determine the genetic length ...

  10. Organoleptic and glycemic properties of chickpea-wheat composite breads

    OpenAIRE

    Zafar, Tasleem A.; Al-Hassawi, Fatima; Al-Khulaifi, Fatima; Al-Rayyes, Ghanima; Waslien, Carol; Huffman, Fatma G.

    2013-01-01

    Prevalence of obesity and type-2-diabetes requires dietary manipulation. It was hypothesized that wheat-legume-composite breads will reduce the spike of blood glucose and increase satiety. Four pan bread samples were prepared: White bread (WB) as standard, Whole-wheat bread (WWB), WWB supplemented with chickpea flour at 25 % (25%ChB) and 35 % (35%ChB) levels. These breads were tested in healthy female subjects for acceptability and for effect on appetite, blood glucose, and physical discomfor...

  11. Effects of Bread Making and Wheat Germ Addition on the Natural Deoxynivalenol Content in Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Isabel Giménez; Jesús Blesa; Marta Herrera; Agustín Ariño

    2014-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is a type-B trichothecene mycotoxin produced by several field fungi such as Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum and known to have various toxic effects. This study investigated the effect of the bread making process on the stability of DON in common bread and wheat germ-enriched bread using naturally contaminated ingredients at the level of 560 µg/kg. The concentration of DON and its evolution during bread making were determined by immunoaffinity column ...

  12. Pattern analysis of multi-environment trials in bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuksel Kaya

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available To detect genotype-by-environment interactions (GEIs, pattern analysis (PA was performed on yield data of 20 bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes tested across nine environments during the 2001-2002 growing season in the Central Anatolian Region of Turkey. Nine clusters of genotypes with similar patterns in performance, mostly reflecting their origin and pedigree, were identified. Most of the genotypes from the National Bread Wheat Improvement Program (NBWIP, Turkey, fell into one of the two broad genotypic clusters, whereas most of those from the International Winter Wheat Improvement Program (IWWIP, a collaborative breeding program among Turkey, CIMMYT and ICARDA, were clustered together in another cluster. Six clusters of the environments with similar trends in discriminating genotypes were identified; discrimination of the environments tested indicated that there existed two distinct main types of environments: rain-fed and irrigated. However, the rain-fed environment E2 (Eskisehir joined the irrigated environments, whereas the irrigated environment E9 (Haymana was clustered with the rain-fed environments. Irrigated environments E6 (Konya and E7 (Cumra contributed trivially to discrimination of the genotypes, as they exhibited a pattern that was almost identical to that of the irrigated environments. The first two principal components explained 53.3% of the total variation in GEI data. This study revealed that the genotypes with a common parent in their pedigree or with the same origin tended to be clustered together. All the genotypes from the NBWIP and one-third of genotypes from the IWWIP were stable; therefore, the NBWIP could be strengthened by introductions from the IWWIP. Environmental cluster analysis effectively identified trials that received rainfall and supplementary irrigation. It might be possible to reduce the number of test environments by eliminating one or more of those that differentiate among genotypes in a similar

  13. Whole-genome profiling and shotgun sequencing delivers an anchored, gene-decorated, physical map assembly of bread wheat chromosome 6A

    OpenAIRE

    Poursarebani, N.; Nussbaumer, T.; Šimková, H. (Hana); Šafář, J.; Witsenboer, H.; van Oeveren, J.; Doležel, J. (Jaroslav); Mayer, K. F. X.; N. Stein; Schnurbusch, T.

    2014-01-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most important staple food crop for 35% of the world's population. International efforts are underway to facilitate an increase in wheat production, of which the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC) plays an important role. As part of this effort, we have developed a sequence-based physical map of wheat chromosome 6A using whole-genome profiling (WGP (TM)). The bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contig assembly tools FINGERPRINT...

  14. Combination effect of gamma rays, EMS and the storage before irradiation on some characteristics of M1 and M2 plants of bread wheat triticum aestivum L.(Cv. ajeeba)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three samples of bread-wheat CV.Ajeeba stored under baghdad prevailing room conditions since 1988,1978 and 1983 wereirradiation with gamma rays (15 Krad).They were then treated with the chemical mutagen(EMS).Seeds were sown in the field during the cultivation seasons of 1983-1985.The effects of gamma radiation,EMS,the storage periods and their interaction on some developmental stages of M1 plants were statistically significant.However,no differences were observed among M2 plants.The greatest number of variants were found among M2 plants that had originated from seeds stored since 1968,irradiated and treated with EMS.(3 tabs., 18 refs.)

  15. ATTEMPT TO APPLY STABILIZED WHEAT GERM FOR BREAD SUPPLEMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halina Gambuś

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The increased interest in rational nutrition causes, that from many years is observed a growing consumption of bread, and novel food supplemented with health promoting components. For the bread production in Poland mainly wheat and rye cake flours are used, depleted of a many valuable nutrients such as protein, dietary fibre, minerals and vitamins. Because of their unique chemical composition wheat germs are a particularly valuable resource, both for direct consumption and to enhance the nutritional value of food products. The aim of the study was to prepare wheat bread with a 10% addition of commercial stabilized wheat germs. Based on the obtained results, it was found that wheat germs, due to their unique chemical composition, were a particularly valuable resource to supplement the nutritional value of bread. However, germs had detrimental effect on mechanical properties of dough, and on bread quality. Texture of bread crumb and its chemical composition were analysed. It was shown, that germs subjected to fermentation process could be used in wheat bread production as dietary fibre and mineral compound supplement.

  16. Aroma of wheat porridge and bread-crumb is influenced by the wheat variety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starr, Gerrard; Hansen, Åse Solvej; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin;

    2015-01-01

    evaluation, from these eight were selected for bread evaluation. Porridge and bread results were compared. Variations were found in both evaluations. Five odour- and nine flavour descriptors were found to be common to both wheat porridge and bread. The results for two descriptors: "cocoa" and "oat porridge......" were correlated between the wheat porridge and bread samples. Analysis of whole-meal and low-extraction samples revealed that the descriptors "malt", "oat-porridge", "øllebrød", "cocoa" and "grain" mostly characterized wheat bran, while descriptors for "maize", "bean-shoots", "chamomile", "umami", and...... "fresh grass" mostly characterized wheat endosperm. Low-extraction bread made from four different varieties also differentiated for five odour- and six flavour descriptors. These results indicate that variations in wheat flavour and odour directly affect bread flavour and odour even in low...

  17. BREAD QUALITY SUBSTITUTED BY POTATO STARCH INSTEAD OF WHEAT FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nemar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wheat bread constitutes the most regularly consumed food in the World, the international market for wheat undergoes strong pressure and prices are unceasingly increasing. The aim of this study is to substitute wheat flour by potato starch in bread preparation. Mixtures flours were characterized for composition, damaged starch, and Alveograph properties. According to the results of alveograph parameters, they decrease with the rate of incorporation of potato starch. This decrease can be corrected by adding vital gluten. The results of physicochemical analysis showed a decrease in protein levels, an increase in moisture content (about 2% and carbohydrates levels due to the composition of potato starch. However, sensory analysis (p ≤ 0.05 showed that the addition 80% of potato starch leads to bread with better characteristics: taste, colour and odour, based on that, it is highly advisable as an ingredient in the standard preparation of wheat bread.

  18. Food label guide for whole wheat bread (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole grains, like the kind found in whole wheat bread, contain fiber and antioxidants such as Vitamin E and selenium, iron, magnesium, zinc and B vitamins. Fiber is a very beneficial nutrient that ...

  19. Organic bread-wheat in New England, USA

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmussen, Ilse A.; Mallory, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    In October 2010, researchers, farmers and millers from Maine and Vermont, USA, organized a trip to Denmark, in order to learn about local bread wheat production, milling and use from their more experienced counterparts with climates similar to their own. They have received a grant over four years for the project antitled Enhancing Farmers’ Capacity to Produce High Quality Organic Bread Wheat in which they will carry out research, development and education to improve the production and qual...

  20. Patterns of homoeologous gene expression shown by RNA sequencing in hexaploid bread wheat.

    KAUST Repository

    Leach, Lindsey J

    2014-04-11

    BACKGROUND: Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) has a large, complex and hexaploid genome consisting of A, B and D homoeologous chromosome sets. Therefore each wheat gene potentially exists as a trio of A, B and D homoeoloci, each of which may contribute differentially to wheat phenotypes. We describe a novel approach combining wheat cytogenetic resources (chromosome substitution \\'nullisomic-tetrasomic\\' lines) with next generation deep sequencing of gene transcripts (RNA-Seq), to directly and accurately identify homoeologue-specific single nucleotide variants and quantify the relative contribution of individual homoeoloci to gene expression. RESULTS: We discover, based on a sample comprising ~5-10% of the total wheat gene content, that at least 45% of wheat genes are expressed from all three distinct homoeoloci. Most of these genes show strikingly biased expression patterns in which expression is dominated by a single homoeolocus. The remaining ~55% of wheat genes are expressed from either one or two homoeoloci only, through a combination of extensive transcriptional silencing and homoeolocus loss. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that wheat is tending towards functional diploidy, through a variety of mechanisms causing single homoeoloci to become the predominant source of gene transcripts. This discovery has profound consequences for wheat breeding and our understanding of wheat evolution.

  1. Buckwheat and quinoa seeds as supplements in wheat bread production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Mirjana A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the nutritional characteristics of wheat bread with the bread produced of wheat flour supplemented with quinoa and buckwheat seeds. Bread making properties of these blends were analyzed in order to investigate their ability to make moulded bread. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Will. and buckwheat seeds were grown in the vicinity of Belgrade, Serbia. The addition of pseudocereal seeds (at levels of 30% and 40% and a selected technological process, which included hydrothermal preparation of supplements, resulted with a valuable effect on nutritive value of breads. In comparison with the wheat bread that was used as control sample, the protein increase of 2% and the increase of crude fiber content at around 0.5% in 30% supplemented breads were registered. Furthermore, the incorporation of both seeds mixture at the level of 40%, increased the content of protein for 2.5% and fiber content for 0.4%. In regard to the starch, fat, and ash contents there were no major differences. The investigated breads were nutritionally superior to the wheat bread. Chemical composition of the selected seeds was also investigated. The results showed that the blends containing either 30% or 40% of selected seeds expressed high potential for the production of molded breads, as new baking products with enhanced nutritional composition. The applied technological procedure was modified in such way that for all blended combination of supplements it changed rheological properties of dough. Furthermore, it resulted in a good volume of breads with excellent sensory properties of aroma-odor and taste.

  2. Wheat-based traditional flat breads of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parimala, K R; Sudha, M L

    2015-01-01

    Wheat forms the basic ingredient for various bakery and traditional products. Wheat-based flat breads are one of the traditional products prepared in different parts of the world. Different regions of the world have inherited different preparation methods since time immemorial, which has led to the existence of traditional flat breads'. Being traditional, only a few have been extensively studied scientifically. India, being the second largest producer of wheat, has a great saga of traditional flat breads with different tastes and texture. This review is a compiled information related to the research studies carried out on some of the wheat-based traditional flat breads of India namely chapati, puri, tandoori roti, parantha (whole-wheat flour based) and parotta, naan, bhatura, kulcha (refined wheat flour based) which indicates the magnitude of attention they have drawn among the food scientists. The review delves upon the developments and improvements brought about in the storage stability and realization of large-scale production of few of these flat breads which has helped considerably to cater to the growing demand in the domestic as well as international markets. The review also indicates the possibility and the tremendous scope available for technological developments for traditional flat breads. PMID:24915406

  3. Molecular organization and comparative analysis of chromosome 5B of the wild wheat ancestor Triticum dicoccoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akpinar, Bala Ani; Yuce, Meral; Lucas, Stuart; Vrána, Jan; Burešová, Veronika; Doležel, Jaroslav; Budak, Hikmet

    2015-01-01

    Wild emmer wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides is the wild relative of Triticum turgidum, the progenitor of durum and bread wheat, and maintains a rich allelic diversity among its wild populations. The lack of adequate genetic and genomic resources, however, restricts its exploitation in wheat improvement. Here, we report next-generation sequencing of the flow-sorted chromosome 5B of T. dicoccoides to shed light into its genome structure, function and organization by exploring the repetitive elements, protein-encoding genes and putative microRNA and tRNA coding sequences. Comparative analyses with its counterparts in modern and wild wheats suggest clues into the B-genome evolution. Syntenic relationships of chromosome 5B with the model grasses can facilitate further efforts for fine-mapping of traits of interest. Mapping of 5B sequences onto the root transcriptomes of two additional T. dicoccoides genotypes, with contrasting drought tolerances, revealed several thousands of single nucleotide polymorphisms, of which 584 shared polymorphisms on 228 transcripts were specific to the drought-tolerant genotype. To our knowledge, this study presents the largest genomics resource currently available for T. dicoccoides, which, we believe, will encourage the exploitation of its genetic and genomic potential for wheat improvement to meet the increasing demand to feed the world. PMID:26084265

  4. Cadmium Contents of Soils, Durum, and Bread Wheats in Harran Plain, Southeast Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükkılıç, Asuman; Mermut, Ahmet; Faz Cano, Angel; Carmona Garces, Doria

    2010-05-01

    Turkey is growing significant amount of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum durum - (Desf.)Husn) which is widely used for making pasta, spaghetti, noodles etc. Objective of this study were to: 1) determine Cd concentrations of the soils, durum and bread wheats grown in the Harran plain, southeast Turkey and 2) evaluate this element in terms of food safety. Soil samples from the selected 16 profiles, grains, roots, and leaves of durum and bread wheats were taken for analyses. Total Cd contents of the soils were below the threshold values. The soils in the northern part of the plain have more than 0.2 ppm of Cd. Carbonate and clay contents are > 15% and 40% respectively and have substantial amounts of Fe-oxy-hydroxides. Three phosphorus fertilizer samples, frequently used in the area, had > 2 ppm of Cd. As expected, the amounts of Cd in bread wheat were lower than durum wheat. However, the Cd contents in durum wheat grains in the area studied were 100 ?g kg-1) and similar to the drum grains from Italy. Some samples in Italy even had 71 ?g kg-1. These were attributed to the presence of high amounts of carbonates, Fe-oxy-hydroxides, and clay in the soils we studied. In the surface soil, Zn contents were between 21.5 and 72.8 mg kg-1.This could be another reason for lower contents of Cd in our durum wheat. Our study confirms that durum wheat grown in the Harran plain southeast Turkey has a better quality, therefore advantageous; in terms of food safety from the standpoint of Cd contents.

  5. Induced variation for Pelshenke value and caryopsis weight in bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents the evidence of induced mutations for Pelshenke value and caryopsis weight. M2 population of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) variety Pak 70 derived from different doses of gamma rays (100, 150, 200 Gy) and fast neutrons (300, 450, 600 Rads) were screened. The coefficient of variation for Pelshenke value was considerably higher in Nf 450 Rads and 100 Gy gamma ray treatments in comparison with the untreated control. Gamma ray treatments were more effective than fast neutrons in increasing the caryopsis weight. Selection strategy based on highly heritable traits can result in breeding varieties with high yield and improved baking quality. (author)

  6. Organoleptic and glycemic properties of chickpea-wheat composite breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zafar, Tasleem A; Al-Hassawi, Fatima; Al-Khulaifi, Fatima; Al-Rayyes, Ghanima; Waslien, Carol; Huffman, Fatma G

    2015-04-01

    Prevalence of obesity and type-2-diabetes requires dietary manipulation. It was hypothesized that wheat-legume-composite breads will reduce the spike of blood glucose and increase satiety. Four pan bread samples were prepared: White bread (WB) as standard, Whole-wheat bread (WWB), WWB supplemented with chickpea flour at 25 % (25%ChB) and 35 % (35%ChB) levels. These breads were tested in healthy female subjects for acceptability and for effect on appetite, blood glucose, and physical discomfort in digestion. The breads were rated >5.6 on a 9-point hedonic scale with WB significantly higher than all other breads. No difference in area under the curve (AUC) for appetite was found, but blood glucose AUC was reduced as follows: 35%ChB 25%ChB = WWB or 35%ChB. We conclude that addition of chickpea flour at 35 % to whole wheat produces a bread that is acceptable to eat, causing no physical discomfort and lowers the glycemic response. PMID:25829607

  7. The Bo1-specific PCR marker AWW5L7 is predictive of boron tolerance status in a range of exotic durum and bread wheats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnurbusch, Thorsten; Langridge, Peter; Sutton, Tim

    2008-12-01

    High soil boron (B) constitutes a major soil problem in many parts of the world, particularly in low-rainfall areas and land under irrigation. Low accumulation of B in the shoot or grain of cereal crops is correlated with the maintenance of biomass production and grain yield under high B conditions, suggesting that this trait is an important component of field tolerance. A novel screening protocol to measure B accumulation in aerated and supported hydroponics was validated using a set of known and exotic bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum (Desf.) Husn.) accessions. Furthermore, B accumulation in two Triticum urartu Tumanian ex Gandilyan and 54 Triticum monococcum L. accessions was measured and showed considerable phenotypic variation. However, B accumulation in these lines was higher than that observed in the most tolerant durum or bread wheats. Mapping of high B tolerance in the durum population AUS14010/Yallaroi revealed a locus possibly allelic to Bo1, a major source of B toxicity tolerance previously identified in bread wheat. Here, we show that the Bo1-specific codominant PCR marker AWW5L7 is predictive of B tolerance status among exotic durum and bread wheat accessions. All tolerant durum accessions assayed carried very similar AWW5L7 marker fragments, indicating wide distribution of this allele among tolerant durum wheats. Three bread wheat accessions had tolerance that was independent of Bo1 and is probably located on chromosome 4A. These lines represent a valuable genetic resource for B toxicity tolerance breeding in wheat. PMID:19088810

  8. Relationships of Polymeric Proteins with Dough and Bread-making Quality in a Recombinant Inbred Population of Hard Red Spring Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Variation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) polymeric proteins is known to be associated with grain quality. In this study, our objective was to investigate the composition of polymeric proteins and their associations with dough mixing strength and bread-making characteristics in a segregating populat...

  9. Ancient hybridizations among the ancestral genomes of bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcussen, Thomas; Sandve, Simen R; Heier, Lise; Spannagl, Manuel; Pfeifer, Matthias; Jakobsen, Kjetill S; Wulff, Brande B H; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Mayer, Klaus F X; Olsen, Odd-Arne

    2014-07-18

    The allohexaploid bread wheat genome consists of three closely related subgenomes (A, B, and D), but a clear understanding of their phylogenetic history has been lacking. We used genome assemblies of bread wheat and five diploid relatives to analyze genome-wide samples of gene trees, as well as to estimate evolutionary relatedness and divergence times. We show that the A and B genomes diverged from a common ancestor ~7 million years ago and that these genomes gave rise to the D genome through homoploid hybrid speciation 1 to 2 million years later. Our findings imply that the present-day bread wheat genome is a product of multiple rounds of hybrid speciation (homoploid and polyploid) and lay the foundation for a new framework for understanding the wheat genome as a multilevel phylogenetic mosaic. PMID:25035499

  10. Wheat in the Mediterranean revisited - tetraploid wheat landraces assessed with elite bread wheat single-nucleotide polymorphism markers

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, Hugo R.; Hagenblad, Jenny; Leino, Matti W; Leigh, Fiona J.; Lister, Diane L.; Peña-Chocarro, Leonor; Jones, Martin K.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) panels recently developed for the assessment of genetic diversity in wheat are primarily based on elite varieties, mostly those of bread wheat. The usefulness of such SNP panels for studying wheat evolution and domestication has not yet been fully explored and ascertainment bias issues can potentially affect their applicability when studying landraces and tetraploid ancestors of bread wheat. We here evaluate whether population structure...

  11. Transfer of soft kernel texture from Triticum aestivum to durum wheat, Triticum turgidum ssp. durum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) is a leading cereal grain whose primary use is the production of semolina and then pasta. Its rich culinary relationship to humans is related, in part, to its very hard kernel texture. This very hard texture is due to the loss of the Puroindoline genes whi...

  12. Cytogenetic and biochemical effects of imazethapyr in wheat (Triticum durum)

    OpenAIRE

    RAD, Manijeh HOSEINY; AIVAZI, Ali Ashraf; JAGANNATH, Shobha

    2011-01-01

    Mitotic abnormalities, chromosomal behavior, and protein content in wheat (Triticum durum) due to imazethapyr (IM) treatment were determined. Wheat seeds (variety HI-8663) were exposed to 5 IM concentrations (0.5, 0.89, 1.58, 2.81, and 5 ppm) according to the between paper method, in laboratory conditions. The protein content in the root-shoot axis and endosperm decreased significantly with the dosage increase. Cytological observations showed that the mitotic frequency in the root meristemati...

  13. Genetic characterization of Moroccan and the exotic bread wheat cultivars using functional and random DNA markers linked to the agronomic traits for genomics-assisted improvement

    OpenAIRE

    Henkrar, Fatima; El-Haddoury, Jamal; Ouabbou, Hassan; Bendaou, Najib; Udupa, Sripada M.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic characterization, diversity analysis and estimate of the genetic relationship among varieties using functional and random DNA markers linked to agronomic traits can provide relevant guidelines in selecting parents and designing new breeding strategies for marker-assisted wheat cultivar improvement. Here, we characterize 20 Moroccan and 19 exotic bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars using 47 functional and 7 linked random DNA markers associated with 21 loci of the most importan...

  14. Use of Avocado (Persea americana M. Paste in Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Man

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bread is the staple food for most people around the world, it being consumed since ancient times. Because of it’s major importance in the diet, over the last years, the trend of enrich the nutritional quality was developed, by replacing the chemical fortification of foods with an intake of bioactive compounds from fruits, vegetables and cereals. The avocado is useful in human nutrition as a source of various nutrients and especially as source of energy and monounsaturated fatty acids. This paper belongs to a more complex study, which aiming the evaluation of enriched bread for breakfast prepared with an addition of avocado paste (12% as a source of biologically active components in nutrition. Bread produced from 100% wheat flour served as the control. The seasoned bread for breakfast and the control samples were subjected to physico-chemical and organoleptic analyses. Addition of avocado paste (AP in bread has improved physicochemical and sensory attributes.

  15. The content of buckwheat flour in wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Psodorov Đorđe B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Seven samples of bread were prepared in a special way. Samples were made of a mixture of wheat and buckwheat flour in defined proportions. Carbohydrates from crumbs of bread were derivatized with BSTFA and analyzed by GC-MS. Multivariate analysis was applied. The purpose of this study was not the identification and quantification of carbohydrate composition. The results demonstrated a clear relation between the carbohydrate composition of the bread samples and the type of flour used for their production.[Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31066 i br. III 46005

  16. Genotype x Environment interaction for antioxidants and phytic acid contents in bread and durum wheat as influenced by climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Brankovic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants prevent oxidative stress and exert positive health effects. However, phytic acid among them decreases micronutrients absorption, representing also antinutrient to human and non-ruminant animals. Fifteen bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and 15 durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. genotypes were evaluated across six environments to determine contents of phytic acid (PA, inorganic P (Pi, total yellow pigment, total soluble phenolic compounds, free protein sulfhydryl groups (PSH, and also phytic acid P/Pi (Pp/Pi. The objective of this study was to quantify, for each trait the effects of environment, genotype, and their interaction; and the influence of climatic factors on the Genotype x Environment interaction (GEI by the use of the factorial regression. GEI (P < 0.001 prevailed as source of variation over genotype (P < 0.001 in determining PA content in bread and durum wheat (44.3% and 34.7% of sum of squares-SS, respectively, PSH content in bread and durum wheat (27% and 28.4% of SS, respectively and total soluble phenolic compounds content in durum wheat (35.5% of SS. The major contribution to the GEI represented climatic variables during stages of stem elongation for PA and phenolic compounds, and also flowering, fertilization, grain formation and grain filling for PSH. Total yellow pigment and Pi contents in bread and durum wheat were predominantly determined by genotype (P < 0.001. Models of climatic variables proved to be efficient in the explanation of more than 92% of the SS of GEI for PA and antioxidants contents.

  17. Ancient hybridizations among the ancestral genomes of bread wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Marcussen, T.; Sandve, S. R.; Heier, L.; Spannagl, M.; Pfeifer, M.; Rogers, J; Doležel, J. (Jaroslav); Pozniak, C.; Eversole, K.; Feuillet, C; Gill, B; Friebe, B; Lukaszewski, A. J.; Sourdille, P.; Endo, T. R.

    2014-01-01

    The allohexaploid bread wheat genome consists of three closely related subgenomes (A, B, and D), but a clear understanding of their phylogenetic history has been lacking. We used genome assemblies of bread wheat and five diploid relatives to analyze genome-wide samples of gene trees, as well as to estimate evolutionary relatedness and divergence times. We show that the A and B genomes diverged from a common ancestor similar to 7 million years ago and that these genomes gave rise to the D geno...

  18. Acrylamide in relation to asparagine in baked and toasted wheat and rye bread.

    OpenAIRE

    Granby, Kit; Nielsen, Nikoline Juul; Hedegaard, Rikke V; Christensen, Tue; Kann, Mette; Skibsted, Leif H.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Acrylamide in baked and toasted wheat and rye bread was studied in relation to the contents of asparagine in flour, dough, bread and toasts. The asparagine was consumed during bread preparation resulting in a reduced acrylamide contents in the products. In wheat bread 12% of the asparagine initially present in the flour (0.14g kg-1) was left after yeast fermentation and baking, while for rye bread 82% of the asparagine was left after sourdough fermentation and baking. The ...

  19. Effect of Cassava Flour Characteristics on Properties of Cassava-Wheat-Maize Composite Bread Types

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Eduardo; Ulf Svanberg; Jorge Oliveira; Lilia Ahrné

    2013-01-01

    Replacement of wheat flour by other kinds of flour in bread making is economically important in South East Africa as wheat is mainly an imported commodity. Cassava is widely available in the region, but bread quality is impaired when large amounts of cassava are used in the bread formulation. Effect of differently processed cassavas (sun-dried, roasted and fermented) on composite cassava-wheat-maize bread quality containing cassava levels from 20 to 40% (w/w) was evaluated in combination with...

  20. TaER Expression Is Associated with Transpiration Efficiency Traits and Yield in Bread Wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiacheng Zheng

    Full Text Available ERECTA encodes a receptor-like kinase and is proposed as a candidate for determining transpiration efficiency of plants. Two genes homologous to ERECTA in Arabidopsis were identified on chromosomes 6 (TaER2 and 7 (TaER1 of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., with copies of each gene on the A, B and D genomes of wheat. Similar expression patterns were observed for TaER1 and TaER2 with relatively higher expression of TaER1 in flag leaves of wheat at heading (Z55 and grain-filling (Z73 stages. Significant variations were found in the expression levels of both TaER1 and TaER2 in the flag leaves at both growth stages among 48 diverse bread wheat varieties. Based on the expression of TaER1 and TaER2, the 48 wheat varieties could be classified into three groups having high (5 varieties, medium (27 varieties and low (16 varieties levels of TaER expression. Significant differences were also observed between the three groups varying for TaER expression for several transpiration efficiency (TE- related traits, including stomatal density (SD, transpiration rate, photosynthetic rate (A, instant water use efficiency (WUEi and carbon isotope discrimination (CID, and yield traits of biomass production plant-1 (BYPP and grain yield plant-1 (GYPP. Correlation analysis revealed that the expression of TaER1 and TaER2 at the two growth stages was significantly and negatively associated with SD (P<0.01, transpiration rate (P<0.05 and CID (P<0.01, while significantly and positively correlated with flag leaf area (FLA, P<0.01, A (P<0.05, WUEi (P<0.05, BYPP (P<0.01 and GYPP (P<0.01, with stronger correlations for TaER1 than TaER2 and at grain-filling stage than at heading stage. These combined results suggested that TaER involved in development of transpiration efficiency -related traits and yield in bread wheat, implying a function for TaER in regulating leaf development of bread wheat and contributing to expression of these traits. Moreover, the results indicate that

  1. Allelopathic effects of redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. on germination & growth of cucumber, alfalfa, common bean and bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamideh BAKHSHAYESHAN-AGDAM

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathy is one of the important interactions among plants. Weeds can reduce crops productions in farms by their allelopathic effects. Redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L. is the most common weed in Iran with well-known allelopathic potential. In the presented experiment, the allelopathic effects of redroot pigweed on germination and growth of four important crop species including cucumber (Cucumis sativus L., alfalfa (Medicago sativa L., common bean (Phaseulus vulgaris L. and bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. was studied. The effect of different concentrations of redroot pigweed leachate on seed germination and seedlings growth parameters of tested plants was significant, but not same in all studied species. Bread wheat and cucumber were more resistance in seed germination stage in comparison to common bean and alfalfa. Except alfalfa, all plant species showed certain rate of resistance in the most measured parameters. According to the obtained results, bread wheat and common bean were the most resistant species, cucumber was resistant at low concentration but sensitive at high concentration, and alfalfa was the most sensitive species to the redroot pigweed leachate treatments. Therefore, the cultivation of resistant plant species (such as bread wheat and common bean plants in the regions with redroot pigweed’s invasion is appropriate way in management of the farms.

  2. Bread Wheat Quality: Some Physical, Chemical and Rheological Characteristics of Syrian and English Bread Wheat Samples

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    Abboud Al-Saleh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between breadmaking quality, kernel properties (physical and chemical, and dough rheology were investigated using flours from six genotypes of Syrian wheat lines, comprising both commercially grown cultivars and advanced breeding lines. Genotypes were grown in 2008/2009 season in irrigated plots in the Eastern part of Syria. Grain samples were evaluated for vitreousness, test weight, 1000-kernel weight and then milled and tested for protein content, ash, and water content. Dough rheology of the samples was studied by the determination of the mixing time, stability, weakness, resistance and the extensibility of the dough. Loaf baking quality was evaluated by the measurement of the specific weight, resilience and firmness in addition to the sensory analysis. A comparative study between the six Syrian wheat genotypes and two English flour samples was conducted. Significant differences were observed among Syrian genotypes in vitreousness (69.3%–95.0%, 1000-kernel weight (35.2–46.9 g and the test weight (82.2–88.0 kg/hL. All samples exhibited high falling numbers (346 to 417 s for the Syrian samples and 285 and 305 s for the English flours. A significant positive correlation was exhibited between the protein content of the flour and its absorption of water (r = 0.84 **, as well as with the vitreousness of the kernel (r = 0.54 *. Protein content was also correlated with dough stability (r = 0.86 **, extensibility (r = 0.8 **, and negatively correlated with dough weakness (r = −0.69 **. Bread firmness and dough weakness were positively correlated (r = 0.66 **. Sensory analysis indicated Doumah-2 was the best appreciated whilst Doumah 40765 and 46055 were the least appreciated which may suggest their suitability for biscuit preparation rather than bread making.

  3. Effects of fat replacement on properties of whole wheat bread

    OpenAIRE

    Patrícia Matos Scheuer; Bruna Mattioni; Pedro Luiz Manique Barreto; Flávio Martins Montenegro; Cristiane Rodrigues Gomes-Ruffi; Sílvia Biondi; Mariana Kilpp; Alicia de Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Bread characteristics are dependent upon the chemical composition and fiber content of the wheat flour used. A healthy diet can help prevent chronic diseases, where whole grains and fewer calories from fat are components of a healthy diet. The aims of this study were to determine the centesimal composition of wheat flour samples (whole, refined, and flour blends) along with their farinographic parameters (water absorption, development time and stability) and also to verify the specific volume...

  4. Induced Mutations for Improving Production on Bread and Durum Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamo, Ilirjana; Ylli, Ariana; Dodbiba, Andon

    2007-04-01

    Wheat is a very important crop and has been bred for food and its improvement is continuous from cross-breeding. Radiation and chemically induced mutations have provided variability in selection for novel varieties. Four bread and one durum wheat cultivars were exposed to gamma rays, Cs 137 with doses 10, 15 and 20 krad (2000 seeds of each dose and cultivars). We have isolated mutant plants with height reduced and on cv Progress spike without chaff.

  5. Induced Mutations for Improving Production on Bread and Durum Wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat is a very important crop and has been bred for food and its improvement is continuous from cross-breeding. Radiation and chemically induced mutations have provided variability in selection for novel varieties. Four bread and one durum wheat cultivars were exposed to gamma rays, Cs 137 with doses 10, 15 and 20 krad (2000 seeds of each dose and cultivars). We have isolated mutant plants with height reduced and on cv Progress spike without chaff

  6. Upgrading of shamy wheat bread quality through supplement with flour of certain gamma irradiated legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soybean flour,chick peas flour and lupines were irradiated at 0,5 and 10 kGy and individually used to replace 5,10 or 15% of wheat flour in shamy bread. The effect of supplementation of wheat flour with these legume flours on the major, chemical composition and nutritional quality of bread was studied. Results indicated that protein, ash and fiber contents of supplemented shamy bread were higher than the control. On the other hand, the amino acids of the shamy wheat bread supplemented irradiated legumes flour, improved the quality (water retention capacity, stailing rate and bread freshness) of bread

  7. Postprandial glucose metabolism and SCFA after consuming wholegrain rye bread and wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran in individuals with mild gastrointestinal symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappi, J; Mykkänen, H; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach;

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundRye bread benefits glucose metabolism. It is unknown whether the same effect is achieved by rye bran-enriched wheat bread. We tested whether white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) and sourdough wholegrain rye bread (WGR) have similar effects on glucose metabolism...

  8. The Na+ transporter, TaHKT1;5-D, limits shoot Na+ accumulation in bread wheat

    KAUST Repository

    Byrt, Caitlin Siobhan

    2014-10-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has a major salt tolerance locus, Kna1, responsible for the maintenance of a high cytosolic K+/Na+ ratio in the leaves of salt stressed plants. The Kna1 locus encompasses a large DNA fragment, the distal 14% of chromosome 4DL. Limited recombination has been observed at this locus making it difficult to map genetically and identify the causal gene. Here, we decipher the function of TaHKT1;5-D, a candidate gene underlying the Kna1 locus. Transport studies using the heterologous expression systems Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that TaHKT1;5-D is a Na+-selective transporter. Transient expression in Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll protoplasts and in situ polymerase chain reaction indicated that TaHKT1;5-D is localised on the plasma membrane in the wheat root stele. RNA interference-induced silencing decreased the expression of TaHKT1;5-D in transgenic bread wheat lines which led to an increase in the Na+ concentration in the leaves. This indicates that TaHKT1;5-D retrieves Na+ from the xylem vessels in the root and has an important role in restricting the transport of Na+ from the root to the leaves in bread wheat. Thus, TaHKT1;5-D confers the essential salinity tolerance mechanism in bread wheat associated with the Kna1 locus via shoot Na+ exclusion and is critical in maintaining a high K+/Na+ ratio in the leaves. These findings show there is potential to increase the salinity tolerance of bread wheat by manipulation of HKT1;5 genes.

  9. Comparison of Leaf Sheath Transcriptome Profiles with Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress

    KAUST Repository

    Takahashi, Fuminori

    2015-08-05

    Salinity stress has significant negative effects on plant biomass production and crop yield. Salinity tolerance is controlled by complex systems of gene expression and ion transport. The relationship between specific features of mild salinity stress adaptation and gene expression was analyzed using four commercial varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) that have different levels of salinity tolerance. The high-throughput phenotyping system in The Plant Accelerator at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility revealed variation in shoot relative growth rate and salinity tolerance among the four cultivars. Comparative analysis of gene expression in the leaf sheaths identified genes whose functions are potentially linked to shoot biomass development and salinity tolerance. Early responses to mild salinity stress through changes in gene expression have an influence on the acquisition of stress tolerance and improvement in biomass accumulation during the early “osmotic” phase of salinity stress. In addition, results revealed transcript profiles for the wheat cultivars that were different from those of usual stress-inducible genes, but were related to those of plant growth. These findings suggest that, in the process of breeding, selection of specific traits with various salinity stress-inducible genes in commercial bread wheat has led to adaptation to mild salinity conditions.

  10. Response of Bread Wheat Genotypes to Immature Embryo Culture, Callus Induction and Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Elyasi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the response of twenty genotypes of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. to callus induction and in vitro drought stress. The immature embryos of wheat were used in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD with six replications for callus induction and a 20×2 factorial experiment based on CRD design with three replications was carried out for response of genotypes to in vitro drought stress at the Agricultural College of Razi University, Kermanshah, Iran during 2010-2011. Significant differences were observed among the genotypes for Callus Growth Rate (CGR, Relative Fresh Weight Growth (RFWG, Relative Growth Rate (RGR and Percentage of Callus Induction (PCI indicating the presence of genetic variability, different responses of bread wheat genotypes to callus induction and possible selection of callus induction at in vitro level using immature embryos. Mean comparison of the traits measured in callus induction showed that genotypes 1 and 6 had the highest PCI (100%. Analysis of variance for CGR, RFWG and RGR, Relative Water Content (RWC, Percent of Callus Chlorosis (PCC and Proline Content (PC exhibited significant differences among the genotypes for all the characters in the stress condition (15% PEG. Screening drought tolerant genotypes and in vitro indicators of drought tolerance using mean rank, standard deviation of ranks and biplot analysis, discriminated genotypes (6, (19 and (1 as the most drought tolerant.

  11. The Relation between Dough Rheology and Bread Crumb Properties in Winter Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Daniela Horvat; Damir Magdić; Gordana Šimić; Krešimir Dvojković; Georg Drezner

    2008-01-01

    The present paper is focused on rheology dough properties of winter wheat cultivars in relation to bread crumb properties. The rheological characteristics of wheat fl our were evaluated by using Farinograph and Extensograph tests. The image analysis for bread crumb grain assessment was applied as alternative technique for more rapid and efficient measurement of bread characteristics. The highest significant positive correlation (P

  12. Organic cultivation of Triticum turgidum subsp. durum is reflected in the flour-sourdough fermentation-bread axis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Cavoski, Ivana; Turk, Jelena; Ercolini, Danilo; Nionelli, Luana; Pontonio, Erica; De Angelis, Maria; De Filippis, Francesca; Gobbetti, Marco; Di Cagno, Raffaella

    2015-05-01

    Triticum turgidum subsp. durum was grown according to four farming systems: conventional (CONV), organic with cow manure (OMAN) or green manure (OLEG), and without inputs (NOINPUT). Some chemical and technological characteristics differed between CONV and organic flours. As shown by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis, OMAN and OLEG flours showed the highest number of gliadins, and OMAN flour also had the highest number of high-molecular-mass glutenins. Type I sourdoughs were prepared at the laboratory level through a back-slopping procedure, and the bacterial ecology during sourdough preparation was described by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Before fermentation, the dough made with CONV flour showed the highest bacterial diversity. Flours were variously contaminated by genera belonging to the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria. Mature sourdoughs were completely and stably dominated by lactic acid bacteria. The diversity of Firmicutes was the highest for mature sourdoughs made with organic and, especially, NOINPUT flours. Beta diversity analysis based on the weighted UniFrac distance showed differences between doughs and sourdoughs. Those made with CONV flour were separated from the other with organic flours. Lactic acid bacterium microbiota structure was qualitatively confirmed through the culturing method. As shown by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis, yeasts belonging to the genera Saccharomyces, Candida, Kazachstania, and Rhodotorula occurred in all sourdoughs. Levels of bound phenolic acids and phytase and antioxidant activities differed depending on the farming system. Mature sourdoughs were used for bread making. Technological characteristics were superior in the breads made with organic sourdoughs. The farming system is another determinant affecting the sourdough microbiota. The organic cultivation of durum wheat was reflected along the flour-sourdough fermentation-bread axis. PMID:25724957

  13. Production of haploid plants from ten hybrids of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. through wide hybridization with maize (Zea mays L. Producción de plantas haploides a partir de 10 híbridos de trigo para pan (Triticum aestivum L. mediante hibridación interespecífica con maíz (Zea mays L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E. Torres

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to obtain haploid plants of bread wheat through wide hybridization with maize. The experimental material included ten bread wheat hybrids (female parent and one population of maize (pollen donor. Two assays were carried out in two different seasons (summer and winter. Wheat spikes were manually emasculated, each spike was pollinated twice with fresh pollen of maize and a solution of 2,4-D (100 mg l-1 was sprayed on pollinated florets and injected in the upper internode. Fifteen and 21 days after pollination caryopses were removed and surface sterilized. Embryos were cultured in tubes containing B5 medium. The ten hybrid combinations produced caryopses, but only eight of these hybrids produced embryos and, in six of them, the recovered embryos developed into haploid plantlets. The results showed that there is genotypic influence of the wheat parents on the percentage of haploid embryo formation, in accordance with the results obtained by other authors. Regardless of the genotype, the sowing season and the harvest date, 69.4% of the pollinated flowers gave place to the formation of caryopses, 5.5% of these caryopses developed into presumably haploid embryos (for their morphological phenotypes and 26.1 % of the recovered embryos developed into haploid plantlets.El objetivo del presente trabajo fue obtener plantas haploides de trigo para pan mediante hibridación interespecífica con maíz. Se utilizaron 10 híbridos de trigo para pan (madre y una población de maíz (donante de polen; se llevaron a cabo dos ensayos en distintas estaciones de cultivo. Cada espiga de trigo fue emasculada manualmente y polinizada dos veces con polen fresco de maíz; las flores polinizadas se pulverizaron con una solución de 2,4-D (100 mg l-1, la que también se inyectó en la base de la espiga. Las semillas se cosecharon a los 15 y 21 días posteriores a la polinización. Los embriones recuperados se colocaron en tubos conteniendo medio de

  14. Spelt (Triticum spelta L.) and winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) wholemeals have similar sterol profiles, as determined by quantitative liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruibal-Mendieta, Nike L; Rozenberg, Raoul; Delacroix, Dominique L; Petitjean, Géraldine; Dekeyser, Adrien; Baccelli, Chiara; Marques, Carole; Delzenne, Nathalie M; Meurens, Marc; Habib-Jiwan, Jean-Louis; Quetin-Leclercq, Joëlle

    2004-07-28

    From a nutritional point of view, cereal lipids include valuable molecules, such as essential fatty acids, phytosterols, and fat-soluble vitamins. Spelt (Triticum spelta L.) is an alternative hulled bread cereal mostly grown in Belgium, where it is mainly intended for animal feed but should increasingly be used for human consumption. The present research focused on phytosterol quantification by LC/APCI-MS2 in saponified wholemeal extracts of 16 dehulled spelt and 5 winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties grown in Belgium during 2001-2002 at the same location. Glycosylated sterols and free and formerly esterified sterols could be determined in saponified extracts. Results show that the mean phytosterol content is comparable in both cereals (whereas other lipids, such as oleic and linoleic acids, are increased in spelt wholemeal): spelt extract has, on average, 527.7 microg of free and esterified sterols g(-1) of wholemeal and 123.8 microg of glycosylated sterols g(-1) of wholemeal versus 528.5 and 112.6 microg x g(-1) in winter wheat (values not corrected for recoveries). This is the first report on the application and validation of an LC/MS2 method for the quantification of phytosterols in spelt and winter wheat. PMID:15264918

  15. Determination of rust resistance genes in pakistani bread wheats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stripe and leaf rusts are the major constraints to bread wheat production in Pakistan. Molecular markers were used to investigate the presence of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance gene cluster Lr34/Yr18 and stem rust resistance gene Sr2 in 52 Pakistani bread wheat cultivars/lines. PCR amplification of DNA fragments using DNA marker csLV-34 showed that 13 of the studied cultivars/lines, namely 03FJ26, NR 337, NR 339, NR 347, NR 350, Manthar, Margalla 99, Iqbal 2000, Saleem 2000, Wafaq 2001, Marwat 2001, Pirsabak 2004 and Fareed 2006 carry leaf rust and stripe rust resistance genes Lr34/Yr18. Stem rust resistance gene Sr2 was observed in 36 Pakistani spring wheat cultivars/lines using stm560.3tgag marker. The slow rusting gene Sr2 needs to be combined with additional stem rust resistance genes to establish durable resistance against Ug99 in modern wheat cultivars. Low frequency of Lr34/Yr18 was found in Pakistani wheats. This gene cluster needs to be incorporated into Pakistani wheats for durable rust resistance. (author)

  16. Resistance to wheat streak mosaic virus and Triticum mosaic virus in wheat lines carrying Wsm1 and Wsm3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) are important viruses of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Great Plains of United States. In addition to agronomic practices to prevent damage from these viruses, temperature sensitive resistance genes Wsm1, Wsm2 and Wsm3, have bee...

  17. Bread wheat selection against abiotic and biotic stresses in highland Balochistan, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. ssp. aestivum) lines were screened in multi-location trials in highland Balochistan, Pakistan from 1982 (F2) to 1990 (fixed lines). Objective of the study was to select and evaluate desirable genotypes for winter planting, Of 816 entries, only four successfully passed through the observation nurseries and yield trials. After nine years of testing only genotype ICW81.1471 was selected for wide-scale agronomic testing. Although the yield potential of this genotype was not significantly higher than that of the local check, it had the important advantage of possessing good resistance to yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis West) The results showed that exposure of segregating population to the prevailing environmental stresses of cold and drought was an effective selection procedure for identifying genotypes which are resistant to such stresses. Effective selection can be made for other desirable attributes such as disease and pest resistance, plant height and time to maturity. (author)

  18. On-farm dynamic management of genetic diversity: the impact of seed diffusions and seed saving practices on a population-variety of bread wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Thomas, Mathieu; Demeulenaere, Elise; Dawson, Julie C.; Khan, Abdul Rehman; Galic, Nathalie; Jouanne-Pin, Sophie; Remoue, Carine; Bonneuil, Christophe; Goldringer, Isabelle

    2012-01-01

    Since the domestication of crop species, humans have derived specific varieties for particular uses and shaped the genetic diversity of these varieties. Here, using an interdisciplinary approach combining ethnobotany and population genetics, we document the within-variety genetic structure of a population-variety of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in relation to farmers’ practices to decipher their contribution to crop species evolution. Using 19 microsatellites markers, we conducted two c...

  19. Elemental characterization of bread and durum wheat by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cereals are by far the most significant agricultural crops, not only due to the sheer amount of their gross-tonnage production and prevalence in human diets worldwide, but also as food vehicles of important items for human nutrition and wellness at large-proteins, dietary fibers and oligoelements, such as selenium, calcium, zinc and iron, to name just a few. Still, some micronutrients feature an uneven distribution in the upper continental crust, and thus in cultivation soils deriving therefrom. Whether soils have always been poor in an essential element, or have just become deprived of it by intensive farming, the result is the same: insufficient soil-plant transfer, feeble-to-nonexistent plant uptake, and, therefore, unsatisfactory dietary distribution of that element through the food chain. Countries that implemented corrective measures or programs of crop biofortification and consumer education have been successful in dealing with some micronutrients' deficiencies. Given their relative weight in Portuguese diets, cereals are obvious candidates for crop-supplementation strategies that may contribute to an upgrade in the health status of the whole population. A good knowledge of element-baseline data for major cereal varieties (plants) and main production areas (soils) is a pre-requisite though. The present work was aimed at an elemental characterization of cereals and soils from relevant wheat-producing areas of mainland Portugal. This paper is focused on wheat samples-bread and durum wheats; Triticum aestivum L. (Farak and Jordao cultivars) and Triticum durum Desf. (Don Duro and Simeto cultivars), respectively-from the 2009 campaign, collected at Tras-os-Montes, Alto Alentejo and Baixo Alentejo (inland regions). Elemental concentrations were determined by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA; k0-variant), and assessed with the k0-IAEA software. Quality control was asserted through the analysis of NIST-SRMR 1567a (Wheat Flour), NIST-SRMR 1568a (Rice

  20. Effects of fat replacement on properties of whole wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Matos Scheuer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bread characteristics are dependent upon the chemical composition and fiber content of the wheat flour used. A healthy diet can help prevent chronic diseases, where whole grains and fewer calories from fat are components of a healthy diet. The aims of this study were to determine the centesimal composition of wheat flour samples (whole, refined, and flour blends along with their farinographic parameters (water absorption, development time and stability and also to verify the specific volume, crumb texture profile and digital imaging of bread loaves made with 60% whole wheat flour and 3% fat or fat replacer. Increasing the whole wheat flour percentage in the blends also increased levels of protein, ash and insoluble fiber. All the farinographic parameters were also increased. Enzymatically modified starch was found to be an effective fat replacer in whole wheat loaves. The loaves made using fat replacer had the same specific volume and higher cell density as those made with fat, but exhibited different texture profile parameters such as higher hardness value and lower springiness value.

  1. Induced variability for protein content in bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The negative correlation observed between seed weight and percentage of protein in the seeds of bread wheat is a function of the fact that increase in seed size is commonly associated with a disproportionately large deposition of starch relative to the protein. The present study, as well as our earlier analysis, shows that exceptional genotypes of bread wheat do exist in which increase in seed weight is associated with a relatively larger synthesis of protein. In the course of the present investigation on radiation-induced variability, genotypes showing more efficient synthesis of storage proteins in their seeds have been identified in the M2 and M3 generations. The induced variability, thus, makes it possible to break the negative correlation between seed weight and percentage of protein in the seed. Based on these findings, it has been suggested that in a protein improvement programme on bread wheat it should be useful to select in the segregating generation plants showing increase in seed size, some of which can be expected to be relatively more efficient in protein synthesis and give higher protein yields. (author)

  2. MEJORAMIENTO DE TRIGOS HARINEROS (Triticum aestivum L. EN LA ZONA CENTRO SUR DE CHILE.: ANALISIS DEL RENDIMIENTO Y VARIABLES ASOCIADAS EN TRIGOS DE PRIMAVERA Genetic improvement in bread wheats (Triticum aestivum L. in the South Central area of Chile.: Analysis of grain yield and related variables in spring varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Mellado Z.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron experimentos de campo con once variedades de trigos (Triticum aestivum L. de primavera liberadas a la producción comercial entre 1971 y 1993, para evaluar la ganancia genética en rendimiento de grano y sus variables asociadas (biomasa, índice de cosecha, granos por espiga, peso de mil semillas y peso del hectolitro. Los genotipos fueron desarrollados en el Proyecto de Mejoramiento de Trigo del Centro Regional de Investigación Quilamapu, del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias. Mexifén fue la primera variedad de este grupo, y se usó como variedad de referencia. Los experimentos se llevaron a cabo en Chillán, Chile, durante 1995 a 1998. En cada año se realizaron dos experimentos similares, con y sin control de enfermedades foliares, para evaluar la ganancia genética y el daño de las enfermedades respectivamente. El promedio de rendimiento de todas las variedades, durante los cuatro años, con fungicida fue de 9,02 t ha-1 y de 7,50 t ha-1 sin fungicida. No se detectó ganancia genética significativa en rendimiento de grano, ni en sus variables asociadas, con la excepción del peso de la semilla. En este último caso la ganancia genética fue de 22,1 mg grano-1 año-1. Se concluyó que las variedades distribuidas entre 1971 y 1993, no mostraron ganancia genética en rendimiento de grano y, que la razón principal para el cambio de variedades en ese período habría sido la resistencia genética a las enfermedades foliares.Field experiments with eleven spring wheat varieties released between 1971 and 1993 were carried out to assess genetic gain in yield potential and related variables (biomass, harvest index, kernels/spike, kernel weight and test weight. The genotypes tested were developed in the Quilamapu Wheat Breeding Program. Mexifén was the first enhanced variety of this group, and was used as the standard variety. The experiments were carried out at the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias, Chillán, Chile

  3. Identification and characterization of more than 4 million intervarietal SNPs across the group 7 chromosomes of bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kaitao; Lorenc, Michał T; Lee, Hong Ching; Berkman, Paul J; Bayer, Philipp Emanuel; Visendi, Paul; Ruperao, Pradeep; Fitzgerald, Timothy L; Zander, Manuel; Chan, Chon-Kit Kenneth; Manoli, Sahana; Stiller, Jiri; Batley, Jacqueline; Edwards, David

    2015-01-01

    Despite being a major international crop, our understanding of the wheat genome is relatively poor due to its large size and complexity. To gain a greater understanding of wheat genome diversity, we have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms between 16 Australian bread wheat varieties. Whole-genome shotgun Illumina paired read sequence data were mapped to the draft assemblies of chromosomes 7A, 7B and 7D to identify more than 4 million intervarietal SNPs. SNP density varied between the three genomes, with much greater density observed on the A and B genomes than the D genome. This variation may be a result of substantial gene flow from the tetraploid Triticum turgidum, which possesses A and B genomes, during early co-cultivation of tetraploid and hexaploid wheat. In addition, we examined SNP density variation along the chromosome syntenic builds and identified genes in low-density regions which may have been selected during domestication and breeding. This study highlights the impact of evolution and breeding on the bread wheat genome and provides a substantial resource for trait association and crop improvement. All SNP data are publically available on a generic genome browser GBrowse at www.wheatgenome.info. PMID:25147022

  4. A high-density, SNP-based consensus map of tetraploid wheat as a bridge to integrate durum and bread wheat genomics and breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maccaferri, Marco; Ricci, Andrea; Salvi, Silvio; Milner, Sara Giulia; Noli, Enrico; Martelli, Pier Luigi; Casadio, Rita; Akhunov, Eduard; Scalabrin, Simone; Vendramin, Vera; Ammar, Karim; Blanco, Antonio; Desiderio, Francesca; Distelfeld, Assaf; Dubcovsky, Jorge; Fahima, Tzion; Faris, Justin; Korol, Abraham; Massi, Andrea; Mastrangelo, Anna Maria; Morgante, Michele; Pozniak, Curtis; N'Diaye, Amidou; Xu, Steven; Tuberosa, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    Consensus linkage maps are important tools in crop genomics. We have assembled a high-density tetraploid wheat consensus map by integrating 13 data sets from independent biparental populations involving durum wheat cultivars (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum), cultivated emmer (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccum) and their ancestor (wild emmer, T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides). The consensus map harboured 30 144 markers (including 26 626 SNPs and 791 SSRs) half of which were present in at least two component maps. The final map spanned 2631 cM of all 14 durum wheat chromosomes and, differently from the individual component maps, all markers fell within the 14 linkage groups. Marker density per genetic distance unit peaked at centromeric regions, likely due to a combination of low recombination rate in the centromeric regions and even gene distribution along the chromosomes. Comparisons with bread wheat indicated fewer regions with recombination suppression, making this consensus map valuable for mapping in the A and B genomes of both durum and bread wheat. Sequence similarity analysis allowed us to relate mapped gene-derived SNPs to chromosome-specific transcripts. Dense patterns of homeologous relationships have been established between the A- and B-genome maps and between nonsyntenic homeologous chromosome regions as well, the latter tracing to ancient translocation events. The gene-based homeologous relationships are valuable to infer the map location of homeologs of target loci/QTLs. Because most SNP and SSR markers were previously mapped in bread wheat, this consensus map will facilitate a more effective integration and exploitation of genes and QTL for wheat breeding purposes. PMID:25424506

  5. Chromosomal engineering and crop improvement in bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bread wheat is not only the world's most important food crop but is also an excellent model system for genetic analysis of allopolyploid plants. Diploid nuclear and cytoplasm donors are now known for polyploid wheats. The origin of disomic allopolyploid species can be traced back to a single plant. Establishment of nucleocytoplasmic compatibility is critical in allopolyploid speciation. Polyploid wheats show disomic inheritance that is genetically controlled. Genetic expression arises from interactive and dosage dependent effects. Apart form polyploidy, the basic wheat genome (1n = 1x = 7) is also huge (5.3 x 109 bp). Because of the availability of a large number of cytogenic stocks, target mapping is possible. It shows that the gene rich, recombinogenic regions are restricted to the distal ends of the chromosome arms and gene cloning by chromosome landing is feasible. Because of polyploidy, the wheat genome is highly buffered and transfer of chromosome segments of large linkage blocks is more important than single genes. There are spectacular examples of alien chromosome segments transferred to wheat, either by physical means (irradiation) or by genetic manipulation, which have immensely improved productivity. Therefore, enhancing the efficiency of chromosome engineering protocols is a worthwhile goal in wheat improvement. (author). 15 refs, 3 figs, 1 tab

  6. MEJORAMIENTO DE TRIGOS HARINEROS (Triticum aestivum L. EN LA ZONA CENTRO SUR DE CHILE: CONTENIDO Y PRODUCCIÓN DE PROTEINA, Y VOLUMEN DE SEDIMENTACIÓN EN TRIGOS INVERNALES, ALTERNATIVOS Y PRIMAVERALES Genetic improvement of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. in the South Central zone of Chile: Protein content, production and sedimentation volume of winter, alternative and spring wheats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Mellado Z.

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizaron cuatro experimentos de campo con diez variedades de trigos de invierno y hábito alternativo (grupo 1, y cuatro experimentos con once variedades de trigos de primavera (grupo 2, para evaluar el porcentaje y producción de proteína del grano, y el volumen de sedimentación. Los genotipos fueron desarrollados en el Proyecto de Mejoramiento de Trigo del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA, Centro Regional de Investigación Quilamapu. Lilifén fue la primera variedad mejorada en el grupo 1, y Mexifén en el grupo 2; por lo tanto ambas fueron usadas como referencia. Los experimentos se llevaron a cabo en suelos Andisoles del Campo Experimental Santa Rosa (INIA, Chillán, Chile, desde el año 1995 a 1998. Los porcentajes medios de proteína de las variedades de los grupos 1 y 2 fueron 9,6 %, y 10,8%, respectivamente. El promedio de producción de proteína de las variedades del grupo 1 fue 894,6 kg ha-1 mientras que en el grupo 2 este valor fue 968,4 kg ha-1. Los valores medios para sedimentación fueron 3,4 mL en el grupo 1 y 4,3 mL en el grupo 2. En relación a las variedades, los resultados demostraron que el trabajo de mejoramiento de trigo realizado entre 1968 y 1993 fue más exitoso en mejorar el contenido de proteína del grano que su calidadFour field experiments with ten winter and alternative varieties (group 1 and four experiments with eleven spring wheat varieties (group 2, were carried out to assess grain protein percentage, grain production and sedimentation volume. The tested genotypes were developed at the Quilamapu Wheat Breeding Program, Institute of Agricultural Research, INIA. Lilifen was the first breed variety improved in group 1, and Mexifen in group 2; as such both were used as references. The experiments were carried out in Andisoil soils at the Santa Rosa Experimental Field, Chillán, Chile, from 1995 to 1998. The mean protein percentage of varieties of groups 1 and 2 were 9.6 and 10

  7. Transcriptome-wide identification of bread wheat WRKY transcription factors in response to drought stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okay, Sezer; Derelli, Ebru; Unver, Turgay

    2014-10-01

    The WRKY superfamily of transcription factors was shown to be involved in biotic and abiotic stress responses in plants such as wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), one of the major crops largely cultivated and consumed all over the world. Drought is an important abiotic stress resulting in a considerable amount of loss in agronomical yield. Therefore, identification of drought responsive WRKY members in wheat has a profound significance. Here, a total of 160 TaWRKY proteins were characterized according to sequence similarity, motif varieties, and their phylogenetic relationships. The conserved sequences of the TaWRKYs were aligned and classified into three main groups and five subgroups. A novel motif in wheat, WRKYGQR, was identified. To putatively determine the drought responsive TaWRKY members, publicly available RNA-Seq data were analyzed for the first time in this study. Through in silico searches, 35 transcripts were detected having an identity to ten known TaWRKY genes. Furthermore, relative expression levels of TaWRKY16/TaWRKY16-A, TaWRKY17, TaWRKY19-C, TaWRKY24, TaWRKY59, TaWRKY61, and TaWRKY82 were measured in root and leaf tissues of drought-tolerant Sivas 111/33 and susceptible Atay 85 cultivars. All of the quantified TaWRKY transcripts were found to be up-regulated in root tissue of Sivas 111/33. Differential expression of TaWRKY16, TaWRKY24, TaWRKY59, TaWRKY61 and TaWRKY82 genes was discovered for the first time upon drought stress in wheat. These comprehensive analyses bestow a better understanding about the WRKY TFs in bread wheat under water deficit, and increased number of drought responsive WRKYs would contribute to the molecular breeding of tolerant wheat cultivars. PMID:24748053

  8. Exploiting resource use efficiency and resilience in ancient wheat species

    OpenAIRE

    Parmar, Anisha

    2014-01-01

    Modern bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) initially derived from wild progenitors which underwent hybridisation and domestication events. It is hypothesised that modern plant breeding has reduced the genetic variation among modern cultivars (Sparkes, 2010). Ancient wheat species form a conduit between wild ancient wheat and cultivated Triticum species, and may harbour the genetic variation required to supplement the modern bread wheat gene pool. The current work investigated a range of morpholog...

  9. Identification of bitter compounds in whole wheat bread crumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bin, Qing; Peterson, Devin G

    2016-07-15

    Consumer acceptability of whole wheat foods is challenged by negative bitter flavour attributes. In this study, bitter compounds in whole wheat bread crumb were investigated. Utilising sensory-guided multi-dimensional fractionation techniques, the compounds with the highest bitterness intensity in the crumb were purified and identified by LC-MS-ToF and NMR techniques. The main bitter compounds were reported to be L-tryptophan, Wessely-Moser isomers apigenin-6-C-galactoside-8-C-arabinoside & apigenin-6-C-arabinoside-8-C-galactoside, and 9,12,13-trihydroxy-trans-10-octadecenoic acid (pinellic acid). Sensory recombination experiments of the bitter compounds formulated at the concentrations determined in expectorated saliva after bread mastication indicated pinellic acid had the greatest contribution to the bitterness perception of the crumb. Quantitative analysis of pinellic acid in the raw flour was reported to be inherently low compared to bread; the concentration increased more than 30-fold after flour hydration and baking. PMID:26948582

  10. Durum and soft wheat flours in sourdough and straight-dough bread-making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Caligiani, Augusta; Sgarbi, Elisa; Cirlini, Martina; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Chiavaro, Emma

    2015-10-01

    In the present work, the bread-making performance of durum wheat flour under straight-dough and sourdough procedures were compared to those offered by soft wheat flour by means of selected physical properties (colour, texture, water dynamics, crumb grain characteristic, bulk volume) immediately after baking and during a 5-day shelf-life. The use of sourdough process better preserved both crumb grain characteristic and moisture content of the breads during shelf-life, independently of the wheat flour used. The flour seemed to significantly affect the water dynamics in sourdough breads, being the dehydration process of crust and under-crust faster in durum wheat breads. On the other hand, increasing trend of crumb firmness during the shelf-life was slower in durum wheat breads than in those obtained with soft wheat flour. Initial colour parameters of crust and crumb appeared to less change during shelf-life if durum wheat flour was used. Thus, the final quality of breads after baking and along the shelf-life was significantly affected by both the type of flours and the bread-making process. The results reported herein showed that technological performances of durum wheat flour, especially when combined with sourdough processes, could be successfully exploited for the production of innovative products in the bread-making industry. PMID:26396371

  11. Evaluation of the nutritional quality of wheat bread prepared with quinoa, buckwheat and pumpkin seed blends

    OpenAIRE

    Milovanović Mirjana M.; Demin Mirjana A.; Vucelić-Radović Biljana V.; Žarković Branka M.; Stikić Radmila I.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to blend quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.), buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Möench) and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L.) seed kernels at 40% level with wheat flour and to examine the effect of this blend on nutritional and sensory quality and also energy values of the pan bread. Hydrothermal preparation of these supplements is included. Chemical composition of the investigated materials, wheat bread and supplemented bread, was d...

  12. Drought Resistance in Bread Wheat Genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZTÜRK, Ali

    1998-01-01

    Development of drought-resistant cultivars is one of the major goals in plant breeding programs. Twentysix wheat genotypes were evaluated for drought resistance using the criteria of leaf relative water content (LRWC), leaf relative water loss (LRWL) and drought susceptibility index (DSI) under Erzurum conditions in the crop seasons of 1995-96 and 1996-97. The results showed that differences among the genotypes in LRWC, LRWL and DSI were significant. In rainfed condition; LRWC, LRWL and DSI ...

  13. Comparative Evaluation of the Nutritional and Sensory Quality of Major Commercial Whole-wheat Breads in Nigerian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Ndife

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the nutritional, microbial and sensory profile of regularly consumed commercial whole wheat breads in Nigeria in order to offer an insight into the overall quality of these foods. Four major local brands of commercial whole wheat breads (samples A, B, C and D were evaluated. The normal white bread (sample E served as control. Results of the physical properties obtained, showed that the white bread (sample E had higher values for bread volume (2850 cm3 , specific volume (4.38 cm3, hydration capacity (4.50% and compressibility (45% than the whole wheat breads. No trace of bromate was found in all the bread samples. The proximate analyses for the whole wheat bread showed the moisture content to range from (30.64-38.74%, fat (3.5-5.0%, Fibre (2.5-3.5% higher than in white bread (26.40, 3.0 and 1.20% respectively. While the whole wheat breads had lower levels of protein (5.25-6.48%, carbohydrate (45.74-51.25% and energy (249-258 Kcal when compared to white bread of 9.00, 59.40% and 301 Kcal, respectively. The ash and mineral contents of the whole wheat breads were higher than that of white bread. While the viable microbial counts for the whole wheat breads (1.0×102-1.5×10 2 were lower than in the white bread (3.1×102. Generally, the bread samples were within the regulatory specifications and the whole wheat breads were nutritionally superior to the white bread while the white bread had better overall sensory preference than the whole wheat breads.

  14. Effects of single and double infections of winter wheat by Triticum mosaic virus and Wheat streak mosaic virus on yield determinants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) is a recently discovered virus infecting wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in the Great Plains region of the United States. It is transmitted by wheat curl mites (Aceria tosichella Keifer) which also transmit Wheat streak mosaic virus (WSMV) and Wheat mosaic virus. In a gree...

  15. Resistencia a roya amarilla (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici en variedades de trigo harinero (Triticum aestivum L. Genetics of the resistance to yellow rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici in varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivated in Bajío

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Huerta Espino

    Full Text Available Las variedades de trigo harinero Cortazar S94, Bárcenas S2002, Urbina S2007 y Maya S2007 fueron liberadas para siembras en condiciones de riego en "El Bajío". Estas variedades mantienen resistencia a diferentes razas de roya amarilla que se encuentran en el país; sin embargo, se desconocen las bases genéticas de su resistencia. Para determinar la genética de la resistencia, estas variedades se cruzaron con el progenitor susceptible 'Avocet- YrA' y la determinación de similitud de genes se realizó mediante pruebas de alelismo. Las cuatro variedades y las familias F3 de cada cruza se evaluaron durante verano de 2009 en el Campo Experimental 'Valle de México' (INFAP-CEVAMEX Chapingo, México, bajo una epifitia artificial creada con el aislamiento MEX96.11. Con los resultados de la evaluación de familias F3 se determinó que la resistencia de planta adulta a roya amarilla en Cortázar S94, Bárcenas S2002 y Maya S2007 está condicionada por dos ó tres genes de efectos aditivos, mientras que en Urbina S2007 la resistencia está condicionada por tres o cuatro genes de la misma naturaleza. La ausencia de familias completamente susceptibles en las cruzas entre las variedades resistentes indica la existencia de al menos un gen de resistencia en común.The varieties of bread wheat, Cortázar s94, Bárcenas S2002, Urbina S2007 y Maya S2007 were liberated for planting under irrigated conditions in "El Bajío". These varieties maintain a resistance to different races of yellow rust that were found in the country; however, the genetic bases of resistance are unknown. To determine the genetics of the resistance, these varieties were crossed with the susceptible parent 'Avocet- YrA', and the determination of similitude ofthe genes was conducted through allele testing. The four varieties and the families F3 of each cross was evaluated during the summer of 2009 in the Experimental Field 'Valle de Mexico', Chapingo, Mexico State, under an artificial

  16. Induced mutations for rust resistance in bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Seeds of variety ''Lalbahadur'' were treated with 0.04% NMH. M2 plants were inoculated with a mixture of pathotypes of each of the 3 Puccinia species (P. graminis, P. recondita, P. striiformis). Plants with simultaneous resistance to all 3 rusts were selected. Repeated testing in subsequent generations confirmed the resistance. The mutant lines are morphologically similar to the parent cultivar and therefore could be used as components of a multiline variety. Comparison of variety pattern against the Indian pathotypes of rusts suggests that the mutant genes are different from the ones known already in bread wheat. (author)

  17. Comparative Evaluation of the Nutritional and Sensory Quality of Major Commercial Whole-wheat Breads in Nigerian Market

    OpenAIRE

    Joel Ndife; James Obiegbunna; Simeon Ajayi

    2013-01-01

    The study examined the nutritional, microbial and sensory profile of regularly consumed commercial whole wheat breads in Nigeria in order to offer an insight into the overall quality of these foods. Four major local brands of commercial whole wheat breads (samples A, B, C and D) were evaluated. The normal white bread (sample E) served as control. Results of the physical properties obtained, showed that the white bread (sample E) had higher values for bread volume (2850 cm3 ), specific volume ...

  18. Effect of Waxy Wheat Flour Blends on the Quality of Fresh and Stale Bread

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Peng; MA Chuan-xi; WU Rong-lin; KONG Zhi-you; ZHANG Bo-qiao

    2009-01-01

    Starch is the major component in the wheat kernel,which is mainly composed of amylose and amylopectin.The wheat without amylose in its endosperm was called"waxy wheat".Waxy wheat can be used to adjust the amylose content and improve the wheat-based food quality by adding to non-waxy wheat flour.In order to investigate the effect of waxy wheat flour on the quality of fresh and stale bread,waxy wheat flour was added into the flour of Canadian Spring Wheat 2 at 0.0,5.0,10.0,15.0,20.0,25.0,30.0,and 35.0% to make breads.The physicochemical properties were adjusted to suitability by adding Yangmai 158 flour,and breads were evaluated for sensory quality,crumb firmness,loaf volume and weight loss over a period of 0,2,4,and 6 days.The result showed that the best total score of fresh bread was 82.9 by adding waxy flour at 7.0%,though no significant difference was found among blends with 0.0-15.0% of waxy flour.Breads with the addition of 22.0% waxy flour had lower firmness,and decreasing loss of weight.Waxy wheat flour blend at 15.0% was optimal in retarding staling without significant decreasing fresh bread quality in comparison to the control.

  19. Some Physical and Chemical Properties of Iraqi Wheat Varieties and their Relationship with Bread Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results showed that the volume of the bread baked from wheat flour of Tammoze 3 was increased significantly compared to other wheat varieties. Maxiback flour gave the smallest bread volume; whereas Abugraib and Rabi'ah bread were not significantly different. Abugraib wheat was not significantly different from Rabi'ah bread. The taste panel results were compatible with baking results. Tammoze 3 was the highest in one thousand grain weight and total protein percentage. Rabi'ah wheat flour was superior in water absorption Among the tested wheat flour varieties, maxiback flour showed best fat content. Amylases and proteases activities were higher in wheat grains than in flour. Protease activity was the highest in Maxiback flour; whereas in Tammoze 3 it was the lowest. (Author's) 19 refs., 5 tabs

  20. Infuence of gamma radiation on the rheological and functional properties of bread wheats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma irradiation on some biochemical, rheological and functional properties of bread wheats were studied. Two wheat cultivars were selected to represent medium-strong and weak dough mixing strengths. Falling number values were severely depressed at doses of 500 and 1000 krad. Rheological dough properties, as assessed with the mixograph and farinograph, were also investigated. Radiation at medium doses produced an increase in the farinograph water absorption for both wheats. Radiation decreased the amount of bound water as compared to the control sample. For the medium-strong wheat low levels of radiation produced bread with volumes and overall bread quality equal to or slightly better than those of the control flour, whereas for the weak wheat an improvement of the baking performance was obtained at all the low doses of radiation. However, the overall bread quality of both wheats was highly reduced at medium doses of radiation. (author)

  1. Evaluation of the nutritional quality of wheat bread prepared with quinoa, buckwheat and pumpkin seed blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milovanović Mirjana M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to blend quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Möench and pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo L. seed kernels at 40% level with wheat flour and to examine the effect of this blend on nutritional and sensory quality and also energy values of the pan bread. Hydrothermal preparation of these supplements is included. Chemical composition of the investigated materials, wheat bread and supplemented bread, was determined using relevant AOAC methods. Chemical composition of supplemented bread with an increase in protein, oil and crude fiber was superior in comparison with control wheat bread. Sensory properties of supplemented bread such as specific volume, appearance, crust and crumb texture, aroma-odor and color were evaluated and found excellent. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31006, TR 31034 and EU FP7 project 316004, project acronym: AREA

  2. The Role of Sensory Experiences and Information on the Willingness to Pay for Organic Wheat Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Boxall, Peter C.; Cash, Sean B.; Wismer, Wendy V.; Muralidharan, Vijay; Annett, Lisa E.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the size and the determinants of the price premium a sample of Edmonton-area consumers was willing to pay for organic wheat bread. The development of these premiums included consideration of providing information on health or environmental advantages of organic production and consideration of sensory (taste) acceptance. To do this conventional and organic wheat was grown under similar conditions and milled and baked into 60% whole wheat bread under identical conditions. Sa...

  3. Nudging children towards whole wheat bread: a field experiment on the influence of fun bread roll shape on breakfast consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Kleef, van, G.A.; Vrijhof, M.N.; Polet, I.A.; Vingerhoeds, M.H.; Wijk, van, A.J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many children do not eat enough whole grains, which may have negative health consequences. Intervention research is increasingly focusing on nudging as a way to influence food choices by affecting unconscious behavioural processes. The aim of this field study was to examine whether the shape of bread rolls is able to shift children’s bread choices from white to whole wheat during breakfast to increase whole grain intake. Methods: In a between-subjects experiment conducted at twelv...

  4. Biochemical analysis of whole wheat (triticum aestivum) flour of different wheat cultivars commonly grown in NWFP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whole wheat (Triticum aestivum) flour of six different NWFP wheat (Triticum aestivum) cultivars named as Ghaznavi-98, Auqab, Fakhr-e-sarhad Saleem-2000, Khyber-87 and Pirsabak-2005 were evaluated for Biochemical, Physical and Sensory characteristics in order to highlight their nutritional significance. The maximum level of Protein content (16.11%) was found in wheat cultivar Pirsabak-2005 where as minimum protein content was found in Auqab (11.73%). Crude fat content of whole-wheat flour was found lower in Khyber-87 (1.74%)and higher in Fakhr-e-sarhad (2.21%), Ghaznavi-98 was found to have maximum crude fiber value (0.74%) while Saleem-2000 was found to have minimum value (0.40%). Maximum ash content was found for Fakhr-e-sarhad (2.12%) and minimum was found for Saleem-2000 (1.05%). Wheat cultivars Ghaznavi-98 was found to have maximum moisture content (14%), while Pirsabak-2005 was found to have lower moisture content (13.11%). The wet gluten content was recorded in the range of 8.7 to 5.2% while dry gluten content was found in the ranged of 2.82 to 2.03% and The falling number was recorded in the range of 64 to 214 and significantly higher in saleem-2000 (214). For Sensory Evaluation, it is evidence that maximum overall acceptability were found both for Ghaznavi-98 and Pirsabak-2000 and Minimum for Saleem-2000 (6.4). (author)

  5. Yield stability in bread wheat genotypes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stability for grain yield performance and genotype x environment (GxE) interaction was studied in twelve (nine advance genotypes and 3 checks) wheat genotypes evaluated at various locations having different agro-climatic conditions in Sindh province of Pakistan over two years. The combined and individual analysis of variance for locations and years was conducted. Pooled analysis of variance revealed highly significant (p<0.01) difference for genotypes, environments and genotype x environment (GxE) interaction. A joint regression analysis was applied to grain yield data to estimate the stability parameters viz., regression coefficient (b), s.e. (b) and deviation from regression coefficients (S2d) for each genotype. Genotype MSH-14 produced the highest mean yield (5090 kg/ha) in all environments averaged for two years, and had regression coefficient (b) close to unity (0.86) and S2d close to zero (0.7923). This indicated wide adaptation and stability of performance of MSH-14 in all environments. Other high yielding genotypes MSH-03 and MSH-05 ranked second and third showing regression coefficient (b=0.78 and 0.69 respectively) and deviation from regression (S2d= 1.076 and 1.29 respectively) indicating specific adaptability of these genotypes to harsh (un favorable) environments. These findings suggested that both the genotypes could be used as stress tolerant genotypes under stressed environments (such as drought, heat and salinity stress). (author)

  6. Gamma radiation effects on commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agúndez-Arvizu, Z.; Fernández-Ramírez, M. V.; Arce-Corrales, M. E.; Cruz-Zaragoza, E.; Meléndrez, R.; Chernov, V.; Barboza-Flores, M.

    2006-04-01

    Gamma irradiation is considered to be an alternative method for food preservation to prevent food spoilage, insect infestation and capable of reducing the microbial load. In the present investigation, commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour was irradiated at 1.0 kGy using a 60C Gammabeam 651 PT irradiator facility. No changes were detected in moisture, protein and ashes in gamma irradiated samples as compared to those of non-irradiated samples. Slight radiation effects were observed in the alveogram values and farinograph properties; the falling number decreased 11%, the absorption as well as the mixing tolerance were practically unchanged by irradiation. An increase of 15% in the stability value and a 29% in the dough development time were observed. Also the deformation energy decreased 7% with no change at all in the tenacity/extensibility factor. Total aerobic, yeast and mold counts were reduced 96%, 25% and 75%; respectively by the irradiation process. The obtained results confirm that gamma irradiation is effective in reducing the microbial load in bread making wheat flour without a significant change in the physicochemical and baking properties.

  7. Gamma radiation effects on commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamma irradiation is considered to be an alternative method for food preservation to prevent food spoilage, insect infestation and capable of reducing the microbial load. In the present investigation, commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour was irradiated at 1.0 kGy using a 6C Gammabeam 651 PT irradiator facility. No changes were detected in moisture, protein and ashes in gamma irradiated samples as compared to those of non-irradiated samples. Slight radiation effects were observed in the alveogram values and farinograph properties; the falling number decreased 11%, the absorption as well as the mixing tolerance were practically unchanged by irradiation. An increase of 15% in the stability value and a 29% in the dough development time were observed. Also the deformation energy decreased 7% with no change at all in the tenacity/extensibility factor. Total aerobic, yeast and mold counts were reduced 96%, 25% and 75%; respectively by the irradiation process. The obtained results confirm that gamma irradiation is effective in reducing the microbial load in bread making wheat flour without a significant change in the physicochemical and baking properties

  8. Effect of Triticum turgidum subsp. turanicum wheat on irritable bowel syndrome: a double-blinded randomised dietary intervention trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofi, Francesco; Whittaker, Anne; Gori, Anna Maria; Cesari, Francesca; Surrenti, Elisabetta; Abbate, Rosanna; Gensini, Gian Franco; Benedettelli, Stefano; Casini, Alessandro

    2014-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of a replacement diet with organic, semi-whole-grain products derived from Triticum turgidum subsp. turanicum (ancient) wheat on irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms and inflammatory/biochemical parameters. A double-blinded randomised cross-over trial was performed using twenty participants (thirteen females and seven males, aged 18-59 years) classified as having moderate IBS. Participants received products (bread, pasta, biscuits and crackers) made either from ancient or modern wheat for 6 weeks in a random order. Symptoms due to IBS were evaluated using two questionnaires, which were compiled both at baseline and on a weekly basis during the intervention period. Blood analyses were carried out at the beginning and end of each respective intervention period. During the intervention period with ancient wheat products, patients experienced a significant decrease in the severity of IBS symptoms, such as abdominal pain (Pwheat products. Similarly, patients reported significant amelioration in the severity of gastrointestinal symptoms only after the ancient wheat intervention period, as measured by the intensity of pain (P= 0·001), the frequency of pain (Pwheat products, but not after the control period. In conclusion, significant improvements in both IBS symptoms and the inflammatory profile were reported after the ingestion of ancient wheat products. PMID:24521561

  9. Comparison of Antioxidant Properties of Refined and Whole Wheat Flour and Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilei Yu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant properties of refined and whole wheat flour and their resultant bread were investigated to document the effects of baking. Total phenolic content (TPC, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC were employed to determine the content of ethanol extractable phenolic compounds. HPLC was used to detect the presence of phenolic acids prior to their confirmation using LC-MS/MS. Whole wheat flour showed significantly higher antioxidant activity than refined flour (p < 0.05. There was a significant effect of the bread-making process with the TPC of whole wheat bread (1.50–1.65 mg/g and white bread (0.79–1.03 mg/g showing a respective reduction of 28% and 33% of the levels found in whole wheat and refined flour. Similarly, baking decreased DPPH radical scavenging capacity by 32% and 30%. ORAC values, however, indicated that baking increased the antioxidant activities of whole wheat and refined flour by 1.8 and 2.9 times, respectively. HPLC analysis showed an increase of 18% to 35% in ferulic acid after baking to obtain whole and refined wheat bread containing 330.1 and 25.3 µg/g (average, respectively. Whole wheat flour and bread were superior to refined flour and bread in in vitro antioxidant properties.

  10. Screening of Bread Wheat Genotypes for Drought Tolerance Using Phenotypic and Proline Analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwadzingeni, Learnmore; Shimelis, Hussein; Tesfay, Samson; Tsilo, Toi J

    2016-01-01

    Drought stress is one of the leading constraints to wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production globally. Breeding for drought tolerance using novel genetic resources is an important mitigation strategy. This study aimed to determine the level of drought tolerance among diverse bread wheat genotypes using agronomic traits and proline analyses and to establish correlation of proline content and agronomic traits under drought-stress conditions in order to select promising wheat lines for breeding. Ninety-six diverse genotypes including 88 lines from the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT)'s heat and drought nurseries, and eight local checks were evaluated under greenhouse and field conditions during 2014/15 and 2015/16 making four testing environments. The following phenotypic traits were collected after stress imposed during the heading to anthesis period: the number of days to heading (DTH), days to maturity (DTM), productive tiller number (TN), plant height (PH), spike length (SL), spikelet per spike (SPS), kernels per spike (KPS), thousand kernel weight (TKW) and grain yield (GY) and proline content (PC). Analysis of variance, Pearson's correlation coefficient, principal component and stress tolerance index were calculated. Genotypes with high yield performance under stressed and optimum conditions maintained high values for yield components. Proline content significantly increased under stress, but weakly correlated with agronomic traits under both optimal and water limited conditions. The positive correlation observed between grain yield and proline content under-drought stress conditions provides evidence that proline accumulation might ultimately be considered as a tool for effective selection of drought tolerant genotypes. The study selected 12 genotypes with high grain yields under drought stressed conditions and favorable adaptive traits useful for breeding. PMID:27610116

  11. Determination of selenium in bread-wheat samples grown under a Se-supplementation regime in actual field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selenium is an essential micronutrient for humans and animals, yet it is deficient in at least one billion people worldwide. Plants and plant-derived products transfer the soil-uptaken selenium to humans; therefore, the cultivation of plants enriched in selenium can be an effective way to improve the selenium status on humankind. This paper focuses on determining the ability of bread wheat to accumulate selenium after supplementation. One of the methods for supplementing this element in plants is foliar application with selenium solutions. These supplemented crop of wheat samples - bread wheat; Triticum aestivum L. - were used to determine if there is an increase of selenium content in cereal grains by comparing them with cereals cultivated in 2009 and harvested in 2010 with no supplementation. The experiments were done using sodium selenate and sodium selenite at three different selenium concentrations: 4, 20 and 100 g per hectare. Total Se is assessed by cyclic neutron activation analysis (CNAA), through short irradiations on the fast pneumatic system (SIPRA) of the Portuguese Research Reactor (RPI-ITN). The short-lived nuclide 77mSe, that features a half-lifetime of 17.5 s, was used to determine the Se content in SIPRA. The experiment was successful, since the selenium concentration increased in the cropped grains and reached values up to 35 times the non-supplemented ones. (author)

  12. Characterization of Proteins from Grain of Different Bread and Durum Wheat Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroljub Barać

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The classical Osborne wheat protein fractions (albumins, globulins, gliadins, and glutenins, as well as several proteins from each of the four subunits of gliadin using SDS-PAGE analyses, were determined in the grain of five bread (T. aestivum L. and five durum wheat (T. durum Desf. genotypes. In addition, content of tryptophan and wet gluten were analyzed. Gliadins and glutenins comprise from 58.17% to 65.27% and 56.25% to 64.48% of total proteins and as such account for both quantity and quality of the bread and durum wheat grain proteins, respectively. The ratio of gliadin/total glutenin varied from 0.49 to 1.01 and 0.57 to 1.06 among the bread and durum genotypes, respectively. According to SDS-PAGE analysis, bread wheat genotypes had a higher concentration of α + β + γ-subunits of gliadin (on average 61.54% of extractable proteins than durum wheat (on average 55.32% of extractable proteins. However, low concentration of ω-subunit was found in both bread (0.50% to 2.53% of extractable proteins and durum (3.65% to 6.99% of extractable proteins wheat genotypes. On average, durum wheat contained significantly higher amounts of tryptophan and wet gluten (0.163% dry weight (d.w. and 26.96% d.w., respectively than bread wheat (0.147% d.w. and 24.18% d.w., respectively.

  13. Lower glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) response but similar glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), glycaemic, and insulinaemic response to ancient wheat compared to modern wheat depends on processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakhøj, S; Flint, A; Holst, Jens Juul;

    2003-01-01

    to the responses to bread of modern wheat (Triticum aestivum). DESIGN: The 3-h postprandial insulinaemic, glycaemic, GIP, and GLP-1 responses to bread made from Einkorn were compared to responses to a traditional Danish wheat loaf. The bread from Einkorn was prepared by 3 different processing methods...

  14. Initial Study on Applications of French Wheat in Chinese Steamed Bread and Noodles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Xiangqing; Cao Jian; Chen Fusheng; Zhao Renyong; Gu Xin; Wang Shu

    2000-01-01

    the physical-chemical properties of four kinds of French commercial wheat and its flour and its dough rheological properties were analyzed in more detail .The suitability of French wheat flour in Chinese traditional food products such as ste2med bread and noodle was preliminarily studied in order to get and spread more infomation on how to utilize French wheat in Chinese food.

  15. Protein Level and Heavy Metals (Pb, Cr, and Cd) Concentrations in Wheat (Triticum aestivum) and in Oat (Avena sativa) Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Syed Noor Ul Abideen; Syed Ainul Abideen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate heavy metal accumulation in wheat (Triticum aestivum) and oat (Avena sativa), and other physiological and biochemical parameters affected by these heavy metals. The data revealed that maximum plant fresh weight and plant dry weight was recorded for oat and minimum plant fresh weight and plant dry weight was noted for wheat (Triticum aestivum). The data also indicated that higher concentration of proline and DNA concentration was noted in wheat (Triticum...

  16. Influence of dextran-producing Weissella cibaria on baking properties and sensory profile of gluten-free and wheat breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Anika; Hager, Anna-Sophie; Zannini, Emanuele; Czerny, Michael; Arendt, Elke K

    2014-02-17

    Breads based on gluten-free buckwheat, quinoa, sorghum and teff flours were produced with addition of 20% sourdough fermented with exopolysaccharide (EPS) producing Weissella cibaria MG1. Wheat bread was baked as a reference. Dough rheology, bread quality parameters and sensory properties of the sourdough-containing breads were compared to sourdough non-containing control breads of the respective flour. The specific volume remained unaffected by sourdough application. In buckwheat, sorghum, teff and wheat sourdough breads acidification increased crumb porosity compared to control breads. Crumb hardness was significantly reduced in buckwheat (-122%), teff (-29%), quinoa (-21%) and wheat sourdough breads (-122%). The staling rate was significantly reduced in buckwheat, teff and wheat sourdough breads. Water activity of the sourdough containing bread crumb was not influenced by the presence of EPS. Due to the presence of exopolysaccharides (EPS) and influence of acidification, the dough strength, AF, as measured by oscillation tests decreased significantly in sourdough-containing buckwheat, sorghum and wheat dough, but increased in sourdough-containing quinoa and teff dough. Microbial shelf-life was significantly prolonged neither for gluten-free sourdough nor for wheat sourdough breads. Scanning electron microscopy of control and sourdough bread crumbs did not show differences concerning structural starch features. In addition, the aroma of most bread was not improved by sourdough addition. PMID:24361837

  17. Physicochemical, rheological, thermal, and bread making properties of flour obtained from irradiated wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the methods that are nowadays used for food preservation derive from old times. Besides these methods, new non-thermal methods have been developed in order to improve food quality during its processing. Irradiation technology has a great contribution potential to improve preservation, storage and distribution of foods. Several studies from international literature have reported the efficiency of irradiation process on microbiological control of grains and their products. Due to the low technological quality of national wheat, Brazil depends on its import. Wheat is the main ingredient of bread which is one of the most important products of Brazilian people's diet. The objective of this work was to study the effect of ionizing radiation on wheat on physicochemical, rheological, and thermal properties of flour produced from this wheat, and consequently, its performance on bread making. All experiments were conducted on laboratory scale. Wheat was submitted to irradiation on different doses (0.0; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 kGy) and flour produced underwent physicochemical, rheological, thermal and microbiological analyses. Flour bread making performance was measured through quality of bread. None of the physicochemical, rheological or thermal parameters was influenced by irradiation, with the exception of Falling Number, which decreased significantly with the increase of irradiation dose, indicating the effect of irradiation on wheat starch, and consequently on dough's gelatinization. Bread quality parameters did also not show significant differences, and sensory analysis showed that bread produced from irradiated and non irradiated wheat did not present perceivable flavor. (author)

  18. Dosage effect of the short arm of chromosome 1 of rye on root morphology and anatomy in bread wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, Sundrish; DeMason, Darleen A.; Ehdaie, Bahman; Lukaszewski, Adam J.; Waines, J. Giles

    2010-01-01

    The spontaneous translocation of the short arm of chromosome 1 of rye (1RS) in bread wheat is associated with higher root biomass and grain yield. Recent studies have confirmed the presence of QTL for different root morphological traits on the 1RS arm in bread wheat. This study was conducted to address two questions in wheat root genetics. First, does the presence of the 1RS arm in bread wheat affect its root anatomy? Second, how does root morphology and anatomy of bread wheat respond to diff...

  19. THE INULIN AND OLIGOFRUCTOSE EFFECT ON QUAL­ITY PARAMETERS OF BIG DARK AND WHEAT BREAD FUNCTIONAL PROPERTIES

    OpenAIRE

    Koryachkina, S.; Matveeva, T.; Akhmedova, D.

    2012-01-01

    To determine the expediency of inulin and oligofructose use as an additive giving the bread functional properties, the effect of inulin and oligofructose on quality parameters of big dark and wheat bread.

  20. Evolution of bread-making quality of Spanish bread-wheat genotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, M.; Aparicio, N.; Ruiz-Paris, E.; Oliete, B.; Caballero, P. A.

    2009-07-01

    In this study, 36 Spanish wheat genotypes (five modern commercial cultivars, four cultivars introduced after the green revolution and 27 land races from northwestern Spain) were evaluated. Grain (yield, specific weight, protein content and falling number) and flour (yield, protein content, Zeleny index, wet gluten and gluten index) properties were analyzed. Dough behaviour during mixing (DoughLAB) and handling (alveograph) was also considered. An evolution in grain and flour properties was observed over time. In modern cultivars, grain yield was improved owing to higher grain production. In land races, higher grain yields were related to larger grain size. Unlike in land races, an inverse correlation between grain yield and protein content was found in modern cultivars. In addition, because of their high protein quality, modern cultivars surpassed land races in bread-making properties. Land races showed considerable variability in protein quality and scored lower curve configuration ratio values than other cultivars with similar strength. Cultivars introduced after the green revolution reached the highest levels of bread-making quality, a feature attributable to their high protein quality. (Author) 24 refs.

  1. HARD RED SPRING WHEAT / C-TRIM 20 BREAD: FORMULATION, PROCESSING AND TEXTURE ANALYSIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    C-TRIM, a beta-glucan-rich fraction, was added to Hard Red Spring wheat (HRSW) flour in order to increase soluble fiber content of bread to a minimum of 0.75 g / bread serving, the minimum required for health claim as established by the FDA. Two blends FGT1 (flour, 25% gluten, and 17% C-TRIM) and F...

  2. Antioxidant capacity versus chemical safety of wheat bread enriched with pomegranate peel powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altunkaya, Arzu; Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Brimer, Leon;

    2013-01-01

    rate of the brine shrimp larvae was found as a function of the replacement of wheat flour with PP in fortified bread providing a general screening method for the toxicological test of polyphenol fortified bread to be recommended for use in product development in addition to subjective evaluation. Based...

  3. Intergenic spacer length variants in Old Portuguese bread wheat cultivars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Ana Carvalho; Henrique Guedes-Pinto; José Lima-Brito

    2011-08-01

    The intergenic spacer of the ribosomal DNA is highly variable, but is location specific in the nucleolar organizer region of the chromosomes. This study provides an event of high level of polymorphism / size variation and occurrence of 14 unique phenotypes in 48 landraces of Portuguese bread wheat cultivars for IGS-amplified products obtained by PCR-RFLP technique performed with TaqI. The attendant IGS polymorphism has been used to deduce affinities between landraces. Some of the high molecular weight IGS allelic variants were also probed for their chromosomal localization by sequential silver nitrate staining and fluorescence in situ hybridization. However, only the intergenic spacer allelic variant of 3.1 kb could be successfully hybridized, and was observed to be physically located on the chromosome pair 1B in the NOR loci of the cultivar ‘Magueija’.

  4. Transamidation of gluten proteins during the bread-making process of wheat flour to produce breads with less immunoreactive gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heredia-Sandoval, Nina Gisella; Islas-Rubio, Alma Rosa; Cabrera-Chávez, Francisco; Calderón de la Barca, Ana María

    2014-08-01

    Due to an increasing incidence of celiac disease (CD) and other gluten-related disorders, different gluten-free breads have been developed using starches and additives as a substitute for gluten. Thus, patients miss not only the taste and aroma of wheat bread but also risk their sensitive intestines. Therefore, modifying gluten to avoid an immune response in CD and its application to baking is in progress. The aim of the study was to enzymatically modify gluten on wheat flour, during bread-making avoiding the use of additives, to reduce immunoreactivity, preserving its properties. Microbial transglutaminase (mTG) or chymotrypsin (ChT) was used to bind lysine or valine to gluten proteins in a model system. The best conditions were directly applied to wheat flour for bread-making with and without punching at 45 min. Subsequently, the rheological properties of the doughs, specific volume of the loaves, immunoreactive gluten content and modification of the extracted proteins were evaluated. ChT-treated breads presented a better appearance with a more homogeneous crumb, higher specific volume values (3.34-4.25 cm(3) g(-1)) and higher reactive gluten reduction (up to 71%) than the mTG-treated ones (1.23-2.66 cm(3) g(-1)) with only a 42% reactive gluten reduction. Thus, transpeptidation during bread-making is a promising technology, although it is necessary to improve the modification process to obtain the reactive gluten reduction required in breads for the treatment of CD patients and other gluten-related disorders. PMID:24917417

  5. TaHsfA6f is a transcriptional activator that regulates a suite of heat stress protection genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) including previously unknown Hsf targets

    OpenAIRE

    Xue, Gang-ping; Drenth, Janneke; McIntyre, C. Lynne

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress is a significant environmental factor adversely affecting crop yield. Crop adaptation to high-temperature environments requires transcriptional reprogramming of a suite of genes involved in heat stress protection. This study investigated the role of TaHsfA6f, a member of the A6 subclass of heat shock transcription factors, in the regulation of heat stress protection genes in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat), a poorly understood phenomenon in this crop species. Expression analysis s...

  6. Integrating Small Scale Farmers into Bread Wheat Marketing Chain through Contract Farming in Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Getaneh, Wubalem; Bekabil, Fufa

    2008-01-01

    The treatment effect censored regression model results of this study showed that educational level, value of agricultural equipment and number of oxen owned affected the participation decisions of the farmers in bread wheat contract farming significantly. The most important factors that determine gross margin obtained from bread wheat production were contract farming experience, the number of oxen owned and participation in contract farming. However, technical efficiency differences and manag...

  7. Bread in the Economy of Qualities: The Creative Reconstitution of the Canada-UK Commodity Chain for Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnan, Andre

    2011-01-01

    This article traces the creative reconstitution of the Canada-UK wheat-bread commodity chain since the 1990s. In the mid-1990s, the Canadian Wheat Board (CWB) and a British bakery, Warburtons, pioneered an innovative identity-preserved sourcing relationship that ties contracted prairie wheat growers to consumers of premium bread in the United…

  8. Ozone gas affects the physical and chemical properties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) starch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozone can oxidize hydroxyl groups present at C2, C3, and C6 positions on the starch molecule and affect its physicochemical properties. In this experiment, bread wheat flour and isolated wheat starch were treated with ozone gas (1,500 ppm, gas flow rate 2.5 L/minutes) for 45 minutes and 30 minutes, ...

  9. WHEAT PATHOGEN RESISTANCE AND CHITINASE PROFILE

    OpenAIRE

    Zuzana Gregorová; Peter Socha; Marína Maglovski; Jana Moravčíková; Jana Libantová; Roman Kuna; Pavol Hauptvogel; Matušíková Ildikó

    2015-01-01

    The powdery mildew and leaf rust caused by Blumeria graminis and Puccinia recondita (respectively) are common diseases of wheat throughout the world. These fungal diseases greatly affect crop productivity. Incorporation of effective and durable disease resistance is an important breeding objective for wheat improvement. We have evaluated resistance of four bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) and four spelt wheat (Triticum spelta) cultivars. Chitinases occurrence as well as their activity was dete...

  10. Meiotic chromosome behaviours in M1 generation of bread wheat irradiated by gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Growing plants of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 2 n=6x=42, AABBDD) were subjected to acute or chronic irradiation by gamma-rays from 60Co and meiotic chromosome behaviours of PMCS in M1 generation were cytologically compared. Both acute and chronic irradiations produced different types of chromosomal aberrations at the meiotic stages. Among them, translocation type was the most frequent, followed by univalent type. A mixed type, i. e. translocation accompanying one or more univalents was often detected. Even normal type which lacked translocation and univalent included laggards and briclges without exception. Other meiotic abnormalities such as deletion, iso-chromosome and micronuclei were observed frequently in both treatments. Dose dependency of translocation frequency was not recognized in this experiment. In chronic irradiation, different chromosome numbers and meiotic behaviours were found not only among florets of a spike but also among anthers of a floret. A number of plants with aneuploid-like grass types occurred at a high frequency in M1, especially with low exposure

  11. QTL analysis for some quantitative traits in bread wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis was conducted in bread wheat for 14 important traits utilizing data from four different mapping populations involving different approaches of QTL analysis. Analysis for grain protein content (GPC) suggested that the major part of genetic variation for this trait is due to environmental interactions. In contrast, pre-harvest sprouting tolerance (PHST) was controlled mainly by main effect QTL (M-QTL) with very little genetic variation due to environmental interactions; a major QTL for PHST was detected on chromosome arm 3AL. For grain weight, one QTL each was detected on chromosome arms 1AS, 2BS and 7AS. QTL for 4 growth related traits taken together detected by different methods ranged from 37 to 40; nine QTL that were detected by single-locus as well as two-locus analyses were all M-QTL. Similarly, single-locus and two-locus QTL analyses for seven yield and yield contributing traits in two populations respectively allowed detection of 25 and 50 QTL by composite interval mapping (CIM), 16 and 25 QTL by multiple-trait composite interval mapping (MCIM) and 38 and 37 QTL by two-locus analyses. These studies should prove useful in QTL cloning and wheat improvement through marker aided selection.

  12. Khorasan wheat population researching (Triticum turgidum, ssp. Turanicum (McKey) in the minimum tillage conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Ikanović Jela; Popović Vera; Janković Snežana; Živanović Ljubiša; Rakić Sveto; Dončić Dalibor

    2014-01-01

    Khorasan wheat occupies a special place in the group of new-old cereals (Triticum turgidum, ssp. Turanicum McKey). It is an ancient species, native to eastern Persia, that is very close to durum wheat by morphological characteristics. Investigations were carried out in agro ecological conditions of the eastern Srem, with two wheat populations with dark and bright awns as objects of study. The following morphological and productive characteristics were inves...

  13. Effect of the Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. Flour Addition on Physicochemical Properties of Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Man

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea flour is a good source of proteins, fibers, minerals and other bioactive compounds and it could be an ideal ingredient for improve the nutritional value of bread and bakery products. The aim of this study was to supplement wheat flour (WF with various levels of chickpea flour (CF in order to obtain bread with good nutritional and quality characteristics. Four experimental variants obtained by substituting wheat flour with different proportions (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% of chickpea flour were used. The results showed a valuable increment in bread protein and fiber content. The volume of the breads decreased as the level of chickpea flour (CF increased due the dilution of gluten content in the blend and due to the interactions among fiber components, water and gluten. Nevertheless, substitution at 10%, 20% and 30%, gives parameter values at least as good as the control sample (WFB and produces acceptable bread, in terms of weight, volume and sensorial properties.

  14. Zinc biofortification of cereals: rice differs from wheat and barley

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stomph, T.J.; Jiang, W.; Struik, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    In their review, mainly focused on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum), durum wheat (Triticum durum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare), Palmgren et al. 1 M.G. Palmgren et al., Zinc biofortification of cereals: problems and solutions, Trends Plant Sci. 13 (2008), pp. 464–473. Article | PDF (905 K) | View Reco

  15. Variation in Susceptibility to Wheat dwarf virus among Wild and Domesticated Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Nygren, Jim; Shad, Nadeem; Kvarnheden, Anders; Westerbergh, Anna

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the variation in plant response in host-pathogen interactions between wild (Aegilops spp., Triticum spp.) and domesticated wheat (Triticum spp.) and Wheat dwarf virus (WDV). The distribution of WDV and its wild host species overlaps in Western Asia in the Fertile Crescent, suggesting a coevolutionary relationship. Bread wheat originates from a natural hybridization between wild emmer wheat (carrying the A and B genomes) and the wild D genome donor Aegilops tauschii, followed b...

  16. Bran hydration and physical treatments improve the bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine and coarse bran particles of a hard red and a hard white wheat were used to study the influences of bran hydration and physical treatments such as autoclaving and freezing as well as their combinations on the dough properties and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF). For both h...

  17. Responses of alloplasmic (cytoplasm=Triticum timopheevii) and euplasmic wheats (Triticum aestivum) to photoperiod and vernalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, R W; Heyne, E G; Paulsen, G M

    1983-07-01

    Studies were conducted to determine the influence of the male sterility-inducing cytoplasm of Triticum timopheevii (Zhuk.) Zhuk. on response of several common winter wheat (T. aestivum L.) nuclear genotypes to photoperiod and vernalization. Comparative studies of cytoplasmic substitution lines provide information on the role of the cytoplasmic genetic mechanism in growth and development. In the case of cytoplasmic male sterility-based hybrid production systems, ubiquity of sterility-inducing cytoplasm in derived hybrids warrants thorough characterization of its influence on plant phenotype. Factorial combinations of cytoplasm (T. timopheevii and T. aestivum), nuclear genotype, and photoperiod or vernalization treatments were evaluated under hydroponic conditions in controlled environment chambers. Interaction of cytoplasm, photoperiod, and nuclear genotype was significant in one or more experiments for days to anthesis and potential spikelet number, and interaction of cytoplasm, vernalization, and nuclear genotype was significant for days to spike emergence. Long day length was associated with increased percentage seed set in one study, but interactions of photoperiod and cytoplasm were not detected for percentage seed set. Interactions involving cytoplasm and photoperiod or vernalization were interpreted as evidence of the existence of genetic factors in cytoplsam of T. timopheevii which alter photoperiod or vernalization responses of alloplasmic plants relative to responses exhibited by euplasmic plants. Since photoperiod and vernalization responses are critical to adaptation, T. timopheevii cytoplasm can alter adaptability of T. aestivum. The specific effect would be nuclear genotype dependent, and does not appear to be of a magnitude greater than that induced by nuclear genetic variability at loci conditioning photoperiod or vernalization responses or other adaptation-determining characteristics. Normal multilocation/year testing of alloplasmic hybrids should

  18. Genes for resistance to wheat powdery mildew in derivatives of Triticum Timopheevi and T. Carthlicum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Jensen, C. J.

    1972-01-01

    and/or Ml designated genes; a temporary designation, Ml f ,is proposed for this gene. Gene Ml f is closely associated with a gene conditioning resistance to the stem rust fungus (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici), probably gene Sr9c. The winter wheat line TP 229 derived from Triticum carthlicum has......The winter wheat line TP 114 derived from CI 12633, a Triticum timopheevi derivative, has two unlinked dominant genes conditioning resistance to the powdery mildew fungus (Erysiphe graminis f. sp. tritici). One of the genes is identical to gene Pm2 (Ml u ). The other gene differs from the eleven Pm...

  19. Genetic transformation of Indian bread (T. aestivum and pasta (T. durum wheat by particle bombardment of mature embryo-derived calli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurana Paramjit

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particle bombardment has been successfully employed for obtaining transgenics in cereals in general and wheat in particular. Most of these procedures employ immature embryos which are not available throughout the year. The present investigation utilizes mature seeds as the starting material and the calli raised from the hexaploid Triticum aestivum and tetraploid Triticum durum display a high regeneration response and were therefore used as the target tissue for genetic transformation by the biolistic approach. Results Mature embryo-derived calli of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, cv. CPAN1676 and durum wheat (T. durum, cv. PDW215 were double bombarded with 1.1 gold microprojectiles coated with pDM302 and pAct1-F at a target distance of 6 cm. Southern analysis using the bar gene as a probe revealed the integration of transgenes in the T0 transformants. The bar gene was active in both T0 and T1 generations as evidenced by phosphinothricin leaf paint assay. Approximately 30% and 33% primary transformants of T. aestivum and T. durum, respectively, were fertile. The transmission of bar gene to T1 progeny was demonstrated by PCR analysis of germinated seedlings with primers specific to the bar gene. Conclusions The transformation frequency obtained was 8.56% with T. aestivum and 10% with T. durum. The optimized protocol was subsequently used for the introduction of the barley gene encoding a late embryogenesis abundant protein (HVA1 in T. aestivum and T. durum. The presence of the HVA1 transgene was confirmed by Southern analysis in the T0 generation in case of Triticum aestivum, and T0 and T1 generation in Triticum durum.

  20. Intake of whole-grain and fiber-rich rye bread versus refined wheat bread does not differentiate intestinal microbiota composition in Finnish adults with metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lappi, J.; Salojärvi, J.; Kolehmainen, M.; Mykkänen, H.; Poutanen, K.; Vos, de W.M.; Salonen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Whole-grain (WG) foods rich in indigestible carbohydrates are thought to modulate the composition of the intestinal microbiota. We investigated in a randomized, parallel, 2-arm 12-wk intervention whether consumption of WG and fiber-rich rye breads compared with refined wheat breads affected the micr

  1. Medical and biological estimation of bread made from a whole wheat grain with inclusion of root crops

    OpenAIRE

    Мардар, Марина Ромиківна; Кордзая, Натела Ревазовна

    2013-01-01

    Modern assortment of bakery products in Ukraine is formed mainly by the traditional grades of bread and rather limited in prophylactic one.One of the trends of expansion of assortment is production of bread made from a whole wheat grain, which is characterized by a high content of many essential nutrients: protein, vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber, and others.The considerable content of fiber and coarse-fibered structure, make the bread made from a whole wheat grain an irritant for sensitive...

  2. Identification and Antioxidant Properties of Phenolic Compounds during Production of Bread from Purple Wheat Grains

    OpenAIRE

    Lilei Yu; Trust Beta

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of purple wheat varieties were investigated to document the effects of bread-making. Bread crust and crumb along with samples collected after mixing, 30 min fermenting, 65 min fermenting, and baking were examined. Free phenolic content (105.4 to 113.2 mg FAE/100 g) significantly (p < 0.05) increased during mixing, fermenting, and baking (65% to 68%). Bound phenolics slightly (p > 0.05) decreased after 30 min fermentation (7% to 9%) compared ...

  3. The Effects on Gluten Strength and Bread Volume of Adding Soybean Peroxidase Enzyme to Wheat Flour

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, Ratia

    2007-01-01

    The Effects on Gluten Strength and Bread Volume of Adding Soybean Peroxidase Enzyme to Wheat Flour Ratia Kirby ABSTRACT Soy peroxidase enzyme obtained from isoelectic precipitation procedures was added to all-purpose flour (APF) to assess its effects on the rheological properties and consumer acceptability of yeast bread. A pH 4.8 isoelectrically precipitated fraction from soybeans was used because it produced the most precipitate and had about the same peroxidase activity as the...

  4. Chemical, Lutein and Zeaxanthin Composition of Wheat-yellow Maize Bread for the Prevention of Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngozi Innocentia Olaitan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The study examined the effect of substitution of wheat flour with yellow maize flour on the Lutein, Zeaxanthin and proximate composition as well as sensory properties of their bread samples. Standard procedures were used in the production of yellow maize flour. The blend ratios of wheat-yellow maize composite flour used in the production of the bread samples were 100:0 (control, 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50%, respectively. Results revealed that there were significant (p≤0.05 increases in the lutein 92.4 µg (100:0% to 132.4 µg (50:50% and zeaxanthin 225.0 &mug (100:0% to 580.3 &mug (50:50% content of the bread samples. The proximate composition of the bread samples however, revealed that the carbohydrate, protein and ash content of the bread samples decreased with increase in yellow maize flour. The increase in yellow maize flour however, significantly (p≤0.05 increased the fiber, fat and moisture content of the bread samples. Bread sample B (90:10 was generally the most accepted with an organoleptic score of 8.11, however, sample F (50:50 was the most preferred on the basis of color (7.78, flavor (7.78 and texture (7.58. It would be concluded that substitution of wheat flour with yellow maize flour could be employed to improve on the carotenoids composition of bread, increase their intake and confer protection on consumers against atherosclerosis. The low carbohydrate content of the bread samples could be employed to control spike in blood glucose levels, weight gain and in the management of diabetes. The high fibre content could be harnessed in the prevention and management of obesity and hyperlipideamia.

  5. Baking properties of irradiated wheat flour and their effects on the quality of hard crust bread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of gamma irradiation on rheological characteristics and baking properties of hard wheat flour were studied in the range 0,5 kGy-2,0 kGy. Different quality parameters and the staling kinetics of hard bread produced with control and irradiated flours were also evaluated. Samples were stored before and after treatment at room temperature (160C-300C, 60%-98% R.H.). It is possible to make hard crust bread, the main bread consumed by the Cuban people, from irradiated flour (up to 2,0 kGy) two weeks after treatment. No changes due to irradiation of the flour in quality of bread were found. The Brabender maximum viscosity and the falling number of flour decreased in irradiated samples, but these results did not affect the quality of bread produced

  6. Genetic and ecological aspects of gene flow from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to Aegilops L. species

    OpenAIRE

    Schoenenberger, Nicola; Küpfer, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    Genetic and ecological aspects of gene flow from wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to Aegilops L. species Hybridisation and introgression from crops to wild relatives is a key issue in risk assessment. In the present study, hybridisation and introgression dynamics from hexaploid wheat (2n=42) to tetraploid Aegilops species (2n=28) were investigated by experiments in natural conditions or in the greenhouse, and by genetic analyses. In order to study crop-weed hybridisation as a function of distance...

  7. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Key Proteins and Phosphoproteins upon Seed Germination of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Dong, Kun; Zhen, Shoumin; Cheng, Zhiwei; Cao, Hui; Ge, Pei; Yan, Yueming

    2015-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the oldest cultivated crops and the second most important food crop in the world. Seed germination is the key developmental process in plant growth and development, and poor germination directly affects plant growth and subsequent grain yield. In this study, we performed the first dynamic proteome analysis of wheat seed germination using a two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE)-based proteomic approach. A total of 166 differentially e...

  8. EVALUATING THE DROUGHT STRESS TOLERANCE EFFICIENCY OF WHEAT ( TRITICUM AESTIVUM L.) CULTIVARS

    OpenAIRE

    SAMMAR RAZA M.A.; Saleem, M. F.; Khan, I H; M. Jamil; Ijaz, M.; Khan, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    The study was conducted at the Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad, Pakistan to evaluate the drought stress tolerance efficiency of wheat cultivars. Eight wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes namely (Pasban-90, Inqalab-91, Auqab-2000, AS-2002, Sahar-2006, Shafaq-2006, Lasani-2008, and FSD-2008) were used for screening in laboratory. Three techniques were used for the screening. These techniques are (I) seed germination at -0.6 MPa external water potential (PEG-6...

  9. Investigation and selection index for drought stress in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) under Mediterranean condition

    OpenAIRE

    A.Guendouz* , S.Guessoum and M. Hafsi

    2012-01-01

    Drought is a wide-spread problem seriously influencing durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) production and quality, but development of resistant cultivars is hampered by the lack of effective selection criteria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of several selection indices to identify drought tolerant cultivars under varying environmental conditions. Ten durum wheat cultivars were evaluated under both moisture stress and non-stress field environments using a randomized co...

  10. IMAGE ANALYSIS OF BREAD CRUMB STRUCTURE IN RELATION TO GLUTEN STRENGTH OF WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Magdić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine bread slice medium part properties in relation to quality parameters with a focus on gluten strength. Since sensory evaluation of bread is time consuming, expensive and subjective in nature, computerized image analysis was applied as objective method of bread crumb quality evaluation. Gluten Index method was applied as fast and reliable tool for defining gluten strength of wheat. Significant (P90 Ana, Demetra, Klara, Srpanjka and Divana have shown trend to give unequal and bigger crumb grains while cultivars Golubica, Barbara, Žitarka, Kata and Sana with optimal gluten strength (GI= 60-90 have shown finer and uniform crumb grain.

  11. Whole-genome profiling and shotgun sequencing delivers an anchored, gene-decorated, physical map assembly of bread wheat chromosome 6A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poursarebani, Naser; Nussbaumer, Thomas; Simková, Hana; Safář, Jan; Witsenboer, Hanneke; van Oeveren, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Mayer, Klaus F X; Stein, Nils; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2014-07-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most important staple food crop for 35% of the world's population. International efforts are underway to facilitate an increase in wheat production, of which the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium (IWGSC) plays an important role. As part of this effort, we have developed a sequence-based physical map of wheat chromosome 6A using whole-genome profiling (WGP™). The bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) contig assembly tools fingerprinted contig (fpc) and linear topological contig (ltc) were used and their contig assemblies were compared. A detailed investigation of the contigs structure revealed that ltc created a highly robust assembly compared with those formed by fpc. The ltc assemblies contained 1217 contigs for the short arm and 1113 contigs for the long arm, with an L50 of 1 Mb. To facilitate in silico anchoring, WGP™ tags underlying BAC contigs were extended by wheat and wheat progenitor genome sequence information. Sequence data were used for in silico anchoring against genetic markers with known sequences, of which almost 79% of the physical map could be anchored. Moreover, the assigned sequence information led to the 'decoration' of the respective physical map with 3359 anchored genes. Thus, this robust and genetically anchored physical map will serve as a framework for the sequencing of wheat chromosome 6A, and is of immediate use for map-based isolation of agronomically important genes/quantitative trait loci located on this chromosome. PMID:24813060

  12. Heat stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) : Effects on grain growth and quality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiertz, J.H.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Xu, H.; Primo Martin, C.; Don, C.; Putten, van der P.E.L.

    2006-01-01

    Heat stress effects on grain dry mass and quality were studied in spring wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.). Three cultivars were chosen with respect to heat tolerance: Lavett (genotype 1), selected for temperate growing conditions and two CIMMYT cultivars, Ciano-79 (genotype 2) and Attila (geno

  13. Heat stress in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.): Effects on grain growth and quality traits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spiertz, J.H.J.; Hamer, R.J.; Xu, H.; Primo-Martin, C.; Don, C.; Putten, P.E.L. van der

    2006-01-01

    Heat stress effects on grain dry mass and quality were studied in spring wheat genotypes (Triticum aestivum L.). Three cultivars were chosen with respect to heat tolerance: Lavett (genotype 1), selected for temperate growing conditions and two CIMMYT cultivars, Ciano-79 (genotype 2) and Attila (geno

  14. Inheritance of grain polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity in multiple wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genetic backgrounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grain polyphenol oxidase (PPO) activity can cause discoloration of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) food products. Five crosses (PI 117635/Antelope; Fielder/NW03681; Fielder/Antelope; NW07OR1070/Antelope; NW07OR1066/OR2050272H) were selected to study the genetic inheritance of PPO activity. STS marker...

  15. Nitrogen and Water Stress Impacts Hard Red Spring Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Canopy Reflectance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remote sensing offers a simple, time efficient method for making in-season nitrogen (N) recommendations for spring wheat (Triticum aestivum). However, spectral crop reflectance can be confounded by water and N stress that simultaneously impact protein content and yields. The objective of this stu...

  16. In vitro effect of wheat bran (Triticum aestivum) extract on calcium oxalate urolithiasis crystallization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekkoum, Khaled; Cheriti, Abdelkrim; Taleb, Safia

    2011-10-01

    Urolithiasis can lead to the loss of renal function in some cases. In this study, we tested the inhibiting effect of wheat bran (Triticum aestivum L) extract on calcium oxalate crystallization in a turbidimetric model, by FTIR spectroscopy, and polarized microscopy. The results show that this plant extract has a major inhibitory effect on calcium oxalate crystallization. PMID:22164778

  17. Metabolic Pathways of the Wheat (Triticum aestivum)Endosperm Amyloplast Revealed by Proteomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    By definition, amyloplasts are plastids specialized for starch production. However, amyloplasts have a broader range of functions that are not widely recognized. A recent proteomic study of amyloplasts isolated from wheat (Triticum aestivum Butte 86) endosperm suggested that they share many of the ...

  18. Silicon alleviates Cd stress of wheat seedlings (Triticum turgidum L. cv. Claudio) grown in hydroponics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizwan, M.; Meunier, J. D.; Davidian, J. C.;

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the potential role of silicon in improving tolerance and decreasing cadmium (Cd) toxicity in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. durum) either through a reduced Cd uptake or exclusion/sequestration in non-metabolic tissues. For this, plants were grown in hydroponic conditions for 10...

  19. Evolutionary history of the mitochondrial genome in Mycosphaerella populations infecting bread wheat, durum wheat and wild grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torriani, Stefano F F; Brunner, Patrick C; McDonald, Bruce A

    2011-02-01

    Plant pathogens emerge in agro-ecosystems following different evolutionary mechanisms over different time scales. Previous analyses based on sequence variation at six nuclear loci indicated that Mycosphaerella graminicola diverged from an ancestral population adapted to wild grasses during the process of wheat domestication approximately 10,500 years ago. We tested this hypothesis by conducting coalescence analyses based on four mitochondrial loci using 143 isolates that included four closely related pathogen species originating from four continents. Pathogen isolates from bread and durum wheat were included to evaluate the emergence of specificity towards these hosts in M. graminicola. Although mitochondrial and nuclear genomes differed greatly in degree of genetic variability, their coalescence was remarkably congruent, supporting the proposed origin of M. graminicola through host tracking. The coalescence analysis was unable to trace M. graminicola host specificity through recent evolutionary time, indicating that the specificity towards durum or bread wheat emerged following the domestication of the pathogen on wheat. PMID:21145978

  20. An addition of sourdough and whey proteins affects the nutritional quality of wholemeal wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Kopeć

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Bread can be a good source of nutrients as well as non-nutrient compounds. This study was designed to assess the effect of adding of sourdough and whey proteins to wholemeal (WM bread produced by bake-off technology on chemical composition and bioavailability of proteins, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and iron content in Wistar rats. Material and methods. Wholemeal breads were baked with using conventional or bake off technology. In breads chemical composition, selected minerals content, amino acid composition were measured. Five week-old Wistar rats (n = 30, male, were randomly divided into fi ve groups and fed with modifi ed AIN-93G diets containing experimental breads. In animal study the nutritional value of breads’ proteins and concentration of selected minerals in serum, liver and femoral bone, were measured. Results. The body weight gain, biological value (BV and net protein utilization (NPU were signifi cantly higher in rats fed with partially baked frozen wholemeal (PBF WM bread with sourdough and whey proteins. The level of magnesium was signifi cantly lower in serum of animals fed with the diet containing PBF WM bread with sourdough and whey proteins in comparison to rodents fed with conventional WM bread with sourdough. The content of iron was signifi cantly higher in liver of rats fed with PBF WM with sourdough bread in comparison to the groups fed with conventional WM and conventional WM with sourdough breads. Conclusions. Sourdough addition can be recommended in a production of whole wheat partially baked frozen bread but its use is further more benefi cial if it is fermented with whey proteins.

  1. A Standardized Inoculation Protocol to Test Wheat Cultivars for Reaction to Head Blast caused by Magnaporthe oryzae (Triticum pathotype)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat blast, caused by the Triticum pathotype of M. oryzae (MoT), poses a significant threat to wheat production worldwide. Because this pathotype does not occur in the U.S., it is important to prepare for its possible introduction. As part of this preparation, over 500 U.S. wheat cultivars were tes...

  2. Studies on certain aspects of seed-borne fungi. VI. Fungi associated with different cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, K. K.

    2014-01-01

    Fungi associated with eight cultivars of wheat have been investigated. Twenty seven species were isolated from external and internal surface of all the wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars respectively. Out of five dominant and subdominant fungi anly Aspergillus terreus and Alternaria tenuis were able to colonize internally. The culture filtrates of test fungi reduced the germination of all wheat varieties up to different degrees.

  3. Durum wheat and allelopathy: toward wheat breeding for natural weed management

    OpenAIRE

    Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Iannucci, Anna; Papa, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    Wheat-derived foodstuffs represent about one-fifth of the calories consumed by humans worldwide. Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important crops throughout the world, and it has been extensively studied for its allelopathic potential. In contrast, for allelopathy in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum), our knowledge is partial and fragmentary. Through highlighting recent advances in using allelopathy as a crop-breeding tool, we provide an overview of allelopathy i...

  4. Postprandial differences in the plasma metabolome of healthy Finnish subjects after intake of a sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread versus white wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykkänen Hannu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanism behind the lowered postprandial insulin demand observed after rye bread intake compared to wheat bread is unknown. The aim of this study was to use the metabolomics approach to identify potential metabolites related to amino acid metabolism involved in this mechanism. Methods A sourdough fermented endosperm rye bread (RB and a standard white wheat bread (WB as a reference were served in random order to 16 healthy subjects. Test bread portions contained 50 g available carbohydrate. In vitro hydrolysis of starch and protein were performed for both test breads. Blood samples for measuring glucose and insulin concentrations were drawn over 4 h and gastric emptying rate (GER was measured. Changes in the plasma metabolome were investigated by applying a comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry metabolomics platform (GC×GC-TOF-MS. Results Plasma insulin response to RB was lower than to WB at 30 min (P = 0.004, 45 min (P = 0.002 and 60 min (P in vitro protein digestibility. There were no differences in GER between breads. From 255 metabolites identified by the metabolomics platform, 26 showed significant postprandial relative changes after 30 minutes of bread intake (p and q values Conclusions A single meal of a low fibre sourdough rye bread producing low postprandial insulin response brings in several changes in plasma amino acids and their metabolites and some of these might have properties beneficial for health.

  5. Reduced-Gliadin Wheat Bread: An Alternative to the Gluten-Free Diet for Consumers Suffering Gluten-Related Pathologies

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Gil-Humanes; Fernando Pistón; Rossana Altamirano-Fortoul; Ana Real; Isabel Comino; Carolina Sousa; Cristina M. Rosell; Francisco Barro

    2014-01-01

    Wheat flour cannot be tolerated by those who suffer allergies to gluten. Human pathologies associated with grain proteins have increased worldwide in recent years, and the only effective treatment available is a lifelong gluten-free diet, which is complicated to follow and detrimental to gut health. This manuscript describes the development of wheat bread potentially suitable for celiac patients and other gluten-intolerant individuals. We have made bread using wheat flour with very low conten...

  6. Co-digestion of wheat and rye bread suspensions with source-sorted municipal biowaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Graphical abstract: Volatile fatty acid spectra of acidified WBS, RBS or FBS differ, but methanogenesis is similar. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Biogas improvement by co-digestion of wheat and rye bread. • Increased population density at high organic loading rates. • Less Pelotomaculum but increased numbers of Syntrophobacter and Smithella found in rye bread reactor. • Replacement of Methanosarcinales by acetate-oxidizers in rye bread co-digestion. • Increasing proportion of Methanomicrobiales in biowaste + rye bread reactor. - Abstract: Acidification of wheat bread (WBS), rye bread (RBS) and fresh biowaste suspensions (FBS), leading to lactate+acetate, lactate+acetate+n-buyrate, and acetate+propionate+n-butyrate, respectively, and biogas production as well as population dynamics were investigated. Co-fermentation of FBS (14 kg m−3 d−1 organic loading rate (OLR)) with WBS or RBS was stable up to an OLR of 22 kg m−3 d−1 and resulted in up to 3 times as much biogas. During co-fermentation at more than 20 kg m−3 d−1 OLR the total population increased more than 2-fold, but the originally low share of propionate-oxidizing bacteria significantly decreased. The proportion of methanogens also decreased. Whereas the proportion of Methanosarcinales to Methanomicrobiales in biowaste and biowaste+WBS remained constant, Methanosarcinales and in particular Methanosaeta spec. in the biowaste+RBS assay almost completely disappeared. Methanomicrobiales increased instead, indicating propionate oxidation via acetate cleavage to CO2 and hydrogen

  7. Molecular Features of Wheat Endosperm Arabinoxylan Inclusion in Functional Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weili Li

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Arabinoxylan (AX is a major dietary fibre component found in a variety of cereals. Numerous health benefits of arabinoxylans have been reported to be associated with their solubility and molecular features. The current study reports the development of a functional bread using a combination of AX-enriched material (AEM and optimal commercial endoxylanase. The total AX content of bread was increased to 8.2 g per 100 g available carbohydrates. The extractability of AX in breads with and without endoxylanase was determined. The results demonstrate that water-extractable AX (WE-AX increased progressively through the bread making process. The application of endoxylanase also increased WE-AX content. The presence of 360 ppm of endoxylanase had positive effects on the bread characteristics in terms of bread volume and firmness by converting the water unextractable (WU-AX to WE-AX. In addition, the molecular weight (Mw distribution of the WE-AX of bread with and without endoxylanase was characterized by size-exclusion chromatography. The results show that as the portion of WE-AX increased, the amount of high Mw WE-AX (higher than 100 kDa decreased, whereas the amount of low Mw WE-AX (lower than 100 kDa increased from 33.2% to 44.2% through the baking process. The low Mw WE-AX further increased to 75.5% with the application of the optimal endoxylanase (360 ppm.

  8. Comparison of Antioxidant Properties of Refined and Whole Wheat Flour and Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Lilei Yu; Anne-Laure Nanguet; Trust Beta

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of refined and whole wheat flour and their resultant bread were investigated to document the effects of baking. Total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were employed to determine the content of ethanol extractable phenolic compounds. HPLC was used to detect the presence of phenolic acids prior to their confirmation using LC-MS/MS. Whole wheat flour showed significantly ...

  9. Whole grain rye porridge breakfast improves satiety compared to refined wheat bread breakfast

    OpenAIRE

    Isaksson, Hanna; Sundberg, Birgitta; Åman, Per; Fredriksson, Helena; Olsson, Johan

    2008-01-01

    Background: Previous studies show that dietary fibre rich foods with low energy density have a stronger effect on satiety per calorie compared to more energy dense foods. Objective: To investigate subjective appetite and voluntary energy intake (24 h) after consumption of rye porridge breakfast and pasta lunch made from whole grain compared to iso-energetic reference meals made from refined cereals: wheat bread breakfast and wheat pasta lunch. Subjects: In all, 22 healthy subjects, 14 females...

  10. Hard Winter Wheat and Flour Properties in Relation to Breadmaking Quality of Straight-dough Bread: Flour Particle Size and Bread Crumb Grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samples of 12 hard winter wheats and their flours that produced breads varying in crumb grain scores were studied for 38 quality parameters including: wheat physical and chemical characteristics; flour ash and protein content, starch damage, swelling power, pasting characteristics, and flour particl...

  11. A physical map of the 1-gigabase bread wheat chromosome 3B

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paux, E.; Sourdille, P.; Salse, J.; Saintenac, C.; Choulet, F.; LeRoy, P.; Korol, A.; Michalak, M.; Kianian, S.; Spielmeyer, W.; Lagudah, E.; Somers, D.; Kilian, A.; Alaux, M.; Vautrin, S.; Bergès, H.; Eversole, K.; Appels, R.; Šafář, Jan; Šimková, Hana; Doležel, Jaroslav; Bernard, M.; Feuillet, C.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 322, č. 5898 (2008), s. 101-104. ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : RUST RESISTANCE GENE * TRITICUM-AESTIVUM * HEXAPLOID WHEAT Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 28.103, year: 2008

  12. The structure of wheat bread influences the postprandial metabolic response in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W J; Sozer, Nesli; Koehorst, Martijn; Holst, Jens J; Deacon, Carolyn F; Rehfeld, Jens F; Poutanen, Kaisa; Vonk, Roel J; Oudhuis, Lizette; Priebe, Marion G

    2015-01-01

    Postprandial high glucose and insulin responses after starchy food consumption, associated with an increased risk of developing several metabolic diseases, could possibly be improved by altering food structure. We investigated the influence of a compact food structure; different wheat products with...... a similar composition were created using different processing conditions. The postprandial glucose kinetics and metabolic response to bread with a compact structure (flat bread, FB) was compared to bread with a porous structure (control bread, CB) in a randomized, crossover study with ten healthy...... male volunteers. Pasta (PA), with a very compact structure, was used as the control. The rate of appearance of exogenous glucose (RaE), endogenous glucose production, and glucose clearance rate (GCR) was calculated using stable isotopes. Furthermore, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose...

  13. Effect of gamma-irradiation of wheat on voltile flavor components of bread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comparative sensory and objective evaluations of bread prepared from wheat flour, irradiated at different doses, have been carried out. The preference of bread decreases with higher radiation dose (1 Mrad) due to increase in off-flavor intensity. Total carbonyl contents are increased in irradiated products. A significant inverse correlation between consumer preference and total carbonyls as well as GLC headspace vapor analysis, is established. An attempt has been made to postulate a mechanism for the excessive formation of volatiles, imparting off-flavor in bread from irradiated wheat. It is suggested that they may arise from the volatile degradation products of amino acids and proteins or by their interaction with reducing sugars, the ultimate radiation-induced breakdown product of starch

  14. Identification and Antioxidant Properties of Phenolic Compounds during Production of Bread from Purple Wheat Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilei Yu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of purple wheat varieties were investigated to document the effects of bread-making. Bread crust and crumb along with samples collected after mixing, 30 min fermenting, 65 min fermenting, and baking were examined. Free phenolic content (105.4 to 113.2 mg FAE/100 g significantly (p < 0.05 increased during mixing, fermenting, and baking (65% to 68%. Bound phenolics slightly (p > 0.05 decreased after 30 min fermentation (7% to 9% compared to the dough after mixing, but increased significantly (p < 0.05 during 65 min fermenting and baking (16% to 27%. Their antioxidant activities followed a similar trend as observed for total phenolic content. The bread crust demonstrated increased free (103% to 109% but decreased bound (2% to 3% phenolic content, whereas bread crumb exhibited a reversal of these results. Total anthocyanin content (TAC significantly (p < 0.05 decreased by 21% after mixing; however, it gradually increased to 90% of the original levels after fermenting. Baking significantly (p < 0.05 decreased TAC by 55%, resulting in the lowest value for bread crust (0.8 to 4.4 mg cyn-3-glu equiv./100 g. p-Hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids were detected in free-phenolic extracts, while protocatechuic, caffeic syringic, and sinapic were additional acids in bound-phenolic extracts. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was the detectable anthocyanin in purple wheat. Bread-making significantly (p < 0.05 increased the phenolic content and antioxidant activities; however, it compromised the anthocyanin content of purple wheat bread.

  15. Quality Parameters Of Wheat Bread Enriched With Pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampuse Solvita

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin processing into puree, juice, candied fruit and pumpkin seed oil results in large amount of by-products. Pumpkins are rich in carotenes, vitamins, minerals, pectin and dietary fibre. The aim of the current study was to evaluate effect of pumpkin pomace and pumpkin residue powder on wheat bread quality. The total content of carotenes was analyzed by spectrophotometric method. The initial increase of pumpkin residue addition indicated increase in loaf volume, which started to decrease at higher amounts. Sensory evaluation (appearance; surface, crust; porosity; texture, crumb; taste, and flavour of wheat bread with pumpkin revealed very high consumer acceptance except sample with 50% pomace addition. Total carotene content and colour b* value in wheat bread increased by adding pumpkin by-products. It is recommended to add 5% and 10% of pumpkin powder and no more than 30% of pumpkin pomace (calculated per 100 kg of flour to dough for production of wheat bread with pumpkin by-product additions.

  16. Biochemical and sensory evaluation of wheat bran supplemented sorghum kisra bread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were carried out on the effects of addition of wheat bran to sorghum flour (Dabar cultivar) at two levels extraction rates (72% and 80%). Samples were fermented for 14hr and the PH, titrable acidity, crude fibre, protein, total solid, total soluble solids and reducing sugars of fermented batter were determined at 2 hrs intervals. Results indicated that addition of wheat bran either before or after fermentation increased the PH there was decrease in titrable acidity. Reducing sugar contents decrease as a result of addition of wheat bran. Addition of wheat bran result in increasing protein content (15.7%m 19.0% and 20.7% for control, 80%S/WB and 72% S/WB. respectively at the end of fermentation) and also increase of crude fibre content. Addition of wheat bran to sorghum batter either before or after fermentation was accompanied by increase in viscosity ( from 145.1 cp for control to 203.1 cp and 209.8 cp fpr 80%S/WB and 72%S/WB blends respectively). Starch content was determined using iodine spectrophotometry, the moisture content of kisra bread containing wheat bran was significant higher compared with control and lower in available calories. Kisra bread containing wheat bran was lower in reducing sugars 7.42% for control to 5.2% and 4.2% and 4.5% for kisra containing wheat bran, a higher reduction in total carbohydrate were observed in samples containing wheat bran added after fermentation.Kisra containing wheat bran before fermentation gave significantly lower in vitro protein digestabilities. Addition of wheat bran after fermentation resulted in still lower decrease in IVPD compared to addition before fermentation. Sensory evaluation of kisra containing wheat bran indicated significant preference for kisra containing wheat bran compared to the control kisra

  17. Characterization of stem rust resistance in wheat cultivar 'Gage'

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat (Triticum spp.) stem rust, caused by Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn. (Pgt), re-emerged as a devastating disease of wheat because of virulent race Ug99 (TTKSK). Many bread wheat (T. aestivum L.) cultivars grown in North America are susceptible to Ug99 or its derivative races ...

  18. Whole-genome mapping of agronomic and metabolic traits to identify novel quantitative trait Loci in bread wheat grown in a water-limited environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Camilla B; Taylor, Julian D; Edwards, James; Mather, Diane; Bacic, Antony; Langridge, Peter; Roessner, Ute

    2013-07-01

    Drought is a major environmental constraint responsible for grain yield losses of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) in many parts of the world. Progress in breeding to improve complex multigene traits, such as drought stress tolerance, has been limited by high sensitivity to environmental factors, low trait heritability, and the complexity and size of the hexaploid wheat genome. In order to obtain further insight into genetic factors that affect yield under drought, we measured the abundance of 205 metabolites in flag leaf tissue sampled from plants of 179 cv Excalibur/Kukri F1-derived doubled haploid lines of wheat grown in a field experiment that experienced terminal drought stress. Additionally, data on 29 agronomic traits that had been assessed in the same field experiment were used. A linear mixed model was used to partition and account for nongenetic and genetic sources of variation, and quantitative trait locus analysis was used to estimate the genomic positions and effects of individual quantitative trait loci. Comparison of the agronomic and metabolic trait variation uncovered novel correlations between some agronomic traits and the levels of certain primary metabolites, including metabolites with either positive or negative associations with plant maturity-related or grain yield-related traits. Our analyses demonstrate that specific regions of the wheat genome that affect agronomic traits also have distinct effects on specific combinations of metabolites. This approach proved valuable for identifying novel biomarkers for the performance of wheat under drought and could facilitate the identification of candidate genes involved in drought-related responses in bread wheat. PMID:23660834

  19. Rupanco - INIA: Una nueva variedad de trigo alternativoa de pan Rupanco-INIA: a new alternative bread wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian Hewstone M.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Rupanco-INIA es una nueva variedad de trigo (Triticum aestivum L. alternativo creada por el Proyecto de Mejoramiento de Trigo del Centro Regional de Investigación Carillanca, del Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA. La cruza fue: X-101,2 Alt. 94B/ X-104 Alt. 94M. Su pedigrí es TG-688-t-1t-2t y su denominación interna en el Proyecto es Temu 2618-00. Rupanco-INIA tiene un hábito de desarrollo alternativo y una caña corta, con un promedio de 93 cm de alto. Posee espiga semicompacta, con barbas, y corrientemente presenta cierto grado de melanosis. El grano es semiduro, rojo, con un promedio de peso de 1000 granos de 39 g, 79,4 kg de peso de hectolitro, 12,7% de proteína y 886 cm³ de volumen de pan, en ensayos efectuados en 2000 y 2001 desde Traiguén hasta Purranque. Es moderadamente resistente al ataque de polvillo estriado (Puccinia striiformis West. f. sp. tritici y polvillo de la hoja (Puccinia triticina Erikss.. Su rendimiento fue alto, con un promedio de 9,79 t ha-1, en tres años de ensayos en cuatro localidades.Rupanco-INIA is a new alternative bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivar released by the Wheat Breeding Project at Carillanca Research Center of the National Institute of Agricultural Research (INIA. The cross was: X-101,2 Alt.94B/X-104 Alt.94M. The pedigree is TG-688-t-1t-2t, and its internal name in the Project is Temu 2618-00. Rupanco-INIA has a facultative growth habit and short straw, with a mean height of 93 cm. The spike is semi-compact, awned, and usually shows some brown necrosis. The grain is semi-hard, red, with a 1000 grain weight of 39 g, 79.4 kg hectoliter weight, 12.7% protein percentage, and 886 cm³ bread volume. It is moderately resistant to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis West. f. sp. tritici and leaf rust (Puccinia triticina Erikss.. Its yield was high, with a mean of 9.79 t ha-1 in three years of trials at four locations.

  20. Temporal transcriptome profiling reveals expression partitioning of homeologous genes contributing to heat and drought acclimation in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Zhenshan; Xin, Mingming; Qin, Jinxia; Peng, Huiru; Ni, Zhongfu; Yao, Yingyin; Sun, Qixin

    2015-01-01

    Background Hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum) is a globally important crop. Heat, drought and their combination dramatically reduce wheat yield and quality, but the molecular mechanisms underlying wheat tolerance to extreme environments, especially stress combination, are largely unknown. As an allohexaploid, wheat consists of three closely related subgenomes (A, B, and D), and was reported to show improved tolerance to stress conditions compared to tetraploid. But so far very little is know...

  1. Products deriving from microbial fermentation are linked to insulinaemic response in pigs fed breads prepared from whole-wheat grain and wheat and rye ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Serena, Anja;

    2011-01-01

    The effects of wheat and rye breads made from whole-wheat grain (WWG), wheat aleurone flour (WAF) or rye aleurone flour (RAF) on net portal absorption of carbohydrate-derived nutrients (glucose, SCFA and lactate) and apparent insulin secretion were studied in a model experiment with catheterised...

  2. Drought Tolerance in Modern and Wild Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Hikmet Budak; Melda Kantar; Kuaybe Yucebilgili Kurtoglu

    2013-01-01

    The genus Triticum includes bread (Triticum aestivum) and durum wheat (Triticum durum) and constitutes a major source for human food consumption. Drought is currently the leading threat on world's food supply, limiting crop yield, and is complicated since drought tolerance is a quantitative trait with a complex phenotype affected by the plant's developmental stage. Drought tolerance is crucial to stabilize and increase food production since domestication has limited the genetic diversity of c...

  3. Optimization of durum wheat bread from a selenium-rich cultivar fortified with bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Previtali, Maria Assunta; Mastromatteo, Marcella; Conte, Amalia; De Vita, Pasquale; Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro

    2016-02-01

    In this work the effect of bran addition (5 %, 10 %, 15 %, 20 %, 25 %, 30 %) on sensory, nutritional and mechanical properties of bread made from a durum wheat semolina enriched with selenium (cultivar PR22D89) was addressed; traditional and whole-meal bread from the same cultivar PR22D89, without any further bran addition, were also investigated for comparative purpose. In order to improve the durum wheat functional bread, different structuring agents (agar agar, gellan gum, guar seed flour, hydroxy-propyl-cellulose, modified food starch-CAPSUL® and tapioca starch) were firstly screened and then optimized. Sensory, textural and nutritional properties of bread were studied in each step. Results showed that bread from PR22D89 cultivar with addition of bran up to 30 % was completely accepted from the textural, nutritional and sensory points of view with proper utilization of guar seed flour or modified food-starch (2 %). PMID:27162413

  4. Water movement into dormant and non-dormant wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grains

    OpenAIRE

    Rathjen, Judith R.; Strounina, Ekaterina V.; Mares, Daryl J.

    2009-01-01

    The movement of water into harvest-ripe grains of dormant and non-dormant genotypes of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was investigated using Magnetic Resonance Micro-Imaging (MRMI). Images of virtual sections, both longitudinal and transverse, throughout the grain were collected at intervals after the start of imbibition and used to reconstruct a picture of water location within the different grain tissues and changes over time. The observations were supplemented by the weighing measurements of...

  5. Glycinebetaine applied under drought improved the physiological efficiency of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) plant

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Aown Sammar Raza, Muhammad Farrukh Saleem; Muhammad Yasin Ashraf; Asghar Ali; Hafiz Naeem Asghar

    2012-01-01

    Study to find out the response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars to exogenous application of 100 mM glycinebetaine (GB) at different growth stages (vegetative, flowering and grain filling) was carried out under water limited environment, at the Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB), Faisalabad during 2008-09, to find out the best GB application stage for improvement in drought tolerance potential. The wire house experiment was laid out in completely randomized design. D...

  6. Potassium applied under drought improves physiological and nutrient uptake performances of wheat (Triticum Aestivun L.)

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The physiological and nutrient uptake performance of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars (Lasani-2008 and Auqab-2000) to foliar application of 1% potassium (K) at three different growth stages (tillering, flower initiation and grain filling) was investigated under water limited environment in a wire house experiment at the Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology, Faisalabad. The aim was to find out the best K application stage for improvement in drought tolerance potential. Droug...

  7. Molecular markers validation to drought resistance in wheat meal (Triticum aestivum L.) under greenhouse conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Gabriel Julio; Veramendi Silene; España Pablo

    2013-01-01

    With the aim to study the genetic resistance to drought and validate molecular markers co-localized with genes/QTLs for this factor, 16 varieties were evaluated as well as advanced lines of wheat meal (Triticum aestivum) in two stages of crop development. Physiological parameters were considered: amount of chlorophyll (clo), wilting or severity degree (SEV) and recovery (reco), morphological parameters: foliage dry matter (FDM) and root dry matter (RDM), the integrated resistance mechanisms:...

  8. Mixture design of rice flour, maize starch and wheat starch for optimization of gluten free bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancebo, Camino M; Merino, Cristina; Martínez, Mario M; Gómez, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    Gluten-free bread production requires gluten-free flours or starches. Rice flour and maize starch are two of the most commonly used raw materials. Over recent years, gluten-free wheat starch is available on the market. The aim of this research was to optimize mixtures of rice flour, maize starch and wheat starch using an experimental mixture design. For this purpose, dough rheology and its fermentation behaviour were studied. Quality bread parameters such as specific volume, texture, cell structure, colour and acceptability were also analysed. Generally, starch incorporation reduced G* and increased the bread specific volume and cell density, but the breads obtained were paler than the rice flour breads. Comparing the starches, wheat starch breads had better overall acceptability and had a greater volume than maize-starch bread. The highest value for sensorial acceptability corresponded to the bread produced with a mixture of rice flour (59 g/100 g) and wheat starch (41 g/100 g). PMID:26396377

  9. EFFECT OF PROTEIN COMPOSITION OF WHEAT FLOUR MILL STREAMS ON DOUGH RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES AND BREAD CRUMB CHARACTERISTICS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flour mill streams, obtained from three samples of Nekota, a hard red winter wheat, were used in this study. The objective was to assess the contribution of protein composition on dough rheological properties and bread crumb characteristics of bread made from the mill streams. Flour proteins were fr...

  10. Induced mutations and their genetic aspects in wheat (Triticum aestivum vulgare)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The hexaploid nature of common wheat (Triticum aestivum vulgare) and triplication of the genes allow a great number of primary induced changes to be present and maintained through generations. Induced mutations have been obtained in the morphological characters of the wheat spike, grain character, plant height, disease resistance, and in many other quantitative characters. In some of our experiments these have been followed through 25 generations. The genetic aspects of these changes, their effect on the micro-evolutionary processes in the populations, and their applicability in plant breeding are discussed. (author). 56 refs

  11. Effects of high temperature after anthesis on starch granules in grains of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, P.; Guo, W; Jiang, Z.; Pu, H.; Feng, C.; Zhu, X.; Peng, Y.; KUANG, A.; LITTLE, C. R.

    2010-01-01

    SUMMARY The effect of high temperatures (above 25°C) on starch concentration and the morphology of starch granules in the grains of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were studied. Wheat plants of cultivars Yangmai 9 (weak-gluten) and Yangmai 12 (medium-gluten) were treated with high temperatures for 3 days at different times after anthesis. The results showed that the starch concentration of grains given a heat-shock treatment above 30°C were lower than those developing at normal temperature in bo...

  12. Hydrogen peroxide scavenging regulates germination ability during wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) seed maturation

    OpenAIRE

    Ishibashi, Yushi; Yamamoto, Kouhei; Tawaratsumida, Tomoya; Yuasa, Takashi; Iwaya-Inoue, Mari

    2008-01-01

    Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) promotes seed germination of cereal plants and ascorbic acid which acts as antioxidant suppresses the germination of wheat seeds, but the role of H2O2 scavenging on germination during seed maturation has not been demonstrated. We investigated relationship of germination, ascorbate, H2O2 scavenging enzymes and sensitivity to ascorbic acid (AsA) maturing seeds of two typical wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars, cvs. Shirogane-Komugi and Norin61. Shirogane-Komugi had ...

  13. Use of fungal proteases and selected sourdough lactic acid bacteria for making wheat bread with an intermediate content of gluten.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Curiel, José Antonio; Nionelli, Luana; Vincentini, Olimpia; Di Cagno, Raffaella; Silano, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco; Coda, Rossana

    2014-02-01

    This study was aimed at combining the highest degradation of gluten during wheat flour fermentation with good structural and sensory features of the related bread. As estimated by R5-ELISA, the degree of degradation of immune reactive gluten was ca. 28%. Two-dimensional electrophoresis and RP-FPLC analyses showed marked variations of the protein fractions compared to the untreated flour. The comparison was also extended to in vitro effect of the peptic/tryptic-digests towards K562 and T84 cells. The flour with the intermediate content of gluten (ICG) was used for bread making, and compared to whole gluten (WG) bread. The chemical, structural and sensory features of the ICG bread approached those of the bread made with WG flour. The protein digestibility of the ICG bread was higher than that from WG flour. Also the nutritional quality, as estimated by different indexes, was the highest for ICG bread. PMID:24230474

  14. Amelioration of salt stress in wheat (triticum aestivum l.) by foliar application of nitrogen and potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An experiment was conducted in the Department of Biological Sciences, University of Sargodha, Pakistan. Different levels, viz. 0, 250, 500 mg/L, of nitrogen (N) and 0, 200, 400 mg/L of potassium (K) were applied exogenously as a foliar spray to determine whether application of N and K could ameliorate the effect of salinity stress on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). It was composed of three replications. Each pot was filled with 8kg of well-mixed soil. Different salinity levels were adjusted in accordance with saturation percentage of soil. Salinity reduced the growth of wheat plants. When K and N were applied as foliar spray on the wheat plant, it reduced the effect of salinity and increased the plant growth and physiological attributes of wheat plants. Similarly, grains yield is also decreased by salinity but foliar application of K and N mitigated the salinity effect on grains yield. (author)

  15. Improved fluorimetric measurement of uranium uptake and distribution in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borcia, Catalin [' ' Alexandru Ioan Cuza' ' Univ., Iasi (Romania). Dept. of Physics; Popa, Karin; Cecal, Alexandru [' ' Alexandru Ioan Cuza' ' Univ., Iasi (Romania). Dept. of Chemistry; Murariu, Manuela [' ' Petru Poni' ' Institute of Macromolecular Chemistry, Iasi (Romania)

    2016-08-01

    Uranium uptake and (radio)toxicity was tested on spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in a laboratory study using differently concentrated uranium nitrate solutions. Within these experiments, two analytical assays of uranium were comparatively tested: a fast and improved fluorimetric assay and the classical colorimetric (U(IV)-arsenazo(III) complexation) one. During the germination, the wheat seeds and plantlets supported well the uranium solutions of treatment within the entire concentration range (1 x 10{sup -4} -5 x 10{sup -3} M). Uranium proved to be non (radio)toxic to wheat as compared with other natural and anthropogenic radiocations, probably because its uptake by spring wheat during the germination is low. Indeed, only a small fraction of uranium administered was located within the roots, whereas the uranium content of the stems was negligible. A high correlation between the results obtained by two analytical methods was found. However, the fluorimetric assay proved to be more reliable and fast, and accurate.

  16. Sensitivity of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum) to various postemergence herbicides

    OpenAIRE

    Nader Soltani; Christy Shropshire; Peter H. Sikkema

    2011-01-01

    There are a limited number of herbicide options available for durum wheat production in Ontario, Canada. Four field studies were conducted in Ontario, Canada over a three year period (2008, 2009 and 2010) to evaluate the sensitivity of spring planted durum wheat to post-emergence (POST) applications of dichlorprop/2,4-D, dicamba/ MCPA/mecoprop, clopyralid, bromoxynil/MCPA, pyrasulfotole/bromoxynil, thifensulfuron/tribenuron + MCPA amine, fluroxypyr + MCPA ester, tralkoxydim and fenoxaprop-p-e...

  17. Low molecular weight glutenin subunit gene Glu-B3h confers superior dough strength and breadmaking quality in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yaping; Zhen, Shoumin; Luo, Nana; Han, Caixia; Lu, Xiaobing; Li, Xiaohui; Xia, Xianchun; He, Zhonghu; Yan, Yueming

    2016-01-01

    Low molecular weight glutenin subunit is one of the important quality elements in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Although considerable allelic variation has been identified, the functional properties of individual alleles at Glu-3 loci are less studied. In this work, we performed the first comprehensive study on the molecular characteristics and functional properties of the Glu-B3h gene using the wheat cultivar CB037B and its Glu-B3 deletion line CB037C. The results showed that the Glu-B3h deletion had no significant effects on plant morphological or yield traits, but resulted in a clear reduction in protein body number and size and main quality parameters, including inferior mixing property, dough strength, loaf volume, and score. Molecular characterization showed that the Glu-B3h gene consists of 1179 bp, and its encoded B-subunit has a longer repetitive domain and an increased number of α-helices, as well as higher expression, which could contribute to superior flour quality. The SNP-based allele-specific PCR markers designed for the Glu-B3h gene were developed and validated with bread wheat holding various alleles at Glu-B3 locus, which could effectively distinguish the Glu-B3h gene from others at the Glu-B3 locus, and have potential applications for wheat quality improvement through marker-assisted selection. PMID:27273251

  18. Distinct Characteristics of Rye and Wheat Breads Impact on Their in Vitro Gastric Disintegration and in Vivo Glucose and Insulin Responses

    OpenAIRE

    Emilia Nordlund; Kati Katina; Hannu Mykkänen; Kaisa Poutanen

    2016-01-01

    Disintegration of rye and wheat breads during in vitro gastric digestion and its relation to the postprandial glucose and insulin responses of the breads was studied. Breads with distinct composition and texture characteristics were prepared with refined or wholegrain wheat and rye flour by using either straight dough or sourdough process. After chewing and gastric digestion in vitro, 100% wholemeal and refined rye breads prepared by sourdough method were disintegrated to a much lower extent ...

  19. Genetic diversity in elite lines and landraces of CIMMYT spring bread wheat and hybrid performance of crosses among elite germplasm

    OpenAIRE

    Dreisigacker, Susanne

    2005-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) is one of the major cereals in the world. During the past years, the world consumption of wheat increased up to nearly 600 million tones, whereas wheat production continuously decreased. Due to land limitations, new production gains must be achieved from improved plant management systems as well as from the development of high yielding varieties. The International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) employs different strategies to enhance yield potential in w...

  20. Investigation on Paste Property of Chinese Bread Wheat Varieties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jun; ZHANG Yong; HE Zhong-hu

    2002-01-01

    Starch viscosity is closely associated with noodle quality. RVA(rapid viscosity analyzer)was used to investigate the paste property of leading Chinese wheat varieties and 38 Australian wheat lines. Results showed that significant variability for RVA parameters was observed among Chinese wheat varieties, particularly among spring wheat varieties. In general, Australia wheat lines performed better paste characters than that of Chinese winter wheats. Genotype (G), environment (E) and genotype by environment (G × E) interaction affected all paste traits. Correlation analysis indicated that peak viscosity correlated highly and significantly with viscosity, breakdown, setback, final viscosity, peak time, and falling number(r = 0.56-0.93, P < 0.01 ). However breakdown was not significantly associated with most paste properties. Paste characters increased from low to high latitude both in the north and south part of Yellow and Huai Valley.

  1. Effect of Partial Replacement of Wheat Flour with High Quality Cassava Flour on the Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, Sensory Quality, and Microbial Quality of Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Eleazu, Chinedum; Eleazu, Kate; Aniedu, Chinyere; Amajor, John; Ikpeama, Ahamefula; Ebenzer, Ike

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, wheat flour was mixed with high quality cassava flour (HQCF) in several ratios: 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40, and used to prepare 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI) cassava bread, respectively. 100% wheat bread was prepared as a control (100% wheat bread). Five bread samples were prepared per group. Antioxidant assays [i.e., 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging assay, reducing power assay] revealed that the bread s...

  2. Millán-INIA, New Variety of High Quality Early Spring Bread Wheat for Irrigated Soils in Central-Southern Chile Millán-INIA, Nueva Variedad de Trigo Harinero Precoz de Primavera de Alta Calidad para Suelos de Riego de la Zona Centro Sur de Chile

    OpenAIRE

    Iván Matus; Ricardo Madariaga; Claudio Jobet; Javier Zúñiga; Christian Alfaro

    2011-01-01

    Millán-INIA is a variety of spring bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) originating from a cross carried out in the Wheat Plant Breeding Project of the Instituto de Investigaciones Agropecuarias (INIA), in the Centro Regional de Investigación Quilamapu in 1995. This is a spring wheat variety with an early to medium-early head emergence and upright growth habit in the seedling stage. The adult plant is low to medium height and varies between 75 and 90 cm, with a mean of 85 cm. The spike is white...

  3. Registration of a hard red winter wheat genetic stock homozygous for ph1b for facilitating alien introgression for crop improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wild relatives of bread wheat, Triticum aestivum L. are an important source for disease and pest resistance that can be exploited in wheat improvement. However, in wheat/alien species hybrids the pairing homoeologous gene, Ph1, suppresses the pairing and recombination of wheat and alien chromosomes,...

  4. Influence of xylanase addition on the characteristics of loaf bread prepared with white flour or whole grain wheat flour

    OpenAIRE

    Leandra Zafalon Jaekel; Camila Batista da Silva; Caroline Joy Steel; Yoon Kil Chang

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the influence of the addition of the enzyme xylanase (four concentrations: 0, 4, 8, and 12 g.100 kg-1 flour) on the characteristics of loaf bread made with white wheat flour or whole grain wheat flour. Breads made from white flour and added with xylanase had higher specific volumes than those of the control sample (no enzyme); however, the specific volume did not differ significantly (p < 0.05) among the breads with different enzyme concentrations. All form...

  5. High molecular weight glutenin subunits of wheat: qualitative and quantitative variation in relation to bread-making quality.

    OpenAIRE

    Kolster, P.

    1992-01-01

    In view of the poor bread-making quality of the wheat grown in The Netherlands, only a small part of production is used for baking of bread. Therefore quality improvement is a major aim of plant breeding. Unfortunately, breeding for breadmaking quality is hampered by its complexity. The suitability of wheat flour for the manufacture of bread depends on the composition of a large number of kernel components, such as lipids, starch and proteins, and this kernel composition in turn depends on ag...

  6. Co-digestion of wheat and rye bread suspensions with source-sorted municipal biowaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chaoran, E-mail: Chaoran.Li3@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, Am Fasanengarten, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Mörtelmaier, Christoph, E-mail: Christoph.Moertelmaier@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, Am Fasanengarten, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Winter, Josef, E-mail: Josef.Winter@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, Am Fasanengarten, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Gallert, Claudia, E-mail: Claudia.Gallert@HS-Emden-Leer.de [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, Am Fasanengarten, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); University of Applied Science, Hochschule Emden-Leer, Faculty of Technology, Division Microbiology – Biotechnology, Constantiaplatz 4, D-26723 Emden (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Volatile fatty acid spectra of acidified WBS, RBS or FBS differ, but methanogenesis is similar. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Biogas improvement by co-digestion of wheat and rye bread. • Increased population density at high organic loading rates. • Less Pelotomaculum but increased numbers of Syntrophobacter and Smithella found in rye bread reactor. • Replacement of Methanosarcinales by acetate-oxidizers in rye bread co-digestion. • Increasing proportion of Methanomicrobiales in biowaste + rye bread reactor. - Abstract: Acidification of wheat bread (WBS), rye bread (RBS) and fresh biowaste suspensions (FBS), leading to lactate+acetate, lactate+acetate+n-buyrate, and acetate+propionate+n-butyrate, respectively, and biogas production as well as population dynamics were investigated. Co-fermentation of FBS (14 kg m{sup −3} d{sup −1} organic loading rate (OLR)) with WBS or RBS was stable up to an OLR of 22 kg m{sup −3} d{sup −1} and resulted in up to 3 times as much biogas. During co-fermentation at more than 20 kg m{sup −3} d{sup −1} OLR the total population increased more than 2-fold, but the originally low share of propionate-oxidizing bacteria significantly decreased. The proportion of methanogens also decreased. Whereas the proportion of Methanosarcinales to Methanomicrobiales in biowaste and biowaste+WBS remained constant, Methanosarcinales and in particular Methanosaeta spec. in the biowaste+RBS assay almost completely disappeared. Methanomicrobiales increased instead, indicating propionate oxidation via acetate cleavage to CO{sub 2} and hydrogen.

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF GLIADIN AND HMW GLUTENIN PROTEIN COMPOSITION IN COLOURED WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Šudyová

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is one of the most important grains in our daily diet. Coloured wheat contains natural anthocyanin compounds. Bioactive compounds in wheat have attracted increasingly more interest from breeders because of their benefits. It is important to fully understand protein properties of red, blue, purple, and yellow-coloured wheat in order to predict their potential uses for culturing new varieties. All 21 accessions originating from different geographical areas of world were evaluated for high molecular weight glutenin subunit (HMW-GS and T1BL.1RS wheat-rye translocation using SDS-PAGE and A-PAGE. The data indicated the prevalence of the allele 1 (36%, allele 0 (30% and allele 2* (34% at the Glu-1A and five alleles, namely 7+8 (36%, 7+9 (29%, 20 (21%, 7 (12% and 17+18 (2% represented the Glu-1B. Existence of 2 alleles at the locus Glu-1D was revealed, in fact 21% of them showed the subunit pairs Glu-1D 5+10 correlated with good bread making properties. Protein subunit Glu-1A1 and Glu-1A2* were correlated positively with improved dough strength as compared to subunit null. On the chromosome Glu-1B subunit 17+18 and 7+8 were associated with slightly stronger gluten type than 7+9, whereas subunit 20 and 7 were associated with weak gluten properties. On the basis of electrophoretic separation of gliadin fraction it was found that only one genotype contained T1BL.1RS wheat-rye translocation. The Glu-1 quality score ranged from 4 to 10. Suitable accessions can be used for the crossing programs to improve colour and good technological quality of bread wheat.  doi:10.5219/161

  8. Properties and nutritional value of wheat bread enriched by hemp products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Švec

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hemp (Cannabis sativa is annual plant that is native to China and remained as important material for food, industrial  and medical purposes. As source of cannabinoids belongs to controversial, but due to its excellent nutritional profile, non-gluten protein, fat and fibre it has potential in bakery products. Addition of 5% - 20% of hemp press cake fine flour and fine wholemeal significantly increased dietary fibre content, but their influence on volume of laboratory baked bread was different. Reflecting actual dosage, both types of hemp press cake flour diminished bun sizes about 6% - 33%; volumes of bread containing hulled wholemeal were comparable to standard (mean 310 mL/100 g vs. 333 ml/100 g, respectively. Only dehulled wholemeal hemp form increased the bread specific volume (6% - 30%, especially as 10% fortification (434 mL/100 g. Six Canadian hemp products were added as 10% and 20% on wheat flour base, comprising fine hemp flour and coarse hemp powder, dehulled whole seeds, hulled hemp seeds with sea salt as well as 50% and 43% hemp protein concentrates (KP1-KP6, respectively. The higher level of KP1, KP2, KP5 and KP6, the lower bread specific volumes were determined (decrease about 9% - 48%. Soft increase in buns size caused by 10% and 20% KP3 (323 and 319 ml/100 g vs. 296 mL/100 g was insignificant. The effect of KP4 was reversely verifiable, magnifying the parameter about 25% and 17%, respectively. In terms of protein content in bread, a level 11.75% in wheat bread has risen to approx. 14.5% and 18.0% when 10% and 20% of KP3 and KP5, respectively, was included into bread recipe. All six Canadian hemp products increased dietary fibre content in bread, mainly owing to KP4 and both protein concentrates (up to 4 and 3 times, respectively. Incorporation of hemp flour up to the level of 10% positively affected bread sensorial properties.

  9. Dispersion and domestication shaped the genome of bread wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Berkman, P.J.; Visendi, P.; Lee, H.C.; Stiller, J.; Šimková, Hana; Kubaláková, Marie; Song, W.N.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Edwards, D.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 5 (2013), s. 564-571. ISSN 1467-7644 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/12/2554 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : Triticum aestivum * genome sequencing * evolution Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.677, year: 2013

  10. Bread making properties of wheat flour supplemented with thermally processed hypoallergenic lupine flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillamon, E.; Cuadrado, C.; Pedrosa, M. M.; Varela, A.; Cabellos, B.

    2010-07-01

    In recent years there has been increased interest in using lupine for human nutrition due to its nutritional properties and health benefits. Moreover, lupine is used as an ingredient in bread making because of its functional and technological properties. However, a higher number of allergic reactions to this legume have recently been reported as a consequence of a more widespread consumption of lupine-based foods. In a previous study, several thermal treatments were applied to lupine seeds and flours resulting in reduced allergenicity. In order to study how this thermal processing (autoclaving and boiling) affects the bread making properties, raw and thermally processed lupine flours were used to replace 10% of wheat flour. The effect of supplementing wheat flour with lupine flour on physical dough properties, bread structure and sensory characteristics were analysed. The results indicated that thermally-treated lupine flours, had similar bread making and sensorial properties as untreated lupine flour. These thermal treatments could increase the potential use of lupine flour as a food ingredient while reducing the risk to provoke allergic reactions. (Author) 36 refs.

  11. A kaizen approach to food safety quality management in the value chain from wheat to bread

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a Management Science approach to quality management in food production. Aspects of food quality, product conformance and reliability/food safety are examined, starting with wheat and ending with its value chain transformation into bread. Protein qualities that influence glycemic index levels in bread are used to compare the value chains of France and the US. With Kaizen models the book shows how changes in these characteristics are the result of management decisions made by the wheat growers in response to government policy and industry strategy. Lastly, it provides step-by-step instructions on how to apply kaizen methodology and Deming's work on quality improvement to make the HACCPs (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) in food safety systems more robust.

  12. Wheat Prices, Bread Consumption and Health in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Leat, Philip M.K.; Toma, Luiza; Lamprinopoulou-Kranis, Chrysa; Kupiec-Teahan, Beata; Cacciolatti, Luca

    2009-01-01

    The relative recent rise in food prices has increased concern about the choice of a healthy food basket, especially in the context of the formulation of a National Food Policy for Scotland. This concern has revived interest in food price and expenditure demand systems as they provide information about consumers’ food decisions. The paper focuses on the consumption of brown and white bread, as they are the most typical forms of cereals use in the UK. Moreover, nutritionists recommend the consu...

  13. Production of wheat bread without preservatives using sourdough starters

    OpenAIRE

    Denkova, Rositsa; Ilieva, Svetla; Denkova, Zapryana; Georgieva, Ljubka; Yordanova, Mariya; Nikolova, Dilyana; Evstatieva, Yana

    2014-01-01

    In order for the beneficial effects of sourdough application in breadmaking to take place a proper selection of lactic acid bacteria species and strains, an appropriate technology and effective control of the purity and activity of the selected cultures. Four symbiotic starters for sourdough for the production of bread were developed and probated in a production laboratory using the selected strains Lactobacillus brevis LBRZ7, L. buchneri LBRZ6, L. plantarum X2, L. paracasei RN5, L. sanfranci...

  14. Use of Avocado (Persea americana M.) Paste in Wheat Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Man; Adriana Păucean; Ioana Daniela Călian Ianoş; Sevastiţa Muste

    2015-01-01

    Bread is the staple food for most people around the world, it being consumed since ancient times. Because of it’s major importance in the diet, over the last years, the trend of enrich the nutritional quality was developed, by replacing the chemical fortification of foods with an intake of bioactive compounds from fruits, vegetables and cereals. The avocado is useful in human nutrition as a source of various nutrients and especially as source of energy and monounsaturated fatty acids. This pa...

  15. Studies on certain aspects of seed-borne fungi. VI. Fungi associated with different cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. Pandey

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Fungi associated with eight cultivars of wheat have been investigated. Twenty seven species were isolated from external and internal surface of all the wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cultivars respectively. Out of five dominant and subdominant fungi anly Aspergillus terreus and Alternaria tenuis were able to colonize internally. The culture filtrates of test fungi reduced the germination of all wheat varieties up to different degrees.

  16. Copper-65-absorption by men fed intrinsically and extrinsically labeled whole wheat bread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six men were fed a diet composed of conventional foods with all bread as whole wheat bread. Intrinsically labeled 65Cu bread (containing 6.5 ppm Cu and 48 atom % 65Cu) was substituted for unlabeled bread for 3 days, and stools were collected for 24 days. Extrinsically labeled bread was then substituted for 3 days and another 24-day stool collection made. 65Cu excretion was measured by mass spectrometry. Mean Cu intake was 1.10 mg of Cu/day. Average Cu balance was /minus/0.06 /+-/ 0.08 mg/day. Average absorption of the intrinsic copper was 72.2 /+-/ 9.3% and of extrinsic Cu 64.2 /+-/ 5.8%. The ratio of extrinsic to intrinsic absorption was 0.906 /+-/ 0.164. Absorption of intrinsic and extrinsic tracers did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) by a paired t-test, and the ratio (E/I) was not significantly different from 1. Use of extrinsic Cu tracers to assess Cu absorption is supported by these results

  17. Quality Parameters Of Wheat Bread Enriched With Pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata) By-Products

    OpenAIRE

    Kampuse Solvita; Ozola Liene; Straumite Evita; Galoburda Ruta

    2015-01-01

    Pumpkin processing into puree, juice, candied fruit and pumpkin seed oil results in large amount of by-products. Pumpkins are rich in carotenes, vitamins, minerals, pectin and dietary fibre. The aim of the current study was to evaluate effect of pumpkin pomace and pumpkin residue powder on wheat bread quality. The total content of carotenes was analyzed by spectrophotometric method. The initial increase of pumpkin residue addition indicated increase in loaf volume, which started to decrease a...

  18. Effect of Buckwheat Processing Products on Dough and Bread Quality Made from Whole-Wheat Flour

    OpenAIRE

    Vira Drobot; Anastasiya Semenova; Jelyzaveta Smirnova; Larisa Mykhonik

    2014-01-01

    The paper gives a brief overview of the current nutritional status of the Ukrainian population and describes useful buckwheat properties. The objective of the paper is to study the effect of buckwheat processing products (flour and flakes) on the technological process and quality of bread made from whole-wheat flour. This paper describes and analyzes research data on the rheological properties of dough samples which were determined by farinograph and amylograph. Investigation of structural an...

  19. Drought Resistance and Mitotic Instability of Tritipyrum Compared with Triticale and Bread Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    shahriari, zolfaghar; Mohammad Taghi ASSAD; Hosein Shahsavand HASANI

    2012-01-01

    This study presents the first data on the drought resistance pattern of seven new synthetic 6x primary Tritipyrum amphiploid linesand evaluates their mitotic instability. The primary Tritipyrum lines were crossed with Iranian 6x bread wheat ‘Navid’ cultivar and theirF1 and F2 progenies were obtained. Two experiments with complete randomized design were conducted under optimum and limitedwater conditions to evaluate Tritipyrum-derived genotypes for drought resistance in greenhouse. Under optim...

  20. Branching Shoots and Spikes from Lateral Meristems in Bread Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Ying; Miao, Fang; Yan, Liuling

    2016-01-01

    Wheat grain yield consists of three components: spikes per plant, grains per spike (i.e. head or ear), and grain weight; and the grains per spike can be dissected into two subcomponents: spikelets per spike and grains per spikelet. An increase in any of these components will directly contribute to grain yield. Wheat morphology biology tells that a wheat plant has no lateral meristem that forms any branching shoot or spike. In this study, we report two novel shoot and spike traits that were pr...

  1. Green Manure Addition to Soil Increases Grain Zinc Concentration in Bread Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Aghili, Forough; Gamper, Hannes A.; Eikenberg, Jost; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H.; Afyuni, Majid; Schulin, Rainer; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower), ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of n...

  2. Intermittent Microwave Drying of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of present study was to characterize the intermittent microwave drying of wheat seeds. Results revealed that microwave on time percentage (MOTP and initial moisture content were the main parameters which influenced the intermittent microwave drying rate and the germination capacity of dried seeds. Best intermittent microwave drying (power: 800 W; seed sample weight: 100 g, microwave on time in each cycle: 32 s without significantly decreasing the germination rate was obtained at initial moisture content≤ 20.3% along with 20% MOTP. While, if initial moisture content of seeds was ≤ 16.7%, the seeds can be dried more rapidly using MOTP 30% without affecting germination capacity. The results obtained from this study would provide technical basis to select optimal wheat seed processing and design seed drying equipments.

  3. Hybrid Vigor in Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    YAĞDI, Köksal

    2000-01-01

    This research was carried out at the experimental plots of the Field Crops Department of Agriculture Faculty, Uludağ University, during 1994-1996. Thirteen strains of common wheat obtained from the Prof. Dr. Osman Tosun Gene Bank were used as parent material for seven combinations of hybridirazations. In the F 1 populations belonging to the abovementioned combinations, plant height, spike height, spikelet number per spike, kernel number and kernel weight per spike and 1000-kernel weight we...

  4. Intermittent Microwave Drying of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Yan Li; Tao Zhang; Chenglai Wu; Chunqing Zhang

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of present study was to characterize the intermittent microwave drying of wheat seeds. Results revealed that microwave on time percentage (MOTP) and initial moisture content were the main parameters which influenced the intermittent microwave drying rate and the germination capacity of dried seeds. Best intermittent microwave drying (power: 800 W; seed sample weight: 100 g, microwave on time in each cycle: 32 s) without significantly decreasing the germination rate was...

  5. Resistance Potential of Bread Wheat Genotypes Against Yellow Rust Disease Under Egyptian Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer F. Mahmoud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Yellow rust (stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most destructive foliar diseases of wheat in Egypt and worldwide. In order to identify wheat genotypes resistant to yellow rust and develop molecular markers associated with the resistance, fifty F₈ recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from a cross between resistant and susceptible bread wheat landraces were obtained. Artificial infection of Puccinia striiformis was performed under greenhouse conditions during two growing seasons and relative resistance index (RRI was calculated. Two Egyptian bread wheat cultivars i.e. Giza-168 (resistant and Sakha-69 (susceptible were also evaluated. RRI values of two-year trial showed that 10 RILs responded with RRI value >6 2 <6. However, only 7 RILs showed RRI value <2. Five RILs expressed hypersensitive type of resistance (R against the pathogen and showed the lowest Average Coefficient of Infection (ACI. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA with eight simple sequence repeat (SSR, eight sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP and sixteen random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers revealed that three SSR, three SRAP and six RAPD markers were found to be associated with the resistance to yellow rust. However, further molecular analyses would be performed to confirm markers associated with the resistance and suitable for marker-assisted selection. Resistant RILs identified in the study could be efficiently used to improve the resistance to yellow rust in wheat.

  6. Mutational rectification for resistance to diseases in rice and bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mutation breeding programme with a view to rectify the defects of severe susceptibility to important diseases of a few varieties of rice and bread wheat was undertaken using different mutagenic treatments with radiation (X-rays and gamma rays), chemical mutagens (EMS, NMU, NEU) and combination of radiation and chemical mutagens (gamma rays + EMS). In rice two mutant strains have shown moderate resistance to helminthosporiose, one strain to both helminthosporiose and blast and five strains resistant to bacterial leaf blight under artificial epiphytotic conditions. In bread wheat, out of large M2 population, derived from different mutagenic treatments, the frequencies of appearance of mutants resistant to rust diseases were observed to be 0.03 percent in H.D. 1944 from 0.2 percent EMS treatment, 0.06 percent in H.D. 1999 from 0.01 percent NEU treatment and 0.07 percent in Kalyan Sona from combined treatment with 20 krad gamma rays and 0.4 percent EMS. The mutants bred true for resistance upto M6 generations. A few of the mutants, resistant to different diseases in rjce and bread wheat, proved to be very promising in yield. An early (earlier to Kalyan Sona by 25 days) mutant, derived from Kalyan Sona, topped in yield out of 49 varieties tested in 1974l75 in Delhi and Pusa. The Kalyan Sona early tested in 1974-75 in Delhi and Pusa. The Kalyan Sona early mutant is having resistance to yellow and brown rusts. (author)

  7. Ancient hybridizations among the ancestral genomes of bread wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marcussen, T.; Sandve, S. R.; Heier, L.; Spannagl, M.; Pfeifer, M.; Rogers, J.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Pozniak, C.; Eversole, K.; Feuillet, C.; Gill, B.; Friebe, B.; Lukaszewski, A.J.; Sourdille, P.; Endo, T. R.; Kubaláková, Marie; Čihalíková, Jarmila; Dubská, Zdeňka; Vrána, Jan; Šperková, Romana; Šimková, Hana; Febrer, M.; Clissold, L.; Jakobsen, K. S.; Wulff, B.H.; Steuernagel, B.; Mayer, K. F. X.; Olsen, O.A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 345, č. 6194 (2014). ISSN 0036-8075 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : POLYPLOID WHEAT * HYBRID SPECIATION * AEGILOPS-TAUSCHII Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 33.611, year: 2014

  8. A high-density, SNP-based consensus map of tetraploid wheat as a bridge to integrate durum and bread wheat genomics and breeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consensus linkage maps are important tools in crop genomics. We have assembled a high-density tetraploid wheat consensus map by integrating 13 datasets from independent biparental populations involving durum wheat cultivars (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum), cultivated emmer (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccum...

  9. Germination characteristics and molecular characterizations of some wheat varieties in Sulaimanyah by SSR marker

    OpenAIRE

    TAHIR, Nawroz Abdul-razzak

    2010-01-01

    The genetic diversity of 11 bread and durum wheat varieties was estimated using germination characteristic and molecular analysis. The phenotypic data showed highly significant differences between cultivars for germination speed, germination percentage, seedling length, fresh weight, and dry weight. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs) were used to examine the genomic diversity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and Triticum durum L.). Eleven wheat varieties of diverse origins were analyzed with 12 sel...

  10. Ancestral QTL Alleles from Wild Emmer Wheat Improve Drought Resistance and Productivity in Modern Wheat Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    Merchuk-Ovnat, Lianne; Barak, Vered; Fahima, Tzion; Ordon, Frank; Lidzbarsky, Gabriel A.; Krugman, Tamar; Saranga, Yehoshua

    2016-01-01

    Wild emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccoides) is considered a promising source for improving stress resistances in domesticated wheat. Here we explored the potential of selected quantitative trait loci (QTLs) from wild emmer wheat, introgressed via marker-assisted selection, to enhance drought resistance in elite durum (T. turgidum ssp. durum) and bread (T. aestivum) wheat cultivars. The resultant near-isogenic lines (BC3F3 and BC3F4) were genotyped using SNP array to confirm the intr...

  11. [Genetics determination of wheat resistance to Puccinia graminis F. sp. tritici deriving from Aegilops cylindrica, Triticum erebuni and amphidiploid 4].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaiants, O V; Babaiants, L T; Horash, A F; Vasil'ev, A A; Trackovetskaia, V A; Paliasn'iĭĭ, V A

    2012-01-01

    The lines of winter soft wheat developed in the Plant Breeding and Genetics Institute contain new effective introgressive Sr-genes. Line 85/06 possess SrAc1 gene, lines 47/06, 54/06, 82/06, 85/06, 87/06, 238/06, and 367/06 possess SrAc1 and SrAc2 derived from Aegilops cylindrica, line 352/06 - SrTe1 and SrTe2 from Triticum erebuni, line 12/86-04 - SrAd1 and SrAd2 from Amphidiploid 4 (Triticum dicoccoides x Triticum tauschii). PMID:22420215

  12. Heavy Metal Contents of Soils, Durum and Bread Wheats in Harran Plain, Southeast Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükkılıç Yanardaǧ, Asuman

    2013-04-01

    Soils are vital for regulating the biological effects and mobility of metals in nature. Iron and zinc are some of the essential nutrients for plants and animals, while other metals are potentially toxic such as lead and cadmium. Toxic heavy metals (HMs) can be taken up easily by organisms. HMs inputs to soil via the application of metal-contained fertilizers often exceed outputs in crops and drainage waters, thus toxic HMs content in many agricultural soils tends to be gradually increasing. Thus adverse human health effects due to soil-plant and plant-human transfer of HMs have been enhanced. HMs may cause harmful effects on human health due to the ingestion of food grain grown in soils. The objectives of this study were (1) to understand the chemistry of metals in soils for managing their agricultural and ecological impacts, (2) to identify metal uptakes of different genotypes of wheat. Concentrations of HMs (Cd, Zn, Ni, Mn, Cu, Mo, Pb) in wheat were investigated in different agricultural areas in Southeast, Turkey. The results showed that concentrations of HMs were in following order: Mn>Ni>Zn>Cu>Pb>Mo>Cd in surface and next to surface soil and Mn>Zn>Cu>Pb> Ni>Mo>Cd in wheat, respectively. HMs concentrations of several soil samples exceeded the permissible limits of Europe standard except for Ni and Mn. In addition, concentration of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb were higher in bread wheat than in durum wheat; however, concentration of Mn, Ni and Mo were higher in durum wheat than in bread wheat. Unusual amount of heavy metals found in some fertilizers used in the Southeast region of Turkey, it becomes an important subject to determine the amount of metals added to the soil every year. Heavy metals uptake by plants still remains to be an interest for researchers. As the heavy metals contents of plants were below the threshold levels, we conclude that the quality of wheat is high and it should receive attention in national and international markets. Keywords: Heavy Metals

  13. Distinct Characteristics of Rye and Wheat Breads Impact on Their in Vitro Gastric Disintegration and in Vivo Glucose and Insulin Responses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilia Nordlund

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Disintegration of rye and wheat breads during in vitro gastric digestion and its relation to the postprandial glucose and insulin responses of the breads was studied. Breads with distinct composition and texture characteristics were prepared with refined or wholegrain wheat and rye flour by using either straight dough or sourdough process. After chewing and gastric digestion in vitro, 100% wholemeal and refined rye breads prepared by sourdough method were disintegrated to a much lower extent than the wheat breads, having more bread digesta particles with size over 2 or 3 mm. Microstructure of the digesta particles of rye sourdough bread revealed more aggregated and less degraded starch granules when compared to refined wheat bread. The postprandial insulin responses, but not those of glucose, to the 100% rye breads made with sourdough method were lower than the responses to the refined wheat bread. Addition of gluten or bran in rye sourdough bread increased insulin response. PCA (Principal Component Analysis analysis confirmed that the insulin response had a negative correlation with the number of larger particles after in vitro digestion as well as amount of soluble fiber and sourdough process. Since the high relative proportion of large sized particles after chewing and in vitro gastric digestion was associated with low postprandial insulin responses, the analysis of structural disintegration in vitro is proposed as a complementary tool in predicting postprandial physiology.

  14. Utilization of a maltotetraose-producing amylase as a whole wheat bread improver: dough rheology and baking performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae, Woosung; Lee, Sung Ho; Yoo, Sang-Ho; Lee, Suyong

    2014-08-01

    A maltotetraose-producing enzyme (G4-amylase) was utilized to improve the baking performance of whole-grain wheat flour. Whole-grain bread dough prepared with G4-amylase showed reduced water absorption and increased development time, while the dough stability was not affected. Also, the G4-amylase-treated samples exhibited lower Mixolab torque values than the control upon heating and cooling. Rheological measurements showed the decreased ratio of Rmax /E and increased tan δ, clearly demonstrating that the viscous characteristics of whole-grain bread dough became dominant with increasing levels of G4-amylase. The use of G4-amylase produced whole-grain wheat breads with a variety of maltooligosaccharides, primarily maltotetraose that positively contributed to the bread volume (1.2-fold higher than the control). Moreover, G4-amylase delayed the crumb firming of whole-grain wheat bread during a 7-d storage period, showing that it can function as an antiretrogradation agent to enhance the quality attributes of whole-grain wheat bread. PMID:25040090

  15. Studies on Production of Arabic Bread From Irradiated and Stored Potato Flour as Partial Substitute of Wheat Flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out to evaluate Arabic bread produced from potato flour and wheat flour. Potato flour was prepared from Diamont cultivar of potato tubers after irradiation with 50 and 150 Gy. The ratios of potato flour were 5, 10 and 15% and the flour was stored for six months and taken for analysis every three months. Amino acids, protein, carbohydrate, baking and staling tests were applied to study the effect of adding potato flour extracts from tubers of non-irradiated and irradiated potato to wheat flour in Arabic bread making. Amino acids in potato and wheat were studied. The flour of wheat was found to be poor in lysine while potato flour contained about twice of these amino acids. Protein content was decreased with increasing the ratios of potato flour. The addition of potato flour to the Arabic bread increased the percentage of essential amino acids. Moreover, the addition of potato flour during storage periods had an improving effect on the quality of Arabic bread. Water retention capacity (the staling rate) was increased progressively with increasing the percentage as potato flour in the bread which was effective in keeping bread fresh and organoleptic properties

  16. Effect of Buckwheat Processing Products on Dough and Bread Quality Made from Whole-Wheat Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vira Drobot

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives a brief overview of the current nutritional status of the Ukrainian population and describes useful buckwheat properties. The objective of the paper is to study the effect of buckwheat processing products (flour and flakes on the technological process and quality of bread made from whole-wheat flour. This paper describes and analyzes research data on the rheological properties of dough samples which were determined by farinograph and amylograph. Investigation of structural and mechanical properties of dough showed an increase in water-absorbing capacity in all samples when adding buckwheat products. Moreover, dough made with buckwheat flakes has a lower value of mixing tolerance index (by 47 % than dough made from buckwheat flour, and a higher valorimetric value (by 20 %. Determination of dough properties by amylogram has shown that a sample containing buckwheat flakes has a higher maximum viscosity than a sample containing buckwheat flour. Determination of the gas-production and gas-retention capacity of dough is also presented, along with an analysis of the quality of finished products based on the results of laboratory baking tests. The samples of bread supplemented with buckwheat flakes have better shape stability (by 21 %, specific volume (by 12 % and porosity (by 11 % than bread made from buckwheat flour. The organoleptic evaluation of finished product quality has shown that bread supplemented with buckwheat flakes has a more fluffy-texture, elastic crumb and uniform porosity than bread made from buckwheat flour. Buckwheat flakes proved to have a better effect on parameters of the technological process and quality of bread when compared with buckwheat flour.

  17. AMMI AND GGE BIPLOT ANALYSIS OF BREAD WHEAT GENOTYPES IN THE NORTHERN PART OF ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hintsa G. Hagos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The genotype environment interaction manipulates the selection criteria in a multipurpose crop like wheat. Ten bread wheat genotypes were evaluated at five wheat growing locations of Tigray region in the year 2011. Yield data was analyzed using the additive main effect and multiplication interaction model (AMMI and GGE biplot. The AMMI analysis of variance for grain yield detected significant effects for genotype, location and genotype by location interaction. Location effect was responsible for the greatest part of the variation, followed by genotype and genotype by location interaction effects. Based on AMMI stability value, G4, G10, G8 and G9 were the most stable genotypes, while G1, G2, and G3 were the most responsive genotypes. The GGE biplot also showed G1, G2, G3, and G4 have long vectors and located far away from the biplot origin and hence are considered to have larger contribution to GEI (specifically adapted genotypes. G10 however is widely adapted genotype. The ‘which won where’ feature of the GGE biplot identified G4 as the winning genotype at Samre, Hagereselam, and Atsbi, while G1 winning at Quiha and Wukro. The GGE biplot also identified two bread wheat mega-environments. This indicates that analysis of multi-location trail data using GGE and AMMI model is important for determining visual comparisons, adaptability/stability focusing on overall performance to identify superior genotypes.

  18. AMMI AND GGE BIPLOT ANALYSIS OF BREAD WHEAT GENOTYPES IN THE NORTHERN PART OF ETHIOPIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fetien Abay

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The genotype environment interaction manipulates the selection criteria in a multipurpose crop like wheat. Ten bread wheat genotypes were evaluated at five wheat growing locations of Tigray region in the year 2011. Yield data was analyzed using the additive main effect and multiplication interaction model (AMMI and GGE biplot. The AMMI analysis of variance for grain yield detected significant effects for genotype, location and genotype by location interaction. Location effect was responsible for the greatest part of the variation, followed by genotype and genotype by location interaction effects. Based on AMMI stability value, G4, G10, G8 and G9 were the most stable genotypes, while G1, G2, and G3 were the most responsive genotypes. The GGE biplot also showed G1, G2, G3, and G4 have long vectors and located far away from the biplot origin and hence are considered to have larger contribution to GEI (specifically adapted genotypes. G10 however is widely adapted genotype. The ‘which won where’ feature of the GGE biplot identified G4 as the winning genotype at Samre, Hagereselam, and Atsbi, while G1 winning at Quiha and Wukro. The GGE biplot also identified two bread wheat mega-environments. This indicates that analysis of multi-location trail data using GGE and AMMI model is important for determining visual comparisons, adaptability/stability focusing on overall performance to identify superior genotypes. 

  19. Physiological processes associated with genetic progress in yield potential of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Aisawi, Khaled A. Boulgasem

    2012-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the most widely grown of any crop and provides one-fifth of the total calories of the world's population. Since the 1960s, increases in productivity have been achieved as a result of wide-scale adoption of Green Revolution technologies. However, in spite of growing demand, the challenges of increasing production to feed an estimated world population of 9 billion in 2050 are still considerable. Due to the increased demand, it is estimated that food production mu...

  20. Cadmium toxicity on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat Triticum aestivum

    OpenAIRE

    Maria de Fátima Souza Guilherme; Habyhabanne Maia Oliveira; Edevaldo da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium toxicity in seed germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum, var. IAC-370) is assessed. The ecotoxicological effects of six experimental concentrations of cadmium (0.03; 0.06; 0.12; 0.6; 1.2; 2.4; 4.8 mM), and control were evaluated. All assays were performed in quadruplicates with 25 seeds per replication in Petri dishes. Responses for toxic effect comprised the variables germination percentage, index of velocity of germination (IVG), length of aerial section and roo...

  1. The alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on heat stress susceptibility of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Katrine Heinsvig; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Rosenqvist, Eva S. K.;

    2013-01-01

    Title: The alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on heat stress susceptibility of two wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars Session: Plant response and adaptation to abiotic stress Sindhuja Shanmugam1, Katrine Heinsvig Kjaer2*, Carl-Otto Ottosen2, Eva Rosenqvist3, Dew Kumari Sharma3 and Bernd......Institute for Agroecology, Aarhus University, Forsøgsvej 1, 4200 Slagelse, Denmark *Presenting author This study analysed the alleviating effect of elevated CO2 on stress-induced decreases in photosynthesis and changes in carbohydrate metabolism in two wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) of different...

  2. Identification and characterization of more than 4 million intervarietal SNPs across the group 7 chromosomes of bread wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Lai, Kaitao; Lorenc, Michał T.; Lee, Hong Ching; Berkman, Paul J.; Bayer, Philipp Emanuel; Visendi, Paul; Ruperao, Pradeep; Fitzgerald, Timothy L.; Zander, Manuel; Chan, Chon-Kit Kenneth; Manoli, Sahana; Stiller, Jiri; Batley, Jacqueline; Edwards, David

    2015-01-01

    Despite being a major international crop, our understanding of the wheat genome is relatively poor due to its large size and complexity. To gain a greater understanding of wheat genome diversity, we have identified single nucleotide polymorphisms between 16 Australian bread wheat varieties. Whole-genome shotgun Illumina paired read sequence data were mapped to the draft assemblies of chromosomes 7A, 7B and 7D to identify more than 4 million intervarietal SNPs. SNP density varied between the t...

  3. Genetic and ecophysiological dissection of tolerance to drought and heat stress in bread wheat: from environmental characterization to QTL detection

    OpenAIRE

    Bouffier, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    A stagnation of wheat yield was reported in France and other countries worldwide since the 1990’s, which incriminated mainly drought and heat stress. Improving the European wheat tolerance to them is of first importance. This study aimed to investigate the genetic determinism of the tolerance to such stresses. Three CIMMYT bread wheat populations combining complementary heat and drought adaptive habits were grown in Northern Mexico under irrigated, drought and heat-irrigated treatments from 2...

  4. Sodium exclusion QTL associated with improved seedling growth in bread wheat under salinity stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genc, Y; Oldach, K; Verbyla, A P; Lott, G; Hassan, M; Tester, M; Wallwork, H; McDonald, G K

    2010-09-01

    Worldwide, dryland salinity is a major limitation to crop production. Breeding for salinity tolerance could be an effective way of improving yield and yield stability on saline-sodic soils of dryland agriculture. However, this requires a good understanding of inheritance of this quantitative trait. In the present study, a doubled-haploid bread wheat population (Berkut/Krichauff) was grown in supported hydroponics to identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) associated with salinity tolerance traits commonly reported in the literature (leaf symptoms, tiller number, seedling biomass, chlorophyll content, and shoot Na(+) and K(+) concentrations), understand the relationships amongst these traits, and determine their genetic value for marker-assisted selection. There was considerable segregation within the population for all traits measured. With a genetic map of 527 SSR-, DArT- and gene-based markers, a total of 40 QTL were detected for all seven traits. For the first time in a cereal species, a QTL interval for Na(+) exclusion (wPt-3114-wmc170) was associated with an increase (10%) in seedling biomass. Of the five QTL identified for Na(+) exclusion, two were co-located with seedling biomass (2A and 6A). The 2A QTL appears to coincide with the previously reported Na(+) exclusion locus in durum wheat that hosts one active HKT1;4 (Nax1) and one inactive HKT1;4 gene. Using these sequences as template for primer design enabled mapping of at least three HKT1;4 genes onto chromosome 2AL in bread wheat, suggesting that bread wheat carries more HKT1;4 gene family members than durum wheat. However, the combined effects of all Na(+) exclusion loci only accounted for 18% of the variation in seedling biomass under salinity stress indicating that there were other mechanisms of salinity tolerance operative at the seedling stage in this population. Na(+) and K(+) accumulation appear under separate genetic control. The molecular markers wmc170 (2A) and cfd080 (6A) are expected to

  5. Comparison of organic and inorganic amendments for enhancing soil lead phytoextraction by wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saifullah; Ghafoor, A; Zia, M H; Murtaza, G; Waraich, Ejaz Ahmad; Bibi, Sadia; Srivastava, P

    2010-09-01

    Phytoextraction has received increasing attention as a promising, cost-effective alternative to conventional engineering-based remediation methods for metal contaminated soils. In order to enhance the phytoremediative ability of green plants chelating agents are commonly used. Our study aims to evaluate whether, citric acid (CA) or elemental sulfur (S) should be used as an alternative to the ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA)for chemically enhanced phytoextraction. Results showed that EDTA was more efficient than CA and S in solubilizing lead (Pb) from the soil. The application of EDTA and S increased the shoot biomass of wheat. However, application of CA at higher rates (30 mmol kg(-1)) resulted in significantly lower wheat biomass. Photosynthesis and transpiration rates increased with EDTA and S application, whereas these parameters were decreased with the application of CA. Elemental sulfur was ineffective for enhancing the concentration of Pb in wheat shoots. Although CA did not increase the Pb solubility measured at the end of experiment, however, it was more effective than EDTA in enhancing the concentration of Pb in the shoots of Triticum aestivum L. It was assumed that increase in Mn concentration to toxic levels in soil with CA addition might have resulted in unusual Pb concentration in wheat plants. The results of the present study suggest that under the conditions used in this experiment, CA at the highest dose was the best amendment for enhanced phytoextraction of Pb using wheat compared to either EDTA or S. PMID:21166273

  6. Toxic effect of perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) on germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lina; Xia, Mengjie; Wang, Li; Mao, Hui

    2016-09-01

    As a persistent organic pollutant in the environment, perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) has been extensively investigated. It can accumulate in food chains and in the human body. This work investigated the effect of PFOA on wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germination and seedling growth by conducting a germination trial and a pot trial. A stimulatory effect of PFOA on seedling growth and root length of wheat was found at 800 mg kg(-1) PFOA inhibited germination rate, index, and root and shoot growth. In the pot trial, PFOA concentration in root was double that in the shoot. Soil and plant analyzer development (SPAD) and plant height of wheat seedling were inhibited by adding 200 mg kg(-1) PFOA. Proline content and POD activity in wheat seedlings increased as PFOA increased, while CAT activity decreased. Using logarithmic equations, proline content was selected as the most sensitive index by concentration for 50% of maximal effect (EC50). Hence, the tolerance of wheat seedlings to PFOA levels could be evaluated on the basis of the physiological index. PMID:27337433

  7. Joint stress of chlorimuron-ethyl and cadmium on wheat Triticum aestivum at biochemical levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biochemical responses to joint stress of chlorimuron-ethyl and cadmium (Cd) in wheat Triticum aestivum were examined. The joint action of chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd weakened the inhibition of Cd or chlorimuron-ethyl on the formation of chlorophyll. It was deduced that wheat plants had the capability to protect themselves by increasing the activity of the antioxidant enzyme peroxidase (POD) with the exposure time. The joint effect of chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd on the superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in leaves was additive, while the joint effect on the SOD activity in roots was determined by the interaction of chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd in wheat. It was also concluded that the change of malondialdehyde (MDA) content in wheat might not be a good biomarker in the oxidative damage by chlorimuron-ethyl, while a decrease in the soluble protein content and POD activity in roots could be considered as a biomarker in the damage of wheat by chlorimuron-ethyl and Cd. - Soluble protein content and peroxidase activity in seedlings were the biomarkers indicating joint stress of chemicals

  8. Global transgenerational gene expression dynamics in two newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qi Bao

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alteration in gene expression resulting from allopolyploidization is a prominent feature in plants, but its spectrum and extent are not fully known. Common wheat (Triticum aestivum was formed via allohexaploidization about 10,000 years ago, and became the most important crop plant. To gain further insights into the genome-wide transcriptional dynamics associated with the onset of common wheat formation, we conducted microarray-based genome-wide gene expression analysis on two newly synthesized allohexaploid wheat lines with chromosomal stability and a genome constitution analogous to that of the present-day common wheat. Results Multi-color GISH (genomic in situ hybridization was used to identify individual plants from two nascent allohexaploid wheat lines between Triticum turgidum (2n = 4x = 28; genome BBAA and Aegilops tauschii (2n = 2x = 14; genome DD, which had a stable chromosomal constitution analogous to that of common wheat (2n = 6x = 42; genome BBAADD. Genome-wide analysis of gene expression was performed for these allohexaploid lines along with their parental plants from T. turgidum and Ae. tauschii, using the Affymetrix Gene Chip Wheat Genome-Array. Comparison with the parental plants coupled with inclusion of empirical mid-parent values (MPVs revealed that whereas the great majority of genes showed the expected parental additivity, two major patterns of alteration in gene expression in the allohexaploid lines were identified: parental dominance expression and non-additive expression. Genes involved in each of the two altered expression patterns could be classified into three distinct groups, stochastic, heritable and persistent, based on their transgenerational heritability and inter-line conservation. Strikingly, whereas both altered patterns of gene expression showed a propensity of inheritance, identity of the involved genes was highly stochastic, consistent with the involvement of diverse Gene Ontology (GO

  9. Quantitative and qualitative differences in celiac disease epitopes among durum wheat varieties identified through deep RNA-amplican sequencing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salentijn, E.M.J.; Esselink, D.G.; Goryunova, S.V.; Meer, van der I.M.; Gilissen, L.J.W.J.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Background - Wheat gluten is important for the industrial quality of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat (T. turgidum L.). Gluten proteins are also the source of immunogenic peptides that can trigger a T cell reaction in celiac disease (CD) patients, leading to inflammatory responses

  10. Profitability of Contractual Bread Wheat Seed Production in Mecha District of Amhara Region, Ethiopia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dawit TSEGAYE

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was undertaken to examine the profitability of contractual bread wheat seed production in Kudmi village of Mecha district in Amhara region, Ethiopia. Primary data were collected from fourteen seed growers using structured questionnaire. The analytical tools employed include descriptive statistics and average net farm income. Results revealed that the average total cost of production per hectare is Br 8,478.82 ($ 493.82; the average gross revenue per hectare is Br 17,783.72 ($ 1,035.74; and hence the average net profit per hectare is Br 9,304.90 ($ 541.93. The findings also showed that an index of 1.10 economic efficiency of certified bread wheat seed production indicating that contractual bread what seed production is a profitable venture in the study area. The study identified non- application or improper application of inputs (fertilizers and seed and not exercising the recommended management practices were the major problems in seed production. It is necessary to provide adequate extension service for farmers to promote better seed management technologies and efficient use of agricultural inputs.

  11. Removing celiac disease-related gluten proteins from bread wheat while retaining technological properties: a study with Chinese Spring deletion lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosch Dirk

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gluten proteins can induce celiac disease (CD in genetically susceptible individuals. In CD patients gluten-derived peptides are presented to the immune system, which leads to a CD4+ T-cell mediated immune response and inflammation of the small intestine. However, not all gluten proteins contain T-cell stimulatory epitopes. Gluten proteins are encoded by multigene loci present on chromosomes 1 and 6 of the three different genomes of hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum (AABBDD. Results The effects of deleting individual gluten loci on both the level of T-cell stimulatory epitopes in the gluten proteome and the technological properties of the flour were analyzed using a set of deletion lines of Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Spring. The reduction of T-cell stimulatory epitopes was analyzed using monoclonal antibodies that recognize T-cell epitopes present in gluten proteins. The deletion lines were technologically tested with respect to dough mixing properties and dough rheology. The results show that removing the α-gliadin locus from the short arm of chromosome 6 of the D-genome (6DS resulted in a significant decrease in the presence of T-cell stimulatory epitopes but also in a significant loss of technological properties. However, removing the ω-gliadin, γ-gliadin, and LMW-GS loci from the short arm of chromosome 1 of the D-genome (1DS removed T-cell stimulatory epitopes from the proteome while maintaining technological properties. Conclusion The consequences of these data are discussed with regard to reducing the load of T-cell stimulatory epitopes in wheat, and to contributing to the design of CD-safe wheat varieties.

  12. A whole-genome, radiation hybrid map of wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Generating a reference sequence of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is a challenging task because of its large, highly repetitive and allopolyploid genome. Ordering of BAC- and NGS-based contigs in ongoing wheat genome-sequencing projects primarily uses recombination and comparative genomics-base...

  13. Concentrated Arabinoxylan but Not Concentrated Beta-Glucan in Wheat Bread Has Similar Effects on Postprandial Insulin as Whole-Grain Rye in Porto-arterial Catheterized Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kirstine Lykke; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Lærke, Helle Nygaard;

    2013-01-01

    The acute glycemic effects of concentrated dietary fibers (DF) versus whole-grain rye were studied in portoarterial catheterized pigs. Two white wheat breads with wheat arabinoxylan (AX) or oat beta-glucan (BG), two rye breads with intact rye kernels (RK) or milled rye (GR), and a low DF white...

  14. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the natural occurence of Fusarium mycotoxins in wheat, flour and bread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A survey was carried out to obtain data on the occurence of Fusarium mycotoxin in wheat and flour samples collected from local markets in Egypt and to study the influence of gamma-irradiation on controlling the occurrence of thesemycotoxins in wheat, flour and bread. Deoxynivalenol (DON) was detected in five samples of wheat at levels ranging from 103 to 287 ug/kg and one sample each of flour and bread concentrations 188 and 170 ug/kg. Zearaleone (ZEN) was detected in ten samples of wheat at levels from 28 to 42 ug/kg and four samples each of flour and bread at concentrations of 95 and 34 ug/kg, respectively. T-2 toxin was detected only in one sample each of wheat, flour and bread at concentrations of 2.9, 2.2, and 2.3 ug/kg, respectively. Gamma-irradiation at dose level of 6 kGy completely eliminated fungal flora in flour and wheat. DON, ZEN and T-2 toxin concentrations are reduced to 85, 20 and 2.0 ug/kg for wheat and to 125, 45, and 1.0 ug/kg for flour after 4 kGy exposure and a sharp drop in Fusarium toxin levels occured at 6 kGy and was eliminated at 8 kGy. Bread prepared from 6 kGy was contaminate4d with Fusarium toxin at levels below 5 ug/kg. It was noticed that gamme-irradiation reduce greatly the natural occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxins in bread

  15. Heavy metal ions concentration in wheat plant (Triticum Aestivum L.) irrigated with city effluent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pakistan lies under arid and semi arid zones. There is shortage of water for irrigation. Farmers near being cities raise crops by diverting the city effluent towards their fields. It contains heavy toxic metal ions like cadmium, chromium, cobalt and nickel, which may accumulate in the edible portion of corps and cause clinical problems to human being. The concentration of metal ions in the effluent and effluent irrigated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was determined by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Heavy metal ions (Cd, Cr and Co) mean concentrations were found above the permissible limits recommended for irrigation water. In the grains of wheat plant concentration of Cd, Cr and Co was found above the permissible levels recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) for foodstuff.(author)

  16. Response of wheat (triticum aestivum) to herbicidal weed control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was carried out with a view to determining the response of wheat cv. Sandal to herbicidal weed control. The plant height was influenced by various herbicidal treatments. But maximum height was obtained by bromoxynil - MCPA (Buctil-M) fallowed by isoproturon (TolKan). Similarly maximum number of fertile tillers per plant, flag leaf area, ear length, yield (Kg/ha) and number of spikelet per ear were observed at bromoxynil-MCPA, Isoproturon (Tolkan), hand weeding and 2-4-D (DMA-6) treatments. But the number of grains per ear did not vary much in response to various herbicidal treatments. However, maximum 1000 grain weight and herbicidal activity index (HAI) were obtained by brombromoxynil-MCPA. The results show that post-emergence herbicides applied as low as 1.3 Kg ai/ha and supplemented with one hand weeding can give optimum crop yield and will there fore be an ideal recommendation to farmers with little experience in the use of herbicides. (author)

  17. Structural and functional partitioning of bread wheat chromosome 3B

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Choulet, F.; Alberti, A.; Theil, S.; Glover, N.; Barbe, V.; Daron, J.; Pingault, L.; Sourdille, P.; Couloux, A.; Paux, E.; LeRoy, P.; Bellec, A.; Gaspin, Ch.; Šafář, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Rogers, J.; Vandepoele, K.; Mayer, K.; Wincker, P.; Feuillet, C.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 345, č. 6194 (2014). ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : hexaploid wheat * sequencing * meiotic recombination Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 33.611, year: 2014 http://gateway.isiknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=MEDLINE&DestLinkType=FullRecord&UT=25035497

  18. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A.; Lazo-Vélez, Marco A.; Sergio O. Serna-Sáldivar; Janet A. Gutiérrez-Uribe

    2016-01-01

    Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and ph...

  19. PRODUCTION OF A NOVEL ROBERTSONIAN TRANSLOCATION FROM THINOPYRUM BESSARABICUM INTO BREAD WHEAT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, S; Mirzaghaderi, G; Majdi, M

    2015-01-01

    Development of wheat-alien translocation lines will facilitate its practical utilization in wheat improvement. The objective of the present study was to produce compensating wheat--Thinopyrum bessarabicum whole arm Robertsonian translocations (RobTs) involving chromosomes 2B of wheat and 2E(b) of Th. bessarabicum through the mechanism of centric breakage-fusion. F2 population from crosses between DS2E(b)(2B) substitution line and bread wheat 'Roushan' (2n = 6x = 42, AABBDD) as female parent were made. Forty one F2 lines (L1 to L41) were screened for their chromosome composition. Three 2E(b) specific PCR-based Landmark Unique Gene (PLUG) markers were used for screening F2 progeny derived from plants double-monosomic for chromosome 2B and 2E(b). Two Rob Ts (-5%) were observed among F2 plants. Homozygous translocation (T2E(b)S.2BL) with good plant vigor and full fertility were selected from F3 families. The T2E(b)S.2BL stock has longer awn than that of its parents. It is cytogenetically stable, and may be useful in wheat improvement. PMID:26841492

  20. Antioxidant, nutritional and functional characteristics of wheat bread enriched with ground flaxseed hulls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sęczyk, Łukasz; Świeca, Michał; Dziki, Dariusz; Anders, Andrzej; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2017-01-01

    Antioxidant capacity, nutritional and functional quality of wheat bread supplemented with 1-5% flaxseed hull (FH) were studied. Analyses of the chemically-extractable fraction show that supplementation with 5% of FH increased (compared to control) phenolics content (by 93%), radicals scavenging ability (by 176%) and reducing power (by 220%). Furthermore, phenolic antioxidants were bioaccessible in vitro (samples after simulated digestion). Fortification had no significant influence on rapidly and slowly digestible starch, in vitro starch digestibility and values of expected glycemic index; however, a decrease (up to 8%) of relative proteins digestibility was determined. Enrichment decreased loaf volume and increased crumb hardness. The results from sensory evaluation show that the incorporation of FH had a slightly unfavorable effect on bread sensory properties but ensured satisfactory consumer acceptability. In view of these facts, it is concluded that flaxseed hulls may be a beneficial food additive. PMID:27507444

  1. BREAD CRUMBS TEXTURE OF SPELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Korczyk – Szabó

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Texture analysis is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of bread crumb is important not only for quality assurance in the bakeries, but also for assessing the effects of changes in dough ingredients and processing condition and also for describing the changes in bread crumb during storage. Crumb cellular structure is an important quality criterion used in commercial baking and research laboratories to judge bread quality alongside taste, crumb colour and crumb physical texture. In the framework of our research during the years 2010 – 2011 were analyzed selected indicators of bread crumb for texture quality of three Triticum spelta L. cultivars – Altgold, Rubiota and Ostro grown in an ecological system. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus (Stable Micro Systems, Surrey, UK, following the AACC (74-09 standard and expressed as crumb firmness (N, stiffness (N.mm-1 and relative elasticity (%. Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was achieved in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Altgold and Ostro were the most firm and stiff. Correlation analysis showed strong negative correlation between relative elasticity and bread crumb firmness as well as bread stiffness (-0.65++, -0.66++. The spelt wheat bread crumb texture need further investigation as it can be a reliable quality parameter.

  2. Heading Date QTL in Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Coincide with Major Developmental Genes VERNALIZATION1 and PHOTOPERIOD1

    OpenAIRE

    Guedira, Mohammed; Xiong, Mai; Hao, Yuan Feng; Johnson, Jerry; Harrison, Steve; Marshall, David; Brown-Guedira, Gina

    2016-01-01

    In wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), time from planting to spike emergence is influenced by genes controlling vernalization requirement and photoperiod response. Characterizing the available genetic diversity of known and novel alleles of VERNALIZATION1 (VRN1) and PHOTOPERIOD1 (PPD1) in winter wheat can inform approaches for breeding climate resilient cultivars. This study identified QTL for heading date (HD) associated with multiple VRN1 and PPD1 loci in a population developed from a cross betwe...

  3. Effect of bambara groundnut flour (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) supplementation on chemical, physical, nutritional and sensory evaluation of wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdualrahman, Mohammed A Y; Ali, Ali O; Elkhalifa, Elamin A; Sulieman, Abdelmoneim E

    2012-09-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterrenea (L) Verdc) is a major source of vegetable protein in sub-Saharan Africa. And the aim of this study was to enhance the nutritional value of wheat bread through the addition of bambara groundnut flour to wheat four. For this, bambara groundnut seeds were soaked in tap water, manually decorticated, sun dried and milled into fine flour. Proximate analysis of flours of de-hulled bambara groundnut and wheat were conducted. Flour of de-hulled bambara groundnut was used for bread supplementation in ratios of 5, 10 and 15%. Rheological properties of the control flour and wheat flour supplemented with 10% of de-hulled bambara groundnut flour were conducted. The total area and dough development time increased. However, water absorption, stability and extensibility respectively decreased, from 71.3; 8.5; 190 in the control flour to 71.0; 5.5; 180 in the 10% supplemented flour. The increases in the resistance to extension and proportional number from 260 to 280 and 1.37 to 1.56, respectively resulted in stiff dough. The most important effect of wheat bread supplementation was the improvement of protein quantity from 13.74 +/- 0.02% for the control bread to 15.49 +/- 0.02, 17.00 +/- 0.05 and 18.98 +/- 0.02% for the 5, 10 and 15% blending ratios, respectively. The in-vitro protein digestibility progressively increased from 84.33 +/- 0.03 in the control bread to 85.42 +/- 0.04, 86.57 +/- 0.04 and 87.64 +/- 0.03 in breads containing 5, 10 and 15% bambara groundnut flour. The sensory attributes of different types of bread showed that, a significant difference was observed in texture, colour and overall acceptability. However, the panelists gave higher score for 10% de-hulled bambara groundnut flour bread than bread made from other blends. The loaf weights, loaf volume and specific volume increased. However, while the loaf weight increased with addition of 15% de-hulled bambara groundnut flour, both of loaf volume and specific volume decreased

  4. Effects of chickpea flour on wheat pasting properties and bread making quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, I; Ahmed, Abdelrahman R; Senge, B

    2014-09-01

    Pulses (pea, chickpea, lentil, bean) are an important source of food proteins. They contain high amounts of lysine, leucine, aspartic acid, glutamic acid and arginine and provide well balanced essential amino acid profiles when consumed with cereals. The influence of partial substitution of wheat flour with chickpea flour at the levels of 10, 20 and 30 % was carried out to study their pasting properties and bread making quality. Pasting properties were determined using Micro Visco-Amylo-Graph Analyser and Farinograph. The pasting temperature increased with increase chickpea flour concentration and the temperature of pasting ranged between 62 to 66.5 °C. No peak of viscosity curve was found for pure chickpea flour and have higher pasting temperature than pure wheat flour. Chickpea flour addition increased the water absorption and dough development time (p flour in dough affected bread quality in terms of volume, internal structure and texture. The color of crust and crumb got progressively darker as the level of chickpea flour substitution increased. While the substitution of wheat flour with 10 % chickpea flour gave loaves as similar as control. PMID:25190845

  5. Quality assessment and consumer acceptability of bread from wheat and fermented banana flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebayo-Oyetoro, Abiodun Omowonuola; Ogundipe, Oladeinde Olatunde; Adeeko, Kehinde Nojeemdeen

    2016-05-01

    Bread was produced from wheat flour and fermented unripe banana using the straight dough method. Matured unripe banana was peeled, sliced, steam blanched, dried and milled, and sieved to obtain flour. The flour was mixed with water and made into slurry and allowed to stand for 24 h after which it was divided into several portions and blended with wheat flour in different ratios. Proximate and mineral compositions as well as functional, pasting, and sensory characteristics of the samples were determined. The results of proximate analysis showed that crude fiber ranged between 1.95% and 3.19%, carbohydrate was between 49.70% and 52.98% and protein was 6.92% and 10.25%, respectively, while iron was between 27.07 mg/100 g and 29.30 mg/100 g. Swelling capacity of the experimental samples showed a significant difference from that of control. Peak viscosity ranged between 97.00RVU and 153.63RVU for experimental samples compared with 392.35RVU obtained for the control. Most of the sensory properties for the experimental samples were significantly different from the control. This study showed that bread with better quality and acceptability can be produced from wheat-unripe banana blends. PMID:27247766

  6. Nutritional and technological quality of bread enriched with an intermediated pearled wheat fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandino, Massimo; Sovrani, Valentina; Marinaccio, Federico; Reyneri, Amedeo; Rolle, Luca; Giacosa, Simone; Locatelli, Monica; Bordiga, Matteo; Travaglia, Fabiano; Coïsson, Jean Daniel; Arlorio, Marco

    2013-12-01

    A strategy to maximise the health benefits of wheat-based products enriched with refined flour and selected fractions of kernel, obtained by sequential pearling, has been tested. Five mixtures of refined commercial flour with an increasing replacement of a pearled wheat fraction were used to prepare bread and were compared with a control for the dough rheological properties (Mixolab® parameters), the bioactive compound content, deoxynivalenol (DON) contamination and the physical properties (volume, crust colour, instrumental crunchiness and crumb texture profile analysis parameters). The antioxidant and dietary fibre contents increased linearly as the flour was enriched with the pearled fraction. The dietary fibre, β-glucan, total phenolic, alkylresorcinol content and the antioxidant activity increased significantly at a replacement level of 10%, while the technological properties were not significantly different from those of the control. It has been shown that refined flour could be enriched through the addition of a selected wheat pearled fraction and the bioactive compound content of composite bread could be improved, while few rheological and technological differences could be obtained and the risk for DON contamination could be limited. PMID:23870994

  7. Cytogenetics and immature embryo culture at Embrapa Trigo breeding program: transfer of disease resistance from related species by artificial resynthesis of hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Irene Baggio de Moraes Fernandes

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell, 2n = 6X = 42, AABBDD breeding programs aim to reorganize genotypes to achieve better yields, environmental adaptation and food quality. The necessary interdisciplinarity for breeding purposes requires an accurate choice of the most appropriate cellular and/or molecular strategies available to be integrated with agronomic approaches in order to overcome the genetic limitation of each cultivated species, at each agroecosystem. Cytogenetics has given a great contribution to wheat genetic studies and breeding, due to viability of chromosomal variants because of homoeology among genomes in this allohexaploid species and the genus Triticum. The level of development of cytogenetic techniques achieved over the last 60 years has set wheat apart from other cereal crops in terms of possibilities to introduce genetic material from other species. Cytogenetic approaches have been extensively used in chromosomal mapping and/or resistance gene transference from tribe Triticeae-related species. Monosomic analysis, entire chromosomes engineered through single additions and/or substitutions, reciprocal translocation through radiation or manipulation of homoeologous pairing, as well as synthesis of new amphiploids to allow homologous recombination by chiasmata evolved considerably since the past decades. The association of tissue culture and molecular biology techniques provides bread wheat breeding programs with a powerful set of biotechnological tools. However, knowledge on genetic system components, cytotaxonomical relationships, cytogenetic structure and evolutionary history of wheat species cannot be neglected. This information indicates the appropriate strategy to avoid isolation mechanisms in interspecific or intergeneric crosses, according to the genome constitution of the species the desired gene is to be transferred from. The development of amphiploids as "bridge" species is one of the available procedures

  8. Emmer wheat using and growing in the Czech Republic

    OpenAIRE

    KONVALINA, Petr; Stehno, Zdenek; Capouchova, Ivana; Moudry, Jan; Juza, Martin

    2010-01-01

    Emmer wheat [(Triticum dicoccum Schrank (Schuebl)] is after bread, durum and spelt wheat further species of wheat used for economic purposes. Organic farmers and producers have become more and more interested in marginal crops such as the tetraploid emmer wheat because of its suitability for organic farming. In spite of its historical role, present distribution of emmer is very limited. The work analyzes the problem of growing possibilities of emmer and its suitability for cultivation i...

  9. Structural and functional analysis of chitinase gene family in wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A K; Pandey, Bharati; Tyagi, Chetna; Chakraborty, Ohika; Kumar, Amrender; Jain, A K

    2015-04-01

    Chitinases are the hydrolytic enzymes which protect plants against pathogen attack. However, the precise role of chitinases in disease resistance has not been explored in wheat. In the present study, in silico approach, including secondary structure analysis, detailed signature pattern study, cis-acting regulatory elements survey, evolutionary trends and three-dimensional molecular modeling was used for different chitinase classes of wheat (Triticum aestivum). Homology modeling of class I, II, IV and 3 chitinase proteins was performed using the template crystal structure. The model structures were further refined by molecular mechanics methods using different tools, such as Procheck, ProSA and Verify3D. Secondary structure studies revealed greater percentage of residues forming a helix conformation with specific signature pattern, similar to casein kinase II phosphorylation site, amidation site, N-myristoylation (N-MYR) site and protein kinase C phoshorylation site. The expression profile suggested that wheat chitinase gene was highly expressed in cell culture and callus. We found that wheat chitinases showed more functional similarity with rice and barley. The results provide insight into the evolution of the chitinase family, constituting a diverse array of pathogenesis-related proteins. The study also provides insight into the possible binding sites of chitinase proteins and may further enhance our knowledge of fungal resistance mechanism in plants. PMID:26118129

  10. Diversity of fungal endophytes in recent and ancient wheat ancestors Triticum dicoccoides and Aegilops sharonensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofek-Lalzar, Maya; Gur, Yonatan; Ben-Moshe, Sapir; Sharon, Or; Kosman, Evsey; Mochli, Elad; Sharon, Amir

    2016-10-01

    Endophytes have profound impacts on plants, including beneficial effects on agriculturally important traits. We hypothesized that endophytes in wild plants include beneficial endophytes that are absent or underrepresented in domesticated crops. In this work, we studied the structure of endophyte communities in wheat-related grasses, Triticum dicoccoides and Aegilops sharonensis, and compared it to an endophyte community from wheat (T. aeastivum). Endophytes were isolated by cultivation and by cultivation-independent methods. In total, 514 intergenic spacer region sequences from single cultures were analyzed. Categorization at 97% sequence similarity resulted in 67 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) that were evenly distributed between the different plant species. A narrow core community of Alternaria spp. was found in all samples, but each plant species also contained a significant portion of unique endophytes. The cultivation-independent analysis identified a larger number of OTUs than the cultivation method, half of which were singletons or doubletons. For OTUs with a relative abundance >0.5%, similar numbers were obtained by both methods. Collectively, our data show that wild grass relatives of wheat contain a wealth of taxonomically diverse fungal endophytes that are not found in modern wheat, some of which belong to taxa with known beneficial effects. PMID:27402714

  11. IMPROVING WHEAT TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. BY INTERSPECIFIC AND INTERGENERIC HYBRIDIZATION WITH POACEAE FAMILY SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Czaplicki A.Z.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The related species of the family Poaceae (Triticeae are the source of unprecedented new genes that allow the extension of genetic variation of common wheat Triticum aestivum L. These species have similar homoeologous chromosomes and rDNA sequences very similar to T. aestivum L. [1-3]. This allows the introgression of alien genes and their incorporation into the genomes A, B and D of wheat, where they can function permanently in the wheat genetic systems. Many of them have already been transferred to the varieties of T. aestivum L. [4].The experimental material consisted of 28 lines of winter wheat obtained using the interspecific and intergeneric hybridization of T. aestivum L. with alien species T. durum Desf., T. timopheevii Zhuk., Lolium perenne L. and Aegilops speltoides Taush. Among them, 15 lines were developed from the cross-combination with tetraploid species (AABB T. durum Desf., 4 lines from the combination with other tetraploid species of different genome composition (AAGG T. timopheevii Zhuk., 4 lines from cross with L. perenne L. and 5 lines were the double hybrids (three-generic derived with two related species, T. durum Desf. (AABB and Ae. speltoides Taush (BB.The anther culture method was used for obtaining DH lines from these interspecific and intergeneric hybrids. In in vitro culture 124 green plants were regenerated. The method of cluster analysis grouped hybrids in terms of comprehensive general similarity of the studied traits.

  12. Gluten characteristics imparting bread quality in wheats differing for high molecular weight glutenin subunits at Glu D1 locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Devinder; Gupta, Raj Kumar

    2015-07-01

    High yielding genotypes differing for high molecular weight glutenin subunits at Glu D1 locus in national wheat programme of India were examined for bread loaf volume, gluten and protein contents, gluten strength, gluten index and protein-gluten ratio. Number of superior bread quality genotypes in four agro-climatically diverse zones of Indian plains was comparable in both categories of wheat i.e., 5 + 10 and 2 + 12. There wasn't any difference in average bread loaf volume and grain protein content either. 5 + 10 wheats showed better gluten strength and their gluten quality was also superior in the zones where protein content was high. 2 + 10 wheats exerted more gluten due to better protein-gluten ratio. Good bread making in 5 + 10 was derived by better gluten strength and also gluten quality in certain regions but bread quality in 2 + 12 wheats was channelized through higher gluten content as they were more efficient in extracting gluten from per unit protein. Difference in route to bread quality was apparent as gluten content and gluten strength were the key gluten attributes in 5 + 10 whereas protein content and gluten index were prominent in 2 + 12 types. Unlike 2 + 12, there was a ceiling in gluten harvest of 5 + 10 wheats as higher protein failed to deliver more gluten after some limit. PMID:26261410

  13. EVALUATION OF QUALITY INDICATORS RELATED TO QUALITY BREAD WHEAT PROMISING LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Munyanyi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The bread waste is one of the important socio-economic's issues country now, the urgent need is feeling to improve the wheat quality. Therefore, using the methods of farming and breeding is necessary to improve the quality of this strategic product. As a result, tests of quality's traits in wheat promising lines in Isfahan climate took place. In this study, the choice 17 advanced lines of compare the performances,s experiments, an experiment was conducted for two consecutive cropping (2011-2012 at cultural experiment and research centre in Isfahan located in Kabutar Abad region. Randomized complete block designs with 3 replications were compared with Spring variety (for control. Traits including: 1000 grain weight, hectolitre weight, protein content, Zeleny sedimentation rate, bread volume, grain moisture content, grain hardness, water absorption, falling number, percentage of dry gluten, gluten index, sedimentation rates were SDS.The results of the combined analysis of variance qualitative characteristics,s for two consecutive cropping showed that treatments with compare together and control variety had significant influence in 1% probability.Correlation coefficients of two years showed that the compound test significant positive correlation within grain hardness index and protein content, wet gluten and dry deposition rates of SDS. Also, significant positive correlation with the percentage of protein content of dry gluten. In view of the high correlation with protein content of dry gluten (quantity. However, grain hardness and relatively high correlation with SDS sedimentation as an important measure of protein quality. Therefore, the test results of dry gluten grains can be tough to choose in order to improve the quality of wheat bread may be used.

  14. EFFECT OF BORON AND ETHEPHON IN GROWTH AND YIELD OF BREAD WHEAT

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. Al-Naqeeb; Hashim, M. A.

    2016-01-01

    The experiment was carried out at the farm of field of Crops Department, College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad during 2010-2011 and 2011-2012 seasons to study the effect of boron elements and ethephon on some growth characteristics and the yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Abu Ghraib-3 var. A split plot arrangement according to RCBD was used with four replications. The boron spray with three concentrations (50, 75 and 100) mg B.L-1 in addition to control treatment (...

  15. Nutritional value and baking application of spelt wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatica Kohajdova

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Cereals represent the most important group of crops in the structure of plant production from the economic, agronomic and consumer point of view. Spelt wheat (Triticum spelta L. is an ancient bread cereal related to wheat (Triticum aestivum L. that has been cultivated for hundreds of years, and that is now being rediscovered in Europe and North America. Spelt is generating increasing interest due to its agronomic, nutritional and medical characteristics. Despite of these spelt bread benefits, spelt is wheat that contains gluten proteins and is capable of provoking wheat allergy and gluten enteropathy. This review describes nutritional composition (proteins, aminoacids, starch, sugars, fiber, lipids, fatty acids, sterol, vitamins, ash and mineral compounds of spelt wheat and potential using of this cereal for baking application (flour, bread, breakfast cereals, pasta, crackers, nutrition bars, biscuits and some regional specialities.

  16. Heritability estimates for yield and related traits in bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A set of 22 experimental wheat lines along with four check cultivars were evaluated in in-irrigated and unirrgated environments with objectives to determine genetic and phenotypic variation and heritability estimates for yield and its traits- The two environments were statistically at par for physiological maturity, plant height, spikes m/sub -2/. spike lets spike/sup -1/ and 1000-grain weight. Highly significant genetic variability existed among wheat lines (P < 0.0 I) in the combined analysis across two test environments for traits except 1000- grain weight. Genotypes x environment interactions were non-significant for traits indicating consistent performance of lines in two test environments. However lines and check cultivars were two to five days early in maturity under unirrigated environment. Plant height, spikes m/sup -2/ and 1000-grain weight also reduced under unirrigated environments. Genetic variances were greater than Environmental variances for most of traits- Heritability estimates were of higher magnitude (0.74 to 0.96) for plant height, medium (0.31 to 0.56) for physiological maturity. spikelets spike/sup -1/ (unirrigated) and 1000-grain weight, and low for spikes m/sup -2/. (author)

  17. Growth and yield response of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to tillage and row spacing in maize-wheat cropping system in semi-arid region

    OpenAIRE

    Shafaqat Ali; Muhammad Shahid Ibin-i Zamir; Mujahid Farid; Muhammad Ahsan Farooq; Muhammad Rizwan; Rehan Ahmad; Fakhir Hannan

    2016-01-01

    Tillage practices and row spacing can be manipulated to optimize spatial distribution and plant growth, therefore maximizing sunlight, soil water use efficiency, nutrients and grain yield on sustainable basis. A field study was conducted to determine the effect of tillage and row spacing on growth and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) at Agronomic Research Area, University of Agriculture, Faisalabad, Pakistan during wheat season. The treatments were comprised of two tillage practices viz....

  18. Quantitative aspects of the metabolism of lignans in pigs fed fibre-enriched rye and wheat bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lærke, Helle N; Mortensen, Marianne A; Hedemann, Mette S; Bach Knudsen, Knud E; Penalvo, José L; Adlercreutz, Herman

    2009-01-01

    A diet rich in lignans has been suggested to be protective against a range of chronic diseases. The distribution and metabolic fate of lignans is, however, very poorly understood. We fed high-fibre wheat breads low in lignans (n 8) or high-fibre rye breads (n 9) rich in plant lignans to pigs for 58......, liver, breast and brain at a much higher level with rye than with wheat, but only in the form of enterolactone. The importance and implications of systemic exposure to plant lignans remain to be elucidated....

  19. Evaluation of the Agronomical and Biochemical Characteristics of New Lines of Bread Wheat in Turkey

    OpenAIRE

    Ramazan DOGAN

    2010-01-01

    Sixteen new lines of bread wheat obtained from the CIMMYT/ICARDA and a standard cultivar were evaluated during three successive years (2003, 2004 and 2005). The experiments were conducted at the experimental farm of the Faculty of Agriculture of the Uluda? University in Bursa. The lines and the standard cultivar showed significant differences in plant height, number of seeds/spike, seed weight/spike, seed yield and a 1000-kernel weight. The lines numbered 4, 6, 7, 9, 11, 14 and 15 produced si...

  20. Introgression of a leaf rust resistance gene from Aegilops caudata to bread wheat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Amandeep Kaur Riar; Satinder Kaur; H. S. Dhaliwal; Kuldeep Singh; Parveen Chhuneja

    2012-08-01

    Rusts are the most important biotic constraints limiting wheat productivity worldwide. Deployment of cultivars with broad spectrum rust resistance is the only environmentally viable option to combat these diseases. Identification and introgression of novel sources of resistance is a continuous process to combat the ever evolving pathogens. The germplasm of nonprogenitor Aegilops species with substantial amount of variability has been exploited to a limited extent. In the present investigation introgression, inheritance and molecular mapping of a leaf rust resistance gene of Ae. caudata (CC) acc. pau3556 in cultivated wheat were undertaken. An F2 population derived from the cross of Triticum aestivum cv.WL711 – Ae. caudata introgression line T291-2 with wheat cultivar PBW343 segregated for a single dominant leaf rust resistance gene at the seedling and adult plant stages. Progeny testing in F3 confirmed the introgression of a single gene for leaf rust resistance. Bulked segregant analysis using polymorphic D-genome-specific SSR markers and the cosegregation of the 5DS anchored markers (Xcfd18, Xcfd78, Xfd81 and Xcfd189) with the rust resistance in the F2 population mapped the leaf rust resistance gene (LrAC) on the short arm of wheat chromosome 5D. Genetic complementation and the linked molecular markers revealed that LrAC is a novel homoeoallele of an orthologue Lr57 already introgressed from the 5M chromosome of Ae. geniculata on 5DS of wheat.

  1. Induced mutations in Iraqi bread wheat cv. Saber Beg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ''Saber Beg'', is a local wheat cultivar important in the semi-arid zone of Iraq where the rainfall is less than 450 mm per year. This cultivar has a good baking quality, but is of low productivity, high susceptibility to common bunt (Tilletia spp.) and to leaf rust (Puccinia recondita Rob. ex Desm.), but only in the rainy season. A mutation breeding programme using gamma irradiation has been started in 1978 to improve this cultivar. Seeds of all main tillers from M1 plants were harvested and artificially inoculated with teliospores of Tilletia spp. All the seeds from healthy M2 plants were inoculated again and sown in the same area. Out of 22920 M3 plants, 244 resistant ones were selected. During subsequent screening for 4 generations, however, only 3 mutants were confirmed

  2. The einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum) mutant, maintained vegetative phase, is caused by a deletion in the VRN1 gene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The einkorn wheat (Triticum monococcum) mutant, maintained vegetative phase (mvp), was induced by nitrogen ion-beam treatment and was identified by its inability to transit from the vegetative to reproductive phase. In our previous study, we showed that WAP1 (wheat APETALA1) is a key gene in the regulatory pathway that controls phase transition from vegetative to reproductive growth in common wheat. WAP1 is an ortholog of the VRN1 gene that is responsible for vernalization insensitivity in einkorn wheat. The mvp mutation resulted from deletion of the VRN1 coding and promoter regions, demonstrating that WAP1/VRN1 is an indispensable gene for phase transition in wheat. Expression analysis of flowering-related genes in mvp plants indicated that wheat GIGANTIA (GI), CONSTANS (CO) and SUPRESSOR OF OVEREXPRESSION OF CONSTANS 1 (SOC1) genes either act upstream of or in a different pathway to WAP1/VRN1

  3. In vitro transcripts of wild-type and fluorescent protein-tagged triticum mosaic virus (family potyviridae) are biologically active in wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) (genus Poacevirus, family Potyviridae) is a recently described eriophyid mite-transmitted wheat virus. In vitro RNA transcripts generated from full-length cDNA clones of TriMV proved infectious on wheat, and the progeny virus was efficiently transmitted by wheat curl m...

  4. Comparison of autoclave, microwave, IR and UV-C stabilization of whole wheat flour branny fractions upon the nutritional properties of whole wheat bread

    OpenAIRE

    Demir, Mustafa Kürşat; Elgün, Adem

    2011-01-01

    In this study, whole wheat bread (WWB) prepared by whole wheat flour (WWF) which its branny fraction (35 ± 1% w/w whole flour) previously was stabilized with different processes. Branny fractions obtained by milling of two different Bezostaja-1 wheat samples (medium and high strong) at 65 ± 1% wheat flour extraction ratio. These fractions were stabilized using autoclave (AU), microwave (MW), infrared (IR) and ultraviolet-C (UV-C) methods. Then, WWF obtained by remixing of stabilized branny fr...

  5. A recessive gene controlling male sterility sensitive to short daylength/low temperature in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)*

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiao-Dong; Sun, Dong-Fa; Rong, De-fu; Peng, Jun-hua; Li, Cheng-dao

    2011-01-01

    Utilization of a two-line breeding system via photoperiod-thermo sensitive male sterility has a great potential for hybrid production in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). 337S is a novel wheat male sterile line sensitive to both short daylength/low temperature and long daylength/high temperature. Five F2 populations derived from the crosses between 337S and five common wheat varieties were developed for genetic analysis. All F1’s were highly fertile while segregation occurred in the F2 population...

  6. Trends of mutation studies in bread wheat (Tricticum aestivum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were undertaken in different wheat varieties to determine (a) the relative efficiency of different ionizing radiations in realising viable mutations; (b) effectiveness of acute VS chronic irradiation; (c) genotypic differences and varietal response to radiation damage and (d) fertility and survival in M1 as a parameter for mutation percentage in M2. The chemicals (ethyl methane sulphonate, nitroso methyl urethan and nitroso guanidine) and radiations (X-rays, gamma-rays, radio-isotopes P32 and S35 and neutrons) were used in different sets of treatments. The relative effect of these treatments on variable genotypes was studied, in relation to seed germination, growth, chromosome structure, pollen fertility an seed set in M1 and in M2 mutation frequency and spectrum. The treatments including higher sterility in M1, gave higher mutation percentage of phenotypic detectable types. In spite of the limited M2 population, the higher mutation frequency and mutation spectrum were maintained irrespective of the treatment and the genotype involved. (N.M.M.)

  7. Tissue Nitrogen and Fructan Translocation in Bread Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HOU You-liang; L.O'Brien; ZHONG Gai-rong

    2002-01-01

    Translocation of previously accumulated nitrogen and carbohydrates from vegetative tissue of the wheat plant is a major assimilate source for grain filling. This study was conducted to examine genotype differences in nitrogen and fructan translocation and their relationships to grain yield and protein content. Effects indicated that significant genotype differences existed for nitrogen accumulation at anthesis and fructan at milk stage and their translocation. Two high protein genotypes, Cunningham and PST90-19, accumulated more nitrogen before anthesis and had greater nitrogen translocation, but lower post-anthesis nitrogen uptake,than two low protein genotypes, SUN109A and TM56. Among plant parts, leaves were the major storage for tissue nitrogen and provided the overwhelming proportion of the total nitrogen translocation, whereas for fructan accumulation and translocation it was the stems. The two high protein genotypes had a higher percentage of their grain nitrogen derived from nitrogen translocation, while for the two low protein ones, it was from postanthesis nitrogen uptake and assimilation. Increasing nitrogen application increased nitrogen accumulation and translocation, but decreased fructan accumulation and translocation. High grain protein content was associated with high nitrogen translocation from leaves, stems and the total plant, while high grain yield was related to high fructan translocation from stems and the total plant. Fructan translocation was negatively correlated to grain protein content. Nitrogen and fructan translocation were not correlated with each other.

  8. Proteomic Analysis Reveals Key Proteins and Phosphoproteins upon Seed Germination of Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Kun; Zhen, Shoumin; Cheng, Zhiwei; Cao, Hui; Ge, Pei; Yan, Yueming

    2015-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the oldest cultivated crops and the second most important food crop in the world. Seed germination is the key developmental process in plant growth and development, and poor germination directly affects plant growth and subsequent grain yield. In this study, we performed the first dynamic proteome analysis of wheat seed germination using a two-dimensional differential gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE)-based proteomic approach. A total of 166 differentially expressed protein (DEP) spots representing 73 unique proteins were identified, which are mainly involved in storage, stress/defense/detoxification, carbohydrate metabolism, photosynthesis, cell metabolism, and transcription/translation/transposition. The identified DEPs and their dynamic expression profiles generally correspond to three distinct seed germination phases after imbibition: storage degradation, physiological processes/morphogenesis, and photosynthesis. Some key DEPs involved in storage substance degradation and plant defense mechanisms, such as globulin 3, sucrose synthase type I, serpin, beta-amylase, and plastid ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase) small subunit, were found to be phosphorylated during seed germination. Particularly, the phosphorylation site Ser(355) was found to be located in the enzyme active region of beta-amylase, which promotes substrate binding. Phosphorylated modification of several proteins could promote storage substance degradation and environmental stress defense during seed germination. The central metabolic pathways involved in wheat seed germination are proposed herein, providing new insights into the molecular mechanisms of cereal seed germination. PMID:26635843

  9. Optimizing rate of nitrogen application for higher growth and yield of wheat (triticum aestivum l.) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to optimize the nitrogen rates in three wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars for obtaining higher grain yield, a split plot experiment based on Randomized Complete Block Design with three replicates was conducted in the research field of University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during Rabi season 2006-07. Among treatments nitrogen levels (N0= 0, N/sub 1/= 50, N2= 100, N3= 150 kg ha/sup -1/) in main while wheat cultivars (V1= Punjnad-I, V/sub 2/= Fareed-2006, V3=Uqab-2000) were allocated in sub plots during the course of growing season. Traits as plant height, fertile tillers, spike length, spikelets spike-1, grains spike-1, 1000-grain weight, straw yield, grain yield and harvest index (HI) were significantly (P=0.05) affected by treatment combinations. Maximum grain yield was obtained by V3 (Uqab-2000) cultivar when treated with N3 (150 kg ha/sup -1/) fertilizer level. Also, results showed that with increasing nitrogen rates, wheat yield increases significantly up to a level of significance (P=0.05). Increasing nitrogen levels led to significantly increase in plant height (101.81 cm), spike bearing tillers (495.77), grains spike/sup -1/ (61.45), straw yield (8.60 t ha/sup -1/) and harvest index (36.17%) of V3 (Uqab-2000). In all traits except germination count, V3 (Uqab-2000) was found to be superior. (author)

  10. Photosynthetic capacity and dry mass partitioning in dwarf and semi-dwarf wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bishop, D. L.; Bugbee, B. G.

    1998-01-01

    Efficient use of space and high yields are critical for long-term food production aboard the International Space Station. The selection of a full dwarf wheat (less than 30 cm tall) with high photosynthetic and yield potential is a necessary prerequisite for growing wheat in the controlled, volume-limited environments available aboard long-term spaceflight missions. This study evaluated the photosynthetic capacity and carbon partitioning of a full-dwarf wheat cultivar, Super Dwarf, which is routinely used in spaceflight studies aboard U.S. space shuttle and NASA/Mir missions and made comparisons with other dwarf and semi-dwarf wheat cultivars utilized in other ground-based studies in plant space biology. Photosynthetic capacity of the flag leaf in two dwarf (Super Dwarf, BB-19), and three semi-dwarf (Veery-10, Yecora Rojo, IBWSN 199) wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) was assessed by measuring: net maximum photosynthetic rate, RuBP carboxylation efficiency, chlorophyll concentration and flag leaf area. Dry mass partitioning of carbohydrates to the leaves, sheaths, stems and ear was also assessed. Plants were grown under controlled environmental conditions in three replicate studies: slightly enriched CO2 (370 micromoles mol-1), high photosynthetic photon flux (1000 micromoles m-2 s-1; 58 mol m-2 d-1) for a 16 h photoperiod, 22/15 degrees C day/night temperatures, ample nutrients and water provided by one-half strength Hoagland's nutrient solution (Hoagland and Arnon, 1950). Photosynthetic capacity of the flag leaf was determined at anthesis using net CO2 exchange rate versus internal CO2 concentration curves measured under saturating light (2000 micromoles m-2 s-1) and CO2 (1000 micromoles mol-1). Dwarf wheat cultivars had greater photosynthetic capacities than the taller semi-dwarfs, they averaged 20% higher maximum net photosynthetic rates compared to the taller semi-dwarfs, but these higher rates occurred only at anthesis, had slightly greater carboxylation

  11. Thermo-mechanic and sensory properties of wheat and rye breads produced with varying concentration of the additive

    OpenAIRE

    Demin Mirjana A.; Popov-Raljić Jovanka V.; Laličić-Petronijević Jovanka G.; Rabrenović Biljana B.; Filipčev Bojana V.; Šimurina Olivera D.

    2013-01-01

    The effects of different concentrations of the complex additive containing emulsifiers, oxido-reductive substances and enzymes, on the rheological conditions of dough, and on the sensory properties of three groups of bread were investigated. The best initial quality and the lowest degree of protein network weakening had the dough obtained from mixed wheat and rye flours. The best expected baking properties were shown by the white wheat flour due to the least damage of its starch. The us...

  12. Mutation breeding for durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum Desf.) improvement in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In view of the economic importance of durum wheat in Italy and in the Mediterranean and Near East Region much effort was devoted to its genetic improvement. Lodging susceptibility and straw weakness, particularly under high fertilizer level, were the main reasons of substantially lower yields compared to bread wheat. An experimental mutagenesis programme was started in Italy in 1956 by F. D'Amato and G.T. Scarascia. It included both fundamental genetic studies and applied mutation breeding. Remarkable results were obtained at the 'Laboratorio Applicazioni in Agricoltura', Casaccia Nuclear Research Center, Roma, Italy, in radiobiology, radiogenetics, cytology and cytogenetics, genetics and breeding. Selection among some 1,000 induced mutants and hybridization led to 11 registered mutant varieties, six by the direct use of selected mutants and the remaining from cross-breeding. The economic benefits derived from the developed mutant cultivars are substantial. Mutant varieties have a great impact on durum wheat production, both in Italy and other countries like Bulgaria or Austria where Italian mutants have been used successfully in cross-breeding. (author)

  13. Heritability of Indirect Bread-making Quality Traits in Segregating Generations of Two Winter Wheat Crosses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Lovrić

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern wheat breeding programs aim to create cultivars with high genetic potential for yield and bread-making quality. The effectiveness of selection in segregating generations depends on the heritability of the traits under selection and on the correlations among traits. The aim of this study was to compare realized heritability of 1000 kernel weight and five indirect bread-making quality traits (grain protein content, wet gluten content, gluten index, the Zeleny sedimentation value and Pelshenke value between segregating generations (F4 to F6 of two bi-parental wheat crosses, calculated using four different methods, and to estimate phenotypic correlations among these traits. Realized heritability of investigated traits, estimated as parent-off spring regression, ranged from 0.21 to 0.79. Realized heritability for wet gluten content, gluten index and Pelshenke value was much higher in comparison with other quality traits. Correlations between the four methods used to calculate realized heritability revealed the best agreement between heritability estimated as parent-off spring regression and that based on divergent screening, and the lowest agreement between realized heritabilities based on upward and downward screening. Strong positive correlations were observed among grain protein content, wet gluten content, and Zeleny sedimentation value; and strong negative correlations between gluten index on one side and grain protein content and wet gluten content on the other side.

  14. A high-density, SNP-based consensus map of tetraploid wheat as a bridge to integrate durum and bread wheat genomics and breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Maccaferri, M; Ricci, A.; Salvi, S.; Milner, SG; Noli, E; Martelli, PL; Casadio, R.; Akhunov, E.; Scalabrin, S.; Vendramin, V; AMMAR, K.; Blanco, A.; Desiderio, F.; Distelfeld, A; Dubcovsky, J.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Consensus linkage maps are important tools in crop genomics. We have assembled a high-density tetraploid wheat consensus map by integrating 13 data sets from independent biparental populations involving durum wheat cultivars (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum), cultivated emmer (T. turgidum ssp. dicoccum) and their ancestor (wild emmer, T. turgidum ssp. dicoccoides). The consensus map harboured 30...

  15. Molecular Mapping of Adult-Plant Race-Specific Leaf Rust Resistance Gene Lr12 in Bread Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum) gene Lr12 provides adult-plant race-specific resistance to leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina. It is completely linked or identical to Lr31, which confers seedling resistance only when the complementary gene Lr27 is also present. F2 and F2-derived F3 families were devel...

  16. Reaction to diseases of six gamma-irradiated genotypes of wheat (Triticum spp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seed from six genotypes of spring wheat: Huelquen, Collafen, Yafen, PLA771 and Bluebird No.3 (Triticum aestivum L.), and also Quilafen (Triticum durum Desf.) was exposed to gamma radiation in doses of 10 and 25 krad. The aim of the research is to produce cultivars resistant to the main diseases, with a high protein content and grain yield, for the north-central region of Chile (29-350 latitude south). The selection process up to the generation M5 has made it possible to identify mutants with a higher level of resistance to Puccinia graminis, Puccinia recondita and Puccinia striiformis than the original genotypes. Progress made in improving resistance to a fungal complex attacking the spikelets of the mutant cultivars Huelquen and Yafen, to Erysiphe graminis, and to the yellow dwarf virus in barley (BYDV), has been slighter. The yield of grain and protein per unit surface of the mutants studied during repeated experiments has been greater than for the controls. If this trend continues, there should be a number of mutants that could be used for commercial cultivation. (author)

  17. Phytase activity of lactic acid bacteria and their impact on the solubility of minerals from wholemeal wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizeikiene, Dalia; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Bartkiene, Elena; Damasius, Jonas; Paskevicius, Algimantas

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determinate phytase activity of bacteriocins producing lactic acid bacteria previously isolated from spontaneous rye sourdough. The results show that the highest extracellular phytase activity produces Pediococcus pentosaceus KTU05-8 and KTU05-9 strains with a volumetric phytase activity of 32 and 54 U/ml, respectively, under conditions similar to leavening of bread dough (pH 5.5 and 30 °C). In vitro studies in simulated gastrointestinal tract media pH provide that bioproducts prepared with P. pentosaceus strains used in wholemeal wheat bread preparation increase solubility of iron, zinc, manganese, calcium and phosphorus average 30%. Therefore, P. pentosaceus KTU05-9 and KTU05-8 strains could be recommended to use as a starter for sourdough preparation for increasing of mineral bioavailability from wholemeal wheat bread. PMID:26397032

  18. Heritability of Morphological Traits in Bread Wheat Advanced Lines Under Irrigated and Non-Irrigated Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Khan

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Current research was conducted with aim to identify the characters of utmost importance in irrigated and non-irrigated conditions that may be used as selection criteria in a wheat breeding program. The experimental material consisted of 13 wheat genotypes including 11 bread wheat advanced lines from two different sources, 1 synthetic hexaploid and its durum parent. Stress was imposed by withholding irrigation at three different growth stages of plant i.e. tillering, anthesis and grain filling. Experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block in a split-plot arrangement. Water regimes (irrigated and non-irrigated were allocated to the main plots and genotypes to the sub-plots. Morphological traits were recorded including days to heading, flowering, anthesis, physiological maturity, grain-filling period, flag leaf area, plant height, biomass, number of spikes, number of spikelets per spike, spike length, number of grains, grain yield, harvest index and 1000-grain weight. According to obtained results heritability among the traits under irrigated and non-irrigated conditions was estimated. Spike length exhibited highest heritability value of 0.89, 0.84 and 0.87 under irrigated, tillering and grain filling stress whereas grain yield had highest heritability value of 0.76 under anthesis stress. These traits therefore deserve more attention in future breeding programs for evolving better wheat for stress environments.

  19. Genetic analysis for yield and yield components in spring wheat (Triticum Aestivum.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A 5x5 diallel cross experiment on spring wheat (triticum aestivum L: em. Thell) was conducted to estimate the genetic information of some yield and yield components. Number of tillers per plant and grain yield per plant were controlled by over dominance type of gene action. While the characters like plant height, flag leaf area and peduncle length were additive in their genetic control. Epistatic interaction was not detected for manifestation of any character. Variety LU 26S had maximum dominant genes for no. of tillers per plant, peduncle length and grain yield per plant and maximum recessive genes for flag leaf area. While line lRG-7 appeared to have dominant genes for plant height, flag leaf area and recessive for number of tillers per plant and grain yield per plant. (author)

  20. Gradual Incorporation of Whole Wheat Flour into Bread Products for Elementary School Children Improves Whole Grain Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Renee A.; Sadeghi, Lelia; Schroeder, Natalia; Reicks, Marla M.; Marquart, Len

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Whole grain intake is associated with health benefits but current consumption by children is only about one-third of the recommended level. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of an innovative approach whereby the whole wheat content of bread products in school lunches was gradually increased to increase whole grain…

  1. Gamma Radiation Influence on Rheological and Technological Characteristics of Wheat Flour (misr-1) and Sensory Properties of Pan Bread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed at determining the influence of gamma radiation on rheological and technological characteristics of flour extraction from irradiated wheat grains (misr-1) with 3,6 and 9 kGy, also baking quality and sensory characteristics of pan breads made from this flour. The rheological properties of wheat flour 72% extraction were determined by farinograph parameter, extensograph parameter and measured by amylo graph paramete. Gamma radiation caused increase in water absorption and decrease dough development time, and dough stability time. The decrease percentage increased by increasing dose rate and increased the dough weakness, also γ-irradiation increased the elasticity, decrease extensibility and decrease dough strength (energy), whereas γ-irradiation on wheat grains (misr-1) decrease the maximum viscosity of flour, it indicate an increase in enzymatic activity as a result of the breakdown of starch and improve the gluten index %, this fact is beneficial for bread baking purposes. So γ-irradiation increased volume loaf especially at the dose 6 kGy,and no real differences of taste, texture, appearance and odor scores for sensory evaluation of pan bread made of flour extraction from irradiated and un-irradiated wheat grains. Mean while, irradiation particularly at higher doses (6 and 9 kGy)caused difference in the color (darkness) of pan bread. Gamma irradiation increased the baking quality, and improvement volume loaf especially at the dose 6 kGy.

  2. Thermo-mechanic and sensory properties of wheat and rye breads produced with varying concentration of the additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Mirjana A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different concentrations of the complex additive containing emulsifiers, oxido-reductive substances and enzymes, on the rheological conditions of dough, and on the sensory properties of three groups of bread were investigated. The best initial quality and the lowest degree of protein network weakening had the dough obtained from mixed wheat and rye flours. The best expected baking properties were shown by the white wheat flour due to the least damage of its starch. The use of the additive has an effect on the absorption of water and on the majority of C-values of all sorts of flour. The amount of additive had a significant effect on the sensory properties of wheat bread crumb texture. Also, storage duration significantly affected (p <0.01 the sensory properties of integral wheat bread aroma-taste and the weighted mean score. The interaction of these two factors had no significant effect on any of sensory properties of the investigated groups of bread.

  3. Reduced-gliadin wheat bread: an alternative to the gluten-free diet for consumers suffering gluten-related pathologies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Gil-Humanes

    Full Text Available Wheat flour cannot be tolerated by those who suffer allergies to gluten. Human pathologies associated with grain proteins have increased worldwide in recent years, and the only effective treatment available is a lifelong gluten-free diet, which is complicated to follow and detrimental to gut health. This manuscript describes the development of wheat bread potentially suitable for celiac patients and other gluten-intolerant individuals. We have made bread using wheat flour with very low content of the specific gluten proteins (near gliadin-free that are the causal agents for pathologies such as celiac disease. Loaves were compared with normal wheat breads and rice bread. Organoleptic, nutritional, and immunotoxic properties were studied. The reduced-gliadin breads showed baking and sensory properties, and overall acceptance, similar to those of normal flour, but with up to 97% lower gliadin content. Moreover, the low-gliadin flour has improved nutritional properties since its lysine content is significantly higher than that of normal flour. Conservative estimates indicate that celiac patients could safely consume 67 grams of bread per day that is made with low-gliadin flour. However, additional studies, such as feeding trials with gluten-intolerant patients, are still needed in order to determine whether or not the product can be consumed by the general celiac population, as well as the actual tolerated amount that can be safely ingested. The results presented here offer a major opportunity to improve the quality of life for millions of sufferers of gluten intolerance throughout the world.

  4. Transcriptome-scale homoeolog-specific transcript assemblies of bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schreiber Andreas W

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bread wheat is one of the world’s most important food crops and considerable efforts have been made to develop genomic resources for this species. This includes an on-going project by the International Wheat Genome Sequencing Consortium to assemble its large and complex genome, which is hexaploid and contains three closely related ‘homoeologous’ copies for each chromosome. This multi-national effort avoids the complications polyploidy entails for correct assembly of the genome by sequencing flow-sorted chromosome arms one at a time. Here we report on an alternate approach, a direct homoeolog-specific assembly of the expressed portion of the genome, the transcriptome. Results After assessment of the ability of various assemblers to generate homoeolog-specific assemblies, we employed a two-stage assembly process to produce a high-quality assembly of the transcriptome of hexaploid wheat from Roche-454 and Illumina GAIIx paired-end sequence reads. The assembly process made use of a rapid partitioning of expressed sequences into homoeologous clusters, followed by a parallel high-fidelity assembly of each cluster on a 1150-processor compute cloud. We assessed assembly quality through comparison to known wheat gene sequences and found that in ca. 98.5% of cases the assembly was sufficiently accurate for homoeologous triplets to be cleanly separated into either two or three separate contigs. Comparison to publicly available transcript collections suggests that the assembly covers ~75-80% of the complete transcriptome. Conclusions This work therefore describes the first homoeolog-specific sequence assembly of the wheat transcriptome and provides a reference transcriptome for future wheat research. Furthermore, our assembly methodology is transferable to other polyploid organisms.

  5. Selection and hydroponic growth of bread wheat cultivars for bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, V.; Feller, U.

    2013-08-01

    As part of the ESA-funded MELiSSA program, the suitability, the growth and the development of four bread wheat cultivars were investigated in hydroponic culture with the aim to incorporate such a cultivation system in an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Wheat plants can fulfill three major functions in space: (a) fixation of CO2 and production of O2, (b) production of grains for human nutrition and (c) production of cleaned water after condensation of the water vapor released from the plants by transpiration. Four spring wheat cultivars (Aletsch, Fiorina, Greina and CH Rubli) were grown hydroponically and compared with respect to growth and grain maturation properties. The height of the plants, the culture duration from germination to harvest, the quantity of water used, the number of fertile and non-fertile tillers as well as the quantity and quality of the grains harvested were considered. Mature grains could be harvested after around 160 days depending on the varieties. It became evident that the nutrient supply is crucial in this context and strongly affects leaf senescence and grain maturation. After a first experiment, the culture conditions were improved for the second experiment (stepwise decrease of EC after flowering, pH adjusted twice a week, less plants per m2) leading to a more favorable harvest (higher grain yield and harvest index). Considerably less green tillers without mature grains were present at harvest time in experiment 2 than in experiment 1. The harvest index for dry matter (including roots) ranged from 0.13 to 0.35 in experiment 1 and from 0.23 to 0.41 in experiment 2 with modified culture conditions. The thousand-grain weight for the four varieties ranged from 30.4 to 36.7 g in experiment 1 and from 33.2 to 39.1 g in experiment 2, while market samples were in the range of 39.4-46.9 g. Calcium levels in grains of the hydroponically grown wheat were similar to those from field-grown wheat, while potassium, magnesium

  6. Sensory Quality and Consumer Perception of Wheat Bread : Towards Sustainable Production and Consumption. Effects of Farming System, Year, Technology, Information and Values

    OpenAIRE

    Kihlberg, Iwona

    2004-01-01

    In order to study the effect of production systems aimed at sustainability on product quality and of sensory and non-sensory factors on product acceptance – the effect of farming system, year, milling and baking techniques on the sensory qualities of wheat bread as a model product was investigated using a descriptive test, and the effect of information and values on liking of bread using consumer tests. Whole wheat and white breads were baked with wheat grown in six lots in established conven...

  7. BAC Libraries from Wheat Chromosome 7D: Efficient Tool for Positional Cloning of Aphid Resistance Genes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimková, Hana; Šafář, Jan; Kubaláková, Marie; Suchánková, Pavla; Čihalíková, Jarmila; Robert-Quatre, Heda; Azhaguvel, P.; Weng, Y. Q.; Peng, J.; Lapitan, N. L. V.; Ma, Y. Q.; You, F. M.; Luo, M. C.; Bartoš, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav

    -, č. 302543 (2011), s. 1-11. ISSN 1110-7243 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA521/07/1573; GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : TRITICUM-AESTIVUM L. * HEXAPLOID WHEAT * BREAD WHEAT Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.436, year: 2011

  8. Rewiring the wheat reproductive system to harness heterosis for the next wave of yield improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bread wheat (hexaploid Triticum aestivum) provides an extraordinary ten-thousand-year story of a new species, established by early farmers, selecting for simple agronomical traits to facilitate efficient and plentiful grain harvest. The genetic changes underlying wheat domestication over thousands ...

  9. Molecular genotyping of GA3 insensitive reduced height mutant of emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum Schubler) is cultivated in parts of peninsular India. Grains of emmer wheat contain higher amounts of protein and dietary fibre and hence are being recommended for inclusion in diet. Traditional varieties of emmer are tall, susceptible to lodging and are low yielding. An induced semi dwarf mutant was obtained in tall emmer wheat variety NP200. The seeds of variety NP200 were subjected to 100, 200, 300 or 400Gy of γ-rays. In the M2 population of 200Gy treatment, a reduced height mutant with vigorous growth and high tillering was observed. The reduced height mutant its parent and other emmer varieties were tested for their response to GA3 treatment in seedling test. The mutant was found to be insensitive to externally applied GA3.The mutant, its parent, and also tall and semi-dwarf varieties of emmer were subjected to Rht genotyping. Allele specific primers for dwarfing gene (RhtB1b) and their wild type allele (RhtB1a) were used. The validity of primers in emmer varieties was confirmed. All semi-dwarf emmer varieties showed a band of 237bp with primer pair BF-MR1. The mutant (HW1095) showed absence of amplification for both RhtB1a and RhtB1b alleles with respective primer pairs indicating that the mutant carried a different mutation than the existing allele (RhtB1b). The mutant allele was amplified with another primer pair resulting in a product of about 400bp. In a comparative yield trial the mutant gave higher yield than the other emmer wheats. (author)

  10. Khorasan wheat population researching (Triticum turgidum, ssp. Turanicum (McKey in the minimum tillage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikanović Jela

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Khorasan wheat occupies a special place in the group of new-old cereals (Triticum turgidum, ssp. Turanicum McKey. It is an ancient species, native to eastern Persia, that is very close to durum wheat by morphological characteristics. Investigations were carried out in agro ecological conditions of the eastern Srem, with two wheat populations with dark and bright awns as objects of study. The following morphological and productive characteristics were investigated: plant height (PH, spike length (SH, number of spikelets per spike (NSS, absolute weight (AW and grain weight per spike (GW, seed germination (G and grains yield (YG. Field micro-experiments were set on the carbonate chernozem soil type on loess plateau in 2011 and 2012. Hand wheat sowing was conducted in early March with drill row spacing of 12 cm. The experiment was established as complete randomized block system with four replications. Tending crops measures were not applied during the growing season. Plants were grown without usage of NPK mineral nutrients. Chemical crop protection measures were not applied, although powdery mildew (Erysiphe graminis was appeared before plants spike formation in a small extent. The results showed that both populations have a genetic yield potential. In general, both populations manifested a satisfactory tolerance on lodging and there was no seed dispersal. Plants from bright awns population were higher, had longer spikes and larger number of spikelet’s per spike. However, plants from dark awns population had higher absolute weight and grains weight per spike, as well as grain yield per plant. Strong correlation connections were identified among the investigated characteristics. The determination of correlations, as well as direct and indirect affects, enabled easier understanding of the mutual relationships and their balancing in order to improve the yield per unit area. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31078 i br. TR 31022

  11. Molecular Genotyping of GA3 Insensitive Reduced Height Mutant of Emmer Wheat (Triticum dicoccum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmer wheat (Triticum dicoccum Schubler) is cultivated in parts of peninsular India. Grains of emmer wheat contain higher amounts of protein and dietary fiber and hence are recommended for inclusion in the diet. Traditional varieties of emmer are tall, susceptible to lodging and low yielding. An induced semi-dwarf mutant was obtained in tall emmer wheat variety NP200. The seeds of variety NP200 were subjected to 100, 200, 300 or 400Gy of γ-rays. In the M2 population of 200Gy treatment, a reduced height mutant with vigorous growth and high tillering was observed. The reduced height mutant, its parent and other emmer varieties were tested for their response to GA3 treatment in seedling test. The mutant was found to be insensitive to externally applied GA3. The mutant, its parent and tall and semi-dwarf varieties of emmer were subjected to Rht genotyping. Allele specific primers for dwarfing gene (RhtB1b) and their wild type allele (RhtB1a) were used. The validity of primers in emmer varieties was confirmed. All semi-dwarf emmer varieties showed a band of 237bp with primer pair BF-MR1. The mutant (HW1095) showed absence of amplification for both RhtB1a and RhtB1b alleles with respective primer pairs, indicating that the mutant carried a different mutation than the existing allele (RhtB1b). The mutant allele was amplified with another primer pair resulting in a product of about 400bp. In a comparative yield trial, the mutant gave higher yield than the other emmer wheat. (author)

  12. Registration of ‘UI Darwin’ Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘UI Darwin’ (PI 639953) is a hard white winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) developed by the Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station and released in February 2006. UI Darwin, named for English naturalist Charles Darwin, was released for selected improvements in bread quality relative to hard white wi...

  13. Multi-element analysis of wheat flour and white bread by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One of the best source of feeding even for the human being as for animals are the Cereals. Although they are mainly energetic aliment, due to its composition in starch, they are a very important source of proteins and amino acids. They contribute mineral elements to the diet. Even those elements constitute a very small part of the total diet, they take a very important place in many human metabolic processes. To make a multielemental analysis of an aliment is very important that we are based on a very sensible analytic technique so we are able to find them, just as the Neutronic Activation. This Nuclear technique allows you to make a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the elements that are in a sample, but it does n't show the way in which the elements are presented. It is based in turning those elements into radioactive ones through its exposition to an uniform and constant fluid of neutrons, so then its radioactivity can be determined. The present work has as a main purpose to make a multielemental analysis of the wheat flour and white bread through the Neutronic Activation Technique, using the comparator method and establishing previously the most appropriate work conditions as much irradiation as digestion and measuring of the radioactivity of the sample. In this way, it was able to know that the wheat flour has potassium, chlorine, magnesium, sodium, iron, zinc, manganese, rubidium and selenium elements in a concentration of 2000, 700, 500, 25, 18, 13, 5.5, 0.9 and 0.01 - 0.3 mg/g respectively. In an other hand it was found that the white bread has the same elements than the wheat flour but its concentration was: 1700, 9000, 400, 7000, 52, 13, 6, 1 and 0.05 - 0.3 mg/g respectively. (Author)

  14. Balance sheet method assessment for nitrogen fertilization in bread wheat: I. yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Monotti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union the production of high quality wheat is mainly located in the Mediterranean regions where the climatic conditions positively affect protein concentration in the grain. High quality wheat calls for proper management of nitrogen fertilization, thus there is a need to verify whether the limitations imposed by local governments on maximum rate of nitrogen fertilization admitted may affect bread making quality. Trials were conducted in fourteen environments (E to study the effects of different nitrogen fertilizations on eight cultivars (C, belonging to four quality grades (Q. Nitrogen (N was applied to crops according to three rates/modalities: N1 corresponding to the maximum rate admitted calculated according to a balance sheet method and distributed at the stage of spike initiation; N2 with 50 kg ha-1 of nitrogen more than N1, also distributed at the stage of spike initiation; N3 with 50 kg ha-1 of nitrogen more than N1 but distributed at the stage of flag leaf appearance. The effects of environment, nitrogen and cultivar were significant for grain yield, test weight, 1000 kernel weight, heading time, plant height and for quality traits (protein content and alveograph indices. The existence of variability among cultivars and quality grades in the response to rate and timing of nitrogen fertilization was demonstrated by the significance of NxC and NxQ interactions. Dry matter and nitrogen contents of plant at anthesis and at harvest were significantly affected by the main sources of variation. High quality cultivars yielded more grain of better quality with higher N rates (N2 and N3 as compared to the maximum rate of nitrogen admitted by the local government (N1. These results demonstrated that the adopted balance sheet method for the calculation of N requirements of wheat crop adversely affects the full potential expression of the cultivars belonging to superior bread making quality grades.

  15. Analysis of homeolog specific transcription in hexaploid wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Grønvold, Lars

    2013-01-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, BBAADD) is one of the most important food-crops world-wide. The genome of bread wheat is allohexaploid, meaning that it contains three related diploid genomes (termed A, B and D). This implies that most wheat genes exist in three similar copies (i.e. homeologs), which together with the fact that the genome mainly consists of repeats from transposable elements, makes the wheat genome very hard to sequence and assemble. Currently there is an effort by the Interna...

  16. Ultraviolet-B-induced DNA lesions and their removal in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monoclonal antibodies were used in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to detect the induction and removal of cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPDs) and (6-4) photoproducts in DNA isolated from ultraviolet B (UV-B)-exposed primary wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Chinese Spring) leaf tissue. The accumulation of lesions in the primary leaves of 6-d-old wheat seedlings was followed during the exposure of the leaf to an approximate dose of 3.6×10−1 W m−2 UV-B (Caldwell weighting). Significant increases in the levels of both CPDs and (6-4) photoproducts were detected in wheat leaves exposed to UV-B in the absence of other light However, only an increase in (6-4) photoproduct levels could be measured in wheat leaves exposed to the same UV-B source in the presence of supplemental white light. The removal of CPD antibody binding sites in the DNA after irradiation was rapid under conditions of high light intensity in contrast to the removal of (6-4) photoproduct antibody binding sites, which was significantly slower. The removal of CPDs appeared to be light dependent, this rate of removal decreasing with decreasing light fluences. The removal of (6-4) photoproducts also appeared light dependent, but to a lesser extent than the removal of CPDs, under the conditions studied here. Gene expression in the primary wheat leaf was measured and showed an up-regulation of chalcone synthase expression and a reduction in expression of chlorophyll a/b-binding protein (cab) in response to supplementary UV-B. No effect was seen on the expression of the other photosynthetic genes studied (the genes coding for the enzymes sedoheptu-lose 1,7-bisphosphatase and fructose 1,6-bisphosphatase). Measurement of the levels of DNA lesions in this same tissue showed that the observed changes in gene expression accompanied the appearance of UV-B induced lesions in the form of (6-4) photoproducts in the wheat leaf genome. (author)

  17. Screening commercial wheat (triticum aestivum l.) varieties for agrobacterium mediated transformation ability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wheat is staple food crop of many countries including Pakistan. It has a large number of cultivars and genotypes. All genotypes have different tissue culture response that includes callus induction, regeneration and transformation efficiency. For transgenic plant production it is crucial to know tissue culture efficiency of a selected variety. Therefore, in the present study mature embryos of thirteen elite wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties were evaluated for tissue culture response and their amenability to transformation. Each variety responded differently for callogenesis, transient GUS (glucuronidase) expression and regeneration. The results for callus induction and transient GUS expression ranged from 30-100% and 13-100%, respectively whereas regeneration response was quite different in tested varieties that ranged from 0-44%. Good quality callus was observed in all varieties except Dhurabi-11, Lasani-08, Millat and Pak-81. Maximum transient GUS expression (100%) was found in Faisalabad-2008. Highest regeneration (44%) was noticed in Pak-81. Results indicated that three varieties VIII-83, Faisalabad-2008 and Aas-11 are suitable for transformation in comparison to others. (author)

  18. Metabolic pathways of the wheat (Triticum aestivum endosperm amyloplast revealed by proteomics

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    Dupont Frances M

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background By definition, amyloplasts are plastids specialized for starch production. However, a proteomic study of amyloplasts isolated from wheat (Triticum aestivum Butte 86 endosperm at 10 days after anthesis (DPA detected enzymes from many other metabolic and biosynthetic pathways. To better understand the role of amyloplasts in food production, the data from that study were evaluated in detail and an amyloplast metabolic map was outlined. Results Analysis of 288 proteins detected in an amyloplast preparation predicted that 178 were amyloplast proteins. Criteria included homology with known plastid proteins, prediction of a plastid transit peptide for the wheat gene product or a close homolog, known plastid location of the pathway, and predicted plastid location for other members of the same pathway. Of these, 135 enzymes were arranged into 18 pathways for carbohydrate, lipid, amino acid, nucleic acid and other biosynthetic processes that are critical for grain-fill. Functions of the other proteins are also discussed. Conclusion The pathways outlined in this paper suggest that amyloplasts play a central role in endosperm metabolism. The interacting effects of genetics and environment on starch and protein production may be mediated in part by regulatory mechanisms within this organelle.

  19. Ractopamine up take by alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) from soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shelver, Weilin L; DeSutter, Thomas M

    2015-08-01

    Ractopamine is a beta adrenergic agonist used as a growth promoter in swine, cattle and turkeys. To test whether ractopamine has the potential to accumulate in plants grown in contaminated soil, a greenhouse study was conducted with alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) grown in two soils having different concentrations of organic matter (1.3% and 2.1%), amended with 0, 0.5, and 10 μg/g of ractopamine. Plant growth ranged from 2.7 to 8.8 g dry weight (dw) for alfalfa, and 8.7 to 40 g dw for wheat and was generally greater in the higher organic matter content soil. The uptake of ractopamine in plant tissues ranged from non-detectable to 897 ng/g and was strongly dependent on soil ractopamine concentration across soil and plant tissue. When adjusted to the total fortified quantities, the amount of ractopamine taken up by the plant tissue was low, <0.01% for either soil. PMID:26257350

  20. Combining ability for Fusarium head blight resistance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

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    Subas Malla

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium head blight (FHB caused by Fusarium graminearum reduces wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell grain yield and end-use quality worldwide. Three each of FHB susceptible (‘Nekota’, ‘2137’, and ‘Harding’ and resistant (‘Ning 7840’, ‘ND2710’ and ‘BacUp’ parents were included in a partial diallel mating design (Griffing’s Method 4, Model 1. The F4:5 progeny was evaluated for healthy index, undamaged kernels, and deoxynivalenol (DON content following artificial inoculation and mist-irrigation in 2006 and 2007. General combining ability (GCA was highly significant (P < 0.01 for healthy index; whereas specific combining ability (SCA and GCA-by-year interaction were not significant. The combining ability ratio and narrow-sense heritability were 0.95 and 0.83, respectively. The Genotype, Genotype-by-Environment (GGE biplot analysis showed that the ND2710/BacUp combination had the best healthy index and undamaged kernels; whereas Ning 7840 contributed resistance to DON accumulation. The results indicated additive gene effects mainly control that healthy index. Thus, genetic gain in developing resistance in wheat can be achieved through selection.

  1. Effects of Auxins and Media on Callus Induction of Chinese Spring Wheat( Triticum aestivum L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Li-min; WEI Yu-ming; ZHENG You-liang

    2005-01-01

    The effects of auxins and media on callus induction from the mature and immature embryos of Chinese spring wheat(Triticum aestivum L.) varieties were investigated. It was found that genotype, medium, auxin source and concentration had the significant effects on the induction of embryogenic callus, explants germination and the increment of callus fresh weight. For immature embryos cultured on MS medium, 2 mg L-1of 2, 4-D was optimal, and the highest frequency of embryogenic callus (33.50%) was observed. For the mature embryos on N6 medium, 4 mg L-1 of 2, 4-D was optimal. The frequency of embryogenic callus and increment of callus fresh weight on 2, 4, 5-T media were higher than those on 2, 4-D media, and in the presence of 2, 4, 5-T the precocious germination of explants for all genotypes were significantly suppressed. These results indicated that 2, 4, 5-T was superior to 2, 4-D and NAA in the culture of immature embryos. This is the first report about the effect of 2, 4, 5-T and NAA on wheat tissue culture, particularly in comparison with 2, 4-D in detail.

  2. EVALUATING THE DROUGHT STRESS TOLERANCE EFFICIENCY OF WHEAT (TRITICUM AESTIVUM L. CULTIVARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Sammar Raza

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted at the Nuclear Institute for Agriculture and Biology (NIAB, Faisalabad, Pakistan to evaluate the drought stress tolerance efficiency of wheat cultivars. Eight wheat (Triticum aestivum L. genotypes namely (Pasban-90, Inqalab-91, Auqab-2000, AS-2002, Sahar-2006, Shafaq-2006, Lasani-2008, and FSD-2008 were used for screening in laboratory. Three techniques were used for the screening. These techniques are (I seed germination at -0.6 MPa external water potential (PEG-6000, (2 seedling growth after 14 days at -0.6 MPa (PEG-6000, and (3 plant water relations of seven-week-old pot-grown plants. Significantly highest germination stress tolerance index, root length stress tolerance index and the water content was recorded in Lasani-2008 and lowest was recorded in Auqab-2000. Dry matter percentage was recorded significantly highest in pasban-90 while the lowest dry matter percentage was observed in auqab-2000. FSD-2008 gained maximum plant height and was recorded minimum in Inqilab-91. Relative saturation deficit was significantly highest in Auqab-2000 while the significantly lowest relative saturation deficit was recorded in case of Lasani-2008. It was concluded from the results that Lasani-2008 performed better under drought and Auqab-2000 was recorded most drought sensitive variety.

  3. Transcriptome Analysis of Purple Pericarps in Common Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wenjie; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Dengcai; Liu, Baolong; Zhang, Huaigang

    2016-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars possessing purple grain arethought to be more nutritious because of high anthocyanin contents in the pericarp. Comparative transcriptome analysis of purple (cv Gy115) and white pericarps was carried out using next-generation sequencing technology. There were 23,642 unigenes significantly differentially expressed in the purple and white pericarps, including 9945 up-regulated and 13,697 down-regulated. The differentially expressed unigenes were mainly involved in encoding components of metabolic pathways, The flavonoid biosynthesis pathway was the most represented in metabolic pathways. In the transcriptome of purple pericarp in Gy115, most structural and regulatory genes biosynthesizing anthocyanin were identified, and had higher expression levels than in white pericarp. The largestunigene of anthocyanin biosynthesis in Gy115 was longer than the reference genes, which implies that high-throughput sequencing could isolate the genes of anthocyanin biosynthesis in tissues or organs with high anthocyanin content. Based on present and previous results, three unigenes of MYB gene on chromosome 7BL and three unigenes of MYC on chromosome 2AL were predicted as candidate genes for the purple grain trait. This article was the first to provide a systematic overview comparing the transcriptomes of purple and white pericarps in common wheat, which should be very valuable for identifying the key genes for the purple pericarp trait. PMID:27171148

  4. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A; Lazo-Vélez, Marco A; Serna-Sáldivar, Sergio O; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-01-01

    Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29) was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05). PMID:26901186

  5. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio A. Chávez-Santoscoy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29 was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05.

  6. Effect of hydrocolloids and emulsifiers on the shelf-life of composite cassava-maize-wheat bread after storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduardo, Maria; Svanberg, Ulf; Ahrné, Lilia

    2016-07-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydrocolloids and/or emulsifiers on the shelf-life of composite cassava-maize-wheat (ratio 40:10:50) reference bread during storage. Added hydrocolloids were carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and high methoxyl pectin (HM pectin) at a 3% level (w/w) and/or the emulsifiers diacetyl tartaric acid esters of monoglycerides (DATEM), lecithin (LC), and monoglycerides (MG) at a 0.3% level (w/w). After 4 days of storage, composite breads with MG had comparatively lower crumb moisture while crumb density was similar in all breads. The reference bread crumb firmness was 33.4 N, which was reduced with an addition of DATEM (23.0 N), MG (29.8 N), CMC (24.6 N) or HM pectin (22.4 N). However, the CMC/DATEM, CMC/LC, and HM pectin/DATEM combinations further reduced crumb firmness to cassava-maize-wheat breads. PMID:27386112

  7. Starch molecular fractionation of bread wheat varieties Fraccionamiento molecular del almidón de variedades trigo pan

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    V. Corcuera

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The starch composition of bread making wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum subsp. vulgare of the Argentine commercial varieties Buck Charrua, Buck Ombú, Buck Guaraní, Buck Catriel and Buck Poncho was analyzed by two different methods. One of these depends on the differential solubility of amylose and amylopectin in a water:butanol mixture whilst the other process is based on the use of the lectin Concanavalin A. These methods were complemented by spectrophotometric determinations to enable the identification of the á-D- glucanes and also improved the comparative quantitation of the amylose and amylopectin fractions. As a result of this, no significant variations for starch content (ANOVA, F4- 8= 0.7; p ≥ 0.05 were found among these varieties, although strong differences were found for amylose (ANOVA, F4- 8= 44.4; p ≥ 0.01 and amylopectin content (ANOVA, F4- 8= 77.1; p ≥ 0.01. These results and the fact that no differences were found for amylose (ANOVA, F2- 8= 0.3 and amylopectin among years within the same variety (ANOVA, F2- 8:0.8 at p ≥0.01 led to the conclusion that the diverse properties and end-uses of the starch mainly depend on the genotype, and that starch quality is null or scarcely influenced by the environment. This knowledge must be taken into account for wheat breeding purposes.Se analizó la composición del almidón de granos de trigo pan (Triticum aestivum subsp. v u l g a r e de las variedades comerciales argentinas Buck Charrúa, Buck Ombú, Buck Guaraní, Buck Catriel y Buck Poncho mediante dos métodos diferentes. Uno de ellos depende de la solubilidad diferencial de la amilosa y amilopectina en una mezcla de agua:butanol, mientras que el otro proceso está basado en el uso de la lectina Concanavalina A. Estos métodos fueron complementados mediante determinaciones espectrofotométricas que facilitaron la identificación de los á-D-glucanos y también permitieron mejorar la cuantificación comparativa de las fracciones

  8. Evaluation of assembly strategies using RNA-seq data associated with grain development of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huai-Zhu; Gao, Xiang; Li, Xiao-Yan; Chen, Qi-Jiao; Dong, Jian; Zhao, Wan-Chun

    2013-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is one of the most important crops cultivated worldwide. Identifying the complete transcriptome of wheat grain could serve as foundation for further study of wheat seed development. However, the relatively large size and the polyploid complexity of the genome have been substantial barriers to molecular genetics and transcriptome analysis of wheat. Alternatively, RNA sequencing has provided some useful information about wheat genes. However, because of the large number of short reads generated by RNA sequencing, factors that are crucial to transcriptome assembly, including software, candidate parameters and assembly strategies, need to be optimized and evaluated for wheat data. In the present study, four cDNA libraries associated with wheat grain development were constructed and sequenced. A total of 14.17 Gb of high-quality reads were obtained and used to assess different assembly strategies. The most successful approach was to filter the reads with Q30 prior to de novo assembly using Trinity, merge the assembled contigs with genes available in wheat cDNA reference data sets, and combine the resulting assembly with an assembly from a reference-based strategy. Using this approach, a relatively accurate and nearly complete transcriptome associated with wheat grain development was obtained, suggesting that this is an effective strategy for generation of a high-quality transcriptome from RNA sequencing data. PMID:24349528

  9. Comparison of homo- and heterofermentative lactic acid bacteria for implementation of fermented wheat bran in bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prückler, Michael; Lorenz, Cindy; Endo, Akihito; Kraler, Manuel; Dürrschmid, Klaus; Hendriks, Karel; Soares da Silva, Francisco; Auterith, Eric; Kneifel, Wolfgang; Michlmayr, Herbert

    2015-08-01

    Despite its potential health benefits, the integration of wheat bran into the food sector is difficult due to several adverse technological and sensory properties such as bitterness and grittiness. Sourdough fermentation is a promising strategy to improve the sensory quality of bran without inducing severe changes to the bran matrix. Therefore, identification of species/strains with potential for industrial sourdough fermentations is important. We compared the effects of different representatives of species of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) on wheat bran. Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis and Fructobacillus fructosus produced highly individual fermentation patterns as judged from carbohydrate consumption and organic acid production. Interestingly, fructose was released during all bran fermentations and possibly influenced the fermentation profiles of obligately heterofermentative species to varying degrees. Except for the reduction of ferulic acid by L. plantarum and L. pentosus, analyses of phenolic compounds and alkylresorcinols suggested that only minor changes thereof were induced by the LAB metabolism. Sensory analysis of breads baked with fermented bran did not reveal significant differences regarding perceived bitterness and aftertaste. We conclude that in addition to more traditionally used sourdough species such as L. sanfranciscensis and L. brevis, also facultatively heterofermentative species such as L. plantarum and L. pentosus possess potential for industrial wheat bran fermentations and should be considered in further investigations. PMID:25846933

  10. Some ENU Induced Mutations: A Resource for Functional Genomics in Bread Wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Induced mutations have been extensively used in the past for crop improvement. More recently a renewed interest in induced mutations has been witnessed due to their utility in functional genomics research. In the present study eight different types of mutations that were induced in common wheat (Triticumaestivum) due to ENU (N-ethylN-nitrosourea) treatment were grouped into four classes (stem mutants, reproductive mutants, leaf mutant and spike mutants). Two of the stem mutants, namely axillary branching and reduced node (1-2), were novel and interesting. In silico studies were conducted using candidate genes that were reported to produce similar mutant phenotypes in other species. We identified six wheat genomic sequences that were considered orthologous to the sequences for branching genes from rice and maize. Similarly, using EST database we identified 11 unigenes which matched a gene responsible for reduction in number of nodes in maize. These sequences that are involved in axillary branching and reduced number of nodes may be used as candidates for further studies of above mutants in bread wheat. (author)

  11. Evaluation of Pakistani wheat germplasm for bread quality based on allelic variation in HMW glutenin subunits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seventy six Pakistani wheat genotypes including land races were investigated for Bread quality (BQ) based on allelic variation in HMW glutenin subunits at the Glu-1 loci through SDS- polyacrylamide gel electropherosis. Twenty five different allelic combinations were detected with a total of 14 Glu-1 loci. Highest polymorphism was revealed by Glu-B locus and some single/ rare sub units were also screened out. The frequencies of dominant subunits were 50% for 2*, 42.11% for subunit pair 17+18 and 48.68% for 5+10 and 2+12 respectively. The quality scores displayed a range from 4 to 10, however generally good quality score of eight was more frequent (39. 47%). The highest quality scores of 10 and 9 were observed in 22.36% and 19.74% of genotypes respectively. The UPGMA analysis grouped genotypes into three major with two additional sub clusters for each. The cluster 'a' 'b' and 'C' were separated at 73% genetic distance which was further differentiated at a genetic distance of 50% into their sub clusters. Pakistani wheat varieties/land races exhibited large variation in term of HMW-GS. The generated information will lead to the pyrimiding of sub units for high BQ through mission oriented marker assisted breeding programmes for quality improvement of wheat. (author)

  12. Production of low chlorogenic and caffeic acid containing sunflower meal protein isolate and its use in functional wheat bread making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shchekoldina, Tatiana; Aider, Mohammed

    2014-10-01

    Sunflower meal protein isolate (SMPI) is a promising food additive in different matrices. However, the uses of SMPI are limited because of the presence of antinutritional compounds like polyphenolic substances. Chlorogenic and caffeic acids are the dominants polyphenolics in the SMPI. These substances cause significant changes of the colour of the meal, proteins and food matrices during their extraction and use as food additives. Moreover, these substances lower the nutritional value of the end product due to their interaction with some amino acids such as lysine and methionine. Thus, the removal of these substances is important to enable the use of the SMPI and meal in general in a greater extent in food applications and replacing more expensive protein sources such as soy proteins. The aim of this work was to study the production of functional bread by supplementing wheat flour with sunflower meal protein isolate (SMPI). SMPI with low content of chlorogenic and caffeic acid was usefully produced following alkaline extraction and purification with succinic acid. Purified SMPI showed well balanced amino acid profile and was characterized by high water and fat absorption capacities. It was incorporated to dough formula at 8-12 % of the total wheat flour. The results showed that production of bread supplemented with SMPI was technologically feasible. The supplemented bread had high mass volume and nutritional quality compared to the control bread. The optimal SMPI to incorporate into dough formula without significant alteration of the final bread colour was established at 10 %. This study will be helpful to find economic ways to enhance the nutritional quality of wheat bread and to improve the profitability of sunflower meal residue. PMID:25328173

  13. Influence of xylanase addition on the characteristics of loaf bread prepared with white flour or whole grain wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Zafalon Jaekel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the influence of the addition of the enzyme xylanase (four concentrations: 0, 4, 8, and 12 g.100 kg-1 flour on the characteristics of loaf bread made with white wheat flour or whole grain wheat flour. Breads made from white flour and added with xylanase had higher specific volumes than those of the control sample (no enzyme; however, the specific volume did not differ significantly (p < 0.05 among the breads with different enzyme concentrations. All formulations made from whole grain wheat flour and added with xylanase also had specific volumes significantly higher than those of the control sample, and the highest value was found for the 8 g xylanase.100 kg-1 flour formulation. With respect to moisture content, the formulations with different enzyme concentrations showed small significant differences when compared to the control samples. In general, breads made with the addition of 8 g enzyme.100 kg-1 flour had the lowest firmness values, thus presenting the best technological characteristics.

  14. Improvement of Fatty Acid Profile and Studio of Rheological and Technological Characteristics in Breads Supplemented with Flaxseed, Soybean, and Wheat Bran Flours

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    Mariana B. Osuna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional breads constitute an interesting alternative as vehicle of new essential fatty acids sources. The aim of this study was to improve the fatty acids (FA profile of bakery products, producing breads with low saturated fatty acid (SFA content and with high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA content, through partial substitution of wheat flour by other ingredients (soy flour, flax flour, and wheat bran and to analyze the effect of this change on the technological, rheological, and sensorial characteristics of breads. Flaxseed flour (FF, soybeans flour (SF, or wheat bran (WB was used to replace 50, 100, and 150 g kg−1 of wheat flour (WF in breads. FF or SF produced a decrease in monounsaturated and SFA and an increase of PUFA in these breads. Furthermore, breads replaced with FF presented considerable increase in the content of n3 FA, while, SF or WB contributed to rise of linoleic and oleic FA, respectively. The substitution percentage increase of FF, SF, or WB to formulation produced changes in the colour, rheological, textural, and technological characteristics of breads. This replacement resulted in improved lipid profile, being breads with 50 g kg−1 SF, the better acceptance, baking features, and enhanced fatty acid profile.

  15. Investigation and selection index for drought stress in durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. under Mediterranean condition

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    A.Guendouz* , S.Guessoum and M. Hafsi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought is a wide-spread problem seriously influencing durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. production and quality, but development of resistant cultivars is hampered by the lack of effective selection criteria. The objective of this study was to evaluate the ability of several selection indices to identify drought tolerant cultivars under varying environmental conditions. Ten durum wheat cultivars were evaluated under both moisture stress and non-stress field environments using a randomized complete block design for each of the environment. Six drought tolerance indices including stress susceptibility index (SSI, stress tolerance index (STI, yield stability index (YSI, mean productivity (MP, harmonic mean (HMP and geometric mean productivity (GMP were used. The indices were adjusted based on grain yield under drought and normal conditions. Yields in the normal condition were not correlated with yields in the stress condition, better stress susceptibility index (SSI was associated with low yield under normal conditions, and therefore this index could not identify cultivars with good performance in both stress and non-stress condition. The significant and positive correlation of GYp and MP, GMP and STI showed that these indices were more effective in identifying high yielding cultivars under different moisture conditions. Stress tolerance index (STI gave identical cultivar classification with the geometric mean (GMP, both being better than SSI in identifying top yielders in contrasting water availability conditions. The results of calculated gain from indirect selection from moisture stress environment would improve yield in moisture stress environment than selection from non moisture stress environment. Wheat breeders should, therefore, take into account the stress severity of the environment in choosing an index.

  16. Zinc and copper uptake by plants under two transpiration rates. Part I. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To evaluate the environmental risk of irrigating crops with treated wastewater, an experiment was conducted using two growth chambers, each offering a different vapour pressure deficit (VPD) for high and low transpiration rates (TR), respectively. One of the two sets of 24 pots planted with 6 week old wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), was placed in each growth chamber, and irrigated in triplicates for 20 days with 8 Zn and Cu solutions (0 and 25 mg Zn/L combined with 0, 5, 15 and 30 mg Cu/L). Water losses from planted and non-planted pots served to measure evapo-transpiration and evaporation, respectively. Pots were monitored for Cu and Zn uptake by collecting three plants (shoot and grain)/pots after 0, 10 and 20 days, and roots in each pot after 20 days, and analyzing these plant parts for dry mass, and Cu and Zn levels. Transpiration rate was not affected by any Cu/Zn treatment, but Cu and Zn uptake increase with the time, irrigation solution level and higher TR, with the roots retaining most Cu and Zn, compared to the shoot followed by the grain. For the shoot and grain, Cu had a significant synergetic effect on Zn uptake, when Zn had slight but insignificant antagonistic effects on Cu uptake. For the roots, Cu and Zn had significant synergetic effect on each other. Regression equations obtained from the data indicate that Cu and Zn levels normally found in treated wastewater (0.08 mg/L) are 300 times lower than those used for the most concentrated experimental solutions (30 and 25 mg/L, respectively) and may, on a long term basis, be beneficial rather than toxic to wheat plants and do not acidify soil pH. - Cu and Zn levels normally found in treated wastewater may be beneficial rather than toxic to wheat plants

  17. A whole-genome shotgun approach for assembling and anchoring the hexaploid bread wheat genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Jarrod A; Mascher, Martin; Buluç, Aydın; Barry, Kerrie; Georganas, Evangelos; Session, Adam; Strnadova, Veronika; Jenkins, Jerry; Sehgal, Sunish; Oliker, Leonid; Schmutz, Jeremy; Yelick, Katherine A; Scholz, Uwe; Waugh, Robbie; Poland, Jesse A; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Stein, Nils; Rokhsar, Daniel S

    2015-01-01

    Polyploid species have long been thought to be recalcitrant to whole-genome assembly. By combining high-throughput sequencing, recent developments in parallel computing, and genetic mapping, we derive, de novo, a sequence assembly representing 9.1 Gbp of the highly repetitive 16 Gbp genome of hexaploid wheat, Triticum aestivum, and assign 7.1 Gb of this assembly to chromosomal locations. The genome representation and accuracy of our assembly is comparable or even exceeds that of a chromosome-by-chromosome shotgun assembly. Our assembly and mapping strategy uses only short read sequencing technology and is applicable to any species where it is possible to construct a mapping population. PMID:25637298

  18. Genetic map of Triticum turgidum based on a hexaploid wheat population without genetic recombination for D genome

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang Li; Luo Jiang-Tao; Hao Ming; Zhang Lian-Quan; Yuan Zhong-Wei; Yan Ze-Hong; Liu Ya-Xi; Zhang Bo; Liu Bao-Long; Liu Chun-Ji; Zhang Huai-Gang; Zheng You-Liang; Liu Deng-Cai

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background A synthetic doubled-haploid hexaploid wheat population, SynDH1, derived from the spontaneous chromosome doubling of triploid F1 hybrid plants obtained from the cross of hybrids Triticum turgidum ssp. durum line Langdon (LDN) and ssp. turgidum line AS313, with Aegilops tauschii ssp. tauschii accession AS60, was previously constructed. SynDH1 is a tetraploidization-hexaploid doubled haploid (DH) population because it contains recombinant A and B chromosomes from two differen...

  19. Biostimulation effects on wheat seeds (Triticum Aestivum L) caused by low level red laser radiation with λ = 660 nm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The principal objective is to study the biostimulation effects caused by a semiconductor low level laser radiation with ? = 660 nm on wheat seeds (Triticum Aestivum L). Seeds were treated before sowing with this laser light source. An increase in the growth of the stem of 12% with respect to control seeds was registered for seeds radiated by an intensity of 15mW/cm2 and an irradiation time of 60 seconds. (Author)

  20. In vitro Studies of Iron Chelation Activity of Purified Active Ingredients Extracted from Triticum aestivum Linn. (Wheat Grass)

    OpenAIRE

    Das Priyabrata; Mukhopadhyay Ashis; Mandal Suvra; Pal Bikas Chandra; Mishra Raghwendra; Mukherjee Debarati; Mukhopadhyay Soma; Basak Jayasri; Kar Manoj

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Seven to eight days germinated plants of Triticum aestivum (wheat grass) are a rich source of vitamin A, C, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, sulphur, cobalt, zinc and protein. Traditionally the aqueous extract of T. aestivum was reported to be used as a health tonic in folk and ayurvedic medicine. We previously reported that aqueous extract of T. aestivum was found to reduce the blood transfusion requirement in iron overloaded Thalassemia and Myelod...

  1. Determination on Genetic Variation for Morphological Traits and Yield Components of New Winter Wheat (Triticum aestivum L) Lines

    OpenAIRE

    Sali Ali ALIU; FETAHU, Shukri

    2010-01-01

    he genetic studies were conducted on six new winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) line during three years investigations developed in agro ecological conditions of Kosovo. Data for various morphological and yield traits were taken and analyzed for spike length (SL), plant height (PH), total dry matter (TDM), spike Weight (SW), grain weight per spike (GWS), yield (Y) and harvest index (HI). Field design consisted in a randomized blocks design (RBD) with three replications. Results indicated tha...

  2. Mixed cropping of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum) landraces in the central highlands of Eritrea

    OpenAIRE

    Woldeamlak, A.

    2001-01-01

    A common cropping system in the central highlands of Eritrea is mixed cropping of barley (Hordeum vulgare) and wheat (Triticum aestivum); it is called hanfetz (Tigrigna word). Mixtures may give higher yield, better yield stability, better food quality and more animal feed. Factors affecting the productivity of mixtures include genotype combination, crop density and component crop ratio.Grain yields differed significantly among genotype combinations in certain years. A combination of Ardu 12/6...

  3. Genotype and environment interaction on yield and quality parameters of organically grown winter wheatTriticum aestivum L. genotypes

    OpenAIRE

    Dashbaljir, Ichinkhorloo; Liebhard, P.; W. Hartl; Loeschenberger, F.; Weinhappel, M.

    2005-01-01

    The interaction of genotype and environment upon yield and quality parameters of eight winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes was studied under organic conditions in Austria over two growing periods, 2001/2002 and 2002/2003, respectively. Two sites that have significantly different climatic conditions, Innviertel and Marchfeld, were chosen for the field experiment. Study site weather and soil conditions are important yield-affecting factors. Although the yield of Marchfeld-grown ge...

  4. Effects of Fertilizer Potassium on Growth, Yield and Nutrient Uptake of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) under Water Stress Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    BAQUE, Md. Abdullahil; KARIM, Md. Abdul; Hamid, Abdul; HIDAKA, Tetsushi

    2006-01-01

    Water stress causes serious yield loss of wheat (Triticum aestivum) under non-irrigated conditions. This study was initiated to analyze whether potassium fertilizer improves the water stress tolerance in terms of growth, yield and nutrient uptake of this crop. Satabdi, a popular wheat variety in Bangladesh, potassium (low: 39.0, medium: 156 and high: 312 kg ha-1) and three levels of soil moisture, namely control (less than 25% depletion from field capacity, FC), mild stress (more than 37.5% d...

  5. Effects of Salinity on Germination, Growth, Nitrate and Phosphate Accumulation in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Kanchan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seeds of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Kanchan) were allowed to germinate under 0, 25, 50, 100, 200 and 300 mM NaCl-induced salinity. The salinity decreased germination percentage and this was more pronounced towards higher concentration of NaCl. Seedlings of wheat were also raised in water culture under 0, 25, 50 and 100 mM NaCl treatment. The root and shoot growth in terms of dry matter production was decreased with the increase in salinity. Nitrate accumulation was also decreased while accumulation of phosphate was increased in both root and shoot with the increase in salinity.(authors)

  6. Co-digestion of wheat and rye bread suspensions with source-sorted municipal biowaste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chaoran; Mörtelmaier, Christoph; Winter, Josef; Gallert, Claudia

    2015-06-01

    Acidification of wheat bread (WBS), rye bread (RBS) and fresh biowaste suspensions (FBS), leading to lactate+acetate, lactate+acetate+n-buyrate, and acetate+propionate+n-butyrate, respectively, and biogas production as well as population dynamics were investigated. Co-fermentation of FBS (14 kg m(-3) d(-1) organic loading rate (OLR)) with WBS or RBS was stable up to an OLR of 22 kg m(-3) d(-1) and resulted in up to 3 times as much biogas. During co-fermentation at more than 20 kg m(-3) d(-1) OLR the total population increased more than 2-fold, but the originally low share of propionate-oxidizing bacteria significantly decreased. The proportion of methanogens also decreased. Whereas the proportion of Methanosarcinales to Methanomicrobiales in biowaste and biowaste+WBS remained constant, Methanosarcinales and in particular Methanosaeta spec. in the biowaste+RBS assay almost completely disappeared. Methanomicrobiales increased instead, indicating propionate oxidation via acetate cleavage to CO2 and hydrogen. PMID:25843354

  7. An alternative method based on enzymatic fat hydrolysis to quantify volatile compounds in wheat bread crumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pico, Joana; Nozal, María Jesús; Gómez, Manuel; Bernal, José Luis

    2016-09-01

    An alternative method to quantify 40 volatile compounds in wheat bread crumb is proposed. It consists of a Soxhlet extraction with a mixture of dichloromethane and diethyl ether containing lipases and a subsequent concentration with Vigreux column. It is the first time that lipases are added to transform the fat into free fatty acids and glycerol, which elute at the end of the chromatogram after the analytes, avoiding problems in the chromatography due to fat residues, such as dirtiness in the injector, column clogging or overlapping peaks. The extract is most easily analysed by GC/MS, using a standard addition method to correct matrix effect. The method was fully validated, with extraction efficiencies between 70% and 100% and precision RSD lower than 15%. The method was applied to a commercial crumb, with acetoin, phenylethyl alcohol and acetic acid as highly abundant compounds, which are considered main volatiles in crumb. PMID:27041305

  8. Induced variability for yield contributing traits and protein content in bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Certain stable and promising mutants of bread wheat var. K-68 (induced by 15kR gamma rays at low seed moisture) were tested in M4 generation for yield contributing traits and total protein. They differed among themselves and from control with regard to all the characters except few. The reduction in plant height was upto 23.48 per cent and increase in protein was upto 25.31 per cent over the control value of K-68. To determine the magnitude and causes of induced variability various genetic parameters were studied. The high heritability accompanied with high genetic advance was observed for important characters like plant height, spike length, 1000-grain weight, grain yield/plot and total protein. This indicated that these attributes were mainly controlled by additive gene action and thus selection could be effectively used for improvement of the genotypes. (author)

  9. Sampling system for wheat (Triticum aestivum L) area estimation using digital LANDSAT MSS data and aerial photographs. [Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parada, N. D. J. (Principal Investigator); Moreira, M. A.; Chen, S. C.; Batista, G. T.

    1984-01-01

    A procedure to estimate wheat (Triticum aestivum L) area using sampling technique based on aerial photographs and digital LANDSAT MSS data is developed. Aerial photographs covering 720 square km are visually analyzed. To estimate wheat area, a regression approach is applied using different sample sizes and various sampling units. As the size of sampling unit decreased, the percentage of sampled area required to obtain similar estimation performance also decreased. The lowest percentage of the area sampled for wheat estimation with relatively high precision and accuracy through regression estimation is 13.90% using 10 square km as the sampling unit. Wheat area estimation using only aerial photographs is less precise and accurate than those obtained by regression estimation.

  10. Characterization of reduced height mutant of emmer wheat var. NP200 (Triticum dicoccum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Emmer wheat commonly known as Khapli is cultivated on limited area in Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Maharashtra and Gujarat. Although cultivation of emmer wheat is confirmed to a small area, improvement work in this species is gaining importance because of its potential for diabetic patients and high dietary fibre in comparison to durum and bread wheats. Emmer wheat cultivar NP200 is a selection from local wheats of Andhra Pradesh. The cultivar NP200 is tall and is prone to lodging leading to yield loss. Therefore, systematic effort to improve cultivar NP200 is needed with the objective to reduce height and introduce lodging tolerance and to improve harvest index. The cultivar NP200 was irradiated with γ-rays. A reduced height mutant with vigorous growth and high tillering was found in M2 population. The mutant was designated as HW1095. The progeny of mutant in M3 showed 35.7 percent reduction in height as compared to parent. The HW1095 mutant was subjected to gibberellic acid treatment at seedling stage and was found to be insensitive to gibberellic acid. An allele specific marker for major dwarfing gene Rht B1b was used to check the status of dwarfing gene in semi dwarf emmer (DDK1009, DDK1025, HW5013, HW5301 and MACS2961) and tall emmer (Np200 and NP201), semi dwarf durums (HD4502, HD4530, MACS2846) along with dwarf mutant (HW1095). The validity of primer in semi dwarf durums and emmer for Rht B 1b gene was found to be perfect. The parent variety NP200 showed presence of wild type allele (Rht B1a) with the primer pair BF-WR1. All semi dwarf emmer showed a band of 237 bp with primer pair BF-MR1. However, mutant (HW1095) showed absence of amplification for both Rht B1a and Rht B1b alleles with respective primer pairs. The results indicated that the reduced height mutant carried a mutation different than from the existing allele (Rht B1b)

  11. The role of seed size in the non-genetic variation exhibited in salt tolerance studies involving the bread wheat cv. chinese spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Martin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this study was to confirm the role of seed size in the non-genetic variation exhibited during salinity tolerance experiments involving the bread wheat cv. Chinese Spring. The nutrient film/rockwool hydroponics technique was utilised. This study concluded that seed size does not play a significant role in the non-genetic variation generated during a study of salinity tolerance of the bread wheat cv. Chinese Spring.

  12. The physical map of wheat chromosome 1BS provides insights into its gene space organization and evolution

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Raats, D.; Frenkel, Z.; Krugman, T.; Šimková, Hana; Paux, E.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Feuillet, C.; Korol, A.; Fahima, T.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 14, č. 12 (2013). ISSN 1465-6906 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : TRITICUM-AESTIVUM L. * HEXAPLOID WHEAT * BREAD WHEAT Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 10.465, year: 2013

  13. A BAC-based physical map of Brachypodium distachyon and its comparative analysis with rice and wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wheat high molecular weight (HMW)-glutenins are important seed storage proteins that determine bread-making quality in hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum). In this study, detailed comparative sequence analyses of large orthologous HMW-glutenin genomic regions from eight grass species, represent...

  14. Development of a wheat-thinopyrum intermedium robertsonian translocation stock with Sr44 resistance to stem rust (Ug99)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stem rust of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) caused by the fungus Puccinia graminis Pers. F. is one of the most important threats of wheat production. A new stem rust race Ug99 is virulent to most of the resistant genes deployed in cultivars. New genes for Ug99 resistance can be transferred to wh...

  15. ASCORBIC ACID CONTROLS MYCOSPHAERELLA GRAMINICOLA IN BREAD AND DURUM WHEAT THROUGH DIRECT EFFECT ON THE PATHOGEN AND INDIRECT ACTION VIA PLANT DEFENCE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somai-Jemmali, L; Magnin-Robert, M; Randoux, B; Siah, A; Tisserant, B; Halama, P; Reignault, Ph; Hamada, W

    2015-01-01

    Septoria tritici blotch (STB) caused by Mycosphaerella graminicola is one of the most devastating foliar diseases on wheat. Due to the emergence of fungicide-resistant M. graminicola strains and in an effort to reduce the impact of pesticides on the environment, considerable interest has been devoted to alternative control strategies. The use of natural products, especially through a defense-activating effect on the host, could be considered. Acid ascorbic (AA) is synthesized by plants and most animal cells with antioxidant properties. This study aimed at: (i) assessing the protective effect of an AA-based product on bread (BW) and durum (DW) wheat (Triticum aestivum and T. durum, respectively) susceptible cultivars against M. graminicola and (ii) investigating the mechanisms involved in wheat protection. Therefore, the foliar application of a formulated AA-based product (50 mg L-) on 3-week-old wheat plants reduced the infection level by more than 75% for both BW and DW. In vitro experiments revealed that AA induced a strong inhibition of spore germination (at 50 mg L.(-1)) and hyphal growth (at 16 mg L.(-1)) for both M. graminicola strains, infecting either BW or DW. Used as a preventive foliar spray on wheat leaves, microscopic observations revealed that AA inhibits in planta spore germination, hyphal growth, leaf penetration, substomatal colonization and eventually sporulation. Moreover, AA treatment also decreased fungal protease and cell wall degrading enzyme activities, putative pathogenicity determinants of M. graminicola. In addition to these effects on the fungus, AA induced defence reactions in both BW and DW. Indeed, in non-inoculated context, eliciting effect was observed on (i) stimulation of enzymatic activities such as lipoxygenase, peroxydase and catalase and (ii) transcript accumulation of genes encoding for pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins (chitinase class IV, peroxidase). In inoculated condition, accumulation of H2O2 and phenolic compounds

  16. Morphological, yield, cytological and molecular characterization of a bread wheat × tritordeum F1 hybrid

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    J. Lima-Brito; A. Carvalho; A. Martin; J. S. Heslop-Harrison; H. Guedes-Pinto

    2006-08-01

    The morphological, yield, cytological and molecular characteristics of bread wheat × tritordeum F1 hybrids ($2n = 6x = 42$; AABBDHch) and their parents were analysed. Morphologically, these hybrids resembled the wheat parent. They were slightly bigger than both parents, had more spikelets per spike, and tillered more profusely. The hybrids are self-fertile but a reduction of average values of yield parameters was observed. For the cytological approach we used a double-target fluorescence in situ hybridization performed with total genomic DNA from Hordeum chilense L. and the ribosomal sequence pTa71. This technique allowed us to confirm the hybrid nature and to analyse chromosome pairing in this material. Our results showed that the expected complete homologous pairing (14 bivalents plus 14 univalents) was only observed in 9.59% of the pollen mother cells (PMCs) analysed. Some PMCs presented autosyndetic pairing of Hch and A, B or D chromosomes. The average number of univalents was higher in the wheat genome (6.8) than in the Hch genome (5.4). The maximum number of univalents per PMC was 20. We only observed wheat multivalents (one per PMC) but the frequency of trivalents (0.08) was higher than that of quadrivalents (0.058). We amplified 50 RAPD bands polymorphic between the F1 hybrid and one of its parents, and 31 ISSR polymorphic bands. Both sets of markers proved to be reliable for DNA fingerprinting. The complementary use of morphological and yield analysis, molecular cytogenetic techniques and molecular markers allowed a more accurate evaluation and characterization of the hybrids analysed here.

  17. Effect of zinc fertilization on cadmium toxicity in durum and bread wheat grown in zinc-deficient soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of increasing application of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) on shoot dry weight and shoot concentrations of Zn and Cd was studied in bread and durum wheat cultivars. Plants were grown in severely Zn-deficient calcareous soil treated with increasing Zn (0 and 10 mg kg-1 soil) and Cd (0, 10 and 25 mg kg-1 soil) and harvested after 35 and 65 days of growth under greenhouse conditions. Growing plants without Zn fertilization caused severe depression in shoot growth, especially in durum wheat and at high Cd treatment. Cadmium treatments resulted in rapid development of necrotic patches on the base and sheath parts of the oldest leaves of both wheat cultivars, but symptoms were more severe in durum wheat and under Zn deficiency. Decreases in shoot dry weight from increasing Cd application were more severe in Zn-deficient plants. Severity of Cd toxicity symptoms in durum and bread wheat at different Zn treatments did not show any relation to the Cd concentrations in shoot. Increasing Cd application to Zn-deficient plants tended to decrease Zn concentrations in Zn-deficient plants, whereas in plants with adequate Zn, concentrations of Zn were either not affected or increased by Cd. The results show that durum wheat was more sensitive to both Zn deficiency and Cd toxicity as compared to bread wheat. Cadmium toxicity in the shoot was alleviated by Zn treatment, but this was not accompanied by a corresponding decrease in shoot concentrations of Cd. Our results are compatible with the hypothesis that Zn protects plants from Cd toxicity by improving plant defense against Cd-induced oxidative stress and by competing with Cd for binding to critical cell constituents such as enzymes and membrane protein and lipids

  18. Effect of high temperature on cell structure and gluten protein accumulation in the endosperm of the developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grain

    Science.gov (United States)

    High temperature during grain fill is one of the more significant environmental factors that alters wheat yield and flour quality. To identify endosperm responses to high temperature, cell structure and gluten protein composition were investigated in developing wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Butte ...

  19. Starch granule formation and protein deposition in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) starchy endosperm cells are altered by high temperature during grain fill

    Science.gov (United States)

    High temperatures during wheat grain fill decrease starch and protein levels, adversely affecting wheat yield and flour quality. To determine the effect of high temperature on starchy endosperm cell development, grain (Triticum aestivum L. ‘Butte 86’) was produced under a 24/17°C or 37/28°C day/nigh...

  20. Effect of processing on phenolic composition of dough and bread fractions made from refined and whole wheat flour of three wheat varieties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yingjian; Luthria, Devanand; Fuerst, E Patrick; Kiszonas, Alecia M; Yu, Liangli; Morris, Craig F

    2014-10-29

    This study investigated the effect of breadmaking on the assay of phenolic acids from flour, dough, and bread fractions of three whole and refined wheat varieties. Comparison of the efficacy of two commonly used methods for hydrolysis and extraction of phenoilc acids showed that yields of total phenolic acids (TPA) were 5-17% higher among all varieties and flour types when samples were directly hydrolyzed in the presence of ascorbate and EDTA as compared to the method separating free, soluble conjugates and bound, insoluble phenolic acids. Ferulic acid (FA) was the predominant phenolic acid, accounting for means of 59 and 81% of TPA among all refined and whole wheat fractions, respectively. All phenolic acids measured were more abundant in whole wheat than in refined samples. Results indicated that the total quantified phenolic acids did not change significantly when breads were prepared from refined and whole wheat flour. Thus, the potential phytochemical health benefits of total phenolic acids appear to be preserved during bread baking. PMID:25286188

  1. The effects of walnut and pine leaves on bread wheat growth and frequence of common weed species in the East-Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akkaya, Aydin; Dokuyucu, Tevrican; Kara, Rukiye; Dumlupinar, Ziya

    2006-07-01

    A field experiment was carried out to determine the effects of walnut (Juglans regia L.) and pine (Pinus sp.) leaves on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth and weed control, during 2001-02 and 2002-03 growing seasons in East Mediterranean region of Turkey. In this research, the treatments were: applications of ground walnut leaves (GWL) and ground pine leaves (GPL) at 19 g/m2 dose at Zadoks-11, applications of 200, 400 and 800 cc/m2 of walnut leaves extract (WLE2, WLE4 and WLE8 respectively), pine leaves extract (PLE2, PLE4 and PLE8 respectively), mixture extract of 200 cc walnut and 200 cc pine (ME), herbicide application (HA) at 8 g/m2 dose at Zadoks-21, and control (C) without any treatment. The results have indicated that the effects of treatments were significant for grain yield (GY), plant height (PH), flag leaf length (FLL), weed number per square meter (WN), but non significant for grain number per head (GN), grain weight per head (GW), 1000 grain weight (1000 GW), flag leaf width (FLW), head number per square meter (HN), vegetative period (VP), grain filling period (GFP) and days to maturity (DM). PMID:17402244

  2. On-farm dynamic management of genetic diversity: the impact of seed diffusions and seed saving practices on a population-variety of bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Mathieu; Demeulenaere, Elise; Dawson, Julie C; Khan, Abdul Rehman; Galic, Nathalie; Jouanne-Pin, Sophie; Remoue, Carine; Bonneuil, Christophe; Goldringer, Isabelle

    2012-12-01

    Since the domestication of crop species, humans have derived specific varieties for particular uses and shaped the genetic diversity of these varieties. Here, using an interdisciplinary approach combining ethnobotany and population genetics, we document the within-variety genetic structure of a population-variety of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) in relation to farmers' practices to decipher their contribution to crop species evolution. Using 19 microsatellites markers, we conducted two complementary graph theory-based methods to analyze population structure and gene flow among 19 sub-populations of a single population-variety [Rouge de Bordeaux (RDB)]. The ethnobotany approach allowed us to determine the RDB history including diffusion and reproduction events. We found that the complex genetic structure among the RDB sub-populations is highly consistent with the structure of the seed diffusion and reproduction network drawn based on the ethnobotanical study. This structure highlighted the key role of the farmer-led seed diffusion through founder effects, selection and genetic drift because of human practices. An important result is that the genetic diversity conserved on farm is complementary to that found in the genebank indicating that both systems are required for a more efficient crop diversity conservation. PMID:23346224

  3. Accumulation of phenanthrene by roots of intact wheat (Triticum acstivnm L. seedlings: passive or active uptake?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Ting-Hui

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs are of particular concern due to their hydrophobic, recalcitrant, persistent, potentially carcinogenic, mutagenic and toxic properties, and their ubiquitous occurrence in the environment. Most of the PAHs in the environment are present in surface soil. Plants grown in PAH-contaminated soils or water can become contaminated with PAHs because of their uptake. Therefore, they may threaten human and animal health. However, the mechanism for PAHs uptake by crop roots is little understood. It is important to understand exactly how PAHs are transported into the plant root system and into the human food chain, since it is beneficial in governing crop contamination by PAHs, remedying soils or waters polluted by PAHs with plants, and modeling potential uptake for risk assessment. Results The possibility that plant roots may take up phenanthrene (PHE, a representative of PAHs, via active process was investigated using intact wheat (Triticum acstivnm L. seedlings in a series of hydroponic experiments. The time course for PHE uptake into wheat roots grown in Hoagland solution containing 5.62 μM PHE for 36 h could be separated into two periods: a fast uptake process during the initial 2 h and a slow uptake component thereafter. Concentration-dependent PHE uptake was characterized by a smooth, saturable curve with an apparent Km of 23.7 μM and a Vmax of 208 nmol g-1 fresh weight h-1, suggesting a carrier-mediated uptake system. Competition between PHE and naphthalene for their uptake by the roots further supported the carrier-mediated uptake system. Low temperature and 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP could inhibit PHE uptake equally, indicating that metabolism plays a role in PHE uptake. The inhibitions by low temperature and DNP were strengthened with increasing concentration of PHE in external solution within PHE water solubility (7.3 μM. The contribution of active uptake to total absorption was almost 40

  4. The effect of whole grain wheat sourdough bread consumption on serum lipids in healthy normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic and hyperglycemic/hyperinsulinemic adults depends on presence of the APOE E3/E3 genotype: a randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Bakovic Marica; Graham Terry E; Robinson Lindsay E; MacKay Kathryn A; Tucker Amy J; Duncan Alison M

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Epidemiological studies associate consumption of whole grain foods, including breads, with reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk; however, few studies have compared wheat whole grains with wheat refined grains. Methods This study investigated effects of 6-week consumption of whole grain wheat sourdough bread in comparison to white bread on fasting serum lipids in normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic (NGI; n = 14) and hyperglycemic/hyperinsulinemic (HGI; n = 14) adults. The i...

  5. Use of sourdough fermentation and mixture of wheat, chickpea, lentil and bean flours for enhancing the nutritional, texture and sensory characteristics of white bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Calasso, Maria; Campanella, Daniela; De Angelis, Maria; Gobbetti, Marco

    2014-06-16

    This study aimed at investigating the addition of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours to wheat flour bread. Type I sourdough containing legumes or wheat-legume flours were prepared and propagated (back slopped) in laboratory, according to traditional protocols that are routinely used for making typical Italian breads. Based on kinetic of acidification and culture-dependent data, the wheat-legume sourdough was further characterized and selected for bread making. As determined by RAPD-PCR and partial sequencing of 16S rDNA gene analyses, lactic acid bacteria in wheat-legume sourdough included Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus sanfranciscensis, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus fermentum, Weissella cibaria, Lactobacillus pentosus, Lactobacillus coryneformis, Lactobacillus rossiae, Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus parabuchneri and Lactobacillus paraplantarum. Two breads containing 15% (w/w) of legume (chickpea, lentil and bean) flours were produced using selected wheat-legume sourdough (WLSB) and traditional wheat sourdough (WSB). Compared to wheat yeasted bread (WYB), the level of total free amino acids (FAA) was higher in WSB and WLSB. Phytase and antioxidant activities were the highest in WLSB. Compared to bread WYB, the addition of legume flours decreased the in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) (WYB versus WSB). However, the dough fermentation with WSLB favored an increase of IVPD. According to the levels of carbohydrates, dietary fibers and resistant starch, WSB and WLSB showed lower values of hydrolysis index (HI) compared to WYB. As showed by texture and image analyses and sensory evaluation of breads, a good acceptability was found for WSB and, especially, WLSB breads. PMID:24794619

  6. Effect of conventional milling on the nutritional value and antioxidant capacity of wheat types common in Ethiopia and a recovery attempt with bran supplementation in bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heshe, Genet Gebremedhin; Haki, Gulelat Desse; Woldegiorgis, Ashagrie Zewdu; Gemede, Habtamu Fekadu

    2016-07-01

    The effect of wheat flour refined milling on nutritional and antioxidant quality of hard and soft grown in Ethiopia was evaluated. Bread was prepared with the supplementation of the white wheat flour with different levels (0%, 10%, 20%, and 25%) of wheat bran. Whole (100% extraction) and white wheat (68% extraction) flours were analyzed for proximates, minerals, and antioxidants. Results indicated that at a low extraction rate (68%), the protein, fat, fiber, ash, iron, zinc, phosphorous, and antioxidant contents of the samples significantly (P sensory evaluation of bread showed that all the supplementation levels had a mean score above 4 for all preferences on a 7- point hedonic scale. The results indicated that refined milling at 68% extraction significantly reduces the nutritional and antioxidant activity of the wheat flours. Bread of good nutritional and sensory qualities can be produced from 10% and 20% bran supplementations. PMID:27386103

  7. [Substitution of wheat flour by defatted palm meal flour, rich source of dietetic fiber in the preparation of cookies and breads].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacheco de Delahaye, E; Cedres, M; Alvarado, A; Cioccia, A

    1994-06-01

    A flour from defatted oil palm kernels was used for substitution of wheat bran for the preparation of dietary fiber-rich wheat cookies and bread. The flour, containing 71% insoluble dietary fiber, 2% soluble dietary fiber and 19% protein (dry basis), was used at three different levels (3%, 4.5% or 6%) for the formulation of cookies, and at 2.5% and 5% for the preparation of bread. Commercial samples containing 6% and 5% wheat bran for the cookies and bread, respectively, were used as reference products. The dietary fiber content ranged between 6.8 and 10.1% for the experimental cookies and between 5.1 and 7% for the corresponding breads. Both types of products showed lower starch content (42-50% for cookies and 34-36% for breads) than the reference samples. Protein quality, as assessed by true and apparent digestibility, PER and NPR, was similar for experimental and reference cookies and breads. The final product texture (increased/decreased) as dietary fiber level increased. Flavor tests performed with both an untrained panel and the cookie senior chef indicated preference for the 3% palm flour cookies and the 2.5% flour bread. No change in pH regulating compounds was observed in either experimental or reference cookies, although a slight increase in humidity was recorded for the palm flour-based cookies. The experimental bread whiteness decreased as the palm flour level increased.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7733791

  8. An approach to breeding for higher protein content in bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study deals with the development of a suitable experimental approach for improving the protein content of seeds in bread wheat. It has been found that scoring of protein content on a per seed basis rather than as a percentage of seed weight gives better results. In the first place, the heritability of protein content increases nearly three times when scoring is done on the basis of seed number. Also, protein content scored in this way showed a significant positive correlation with seed size. Correlation between seed size and percentage of protein in the seed is negative. An important implication of these findings is that scoring of protein content on the basis of seed number should help to avoid selection of genotypes showing reduced starch synthesis and, therefore, a lower yield of grains as well as protein on a per acre basis. Also, the observations suggest that selection for larger seed size may be an important means of improving the protein content of wheat. These and other implications are discussed. (author)

  9. Silver nanoparticles disrupt wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) growth in a sand matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimkpa, Christian O; McLean, Joan E; Martineau, Nicole; Britt, David W; Haverkamp, Richard; Anderson, Anne J

    2013-01-15

    Hydroponic plant growth studies indicate that silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) are phytotoxic. In this work, the phytotoxicity of commercial Ag NPs (10 nm) was evaluated in a sand growth matrix. Both NPs and soluble Ag were recovered from water extracts of the sand after growth of plants challenged with the commercial product; the surface charge of the Ag NPs in this extract was slightly reduced compared to the stock NPs. The Ag NPs reduced the length of shoots and roots of wheat in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, 2.5 mg/kg of the NPs increased branching in the roots of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), thereby affecting plant biomass. Micron-sized (bulk) Ag particles (2.5 mg/kg) as well as Ag ions (63 μg Ag/kg) equivalent to the amount of soluble Ag in planted sand with Ag NPs (2.5 mg/kg) did not affect plant growth compared to control. In contrast, higher levels of Ag ions (2.5 mg/kg) reduced plant growth to a similar extent as the Ag NPs. Accumulation of Ag was detected in the shoots, indicating an uptake and transport of the metal from the Ag NPs in the sand. Transmision electron microscopy indicated that Ag NPs were present in shoots of plants with roots exposed to the Ag NPs or high levels of Ag ions. Both of these treatments caused oxidative stress in roots, as indicated by accumulation of oxidized glutathione, and induced expression of a gene encoding a metallothionein involved in detoxification by metal ion sequestration. Our findings demonstrate the potential effects of environmental contamination by Ag NPs on the metabolism and growth of food crops in a solid matrix. PMID:23259709

  10. Combining ability analysis for yield and some quality traits in spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar and S. A. Kerkhi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Combining ability analysis was studied in a 10 × 10 diallel cross of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. The analysis of variance for combining revealed that the variance due to gca and sca were highly significant for all the characters indicated that both the additive and non-additive gene actions were involved in the expression of the traits. The genotypes WH 1094, PBW 590 and PBW 373 were considered as the best general combiners, while hybrids DBW 58 x DBW 17, PBW 550 x PBW 373, MP 1236 x PBW 373, WH 1094 x PBW 590, PBW 590 x PBW 373, RAJ 3765 x HD 2687, PBW 590 x WH 711, MP 1236 x PBW 550, RAJ 3765 x DBW 58, HD 2687 x WH 711 and MP 1236 x WH 1094 as good specific combinations for grain yield and other yield contributing and quality traits. The promising parents namely PBW 373, PBW 590 and WH 1094 which are having high gca effects in desirable direction for yield components and for quality traits may be incorporated in crossing programme to have better genotypes for yield better and quality. The crosses PBW 550 x PBW 373, MP 1236 x PBW 373, WH 1094 x PBW 590, MP 1236 x PBW 550 and RAJ 3765 x DBW 58 which showed good sca effects for major yield and more than six yield components characters were also found superior for gluten content, ash content and showed low reaction of phenol on the grains, may be exploited for better yield and chapati quality either by exploiting them through heterosis breeding or involving them in multiple cross breeding programme for obtaining transgressive segregants and broad genetic base population in wheat for improvement in yield.

  11. Flow cytometric chromosome sorting from diploid progenitors of bread wheat, T. urartu, Ae. speltoides and Ae. tauschii

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Molnár, I.; Kubaláková, Marie; Šimková, Hana; Farkas, A.; Cseh, A.; Megyeri, M.; Vrána, Jan; Molnár-Láng, M.; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 127, č. 5 (2014), s. 1091-1104. ISSN 0040-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : SYNTHETIC HEXAPLOID WHEAT * AEGILOPS-TRITICUM GROUP * GENETIC-LINKAGE MAP Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.790, year: 2014

  12. Therapeutic Potential of Organic Triticum aestivum Linn. (Wheat Grass in Prevention and Treatment of Chronic Diseases: An Overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Singh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Shoot of Triticum aestivum Linn. (Hindi Name- gehun, kanak, Sanskrit name- godhuma is called as a wheat grass, belonging to family: Gramineae, which posses high chlorophyll content and essential vitamins, minerals, vital enzymes, amino acids, dietary fibers. Wheat grass has been shown to posses anti-cancer activity, anti-ulcer activity, antioxidant activity, anti-arthritic activity, and blood building activity in Thalassemia Major. It has been argued that wheat grass helps blood flow, digestion and general detoxification of the body. The major clinical utility of wheat grass in diseased conditions might be due to the presence of biologically active compounds and minerals in it and due to its antioxidant potential which is derived from its high content of bioflavonoids such as apigenin, quercitin, luteoline. Furthermore, indole compounds namely choline and laetrile present in it might be also responsible for its therapeutic potential. The presence of 70% chlorophyll, which is almost chemically identical to hemoglobin, in wheat grass makes it more useful in various clinical conditions involving hemoglobin deficiency and other chronic disorders. The present review article focuses onto various studies conducted on the use of wheatgrass in various disease conditions. Since very little clinical studies have been made on this very promising herbal drug, efforts are needed to conduct extensive studies on the wheat grass both in experimental models and human subjects to develop wheat grass therapy with no side effects in prevention, cure and management of chronic diseases for which our modern systems have lost their hopes.

  13. Effects of As on As uptake,speciation,and nutrient uptake by winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under hydroponic conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Quanji; HU Chengxiao; TAN Qiling; SUN Xuccheng; SU Jingjun; LIANG Yuexiang

    2008-01-01

    A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of arsenic (As) stress on growth,nutrition and As uptake,and spcciation in shoots and roots of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).Winter wheat has high tolerance to As.Most As is accumulated in the roots,and an As concentration of 4,421 mg/kg was observed at a solution concentration of 20 mg/L As.Arsenic concentrations in roots were approximately 40-100 times greater than those in shoots.Arsenic in winter wheat roots and shoots occurred as both As3+ and As5+ species,although As3+ was the main species in winter wheat tissues.Arsenic significantly decreased the biomass of winter wheat shoots and roots and affected absorption and transport of micro- and macro-elements in winter wheat tissue.Arsenic treatment significantly increased the concentrations of total Magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) in shoots and enhanced the transport of Mg and Ca from roots to shoots but decreased potassium (K),nitrogen (N),and phosphorus (P) concentrations in both shoots and roots,particularly the concentration of P.Concentrations of iron,copper,and zinc in winter wheat shoots were negatively related to As rates,with correlation coefficients (R2) of 0.93,0.94,and 0.97,respectively.

  14. Reuse of microbially treated olive mill wastewater as fertiliser for wheat (Triticum durum Desf.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fausto Cereti, Carlo; Rossini, Francesco; Federici, Federico; Quaratino, Daniele; Vassilev, Nikolay; Fenice, Massimiliano

    2004-01-01

    Free cells of Aspergillus niger were grown on olive mill wastewater (OMW) supplemented with rock phosphate (RP) in an air-lift bioreactor in batch and repeated-batch processes. The fungus grew well and reduced the chemical oxygen demand of the waste by 35% and 64% in the batch and repeated-batch (fourth batch) processes, respectively. Total sugar content was consistently reduced (ca. 60%) in both processes while reduction of total phenols was minimal. RP was solubilised and maximum soluble P was 0.63 and 0.75 gl(-1) in the batch and repeated-batch (third batch), respectively. Several types of OMW+/-RP, microbially-treated or not, were tested in a greenhouse for their fertilising ability on a soil-wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) model system. Beneficial effects were highest using OMW treated by the repeated-batch process. The treated plants showed an increase in seed biomass, spike number, and kernel weight. Harvest index was highest (0.49+/-0.04) after treatment with OMW from the repeated-batch process. PMID:14592741

  15. Molecular markers validation to drought resistance in wheat meal (Triticum aestivum L. under greenhouse conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Julio

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available With the aim to study the genetic resistance to drought and validate molecular markers co-localized with genes/QTLs for this factor, 16 varieties were evaluated as well as advanced lines of wheat meal (Triticum aestivum in two stages of crop development. Physiological parameters were considered: amount of chlorophyll (clo, wilting or severity degree (SEV and recovery (reco, morphological parameters: foliage dry matter (FDM and root dry matter (RDM, the integrated resistance mechanisms: water use efficiency (WUE, other parameters: number of grains (Ngrain and grain weight (Wgrain, biochemical parameters: Catalaza (CAT, Ascorbate Peroxidase (APX and Guaiacol Peroxidase (POX and three microsatellite markers (Xwmc603, Xwmc596, Xwmc9. Results showed significant differences for MSR and Ngrain. It was observed that Anzaldo, ERR2V.L-20, EARII2V.L-5, EARIZV.L-11, ERR2V.L-11 and EE2V.L-19 were the most resistant to drough water stress. There was a highly significant negative correlation between the MSR and Ngrain. All other variables showed low and non-significant correlations. In biochemical analyzes, the Anzaldo variety showed an increased enzymatic activity compared to controls in all cases (CAT-APX and POX, being the most resistant to water stress by drought. Finally, it was found that SSR markers (Xwmc596 and Xwmc9 are co-located with the gene / QTL of drought resistance and can be used for marker-assisted selection.

  16. Nitrogen use efficiency in wheat (triticum aestivum L.) under elevated CO2 Using 15N tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitrogen availability is a major factor limiting crop production worldwide, and could be a key regulator of crop response to elevated CO2. In such a scenario, the ability of plants to acquire and assimilate nitrogen would be an important determinant for sustaining the better growth of crops observed under elevated atmospheric CO2. In order to test the hypothesis whether increased requirement of nitrogen (N) by plants caused by stimulation in growth under elevated CO2 could alter nitrogen use efficiency as the adaptive mechanism by the plants, wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) was grown in open top chambers under ambient (370 μmol mol-1) and elevated (650 ± 50 μmol mol-1) concentrations of atmospheric CO2 at three levels (100, 150 and 200% of STCR based recommendation) of fertilizer nitrogen applied with 15N labeled urea. All the three nitrogen use efficiency parameters namely, fertilizer N use efficiency (16%), physiological (14%) and agronomic (26%) N use efficiency increased under elevated CO2 compared to ambient grown plants. However, all these, efficiency parameters decreased with increasing application of fertilizer N. Results of our study suggest that while improvement in N use efficiencies is a welcome change under rising atmospheric CO2, application of higher doses of fertilizer N to meet the increased plant demand under elevated CO2 may not be a sustainable option both economically as well as environmentally. (author)

  17. Competition increases sensitivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum to biotic plant-soil feedback.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W H Gera Hol

    Full Text Available Plant-soil feedback (PSF and plant competition play an important role in structuring vegetation composition, but their interaction remains unclear. Recent studies suggest that competing plants could dilute pathogenic effects, whereas the standing view is that competition may increase the sensitivity of the focal plant to PSF. In agro-ecosystems each of these two options would yield contrasting outcomes: reduced versus enhanced effects of weeds on crop biomass production. To test the effect of competition on sensitivity to PSF, we grew Triticum aestivum (Common wheat with and without competition from a weed community composed of Vicia villosa, Chenopodium album and Myosotis arvensis. Plants were grown in sterilized soil, with or without living field inoculum from 4 farms in the UK. In the conditioning phase, field inocula had both positive and negative effects on T. aestivum shoot biomass, depending on farm. In the feedback phase the differences between shoot biomass in T. aestivum monoculture on non-inoculated and inoculated soils had mostly disappeared. However, T. aestivum plants growing in mixtures in the feedback phase were larger on non-inoculated soil than on inoculated soil. Hence, T. aestivum was more sensitive to competition when the field soil biota was present. This was supported by the statistically significant negative correlation between shoot biomass of weeds and T. aestivum, which was absent on sterilized soil. In conclusion, competition in cereal crop-weed systems appears to increase cereal crop sensitivity to soil biota.

  18. Competition increases sensitivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum) to biotic plant-soil feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hol, W H Gera; de Boer, Wietse; ten Hooven, Freddy; van der Putten, Wim H

    2013-01-01

    Plant-soil feedback (PSF) and plant competition play an important role in structuring vegetation composition, but their interaction remains unclear. Recent studies suggest that competing plants could dilute pathogenic effects, whereas the standing view is that competition may increase the sensitivity of the focal plant to PSF. In agro-ecosystems each of these two options would yield contrasting outcomes: reduced versus enhanced effects of weeds on crop biomass production. To test the effect of competition on sensitivity to PSF, we grew Triticum aestivum (Common wheat) with and without competition from a weed community composed of Vicia villosa, Chenopodium album and Myosotis arvensis. Plants were grown in sterilized soil, with or without living field inoculum from 4 farms in the UK. In the conditioning phase, field inocula had both positive and negative effects on T. aestivum shoot biomass, depending on farm. In the feedback phase the differences between shoot biomass in T. aestivum monoculture on non-inoculated and inoculated soils had mostly disappeared. However, T. aestivum plants growing in mixtures in the feedback phase were larger on non-inoculated soil than on inoculated soil. Hence, T. aestivum was more sensitive to competition when the field soil biota was present. This was supported by the statistically significant negative correlation between shoot biomass of weeds and T. aestivum, which was absent on sterilized soil. In conclusion, competition in cereal crop-weed systems appears to increase cereal crop sensitivity to soil biota. PMID:23776610

  19. Arsenate (As) uptake by and distribution in two cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Chun-Nu; Zhu, Yong-Guan; Tong, Yi-Ping; Smith, Sally E; Smith, F A

    2006-01-01

    Two cultivars of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (Jing 411 and Lovrin 10) were used to investigate arsenate (As) uptake and distribution in plants grown in hydroponic culture and in the soil. Results showed that without As addition, Lovrin 10 had higher biomass than Jing 411 in the soil pot experiment; in the hydroponic experiment Lovrin 10 had similar root biomass to and lower shoot biomass than Jing 411. Increasing P supply from 32 to 161 microM resulted in lower tissue As concentrations, and increasing As supply from 0 to 2,000 microM resulted in lower tissue P concentrations. Increasing P supply tended to increase shoot-to-root ratios of As concentrations, and increasing As supply tended to decrease shoot-to-root ratios of As concentrations. Both cultivars invested more in root production under P deficient conditions than under P sufficient conditions. Lovrin 10 invested more biomass production to roots than Jing 411, which might be partly responsible for higher shoot P and As concentrations and higher shoot-to-root ratios of As concentrations. Moreover, Lovrin 10 allocated less As to roots than Jing 411 and the difference disappeared with decreasing P supply. PMID:16081139

  20. Production of Doubled Haploids in Tunisian Durum Wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) Cultivars through unpollinated Ovary Culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The use of doubled haploid technology improves the efficiency of cultivar development and enables homozygous genotypes to be obtained in one generation. The major problem with this approach is the low efficiency of green plant regeneration particularly for durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.). In order to improve the efficiency of green doubled haploid gynogenesis, we have analysed the effect of spike pretreatments. Cold treatment is the most efficient and the most genotype-independent for ovary response and calli development. Mannitol treatment is also interesting for its practicality and has quite comparable results to the cold treatment. PEG based treatments were shown to be inefficient for callus induction. For induction and differentiation media, high 2,4-D, vitamins, glutamine content, and maltose based medium was more efficient for inducing the ovary response and a high rate of callus development. Using the optimised protocol, gynogenesis was performed on three Tunisian genotypes and green fertile doubled haploid plants were obtained. A strong genotypic variation in the gynogenesis response was observed. The Azizi genotype was unresponsive to gynogenesis while the Khiar genotype was the best performing genotype. (author)

  1. Cadmium toxicity on seed germination and seedling growth of wheat Triticum aestivum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria de Fátima Souza Guilherme

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Cadmium toxicity in seed germination and seedling growth of wheat (Triticum aestivum, var. IAC-370 is assessed. The ecotoxicological effects of six experimental concentrations of cadmium (0.03; 0.06; 0.12; 0.6; 1.2; 2.4; 4.8 mM, and control were evaluated. All assays were performed in quadruplicates with 25 seeds per replication in Petri dishes. Responses for toxic effect comprised the variables germination percentage, index of velocity of germination (IVG, length of aerial section and root of the seedlings, green and dry mass of the seedlings. Results showed that T. aestivum seeds exposed to cadmium decreased their normal germination percentage as from 0.03 mM concentration, with a 31% reduction of germination percentage and a 20% decrease in IVG. Cadmium´s inhibition effect on initial growth of seedlings influenced growth of roots and aerial part as from concentration 0.12 mM and reduced the production of green and dry mass of seedlings as from 0.06 mM. The presence and accumulation of cadmium in the soil cultivated with T. aestivum may trigger liabilities in productivity and/or viability caused by its toxicity as from 0.03mM concentrations absorbed by the plant roots.

  2. The Wheat Black Jack: Advances Towards Sequencing the 21 Chromosomes of Bread Wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Choulet, F.; Caccamo, M.; Wright, J.; Alaux, M.; Šimková, Hana; Šafář, Jan; LeRoy, P.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Rogers, J.; Eversole, K.; Feuillet, C.

    Volume 1. Managing, sequencing and mining genetic resources. Dordrecht: Springer, 2014 - (Tuberosa, R.; Graner, A.; Frison, E.), s. 405-438 ISBN 978-94-007-7571-8 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP501/10/1740; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Wheat * Polyploid * Chromosome Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  3. Effect of addition of thermally modified cowpea protein on sensory acceptability and textural properties of wheat bread and sponge cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lydia; Euston, Stephen R; Ahmed, Mohamed A

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the sensory acceptability and textural properties of leavened wheat bread and sponge cake fortified with cow protein isolates that had been denatured and glycated by thermal treatment. Defatted cowpea flour was prepared from cow pea beans and the protein isolate was prepared (CPI) and thermally denatured (DCPI). To prepare glycated cowpea protein isolate (GCPI) the cowpea flour slurry was heat treated before isolation of the protein. CPI was more susceptible to thermal denaturation than GCPI as determined by turbidity and sulphydryl groups resulting in greater loss of solubility. This is attributed to the higher glycation degree and higher carbohydrate content of GCPI as demonstrated by glycoprotein staining of SDS PAGE gels. Water absorption of bread dough was significantly enhanced by DCPI and to a larger extent GCPI compared to the control, resulting in softer texture. CPI resulted in significantly increased crumb hardness in baked bread than the control whereas DCPI or GCPI resulted in significantly softer crumb. Bread fortified with 4% DCPI or GCPI was similar to control as regards sensory and textural properties whereas 4% CPI was significantly different, limiting its inclusion level to 2%. There was a trend for higher sensory acceptability scores for GCPI containing bread compared DCPI. Whole egg was replaced by 20% by GCPI (3.5%) in sponge cake without affecting the sensory acceptability, whereas CPI and DCPI supplemented cakes were significantly different than the control. PMID:26471676

  4. Genetic Analysis and Gliadin Banding Patterns in Some Bread Wheat Varieties Grown in Turkey and Their Hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    KESKİN, Sibel; ASAL, Sevinç; KAVUNCU, Orhan

    1999-01-01

    In this study, 20 individual kernels of "Gün 91", "Kırkpınar 79", "Atay 85", "Kıraç 66", "Bolal 2973", "Bezostaya 1" and "Gerek 79" bread wheat cultivars that are grown in Turkey and their half diallel F 1 hybrids were analysed using polyacylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) in order to determine gliadin band patterns and to show homogeneity and/or heterogeneity. Result of electrophoretic analysis showed that there is a dete...

  5. The Respons of Bread Wheat Genotypes in Different Drought Types I. Grain Yield, Drouhgt Tolerance and Grain Yield Stability

    OpenAIRE

    AYRANCI, Ramazan; SADE, Bayram; SOYLU, Süleyman

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine bread wheat genotypes with high yield potential and stability under controlled field conditions which resembled drought types exist in different plant growth stages in the Central Anatolia Region.This study was conducted using split-plot arrangement in randomized complete block design with four replications, the main plots were five drought treatments (D1: the general drought that represents the long term drought in region, D2:drought from the initia...

  6. Sourdough Bread Made from Wheat and Nontoxic Flours and Started with Selected Lactobacilli Is Tolerated in Celiac Sprue Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Di Cagno, Raffaella; De Angelis, Maria; Auricchio, Salvatore; Greco, Luigi; Clarke, Charmaine; De Vincenzi, Massimo; Giovannini, Claudio; D'Archivio, Massimo; Landolfo, Francesca; Parrilli, Giampaolo; Minervini, Fabio; Arendt, Elke; Gobbetti, Marco

    2004-01-01

    This work was aimed at producing a sourdough bread that is tolerated by celiac sprue (CS) patients. Selected sourdough lactobacilli had specialized peptidases capable of hydrolyzing Pro-rich peptides, including the 33-mer peptide, the most potent inducer of gut-derived human T-cell lines in CS patients. This epitope, the most important in CS, was hydrolyzed completely after treatment with cells and their cytoplasmic extracts (CE). A sourdough made from a mixture of wheat (30%) and nontoxic oa...

  7. Physicochemical effects of chia (Salvia Hispanica) seed flour on each wheat bread-making process phase and product storage

    OpenAIRE

    Verdú Amat, Samuel; Vasquez, Francisco; Ivorra Martínez, Eugenio; Sánchez Salmerón, Antonio José; Barat Baviera, José Manuel; Grau Meló, Raúl

    2015-01-01

    Some chia seed flour effects relating to different bread-making process phases and variables were studied by distinct image analysis and physicochemical techniques. Wheat flours with three different degrees of substitution (5%, 10% and 15%) were tested. In technological terms, the aim was to study the influence and properties of chia flour on several relevant parameters, such as pasting properties, growth kinetics and internal crumb structure during dough fermentation; and baking ...

  8. Flow kaiyotyping and chromosome sorting in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Doleželová, Marie; Vrána, Jan; Čihalíková, Jarmila; Šimková, Hana; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 104, - (2002), s. 1362-1372. ISSN 0040-5752 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA6038204; GA AV ČR IBS5038104 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : Chromosome isolation * Chromosome sorting * Flow cytometry Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.264, year: 2002

  9. Sequence-Based Analysis of Translocations and Inversions in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ma, J.; Stiller, J.; Berkman, P.J.; Wei, Y.M.; Rogers, J.; Feuillet, C.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Mayer, K. F.; Eversole, K.; Zheng, Y.L.; Liu, C.L.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 11 (2013). E-ISSN 1932-6203 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : CHROMOSOMAL TRANSLOCATIONS * HOMOEOLOGOUS GROUP-4 * EVOLUTION Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.534, year: 2013

  10. Combining ability for grain yield and other related traits in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anil Kumar Yadav and Anil Sirohi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Combining ability for grain yield and other related characters was studied in 36 F1s along with 15 parents (12 lines and three testers which were evaluated in a completely Randomized Block Design (RBD with three replications during rabi 2005-06.The results indicated that among various lines, line HD 2687 was identified as a good general combiner for the characters days to heading, days to maturity, plant height and biological yield per plant, whereas, Line UP 2338 appeared as a good general combiner for the characters, plant height, tillers per plant, spikelets per ear, spike length, grains per ear and 1000-grain weight. Line 35th IBWSN-4 for days to maturity and harvest index; Line 35th IBWSN-14 for days to maturity, grains per ear and grain yield per plant; 10th HTWYT-47 for days to heading, days to maturity, tillers per plant and grains per ear; 11th HRWYT-7 for the characters spike length, 1000- grain weight, harvest index and grain yield per plant and 4th IAT-49 for tillers per plant, plant height and harvest index were identified as good general combiners. Lines 20th SAWSN-18, CPAN 3004 and RD 1008 were identified as good general combiners for days to heading, tillers per plant and biological yield per plant, respectively. Tester PBW 373 emerged as a good general combiner for the characters days to heading and biological yield per plant, whereas, Tester PBW 502 appeared as a good general combiner for the tillers per plant. Out of 36 cross combinations, nine crosses viz. UP 2338/ PBW 502, 4th IAT-49 / PBW 502,11th HRWYT-16/ PBW 343,10th HTWYT-47/ PBW 343, RD 1008/ PBW 373 , 35th IBWSN-14/ PBW 502, 20th SAWSN-18/ PBW 343, 35th IBWSN-4/ PBW 502 and CPAN 3004/ PBW 373 emerged with significant positive sca effects for grain yield per plant. The parents involved in these crosses are average x average general combiners and or poor x average combiners except in cross 35th IBWSN-14/ PBW 502 (3.14, which involved good x average general combiners. Desirable specific combining ability of the crosses involving such parents seems to be mainly due to complementation of the genes. Thus these crosses can be exploited for grain yield per plant by using biparental mating system

  11. On-farm produced microbial soil inoculants effects on bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of microbial soil inoculants in agriculture is of increasing interest among growers and scientists. Research on the efficacy and application of soil inoculants, especially on-farm produced inoculants, is limited. This study aimed to determine the effects of a commercially available arbuscu...

  12. Isolation and molecular characterization of ERF1, an ethylene response factor gene from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum), potentially involved in salt-stress responses

    OpenAIRE

    Makhloufi, Emna; Yousfi, Fatma-Ezzahra; Marande, William; Mila, Isabelle; Hanana, Mohsen; Berges, Hélène; Mzid, Rim; Bouzayen, Mondher

    2014-01-01

    As food crop, wheat is of prime importance for human society. Nevertheless, our understanding of the genetic and molecular mechanisms controlling wheat productivity conditions has been, so far, hampered by the lack of sufficient genomic resources. The present work describes the isolation and characterization of TdERF1, an ERF gene from durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. subsp. durum). The structural features of TdERF1 supported the hypothesis that it is a novel member of the ERF family in duru...

  13. Mapping of adult plant stripe rust resistance genes in diploid A genome wheat species and their transfer to bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhuneja, Parveen; Kaur, Satinder; Garg, Tosh; Ghai, Meenu; Kaur, Simarjit; Prashar, M; Bains, N S; Goel, R K; Keller, Beat; Dhaliwal, H S; Singh, Kuldeep

    2008-02-01

    Stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis West. f.sp. tritici, is one of the most damaging diseases of wheat worldwide. Forty genes for stripe rust resistance have been catalogued so far, but the majority of them are not effective against emerging pathotypes. Triticum monococcum and T. boeoticum have excellent levels of resistance to rusts, but so far, no stripe rust resistance gene has been identified or transferred from these species. A set of 121 RILs generated from a cross involving T. monococcum (acc. pau14087) and T. boeoticum (acc. pau5088) was screened for 3 years against a mixture of pathotypes under field conditions. The parental accessions were susceptible to all the prevalent pathotypes at the seedling stage, but resistant at the adult plant stage. Genetic analysis of the RIL population revealed the presence of two genes for stripe rust resistance, with one gene each being contributed by each of the parental lines. A linkage map with 169 SSR and RFLP loci generated from a set of 93 RILs was used for mapping these resistance genes. Based on phenotypic data for 3 years and the pooled data, two QTLs, one each in T. monococcum acc. pau14087 and T. boeoticum acc. pau5088, were detected for resistance in the RIL population. The QTL in T. monococcum mapped on chromosome 2A in a 3.6 cM interval between Xwmc407 and Xwmc170, whereas the QTL from T. boeoticum mapped on 5A in 8.9 cM interval between Xbarc151 and Xcfd12 and these were designated as QYrtm.pau-2A and QYrtb.pau-5A, respectively. Based on field data for 3 years, their R2 values were 14 and 24%, respectively. T. monococcum acc. pau14087 and three resistant RILs were crossed to hexaploid wheat cvs WL711 and PBW343, using T. durum as a bridging species with the objective of transferring these genes into hexaploid wheat. The B genome of T. durum suppressed resistance in the F1 plants, but with subsequent backcrossing one resistance gene could be transferred from one of the RILs to the hexaploid wheat

  14. A Proteomic Study of the Response to Salinity and Drought Stress in an Introgression Strain of Bread Wheat*

    OpenAIRE

    Peng, Zhenying; Wang, Mengcheng; Li, Fei; Lv, Hongjun; Li, Cuiling; Xia, Guangmin

    2009-01-01

    The effect of drought and salinity stress on the seedlings of the somatic hybrid wheat cv. Shanrong No. 3 (SR3) and its parent bread wheat cv. Jinan 177 (JN177) was investigated using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry. Of a set of 93 (root) and 65 (leaf) differentially expressed proteins (DEPs), 34 (root) and six (leaf) DEPs were cultivar-specific. The remaining DEPs were salinity/drought stress-responsive but not cultivar-specific. Many of the DEPs were expressed unde...

  15. Effects of nitrogen and irrigation on gluten protein composition and their relationship to yellow berry disorder in wheat (triticum aestivum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Mexico and the rest of the world, the presence of yellow berry (YB) in wheat grains (Triticum aestivum) has been related with poor quality, this defect is associated with low protein content in the grains. However, the quality of the wheat depends not only on the protein content, but also on the composition of the gluten proteins. The effect of the various agronomic factors on the composition of wheat gluten has been a subject of study worldwide. However, in Mexico, wheat quality still remains an issue, as there is a lack of knowledge regarding the optimal agronomic conditions to produce wheat with good-quality gluten. For this reason, the effects of nitrogen (N) rates and irrigations on the amount of gliadin subclasses, glutenin subunits (two main groups) and grain protein content as well as the relation of these proteins to the YB content in wheat grains were investigated. The experiment was conducted on arable farmland in the Valley of Empalme, Sonora, Mexico (27 degree 58' N, 110 degree 49' W; 10 m altitude), during the fall-winter period of 2009-2010. Tarachi, the hard wheat cultivar studied, was selected for its relative susceptibility to the presence of elevated YB content in mature wheat kernels. Three levels of N (75, 150 or 250 kg ha-1) and three levels of irrigation (1, 2 or 3 auxiliary irrigations) were studied. Using a N rate of 150 kg ha-1 with 3 auxiliary irrigations, wheat with good-quality gluten was obtained. The results suggest that the YB disorder is primarily related to the amount of protein in the wheat grain. (author)

  16. Comparison of the effects of different heat treatment processes on rheological properties of cake and bread wheat flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucsella, Blanka; Takács, Ágnes; Vizer, Viktoria; Schwendener, Urs; Tömösközi, Sándor

    2016-01-01

    Dry and hydrothermal heat treatments are efficient for modifying the technological-functional and shelf-life properties of wheat milling products. Dry heat treatment process is commonly used to enhance the volume of cakes. Hydrothermal heat treatment makes wheat flours suitable as thickener agents. In this study, cake and bread wheat flours that differed in baking properties were exposed to dry (100 °C, 12 min) and hydrothermal (95 °C, 5 min, 5-20 l/h water) heat treatments. Rheological differences caused by the treatments were investigated in a diluted slurry and in a dough matrix. Dry heat treatment resulted in enhanced dough stability. This effect was significantly higher in the cake flour than the bread flour. Altered viscosity properties of the bread flour in the slurry matrix were also observed. The characteristics of hydrothermally treated samples showed matrix dependency: their viscosity increases in the slurry and decreases in the dough matrix. These results can support us to produce flour products with specific techno-functional properties. PMID:26213066

  17. Meiotic behaviour of tetraploid wheats (Triticum turgidum L.) and their synthetic hexaploid wheat derivates influenced by meiotic restitution and heat stress

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Masoumeh Rezaei; Ahmad Arzani; Badraldin Ebrahim Sayed-Tabatabaei

    2010-12-01

    Meiotic restitution is considered to be a common mechanism of polyploidization in plants and hence is one of the most important processes in plant speciation. Meiotic behaviour of plant chromosomes is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. In this study, the meiotic behaviour of cereal crops was investigated, which includes tetraploid wheat genotypes (with and without the meiotic restitution trait) and their derivates (synthetic hexaploid wheats and a doubled haploid (DH) line), grown at two planting dates in the field. In addition, two local landraces of emmer wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. dicoccum), one wheat cultivar (Chinese spring), one DH triticale cultivar (Eleanor) and one rye accession were included. Immature spikes of mid-autumn and end-winter sowing plants were collected in April and May 2008, respectively, fixed in Carnoy’s solution and stained with hematoxylin. Pollen mother cells (PMCs) from anthers at different stages of meiotic process were analysed for their chromosomal behaviour and irregularities. Meiotic aberrations such as laggards, chromosome bridges, micronuclei, abnormal cytokines, chromatin pulling and meiotic restitution were observed and the studied genotypes were accordingly ranked as follows: triticale > synthetic hexaploid wheats > tetraploid wheats possessing meiotic restitution > tetraploid wheats lacking meiotic restitution > rye. The results indicated that the samples that had been planted in the autumn, thus experiencing an optimum temperature level at the flowering stage, exhibited less meiotic irregularities than winter planting samples that encountered heat stress at the flowering period.

  18. Determination of Root Traits in Wild, Landrace and Modern Wheats and Dissection of Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) for Root Characters in Bread Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    BEKTAS, HARUN

    2015-01-01

    Bread wheat is an allohexaploid crop with a large and complex genome structure. It was one of the first crops domesticated by human beings in the Near East and it had dramatic effects on human history. The amount of energy gained per hour of work from wheat was much higher than hunting and gathering. Ancient farmers continuously selected it to increase seed size, grain yield, and straw yield to feed a growing population; this scenario has not changed for thousands of years. Plant scientists, ...

  19. Crystallinity changes in wheat starch during the bread-making process: Starch crystallinity in the bread crust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primo-Martín, C.; Nieuwenhuijzen, N.H. van; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, T. van

    2007-01-01

    The crystallinity of starch in crispy bread crust was quantified using several different techniques. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) demonstrated the presence of granular starch in the crust and remnants of granules when moving towards the crumb. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) sho

  20. Effect of bread dough mixing method on rye bread quality

    OpenAIRE

    Đukić Dragutin A.; Radović Milorad M.; Mandić Leka G.; Vesković-Moračanin Slavica M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sourdough (indirect bread dough mixing method) on the quality of rye/wheat bread (TYPE 500 wheat flour and whole grain rye flour - 60:40) and determine its advantages over the straight dough method. Three bread dough mixing methods were used: I - indirect bread dough mixing using flour scalding; II - indirect bread dough mixing without flour scalding; III - straight dough mixing. The study involved t...

  1. Radioactivity of flour, wheat, bread improvers and dose estimates in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The steady rise in the use of isotopes and nuclear technology in various purposes in human life, both agro-industrial military, medical, may increase the chances of radioactive contamination that increases the exposure of ionizing radiation which raise awareness in increasing the need to know how to assess that exposure. Control of imported foodstuffs to ensure that not contaminated with radioactive materials is very important at this stage. The present study aims to investigating radioactivity in foodstuff consumed in Sudan to measure radionuclide in wheat flour, bread improvers specific objectives to measure radioactive contaminants and to estimate radiation dose from this consumption. The health impact of radionuclide ingestion from foodstuffs was evaluated by the committed effective doses determined in 30 samples of foodstuff. collected in the Port Sudan on the red sea, the radioactivity tracer of K-40, U-238 and Th-232 were measured by gamma ray spectrometry employing an using Nal (Ti) calibration process carried out for gamma spectrometry using MW652 as a reference source which recommended by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) including source Cs-137 and Co-60 with two energy levels. The K-40 activity concentration in the flour samples, rang (303.07-40.48) (Bq/kg), 238U (4.81-1.95) (Bq/kg), Th-232 (7.60-1.61) Bq/kg) wheat samples range k-40 (250.62-27.22) (Bq/kg), U-238 (4.92-190) (Bq/kg), Th-232 (5.74-1.61) (Bq/kg) and bread improvers samples k-40 (68.60-13.61 (Bq/kg) U-238 (5.73-194) (Bq/kg). The total average effective dose for age (>17 years) was found in to flour be 2.35±7.12 mSv/y, 1.15±0.95 mSv/y, 1.65±2.02 mSv/y, the maximum dose values obtained were 6.01 mSv/y, 1.95 mSv/y, 1.57 mSv/y. The total average effective dose for age (>17 years) was found in to wheat 1.58±6.85 mSv/y 1.16±1.33 mSv/y, 0.48±1.14 mSv/y, the maximum dose values obtained were 4.14 mSv/y, 1.66 mSv/y, 0.99 mSv/y. The total average effective dose for age (>17 years) was

  2. The tRNATyr multigene family of Triticum aestivum: genome organization, sequence analyses and maturation of intron-containing pre-tRNAs in wheat germ extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arends, S; Kraus, J; Beier, H

    1996-04-22

    Southern analysis of Triticum DNA has revealed that nuclear tRNATyr genes are dispersed at a minimum of 16 loci in the genome. We have isolated six independent tRNATyr genes from a Triticum aestivum library in addition to three known members of the Triticum tRNATyr family. Four of the sequenced tRNATyr genes code for Triticum tRNA Tyr and two code for tRNA2Tyr. Three genes encode tRNAsTyr which carry one or two nucleotide substitutions as compared to the conventional genes. The nine Triticum tRNATyr genes possess highly conserved intron sequences ranging in size from 12 to 14 nucleotides. A common secondary intron structure with the 5' and 3' splice site loops separated by five base pairs can be formed by all pre-tRNAs Tyr which are efficiently spliced in the homologous wheat germ extract. PMID:8617358

  3. An addition of sourdough and whey proteins affects the nutritional quality of wholemeal wheat bread

    OpenAIRE

    Aneta Kopeć; Barbara Borczak; Mirosław Pysz; Elżbieta Sikora; Marek Sikora; Duska Curic; Dubravka Novotni

    2014-01-01

    Background. Bread can be a good source of nutrients as well as non-nutrient compounds. This study was designed to assess the effect of adding of sourdough and whey proteins to wholemeal (WM) bread produced by bake-off technology on chemical composition and bioavailability of proteins, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and iron content in Wistar rats. Material and methods. Wholemeal breads were baked with using conventional or bake off technology. In breads chemical composition, selected miner...

  4. Heavy metal accumulation in different varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in soil amended with domestic sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamali, Muhammad K., E-mail: mkhanjamali@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)] [Govt. Degree College Usta Muhammad, Balochistan (Pakistan); Kazi, Tasneem G., E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Arain, Muhammad B., E-mail: bilal_KU2004@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Afridi, Hassan I., E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Jalbani, Nusrat, E-mail: nusratjalbani_21@yahoo.com [PCSIR Laboratories Karachi (Pakistan); Kandhro, Ghulam A. [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Shah, Abdul Q., E-mail: aqshah07@yahoo.com [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Baig, Jameel A. [Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)

    2009-05-30

    The concentrations of heavy metals (HMs) in plants served to indicate the metal contamination status of the site, and also revealed the abilities of various plant species to take up and accumulate them from the soil dressed with sewage sludge. A study to comprehend the mobility and transport of HMs from soil and soil amended with untreated sewage sludge to different newly breaded varieties of wheat (Anmol, TJ-83, Abadgar and Mehran-89) in Pakistan. A pot-culture experiment was conducted to study the transfer of HMs to wheat grains, grown in soil (control) and soil amended with sewage sludge (test samples). The total and ethylenediaminetetraaceticacid (EDTA)-extractable HMs in agricultural soil and soil amended with domestic sewage sludge (SDWS) and wheat grains were analysed by flame atomic absorption spectrometer/electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer, prior to microwave-assisted wet acid digestion method. The edible part of wheat plants (grains) from test samples presented high concentration of all HMs understudy (mg kg{sup -1}). Significant correlations were found between metals in exchangeable fractions of soil and SDWS, with total metals in control and test samples of wheat grains. The bio-concentration factors of all HMs were high in grains of two wheat varieties, TJ-83 and Mehran-89, as compared to other varieties, Anmol and Abadgar grown in the same agricultural plots.

  5. Heavy metal accumulation in different varieties of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grown in soil amended with domestic sewage sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of heavy metals (HMs) in plants served to indicate the metal contamination status of the site, and also revealed the abilities of various plant species to take up and accumulate them from the soil dressed with sewage sludge. A study to comprehend the mobility and transport of HMs from soil and soil amended with untreated sewage sludge to different newly breaded varieties of wheat (Anmol, TJ-83, Abadgar and Mehran-89) in Pakistan. A pot-culture experiment was conducted to study the transfer of HMs to wheat grains, grown in soil (control) and soil amended with sewage sludge (test samples). The total and ethylenediaminetetraaceticacid (EDTA)-extractable HMs in agricultural soil and soil amended with domestic sewage sludge (SDWS) and wheat grains were analysed by flame atomic absorption spectrometer/electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometer, prior to microwave-assisted wet acid digestion method. The edible part of wheat plants (grains) from test samples presented high concentration of all HMs understudy (mg kg-1). Significant correlations were found between metals in exchangeable fractions of soil and SDWS, with total metals in control and test samples of wheat grains. The bio-concentration factors of all HMs were high in grains of two wheat varieties, TJ-83 and Mehran-89, as compared to other varieties, Anmol and Abadgar grown in the same agricultural plots.

  6. Identifying variation in resistance to the take-all fungus, Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici, between different ancestral and modern wheat species

    OpenAIRE

    McMillan, Vanessa E; Gutteridge, Richard J; Hammond-Kosack, Kim E.

    2014-01-01

    Background Ancestral wheat relatives are important sources of genetic diversity for the introduction of novel traits for the improvement of modern bread wheat. In this study the aim was to assess the susceptibility of 34 accessions of the diploid wheat Triticum monococcum (A genome) to Gaeumannomyces graminis var. tritici (Ggt), the causal agent of take-all disease. The second aim was to explore the susceptibility of tetraploid wheat (T. durum) and the B genome progenitor species Aegilops spe...

  7. Combined use of in vitro culture and induced mutation for improving complex disease resistance of wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Three genotypes of Triticum were pollinated by pollen of Leymus racemosus inflorescences which were irradiated with 0, 10, 15, and 20 Gy of gamma rays before blooming. Immature embryos were cultured in vitro and continued subculturing for propagation. Forty one plants were obtained. The percentages of acquired embryos, plantlets and survival plants were higher in some treated combinations than their controls. The combination of Xinjiang wheat (T. aestivum sub-sp.) and L. racemosus (gamma irradiated) was the best. The progenies were studied in agronomic characters, cytology, isoenzyme patterns and ELISA. The results showed that some progenies were similar to their female parents in most of their characters and the number of somatic chromosomes; the new characters obtained did not segregate in F2M2 and F3M3; some progenies demonstrated typical bands of leaf peroxidase isoenzyme of L. racemosus and several plants with BYDV-resistance; it was very likely that some genes of L. racemosus were transferred into wheat. The preliminary investigation suggested that wide-crosses between Triticum and Leymus racemosus by means of pollen irradiation and in vitro embryo culture could be an effective way to obtain desirable disease resistant variants in wheat. (author). 4 refs, 1 fig., 5 tabs

  8. 彩粒小麦面包品质评价%Bread Quality Evaluation of Color Wheat Lines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐晓珍; 董玉秀; 位思清; 张宪省; 孙兰珍; 尹燕枰

    2009-01-01

    彩粒小麦富含蛋白质、氨基酸和对人体有益的微量元素或矿物质,具有较高的营养保健作用和加工品质,从而成为食品加工中的特殊原料,可被制成各种高营养功能食品.为了考察我校培育的5个彩粒小麦的面包加工品质,以同一试验田同时种植、采收、加工的济麦19为对照,根据GB/T14611-1993进行了5个彩粒小麦品系的面包制作及其感官品质评价,并采用质构分析法评价了面包的质构特性.结果显示,绿麦面包感官总分最高,D_4红次之,二者高于对照济麦19,而质构品质各有特色.感官和质构评价结果都显示,红5、黑3、红6的面包品质低于济麦19,其中红5较差,黑3更差,红6最差.面包质构品质评价与感官评价结果基本一致,说明可以采用质构特性值辅助评价面包加工品质,可避免感官评价的主观性.%The color wheat contains high percentages of protein, amino acids and minerals beneficial to human body, so possesses high nutrition value and processing quality and becomes a sort of special material for making functional foods. To evaluate the bread processing quality of 5 color wheat lines bred by specialists of our University, a common wheat cultivar, Jimai 19, planted in the same experimental field and harvested, processed at the same conditions with the color wheat lines, was used as control, and bread baking, bread sensory quality according to GB/ T14611 - 1993, and texture profile analysis (TPA) were carried out for the 5 color wheat lines and the common wheat cultivar. Results: The green wheat exhibits the best bread sensory quality, Red D_4 the second; both of them are better than Jimai 19 in bread sensory quality; each of them has its special TPA characters, and hard to be compared with others' In the evaluation of bread sensory quality and TPA characters, Red 5 is worse than Jimai 19, black 3 is worse than Red 5, and Red 6 is the worst. The result of TPA character evaluation

  9. Green manure addition to soil increases grain zinc concentration in bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghili, Forough; Gamper, Hannes A; Eikenberg, Jost; Khoshgoftarmanesh, Amir H; Afyuni, Majid; Schulin, Rainer; Jansa, Jan; Frossard, Emmanuel

    2014-01-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a major problem for many people living on wheat-based diets. Here, we explored whether addition of green manure of red clover and sunflower to a calcareous soil or inoculating a non-indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) strain may increase grain Zn concentration in bread wheat. For this purpose we performed a multifactorial pot experiment, in which the effects of two green manures (red clover, sunflower), ZnSO4 application, soil γ-irradiation (elimination of naturally occurring AMF), and AMF inoculation were tested. Both green manures were labeled with 65Zn radiotracer to record the Zn recoveries in the aboveground plant biomass. Application of ZnSO4 fertilizer increased grain Zn concentration from 20 to 39 mg Zn kg-1 and sole addition of green manure of sunflower to soil raised grain Zn concentration to 31 mg Zn kg-1. Adding the two together to soil increased grain Zn concentration even further to 54 mg Zn kg-1. Mixing green manure of sunflower to soil mobilized additional 48 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 for transfer to the aboveground plant biomass, compared to the total of 132 µg Zn (kg soil)-1 taken up from plain soil when neither green manure nor ZnSO4 were applied. Green manure amendments to soil also raised the DTPA-extractable Zn in soil. Inoculating a non-indigenous AMF did not increase plant Zn uptake. The study thus showed that organic matter amendments to soil can contribute to a better utilization of naturally stocked soil micronutrients, and thereby reduce any need for major external inputs. PMID:24999738

  10. Global commodity price peaks and governmental interventions: The case of the wheat-to-bread supply chain in Serbia – Did consumers really benefit?

    OpenAIRE

    Djuric, Ivan; Gotz, Linde; Glauben, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    We analyze how the governmental market interventions, during the commodity price peaks 2007/2008 and 2010/2011, have affected the transmission of price changes along the wheat-to-bread supply chain in Serbia. We aim to investigate if consumers benefitted from the wheat and flour export restrictions or if other members along the supply chain were able to gain advantage. Our analysis of price dynamics between wheat and flour prices within a Markov Switching Vector Error Correction Model suggest...

  11. Wheat growing, flour milling and bread baking: A case study of a domestic agricultural industry adapting to overseas competition. Report to the foundation for Research Science and Technology

    OpenAIRE

    Pickford, Michael

    1999-01-01

    The wheat growing, flour milling and bread baking industries (henceforth, for the sake of brevity, 'the industries') are closely interrelated in various ways. [...] In New Zealand most wheat is grown to be milled into flour, with individual farmers usually contracting directly with particular millers for sale of their crop prior to sowing the seed. As the country is not self-sufficient in wheat, the local crop has to be supplemented by substantial imports, mostly from Australia. The bulk of t...

  12. Aluminum Tolerance in Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) (I. Uptake and Distribution of Aluminum in Root Apices).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delhaize, E.; Craig, S.; Beaton, C. D.; Bennet, R. J.; Jagadish, V. C.; Randall, P. J.

    1993-11-01

    We investigated the uptake and distribution of Al in root apices of near-isogenic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) lines differing in Al tolerance at a single locus (Alt1: aluminum tolerance). Seedlings were grown in nutrient solution that contained 100 [mu]M Al, and the roots were subsequently stained with hematoxylin, a compound that binds Al in vitro to form a colored complex. Root apices of Al-sensitive genotypes stained after short exposures to Al (10 min and 1 h), whereas apices of Al-tolerant seedlings showed less intense staining after equivalent exposures. Differential staining preceded differences observed in either root elongation or total Al concentrations of root apices (terminal 2-3 mm of root). After 4 h of exposure to 100 [mu]M Al in nutrient solution, Al-sensitive genotypes accumulated more total Al in root apices than Al-tolerant genotypes, and the differences became more marked with time. Analysis of freeze-dried root apices by x-ray microanalysis showed that Al entered root apices of Al-sensitive plants and accumulated in the epidermal layer and in the cortical layer immediately below the epidermis. Long-term exposure of sensitive apices to Al (24 h) resulted in a distribution of Al coinciding with the absence of K. Quantitation of Al in the cortical layer showed that sensitive apices accumulated 5- to 10-fold more Al than tolerant apices exposed to Al solutions for equivalent times. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that Alt1 encodes a mechanism that excludes Al from root apices. PMID:12231972

  13. Interannual variability of CO2 fluxes and yield by a winter wheat crop (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufranne, D.; Vancutsem, F.; Moureaux, C.; Hoyaux, J.; Bodson, B.; Aubinet, M.

    2009-04-01

    In this study, two winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cropping seasons were compared at the Lonzée (Belgium) experimental site. The site, crop management, sowing and harvest dates were similar on the two years. The main difference between the seasons was due to to climate conditions. Continuous eddy-covariance fluxes, leaf scale photosynthesis measurements and crop development monitoring were performed during the whole vegetation periods. Globally, the two years were characterised by a higher than normal air temperature (9.9 °C and 11.9 °C respectively against 9.4 °C for standard) and lower than normal rainfalls (595.1 mm and 675.1 mm respectively against 772 mm for standard). In addition, the second season (2006-2007) was characterised by an exceptionally mild winter, dry and hot conditions in April and by humid and cloudy conditions during the last vegetation phases. These particular conditions induced earlier growth stages and the comparison of global fluxes gives contrasting results: gross primary productivity (GPP) was larger in 2007 but, on the contrary, net primary productivity (NPP) and crop productivity were lower on this year. The bad yields could be explained, on one hand by the drought in April 2007 that induced abnormally small flag leaves, on the other hand by cloudy and humid conditions from end May to harvest, that induced an assimilation reduction due to low radiation and favoured disease development. The simultaneous higher GPP and lower NPP and productivity in 2006-2007 raise the question of carbon allocation. It suggests that the excess carbon assimilated in 2006-2007 was not stored in grain or straw and thus that it would have been stored in the roots or in vegetation parts that decompose before the harvest. Further biomass measurements (and especially root biomass) are necessary to confirm this hypothesis.

  14. Silicon alleviates Cd stress of wheat seedlings (Triticum turgidum L. cv. Claudio) grown in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizwan, M; Meunier, J-D; Davidian, J-C; Pokrovsky, O S; Bovet, N; Keller, C

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the potential role of silicon in improving tolerance and decreasing cadmium (Cd) toxicity in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. durum) either through a reduced Cd uptake or exclusion/sequestration in non-metabolic tissues. For this, plants were grown in hydroponic conditions for 10 days either in presence or absence of 1 mM Si and for 11 additional days in various Cd concentrations (0, 0.5, 5.0 and 50 μM). After harvesting, morphological and physiological parameters as well as elemental concentrations were recorded. Cadmium caused reduction in growth parameters, photosynthetic pigments and mineral nutrient concentrations both in shoots and roots. Shoot and root contents of malate, citrate and aconitate increased, while contents of phosphate, nitrate and sulphate decreased with increasing Cd concentrations in plants. Addition of Si to the nutrient solution mitigated these adverse effects: Cd concentration in shoots decreased while concentration of Cd adsorbed at the root cell apoplasmic level increased together with Zn uptake by roots. Overall, total Cd uptake decreased in presence of Si. There was no co-localisation of Cd and Si either at the shoot or at the root levels. No Cd was detected in leaf phytoliths. In roots, Cd was mainly detected in the cortical parenchyma and Si at the endodermis level, while analysis of the outer thin root surface of the plants grown in the 50 μM Cd + 1 mM Si treatment highlighted non-homogeneous Cd and Si enrichments. These data strongly suggest the existence of a root localised protection mechanism consisting in armoring the root surface by Si- and Cd-bearing compounds and in limiting root-shoot translocation. PMID:26370813

  15. Cellular and Subcellular Immunohistochemical Localization and Quantification of Cadmium Ions in Wheat (Triticum aestivum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    Full Text Available The distribution of metallic ions in plant tissues is associated with their toxicity and is important for understanding mechanisms of toxicity tolerance. A quantitative histochemical method can help advance knowledge of cellular and subcellular localization and distribution of heavy metals in plant tissues. An immunohistochemical (IHC imaging method for cadmium ions (Cd2+ was developed for the first time for the wheat Triticum aestivum grown in Cd2+-fortified soils. Also, 1-(4-Isothiocyanobenzyl-ethylenediamine-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid (ITCB-EDTA was used to chelate the mobile Cd2+. The ITCB-EDTA/Cd2+ complex was fixed with proteins in situ via the isothiocyano group. A new Cd2+-EDTA specific monoclonal antibody, 4F3B6D9A1, was used to locate the Cd2+-EDTA protein complex. After staining, the fluorescence intensities of sections of Cd2+-positive roots were compared with those of Cd2+-negative roots under a laser confocal scanning microscope, and the location of colloidal gold particles was determined with a transmission electron microscope. The results enable quantification of the Cd2+ content in plant tissues and illustrate Cd2+ translocation and cellular and subcellular responses of T. aestivum to Cd2+ stress. Compared to the conventional metal-S coprecipitation histochemical method, this new IHC method is quantitative, more specific and has less background interference. The subcellular location of Cd2+ was also confirmed with energy-dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The IHC method is suitable for locating and quantifying Cd2+ in plant tissues and can be extended to other heavy metallic ions.

  16. Organic Cultivation of Triticum turgidum subsp. durum Is Reflected in the Flour-Sourdough Fermentation-Bread Axis

    OpenAIRE

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Cavoski, Ivana; Turk, Jelena; Ercolini, Danilo; Nionelli, Luana; Pontonio, Erica; De Angelis, Maria; De Filippis, Francesca; Gobbetti, Marco; Di Cagno, Raffaella

    2015-01-01

    Triticum turgidum subsp. durum was grown according to four farming systems: conventional (CONV), organic with cow manure (OMAN) or green manure (OLEG), and without inputs (NOINPUT). Some chemical and technological characteristics differed between CONV and organic flours. As shown by two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) analysis, OMAN and OLEG flours showed the highest number of gliadins, and OMAN flour also had the highest number of high-molecular-mass glutenins. Type I sourdoughs were prep...

  17. The Effects of Different Carbon Dioxide Doses on Yield and Nutritional Values of Hydroponic Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Grass Juice

    OpenAIRE

    KARAŞAHİN, Muhammet

    2015-01-01

    This research has been conducted in the conditioning chamber of  Karabük University Eskipazar Vocational School Department Crop and Animal Production between the dates of 5.01.2015 and 01.08.2015 in order to identify the effects of different carbon dioxide doses on yield and nutritional values of hydroponic wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) grass juice. In the research, three different carbon dioxide doses (Control; 0, D1; 750, D2; 1500, D3; 2000 ppm) have been applied to growth medium and their e...

  18. Characterization of N-type glycosylation sites and glycan structures of Purple Acid Phosphatase Phytases from Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dionisio, Giuseppe; Brinch-Pedersen, Henrik; Welinder, Karen Gjesing;

    2011-01-01

    Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) possesses preformed phytase activity in the grain that is essential to make phosphate available to cell metabolism and in food and feed (Brejnholt S. et al., 2011). Cereals contain the purple acid phosphatase type of phytases, PAPhy (Dionisio G. et al., 2011a). Mature......) Cloning and Characterization of Purple Acid Phosphatase Phytases from Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), Maize (Zea maize L.) and Rice (Oryza sativa L.). Plant Physiol. [in press, Jan 10, Epub ahead of print] Dionisio G., Brinch-Pedersen H., Welinder K.G., Jørgensen M. (2011b...

  19. Heritability studies of yield and yield associated traits in bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heritability studies provide valid information about the traits that are transmitted from parents to offspring and also to the successive generations. Such studies help plant breeders to predict a successful cross with high heritability transmission to the progeny and thus are useful in the incorporation of characters into the offspring. Heritability study was conducted in F5 segregating generation of a cross between HT5 (female) and HT 37 (male) of bread wheat. The genetic parameters calculated were genetic variance (Vg,), environmental variance (Ve) and heritability percentage in broad sense (h2%), genetic advance (GA) and heritability coefficient (H). The highest heritability was observed for spike length (79.3%), number of grains per spike (54.5%) and main spike yield (69.5%) associated with high genetic advance (2.8, 22.8 and 1.5 respectively). Moderate to high heritability were recorded for peduncle length (48.75%) and number of grains per spikelet (47.2%) which associated with high genetic advance (2.3 and 0.68 respectively). However awn length and plant height had shown acceptable heritability values. The present finding suggests that most of the yield associated traits have been successfully transmitted. The information generated will be helpful for better understanding and selection of suitable, desirable material especially in advance generations. (author)

  20. Evaluation of the Agronomical and Biochemical Characteristics of New Lines of Bread Wheat in Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramazan DOGAN

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen new lines of bread wheat obtained from the CIMMYT/ICARDA and a standard cultivar were evaluated during three successive years (2003, 2004 and 2005. The experiments were conducted at the experimental farm of the Faculty of Agriculture of the Uluda? University in Bursa. The lines and the standard cultivar showed significant differences in plant height, number of seeds/spike, seed weight/spike, seed yield and a 1000-kernel weight. The lines numbered 4, 6, 7, 9, 11, 14 and 15 produced significantly higher seed yields than the standard cultivar. Therefore, they formed the highest group (a of seed yield. Similarly, these lines had a higher number of seeds/spike value than the standard cultivar. However, lines 6 and 11 produced higher seed yields than lines 4, 7, 9, 14 and 15. In particular, the gluten composition and the zeleny sedimentation test values of whole flours revealed that lines 6 and 11 could be suitable for high-quality pasta production with good sensory characteristics. To summarize, there were significant differences between the lines with respect to agronomic and biochemical characteristics. In particular, lines 6 and 11 had better performance than both the other lines and the standard cultivar because of their seed yield and quality.

  1. Lutein and lutein esters in whole grain flours made from 75 genotypes of 5 triticum species grown at multiple sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Jochen U; Wahl, Sabine; Würschum, Tobias; Longin, C Friedrich H; Carle, Reinhold; Schweiggert, Ralf M

    2015-05-27

    Concentrations of lutein and lutein esters were determined in an ample collection of 75 wheat genotypes comprising bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), durum (Triticum durum Desf.), spelt (Triticum spelta L.), emmer (Triticum dicoccum Schrank), and einkorn (Triticum monococcum L.) grown in five different environments. Einkorn genotypes showed the highest total amounts of lutein (4.5-7.8 μg/g dry matter), followed by durum (2.0-4.6 μg/g), spelt (0.9-2.0 μg/g), emmer (0.8-1.9 μg/g), and bread wheat (0.7-2.0 μg/g). Due to the observed highly significant genetic variance and high heritability, lutein contents of wheat genotypes may be increased by future plant breeding. Detailed HPLC-DAD-APCI(±)-MS(n) data allowing the identification of six lutein monoesters and nine diesters are presented. Linoleic, palmitic, and oleic acids were the most abundant fatty acids in both the lutein esters and total free lipid fractions. Lutein esters were virtually absent in the tetraploid durum and emmer species, whereas their concentrations considerably differed among the genotypes belonging to the other species. PMID:25946219

  2. Evolution and Distribution of Hydrolytic Enzyme Activities during Preharvest Sprouting of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) in the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olaerts, Heleen; Roye, Chiara; Derde, Liesbeth J; Sinnaeve, Georges; Meza, Walter R; Bodson, Bernard; Courtin, Christophe M

    2016-07-20

    To date, research on preharvest sprouted (PHS) wheat has mostly been conducted on kernels germinated under laboratory conditions, which differ widely from conditions in the field. To obtain detailed knowledge of the evolution of hydrolytic enzyme activities in PHS wheat (Triticum aestivum), a broad collection of samples from three varieties was obtained by harvesting before, at, and after maturity. Delaying harvest time coupled with periods of heavy rainfall caused sprouting in the kernels, observed as a drop in Falling Number and an increase in α-amylase activity. The appearance of α- and β-amylase, peptidase, and endoxylanase activity during field sprouting was independent from each other. Consequently, Falling Number could not be used to predict activity of other hydrolytic enzymes. When differentiating endogenous from kernel-associated microbial enzymes, results showed that α- and β-amylase and peptidase activity of PHS kernels were predominantly of endogenous origin, whereas endoxylanase activity was largely from microbial origin. PMID:27341479

  3. Composition and functional analysis of low-molecular-weight glutenin alleles with Aroona near-isogenic lines of bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaofei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS strongly influence the bread-making quality of bread wheat. These proteins are encoded by a multi-gene family located at the Glu-A3, Glu-B3 and Glu-D3 loci on the short arms of homoeologous group 1 chromosomes, and show high allelic variation. To characterize the genetic and protein compositions of LMW-GS alleles, we investigated 16 Aroona near-isogenic lines (NILs using SDS-PAGE, 2D-PAGE and the LMW-GS gene marker system. Moreover, the composition of glutenin macro-polymers, dough properties and pan bread quality parameters were determined for functional analysis of LMW-GS alleles in the NILs. Results Using the LMW-GS gene marker system, 14–20 LMW-GS genes were identified in individual NILs. At the Glu-A3 locus, two m-type and 2–4 i-type genes were identified and their allelic variants showed high polymorphisms in length and nucleotide sequences. The Glu-A3d allele possessed three active genes, the highest number among Glu-A3 alleles. At the Glu-B3 locus, 2–3 m-type and 1–3 s-type genes were identified from individual NILs. Based on the different compositions of s-type genes, Glu-B3 alleles were divided into two groups, one containing Glu-B3a, B3b, B3f and B3g, and the other comprising Glu-B3c, B3d, B3h and B3i. Eight conserved genes were identified among Glu-D3 alleles, except for Glu-D3f. The protein products of the unique active genes in each NIL were detected using protein electrophoresis. Among Glu-3 alleles, the Glu-A3e genotype without i-type LMW-GS performed worst in almost all quality properties. Glu-B3b, B3g and B3i showed better quality parameters than the other Glu-B3 alleles, whereas the Glu-B3c allele containing s-type genes with low expression levels had an inferior effect on bread-making quality. Due to the conserved genes at Glu-D3 locus, Glu-D3 alleles showed no significant differences in effects on all quality parameters. Conclusions This work

  4. Variations in Content and Extractability of Durum Wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum Arabinoxylans Associated with Genetic and Environmental Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela Sgrulletta

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Arabinoxylans (AX represent the most abundant components of non-starch polysaccharides in wheat, constituting about 70% of cell wall polysaccharides. An important property of AX is their ability to form highly viscous water solutions; this peculiarity has a significant impact on the technological characteristics of wheat and determines the physiologically positive influence in consumption. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum, the raw material for pasta production, is one of the most important crops in Italy. As part of a large project aimed at improving durum wheat quality, the characterization of the nutritional and technological aspects of whole grains was considered. Particular attention was addressed to identify the best suited genotypes for the production of innovative types of pasta with enhanced functional and organoleptic properties. The objective of the present study was to investigate the genetic variability of AX by examining a group of durum wheat genotypes collected at two localities in Italy for two consecutive years. The environmental influence on AX content and extractability was also evaluated. Variability in the AX fraction contents was observed; the results indicated that AX fractions of durum wheat grain can be affected by the genotype and environment characteristics and the different contribution of genotype and environment to total variation was evidenced. The genotype × environment (G × E interaction was significant for all examined traits, the variations due to G × E being lower than that of genotype or environment. The data and the statistical analysis allowed identification of the Italian durum wheat varieties that were consistently higher in total arabinoxilans; in addition, principal component analysis biplots illustrated that for arabinoxylan fractions some varieties responded differently in various environment climatic conditions.

  5. Variations in content and extractability of durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) Arabinoxylans associated with genetic and environmental factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccoritti, Roberto; Scalfati, Giulia; Cammerata, Alessandro; Sgrulletta, Daniela

    2011-01-01

    Arabinoxylans (AX) represent the most abundant components of non-starch polysaccharides in wheat, constituting about 70% of cell wall polysaccharides. An important property of AX is their ability to form highly viscous water solutions; this peculiarity has a significant impact on the technological characteristics of wheat and determines the physiologically positive influence in consumption. Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum), the raw material for pasta production, is one of the most important crops in Italy. As part of a large project aimed at improving durum wheat quality, the characterization of the nutritional and technological aspects of whole grains was considered. Particular attention was addressed to identify the best suited genotypes for the production of innovative types of pasta with enhanced functional and organoleptic properties. The objective of the present study was to investigate the genetic variability of AX by examining a group of durum wheat genotypes collected at two localities in Italy for two consecutive years. The environmental influence on AX content and extractability was also evaluated. Variability in the AX fraction contents was observed; the results indicated that AX fractions of durum wheat grain can be affected by the genotype and environment characteristics and the different contribution of genotype and environment to total variation was evidenced. The genotype × environment (G × E) interaction was significant for all examined traits, the variations due to G × E being lower than that of genotype or environment. The data and the statistical analysis allowed identification of the Italian durum wheat varieties that were consistently higher in total arabinoxilans; in addition, principal component analysis biplots illustrated that for arabinoxylan fractions some varieties responded differently in various environment climatic conditions. PMID:21845095

  6. Marker Gene Delivery to Mature Wheat Embryos Via Particle Bombardment

    OpenAIRE

    Öktem, Hüseyin Avni; EYİDOGAN, Füsun (İnci); ERTUĞRUL, Fahriye; Yücel, Meral

    1999-01-01

    The possibility of transferring genes to mature wheat embryos ( Triticum aestivumL. and T. durum Desf.) via accelerated and DNA-coated tungsten particles was investigated. Mature embryos isolated from bread (cv. Atay) and durum (cv. Çakmak) wheat were utilised as targets for bombardment. DNA in the form of circular plasmid (pBSGUSINT) was precipitated on tungsten particles (ca. 2 mm diameter) using the calcium nitrate method. Mature embryos were bombarded by a microprocessor-controlled partic...

  7. WHEAT PATHOGEN RESISTANCE AND CHITINASE PROFILE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Gregorová

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The powdery mildew and leaf rust caused by Blumeria graminis and Puccinia recondita (respectively are common diseases of wheat throughout the world. These fungal diseases greatly affect crop productivity. Incorporation of effective and durable disease resistance is an important breeding objective for wheat improvement. We have evaluated resistance of four bread wheat (Triticum aestivum and four spelt wheat (Triticum spelta cultivars. Chitinases occurrence as well as their activity was determined in leaf tissues. There was no correlation between resistance rating and activity of chitinase. The pattern of chitinases reveals four isoforms with different size in eight wheat cultivars. A detailed understanding of the molecular events that take place during a plant–pathogen interaction is an essential goal for disease control in the future.

  8. Comparative Functional Analysis of Wheat (Triticum aestivum) Zinc Finger-Containing Glycine-Rich RNA-Binding Proteins in Response to Abiotic Stresses

    OpenAIRE

    XU, TAO; Gu, Lili; Choi, Min Ji; Kim, Ryeo Jin; Suh, Mi Chung; Kang, Hunseung

    2014-01-01

    Although the functional roles of zinc finger-containing glycine-rich RNA-binding proteins (RZs) have been characterized in several plant species, including Arabidopsis thaliana and rice (Oryza sativa), the physiological functions of RZs in wheat (Triticum aestivum) remain largely unknown. Here, the functional roles of the three wheat RZ family members, named TaRZ1, TaRZ2, and TaRZ3, were investigated using transgenic Arabidopsis plants under various abiotic stress conditions. Expression of Ta...

  9. A positive allelopathic effect of corn cockle, agrostemma githago, on wheat, triticum aestivum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, B.; Doll, H.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of com cockle on wheat was studied during germination and on adult plants in a growth chamber. Seedling length of wheat germinated together with corn cockle for 5 days increased 13%. Wheat growing together with corn cockle in pots to maturity had a statistically significant higher wheat...

  10. Gamma radiation influence on technological characteristics of wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Christian A. H. M.; Inamura, Patricia Y.; Uehara, Vanessa B.; Mastro, Nelida L. d.

    2012-08-01

    This study aimed at determining the influence of gamma radiation on technological characteristics of wheat (Triticum sativum) flour and physical properties of pan breads made with this flour. The bread formulation included wheat flour, water, milk, salt, sugar, yeast and butter. The α-amylase activity of wheat flour irradiated with 1, 3 and 9 kGy in a Gammacell 220 (AECL), one day, five days and one month after irradiation was evaluated. Deformation force, height and weight of breads prepared with the irradiated flour were also determined. The enzymatic activity increased—reduction of falling number time—as radiation dose increased, their values being 397 s (0 kGy), 388 s (1 kGy), 343 s (3 kGy) and 293 s (9 kGy) respectively, remaining almost constant over the period of one month. Pan breads prepared with irradiated wheat flour showed increased weight. Texture analysis showed that bread made of irradiated flour presented an increase in maximum deformation force. The results indicate that wheat flour ionizing radiation processing may confer increased enzymatic activity on bread making and depending on the irradiation dose, an increase in weight, height and deformation force parameters of pan breads made of it.

  11. Study on the Immunoreactivity of Triticum monococcum (Einkorn) Wheat in Patients with Wheat-Dependent Exercise-Induced Anaphylaxis for the Production of Hypoallergenic Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardo, Carla; Bolla, Michela; Chignola, Roberto; Senna, Gianenrico; Rossin, Giacomo; Caruso, Beatrice; Tomelleri, Carlo; Cecconi, Daniela; Brandolini, Andrea; Zoccatelli, Gianni

    2015-09-23

    Wheat [Triticum aestivum (T.a.)] ingestion can cause a specific allergic reaction, which is called wheat-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (WDEIA). The major allergen involved is ω-5 gliadin, a gluten protein coded by genes located on the B genome. Our aim was to study the immunoreactivity of proteins in Triticum monococcum (einkorn, T.m.), a diploid ancestral wheat lacking B chromosomes, for possible use in the production of hypoallergenic foods. A total of 14 patients with a clear history of WDEIA and specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) to ω-5 gliadin were enrolled. Skin prick test (SPT) with a commercial wheat extract and an in-house T.a. gluten diagnostic solution tested positive for 43 and 100% of the cases, respectively. No reactivity in patients tested with solutions prepared from four T.m. accessions was observed. The immunoblotting of T.m. gluten proteins performed with the sera of patients showed different IgE-binding profiles with respect to T.a., confirming the absence of ω-5 gliadin. A general lower immunoreactivity of T.m. gluten proteins with scarce cross-reactivity to ω-5 gliadin epitopes was assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Given the absence of reactivity by SPT and the limited cross-reactivity with ω-5 gliadin, T.m. might represent a potential candidate in the production of hypoallergenic bakery products for patients sensitized to ω-5 gliadin. Further analyses need to be carried out regarding its safety. PMID:26332577

  12. A positive allelopathic effect of corn cockle, agrostemma githago, on wheat, triticum aestivum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, B.; Doll, H.

    1992-01-01

    The effect of com cockle on wheat was studied during germination and on adult plants in a growth chamber. Seedling length of wheat germinated together with corn cockle for 5 days increased 13%. Wheat growing together with corn cockle in pots to maturity had a statistically significant higher wheat...... biomass and grain production than wheat growing alone. However, two other experiments with adult plants harvested before wheat maturity showed no effect of corn cockle on wheat production per pot. Within the pots the presence of corn cockle influenced wheat in all three experiments. Wheat plants growing...... at the same position as a corn cockle plant were 20 to 50% larger than wheat plants standing alone....

  13. MOLECULAR SCREENING OF LEAF RUST AND STRIP RUST RESISTANCE GENES IN F5 BREAD WHEAT IN EGYPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reham M. Abd El-Azeem

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Highly wheat production in Egypt is constrained due to many diseases. Rust and stripe (yellow rust diseases consider from the most important wheat diseases in Egypt. Thus, molecular screening of genetically resistant cultivars, varieties, accessions and hybrids offspring through many generations, is one of the most sustainable solutions to overcome these diseases. The objective of this study is screening strip (yellow rust and leaf rust resistance genes in the three parents varieties, and F5 bread wheat families resulting from two hybrids: (Debeira x Sahel1 and (Sids6 x Sahel1. This was established by using Yr10 and Yr15 SSR markers for screening (yellow rust resistance genes, and Lr9, Lr19, Lr24 and Lr26 as STS and SCAR markers for screening leaf rust resistance genes. The obtained results showed that, none of the studied wheat families had all the screened resistance genes. Where, families resulting from (Debeira x Sahel1 did not have any of the studied rust resistance genes. While, the families resulting from (Sids6 x Sahel1 had both SSR markers except family no. 22 had Yr10 only. For the Lr genes, all the studied families of both hybrids had the Lr9 resistance gene. There were variations between families in having the Lr19 resistance gene. The SCAR marker for Lr24 resistance gene was found in Debeira parent and families no. 17, 18,20 ,24 ,30 and 39 of its hybrid. No bands of this marker were found in any of the parents or families of (Sids6 x Sahel1 hybrid. Finally the Lr26 STS marker was not found in any of the studied bread wheat families

  14. Towards isolating the durable stem rust resistance gene Sr2 from hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kota, R.; Spielmeyer, R.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Šafář, Jan; Paux, E.; McIntosh, R.A.; Lagudah, E.S.

    2006. p. 181. [International Conference “Plant and Animal Genome XIV”. 14.01.2006-18.01.2006, San Diego] Keywords : Triticum aestivum L. * flow-sorted chromosomes * BAC libraries Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology

  15. A complete mitochondrial genome of wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Yumai), and fast evolving mitochondrial genes in higher plants

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Peng Cui; Huitao Liu; Qiang Lin; Feng Ding; Guoyin Zhuo; Songnian Hu; Dongcheng Liu; Wenlong Yang; Kehui Zhan; Aimin Zhang; Jun Yu

    2009-12-01

    Plant mitochondrial genomes, encoding necessary proteins involved in the system of energy production, play an important role in the development and reproduction of the plant. They occupy a specific evolutionary pattern relative to their nuclear counterparts. Here, we determined the winter wheat (Triticum aestivum cv. Chinese Yumai) mitochondrial genome in a length of 452 and 526 bp by shotgun sequencing its BAC library. It contains 202 genes, including 35 known protein-coding genes, three rRNA and 17 tRNA genes, as well as 149 open reading frames (ORFs; greater than 300 bp in length). The sequence is almost identical to the previously reported sequence of the spring wheat (T. aestivum cv. Chinese Spring); we only identified seven SNPs (three transitions and four transversions) and 10 indels (insertions and deletions) between the two independently acquired sequences, and all variations were found in non-coding regions. This result confirmed the accuracy of the previously reported mitochondrial sequence of the Chinese Spring wheat. The nucleotide frequency and codon usage of wheat are common among the lineage of higher plant with a high AT-content of 58%. Molecular evolutionary analysis demonstrated that plant mitochondrial genomes evolved at different rates, which may correlate with substantial variations in metabolic rate and generation time among plant lineages. In addition, through the estimation of the ratio of non-synonymous to synonymous substitution rates between orthologous mitochondrion-encoded genes of higher plants, we found an accelerated evolutionary rate that seems to be the result of relaxed selection.

  16. Gaseous pollutants from brick kiln industry decreased the growth, photosynthesis, and yield of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrees, Muhammad; Ibrahim, Muhammad; Shah, Aamir Mehmood; Abbas, Farhat; Saleem, Farhan; Rizwan, Muhammad; Hina, Saadia; Jabeen, Fariha; Ali, Shafaqat

    2016-05-01

    Gaseous pollutant emissions from brick kiln industries deteriorate the current state of ambient air quality in Pakistan and worldwide. These gaseous pollutants affect the health of plants and may decrease plant growth and yield. A field experiment that was conducted to monitor the concentration of gaseous pollutants emitted mainly from brick kilns in the ambient air and associated impacts on the growth and physiological attributes of the two wheat (Triticum spp.) cultivars. Plants were grown at three sites, including control (Ayub Agriculture Research Institute, AARI), low pollution (LP) site (Small Estate Industry), and high pollution (HP) site (Sidar Bypass), of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Monitoring of ambient air pollution at experimental sites was carried out using the state-of-art ambient air analyzers. Plants were harvested after 120 days of germination and were analyzed for different growth attributes. Results showed that the hourly average concentration of gaseous air pollutants CO, NO2, SO2, and PM10 at HP site were significantly higher than the LP and control sites. Similarly, gaseous pollutants decreased plant height, straw and grain yield, photosynthesis and increased physical injury, and metal concentrations in the grains. However, wheat response toward gaseous pollutants did not differ between cultivars (Galaxy and 8173) studied. Overall, the results indicated that brick kiln emissions could reduce the performance of wheat grown in the soils around kilns and confirm the adverse impacts of pollutants on the growth, yield, and quality of the wheat. PMID:27048492

  17. Tolerância de genótipos de trigo comum, trigo duro e triticale à toxicidade de alumínio em soluções nutritivas Tolerance of bread wheat, durum wheat and triticale genotypes to aluminum toxicity in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo de Oliveira Camargo

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi estudado o comportamento diferencial de 12 genótipos de trigo comum (Triticum aestivum L., um genótipo de trigo duro (Triticum durum L., e um de triticale (Triticosecale sp em soluções nutritivas de tratamento contendo duas concentrações salinas (1/5 e 1/10 da completa e seis concentrações de alumínio ( 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 e 10 mg L-1, à temperatura de 25 ± 1ºC e pH 4,0. Foram utilizadas dez plântulas por parcela e quatro repetições. A tolerância foi medida pela capacidade de as raízes primárias continuarem a crescer em solução sem alumínio, após permanecer 48 horas em solução nutritiva completa, contendo uma concentração conhecida de alumínio combinada com cada uma das concentrações salinas. Os genótipos de trigo comum IAC-289, IAC-350 e IAC-370 e a cultivar controle Anahuac, e os genótipos de trigo duro IAC-1003 e de triticale IAC-5 foram os mais sensíveis a níveis crescentes de Al3+nas soluções nutritivas de tratamento e, portanto, somente seriam indicados para cultivo em solos corrigidos. Os genótipos de trigo comum IAC-24 e IAC-378 e a cultivar controle BH-1146 destacaram-se pela tolerância à toxicidade de Al3+, com potencial para uso em solos ácidos e como fontes genéticas de tolerância nos futuros cruzamentos. Os sintomas de toxicidade de alumínio foram maiores com a elevação da concentração de alumínio e da diminuição das concentrações de sais da solução nutritiva para todos os genótipos estudados.Twelve bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L., one durum wheat (Triticum durum L. and one triticale (Triticosecale sp genotypes were studied in nutrient solutions with a high salt concentration in experiment 1 and a weak salt concentration in experiment 2, for aluminum tolerance at six levels: 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 mg L-1, under temperature 25 ± 1ºC and pH 4,0. Four replications were used per experiment. Aluminum tolerance was evaluated by measuring root growth in an aluminum-free complete

  18. Selection of parents for crossing based on genotyping and phenotyping for stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis) resistance and agronomic traits in bread wheat breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Irfaq; Khan, Mir Ajab; Khan, Abdul Jabbar; Khattak, Gul Sanat Shah; Mohammad, Tila; Ahmad, Mushtaq

    2011-01-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germplasm consisting of 45 genotypes were clustered phenotypically using ten morphological traits and Area Under Disease Progress Curve (AUDPC) as measure of stripe rust resistance. The clustering was ratified by using twenty three molecular markers (SSR, EST and STS) linked to stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici) resistant QTLs. The aim was to asses the extent of genetic variability among the genotypes in order to select the parents for crossing between the resistant and susceptible genotypes with respect to stripe rust. The Euclidian dissimilarity values resulted from phenotypic data regarding morphological traits and AUDPC were used to construct a dendrogram for clustering the accessions. Using un-weighted pair group method with arithmetic means, another dendrogram resulted from the similarity coefficient values was used to distinguish the genotypes with respect to stripe rust. Clustering based on phenotypic data produced two major groups and five clusters (with Euclidian dissimilarity ranging from 244 to 16.16) whereas genotypic data yielded two major groups and four clusters (with percent similarity coefficient values ranging from 0.1 to 46.0) to separate the gene pool into highly resistant, resistant, moderately resistant, moderately susceptible and susceptible genotypes. With few exceptions, the outcome of both type of clustering was almost similar and resistant as well as susceptible genotypes came in the same clusters of molecular genotyping as yielded by phenotypic clustering. As a result seven genotypes (Bakhtawar-92, Frontana, Saleem 2000, Tatara, Inqilab-91, Fakhre Sarhad and Karwan) of diverse genetic background were selected for pyramiding stripe rust resistant genes as well as some other agronomic traits after hybridization. PMID:22329159

  19. Effect of fiber fractions of prickly pear cactus (nopal) on quality and sensory properties of wheat bread rolls

    OpenAIRE

    Guevara-Arauza, Juan Carlos; Bárcenas, Diego Guadalupe; Ortega-Rivas, Enrique; Martínez, Jaime David Pérez; Hernández, Jaime Reyes; de Jesús Ornelas-Paz, José

    2014-01-01

    In this study the addition of total fiber (TF), insoluble fiber (IF), and soluble fiber (SF) from nopal to wheat flour used to make bread rolls was assessed. The rheological properties of dough as well as quality, texture, sensorial and physical characteristics of the crumb rolls produced were evaluated. The storage (23.50 MPa) and loss modulus (11.95 MPa) for SF-dough were the lowest indicating that a less visco-elastic behavior was obtained. Polarized light microscopy showed that a more hom...

  20. Genetic Variations of Gliadin and HMW Glutenins Subunits in Durum Wheat%硬粒小麦(Triticum durum)贮藏蛋白的遗传变异分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王含彦; 魏育明; 颜泽洪; 郑有良

    2006-01-01

    对来源于美、中、俄及埃塞阿比亚等22个国家的142份硬粒小麦材料的种子贮藏蛋白位点及遗传变异进行了研究.供试的硬粒小麦(Triticum durum Desf)材料共检测出37条醇溶蛋白条带,无1条带纹为所有材料共有,多态性达到100%,说明硬粒小麦具有丰富的醇溶蛋白等位变异.聚类分析将142份供试材料分为3个大类,材料间遗传差异大小在不同的国家有所不同,表明醇溶蛋白带型与地理来源有一定关系.高分子量谷蛋白电泳共分离出14种亚基和15种亚基组合,但是优质亚基所占比例不高,这可能是因为硬粒小麦加工用途的特殊性,使得多年的育种并未太多改变硬粒小麦高分子量谷蛋白亚基等位变异的频率,促成优质亚基的累计.%The wheat baking quality is controlled by the content and composition of wheat endosperm proteins. To exploit new genetic resources and provide fundamental materials for the improvement of bread wheat quality, the genetic variations of the storage proteins in 142 durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf.) accessions from 22 countries were characterized by A-PAGE and SDS-PAGE. A total of 37 gliadin bands were detected, among which all bands(100%) were polymorphic. Furthermore, 142 accessions could be divided into three major groups using the clustering analysis, indicating that the gliadin variations among durum wheat were associated with their geographic origin. Fourteen high-molecular-weight (HMW) glutenin subunits alleles and fifteen subunits combinations were identified. Glu-A1-c(null) was observed at the highest frequency among the 4 Glu-A1 alleles, and Glu-B1-b and Glu-B1-e were the major subunits encoded by Glu-B1.