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Sample records for bread wheat final

  1. Aroma of Wheat Bread Crumb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Anja Niehues

    and VII. The longest fermentation times were generally found for doughs fermented with all baker’s yeasts at 5°C and the lowest yeast concentration (2.88•1014 CFU/kg flour). In Paper II, III and V wheat breads were produced for volatile analysis. The dough samples were fermented to equal height and baked......Understanding how the dough fermentation conditions influence the wheat bread production time and the bread aroma is important for the bread industry. The overall purpose of this PhD project is to investigate the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature...... on dough expansion and aroma in bread crumb. In Paper I the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature on dough expansion were investigated. Wheat doughs were fermented by seven commercial baker’s yeasts (baker’s yeast I to VII) at different yeast concentrations (2...

  2. Aroma of Wheat Bread Crumb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Anja Niehues

    Understanding how the dough fermentation conditions influence the wheat bread production time and the bread aroma is important for the bread industry. The overall purpose of this PhD project is to investigate the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature...... on dough expansion and aroma in bread crumb. In Paper I the effects of commercial baker’s yeast (level and type) and fermentation temperature on dough expansion were investigated. Wheat doughs were fermented by seven commercial baker’s yeasts (baker’s yeast I to VII) at different yeast concentrations (2....... The highest kinetic rate constants corresponding to the shortest fermentation times were found for doughs fermented at 25°C and the highest yeast concentration. Doughs fermented with commercial baker’s yeast I, II, III and V had shorter fermentation times compared to fermentation with baker’s yeast IV, VI...

  3. IPR 118 - Bread wheat cultivar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Roberto Riede

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat cultivar IPR 118 developed by IAPAR has a good yield potential and is widely adapted. It is earlymaturing and moderately tolerant to shattering and soil aluminum, moderately resistant to leaf rust and presents high glutenstrength for bread-making. The overall yield exceeded controls by 13%.

  4. 21 CFR 136.180 - Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. 136.180... § 136.180 Whole wheat bread, rolls, and buns. (a) Each of the foods whole wheat bread, graham bread, entire wheat bread, whole wheat rolls, graham rolls, entire wheat rolls, whole wheat buns, graham buns...

  5. Analysis of HMWGS of historical set of Pakistani bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-07-05

    Pak, 11 = Chenab-70. Different alleles of HMWGS are shown left. polymorphism in the number and mobility of HMWGS in bread wheat (Lawrence and Shepherd, 1980). Bread wheat contain six different HMW-GS but due to the.

  6. Drought tolerance of some bread wheat genotypes in Ethiopia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low moisture stress is one of the most important abiotic constraints limiting bread wheat production and area expansion in Ethiopia. To alleviate this problem, evaluation of varieties in drought prone areas has been undertaken from 1996 to1998. In this study, eighteen bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) varieties were tested at ...

  7. Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat Triticum aestivum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2012-04-17

    Apr 17, 2012 ... Time to flowering in the winter growth habit bread wheat is dependent on vernalization (exposure to cold conditions) and ... [Kumar S., Sharma V., Chaudhary S., Tyagi A., Mishra P., Priyadarshini A. and Singh A. 2012 Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat ..... to ascertain the hybrid nature of F1 plants.

  8. Staling of wheat bread stored in modified atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Have; Hansen, A.

    2001-01-01

    Modified atmosphere packing (MAP) of bread is known to extend the microbial shelf-life. However, the effect of MAP on staling of bread is more questionable, and conflicting results are reported in the literature. To investigate the effect of BT AP, wheat bread was packed in modified atmosphere...... containing 100% CO2 and in a mixture gas of 50% CO2 and 50% N-2, respectively. The control bread was packed in atmospheric air. No significant effects of MAP were found during storage of bread for 7 days at 20 degreesC compared to control bread. when changes in bread firmness and starch retrogradation...... of the breads in a non-linear manner, suggesting that bread firmness is influenced by both the crystallisation behaviour of starch and by changes in hydration. (C) 2001 Academic Press....

  9. Optimization of Bread Preparation from Wheat Flour and Malted Rice Flour

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    Subajiny VELUPPILLAI

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of partially replacing wheat flour with malted rice flour in bread making was evaluated in several formulations, aiming to find a formulation for the production of malted rice-wheat bread with better nutritional quality and consumer acceptance. The whole grains of a local rice variety (Oryza sativa L. subsp. indica var. Mottaikaruppan were steeped in distilled water (12 h, 30°C and germinated for 3 days to obtain high content of soluble materials and amylase activity in bread making. The quality of bread was evaluated by considering the physical and sensorial parameters. When the wheat flour was substituted with malted rice flour, 35% substitution level and the malted rice flour from 3 days of germination was the best according to the physical and sensory qualities of bread. The quality of bread was improved by the addition of 20 g of margarine, 20 g of baking powder and 20 g of yeast in 1 kg of flour. Among different ratios of yeast and baking powder, 2:1 was the best. Bread improver containing amylases and oxidizing agents at the concentration of 40 g/kg was selected as the best concentration. When comparing the final formulation made in the bakery with wheat bread, malted rice-wheat bread contains more soluble dietary fiber (0.62%, insoluble dietary fiber (3.95%, total dietary fiber (4.57% and free amino acid content (0.64 g/kg than those in wheat bread (0.5%, 2.73%, 3.23% and 0.36 g/kg, respectively.

  10. Staling of wheat bread stored in modified atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Peter Have; Hansen, A.

    2001-01-01

    Modified atmosphere packing (MAP) of bread is known to extend the microbial shelf-life. However, the effect of MAP on staling of bread is more questionable, and conflicting results are reported in the literature. To investigate the effect of BT AP, wheat bread was packed in modified atmosphere...... containing 100% CO2 and in a mixture gas of 50% CO2 and 50% N-2, respectively. The control bread was packed in atmospheric air. No significant effects of MAP were found during storage of bread for 7 days at 20 degreesC compared to control bread. when changes in bread firmness and starch retrogradation...... measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were used as parameters for the staling rates. Ira addition, no significant differences were obtained in firmness between bread stored in 100% CO,, and in the mixture gas of CO2 and N-2 after 7 and 14 days, respectively. The present study thus...

  11. Quality of wholemeal wheat bread enriched with green coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urszula Gawlik-Dziki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Scientific studies have revealed that bioactive components of coffee play a preventive role against various degenerative diseases. Green coffee, in particular, is characterized by its unique composition and properties. The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of green coffee (Coffea arabica beans (GCB addition on the quality and antioxidant properties (AA of the wholemeal bread. For bread preparation, flour form GCB, and wholemeal wheat flour, type 2000 were used. Wholemeal wheat flour was replaced with GCB flour at 1 to 5% levels. Loaf volume, texture, color and sensory properties of bread were determined. Furthermore, total phenolic content and antioxidant activity were evaluated. The results showed that bread supplementation with GCB had little influence on the bread volume. The highest volume of bread was obtained with 3 and 4% of GCB flour. The texture properties of bread crumb (hardness, elasticity, cohesiveness and chewiness were slightly changed as a result of the GCB addition. The lightness of bread crumb decreased with the GCB addition (average from 46.3 to 42.6. Besides, the addition of GCB significantly enriched wheat bread with hydrophilic phenolic compounds. The phenolic compounds were highly bioaccessible in vitro. Moreover, the GCB addition enhanced antiradical activity of bread.

  12. ATTEMPT TO APPLY STABILIZED WHEAT GERM FOR BREAD SUPPLEMENTATION

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    Halina Gambuś

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The increased interest in rational nutrition causes, that from many years is observed a growing consumption of bread, and novel food supplemented with health promoting components. For the bread production in Poland mainly wheat and rye cake flours are used, depleted of a many valuable nutrients such as protein, dietary fibre, minerals and vitamins. Because of their unique chemical composition wheat germs are a particularly valuable resource, both for direct consumption and to enhance the nutritional value of food products. The aim of the study was to prepare wheat bread with a 10% addition of commercial stabilized wheat germs. Based on the obtained results, it was found that wheat germs, due to their unique chemical composition, were a particularly valuable resource to supplement the nutritional value of bread. However, germs had detrimental effect on mechanical properties of dough, and on bread quality. Texture of bread crumb and its chemical composition were analysed. It was shown, that germs subjected to fermentation process could be used in wheat bread production as dietary fibre and mineral compound supplement.

  13. Genetic diversity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degewione, A; Alamerew, S

    2013-11-01

    Wheat is one most important cereal crops grown in Ethiopia. Yet, keeping in view insufficient information on exotic bread wheat genotypes is limiting the access to useful traits present among the genotypes in the Somali region of Ethiopia. The aim of the study was to assess the extent of genetic diversity among bread wheat genotypes. Twenty six bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) genotypes obtained from ICARDA-CIMMYT were tested at Gode and Kelafo research sites at three cropping seasons (2009/10, 2010/11 and 2011/12) under irrigation. The experiment was conducted in randomized complete block design with three replications. Ten agronomic traits were included in the study. The mean values, ranges and the coefficient of variation of the 10 characters indicated the existence of sufficient variability among genotypes. Multivariate techniques were used to classify 26 bread wheat genotypes. Principal component analysis showed that the first six principal components explained about 91.87% of the total variation. D2 analysis showed the 26 bread wheat genotypes grouped into six clusters. This made to become moderate diversity among the genotypes. The crosses between genotypes selected from cluster-III with cluster-VI and cluster V with cluster VI are expected to produce better genetic recombination and segregation in their progenies. Therefore, these bread wheat genotypes need to be crossed and selected to develop high yielding pure line variety.

  14. Response of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) to Application of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    UREAStabil) on NUE and yields of bread wheat and ... The increase of agricultural food production worldwide over the past four decades has been associated with ..... Soil at Different Land use in Kelantan, Malaysia. Journal of Applied Science and.

  15. BREAD QUALITY SUBSTITUTED BY POTATO STARCH INSTEAD OF WHEAT FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Nemar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Wheat bread constitutes the most regularly consumed food in the World, the international market for wheat undergoes strong pressure and prices are unceasingly increasing. The aim of this study is to substitute wheat flour by potato starch in bread preparation. Mixtures flours were characterized for composition, damaged starch, and Alveograph properties. According to the results of alveograph parameters, they decrease with the rate of incorporation of potato starch. This decrease can be corrected by adding vital gluten. The results of physicochemical analysis showed a decrease in protein levels, an increase in moisture content (about 2% and carbohydrates levels due to the composition of potato starch. However, sensory analysis (p ≤ 0.05 showed that the addition 80% of potato starch leads to bread with better characteristics: taste, colour and odour, based on that, it is highly advisable as an ingredient in the standard preparation of wheat bread.

  16. Bread Making Potential of Composite Flour of Wheat-Acha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bread-making potentials of composite flours containing 90% wheat and 10% acha enriched with 0-15% cowpea flour were investigated. Proximate composition and functional properties of the blends were studied using AOAC standard methods. Bread loaves were prepared from the blends using the straight dough method ...

  17. Buckwheat and quinoa seeds as supplements in wheat bread production

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    Demin Mirjana A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the nutritional characteristics of wheat bread with the bread produced of wheat flour supplemented with quinoa and buckwheat seeds. Bread making properties of these blends were analyzed in order to investigate their ability to make moulded bread. Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Will. and buckwheat seeds were grown in the vicinity of Belgrade, Serbia. The addition of pseudocereal seeds (at levels of 30% and 40% and a selected technological process, which included hydrothermal preparation of supplements, resulted with a valuable effect on nutritive value of breads. In comparison with the wheat bread that was used as control sample, the protein increase of 2% and the increase of crude fiber content at around 0.5% in 30% supplemented breads were registered. Furthermore, the incorporation of both seeds mixture at the level of 40%, increased the content of protein for 2.5% and fiber content for 0.4%. In regard to the starch, fat, and ash contents there were no major differences. The investigated breads were nutritionally superior to the wheat bread. Chemical composition of the selected seeds was also investigated. The results showed that the blends containing either 30% or 40% of selected seeds expressed high potential for the production of molded breads, as new baking products with enhanced nutritional composition. The applied technological procedure was modified in such way that for all blended combination of supplements it changed rheological properties of dough. Furthermore, it resulted in a good volume of breads with excellent sensory properties of aroma-odor and taste.

  18. Aroma of wheat porridge and bread-crumb is influenced by the wheat variety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starr, Gerrard; Hansen, Åse Solvej; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2015-01-01

    evaluation, from these eight were selected for bread evaluation. Porridge and bread results were compared. Variations were found in both evaluations. Five odour- and nine flavour descriptors were found to be common to both wheat porridge and bread. The results for two descriptors: "cocoa" and "oat porridge......" were correlated between the wheat porridge and bread samples. Analysis of whole-meal and low-extraction samples revealed that the descriptors "malt", "oat-porridge", "øllebrød", "cocoa" and "grain" mostly characterized wheat bran, while descriptors for "maize", "bean-shoots", "chamomile", "umami...

  19. The Impact of Parbaking on the Crumb Firming Mechanism of Fully Baked Tin Wheat Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivelle, Mieke A; Bosmans, Geertrui M; Delcour, Jan A

    2017-11-22

    The impact of parbaking on the quality and shelf life of large tin bread baked from 270 g of wheat flour was investigated using a proton nuclear magnetic resonance method combined with techniques that measure at different length scales. With increasing partial baking time, the resilience of fresh partially baked crumb increased because of its more extended amylose and gluten networks. During subsequent storage, the crumb became more firm due to an increased extent of amylopectin retrogradation and moisture redistribution. Although only amylopectin retrogradation was reversed during final baking, a fresh fully baked (FB) bread with reversed crumb softness was obtained. Furthermore, the rate of crumb firming during final storage of FB bread was not higher than that of conventionally baked bread. This was attributed to the high crumb to crust ratio of large tin bread which caused the crumb moisture content to remain sufficiently high despite nonreversible moisture redistribution during intermediate storage.

  20. Effect of different iron compounds on wheat and gluten-free breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiskini, Alexandra; Kapsokefalou, Maria; Yanniotis, Stavros; Mandala, Ioanna

    2010-05-01

    Iron fortification of bread often results in sub-optimal quality of the final product due to undesirable changes in the physical characteristics and sensory properties of the bread. In this study both the form of iron (soluble, insoluble or encapsulated) and the type of bread (wheat or gluten-free) were varied in order to investigate the effect of iron and gluten on the product characteristics. The effect of iron on the quality characteristics of the breads investigated depended on iron type, but not on iron solubility. Colour, crust firmness, specific volume, cell number and uniformity as well as aroma were the attributes that were mainly affected in iron-enriched wheat bread. In some cases, specific volume was 30% lower than that of the control sample, while cell uniformity was significantly lower, as low as 50% of the control sample in some fortified samples. In gluten-free breads, differences between unfortified and fortified samples included colour, crust firmness, cell number, 'moisture' odour, metallic taste and stickiness. In some cases, the sensory scores were better for fortified samples. Differences due to iron fortification were less pronounced in gluten-free compared to wheat breads. The choice of the appropriate iron compound which will not cause adverse quality changes is still a challenge.

  1. Response of bread wheat ( Tritcum aestivum L. ) to nitrogen after ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crop rotation is a common practice in the study area, but there is no enough information on the specific rate of nitrogen to be applied after legumes for wheat production. Hence, on farm field experiments were conducted to determine the amount of nitrogen fertilizer rates needed for bread wheat after chick pea, grass pea, ...

  2. Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat Triticum aestivum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Genetics; Volume 91; Issue 1. Genetics of flowering time in bread wheat Triticum aestivum: complementary interaction between vernalization-insensitive and photoperiod-insensitive mutations imparts very early flowering habit to spring wheat. Sushil Kumar Vishakha Sharma Swati Chaudhary ...

  3. Quality Characteristics of bread made from Wheat and Fluted ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bread fortified with fluted pumpkin seed flour was made; the seeds of fluted pumpkin were extracted and processed into raw dried flour. Appropriate quantities of wheat and fluted pumpkin flour (on dry weight basis) were measured and mixed to give the following blends, 90:10, 80:20, 60:40, 50:50, wheat/fluted pumpkin ...

  4. CD 122 - Bread wheat, suitable for cultivation across southern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco de Assis Franco

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The cultivar CD 122 was tested in the wheat-producing regions VCU 1, 2 and 3, with an average grain yield of 3,527 kg ha-1 when fungicide-treated, exceeding the average of the control cultivars by 5%. CD 122 is resistant to leaf rust and was classified as bread wheat.

  5. Starch and protein analysis of wheat bread enriched with phenolics-rich sprouted wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Michał; Dziki, Dariusz; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula

    2017-08-01

    Wheat flour in the bread formula was replaced with sprouted wheat flour (SF) characterized by enhanced nutraceutical properties, at 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% levels. The addition of SF slightly increased the total protein content; however, it decreased their digestibility. Some qualitative and quantitative changes in the electrophoretic pattern of proteins were also observed; especially, in the bands corresponding with 27kDa and 15-17kDa proteins. These results were also confirmed by SE-HPLC technique, where a significant increase in the content of proteins and peptides (molecular masses breads with 20% of SF. Bread enriched with sprouted wheat flour had more resistant starch, but less total starch, compared to control bread. The highest in vitro starch digestibility was determined for the control bread. The studied bread with lowered nutritional value but increased nutritional quality can be used for special groups of consumers (obese, diabetic). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pilot Study: Comparison of Sourdough Wheat Bread and Yeast-Fermented Wheat Bread in Individuals with Wheat Sensitivity and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reijo Laatikainen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Many patients suspect wheat as being a major trigger of their irritable bowel syndrome (IBS symptoms. Our aim was to evaluate whether sourdough wheat bread baked without baking improvers and using a long dough fermentation time (>12 h, would result in lower quantities of alpha-amylase/trypsin inhibitors (ATIs and Fermentable, Oligo-, Di-, Mono-saccharides and Polyols (FODMAPs, and would be better tolerated than yeast-fermented wheat bread for subjects with IBS who have a poor subjective tolerance to wheat. The study was conducted as a randomised double-blind controlled 7-day study (n = 26. Tetrameric ATI structures were unravelled in both breads vs. baking flour, but the overall reduction in ATIs to their monomeric form was higher in the sourdough bread group. Sourdough bread was also lower in FODMAPs. However, no significant differences in gastrointestinal symptoms and markers of low-grade inflammation were found between the study breads. There were significantly more feelings of tiredness, joint symptoms, and decreased alertness when the participants ate the sourdough bread (p ≤ 0.03, but these results should be interpreted with caution. Our novel finding was that sourdough baking reduces the quantities of both ATIs and FODMAPs found in wheat. Nonetheless, the sourdough bread was not tolerated better than the yeast-fermented bread.

  7. Use of Avocado (Persea americana M. Paste in Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Man

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bread is the staple food for most people around the world, it being consumed since ancient times. Because of it’s major importance in the diet, over the last years, the trend of enrich the nutritional quality was developed, by replacing the chemical fortification of foods with an intake of bioactive compounds from fruits, vegetables and cereals. The avocado is useful in human nutrition as a source of various nutrients and especially as source of energy and monounsaturated fatty acids. This paper belongs to a more complex study, which aiming the evaluation of enriched bread for breakfast prepared with an addition of avocado paste (12% as a source of biologically active components in nutrition. Bread produced from 100% wheat flour served as the control. The seasoned bread for breakfast and the control samples were subjected to physico-chemical and organoleptic analyses. Addition of avocado paste (AP in bread has improved physicochemical and sensory attributes.

  8. Shelf life characteristics of bread produced from ozonated wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obadi, Mohammed; Zhu, Ke-Xue; Peng, Wei; Sulieman, Abdellatif A; Mahdi, Amer Ali; Mohammed, Khalid; Zhou, Hui-Ming

    2017-11-13

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of ozone treatment on the quality of bread and its shelf life. Flour was treated with ozone gas a rate of 5 L/min for 5, 15, 25, 35, and 45 min. Baking studies showed that bread made from flour treated with ozone for 15 min exhibited improved quality properties (in terms of specific volume, bread color, and crumb cell numbers). Exposure to ozone for shorter times did not cause obvious changes in the major volatile compounds of bread. A shelf life tests showed that ozone gas treatment influenced the extent of starch crystallinity. The relative starch crystallinity of bread made from flour treated with ozone for 15 min was lower than the control value, as were the hardness, springiness, and cohesiveness. Microscopic examination of crumb structure revealed remarkable differences between control and treated breads. Although ozone is a naturally occurring substance found in the atmosphere, ozone can also be produced synthetically. Recently, ozone has come to be regarded as a new treatment for flour. Especially in countries where the chlorination is forbidden, ozone treatment may be of a great interest if it were associated with significant and reliable changes in flour. Ozone treatment of wheat flour tends to improve bread shelf life and quality in terms of physiochemical, baking properties, X-ray diffraction data, volatile compound levels, crumb structure, and textural characteristics. Given such findings, desirable shelf life and bread qualities may be achieved when ozone is used as a flour oxidant prior to bread baking. Analyses of the effects of ozone gas on treatment of flour on bread shelf life and quality would aid the production of high quality and extend the shelf life of bread. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Bread Wheat Quality: Some Physical, Chemical and Rheological Characteristics of Syrian and English Bread Wheat Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Abboud; Brennan, Charles S

    2012-11-22

    The relationships between breadmaking quality, kernel properties (physical and chemical), and dough rheology were investigated using flours from six genotypes of Syrian wheat lines, comprising both commercially grown cultivars and advanced breeding lines. Genotypes were grown in 2008/2009 season in irrigated plots in the Eastern part of Syria. Grain samples were evaluated for vitreousness, test weight, 1000-kernel weight and then milled and tested for protein content, ash, and water content. Dough rheology of the samples was studied by the determination of the mixing time, stability, weakness, resistance and the extensibility of the dough. Loaf baking quality was evaluated by the measurement of the specific weight, resilience and firmness in addition to the sensory analysis. A comparative study between the six Syrian wheat genotypes and two English flour samples was conducted. Significant differences were observed among Syrian genotypes in vitreousness (69.3%-95.0%), 1000-kernel weight (35.2-46.9 g) and the test weight (82.2-88.0 kg/hL). All samples exhibited high falling numbers (346 to 417 s for the Syrian samples and 285 and 305 s for the English flours). A significant positive correlation was exhibited between the protein content of the flour and its absorption of water (r = 0.84 **), as well as with the vitreousness of the kernel (r = 0.54 *). Protein content was also correlated with dough stability (r = 0.86 **), extensibility (r = 0.8 **), and negatively correlated with dough weakness (r = -0.69 **). Bread firmness and dough weakness were positively correlated (r = 0.66 **). Sensory analysis indicated Doumah-2 was the best appreciated whilst Doumah 40765 and 46055 were the least appreciated which may suggest their suitability for biscuit preparation rather than bread making.

  10. Bread Wheat Quality: Some Physical, Chemical and Rheological Characteristics of Syrian and English Bread Wheat Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abboud Al-Saleh

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationships between breadmaking quality, kernel properties (physical and chemical, and dough rheology were investigated using flours from six genotypes of Syrian wheat lines, comprising both commercially grown cultivars and advanced breeding lines. Genotypes were grown in 2008/2009 season in irrigated plots in the Eastern part of Syria. Grain samples were evaluated for vitreousness, test weight, 1000-kernel weight and then milled and tested for protein content, ash, and water content. Dough rheology of the samples was studied by the determination of the mixing time, stability, weakness, resistance and the extensibility of the dough. Loaf baking quality was evaluated by the measurement of the specific weight, resilience and firmness in addition to the sensory analysis. A comparative study between the six Syrian wheat genotypes and two English flour samples was conducted. Significant differences were observed among Syrian genotypes in vitreousness (69.3%–95.0%, 1000-kernel weight (35.2–46.9 g and the test weight (82.2–88.0 kg/hL. All samples exhibited high falling numbers (346 to 417 s for the Syrian samples and 285 and 305 s for the English flours. A significant positive correlation was exhibited between the protein content of the flour and its absorption of water (r = 0.84 **, as well as with the vitreousness of the kernel (r = 0.54 *. Protein content was also correlated with dough stability (r = 0.86 **, extensibility (r = 0.8 **, and negatively correlated with dough weakness (r = −0.69 **. Bread firmness and dough weakness were positively correlated (r = 0.66 **. Sensory analysis indicated Doumah-2 was the best appreciated whilst Doumah 40765 and 46055 were the least appreciated which may suggest their suitability for biscuit preparation rather than bread making.

  11. Discrimination of volatiles of refined and whole wheat bread containing red and white wheat bran using an electronic nose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapirstein, Harry D; Siddhu, Silvi; Aliani, Michel

    2012-11-01

    The principal objective of this study was to evaluate the capability of electronic (E) nose technology to discriminate refined and whole wheat bread made with white or red wheat bran according to their headspace volatiles. Whole wheat flour was formulated with a common refined flour from hard red spring wheat, blended at the 15% replacement level with bran milled from representative samples of one hard red and 2 hard white wheats. A commercial formula was used for breadmaking. Results varied according to the nature of the sample, that is, crust, crumb, or whole slices. Bread crust and crumb were completely discriminated. Crumb of whole wheat bread made with red bran was distinct from other bread types. When misclassified, whole wheat bread crumb with white bran was almost invariably identified as refined flour bread crumb. Using crust as the basis for comparisons, the largest difference in volatiles was between refined flour bread and whole wheat bread as a group. When refined flour bread crust was misclassified, samples tended to be confused with whole white wheat crust. Samples prepared from whole bread slices were poorly discriminated in general. E-nose results indicated that whole wheat bread formulated with white bran was more similar in volatile makeup to refined flour bread compared to whole wheat bread made with red bran. The E-nose appears to be very capable to accommodate differentiation of bread volatiles whose composition varies due to differences in flour or bran type. Consumer preference of bread made using refined flour in contrast to whole wheat flour is partly due to the different aroma of whole wheat bread. This study used an electronic nose to analyze bread volatiles, and showed that whole wheat bread incorporating white bran was different from counterpart bread made using red bran, and was closer in volatile makeup to "white" bread made without bran. Commercial millers and bakers can take advantage of these results to formulate whole wheat flour

  12. Induced Mutations for Improving Production on Bread and Durum Wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamo, Ilirjana; Ylli, Ariana; Dodbiba, Andon

    2007-01-01

    Wheat is a very important crop and has been bred for food and its improvement is continuous from cross-breeding. Radiation and chemically induced mutations have provided variability in selection for novel varieties. Four bread and one durum wheat cultivars were exposed to gamma rays, Cs 137 with doses 10, 15 and 20 krad (2000 seeds of each dose and cultivars). We have isolated mutant plants with height reduced and on cv Progress spike without chaff

  13. Effect of Cassava Flour Characteristics on Properties of Cassava-Wheat-Maize Composite Bread Types

    OpenAIRE

    Eduardo, Maria; Svanberg, Ulf; Oliveira, Jorge; Ahrn?, Lilia

    2013-01-01

    Replacement of wheat flour by other kinds of flour in bread making is economically important in South East Africa as wheat is mainly an imported commodity. Cassava is widely available in the region, but bread quality is impaired when large amounts of cassava are used in the bread formulation. Effect of differently processed cassavas (sun-dried, roasted and fermented) on composite cassava-wheat-maize bread quality containing cassava levels from 20 to 40% (w/w) was evaluated in combination with...

  14. Effects of Bread Making and Wheat Germ Addition on the Natural Deoxynivalenol Content in Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giménez, Isabel; Blesa, Jesús; Herrera, Marta; Ariño, Agustín

    2014-01-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) is a type-B trichothecene mycotoxin produced by several field fungi such as Fusarium graminearum and Fusarium culmorum and known to have various toxic effects. This study investigated the effect of the bread making process on the stability of DON in common bread and wheat germ-enriched bread using naturally contaminated ingredients at the level of 560 µg/kg. The concentration of DON and its evolution during bread making were determined by immunoaffinity column cleanup followed by liquid chromatography with diode array detection (HPLC-DAD). During the bread making process, DON was reduced by 2.1% after fermentation and dropped by 7.1% after baking, reaching a maximum reduction of 19.8% in the crust as compared with a decrease of 5.6% in the crumb. The addition of 15% wheat germ to the dough did not affect DON stability during bread making, showing an apparent increase of 3.5% after fermentation and a reduction by 10.2% after baking. PMID:24451845

  15. Nudging children towards whole wheat bread: a field experiment on the influence of fun bread roll shape on breakfast consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Ellen; Vrijhof, Milou; Polet, Ilse A; Vingerhoeds, Monique H; de Wijk, René A

    2014-09-02

    Many children do not eat enough whole grains, which may have negative health consequences. Intervention research is increasingly focusing on nudging as a way to influence food choices by affecting unconscious behavioural processes. The aim of this field study was to examine whether the shape of bread rolls is able to shift children's bread choices from white to whole wheat during breakfast to increase whole grain intake. In a between-subjects experiment conducted at twelve primary schools in the Netherlands, with school as the unit of condition assignment, children were exposed to an assortment of white and whole wheat bread rolls, both varying in shape (regular versus fun). Children were free to choose the type and number of bread rolls and toppings to eat during breakfast. Consumption of bread rolls was measured at class level via the number of bread rolls before and after breakfast. In addition, children (N = 1113) responded to a survey including questions about the breakfast. Results of the field experiment showed that about 76% of bread consumption consisted of white bread rolls. Consumption of white bread rolls did not differ according to shape (all P-values > 0.18). However, presenting fun-shaped whole wheat bread rolls almost doubled consumption of whole wheat bread (P = 0.001), particularly when the simultaneously presented white bread rolls had a regular shape (interaction P = 0.02). Survey results suggest that slight increases in perceived pleasure and taste are associated with these effects. Overall, presenting whole wheat bread in fun shapes may be helpful in increasing consumption of whole wheat bread in children. Future research could examine how improving the visual appeal of healthy foods may lead to sustained behaviour changes.

  16. Quality assessment of flour and bread from sweet potato wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was to assess the quality of the flour and bread produced from sweet potato wheat composite flour blends. Matured and freshly harvested sweet potato (Ipomea batatas L.) was obtained from a local market in Akure, Nigeria. The tubers were thoroughly washed, peeled, washed again, drained, chipped, oven dried, ...

  17. Molecular markers for drought tolerance in bread wheat

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aghomotsegin

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... Molecular markers for drought tolerance in bread wheat. Tharwat El Ameen. Department of Genetics, South Valley University, Qena, 83523, Egypt. Accepted 3 May, 2013. Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers associated with drought tolerance was used in this study to characterize drought ...

  18. Grain yield and agronomic characteristics of Romanian bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, fourteen bread wheat varieties, twelve of which were introduced into Turkey from Romania, were evaluated for grain yield and seven agronomic properties in Biga, Çanakkale in northwest part of Turkey in 2005 - 2006 and 2006 - 2007 growing seasons. The objectives of the research, carried out in a completely ...

  19. Response of bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.) to application of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Highly soluble N fertilizers like urea may be lost from the soil plant system through leaching, volatilization, and denitrification thereby reduce yields and NUE of arable crops. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of slow nitrogen (N) releasing fertilizer (UREAStabil) on NUE and yields of bread wheat and ...

  20. Genetic diversity among old Portuguese bread wheat cultivars and ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    48 cultivars belonging to nine botanical varieties, based on the ITS rDNA variation. This collection constitutes an ex- cellent repository of germplasm in Portugal. Additionally, we intend to test the reliability of the ITS rDNA PCR-RFLP markers for defining phylogenies among bread wheat botan- ical varieties which could be ...

  1. allelic variation of hmw glutenin subunits of ethiopian bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    journal

    and Southern Africa (Tanner and Mwangi, 1991;. Payne et al., 2001). Bread wheat is expanding in area of production at the expense of traditional durum and emmer .... AACC 10-09). Analysis of variance was carried out in general linear model (GLM) of NCSS software (2001) using varieties and banding patterns as factors.

  2. Optimisation of wheat-sprouted soybean flour bread using response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of sprouted soybean flour on wheat bread was studied. Sprouting significantly increased the vitamin C content of soybean flour from 2.0 mg kg-1 to 3.25 mg kg-1. The sprouted soybean flour resulted in increased loaf volume, a firmer, spongy and more elastic loaf. However, increasing the sprouted soybean flour ...

  3. Upgrading of shamy wheat bread quality through supplement with flour of certain gamma irradiated legumes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassef, A.E.

    1997-01-01

    Soybean flour,chick peas flour and lupines were irradiated at 0,5 and 10 kGy and individually used to replace 5,10 or 15% of wheat flour in shamy bread. The effect of supplementation of wheat flour with these legume flours on the major, chemical composition and nutritional quality of bread was studied. Results indicated that protein, ash and fiber contents of supplemented shamy bread were higher than the control. On the other hand, the amino acids of the shamy wheat bread supplemented irradiated legumes flour, improved the quality (water retention capacity, stailing rate and bread freshness) of bread

  4. Study of the Character and Palatability on Whole Wheat Flour Bread

    OpenAIRE

    鈴木, 彩葉; 小池, 恵; Sayaha, Suzuki; Megumi, Koike

    2015-01-01

    Whole wheat flour is rich in dietary fiber and has disease preventive property. However, the flavor of whole wheat flour containing bread has prevented its wide use. We studied that make tasty whole wheat flour bread to take a dietary fiber daily. The blending proportions of whole wheat flour to bread making flour were 0, 20, 40, 60,80 and 100%. We examined their characteristics in weight, height, volume, physical properties and palatability in the sensory evaluation. Weight of the whole whea...

  5. The effect of a default-based nudge on the choice of whole wheat bread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleef, van Ellen; Seijdell, Karen; Vingerhoeds, Monique H.; Wijk, de René A.; Trijp, van Hans C.M.

    2018-01-01

    Consumer choices are often influenced by the default option presented. This study examines the effect of whole wheat bread as a default option in a sandwich choice situation. Whole wheat bread consists of 100% whole grain and is healthier than other bread types that are commonly consumed, such as

  6. Organic Bread Wheat Production and Market in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    David, C.; Abecassis, J.; Carcea, M.

    2012-01-01

    This chapter is a first attempt to analyse bottlenecks and challenges of European organic bread wheat sector involving technical, political and market issues. From 2000, the organic grain market has largely increased in Western Europe. To balance higher consumer demand there is a need to increase...... organic production by a new transition and technical improvement. Bread wheat is grown in a variety of crop rotations and farming systems where four basic organic crop production systems have been defined. Weeds and nitrogen deficiency are considered to be the most serious threat inducing lowest grain...... yield under organic production. The choice of cultivar, green manure, fertilization and intercropping legumes – grain or forage – are efficient ways to obtain high grain quality and quantity. The economic viability of wheat production in Europe is also affected by subsidies from European Union agri...

  7. Identification of bitter compounds in whole wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Deshou; Peterson, Devin G

    2013-11-15

    Bitterness in whole wheat bread can negatively influence product acceptability and consumption. The overall goal of this project was to identify the main bitter compounds in a commercial whole wheat bread product. Sensory-guided fractionation of the crust (most bitter portion of the bread sample) utilising liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, ultra-filtration and 2-D offline RPLC revealed multiple bitter compounds existed. The compounds with the highest bitterness intensities were selected and structurally elucidated based on accurate mass-TOF, MS/MS, 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Eight bitter compounds were identified: Acortatarins A, Acortatarins C, 5-(hydroxymethyl)furfural(HMF), 2,3-dihydro-3,5-dihydroxy-6-methyl-4(H)-pyran-4-one (DDMP), N-(1-deoxy-d-fructos-1-yl)-l-tryptophan (ARP), Tryptophol (TRO), 2-(2-formyl-5-(hydroxymethyl-1H-pyrrole-1-yl)butanoic acid (PBA) and Tryptophan (TRP). Based on the structures of these compounds, two main mechanisms of bitterness generation in wheat bread were supported, fermentation and Maillard pathways. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. QUALITY EVALUATION OF WHEAT-PUMPKIN-GOLDEN FLAXSEED COMPOSITE BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Gabriela CODINĂ

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to optimize the level of wheat, pumpkin seed (PSF and golden flaxseed flour (GFs that can be used in order to obtain high quality bread. The independent variables levels used were between 90 and 95 % for wheat flour and between 2.5% and 7.5% for pumpkin seed and golden flaxseed flour. The quality parameters analyzed were the following: loaf volume, porosity, elasticity and bread crumb structure. The mixture experiment design was used for optimization. Special quadratic mixture models were obtained for all the dependent variables. The optimum mixture levels were of 92.43% for wheat flour, 5.06% for pumkin seed flour and 2.51% for golden seed flour. The values of these flours in terms of loaf volume of bread, porosity and elasticity were of 422 cm3/100g, 76.15%, and 92.82%, respectively. The textural properties (hardness, cohesiveness, adhesiveness, viscosity, elasticity, gumminess, chewiness were analyzed for the control sample and the optimum bread sample obtained with PSF and GFs addition. For the last one mentioned hardness, elasticity, gumminess and chewiness increase with 25.03%, 7.31%, 23.41%, 25.77% while the cohesiveness value decreases with 1.47%.

  9. Physicochemical composition and glycemic index of whole grain bread produced from composite flours of quality protein maize and wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. T. Akanbi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study entails quality assessment of whole grain bread produced from composite flours of quality protein maize and wheat. Quality protein maize and wheat were processed into flours and mixed at various ratios for bread production. The proximate compositions, physical properties, glycemic response, functional and sensory properties of the samples were evaluated using standard methods. The result showed no significant difference (p<0.05 in the proximate composition parameters of the bread samples. The loaf height (2.50 - 3.95 cm, volume (291.00 - 415.00 cm3 and specific volume(1.72 - 2.42 cm3/g decreased significantly with increasing level of quality protein maize, however, loaf length was not affected by the substitution of quality protein maize. The result of the functional properties showed that final viscosity, water absorption and swelling capacity increased with increasing level of quality protein maize. The result of the glycemic response showed that the inclusion of quality protein maize resulted in decline in the blood glucose content (glycemic index of the products. The bread samples were generally acceptable however; bread with 100% wheat was the most preferred. The result of the sensory properties showed that there was significant difference (p<0.05 in the texture and taste of 100% wheat bread and the other samples. The study concluded that substitution of quality protein maize with wheat produced acceptable whole grain loaves that have positive effect on the reduction of blood glucose level.

  10. Enrichment of Bread with Nutraceutical-Rich Mushrooms: Impact of Auricularia auricula (Mushroom) Flour Upon Quality Attributes of Wheat Dough and Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Biao; Zhao, Liyan; Yang, Wenjian; McClements, David Julian; Hu, Qiuhui

    2017-09-01

    Edible mushrooms contain a variety of bioactive molecules that may enhance human health and wellbeing. Consequently, there is increasing interest in fortifying functional foods with these nutraceutical-rich substances. However, incorporation of mushroom-based ingredients into foods should not adversely affect the quality attributes of the final product. In this study, the impact of incorporating powdered Auricularia auricula, a widely consumed edible mushroom, into bread products was examined. The rheological and structural properties of wheat dough and bread supplemented with 0% to 10% (w/w) A. auricula flour were measured. Supplementation of wheat doughs with A. auricula flour increased the peak viscosity and enhanced their water holding capacity. Rapid viscosity analysis showed that peak and final viscosities of the blended flour (wheat flour with A. auricula flour) were higher than wheat flour alone. However, dough stability and elastic modulus were reduced by blending wheat flour with A. auricula flour. SEM observation showed that doughs with up to 5% (w/w) A. auricula flour had acceptable gluten network microstructure. Characterization of the quality attributes of bread indicated that incorporation of A. auricula flour at levels >5% negatively impacted bread volume, height, texture, and appearance. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  11. Determination of rust resistance genes in pakistani bread wheats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qamar, M.; Ahmad, S.D.; Rabbani, M.A.; Shinwari, Z.K.

    2014-01-01

    Stripe and leaf rusts are the major constraints to bread wheat production in Pakistan. Molecular markers were used to investigate the presence of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance gene cluster Lr34/Yr18 and stem rust resistance gene Sr2 in 52 Pakistani bread wheat cultivars/lines. PCR amplification of DNA fragments using DNA marker csLV-34 showed that 13 of the studied cultivars/lines, namely 03FJ26, NR 337, NR 339, NR 347, NR 350, Manthar, Margalla 99, Iqbal 2000, Saleem 2000, Wafaq 2001, Marwat 2001, Pirsabak 2004 and Fareed 2006 carry leaf rust and stripe rust resistance genes Lr34/Yr18. Stem rust resistance gene Sr2 was observed in 36 Pakistani spring wheat cultivars/lines using stm560.3tgag marker. The slow rusting gene Sr2 needs to be combined with additional stem rust resistance genes to establish durable resistance against Ug99 in modern wheat cultivars. Low frequency of Lr34/Yr18 was found in Pakistani wheats. This gene cluster needs to be incorporated into Pakistani wheats for durable rust resistance. (author)

  12. Characteristics of bread prepared from wheat flours blended with various kinds of newly developed rice flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, S; Suzuki, K; Ohtsubo, K

    2009-04-01

    Characteristics of the bread prepared from wheat flour blended with the flour of various kinds of newly developed rice cultivars were investigated. Qualities of the bread made from wheat flour blended with rice flour have been reported to be inferior to those from 100% wheat flour bread. To improve its qualities, we searched for the new-characteristic rice flours among the various kinds of newly developed rice cultivars to blend with the wheat flour for the bread preparation. The most suitable new characteristic rices are combination of purple waxy rice, high-amylose rice, and sugary rice. Specific volume of the bread from the combination of wheat and these 3 kinds of rice flours showed higher specific volume (3.93) compared with the traditional wheat/rice bread (3.58). We adopted the novel method, continuous progressive compression test, to measure the physical properties of the dough and the bread in addition to the sensory evaluation. As a result of the selection of the most suitable rice cultivars and blending ratio with the wheat flour, we could develop the novel wheat/rice bread, of which loaf volume, physical properties, and tastes are acceptable and resistant to firming on even 4 d after the bread preparation. To increase the ratio of rice to wheat, we tried to add a part of rice as cooked rice grains. The specific volume and qualities of the bread were maintained well although the rice content of total flour increased from 30% to 40%.

  13. Effects of fat replacement on properties of whole wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Matos Scheuer

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Bread characteristics are dependent upon the chemical composition and fiber content of the wheat flour used. A healthy diet can help prevent chronic diseases, where whole grains and fewer calories from fat are components of a healthy diet. The aims of this study were to determine the centesimal composition of wheat flour samples (whole, refined, and flour blends along with their farinographic parameters (water absorption, development time and stability and also to verify the specific volume, crumb texture profile and digital imaging of bread loaves made with 60% whole wheat flour and 3% fat or fat replacer. Increasing the whole wheat flour percentage in the blends also increased levels of protein, ash and insoluble fiber. All the farinographic parameters were also increased. Enzymatically modified starch was found to be an effective fat replacer in whole wheat loaves. The loaves made using fat replacer had the same specific volume and higher cell density as those made with fat, but exhibited different texture profile parameters such as higher hardness value and lower springiness value.

  14. Development and Characterization of Wheat Bread with Lupin Flour

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, Paula; Gonzaga, Marta; Batista, Luís; Beirão-Costa, Luísa; Guiné, Raquel

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present work was to develop an innovative food product with good textural and sensorial characteristics. The product, a new type of bread, was prepared with wheat (90%) and lupin (10%) flours, without the addition of any conservatives. Several experiences were also done to find the most appropriate proportion of lupin flour. The optimized product was characterized considering the rheological, physical-che...

  15. Yr10 gene polymorphism in bread wheat varieties | Temel | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yr10 gene polymorphism in bread wheat varieties. A Temel, F Sentürk-Akfirat, F Ertugrul, A Yumurtaci, Y Aydýn, T Talas-Ogras, N Gözükirmizi, N Bolat, Ö Yorgancilar, S Belen, M Yildirim, M Çakmak, E Özdemir, L Çetin, Z Mert, H Sipahi, S Albustan, K Akan, F Düsünceli, AA Uncuoglu3 ...

  16. AMMI analysis of nitrogen harvest index in bread wheat

    OpenAIRE

    Gorjanović Biljana M.; Kraljević-Balalić Marija M.

    2010-01-01

    Nitrogen harvest index - NHI is a measure of efficiency of nitrogen translocation from vegetative organs to grain. The goal of this paper is to investigate variability and stability of nitrogen harvest index of twelve bread wheat genotypes, on three nitrogen levels. ANOVA showed that nitrogen harvest index was mostly under influence of the year x genotype interaction, year of investigation and genotype, and in the smallest amount of the nitrogen rate. Increasing doses of nitrogen did no...

  17. Induced variability for protein content in bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singhal, N.C.; Jain, H.K.; Austin, A.

    1978-01-01

    The negative correlation observed between seed weight and percentage of protein in the seeds of bread wheat is a function of the fact that increase in seed size is commonly associated with a disproportionately large deposition of starch relative to the protein. The present study, as well as our earlier analysis, shows that exceptional genotypes of bread wheat do exist in which increase in seed weight is associated with a relatively larger synthesis of protein. In the course of the present investigation on radiation-induced variability, genotypes showing more efficient synthesis of storage proteins in their seeds have been identified in the M 2 and M 3 generations. The induced variability, thus, makes it possible to break the negative correlation between seed weight and percentage of protein in the seed. Based on these findings, it has been suggested that in a protein improvement programme on bread wheat it should be useful to select in the segregating generation plants showing increase in seed size, some of which can be expected to be relatively more efficient in protein synthesis and give higher protein yields. (author)

  18. The pangenome of hexaploid bread wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Montenegro, J. D.; Golicz, A. A.; Bayer, P.E.; Hurgobin, B.; Lee, H. T.; Chan, C. K. K.; Visendi, P.; Lai, K.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Batley, J.; Edwards, D.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 90, č. 5 (2017), s. 1007-1013 ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : database * diversity * genome * pangenome * single nucleotide polymorphisms * Triticum aestivum * wheat Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 5.901, year: 2016

  19. DEVELOPMENT OF A FUNCTIONAL PURPOSE WHIPPED BREAD WHOLE GRAIN WHEAT, RYE AND WHEAT BRAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. O. Magomedov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the development of whipped bakery products enriched with dietary fiber, minerals, vitamins retinol, tocopherol, group, polyunsaturated fatty acids through the use of rye and wheat bran and flour of wholegrain wheat. The main raw material for enrichment whipped bakery products used wheat bran and rye. Choice of rye and wheat bran as supplementation prepared whipped bread is explained not only from the point of view of the rationality of the use of this secondary raw materials, but also its rich vitamin and mineral composition. Wheat bran contain the necessary man of b vitamins, including B1, B2, B6, PP and others. Found provitamin a (carotene and vitamin E (tocopherol. Bran is rich in mineral substances. Among them potassium, magnesium, chromium, zinc, copper, selenium and other trace elements. Thanks to this composition bran are essential dietary product. They are rich in insoluble fiber and can be useful to reduce the risk of developing colon cancer. Rye bran contain dietary fiber, tocopherol E, thiamin B1, Riboflavin B2, Pantothenic acid B5, B4 (choline, nicotinic acid B3, etc. In the bran rich set of microelements and macroelements such as iron, calcium, magnesium, phosphorus, potassium, zinc, iodine, selenium, chromium, etc. the Introduction in the diet, bran rye contribute to the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis, diabetes and anemia. They restore blood pressure, reduce blood sugar levels and improve the cardiovascular system. Flour from wholegrain wheat is the main supplier of bread protein and starch, while preserving the maximum of the original nutritional value of the grain, enriched whipped bread macro - and micronutrients. The analysis of the chemical composition of flour from wholegrain wheat, rye and wheat bran leads to the conclusion that the choice of these types of materials suitable for making the recipe whipped bakery products, because their use can increase the content in bread is not only the

  20. The effect of baking temperature and buckwheat flour addition on the selected properties of wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Selimović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wholegrain buckwheat flour was used to substitute 15 %, 30 % and 40 % of wheat flour to make buckwheat enriched wheat bread. Proximate composition, sensory evaluation, total phenols content and antioxidant activity of buckwheat enriched wheat breads were analysed and compared with wheat bread. Wholegrain buckwheat flour contained higher total phenols than wheat flour. The incorporation of buckwheat flour from 15 % to 40 % in bread samples increased the total phenols content from 0.25 (mg GA/g d.m. sample to 0.65 (mg GA/g d.m. sample, and antioxidant activity from 208.45 (µmol Fe2+/L extract to 354.45 (µmol Fe2+/L extract. Total phenols content decreased during the baking process, while the antioxidant activity increased. Bread samples with 15 %, 30 % and 40 % of wholegrain buckwheat flour showed lower lightness (L and whiteness index (WI values of crust and crumb colour compared to the wheat bread. Addition of buckwheat flour increased redness (a and yellowness (b colour values for crumb. Sensory results indicating that three breads with buckwheat flour were moderately acceptable. No differences were found in overall sensory attributes between buckwheat flour enriched bread samples with 15 % and wheat bread (control sample.

  1. Substitution of wheat flour with “acha” ( Digitaria exilis ) for bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of wheat flour (WF) substitution with 'Acha' flour (AF) on the quality attributes in bread making was investigated using the following composite blends ratios 85:15, 80:20, 75:25, 70:30, 100:0 (AF) with 100% wheat flour as control. Proximate analysis on both composite flours and their bread products, as well as sensory ...

  2. Effect of Vitamin C Addition on some Quality Aspects of Wheat Bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: The effect of vitamin C addition on some quality aspects of wheat bread was evaluated. Subjects/Materials and Methods: Wheat bread was produced using the straight dough method with addition of varying quantities of vitamin C (between 0.05 to 0.40g) as an improver, with the sample without vitamin C serving ...

  3. Similar responses in hemostatic factors after consumption of wholemeal rye bread and low-fiber wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpeinen, A M; Juntunen, K; Mutanen, M; Mykkänen, H

    2000-05-01

    Both epidemiological and experimental evidence suggests a protective effect of dietary fiber against disease, such as cancer and cardiovascular disease. The effects of fiber on lipoproteins are modest, indicating that other mechanisms may be involved. As the hemostatic effects of different types of fiber are poorly known, we compared the effects of wholemeal rye bread and low-fiber wheat bread on factors related to coagulation, fibrinolysis and platelet function. Subjects consumed rye and wheat bread as part of their habitual diet in a cross-over manner for 4 weeks, with a 4 week washout period between the diet periods. Forty healthy subjects (18 men, 22 women), aged 43+/-2 y. Mean daily intake of fiber during the rye bread period was 31 g for men and 26 g for women, while the respective figures for the wheat bread period were 15 g and 12 g. However, no significant differences between the two periods were seen in factor VII coagulant activity (FVIIc), fibrinogen, prothrombin fragments 1+2 (F1+2), tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) or 2,3,-dinor-thromboxane B2. Fibrin degradation products, D-dimers, were slightly lower after the wheat period (P=0.046). The results indicate that wheat and rye bread do not differ in their effects on coagulation, fibrinolysis or platelet function. Fazer Bakeries Ltd, Lahti Finland; Vaasan & Vaasan Ltd, Helsinki, Finland.

  4. Fibre fortification of wheat bread: impact on mineral composition and bioaccessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Zita E; Pinto, Edgar; Almeida, Agostinho A; Pinho, Olívia; Ferreira, Isabel M P L V O

    2017-05-24

    In this work, wheat bread was fortified with fibre enriched extracts recovered from agroindustry by-products, namely, elderberry skin, pulp and seeds (EE); orange peel (OE); pomegranate peel and interior membranes (PE); and spent yeast (YE). The impact of this fortification on the total and bioaccessible mineral composition of wheat breads, estimated mineral daily intake, and the relationship between bioaccessibility and dietary fibre was evaluated. Fortification with OE, EE, and PE improved the content of essential minerals in bread when compared to control bread. The exception was bread fortified with YE, which presented a mineral content similar to control bread, but its mineral bioaccessibility was significantly higher than in all the other bread formulations. The opposite was observed for PE bread, which presented a significant reduction of bioaccessible minerals. We concluded that the origin of the fibre rich extract must be carefully selected, to avoid potential negative impact on mineral bioaccessibility.

  5. BREAD-MAKING QUALITY OF SLOVAK AND SERBIAN WHEAT VARIETIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Bojňanská

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The basic prerequisite for the production of bakery products of a good quality is the knowledge of the quality parameters of raw materials introduced in the production process and the ability to use their potential. The bread making properties of 17 pure European wheat cultivars were analysed. Baking experiments were carried out according to the methodology of the research workplace; 1000 g of flour was processed with the addition of salt, sugar and yeast. Fermentation for 35 minutes at 30 ° C was followed by the baking with steaming (at 240 ° C and then 220 ° C. During an experimental baking test the selected parameters: loaf volume (cm3, specific loaf volume (cm3.100g-1 loaf, volume efficiency (cm3.100g-1 flour, cambering (loaf height/width ratio, bread yield (%, bread yield baking loss (% in bread were evaluated. Loaf volume has been considered as the most important criterion for the bread-making quality. In the analysed samples (11 varieties of Slovak origin and 6 varieties of Serbian origin, the value of this parameter ranged from 3575 cm3 to 5575 cm3 with higher values occurred in Slovak varieties (average 4 640.91 cm3 compared to the Serbian varieties (average 4 363.33 cm3. Based on the complex evaluation of wheat varieties of the Slovak and Serbian origin assessing the selected quality parameters of the baking experiment it can be concluded that in terms of baking quality the three Slovak varieties IS Ezopus, Bonavita and Jarissa were the best. Therefore, they are recommended for cultivation and their subsequent use in the baking industry, in particular for the production of bread According to a baking quality the evaluated varieties can be sorted from best to worst in the following order: IS Ezopus (SK > Bonavita (SK > Jarissa (SK > IS Questor > Etida (SRB > Venistar (SK > Renesansa (SRB > IS Conditor (SK > IS Corvinus (SK > Zvezdana (SRB > Simonida (SRB > Viglanka (SK > IS Agape (SK > NS 40S (SRB > Panonnija (SRB > IS Escoria (SK

  6. The structure of wheat bread influences the postprandial metabolic response in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W J; Sozer, Nesli

    2015-01-01

    with a similar composition were created using different processing conditions. The postprandial glucose kinetics and metabolic response to bread with a compact structure (flat bread, FB) was compared to bread with a porous structure (control bread, CB) in a randomized, crossover study with ten healthy male...... or insulin-independent glucose disposal. These results demonstrate that the structure of wheat bread can influence the postprandial metabolic response, with a more compact structure being more beneficial for health. Bread-making technology should be further explored to create healthier products....

  7. A proteomic study of spike development inhibition in bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yong-Sheng; Guo, Jun-Xian; Zhang, Jin-Peng; Gao, Ai-Nong; Yang, Xin-Ming; Li, Xiu-Quan; Liu, Wei-Hua; Li, Li-Hui

    2013-09-01

    Spike development in wheat is a complicated development process and determines the wheat propagation and survival. We report herein a proteomic study on the bread wheat mutant strain 5660M underlying spike development inhibition. A total of 121 differentially expressed proteins, which were involved in cold stress response, protein folding and assembly, cell-cycle regulation, scavenging of ROS, and the autonomous pathway were identified using MS/MS and database searching. We found that cold responsive proteins were highly expressed in the mutant in contrast to those expressed in the wild-type line. Particularly, the autonomous pathway protein FVE, which modulates flowering, was dramatically downregulated and closely related to the spike development inhibition phenotype of 5660M. A quantitative RT-PCR study demonstrated that the transcription of the FVE and other six genes in the autonomous pathway and downstream flowering regulators were all markedly downregulated. The results indicate that spike development of 5660M cannot complete the floral transition. FVE might play an important role in the spikes development of the wheat. Our results provide the theory basis for studying floral development and transition in the reproductive growth period, and further analysis of wheat yield formation. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Structural differences between rye and wheat breads but not total fiber content may explain the lower postprandial insulin response to rye bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juntunen, Katri S; Laaksonen, David E; Autio, Karin

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rye bread has a beneficial effect on the postprandial insulin response in healthy subjects. The role of rye fiber in insulin and glucose metabolism is not known. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to determine the effect of the content of rye fiber in rye breads on postprandial insulin...... and glucose responses. DESIGN: Nineteen healthy postmenopausal women aged 61 +/- 1 y, with a body mass index (in kg/m(2)) of 26.0 +/- 0.6, and with normal glucose tolerance participated in the study. The test products were refined wheat bread (control), endosperm rye bread, traditional rye bread, and high-fiber...... differed between the rye and control breads. CONCLUSION: Total fiber content does not explain the lower postprandial insulin response to rye bread than to wheat bread, but structural differences between rye and wheat breads might....

  9. Quality characterization of wheat, maize and sorghum steamed breads from Lesotho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkhabutlane, Pulane; du Rand, Gerrie E; de Kock, Henriëtte L

    2014-08-01

    In Lesotho, traditional bread covers different types of dumplings prepared with cereal flour, water, salt and sourdough. This study characterized eight steamed breads prepared from wheat, maize and sorghum. Breads were prepared from both commercial and self-milled flours according to the procedures followed in rural and urban areas of Lesotho. Descriptive sensory evaluation was conducted to profile sensory properties of the breads. Flour particle sizes, sourdough properties and bread colour, volume and texture were also characterized. The type of cereal and milling properties of the flour used had substantial effects on the physical and sensory properties of the bread. Steamed wheat breads had greater volume, softer crumb and more bland flavour compared with sorghum and maize breads. Both sorghum and maize steamed breads prepared according to traditional Basotho procedures were characterized by low loaf volume, denser crumb, more complex and strong flavours and aroma, notably sour, musty, malty, dairy sour and fermented aroma. The texture of the non-wheat bread types was heavy, chewy, dry, fibrous and more brittle and needed a higher compression force to deform. This study provided insight on the sensory properties of steamed bread as prepared in Lesotho. Further research is needed to optimize sensory properties of the non-wheat steamed breads by controlling the flour particle size, compositing non-wheat flours with different levels of wheat flour, addition of protein sources and gums, altering the amount of water, improving the pre-gelatinization process and optimizing the steaming method of cooking bread. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Resistance of Some Iraqi Bread Wheat Cultivars to Puccinia triticina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M. Al-Maaroof

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Brown rust (leaf rust caused by Puccinia triticina is one of the most serious diseases of wheat worldwide. In Iraq the occurrence and distribution of brown rust is more regular and uniform than that of other wheat rusts. with yield losses as high as 44% on susceptible wheat cultivars in commercial fields. Recently several promising wheat (Triticum aestivum cultivars with different levels of rust resistance have been released in Iraq. The present work was conducted to postulate the resistance genes in twenty-two Iraqi bread wheat cultivars by testing them with thirteen Mexican races of P. triticina. ‘Thatcher’ near-isogenic lines were used as testers for known resistance genes. Ten day old seedling sets were artificially inoculated with each race, and the infection type was recorded ten days later. Field reactions of the cultivars with the predominantly Iraqi races were determined under field conditions for three years. Results revealed that the Iraqi wheat cultivars possessed brown rust resistance genes Lr1, 3, 10, 13, 16, 17, 23 and 26, either alone or in various combinations. The presence of unknown resistance genes was also postulated in some cultivars. Lr23, derived from Triticum turgidum var. durum, was present in 23% of tested cultivars, whereas Lr13 was present in 18%. The presence of Lr26 in ‘Al-Nour’ and ‘Hashemia’ indicated that they carried the 1BL.1RS wheat-rye translocation. ‘Al-Melad’ displayed resistant reactions to all races used in the study. ‘Tamuz 3’ and ‘Al- Nour’ displayed high adult-plant resistance to P. triticina in the field.

  11. Some Physical and Chemical Properties of Iraqi Wheat Varieties and their Relationship with Bread Characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhl, J.; AL-A'ani, S.; AL-Noori, F.; Sajet, A.

    2005-01-01

    The results showed that the volume of the bread baked from wheat flour of Tammoze 3 was increased significantly compared to other wheat varieties. Maxiback flour gave the smallest bread volume; whereas Abugraib and Rabi'ah bread were not significantly different. Abugraib wheat was not significantly different from Rabi'ah bread. The taste panel results were compatible with baking results. Tammoze 3 was the highest in one thousand grain weight and total protein percentage. Rabi'ah wheat flour was superior in water absorption Among the tested wheat flour varieties, maxiback flour showed best fat content. Amylases and proteases activities were higher in wheat grains than in flour. Protease activity was the highest in Maxiback flour; whereas in Tammoze 3 it was the lowest. (Author's) 19 refs., 5 tabs

  12. Infuence of gamma radiation on the rheological and functional properties of bread wheats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paredes-Lopez, O.; Covarrubias-Alvarez, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on some biochemical, rheological and functional properties of bread wheats were studied. Two wheat cultivars were selected to represent medium-strong and weak dough mixing strengths. Falling number values were severely depressed at doses of 500 and 1000 krad. Rheological dough properties, as assessed with the mixograph and farinograph, were also investigated. Radiation at medium doses produced an increase in the farinograph water absorption for both wheats. Radiation decreased the amount of bound water as compared to the control sample. For the medium-strong wheat low levels of radiation produced bread with volumes and overall bread quality equal to or slightly better than those of the control flour, whereas for the weak wheat an improvement of the baking performance was obtained at all the low doses of radiation. However, the overall bread quality of both wheats was highly reduced at medium doses of radiation. (author)

  13. Heritability of Some Characters Related to Bread Quality of Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Khodadadi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available To determine the inheritance of bread making quality of bread wheat by diallel crossing, the F1 seeds of a 5 × 5 half diallel along with their parents were grown in water-stress and non-stress conditions, in a randomized complete blocks design, at Islamic Azad University, Ardabil, Iran, in 2009, and 8 characters related to their bread quality along with 1000-seed weight and hectolitre mass were evaluated. The result of combined analysis of variance showed that the effect of stress on protein content, SDS sedimentation volume, wet gluten content, 1000-seed weight and hectolitre mass was significant . The interaction effect of genotype and stress was significant (P<0.01 for the loaf volume and hectolitre mass, and this showed different reactions of the genotypes in the stress and non-stress conditions. Also, the effects of genotype were significant for all the traits except for Zeleny sedimentation volume, grain moisture content and wet gluten content. This shows that the conditions are suitable for diallel analysis and separation of sum of squares of traits. Significance of general combining ability for loaf volume, grain hardness, moisture absorption percentage, SDS sedimentation volume, 1000-seed weight and hectolitre mass shows presence of additive effect and specific combining ability for 1000-seed weight and hectolitre mass shows non-additive gene effects in the control of these traits.

  14. Gamma radiation effects on commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agundez-Arvizu, Z. [Departamento de Ciencias Quimico Biologicas, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000 (Mexico); Fernandez-Ramirez, M.V. [Departamento de Ciencias Quimico Biologicas, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000 (Mexico); Arce-Corrales, M.E. [Departamento de Ciencias Quimico Biologicas, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo, Sonora 83000 (Mexico); Cruz-Zaragoza, E. [Instituto de Ciencias Nucleares-UNAM, A.P. 70-543, Mexico 04510 DF (Mexico); Melendrez, R. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora 83190 (Mexico); Chernov, V. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora 83190 (Mexico); Barboza-Flores, M. [Centro de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Apartado Postal 5-088, Hermosillo, Sonora 83190 (Mexico)]. E-mail: mbarboza@cajeme.cifus.uson.mx

    2006-04-15

    Gamma irradiation is considered to be an alternative method for food preservation to prevent food spoilage, insect infestation and capable of reducing the microbial load. In the present investigation, commercial Mexican bread making wheat flour was irradiated at 1.0 kGy using a {sup 6}C Gammabeam 651 PT irradiator facility. No changes were detected in moisture, protein and ashes in gamma irradiated samples as compared to those of non-irradiated samples. Slight radiation effects were observed in the alveogram values and farinograph properties; the falling number decreased 11%, the absorption as well as the mixing tolerance were practically unchanged by irradiation. An increase of 15% in the stability value and a 29% in the dough development time were observed. Also the deformation energy decreased 7% with no change at all in the tenacity/extensibility factor. Total aerobic, yeast and mold counts were reduced 96%, 25% and 75%; respectively by the irradiation process. The obtained results confirm that gamma irradiation is effective in reducing the microbial load in bread making wheat flour without a significant change in the physicochemical and baking properties.

  15. Characterization of zinc uptake, binding, and translocation in intact seedlings of bread and durum wheat cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, J.J.; Norvell, W.A.; Welch, R.M.; Sullivan, L.A.; Kochian, L.V.

    1998-01-01

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) cultivars exhibit lower Zn efficiency than comparable bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars. To understand the physiological mechanism(s) that confers Zn efficiency, this study used 65Zn to investigate ionic Zn2+ root uptake, binding, and translocation to shoots in seedlings of bread and durum wheat cultivars. Time-dependent Zn2+ accumulation during 90 min was greater in roots of the bread wheat cultivar. Zn2+ cell wall binding was not different in the two cultivars. In each cultivar, concentration-dependent Zn2+ influx was characterized by a smooth, saturating curve, suggesting a carrier-mediated uptake system. At very low solution Zn2+ activities, Zn2+ uptake rates were higher in the bread wheat cultivar. As a result, the Michaelis constant for Zn2+ uptake was lower in the bread wheat cultivar (2.3 micromolar) than in the durum wheat cultivar (3.9 micromolar). Low temperature decreased the rate of Zn2+ influx, suggesting that metabolism plays a role in Zn2+ uptake. Ca inhibited Zn2+ uptake equally in both cultivars. Translocation of Zn to shoots was greater in the bread wheat cultivar, reflecting the higher root uptake rates. The study suggests that lower root Zn2+ uptake rates may contribute to reduced Zn efficiency in durum wheat varieties under Zn-limiting conditions

  16. Comparison of Antioxidant Properties of Refined and Whole Wheat Flour and Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilei Yu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant properties of refined and whole wheat flour and their resultant bread were investigated to document the effects of baking. Total phenolic content (TPC, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC were employed to determine the content of ethanol extractable phenolic compounds. HPLC was used to detect the presence of phenolic acids prior to their confirmation using LC-MS/MS. Whole wheat flour showed significantly higher antioxidant activity than refined flour (p < 0.05. There was a significant effect of the bread-making process with the TPC of whole wheat bread (1.50–1.65 mg/g and white bread (0.79–1.03 mg/g showing a respective reduction of 28% and 33% of the levels found in whole wheat and refined flour. Similarly, baking decreased DPPH radical scavenging capacity by 32% and 30%. ORAC values, however, indicated that baking increased the antioxidant activities of whole wheat and refined flour by 1.8 and 2.9 times, respectively. HPLC analysis showed an increase of 18% to 35% in ferulic acid after baking to obtain whole and refined wheat bread containing 330.1 and 25.3 µg/g (average, respectively. Whole wheat flour and bread were superior to refined flour and bread in in vitro antioxidant properties.

  17. Nudging children towards whole wheat bread: a field experiment on the influence of fun bread roll shape on breakfast consumption

    OpenAIRE

    van Kleef, Ellen; Vrijhof, Milou; Polet, Ilse A; Vingerhoeds, Monique H; de Wijk, René A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Many children do not eat enough whole grains, which may have negative health consequences. Intervention research is increasingly focusing on nudging as a way to influence food choices by affecting unconscious behavioural processes. The aim of this field study was to examine whether the shape of bread rolls is able to shift children’s bread choices from white to whole wheat during breakfast to increase whole grain intake. Methods: In a between-subjects experiment conducted at twelv...

  18. The Effect of Chia Seeds (Salvia hispanica L. Addition on Quality and Nutritional Value of Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daria Romankiewicz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to analyze and characterize the influence of chia seeds (CS addition (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8% on wheat bread properties. Bread properties that underwent evaluation included chemical composition, fatty acid composition, total phenolics content, volume, baking losses, crumb texture, and color and sensory analysis. The addition of CS decreased baking losses and the volume of bread. The color of the crumb with CS was much darker as compared with the control sample. The texture analysis showed that the CS caused a decrease in the hardness of the crumb. Most importantly, the addition of CS increased the nutritional value of the bread. Bread with CS contained more dietary fiber and mineral components. Moreover, it has been observed that in comparison to the control product bread with CS was characterized by a rich fatty acids composition and higher level of phenolic compounds. Most importantly, the results showed that the substitution of wheat flour with chia seeds up to 6% did not negatively affect the final product acceptance.

  19. Whole wheat bread: Effect of bran fractions on dough and end-product quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption of whole-wheat based products is encouraged due to its important nutritional elements that beneficial to human health. However, processing of whole-wheat based products, such as whole-wheat bread, results in poor end-product quality. Bran was postulated as the major problem. In this stud...

  20. Agrobacterium-Mediated Transformation of Bread and Durum Wheat Using Freshly Isolated Immature Embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huixia; Doherty, Angela; Jones, Huw D.

    Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of wheat is becoming a viable alternative to the more established biolistic protocols. It offers advantages in terms of simple, low-copy-number integrations and can be applied with similar efficiencies to specific durum wheat and spring and winter bread wheat types varieties.

  1. Defatted Soy Flour Supplementation of Wheat Bread ameliorates Blood Chemistry and Oxidative Stress in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebuehi, O A T; Okafor, H K

    2015-01-01

    Bread is a convenience food made from wheat flour, which is derived from wheat and whose technology of which dates back to the ancient Egyptians. It is therefore of economic advantage if wheat importation to Nigeria can be reduced by substitution with other suitable materials. This led to the whole idea of composite flour, which is a mixture of wheat with other materials to form suitable flour for baking'purposes. The study is to ascertain the effect of supplementation of bread with defatted soy flour on blood chemistry and oxidative stress in Wistar rats. Wheat flour mixed with high quality defatted Soy flour at several ratios: 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40. The 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40 flour mixtures were used to prepare 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% Soya bread, respectively. The control bread (100%) was prepared with 100% wheat flour. Bread produced with these blends compared with regular 100% wheat bread and was tested for chemical and. organoleptic characteristics. Sixteen rats were randomly given codes and allocated to 2 different groups via tables with random numbers to feed on the 100% wheat blend and soy supplemented bread (90% wheat flour/10% soy flour) for 28 days. The weights and feedintake of the rats were computed on dailybasis. Blood was taken for biochemical assays and liver was used for antioxidant assay, that is activities of catalase, super oxider dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathine level. The activities of serum SOD and catalase were significantly increase (pbread as compared to the control, (wheat bread) and a significant decrease (pbread as compared to the control. There was a significant decrease (pbread.

  2. Wheat Bread with Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) Pulp
as a Functional Food Product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Dziki, Dariusz; Jakubczyk, Anna; Karaś, Monika; Różyło, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Summary In this study, a new application of pumpkin pulp in bread production is shown. The aim of this work is to determine the influence of the addition of fresh pumpkin pulp directly into wheat flour on physical, sensorial and biological properties of bread. The bioaccessibility of active compounds was also studied. An increase in the addition of pumpkin pulp from 5 to 20% (converted to dry matter) caused a decrease of bread volume and increase of crumb hardness and cohesiveness. The sensory characteristics of the bread showed that a partial replacement of wheat flour with up to 10% of pumpkin pulp gave satisfactory results. The taste, aroma and overall acceptability of control bread and bread containing 5 or 10% of pulp had the highest degree of liking. The addition of higher levels of pumpkin pulp caused an unpleasant aroma and taste. Pumpkin pulp is a good material to complement the bread with potentially bioaccessible phenolics (including flavonoids) and, especially, with peptides. The highest antioxidant activity was observed, in most cases, of the samples with added 10 and 15% of pumpkin pulp. The addition of the pulp significantly enriched the bread with potentially bioaccessible angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. The highest activity was determined in the bread with 15 and 20% pumpkin pulp. ACE inhibitors from the tested bread were highly bioaccessible in vitro. Pumpkin pulp seems to be a valuable source of active compounds to complement the wheat bread. Adding the pulp directly to the wheat flour gives satisfactory baking results and reduces the cost of production. Additionally, pumpkin pulp is sometimes treated as waste material after the acquisition of seeds, thus using it as bread supplement also has environmental and economic benefits. Key words: pumpkin, bread, texture, antioxidants, bioaccessibility in vitro, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition PMID:27904316

  3. Wheat Bread with Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L.) Pulp
as a Functional Food Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Różyło, Renata; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Dziki, Dariusz; Jakubczyk, Anna; Karaś, Monika; Różyło, Krzysztof

    2014-12-01

    In this study, a new application of pumpkin pulp in bread production is shown. The aim of this work is to determine the influence of the addition of fresh pumpkin pulp directly into wheat flour on physical, sensorial and biological properties of bread. The bioaccessibility of active compounds was also studied. An increase in the addition of pumpkin pulp from 5 to 20% (converted to dry matter) caused a decrease of bread volume and increase of crumb hardness and cohesiveness. The sensory characteristics of the bread showed that a partial replacement of wheat flour with up to 10% of pumpkin pulp gave satisfactory results. The taste, aroma and overall acceptability of control bread and bread containing 5 or 10% of pulp had the highest degree of liking. The addition of higher levels of pumpkin pulp caused an unpleasant aroma and taste. Pumpkin pulp is a good material to complement the bread with potentially bioaccessible phenolics (including flavonoids) and, especially, with peptides. The highest antioxidant activity was observed, in most cases, of the samples with added 10 and 15% of pumpkin pulp. The addition of the pulp significantly enriched the bread with potentially bioaccessible angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors. The highest activity was determined in the bread with 15 and 20% pumpkin pulp. ACE inhibitors from the tested bread were highly bioaccessible in vitro . Pumpkin pulp seems to be a valuable source of active compounds to complement the wheat bread. Adding the pulp directly to the wheat flour gives satisfactory baking results and reduces the cost of production. Additionally, pumpkin pulp is sometimes treated as waste material after the acquisition of seeds, thus using it as bread supplement also has environmental and economic benefits. Key words : pumpkin, bread, texture, antioxidants, bioaccessibility in vitro, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition.

  4. Physicochemical, rheological, thermal, and bread making properties of flour obtained from irradiated wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, Carolina Sobral

    2006-01-01

    Most of the methods that are nowadays used for food preservation derive from old times. Besides these methods, new non-thermal methods have been developed in order to improve food quality during its processing. Irradiation technology has a great contribution potential to improve preservation, storage and distribution of foods. Several studies from international literature have reported the efficiency of irradiation process on microbiological control of grains and their products. Due to the low technological quality of national wheat, Brazil depends on its import. Wheat is the main ingredient of bread which is one of the most important products of Brazilian people's diet. The objective of this work was to study the effect of ionizing radiation on wheat on physicochemical, rheological, and thermal properties of flour produced from this wheat, and consequently, its performance on bread making. All experiments were conducted on laboratory scale. Wheat was submitted to irradiation on different doses (0.0; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 kGy) and flour produced underwent physicochemical, rheological, thermal and microbiological analyses. Flour bread making performance was measured through quality of bread. None of the physicochemical, rheological or thermal parameters was influenced by irradiation, with the exception of Falling Number, which decreased significantly with the increase of irradiation dose, indicating the effect of irradiation on wheat starch, and consequently on dough's gelatinization. Bread quality parameters did also not show significant differences, and sensory analysis showed that bread produced from irradiated and non irradiated wheat did not present perceivable flavor. (author)

  5. Rheology of Potato flour Mixes and Wheat to Make Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ely Fernando Sacón-Vera

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Evaluate the rheological properties of flour mixes Ipomoea batata and Triticum vulgare for the preparation of bread dough, was the goal of this research for it a completely randomized design, as treatments sweet potato flour was used varieties are used: Toquecita, Guayaco Purple, Purple Ecuador, Brazil and Ina Purple in a 30/70 ratio (sweet potato flour / wheat flour respectively. The rheological variables: water absorption, development time, weakening of the dough stability, water absorption index (C1, mixing rate (C2, gluten strength index (C3, gel viscosity (C4, resistance index amylase (C5 and starch retro gradation index (C6 were evaluated with Mixolab equipment. The results showed that the variety Purple Brazil showed better characteristics of flours recommended premixes for the baking process in response to these indices

  6. The effect of a default-based nudge on the choice of whole wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Kleef, Ellen; Seijdell, Karen; Vingerhoeds, Monique H; de Wijk, René A; van Trijp, Hans C M

    2018-02-01

    Consumer choices are often influenced by the default option presented. This study examines the effect of whole wheat bread as a default option in a sandwich choice situation. Whole wheat bread consists of 100% whole grain and is healthier than other bread types that are commonly consumed, such as brown or white bread. A pilot survey (N = 291) examined the strength of combinations of toppings and bread type as carrier to select stimuli for the main study. In the main experimental study consisting of a two (bread type) by two (topping type) between-subjects design, participants (N = 226) were given a free sandwich at a university stand with either a relatively unhealthy deep-fried snack (croquette) or a healthy topping. About half of the participants were offered a whole wheat bun unless they asked for white bun, and the other half were offered a white bun unless they asked for a whole wheat bun. Regardless of the topping, the results show that when the whole wheat bun was the default option, 108 out of 115 participants (94%) decided to stick with this default option. When the default of bread offered was white, 89 out of 111 participants (80%) similarly chose to stick with this default. Across conditions, participants felt equally free to make a choice. The attractiveness of and willingness to pay for the sandwich were not affected by default type of bread. This study demonstrated a strong default effect of bread type. This clearly shows the benefit of steering consumers towards a healthier bread choice, by offering healthier default bread at various locations such as restaurants, schools and work place canteens. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Wheat Bread with Pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima L. Pulp as a Functional Food Product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Różyło

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a new application of pumpkin pulp in bread production is shown. The aim of this work is to determine the influence of the addition of fresh pumpkin pulp directly into wheat flour on physical, sensorial and biological properties of bread. The bioaccessibility of active compounds was also studied. An increase in the addition of pumpkin pulp from 5 to 20 % (converted to dry matter caused a decrease of bread volume and increase of crumb hardness and cohesiveness. The sensory characteristics of the bread showed that a partial replacement of wheat fl our with up to 10 % of pumpkin pulp gave satisfactory results. The taste, aroma and overall acceptability of control bread and bread containing 5 or 10 % of pulp had the highest degree of liking. The addition of higher levels of pumpkin pulp caused an unpleasant aroma and taste. Pumpkin pulp is a good material to complement the bread with potentially bioaccessible phenolics (including flavonoids and, especially, with peptides. The highest antioxidant activity was observed, in most cases, of the samples with added 10 and 15 % of pumpkin pulp. The addition of the pulp significantly enriched the bread with potentially bioaccessible angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE inhibitors. The highest activity was determined in the bread with 15 and 20 % pumpkin pulp. ACE inhibitors from the tested bread were highly bioaccessible in vitro. Pumpkin pulp seems to be a valuable source of active compounds to complement the wheat bread. Adding the pulp directly to the wheat flour gives satisfactory baking results and reduces the cost of production. Additionally, pumpkin pulp is sometimes treated as waste material after the acquisition of seeds, thus using it as bread supplement also has environmental and economic benefi ts.

  8. Chemical Composition and Quality Characteristics of Wheat Bread Supplemented with Leafy Vegetable Powders

    OpenAIRE

    Odunlade, T. V.; Famuwagun, A. A.; Taiwo, K. A.; Gbadamosi, S. O.; Oyedele, D. J.; Adebooye, O. C.

    2017-01-01

    The study investigated the effect of supplementation of the leaf powders of Telfairia occidentalis, Amaranthus viridis, and Solanum macrocarpon on the chemical composition and the quality characteristics of wheat bread. The bread samples were supplemented with each of the vegetable leaf powders at 1%, 2%, and 3% during preparation. The bread samples were assayed for proximate composition, mineral composition, physical, sensory, and antioxidant properties using standard methods. The addition o...

  9. Evolution of bread-making quality of Spanish bread-wheat genotypes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez, M.; Aparicio, N.; Ruiz-Paris, E.; Oliete, B.; Caballero, P. A.

    2009-07-01

    In this study, 36 Spanish wheat genotypes (five modern commercial cultivars, four cultivars introduced after the green revolution and 27 land races from northwestern Spain) were evaluated. Grain (yield, specific weight, protein content and falling number) and flour (yield, protein content, Zeleny index, wet gluten and gluten index) properties were analyzed. Dough behaviour during mixing (DoughLAB) and handling (alveograph) was also considered. An evolution in grain and flour properties was observed over time. In modern cultivars, grain yield was improved owing to higher grain production. In land races, higher grain yields were related to larger grain size. Unlike in land races, an inverse correlation between grain yield and protein content was found in modern cultivars. In addition, because of their high protein quality, modern cultivars surpassed land races in bread-making properties. Land races showed considerable variability in protein quality and scored lower curve configuration ratio values than other cultivars with similar strength. Cultivars introduced after the green revolution reached the highest levels of bread-making quality, a feature attributable to their high protein quality. (Author) 24 refs.

  10. Effect of Processing on phenolic acid composition of dough and bread fractions made from refined and whole-wheat flour of three wheat varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, we investigated the effect of bread-making on the assay of phenolic acids of whole and refined wheat from three wheat varieties, comparing refined (RF) and whole wheat (WW) flour, dough, and bread fractions. The efficacy of two common base hydrolysis methods for phenolic acid analysis...

  11. Bread in the Economy of Qualities: The Creative Reconstitution of the Canada-UK Commodity Chain for Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnan, Andre

    2011-01-01

    This article traces the creative reconstitution of the Canada-UK wheat-bread commodity chain since the 1990s. In the mid-1990s, the Canadian Wheat Board (CWB) and a British bakery, Warburtons, pioneered an innovative identity-preserved sourcing relationship that ties contracted prairie wheat growers to consumers of premium bread in the United…

  12. Effect of different iron compounds on rheological and technological parameters as well as bioaccessibility of minerals in whole wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebellato, Ana Paula; Bussi, Jéssica; Silva, Joyce Grazielle Siqueira; Greiner, Ralf; Steel, Caroline Joy; Pallone, Juliana Azevedo Lima

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of iron compounds used in whole wheat flour (WWF) fortification, both on rheological properties of the dough and on bread technological quality. Furthermore, bioaccessibility of iron (Fe), zinc (Zn) and calcium (Ca) in the final breads was determined. Rheological properties (mainly dough development time, stability, mixing tolerance index, resistance to extension and ratio number) of the dough and the technological quality of bread (mainly oven spring and cut opening) were altered. However, producing roll breads fortified with different iron compounds was still possible. NaFeEDTA (ferric sodium ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid) proved to be the most effective iron compound in the fortification of WWF, since it presented the highest levels of solubility (44.80%) and dialysability (46.14%), followed by microencapsulated ferrous fumarate (FFm). On the other hand, the microencapsulated ferrous sulfate (FSm) and reduced iron presented the lowest solubility (5.40 and 18.30%, respectively) and dialysability (33.12 and 31.79%, respectively). Zn dialysis was positively influenced by NaFeEDTA, FSm, and ferrous fumarate. As for Ca, dialysis was positively influenced by FSm and negatively influenced by FFm. The data indicated that there is a competitive interaction for the absorption of these minerals in whole wheat roll breads, but all studied minerals can be considered bioaccessible. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Short-term storage evaluation of quality and antioxidant capacity in chestnut-wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Massimiliano; Paciulli, Maria; Dall'Asta, Chiara; Cirlini, Martina; Chiavaro, Emma

    2015-01-01

    Bread traditionally made from wheat is now often supplemented with alternative functional ingredients as chestnut flours; no data have been previously published about the staling of chestnut-containing bread. Thus short-term storage (3 days) for chestnut flour-supplemented soft wheat bread is evaluated by means of selected physicochemical properties (i.e. water dynamics, texture, colour, crumb grain characteristic, total antioxidant capacity). Bread prepared with a 20:80 ratio of chestnut:soft wheat flours maintained its moisture content in both crust and crumb. Crumb hardness, after baking, was found to be significantly higher than that of the soft wheat bread; it did not change during storage, whereas it significantly increased in the control bread until the end of the shelf life. The supplemented bread presented a heterogeneous crumb structure, with a significant decrease in the largest pores during shelf life, relative to the shrinkage of crumb grain. The control exhibited a significant redistribution of crumb holes, with a decrease in the smallest grain classes and an increase in the intermediate ones, most likely caused by cell wall thickening. The colour of the crumb remained unaltered in both breads. The crust of the control presented a significant decrease of a* (redness) and that of the supplemented bread exhibited a decrease of b* (yellowness). The antioxidant capacity was detected after day 1 of storage in the chestnut flour bread only. Chestnut flour supplementation could represent a feasible way of producing bread with improved characteristics, not only just after baking but also during shelf life. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Effect of the Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L. Flour Addition on Physicochemical Properties of Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Man

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Chickpea flour is a good source of proteins, fibers, minerals and other bioactive compounds and it could be an ideal ingredient for improve the nutritional value of bread and bakery products. The aim of this study was to supplement wheat flour (WF with various levels of chickpea flour (CF in order to obtain bread with good nutritional and quality characteristics. Four experimental variants obtained by substituting wheat flour with different proportions (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% of chickpea flour were used. The results showed a valuable increment in bread protein and fiber content. The volume of the breads decreased as the level of chickpea flour (CF increased due the dilution of gluten content in the blend and due to the interactions among fiber components, water and gluten. Nevertheless, substitution at 10%, 20% and 30%, gives parameter values at least as good as the control sample (WFB and produces acceptable bread, in terms of weight, volume and sensorial properties.

  15. A novel highly differentially expressed gene in wheat endosperm associated with bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furtado, A; Bundock, P C; Banks, P M; Fox, G; Yin, X; Henry, R J

    2015-05-26

    Analysis of gene expression in developing wheat seeds was used to identify a gene, wheat bread making (wbm), with highly differential expression (~1000 fold) in the starchy endosperm of genotypes varying in bread making quality. Several alleles differing in the 5'-upstream region (promoter) of this gene were identified, with one present only in genotypes with high levels of wbm expression. RNA-Seq analysis revealed low or no wbm expression in most genotypes but high expression (0.2-0.4% of total gene expression) in genotypes that had good bread loaf volume. The wbm gene is predicted to encode a mature protein of 48 amino acids (including four cysteine residues) not previously identified in association with wheat quality, possibly because of its small size and low frequency in the wheat gene pool. Genotypes with high wbm expression all had good bread making quality but not always good physical dough qualities. The predicted protein was sulphur rich suggesting the possibility of a contribution to bread loaf volume by supporting the crossing linking of proteins in gluten. Improved understanding of the molecular basis of differences in bread making quality may allow more rapid development of high performing genotypes with acceptable end-use properties and facilitate increased wheat production.

  16. Higher bioavailability of iron from whole wheat bread compared with iron-fortified white breads in caco-2 cell model: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikooyeh, Bahareh; Neyestani, Tirang R

    2017-06-01

    Bread, as the staple food of Iranians, with average per capita consumption of 300 g d -1 , could potentially be a good vehicle for many fortificants, including iron. In this study, iron bioavailability from flat breads (three fortified and one whole wheat unfortified) was investigated using in vitro simulation of gastrointestinal digestion and absorption in a caco-2 cell model. Despite having a lower ferritin/protein ratio in comparison with fortified breads, whole wheat bread showed higher iron bioavailability than the other three types of bread. Assuming iron bioavailability from the ferrous sulfate supplement used as standard was about 10%, the estimated bioavailability of iron from the test breads was calculated as 5.0-8.0%. Whole wheat bread (∼8%), as compared with the fortified breads (∼5-6.5%), had higher iron bioavailability. Iron from unfortified whole wheat bread is more bioavailable than from three types of iron-fortified breads. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Thermo-mechanical and micro-structural properties of xylanase containing whole wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Ghoshal

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Xylanase is a hemicellulase that can hydrolyses the complex polysaccharides. Hemicelluloses are main components of cell walls of cereal grains. Moreover, hemicelluloses are considered as potential sources of mono- and oligosaccharides. In this study, influence of xylanase on the physicochemical properties and sensory qualities of the whole wheat bread during storage was investigated. Studies of whole wheat bread on microstructure, texture, thermotics, Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM, X-Ray Diffraction (XRD were conducted at ambient temperature of 25 and 4 °C respectively. During storage at different temperatures, bread containing xylanase exhibited less firmness but larger volume with whiter crumb color and longer shelf life as compared to control bread. Results of firmness, enthalpy, Fourier Transformation Infra Red (FTIR and X-Ray Diffraction (XRD studies suggested a lower staling rate of bread containing xylanase as compared to control one. Bread containing xylanase showed a smoother surface and more uniform pore size than the control. Significant differences in microstructure of control and bread containing xylanase were observed which might be attributed due to the change in water starch gluten interaction. These differences were also found to be interrelated to the textural properties of bread. Better sensory features were achieved in bread containing xylanase.

  18. Effect of Hydrocolloids and Emulsifiers on Baking Quality of Composite Cassava-Maize-Wheat Breads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eduardo, Maria; Ahrné, Lilia

    2014-01-01

    Cassava is widely available worldwide but bread quality is impaired when cassava is used in the bread formulation. To overcome this problem, different improvers were tested in the preparation of composite cassava-maize-wheat (CMW) breads. Emulsifiers, diacetyl tartic acid ester of monoglycerides (DATEM), sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (SSL), and lecithin (LC); and hydrocolloids, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC) and high-methylated pectin (HM pectin) were added during dough preparation of the composite flours (cassava-maize-wheat, 40 : 10 : 50). Each emulsifier was tested in combination with the hydrocolloids at levels of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% while hydrocolloids were used at a level of 3%. Bread quality attributes such as specific loaf volume, crust colour, crumb moisture, and firmness were measured. The specific volume of the fresh breads significantly improved with the addition of hydrocolloids (7.5 and 13%) and in combination with emulsifiers (from 7.9 to 27%) compared with bread produced without improvers. A significant improvement of brownness index and firmness of the composite flours breads was achieved with the addition of hydrocolloids and emulsifiers. The results show that emulsifiers and hydrocolloids can significantly improve the baking quality of CMW breads and thereby enhance the potential for using locally produced flours in bread baking. PMID:26904634

  19. Effect of Hydrocolloids and Emulsifiers on Baking Quality of Composite Cassava-Maize-Wheat Breads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Eduardo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassava is widely available worldwide but bread quality is impaired when cassava is used in the bread formulation. To overcome this problem, different improvers were tested in the preparation of composite cassava-maize-wheat (CMW breads. Emulsifiers, diacetyl tartic acid ester of monoglycerides (DATEM, sodium stearoyl-2-lactylate (SSL, and lecithin (LC; and hydrocolloids, carboxymethylcellulose (CMC and high-methylated pectin (HM pectin were added during dough preparation of the composite flours (cassava-maize-wheat, 40 : 10 : 50. Each emulsifier was tested in combination with the hydrocolloids at levels of 0.1, 0.3, and 0.5% while hydrocolloids were used at a level of 3%. Bread quality attributes such as specific loaf volume, crust colour, crumb moisture, and firmness were measured. The specific volume of the fresh breads significantly improved with the addition of hydrocolloids (7.5 and 13% and in combination with emulsifiers (from 7.9 to 27% compared with bread produced without improvers. A significant improvement of brownness index and firmness of the composite flours breads was achieved with the addition of hydrocolloids and emulsifiers. The results show that emulsifiers and hydrocolloids can significantly improve the baking quality of CMW breads and thereby enhance the potential for using locally produced flours in bread baking.

  20. Sensory Quality of Wheat and Cassava Breads as Affected by Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of some leguminous seed flours (LSF) on the quality of wheat and cassava breads were investigated. Three LSF, namely Brachystegia eurycoma, Detarium microcarpum, and Mucuna sloanei were added into wheat flour and cassava flour at 0 (control), 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, and 2.0% of the flour basis. The different flour ...

  1. Evidence of intralocus recombination at the Glu-3 loci in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The low-molecular weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GSs) are a class of wheat seed storage proteins that play a critical role in the determination of wheat flour bread-making quality. These proteins are encoded by multigene families located at the orthologous Glu-3 loci (Glu-A3, Glu-B3 and Glu-D3), on t...

  2. Bran characteristics influencing quality attributes of whole wheat Chinese steamed bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study investigated the variations in the characteristics of brans obtained from a pilot-scale milling of 17 soft red winter wheat varieties and their influences on the quality of whole wheat northern-style Chinese steamed bread (CSB) prepared from blends of a base flour and brans of different w...

  3. Fast neutron radiation induced Glu-B1 deficient lines of an elite bread wheat variety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Five isogenic wheat lines deficient in high-molecular weight subunit (HMW-GS) proteins encoded by the B-genome were identified from a fast-neutron radiation-mutagenized population of Summit, an elite variety of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). The mutant lines differ from the wild-type progenit...

  4. Bran characteristics and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varietal variations in physical and compositional characteristics of bran and their associations with bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF) were investigated using bran obtained from roller milling of 18 wheat varieties. Bran was characterized for composition including protein, fat, ...

  5. Bran hydration and physical treatments improve the bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fine and coarse bran particles of a hard red and a hard white wheat were used to study the influences of bran hydration and physical treatments such as autoclaving and freezing as well as their combinations on the dough properties and bread-baking quality of whole grain wheat flour (WWF). For both h...

  6. Physicochemical properties and consumer acceptance of wheat-germinated brown rice bread during storage time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenthaikij, Phantipha; Jangchud, Kamolwan; Jangchud, Anuvat; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; No, Hong Kyoon; King, Joan M

    2010-08-01

    Selected physicochemical properties and consumer acceptance of bread prepared from composite flour (wheat:germinated brown rice:germinated glutinous brown rice flours at 60:30:10 ratio) were evaluated during storage for 0, 3, and 5 d, and compared with wheat bread (0 d, control). During storage, color profiles and water activity (from 0.947 to 0.932) of crumbs of composite flour breads slightly changed, but moisture content drastically decreased along with increasing crumb hardness (from 4.16 N to 10.37 N). Higher retrogradation in bread crumb was observed particularly for 5-d stored bread (DeltaH = 2.24 J/g) compared to that of the fresh composite bread and the control (DeltaH = 0.70 and 0.51 J/g, respectively). Mean (n = 116) overall liking score of the fresh composite flour bread (0 d) was slightly lower than that of the control (7.1 compared with 7.6 based on a 9-point hedonic scale). At least 76% of consumers would purchase the fresh composite flour bread if commercially available. Breads were differentiated by textural (moistness, smoothness, and softness) acceptability with canonical correlation of 0.84 to 0.87. The signal-to-noise ratio values of the 5-d stored breads were lower than the control, due mainly to the non-JAR (not-enough) intensity responses for moistness, smoothness, and softness; the mean drop of liking scores for these attributes ranged from 2.42 to 2.98. Flavor acceptability and overall liking were factors influencing consumers' purchase intent of composite flour breads based on logistic regression analysis. This study demonstrated feasibility of incorporating up to 40% germinated brown rice flour in a wheat bread formulation. Practical Application: Our previous study revealed that flours from germinated brown rice have better nutritional properties, particularly gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), than the nongerminated one. This study demonstrated feasibility of incorporating up to 40% germinated brown rice flour in a wheat bread formulation

  7. Microbiological, Nutritional, and Sensory Quality of Bread Produced from Wheat and Potato Flour Blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Udeme Joshua Josiah Ijah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dehydrated uncooked potato (Irish and sweet flour was blended by weight with commercial wheat flour at 0 to 10% levels of substitution to make bread. Comparative study of the microbial and nutritional qualities of the bread was undertaken. The total aerobic bacterial counts ranged from 3.0 × 105 cfu/g to 1.09 × 106 cfu/g while the fungal counts ranged from 8.0 × 101 cfu/g to 1.20 × 103 cfu/g of the sample. Coliforms were not detected in the bread. Bacteria isolated were species of Bacillus, Staphylococcus, and Micrococcus while fungi isolates were species of Aspergillus, Penicillium, Rhizopus, and Mucor. The mean sensory scores (color, aroma, taste, texture, and general acceptability were evaluated. The color of the bread baked from WF/IPF2 (wheat/Irish potato flour, 95 : 5% blend was preferred to WF (wheat flour, 100% while WF/SPF1 (wheat/sweet potato flour, 100% and WF/IPF1 (wheat/Irish potato flour, 90 : 10% aroma were preferred to WF. However, the bread baked from WF, WF/IPF2 (wheat flour/Irish potato flour, 95 : 5%, and WF/SPF2 (wheat/sweet potato flour, 95 : 5% was more acceptable than other blends. The use of hydrated potato flour in bread making is advantageous due to increased nutritional value, higher bread yield, and reduced rate of staling.

  8. Evaluation of Drought Tolerance of Bread Wheat Recombinant Inbred Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Zafar Naderi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available To evaluateresponse of bread wheat recombinant inbred lines to water deficit, a split plot experiment arranged in randomized complete block design (CRBD was conducted using eight recombinant inbred lines and their parental cultivars (Roshan and Super Head with three replications under three irrigation levels (80, 120 and 160 mm evaporation from class A pan at the Agriculture Research Station of Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch during 2009. The results of analysis of variance data collected revealed significant difference among lines and irrigation levels for grain yield. While line × irrigation level interaction was non significant for grain yield. Based on SSI and TOL, drought tolerance indices lines number 1, 7, 41 and Roshan cultivar under 120 mm evaporation, and lines number 7 and 19 under 160 mm evaporation were the tolerant lines. Under both stress conditions according to STI, MP and GMP indices, lines number 37, 38 and Roshan cultivar were recognized as the tolerant lines to water deficiet. Cluster analyses based on grain yield and drought tolerance indices recognized the lines number 1, 30, 32, 37, 38, 41 and Roshan cultivar under 120 mm and lines number 30, 37 and 38 and Roshan under 160 mm evaporation as the most drought tolerants and higher producers.

  9. Postprandial glucose metabolism and SCFA after consuming wholegrain rye bread and wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran in individuals with mild gastrointestinal symptoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lappi, J; Mykkänen, H; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2014-01-01

    BackgroundRye bread benefits glucose metabolism. It is unknown whether the same effect is achieved by rye bran-enriched wheat bread. We tested whether white wheat bread enriched with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) and sourdough wholegrain rye bread (WGR) have similar effects on glucose metabolism...... and plasma level of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs).  MethodsTwenty-one (12 women) of 23 recruited subjects completed an intervention with a four-week run-in and two four-week test periods in cross-over design. White wheat bread (WW; 3% fibre) was consumed during the run-in, and WGR and BRB + WW (10% fibre.......05) and propionate (p = 0.009) at 30 min increased during both rye bread periods.ConclusionsBeneficial effects of WGR over white wheat bread on glucose and SCFA production were confirmed. The enrichment of the white wheat bread with bioprocessed rye bran (BRB + WW) yielded similar but not as pronounced effects than...

  10. Molecular diversity in French bread wheat accessions related to temporal trends and breeding programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roussel, V; Koenig, J; Beckert, M; Balfourier, F

    2004-03-01

    A set of 41 wheat microsatellite markers (WMS), giving 42 polymorphic loci (two loci on each chromosome), was used to describe genetic diversity in a sample of 559 French bread wheat accessions (landraces and registered varieties) cultivated between 1800 and 2000. A total of 609 alleles were detected. Allele number per locus ranged from 3 to 28, with a mean allele number of 14.5. On the average, about 72% of the total number of alleles were observed with a frequency of less than 5% and were considered to be rare alleles. WMS markers used showed different levels of gene diversity: the highest PIC value occurred in the B genome (0.686) compared to 0.641 and 0.659 for the A and D genomes, respectively. When comparing landraces with registered varieties gathered in seven temporal groups, a cluster analysis based on an F(st) matrix provided a clear separation of landraces from the seven variety groups, while a shift was observed between varieties registered before and after 1970. There was a decrease of about 25% in allelic richness between landraces and varieties. In contrast, when considering only registered varieties, changes in diversity related to temporal trends appeared more qualitative than quantitative, except at the end of the 1960s, when a bottleneck might have occurred. New varieties appear to be increasingly similar to each other in relation to allelic composition, while differences between landraces are more and more pronounced over time. Finally, considering a sub-sample of 193 varieties representative of breeding material selected during the twentieth century by the six most important plant breeding companies, few differences in diversity were observed between the different breeding programmes. The observed structure of diversity in French bread wheat collections is discussed in terms of consequences, both for plant breeders and for managers of crop genetic resources.

  11. Effect of high molecular weight glutenin subunit composition in common wheat on dough properties and steamed bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pingping; Jondiko, Tom O; Tilley, Michael; Awika, Joseph M

    2014-10-01

    Steamed bread is a popular staple food in Asia with different flour quality requirements from pan bread. Little is known about how glutenin characteristics affect steamed bread quality. This work investigated how deletions of high-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS) influence gluten properties and Chinese steamed bread quality using 16 wheat lines grown in Texas. Although similar in protein content (134-140 mg g⁻¹), gluten composition and dough properties differed widely among the lines. Compared with non-deletion lines, deletion lines had lower (P bread quality (score, 60.8-65.0) with good elasticity and crumb structure. Deletion at Glu-B1y and/or Glu-D1y loci in high-strength hard wheat produced good dough properties for steamed bread. This suggests that wheat functionality for steamed bread can be improved by manipulating HMW-GS composition. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. A lipase based approach for studying the role of wheat lipids in bread making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerits, Lien R; Pareyt, Bram; Delcour, Jan A

    2014-08-01

    While endogenous wheat lipids exert a major effect on bread quality, little is known on the way they impact on bread loaf volume (LV). Here we altered wheat flour lipid composition during bread making using lipases in situ. Lipopan F, Lecitase Ultra, and surfactants increased LV to similar extents. The increases in bread LV as a result of these enzymes were related to decreased levels of galactolipids and phospholipids and concomitant increased 'lyso'-lipid as well as free fatty acid (FFA) levels. The FFA formed were transferred to the free lipid fraction, while the 'lyso'-lipids remained in the bound lipid fraction. For optimal gas cell stabilisation, an equilibrium between the lipid classes present and hence, the type of mesophase formed, is essential. Sufficient levels of lipids forming lamellar mesophases and lipids forming hexagonal I mesophases, which respectively form condensed monolayers or emulsify (deleterious) non-polar lipids in dough liquor, are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. THE COMPARISON OF QUALITY AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF BREADS BAKED WITH RESIDUAL AND COMMERCIAL OAT FLOURS AND WHEAT FLOUR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Litwinek

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present work was to compare the quality and nutritional value of breads with 50% addition of oat flours of different origin (commercial and residual – a by-product obtained during production of β-glucan preparation to standard wheat bread. Commercial wheat and oat flours and residual oat flour, as well as wheat and 50/50% wheat/oat breads were used as material in this research. Quality of breads was evaluated by their volume, baking yield and total baking loss. Bread crumb texture profile was analyzed by texture analyzer TA.XT Plus. Organoleptic assesment was performed by 15 skilled pearson‘s panel. Moreover both in flours and breads protein, lipids, mineral compounds, dietary fiber (soluble and insoluble fraction and β-glucans content were analyzed by AOAC methods.

  14. Resistance Potential of Bread Wheat Genotypes Against Yellow Rust Disease Under Egyptian Climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Amer F; Hassan, Mohamed I; Amein, Karam A

    2015-12-01

    Yellow rust (stripe rust), caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most destructive foliar diseases of wheat in Egypt and worldwide. In order to identify wheat genotypes resistant to yellow rust and develop molecular markers associated with the resistance, fifty F8 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from a cross between resistant and susceptible bread wheat landraces were obtained. Artificial infection of Puccinia striiformis was performed under greenhouse conditions during two growing seasons and relative resistance index (RRI) was calculated. Two Egyptian bread wheat cultivars i.e. Giza-168 (resistant) and Sakha-69 (susceptible) were also evaluated. RRI values of two-year trial showed that 10 RILs responded with RRI value >6 2 rust. However, further molecular analyses would be performed to confirm markers associated with the resistance and suitable for marker-assisted selection. Resistant RILs identified in the study could be efficiently used to improve the resistance to yellow rust in wheat.

  15. Phytic acid, inorganic phosphorus, antioxidants in bread and durum wheat and their associations with agronomic traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Branković

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The phytic acid (PA, inorganic phosphorus (Pi, yellow pigment (YP, water soluble phenolics (WSPH and free protein sulfhydryl groups (PSH of 15 Triticum aestivum and 15 Triticum durum wheats grown at six different environments were evaluated for variability, intra- and inter- relations with agronomic traits. The most variable properties in bread wheat were YP and WSPH with coefficients of variation (CV amounting to 14.59% and 14.10%, respectively, while in durum wheat those were PSH and YP with CV of 17.59% and 15.02%, respectively. PA in durum wheat showed the least variability (CV 3.61%. Among others, positive associations were obtained between WSPH and YP in bread and durum wheat, YP and PSH, WSPH and PSH, yield (YLD and WSPH, YLD and PSH in durum wheat, while negative associations were recorded for PA and YP, PA and WSPH, YLD and antioxidants (YP and WSPH in bread wheat, PA and antioxidants, PA and YLD in durum wheat.

  16. Effects of Wheat Gluten Hydrolysate and Its Ultrafiltration Fractions on Dough Properties and Bread Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouming Zhao

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two fractions (50-K and permeate from a proteolytic hydrolysate (degree of hydrolysis, DH=3.8 % of wheat gluten were separated using ultrafiltration (UF membrane with molecular mass cut-off of 50 kDa. The effects of the wheat gluten hydrolysate (WGH and its UF fractions on the mixing behaviour and viscoelastic properties of wheat dough were presented. The WGH and its UF fractions modified the mixing properties of dough. The addition of these fractions improved the viscoelastic characteristics of wheat dough. A significant (p<0.05 effect of 50-K fraction on these characteristics of wheat dough was observed. After adding these fractions, the bread was considered acceptable by the sensory panel. Also, 50-K fraction resulted in significant (p<0.05 increase in the crumb firmness, while the bread made with wheat flour with WGH and permeate (P fraction showed softer crumbs compared to that of wheat flour. Moreover, these fractions had anti-staling properties for bread during storage. Hence, the wheat gluten hydrolysate and its UF fractions are the products with promising potential in the baking products.

  17. The Effects on Gluten Strength and Bread Volume of Adding Soybean Peroxidase Enzyme to Wheat Flour

    OpenAIRE

    Kirby, Ratia

    2007-01-01

    The Effects on Gluten Strength and Bread Volume of Adding Soybean Peroxidase Enzyme to Wheat Flour Ratia Kirby ABSTRACT Soy peroxidase enzyme obtained from isoelectic precipitation procedures was added to all-purpose flour (APF) to assess its effects on the rheological properties and consumer acceptability of yeast bread. A pH 4.8 isoelectrically precipitated fraction from soybeans was used because it produced the most precipitate and had about the same peroxidase activity as the...

  18. Comparison of foliar anatomy of ten bread wheat (triticum, poaceae) and ten barley (hordeum, poaceae) cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardic, M.; Sezer, O.; Ozgdsd, K.; Yaylaci, O. K.; Koyuncu, O.; Olgun, M.; Bascdftcd, Z. B.; Ayter, N. G.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine anatomical differences and classification of leaf and leaf cell characteristics (cuticle thickness, upper epidermis thickness, lower epidermis thickness, mesophyll thickness, parenchyma thickness and leaf thickness) between 10 bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L.) and 10 barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.). Classification of leaf characteristics in bread wheat and barley cultivars and relationship between leaf characteristics are made by principal component and correlation analyses. Highest thickness belongs to W8 Mufitbey cultivar in mesophyll and lower epidermis and W1 Sonmez 01 cultivar have the lowest thickness of upper epidermis in bread wheat. In Barley, B1 Ince cultivar has highest leaf thickness mesophyll and parenchyma; lowest thickness of cuticle is included B7 Cumhuriyet 50 cultivar. All other cultivars have homogenous contents of leaf characteristics. (author)

  19. Optimization of mold wheat bread fortified with soy flour, pea flour and whey protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erben, Melina; Osella, Carlos A

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this work was to study the effect of replacing a selected wheat flour for defatted soy flour, pea flour and whey protein concentrate on both dough rheological characteristics and the performance and nutritional quality of bread. A mixture design was used to analyze the combination of the ingredients. The optimization process suggested that a mixture containing 88.8% of wheat flour, 8.2% of defatted soy flour, 0.0% of pea flour and 3.0% of whey protein concentrate could be a good combination to achieve the best fortified-bread nutritional quality. The fortified bread resulted in high protein concentration, with an increase in dietary fiber content and higher calcium levels compared with those of control (wheat flour 100%). Regarding protein quality, available lysine content was significantly higher, thus contributing with the essential amino acid requirement.

  20. Antioxidant capacity versus chemical safety of wheat bread enriched with pomegranate peel powder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Altunkaya, Arzu; Hedegaard, Rikke Susanne Vingborg; Brimer, Leon

    2013-01-01

    Pomegranate peel powder (PP), a by-product of the pomegranate juice industry rich in polyphenols, was explored for use in bread production, due to its potential health effects. Wheat bread was prepared using different levels for replacement of flour with PP (0 to 10 g per 100 g flour) resulting...... in antioxidant levels expressed as Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity values (TEAC) ranging from 1.8 to 6.8 µmol TEAC per g bread for fresh bread. TEAC remained constant during 5 days of storage in polyethylene bags at room temperature. The oxidative stability was evaluated by detection of radicals by direct...... electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy, and peroxide value, and the highest capacity of scavenging of radicals (Fremy's salt) and the lowest content of peroxide values were found in bread with the highest percentage of PP. Safety evaluation was performed by the Artemia salina assay. An increased death...

  1. Baking properties of irradiated wheat flour and their effects on the quality of hard crust bread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, M.; Cuquerella, J.; Granado, R.; Silvestre, J.

    1987-01-01

    The effects of gamma irradiation on rheological characteristics and baking properties of hard wheat flour were studied in the range 0,5 kGy-2,0 kGy. Different quality parameters and the staling kinetics of hard bread produced with control and irradiated flours were also evaluated. Samples were stored before and after treatment at room temperature (16 0 C-30 0 C, 60%-98% R.H.). It is possible to make hard crust bread, the main bread consumed by the Cuban people, from irradiated flour (up to 2,0 kGy) two weeks after treatment. No changes due to irradiation of the flour in quality of bread were found. The Brabender maximum viscosity and the falling number of flour decreased in irradiated samples, but these results did not affect the quality of bread produced

  2. Intake of whole-grain and fiber-rich rye bread versus refined wheat bread does not differentiate intestinal microbiota composition in Finnish adults with metabolic syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lappi, J.; Salojärvi, J.; Kolehmainen, M.; Mykkänen, H.; Poutanen, K.; Vos, de W.M.; Salonen, A.

    2013-01-01

    Whole-grain (WG) foods rich in indigestible carbohydrates are thought to modulate the composition of the intestinal microbiota. We investigated in a randomized, parallel, 2-arm 12-wk intervention whether consumption of WG and fiber-rich rye breads compared with refined wheat breads affected the

  3. IMAGE ANALYSIS OF BREAD CRUMB STRUCTURE IN RELATION TO GLUTEN STRENGTH OF WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Magdić

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine bread slice medium part properties in relation to quality parameters with a focus on gluten strength. Since sensory evaluation of bread is time consuming, expensive and subjective in nature, computerized image analysis was applied as objective method of bread crumb quality evaluation. Gluten Index method was applied as fast and reliable tool for defining gluten strength of wheat. Significant (P90 Ana, Demetra, Klara, Srpanjka and Divana have shown trend to give unequal and bigger crumb grains while cultivars Golubica, Barbara, Žitarka, Kata and Sana with optimal gluten strength (GI= 60-90 have shown finer and uniform crumb grain.

  4. Gamma rays induced variability in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobieh, S. El-S.S.; Ragab, A.I.

    2000-01-01

    The present study was established in the experimental farm belonging to plant Research Department, Nuclear Research Center, Inchas to study the effect of gamma ray (0.200 and 300 Gy) on means of yield and yield attributes for irradiated populations of Giza 164 and Sakha 92, varieties in comparison with untreated control, Moreover, genetic variation was studied by estimate phenotypic, genotypic, coefficient of variation, heritability and genetic advance under selection of bread wheat varieties (Giza 164 and Sakha 92). 1- In -M 1 - generation: (1995-1996) on plant with morphological change (dwarfness) was identified in 300Gy dose of Giza 164 variety. Moreover, this varient was confirmed and segregated in M 2 generation into three types of segregants (dwarf-semidwarf and tall stem). 2- Results showed that mean values of yield and yield attributes of irradiated populations in M 2 of Giza 164 and Sakha 92 varieties were insignificantly increased. High magnitudes of G.C-V.%, Hb% and Gs% for number of spike/plant and number of grain/spike were obtained, however moderate magnitude was found for the weight of grains spike. The high values of heritability and genetic gains from selection for these triaits in the next generations. The correlation between grain yield and each of number of spike/plant and number of grain/spike were positive and highly significant however, it was positive and significant for weight grain/spike. Some variants with morphological changes i.e. dwarf, semidward, tall stem, earlly maturity and brown spike were selected in M 2 generations. These variants surpassed their mother varieties for one or more of yield attributes suggesting the importance of further evaluation and confirmation of this variants in the next generations

  5. Identification and Antioxidant Properties of Phenolic Compounds during Production of Bread from Purple Wheat Grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Lilei; Beta, Trust

    2015-08-26

    Phenolic profiles and antioxidant properties of purple wheat varieties were investigated to document the effects of bread-making. Bread crust and crumb along with samples collected after mixing, 30 min fermenting, 65 min fermenting, and baking were examined. Free phenolic content (105.4 to 113.2 mg FAE/100 g) significantly (p 0.05) decreased after 30 min fermentation (7% to 9%) compared to the dough after mixing, but increased significantly (p bread crust demonstrated increased free (103% to 109%) but decreased bound (2% to 3%) phenolic content, whereas bread crumb exhibited a reversal of these results. Total anthocyanin content (TAC) significantly (p bread crust (0.8 to 4.4 mg cyn-3-glu equiv./100 g). p-Hydroxybenzoic, vanillic, p-coumaric, and ferulic acids were detected in free-phenolic extracts, while protocatechuic, caffeic syringic, and sinapic were additional acids in bound-phenolic extracts. Cyanidin-3-glucoside was the detectable anthocyanin in purple wheat. Bread-making significantly (p bread.

  6. Volatile Compounds and Inositol Hexakisphosphate (IP6) Content in Wholemeal Wheat Bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mohd Noor, Nor Qhairul Izzreen B

    In paper I and II, the influence of different fermentation temperature (8°C, 16°C and 32°C) and yeast level (2%, 4% and 6%) on the formation of volatile compounds in wholemeal wheat bread were investigated. The fermentation times were regulated to optimum bread height for each treatment. The vola......In paper I and II, the influence of different fermentation temperature (8°C, 16°C and 32°C) and yeast level (2%, 4% and 6%) on the formation of volatile compounds in wholemeal wheat bread were investigated. The fermentation times were regulated to optimum bread height for each treatment......-methylbutanol. Fermentation with low yeast level (2%) resulted in bread with higher relative areas of 2- and 3-methylbutanal as well as (E)-2-nonenal and (E,E)-2,4-decadienal as important lipid oxidation compound in bread. Contrary, fermentation of bread with 6% yeast resulted in higher relative area...... of the important fermentation product 2-phenylethanol. High yeast concentration (6%) was able to reduce the relative areas of important lipid oxidation products. In paper II, 28 volatile compounds out of 58 compounds were identified and the other 30 compounds were tentatively identified in the crust. Higher...

  7. Effect of the addition of mixture of plant components on the mechanical properties of wheat bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wójcik, Monika; Dziki, Dariusz; Biernacka, Beata; Różyło, Renata; Miś, Antoni; Hassoon, Waleed H.

    2017-10-01

    Instrumental methods of measuring the mechanical properties of bread can be used to determine changes in the properties of it during storage, as well as to determine the effect of various additives on the bread texture. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the mixture of plant components on the physical properties of wheat bread. In particular, the mechanical properties of the crumb and crust were studied. A sensory evaluation of the end product was also performed. The mixture of plant components included: carob fiber, milled grain red quinoa and black oat (1:2:2) - added at 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 % - into wheat flour. The results showed that the increase of the addition of the proposed additive significantly increased the water absorption of flour mixtures. Moreover, the use of the mixture of plant components above 5% resulted in the increase of bread volume and decrease of crumb density. Furthermore, the addition of the mixture of plant components significantly affected the mechanical properties of bread crumb. The hardness of crumb also decreased as a result of the mixture of plant components addition. The highest cohesiveness was obtained for bread with 10% of additive and the lowest for bread with 25% of mixture of plant components. Most importantly, the enrichment of wheat flour with the mixture of plant components significantly reduced the crust failure force and crust failure work. The results of sensory evaluation showed that the addition of the mixture of plant components of up to 10% had little effect on bread quality.

  8. Effect of the addition of wheat bran stream on dough rheology and bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Banu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The milling by-products have high nutritional value and can be incorporated into white flour. This study was aimed at comparatively examining the rheological behaviour of the doughs made from wheat white flour with different levels (3-30% of bran streams incorporated and from wholewheat. The results indicated significant correlations between the ash content of the wheat bran streams incorporated into flour and Alveograph, Rheofermentograph and Mixolab parameters. The white flour sample with 25% wheat bran streams had the ash content similar to wholewheat, but the dough rheology was improved. The quality of the white flour bread with 25% wheat bran streams was improved compared to the wholemeal bread.

  9. Lactic Acid Bacteria Combinations for Wheat Sourdough Preparation and Their Influence on Wheat Bread Quality and Acrylamide Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiene, Elena; Bartkevics, Vadims; Krungleviciute, Vita; Pugajeva, Iveta; Zadeike, Daiva; Juodeikiene, Grazina

    2017-10-01

    Different lactic acid bacteria (LAB) from spontaneous wheat sourdough were isolated, identified, and characterized by their growth, acidification rate, and carbohydrate metabolism. The combinations of isolated LAB (Pediococcus pentosaceus LUHS183 and Leuconostoc mesenteroides LUHS242, P. pentosaceus LUHS183 and Lactobacillus brevis LUHS173, P. pentosaceus LUHS183 and Enterococcus pseudoavium LUHS 234, P. pentosaceus LUHS183 and Lactobacillus curvatus LUHS51, Lactobacillus plantarum LUHS135 and L. curvatus LUHS51, L. plantarum LUHS135 and P. pentosaceus LUHS183) were used for wheat sourdough production, and the effects of LAB fermentation in sourdoughs on wheat bread quality parameters and acrylamide formation were evaluated. All of the tested strains (except E. pseudoavium LUHS 234) were able to ferment l-arabinose, d-ribose, d-galactose, d-fructose, and d-maltose and showed high tolerance to acidic conditions. The highest overall acceptability (135.8 ± 5.5 mm) was found in the bread produced with L. plantarum and P. pentosaceus sourdough. This group of bread also showed the highest shape coefficient (2.59 ± 0.02), the highest specific volume (3.40 ± 0.03 cm 3 /g), the highest porosity (76.6 ± 0.3%), and the highest moisture content (33.7%). Selected sourdoughs reduced acrylamide content in bread samples by 29.5% (sourdough prepared with P. pentosaceus and L. mesenteroides) to 67.2% (sourdough prepared with P. pentosaceus and L. curvatus). These cultures potentially can be used to reduce acrylamide in breads. The data of this study have practical applications. L. plantarum and P. pentosaceus sourdoughs increases overall acceptability, specific volume, and porosity of wheat bread. Besides the fact that sourdoughs produced by using combinations of selected LAB strains improved the quality parameters of bread, fermentation with prepared sourdoughs also reduced the acrylamide content in wheat bread samples by 29.5% (sourdough prepared with P. pentosaceus

  10. Comparison of Antioxidant Properties of Refined and Whole Wheat Flour and Bread

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Lilei; Nanguet, Anne-Laure; Beta, Trust

    2013-01-01

    Antioxidant properties of refined and whole wheat flour and their resultant bread were investigated to document the effects of baking. Total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) were employed to determine the content of ethanol extractable phenolic compounds. HPLC was used to detect the presence of phenolic acids prior to their confirmation using LC-MS/MS. Whole wheat flour showed significantly ...

  11. Optimization of bread quality from 650 wheat flour type with native inulin by response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia ARGHIRE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of native inulin addition on the wheat flour bread quality. Since it is known the fact that inulin addition decreases wheat flour dough water absorption, we wanted to obtain an optimum formulation of wheat flour bread by response surface methodology considering independent process variables in fixed proportion of inulin fiber in wheat flour as 0, 2.5, 5 and 10% and water addition as 45, 50, 55 and 60 %. With respect to bread quality characteristics, loaf volume, porosity and elasticity were evaluated. The results showed that the optimum bread formulation was obtained for native inulin addition of 3.52% and water absorption of 55.62% for which predicted bread quality characteristics are 373.08cm3/100g loaf volume, 85.07% porosity and 92.57% elasticity.

  12. Characterization of cadmium binding, uptake, and translocation in intact seedlings of bread and durum wheat cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hart, J.J.; Welch, R.M.; Norvell, W.A.; Sullivanm, L.A.; Kochian, L.V.

    1998-01-01

    High Cd content in durum wheat (Triticum turgidum L. var durum) grain grown in the United States and Canada presents potential health and economic problems for consumers and growers. In an effort to understand the biological processes that result in excess Cd accumulation, root Cd uptake and xylem translocation to shoots in seedlings of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and durum wheat cultivars were studied. Whole-plant Cd accumulation was somewhat greater in the bread wheat cultivar, but this was probably because of increased apoplastic Cd binding. Concentration-dependent 109Cd2+-influx kinetics in both cultivars were characterized by smooth, nonsaturating curves that could be dissected into linear and saturable components. The saturable component likely represented carrier-mediated Cd influx across root-cell plasma membranes (Michaelis constant, 20-40 nM; maximum initial velocity, 26-29 nmol g-1 fresh weight h-1), whereas linear Cd uptake represented cell wall binding of 109Cd. Cd translocation to shoots was greater in the bread wheat cultivar than in the durum cultivar because a larger proportion of root-absorbed Cd moved to shoots. Our results indicate that excess Cd accumulation in durum wheat grain is not correlated with seedling-root influx rates or root-to-shoot translocation, but may be related to phloem-mediated Cd transport to the grain

  13. Unlocking the diversity of genebanks: whole-genome marker analysis of Swiss bread wheat and spelt

    KAUST Repository

    Müller, Thomas

    2017-11-04

    Genebanks play a pivotal role in preserving the genetic diversity present among old landraces and wild progenitors of modern crops and they represent sources of agriculturally important genes that were lost during domestication and in modern breeding. However, undesirable genes that negatively affect crop performance are often co-introduced when landraces and wild crop progenitors are crossed with elite cultivars, which often limit the use of genebank material in modern breeding programs. A detailed genetic characterization is an important prerequisite to solve this problem and to make genebank material more accessible to breeding. Here, we genotyped 502 bread wheat and 293 spelt accessions held in the Swiss National Genebank using a 15K wheat SNP array. The material included both spring and winter wheats and consisted of old landraces and modern cultivars. Genome- and sub-genome-wide analyses revealed that spelt and bread wheat form two distinct gene pools. In addition, we identified bread wheat landraces that were genetically distinct from modern cultivars. Such accessions were possibly missed in the early Swiss wheat breeding program and are promising targets for the identification of novel genes. The genetic information obtained in this study is appropriate to perform genome-wide association studies, which will facilitate the identification and transfer of agriculturally important genes from the genebank into modern cultivars through marker-assisted selection.

  14. Biochemical and sensory evaluation of wheat bran supplemented sorghum kisra bread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mallasy, Limya Osman Husain

    1998-05-01

    Studies were carried out on the effects of addition of wheat bran to sorghum flour (Dabar cultivar) at two levels extraction rates (72% and 80%). Samples were fermented for 14hr and the PH, titrable acidity, crude fibre, protein, total solid, total soluble solids and reducing sugars of fermented batter were determined at 2 hrs intervals. Results indicated that addition of wheat bran either before or after fermentation increased the PH there was decrease in titrable acidity. Reducing sugar contents decrease as a result of addition of wheat bran. Addition of wheat bran result in increasing protein content (15.7%m 19.0% and 20.7% for control, 80%S/WB and 72% S/WB. respectively at the end of fermentation) and also increase of crude fibre content. Addition of wheat bran to sorghum batter either before or after fermentation was accompanied by increase in viscosity ( from 145.1 cp for control to 203.1 cp and 209.8 cp fpr 80%S/WB and 72%S/WB blends respectively). Starch content was determined using iodine spectrophotometry, the moisture content of kisra bread containing wheat bran was significant higher compared with control and lower in available calories. Kisra bread containing wheat bran was lower in reducing sugars 7.42% for control to 5.2% and 4.2% and 4.5% for kisra containing wheat bran, a higher reduction in total carbohydrate were observed in samples containing wheat bran added after fermentation.Kisra containing wheat bran before fermentation gave significantly lower in vitro protein digestabilities. Addition of wheat bran after fermentation resulted in still lower decrease in IVPD compared to addition before fermentation. Sensory evaluation of kisra containing wheat bran indicated significant preference for kisra containing wheat bran compared to the control kisra

  15. Co-digestion of wheat and rye bread suspensions with source-sorted municipal biowaste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Chaoran; Mörtelmaier, Christoph; Winter, Josef; Gallert, Claudia

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Volatile fatty acid spectra of acidified WBS, RBS or FBS differ, but methanogenesis is similar. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Biogas improvement by co-digestion of wheat and rye bread. • Increased population density at high organic loading rates. • Less Pelotomaculum but increased numbers of Syntrophobacter and Smithella found in rye bread reactor. • Replacement of Methanosarcinales by acetate-oxidizers in rye bread co-digestion. • Increasing proportion of Methanomicrobiales in biowaste + rye bread reactor. - Abstract: Acidification of wheat bread (WBS), rye bread (RBS) and fresh biowaste suspensions (FBS), leading to lactate+acetate, lactate+acetate+n-buyrate, and acetate+propionate+n-butyrate, respectively, and biogas production as well as population dynamics were investigated. Co-fermentation of FBS (14 kg m −3 d −1 organic loading rate (OLR)) with WBS or RBS was stable up to an OLR of 22 kg m −3 d −1 and resulted in up to 3 times as much biogas. During co-fermentation at more than 20 kg m −3 d −1 OLR the total population increased more than 2-fold, but the originally low share of propionate-oxidizing bacteria significantly decreased. The proportion of methanogens also decreased. Whereas the proportion of Methanosarcinales to Methanomicrobiales in biowaste and biowaste+WBS remained constant, Methanosarcinales and in particular Methanosaeta spec. in the biowaste+RBS assay almost completely disappeared. Methanomicrobiales increased instead, indicating propionate oxidation via acetate cleavage to CO 2 and hydrogen

  16. Reduction of acrylamide in whole-wheat bread by combining lactobacilli and yeast fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasiri Esfahani, Behnaz; Kadivar, Mahdi; Shahedi, Mohammad; Soleimanian-Zad, Sabihe

    2017-11-01

    This study mainly focuses on a strategy for reducing acrylamide content in whole-wheat bread by combining lactobacilli and yeast in sourdough breadmaking. Combinations of sourdough (fermented dough using different Lactobacillus strains including Lactobacillus plantarum PTCC 1896 [probiotic], L. sakei DSM 20,017, L. rhamnosus DSM 20,021, and L. delbrueckii DSM 20,081) and yeast, in comparison with yeast alone, were used for breadmaking. The results showed that acrylamide levels in breads fermented using sourdough+yeast were in all cases much lower (6.9-20 μg/kg on a dry weight basis [d.b.]) than those in the yeast-only fermented bread (47.6 μg/kg d.b.). Significant (p bread (r = 0.925, p breads and either the reducing sugar or free amino acid contents in dough samples. According to the different effects of Lactobacillus strains, it could be concluded that the acrylamide reducing potential of lactobacilli was strain-specific, with L. rhamnosus being the most effective. This suggests that sourdough fermentation with appropriate Lactobacillus strains can be used as an advantageous technology to reduce the acrylamide content of whole-wheat breads.

  17. Germination conditions affect selected quality of composite wheat-germinated brown rice flour and bread formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charoenthaikij, Phantipha; Jangchud, Kamolwan; Jangchud, Anuvat; Prinyawiwatkul, Witoon; Tungtrakul, Patcharee

    2010-08-01

    Brown rice has been reported to be more nutritious after germination. Germinated brown rice flours (GBRFs) from different steeping conditions (in distilled water [DI, pH 6.8] or in a buffer solution [pH 3] for either 24 or 48 h at 35 degrees C) were evaluated in this study. GBRF obtained from brown rice steeped at pH 3 for 48 h contained the highest amount of free gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA; 67 mg/100 g flour). The composite flour (wheat-GBRF) at a ratio of 70 : 30 exhibited significantly lower peak viscosity (PV) (56.99 - 132.45 RVU) with higher alpha-amylase activity (SN = 696 - 1826) compared with those of wheat flour (control) (PV = 136.46 RVU and SN = 1976). Bread formulations, containing 30% GBRF, had lower loaf volume and greater hardness (P bread. However, the hardness of bread containing 30% GBRF (except at pH 6.8 and 24 h) was significantly lower than that of bread containing 30% nongerminated brown rice flour (BRF). Acceptability scores for aroma, taste, and flavor of breads prepared with or without GBRFs (30% substitution) were not significantly different, with the mean score ranging from 6.1 (like slightly) to 7 (like moderately). Among the bread formulations containing GBRF, the one with GBRF prepared after 24 h steeping at pH 3 had a slightly higher (though not significant) overall liking score (6.8). This study demonstrated that it is feasible to substitute wheat flour with up to 30% GBRF in bread formulation without negatively affecting sensory acceptance. Practical Application: Our previous study revealed that flours from germinated brown rice have better nutritional properties, particularly gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), than the nongerminated one. This study demonstrated feasibility of incorporating up to 30% germinated brown rice flour in a wheat bread formulation without negatively affecting sensory acceptance. In the current United States market, this type of bread may be sold as frozen bread which would have a longer shelf life. Further

  18. Effect of gamma-irradiation of wheat on voltile flavor components of bread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rao, V.S.; Vakil, U.K.; Bandyopadhyay, C.; Sreenivasan, A.

    1978-01-01

    Comparative sensory and objective evaluations of bread prepared from wheat flour, irradiated at different doses, have been carried out. The preference of bread decreases with higher radiation dose (1 Mrad) due to increase in off-flavor intensity. Total carbonyl contents are increased in irradiated products. A significant inverse correlation between consumer preference and total carbonyls as well as GLC headspace vapor analysis, is established. An attempt has been made to postulate a mechanism for the excessive formation of volatiles, imparting off-flavor in bread from irradiated wheat. It is suggested that they may arise from the volatile degradation products of amino acids and proteins or by their interaction with reducing sugars, the ultimate radiation-induced breakdown product of starch

  19. Quality characteristics of bread produced from wheat, rice and maize flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Sweta; Kaur, Amarjeet; Singh, Baljit; Minhas, K S

    2012-12-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) flour and maize (Zea mays) meal substitution in wheat (Triticum aestivum) flour, from 0 to 100% each, for the production of bread was investigated. The proximate analysis, pasting properties, bread making qualities of raw materials and sensory evaluation of the bread samples were determined. The pasting temperature increased with increased percentage of rice flour and maize meal. But the other pasting characters decreased with the higher proportion of rice flour. The baking absorption was observed to increase with higher level of maize meal but it decreased when level of rice flour was increased. Loaf weight (g) decreased with progressive increase in the proportion of maize meal but increased when rice flour incorporation was increased. Loaf volume, loaf height and specific volume decreased for progressively higher level of maize meal and rice flour. The sensory evaluation revealed that 25% replacement of wheat flour was found to be more acceptable than control sample.

  20. Quality and cost evaluation of bread produced from blends of wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: This study was necessitated by the need to improve the nutritional quality of baked products, ensure their acceptability and the baker's profitability. Objective: The aim of the study therefore was to evaluate the quality and cost of bread produced from composite flours of wheat and partially defatted soy. Materials ...

  1. Quality Parameters Of Wheat Bread Enriched With Pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata By-Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampuse Solvita

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Pumpkin processing into puree, juice, candied fruit and pumpkin seed oil results in large amount of by-products. Pumpkins are rich in carotenes, vitamins, minerals, pectin and dietary fibre. The aim of the current study was to evaluate effect of pumpkin pomace and pumpkin residue powder on wheat bread quality. The total content of carotenes was analyzed by spectrophotometric method. The initial increase of pumpkin residue addition indicated increase in loaf volume, which started to decrease at higher amounts. Sensory evaluation (appearance; surface, crust; porosity; texture, crumb; taste, and flavour of wheat bread with pumpkin revealed very high consumer acceptance except sample with 50% pomace addition. Total carotene content and colour b* value in wheat bread increased by adding pumpkin by-products. It is recommended to add 5% and 10% of pumpkin powder and no more than 30% of pumpkin pomace (calculated per 100 kg of flour to dough for production of wheat bread with pumpkin by-product additions.

  2. Fundamental and empirical rheological behaviour of wheat flour doughs and comparison with bread making performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, A. M.; vanVliet, T; Vereijken, JM

    The rheological characteristics of wheat flour doughs from the cultivars Obelisk and Katepwa and of biscuit flour doughs, and also of biscuit flour doughs containing glutens isolated from cv. Obelisk and cv. Katepwa flour, were compared and discussed in relation to bread making performance. Four

  3. Genome Targeted Introgression of Resistance to African Stem Rust fromAegilops sharonensisinto Bread Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, Eitan; Steffenson, Brian J; Prins, Renée; Sela, Hanan; Przewieslik-Allen, Alexandra M; Pretorius, Zacharias A

    2017-11-01

    Many accessions of the wheat wild relative Sharon goatgrass ( Eig., ) are resistant to African races of the stem rust pathogen (i.e., Ug99 group races), which currently threaten wheat production worldwide. A procedure was designed to introgress the respective resistances to specific bread wheat genomes by producing plants homozygous for the A and B genomes and hemizygous for the D and S genomes or homozygous for the A and D genomes and hemizygous for the B and S genomes. In these genotypes, which lack the allele, homeologous pairing was expected mainly between chromosomes of the D and S genomes or B and S genomes, respectively. An antigametocidal (AG) wheat mutant () was used to overcome gametocidal effects. Wheat lines initially found resistant at the seedling stage were also highly resistant at the adult plant stage in rust nurseries established in the field. DNA of 41 selected homozygous resistant lines, analyzed by the Axiom wheat 820K SNP array, showed alien chromatin mainly in wheat chromosomes 1B, 1D, and 5B. This work suggests that, in most cases, it is possible to target introgressions into the homeologous chromosome of a selected genome of bread wheat. Copyright © 2017 Crop Science Society of America.

  4. Products deriving from microbial fermentation are linked to insulinaemic response in pigs fed breads prepared from whole-wheat grain and wheat and rye ingredients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Jørgensen, Henry Johs. Høgh; Serena, Anja

    2011-01-01

    The effects of wheat and rye breads made from whole-wheat grain (WWG), wheat aleurone flour (WAF) or rye aleurone flour (RAF) on net portal absorption of carbohydrate-derived nutrients (glucose, SCFA and lactate) and apparent insulin secretion were studied in a model experiment with catheterised ...

  5. Impact of Triticum mosaic virus infection on hard winter wheat milling and bread baking quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Rebecca A; Martin, T Joe; Seifers, Dallas L

    2012-03-15

    Triticum mosaic virus (TriMV) is a newly discovered wheat virus. Information regarding the effect of wheat viruses on milling and baking quality is limited. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of TriMV infection on the kernel characteristics, milling yield and bread baking quality of wheat. Commercial hard winter varieties evaluated included RonL, Danby and Jagalene. The TriMV resistance of RonL is low, while that of Danby and Jagalene is unknown. KS96HW10-3, a germplasm with high TriMV resistance, was included as a control. Plots of each variety were inoculated with TriMV at the two- to three-leaf stage. Trials were conducted at two locations in two crop years. TriMV infection had no effect on the kernel characteristics, flour yield or baking properties of KS96HW10-3. The effect of TriMV on the kernel characteristics of RonL, Danby and Jagalene was not consistent between crop years and presumably an environmental effect. The flour milling and bread baking properties of these three varieties were not significantly affected by TriMV infection. TriMV infection of wheat plants did not affect harvested wheat kernel characteristics, flour milling properties or white pan bread baking quality. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Mechanical properties of cottage cheese-fortified wheat dough and loaf bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guemes-Vera, Norma; Gonzalez-Victoriano, Lizbeth; Soto-Simental, Sergio; Hernandez-Chavez, Juan Francisco; Reyes-Santamaria, Ma Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Milk whey and its derivatives are commonly used to fortify food products. A study was done on the effect of seven cottage cheese (sour/sweet whey mixture) inclusion concentrations (5, 7.5, 10, 12.5, 15, 17.5 and 20 %) on the mechanical properties of white wheat bread dough using a texture analyser. Cottage cheese protein content was 10.05 %. Loaf bread made using the 7.5, 12.5 and 17.5 % cottage cheese concentrations showed crumb quality similar to the control in the 12.5 and 17.5 % treatments, but more open and less homogeneous in 7.5 % treatment. Cottage cheese concentration affected bread volume, with the higher concentrations lowering volume by up to 50 %, in response to increased water retention. Sensory analysis showed bread containing 7.5 % cottage cheese was not different from the control, with an 83.33 % acceptance rate. The 7.5 % concentration was optimum for white wheat loaf bread production since its mechanical and sensory properties were most similar to the control.

  7. Patterns of homoeologous gene expression shown by RNA sequencing in hexaploid bread wheat.

    KAUST Repository

    Leach, Lindsey J

    2014-04-11

    BACKGROUND: Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) has a large, complex and hexaploid genome consisting of A, B and D homoeologous chromosome sets. Therefore each wheat gene potentially exists as a trio of A, B and D homoeoloci, each of which may contribute differentially to wheat phenotypes. We describe a novel approach combining wheat cytogenetic resources (chromosome substitution \\'nullisomic-tetrasomic\\' lines) with next generation deep sequencing of gene transcripts (RNA-Seq), to directly and accurately identify homoeologue-specific single nucleotide variants and quantify the relative contribution of individual homoeoloci to gene expression. RESULTS: We discover, based on a sample comprising ~5-10% of the total wheat gene content, that at least 45% of wheat genes are expressed from all three distinct homoeoloci. Most of these genes show strikingly biased expression patterns in which expression is dominated by a single homoeolocus. The remaining ~55% of wheat genes are expressed from either one or two homoeoloci only, through a combination of extensive transcriptional silencing and homoeolocus loss. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that wheat is tending towards functional diploidy, through a variety of mechanisms causing single homoeoloci to become the predominant source of gene transcripts. This discovery has profound consequences for wheat breeding and our understanding of wheat evolution.

  8. Effects of oat and wheat bread consumption on lipid profile, blood sugar, and endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic patients: A randomized controlled clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momenizadeh, Amir; Heidari, Ramin; Sadeghi, Masoumeh; Tabesh, Faezeh; Ekramzadeh, Maryam; Haghighatian, Zahra; Golshahi, Jafar; Baseri, Mehdi

    2014-09-01

    Increased lipid profile after each meal can disturb the endothelial function. The present study assessed the effects of bread supplemented with oat bran on serum lipids and endothelial dysfunction in patients with hypercholesterolemia. This clinical trial was conducted on 60 isolated hypercholesterolemic patients. The subjects were randomly allocated to either intervention (consuming at least five daily servings of oat bread with 6 g beta-glucan) or control (receiving at least five servings of wheat bread). Anthropometric indicators, fasting blood sugar and lipid profiles ere measured at baseline and after 6 weeks (in the end of the intervention). Endothelial function was assessed using flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Within the group and between group differences were investigated using paired t-test and Student's t-test, respectively. Oat bread consumption could significantly reduce total cholesterol (P = 0.029). A significant increase in baseline and after ischemia brachial artery diameters at the end of the study was seen. However, it did not have a significant effect on FMD (P = 0.825). In the control group, none of the measured indices had changed significantly at the end of the study. Finally, only the mean change of brachial artery diameter after ischemia and baseline brachial artery diameter were significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group (P = 0.036 and P = 0.012 respectively). Oat bread with beta-glucan could successfully reduce cholesterol levels. Furthermore, in this study oat bread did not reduce FMD more than wheat bread. Since hypercholesterolemia is a proven risk factor for endothelial dysfunction, hypercholesterolemic patients can hence be advised to eat oat bread.

  9. Effect of Partial Replacement of Wheat Flour with High Quality Cassava Flour on the Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, Sensory Quality, and Microbial Quality of Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleazu, Chinedum; Eleazu, Kate; Aniedu, Chinyere; Amajor, John; Ikpeama, Ahamefula; Ebenzer, Ike

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, wheat flour was mixed with high quality cassava flour (HQCF) in several ratios: 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40, and used to prepare 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI) cassava bread, respectively. 100% wheat bread was prepared as a control (100% wheat bread). Five bread samples were prepared per group. Antioxidant assays [i.e., 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging assay, reducing power assay] revealed that the bread samples had considerable antioxidant capacities. Substitution of wheat flour with HQCF at various concentrations resulted in dose dependent decreases in the mineral and protein contents of the resulting bread samples. The crude fiber content of the bread samples was minimal, while the carbohydrate content of the bread samples ranged from 43.86% to 48.64%. A 20% substitution of wheat flour with HQCF yielded bread samples with a general acceptability that was comparable to that of 100% wheat bread. The mean bacteria counts of the bread samples ranged from 2.0×103 CFU/mL to 1.4×104 CFU/mL, while the fungal counts ranged from 0 CFU/mL to 3×103 CFU/mL. There was a positive correlation between the DPPH antioxidant activities and the reducing powers of the bread samples (R2=0.871) and a positive correlation between the DPPH antioxidant activities and the flavonoid contents of the bread samples (R2=0.487). The higher microbial load of the NRCRI cassava bread samples indicates that these bread samples may have a shorter shelf life than the 100% wheat bread. The significant positive correlation between total flavonoid content and reducing power (R2=0.750) suggests that the flavonoids present in the lipophilic fractions of the bread samples could be responsible for the reductive capacities of the bread samples. PMID:25054110

  10. Phytate negatively influences wheat dough and bread characteristics by interfering with cross-linking of glutenin molecules

    Science.gov (United States)

    The influence of added phytate on dough properties and bread baking quality was studied to determine the role of phytate in the impaired functional properties of whole grain wheat flour for baking bread. Phytate addition to refined flour at a 1% level substantially increased mixograph mixing time, g...

  11. Dry-fractionation of wheat bran increases the bioaccessibility of phenolic acids in breads made from processed bran fractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hemery, Y.M.; Anson, N.M.; Havenaar, R.; Haenen, G.R.M.M.; Noort, M.W.J.; Rouau, X.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the potential of using ultra-fine grinding and electrostatic separation of wheat bran as methods to improve the bioaccessibility of para-coumaric acid (pCA), sinapic acid (SA) and ferulic acid (FA) from bran-rich breads. Bran fractions were produced and used to bake white bread,

  12. High molecular weight glutenin subunits of wheat : qualitative and quantitative variation in relation to bread-making quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kolster, P.

    1992-01-01

    In view of the poor bread-making quality of the wheat grown in The Netherlands, only a small part of production is used for baking of bread. Therefore quality improvement is a major aim of plant breeding. Unfortunately, breeding for breadmaking quality is hampered by its complexity. The suitability

  13. Optimisation of wheat-sprouted soybean flour bread using response ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-11-16

    Nov 16, 2009 ... The quadratic polynomial regression model .... by employing a least square technique (Gacula and Singh, 1984;. Wanasundara and Shahidi, 1996; SPSS, 2007). The model pro- posed for each response of Y was. ∑. ∑. ∑. = =<. = +. + ... loaf volume, sensory evaluation and loaf firmness of the bread were.

  14. Studies regarding the influence of brown flaxseed flour addition in wheat flour of a very good quality for bread making on bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgiana Gabriela CODINA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to incorporate brown flaxseed into bread in order to improve it quality. For this purpose, different levels of whole ground brown flaxseed (5%, 10%, 15% and 20% were used to substitute wheat flour 650 type of a very good quality for bread making. The bread samples obtained were analyzed from the physical, colour, crumb cell, textural and sensory characteristics point of view. Samples containing 10% of brown flaxseed were with the highest values for loaf volume, porosity and elasticity. The control sample had lowerest redness and greenness value. The maximum hardness was found for bread with 20% brown flaxseed addition. With the increase level of brown flaxseed addition large cells can be noticed in crumb structure of bread. Samples containing 20% of flaxseed were rated poorest in tase, texture, overall acceptability, appearance. Our results indicated that brown flaxseed addition could be added to a typical bread formulation up to levels of 10% with a good overall acceptability offering promising healthy and nutritious alternative to consumers. Between bread flour characteristics at different brown flaxseed flour substitution levels principal component analysis shown significant correlations (p < 0.05 between bread physical characteristics (loaf volume, porosity, elasticity and bread  overall acceptability.

  15. Assessment of genetic diversity among sixty bread wheat ( Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of genetic diversity among wheat cultivars is important to ensure that a continuous pool of cultivars with varying desirable traits is maintained. In view of this, a molecular study was conducted to assess the genetic diversity of sixty wheat cultivars using sixty microsatellite markers. Amplified alleles from each ...

  16. cultural management of russian wheat aphid infestation of bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ACSS

    staple food crop in East Africa with consumption levels ranging from 34% in Ethiopia to 5% kg/ caput (Curtis, 2015). Wheat is ranked the second after maize in Kenya. It is an important source of both food and livestock feed (FAOSTAT, 2009). Kenya's annual domestic wheat requirement stands at 1,750,000 metric tonnes, ...

  17. Genetic architecture of seed longevity in bread wheat (Triticum ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-01-20

    Jan 20, 2017 ... SPSS v17.0 software (SPSS Inc. 1999). Candidate genes mapping within a genomic region associated with a trait were identified from the deletion bin maps prepared in wheat cv. Chinese Spring (http://wheat.pw.usda.gov/pubs/2004/. Genetics/Bioinfo/). 3. Results. 3.1 Genomic distribution of DArT markers.

  18. Grain yield and agronomic characteristics of Romanian bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-05-16

    May 16, 2008 ... Romanian wheat varieties, to study the associations between yield and yield components, and to ... international collaborative studies many new varieties ... Stability of grain yield and quality characteristics over locations and years are important. Wheat shows highly significant genotype by environment ...

  19. TaER Expression Is Associated with Transpiration Efficiency Traits and Yield in Bread Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Jiacheng; Yang, Zhiyuan; Madgwick, Pippa J.; Carmo-Silva, Elizabete; Parry, Martin A. J.; Hu, Yin-Gang

    2015-01-01

    ERECTA encodes a receptor-like kinase and is proposed as a candidate for determining transpiration efficiency of plants. Two genes homologous to ERECTA in Arabidopsis were identified on chromosomes 6 (TaER2) and 7 (TaER1) of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.), with copies of each gene on the A, B and D genomes of wheat. Similar expression patterns were observed for TaER1 and TaER2 with relatively higher expression of TaER1 in flag leaves of wheat at heading (Z55) and grain-filling (Z73) stages. Significant variations were found in the expression levels of both TaER1 and TaER2 in the flag leaves at both growth stages among 48 diverse bread wheat varieties. Based on the expression of TaER1 and TaER2, the 48 wheat varieties could be classified into three groups having high (5 varieties), medium (27 varieties) and low (16 varieties) levels of TaER expression. Significant differences were also observed between the three groups varying for TaER expression for several transpiration efficiency (TE)- related traits, including stomatal density (SD), transpiration rate, photosynthetic rate (A), instant water use efficiency (WUEi) and carbon isotope discrimination (CID), and yield traits of biomass production plant-1 (BYPP) and grain yield plant-1 (GYPP). Correlation analysis revealed that the expression of TaER1 and TaER2 at the two growth stages was significantly and negatively associated with SD (Pwheat, implying a function for TaER in regulating leaf development of bread wheat and contributing to expression of these traits. Moreover, the results indicate that TaER could be exploitable for manipulating important agronomical traits in wheat improvement. PMID:26047019

  20. Differential Physiological Responses of Portuguese Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Genotypes under Aluminium Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Luísa Garcia-Oliveira

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The major limitation of cereal production in acidic soils is aluminium (Al phytotoxicity which inhibits root growth. Recent evidence indicates that different genotypes within the same species have evolved different mechanisms to cope with this stress. With these facts in mind, root responses of two highly Al tolerant Portuguese bread wheat genotypes—Barbela 7/72/92 and Viloso mole—were investigated along with check genotype Anahuac (Al sensitive, using different physiological and histochemical assays. All the assays confirmed that Barbela 7/72/92 is much more tolerant to Al phytotoxicity than Viloso Mole. Our results demonstrate that the greater tolerance to Al phytotoxicity in Barbela 7/72/92 than in Viloso Mole relies on numerous factors, including higher levels of organic acid (OAs efflux, particularly citrate efflux. This might be associated with the lower accumulation of Al in the root tips, restricting the Al-induced lipid peroxidation and the consequent plasma membrane integrity loss, thus allowing better root regrowth under Al stress conditions. Furthermore, the presence of root hairs in Barbela 7/72/92 might also help to circumvent Al toxicity by facilitating a more efficient uptake of water and nutrients, particularly under Al stress on acid soils. In conclusion, our findings confirmed that Portuguese bread wheat genotype Barbela 7/72/92 represents an alternative source of Al tolerance in bread wheat and could potentially be used to improve the wheat productivity in acidic soils.

  1. Effect of consumption of micronutrient enriched wheat steamed bread on postprandial plasma glucose in healthy and type 2 diabetic subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su-Que, Lan; Ya-Ning, Meng; Xing-Pu, Li; Ye-Lun, Zhang; Guang-Yao, Song; Hui-Juan, Ma

    2013-05-17

    Steamed wheat bread have previously been shown to induce comparatively high postprandial plasma glucose responses, on the contrary, buckwheat products induced lower postprandial plasma glucose. The present study was to assess the effects of micronutrient enriched bread wheat variety Jizi439 and buckwheat on postprandial plasma glucose in healthy and diabetic subjects comparing with buckwheat and other bread wheat varieties. Two experiments were conducted to study the effects of bread wheat variety Jizi439 on the postprandial plasma glucose levels of the randomly selected subjects. The first experiment involved three types of steamed bread with equivalent of 50 g available carbohydrate fed to 10 normal weight young healthy subjects. Two types of steamed bread were made from two purple-grain bread wheat varieties, Jizi439 and Chu20, respectively, and the third type was made from the mixture of different white grain wheat varieties. Plasma glucose levels of each subject were measured at 15, 30, 45, 60, 120 min after eating. Glucose was used as a reference, the total area under curve (AUC) and glycemic index (GI) was calculated for test meal. The second experiment was performed among ten type 2 diabetics who were served equivalent of 50 g available carbohydrate of steamed bread made from Jizi 439, the mixture of white grain bread wheat and buckwheat, respectively. The plasma glucose increment was determined two hours thereafter. In the first experiment, consumption of the steamed bread made from Jizi439 resulted in the least increase in plasma glucose and the GI was significantly lower than that of Chu20 and the mixture. In the second experiment, the average of postprandial 2 h plasma glucose increment of Jizi439 was 2.46 mmol/L which was significantly lower than that of the mixture of white wheat but was not significantly different from buckwheat. The results indicated that consumption of Jizi439 steamed bread resulted in significantly lower plasma glucose in

  2. Gluten characteristics imparting bread quality in wheats differing for high molecular weight glutenin subunits at Glu D1 locus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Devinder; Gupta, Raj Kumar

    2015-07-01

    High yielding genotypes differing for high molecular weight glutenin subunits at Glu D1 locus in national wheat programme of India were examined for bread loaf volume, gluten and protein contents, gluten strength, gluten index and protein-gluten ratio. Number of superior bread quality genotypes in four agro-climatically diverse zones of Indian plains was comparable in both categories of wheat i.e., 5 + 10 and 2 + 12. There wasn't any difference in average bread loaf volume and grain protein content either. 5 + 10 wheats showed better gluten strength and their gluten quality was also superior in the zones where protein content was high. 2 + 10 wheats exerted more gluten due to better protein-gluten ratio. Good bread making in 5 + 10 was derived by better gluten strength and also gluten quality in certain regions but bread quality in 2 + 12 wheats was channelized through higher gluten content as they were more efficient in extracting gluten from per unit protein. Difference in route to bread quality was apparent as gluten content and gluten strength were the key gluten attributes in 5 + 10 whereas protein content and gluten index were prominent in 2 + 12 types. Unlike 2 + 12, there was a ceiling in gluten harvest of 5 + 10 wheats as higher protein failed to deliver more gluten after some limit.

  3. Biofortification with Iron and Zinc Improves Nutritional and Nutraceutical Properties of Common Wheat Flour and Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccolini, Valentina; Pellegrino, Elisa; Coccina, Antonio; Fiaschi, Anna Ida; Cerretani, Daniela; Sgherri, Cristina; Quartacci, Mike Frank; Ercoli, Laura

    2017-07-12

    The effect of field foliar Fe and Zn biofortification on concentration and potential bioavailability of Fe and Zn and health-promoting compounds was studied in wholemeal flour of two common wheat varieties (old vs modern). Moreover, the effect of milling and bread making was studied. Biofortification increased the concentration of Zn (+78%) and its bioavailability (+48%) in the flour of the old variety, whereas it was ineffective in increasing Fe concentration in both varieties. However, the old variety showed higher concentration (+41%) and bioavailability (+26%) of Fe than the modern one. As regard milling, wholemeal flour had higher Fe, Zn concentration and health-promoting compounds compared to white flour. Bread making slightly change Fe and Zn concentration but greatly increased their bioavailability (77 and 70%, respectively). All these results are of great support for developing a production chain of enriched functional bread having a protective role against chronic cardio-vascular diseases.

  4. Wheat Prices, Bread Consumption and Health in Scotland

    OpenAIRE

    Revoredo-Giha, Cesar; Leat, Philip M.K.; Toma, Luiza; Lamprinopoulou-Kranis, Chrysa; Kupiec-Teahan, Beata; Cacciolatti, Luca

    2009-01-01

    The relative recent rise in food prices has increased concern about the choice of a healthy food basket, especially in the context of the formulation of a National Food Policy for Scotland. This concern has revived interest in food price and expenditure demand systems as they provide information about consumers’ food decisions. The paper focuses on the consumption of brown and white bread, as they are the most typical forms of cereals use in the UK. Moreover, nutritionists recommend the consu...

  5. Ancient hybridizations among the ancestral genomes of bread wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Marcussen, T.; Sandve, S. R.; Heier, L.; Spannagl, M.; Pfeifer, M.; Rogers, J.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Pozniak, C.; Eversole, K.; Feuillet, C.; Gill, B.; Friebe, B.; Lukaszewski, A.J.; Sourdille, P.; Endo, T. R.; Kubaláková, Marie; Čihalíková, Jarmila; Dubská, Zdeňka; Vrána, Jan; Šperková, Romana; Šimková, Hana; Febrer, M.; Clissold, L.; Jakobsen, K. S.; Wulff, B.H.; Steuernagel, B.; Mayer, K. F. X.; Olsen, O.A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 345, č. 6194 (2014) ISSN 0036-8075 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : POLYPLOID WHEAT * HYBRID SPECIATION * AEGILOPS-TAUSCHII Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 33.611, year: 2014

  6. Co-digestion of wheat and rye bread suspensions with source-sorted municipal biowaste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Chaoran, E-mail: Chaoran.Li3@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, Am Fasanengarten, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Mörtelmaier, Christoph, E-mail: Christoph.Moertelmaier@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, Am Fasanengarten, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Winter, Josef, E-mail: Josef.Winter@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, Am Fasanengarten, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); Gallert, Claudia, E-mail: Claudia.Gallert@HS-Emden-Leer.de [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute of Biology for Engineers and Biotechnology of Wastewater, Am Fasanengarten, D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany); University of Applied Science, Hochschule Emden-Leer, Faculty of Technology, Division Microbiology – Biotechnology, Constantiaplatz 4, D-26723 Emden (Germany)

    2015-06-15

    Graphical abstract: Volatile fatty acid spectra of acidified WBS, RBS or FBS differ, but methanogenesis is similar. Display Omitted - Highlights: • Biogas improvement by co-digestion of wheat and rye bread. • Increased population density at high organic loading rates. • Less Pelotomaculum but increased numbers of Syntrophobacter and Smithella found in rye bread reactor. • Replacement of Methanosarcinales by acetate-oxidizers in rye bread co-digestion. • Increasing proportion of Methanomicrobiales in biowaste + rye bread reactor. - Abstract: Acidification of wheat bread (WBS), rye bread (RBS) and fresh biowaste suspensions (FBS), leading to lactate+acetate, lactate+acetate+n-buyrate, and acetate+propionate+n-butyrate, respectively, and biogas production as well as population dynamics were investigated. Co-fermentation of FBS (14 kg m{sup −3} d{sup −1} organic loading rate (OLR)) with WBS or RBS was stable up to an OLR of 22 kg m{sup −3} d{sup −1} and resulted in up to 3 times as much biogas. During co-fermentation at more than 20 kg m{sup −3} d{sup −1} OLR the total population increased more than 2-fold, but the originally low share of propionate-oxidizing bacteria significantly decreased. The proportion of methanogens also decreased. Whereas the proportion of Methanosarcinales to Methanomicrobiales in biowaste and biowaste+WBS remained constant, Methanosarcinales and in particular Methanosaeta spec. in the biowaste+RBS assay almost completely disappeared. Methanomicrobiales increased instead, indicating propionate oxidation via acetate cleavage to CO{sub 2} and hydrogen.

  7. The structure of wheat bread influences the postprandial metabolic response in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W J; Sozer, Nesli; Koehorst, Martijn; Holst, Jens J; Deacon, Carolyn F; Rehfeld, Jens F; Poutanen, Kaisa; Vonk, Roel J; Oudhuis, Lizette; Priebe, Marion G

    2015-10-01

    Postprandial high glucose and insulin responses after starchy food consumption, associated with an increased risk of developing several metabolic diseases, could possibly be improved by altering food structure. We investigated the influence of a compact food structure; different wheat products with a similar composition were created using different processing conditions. The postprandial glucose kinetics and metabolic response to bread with a compact structure (flat bread, FB) was compared to bread with a porous structure (control bread, CB) in a randomized, crossover study with ten healthy male volunteers. Pasta (PA), with a very compact structure, was used as the control. The rate of appearance of exogenous glucose (RaE), endogenous glucose production, and glucose clearance rate (GCR) was calculated using stable isotopes. Furthermore, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, several intestinal hormones and bile acids were analyzed. The structure of FB was considerably more compact compared to CB, as confirmed by microscopy, XRT analysis (porosity) and density measurements. Consumption of FB resulted in lower peak glucose, insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (ns) responses and a slower initial RaE compared to CB. These variables were similar to the PA response, except for RaE which remained slower over a longer period after PA consumption. Interestingly, the GCR after FB was higher than expected based on the insulin response, indicating increased insulin sensitivity or insulin-independent glucose disposal. These results demonstrate that the structure of wheat bread can influence the postprandial metabolic response, with a more compact structure being more beneficial for health. Bread-making technology should be further explored to create healthier products.

  8. A kaizen approach to food safety quality management in the value chain from wheat to bread

    CERN Document Server

    Hill, Victoria

    2014-01-01

    This book provides a Management Science approach to quality management in food production. Aspects of food quality, product conformance and reliability/food safety are examined, starting with wheat and ending with its value chain transformation into bread. Protein qualities that influence glycemic index levels in bread are used to compare the value chains of France and the US. With Kaizen models the book shows how changes in these characteristics are the result of management decisions made by the wheat growers in response to government policy and industry strategy. Lastly, it provides step-by-step instructions on how to apply kaizen methodology and Deming's work on quality improvement to make the HACCPs (Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points) in food safety systems more robust.

  9. Effect of amaranth flour (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) on the technological and sensory quality of bread wheat pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Cristina S; Ribotta, Pablo D; Añón, María Cristina; León, Alberto E

    2014-03-01

    The technological and sensory quality of pasta made from bread wheat flour substituted with wholemeal amaranth flour (Amaranthus mantegazzianus) at four levels, 15, 30, 40 and 50% w/w was investigated. The quality of the resulted pasta was compared to that of control pasta made from bread wheat flour. The flours were analyzed for chemical composition and pasting properties. Cooking behavior, color, raw and cooked pasta texture, scanning electron microscopy and sensory evaluation were determined on samples. The pasta obtained from amaranth flour showed some detriment of the technological and sensory quality. So, a maximum substitution level of 30% w/w was defined. This is an equilibrium point between an acceptable pasta quality and the improved nutritional and functional properties from the incorporation of amaranth flour.

  10. Genetic diversity and structure found in samples of Eritrean bread wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Desta, Zeratsion Abera; Orabi, Jihad; Jahoor, Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Genetic diversity and structure plays a key role in the selection of parents for crosses in plant breeding programmes. The aim of the present study was to analyse the genetic diversity and structure of Eritrean bread wheat accessions. We analysed 284 wheat accessions from Eritrea using 30 simple...... sequence repeat markers. A total of 539 alleles were detected. The allele number per locus ranged from 2 to 21, with a mean allele number of 9.2. The average genetic diversity index was 0.66, with values ranging from 0.01 to 0.89. Comparing the three genomes of wheat, the B genome had the highest genetic...... diversity (0.66) and the D genome the lowest diversity (0.61). A STRUCTURE analysis based on the Bayesian model-based cluster analysis followed by a graphical representation of the distances by non-parametric multidimensional scaling revealed a distinct partition of the Eritrean wheat accessions into two...

  11. Properties and nutritional value of wheat bread enriched by hemp products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Švec

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hemp (Cannabis sativa is annual plant that is native to China and remained as important material for food, industrial  and medical purposes. As source of cannabinoids belongs to controversial, but due to its excellent nutritional profile, non-gluten protein, fat and fibre it has potential in bakery products. Addition of 5% - 20% of hemp press cake fine flour and fine wholemeal significantly increased dietary fibre content, but their influence on volume of laboratory baked bread was different. Reflecting actual dosage, both types of hemp press cake flour diminished bun sizes about 6% - 33%; volumes of bread containing hulled wholemeal were comparable to standard (mean 310 mL/100 g vs. 333 ml/100 g, respectively. Only dehulled wholemeal hemp form increased the bread specific volume (6% - 30%, especially as 10% fortification (434 mL/100 g. Six Canadian hemp products were added as 10% and 20% on wheat flour base, comprising fine hemp flour and coarse hemp powder, dehulled whole seeds, hulled hemp seeds with sea salt as well as 50% and 43% hemp protein concentrates (KP1-KP6, respectively. The higher level of KP1, KP2, KP5 and KP6, the lower bread specific volumes were determined (decrease about 9% - 48%. Soft increase in buns size caused by 10% and 20% KP3 (323 and 319 ml/100 g vs. 296 mL/100 g was insignificant. The effect of KP4 was reversely verifiable, magnifying the parameter about 25% and 17%, respectively. In terms of protein content in bread, a level 11.75% in wheat bread has risen to approx. 14.5% and 18.0% when 10% and 20% of KP3 and KP5, respectively, was included into bread recipe. All six Canadian hemp products increased dietary fibre content in bread, mainly owing to KP4 and both protein concentrates (up to 4 and 3 times, respectively. Incorporation of hemp flour up to the level of 10% positively affected bread sensorial properties.

  12. Bread making properties of wheat flour supplemented with thermally processed hypoallergenic lupine flour

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guillamon, E.; Cuadrado, C.; Pedrosa, M. M.; Varela, A.; Cabellos, B.

    2010-07-01

    In recent years there has been increased interest in using lupine for human nutrition due to its nutritional properties and health benefits. Moreover, lupine is used as an ingredient in bread making because of its functional and technological properties. However, a higher number of allergic reactions to this legume have recently been reported as a consequence of a more widespread consumption of lupine-based foods. In a previous study, several thermal treatments were applied to lupine seeds and flours resulting in reduced allergenicity. In order to study how this thermal processing (autoclaving and boiling) affects the bread making properties, raw and thermally processed lupine flours were used to replace 10% of wheat flour. The effect of supplementing wheat flour with lupine flour on physical dough properties, bread structure and sensory characteristics were analysed. The results indicated that thermally-treated lupine flours, had similar bread making and sensorial properties as untreated lupine flour. These thermal treatments could increase the potential use of lupine flour as a food ingredient while reducing the risk to provoke allergic reactions. (Author) 36 refs.

  13. Resistance Potential of Bread Wheat Genotypes Against Yellow Rust Disease Under Egyptian Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amer F. Mahmoud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Yellow rust (stripe rust, caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici, is one of the most destructive foliar diseases of wheat in Egypt and worldwide. In order to identify wheat genotypes resistant to yellow rust and develop molecular markers associated with the resistance, fifty F₈ recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from a cross between resistant and susceptible bread wheat landraces were obtained. Artificial infection of Puccinia striiformis was performed under greenhouse conditions during two growing seasons and relative resistance index (RRI was calculated. Two Egyptian bread wheat cultivars i.e. Giza-168 (resistant and Sakha-69 (susceptible were also evaluated. RRI values of two-year trial showed that 10 RILs responded with RRI value >6 2 <6. However, only 7 RILs showed RRI value <2. Five RILs expressed hypersensitive type of resistance (R against the pathogen and showed the lowest Average Coefficient of Infection (ACI. Bulked segregant analysis (BSA with eight simple sequence repeat (SSR, eight sequence-related amplified polymorphism (SRAP and sixteen random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD markers revealed that three SSR, three SRAP and six RAPD markers were found to be associated with the resistance to yellow rust. However, further molecular analyses would be performed to confirm markers associated with the resistance and suitable for marker-assisted selection. Resistant RILs identified in the study could be efficiently used to improve the resistance to yellow rust in wheat.

  14. Quality Parameters Of Wheat Bread Enriched With Pumpkin (Cucurbita Moschata) By-Products

    OpenAIRE

    Kampuse Solvita; Ozola Liene; Straumite Evita; Galoburda Ruta

    2015-01-01

    Pumpkin processing into puree, juice, candied fruit and pumpkin seed oil results in large amount of by-products. Pumpkins are rich in carotenes, vitamins, minerals, pectin and dietary fibre. The aim of the current study was to evaluate effect of pumpkin pomace and pumpkin residue powder on wheat bread quality. The total content of carotenes was analyzed by spectrophotometric method. The initial increase of pumpkin residue addition indicated increase in loaf volume, which started to decrease a...

  15. Fortification of Wheat Bread with 3-7% Defatted Soy Flour Improves Formulation, Organoleptic Characteristics, and Rat Growth Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoodi, Mohammad Reza; Mashayekh, Morteza; Entezari, Mohammad Hasan

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study designed to test effects of defatted soy-fortified wheat bread on the organoleptic properties as well as influences on rat growth rate. Methods: Defatted soy flour (DSF) was blended with wheat flour with extraction rate of 82-84% at 3, 7, and 7% levels plus 3% sugar. Bread produced with these blends compared with regular Taftoon bread and was tested for chemical and organoleptic characteristics. The organoleptic characteristics of blends consist of taste and flavor, crust texture, fragrance and aroma, appearance, bendability, and overall acceptability were determined through taste panel by 213 judges. Forty Sprague Dawley rats were randomly given codes and allocated to different groups via tables with random numbers to feed on three DSF-fortified bread blends and control bread for 30 days. Results: The blending of wheat flour with DSF altered the organoleptic properties of breads. Addition of DSF increased significantly the protein and ash content of the bread (P fortified blend. Conclusions: It was concluded that overall acceptability score significantly decreased with increasing DSF substitution level. Rats fed 7% DSF-fortified blend showed privileged food efficiency ratio. Then, the best formulation is between 3 and 7% DSF bread. This formulation can nourish all human at risk of malnutrition. PMID:24554990

  16. Water footprint assessment along the wheat-bread value chain towards the sustainable use of freshwater in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohlotsane, Pascalina; Owusu-Sekyere, Enoch; Jordaan, Henry

    2017-04-01

    A significant amount of water is used in food production. The current increase in demand for food and impact of climate change place much pressure on the available water resources. South Africa is soon approaching complete utilisation of its available surface water, with irrigated agriculture accountable for about 63% of the country's available water use. This poses a threat to food security. Wheat is the largest winter cereal crop produced in South Africa, approximately 80% of this wheat is used to produce Bread. Bread consumption in South Africa is estimated at 2.8 billion loaves per annum. About 62 loaves of bread are consumed per person per annum with noticeable differences in preferences. Therefore, it is important to account for the amount of water used along the wheat-bread production chain. In this paper, we examined water footprint along the wheat-bread value chain. The water footprint concept provides an appropriate framework for analysis to find the link between the consumption of agricultural goods and the use of water resources. The paper employed the Global Water Footprint Standard approach to calculating the volumetric green, blue and grey water footprint along the wheat-bread value chain. Our findings reveal that wheat production at the farm level accounts for 99.95 percent of the total water footprint of the bread, while processing and wholesale levels only account for 0.56 per cent. Our findings highlight the importance of effective and efficient water use at the farm level for wheat production. Specifically, the total water footprint of wheat bread is 937.42m3.ton-1. The green water component was found to be 190.59m3.ton-1 and that of blue water was 745.28 m3.ton-1. Grey water footprint accounted for only 1.55 m3.ton-1. The results indicate that the amount of water used at farm level is the largest contributor to the total water footprint of bread. Given the blue water scarcity situation in South Africa, it is very critical for wheat producers to

  17. Bioavailability and metabolism of phenolic compounds from wholegrain wheat and aleurone-rich wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bresciani, Letizia; Scazzina, Francesca; Leonardi, Roberto; Dall'Aglio, Elisabetta; Newell, Michael; Dall'Asta, Margherita; Melegari, Camilla; Ray, Sumantra; Brighenti, Furio; Del Rio, Daniele

    2016-11-01

    This work aimed at investigating absorption, metabolism, and bioavailability of phenolic compounds after consumption of wholegrain bread or bread enriched with an aleurone fraction. Two commercially available breads were consumed by 15 participants on three occasions and matched for either the amount of ferulic acid in the bread or the amount of bread consumed. Urine was collected for 48 h from all the volunteers for phenolic metabolite quantification. Blood samples were collected for 24 h following bread consumption in five participants. A total of 12 and 4 phenolic metabolites were quantified in urine and plasma samples, respectively. Metabolites were sulfate and glucuronic acid conjugates of phenolic acids, and high concentrations of ferulic acid-4'-O-sulfate, dihydroferulic acid-4'-O-sulfate, and dihydroferulic acid-O-glucuronide were observed. The bioavailability of ferulic acid was significantly higher from the aleurone-enriched bread when all ferulic acid metabolites were accounted for. The study shows that low amounts of aleurone-enriched bread resulted in equivalent plasma levels of ferulic acid as wholegrain bread. This could suggest that, if the absorbed phenolic metabolites after wholegrain product intake exert health benefits, equal levels could be reached through the consumption of lower doses of refined products enriched in aleurone fraction. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Wheat bread enriched with green coffee - In vitro bioaccessibility and bioavailability of phenolics and antioxidant activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świeca, Michał; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Dziki, Dariusz; Baraniak, Barbara

    2017-04-15

    The potential bioaccessibility and bioavailability of phenolics, caffeine and antioxidant activity of wheat bread enriched with green coffee were studied. Supplementation enhanced nutraceutical potential by improving phenolic content and lipid protecting capacity. The simulated-digestion-released phenolics (mainly caffeic acid, syringic acid and vanillic acid) from bread, also caused significant qualitative changes (chlorogenic acids were cleaved and significant amounts of caffeic acid and ferulic acid were determined). Compared to the control, for the bread with 1% and 5% of the functional component the contents of phenolics were 1.6 and 3.33 times higher. Also, an approximately 2.3-fold increase in antioxidant activity was found in bread containing 5% of the supplement. The compounds responsible for antioxidant potential have high bioaccessibility but poor bioavailability. The qualitative composition of the phenolic fraction has a key role in developing the antioxidant potential of bread; however, caffeine and synergism between antioxidants are also important considerations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Copper-65-absorption by men fed intrinsically and extrinsically labeled whole wheat bread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, P.E.; Lykken, G.I.

    1988-01-01

    Six men were fed a diet composed of conventional foods with all bread as whole wheat bread. Intrinsically labeled 65 Cu bread (containing 6.5 ppm Cu and 48 atom % 65 Cu) was substituted for unlabeled bread for 3 days, and stools were collected for 24 days. Extrinsically labeled bread was then substituted for 3 days and another 24-day stool collection made. 65 Cu excretion was measured by mass spectrometry. Mean Cu intake was 1.10 mg of Cu/day. Average Cu balance was /minus/0.06 /+-/ 0.08 mg/day. Average absorption of the intrinsic copper was 72.2 /+-/ 9.3% and of extrinsic Cu 64.2 /+-/ 5.8%. The ratio of extrinsic to intrinsic absorption was 0.906 /+-/ 0.164. Absorption of intrinsic and extrinsic tracers did not differ significantly (p > 0.05) by a paired t-test, and the ratio (E/I) was not significantly different from 1. Use of extrinsic Cu tracers to assess Cu absorption is supported by these results

  20. Performance of iron spot test with Arabic bread made from fortified white wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, Erin; Aburto, Nancy; Masa'd, Hanan; Wirth, James; Sullivan, Kevin; Serdula, Mary

    2012-09-01

    The iron spot test (IST) is a simple qualitative technique for determining the presence of added iron in fortified flour. IST performance in bread has never been investigated. If found to perform well, the IST has the potential to provide a field-friendly method for testing bread and thus support the monitoring and evaluation of flour fortification programs. To assess the performance of the IST in Arabic bread made from white wheat flour. Bread samples were collected from 1,737 households during a national micronutrient survey in Jordan. A subsample of Arabic bread (n = 44) was systematically selected for testing by both the IST and spectrophotometry (criterion reference). Performance measures (sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values) were calculated using five cutoffs to define the presence of added iron, including > or = 15.0 ppm (approximate level of natural iron in Arabic bread) and four additional cutoffs based on test performance. The iron contents of samples testing negative by IST ranged from 10.4 to 18.4 ppm, with one outlier at 41.0 ppm, which was excluded from subsequent analyses. The iron contents of samples testing positive by IST ranged from 16.1 to 38.4 ppm. With the exception of negative predictive values for the two lowest cutoffs (> or = 15.0 and > or = 16.1 ppm), all performance measures exceeded 83.3%. These results show promise for the IST as an inexpensive, field-friendly method for testing bread that could have a useful role in the monitoring and evaluation process for flour fortification programs.

  1. Quality characteristics of northern-style Chinese steamed bread prepared from soft red winter wheat flours with waxy wheat flour substitution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality characteristics of Chinese steamed bread (CSB) prepared from two soft red winter (SRW) wheat flours blended with 0-30% waxy wheat flour (WWF) were determined to estimate the influence of starch amylose content. The increased proportion of WWF in blends raised mixograph absorption with insign...

  2. End-use quality of CIMMYT-derived soft kernel durum wheat germplasm. II. Dough strength and pan bread quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durum wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. durum) is considered unsuitable for the majority of commercial bread production because its weak gluten strength combined with flour particle size and flour starch damage after milling are not commensurate with hexaploid wheat flours. Recently a new durum cultivar...

  3. THE INFLUENCE OF PROCESSED PRODUCTS OF WHEAT GERM ON GRAIN BREAD QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Ponomareva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development and introduction of new types of bakery products with increased nutritional value is one of the basic and urgent problems in the bakery industry. The solution of it is the use of whole grains, as well as secondary products of their processing. The use of by-products of wheat germ (oil, oilcake, oilcake flour, which are rich in proteins and enhances the nutritional value of products is considered to be a promising area in the bakery industry. At the same time the program objectives products, developed in the framework of the "Strategy of development of the food processing industry of the Russian Federation for the period up to 2020"products, are expanding the production of cereal-based foods , and involving of secondary resources in the economy. These technologies are re-source efficient. They allow efficient use of by-products raw materials of the milling industry. The process for the preparation of grain bread on the basis of a thick sourdough from bioactivated wheat grain is known. However, despite all the advantages of grain breads with high amounts of dietary fiber, minerals and vitamins, they exhibit low levels of protein and lysine deficiency. At present larger preference is given to the raw materials of natural origin (millet, buckwheat and oatmeal flours, fruit puree, whole grains, oil, flour and wheat germ flakes, and etc. for foods enrichment in modern food science. Products of processing of wheat germ: oil, flakes, oilcake and oil-cake flour are widely used in bakery technology. To improve the nutritional value flour from wheat germ oilcake was used in the work. In the course of the research its positive effect on the quality of semi-finished and finished products was found. They differed from the control sample in a high content of antioxidants and better digestibility of proteins bread crumb.

  4. Heavy Metal Contents of Soils, Durum and Bread Wheats in Harran Plain, Southeast Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Büyükkılıç Yanardaǧ, Asuman

    2013-04-01

    Soils are vital for regulating the biological effects and mobility of metals in nature. Iron and zinc are some of the essential nutrients for plants and animals, while other metals are potentially toxic such as lead and cadmium. Toxic heavy metals (HMs) can be taken up easily by organisms. HMs inputs to soil via the application of metal-contained fertilizers often exceed outputs in crops and drainage waters, thus toxic HMs content in many agricultural soils tends to be gradually increasing. Thus adverse human health effects due to soil-plant and plant-human transfer of HMs have been enhanced. HMs may cause harmful effects on human health due to the ingestion of food grain grown in soils. The objectives of this study were (1) to understand the chemistry of metals in soils for managing their agricultural and ecological impacts, (2) to identify metal uptakes of different genotypes of wheat. Concentrations of HMs (Cd, Zn, Ni, Mn, Cu, Mo, Pb) in wheat were investigated in different agricultural areas in Southeast, Turkey. The results showed that concentrations of HMs were in following order: Mn>Ni>Zn>Cu>Pb>Mo>Cd in surface and next to surface soil and Mn>Zn>Cu>Pb> Ni>Mo>Cd in wheat, respectively. HMs concentrations of several soil samples exceeded the permissible limits of Europe standard except for Ni and Mn. In addition, concentration of Cd, Zn, Cu, and Pb were higher in bread wheat than in durum wheat; however, concentration of Mn, Ni and Mo were higher in durum wheat than in bread wheat. Unusual amount of heavy metals found in some fertilizers used in the Southeast region of Turkey, it becomes an important subject to determine the amount of metals added to the soil every year. Heavy metals uptake by plants still remains to be an interest for researchers. As the heavy metals contents of plants were below the threshold levels, we conclude that the quality of wheat is high and it should receive attention in national and international markets. Keywords: Heavy Metals

  5. Differential agronomic responses of bread wheat cultivars to drought ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2011-04-04

    Apr 4, 2011 ... Two similar and concurrent experiments were carried out in 2007- 2008 on dry land agriculture research sub- institute Sararood and Mahidasht agricultural research center to study the effects of drought stress on yield and yield components of wheat cultivars under field conditions. The experimental.

  6. Evaluation of bread wheat genotypes for salinity tolerance under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In two consecutive seasons (2007-08 and 2008-09), field experiments were conducted at Soil Salinity Research Institute, Pindi Bhattian and Biosaline Agricultural Research Station, Pakka Aana, Pakistan. During 2007-08, 103 wheat landrace genotypes were evaluated for salinity tolerance. During 2008-09, 47 selected ...

  7. genetic analysis for high temperature tolerance in bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prof. Adipala Ekwamu

    crosses and their parents were raised under normal (21, November 2002) and late sown (1, January 2003) seasons at the Experimental Farm of Rajasthan .... The optimum time for sowing wheat on the plains of South Asia is from November the 15 to ...... Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense L.) bred for increased yield.

  8. allelic variation of hmw glutenin subunits of ethiopian bread wheat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    journal

    reduced subunits of glutenin proteins bands are separated: the high molecular weight (HMW) and low molecular weight (LMW) subunits (Payne et al.,1980; Jackson et al., 1983). The HMW glutenin subunits (GS) of wheat protein are quantitatively minor, but functionally an important group of gluten proteins in the process of ...

  9. Assessment of genetic diversity among sixty bread wheat (Triticum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mwale

    2State Key Laboratory of Biology for Plant Diseases and Insect Pests, Institute of Plant Protection, Chinese Academy of. Agricultural Sciences .... from parts of main wheat growing regions of China and 3 cultivars collected from USA and Italy ..... locus while higher PIC value indicates the high ability of the marker to express ...

  10. Molecular markers for drought tolerance in bread wheat | Ameen ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) primers associated with drought tolerance was used in this study to characterize drought tolerance in six wheat genotypes with developed marker assisted drought tolerance. Four of them were tolerant and two were drought sensitive genotypes. The results indicate that tolerant ...

  11. Yr10 gene polymorphism in bread wheat varieties

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-07-18

    Jul 18, 2008 ... Key words: Triticum aestivum L., yellow rust, resistance gene, PCR, sequence analysis. INTRODUCTION. Wheat (Triticum aestivum ssp. aestivum) is one of the most important cereal crops in the world for both human food and animal feed. Characterization of disease resistance genes has great importance ...

  12. Differential agronomic responses of bread wheat cultivars to drought ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Two similar and concurrent experiments were carried out in 2007- 2008 on dry land agriculture research sub- institute Sararood and Mahidasht agricultural research center to study the effects of drought stress on yield and yield components of wheat cultivars under field conditions. The experimental design was split plot ...

  13. Postprandial plasma betaine and other methyl donor-related responses after consumption of minimally processed wheat bran or wheat aleurone, or wheat aleurone incorporated into bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keaveney, Edel M; Price, Ruth K; Hamill, Lesley L; Wallace, Julie M W; McNulty, Helene; Ward, Mary; Strain, J J; Ueland, Per M; Molloy, Anne M; Piironen, Vieno; von Reding, Walter; Shewry, Peter R; Ward, Jane L; Welch, Robert W

    2015-02-14

    The bran and particularly the aleurone fraction of wheat are high in betaine and other physiological methyl donors, which may exert beneficial physiological effects. We conducted two randomised, controlled, cross-over postprandial studies to assess and compare plasma betaine and other methyl donor-related responses following the consumption of minimally processed bran and aleurone fractions (study A) and aleurone bread (study B). For both studies, standard pharmacokinetic parameters were derived for betaine, choline, folate, dimethylglycine (DMG), total homocysteine and methionine from plasma samples taken at 0, 0·5, 1, 2 and 3 h. In study A (n 14), plasma betaine concentrations were significantly and substantially elevated from 0·5 to 3 h following the consumption of both bran and aleurone compared with the control; however, aleurone gave significantly higher responses than bran. Small, but significant, increases were also observed in DMG measures; however, no significant responses were observed in other analytes. In study B (n 13), plasma betaine concentrations were significantly and substantially higher following consumption of the aleurone bread compared with the control bread; small, but significant, increases were also observed in DMG and folate measures in response to consumption of the aleurone bread; however, no significant responses were observed in other analytes. Peak plasma betaine concentrations, which were 1·7-1·8 times the baseline levels, were attained earlier following the consumption of minimally processed aleurone compared with the aleurone bread (time taken to reach peak concentration 1·2 v. 2·1 h). These results showed that the consumption of minimally processed wheat bran, and particularly the aleurone fraction, yielded substantial postprandial increases in plasma betaine concentrations. Furthermore, these effects appear to be maintained when aleurone was incorporated into bread.

  14. Studies on Production of Arabic Bread From Irradiated and Stored Potato Flour as Partial Substitute of Wheat Flour

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Kuraieef, A.N.

    2012-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate Arabic bread produced from potato flour and wheat flour. Potato flour was prepared from Diamont cultivar of potato tubers after irradiation with 50 and 150 Gy. The ratios of potato flour were 5, 10 and 15% and the flour was stored for six months and taken for analysis every three months. Amino acids, protein, carbohydrate, baking and staling tests were applied to study the effect of adding potato flour extracts from tubers of non-irradiated and irradiated potato to wheat flour in Arabic bread making. Amino acids in potato and wheat were studied. The flour of wheat was found to be poor in lysine while potato flour contained about twice of these amino acids. Protein content was decreased with increasing the ratios of potato flour. The addition of potato flour to the Arabic bread increased the percentage of essential amino acids. Moreover, the addition of potato flour during storage periods had an improving effect on the quality of Arabic bread. Water retention capacity (the staling rate) was increased progressively with increasing the percentage as potato flour in the bread which was effective in keeping bread fresh and organoleptic properties

  15. Reduced-Gliadin Wheat Bread: An Alternative to the Gluten-Free Diet for Consumers Suffering Gluten-Related Pathologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Altamirano-Fortoul, Rossana; Real, Ana; Comino, Isabel; Sousa, Carolina; Rosell, Cristina M.; Barro, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    Wheat flour cannot be tolerated by those who suffer allergies to gluten. Human pathologies associated with grain proteins have increased worldwide in recent years, and the only effective treatment available is a lifelong gluten-free diet, which is complicated to follow and detrimental to gut health. This manuscript describes the development of wheat bread potentially suitable for celiac patients and other gluten-intolerant individuals. We have made bread using wheat flour with very low content of the specific gluten proteins (near gliadin-free) that are the causal agents for pathologies such as celiac disease. Loaves were compared with normal wheat breads and rice bread. Organoleptic, nutritional, and immunotoxic properties were studied. The reduced-gliadin breads showed baking and sensory properties, and overall acceptance, similar to those of normal flour, but with up to 97% lower gliadin content. Moreover, the low-gliadin flour has improved nutritional properties since its lysine content is significantly higher than that of normal flour. Conservative estimates indicate that celiac patients could safely consume 67 grams of bread per day that is made with low-gliadin flour. However, additional studies, such as feeding trials with gluten-intolerant patients, are still needed in order to determine whether or not the product can be consumed by the general celiac population, as well as the actual tolerated amount that can be safely ingested. The results presented here offer a major opportunity to improve the quality of life for millions of sufferers of gluten intolerance throughout the world. PMID:24621595

  16. Chemometric Analysis of High Molecular Mass Glutenin Subunits and Image Data of Bread Crumb Structure from Croatian Wheat Cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zorica Jurković

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate functional relationships among wheat properties, high molecular mass (weight (HMW glutenin subunits and bread quality produced from eleven Croatian wheat cultivars by chemometric analysis. HMW glutenin subunits were fractionated by sodium dodecylsulfate polyacrylamid gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE and subsequently analysed by scanning densitometry in order to quantify HMW glutenin fractions. Wheat properties are characterised by four variables: protein content, sedimentation value, wet gluten and gluten index. Bread quality is assessed by the standard measurement of loaf volume, and visual quality of bread slice is quantified by 8 parameters by the use of computer image analysis. The data matrix with 21 columns (measured variables and 11 rows (cultivars is analysed for determination of number of latent variables. It was found that the first two latent variables account for 92, 85 and 87 % of variance of wheat quality properties, HMW glutenin fractions, and the bread quality parameters, respectively. Classification and functional relationships are discussed from the case data (cultivars and variable projections to the planes of the first two latent variables. Between Glu-D1y proportion and the bread quality parameters (standard parameter loaf volume and bread crumb cell area fraction determined by image analysis the strongest positive correlations are found r = 0.651 and r = 0.885, respectively. Between Glu-B1x proportion and the bread quality parameters the strongest negative correlations are found r =-0.535 and r = –0.841, respectively. The results are discussed in view of possible development of new and improvement of existing wheat cultivars and optimisation of bread production.

  17. Single-Feature Polymorphism Mapping in Bread Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Travis W. Banks

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Probe hybridization data from the Affymetrix GeneChip platform can be used to identify genetic polymorphisms. Developed from gene expression data, these single-feature polymorphism (SFP markers are located in or are tightly associated with gene sequences. Using two different methods to identify SFPs, 1035 and 875 SFPs were mapped in a segregating population of 64 doubled haploid lines from the L. cross RL4452 × ‘AC Domain’. Statistical associations between the SFP maps and the rice ( L. ssp. genome were in agreement with known cereal syntenic blocks, and the mapping data were corroborated by previously established physical locations for wheat expressed sequence tags. This approach allowed the rapid identification of markers from the genic regions of the complex hexaploid wheat genome.

  18. Products deriving from microbial fermentation are linked to insulinaemic response in pigs fed breads prepared from whole-wheat grain and wheat and rye ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Jørgensen, Henry; Serena, Anja; Hendrickson, Jessica; Bach Knudsen, Knud Erik

    2011-02-01

    The effects of wheat and rye breads made from whole-wheat grain (WWG), wheat aleurone flour (WAF) or rye aleurone flour (RAF) on net portal absorption of carbohydrate-derived nutrients (glucose, SCFA and lactate) and apparent insulin secretion were studied in a model experiment with catheterised pigs. The breads were similar in dietary fibre (DF, 120-125 g/kg DM) but differed in arabinoxylans (50-62 g/kg), β-glucans (4-9 g/kg) and content of soluble DF (13-29 g/kg). Six pigs in a repeated 3 × 3 crossover design were fitted with catheters in the portal vein and the mesenteric artery and a portal flow probe. Pigs were fed three meals daily (at 09.00, 14.00 and 19.00 hours), and blood profiles were collected repeatedly from 08.30 until 19.00 hours once weekly. Net portal absorption of glucose was similar among breads and between meals. In contrast, insulin secretion was lowest (P < 0·05) in pigs fed RAF bread (3·9 nmol/h), intermediate in pigs fed WAF bread (5·4 nmol/h) and highest in pigs fed WWG bread (5·9 nmol/h), indicating that RAF bread improved insulin economy. Portal concentrations of propionate, butyrate and valerate were high, intermediate and low (P < 0·05) when pigs were fed RAF, WAF and WWG breads, respectively. Insulin secretion was higher (P < 0·001), and portal absorption of SCFA was lower (P < 0·05) after the first daily meal than after the second daily meal (8·8 v. 4·4 nmol/h). A low insulin response was associated with high portal absorption of SCFA. In conclusion, RAF bread was able to improve insulin economy compared to WWG bread.

  19. Structural and functional partitioning of bread wheat chromosome 3B

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Choulet, F.; Alberti, A.; Theil, S.; Glover, N.; Barbe, V.; Daron, J.; Pingault, L.; Sourdille, P.; Couloux, A.; Paux, E.; LeRoy, P.; Bellec, A.; Gaspin, Ch.; Šafář, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Rogers, J.; Vandepoele, K.; Mayer, K.; Wincker, P.; Feuillet, C.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 345, č. 6194 (2014) ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : hexaploid wheat * sequencing * meiotic recombination Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 33.611, year: 2014 http://gateway.isiknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=MEDLINE&DestLinkType=FullRecord&UT=25035497

  20. Effect of Buckwheat Processing Products on Dough and Bread Quality Made from Whole-Wheat Flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vira Drobot

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives a brief overview of the current nutritional status of the Ukrainian population and describes useful buckwheat properties. The objective of the paper is to study the effect of buckwheat processing products (flour and flakes on the technological process and quality of bread made from whole-wheat flour. This paper describes and analyzes research data on the rheological properties of dough samples which were determined by farinograph and amylograph. Investigation of structural and mechanical properties of dough showed an increase in water-absorbing capacity in all samples when adding buckwheat products. Moreover, dough made with buckwheat flakes has a lower value of mixing tolerance index (by 47 % than dough made from buckwheat flour, and a higher valorimetric value (by 20 %. Determination of dough properties by amylogram has shown that a sample containing buckwheat flakes has a higher maximum viscosity than a sample containing buckwheat flour. Determination of the gas-production and gas-retention capacity of dough is also presented, along with an analysis of the quality of finished products based on the results of laboratory baking tests. The samples of bread supplemented with buckwheat flakes have better shape stability (by 21 %, specific volume (by 12 % and porosity (by 11 % than bread made from buckwheat flour. The organoleptic evaluation of finished product quality has shown that bread supplemented with buckwheat flakes has a more fluffy-texture, elastic crumb and uniform porosity than bread made from buckwheat flour. Buckwheat flakes proved to have a better effect on parameters of the technological process and quality of bread when compared with buckwheat flour.

  1. Path Analysis of Grain Yield and Yield Components and Some Agronomic Traits in Bread Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Janmohammadi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Development of new bread wheat cultivars needs efficient tools to monitor trait association in a breeding program. This investigation was aimed to characterize grain yield components and some agronomic traits related to bread wheat grain yield. The efficiency of a breeding program depends mainly on the direction of the correlation between different traits and the relative importance of each component involved in contributing to grain yield. Correlation and path analysis were carried out in 56 bread wheat genotypes grown under field conditions of Maragheh, Iran. Observations were recorded on 18 wheat traits and correlation coefficient analysis revealed grain yield was positively correlated with stem diameter, spike length, floret number, spikelet number, grain diameter, grain length and 1000 seed weight traits. According to the variance inflation factor (VIF and tolerance as multicollinearity statistics, there are inconsistent relationships among the variables and all traits could be considered as first-order variables (Model I with grain yield as the response variable due to low multicollinearity of all measured traits. In the path coefficient analysis, grain yield represented the dependent variable and the spikelet number and 1000 seed weight traits were the independent ones. Our results indicated that the number of spikelets per spikes and leaf width and 1000 seed weight traits followed by the grain length, grain diameter and grain number per spike were the traits related to higher grain yield. The above mentioned traits along with their indirect causal factors should be considered simultaneously as an effective selection criteria evolving high yielding genotype because of their direct positive contribution to grain yield.

  2. Seed priming with iron and zinc in bread wheat: effects in germination, mitosis and grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Sara; Pavia, Ivo; Carvalho, Ana; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Correia, Carlos; Lima-Brito, José

    2018-02-16

    Currently, the biofortification of crops like wheat with micronutrients such as iron (Fe) and zinc (Zn) is extremely important due to the deficiencies of these micronutrients in the human diet and in soils. Agronomic biofortification with Fe and Zn can be done through different exogenous strategies such as soil application, foliar spraying, and seed priming. However, the excess of these micronutrients can be detrimental to the plants. Therefore, in the last decade, a high number of studies focused on the evaluation of their phytotoxic effects to define the best strategies for biofortification of bread wheat. In this study, we investigated the effects of seed priming with different dosages (1 mg L -1 to 8 mg L -1 ) of Fe and/or Zn in germination, mitosis and yield of bread wheat cv. 'Jordão' when compared with control. Overall, our results showed that: micronutrient dosages higher than 4 mg L -1 negatively affect the germination; Fe and/or Zn concentrations higher than 2 mg L -1 significantly decrease the mitotic index and increase the percentage of dividing cells with anomalies; treatments performed with 8 mg L -1 of Fe and/or 8 mg L -1 Zn caused negative effects in germination, mitosis and grain yield. Moreover, seed priming with 2 mg L -1 Fe + 2 mg L -1 Zn has been shown to be non-cytotoxic, ensuring a high rate of germination (80%) and normal dividing cells (90%) as well as improving tillering and grain yield. This work revealed that seed priming with Fe and Zn micronutrients constitutes a useful and alternative approach for the agronomic biofortification of bread wheat.

  3. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces marxianus Cocultures Allow Reduction of Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, and Monosaccharides and Polyols Levels in Whole Wheat Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyf, Nore; Laurent, Jitka; Verspreet, Joran; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2017-10-04

    Fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) are small molecules that are poorly absorbed in the small intestine and rapidly fermented in the large intestine. There is evidence that a diet low in FODMAPs reduces abdominal symptoms in approximately 70% of the patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome. Wheat contains relatively high fructan levels and is therefore a major source of FODMAPs in our diet. In this study, a yeast-based strategy was developed to reduce FODMAP levels in (whole wheat) bread. Fermentation of dough with an inulinase-secreting Kluyveromyces marxianus strain allowed to reduce fructan levels in the final product by more than 90%, while only 56%  reduction was achieved when a control Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain was used. To ensure sufficient CO 2 production, cocultures of S. cerevisiae and K. marxianus were prepared. Bread prepared with a coculture of K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae had fructan levels ≤0.2% dm, and a loaf volume comparable with that of control bread. Therefore, this approach is suitable to effectively reduce FODMAP levels in bread.

  4. Study of improving the quality of bread and wheat-aegilops hybrids with the biotechnological ways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganbarzada, Aygun; Hasanova, Sudaba

    2016-08-01

    The great need of the people to bread demands to increase high qualitative grain plants. At present time for solving these problem different methods of biochemistry, genetics and molecular biology are widely used in the process of selection. To investigate biochemical peculiarities of wheat-aegilops hybrids and to define the correlative relation between these characteristics. To investigate the technological peculiarities of wheat- aegilops hybrids and to define the relation between their main biochemical and technological characteristics. The conclusion of this investigation showed the followings- the wheat-aegilops hybrids according to their morphological and biochemical characteristics have approached to wheats. The electrophoretic spectres of the wheat- aegilops hybrids which have stable for their morphological characteristics are homogeny and heterogenic. Hereditarily some group protein components have passed to their tribes from their parents. But spontaneous hybridisation results in taking part the components of other unknown wheats in these electrophoretic spectres. There is a relation between the electrophoretic spectres and the indications of the grain quality.

  5. Chemical Composition and Quality Characteristics of Wheat Bread Supplemented with Leafy Vegetable Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. V. Odunlade

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The study investigated the effect of supplementation of the leaf powders of Telfairia occidentalis, Amaranthus viridis, and Solanum macrocarpon on the chemical composition and the quality characteristics of wheat bread. The bread samples were supplemented with each of the vegetable leaf powders at 1%, 2%, and 3% during preparation. The bread samples were assayed for proximate composition, mineral composition, physical, sensory, and antioxidant properties using standard methods. The addition of vegetable powders significantly increased the protein (9.50 to 13.93%, fibre (1.81 to 4.00%, ash (1.05 to 2.38%, and fat (1.27 to 2.00%. Supplementation with vegetable powder however significantly decreased (p<0.05 the carbohydrate and moisture contents. Significant (p<0.05 increases were recorded for all evaluated minerals as the level of vegetable powder increased. Supplementation with vegetable powder caused significant decrease in total phenolic content, percentage DPPH inhibition, metal chelating ability, ferric reducing antioxidant power, and total antioxidant capacity. Sensory results showed that there was significant decrease in sensory qualities with increasing supplementation. This therefore suggests that bread supplemented with vegetable powder could have more market penetration if awareness is highly created.

  6. Shelf life assessment of industrial durum wheat bread as a function of packaging system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licciardello, Fabio; Giannone, Virgilio; Del Nobile, Matteo Alessandro; Muratore, Giuseppe; Summo, Carmine; Giarnetti, Mariagrazia; Caponio, Francesco; Paradiso, Vito Michele; Pasqualone, Antonella

    2017-06-01

    This study compared the effect of different packaging systems on industrial durum wheat bread shelf-life, with regard to thermoformed packaging (TF) and flow-packaging (FP). Two TFs having different thickness and one FP were compared by assessing physico-chemical and sensorial properties and volatile compounds of sliced bread during 90days of storage. Texture, a w and bread moisture varied according to a first-order kinetic model, with FP samples ageing faster than TFs. Sensorial features such as consistency, stale odor, and sour odor, increased their intensity during storage. Furans decreased, whereas hexanal increased. The Principal Component Analysis of the whole dataset pointed out that the TF system at reduced thickness could be adopted up to 60days, without compromising the standard commercial life of industrial bread and allowing to save packaging material. The FP system would allow further saving, but it should be preferred when the expected product turnover is within 30days. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Levels of ochratoxin A in wheat and maize bread from the central zone of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, C; Pena, A; Lino, C; Moltó, J C; Mañes, J

    2008-10-31

    Ochratoxigenic fungi are natural contaminants of cereal and the produced toxins are harmful to humans and animals. Ochratoxin A (OTA) is among the most important mycotoxins, and the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) classifies it as possibly carcinogenic to humans (group 2B). A total of 61 samples of bread from the central zone of Portugal were analysed for OTA by liquid chromatography (LC) with fluorescence detection (FD). For confirmation two procedures were applied, methyl ester derivatization with boron trifluoride-methanol and liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC/ESI/MS/MS). As far as we know, this is the first report where on-line LC/electrospray ionization (ESI) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was used for OTA analysis in bread. Limits of detection (LOD) and quantification (LOQ) were 0.015 and 0.03 ng/g, using LC-FD, and 0.03 and 0.09 ng/g by LC-MS/MS. The incidence of OTA was 12.9% and 70.0% for wheat and maize bread, respectively. The highest OTA levels were obtained for maize bread, having one sample exceeded the European maximum limit established for OTA in cereal products. The estimate daily intake (EDI) was below the tolerable daily intake.

  8. Effects of wheat-bran arabinoxylan as partial flour replacer on bread properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koegelenberg, Danika; Chimphango, Annie F A

    2017-04-15

    Effects on physical properties of white bread of adding crude (E1) and partially purified (E2) arabinoxylans (AX) from wheat bran to partially replace flour during baking, were investigated to identify optimal dosage. The E1 and E2 had molecular weights of 620,000 and 470,000Da with arabinose to xylose ratio of 0.7 and 0.6, respectively. However, ferulic acid of 1.5mg/100g, was detectable only in E1. The AXs were added to 100g white bread formulae at dosages of 0.8-1.2% with flour removal of 2-3%(w/w). The dough increased water absorption by 2% in the specified dosage range. An optimum dosage of 0.8% with 2.5% flour removal maintained similar weight, volume, height and firmness as standard white bread. At this dosage, AX addition in white bread holds both increased health and economic benefits because of combined roles as soluble dietary fibre and flour replacer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of gamma-irradiation on the natural occurence of Fusarium mycotoxins in wheat, flour and bread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, N.H.; Attia, E.-S.A.; Farag, S.A.

    1997-01-01

    A survey was carried out to obtain data on the occurence of Fusarium mycotoxin in wheat and flour samples collected from local markets in Egypt and to study the influence of gamma-irradiation on controlling the occurrence of thesemycotoxins in wheat, flour and bread. Deoxynivalenol (DON) was detected in five samples of wheat at levels ranging from 103 to 287 ug/kg and one sample each of flour and bread concentrations 188 and 170 ug/kg. Zearaleone (ZEN) was detected in ten samples of wheat at levels from 28 to 42 ug/kg and four samples each of flour and bread at concentrations of 95 and 34 ug/kg, respectively. T-2 toxin was detected only in one sample each of wheat, flour and bread at concentrations of 2.9, 2.2, and 2.3 ug/kg, respectively. Gamma-irradiation at dose level of 6 kGy completely eliminated fungal flora in flour and wheat. DON, ZEN and T-2 toxin concentrations are reduced to 85, 20 and 2.0 ug/kg for wheat and to 125, 45, and 1.0 ug/kg for flour after 4 kGy exposure and a sharp drop in Fusarium toxin levels occured at 6 kGy and was eliminated at 8 kGy. Bread prepared from 6 kGy was contaminate4d with Fusarium toxin at levels below 5 ug/kg. It was noticed that gamme-irradiation reduce greatly the natural occurrence of Fusarium mycotoxins in bread

  10. Differentiation of Bread Made with Whole Grain and Refined Wheat (T. aestivum) Flour Using LC/MS-based chromatographic Fingerprinting and Chemometric Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fuzzy chromatography mass spectrometric (FCMS) fingerprinting method combined with chemometric analysis was established to diffrentiate between whole wheat (WW) flours and refined wheat (RW) flour, and the breads made from them. The chemical compositions of the bread samples were profiled using h...

  11. Concentrated Arabinoxylan but Not Concentrated Beta-Glucan in Wheat Bread Has Similar Effects on Postprandial Insulin as Whole-Grain Rye in Porto-arterial Catheterized Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Kirstine Lykke; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Lærke, Helle Nygaard

    2013-01-01

    The acute glycemic effects of concentrated dietary fibers (DF) versus whole-grain rye were studied in portoarterial catheterized pigs. Two white wheat breads with wheat arabinoxylan (AX) or oat beta-glucan (BG), two rye breads with intact rye kernels (RK) or milled rye (GR), and a low DF white wh...

  12. Heritability estimates for yield and related traits in bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Din, R.; Jehan, S.; Ibraullah, A.

    2009-01-01

    A set of 22 experimental wheat lines along with four check cultivars were evaluated in in-irrigated and unirrgated environments with objectives to determine genetic and phenotypic variation and heritability estimates for yield and its traits- The two environments were statistically at par for physiological maturity, plant height, spikes m/sub -2/. spike lets spike/sup -1/ and 1000-grain weight. Highly significant genetic variability existed among wheat lines (P < 0.0 I) in the combined analysis across two test environments for traits except 1000- grain weight. Genotypes x environment interactions were non-significant for traits indicating consistent performance of lines in two test environments. However lines and check cultivars were two to five days early in maturity under unirrigated environment. Plant height, spikes m/sup -2/ and 1000-grain weight also reduced under unirrigated environments. Genetic variances were greater than Environmental variances for most of traits- Heritability estimates were of higher magnitude (0.74 to 0.96) for plant height, medium (0.31 to 0.56) for physiological maturity. spikelets spike/sup -1/ (unirrigated) and 1000-grain weight, and low for spikes m/sup -2/. (author)

  13. Identification of Pm24, Pm35 and Pm37 in thirteen Egyptian bread wheat cultivars using SSR markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Mahmoud Emara

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Powdery mildew of wheat (Triticum spp. caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (DC E.O. Speer Em. Marchal is one of the most important bread wheat diseases in Egypt. All the Egyptian common bread wheat cultivars are susceptible to that disease at seedling and adult stages. Breeding of resistant cultivars is the most economical and environmentally safe method to eliminate the disease and reduce crop losses. Combinations of two or more effective resistance genes may lead to better, more durable resistance to that disease. Eight Pm genes i.e. Pm2, Pm6, Pm12, Pm16, Pm24, Pm35, Pm36 and Pm37 out of 21 powdery mildew monogenic wheat lines (Pm were resistant to 42 individual isolates of powdery mildew collected from different governorates in the Nile Delta area, Egypt, at seedling and adult stages. Only four DNA specific SSR markers (Xgwm337, Xcfd7 linked to Pm24, Pm35 and Xgwm332, Xwmc790 linked to Pm37 resistance genes were selected to detect these genes in 13 Egyptian common bread wheat cultivars. This study reveals the absence of Pm24, Pm35 and Pm37 in all the 13 Egyptian bread wheat cultivars. These results gave evidence that the Egyptian cultivars are not having resistance genes and need to further incorporate one, two or more resistant genes in a single genotype as all commercial cultivars defeated by the pathogen.

  14. Subgenomic Diversity Patterns Caused by Directional Selection in Bread Wheat Gene Pools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Voss-Fels

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Genetic diversity represents the fundamental key to breeding success, providing the basis for breeders to select varieties with constantly improving yield performance. On the other hand, strong selection during domestication and breeding have eliminated considerable genetic diversity in the breeding pools of major crops, causing erosion of genetic potential for adaptation to emerging challenges like climate change. High-throughput genomic technologies can address this dilemma by providing detailed knowledge to characterize and replenish genetic diversity in breeding programs. In hexaploid bread wheat ( L., the staple food for 35% of the world’s population, bottlenecks during allopolyploidisation followed by strong artificial selection have considerably narrowed diversity to the extent that yields in many regions appear to be unexpectedly stagnating. In this study, we used a 90,000 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP wheat genotyping array to assay high-frequency, polymorphic SNP markers in 460 accessions representing different phenological diversity groups from Asian, Australian, European, and North American bread wheat breeding materials. Detailed analysis of subgroup diversity at the chromosome and subgenome scale revealed highly distinct patterns of conserved linkage disequilibrium between different gene pools. The data enable identification of genome regions in most need of rejuvenation with novel diversity and provide a high-resolution molecular basis for genomic-assisted introgression of new variation into chromosome segments surrounding directionally selected metaloci conferring important adaptation and quality traits.

  15. Comparison of Leaf Sheath Transcriptome Profiles with Physiological Traits of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Salinity Stress

    KAUST Repository

    Takahashi, Fuminori

    2015-08-05

    Salinity stress has significant negative effects on plant biomass production and crop yield. Salinity tolerance is controlled by complex systems of gene expression and ion transport. The relationship between specific features of mild salinity stress adaptation and gene expression was analyzed using four commercial varieties of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) that have different levels of salinity tolerance. The high-throughput phenotyping system in The Plant Accelerator at the Australian Plant Phenomics Facility revealed variation in shoot relative growth rate and salinity tolerance among the four cultivars. Comparative analysis of gene expression in the leaf sheaths identified genes whose functions are potentially linked to shoot biomass development and salinity tolerance. Early responses to mild salinity stress through changes in gene expression have an influence on the acquisition of stress tolerance and improvement in biomass accumulation during the early “osmotic” phase of salinity stress. In addition, results revealed transcript profiles for the wheat cultivars that were different from those of usual stress-inducible genes, but were related to those of plant growth. These findings suggest that, in the process of breeding, selection of specific traits with various salinity stress-inducible genes in commercial bread wheat has led to adaptation to mild salinity conditions.

  16. Induced mutations in Iraqi bread wheat cv. Saber Beg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, I.F.; Haidar, H.O.

    1989-01-01

    ''Saber Beg'', is a local wheat cultivar important in the semi-arid zone of Iraq where the rainfall is less than 450 mm per year. This cultivar has a good baking quality, but is of low productivity, high susceptibility to common bunt (Tilletia spp.) and to leaf rust (Puccinia recondita Rob. ex Desm.), but only in the rainy season. A mutation breeding programme using gamma irradiation has been started in 1978 to improve this cultivar. Seeds of all main tillers from M 1 plants were harvested and artificially inoculated with teliospores of Tilletia spp. All the seeds from healthy M 2 plants were inoculated again and sown in the same area. Out of 22920 M 3 plants, 244 resistant ones were selected. During subsequent screening for 4 generations, however, only 3 mutants were confirmed

  17. Effect of bambara groundnut flour (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) supplementation on chemical, physical, nutritional and sensory evaluation of wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdualrahman, Mohammed A Y; Ali, Ali O; Elkhalifa, Elamin A; Sulieman, Abdelmoneim E

    2012-09-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterrenea (L) Verdc) is a major source of vegetable protein in sub-Saharan Africa. And the aim of this study was to enhance the nutritional value of wheat bread through the addition of bambara groundnut flour to wheat four. For this, bambara groundnut seeds were soaked in tap water, manually decorticated, sun dried and milled into fine flour. Proximate analysis of flours of de-hulled bambara groundnut and wheat were conducted. Flour of de-hulled bambara groundnut was used for bread supplementation in ratios of 5, 10 and 15%. Rheological properties of the control flour and wheat flour supplemented with 10% of de-hulled bambara groundnut flour were conducted. The total area and dough development time increased. However, water absorption, stability and extensibility respectively decreased, from 71.3; 8.5; 190 in the control flour to 71.0; 5.5; 180 in the 10% supplemented flour. The increases in the resistance to extension and proportional number from 260 to 280 and 1.37 to 1.56, respectively resulted in stiff dough. The most important effect of wheat bread supplementation was the improvement of protein quantity from 13.74 +/- 0.02% for the control bread to 15.49 +/- 0.02, 17.00 +/- 0.05 and 18.98 +/- 0.02% for the 5, 10 and 15% blending ratios, respectively. The in-vitro protein digestibility progressively increased from 84.33 +/- 0.03 in the control bread to 85.42 +/- 0.04, 86.57 +/- 0.04 and 87.64 +/- 0.03 in breads containing 5, 10 and 15% bambara groundnut flour. The sensory attributes of different types of bread showed that, a significant difference was observed in texture, colour and overall acceptability. However, the panelists gave higher score for 10% de-hulled bambara groundnut flour bread than bread made from other blends. The loaf weights, loaf volume and specific volume increased. However, while the loaf weight increased with addition of 15% de-hulled bambara groundnut flour, both of loaf volume and specific volume decreased

  18. Calidad panadera de nuevos genotipos de trigo pan Bread-making quality of new genotypes of bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Dubois

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó la calidad panadera de los dos mejores genotipos de trigo pan obtenidos por selección recurrente por rendimiento (C1-00-83 y C3-00-42 y seis cultivares comerciales, cultivados en la región semiárida central argentina. Se utilizó un diseño de bloques completamente aleatorizado con cuatro repeticiones. Se determinó peso hectolítrico, peso de mil semillas, contenido proteico, rendimiento en harina, gluten húmedo, parámetros alveográficos y panificación experimental. Las variables de calidad del genotipo C3-00-42 corresponden a un trigo de gran fuerza, muy tenaz, alta absorción de agua y buen volumen de pan, por consiguiente puede usarse como corrector de harinas débiles o para elaboraciones que requieran trigos fuertes. El genotipo C1-00-83 presentó los mejores valores de proteína, gluten y volumen del pan de todos los analizados, conjuntamente con un alto rendimiento en harina y gluten muy fuerte y bastante equilibrado. Los dos nuevos genotipos presentan excelentes características panaderas y ofrecen calidades industriales diferenciales.The bread- making quality of the two best genotypes of bread wheat obtained by recurrent selection by yield (C1-00-83 and C3-00-42 vs. six commercial cultivars from the Argentine central semiarid region were evaluated. A completely randomized block design with 4 repetitions was utilized. The parameters measured were: test weight, thousand kernel weight, grain proteins, yield flour, gluten test, alveograph parameters and baking test. The quality parameters of the C3-00-42 genotype corresponded to very tenacious strong gluten, with high water absorption and which produces good loaf volume. Therefore, it can be used to compensate weaker flours or to manufacture products that require strong wheat. The C1-00-83 genotype presented high yield in flour, very strong and almost balanced gluten and the best values in protein content, gluten and loaf volume of all those Trianalyzed. The two new

  19. EVALUATION OF QUALITY INDICATORS RELATED TO QUALITY BREAD WHEAT PROMISING LINES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Munyanyi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The bread waste is one of the important socio-economic's issues country now, the urgent need is feeling to improve the wheat quality. Therefore, using the methods of farming and breeding is necessary to improve the quality of this strategic product. As a result, tests of quality's traits in wheat promising lines in Isfahan climate took place. In this study, the choice 17 advanced lines of compare the performances,s experiments, an experiment was conducted for two consecutive cropping (2011-2012 at cultural experiment and research centre in Isfahan located in Kabutar Abad region. Randomized complete block designs with 3 replications were compared with Spring variety (for control. Traits including: 1000 grain weight, hectolitre weight, protein content, Zeleny sedimentation rate, bread volume, grain moisture content, grain hardness, water absorption, falling number, percentage of dry gluten, gluten index, sedimentation rates were SDS.The results of the combined analysis of variance qualitative characteristics,s for two consecutive cropping showed that treatments with compare together and control variety had significant influence in 1% probability.Correlation coefficients of two years showed that the compound test significant positive correlation within grain hardness index and protein content, wet gluten and dry deposition rates of SDS. Also, significant positive correlation with the percentage of protein content of dry gluten. In view of the high correlation with protein content of dry gluten (quantity. However, grain hardness and relatively high correlation with SDS sedimentation as an important measure of protein quality. Therefore, the test results of dry gluten grains can be tough to choose in order to improve the quality of wheat bread may be used.

  20. Bioprocessing of wheat bran in whole wheat bread increases the bioavailability of phenolic acids in men and exerts antiinflammatory effects ex vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateo Anson, Nuria; Aura, Anna-Marja; Selinheimo, Emilia; Mattila, Ismo; Poutanen, Kaisa; van den Berg, Robin; Havenaar, Robert; Bast, Aalt; Haenen, Guido R M M

    2011-01-01

    Whole grain consumption has been linked to a lower risk of metabolic syndrome, which is normally associated with a low-grade chronic inflammation. The benefits of whole grain are in part related to the inclusion of the bran, rich in phenolic acids and fiber. However, the phenols are poorly bioaccessible from the cereal matrix. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of bioprocessing of the bran in whole wheat bread on the bioavailability of phenolic acids, the postprandial plasma antioxidant capacity, and ex vivo antiinflammatory properties. After consumption of a low phenolic acid diet for 3 d and overnight fasting, 8 healthy men consumed 300 g of whole wheat bread containing native bran (control bread) or bioprocessed bran (bioprocessed bread) in a cross-over design. Urine and blood samples were collected for 24 h to analyze the phenolic acids and metabolites. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity was measured in plasma. Cytokines were measured in blood after ex vivo stimulation with LPS. The bioavailabilities of ferulic acid, vanillic acid, sinapic acid, and 3,4-dimethoxybenzoic acid from the bioprocessed bread were 2- to 3-fold those from the control bread. Phenylpropionic acid and 3-hydroxyphenylpropionic acid were the main colonic metabolites of the nonbioaccessible phenols. The ratios of pro-:antiinflammatory cytokines were significantly lower in LPS-stimulated blood after the consumption of the bioprocessed bread. In conclusion, bioprocessing can remarkably increase the bioavailability of phenolic acids and their circulating metabolites, compounds which have immunomodulatory effects ex vivo.

  1. Trends of mutation studies in bread wheat (Tricticum aestivum)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, M.P.; Dubey, S.D.; Singhal, N.C.

    1974-01-01

    Studies were undertaken in different wheat varieties to determine (a) the relative efficiency of different ionizing radiations in realising viable mutations; (b) effectiveness of acute VS chronic irradiation; (c) genotypic differences and varietal response to radiation damage and (d) fertility and survival in M 1 as a parameter for mutation percentage in M 2 . The chemicals (ethyl methane sulphonate, nitroso methyl urethan and nitroso guanidine) and radiations (X-rays, gamma-rays, radio-isotopes P 32 and S 35 and neutrons) were used in different sets of treatments. The relative effect of these treatments on variable genotypes was studied, in relation to seed germination, growth, chromosome structure, pollen fertility an seed set in M 1 and in M 2 mutation frequency and spectrum. The treatments including higher sterility in M 1 , gave higher mutation percentage of phenotypic detectable types. In spite of the limited M 2 population, the higher mutation frequency and mutation spectrum were maintained irrespective of the treatment and the genotype involved. (N.M.M.)

  2. Influence of final baking technologies in partially baked frozen gluten-free bread quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Núria; Albanell, Elena; Miñarro, Begoña; Gallardo, Joan; Capellas, Marta

    2015-03-01

    The effect of final baking in convection oven (FBC), microwave oven (FBM), and microwave oven with susceptor packaging material (FBMS) on partially baked (PB) frozen gluten-free bread characteristics was investigated. Specific volume and crust color of loaves were measured at day 0. Bread moisture, water activity, and crumb and crust texture (at 15, 45, and 90 min after baking) were analyzed at day 0 and after 28 d of frozen storage (-18 °C). Volatile compounds from breads baked in convection oven or microwave oven with susceptor packaging material were also evaluated. Bread finally baked in convection oven or in microwave oven with susceptor packaging increased crust browning. Crumb and roll hardness increased with time after final baking (measured at 15, 45, 90 min) and after 28 d of frozen storage. Bread finally baked in microwave oven was the hardest, due to high water losses. At day 0, bread finally baked in convection oven had softer crumb than bread finally baked in microwave oven with susceptor packaging but, after 28 d of frozen storage, there were no differences between them. Moreover, FBC and FBMS rendered gluten-free breads that could not be distinguished in a triangular test and had the same volatile compounds profile. In conclusion, FBMS could be an alternative to FBC. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  3. Effect of Various Sodium Chloride Mass Fractions on Wheat and Rye Bread Using Different Dough Preparation Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tańska, Małgorzata; Rotkiewicz, Daniela; Piętak, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Summary This study assessed the selected properties of bread with reduced amount of sodium chloride. The bread was made from white and wholemeal wheat flour and rye flour. The dough was prepared using three techniques: with yeast, natural sourdough or starter sourdough. Sodium chloride was added to the dough at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5% of the flour mass. The following bread properties were examined in the study: yield and volume of the loaf, moisture content, crumb firmness and porosity, and organoleptic properties. Reducing the mass fraction of added sodium chloride was not found to have considerable effect on bread yield, whereas it had a significant and variable effect on the loaf volume, and crumb firmness and porosity. Organoleptic assessment showed diverse effects of sodium chloride addition on sensory properties of bread, depending on the type of bread and the dough preparation method. Reduced mass fractions of sodium chloride changed the organoleptic properties of bread made with yeast and with starter sourdough to a greater extent than of bread prepared with natural sourdough. PMID:27904407

  4. Effect of Various Sodium Chloride Mass Fractions on Wheat and Rye Bread Using Different Dough Preparation Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Tańska

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed the selected properties of bread with reduced amount of sodium chloride. The bread was made from white and wholemeal wheat flour and rye flour. The dough was prepared using three techniques: with yeast, natural sourdough or starter sourdough. Sodium chloride was added to the dough at 0, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 % of the flour mass. The following bread properties were examined in the study: yield and volume of the loaf, moisture content, crumb firmness and porosity, and organoleptic properties. Reducing the mass fraction of added sodium chloride was not found to have considerable effect on bread yield, whereas it had a significant and variable effect on the loaf volume, and crumb firmness and porosity. Organoleptic assessment showed diverse effects of sodium chloride addition on sensory properties of bread, depending on the type of bread and the dough preparation method. Reduced mass fractions of sodium chloride changed the organoleptic properties of bread made with yeast and with starter sourdough to a greater extent than of bread prepared with natural sourdough.

  5. The Relationship Between Grain Hardness, Dough Mixing Parameters and Bread-Making Quality in Winter Wheat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmanowicz, Bolesław P.; Adamski, Tadeusz; Surma, Maria; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Karolina, Krystkowiak; Kuczyńska, Anetta; Banaszak, Zofia; Ługowska, Bogusława; Majcher, Małgorzata; Obuchowski, Wiktor

    2012-01-01

    The influence of grain hardness, determined by using molecular markers and physical methods (near-infrared (NIR) technique and particle size index—PSI) on dough characteristics, which in turn were determined with the use of a farinograph and reomixer, as well as bread-making properties were studied. The material covered 24 winter wheat genotypes differing in grain hardness. The field experiment was conducted at standard and increased levels of nitrogen fertilization. Results of molecular analyses were in agreement with those obtained by the use of physical methods for soft-grained lines. Some lines classified as hard (by physical methods) appeared to have the wild-type Pina and Pinb alleles, similar to soft lines. Differences in dough and bread-making properties between lines classified as hard and soft on the basis of molecular data appeared to be of less significance than the differences between lines classified as hard and soft on the basis of physical analyses of grain texture. Values of relative grain hardness at the increased nitrogen fertilization level were significantly higher. At both fertilization levels the NIR parameter determining grain hardness was significantly positively correlated with the wet gluten and sedimentation values, with most of the rheological parameters and bread yield. Values of this parameter correlated with quality characteristics in a higher degree than values of particle size index. PMID:22605973

  6. Low-calorie bread baked with charred cellulose granules and wheat flour to eliminate toxic xanthene food dye in the alimentary canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabara, Aya; Yamane, Chihiro; Seguchi, Masaharu

    2012-01-01

    We baked low-calorie bread by mixing charred cellulose granules with wheat flour, using the charred cellulose granules to eliminate toxic xanthene food dyes contained in processed foods from the alimentary canal. The size of the charred cellulose granules played an important role in determining good breadmaking properties in respect of the bread height (mm) and specific volume (SV, cm3/g). Charred cellulose granules with a diameter above 270 μm were blended with wheat flour at 10% to obtain bread with a lower caloric content (1020 kcal/gram of bread) than the control bread (1126 kcal) made solely from wheat flour. The charred cellulose granules taken out from the bread adsorbed toxic xanthene food dyes at around pH 6.5, such that toxic food dyes taken into the alimentary canal were excreted in the feces with the non-digestible cellulose granules.

  7. Sowing terms of winter bread wheat variety-innovations (Triticum aestivum L. in the conditions of change of climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О. Л. Дергачов

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Results of studying of influence of sowing terms on productivity and indices of quality of grain of winter bread wheat variety-innovations of V.M. Remeslo Myronivka Institute of Wheat of NAAS of Ukraine in the conditions of Right-bank Forest-steppe are shown. Negative correlation of productivity of varieties on average temperature of air during the sowing period is shown.

  8. Evaluation of the technological characteristics and bread-making quality of alternative wheat cereals in comparison with common and durum wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasqualone, A; Piergiovanni, A R; Caponio, F; Paradiso, V M; Summo, C; Simeone, R

    2011-04-01

    The growing sensibility toward those foods that are characterized by natural and healthy features has raised the interest toward alternative wheat cereals. This research was carried out to compare the technological characteristics and the bread-making quality of Khorasan wheat, type Kamut and spelt (cv. Forenza), to those of common (cv. Rio) and durum wheat (cv. Norba). The results obtained show that both Forenza and Kamut gave an acceptable bread-making performance. A certain variability affected flour characteristics (protein content, carotenoid pigments and alveograph indices) over the 2 years of experimentation, due to environmental effects. This reflected on the corresponding breads but the statistical analysis indicated that, on the whole, Kamut bread was characterized by a high content of carotenoid pigments. Regarding sensory properties (profiled by means of 11 descriptors of visual appearance, texture, odor and flavor) and loaf volumes, breads from Forenza and Kamut appeared different from each other but similar to those obtained from Rio and Norba grown in the same environment, respectively.

  9. The Na+ transporter, TaHKT1;5-D, limits shoot Na+ accumulation in bread wheat

    KAUST Repository

    Byrt, Caitlin Siobhan

    2014-10-01

    Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) has a major salt tolerance locus, Kna1, responsible for the maintenance of a high cytosolic K+/Na+ ratio in the leaves of salt stressed plants. The Kna1 locus encompasses a large DNA fragment, the distal 14% of chromosome 4DL. Limited recombination has been observed at this locus making it difficult to map genetically and identify the causal gene. Here, we decipher the function of TaHKT1;5-D, a candidate gene underlying the Kna1 locus. Transport studies using the heterologous expression systems Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Xenopus laevis oocytes indicated that TaHKT1;5-D is a Na+-selective transporter. Transient expression in Arabidopsis thaliana mesophyll protoplasts and in situ polymerase chain reaction indicated that TaHKT1;5-D is localised on the plasma membrane in the wheat root stele. RNA interference-induced silencing decreased the expression of TaHKT1;5-D in transgenic bread wheat lines which led to an increase in the Na+ concentration in the leaves. This indicates that TaHKT1;5-D retrieves Na+ from the xylem vessels in the root and has an important role in restricting the transport of Na+ from the root to the leaves in bread wheat. Thus, TaHKT1;5-D confers the essential salinity tolerance mechanism in bread wheat associated with the Kna1 locus via shoot Na+ exclusion and is critical in maintaining a high K+/Na+ ratio in the leaves. These findings show there is potential to increase the salinity tolerance of bread wheat by manipulation of HKT1;5 genes.

  10. Selection and hydroponic growth of bread wheat cultivars for bioregenerative life support systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page, V.; Feller, U.

    2013-08-01

    As part of the ESA-funded MELiSSA program, the suitability, the growth and the development of four bread wheat cultivars were investigated in hydroponic culture with the aim to incorporate such a cultivation system in an Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS). Wheat plants can fulfill three major functions in space: (a) fixation of CO2 and production of O2, (b) production of grains for human nutrition and (c) production of cleaned water after condensation of the water vapor released from the plants by transpiration. Four spring wheat cultivars (Aletsch, Fiorina, Greina and CH Rubli) were grown hydroponically and compared with respect to growth and grain maturation properties. The height of the plants, the culture duration from germination to harvest, the quantity of water used, the number of fertile and non-fertile tillers as well as the quantity and quality of the grains harvested were considered. Mature grains could be harvested after around 160 days depending on the varieties. It became evident that the nutrient supply is crucial in this context and strongly affects leaf senescence and grain maturation. After a first experiment, the culture conditions were improved for the second experiment (stepwise decrease of EC after flowering, pH adjusted twice a week, less plants per m2) leading to a more favorable harvest (higher grain yield and harvest index). Considerably less green tillers without mature grains were present at harvest time in experiment 2 than in experiment 1. The harvest index for dry matter (including roots) ranged from 0.13 to 0.35 in experiment 1 and from 0.23 to 0.41 in experiment 2 with modified culture conditions. The thousand-grain weight for the four varieties ranged from 30.4 to 36.7 g in experiment 1 and from 33.2 to 39.1 g in experiment 2, while market samples were in the range of 39.4-46.9 g. Calcium levels in grains of the hydroponically grown wheat were similar to those from field-grown wheat, while potassium, magnesium

  11. Phytase activity of lactic acid bacteria and their impact on the solubility of minerals from wholemeal wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cizeikiene, Dalia; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Bartkiene, Elena; Damasius, Jonas; Paskevicius, Algimantas

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determinate phytase activity of bacteriocins producing lactic acid bacteria previously isolated from spontaneous rye sourdough. The results show that the highest extracellular phytase activity produces Pediococcus pentosaceus KTU05-8 and KTU05-9 strains with a volumetric phytase activity of 32 and 54 U/ml, respectively, under conditions similar to leavening of bread dough (pH 5.5 and 30 °C). In vitro studies in simulated gastrointestinal tract media pH provide that bioproducts prepared with P. pentosaceus strains used in wholemeal wheat bread preparation increase solubility of iron, zinc, manganese, calcium and phosphorus average 30%. Therefore, P. pentosaceus KTU05-9 and KTU05-8 strains could be recommended to use as a starter for sourdough preparation for increasing of mineral bioavailability from wholemeal wheat bread.

  12. Thermo-mechanic and sensory properties of wheat and rye breads produced with varying concentration of the additive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Demin Mirjana A.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different concentrations of the complex additive containing emulsifiers, oxido-reductive substances and enzymes, on the rheological conditions of dough, and on the sensory properties of three groups of bread were investigated. The best initial quality and the lowest degree of protein network weakening had the dough obtained from mixed wheat and rye flours. The best expected baking properties were shown by the white wheat flour due to the least damage of its starch. The use of the additive has an effect on the absorption of water and on the majority of C-values of all sorts of flour. The amount of additive had a significant effect on the sensory properties of wheat bread crumb texture. Also, storage duration significantly affected (p <0.01 the sensory properties of integral wheat bread aroma-taste and the weighted mean score. The interaction of these two factors had no significant effect on any of sensory properties of the investigated groups of bread.

  13. Gamma Radiation Influence on Rheological and Technological Characteristics of Wheat Flour (misr-1) and Sensory Properties of Pan Bread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.M.; Asael, M.A.; El-Adly, N.A.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the influence of gamma radiation on rheological and technological characteristics of flour extraction from irradiated wheat grains (misr-1) with 3,6 and 9 kGy, also baking quality and sensory characteristics of pan breads made from this flour. The rheological properties of wheat flour 72% extraction were determined by farinograph parameter, extensograph parameter and measured by amylo graph paramete. Gamma radiation caused increase in water absorption and decrease dough development time, and dough stability time. The decrease percentage increased by increasing dose rate and increased the dough weakness, also γ-irradiation increased the elasticity, decrease extensibility and decrease dough strength (energy), whereas γ-irradiation on wheat grains (misr-1) decrease the maximum viscosity of flour, it indicate an increase in enzymatic activity as a result of the breakdown of starch and improve the gluten index %, this fact is beneficial for bread baking purposes. So γ-irradiation increased volume loaf especially at the dose 6 kGy,and no real differences of taste, texture, appearance and odor scores for sensory evaluation of pan bread made of flour extraction from irradiated and un-irradiated wheat grains. Mean while, irradiation particularly at higher doses (6 and 9 kGy)caused difference in the color (darkness) of pan bread. Gamma irradiation increased the baking quality, and improvement volume loaf especially at the dose 6 kGy.

  14. Gradual Incorporation of Whole Wheat Flour into Bread Products for Elementary School Children Improves Whole Grain Intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Renee A.; Sadeghi, Lelia; Schroeder, Natalia; Reicks, Marla M.; Marquart, Len

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Whole grain intake is associated with health benefits but current consumption by children is only about one-third of the recommended level. The purpose of this study was to test the feasibility of an innovative approach whereby the whole wheat content of bread products in school lunches was gradually increased to increase whole grain…

  15. Eating Christmas Cookies, Whole-wheat Bread and Frozen Chicken in the Kindergarten: Doing Pedagogy by Other Means

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kontopodis, M.

    2013-01-01

    The study presented here explores eating as a pedagogical practice by paying attention to arrangements of things such as Christmas cookies, whole-wheat and white bread, frozen chicken, plates, chairs, tables, and freezers. Through a series of ethnographic research examples from German and Brazilian

  16. The effect of particle size of wheat bran fractions on bread quality – Evidence for fibre–protein interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, M.W.J.; Haaster, van D.J.; Hemery, Y.; Schols, H.A.; Hamer, R.J.

    2010-01-01

    The nature of the adverse effects of wheat bran fractions on bread-making quality was studied. Two fractions of bran, representing different tissue layers and having different compositions, were used. The particle size of the bran fractions was varied by various milling techniques. All fractions

  17. Quality of grain and flour of foreign bread wheat cultivars (Triticum aestivum L. under the conditions of south Dobrudzha region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Chamurliyski

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Dobrudzha Agricultural Institute One of the main directions of the breeding programs in common winter wheat, besides increasing productivity, is developing of cultivars with excellent baking properties. An important prerequisite for this is the involvement of new gene plasma of variable origin, which is adequate to the growing conditions and the desired breeding direction. The aim of investigation is study of some main properties related to the grain quality and the baking properties of bread wheat accessions of foreign origin under the conditions of the South Dobrudzha region. Twenty-five foreign bread wheat cultivars of various origins were investigated for a three year period. Cultivars Aglika, Enola, Pryaspa and Yantur were used as standards. Some indices related to the quality of grain and flour were analyzed at the Bread Making Laboratory of (DAI. The expression of the following parameters was followed: test weigh, % of protein, sedimentation, wet gluten yield, softening degree, pharinographic value, bread volume, and the quality index (QI was calculated. The cultivars, which demonstrated high grain quality, were the Romanian Faur, Moldovan Dobropolka, American Wahoo and the Ukrainian Zmina. Averaged for the three years, highest variation was found for the index pharinographic value. On the whole, the materials with origin from Romania, Ukraine and USA were characterized with high values of the quality indices. Cultivars Faur and Zmina can be successfully included in the breeding program of DAI for development of strong wheat varieties

  18. Pirimiphos-methyl residues in stored wheat and barley, bread, burghul and parboiled wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadjidemetriou, D.G.

    1990-01-01

    Residues of 14 C-pirimiphos-methyl in stored grain declined to 88% in wheat and 82% in barley after 12 months. Corresponding percentages with the unlabelled insecticide were 78% and 59% since only the parent chemical was determined. Surface residues, removed by washing the grain with water, decreased from 3.3 to 0.2 mg/kg for wheat and from 2.0 to 0.2 mg/kg for barley. Bound residues increased gradually with time and reached a maximum of 2.2% for wheat and 3.0% for barley in 12 months. Pirimiphos-methyl residues in flour increased from 1.1 at 0 time to 2.2 mg/kg after one year. The mean values of residues contained in the unwashed wheat grain were 81% for bran and 19% for flour. The loss in milling during preparation of wholemeal flour from prewashed grain was 7% for wheat and 6% for barley. Processed products from wheat showed residue losses ranging from 24 to 45%. (author). 16 refs, 2 figs, 2 tabs

  19. Balance sheet method assessment for nitrogen fertilization in bread wheat: I. yield and quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Monotti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the European Union the production of high quality wheat is mainly located in the Mediterranean regions where the climatic conditions positively affect protein concentration in the grain. High quality wheat calls for proper management of nitrogen fertilization, thus there is a need to verify whether the limitations imposed by local governments on maximum rate of nitrogen fertilization admitted may affect bread making quality. Trials were conducted in fourteen environments (E to study the effects of different nitrogen fertilizations on eight cultivars (C, belonging to four quality grades (Q. Nitrogen (N was applied to crops according to three rates/modalities: N1 corresponding to the maximum rate admitted calculated according to a balance sheet method and distributed at the stage of spike initiation; N2 with 50 kg ha-1 of nitrogen more than N1, also distributed at the stage of spike initiation; N3 with 50 kg ha-1 of nitrogen more than N1 but distributed at the stage of flag leaf appearance. The effects of environment, nitrogen and cultivar were significant for grain yield, test weight, 1000 kernel weight, heading time, plant height and for quality traits (protein content and alveograph indices. The existence of variability among cultivars and quality grades in the response to rate and timing of nitrogen fertilization was demonstrated by the significance of NxC and NxQ interactions. Dry matter and nitrogen contents of plant at anthesis and at harvest were significantly affected by the main sources of variation. High quality cultivars yielded more grain of better quality with higher N rates (N2 and N3 as compared to the maximum rate of nitrogen admitted by the local government (N1. These results demonstrated that the adopted balance sheet method for the calculation of N requirements of wheat crop adversely affects the full potential expression of the cultivars belonging to superior bread making quality grades.

  20. Multi-element analysis of wheat flour and white bread by neutron activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godinez A, M.A.

    1994-01-01

    One of the best source of feeding even for the human being as for animals are the Cereals. Although they are mainly energetic aliment, due to its composition in starch, they are a very important source of proteins and amino acids. They contribute mineral elements to the diet. Even those elements constitute a very small part of the total diet, they take a very important place in many human metabolic processes. To make a multielemental analysis of an aliment is very important that we are based on a very sensible analytic technique so we are able to find them, just as the Neutronic Activation. This Nuclear technique allows you to make a qualitative and quantitative analysis of the elements that are in a sample, but it does n't show the way in which the elements are presented. It is based in turning those elements into radioactive ones through its exposition to an uniform and constant fluid of neutrons, so then its radioactivity can be determined. The present work has as a main purpose to make a multielemental analysis of the wheat flour and white bread through the Neutronic Activation Technique, using the comparator method and establishing previously the most appropriate work conditions as much irradiation as digestion and measuring of the radioactivity of the sample. In this way, it was able to know that the wheat flour has potassium, chlorine, magnesium, sodium, iron, zinc, manganese, rubidium and selenium elements in a concentration of 2000, 700, 500, 25, 18, 13, 5.5, 0.9 and 0.01 - 0.3 mg/g respectively. In an other hand it was found that the white bread has the same elements than the wheat flour but its concentration was: 1700, 9000, 400, 7000, 52, 13, 6, 1 and 0.05 - 0.3 mg/g respectively. (Author)

  1. Whole grain wheat sourdough bread does not affect plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 in adults with normal or impaired carbohydrate metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKay, K A; Tucker, A J; Duncan, A M; Graham, T E; Robinson, L E

    2012-09-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest whole grain consumption is associated with a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), possibly through alterations in glucose metabolism and subsequent effects on plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, a novel biomarker for CVD. Our aim was to investigate the effect of 6 wk of whole grain wheat sourdough bread consumption versus refined white bread on PAI-1. Normoglycemic/normoinsulinemic (NGI; n = 14; age 53 ± 6 y; BMI 26.5 ± 2.9 kg/m(2)) and hyperglycemic/hyperinsulinemic (HGI; n = 14; age 57 ± 7 y; BMI 35.7 ± 5.7 kg/m(2)) adults incorporated whole grain wheat sourdough (162.5 g) or white (168.8 g) bread into their diet, for 6 wk in a randomized crossover study. Pre- and post-intervention, fasting blood samples were analyzed for PAI-1 (primary outcome), as well as glucose, insulin and glucagon (secondary outcomes) at fasting and postprandially after an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Anthropometric measures, fasting glucose, insulin, glucagon and PAI-1 antigen and activity were not different between treatments in either NGI or HGI adults. Glucose incremental area under the curve (iAUC) was lower (19%, P = 0.02) after 6 wk consumption of whole grain wheat sourdough bread compared to white bread in the HGI group, with no differences in insulin or glucagon iAUC in either group. Our data showed decreased glucose iAUC after an OGTT following 6 wk whole grain wheat bread consumption in adults with differing glycemic/insulinemic status, but no improvements in PAI-1 or fasting glycemic parameters. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Difference in postprandial GLP-1 response despite similar glucose kinetics after consumption of wheat breads with different particle size in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W J; Sozer, Nesli; Koehorst, Martijn; Holst, Jens J; Deacon, Carolyn F; Rehfeld, Jens F; Poutanen, Kaisa; Vonk, Roel J; Oudhuis, Lizette; Priebe, Marion G

    2017-04-01

    Underlying mechanisms of the beneficial health effects of low glycemic index starchy foods are not fully elucidated yet. We varied the wheat particle size to obtain fiber-rich breads with a high and low glycemic response and investigated the differences in postprandial glucose kinetics and metabolic response after their consumption. Ten healthy male volunteers participated in a randomized, crossover study, consuming 13 C-enriched breads with different structures; a control bread (CB) made from wheat flour combined with wheat bran, and a kernel bread (KB) where 85 % of flour was substituted with broken wheat kernels. The structure of the breads was characterized extensively. The use of stable isotopes enabled calculation of glucose kinetics: rate of appearance of exogenous glucose, endogenous glucose production, and glucose clearance rate. Additionally, postprandial plasma concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, incretins, cholecystokinin, and bile acids were analyzed. Despite the attempt to obtain a bread with a low glycemic response by replacing flour by broken kernels, the glycemic response and glucose kinetics were quite similar after consumption of CB and KB. Interestingly, the glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) response was much lower after KB compared to CB (iAUC, P bread did not result in a difference in glucose response and kinetics, but in a pronounced difference in GLP-1 response. Thus, changing the processing conditions of wheat for baking bread can influence the metabolic response beyond glycemia and may therefore influence health.

  3. Bread winter wheat breeding (Triticum aestivum L. using spring varieties genepool in forest-steppe Environments of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. С. Кочмарський

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available It is concluded by investigations that wheat crossing of various development types between themselves cause increase of formbuilding process in hybrid progeny, promoting the selection of practically valuable recombinats. The genotypes which present the practical valuable by complex of adaptive traits and properties have been selected by phenotype stability in the breeding process. The new bread winter wheat variety Pamyati Remesla developed with participation of spring wheat variety Hja 22139 (Finland has been proposed for including it into the Register of Plant varieties of Ukraine adapted for use in Steppe, Forest- Steppe and Woodland of Ukraine since 2010.

  4. Genome-Wide Association of Stem Water Soluble Carbohydrates in Bread Wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Dong

    Full Text Available Water soluble carbohydrates (WSC in stems play an important role in buffering grain yield in wheat against biotic and abiotic stresses; however, knowledge of genes controlling WSC is very limited. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS using a high-density 90K SNP array to better understand the genetic basis underlying WSC, and to explore marker-based breeding approaches. WSC was evaluated in an association panel comprising 166 Chinese bread wheat cultivars planted in four environments. Fifty two marker-trait associations (MTAs distributed across 23 loci were identified for phenotypic best linear unbiased estimates (BLUEs, and 11 MTAs were identified in two or more environments. Liner regression showed a clear dependence of WSC BLUE scores on numbers of favorable (increasing WSC content and unfavorable alleles (decreasing WSC, indicating that genotypes with higher numbers of favorable or lower numbers of unfavorable alleles had higher WSC content. In silico analysis of flanking sequences of trait-associated SNPs revealed eight candidate genes related to WSC content grouped into two categories based on the type of encoding proteins, namely, defense response proteins and proteins triggered by environmental stresses. The identified SNPs and candidate genes related to WSC provide opportunities for breeding higher WSC wheat cultivars.

  5. Genome-Wide Association of Stem Water Soluble Carbohydrates in Bread Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan; Liu, Jindong; Zhang, Yan; Geng, Hongwei; Rasheed, Awais; Xiao, Yonggui; Cao, Shuanghe; Fu, Luping; Yan, Jun; Wen, Weie; Zhang, Yong; Jing, Ruilian; Xia, Xianchun; He, Zhonghu

    2016-01-01

    Water soluble carbohydrates (WSC) in stems play an important role in buffering grain yield in wheat against biotic and abiotic stresses; however, knowledge of genes controlling WSC is very limited. We conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) using a high-density 90K SNP array to better understand the genetic basis underlying WSC, and to explore marker-based breeding approaches. WSC was evaluated in an association panel comprising 166 Chinese bread wheat cultivars planted in four environments. Fifty two marker-trait associations (MTAs) distributed across 23 loci were identified for phenotypic best linear unbiased estimates (BLUEs), and 11 MTAs were identified in two or more environments. Liner regression showed a clear dependence of WSC BLUE scores on numbers of favorable (increasing WSC content) and unfavorable alleles (decreasing WSC), indicating that genotypes with higher numbers of favorable or lower numbers of unfavorable alleles had higher WSC content. In silico analysis of flanking sequences of trait-associated SNPs revealed eight candidate genes related to WSC content grouped into two categories based on the type of encoding proteins, namely, defense response proteins and proteins triggered by environmental stresses. The identified SNPs and candidate genes related to WSC provide opportunities for breeding higher WSC wheat cultivars.

  6. TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 Regulates Inflorescence Architecture and Development in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, Laura E; Greenwood, Julian R; Bencivenga, Stefano; Zhang, Peng; Cockram, James; Mellers, Gregory; Ramm, Kerrie; Cavanagh, Colin; Swain, Steve M; Boden, Scott A

    2018-03-01

    The flowers of major cereals are arranged on reproductive branches known as spikelets, which group together to form an inflorescence. Diversity for inflorescence architecture has been exploited during domestication to increase crop yields, and genetic variation for this trait has potential to further boost grain production. Multiple genes that regulate inflorescence architecture have been identified by studying alleles that modify gene activity or dosage; however, little is known in wheat. Here, we show TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 ( TB1 ) regulates inflorescence architecture in bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) by investigating lines that display a form of inflorescence branching known as "paired spikelets." We show that TB1 interacts with FLOWERING LOCUS T1 and that increased dosage of TB1 alters inflorescence architecture and growth rate in a process that includes reduced expression of meristem identity genes, with allelic diversity for TB1 found to associate genetically with paired spikelet development in modern cultivars. We propose TB1 coordinates formation of axillary spikelets during the vegetative to floral transition and that alleles known to modify dosage or function of TB1 could help increase wheat yields. © 2018 American Society of Plant Biologists. All rights reserved.

  7. TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 Regulates Inflorescence Architecture and Development in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum)[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Julian R.; Bencivenga, Stefano; Cockram, James; Cavanagh, Colin; Swain, Steve M.

    2018-01-01

    The flowers of major cereals are arranged on reproductive branches known as spikelets, which group together to form an inflorescence. Diversity for inflorescence architecture has been exploited during domestication to increase crop yields, and genetic variation for this trait has potential to further boost grain production. Multiple genes that regulate inflorescence architecture have been identified by studying alleles that modify gene activity or dosage; however, little is known in wheat. Here, we show TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 (TB1) regulates inflorescence architecture in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) by investigating lines that display a form of inflorescence branching known as “paired spikelets.” We show that TB1 interacts with FLOWERING LOCUS T1 and that increased dosage of TB1 alters inflorescence architecture and growth rate in a process that includes reduced expression of meristem identity genes, with allelic diversity for TB1 found to associate genetically with paired spikelet development in modern cultivars. We propose TB1 coordinates formation of axillary spikelets during the vegetative to floral transition and that alleles known to modify dosage or function of TB1 could help increase wheat yields. PMID:29444813

  8. Genotype x Environment interaction for antioxidants and phytic acid contents in bread and durum wheat as influenced by climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordana Brankovic

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants prevent oxidative stress and exert positive health effects. However, phytic acid among them decreases micronutrients absorption, representing also antinutrient to human and non-ruminant animals. Fifteen bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and 15 durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. genotypes were evaluated across six environments to determine contents of phytic acid (PA, inorganic P (Pi, total yellow pigment, total soluble phenolic compounds, free protein sulfhydryl groups (PSH, and also phytic acid P/Pi (Pp/Pi. The objective of this study was to quantify, for each trait the effects of environment, genotype, and their interaction; and the influence of climatic factors on the Genotype x Environment interaction (GEI by the use of the factorial regression. GEI (P < 0.001 prevailed as source of variation over genotype (P < 0.001 in determining PA content in bread and durum wheat (44.3% and 34.7% of sum of squares-SS, respectively, PSH content in bread and durum wheat (27% and 28.4% of SS, respectively and total soluble phenolic compounds content in durum wheat (35.5% of SS. The major contribution to the GEI represented climatic variables during stages of stem elongation for PA and phenolic compounds, and also flowering, fertilization, grain formation and grain filling for PSH. Total yellow pigment and Pi contents in bread and durum wheat were predominantly determined by genotype (P < 0.001. Models of climatic variables proved to be efficient in the explanation of more than 92% of the SS of GEI for PA and antioxidants contents.

  9. Characterization and expression patterns of key C4photosynthetic pathway genes in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachir, Daoura Goudia; Saeed, Iqbal; Song, Quanhao; Linn, Tay Zar; Chen, Liang; Hu, Yin-Gang

    2017-06-01

    Wheat is a C 3 plant with relatively low photosynthetic efficiency and is a potential target for C 4 photosynthetic pathway engineering. Here we reported the characterization of four key C 4 pathway genes and assessed their expression patterns and enzymatic activities at three growth stages in flag leaves of 59 bread wheat genotypes. The C 4 -like genes homologous to PEPC, NADP-ME, MDH, and PPDK in maize were identified in the A, B, and D sub-genomes of bread wheat, located on the long arms of chromosomes 3 and 5 (TaPEPC), short arms of chromosomes 1 and 3 (TaNADP-ME), long arms of chromosomes 1 and 7 (TaMDH), and long arms of chromosome 1 (TaPPDK), respectively. All the four C 4 -like genes were expressed in the flag leaves at the three growth stages with considerable variations among the 59 bread wheat genotypes. Significant differences were observed between the photosynthesis rates (A) of wheat genotypes with higher expressions of TaPEPC_5, TaNADP-ME_1, and TaMDH_7 at heading and middle grain-filling stages and those with intermediate and low expressions. Our results also indicated that the four C 4 enzymes showed activity in the flag leaves and were obviously different among the 59 wheat genotypes. The activities of PEPcase and PPDK decreased at anthesis and slightly increased at grain-filling stage, while NADP-ME and MDH exhibited a decreasing trend at the three stages. The results of the current study could be very valuable and useful for wheat researchers in improving photosynthetic capacity of wheat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  10. Difference in postprandial GLP-1 response despite similar glucose kinetics after consumption of wheat breads with different particle size in healthy men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W J; Sozer, Nesli

    2017-01-01

    and metabolic response after their consumption. METHODS: Ten healthy male volunteers participated in a randomized, crossover study, consuming (13)C-enriched breads with different structures; a control bread (CB) made from wheat flour combined with wheat bran, and a kernel bread (KB) where 85 % of flour...... concentrations of glucose, insulin, glucagon, incretins, cholecystokinin, and bile acids were analyzed. RESULTS: Despite the attempt to obtain a bread with a low glycemic response by replacing flour by broken kernels, the glycemic response and glucose kinetics were quite similar after consumption of CB and KB......PURPOSE: Underlying mechanisms of the beneficial health effects of low glycemic index starchy foods are not fully elucidated yet. We varied the wheat particle size to obtain fiber-rich breads with a high and low glycemic response and investigated the differences in postprandial glucose kinetics...

  11. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A.; Lazo-Vélez, Marco A.; Serna-Sáldivar, Sergio O.; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A.

    2016-01-01

    Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29) was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05). PMID:26901186

  12. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chávez-Santoscoy, Rocio A; Lazo-Vélez, Marco A; Serna-Sáldivar, Sergio O; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A

    2016-02-17

    Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29) was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05).

  13. Delivery of Flavonoids and Saponins from Black Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris Seed Coats Incorporated into Whole Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio A. Chávez-Santoscoy

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Cereal-based products can be used as vehicles for the delivery of relevant bioactive compounds since they are staple foods for most cultures throughout the world. The health promoting benefits of flavonoids and saponins contained in black bean seed coats have been previously described. In the present work, the effect of adding flavonoids and saponins from black bean seed coat to the typical yeast-leavened whole wheat bread formulation in terms of bread features, organoleptic properties and phytochemical profile was studied. The retention of bioactive compounds was determined and the inhibitory effects of in vitro enzyme digested samples on two colon cancer cell lines (Caco-2 and HT29 was evaluated. The addition of bioactive compounds did not significantly affect baking properties or texture parameters. Among organoleptic properties of enriched breads, only crumb color was affected by the addition of bioactive compounds. However, the use of whole wheat flour partially masked the effect on color. More than 90% of added flavonoids and saponins and 80% of anthocyanins were retained in bread after baking. However, saponins were reduced more than 50% after the in vitro enzyme digestion. The black bean seed coat phytochemicals recovered after in vitro enzyme digestion of enriched breads significantly reduced by 20% the viability of colon cancer cells without affecting standard fibroblast cells (p < 0.05.

  14. Influence of xylanase addition on the characteristics of loaf bread prepared with white flour or whole grain wheat flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Zafalon Jaekel

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the influence of the addition of the enzyme xylanase (four concentrations: 0, 4, 8, and 12 g.100 kg-1 flour on the characteristics of loaf bread made with white wheat flour or whole grain wheat flour. Breads made from white flour and added with xylanase had higher specific volumes than those of the control sample (no enzyme; however, the specific volume did not differ significantly (p < 0.05 among the breads with different enzyme concentrations. All formulations made from whole grain wheat flour and added with xylanase also had specific volumes significantly higher than those of the control sample, and the highest value was found for the 8 g xylanase.100 kg-1 flour formulation. With respect to moisture content, the formulations with different enzyme concentrations showed small significant differences when compared to the control samples. In general, breads made with the addition of 8 g enzyme.100 kg-1 flour had the lowest firmness values, thus presenting the best technological characteristics.

  15. Quantitative aspects of the metabolism of lignans in pigs fed fibre-enriched rye and wheat bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lærke, Helle N; Mortensen, Marianne A; Hedemann, Mette S

    2009-01-01

    A diet rich in lignans has been suggested to be protective against a range of chronic diseases. The distribution and metabolic fate of lignans is, however, very poorly understood. We fed high-fibre wheat breads low in lignans (n 8) or high-fibre rye breads (n 9) rich in plant lignans to pigs for ......, liver, breast and brain at a much higher level with rye than with wheat, but only in the form of enterolactone. The importance and implications of systemic exposure to plant lignans remain to be elucidated.......A diet rich in lignans has been suggested to be protective against a range of chronic diseases. The distribution and metabolic fate of lignans is, however, very poorly understood. We fed high-fibre wheat breads low in lignans (n 8) or high-fibre rye breads (n 9) rich in plant lignans to pigs for 58......-67 d, and analysed the content of plant lignans and their metabolites in the diet, blood, bile, faeces, urine and selected tissues. Apparent faecal digestibility of dietary precursors was higher than of total (plant- and entero-) lignans due to conversion to enterolactone and enterodiol...

  16. Formulation and characterization of bread using coconut-pulp flour and wheat flour composite with addition of xanthan-gum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erminawati; Sidik, W.; Listanti, R.; Zulfakar, H.

    2018-01-01

    Coconut-pulp flour is coconut flour made from by-product of coconut-milk based food products. The flour contains no gluten and high fibre, which can be considered as functional potential food. Bread made from composite-flour of coconut-pulp flour and wheat flour was studied for its physic-chemical and sensory characteristics. Addition of hydrocolloid, like xanthan-gum, was aimed to provide viscoelasticity for the dough which is essential for baked product. Composite-flour proportion used in this study was; 10CPF/90WF, 15CPF/85WF and 20CPF/80WF; and xanthan gum to total flour of 0,1% and 0,4%. Variable observed were; crumb-texture, crumb-colour, taste of coconut, preference and flavour; moisture, ash, fiber and soluble-protein contents. The research showed that addition of coconut-pulp flour in the composite-flour decreased specific volume value and increased the bread texture produced. It also increased the bread moisture-content, ash-content, fibre-content and soluble protein-content. Moreover, the xanthan-gum addition resulted in decreased specific-volume value and increased texture and fiber-content of the bread produced. Overall, the sensory characteristic of crumb colour, flavour and panellist preference revealed better than control bread made from wheat flour, however its crumb texture harder compare to control bread made from wheat flour. This study showed that coconut-pulp flour potential to be developed for production of functional food.

  17. An alternative method based on enzymatic fat hydrolysis to quantify volatile compounds in wheat bread crumb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pico, Joana; Nozal, María Jesús; Gómez, Manuel; Bernal, José Luis

    2016-09-01

    An alternative method to quantify 40 volatile compounds in wheat bread crumb is proposed. It consists of a Soxhlet extraction with a mixture of dichloromethane and diethyl ether containing lipases and a subsequent concentration with Vigreux column. It is the first time that lipases are added to transform the fat into free fatty acids and glycerol, which elute at the end of the chromatogram after the analytes, avoiding problems in the chromatography due to fat residues, such as dirtiness in the injector, column clogging or overlapping peaks. The extract is most easily analysed by GC/MS, using a standard addition method to correct matrix effect. The method was fully validated, with extraction efficiencies between 70% and 100% and precision RSD lower than 15%. The method was applied to a commercial crumb, with acetoin, phenylethyl alcohol and acetic acid as highly abundant compounds, which are considered main volatiles in crumb. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Genetic architecture of seed longevity in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arif, Mian Abdur Rehman; Nagel, Manuela; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Borner, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    The deterioration in the quality of ex situ conserved seed over time reflects a combination of both physical and chemical changes. Intraspecific variation for longevity is, at least in part, under genetic control. Here, the grain of 183 bread wheat accessions maintained under low-temperature storage at the IPK-Gatersleben genebank over some decades have been tested for their viability, along with that of fresh grain subjected to two standard artificial ageing procedures. A phenotype-genotype association analysis, conducted to reveal the genetic basis of the observed variation between accessions, implicated many regions of the genome, underling the genetic complexity of the trait. Some, but not all, of these regions were associated with variation for both natural and experimental ageing, implying some non-congruency obtains between these two forms of testing for longevity. The genes underlying longevity appear to be independent of known genes determining dormancy and pre-harvest sprouting.

  19. Effects of Boron Fertilization on the Yield and Some Yield Components of Bread and Durum Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    GÜNEŞ, Aydın; ALPASLAN, Mehmet; İNAL, Ali

    2014-01-01

    A greenhouse and a 1-year field study were conducted during the cropping season on the effects of B on yield and some yield components of bread (Triticum aestivum L, cv. Bezostaja) and durum (Triticum durum L. cv. Kiziltan) wheat cultivars in a B-deficient soil (0.68 mg kg-1, NH4OAc extractable). Boron was applied as H3BO3 at 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 mg B kg-1 in the greenhouse study and 0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0, 4.0 and 5.0 kg B ha-1 in the field study. Shoot dry weights of Bezostaja and Kizilt...

  20. Interaction between xylanase, glucose oxidase and ascorbic acid on the technological quality of whole wheat bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Batista da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to verify the performance of xylanase and its interaction with oxidants agents (glucose oxidase and ascorbic acid on the quality of whole wheat bread. The experiment was based on a central composite rotational design and the Response Surface Methodology was used to analyze the results. None of the xylanase, glucose oxidase or ascorbic acid concentrations within the studied range led to a significant difference in the specific volume. The highest moisture content and the lowest firmness values were reported in the bread with lower and intermediate levels of xylanase and larger amounts of glucose oxidase and ascorbic acid. This effect was observed mainly at the end of the storage period. A minimum amount of xylanase (from 33 to 63 EDX kg-1 flour showed to be essential for obtaining best results. Levels of ascorbic acid above 63mg kg-1 and glucose oxidase above 91 SRU kg-1 proved to be necessary to offer the beneficial effect of xylanase.

  1. Genetic diversity of bread wheat genotypes in Iran for some nutritional value and baking quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amiri, Reza; Sasani, Shahryar; Jalali-Honarmand, Saeid; Rasaei, Ali; Seifolahpour, Behnaz; Bahraminejad, Sohbat

    2018-02-01

    Genetic variation among 78 irrigated bread wheat genotypes was studied for their nutritional value and baking quality traits as well as some agronomic traits. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with three replicates under normal and terminal drought stress conditions in Kermanshah, Iran during 2012-2013 cropping season. The results of combined ANOVA indicated highly significant genotypic differences for all traits. All studied traits except grain yield, hectoliter weight and grain fiber content were significantly affected by genotype × environment interaction. Drought stress reduced grain yield, thousand kernel weight, gluten index, grain starch content and hectoliter weight and slightly promoted grain protein and fiber contents, falling number, total gluten and ratio of wet gluten to grain protein content. Grain yield by 31.66% and falling number by 9.20% attained the highest decrease and increase due to drought stress. There were negative and significant correlations among grain yield with grain protein and fiber contents under both conditions. Results of cluster analysis showed that newer genotypes had more grain yield and gluten index than older ones, but instead, they had the lower grain protein and fiber contents. It is thought that wheat breeders have bred cultivars with high grain yield, low protein content, and improved bread-making attributes during last seven decades. While older genotypes indicated significantly higher protein contents, and some of them had higher gluten index. We concluded from this study that it is imperative for breeders to pay more attention to improve qualitative traits coordinated to grain yield.

  2. Morphological, yield, cytological and molecular characterization of a bread wheat x tritordeum F1 hybrid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima-Brito, J; Carvalho, A; Martin, A; Heslop-Harrison, J S; Guedes-Pinto, H

    2006-08-01

    The morphological, yield, cytological and molecular characteristics of bread wheat x tritordeum F(1) hybrids (2n = 6x = 42; AABBDH(ch)) and their parents were analysed. Morphologically, these hybrids resembled the wheat parent. They were slightly bigger than both parents, had more spikelets per spike, and tillered more profusely. The hybrids are self-fertile but a reduction of average values of yield parameters was observed. For the cytological approach we used a double-target fluorescence in situ hybridization performed with total genomic DNA from Hordeum chilense L. and the ribosomal sequence pTa71. This technique allowed us to confirm the hybrid nature and to analyse chromosome pairing in this material. Our results showed that the expected complete homologous pairing (14 bivalents plus 14 univalents) was only observed in 9.59% of the pollen mother cells (PMCs) analysed. Some PMCs presented autosyndetic pairing of H(ch) and A, B or D chromosomes. The average number of univalents was higher in the wheat genome (6.8) than in the H(ch) genome (5.4). The maximum number of univalents per PMC was 20. We only observed wheat multivalents (one per PMC) but the frequency of trivalents (0.08) was higher than that of quadrivalents (0.058). We amplified 50 RAPD bands polymorphic between the F(1) hybrid and one of its parents, and 31 ISSR polymorphic bands. Both sets of markers proved to be reliable for DNA fingerprinting. The complementary use of morphological and yield analysis, molecular cytogenetic techniques and molecular markers allowed a more accurate evaluation and characterization of the hybrids analysed here.

  3. Molecular Mapping of Reduced Plant Height Gene Rht24 in Bread Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiuling Tian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Height is an important trait related to plant architecture and yield potential in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. We previously identified a major quantitative trait locus QPH.caas-6A flanked by simple sequence repeat markers Xbarc103 and Xwmc256 that reduced height by 8.0–10.4%. Here QPH.caas-6A, designated as Rht24, was confirmed using recombinant inbred lines (RILs derived from a Jingdong 8/Aikang 58 cross. The target sequences of Xbarc103 and Xwmc256 were used as queries to BLAST against International Wheat Genome Sequence Consortium database and hit a super scaffold of approximately 208 Mb. Based on gene annotation of the scaffold, three gene-specific markers were developed to genotype the RILs, and Rht24 was narrowed to a 1.85 cM interval between TaAP2 and TaFAR. In addition, three single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP markers linked to Rht24 were identified from SNP chip-based screening in combination with bulked segregant analysis. The allelic efficacy of Rht24 was validated in 242 elite wheat varieties using TaAP2 and TaFAR markers. These showed a significant association between genotypes and plant height. Rht24 reduced plant height by an average of 6.0–7.9 cm across environments and were significantly associated with an increased TGW of 2.0–3.4 g. The findings indicate that Rht24 is a common dwarfing gene in wheat breeding, and TaAP2 and TaFAR can be used for marker-assisted selection.

  4. Improvement of Fatty Acid Profile and Studio of Rheological and Technological Characteristics in Breads Supplemented with Flaxseed, Soybean, and Wheat Bran Flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana B. Osuna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Functional breads constitute an interesting alternative as vehicle of new essential fatty acids sources. The aim of this study was to improve the fatty acids (FA profile of bakery products, producing breads with low saturated fatty acid (SFA content and with high polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA content, through partial substitution of wheat flour by other ingredients (soy flour, flax flour, and wheat bran and to analyze the effect of this change on the technological, rheological, and sensorial characteristics of breads. Flaxseed flour (FF, soybeans flour (SF, or wheat bran (WB was used to replace 50, 100, and 150 g kg−1 of wheat flour (WF in breads. FF or SF produced a decrease in monounsaturated and SFA and an increase of PUFA in these breads. Furthermore, breads replaced with FF presented considerable increase in the content of n3 FA, while, SF or WB contributed to rise of linoleic and oleic FA, respectively. The substitution percentage increase of FF, SF, or WB to formulation produced changes in the colour, rheological, textural, and technological characteristics of breads. This replacement resulted in improved lipid profile, being breads with 50 g kg−1 SF, the better acceptance, baking features, and enhanced fatty acid profile.

  5. Effect of zinc fertilization on cadmium toxicity in durum and bread wheat grown in zinc-deficient soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koeleli, Nurcan; Eker, Selim; Cakmak, Ismail

    2004-01-01

    The effect of increasing application of zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) on shoot dry weight and shoot concentrations of Zn and Cd was studied in bread and durum wheat cultivars. Plants were grown in severely Zn-deficient calcareous soil treated with increasing Zn (0 and 10 mg kg -1 soil) and Cd (0, 10 and 25 mg kg -1 soil) and harvested after 35 and 65 days of growth under greenhouse conditions. Growing plants without Zn fertilization caused severe depression in shoot growth, especially in durum wheat and at high Cd treatment. Cadmium treatments resulted in rapid development of necrotic patches on the base and sheath parts of the oldest leaves of both wheat cultivars, but symptoms were more severe in durum wheat and under Zn deficiency. Decreases in shoot dry weight from increasing Cd application were more severe in Zn-deficient plants. Severity of Cd toxicity symptoms in durum and bread wheat at different Zn treatments did not show any relation to the Cd concentrations in shoot. Increasing Cd application to Zn-deficient plants tended to decrease Zn concentrations in Zn-deficient plants, whereas in plants with adequate Zn, concentrations of Zn were either not affected or increased by Cd. The results show that durum wheat was more sensitive to both Zn deficiency and Cd toxicity as compared to bread wheat. Cadmium toxicity in the shoot was alleviated by Zn treatment, but this was not accompanied by a corresponding decrease in shoot concentrations of Cd. Our results are compatible with the hypothesis that Zn protects plants from Cd toxicity by improving plant defense against Cd-induced oxidative stress and by competing with Cd for binding to critical cell constituents such as enzymes and membrane protein and lipids

  6. The role of seed size in the non-genetic variation exhibited in salt tolerance studies involving the bread wheat cv. chinese spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Martin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The intention of this study was to confirm the role of seed size in the non-genetic variation exhibited during salinity tolerance experiments involving the bread wheat cv. Chinese Spring. The nutrient film/rockwool hydroponics technique was utilised. This study concluded that seed size does not play a significant role in the non-genetic variation generated during a study of salinity tolerance of the bread wheat cv. Chinese Spring.

  7. Rheological study of mixed flour: wheat (Triticum vulgare, barley (Hordeum vulgare and potato (Solanum tuberosum for use in the preparation of bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Galo Sandoval

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available With wheat flour imported and domestic wheat cereals produced in the country, and the potato tuber, a rheological study was performed to determine the most suitable proportions of substitution of wheat flour imported with the latter and its feasibility for making bread. We worked in mixtures of flour, wheat CWRS # 1 (red spring wheat in western Canada Cañicapa barley flour, wheat and potato Cojitambo Gabriela, from Ecuadorian cultures in proportions of 10, 20 and 30% (p / p. Masses from mixtures of flours were analyzed on a Brabender Farinograph, in order to determine the water absorption, development time, stability and rate of tolerance with a view to selecting the flour blends that have a behavior similar to CWRS wheat flour # 1. The best mixtures found were: wheat flour # 1 CWRS replaced with 10, 20 and 30% barley flour Cañicapa, and the mixture of wheat flour # 1 CWRS wheat flour in Cojitambo 30%. These flour mixes selected were also subjected to rheological analysis of their masses using a computer Mixolab. The breads made from flours selected were evaluated in a sensory panel. The breads more accepted by consumers were those containing 20 and 30% barley, followed by the group of those made with imported wheat with 30% wheat Cojitambo, and containing 10% of barley flour.

  8. A major locus for chloride accumulation on chromosome 5A in bread wheat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Genc

    Full Text Available Chloride (Cl- is an essential micronutrient for plant growth, but can be toxic at high concentrations resulting in reduced growth and yield. Although saline soils are generally dominated by both sodium (Na+ and Cl- ions, compared to Na+ toxicity, very little is known about physiological and genetic control mechanisms of tolerance to Cl- toxicity. In hydroponics and field studies, a bread wheat mapping population was tested to examine the relationships between physiological traits [Na+, potassium (K+ and Cl- concentration] involved in salinity tolerance (ST and seedling growth or grain yield, and to elucidate the genetic control mechanism of plant Cl- accumulation using a quantitative trait loci (QTL analysis approach. Plant Na+ or Cl- concentration were moderately correlated (genetically with seedling biomass in hydroponics, but showed no correlations with grain yield in the field, indicating little value in selecting for ion concentration to improve ST. In accordance with phenotypic responses, QTL controlling Cl- accumulation differed entirely between hydroponics and field locations, and few were detected in two or more environments, demonstrating substantial QTL-by-environment interactions. The presence of several QTL for Cl- concentration indicated that uptake and accumulation was a polygenic trait. A major Cl- concentration QTL (5A; barc56/gwm186 was identified in three field environments, and accounted for 27-32% of the total genetic variance. Alignment between the 5A QTL interval and its corresponding physical genome regions in wheat and other grasses has enabled the search for candidate genes involved in Cl- transport, which is discussed.

  9. Breeding bread wheat cultivars for high protein content by transfer of protein genes from Triticum dicoccoides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grama, A.; Gerechter-Amitai, Z.K.; Blum, A.; Rubenthaler, G.L.

    1984-01-01

    Triticum dicoccoides sel. G-25, a selection of wild emmer with a protein content of 20.5% and a kernel weight of 31.5 mg, was used as the donor of protein genes. Since this selection is highly resistant to stripe rust, the object of the crossing programme was to transfer this resistance, together with the high protein potential, to durum and bread wheat cultivars susceptible to the disease. In the tetraploid lines obtained from the T. dicoccoides/T. durum cross, the protein values ranged from 17 to 22%. These lines had resistance to stripe rust from the wild emmer and to stem rust from the durum. After two further crosses between these tetraploid lines and T. aestivum cultivars, several lines were selected which combined good yield, high protein level and resistance to rust diseases. These lines attained protein levels of 14 to 19% in the whole grain and 14 to 17% in the flour, combined with yields of 4.5 to 6.0 t/ha. They had also inherited resistance to stem rust, and in some instances also to leaf rust, from the cultivated wheat parental lines. (author)

  10. Native and enzymatically modified wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) endogenous lipids in bread making: a focus on gas cell stabilization mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerits, Lien R; Pareyt, Bram; Masure, Hanne G; Delcour, Jan A

    2015-04-01

    Lipopan F and Lecitase Ultra lipases were used in straight dough bread making to study how wheat lipids affect bread loaf volume (LV) and crumb structure setting. Lipase effects on LV were dose and dough piece weight dependent. The bread quality improving mechanisms exerted by endogenous lipids were studied in terms of gluten network strengthening, which indirectly stabilizes gas cells, and in terms of direct interfacial gas cell stabilization. Unlike diacetyl tartaric esters of mono- and diacylglycerols (DATEM, used as control), lipase use did not impact dough extensibility. The effect on dough extensibility was therefore related to its lipid composition at the start of mixing. Both lipases and DATEM strongly increase the levels of polar lipids in dough liquor and their availability for and potential accumulation at gas cell interfaces. Lipases form lysolipids that emulsify other lipids. We speculate that DATEM competes with (endogenous) polar lipids for interacting with gluten proteins. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Physical Mapping of Bread Wheat Chromosome 5A: An Integrated Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delfina Barabaschi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The huge size, redundancy, and highly repetitive nature of the bread wheat [ (L.] genome, makes it among the most difficult species to be sequenced. To overcome these limitations, a strategy based on the separation of individual chromosomes or chromosome arms and the subsequent production of physical maps was established within the frame of the International Wheat Genome Sequence Consortium (IWGSC. A total of 95,812 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC clones of short-arm chromosome 5A (5AS and long-arm chromosome 5A (5AL arm-specific BAC libraries were fingerprinted and assembled into contigs by complementary analytical approaches based on the FingerPrinted Contig (FPC and Linear Topological Contig (LTC tools. Combined anchoring approaches based on polymerase chain reaction (PCR marker screening, microarray, and sequence homology searches applied to several genomic tools (i.e., genetic maps, deletion bin map, neighbor maps, BAC end sequences (BESs, genome zipper, and chromosome survey sequences allowed the development of a high-quality physical map with an anchored physical coverage of 75% for 5AS and 53% for 5AL with high portions (64 and 48%, respectively of contigs ordered along the chromosome. In the genome of grasses, [ (L. Beauv.], rice ( L., and sorghum [ (L. Moench] homologs of genes on wheat chromosome 5A were separated into syntenic blocks on different chromosomes as a result of translocations and inversions during evolution. The physical map presented represents an essential resource for fine genetic mapping and map-based cloning of agronomically relevant traits and a reference for the 5A sequencing projects.

  12. Improving the baking quality of bread wheat by genomic selection in early generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michel, Sebastian; Kummer, Christian; Gallee, Martin; Hellinger, Jakob; Ametz, Christian; Akgöl, Batuhan; Epure, Doru; Löschenberger, Franziska; Buerstmayr, Hermann

    2018-02-01

    Genomic selection shows great promise for pre-selecting lines with superior bread baking quality in early generations, 3 years ahead of labour-intensive, time-consuming, and costly quality analysis. The genetic improvement of baking quality is one of the grand challenges in wheat breeding as the assessment of the associated traits often involves time-consuming, labour-intensive, and costly testing forcing breeders to postpone sophisticated quality tests to the very last phases of variety development. The prospect of genomic selection for complex traits like grain yield has been shown in numerous studies, and might thus be also an interesting method to select for baking quality traits. Hence, we focused in this study on the accuracy of genomic selection for laborious and expensive to phenotype quality traits as well as its selection response in comparison with phenotypic selection. More than 400 genotyped wheat lines were, therefore, phenotyped for protein content, dough viscoelastic and mixing properties related to baking quality in multi-environment trials 2009-2016. The average prediction accuracy across three independent validation populations was r = 0.39 and could be increased to r = 0.47 by modelling major QTL as fixed effects as well as employing multi-trait prediction models, which resulted in an acceptable prediction accuracy for all dough rheological traits (r = 0.38-0.63). Genomic selection can furthermore be applied 2-3 years earlier than direct phenotypic selection, and the estimated selection response was nearly twice as high in comparison with indirect selection by protein content for baking quality related traits. This considerable advantage of genomic selection could accordingly support breeders in their selection decisions and aid in efficiently combining superior baking quality with grain yield in newly developed wheat varieties.

  13. Yield Response of Bread and Durum Wheat to Different Levels of Auxin and Cytokinin Application under Terminal Drought Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Emam

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Drought stress is the most important factor restricting both growth and crop yield formation under arid and semi-arid conditions. In a field experiment, the effects of foliar application of growth regulators of auxin at three levels (0, 20 and 40 mg/L and cytokinin at three levels (0, 50 and 70 µmol at pollination stage on yield and yield components of a bread wheat (Shiraz cultivar and durum wheat (Yavaros cultivar under drought conditions (normal irrigation and irrigation cut-off at flowering stage were investigated. This experiment was carried out at college of Agriculture, Shiraz University, Shiraz, Iran, during 2010-2011 as split-split factorial using complete randomized blocks design with three replications. The results showed that drought stress reduced number of grains per spike (25% for Shiraz and Yavaros cv, 1000-grain weight (14 and 30% for Shiraz and Yavaros cv respectively, number of grains per unitarea (30% for Shiraz and Yavaros cv, grain yield (15 and 35% for Shiraz and Yavaros cv respectively, biological yield (13 and 35% for Shiraz and Yavaros cv respectively and wheat harvest index (15 and 27% for Shiraz and Yavaros cv respectively. Foliar application of auxin and cytokinin under normal irrigation improved grain yield and yield components. Therefore, it was concluded from this research that application of 40 mg/L auxin for bread wheat (Shiraz cv. and 70 µmol cytokinin for durum wheat (Yavaros cv. improved grain yield only under normal irrigation conditions.

  14. Genetic variation of carotenoids in Chinese bread wheat cultivars and the effect of the 1BL.1RS translocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenshuang LI,Shengnan ZHAI,Hui JIN,Weie WEN,Jindong LIU,Xianchun XIA,Zhonghu HE

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Carotenoid content of wheat is an important criterion for prediction of the commercial and nutritional value of products made from bread wheat (Triticum aestivum cultivars. The objective of this study was to determine the major components of carotenoids in Chinese wheat using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC including lutein, zeaxanthin, α-carotene and β-carotene. Grain carotenoid content was investigated in 217 cultivars from three major Chinese wheat regions and from seven other countries grown in two environments. Genotype contributed to the majority of variation in carotenoid components. Lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations varied from 18.3 to 100.1, 4.9 to 12.0 and 0.9 to 48.7 μg per 100 g in wheat flour with an average of 40.2, 7.2 and 18.2 μg per 100 g, respectively. Lutein (61.3% was the main carotenoid component, followed by β-carotene (27.7% and zeaxanthin (11.0%. No α-carotene was detected. Total carotenoids, lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene were all higher in cultivars with the 1BL.1RS translocation compared to those without the translocation. This is the first report on assay of lutein, zeaxanthin and β-carotene concentrations for a large number of wheat cultivars. These data will be useful for genetic improvement of wheat carotenoid content and for understanding of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway in wheat.

  15. Chemical and Sensory Properties Evaluation of Pandesal Bread Produced From Wheat and Milkfish (Chanos chanos Flour Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raymund B. Moreno

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This research was conducted to determine the chemical composition of pandesal bread produced from wheat and milkfish flour mixtures. This study also aimed to investigate the sensory level of acceptability of pandesal bread produced from wheat and milkfish flour mixtures as to appearance, aroma, taste, texture and general acceptability in 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% proportions of milkfish flour. Based on the findings of the study, the percentage of most acceptable treatment which is 95 % wheat flour with 5 % milkfish flour were; moisture content, crude protein, total fat, ash, carbohydrate and energy were 21.3, 10.9, 5.72, 1.58, 60.5 g/100 g. and 337 Kcal/100 g. respectively. In terms of appearance, aroma, texture, flavor, and general acceptability, significant differences were determined in the level of sensory acceptability of pandesal bread produced from wheat and milkfish flour mixtures with different proportions. The findings of this study also showed that there is a relation as to the proportional percentage of the different treatments in the sensory acceptability of the bangus pandesal – the lower the percentage of the milkfish flour added, the higher is the sensory acceptability of the finished product in terms of texture, taste and the general acceptability as a whole. As a recommendation, the results of adding milkfish flour into pandesal bread will be made the baseline database, using the information obtained, as a useful point of reference for further studies and to improve existing products and food processes, as well as for the development of new ones.

  16. Effect of heat treatment to sweet potato flour on dough properties and characteristics of sweet potato-wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Isela Carballo; Mu, Tai-Hua; Zhang, Miao; Ji, Lei-Lei

    2017-12-01

    The effect of heat treatment at 90, 100, 110 and 120 ℃ for 20 min to sweet potato flour on dough properties and characteristics of sweet potato-wheat bread was investigated. The lightness (L*) and a* of sweet potato flour samples after heat treatment were increased, while the b* were decreased significantly, as well as the particle size, volume and area mean diameter ( p sweet potato flour was observed, where the number of irregular granules increased as the temperature increased from 90 to 120 ℃. Compared with sweet potato flour samples without heat treatment and with heat treatment at 90, 100 and 120 ℃, the gelatinization temperature and enthalpy change of sweet potato flour at 110 ℃ were the lowest, which were 77.94 ℃ and 3.67 J/g, respectively ( p sweet potato flour increased significantly from 1199 ml without heat treatment to 1214 ml at 90 ℃ ( p sweet potato-wheat bread with sweet potato flour after heat treatment increased significantly, which was the largest at 90 ℃ (2.53 cm 3 /g) ( p sweet potato flour could be potentially used in wheat bread production.

  17. The Effect of Different Zinc Application Methods on Yield and Grain Zinc Concentration of Bread Wheat Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatun Barut

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to elucidate the impacts of zinc (Zn treatments on growth, development, quality and yield of commonly sown bread wheat cultivars under field conditions of Çukurova Region. Three different bread wheat cultivars (Adana-99, Ceyhan-99 and Pandas were experimented in randomized complete blocks-split plots experimental design with 3 replications. Field experiments were performed by two different Zn application methods; via soil and via soil+foliage. In the both trials, 0, 5, 10, 20, 30, and 40 kg ha-1 pure Zn doses were applied to the soil. 0.4% ZnSO4.7H2O solution was used for foliar Zn applications. Current findings revealed that Zn treatments had significant effects on grain yield, grain Zn concentration, grain phosphorus (P concentration and thousand grain weight of bread wheat cultivars, but significant effects were not observed on grain protein concentrations. Soil+foliar Zn treatments were more effective in improving grain Zn concentrations. It was concluded that 10- 20 kg ha-1 Zn treatment was quite effective on grain Zn concentrations.

  18. Effect of phenolic acids on the rheological properties and proteins of hard wheat flour dough and bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Hye Min; Koh, Bong-Kyung

    2011-10-01

    The effects of different phenolic acids on the rheological properties and gluten proteins of hard wheat flour dough and bread were investigated. Caffeic, ferulic, syringic and gallic acids were each blended with hard wheat flour at a concentration of 4.44 µmol L(-1) g(-1) flour. Mixing time and tolerance were reduced with the addition of phenolic acids. The phenolic acids reduced the maximum resistance to extension (R(max)) and increased the extensibility of dough, with effects in the following order: gallic Loaf volume was most significantly decreased with the addition of caffeic acid. Extraction of sodium dodecyl sulfate-soluble high-molecular-weight proteins was increased in both mixed and fermented doughs by the addition of ferulic and caffeic acids. The order of influence of the phenolic acids on the rheological properties and protein structure of dough and bread was consistent with that of their antioxidant activity. The addition of caffeic and ferulic acids reduced R(max) and increased the extensibility of hard wheat flour dough by modifying the high-molecular-weight gluten, which resulted in decreased bread volume. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Comparison of the effects of different heat treatment processes on rheological properties of cake and bread wheat flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucsella, Blanka; Takács, Ágnes; Vizer, Viktoria; Schwendener, Urs; Tömösközi, Sándor

    2016-01-01

    Dry and hydrothermal heat treatments are efficient for modifying the technological-functional and shelf-life properties of wheat milling products. Dry heat treatment process is commonly used to enhance the volume of cakes. Hydrothermal heat treatment makes wheat flours suitable as thickener agents. In this study, cake and bread wheat flours that differed in baking properties were exposed to dry (100 °C, 12 min) and hydrothermal (95 °C, 5 min, 5-20 l/h water) heat treatments. Rheological differences caused by the treatments were investigated in a diluted slurry and in a dough matrix. Dry heat treatment resulted in enhanced dough stability. This effect was significantly higher in the cake flour than the bread flour. Altered viscosity properties of the bread flour in the slurry matrix were also observed. The characteristics of hydrothermally treated samples showed matrix dependency: their viscosity increases in the slurry and decreases in the dough matrix. These results can support us to produce flour products with specific techno-functional properties. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Supplementation of alkaline phytase (Ds11) in whole-wheat bread reduces phytate content and improves mineral solubility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yun-Jong; Park, Jiwon; Park, Ki-Hwan; Oh, Byung-Chul; Auh, Joong-Hyuck

    2011-08-01

    In this study, alkaline phytase was added to whole-wheat bread and the phytate content and mineral profiles were compared to commercially available acidic phytase. At neutral pH, some phytate (approximately 20%) was degraded by endogenous phytase in wheat flour, while 40% of phytate was hydrolyzed by alkaline phytase DS11 and a 35% reduction was observed with acidic phytase. Most of the enzymatic activity occurred during the proofing stage, and the rate of reaction depended on pH. DS11 phytase effectively degraded the phytate level within a 30 min treatment at pH 7; however, at least 60 min was needed with acidic phytase to achieve the same hydrolysis level. Mineral profiles were also dramatically affected by the phytate reduction. The biggest increase was observed in Fe²⁺ by the phytase treatment. The Fe²⁺ content increased 10-fold at pH 7 and 8-fold at pH 5 with alkaline phytase DS11. Alkaline phytase DS11 was shown to be effective at phytate reduction in whole-wheat bread preparation. Additionally, phytate degradation enhanced the mineral availability of bread. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Effect of addition of thermally modified cowpea protein on sensory acceptability and textural properties of wheat bread and sponge cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Lydia; Euston, Stephen R; Ahmed, Mohamed A

    2016-03-01

    This paper investigates the sensory acceptability and textural properties of leavened wheat bread and sponge cake fortified with cow protein isolates that had been denatured and glycated by thermal treatment. Defatted cowpea flour was prepared from cow pea beans and the protein isolate was prepared (CPI) and thermally denatured (DCPI). To prepare glycated cowpea protein isolate (GCPI) the cowpea flour slurry was heat treated before isolation of the protein. CPI was more susceptible to thermal denaturation than GCPI as determined by turbidity and sulphydryl groups resulting in greater loss of solubility. This is attributed to the higher glycation degree and higher carbohydrate content of GCPI as demonstrated by glycoprotein staining of SDS PAGE gels. Water absorption of bread dough was significantly enhanced by DCPI and to a larger extent GCPI compared to the control, resulting in softer texture. CPI resulted in significantly increased crumb hardness in baked bread than the control whereas DCPI or GCPI resulted in significantly softer crumb. Bread fortified with 4% DCPI or GCPI was similar to control as regards sensory and textural properties whereas 4% CPI was significantly different, limiting its inclusion level to 2%. There was a trend for higher sensory acceptability scores for GCPI containing bread compared DCPI. Whole egg was replaced by 20% by GCPI (3.5%) in sponge cake without affecting the sensory acceptability, whereas CPI and DCPI supplemented cakes were significantly different than the control. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of textural, rheological, thermal, microstructural, and water mobility in wheat flour dough and bread affected by trehalose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bo; Li, Youqian; Ding, Shiyong; Yang, Jun

    2017-10-15

    The study aims to elucidate the effects of trehalose on the mechanical, thermal, and rheological properties of wheat flour dough and water distribution in bread. Texture profile analysis, DSC, farinograph, extensograph, and frequency sweep were applied in dough. The results from SEM revealed that the gluten film became less notable with the presence of trehalose. The kinetics of staling process, low-field 1 H NMR, and water-binding capacity were employed to characterize physicochemical properties of bread. Trehalose decreased the staling rate constant k, indicating an inhibitory effect on firming process in bread. Trehalose had the ability to retain water by hindering the interaction among water molecules, gluten and starch, thus relatively increasing the immobility of the part of water represented by T 22 in low-field 1 H NMR tests. Trehalose restricted water mobilization during storage, resulting in a better water-holding capacity. Our findings reveal that trehalose could be an improver in dough and bread-making performance, as well as an antistaling agent in bread. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Rheological, baking, and sensory properties of composite bread dough with breadfruit (Artocarpus communis Forst) and wheat flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakare, Adegoke H; Osundahunsi, Oluwatooyin F; Olusanya, Joseph O

    2016-07-01

    The rheological (Pasting, farinograph, and alveograph) properties of wheat flour (WF) replaced with breadfruit four (05-40%) was analyzed. Baking and sensory qualities of the resulting bread were evaluated. Differences in baking properties of loaves produced under laboratory and industrial conditions were analyzed with t-test, whereas ANOVA was used for other analyses. Peak and final viscosities in the composite blends (CB) ranged from 109.20 to 114.06 RVU and 111.86 to 134.40 RVU, respectively. Dough stability decreased from 9.15 to 0.78 min, whereas farinograph water absorption increased 59.7-65.9%. Alveograph curve configuration ratio increased from 1.27 to 7.39, whereas specific volume (Spv) of the loaves decreased from 2.96 to 1.32 cm(3)/g. The Spv of WF loaves were not significantly different (P > 0.05) from that of the 5% CB, whereas production conditions had no significant effects on absorbed water (t = 0.532, df = 18 P = 0.3005), weight loss during baking (t = 0.865, df = 18, P = 0.199), and Spv (t = 0.828, df = 14.17, P = 0.211). The sensory qualities of the 5% blend were not significantly different from the WF.

  4. Radioactivity of flour, wheat, bread improvers and dose estimates in Sudan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamdan, Adam Mahana

    2015-10-01

    The steady rise in the use of isotopes and nuclear technology in various purposes in human life, both agro-industrial military, medical, may increase the chances of radioactive contamination that increases the exposure of ionizing radiation which raise awareness in increasing the need to know how to assess that exposure. Control of imported foodstuffs to ensure that not contaminated with radioactive materials is very important at this stage. The present study aims to investigating radioactivity in foodstuff consumed in Sudan to measure radionuclide in wheat flour, bread improvers specific objectives to measure radioactive contaminants and to estimate radiation dose from this consumption. The health impact of radionuclide ingestion from foodstuffs was evaluated by the committed effective doses determined in 30 samples of foodstuff. collected in the Port Sudan on the red sea, the radioactivity tracer of K-40, U-238 and Th-232 were measured by gamma ray spectrometry employing an using Nal (Ti) calibration process carried out for gamma spectrometry using MW652 as a reference source which recommended by International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) including source Cs-137 and Co-60 with two energy levels. The K-40 activity concentration in the flour samples, rang (303.07-40.48) (Bq/kg), 238U (4.81-1.95) (Bq/kg), Th-232 (7.60-1.61) Bq/kg) wheat samples range k-40 (250.62-27.22) (Bq/kg), U-238 (4.92-190) (Bq/kg), Th-232 (5.74-1.61) (Bq/kg) and bread improvers samples k-40 (68.60-13.61 (Bq/kg) U-238 (5.73-194) (Bq/kg). The total average effective dose for age (>17 years) was found in to flour be 2.35±7.12 mSv/y, 1.15±0.95 mSv/y, 1.65±2.02 mSv/y, the maximum dose values obtained were 6.01 mSv/y, 1.95 mSv/y, 1.57 mSv/y. The total average effective dose for age (>17 years) was found in to wheat 1.58±6.85 mSv/y 1.16±1.33 mSv/y, 0.48±1.14 mSv/y, the maximum dose values obtained were 4.14 mSv/y, 1.66 mSv/y, 0.99 mSv/y. The total average effective dose for age (>17 years) was

  5. Crystallinity changes in wheat starch during the bread-making process: Starch crystallinity in the bread crust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primo-Martín, C.; Nieuwenhuijzen, N.H. van; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, T. van

    2007-01-01

    The crystallinity of starch in crispy bread crust was quantified using several different techniques. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) demonstrated the presence of granular starch in the crust and remnants of granules when moving towards the crumb. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

  6. Crystallinity changes in wheat starch during the bread-making process: starch crystallinity in the bread crust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Primo-Martin, C.; Nieuwenhuijzen, van N.H.; Hamer, R.J.; Vliet, van T.

    2007-01-01

    The crystallinity of starch in crispy bread crust was quantified using several different techniques. Confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM) demonstrated the presence of granular starch in the crust and remnants of granules when moving towards the crumb. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC)

  7. Expression and functional analysis of TaASY1 during meiosis of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langridge Peter

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pairing and synapsis of homologous chromosomes is required for normal chromosome segregation and the exchange of genetic material via recombination during meiosis. Synapsis is complete at pachytene following the formation of a tri-partite proteinaceous structure known as the synaptonemal complex (SC. In yeast, HOP1 is essential for formation of the SC, and localises along chromosome axes during prophase I. Homologues in Arabidopsis (AtASY1, Brassica (BoASY1 and rice (OsPAIR2 have been isolated through analysis of mutants that display decreased fertility due to severely reduced synapsis of homologous chromosomes. Analysis of these genes has indicated that they play a similar role to HOP1 in pairing and formation of the SC through localisation to axial/lateral elements of the SC. Results The full length wheat cDNA and genomic clone, TaASY1, has been isolated, sequenced and characterised. TaASY1 is located on chromosome Group 5 and the open reading frame displays significant nucleotide sequence identity to OsPAIR2 (84% and AtASY1 (63%. Transcript and protein analysis showed that expression is largely restricted to meiotic tissue, with elevated levels during the stages of prophase I when pairing and synapsis of homologous chromosomes occur. Immunolocalisation using transmission electron microscopy showed TaASY1 interacts with chromatin that is associated with both axial elements before SC formation as well as lateral elements of formed SCs. Conclusion TaASY1 is a homologue of ScHOP1, AtASY1 and OsPAIR2 and is the first gene to be isolated from bread wheat that is involved in pairing and synapsis of homologous chromosomes.

  8. Economic Evaluation of Improved Irrigated Bread Wheat Varieties with National and International Origins and Its Impacts on Transfer of Supply Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hormoz asadi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Agricultural research is important and one of the determinant factors of development of technologies in agricultural sector. Among agricultural research disciplines, breeding programs, especially, wheat breeding programs are one of the applied approaches in improving of production and food security. Based on a study by Byerlee & Traxler (1995, economic benefits and Internal Rate of Return (IRR for Impact of International Wheat Improvement (for all breeding programs were estimated US$3.0 billion per year with internal rate of 53%, and economic benefits for Impact of International Wheat Improvement (Attributed to IWIN was estimated US$1.5 billion per year during 1966-90. Materials and methods The main objectives of this research were to determine shift of supply function of variety and impacts of breeding wheat varieties on reduction costs, and determination of economic return of released irrigated bread wheat in breeding program for the period of 1991-2000. Wheat varieties included; 23 varieties of released irrigated bread wheat by wheat breeding program of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII and Provincial Agricultural Research Centers. Ex-ante and Ex-post methods were used in this study. Measuring criteria for these methods were; quantity of shift in supply function, cost-benefit analysis and internal rate of return of varieties. For estimation of reduction costs and shift of supply function of varieties in breeding program were calculated following Brennan et al. (2002: Where: Cvb: Cost reduction due to breeding program, TCh: Cost production per ha, Yv (without: yield of check variety in breeding plots, Yv (with: yield of new variety in breeding plots, PSS: % supply shift in breeding program and Pw: price of wheat grain per kg For assessing economic criteria, Net Present Value (NPV, Cost-Benefit Analysis and Internal Rate of Return (IRR were used: Following Brennan et al (2002, gross benefit of irrigated bread wheat

  9. Economic Evaluation of Improved Irrigated Bread Wheat Varieties with National and International Origins and Its Impacts on Transfer of Supply Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hormoz asadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Agricultural research is important and one of the determinant factors of development of technologies in agricultural sector. Among agricultural research disciplines, breeding programs, especially, wheat breeding programs are one of the applied approaches in improving of production and food security. Based on a study by Byerlee & Traxler (1995, economic benefits and Internal Rate of Return (IRR for Impact of International Wheat Improvement (for all breeding programs were estimated US$3.0 billion per year with internal rate of 53%, and economic benefits for Impact of International Wheat Improvement (Attributed to IWIN was estimated US$1.5 billion per year during 1966-90. Materials and methods The main objectives of this research were to determine shift of supply function of variety and impacts of breeding wheat varieties on reduction costs, and determination of economic return of released irrigated bread wheat in breeding program for the period of 1991-2000. Wheat varieties included; 23 varieties of released irrigated bread wheat by wheat breeding program of Seed and Plant Improvement Institute (SPII and Provincial Agricultural Research Centers. Ex-ante and Ex-post methods were used in this study. Measuring criteria for these methods were; quantity of shift in supply function, cost-benefit analysis and internal rate of return of varieties. For estimation of reduction costs and shift of supply function of varieties in breeding program were calculated following Brennan et al. (2002: Where: Cvb: Cost reduction due to breeding program, TCh: Cost production per ha, Yv (without: yield of check variety in breeding plots, Yv (with: yield of new variety in breeding plots, PSS: % supply shift in breeding program and Pw: price of wheat grain per kg For assessing economic criteria, Net Present Value (NPV, Cost-Benefit Analysis and Internal Rate of Return (IRR were used: Following Brennan et al (2002, gross benefit of irrigated bread wheat

  10. Study on the effects of wheat bran incorporation on water mobility and biopolymer behavior during bread making and storage using time-domain 1H NMR relaxometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemdane, S; Jacobs, P J; Bosmans, G M; Verspreet, J; Delcour, J A; Courtin, C M

    2017-12-01

    Water binding is suggested to be key in the deleterious effect of wheat bran on bread quality. This study investigates water mobility and biopolymer behavior during bran-rich bread making and storage, using 1 H NMR. Coarse, ground, and pericarp-enriched bran were incorporated in bread dough, and their impact on freshly baked and stored bread properties was assessed. Compared to wheat flour control dough, bran incorporation resulted in a progressive immobilization of water during dough resting, which could be linked to changes in evolution of dough height during fermentation and oven rise. This, together with modified starch gelatinization behavior upon baking, can be related with the inferior quality of bran-rich breads. The impact was most pronounced with pericarp-enriched bran. Textural quality during storage was less affected for coarse or ground bran-rich bread compared to wheat flour bread, which could be principally attributed to retardation of amylopectin retrogradation in the presence of bran. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The Effect of Oat Fibre Powder Particle Size on the Physical Properties of Wheat Bread Rolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarosław Wyrwisz

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In response to the growing interest of modern society in functional food products, this study attempts to develop a bakery product with high dietary fibre content added in the form of an oat fibre powder. Oat fibre powder with particle sizes of 75 μm (OFP1 and 150 μm (OFP2 was used, substituting 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 % of the flour. The physical properties of the dough and the fi nal bakery products were then measured. Results indicated that dough with added fibre had higher elasticity than the control group. The storage modulus values of dough with OFP1 most closely approximated those of the control group. The addition of OFP1 did not affect significantly the colour compared to the other samples. Increasing the proportion of oat fibre powder resulted in increased firmness, which was most prominent in wheat bread rolls with oat fibre powder of smaller particle sizes. The addition of oat fibre powder with smaller particles resulted in a product with the rheological and colour parameters that more closely resembled control sample.

  12. Heritability studies of yield and yield associated traits in bread wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laghari, K.A.; Sial, M.A.; Arain, M.A.; Mirbahar, A.A.; Pirzada, A.; Mancrio, S.M.; Dahot, M.U.

    2010-01-01

    Heritability studies provide valid information about the traits that are transmitted from parents to offspring and also to the successive generations. Such studies help plant breeders to predict a successful cross with high heritability transmission to the progeny and thus are useful in the incorporation of characters into the offspring. Heritability study was conducted in F5 segregating generation of a cross between HT5 (female) and HT 37 (male) of bread wheat. The genetic parameters calculated were genetic variance (Vg,), environmental variance (Ve) and heritability percentage in broad sense (h2%), genetic advance (GA) and heritability coefficient (H). The highest heritability was observed for spike length (79.3%), number of grains per spike (54.5%) and main spike yield (69.5%) associated with high genetic advance (2.8, 22.8 and 1.5 respectively). Moderate to high heritability were recorded for peduncle length (48.75%) and number of grains per spikelet (47.2%) which associated with high genetic advance (2.3 and 0.68 respectively). However awn length and plant height had shown acceptable heritability values. The present finding suggests that most of the yield associated traits have been successfully transmitted. The information generated will be helpful for better understanding and selection of suitable, desirable material especially in advance generations. (author)

  13. Meiotic chromosome behaviours in M1 generation of bread wheat irradiated by gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Y.; Takato, S.

    1982-01-01

    Growing plants of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. 2 n=6x=42, AABBDD) were subjected to acute or chronic irradiation by gamma-rays from 60Co and meiotic chromosome behaviours of PMCS in M 1 generation were cytologically compared. Both acute and chronic irradiations produced different types of chromosomal aberrations at the meiotic stages. Among them, translocation type was the most frequent, followed by univalent type. A mixed type, i. e. translocation accompanying one or more univalents was often detected. Even normal type which lacked translocation and univalent included laggards and briclges without exception. Other meiotic abnormalities such as deletion, iso-chromosome and micronuclei were observed frequently in both treatments. Dose dependency of translocation frequency was not recognized in this experiment. In chronic irradiation, different chromosome numbers and meiotic behaviours were found not only among florets of a spike but also among anthers of a floret. A number of plants with aneuploid-like grass types occurred at a high frequency in M 1 , especially with low exposure

  14. Sponge and dough bread making: genetic and phenotypic relationships with wheat quality traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavanagh, Colin R; Taylor, Julian; Larroque, Oscar; Coombes, Neil; Verbyla, Arunas P; Nath, Zena; Kutty, Ibrahim; Rampling, Lynette; Butow, Barbara; Ral, Jean-Philippe; Tomoskozi, Sandor; Balazs, Gabor; Békés, Ferenc; Mann, Gulay; Quail, Ken J; Southan, Michael; Morell, Matthew K; Newberry, Marcus

    2010-09-01

    The genetic and phenotypic relationships among wheat quality predictors and sponge and dough bread making were evaluated in a population derived from a cross between an Australian cultivar 'Chara' and a Canadian cultivar 'Glenlea'. The genetic correlation across sites for sponge and dough loaf volume was high; however, phenotypic correlations across sites for loaf volume were relatively low compared with rheological tests. The large difference between sites was most likely due to temperature differences during grain development reflected in a decrease in the percentage of unextractable polymeric protein and mixing time. Predictive tests (mixograph, extensograph, protein content and composition, micro-zeleny and flour viscosity) showed inconsistent and generally poor correlations with end-product performance (baking volume and slice area) at both sites, with no single parameter being effective as a predictor of end-product performance. The difference in the relationships between genetic and phenotypic correlations highlights the requirement to develop alternative methods of selection for breeders and bakers in order to maximise both genetic gain and predictive assessment of grain quality.

  15. Stability of rust resistance and yield potential of some icarda bread wheat lines in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, S.J.A.; Khan, A.J.; Azam, F.; Mirza, J.I.; Atiq-ur-Rehman

    2003-01-01

    Thirty bread wheat lines resistant to Yellow rust (Yr) were selected after careful screening from two ICARDA nurseries during 1998 - 1999, Rabi season at Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA), Tarnab, Peshawar under severe disease pressure. In the following crop cycle, these selections were again field evaluated for stability and effectiveness of Yr resistance at multilocations while their yield potential was ascertained at Tarnab in two different trials with Tatara as commercial check. Results revealed that uniformity was found in the potential behavior of 23 lines (77%) in both the cropping seasons against Yr. This included some high yielding (up to 7067 kg/ ha) and low yielding lines (up to 4333 kg / ha) when compared with the check (6089 kg / ha). Yield potential of some high yielding lines with stable Yr resistance should be further evaluated over sites and seasons for wide adaptability, under national uniform testing in order to select and deploy future varieties to combat Yr for acquiring food security in Pakistan.(author)

  16. Production of a high-nutritional-value functional food, the Update1 bread, with the supplementation of the wheat flour with high-protein-content raw food materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csapó J.

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available During our research, we added extracted soya bean meal, egg-white powder, gluten, wheat sourdough, and bamboo fibre to wheat flour in order to increase the quantity of the essential amino acid and the biological value of the wheat protein, producing such a functional, health-protecting, health-preservative food product which is suitable to satisfy the essential amino acid requirements of humans, assuming normal nutrition. Furthermore, we could produce such a food, which, on the one hand, was suitable to confine or prevent the essential amino acid’s malnutrition symptoms, while, on the other hand, when applied alone, to meet the consumers’ needs. During our work, we determined the protein content and amino acid composition of the wheat flour, of the additives used in bread baking, and in the bread both baked with supplementation (Update1 bread and without supplementation (normal bread, as well as the quantity of the Maillard reaction products (hydroxymethylfurfural. We calculated the biological value of the protein of different breads and evaluated the sensory characteristics of the produced functional food and the fortified bread, supplemented with high essential-amino-acid-containing additives.

  17. Phosphoproteome analysis reveals new drought response and defense mechanisms of seedling leaves in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Lv, Dongwen; Ge, Pei; Bian, Yanwei; Chen, Guanxing; Zhu, Gengrui; Li, Xiaohui; Yan, Yueming

    2014-09-23

    Drought is a major form of abiotic stress that significantly affects plant growth and development. In this study, we performed the first phosphoproteome analysis of seedling leaves from two bread wheat cultivars (Hanxuan 10 and Ningchun 47) subjected to drought stress. As a result, a total of 191 and 251 unique phosphopeptides, representing 173 and 227 phosphoproteins in two cultivars, respectively, were identified as being significant changes in phosphorylation level (SCPL) under drought stress. Through the comparison of SCPL phosphoproteins between two cultivars, 31 common SCPL phosphoproteins were found in both cultivars. Function analysis showed that the SCPL phosphoproteins in the two cultivars are mainly involved in three biological processes: RNA transcription/processing, stress/detoxification/defense, and signal transduction. Further analyses revealed that some SCPL phosphoproteins may play key roles in signal transduction and the signaling cascade under drought stress. Furthermore, some phosphoproteins related to drought tolerance and osmotic regulation exhibited significant phosphorylation changes. This study used a series of bioinformatics tools to profile the phosphorylation status of wheat seedling leaves under drought stress with greater accuracy. Drought is of the most studied abiotic stresses, because it severely restricts the development and yield of plants. In this study, large numbers of stress-related phosphoproteins are identified from the two bread wheat cultivars. These phosphoproteins contribute to signal transduction, osmotic regulation and ROS scavenging under water stress. This work provides a detailed insight into the mechanisms of drought response and defense in bread wheat from the perspective of phosphoproteomics, and identifies some important drought-tolerant candidates for further transgenosis study and incorporation into the breeding of resistant cultivars. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. miR156-Targeted SBP-Box Transcription Factors Interact with DWARF53 to Regulate TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 and BARREN STALK1 Expression in Bread Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Cheng, Xiliu; Liu, Pan; Sun, Jiaqiang

    2017-07-01

    Genetic and environmental factors affect bread wheat ( Triticum aestivum ) plant architecture, which determines grain yield. In this study, we demonstrate that miR156 controls bread wheat plant architecture. We show that overexpression of tae-miR156 in bread wheat cultivar Kenong199 leads to increased tiller number and severe defects in spikelet formation, probably due to the tae-miR156-mediated repression of a group of SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE ( SPL ) genes. Furthermore, we found that the expression of two genes TEOSINTE BRANCHED1 ( TaTB1 ) and BARREN STALK1 ( TaBA1 ), whose orthologous genes in diverse plant species play conserved roles in regulating plant architecture, is markedly reduced in the tae-miR156-OE bread wheat plants. Significantly, we demonstrate that the strigolactone (SL) signaling repressor DWARF53 (TaD53), which physically associates with the transcriptional corepressor TOPLESS, can directly interact with the N-terminal domains of miR156-controlled TaSPL3/17. Most importantly, TaSPL3/17-mediated transcriptional activation of TaBA1 and TaTB1 can be largely repressed by TaD53 in the transient expression system. Our results reveal potential association between miR156-TaSPLs and SL signaling pathways during bread wheat tillering and spikelet development. © 2017 American Society of Plant Biologists. All Rights Reserved.

  19. Comparison of autoclave, microwave, IR and UV-C stabilization of whole wheat flour branny fractions upon the nutritional properties of whole wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, Mustafa Kürşat; Elgün, Adem

    2014-01-01

    In this study, whole wheat bread (WWB) prepared by whole wheat flour (WWF) which its branny fraction (35 ± 1% w/w whole flour) previously was stabilized with different processes. Branny fractions obtained by milling of two different Bezostaja-1 wheat samples (medium and high strong) at 65 ± 1% wheat flour extraction ratio. These fractions were stabilized using autoclave (AU), microwave (MW), infrared (IR) and ultraviolet-C (UV-C) methods. Then, WWF obtained by remixing of stabilized branny fraction (35 ± 1% w/w) and wheat flour (65 ± 1% w/w) of same wheat samples. Following this process, WWB was made from WWF. WWB were analyzed to determine their nutritional properties as crude protein, in vitro protein digestibility (IVPD), phytic acid content, total and HCl-extractable mineral concentrations, total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant activity and total dietary fiber (TDF). While IVPD, TPC and antioxidant activity of WWB increased together with all stabilization methods, a significant (P < 0.05) loss was observed on phytic acid content of the WWB. Especially, UV-C and IR treatments had positive effects on TPC and antioxidant activity. AU and MW stabilization methods increased total mineral and HCl-extractable minerals of WWB. As a result of this study, all stabilization processes had an improving effect on nutritional characteristic of WWB.

  20. Composition and functional analysis of low-molecular-weight glutenin alleles with Aroona near-isogenic lines of bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaofei

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low-molecular-weight glutenin subunits (LMW-GS strongly influence the bread-making quality of bread wheat. These proteins are encoded by a multi-gene family located at the Glu-A3, Glu-B3 and Glu-D3 loci on the short arms of homoeologous group 1 chromosomes, and show high allelic variation. To characterize the genetic and protein compositions of LMW-GS alleles, we investigated 16 Aroona near-isogenic lines (NILs using SDS-PAGE, 2D-PAGE and the LMW-GS gene marker system. Moreover, the composition of glutenin macro-polymers, dough properties and pan bread quality parameters were determined for functional analysis of LMW-GS alleles in the NILs. Results Using the LMW-GS gene marker system, 14–20 LMW-GS genes were identified in individual NILs. At the Glu-A3 locus, two m-type and 2–4 i-type genes were identified and their allelic variants showed high polymorphisms in length and nucleotide sequences. The Glu-A3d allele possessed three active genes, the highest number among Glu-A3 alleles. At the Glu-B3 locus, 2–3 m-type and 1–3 s-type genes were identified from individual NILs. Based on the different compositions of s-type genes, Glu-B3 alleles were divided into two groups, one containing Glu-B3a, B3b, B3f and B3g, and the other comprising Glu-B3c, B3d, B3h and B3i. Eight conserved genes were identified among Glu-D3 alleles, except for Glu-D3f. The protein products of the unique active genes in each NIL were detected using protein electrophoresis. Among Glu-3 alleles, the Glu-A3e genotype without i-type LMW-GS performed worst in almost all quality properties. Glu-B3b, B3g and B3i showed better quality parameters than the other Glu-B3 alleles, whereas the Glu-B3c allele containing s-type genes with low expression levels had an inferior effect on bread-making quality. Due to the conserved genes at Glu-D3 locus, Glu-D3 alleles showed no significant differences in effects on all quality parameters. Conclusions This work

  1. Determination of selenium in bread-wheat samples grown under a Se-supplementation regime in actual field conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galinha, C.; Freitas, M.C.; Pacheco, A.M.G.; Coutinho, J.; Macas, B.; Almeida, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    Selenium is an essential micronutrient for humans and animals, yet it is deficient in at least one billion people worldwide. Plants and plant-derived products transfer the soil-uptaken selenium to humans; therefore, the cultivation of plants enriched in selenium can be an effective way to improve the selenium status on humankind. This paper focuses on determining the ability of bread wheat to accumulate selenium after supplementation. One of the methods for supplementing this element in plants is foliar application with selenium solutions. These supplemented crop of wheat samples - bread wheat; Triticum aestivum L. - were used to determine if there is an increase of selenium content in cereal grains by comparing them with cereals cultivated in 2009 and harvested in 2010 with no supplementation. The experiments were done using sodium selenate and sodium selenite at three different selenium concentrations: 4, 20 and 100 g per hectare. Total Se is assessed by cyclic neutron activation analysis (CNAA), through short irradiations on the fast pneumatic system (SIPRA) of the Portuguese Research Reactor (RPI-ITN). The short-lived nuclide 77m Se, that features a half-lifetime of 17.5 s, was used to determine the Se content in SIPRA. The experiment was successful, since the selenium concentration increased in the cropped grains and reached values up to 35 times the non-supplemented ones. (author)

  2. The RAD51 and DMC1 homoeologous genes of bread wheat: cloning, molecular characterization and expression analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayes Katie

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Meiotic recombination in eukaryotes requires two homologues of the E. coli RecA proteins: Rad51 and Dmc1. Both proteins play important roles in the binding of single stranded DNA, homology search, strand invasion and strand exchange. Meiotic recombination has been well studied in Arabidopsis, rice, maize and the orthologues of RAD51 and DMC1 have been characterized. However genetic analysis of the RAD51 and DMC1 genes in bread wheat has been hampered due to the absence of complete sequence information and because of the existence of multiple copies of each gene in the hexaploid wheat genome. Findings In this study we have identified that TaRAD51 and TaDMC1 homoeologues are located on group 7 and group 5 chromosomes of hexaploid wheat, respectively. Comparative sequence analysis of cDNA derived from the TaRAD51 and TaDMC1 homoeologues revealed limited sequence divergence at both the nucleotide and the amino acid level. Indeed, comparisons between the predicted amino acid sequences of TaRAD51 and TaDMC1 and those of other eukaryotes reveal a high degree of evolutionary conservation. Despite the high degree of sequence conservation at the nucleotide level, genome-specific primers for cDNAs of TaRAD51 and TaDMC1 were developed to evaluate expression patterns of individual homoeologues during meiosis. QRT-PCR analysis showed that expression of the TaRAD51 and TaDMC1 cDNA homoeologues was largely restricted to meiotic tissue, with elevated levels observed during the stages of prophase I when meiotic recombination occurs. All three homoeologues of both strand-exchange proteins (TaRAD51 and TaDMC1 are expressed in wheat. Conclusions Bread wheat contains three expressed copies of each of the TaRAD51 and TaDMC1 homoeologues. While differences were detected between the three cDNA homoeologues of TaRAD51 as well as the three homoeologues of TaDMC1, it is unlikely that the predicted amino acid substitutions would have an effect on the

  3. Comprehensive Identification and Bread-Making Quality Evaluation of Common Wheat Somatic Variation Line AS208 on Glutenin Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Lipu; Cao, Xinyou; Zhang, Xiaoxiang; Zhou, Yang; Yan, Yueming; Ye, Xingguo

    2016-01-01

    High molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GSs) are important seed storage proteins in wheat (Triticum aestivum) that determine wheat dough elasticity and processing quality. Clarification of the defined effectiveness of HMW-GSs is very important to breeding efforts aimed at improving wheat quality. To date, there have no report on the expression silencing and quality effects of 1Bx20 and 1By20 at the Glu-B1 locus in wheat. A wheat somatic variation line, AS208, in which both 1Bx20 and 1By20 at Glu-B1 locus were silenced, was developed recently in our laboratory. Evaluation of agronomic traits and seed storage proteins by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) indicated that AS208 was highly similar to its parental cultivar Lunxuan987 (LX987), with the exception that the composition and expression of HMW-GSs was altered. The 1Bx20 and 1By20 in AS208 were further identified to be missing by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and quantitative real-time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) assays. Based on the PCR results for HMW-GS genes and their promoters in AS208 compared with LX987, 1Bx20 and 1By20 were speculated to be deleted in AS208 during in vitro culture. Quality analysis of this line with Mixograph, Farinograph, and Extensograph instruments, as well as analysis of bread-making quality traits, demonstrated that the lack of the genes encoding 1Bx20 and 1By20 caused various negative effects on dough processing and bread-making quality traits, including falling number, dough stability time, mixing tolerance index, crude protein values, wet gluten content, bread size, and internal cell structure. AS208 can potentially be used in the functional dissection of other HMW-GSs as a plant material with desirable genetic background, and in biscuit making industry as a high-quality weak gluten wheat source. PMID:26765256

  4. Physicochemical and sensory evaluation of reinforce bread with partial replacement of wheat flour (Triticum aestivum) by corn (Zea mays) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) flours

    OpenAIRE

    Obregón, Antonio; Centro Latinoamericano de Enseñanza e Investigación en Bacteriología Alimentaria - CLEIBA. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Contreras, Eliana; Instituto de Investigación en Química Biológica, Microbiología y Biotecnología, “Marco Antonio Garrido Malo”. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Muñoz, Ana María; Instituto de Investigación en Química Biológica, Microbiología y Biotecnología, “Marco Antonio Garrido Malo”. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Ayquipa, Rita; Escuela Académica de Ciencia de los Alimentos. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.; Fernández, Wendy; Escuela Académica de Ciencia de los Alimentos. Facultad de Farmacia y Bioquímica, Universidad Nacional Mayor de San Marcos. Lima, Perú.

    2014-01-01

    It was realized the sensorial evaluation and were studied the chemical composition and nutritional value of iron-fortified bread, with partial replacement of 10% of its wheat flour content by potato and corn flour, obtaining a bread with soft texture, palatable and very good acceptability for children of school age. The elaborated bread contains protein 13,10%; fat 9,80% and carbohydrates 50,32%, with an energy value of 341,88 kcal/100 g and an iron content 10,13 mg/100 g, that satisfies the ...

  5. Genome-Wide Association Study Reveals Novel Genes Associated with Culm Cellulose Content in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simerjeet Kaur

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Plant cell wall formation is a complex, coordinated and developmentally regulated process. Cellulose is the most dominant constituent of plant cell walls. Because of its paracrystalline structure, cellulose is the main determinant of mechanical strength of plant tissues. As the most abundant polysaccharide on earth, it is also the focus of cellulosic biofuel industry. To reduce culm lodging in wheat and for improved ethanol production, delineation of the variation for stem cellulose content could prove useful. We present results on the analysis of the stem cellulose content of 288 diverse wheat accessions and its genome-wide association study (GWAS. Cellulose concentration ranged from 35 to 52% (w/w. Cellulose content was normally distributed in the accessions around a mean and median of 45% (w/w. Genome-wide marker-trait association study using 21,073 SNPs helped identify nine SNPs that were associated (p < 1E-05 with cellulose content. Four strongly associated (p < 8.17E-05 SNP markers were linked to wheat unigenes, which included β-tubulin, Auxin-induced protein 5NG4, and a putative transmembrane protein of unknown function. These genes may be directly or indirectly involved in the formation of cellulose in wheat culms. GWAS results from this study have the potential for genetic manipulation of cellulose content in bread wheat and other small grain cereals to enhance culm strength and improve biofuel production.

  6. [New data on the distribution of hybrid necrosis genes in winter bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cultivars].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukhal'skiĭ, V A; Bilinskaia, E N; Martynov, S P; Dobrovol'skaia, T V; Obolenkova, G A

    2008-02-01

    Hybrid necrosis genotypes have been identified in 125 Russian cultivars of winter bread wheat. More than half of them (56%) carry the Ne2 gene (genotype ne1ne1Ne2Ne2); others are free of necrosis genes (genotype ne1ne1ne2ne2). The possible causes of the increase in the Ne2 allele frequency and the loss of the Ne1Ne1ne2ne2 genotype in modem Russian cultivars of winter wheat are discussed. The principal component method has been used to compare the structures of the genetic diversity of cultivars differing in the hybrid necrosis genotype. It has been found that the Ne2 allele in winter wheat cultivars from northern Russia has originated from the cultivar Mironovskaya 808, whereas the cultivar Bezostaya 1 is not a source of this gene. In cultivars from southern Russia, the presence of the Ne2 allele is also mainly accounted for by the use of Mironovskaya 808 wheat in their breeding. The recessive genotype is explained by the presence of descendants of the cultivar Odesskaya 16 in the pedigrees of southern Russian winter wheats. The genetic relationship of cultivars with identical and different necrosis genotypes has been analyzed in nine regions of the Russian Federation.

  7. [Development and study of spring bread wheat variety Pamyati Maystrenko with introgression of genetic material from synthetic hexaploid Triticum timopheevii zhuk. x Aegilops tauschii Coss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laikova, L I; Belan, I A; Badaeva, E D; Posseeva, L P; Shepelev, S S; Shumny, V K; Pershina, L A

    2013-01-01

    Synthetic hexaploids are bridges for transferring new genes that determine resistance to stress factors from wild-type species to bread wheat. In the present work, the method of developing the spring bread wheat variety Pamyati Maystrenko and the results of its study are described. This variety was obtained using one of the immune lines produced earlier via the hybridization of the spring bread wheat variety Saratovskaya 29 with the synthetic hexaploid T. timopheevii Zhuk. x Ae. tauschii Coss. The C-staining of chromosomes in the Pamyati Maystrenko variety revealed substitutions of 2B and 6B chromosomes by the homeologous chromosomes of the G genome of T. timopheevii and the substitution of chromosome 1D by an orthologous chromosome ofAe. tauschii. It was found that this variety is characterized by resistance to leaf and stem rust, powdery mildew, and loose smut as well as by high grain and bread-making qualities. The role of the alien genetic material introgressed into the bread-wheat genome in the expression of adaptive and economically valuable traits in the Pamyati Maystrenko variety is discussed.

  8. Concentrated arabinoxylan but not concentrated β-glucan in wheat bread has similar effects on postprandial insulin as whole-grain rye in porto-arterial catheterized pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, Kirstine L; Hedemann, Mette S; Lærke, Helle N; Jørgensen, Henry; Mutt, Shivaprakash J; Herzig, Karl-Heinz; Bach Knudsen, Knud E

    2013-08-14

    The acute glycemic effects of concentrated dietary fibers (DF) versus whole-grain rye were studied in porto-arterial catheterized pigs. Two white wheat breads with wheat arabinoxylan (AX) or oat β-glucan (BG), two rye breads with intact rye kernels (RK) or milled rye (GR), and a low DF white wheat bread were fed to six pigs in a randomized crossover design. Blood profiles were collected for 4 h after feeding. Glucose absorption was reduced in pigs fed the AX bread at 60 min postprandial (3.1 mmol/min for AX compared to 9.4 mmol/min for WF, P = 0.02) and insulin secretion was lowered at 30 min postprandial for AX and GR (74.4 and 129 pmol/min for AX and GR, respectively, compared to 738 pmol/min for WF, P < 0.04). In conclusion, the GR and AX breads were most effective in improving insulin economy, suggesting that arabinoxylan from wheat and rye induces similar outcomes in the metabolic response.

  9. Effect of HPMC on the quality of wheat-free bread made from carob germ flour-starch mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, B M; Bean, S R; Herald, T J; Aramouni, F M

    2012-06-01

    Carob germ proteins have been shown to have functional properties similar to wheat gluten enabling formulation and production of yeast leavened gluten-free baked goods from a true dough rather than a stiff batter. The purpose of this research was to optimize the production of wheat-free bread containing carob germ flour, corn starch, NaCl, sucrose, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), and H₂O. A key criterion was to formulate viscoelastic dough similar to wheat dough. To that end, response surface methodology (RSM) was used to determine optimal levels of carob germ flour, H₂O, and HPMC. Components varied as follows: 4.94%-15.05% for carob germ flour, 0.05%-3.75% HPMC, and 65.25%-83.75% H₂O (percents are on a flour basis, where carob germ flour in combination with maize starch equals 100%). Sucrose, NaCl, and yeast were held constant at 2%. Bread parameters evaluated were specific volume and crumb hardness, where the largest specific volume and the lowest value for crumb hardness were considered most desirable. The optimum formula as determined by RSM consisted of 7% carob germ flour, 93% maize starch, 2% HPMC, and 80% H₂O with predicted crumb hardness of ~200 g of force and a specific volume of ~3.5 cm³/g. When proof time was optimized, a specific volume of ~5.6 ml/g and crumb hardness value of ~156 g of force was observed. Carob germ flour may be used as an alternative to wheat flour in formulating viscoelastic dough and high quality gluten-free bread. Celiac disease affects approximately 1% of the world's population. Sufferers of the disease must consume a gluten-free diet. Currently, gluten-free baked products are made from batters and lack the ability to be made from dough based systems which limits the overall processability and product variety. This research is aimed at the utilization of carob germ protein and its ability to form dough to produce an optimal gluten-free bread formulation. This will help to alleviate problems in processability and

  10. The Effect of Cutting On The Yield and Yield Components of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Cultivars

    OpenAIRE

    ÇELEN, A. Esen; SOYA, Hikmet

    1998-01-01

    In the research conducted in the fields of Field Crops Department of Faculty of Agriculture of Ege University, Bornova, İzmir, Turkey in 1993-94 and 1994-95, the effects of cutting treatments [a. uncut control, b. cutting at Zadoks stage 25 (main stem and 5 tillers), c. cutting at Zadoks stage 30 (at the end of tillering, pseudostem erection), and d. cutting at Zadoks stage 31 (first node detectable) ] on the seed yield and some yield components of two bread wheat cultivars (Cumhuriyet-75 and...

  11. Efficient anchoring of alien chromosome segments introgressed into bread wheat by new Leymus racemosus genome-based markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edet, Offiong Ukpong; Kim, June-Sik; Okamoto, Masanori; Hanada, Kousuke; Takeda, Tomoyuki; Kishii, Masahiro; Gorafi, Yasir Serag Alnor; Tsujimoto, Hisashi

    2018-03-27

    The tertiary gene pool of bread wheat, to which Leymus racemosus belongs, has remained underutilized due to the current limited genomic resources of the species that constitute it. Continuous enrichment of public databases with useful information regarding these species is, therefore, needed to provide insights on their genome structures and aid successful utilization of their genes to develop improved wheat cultivars for effective management of environmental stresses. We generated de novo DNA and mRNA sequence information of L. racemosus and developed 110 polymorphic PCR-based markers from the data, and to complement the PCR markers, DArT-seq genotyping was applied to develop additional 9990 SNP markers. Approximately 52% of all the markers enabled us to clearly genotype 22 wheat-L. racemosus chromosome introgression lines, and L. racemosus chromosome-specific markers were highly efficient in detailed characterization of the translocation and recombination lines analyzed. A further analysis revealed remarkable transferability of the PCR markers to three other important Triticeae perennial species: L. mollis, Psathyrostachys huashanica and Elymus ciliaris, indicating their suitability for characterizing wheat-alien chromosome introgressions carrying chromosomes of these genomes. The efficiency of the markers in characterizing wheat-L. racemosus chromosome introgression lines proves their reliability, and their high transferability further broadens their scope of application. This is the first report on sequencing and development of markers from L. racemosus genome and the application of DArT-seq to develop markers from a perennial wild relative of wheat, marking a paradigm shift from the seeming concentration of the technology on cultivated species. Integration of these markers with appropriate cytogenetic methods would accelerate development and characterization of wheat-alien chromosome introgression lines.

  12. Sensory evaluation of wheat/cassava composite bread and effect of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The performance of 10, 20 and 30% cassava composite bread was carried out by evaluating the colour, aroma, texture, acceptability and buying preference. The samples were served to semi-trained panelists. The result showed that bread baked with 10 and 20% composite flour were not significantly different in all sensory ...

  13. Antioxidants, free radicals, storage proteins, puroindolines, and proteolytic activities in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) seeds during accelerated aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calucci, Lucia; Capocchi, Antonella; Galleschi, Luciano; Ghiringhelli, Silvia; Pinzino, Calogero; Saviozzi, Franco; Zandomeneghi, Maurizio

    2004-06-30

    Seeds of bread wheat were incubated at 40 degrees C and 100% relative humidity for 0, 3, 4, 6, and 10 days. The effects of accelerated aging on seed germinability and some biochemical properties of flour (carotenoid, free radical, and protein contents and proteolytic activity) and gluten (free radical content and flexibility) were investigated. Seed germinability decreased during aging, resulting in seed death after 10 days. A progressive decrease of carotenoid content, in particular, lutein, was observed, prolonging the incubation, whereas the free radical content increased in both flour and gluten. A degradation of soluble and storage proteins was found, associated with a marked increase of proteolytic activity and a loss of viscoelastic properties of gluten. On the contrary, puroindolines were quite resistant to the treatment. The results are discussed in comparison with those previously obtained during accelerated aging of durum wheat seeds.

  14. Characterization of the Bread Made with Durum Wheat Semolina Rendered Gluten Free by Sourdough Biotechnology in Comparison with Commercial Gluten-Free Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Montemurro, Marco; Gobbetti, Marco

    2016-09-01

    Durum wheat semolina was fermented with sourdough lactic acid bacteria and fungal proteases aiming at a complete gluten hydrolysis. The gluten-free (GF) semolina, added with naturally GF ingredients and structuring agents, was used to produce bread (rendered GF bread; rGFB) at industrial level. An integrated approach including the characterization of the main chemical, nutritional, structural, and sensory features was used to compare rGFB to a gluten-containing bread and to 5 commercial naturally GF breads. High-performance liquid chromatography was used for free amino acids (FAAs), organic acids, and ethanol analysis. A methanolic extract was used for determining total phenols and antioxidant activity. The bread characterization also included the analysis of dietary fibers, mycotoxins, vitamins, and heavy metals. Beyond chemical analysis, nutritional profile was evaluated considering the in vitro protein digestibility and the predicted glycemic index, while the instrumental texture profile analysis was performed to investigate the structure and the physical/mechanical properties of the baked goods. Beyond the huge potential of market expansion, the main advantages of durum wheat semolina rendered GF can be resumed in the high availability of FAAs, the high protein digestibility, the low starch hydrolysis index, and the better technological properties of bread compared to the commercial GF products currently present on the market. Vitamins, minerals, and dietary fiber profiles are comparable to those of gluten-containing wheat bread. Also the sensory profile, determined by a panel test, can be considered the most similar to those of conventional baked goods, showing all the sourdough bread classic attributes. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  15. Genomic Selection for Processing and End-Use Quality Traits in the CIMMYT Spring Bread Wheat Breeding Program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah D. Battenfield

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Wheat ( L. cultivars must possess suitable end-use quality for release and consumer acceptability. However, breeding for quality traits is often considered a secondary target relative to yield largely because of amount of seed needed and expense. Without testing and selection, many undesirable materials are advanced, expending additional resources. Here, we develop and validate whole-genome prediction models for end-use quality phenotypes in the CIMMYT bread wheat breeding program. Model accuracy was tested using forward prediction on breeding lines ( = 5520 tested in unbalanced yield trials from 2009 to 2015 at Ciudad Obregon, Sonora, Mexico. Quality parameters included test weight, 1000-kernel weight, hardness, grain and flour protein, flour yield, sodium dodecyl sulfate sedimentation, Mixograph and Alveograph performance, and loaf volume. In general, prediction accuracy substantially increased over time as more data was available to train the model. Reflecting practical implementation of genomic selection (GS in the breeding program, forward prediction accuracies ( for quality parameters were assessed in 2015 and ranged from 0.32 (grain hardness to 0.62 (mixing time. Increased selection intensity was possible with GS since more entries can be genotyped than phenotyped and expected genetic gain was 1.4 to 2.7 times higher across all traits than phenotypic selection. Given the limitations in measuring many lines for quality, we conclude that GS is a powerful tool to facilitate early generation selection for end-use quality in wheat, leaving larger populations for selection on yield during advanced testing and leading to better gain for both quality and yield in bread wheat breeding programs.

  16. Redistribution Response of Photosynthetic Assimilates of Different Spring Bread Wheat Cultivars in Different Densities of Wild Oat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Mousavi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the redistribution response of photosynthetic assimilates of different spring bread wheat cultivars in different densities of wild oat, an experiment was conducted based on a strip block experiment with three replications at the Research Farm of Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University, Ahwaz, Iran during 2012. Treatments were four oat densities (0, 40, 80 and 120 plants m-2 in horizontal strips and 10 spring bread wheat cultivars (Chamran, Baz, Atrak, Arvand, Maroon, Shoeleh, Chenab, Veree/Nak and Falat in vertical strips. Results showed that with increase in oat density up to 120 plants m-2, efficiency and percentage of the assimilates redistribution was increased, but current assimilates contributed less to the grain filling and grain yield. However, dwarf and early maturing cultivars of Veree/Nak and Atrak, with 2400 Kg ha-1 and Chenab with 2200 Kg ha-1 of redistribution appeared to benefit from an efficient transport system against the weed (wild oat. In contrast to the dwarf cultivars, the tall cultivar of Arvand with minimum assimilates redistribution of 600 Kg ha-1 and maximum amount of current assimilates of 3700 Kg ha-1 and also Shoeleh and Maroon were less dependent on their stem reserves at the grain filling stage.

  17. Quality of bread made from ozonated wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhu, Harkanwal P S; Manthey, Frank A; Simsek, Senay

    2011-07-01

    Ozone gas could be used as a fumigant during grain and flour storage. Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of exposure to ozone and the effects of blending ozone-treated flour with control flour on flour functionality and bread-making quality. Ozone treatment oxidized lipids, increased brightness and reduced the yellow hue of flour, and increased peak viscosity and setback viscosity of flour. Bread made from flour treated with ozone at 1500 mg kg(-1) for 4.5 min and bread made from flour blended with 100 g kg(-1) ozonated flour had good crust color and a whiter crumb and had more crumb cells, which resulted in a greater specific volume of the bread when compared with control flour. Flour functionality declined as ozone exposure increased beyond 9 min and as the concentration of ozonated flour increased beyond 200 g kg(-1) . Bread made from flour exposed to ozone for 4.5 min or flour that contained 100 g kg(-1) fully ozonated flour had greater specific loaf volume and whiter crumb compared to bread made with control flour. Exposure of flour to ozone for longer times (9-45 min) and higher blends (200-1000 g kg(-1) ) deteriorated quality of bread. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. Novel Structural and Functional Motifs in cellulose synthase (CesA Genes of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum, L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simerjeet Kaur

    Full Text Available Cellulose is the primary determinant of mechanical strength in plant tissues. Late-season lodging is inversely related to the amount of cellulose in a unit length of the stem. Wheat is the most widely grown of all the crops globally, yet information on its CesA gene family is limited. We have identified 22 CesA genes from bread wheat, which include homoeologs from each of the three genomes, and named them as TaCesAXA, TaCesAXB or TaCesAXD, where X denotes the gene number and the last suffix stands for the respective genome. Sequence analyses of the CESA proteins from wheat and their orthologs from barley, maize, rice, and several dicot species (Arabidopsis, beet, cotton, poplar, potato, rose gum and soybean revealed motifs unique to monocots (Poales or dicots. Novel structural motifs CQIC and SVICEXWFA were identified, which distinguished the CESAs involved in the formation of primary and secondary cell wall (PCW and SCW in all the species. We also identified several new motifs specific to monocots or dicots. The conserved motifs identified in this study possibly play functional roles specific to PCW or SCW formation. The new insights from this study advance our knowledge about the structure, function and evolution of the CesA family in plants in general and wheat in particular. This information will be useful in improving culm strength to reduce lodging or alter wall composition to improve biofuel production.

  19. Identification of superior parents and hybrids from diallel crosses of bread wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baloch, M.J.; Rajper, T.A.; Jatoi, W.A.

    2013-01-01

    Five parents of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) viz. TD-1, SKD-1, Marvi, Moomal and Mehran were crossed in a half diallel design; hence 10 F 1 hybrids were developed. Parents alongwith hybrids were evaluated for combining ability and heterosis for tillers/plant, spike length, spike density, grains/spike, grain yield/plant and seed index. The experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with four replications at Botanical Garden, Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, Sindh Agriculture University,Tandojam, during 2010. The analysis of variance due to genotypes, parents, hybrids and parents vs. hybrids was significant for all the characters which revealed presence of significant amount of genetic variability in the material. The results also indicated significant differences among the parents for their general combining ability (GCA) and hybrids for specific combining ability (SCA) suggesting the importance of both additive and non-additive genes in the expression of traits studied. The greater magnitude of SCA variances over GCA were recorded for tillers/plant, grains/spike and grain yield/plant which indicated the importance of additive gene action while the involvement of non-additive genes was evident in the inheritance of spike length, spike density and seed index. Among the parents, generally TD-I, Mehran, Moomal and Marvi were the best general combiners for tillers/plant, spike length, spike density, grains/spike, grain yield/plant and seed index. Whereas, the hybrids like SKD-1 x Mehran, Marvi x Mehran, Marvix Moomal and TD-I x SKD-I were the best specific combiners for majority of yield traits. Positive heterosis was expressed by the hybrid SKD-1 x Moomal for tillers per plant; TD-I x Moomal for spike length; TD-1 x SKD-I for grains per spike; Marvi x Mehran for spike density and Marvi x Moomal for seed index. The best parents and hybrids could be effectively utilized in hybridization and selection programmes and also for hybrid crop

  20. OPTIMIZATION OF HORMONE COMPOSITION OF NUTRIENT MEDIUM FOR IN VITRO EFFICIENT REGENERATION OF BREAD WHEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. D. Nikitina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Optimal values of phytohormones in the differential nutrient medium providing the efficient realization of morphogenetic potencies of four spring bread wheat varieties (Skala, Spectr, Zarnitsa and Zhnitsa from immature embryo cultures have been determined. For callus induction explants 1.5 – 1.7 mmin size were used, which were subsequently passed to the medium by Linsmaier&Skoog possessing 0.8 % of agar, 3 % of sucrose and 2.0 mg l-1 dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D. Cell cultures were incubated in darkness at the temperature 26±1 °С. 30 – 35 days after in accordance with the scheme of complete factorial experiment of 32 type calli were passed to differential medium supplemented with 2,4-D at levels 0.5; 2.5; 4.0 mg l-1 and with kinetin (6-furfurylaminopurine at levels 0.5; 2.25 and 4.0 mg l-1. Number of replications for each of 9 variants was four. As a result, 20 mathematic models (4 varieties × 5 stages of regeneration designed as polynomial quadric equation were obtained. On the ground of the analysis of models it was established that optimal values for factors are not equal both for cultures of genotypes analyzed and for different regeneration stages. For callus tissues of Skala and Spectr an optimal value of kinetin for all regeneration stages was 0.5 mg l-1 except for the frequency of morphogenesis. Optimal values of 2,4-D for the same varieties were within 2.3 – 3.2 mg l-1. For cell cultures of Zarnitsa and Zhnitsa recommended concentration intervals made up 1.3 – 2.2 mg l-1 on kinetin except for the frequency of rhizogenesis, and 1.9 – 2.7 on 2,4-D. The level of exogenous phytohormones necessary for stem differentiation was lower than the one for root formation. The dependence of morphogenesis results on the hormonal status of the explant has been discussed.

  1. Whole-genome profiling and shotgun sequencing delivers an anchored, gene-decorated, physical map assembly of bread wheat chromosome 6A

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Poursarebani, N.; Nussbaumer, T.; Šimková, Hana; Šafář, Jan; Witsenboer, H.; van Oeveren, J.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Mayer, K. F. X.; Stein, N.; Schnurbusch, T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 79, č. 2 (2014), s. 334-347 ISSN 0960-7412 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : bread wheat chromosome 6A * whole-genome profiling * LINEAR TOPOLOGICAL CONTIGS Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.972, year: 2014

  2. Effect of extruded wheat flour and pre-gelatinized cassava starch on process and quality parameters of French-type bread elaborated from frozen dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortolan, Fernanda; Brites, Lara Tatiane G; Montenegro, Flávio M; Schmiele, Marcio; Steel, Caroline J; Clerici, Maria Teresa P S; Almeida, Eveline L; Chang, Yoon K

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to verify the potential of extruded wheat flour (EWF) or pre-gelatinized cassava starch (PGS) to improve the process and the quality of French bread elaborated from frozen dough. Three formulations were prepared: 100% control wheat flour (CWF) and the other two formulations with 5% substitution of wheat flour by EWF or PGS. Frozen doughs were frozen stored for seven days and after this period they were thawed, fermented, baked and evaluated for physical, chemical and technological characteristics. Available glucose levels found for EWF (12g/100g), and PGS (11.7g/100g) in relation to CWF (7.1g/100g) showed higher sugar availability for yeasts at the initial stage of proofing, and may also have had a cryoprotective effect when freezing bread doughs. The frozen doughs with EWF or PGS, when thawed and fermented, presented higher volume increase, but after baking, they presented lower volume when compared to the control bread. The results of this study are promising for the use of extruded wheat flour or pre-gelatinized cassava starch as sugar providers for doughs' post-freezing proofing process, improving frozen dough process of French-type bread. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effect of ovary induction on bread wheat anther culture: ovary genotype and developmental stage, and candidate gene association.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Castillo

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Ovary pre-conditioned medium and ovary co-culture increased the efficiency of green doubled haploid plant production in bread wheat anther culture. The positive effect of this medium led to a 6- and 11-fold increase in the numbers of embryos and green plants, respectively, having a greater effect on a medium-low responding cultivar. Ovary genotype and developmental stage significantly affected microspore embryogenesis. By he use of Caramba ovaries it was possible to reach a 2-fold increase in the number of embryos and green plants, and to decrease the rate of albinism. Mature ovaries from flowers containing microspores at a late binucleate stage raised the number of embryos and green plants by 25% and 46% as compared to immature ovaries (excised from flowers with microspores at a mid-late uninucleate stage. The highest numbers of embryos and green plants were produced when using mature Caramba ovaries. Ovaries from Galeón, Tigre and Kilopondio cultivars successfully induced microspore embryogenesis at the same rate as Caramba ovaries. Moreover, Tigre ovaries raised the percentage of spontaneous chromosome doubling up to 71%. Attempts were made to identify molecular mechanisms associated to the inductive effect of the ovaries on microspore embryogenesis. The genes TAA1b, FLA26 and WALI6 associated to wheat microspore embryogenesis, the CGL1 gene involved in glycan biosynthesis or degradation, and the FER gene involved in the ovary signalling process were expressed and/or induced at different rates during ovary culture. The expression pattern of FLA26 and FER could be related to the differences between genotypes and developmental stages in the inductive effect of the ovary. Our results open opportunities for new approaches to increase bread wheat doubled haploid production by anther culture, and to identify the functional components of the ovary inductive effect on microspore embryogenesis.

  4. Effect of Grewia venusta FRESEN mucilage on the proximate composition, physical and sensory properties of bread produced from wheat and cassava composite flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arubi P. Alobo

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Wheat and cassava composite breads are generally associated with volume and textural defects in contrast with the traditional wheat based variants. Efforts to mitigate this challenge through use of synthetic additives have been unsuccessful owing to safety concerns. The objective of this study was to explore Grewia venusta mucilage as a potential natural additive in wheat-cassava composite bread production. Sweet cassava flour was used to replace wheat flour at 100: 0 (control, 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30% ratios in bread making. Aqueous extract of G. venusta stem bark was oven dried (50±3 oC, milled and added at 0, 1.0 and 2.0% (w/w to the flour mixtures. These, along with other conventional inputs were mixed, and used to produce bread. Proximate compositions, physical and sensory properties of the bread loaves were evaluated. Cassava flour inclusion resulted in significant (P≤0.05 decrease in the protein content of the control from 18.1% to 12.1% (90:10%, 11.5% (80:20% and 9.9% (70:30%. Addition of mucilage marginally increased the protein and dietary fibre contents of the loaves. Loaves containing 1-2% mucilage were more regular in shape with smoother crust than those without mucilage. Cassava flour addition at 10%, 20% and 30% decreased loaf height from 6.0 cm to 5.8 cm, 5.7 cm and 5.5 cm, as well as loaf volume from 815.5 cm3 to 783.1 cm3, 776.8 cm3 and 744.5 cm3, respectively. Mucilage inclusion resulted in increased heights and volumes of the loaves and reduced weights of loaf fragments upon slicing. The mucilage significantly improved the texture of the bread loaves. 

  5. Proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to investigate proximate composition, bread characteristics and sensory evaluation of cocoyam-wheat composite breads at different levels of cocoyam flour substitution for human consumption.A whole wheat bread (WWB) and cocoyam-composite breads (CCB1,CCB 2 and CCB 3) were prepared ...

  6. Effect of mechanically damaged starch from wheat flour on the quality of frozen dough and steamed bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Sen; Li, Li; Wang, Xiao-Xi; Zheng, Xue-Ling; Bian, Ke; Bao, Qing-Dan

    2016-07-01

    The influence of damaged starch (DS) on the quality of frozen dough and steamed bread were investigated. Characterization of the farinographical properties showed that DS levels affected water absorption, development, weakness, falling number and gluten index. Flour viscosity profiles indicated that pasting temperatures increased, but peak viscosity, low viscosity, breakdown, final viscosity and setback increased and then decreased with increasing amounts of DS. Compared to leavened dough, unleavened dough had significantly higher peak times, of T21 and T22, and was also affected by DS concentration. Steamed bread had a higher specific volume, relatively lower hardness, exhibited more whiteness, and a higher degree of gumminess and chewiness with higher DS levels. We compared two methods of making steamed bread and assessed the quality of the product. We found that an appropriate DS content improved the quality of frozen dough and steamed bread. This study provides the basis for future development and improvements to methods for making frozen dough products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Cytogenetic analysis and mapping of leaf rust resistance in Aegilops speltoides Tausch derived bread wheat line Selection2427 carrying putative gametocidal gene(s).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niranjana, M; Vinod; Sharma, J B; Mallick, Niharika; Tomar, S M S; Jha, S K

    2017-12-01

    Leaf rust (Puccinia triticina) is a major biotic stress affecting wheat yields worldwide. Host-plant resistance is the best method for controlling leaf rust. Aegilops speltoides is a good source of resistance against wheat rusts. To date, five Lr genes, Lr28, Lr35, Lr36, Lr47, and Lr51, have been transferred from Ae. speltoides to bread wheat. In Selection2427, a bread wheat introgresed line with Ae. speltoides as the donor parent, a dominant gene for leaf rust resistance was mapped to the long arm of chromosome 3B (LrS2427). None of the Lr genes introgressed from Ae. speltoides have been mapped to chromosome 3B. Since none of the designated seedling leaf rust resistance genes have been located on chromosome 3B, LrS2427 seems to be a novel gene. Selection2427 showed a unique property typical of gametocidal genes, that when crossed to other bread wheat cultivars, the F 1 showed partial pollen sterility and poor seed setting, whilst Selection2427 showed reasonable male and female fertility. Accidental co-transfer of gametocidal genes with LrS2427 may have occurred in Selection2427. Though LrS2427 did not show any segregation distortion and assorted independently of putative gametocidal gene(s), its utilization will be difficult due to the selfish behavior of gametocidal genes.

  8. Evaluation of the Effect of Crop Rotations on Yield and Yield Components of Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Darya)

    OpenAIRE

    H. A. Fallahi; U. Mahmadyarov; H. Sabouri; M. Ezat-Ahmadi4

    2013-01-01

    Grain yield in wheat is influenced directly and indirectly by other plant characteristics. One of the main goals in wheat breeding programs is increase of grain yield. Considering the role of crop rotation in increasing grain yield, and in order to study the difference between crop rotations for wheat yield and yield components (Darya cultivar), an experiment was conducted with six rotation treatments (wheat-chickpea-wheat, wheat-cotton-wheat, wheat-watermelon-wheat, wheat-wheat-wheat, wheat-...

  9. Structural differences between rye and wheat breads but not total fiber content may explain the lower postprandial insulin response to rye bread

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juntunen, Katri S; Laaksonen, David E; Autio, Karin

    2003-01-01

    -fiber rye bread; each bread provided 50 g available carbohydrate and was served with breakfast. Plasma glucose, insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide 1, and serum C-peptide were measured in fasting and 8 postprandial blood samples. In vitro starch hydrolysis...... breads were found. Glucose and glucagon-like peptide 1 responses to the rye breads were not significantly different from those to the control, except at 150 and 180 min. In vitro starch hydrolysis was slower in all rye breads than in the control, and the structure of continuous matrix and starch granules...

  10. Influence of organic acids on rheological and bread-making characteristics of fortified wheat flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Sheetal; Shimray, Crassina A; Venkateswara Rao, G

    2012-06-01

    Flour was fortified with premix containing ferrous fumarate and folic acid. Organic acids such as citric acid, malic acid and tartaric acid, which are promoters of iron bioavailability, were added at three levels and their influence on rheological and bread-making characteristics was studied. Farinograph water absorption increased with fortificants, but with addition of organic acids there was a decrease. Maximum pressure was 77 mm in control, which increased to 78-88 mm with the addition of different acids to the fortified flour. Addition of organic acids to fortified flour brought about a decrease in peak viscosity, hot paste viscosity, cold paste viscosity and setback values. The L, a and b values of fortified breads were similar to that of control. Sensory analysis revealed marginal differences in the overall quality of breads prepared with fortified flour with the addition of organic acids.

  11. PEMANFAATAN UBI JALAR UNGU (Ipomoea batatas L. Poir SEBAGAI PENGGANTI SEBAGIAN TEPUNG TERIGU DAN SUMBER ANTIOKSIDAN PADA ROTI TAWAR [Purple Sweet Potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Poir as a Partial Subtitute of Wheat flour and Source of Antioxidant on Plain Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardoko*

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Purple sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Poir is potential for functional food, especially as antioxidant source due to its purple color and other nutrient content. The objective of this research was to produce plain bread containing antioxidant by partial substitution of wheat flour with purple sweet potato flour. The result showed that the best plain bread was produced by a maximum substitution of 20% purple sweet potato flour to wheat flour. The hedonic characteristics of the resulting bread including aroma, taste, and texture were not significantly different from bread without substitution. Nevertheless, the crust was harder and darker. Addition of 1.0% GMS emulsifier and reduction of purple potato flour to 15% increased the score of softness, hedonic texture, acceptance level, as well as the volume of the bread. The substituted bread had antioxidant activity of 55833.78 ppm DPPH as shown by the IC50 value and contained 4.30% of dietary fiber.

  12. Control of mixing step in the bread production with weak wheat flour and sourdough

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Parenti

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Recently, several old Italian grain varieties have been reinstated, and the market seems to reward the breads made with these flours. Among such varieties, cultivar Verna appears to be interesting because the regular consumption of bread obtained by this variety and sourdough provides beneficial effects on human health such as the improving of the lipid, inflammatory, and hemorheological profiles. However, flours derived from Verna shows low technological performances. For example, the W value of these flours, obtained with alveoghraphic tests and considered as the commercial standard for the flour “strength” evaluation, is largely inferior than the W values of the commercial flour blends currently used in the bread making process. Moreover, the W values broadly change among the batches of Verna flours, whereas, usually, commercial blends are provided to bakeries with standard technological properties. Hence, these properties of Verna flour could lead to developed or overworked doughs and therefore to breads of worse quality. In addition, the previous mentioned large variability of flours from Verna can affect also the sourdough microbiota. For these reasons the composition and activity of the sourdough microorganisms should be controlled while the mixing process should be able to adapt to the different flour properties. Some works, in literature, report that monitoring the electrical consumption could provide useful information about the dough rheology, and this could be used to monitor the mixing step. In the present work the effect of different mixing times are evaluated on breads made with Verna flour type 2 leavened with sourdough. Tests were carried out at industrial scale in two different days. During the tests the electric consumption was monitored to highlight some features suitable for the mixing phase control. The breads were evaluated in terms of loaf volume measurement, crumb image analysis and losses of moisture content during

  13. Optimization of image analysis techniques for quality assessment of whole-wheat breads made with fat replacer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Matos Scheuer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The cellular structure of healthy food products, with added dietary fiber and low in calories, is an important factor that contributes to the assessment of quality, which can be quantified by image analysis of visual texture. This study seeks to compare image analysis techniques (binarization using Otsu’s method and the default ImageJ algorithm, a variation of the iterative intermeans method for quantification of differences in the crumb structure of breads made with different percentages of whole-wheat flour and fat replacer, and discuss the behavior of the parameters number of cells, mean cell area, cell density, and circularity using response surface methodology. Comparative analysis of the results achieved with the Otsu and default ImageJ algorithms showed a significant difference between the studied parameters. The Otsu method demonstrated the crumb structure of the analyzed breads more reliably than the default ImageJ algorithm, and is thus the most suitable in terms of structural representation of the crumb texture.

  14. Bread wheat milling behavior: effects of genetic and environmental factors, and modeling using grain mechanical resistance traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oury, François-Xavier; Lasme, P; Michelet, C; Dubat, A; Gardet, O; Heumez, E; Rolland, B; Rousset, M; Abecassis, J; Bar L'Helgouac'h, C; Lullien-Pellerin, V

    2017-05-01

    Genetic (Pinb-D1 alleles) and environment (through vitreousness) have important effects on bread wheat milling behavior. SKCS optimal values corresponding to soft vitreous or hard mealy grains were defined to obtain the highest total flour yield. Near-isogenic lines of bread wheat that differ in hardness, due to distinct puroindoline-b alleles (the wild type, Pinb-D1a, or the mutated forms, Pinb-D1b or Pinb-D1d), were grown in different environments and under two nitrogen fertilization levels, to study genetic and environmental effects on milling behavior. Milling tests used a prototype mill, equipped with two break steps, one sizing step, and two reduction steps, and this enabled 21 individual or aggregated milling fractions to be collected. Four current grain characters, thousand grain weight, test weight, grain diameter, and protein content, were measured, and three characters known to influence grain mechanical resistance, NIRS hardness, SKCS hardness index, and grain vitreousness (a character affecting the grain mechanical behavior but generally not studied). As expected, the wild type or mutated forms of Pinb-D1 alleles led to contrasted milling behavior: soft genotypes produced high quantities of break flour and low quantities of reduction flour, whereas reverse quantities were observed for hard genotypes. This different milling behavior had only a moderate influence on total flour production. NIRS hardness and vitreousness were, respectively, the most important and the second most important grain characters to explain milling behavior. However, contrary to NIRS hardness, vitreousness was only involved in endosperm reduction and not in the separation between the starchy endosperm and the outer layers. The highest flour yields were obtained for SKCS values comprised between 30 and 50, which corresponded either to soft vitreous or hard mealy grains. Prediction equations were defined and showed a good accuracy estimating break and reduction flours portions, but

  15. Screening of Bread Wheat Genotypes for Stem Reserves Remobilization, Relative Water Content and Osmotic Adjustment under Drought Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Soleimani

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Drought one of the most important global threats against bread wheat production. In order to identify physiological traits associated with drought tolerance, 52 bread wheat varieties were cultured under two normal and drought stress condition in a randomized complete block desigen with three replications. RWC (in three independent times, leaf rolling, leaf silvering, days to flowering, days to maturity and stem reserve remobilization were investigeted. Also in a pot experiment osmotic adjustment of the varieties were measured at seedling stage. varieties Star and Bezostaya had the highest RWC (0.79 and 0.78, respectively. Osmotic adjustment in Rasol and Unknown11 were highest (0.58 and 0.56, respectively. Varieties Tipik, Unknown11 and Azar2 showed the least decrease in thousand grain weight after spraying with KI (4.8, 5.5 and 5.5, respectively. Also varieties Dez, Gaspard and MV-17 have the highest degree of leaf silvering and varieties Niknejad, Star and Kohdasht under drought stress were able than the other varieties bring their leaves to form a rolling and cope with water deficit. Under drought stress, Varieties Alborz, Zagros and Inia were observed premature than the other varieties and Gaspard and Kaslojen varieties were observed late mature than the other varieties. Altogetehr varieties Kohdasht, Star and Bezostaya can be used as genetic resources for leaf water retention under drought stress condition for imjproving other varieties. Also as Azar2 and Unknown11 had highest amount of thousand grain weight under normal condition and simoultanously showed high ability in stem reserves remobilization they can be selected as parents in crosses for improving these traits.

  16. Starch molecular fractionation of bread wheat varieties Fraccionamiento molecular del almidón de variedades trigo pan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Corcuera

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The starch composition of bread making wheat seeds (Triticum aestivum subsp. vulgare of the Argentine commercial varieties Buck Charrua, Buck Ombú, Buck Guaraní, Buck Catriel and Buck Poncho was analyzed by two different methods. One of these depends on the differential solubility of amylose and amylopectin in a water:butanol mixture whilst the other process is based on the use of the lectin Concanavalin A. These methods were complemented by spectrophotometric determinations to enable the identification of the á-D- glucanes and also improved the comparative quantitation of the amylose and amylopectin fractions. As a result of this, no significant variations for starch content (ANOVA, F4- 8= 0.7; p ≥ 0.05 were found among these varieties, although strong differences were found for amylose (ANOVA, F4- 8= 44.4; p ≥ 0.01 and amylopectin content (ANOVA, F4- 8= 77.1; p ≥ 0.01. These results and the fact that no differences were found for amylose (ANOVA, F2- 8= 0.3 and amylopectin among years within the same variety (ANOVA, F2- 8:0.8 at p ≥0.01 led to the conclusion that the diverse properties and end-uses of the starch mainly depend on the genotype, and that starch quality is null or scarcely influenced by the environment. This knowledge must be taken into account for wheat breeding purposes.Se analizó la composición del almidón de granos de trigo pan (Triticum aestivum subsp. v u l g a r e de las variedades comerciales argentinas Buck Charrúa, Buck Ombú, Buck Guaraní, Buck Catriel y Buck Poncho mediante dos métodos diferentes. Uno de ellos depende de la solubilidad diferencial de la amilosa y amilopectina en una mezcla de agua:butanol, mientras que el otro proceso está basado en el uso de la lectina Concanavalina A. Estos métodos fueron complementados mediante determinaciones espectrofotométricas que facilitaron la identificación de los á-D-glucanos y también permitieron mejorar la cuantificación comparativa de las fracciones

  17. The TaDREB3 transgene transferred by conventional crossings to different genetic backgrounds of bread wheat improves drought tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavrukov, Yuri; Baho, Manahil; Lopato, Sergiy; Langridge, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Drought tolerance of the wheat cultivar Bobwhite was previously enhanced by transformation with a construct containing the wheat DREB3 gene driven by the stress-inducible maize Rab17 promoter. Progeny of a single T2 transgenic line were used as pollinators in crosses with four elite bread wheat cultivars from Western Australia: Bonnie Rock, IGW-2971, Magenta and Wyalkatchem, with the aim of evaluating transgene performance in different genetic backgrounds. The selected pollinator line, BW8-9-10-3, contained multiple transgene copies, had significantly improved drought tolerance compared with wild-type plants and showed no growth and development penalties or abnormalities. A single hybrid plant was selected from each cross-combination for three rounds of backcrossing with the corresponding maternal wheat cultivar. The transgene was detected in all four F1 BC3 combinations, but stress-inducible transgene expression was found in only three of the four combinations. Under well-watered conditions, the phenotypes and grain yield components of the F2 BC3 transgene-expressing lines were similar to those of corresponding recurrent parents and null-segregants. Under severe drought conditions, the backcross lines demonstrated 12-18% higher survival rates than the corresponding control plants. Two from four F3 BC3 transgenic lines showed significantly higher yield (18.9% and 21.5%) than control plants under limited water conditions. There was no induction of transgene expression under cold stress, and therefore, no improvement of frost tolerance observed in the progenies of drought-tolerant F3 BC3 lines. © 2015 Society for Experimental Biology, Association of Applied Biologists and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. THE INFLUENCE OF DISPERSION OF FLOUR’S PARTICLES FROM WHOLE-GRAIN WHEAT AND DISPERSED GRAIN MASS ON STRUCTURE FORMATION OF DOUGH AND BREAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. L. Cheshinskii

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. On structure of "whipped" bread and dough is influenced by many factors, one of which is a dispersion of particles of flour. In this regard, was determined to investigate the structure formation processes of bread depending on the dispersity of the particles of flour. For this I have chosen two parties coarse whole meal flour from wheat grains with different grain size, select different modes humidity test and the experiment in the mixing-whipping-forming installation. The results of the experiment were obtained graphs showing the dependence of the current strength of the drive and volume weight on the duration of the process of churning the dough. At the stage deposits with increasing wetness of the dough decreases its viscosity and decreases the value of the current intensity. At the stage of churning Pro-comes a saturation test the air, thus decreasing its viscosity and current drive. Properties of dough and bread from different batches were compared. The dough obtained from flour II party, i.e., low dispersion, has a small viscosity, and the bread is slightly moist to the touch. . Thus, the results of the experiment showed that the physic-chemical and colloidal processes in structure formation of dough and bread is higher, the higher dispersity particles of flour, and, consequently, improves the quality of "whipped" bread.

  19. Effect of bread dough mixing method on rye bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đukić Dragutin A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of sourdough (indirect bread dough mixing method on the quality of rye/wheat bread (TYPE 500 wheat flour and whole grain rye flour - 60:40 and determine its advantages over the straight dough method. Three bread dough mixing methods were used: I - indirect bread dough mixing using flour scalding; II - indirect bread dough mixing without flour scalding; III - straight dough mixing. The study involved the monitoring of the following: microbial characterristics of the flour and dough (yeasts and lactic acid bacteria and of the bread (presence of Enterobacteriaceae, yeasts and moulds; chemical properties of the dough and the bread (pH and degree of acidity; organoleptic attributes of bread (volume, porosity according to Dallman, crumb elasticity, pore structure fineness, bread crumb score, external appearance, crumb appearance, flavour of both the crust and the crumb. The results showed the highest counts of lactic acid bacteria and yeasts in the indirect bread dough mixing method using rye flour scalding. The rye/wheat bread made with sourdough had a mild sourish flavour, an intense aroma, a prolonged shelf life, and reduced crumbliness. The study suggests that the technological process of sourdough-type rye/wheat bread making is an important requirement in improving bread quality and assortment that can be used in any bakery facility.[ Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31057 i br. III 46009

  20. Detection of alien genetic introgressions in bread wheat using dot-blot genomic hybridisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey, María-Dolores; Prieto, Pilar

    2017-01-01

    Simple, reliable methods for the identification of alien genetic introgressions are required in plant breeding programmes. The use of genomic dot-blot hybridisation allows the detection of small Hordeum chilense genomic introgressions in the descendants of genetic crosses between wheat and H. chilense addition or substitution lines in wheat when molecular markers are difficult to use. Based on genomic in situ hybridisation, DNA samples from wheat lines carrying putatively H. chilense introgressions were immobilised on a membrane, blocked with wheat genomic DNA and hybridised with biotin-labelled H. chilense genomic DNA as a probe. This dot-blot screening reduced the number of plants necessary to be analysed by molecular markers or in situ hybridisation, saving time and money. The technique was sensitive enough to detect a minimum of 5 ng of total genomic DNA immobilised on the membrane or about 1/420 dilution of H. chilense genomic DNA in the wheat background. The robustness of the technique was verified by in situ hybridisation. In addition, the detection of other wheat relative species such as Hordeum vulgare , Secale cereale and Agropyron cristatum in the wheat background was also reported .

  1. Radiotracing selenium in bread-wheat seeds for a Se-biofortification program. An optimization study in seed enrichment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galinha, C.; Freitas, M.C.; Pacheco, A.M.G.; Coutinho, J.; Macas, B.; Almeida, A.S.

    2012-01-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential micronutrient for human health, but its deficiency may affect at least one billion people worldwide. Plants and plant-derived products transfer the soil-uptaken Se to humans through the food chain, which is hardly enough when soils have been always poor or already exhausted in bioavailable Se species. Other than agronomic approaches for enhancing Se levels in cereals, such as soil and foliar supplements, seed enrichment may be viewed as an alternative Se-biofortification technique. This study addresses the protocol for preparing Se-enriched wheat seeds, with the specific purpose of optimizing the administration of Se to the seeds prior to sowing. The first step was to soak an amount of bread-wheat seeds in an active Se solution, made with irradiated [Na 2 O 4 Se], and then monitoring 75 Se in periodically-retrieved samples from that original amount. To avoid losing Se to soil (after sowing), and, especially, to ensure that Se gets really absorbed into the seeds - and not just adsorbed onto them - the washing time of the seeds should be optimized as well. This was carried out by washing Se-treated seeds several times, until no significant amount of the radiotracer could be detected in the washing water. In what concerns the full optimization procedure, the overall results of the present study point to an optimum time of 48 h for soaking and 24 h for washing. (author)

  2. Study of Yield and Effective Traits in Bread Wheat Recombinant Inbred Lines (Triticum aestivum L. under Water Deficit Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mohammad zadeh

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects some traits on seed yield of recombinant inbred lines of wheat under water deficit stress was studied. This research was done at the Agricultural Research Stations, Islamic Azad University, Tabriz Branch in 2010- 2011. 28 recombinant inbred lines of wheat bread with two parents (Norstar and Zagros in split plot experiment based on a randomized complete block design with three replications at two irrigation levels (70 and 140 mm evaporation from pan class A were studied. Analysis of variance indicated a significant genetic differences in all traits under study among the lines. Lines No. 32, 163 and 182 produced highest yield under both irrigation levels. Number of spikes, grains per spike and harvest index had the highest positive correlation with grain yield. Path analysis based on stepwise regression showed that under the normal irrigation conditions, number spike (0.556, number of grains per spike (0.278, weight of 1000 grain (0.259 and the drought stress number spike (0.430, straw yield (0.276 and peduncle length (0.323 had the most direct and positive effect on yield respectively.

  3. Effect of multiple fortification on the bioavailability of minerals in wheat meal bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Anwaar; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Randhawa, Muhammad Atif; Farooq, Umar; Akhtar, Saeed; Sultan, Muhammad Tauseef

    2012-12-01

    Bioavailability of calcium, iron and zinc as calcium carbonate (CaCO3), ferrous sulfate (FeSO4) and zinc sulphate (ZnSO4) @ 1,000, 40 and 20 mg kg(-1) respectively from fortified bread of 72% extraction straight grade flour was assessed. Fortified bread diets were fed to 64 female Sprague-Dawley Albino rats for a period of 28 days. The retention of Ca, Fe and Zn was measured in plasma, femur and liver tissues of rats. The results showed that the feed intake and live body weight of the experimental animals increased significantly with the time period. The Ca levels in plasma and liver did not change significantly while in femur, Ca retention changed significantly with changing type of the fortificants. Similarly, the results for percent apparent absorption (AA) of Ca also remained unchanged (P fortification of flour to address minerals malnutrition in the vulnerable groups.

  4. Monitoring the staling of wheat bread using 2D MIR-NIR correlation spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringsted, Tine; Siesler, Heinz Wilhelm; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2017-01-01

    was found to correlate positively with increased bread hardness and to co-vary with the near-infrared band at 910 nm in the short wavelength region (r2 = 0.88 to hardness), the near-infrared band at 1688 nm in the 1. overtone region (r2 = 0.97 to hardness) and to the near-infrared band in the long...

  5. Irradiated and stored potato flour as substitute for portion of wheat flour in Shamy bread

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nassed, A.; Attia, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Flour obtained from potato cv. Alpha tubers irradiated with 0, 50 or 150 Gy was combined in 0-15% mixtures with wheat flour, stored for 6 months, then analysed at 3-month intervals for nutrient content. Potato flour contained twice the lysine content of wheat flour, but protein levels fell as irradiated or unirradiated potato flour levels in the mixture were increased; this was attributed to enzyme activity

  6. QTL mapping for nine drought-responsive agronomic traits in bread wheat under irrigated and rain-fed environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gahlaut, Vijay; Jaiswal, Vandana; Tyagi, Bhudeva S.; Singh, Gyanendra; Sareen, Sindhu; Balyan, Harindra S.

    2017-01-01

    In bread wheat, QTL interval mapping was conducted for nine important drought responsive agronomic traits. For this purpose, a doubled haploid (DH) mapping population derived from Kukri/Excalibur was grown over three years at four separate locations in India, both under irrigated and rain-fed environments. Single locus analysis using composite interval mapping (CIM) allowed detection of 98 QTL, which included 66 QTL for nine individual agronomic traits and 32 QTL, which affected drought sensitivity index (DSI) for the same nine traits. Two-locus analysis allowed detection of 19 main effect QTL (M-QTL) for four traits (days to anthesis, days to maturity, grain filling duration and thousand grain weight) and 19 pairs of epistatic QTL (E-QTL) for two traits (days to anthesis and thousand grain weight). Eight QTL were common in single locus analysis and two locus analysis. These QTL (identified both in single- and two-locus analysis) were distributed on 20 different chromosomes (except 4D). Important genomic regions on chromosomes 5A and 7A were also identified (5A carried QTL for seven traits and 7A carried QTL for six traits). Marker-assisted recurrent selection (MARS) involving pyramiding of important QTL reported in the present study, together with important QTL reported earlier, may be used for improvement of drought tolerance in wheat. In future, more closely linked markers for the QTL reported here may be developed through fine mapping, and the candidate genes may be identified and used for developing a better understanding of the genetic basis of drought tolerance in wheat. PMID:28793327

  7. Changes in allelic frequency over time in European bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) varieties revealed using DArT and SSR markers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orabi, Jihad; Jahoor, Ahmed; Backes, Gunter Martin

    2014-01-01

    and release date. Interestingly, we detected a decrease in genetic diversity in wheat accessions released over the period from 1960 to 1980. However, our results also showed that modern plant breeding have succeeded in maintaining genetic diversity in modern wheat cultivars. Studying allelic frequencies using...... insight into alleles linked to important traits that have been the subject of positive or negative selection in the past and that may be useful for marker-assisted breeding programs in the future.......A collection of 189 bread wheat landraces and cultivars, primarily of European origin, released between 1886 and 2009, was analyzed using two DNA marker systems. A set of 76 SSR markers and ~7,000 DArT markers distributed across the wheat genome were employed in these analyses. All of the SSR...

  8. Effect of new synthetic PEGylated ferulic acids in comparison with ferulic acid and commercial surfactants on the properties of wheat flour dough and bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicks, François; Richel, Aurore; Dubrowski, Thomas; Wathelet, Bernard; Wathelet, Jean-Paul; Blecker, Christophe; Paquot, Michel

    2013-08-15

    Ferulic acid esterified with poly(ethylene glycol) with three different average molecular weights (200, 400 and 1000 g mol(-1)) was studied in bread-making. The effects of these antioxidants on the properties of wheat flour dough and bread were analysed and compared with those obtained with ferulic acid and two commercial surfactants, the diacetyl tartaric acid ester of mono- and diglycerides and sodium stearoyl lactylate. Farinographic and alveographic methods as well as weight, volume and bread firmness measurements were used for this purpose. Similar to ferulic acid, when the PEGylated derivatives were implemented in the dough (5000 ppm), it accelerated the breakdown of the dough and decreased its rheological properties. However, the important diminution of loaf volume, observed when dough supplemented with ferulic acid was baked, was avoided. That decrease in volume was related to the inhibition of the yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisae) by the unesterified ferulic acid. Moreover, two of the PEGylated ferulic acids even contributed to an increase of loaf volumes (5-6%) and demonstrated crumb softener properties. The addition of ferulic acid to wheat flour dough caused the inhibition of the yeast, which resulted in decreased bread volume. That effect could be avoid by the esterification of ferulic acid with poly(ethylene glycol). © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. The Expression of TaRca2-α Gene Associated with Net Photosynthesis Rate, Biomass and Grain Yield in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) under Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeed, Iqbal; Bachir, Daoura Goudia; Chen, Liang; Hu, Yin-Gang

    2016-01-01

    Improvement in activation of Rubisco by Rubisco activase can potentially enhance CO2 assimilation and photosynthetic efficiency in plants. The three homoeologous copies of TaRca2-α were identified on chromosomes 4AL, 4BS and 4DS (TaRca2-α-4AL, TaRca2-α-4BS, and TaRca2-α-4DS) in bread wheat. Expression patterns of the three copies at heading (Z55), anthesis (Z67) and grain-filling (Z73) stages were investigated through qRT-PCR analyses in a panel of 59 bread wheat genotypes and their effects on net photosynthesis rate (Pn), biomass plant-1 (BMPP) and grain yield plant-1 (GYPP) were further explored. Different but similar expression patterns were observed for the three copies of TaRca2-α at the three growth stages with highest expression at grain-filling stage. TaRca2-α-4BS expressed higher at the three stages than TaRca2-α-4AL and TaRca2-α-4DS. The 59 genotypes could be clustered into three groups as high (7 genotypes), intermediate (41 genotypes) and low (11 genotypes) expression based on the expression of the three copies of TaRca2-α at three growth stages. Significant variations (Pyield of bread wheat.

  10. Nutritional quality of fermented defatted soya and flaxseed flours and their effect on texture and sensory characteristics of wheat sourdough bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkiene, Elena; Juodeikiene, Grazina; Vidmantiene, Daiva

    2012-09-01

    The use of soya and flaxseed flours fermented with Pediococcus acidilactici for wheat sourdough bread production was investigated. The protein digestibility, biogenic amine contents of soya and flaxseed sourdoughs, texture and sensory features of bread were studied. The fermentation with P. acidilactici significantly improved soya and flaxseed protein extraction and increased protein digestibility on an average by 13.5%. The concentrations of histamine (3.8 ± 2.3 and 4.0 ± 0.2 mg/kg), tyramine (4.6 ± 0.7 and 19.3 ± 1.8 mg/kg) and putrescine (66.4 ± 1.3 and 11.3 ± 3.0 mg/kg) do not present a health risk for consumers due to their relatively low levels in fermented plant products. The flaxseed sourdoughs influenced a 17.5% higher specific volume and a 4.6% lower crumb hardness of bread than those of soya sourdoughs, and did not disimprove sensory properties of bread. However, the fermented soya additives decreased acceptability of bread because of intensive taste and odour.

  11. Long-Term Fungal Inhibition by Pisum sativum Flour Hydrolysate during Storage of Wheat Flour Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavecchia, Anna; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2015-01-01

    In order to identify antifungal compounds from natural sources to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, water/salt-soluble extracts (WSE) from different legume flour hydrolysates obtained by the use of a fungal protease were assayed against Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. The agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the pea (Pisum sativum) hydrolysate as the most active. As shown by the hyphal radial growth rate, the WSE had inhibitory activity towards several fungi isolated from bakeries. The MIC of the WSE was 9.0 mg/ml. Fungal inhibition was slightly affected by heating and variations in pH. The antifungal activity was attributed to three native proteins (pea defensins 1 and 2 and a nonspecific lipid transfer protein [nsLTP]) and a mixture of peptides released during hydrolysis. The three proteins have been reported previously as components of the defense system of the plant. Five peptides were purified from WSE and were identified as sequences encrypted in leginsulin A, vicilin, provicilin, and the nsLTP. To confirm antifungal activity, the peptides were chemically synthesized and tested. Freeze-dried WSE were used as ingredients in leavened baked goods. In particular, breads made by the addition of 1.6% (wt/wt) of the extract and fermented by baker's yeast or sourdough were characterized for their main chemical, structural, and sensory features, packed in polyethylene bags, stored at room temperature, and compared to controls prepared without pea hydrolysate. Artificially inoculated slices of a bread containing the WSE did not show contamination by fungi until at least 21 days of storage and behaved like the bread prepared with calcium propionate (0.3%, wt/wt). PMID:25862230

  12. Development and Characterization of a New TILLING Population of Common Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; Huang, Linzhou; Min, Donghong; Phillips, Andy; Wang, Shiqiang; Madgwick, Pippa J.; Parry, Martin A. J.; Hu, Yin-Gang

    2012-01-01

    Mutagenesis is an important tool in crop improvement. However, the hexaploid genome of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) presents problems in identifying desirable genetic changes based on phenotypic screening due to gene redundancy. TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes), a powerful reverse genetic strategy that allows the detection of induced point mutations in individuals of the mutagenized populations, can address the major challenge of linking sequence information to the biological function of genes and can also identify novel variation for crop breeding. Wheat is especially well-suited for TILLING due to the high mutation densities tolerated by polyploids. However, only a few wheat TILLING populations are currently available in the world, which is far from satisfying the requirement of researchers and breeders in different growing environments. In addition, current TILLING screening protocols require costly fluorescence detection systems, limiting their use, especially in developing countries. We developed a new TILLING resource comprising 2610 M2 mutants in a common wheat cultivar ‘Jinmai 47’. Numerous phenotypes with altered morphological and agronomic traits were observed from the M2 and M3 lines in the field. To simplify the procedure and decrease costs, we use unlabeled primers and either non-denaturing polyacrylamide gels or agarose gels for mutation detection. The value of this new resource was tested using PCR with RAPD and Intron-spliced junction (ISJ) primers, and also TILLING in three selected candidate genes, in 300 and 512 mutant lines, revealing high mutation densities of 1/34 kb by RAPD/ISJ analysis and 1/47 kb by TILLING. In total, 31 novel alleles were identified in the 3 targeted genes and confirmed by sequencing. The results indicate that this mutant population represents a useful resource for the wheat research community. We hope that the use of this reverse genetics resource will provide novel allelic diversity for wheat

  13. Development and characterization of a new TILLING population of common bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Chen

    Full Text Available Mutagenesis is an important tool in crop improvement. However, the hexaploid genome of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. presents problems in identifying desirable genetic changes based on phenotypic screening due to gene redundancy. TILLING (Targeting Induced Local Lesions IN Genomes, a powerful reverse genetic strategy that allows the detection of induced point mutations in individuals of the mutagenized populations, can address the major challenge of linking sequence information to the biological function of genes and can also identify novel variation for crop breeding. Wheat is especially well-suited for TILLING due to the high mutation densities tolerated by polyploids. However, only a few wheat TILLING populations are currently available in the world, which is far from satisfying the requirement of researchers and breeders in different growing environments. In addition, current TILLING screening protocols require costly fluorescence detection systems, limiting their use, especially in developing countries. We developed a new TILLING resource comprising 2610 M(2 mutants in a common wheat cultivar 'Jinmai 47'. Numerous phenotypes with altered morphological and agronomic traits were observed from the M(2 and M(3 lines in the field. To simplify the procedure and decrease costs, we use unlabeled primers and either non-denaturing polyacrylamide gels or agarose gels for mutation detection. The value of this new resource was tested using PCR with RAPD and Intron-spliced junction (ISJ primers, and also TILLING in three selected candidate genes, in 300 and 512 mutant lines, revealing high mutation densities of 1/34 kb by RAPD/ISJ analysis and 1/47 kb by TILLING. In total, 31 novel alleles were identified in the 3 targeted genes and confirmed by sequencing. The results indicate that this mutant population represents a useful resource for the wheat research community. We hope that the use of this reverse genetics resource will provide novel allelic

  14. Impact of bran components on the quality of whole wheat bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whole grains contain components, such as dietary fiber, starch, fat, antioxidant nutrients, minerals, vitamin, lignans, and phenolic compounds, which are beneficial to human health. Most of the beneficial components are found in the germ and bran as part of a wheat kernel, which are reduced in the ...

  15. The structure of wheat bread influences the postprandial metabolic response in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eelderink, Coby; Noort, Martijn W. J.; Sozer, Nesli; Koehorst, Martijn; Holst, Jens J.; Deacon, Carolyn F.; Rehfeld, Jens F.; Poutanen, Kaisa; Vonk, Roel J.; Oudhuis, Lizette; Priebe, Marion G.

    2015-01-01

    Postprandial high glucose and insulin responses after starchy food consumption, associated with an increased risk of developing several metabolic diseases, could possibly be improved by altering food structure. We investigated the influence of a compact food structure; different wheat products with

  16. Genetic analysis of differences in stomatal guard cell lengths of bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Наталия Петровна Ламари

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Variation in stomatal guard cell length of parental cultivars and its inheritance in F1 and F2 hybrids have been studied after crossing between contrast genotypes of winter wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Analysis of F2 populations has shown the action of three non-allelic genes in control of stomatal guard cell length of parental cultivars

  17. Characterization of new allele influencing flowering time in bread wheat introgressed from Triticum militinae

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ivaničová, Zuzana; Jakobson, I.; Reis, D.; Šafář, Jan; Milec, Zbyněk; Abrouk, Michael; Doležel, Jaroslav; Jarve, K.; Valárik, Miroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 33, č. 5 (2016), s. 718-727 ISSN 1871-6784 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-07164S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : GENE-EXPRESSION * HEXAPLOID WHEAT * LIGHT QUALITY Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.813, year: 2016

  18. A physical map of the 1-gigabase bread wheat chromosome 3B

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Paux, E.; Sourdille, P.; Salse, J.; Saintenac, C.; Choulet, F.; LeRoy, P.; Korol, A.; Michalak, M.; Kianian, S.; Spielmeyer, W.; Lagudah, E.; Somers, D.; Kilian, A.; Alaux, M.; Vautrin, S.; Bergès, H.; Eversole, K.; Appels, R.; Šafář, Jan; Šimková, Hana; Doležel, Jaroslav; Bernard, M.; Feuillet, C.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 322, č. 5898 (2008), s. 101-104 ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LC06004 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : RUST RESISTANCE GENE * TRITICUM-AESTIVUM * HEXAPLOID WHEAT Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 28.103, year: 2008

  19. Genetic Parameters And Selection Response For Yield Traits In Bread Wheat Under Irrigated And Rainfed Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Iftikhar Hussain; at-ur-Rahman, Hiday; Khan, Imran

    2008-01-01

    A set of 22 F5:7 experimental wheat lines along with four check cultivars (Dera-98, Fakhr-e-Sarhad, Ghaznavi-98 and Tatara) were evaluated as independent experiments under irrigated and rainfed environments using a randomized complete block design at NWFP Agricultural University, Peshawar during 2004-05. The two environments were statistically different for days to heading and spike length only. Highly significant genetic variability existed among the wheat lines (P<0.01) in the combined analysis across environments for all traits. Genotype×environment interactions were non-significant for all traits except 1000-grain weight indicating consistent performance of wheat genotypes across the two environments. Wheat lines and check cultivars were 2 to 5 days early in heading under rainfed environment compared to the irrigated. Plant height, spike length, 1000-grain weight, biological and grain yields were generally reduced under rainfed environment. Genetic variances were of greater magnitude than environmental variances for most of the traits in both environments. The heritability estimates were of higher magnitude (0.74 to 0.96) for days to heading, plant height, spike length, biological and grain yield, while medium (0.31 to 0.51) for 1000-grain weight. Selection differentials were negative for heading (-7.3 days in irrigated vs -9.4 days in rainfed) and plant height (-9.0 cm in irrigated vs -8.7 cm in rainfed) indicating possibility of selecting wheat genotypes with early heading and short plant stature. Positive selection differentials of 1.3 vs 1.6 cm for spike length, 3.8 vs 3.4 g for 1000-grain weight, 2488.2 vs 3139.7 kg ha-1 for biological yield and 691.6 vs 565.4 kg ha-1 for grain yield at 20% selection intensity were observed under irrigated and rainfed environments, respectively. Expected selection responses were 7.98 vs 8.91 days for heading, 8.20 vs 9.52 cm for plant height, 1.01 vs 1.61 cm for spike length, 2.12 vs 1.15 g for 1000-grain weight, 1655

  20. Multi-trait evolution of farmer varieties of bread wheat after cultivation in contrasting organic farming systems in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, J C; Serpolay, E; Giuliano, S; Schermann, N; Galic, N; Chable, V; Goldringer, I

    2012-03-01

    Because of the lack of varieties for organic agriculture, associations of organic farmers in several European countries have begun cultivating landraces and historic varieties, effectively practicing in situ conservation of agricultural biodiversity. To promote agrobiodiversity conservation, a special list for "conservation varieties" was implemented in 2008 by the EU because for any exchange and marketing of seeds in the EU, a variety must be registered in an official catalog. Our study aimed at improving knowledge on the phenotypic diversity and evolution of such varieties when cultivated on organic farms in Europe, in order to better define their specific characteristics and the implications for the registration process. We assessed multi-trait phenotypic evolution in eight European landraces and historic varieties of bread wheat and in two pureline variety checks, each grown by eight organic farmers over 2 years and then evaluated in a common garden experiment at an organic research farm. Measurements on each farmer's version of each variety included several standard evaluation criteria for assessing distinctness, uniformity and stability for variety registration. Significant phenotypic differentiation was found among farmers' versions of each variety. Some varieties showed considerable variation among versions while others showed fewer phenotypic changes, even in comparison to the two checks. Although farmers' variety would not satisfy uniformity or stability criteria as defined in the catalog evaluation requirements, each variety remained distinct when assessed using multivariate analysis. The amount of differentiation may be related to the initial genetic diversity within landraces and historic varieties.

  1. Grain Yield Stability of Bread Wheat Cultivars under Irrigation in Cold and Temperate Climatic Conditions of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bakhshayeshi Geshlagh,

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to study yield stability of bread wheat cultivars including Alvand, Alamout, Zarrin, Navid, Azar 2, Sabalan, Omid and Bezostiya under irrigation an experiment was conducted in RCBD for three cropping seasons (2007-2010 at six locations. Simple and combined analysis of variances for three years, each location and also combined analysis of variances for 3 years and 6 locations were implemented. Lin and Binns parameter, environmental coefficient of variations and rank method were used for determination of stable cultivars. Results of combined ANOVA (three years x six locations showed that interaction effect of year x location x genotype was significant. The highest grain yield belonged to the Alvand cultivar  with 3.74 tha -1. Results of stability analysis with Lin and Binns method also showed that Zarrin cultivar had the lowest within location variance for grain yield and lowest environmental coefficient of variations was belonged to cultivars Zarrin and Sabalan. The results of rank method showed that cultivars Alvand and Sabalan had the lowest rankingand cultivars Sabalan and Bezostiya had the lowest SDR among the experimental cultivars. It can be concluded that Zarrin and Sabalan cultivars had the highest yield stability and thus it can be recommended for locations in which it was studied.

  2. Identification and characterization of pleiotropic and co-located resistance loci to leaf rust and stripe rust in bread wheat cultivar Sujata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Caixia; Zhang, Yelun; Herrera-Foessel, Sybil A; Basnet, Bhoja R; Huerta-Espino, Julio; Lagudah, Evans S; Singh, Ravi P

    2015-03-01

    Two new co-located resistance loci, QLr.cim - 1AS/QYr.cim - 1AS and QLr.cim - 7BL/YrSuj , in combination with Lr46 / Yr29 and Lr67/Yr46 , and a new leaf rust resistance quantitative trait loci, conferred high resistance to rusts in adult plant stage. The tall Indian bread wheat cultivar Sujata displays high and low infection types to leaf rust and stripe rust, respectively, at the seedling stage in greenhouse tests. It was also highly resistant to both rusts at adult plant stage in field trials in Mexico. The genetic basis of this resistance was investigated in a population of 148 F5 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from the cross Avocet × Sujata. The parents and RIL population were characterized in field trials for resistance to leaf rust during 2011 at El Batán, and 2012 and 2013 at Ciudad Obregón, Mexico, and for stripe rust during 2011 and 2012 at Toluca, Mexico; they were also characterized three times for stripe rust at seedling stage in the greenhouse. The RILs were genotyped with diversity arrays technology and simple sequence repeat markers. The final genetic map was constructed with 673 polymorphic markers. Inclusive composite interval mapping analysis detected two new significant co-located resistance loci, QLr.cim-1AS/QYr.cim-1AS and QLr.cim-7BL/YrSuj, on chromosomes 1AS and 7BL, respectively. The chromosomal position of QLr.cim-7BL overlapped with the seedling stripe rust resistance gene, temporarily designated as YrSuj. Two previously reported pleiotropic adult plant resistance genes, Lr46/Yr29 and Lr67/Yr46, and a new leaf rust resistance quantitative trait loci derived from Avocet were also mapped in the population. The two new co-located resistance loci are expected to contribute to breeding durable rust resistance in wheat. Closely linked molecular markers can be used to transfer all four resistance loci simultaneously to modern wheat varieties.

  3. A three-tier phenotyping approach for hunting QTLs related to heat tolerance in bread wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    In the global climate change scenario, heatstress together with other abiotic stresses will remain an importantdeterminant of future food security. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the third most important crop, feeding about one third of the world population. Being a crop of temperate climate......, wheat is sensitive to heat stress, particularly at the reproductive phase. Heat tolerance is a complex trait. In the present study, a combined approach of physiological phenotyping and quantitative genetics was used to dissect the complex nature of heat tolerance into photosynthesis related traits......- with a top-to-bottom (forward) approach: Tier 1: Phenotyping: As a starting point,the quantification of heat tolerance was done by the chlorophyll fluorescence parameter, Fv/Fm, as a measure of maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry after heat stress treatment (40°C for 72h). This way...

  4. A three-tier phenotyping approach for hunting QTLs related to heat tolerance in bread wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Rosenqvist, Eva; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    2014-01-01

    In the global climate change scenario, heatstress together with other abiotic stresses will remain an importantdeterminant of future food security. Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) is the third most important crop, feeding about one third of the world population. Being a crop of temperate climate......, wheat is sensitive to heat stress, particularly at the reproductive phase. Heat tolerance is a complex trait. In the present study, a combined approach of physiological phenotyping and quantitative genetics was used to dissect the complex nature of heat tolerance into photosynthesis related traits......- with a top-to-bottom (forward) approach: Tier 1: Phenotyping: As a starting point,the quantification of heat tolerance was done by the chlorophyll fluorescence parameter, Fv/Fm, as a measure of maximum quantum efficiency of PSII photochemistry after heat stress treatment (40°C for 72h). This way...

  5. Dissecting large and complex genomes: flow sorting and BAC cloning of individual chromosomes from bread wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šafář, Jan; Bartoš, Jan; Janda, Jaroslav; Bellec, A.; Kubaláková, Marie; Valárik, Miroslav; Pateyron, S.; Weiserová, Jitka; Tušková, Radka; Čihalíková, Jarmila; Vrána, Jan; Šimková, Hana; Faivre-Rampant, P.; Sourdille, P.; Caboche, M.; Bernard, M.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Chalhoub, B.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 39, - (2004), s. 960-968 ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/03/0354; GA ČR GA521/04/0607; GA MZe QC1336 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : wheat * flow sorting * DNA library Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.367, year: 2004

  6. Effect of Drought Stress in Remobilization of Dry Matter in Five Varieties ofBread Wheat

    OpenAIRE

    M. Mirtaheri; S. Syadat; ms Najafi; Gh Fathi; Kh Alami Saeed

    2011-01-01

    Abstract In a field experiment conducted in Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University, remobilization of dry matter (DM) after anthesis of five wheat cultivars evaluated in severe and moderate stresses. The statistical design was split plot in RCB (Randomized Complete Blocks) with four replications. In moderate and severe stresses conditions, Falat cv. produced the highest grain yield. However, Chamran cv. had the highest grain yield in control condition. The stress treatment had ...

  7. Features of the organization of bread wheat chromosome 5BS based on physical mapping

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Salina, E.A.; Nesterov, V.; Frenkel, Z.; Kiseleva, V. I.; Timonova, E. M.; Magni, F.; Vrána, Jan; Šafář, Jan; Šimková, Hana; Doležel, Jaroslav; Korol, A.; Sergeeva, E.M.

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 19, FEB 9 (2018), č. článku 80. ISSN 1471-2164 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : Chromosome 5BS * Genetic markers * Hexaploid wheat * Physical mapping * Sequencing * Synteny * Triticum aestivum Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Genetics and heredity (medical genetics to be 3) Impact factor: 3.729, year: 2016

  8. Stability of β-carotene during baking of orange-fleshed sweet potato-wheat composite bread and estimated contribution to vitamin A requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nzamwita, Madjaliwa; Duodu, Kwaku Gyebi; Minnaar, Amanda

    2017-08-01

    Orange-fleshed sweet potato (OFSP) is known to be a rich source of β-carotene, a precursor of vitamin A and a potential tool for fighting vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in developing countries. OFSP flour was incorporated into wheat flour at 10, 20 and 30% (w/w) substitution levels. The stability of β-carotene during baking and the contribution of OFSP-wheat composite breads to vitamin A requirements were evaluated. The retention of all-trans-β-carotene in breads containing 10, 20 and 30% OFSP flour was 62.7, 71.4 and 83% respectively, after baking. Breads containing 20% and 30% OFSP flour could be used for the eradication of vitamin A deficiency as they were found to meet 29 and 89.2% (100g portion) respectively, of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) of vitamin A amongst children aged 3-10years. The latter would meet nearly a half of the RDA of vitamin A for pregnant and lactating women. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Staling of white wheat bread crumb and effect of maltogenic α-amylases. Part 1: Spatial distribution and kinetic modeling of hardness and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amigo, José Manuel; Del Olmo Alvarez, Arantxa; Engelsen, Merete Møller; Lundkvist, Henrik; Engelsen, Søren Balling

    2016-10-01

    Bread staling is one of the most costly food deterioration processes. This study presents an in-depth, multivariate, statistical assessment of the differences in the staling process of white wheat bread as a function of storage time, usage of maltogenic α-amylases and spatial position in the loaf by texture measurements and non-linear fitting (Avrami). This study demonstrates the effects of anti-staling enzymes upon bread staling, where significant changes in the spatial staling kinetics occur. While the spatial development of staling is reduced in the outer crumb by anti-staling enzymes, the staling is retarded in the middle. The Avrami model suggests that this happens by two different competing mechanisms: one which increases the initial staling rate, and one which slows the convergence towards the limiting hardness. The two enzyme treated breads differed widely in early and ultimate resilience, despite the fact that they were adjusted to provide the same ultimate hardness. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Physico-chemical properties and sensory profile of durum wheat Dittaino PDO (Protected Designation of Origin) bread and quality of re-milled semolina used for its production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giannone, Virgilio; Giarnetti, Mariagrazia; Spina, Alfio; Todaro, Aldo; Pecorino, Biagio; Summo, Carmine; Caponio, Francesco; Paradiso, Vito Michele; Pasqualone, Antonella

    2018-02-15

    To help future quality checks, we characterized the physico-chemical and sensory properties of Dittaino bread, a sourdough-based durum wheat bread recently awarded with Protected Designation of Origin mark, along with the quality features of re-milled semolina used for its production. Semolina was checked for Falling Number (533-644s), protein content (12.0-12.3g/100gd.m.), gluten content (9.7-10.5g/100gd.m.), yellow index (18.0-21.0), water absorption (59.3-62.3g/100g), farinograph dough stability (171-327s), softening index (46-66B.U.), alveograph W (193×10 -4 -223×10 -4 J) and P/L (2.2-2.7). Accordingly, bread crumb was yellow, moderately hard (16.4-27.1N) and chewy (88.2-109.2N×mm), with low specific volume (2.28-3.03mL/g). Bread aroma profile showed ethanol and acetic acid, followed by hexanol, 3-methyl-1-butanol, 2-phenylethanol, 3-methylbutanal, hexanal, benzaldehyde, and furfural. The sensory features were dominated by a thick brown crust, with marked toasted odor, coupled to yellow and consistent crumb, with coarse grain and well-perceivable sour taste and odor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Myo-inositol hexakisphosphate degradation by Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum ATCC 27919 improves mineral availability of high fibre rye-wheat sour bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Mantrana, Izaskun; Monedero, Vicente; Haros, Monika

    2015-07-01

    The goal of this investigation was to develop baking products using Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum ATCC27919, a phytase producer, as a starter in sourdough for the production of whole rye-wheat mixed bread. This Bifidobacterium strain contributed to myo-inositol hexakisphosphate (phytate) hydrolysis, resulting in breads with higher mineral availability as was predicted by the phytate/mineral molar ratios, which remained below the inhibitory threshold values for Ca and Zn intestinal absorption. The products with sourdough showed similar technological quality as their homologous without sourdough, with levels of acetic and d/l lactic acids in dough and bread baking significantly higher with the use of sourdough. The overall acceptability scores showed that breads with 25% of whole rye flour were highly accepted regardless of the inclusion of sourdough. This work emphasises that the in situ production of phytase during fermentation by GRAS/QPS microorganisms constitutes a strategy which is particularly appropriate for reducing the phytate contents in products for human consumption. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. A chromosome-based draft sequence of the hexaploid bread wheat (Triticum aestivum) genome

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mayer, K. F. X.; Rogers, J.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Pozniak, C.; Feuillet, C.; Lukaszewski, A.J.; Sourdille, P.; Kubaláková, Marie; Čihalíková, Jarmila; Dubská, Zdeňka; Vrána, Jan; Šperková, Romana; Šimková, Hana; Choulet, F.; Stein, N.; Praud, S.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 345, č. 6194 (2014) ISSN 0036-8075 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090; GA ČR(CZ) GAP501/12/2554; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : GENE-EXPRESSION * POLYPLOID WHEAT * AEGILOPS-TAUSCHII Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 33.611, year: 2014 http://gateway.isiknowledge.com/gateway/Gateway.cgi?GWVersion=2&SrcAuth=Alerting&SrcApp=Alerting&DestApp=CCC&DestLinkType=FullRecord&UT=000339400700040

  13. The in silico identification and characterization of a bread wheat/Triticum militinae introgression line

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Abrouk, Michael; Balcárková, Barbora; Šimková, Hana; Komínková, Eva; Martis, M.M.; Jakobson, I.; Timofejeva, L.; Rey, Elodie; Vrána, Jan; Kilian, A.; Jarve, K.; Doležel, Jaroslav; Valárik, Miroslav

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 15, č. 2 (2017), s. 249-256 ISSN 1467-7644 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-07164S Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : crop improvement * powdery mildew * common wheat * chromosomes * genome * resistance * plant * recombination * evolution * barley * GenomeZipper * alien introgression * comparative analysis * chromosome rearrangement * chromosome translocation * linkage drag Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology OBOR OECD: Plant sciences, botany Impact factor: 7.443, year: 2016

  14. Adaptation of bread-wheat lines across different environment of Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujhid, M.Y.; Ahmad, Z.; Khan, M.A.; Qamar, M.; Kisana, N.S.; Asif, M.

    2009-01-01

    Ten advance wheat-lines developed by National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad, were evaluated for stability of grain-yield over five locations. The experiment was conducted during 2006-07 at NARC, Islamabad, AARI, Faisalabad, RARI, Bahawalpur, CCRI, Pirsabak and NIFA, Peshawar, by following randomized complete block design with three replications. At maturity, grain-yield was taken from standard plot and data were analyzed statistically. Genotypes x locations interactions were found highly significant. Predictable (linear) portion of variation was important, but non-linear component was non significant. None of the regression coefficients differ significantly from unity. Hence deviation from regression and average grain-yield was used to identify superior genotypes. Above average grain-yields were observed in five genotypes. V4 and V8 were stable across environments with low deviation from regression and gave above-average yield. The study provides valuable information for selecting advance wheat-lines under different locations of the country, to be considered potential as breeding material for release as varieties. (author)

  15. Relationships between storage protein composition, protein content, growing season and flour quaility of bread wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faergestad, E.M.; Flaete, N.E.S.; Magnus, E.M.

    2004-01-01

    The storage protein composition from the Glu-1, Glu-3 and Gli-1 loci encoding high and low molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS and LMW-GS) and gliadins, respectively, was determined on 30 wheat (T aestivum L) genotypes from three growing seasons. The gliadins and the LMW-GS were identified...... estimated in the model, gave similar results to ANOVA in identifying quality related protein alleles. The applicability of the multivariate approach in proteomics is, however, much wider.......The storage protein composition from the Glu-1, Glu-3 and Gli-1 loci encoding high and low molecular weight glutenin subunits (HMW-GS and LMW-GS) and gliadins, respectively, was determined on 30 wheat (T aestivum L) genotypes from three growing seasons. The gliadins and the LMW-GS were identified...... of the protein alleles, the protein content and the growing seasons are related to flour quality. The year of growth had a large impact on mixograph peak time. When predicting mixograph peak time from the presence or absence of significant proteins and the year of growth, 70% of the variability in mixograph peak...

  16. Physicochemical analysis of wheat flour fortified with vitamin A and three types of iron source and sensory analysis of bread using these flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crandall, Philip G; Seo, Han-Seok; O'Bryan, Corliss A; Meullenet, Jean F; Hettiarachchy, Navam S; Washburn, Anna M; Ranhotra, Gur S

    2013-07-01

    Wheat flour is increasingly being fortified worldwide with vitamin A and iron. Research on high levels of fortification is limited; therefore, in this study, wheat flour was made under controlled conditions fortified with vitamin A at 30 000 or 70 000 retinol equivalents (RE) kg⁻¹ and three types of iron source at 66 mg kg⁻¹. Milling produced a uniform distribution of fortificants with no significant separation during packaging or transportation. Chemical and physical analyses demonstrated that the dual fortified flours had acceptable physicochemical properties of mixing tolerance, pasting curves, damaged starch and falling numbers. The level of vitamin A fortification compensated for initial loss caused during wheat processing. Overall, white breads baked from seven treatments of fortified flour had only 22% (eight out of 36) of the sensory attributes as being significantly different. However, the type of iron source may play a key role in modulating the sensory attributes of bread baked from the dual fortified flour with vitamin A and iron. The findings suggest that dual fortified flour with high or even lower levels of vitamin A and iron could be considered for food fortification programmes to reduce the prevalence of micronutrient undernutrition of vitamin A and iron in developing countries. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Genetic Analysis for Some of Morphological Traits in Bread Wheat under Drought Stress Condition Using Generations Mean Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamileh Abedi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Perception of genes action controlling of quantitative traits is very important in genetic breeding methods the plant populations. to study and estimate the parameters of genetic and appointment the best genetically model for justification the genetic changing some of traits the bread wheat under drought stress condition, parents (P1 & P2 and F3, F4, F5 generations together the four control cultivars (Kharchia, Gaspard, Moghan and Mahuti were evaluated by generation mean analysis using a agoment design including six blocks. Generation mean analysis was performed for all traits with Mather and Jinks model using joint scaling test. Three parameter model [m d h] provided the best fit for all traits expect harvest index, main spike grain weight, number of grain per plant, Total spike weight of plant with significant at 5% and 1% levels . Though additive and dominance effect both had interfered in controlling often the traits but with attention to difference effects and variety component was determined that dominance is more impressive than additive effect for traits of number of tiller, main spike weight, grain yield and grain number of main spike. Therefore will benefit using of these traits in the collection and to improve these traits hybridization would be much efficient than the selection strategies. In this study additive Ч additive epistasis effect only observed for traits of Total spike weight of plant, number of grain per plant, main spike grain weight and harvest index and other traits hadn’t any epistasis effect that it was demonstration lack of existence the genes reciprocal effect in the inheritance studied traits. Therefore we can suggest that the selection strategies perform in terminal generations and additive Ч additive epistasis effect would be confirmed in selection under self-pollination condition.

  18. Effect of fiber fractions of prickly pear cactus (nopal) on quality and sensory properties of wheat bread rolls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guevara-Arauza, Juan Carlos; Bárcenas, Diego Guadalupe; Ortega-Rivas, Enrique; Martínez, Jaime David Pérez; Hernández, Jaime Reyes; de Jesús Ornelas-Paz, José

    2015-05-01

    In this study the addition of total fiber (TF), insoluble fiber (IF), and soluble fiber (SF) from nopal to wheat flour used to make bread rolls was assessed. The rheological properties of dough as well as quality, texture, sensorial and physical characteristics of the crumb rolls produced were evaluated. The storage (23.50 MPa) and loss modulus (11.95 MPa) for SF-dough were the lowest indicating that a less visco-elastic behavior was obtained. Polarized light microscopy showed that a more homogeneous size and a better distribution of starch granules were developed into SF-dough. Crumb hardness (3.25-4.78 N) and chewiness (0.31-0.81 N) of SF-rolls were lower than the control experiment (3.99-5.81 N and 0.35-1.01 N respectively). Springiness for all treatments was constant (1.0) compared with the control (1.02-0.87) for 2 days of storage. The lowest cohesiveness values (0.24-014) were computed by IF treatment for a similar storage time. The specific crumb volume increased by 12.46, 9.03 and 1.10 % by the addition of SF, TF and IF respectively. The lowest rate of staling was shown by SF-rolls (0.199) and it was followed by TF (0.296), IF (0.381) and control (0.458) treatments. As a result, the highest scores on quality (9.3 out of 10) and sensorial attributes (from 8.9 up to 9.7) were assigned to SF-rolls.

  19. The effect of fermentation and addition of vegetable oil on resistant starch formation in wholegrain breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddrick, Oliver; Jones, Oliver A H; Hughes, Jeff G; Kong, Ing; Small, Darryl M

    2015-08-01

    Resistant starch has potential health benefits but the factors affecting its formation in bread and baked products are not well studied. Here, the formation of resistant starch in wholemeal bread products was evaluated in relation to the processing conditions including fermentation time, temperature and the inclusion of palm oil as a vitamin source. The effects of each the factor were assessed using a full factorial design. The impact on final starch content of traditional sourdough fermentation of wholemeal rye bread, as well as the bulk fermentation process of wheat and wheat/oat blends of wholemeal bread, was also assessed by enzyme assay. Palm oil content was found to have a significant effect on the formation of resistant starch in all of the breads while fermentation time and temperature had no significant impact. Sourdough fermentation of rye bread was found to have a greater impact on resistant starch formation than bulk fermentation of wheat and wheat blend breads, most likely due the increased organic acid content of the sourdough process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Selenium in bread and durum wheats grown under a soil-supplementation regime in actual field conditions, determined by cyclic and radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Catarina Galinha; Maria do Carmo Freitas; Marek Fikrle; Jan Kucera; Wolterbeek, H.T.

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on the ability of bread and durum wheat to accumulate selenium (Se) via a soil-addition procedure at sowing time. Total Se in mature-grain samples was determined by neutron activation analysis (cyclic and radiochemical). Results show that Se-supplementation at the top rate (100 g Se ha -1 ) can increase Se contents up to 2, 16, 18 and 20 times for Jordao, Roxo, Marialva and Celta cultivars, respectively, when compared to their unsupplemented crops. These findings do not preclude the need for weighing up an eventual trade-off between agrochemical costs, field logistics and Se recovery for alternative Se-biofortification methods. (author)

  1. Exopolysaccharides from co-cultures of Weissella confusa 11GU-1 and Propionibacterium freudenreichii JS15 act synergistically on wheat dough and bread texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tinzl-Malang, Saskia Katharina; Rast, Peter; Grattepanche, Franck; Sych, Janice; Lacroix, Christophe

    2015-12-02

    The storage of bread is limited by both physical (staling) and microbial (mainly fungal) spoilage. Exopolysaccharides (EPS) produced by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and organic acids from propionibacteria (PAB) have been used to enhance texture and extend shelf-life of bakery products. In this study the functionality of EPS of Weissella confusa A3/2-1 (dextran), W. confusa F3/2-2 (dextran and levan), W. confusa 11GU-1 (dextran and ropy capsular polysaccharide) was evaluated in wheat bread. Two strains of Propionibacterium freudenreichii (Pf), shown to produce a heteropolysaccharide (Pf JS15) or a β-glucan (Pf DF30), were tested in single and mixed cultures with W. confusa (Wc). The EPS fermentates were prepared by batch fermentation of cereal- or malt-based medium using sucrose (Wc) or lactic acid (Pf) as carbon source. Incorporation of EPS from single culture fermentates and 1:1 Weissella-Propionibacterium fermentate mixtures revealed strong positive effects of dextran and ropy capsular polysaccharide produced by Wc 11GU-1 on bread staling retardation, with synergistic effects of EPS mixture from Wc 11GU-1 and Pf JS15. A co-fermentation of Wc 11GU-1 and Pf JS15 was developed to produce EPS together with antifungal organic acid mixture (acetate and propionate) in a single step process. The addition of 15% (w/w flour base) co-culture, yielding EPS, acetate and propionate concentrations of 1.5, 0.5 and 1g/kg dough, respectively, resulted in improved bread texture, increased loaf volume and decreased crumb firming during storage for 3days compared with control breads and breads supplemented with equivalent levels of chemical organic acids. Our data showed that EPS could compensate for the negative effects of chemical acetate and propionate in a concentration range exerting antifungal effects. The natural bioingredient produced by Wc 11GU-1 and Pf JS15 has potential for applications as antifungal, texture-building and anti-staling agent in breads, consistent with

  2. Identification of genomic regions conferring drought tolerance in bread wheat using ISSR markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqsood, R.; Khaliq, I.; Amjid, M.W.

    2017-01-01

    Drought stress is one of ever escalating and disastrous situation for plantadaptations under changing climate. Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) analysis was done to identify chromosomal locations containing QTLs for photosynthetic rate, relative water content and cell membrane stability under drought stress conditions. An F2 population was developed from an intraspecific cross between a drought tolerant genotype (Chakawal-50) and a drought susceptible genotype (9436) of Triticum aestivum. A total of 30 ISSR markers were used to screen both parents. Only 4 ISSR markers were found polymorphic which were used to score 180 F2 plants. A total of 73 bands produced were found polymorphic from these 4 markers using capillary electrophoresis. One QTL was found linked to Photosynthetic rate on chromosome 3A, one to relative water contents on chromosome 4D and one to cell membrane thermo-stability on chromosome 2B, respectively. As these traits were also positively correlated with thousand grain weight, so indirectly these QTLs might improve plant yield under limited water conditions. Therefore, these QTLs may be used through marker assisted selection while breeding wheat under limited water conditions. (author)

  3. [Nebraska 4-H Wheat Science School Enrichment Project, Teacher/Leader Guides 213-222 and 227.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nebraska Univ., Lincoln. Inst. of Agriculture and Natural Resources.

    Through the 4-H Wheat Science project, students learn the importance of wheat from the complete process of growing wheat to the final product of bread. The curriculum is designed to include hands-on experiences in science, consumer education, nutrition, production economics, vocabulary, and applied mathematics. Teachers can select those units out…

  4. Application of next-generation sequencing technology to study genetic diversity and identify unique SNP markers in bread wheat from Kazakhstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavrukov, Yuri; Suchecki, Radoslaw; Eliby, Serik; Abugalieva, Aigul; Kenebayev, Serik; Langridge, Peter

    2014-09-28

    New SNP marker platforms offer the opportunity to investigate the relationships between wheat cultivars from different regions and assess the mechanism and processes that have led to adaptation to particular production environments. Wheat breeding has a long history in Kazakhstan and the aim of this study was to explore the relationship between key varieties from Kazakhstan and germplasm from breeding programs for other regions. The study revealed 5,898 polymorphic markers amongst ten cultivars, of which 2,730 were mapped in the consensus genetic map. Mapped SNP markers were distributed almost equally across the A and B genomes, with between 279 and 484 markers assigned to each chromosome. Marker coverage was approximately 10-fold lower in the D genome. There were 863 SNP markers identified as unique to specific cultivars, and clusters of these markers (regions containing more than three closely mapped unique SNPs) showed specific patterns on the consensus genetic map for each cultivar. Significant intra-varietal genetic polymorphism was identified in three cultivars (Tzelinnaya 3C, Kazakhstanskaya rannespelaya and Kazakhstanskaya 15). Phylogenetic analysis based on inter-varietal polymorphism showed that the very old cultivar Erythrospermum 841 was the most genetically distinct from the other nine cultivars from Kazakhstan, falling in a clade together with the American cultivar Sonora and genotypes from Central and South Asia. The modern cultivar Kazakhstanskaya 19 also fell into a separate clade, together with the American cultivar Thatcher. The remaining eight cultivars shared a single sub-clade but were categorised into four clusters. The accumulated data for SNP marker polymorphisms amongst bread wheat genotypes from Kazakhstan may be used for studying genetic diversity in bread wheat, with potential application for marker-assisted selection and the preparation of a set of genotype-specific markers.

  5. Effect of Chia and Teff Supplement on Dietary Fibre Content, Non‑fermented Dough and Bread Characteristics from Wheat and Wheat‑Barley Flours

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Švec

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To elevate dietary fibre content in wheat bread, two additions of barley flour were tested (30 % and 50 %, and further 5 % or 10 % of chia or teff wholemeals. Chia elevated dietary fibre content more effectively than teff did (up to 6.41 % and 4.29 %, respectively. Non‑gluten nature of proteins in non‑traditional raw materials also affected farinograph, amylograph and mixolab proof results. Water absorption increased about 10 % in total, especially owing to teff presence in composite flour. All three alternative crops decelerated dough development and prolonged its stability, but dough softening degree depended on their combination. Higher water absorption was reflected in viscosity rise during amylograph testing. Using mixolab equipment, significantly more accurate differentiation of tested composites was reached, both in phase of dough kneading and registration of viscosity during heating and cooling. Contrary to this, any statistically verifiable difference was observed between chia or teff wholemeal variants from white of dark seeds. By variance analysis, some rheological parameters (dough softening degree, torque point C5, mixolab energy together with specific bread volume were identified as principal for samples distinguishing. In terms of flour and bread quality, barley flour portion had a prevailing effect for chia tri‑composites. Reversely, quality of flour blends containing teff was dependent on both barley flour and teff wholemeal portion and type.

  6. Localization and distribution of Zn and Fe in grains of biofortified bread wheat lines through micro- and triaxial-X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, P.; Mateus, T. C.; Velu, G.; Singh, R. P.; Santos, J. P.; Carvalho, M. L.; Lourenço, V. M.; Lidon, F.; Reboredo, F.; Guerra, M.

    2018-03-01

    X-ray fluorescence analysis has been performed in wheat grains from a field trial where some biofortified and non-biofortified wheat varieties were subjected to Zn biofortification through soil fertilizer application. A set of ten biofortified and non-biofortified wheat varieties developed at the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center, Mexico, were used for this study. Two analytical methods were employed to investigate the contents and localization of the trace metals Zn and Fe within the grains, one with polarized monochromatic X-rays for lower limits of detection, and another featuring polycapillary lenses for micrometric beam size (μ-EDXRF). Elemental maps were obtained with μ-EDXRF allowing for the study of Zn and Fe localization in plants grown in normal and Zn-enriched soil. It is acknowledged that the biofortification procedures result in around 30% average increase in overall Zn concentration when compared to other high Zn genotypes grown in normal soil. A genotypic ranking was performed taking into account the influence of the measurement methods and field conditions and the obtained results show that two of the top three varieties regarding zinc contents also rank among the top three in terms of Fe concentration. Elemental mapping analysis seems to favor the use of integral flour for the manufacture of bread and pasta products, as the bran retains most of the minerals.

  7. The introgression of RNAi silencing of γ-gliadins into commercial lines of bread wheat changes the mixing and technological properties of the dough.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Gil-Humanes

    Full Text Available In the present work the effects on dough quality by the down-regulation of γ-gliadins in different genetic backgrounds of bread wheat were investigated. RNAi-mediated silencing of γ-gliadins was introgressed by conventional crossing into three commercial bread wheat lines (namely 'Gazul', 'Podenco' and 'Arpain', and along with the transgenic line A1152 (cv. Bobwhite compared with their respective wild types. The protein fractions were quantified by RP-HPLC, whereas the technological and mixing properties were assessed by SDSS test and by the Mixograph instrument. Principal component analysis (PCA was carried out for both the wild types and the transgenic lines, showing differences in the factors affecting the technological and mixing properties of the dough as a consequence of the reduction of the γ-gliadins. In transgenic lines, the α- and ω-gliadins, and total gliadins negatively affected the dough strength and tolerance to over-mixing, whereas the L/H ratio showed the opposite effect, positively influencing the dough quality. The increase of the SDSS volume in the transgenic lines of 'Gazul', 'Podenco' and 'Arpain' indicates increased gluten strength and quality respect to the wild types. SDSS volume was found to be positively influenced by the amount of glutenins, which were also increased in the transgenic lines. In addition, a positive effect was observed in the MT, PR1 and RBD in some of the transgenic lines of 'Podenco' and 'Arpain'. In conclusion, the down-regulation of γ-gliadins resulted in stronger doughs and a better tolerance to over-mixing in some transgenic lines. Although the reduction of γ-gliadins seems not to have a direct effect on the mixing and bread-making properties, the compensatory effect on the synthesis of the other prolamins may result in stronger doughs with improved over-mixing resistance.

  8. Ca2+/cation antiporters (CaCA: Identification, characterization and expression profiling in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehak Taneja

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Ca2+/cation antiporters (CaCA superfamily proteins play vital function in Ca2+ ion homeostasis, which is an important event during development and defense response. Molecular characterization of these proteins has been performed in certain plants, but they are still not characterized in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat. Herein, we identified thirty four TaCaCA superfamily proteins, which were classified into TaCAX, TaCCX, TaNCL and TaMHX protein families based on their structural organization and evolutionary relation with earlier reported proteins. Since the T. aestivum comprises an allohexaploid genome, TaCaCA genes were derived from each A, B and D subgenome and homeologous chromosome (HC, except chromosome-group 1. Majority of genes were derived from more than one HCs in each family that were considered as homeologous genes (HGs due to their high similarity with each other. These HGs showed comparable gene and protein structures in terms of exon/intron organization and domain architecture. Majority of TaCaCA proteins comprised two Na_Ca_ex domains. However, TaNCLs consisted of an additional EF-hand domain with calcium binding motifs. Each TaCaCA protein family consisted of about ten transmembrane and two α-repeat regions with specifically conserved signature motifs except TaNCL, which had single α-repeat. Variable expression of most of the TaCaCA genes during various developmental stages suggested their specified role in development. However, constitutively high expression of a few genes like TaCAX1-A and TaNCL1-B indicated their role throughout the plant growth and development. The modulated expression of certain genes during biotic (fungal infections and abiotic stresses (heat, drought, salt suggested their role in stress response. Majority of TaCCX and TaNCL family genes were found highly affected during various abiotic stresses. However the role of individual gene needs to be established. The present study unfolded the opportunity

  9. Ca2+/Cation Antiporters (CaCA): Identification, Characterization and Expression Profiling in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Mehak; Tyagi, Shivi; Sharma, Shailesh; Upadhyay, Santosh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The Ca 2+ /cation antiporters (CaCA) superfamily proteins play vital function in Ca 2+ ion homeostasis, which is an important event during development and defense response. Molecular characterization of these proteins has been performed in certain plants, but they are still not characterized in Triticum aestivum (bread wheat). Herein, we identified 34 TaCaCA superfamily proteins, which were classified into TaCAX, TaCCX, TaNCL, and TaMHX protein families based on their structural organization and evolutionary relation with earlier reported proteins. Since the T. aestivum comprises an allohexaploid genome, TaCaCA genes were derived from each A, B, and D subgenome and homeologous chromosome (HC), except chromosome-group 1. Majority of genes were derived from more than one HCs in each family that were considered as homeologous genes (HGs) due to their high similarity with each other. These HGs showed comparable gene and protein structures in terms of exon/intron organization and domain architecture. Majority of TaCaCA proteins comprised two Na_Ca_ex domains. However, TaNCLs consisted of an additional EF-hand domain with calcium binding motifs. Each TaCaCA protein family consisted of about 10 transmembrane and two α-repeat regions with specifically conserved signature motifs except TaNCL, which had single α-repeat. Variable expression of most of the TaCaCA genes during various developmental stages suggested their specified role in development. However, constitutively high expression of a few genes like TaCAX1-A and TaNCL1-B indicated their role throughout the plant growth and development. The modulated expression of certain genes during biotic (fungal infections) and abiotic stresses (heat, drought, salt) suggested their role in stress response. Majority of TaCCX and TaNCL family genes were found highly affected during various abiotic stresses. However, the role of individual gene needs to be established. The present study unfolded the opportunity for detail

  10. Enhanced Temperature During Grain Filling Reduces Protein Concentration of Durum Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Miglietta

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Durum wheat is cultivated over more than 13 millions of hectares (ha world wide and Italy is the main European producer with 3.5 millions tons per year. The protein concentration of durum wheat is very important, it ensures high nutritional value and is highly appreciated by the pasta production industries. The protein concentration of wheat is determined during the grain filling period when carbon and nitrogen compounds are translocated into the grains. Air temperature affects translocation rates and contributes to final protein concentration of wheat grains. Two common commercial varieties of durum and bread wheat were exposed from anthesis to harvest, to a source of infrared radiation in the field. This allowed to investigate the relative effect of temperature on translocation of carbon and nitrogen compound during grain filling. The heat treatment imposed affected marginally dry mass accumulation of the grains in bread wheat and didn’t affect dry mass in durum wheat. Grain protein was affected by heat treatment in durum but not in bread wheat. Carbon accumulation rate was higher for durum than for bread wheat. The protein concentration was greater in durum than in bread wheat and we can assume that the absolute nitrogen accumulation rates were higher for the former species. Such difference may be either caused by a faster nitrogen uptake rate and translocation or a more efficient relocation of nitrogen accumulated in reserve organs.

  11. Milling overrides cultivar, leavening agent and baking mode on chemical and rheological traits and sensory perception of durum wheat breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ficco, Donatella Bianca Maria; Saia, Sergio; Beleggia, Romina; Fragasso, Mariagiovanna; Giovanniello, Valentina; De Vita, Pasquale

    2017-10-19

    Smell and aroma are important determinants of consumer acceptance, so gaining deeper insight into bread smell and aroma perception is a research goal. Sixteen combinations of four variables were investigated, to evaluate the contributions of bread chemical and rheological properties and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) towards sensory acceptability of breads: genotypes (landrace vs. modern); types of flour (wholemeal vs. semolina); leavening agents (brewing yeast vs. sourdough starter); and baking modes (gas-fired vs. wood-fired). Milling had the greatest impact over the other treatments for the rheological and chemical properties, including for VOCs, with great impact on the sensory traits of the flours and breads. The processing phases had great impact on smell and aroma, as defined through formation of alcohols, aldehydes, terpenes, and other compounds (e.g., ethylbenzene, 2-pentylfuran, methoxyphenyl oxime). Leavening agent had great impact on sensory perception, although breads from the sourdough starter were perceived as with lower taste and colour than the brewing yeast. Baking mode had no relevant role on sensory perception. These data strongly undermine the belief of a 'better product' that is frequently attributed to old genotypes versus modern cultivars, and indicate that the milling and the bread-making processes determine the quality of the end product.

  12. Re-engineering of the Pm21 transfer from Haynaldia villosa to bread wheat by induced homoeologous recombination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, the cause of powdery mildew, can generate serious grain yield losses in wheat. To expand the range of resistance genes freely available to wheat breeders, a Haynaldia villosa derived resistance gene Pm21 was transferred to chromosome 6AS of wheat by homoeologous rec...

  13. Evaluation of HMW-GS 20 and 2.2 from near isogenic lines of wheat variety HD2329 for bread quality improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Sonia; Grewal, Sapna; Singh, Nagendra Kumar

    2017-10-01

    Hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) dominates the list of the most important human food sources ever. Its complex genetic background is the reason behind the wide diversity that exists in nutritional as well as food end-product quality. High-molecular-weight glutenin sub-units (HMW-GS) are the main grain storage proteins in the endosperm of wheat and related species. It is well established that the composition and quantity of allelic variation in HMW-GS genes substantially affect the taste and appearance of dough products and therefore work in this area is highly desired. A significant positive effect on wheat dough quality traits was observed among near isogenic lines of HMW-GS sub-units 20 and 2.2 in wheat variety HD2329 during quality evaluation of data generated over 2 years. A remarkably significant (P quality parameters like ratio of wet gluten/dry gluten, SDS sedimentation, farinogram parameters, and bread/chapatti traits whereas flour protein and dry gluten content showed an insignificant effect. HMW-GS 20 was found to be superior to HMW-GS 2.2 in terms of dough quality and both the near isogenic lines developed by us were found to be highly superior to the recurrent parent HD2329. As we know that the improvement of flour quality based on superior HMW-GS alleles is necessary to meet changing consumer demand, the study can be of immense use to future researchers who can target these HMW sub-units 20 and 2.2 in breeding programmes for the improvement of wheat end-product quality. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. The shutdown of celiac disease-related gliadin epitopes in bread wheat by RNAi provides flours with increased stability and better tolerance to over-mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Humanes, Javier; Pistón, Fernando; Barro, Francisco; Rosell, Cristina M

    2014-01-01

    Celiac disease is a food-sensitive enteropathy triggered by the ingestion of wheat gluten proteins and related proteins from barley, rye, and some varieties of oat. There are no interventional therapies and the only solution is a lifelong gluten-free diet. The down-regulation of gliadins by RNAi provides wheat lines with all the gliadin fractions strongly down-regulated (low-gliadin). The technological properties of doughs prepared from the low-gliadin lines indicated a general weakening effect, although some of the lines displayed similar properties to that of the wild-type lines. In contrast, the stability was increased significantly in some of the transgenic lines, indicating better tolerance to over-mixing. Results reported here are the first analyses of the mixing and bread-making quality of the wheat lines with all gliadin fractions strongly down-regulated. Flour from these lines may be an important breakthrough in the development of new products for the celiac community. These lines might be used directly or blended with other non-toxic cereals, as raw material for developing food products that can be safely tolerated by CD patients and others with gluten intolerance or gluten sensitivity, incrementing the range of available food products and enhancing their diet.

  15. BRS Guamirim: cultivar de trigo da classe pão, precoce e de baixa estatura BRS Guamirim: bread wheat cultivar, early cycle and short stature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luiz Scheeren

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available A cultivar de trigo BRS Guamirim foi desenvolvida pela Embrapa e resultou de um cruzamento entre os genitores Embrapa 27/Buck Nandu e PF 93159. Possui ciclo precoce, baixa estatura de planta e intenso afilhamento. Apresenta equilibrada reação às principais moléstias do trigo, pertence à classe pão e demonstra adaptabilidade às diferentes regiões tritícolas do país, com estabilidade de produção. Seu potencial de rendimento é superior a 5 t ha-1.Wheat cultivar BRS Guamirim was developed by Embrapa and resulted from a cross among Embrapa 27/Buck Nandu and PF 93159. BRS Guamirim has early cycle, short plant stature and high tillering. It shows equilibrate behaviour to mainly wheat deseases, belongs to bread class and is adapted to different wheat regions, showing production stability. Its grain yield potential is higher than 5 t ha-1.

  16. Bread for the World Membership Survey and Analysis Project. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitaker, William H.; And Others

    This survey was conducted in 1984 of current and former members of Bread for the World (BFW) in order to further understanding of the characteristics, attitudes, level of participation, and needs of people involved with hunger issues and the needs of hungry people. A questionnaire was mailed to 1,296 current and 738 former members. This final…

  17. TaFlo2-A1, an ortholog of rice Flo2, is associated with thousand grain weight in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajjad, Muhammad; Ma, Xiaoling; Habibullah Khan, Sultan; Shoaib, Muhammad; Song, Yanhong; Yang, Wenlong; Zhang, Aimin; Liu, Dongcheng

    2017-10-16

    The Flo2 gene is a member of a conserved gene family in plants. This gene has been found to be related to thousand grain weight (TGW) in rice. Its orthologs in hexaploid wheat were cloned, and the haplotype variation in TaFlo2-A1 was tested for association with TGW. The cloned sequences of TaFlo2-A1, TaFlo2-B1 and TaFlo2-D1 contained 23, 23 and 24 exons, respectively. The deduced proteins of TaFlo2-A1 (1734 aa), TaFlo2-B1 (1698 aa) and TaFlo2-D1 (1682 aa) were highly similar (>94%) and exhibited >77% similarity with the rice FLO2 protein. Like the rice FLO2 protein, four tetratricopeptide repeat (TPR) motifs were observed in the deduced TaFLO2 protein. An 8-bp InDel (-10 to -17 bp) in the promoter region and five SNPs in first intron of TaFlo2-A1 together formed two haplotypes, TaFlo2-A1a and TaFlo2-A1b, in bread wheat. TaFlo2 was located on homeologous group 2 chromosomes. TaFlo2-A1 was inferred to be located on deletion bin '2AL1-0.85-1.00'. The TaFlo2-A1 haplotypes were characterized in the Chinese Micro Core Collection (MCC) and Pakistani wheat collection using the molecular marker TaFlo2-Indel8. TaFlo2-A1 was found to be associated with TGW but not with grain number per spike (GpS) in both the MCC and Pakistani wheat collections. The frequency of TaFlo2-A1b (positive haplotype) was low in commercial wheat cultivars; thus this haplotype can be selected to improve grain weight without negatively affecting GpS. The expression level of TaFlo2-A1 in developing grains at 5 DAF (days after flowering) was positively correlated with TGW in cultivars carrying the positive haplotype. This study will likely lead to additional investigations to understand the regulatory mechanism of the Flo2 gene in hexaploid wheat. Furthermore, the newly developed molecular marker 'TaFlo2-InDel8' could be incorporated into the kit of wheat breeders for use in marker-assisted selection.

  18. Effect of Silicon application on Morpho-physiological Characteristics, Grain Yield and Nutrient Content of Bread Wheat under Water Stress Conditions

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    A. Karmollachaab

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the effect of silicon application on some physiological characteristics, yield and yield components, and grain mineral contents of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum under water stress condition, an experiment was conducted in Ramin Agriculture and Natural Resources University, Khuzestan, in 2012. The experiment was arranged in split-plots design in RCBD (Completely Randomized Blocks Design with three replications. Treatments consisted of drought stress (irrigation after 25, 50 and 75% depletion of Available Water Content in main plots and silicon (0, 10, 20 and 30 Kg Si ha-1 arranged in sub-plots. Results showed that the effect of drought stress was significant on most traits and led to the increase of electrolyte leakage (EL, cuticular wax, leaf and grain silicon content and grain nitrogen content. But drought led to negative impacts on grain yield and its components, and leaf potassium content, i.e. moderate and severe stresses reduced yield by 17% and 38% compared to control, respectively. Effect of silicon application was significant on all traits except for spike per square meter. Silicon had the greatest impact on EL and led to 35% decrease in this trait. Also, silicon led to increase in leaf and grain silicon contents and grain K content and grain yield and yield components, when applied at 30 kg ha-1. Generally, application of 30 kg ha-1 of silicon led to 6 and 14% increases of grain yield at the presence of moderate and severe drought stresses, respectively. Thus, given the abundance of silicon it can be used as an ameliorating element for planting bread wheat in drought-prone conditions.

  19. Comparison of selected sensory properties of wholemeal breads

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    Markéta Bednářová

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare textural (firmness and sensory properties (surface colour, crumb colour, crumb texture, appearance, appearance and colour preferences between whole breads made from conventional wheat (Triticum aestivum, L. and whole breads made from unconventional wheat (Triticum aestivum, L., winter variety Skorpion, grains with blue aleuron. Wholemeal breads (control samples with marks C1, C2 and C3 were prepared of 100, 90 and 80 % amount of conventional wholemeal wheat flour to 0, 10 and 20% amount of smooth white flour made from conventional wheat using baker's experiment. Wholemeal breads (experimental samples with marks S1, S2 and S3 were prepared of unconventional wholemeal wheat flour to smooth white wheat flour in same ratio as control samples of breads. Our results showed, that negative evaluation of some sensory attributes of breads made from unconventional wheat correlated with increasing addition of wholemeal flour of this wheat. It was found that breads made from conventional wheat (100, 90 and 80% amount of conventional wholemeal flour were more acceptable in surface colour, colour and appearance preferences than these sensory attributes of breads made from unconventional wheat (same amount of wholemeal flour. Appearance and crumb colour of breads made from conventional wheat (100 and 90% amount of wholemeal flour were evaluated better than these attributes of breads made from blue coloured wheat (same amount of wholemeal flour. Appearance and crumb colour of both groups of whole wheat breads (80:20 was similarly evaluated. Crumb texture of breads made from conventional wheat (90% and 80% amount of wholemeal flour was worse than crumb texture of breads produced of same ratio of flour, but made from unconventional wheat. Breads with addition of 80% of wholemeal flour milled of blue coloured wheat were most acceptable in all of sensory attributes for evaluators. Significant difference (p <0.05 of crumb fimness

  20. Fortification of wheat bread with 3-7% defatted soy flour improves formulation, organoleptic characteristics, and rat growth rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Mahmoodi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: It was concluded that overall acceptability score significantly decreased with increasing DSF substitution level. Rats fed 7% DSF-fortified blend showed privileged food efficiency ratio. Then, the best formulation is between 3 and 7% DSF bread. This formulation can nourish all human at risk of malnutrition.

  1. Can an increase in celiac disease be attributed to an increase in the gluten content of wheat as a consequence of wheat breading? A perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    In order to assess the possibility that wheat breeding has been responsible for an increase in the gluten content of U.S. wheat cultivars and thereby responsible for an increase in the incidence of celiac disease, the available data from the 20th century has been analyzed. Although much of the infor...

  2. Simultaneous Transfer of Leaf Rust and Powdery Mildew Resistance Genes from Hexaploid Triticale Cultivar Sorento into Bread Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Li

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Wheat powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici, and wheat leaf rust, caused by Puccinia triticina Eriks, are two important diseases that severely threaten wheat production. Sorento, a hexaploid triticale cultivar from Poland, shows high resistance to the wheat powdery mildew isolate E09 and the leaf rust isolate PHT in Beijing, China. To introduce resistance genes into common wheat, Sorento was crossed with wheat line Xuezao, which is susceptible to both diseases, and the F1 hybrids were then backcrossed with Xuezao as the recurrent male parent. By marker analysis, we demonstrate that the long arm of the 2R (2RL chromosome confers resistance to both the leaf rust and powdery mildew isolates at adult-plant and seedling stages, while the long arm of 4R (4RL confers resistance only to powdery mildew at both stages. The chromosomal composition of BC2F3 plants containing 2R or 2RL and 4R or 4RL in the form of substitution and translocation were confirmed by GISH (genomic in situ hybridization and FISH (fluorescence in situ hybridization. Monosomic and disomic substitutions of a wheat chromosome with chromosome 2R or 4R, as well as one 4RS-4DL/4DS-4RL reciprocal translocation homozigote and one 2RL-1DL translocation hemizigote, were recovered. Such germplasms are of great value in wheat improvement.

  3. Characterization of molecular diversity and genome-wide mapping of loci associated with resistance to stripe rust and stem rust in Ethiopian bread wheat accessions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muleta, Kebede T; Rouse, Matthew N; Rynearson, Sheri; Chen, Xianming; Buta, Bedada G; Pumphrey, Michael O

    2017-08-04

    The narrow genetic basis of resistance in modern wheat cultivars and the strong selection response of pathogen populations have been responsible for periodic and devastating epidemics of the wheat rust diseases. Characterizing new sources of resistance and incorporating multiple genes into elite cultivars is the most widely accepted current mechanism to achieve durable varietal performance against changes in pathogen virulence. Here, we report a high-density molecular characterization and genome-wide association study (GWAS) of stripe rust and stem rust resistance in 190 Ethiopian bread wheat lines based on phenotypic data from multi-environment field trials and seedling resistance screening experiments. A total of 24,281 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers filtered from the wheat 90 K iSelect genotyping assay was used to survey Ethiopian germplasm for population structure, genetic diversity and marker-trait associations. Upon screening for field resistance to stripe rust in the Pacific Northwest of the United States and Ethiopia over multiple growing seasons, and against multiple races of stripe rust and stem rust at seedling stage, eight accessions displayed resistance to all tested races of stem rust and field resistance to stripe rust in all environments. Our GWAS results show 15 loci were significantly associated with seedling and adult plant resistance to stripe rust at false discovery rate (FDR)-adjusted probability (P) rust in the Ethiopian wheat accessions. Many of the identified resistance loci were mapped close to previously identified rust resistance genes; however, three loci on the short arms of chromosomes 5A and 7B for stripe rust resistance and two on chromosomes 3B and 7B for stem rust resistance may be novel. Our results demonstrate that considerable genetic variation resides within the landrace accessions that can be utilized to broaden the genetic base of rust resistance in wheat breeding germplasm. The molecular markers identified in

  4. MICROBIOLOGICAL AND NUTRITIONAL QUALITY OF WARANKASHI ENRICHED BREAD

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    O. E. Dudu

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to determine the microbiological and nutritional quality, organoleptic, rheological and textural effect as well as the effect on the shelf life of wheat bread enriched with West African cottage cheese (warankashi at different substitution levels (1 %, 3 % and 5 %. The protein and fat content of wheat bread significantly increased but carbohydrate levels decreased significantly as enrichment with Warankashi increased. The amino acid profile of the wheat bread increased with increasing enrichment. The incorporation of Warankashi into wheat flour affected the rheological and textural properties of wheat flour; the rate of water absorption of the wheat flour decreased as Warankashi incorporation levels increased. Also, the dough stability time of the enriched flours was lesser than that of the wheat flour. The 3 % enrichment level had the highest dough consistency (520 BU. The extensibility of 1 % and 3 % wara bread dough were the same while that of wheat flour bread and 5 % Warankashi were the same. The 3 % wara bread dough had the highest resistance to extension. Shelf life of the bread remained unaffected by Warankashi incorporation but the rate of bacteria and fungi (yeast and mould growth decreased significantly (P < 0.05 as enrichment levels increased. There was no significant difference between the organoleptic properties of wheat bread to that of the enriched breads but the 3 % Warankshi enriched bread had the highest consumer acceptability.

  5. Introgression of leaf rust and stripe rust resistance from Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis Eig) into bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millet, E; Manisterski, J; Ben-Yehuda, P; Distelfeld, A; Deek, J; Wan, A; Chen, X; Steffenson, B J

    2014-06-01

    Leaf rust and stripe rust are devastating wheat diseases, causing significant yield losses in many regions of the world. The use of resistant varieties is the most efficient way to protect wheat crops from these diseases. Sharon goatgrass (Aegilops sharonensis or AES), which is a diploid wild relative of wheat, exhibits a high frequency of leaf and stripe rust resistance. We used the resistant AES accession TH548 and induced homoeologous recombination by the ph1b allele to obtain resistant wheat recombinant lines carrying AES chromosome segments in the genetic background of the spring wheat cultivar Galil. The gametocidal effect from AES was overcome by using an "anti-gametocidal" wheat mutant. These recombinant lines were found resistant to highly virulent races of the leaf and stripe rust pathogens in Israel and the United States. Molecular DArT analysis of the different recombinant lines revealed different lengths of AES segments on wheat chromosome 6B, which indicates the location of both resistance genes.

  6. Leveraging from genotype by environment interaction for bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Developing high yielding and stable genotypes for wide and specific adaptation is important in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production. The objective of this study was to exploit the gains from genotype by environment interaction for increased bread wheat production in eastern Africa. Thirty-three advanced bread wheat ...

  7. The influence of Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci on dough rheology and bread-making properties in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) doubled haploid lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langner, Monika; Krystkowiak, Karolina; Salmanowicz, Bolesław P; Adamski, Tadeusz; Krajewski, Paweł; Kaczmarek, Zygmunt; Surma, Maria

    2017-12-01

    The major determinants of wheat quality are Glu-1 and Glu-3 glutenin loci and environmental factors. Additive effects of alleles at the Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci, as well as their interactions, were evaluated for dough rheology and baking properties in four groups of wheat doubled haploid lines differing in high- and low-molecular-weight glutenin composition. Flour quality, Reomixer (Reologica Instruments, Lund, Sweden), dough extension, Farinograph (Brabender GmbH, Duisburg, Germany) and baking parameters were determined. Groups of lines with the alleles Glu-A3b and Glu-B3d were characterized by higher values of dough and baking parameters compared to those with the Glu-A3e and Glu-B3a alleles. Effects of interactions between allelic variants at the Glu-1 and Glu-3 loci on Reomixer parameters, dough extension tests and baking parameters were significant, although additive effects of individual alleles were not always significant. The allelic variants at Glu-B3 had a much greater effect on dough rheological parameters than the variants at Glu-A3 or Glu-D3 loci. The effect of allelic variations at the Glu-D3 loci on rheological parameters and bread-making quality was non-significant, whereas their interactions with a majority of alleles at the other Glu-1 × Glu-3 loci were significant. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Mechanism of Resistance in two Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum L.) Lines to Russian Wheat Aphid (Diuraphis Noxia: Homoptra: Aphididae) in Kenya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malinga, J.N.

    2002-01-01

    Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia) is a recent pest of small cereals that is causing severe yield losses in farmers' fields and farmers have demanded a resistant wheat line. In wheat the pest causes both direct and indirect damage resulting in losses of up to 90%. Control of the aphid is a major constraint in the production of wheat in Kenya requiring the use of more than one systematic insecticide application.This cost is prohibitive.Breeding wheat for resistance to Russian wheat is the cheapest alternative and is the international trend. The use of Russian wheat aphid resistant cultivars may reduce the impact of these pest on cereal production. A study was therefore conducted in Kenya to understand and determine the genetics of inheritance pattern of D. noxia present in two new sources of resistance (RWA 8 and RWA 16). These two new sources would be potential donors of D. noxia resistance in breeding programmes. The two resistant donors with unknown resistance genes for Diuraphis noxia were crossed with susceptible Kenyan commercial wheat cultivar, Heroe. Resistant reaction of F 1 ,BC 1 and F2 indicated that resistance in the two lines differed. Resistant in RWA 8 may be controlled by a single dominant genes while RWA 16 by two incomplete dominant genes. It is unknown wether these genes are identical to any known, designated resistance genes. However, their resistance has been shown to be effective on the RWA population in Kenya. As studies continue on these genes at molecular level, it is recommended that resistant populations are carried on through the breeding programme to possibly identify and release a resistant variety for commercial production

  9. Potential of Lactobacillus reuteri from Spontaneous 
Sourdough as a Starter Additive for Improving Quality Parameters of Bread

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaičiulytė-Funk, Lina; Šalomskienė, Joana; Alenčikienė, Gitana; Mieželienė, Aldona

    2016-01-01

    Summary Retardation of microbial spoilage of bread can be achieved by the use of spontaneous sourdough with an antimicrobial activity. This study was undertaken to identify lactic acid bacteria naturally occurring in spontaneous sourdough and use them for quality improvement and prolonging shelf life of rye, wheat and rye with wheat bread. Identification of isolates from spontaneous sourdough by pyrosequencing assay showed that Lactobacillus reuteri were dominant lactic acid bacteria. The isolates showed a wide range of antimicrobial activity and displayed a synergistic activity against other lactobacilli, some lactococci and foodborne yeasts. The best application of spontaneous sourdough was noticed in the rye bread with the lowest crumb firmness of the final product, although the sensory results of wheat and rye with wheat bread did not statistically differ from control bread. L. reuteri showed a high preserving capacity against fungi during storage. This may be due to bacteriocins and various fatty acids secreted into the growth medium that were identified by agar well diffusion assay and gas chromatography. L. reuteri showing high antimicrobial activity have the potential to be used as a starter additive that could improve safety and/or shelf life of bread. PMID:27956866

  10. Expression Level of the DREB2-Type Gene, Identified with Amplifluor SNP Markers, Correlates with Performance, and Tolerance to Dehydration in Bread Wheat Cultivars from Northern Kazakhstan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shavrukov, Yuri; Zhumalin, Aibek; Serikbay, Dauren; Botayeva, Makpal; Otemisova, Ainur; Absattarova, Aiman; Sereda, Grigoriy; Sereda, Sergey; Shvidchenko, Vladimir; Turbekova, Arysgul; Jatayev, Satyvaldy; Lopato, Sergiy; Soole, Kathleen; Langridge, Peter

    2016-01-01

    A panel of 89 local commercial cultivars of bread wheat was tested in field trials in the dry conditions of Northern Kazakhstan. Two distinct groups of cultivars (six cultivars in each group), which had the highest and the lowest grain yield under drought were selected for further experiments. A dehydration test conducted on detached leaves indicated a strong association between rates of water loss in plants from the first group with highest grain yield production in the dry environment relative to the second group. Modern high-throughput Amplifluor Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) technology was applied to study allelic variations in a series of drought-responsive genes using 19 SNP markers. Genotyping of an SNP in the TaDREB5 (DREB2-type) gene using the Amplifluor SNP marker KATU48 revealed clear allele distribution across the entire panel of wheat accessions, and distinguished between the two groups of cultivars with high and low yield under drought. Significant differences in expression levels of TaDREB5 were revealed by qRT-PCR. Most wheat plants from the first group of cultivars with high grain yield showed slight up-regulation in the TaDREB5 transcript in dehydrated leaves. In contrast, expression of TaDREB5 in plants from the second group of cultivars with low grain yield was significantly down-regulated. It was found that SNPs did not alter the amino acid sequence of TaDREB5 protein. Thus, a possible explanation is that alternative splicing and up-stream regulation of TaDREB5 may be affected by SNP, but these hypotheses require additional analysis (and will be the focus of future studies). PMID:27917186

  11. Expression level of the DREB2-type gene, identified with Amplifluor SNP markers, correlates with performance and tolerance to dehydration in bread wheat cultivars from Northern Kazakhstan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuri Shavrukov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A panel of 89 local commercial cultivars of bread wheat was tested in field trials in the dry conditions of Northern Kazakhstan. Two distinct groups of cultivars (six cultivars in each group, which had the highest and the lowest grain yield under drought were selected for further experiments. A dehydration test conducted on detached leaves indicated a strong association between rates of water loss in plants from the first group with highest grain yield production in the dry environment relative to the second group. Modern high-throughput Amplifluor SNP technology was applied to study allelic variations in a series of drought-responsive genes using 19 SNP markers. Genotyping of an SNP in the TaDREB5 (DREB2-type gene using the Amplifluor SNP marker KATU48 revealed clear allele distribution across the entire panel of wheat accessions, and distinguished between the two groups of cultivars with high and low yield under drought. Significant differences in expression levels of TaDREB5 were revealed by qRT-PCR. Most wheat plants from the first group of cultivars with high grain yield showed strong up-regulation of TaDREB5 transcript in dehydrated leaves. In contrast, expression of TaDREB5 in plants from the second group of cultivars with low grain yield was significantly down-regulated. It was found that SNPs did not alter the amino acid sequence of TaDREB5 protein. Thus, a possible explanation is that alternative splicing and up-stream regulation of TaDREB5 may be affected by SNP, but these hypotheses require additional analysis (and will be the focus of future studies.

  12. Determination of Response of Some Bread Wheat Varieties Against Leaf Diseases Under Ecological Conditions of Düzce in the Western Black Sea Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedim Altın

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to determine the response of 19 bread wheat varieties to natural infection of leaf diseases under ecological conditions of Düzce in the Western Black Sea Region. The trial was established in accordance with randomized block with four replications and the seeds were planted on 17.11.2015. The wheat varities were observed for the associated diseases including septoria leaf spot disease (caused by Septoria tritici during milking stage, yellow rust disease (caused by Puccinia striiformis at the end of the flowering period, brown rust disease (caused by Puccinia recondita at the beginning of milking stage. The disease severity were assessed in the field conditions according to natural contamination. According to determined diseases severity, the most sensitive variety against septoria leaf spot disease was “Bereket” with 60%, while the most tolerant variety was “Aslı” with 14%. The most sensitive variety against yellow rust disease was “Tekirdağ” with 45.4%, while the most tolerant variety was “Midas” with 0.6%. The most sensitive variety against brown rust disease was “Tahirova” with 22%, while the most tolerant variety was “Midas” with 0.2%. The results indicated that promising wheat varieties for future breeding studies were: Aldane, Aslı, Konya 2002, Köprü, Masaccio and Tosunbey (against septoria leaf spot disease, Aslı, Esperia, Kate A1, Karasunya Odeska, Masaccio and Midas (against yellow rust disease, Aldane, Aslı, Bereket, Köprü, Masaccio, Midas and Tekirdağ (against brown rust disease.

  13. Genetic transformation of Indian bread (T. aestivum and pasta (T. durum wheat by particle bombardment of mature embryo-derived calli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khurana Paramjit

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Particle bombardment has been successfully employed for obtaining transgenics in cereals in general and wheat in particular. Most of these procedures employ immature embryos which are not available throughout the year. The present investigation utilizes mature seeds as the starting material and the calli raised from the hexaploid Triticum aestivum and tetraploid Triticum durum display a high regeneration response and were therefore used as the target tissue for genetic transformation by the biolistic approach. Results Mature embryo-derived calli of bread wheat (Triticum aestivum, cv. CPAN1676 and durum wheat (T. durum, cv. PDW215 were double bombarded with 1.1 gold microprojectiles coated with pDM302 and pAct1-F at a target distance of 6 cm. Southern analysis using the bar gene as a probe revealed the integration of transgenes in the T0 transformants. The bar gene was active in both T0 and T1 generations as evidenced by phosphinothricin leaf paint assay. Approximately 30% and 33% primary transformants of T. aestivum and T. durum, respectively, were fertile. The transmission of bar gene to T1 progeny was demonstrated by PCR analysis of germinated seedlings with primers specific to the bar gene. Conclusions The transformation frequency obtained was 8.56% with T. aestivum and 10% with T. durum. The optimized protocol was subsequently used for the introduction of the barley gene encoding a late embryogenesis abundant protein (HVA1 in T. aestivum and T. durum. The presence of the HVA1 transgene was confirmed by Southern analysis in the T0 generation in case of Triticum aestivum, and T0 and T1 generation in Triticum durum.

  14. Dissecting the U, M, S and C genomes of wild relatives of bread wheat (Aegilops spp.) into chromosomes and exploring their synteny with wheat

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Molnár, I.; Vrána, Jan; Burešová, Veronika; Cápal, Petr; Farkas, A.; Darko, E.; Cseh, A.; Kubaláková, Marie; Molnár-Láng, M.; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 3 (2016), s. 452-467 ISSN 0960-7412 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : tertiary gene pool * triticum-aestivum * common wheat * addition lines * mitotic chromosomes * plant chromosomes * hexaploid wheat * ae. speltoides * dna-sequences * rye genome * Aegilops umbellulata * Aegilops comosa * Aegilops speltoides * Aegilops markgrafii * flow cytometric chromosome sorting * fluorescence insitu hybridization * conserved orthologous set markers Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 5.901, year: 2016

  15. Endogenous Reference Genes and Their Quantitative Real-Time PCR Assays for Genetically Modified Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Litao; Quan, Sheng; Zhang, Dabing

    2017-01-01

    Endogenous reference genes (ERG) and their derivate analytical methods are standard requirements for analysis of genetically modified organisms (GMOs). Development and validation of suitable ERGs is the primary step for establishing assays that monitoring the genetically modified (GM) contents in food/feed samples. Herein, we give a review of the ERGs currently used for GM wheat analysis, such as ACC1, PKABA1, ALMT1, and Waxy-D1, as well as their performances in GM wheat analysis. Also, we discussed one model for developing and validating one ideal RG for one plant species based on our previous research work.

  16. The spectrum of low molecular weight alpha-amylase/protease inhibitor genes expressed in the US bread wheat cultivar Butte 86

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vensel William H

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wheat grains accumulate a variety of low molecular weight proteins that are inhibitors of alpha-amylases and proteases and play an important protective role in the grain. These proteins have more balanced amino acid compositions than the major wheat gluten proteins and contribute important reserves for both seedling growth and human nutrition. The alpha-amylase/protease inhibitors also are of interest because they cause IgE-mediated occupational and food allergies and thereby impact human health. Results The complement of genes encoding alpha-amylase/protease inhibitors expressed in the US bread wheat Butte 86 was characterized by analysis of expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Coding sequences for 19 distinct proteins were identified. These included two monomeric (WMAI, four dimeric (WDAI, and six tetrameric (WTAI inhibitors of exogenous alpha-amylases, two inhibitors of endogenous alpha-amylases (WASI, four putative trypsin inhibitors (CMx and WTI, and one putative chymotrypsin inhibitor (WCI. A number of the encoded proteins were identical or very similar to proteins in the NCBI database. Sequences not reported previously included variants of WTAI-CM3, three CMx inhibitors and WTI. Within the WDAI group, two different genes encoded the same mature protein. Based on numbers of ESTs, transcripts for WTAI-CM3 Bu-1, WMAI Bu-1 and WTAI-CM16 Bu-1 were most abundant in Butte 86 developing grain. Coding sequences for 16 of the inhibitors were unequivocally associated with specific proteins identified by tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS in a previous proteomic analysis of milled white flour from Butte 86. Proteins corresponding to WDAI Bu-1/Bu-2, WMAI Bu-1 and the WTAI subunits CM2 Bu-1, CM3 Bu-1 and CM16 Bu-1 were accumulated to the highest levels in flour. Conclusions Information on the spectrum of alpha-amylase/protease inhibitor genes and proteins expressed in a single wheat cultivar is central to understanding the importance of

  17. Identification and characterization of resistance to yellow rust and powdery mildew in wild emmer wheat and their transfer to bread wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Silfhout, van C.H.

    1989-01-01

    In wild emmer wheat three different kinds of genes for resistance to yellow rust were found, namely genes causing overall resistance, genes causing adult-plant resistance and genes which induce resistance detectable at higher temperatures. At least eleven different and probably novel major

  18. Genome-Wide Identification and Analysis of MAPK and MAPKK Gene Families in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haoshuang Zhan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK cascade is a universal signal transduction module that plays a vital role in regulating growth and development, as well as environmental stress responses in plants. Wheat is one of the most important crops worldwide. Although the MAPK kinase kinase (MAP3K family in wheat has been investigated, the MAPK and MAPK kinase (MAP2K gene families remain unknown at present. Here, 54 MAPK and 18 MAPKK genes were identified in wheat using recent genomic information. Phylogenetic analysis of Triticum aestivum L. MAPKs and MAPKKs (TaMAPKs and TaMAPKKs together with homologous genes from other species classified them into four groups, and the clustering was consistent with the genomic exon/intron structures. Conserved motif analysis found that MAPK proteins contained a typical TXY phosphorylation site and MAPKK proteins contained an S/T-X5-S/T motif. RNA-seq data mapping analysis showed that MAPK and MAPKK genes in group IV had tissue-specific expression profiles, whereas each group I member showed relatively high expression in all organs. Expression patterns of TaMAPK and TaMAPKK genes under stress conditions were also investigated and stress-responsive candidates were identified. Co-expression network analysis identified 11 TaMAPK genes and 6 TaMAPKK genes involved in the interaction network pathway. Overall, this study provided useful information for evolutionary and functional surveys of MAPK and MAPKK gene families in wheat and beyond.

  19. Alleles of Ppd-D1 gene in the collection of Aegilops tauschii accessions and bread wheat varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babenko D. O.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Light period significantly influences on the growth and development of plants. One of the major genes of photoperiod sensitivity is Ppd-D1, located on the chromosome 2D. The aim of the work was to determine the alleles and molecular structure of Ppd-D1 gene in samples from the collection of Ae. tauschii accessions, which have different flowering periods, and in 29 Ukrainian wheat varieties. Methods. We used methods of allele-specific PCR with primers to the Ppd-D1 gene, sequencing and Blast-analysis. Results. The collection of Ae. tauschii accessions and several varieties of winter and spring wheat was studied. The molecular structure of the allelic variants (414, 429 and 453 b. p. of Ppd-D1b gene was determined in the collection of Aegilops. tauschii accessions. Conclusions. The Ppd-D1a allele was present in all studied varieties of winter wheat. 60 % of spring wheat is characterized by Ppd-D1b allele (size of amplification products 414 b. p.. Blast-analysis of the sequence data banks on the basis of the reference sequence of sample k-1322 from the collection of Ae. tauschii accessions has shown a high homology (80 to 100 % between the nucleotide sequences of PRR genes, that characterize the A and D genomes of representatives of the genera Triticum and Aegilops.

  20. SSH analysis of endosperm transcripts and characterization of heat stress regulated expressed sequence tags in bread wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneha Goswami

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Heat stress is one of the major problems in agriculturally important cereal crops, especially wheat. Here, we have constructed a subtracted cDNA library from the endosperm of HS-treated (42°C for 2 h wheat cv. HD2985 by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH. We identified ~550 recombinant clones ranging from 200 to 500 bp with an average size of 300 bp. Sanger’s sequencing was performed with 205 positive clones to generate the differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs. Most of the ESTs were observed to be localized on the long arm of chromosome 2A and associated with heat stress tolerance and metabolic pathways. Identified ESTs were BLAST search using Ensemble, TriFLD and TIGR databases and the predicted CDS were translated and aligned with the protein sequences available in pfam and InterProScan 5 databases to predict the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs. We observed eight different types of post-translational modifications (PTMs in the DEPs corresponds to the cloned ESTs—147 sites with phosphorylation, 21 sites with sumoylation, 237 with palmitoylation, 96 sites with S-nitrosylation, 3066 calpain cleavage sites, and 103 tyrosine nitration sites, predicted to sense the heat stress and regulate the expression of stress genes. Twelve DEPs were observed to have transmembrane helixes (TMH in their structure, predicted to play the role of sensors of HS. Quantitative Real-Time PCR of randomly selected ESTs showed very high relative expression of HSP17 under HS; up-regulation was observed more in wheat cv. HD2985 (thermotolerant, as compared to HD2329 (thermosusceptible during grain-filling. The abundance of transcripts was further validated through northern blot analysis. The ESTs and their corresponding DEPs can be used as molecular marker for screening or targeted precision breeding program. PTMs identified in the DEPs can be used to elucidate the thermotolerance mechanism of wheat – a novel step towards the development of

  1. SSH Analysis of Endosperm Transcripts and Characterization of Heat Stress Regulated Expressed Sequence Tags in Bread Wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goswami, Suneha; Kumar, Ranjeet R; Dubey, Kavita; Singh, Jyoti P; Tiwari, Sachidanand; Kumar, Ashok; Smita, Shuchi; Mishra, Dwijesh C; Kumar, Sanjeev; Grover, Monendra; Padaria, Jasdeep C; Kala, Yugal K; Singh, Gyanendra P; Pathak, Himanshu; Chinnusamy, Viswanathan; Rai, Anil; Praveen, Shelly; Rai, Raj D

    2016-01-01

    Heat stress is one of the major problems in agriculturally important cereal crops, especially wheat. Here, we have constructed a subtracted cDNA library from the endosperm of HS-treated (42°C for 2 h) wheat cv. HD2985 by suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH). We identified ~550 recombinant clones ranging from 200 to 500 bp with an average size of 300 bp. Sanger's sequencing was performed with 205 positive clones to generate the differentially expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Most of the ESTs were observed to be localized on the long arm of chromosome 2A and associated with heat stress tolerance and metabolic pathways. Identified ESTs were BLAST search using Ensemble, TriFLD, and TIGR databases and the predicted CDS were translated and aligned with the protein sequences available in pfam and InterProScan 5 databases to predict the differentially expressed proteins (DEPs). We observed eight different types of post-translational modifications (PTMs) in the DEPs corresponds to the cloned ESTs-147 sites with phosphorylation, 21 sites with sumoylation, 237 with palmitoylation, 96 sites with S-nitrosylation, 3066 calpain cleavage sites, and 103 tyrosine nitration sites, predicted to sense the heat stress and regulate the expression of stress genes. Twelve DEPs were observed to have transmembrane helixes (TMH) in their structure, predicted to play the role of sensors of HS. Quantitative Real-Time PCR of randomly selected ESTs showed very high relative expression of HSP17 under HS; up-regulation was observed more in wheat cv. HD2985 (thermotolerant), as compared to HD2329 (thermosusceptible) during grain-filling. The abundance of transcripts was further validated through northern blot analysis. The ESTs and their corresponding DEPs can be used as molecular marker for screening or targeted precision breeding program. PTMs identified in the DEPs can be used to elucidate the thermotolerance mechanism of wheat-a novel step toward the development of "climate-smart" wheat.

  2. Fractal Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esbenshade, Donald H., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    Develops the idea of fractals through a laboratory activity that calculates the fractal dimension of ordinary white bread. Extends use of the fractal dimension to compare other complex structures as other breads and sponges. (MDH)

  3. Propriedades de pasta de mesclas de farinha integral com farinha refinada usadas na produção de pães Pasting properties of whole and refined wheat flour blends used for bread production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Oro

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Na produção de pães integrais de trigo no Brasil, são utilizadas mesclas de farinha integral (FI com farinha refinada (FR, as quais diferem em sua composição. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi investigar as propriedades de pasta de mesclas de FI com FR. Foram analisadas amostras com 100% de FI, 100% de FR (controles e mesclas de FI com FR nas proporções de 20, 40, 60 e 80%, em equipamento RVA (Rapid Visco Analyzer. A temperatura de pasta das amostras foi semelhante. A viscosidade máxima diminuiu proporcionalmente com o aumento de FI na mescla. Maiores valores de quebra e de viscosidade mínima à temperatura constante foram encontrados em farinhas com pico de viscosidade elevado. Os valores de viscosidade final e de tendência à retrogradação diminuíram à medida que aumentou o teor de FI na mescla. As propriedades de pasta das mesclas de FI com FR devem ser vistas de forma conjunta, pois afetam a produção de pão e o armazenamento. Os resultados mostraram também que o RVA pode ser usado para ajudar a formular mesclas de FI/FR com certas propriedades de pasta.In whole wheat bread production in Brazil blends of whole flour (WF with refined flour (RF are used, which differ in their composition. Thus, the objective of this study was to investigate the pasting properties of WF with RF blends. Samples with 100% of WF, 100% of RF (controls and blends of WF with RF in the proportions of 20, 40, 60 and 80% were analyzed, in a RVA (Rapid Visco Analyzer equipment. The samples pasting temperatures were similar. The peak viscosity decreased proportionally with the increase of WF in blends. Higher values of breakdown and holding strength were found in flour with high viscosity peak. Final viscosity and setback values decreased as the content of WF in blends increased. The pasting properties of WF with RF blends must be seen in a combined way, because they affect bread production and storage. The results also showed that RVA can be used to

  4. Genetic control and combining ability of flag leaf area and relative water content traits of bread wheat cultivars under drought stress condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golparvar Ahmad Reza

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare mode of inheritance, combining ability, heterosis and gene action in genetic control of traits flag leaf area, relative water content and grain filling rate of bread wheat under drought stress, a study was conducted on 8 cultivars using of Griffing’s method2 in fixed model. Mean square of general combining ability was significant also for all traits and mean square of specific combining ability was significant also for all traits except relative water content of leaf which show importance of both additive and dominant effects of genes in heredity of these traits under stress. GCA to SCA mean square ratio was significant for none of traits. Results of this study showed that non additive effects of genes were more important than additive effect for all traits. According to results we can understand that genetic improvement of mentioned traits will have low genetic efficiency by selection from the best crosses of early generations. Then it is better to delay selection until advanced generations and increase in heritability of these traits.

  5. Flow cytometric chromosome sorting from diploid progenitors of bread wheat, T. urartu, Ae. speltoides and Ae. tauschii

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Molnár, I.; Kubaláková, Marie; Šimková, Hana; Farkas, A.; Cseh, A.; Megyeri, M.; Vrána, Jan; Molnár-Láng, M.; Doležel, Jaroslav

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 127, č. 5 (2014), s. 1091-1104 ISSN 0040-5752 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Grant - others:GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Program:ED Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : SYNTHETIC HEXAPLOID WHEAT * AEGILOPS-TRITICUM GROUP * GENETIC-LINKAGE MAP Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.790, year: 2014

  6. Identification of interacting proteins of the TaFVE protein involved in spike development in bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yong-Sheng; Lu, Yu-Qing; Meng, Ying-Ying; Zhang, Rong-Zhi; Zhang, Han; Sun, Jia-Mei; Wang, Mu-Mu; Li, Li-Hui; Li, Ru-Yu

    2017-05-01

    WD-40 repeat-containing protein MSI4 (FVE)/MSI4 plays important roles in determining flowering time in Arabidopsis. However, its function is unexplored in wheat. In the present study, coimmunoprecipitation and nanoscale liquid chromatography coupled to MS/MS were used to identify FVE in wheat (TaFVE)-interacting or associated proteins. Altogether 89 differentially expressed proteins showed the same downregulated expression trends as TaFVE in wheat line 5660M. Among them, 62 proteins were further predicted to be involved in the interaction network of TaFVE and 11 proteins have been shown to be potential TaFVE interactors based on curated databases and experimentally determined in other species by the STRING. Both yeast two-hybrid assay and bimolecular fluorescence complementation assay showed that histone deacetylase 6 and histone deacetylase 15 directly interacted with TaFVE. Multiple chromatin-remodelling proteins and polycomb group proteins were also identified and predicted to interact with TaFVE. These results showed that TaFVE directly interacted with multiple proteins to form multiple complexes to regulate spike developmental process, e.g. histone deacetylate, chromatin-remodelling and polycomb repressive complex 2 complexes. In addition, multiple flower development regulation factors (e.g. flowering locus K homology domain, flowering time control protein FPA, FY, flowering time control protein FCA, APETALA 1) involved in floral transition were also identified in the present study. Taken together, these results further elucidate the regulatory functions of TaFVE and help reveal the genetic mechanisms underlying wheat spike differentiation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Heat-induced regulation of antioxidant defense system and nutrient accumulation in hexaploid bread wheat (triticum aestivum l.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zia, M.A.; Ashraf, M.; Akram, A.

    2014-01-01

    Ten cultivars (five registered S-24, Inqlab-91, Saher-2006, Fsd-2008, and Lasani, and five candidate cultivars P.B-18, M.P-65, S.H-20, AARI-10, and G.A-20) of spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) were examined for high temperature stress tolerance. Plants were grown in soil filled pots in the Botanical Garden of the Department of Botany University of Agriculture Faisalabad, Pakistan. Three different temperature regimes (30, 40 and 50 degree C) were applied at two different growth stages (tillering and boot) for three temperature durations 30, 60 and 90 min in a growth chamber. The leaf and root samples were collected after two weeks of temperature treatment and then analyzed for enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants as well as inorganic nutrients (N, P, K+, Ca2+). At the end, data obtained were statistically analyzed to distinguish heat tolerant from non-tolerant wheat cultivars. After appraisal of growth, antioxidant defense system and uptake of nutrients it was found that cvs. S-24, Inqlab-91, Saher-2006, Fsd-2008, Lasani and G.A-20 exhibited better thermo-tolerance capabilities than the other wheat cultivars (P.B-18, M.P-65, S.H-20, AARI-10). Among the thermo-tolerant wheat cultivars, G.A-20 and Lasani were superior in maintaining shoot fresh weights and shoot length, high antioxidant activities and better nutrient uptake at both tillering and boot stages. The response of all cultivars to heat stress applied at the tillering stage or boot stage was almost the same. (author)

  8. Sequencing chromosome 5D of Aegilops tauschii and comparison with its allopolyploid descendant bread wheat (Triticum aestivum)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Akpinar, B. A.; Lucas, S. J.; Vrána, Jan; Doležel, Jaroslav; Budak, H.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 6 (2015), s. 740-752 ISSN 1467-7644 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G090; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1204 Institutional support: RVO:61389030 Keywords : D genome donor of wheat * chromosome 5D * comparative genomics Subject RIV: EB - Gene tics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.090, year: 2015

  9. Genome-wide analysis of the cellulose synthase-like (Csl) gene family in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Simerjeet; Dhugga, Kanwarpal S; Beech, Robin; Singh, Jaswinder

    2017-11-03

    Hemicelluloses are a diverse group of complex, non-cellulosic polysaccharides, which constitute approximately one-third of the plant cell wall and find use as dietary fibres, food additives and raw materials for biofuels. Genes involved in hemicellulose synthesis have not been extensively studied in small grain cereals. In efforts to isolate the sequences for the cellulose synthase-like (Csl) gene family from wheat, we identified 108 genes (hereafter referred to as TaCsl). Each gene was represented by two to three homeoalleles, which are named as TaCslXY_ZA, TaCslXY_ZB, or TaCslXY_ZD, where X denotes the Csl subfamily, Y the gene number and Z the wheat chromosome where it is located. A quarter of these genes were predicted to have 2 to 3 splice variants, resulting in a total of 137 putative translated products. Approximately 45% of TaCsl genes were located on chromosomes 2 and 3. Sequences from the subfamilies C and D were interspersed between the dicots and grasses but those from subfamily A clustered within each group of plants. Proximity of the dicot-specific subfamilies B and G, to the grass-specific subfamilies H and J, respectively, points to their common origin. In silico expression analysis in different tissues revealed that most of the genes were expressed ubiquitously and some were tissue-specific. More than half of the genes had introns in phase 0, one-third in phase 2, and a few in phase 1. Detailed characterization of the wheat Csl genes has enhanced the understanding of their structural, functional, and evolutionary features. This information will be helpful in designing experiments for genetic manipulation of hemicellulose synthesis with the goal of developing improved cultivars for biofuel production and increased tolerance against various stresses.

  10. QTL Analysis and Nested Association Mapping for Adult Plant Resistance to Powdery Mildew in Two Bread Wheat Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ren

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available CIMMYT wheat (Triticum aestivum L. lines Francolin#1 and Quaiu#3 displayed effective and stable adult plant resistance (APR to Chinese Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici isolates in the field. To elucidate their genetic basis of resistance, two recombinant inbred line (RIL populations of their crosses with Avocet, the susceptible parent, were phenotyped in Zhengzhou and Shangqiu in the 2014–2015 and 2015–2016 cropping seasons. These populations were also genotyped with SSR (simple sequence repeat markers and DArT (diversity arrays technology markers. Two common significant quantitative trait loci (QTL on wheat chromosomes 1BL and 4BL were detected in both populations by joint and individual inclusive composite interval mapping, explaining 20.3–28.7% and 9.6–15.9% of the phenotypic variance in Avocet × Francolin#1 and 4.8–11.5% and 10.8–18.9% in Avocet × Quaiu#3, respectively. Additional QTL were mapped on chromosomes 1DL and 5BL in Avocet × Francolin#1 and on 2DL and 6BS in Avocet × Quaiu#3. Among these, QPm.heau-1DL is probably a novel APR gene contributing 6.1–8.5% of total phenotypic variance. The QTL on 1BL corresponds to the pleiotropic multi-pathogen resistance gene Yr29/Lr46/Pm39, whereas the QTL on 2DL maps to a similar region where stripe rust resistance gene Yr54 is located. The QTL identified can potentially be used for the improvement of powdery mildew and rust resistance in wheat breeding.

  11. Significance of Wheat Flour Dough Rheology to Gas Cell Structure Development in Bread and Other Baked Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engmann, Jan

    2008-07-01

    We discuss which rheological material functions of wheat flour dough are most relevant for structure development in baked products under common processing conditions. We consider the growth of gas cells during dough proofing (driven by yeast) and during baking, where the growth is driven by a combination of CO2 desorption, water and ethanol evaporation, and thermal expansion of gas. Attention is given to upper limits on biaxial extension rate and stress and the consequences for the required rheological material functions. The applicability of the "Considère criterion" to predict the probability of coalescence between gas cells and its effect on loaf aeration is briefly discussed.

  12. Cultivar-specific high temperature stress responses in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) associated with physicochemical traits and defense pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Divya; Shekhar, Shubhendu; Agrawal, Lalit; Chakraborty, Subhra; Chakraborty, Niranjan

    2017-04-15

    The increasing global temperature by 1°C is estimated to reduce the harvest index in a crop by 6%, and this would certainly have negative impact on overall plant metabolism. Wheat is one of the most important crops with global annual production of over 600million tonnes. We investigated an array of physicochemical and molecular indexes to unravel differential response of nine commercial wheat cultivars to high temperature stress (HTS). The reduced rate in relative water content, higher membrane stability, slow chlorophyll degradation and increased accumulation of proline and secondary metabolites ingrained higher thermotolerance in cv. Unnat Halna, among others. The altered expression of several stress-responsive genes, particularly the genes associated with photosynthesis, heat shock proteins and antioxidants impinge on the complexity of HTS-induced responses over different genetic backgrounds and connectivity of adaptive mechanisms. This may facilitate the targeted manipulation of metabolic routes in crops for agricultural and industrial exploitation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quality evaluation of little millet (Panicum miliare) incorporated functional bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mannuramath, Mamata; Yenagi, Nirmala; Orsat, Valerie

    2015-12-01

    The study was undertaken with the objective of formulating a fiber enriched functional bread by incorporating little millet flour (LMF). Wheat flour (WF) was replaced with LMF at various proportions (10, 30 and 50%) in the bread preparation. The developed breads were evaluated for physical, sensory and nutritional characteristics. The loaf volume, weight, height and specific volume were decreased significantly with increased levels of LMF. The wheat bread (control), 10 and 30 % percent incorporation of LMF did not show significance difference in the sensory scores. Control and bread with 30 % incorporation of LMF were evaluated further for nutritional characteristics. There was an increase in the percentage of micronutrients such as Iron (94%), Zinc (29%), Copper (70%), Phosphorus (28%) and also fiber (19%) which improved the nutritional value of the wheat bread when substituted with LMF. The incorporation of LMF at 30% level in bread can be considered as a functional and nutritional food choice for the management of diet related metabolic disorders.

  14. Supplementary data: Genetic diversity among old Portuguese bread ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Supplementary data: Genetic diversity among old Portuguese bread wheat cultivars and botanical varieties evaluated by ITS rDNA PCR-RFLP markers. A. Carvalho, H. Guedes-Pinto and J. Lima-Brito. J. Genet. 88, 363–367. Table 1. Passport data of the old Portuguese bread wheat cultivars (2n = 6x = 42;. AABBDD).

  15. An Efficient Approach for the Development of Locus Specific Primers in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and Its Application to Re-Sequencing of Genes Involved in Frost Tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Babben

    Full Text Available Recent declines in costs accelerated sequencing of many species with large genomes, including hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L.. Although the draft sequence of bread wheat is known, it is still one of the major challenges to developlocus specific primers suitable to be used in marker assisted selection procedures, due to the high homology of the three genomes. In this study we describe an efficient approach for the development of locus specific primers comprising four steps, i.e. (i identification of genomic and coding sequences (CDS of candidate genes, (ii intron- and exon-structure reconstruction, (iii identification of wheat A, B and D sub-genome sequences and primer development based on sequence differences between the three sub-genomes, and (iv; testing of primers for functionality, correct size and localisation. This approach was applied to single, low and high copy genes involved in frost tolerance in wheat. In summary for 27 of these genes for which sequences were derived from Triticum aestivum, Triticum monococcum and Hordeum vulgare, a set of 119 primer pairs was developed and after testing on Nulli-tetrasomic (NT lines, a set of 65 primer pairs (54.6%, corresponding to 19 candidate genes, turned out to be specific. Out of these a set of 35 fragments was selected for validation via Sanger's amplicon re-sequencing. All fragments, with the exception of one, could be assigned to the original reference sequence. The approach presented here showed a much higher specificity in primer development in comparison to techniques used so far in bread wheat and can be applied to other polyploid species with a known draft sequence.

  16. De novo assembly and comparative analysis of the transcriptome of embryogenic callus formation in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Zongli; Chen, Junying; Sun, Junyan; Dong, Zhongdong; Yang, Xia; Wang, Ying; Xu, Haixia; Zhang, Xiaoke; Chen, Feng; Cui, Dangqun

    2017-12-19

    During asexual reproduction the embryogenic callus can differentiate into a new plantlet, offering great potential for fostering in vitro culture efficiency in plants. The immature embryos (IMEs) of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) are more easily able to generate embryogenic callus than mature embryos (MEs). To understand the molecular process of embryogenic callus formation in wheat, de novo transcriptome sequencing was used to generate transcriptome sequences from calli derived from IMEs and MEs after 3d, 6d, or 15d of culture (DC). In total, 155 million high quality paired-end reads were obtained from the 6 cDNA libraries. Our de novo assembly generated 142,221 unigenes, of which 59,976 (42.17%) were annotated with a significant Blastx against nr, Pfam, Swissprot, KOG, KEGG, GO and COG/KOG databases. Comparative transcriptome analysis indicated that a total of 5194 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were identified in the comparisons of IME vs. ME at the three stages, including 3181, 2085 and 1468 DEGs at 3, 6 and 15 DC, respectively. Of them, 283 overlapped in all the three comparisons. Furthermore, 4731 DEGs were identified in the comparisons between stages in IMEs and MEs. Functional analysis revealed that 271transcription factor (TF) genes (10 overlapped in all 3 comparisons of IME vs. ME) and 346 somatic embryogenesis related genes (SSEGs; 35 overlapped in all 3 comparisons of IME vs. ME) were differentially expressed in at least one comparison of IME vs. ME. In addition, of the 283 overlapped DEGs in the 3 comparisons of IME vs. ME, excluding the SSEGs and TFs, 39 possessed a higher rate of involvement in biological processes relating to response to stimuli, in multi-organism processes, reproductive processes and reproduction. Furthermore, 7 were simultaneously differentially expressed in the 2 comparisons between the stages in IMEs, but not MEs, suggesting that they may be related to embryogenic callus formation. The expression levels of genes, which

  17. Solid-State Fermentation of Silybum marianum L. Seeds Used as Additive to Increase the Nutritional Value of Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalia Cizeikiene

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study Silybum marianum L. seeds were fermented using solid-state fermentation (SSF with several lactic acid bacteria (LAB of Lactobacillus and Pediococcus genera, isolated from spontaneously fermented Lithuanian rye sourdough. A possibility to improve sensory properties (flavour of Silybum marianum L. seeds using LAB fermentation was investigated. The composition of volatile compounds of the unfermented and LAB-fermented seeds of this plant was analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Fermented seeds have shown considerable differences mainly due to the accumulation of higher alcohols. Total amount of phenolic compounds, flavonoids and 2,2-diphenylpicrylhydrazyl (DPPH radical scavenging activity of unfermented and fermented seeds were determined spectrophotometrically. The obtained results indicate that Silybum marianum L. seeds are a valuable source of bioactive compounds. The highest content of phenolic compounds and flavonoids (4596 and 1346 mg of rutin equivalents (RE per 100 g, respectively was determined in the seeds fermented with Pediococcus acidilactici KTU05-7 bacteria in solid-state fermentation. Silybum marianum L. seeds fermented with P. acidilactici KTU05-7 and Pediococcus pentosaceus KTU05-9 showed stronger antioxidant activity (1263 and 1041 mg of RE per 100 g, respectively, compared to the unfermented seeds (805 mg of RE per 100 g. The addition of Silybum marianum L. seeds fermented with P. acidilactici KTU05-7 bacteria had the highest effect on the decrease of the bacterial spoilage of bread. The aroma compounds from the fermented seeds extracted with supercritical carbon dioxide demonstrated the highest antimicrobial activity against the tested microorganisms. Ultrasonic pretreatment of the seeds reduced the total amount of microorganisms in the raw material. Microbiological tests revealed that the highest antimicrobial effect was achieved using the solid-state fermentation conditions. This

  18. Identification of ISSR and RAPD markers linked to yield traits in bread wheat under normal and drought conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.G.A. Khaled

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Genetic variability and identification of some molecular markers were studied in twenty promising lines of wheat using agronomic traits, ISSR (inter simple sequences repeats and RAPD (random amplified polymorphic DNA markers. Significant variation was evidenced in all agronomic traits. The lines proved to be superior to the check cultivar Sahel1 in yield and its component traits. Lines L2, L7 and L8 were the best in most yield component traits in both seasons. Moreover, Lines L2, L4, L5, L7 and L8 showed drought tolerance by which they displayed high performance in agronomic traits as well as a low drought susceptibility index. The percentage of polymorphism was 39.3% and 53.2% for ISSRs and RAPDs, respectively. UBC-881 belonged to penta-nucleotide repeat sequences (GGGTG that produced the highest level of polymorphism, while UBC-846 belonged to di-nucleotide repeat sequences (CA that produced the lowest level of polymorphism. Genetic similarities among wheat lines based on ISSR and RAPD markers ranged from 0.81 to 1.00 and from 0.86 to 0.98, respectively. There was a low average of PIC (polymorphism information content values which were 0.10 (ISSR and 0.15 (RAPD. The RAPD technique exhibited a higher marker index (MI = 0.69 compared to ISSR (MI = 0.43. There was insignificant correlation between ISSR and RAPD data (0.168, p > 0.05. There were two markers (UBC-881450bp and OPF-10540bp, on each of which two traits regressed significantly. The associated markers each explained a maximum regression of 18.92–34.95% of the total available variation for individual associated traits.

  19. Influence of a fertilizer solution on yield and quality of bread wheat in Guadalquivir Valley (Córdoba, Spain)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concepción Benítez, M.; González, José Luis; Tejada, Manuel

    2014-05-01

    The use of by-products of food industries in agricultural practices has become a routine over the last few decades. The addition of beet vinasse, by-products of the two sep olive mill process and by-products of defatted sunflower flour, etc., to soils is a common agricultural practice, since sensible use has been reported to improve the physical, chemical and biological aspects of the soil and to increase harvest yield, and in many cases harvest quality Previous research carried out by the authors (Ordóñez et al., 2001) examined a process whereby a protein concentrate is obtained from defatted sunflower flour. In this process, floating liquid phosphorus, potassium contents and smaller amounts of humic substances and nitrogen are obtained. The potential application of this solution as a fertiliser has been evaluated on rye grass, confirming that its effects are comparable to those produced by a nutritional solution in terms of phosphorus and potassium foliar levels. The experiment was performed on soil classified as Typic Haploxererts located in the Middle Valley of the river Guadalquivir Cajeme wheat (Triticum aestivum var) variety was used at a dose of 180 kg seeds / ha. For both crop, four fertiliser treatments were applied in triplicate to randomly distributed 7 x 8 m plots. The greatest positive effect of applying the experimental phospho-potassic solution was found for the leaf levels of K, in maturity; this influence was most significant when the highest dosage of said solution. With reference to the levels of N, P and K in wheat grain, the levels of potassium were significantly different for all the fertilising treatments, and the plot fertilised with the highest dosage of the experimental phospho-potassic solution presented the highest values. As for the data obtained for harvest yield and quality, the addition of the experimental solution was observed to have a significantly positive influence (but only in the highest dosages) on the production levels.

  20. Technological characteristics of bread containing integral irradiated flours

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teixeira, Christian A.H.M.; Mastro, Nelida L. del

    2011-01-01

    Wheat is normally used to make bread, pasta, and noodles, because among the cereal flours, only wheat flour has the ability to form cohesive dough upon hydration. For that reason, only partial substitution of wheat flour can be recommended. In this work, pan breads were prepared with 30% content of irradiated whole wheat, whole rye and coarse cornmeal and the influence of blending on bread making capabilities investigated through some technological characteristics. All-brand wheat, rye and cornmeal flours were irradiated with 0, 1, 3 and 9 kGy in a 60 Co and the deformation force, height and weight of breads prepared with those blends were then determined. Breads prepared with irradiated whole wheat flour showed an increase in the deformation force with the increase of radiation dose. The bread height presented also an increase for the doses of 1 and 3 kGy. Breads prepared with refined wheat flour blended with irradiated whole rye flour showed an increased deformation force for radiation doses of 1 and 3 kGy and an increase in weight for samples irradiated with 1 kGy. Coarse cornmeal blended flour showed a great increase of the deformation force upon irradiation, and an increase in weight for samples irradiated with 3 kGy. The results indicate that the addition of irradiated integral flour, whole wheat, whole rye flour and cornmeal to wheat flour may confer changes in physical properties beside an increment in nutritional value. (author)

  1. Comparison of Stability and Adaptability in New Cereal; Primary Tritipyrum, with Iranian Bread Wheat and Triticale Using Different Stability Parameters in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Farokhzadeh

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the genotype-environment interaction for grain yield in eight primary and combined primary tritipyrum lines in comparison with four Iranian bread wheat varieties and five promising triticale lines, an experiment in randomized completely block design with three replication in three locations of Iran (Kerman, Sirjan, Neyriz including 7 separate environment during 2001-2002, 2005-2006 and 2010-2011 were conducted. The results of combined analysis of variance for grain yield showed significant differences between environments and genotype × environment interactions. The results of stability analysis for high yielding lines/cultivars indicated first, in Eberhart and Russell grouping method Based on slope of regression line, grain yield average and also deviation of regression line parameters, combined primary tritipyrum line (Ka/b(Cr/b-5 and triticale 4115, 4108 and M45 lines showed good compatibility in all environments. Second, the results of genotypes category in cluster analysis based on criteria ecovalance and stability variance was exactly the same. Third,, based on ecovalance, stability variance parameters and mean yield, the combined primary tritipyrum line (Ka/b(Cr/b-5 and promising triticales 4108 and M45 Lines indicated low genotype × environment interaction and high growth performance in comparison with all varieties and lines. This tritipyrum line can be introduced as a potential pasture Line in arid and semi arid area of Iran particulary with brackish water and saline soils. The two triticale lines can be registerd as high grain lines in poor lands of Iran for cereal production for the first time.

  2. Metabolic Profiling Reveals Differences in Plasma Concentrations of Arabinose and Xylose after Consumption of Fiber-Rich Pasta and Wheat Bread with Differential Rates of Systemic Appearance of Exogenous Glucose in Healthy Men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantophlet, Andre J; Wopereis, Suzan; Eelderink, Coby; Vonk, Roel J; Stroeve, Johanna H; Bijlsma, Sabina; van Stee, Leo; Bobeldijk, Ivana; Priebe, Marion G

    2017-02-01

    The consumption of products rich in cereal fiber and with a low glycemic index is implicated in a lower risk of metabolic diseases. Previously, we showed that the consumption of fiber-rich pasta compared with bread resulted in a lower rate of appearance of exogenous glucose and a lower glucose clearance rate quantified with a dual-isotope technique, which was in accordance with a lower insulin and glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide response. To gain more insight into the acute metabolic consequences of the consumption of products resulting in differential glucose kinetics, postprandial metabolic profiles were determined. In a crossover study, 9 healthy men [mean ± SEM age: 21 ± 0.5 y; mean ± SEM body mass index (kg/m 2 ): 22 ± 0.5] consumed wheat bread (132 g) and fresh pasta (119 g uncooked) enriched with wheat bran (10%) meals. A total of 134 different metabolites in postprandial plasma samples (at -5, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180 min) were quantified by using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics approach (secondary outcomes). Two-factor ANOVA and advanced multivariate statistical analysis (partial least squares) were applied to detect differences between both food products. Forty-two different postprandial metabolite profiles were identified, primarily representing pathways related to protein and energy metabolism, which were on average 8% and 7% lower after the men consumed pasta rather than bread, whereas concentrations of arabinose and xylose were 58% and 53% higher, respectively. Arabinose and xylose are derived from arabinoxylans, which are important components of wheat bran. The higher bioavailability of arabinose and xylose after pasta intake coincided with a lower rate of appearance of glucose and amino acids. We speculate that this higher bioavailability is due to higher degradation of arabinoxylans by small intestinal microbiota, facilitated by the higher viscosity of arabinoxylans after pasta intake than after bread

  3. wheat flour (dubbie) in rats

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dubbie into sour dough bread resulted in a complete removal of the phytic acid content and subsequent increase in iron absorption. It is concluded that sour dough bread (Difo dabbo) is a good source of iron compared to porridge prepared from Dubbie. Key words/phrases: Bread, iron'bioavailability, porridge, soy-wheat ...

  4. Effect of Lactobacillus casei- casei and Lactobacillus reuteri on acrylamide formation in flat bread and Bread roll.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dastmalchi, Farnaz; Razavi, Seyed Hadi; Faraji, Mohammad; Labbafi, Mohsen

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was the evaluation of fermentation by lactic acid bacteria (LAB) contains lactobacillus (L.) casei- casei and L. reuteri on acrylamide formation and physicochemical properties of the Iranian flat bread named, Sangak, and Bread roll. Sangak and Bread roll were made with whole and white wheat flour, respectively. Whole-wheat flour had upper content of protein, sugar, ash, fiber, damaged starch and the activity of amylase than the white wheat flour. After 24 h of fermentation, the pH values of the sourdoughs made from whole-wheat flour (3.00, 2.90) were lower, in compared to sourdoughs prepared from white wheat flour (3.60, 3.58). In addition, in Sangak bread, glucose, and fructose were completely utilized after fermentation, but in bread roll, the reduced sugar levels increased after fermentation and baking that represent microorganisms cannot be activated and utilized sugars. Acrylamide formation was impacted by pH of sourdough and total reducing sugar (r = 0.915, r = 0.885 respectively). Bread roll and Sangak bread were fermented by L. casei- casei contained lowest acrylamide content, in two bread types (219.1, 104.3 μg/kg respectively). As an important result, the acrylamide content of Sangak bread in all cases was lower than in the Bread roll.

  5. Acceptability of complementary foods and breads prepared from zinc-fortified cereal flours among young children and adults in Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaron, G J; Lo, N Ba; Hess, S Y; Guiro, A T; Wade, S; Ndiaye, N F; Guinard, J-X; Brown, K H

    2011-01-01

    We completed a series of studies to assess the acceptability of zinc-fortified, cereal-based complementary foods and zinc-fortified wheat breads. Young children and their caregivers completed acceptability tests with complementary foods fortified with iron only (60 mg iron as ferrous fumarate per kilogram cereal flour), or the same level of iron and zinc (240 mg zinc as zinc oxide per kilogram cereal flour), and the caregivers completed triangle taste tests to compare the same products. A separate group of adult participants completed acceptability tests with wheat breads fortified with iron and folic acid (15 mg iron as ferrous fumarate per kilogram flour and 1.5 mg folic acid per kilogram flour) or the same levels of iron-folic acid and 2 levels of zinc (63 mg zinc or 126 mg zinc as zinc oxide per kilogram flour). Finally, a threshold test was administered to another group of adult participants to compare nonfortified wheat bread to breads fortified with zinc in 80 mg increments ranging from 80 to 400 mg zinc as zinc oxide per kilogram flour. All products were acceptable when compared to non-zinc-fortified equivalents, and were well liked by the respective participants. For the triangle tests, caregivers were not able to detect significant differences between products. For threshold tests, adult participants detected differences in breads prepared from fortified wheat flour at 80 mg, 160 mg, and 320 mg zinc per kilogram flour, but not at 240 mg and 400 mg zinc per kilogram flour, respectively, when compared to nonfortified bread equivalents. Zinc fortification of cereal flours in the ranges of fortification that were tested does not adversely affect the acceptability of complementary foods and breads prepared from these flours. Practical Application: Fortification of staple food products is a low-cost approach to deliver additional micronutrients (including zinc) to large segments of a population. Determining the acceptability of products fortified with zinc is

  6. Sequential Path Analysis for Determination of Relationship Between Yield and Yield Components in Bread Wheat (Triticum aestivum.L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtasham MOHAMMADI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to evaluate 295 wheat genotypes in Alpha-Lattice design with two replications. The arithmetic mean and standard deviation of grain yield was 2706 and 950 (kg/ha,respectively. The results of correlation coefficients indicated that grain yield had significant and positive association with plant height, spike length, early growth vigor and agronomic score. Whereas there were negative correlation coefficients between grain yield and days to physiological maturity and canopy temperature before and during anthesis. Path analysis indicated agronomic score and plant height had high positive direct effects on grain yield, while canopy temperature before and during anthesis, and days to maturity, wes another trait having negative direct effect on grain yield. The results of sequential path analysis showed the traits that accounted as a criteria variable for high grain yield were agronomic score, plant height, canopy temperature, spike length, chlorophyll content and early growth vigor, which were determined as first, second and third order variables and had strong effects on grain yield via one or more paths. More important, as canopy temperature, agronomic score and early growth vigor can be evaluated quickly and easily, these traits may be used for evaluation of large populations.

  7. BREAD CRUMBS TEXTURE OF SPELT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Korczyk – Szabó

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Texture analysis is an objective physical examination of baked products and gives direct information on the product quality, oppositely to dough rheology tests what inform on the baking suitability of the flour, as raw material. Evaluation of the mechanical properties of bread crumb is important not only for quality assurance in the bakeries, but also for assessing the effects of changes in dough ingredients and processing condition and also for describing the changes in bread crumb during storage. Crumb cellular structure is an important quality criterion used in commercial baking and research laboratories to judge bread quality alongside taste, crumb colour and crumb physical texture. In the framework of our research during the years 2010 – 2011 were analyzed selected indicators of bread crumb for texture quality of three Triticum spelta L. cultivars – Altgold, Rubiota and Ostro grown in an ecological system. The bread texture quality was evaluated on texture analyzer TA.XT Plus (Stable Micro Systems, Surrey, UK, following the AACC (74-09 standard and expressed as crumb firmness (N, stiffness (N.mm-1 and relative elasticity (%. Our research proved that all selected indicators were significantly influenced by the year of growing and variety. The most soft bread was achieved in Rubiota, whereas bread crumb samples from Altgold and Ostro were the most firm and stiff. Correlation analysis showed strong negative correlation between relative elasticity and bread crumb firmness as well as bread stiffness (-0.65++, -0.66++. The spelt wheat bread crumb texture need further investigation as it can be a reliable quality parameter.

  8. Bread's oven and baking bread

    OpenAIRE

    Kastelic, Katja

    2011-01-01

    This thesis researches the connection between baker's oven and baking bread. Furthermore, it presents the history and development of the above issue in the Slovenian territory, its significance and preservation over time. The thesis deals with the building of bread’s over, its function and usability. Moreover, it focuses on baking bread in bread’s oven, presenting the entire baking process from ingredients to the baked loaf of bread and various tools and techniques, which can be used during t...

  9. Computational Analysis Of Group 2 Late Embryogenesis Protein (Lea In Different Cultivar Of Bread Wheat (Triticum Aestivum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasouli Hassan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Late Embryogenesis abundant protein has a crucial role as the cold-acclimation process in the wheat. These proteins encoded by TaWdhn13 gene. This gene is transcriptionally activated and produces the accumulated proteins and metabolites and protection cell structure from freezing damage. The objectives of this study were to isolate the genomic DNA (g-DNA sequence of TaWdhn13, to analyze structure, conserved domains of the gene, and to found a basis for association analysis of the functional sites associated with computational analysis. We here report on the functional assignment to TaWdhn13 gene by computational analysis. The Three-Dimensional (3D model of LEA protein drawing by using the phyre 2 server. For identify the conserved domain and motif of these gene sequence we used the Conserved Domain Database and DNA Motif Searching Database, however, the conserved domains and motif has been recognized. The results showed TaWdhn13 conserved domain incudes: Dehydrin superfamily. Also, motifs structure for this gene includes: 2FE2S_FER_1 Motif, INTEGRIN_BETA Motif, VWFC_1 Motif, EGF_1 Motif and DEFENSIN Motif. Our results reveal that group 2 LEA proteins are most likely to function within the cell nucleus. The analysis of protein property showed that the protein had no trans-membrane domains. The isoelectric point of the protein was 3.41, which was charged with 5.34 negative electrons when pH value of the buffer was 7.0.

  10. Relationship between bread and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra-Majem, Luis; Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada

    2015-04-01

    Some studies have indicated that promoting the Mediterranean diet pattern as a model of healthy eating may help to prevent weight gain and the development of overweight/obesity. Bread consumption, which has been part of the traditional Mediterranean diet, has continued to decline in Spain and in the rest of the world, because the opinion of the general public is that bread fattens. The present study was conducted to assess whether or not eating patterns that include bread are associated with obesity and excess abdominal adiposity, both in the population at large or in subjects undergoing obesity management. The results of the present review indicate that reducing white bread, but not whole-grain bread, consumption within a Mediterranean-style food pattern setting is associated with lower gains in weight and abdominal fat. It appears that the different composition between whole-grain bread and white bread varies in its effect on body weight and abdominal fat. However, the term 'whole-grain bread' needs to be defined for use in epidemiological studies. Finally, additional studies employing traditional ways of bread production should analyse this effect on body-weight and metabolic regulation.

  11. Development of a bread slicing machine from locally sourced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents the development of a bread slicing machine which is a mechanical device that is used for slicing bread instead of the crude cumbersome and unhygienic method of manual slicing of bread. In an attempt to facilitate the final processing of bread which is a common daily food requirement of most Nigerians ...

  12. Can bread processing conditions alter glycaemic response?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Evelyn; Soong, Yean Yean; Zhou, Weibiao; Henry, Jeyakumar

    2015-04-15

    Bread is a staple food that is traditionally made from wheat flour. This study aimed to compare the starch digestibility of western baked bread and oriental steamed bread. Four types of bread were prepared: western baked bread (WBB) and oriental steamed bread (OSB), modified baked bread (MBB) made with the OSB recipe and WBB processing, and modified steamed bread (MSB) made with the WBB recipe and OSB processing. MBB showed the highest starch digestibility in vitro, followed by WBB, OSB and MSB. A similar trend was observed for glycaemic response in vivo. MBB, WBB, OSB and MSB had a glycaemic index of 75±4, 71±5, 68±5 and 65±4, respectively. Processing differences had a more pronounced effect on starch digestibility in bread, and steamed bread was healthier in terms of glycaemic response. The manipulation of processing conditions could be an innovative route to alter the glycaemic response of carbohydrate-rich foods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Quality of bread supplemented with mushroom mycelia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulziijargal, Enkhjargal; Yang, Joan-Hwa; Lin, Li-Yun; Chen, Chiao-Pei; Mau, Jeng-Leun

    2013-05-01

    Mushroom mycelia of Antrodia camphorata, Agaricus blazei, Hericium erinaceus and Phellinus linteus were used to substitute 5% of wheat flour to make bread. Bread quality, including specific volume, colour property, equivalent umami concentration (EUC), texture profile analysis, sensory evaluation and functional components, was analysed. Mycelium-supplemented bread was smaller in loaf volume and coloured, and had lower lightness and white index values. White bread contained the lowest amounts of free umami amino acids and umami 5'-nucleotides and showed the lowest EUC value. Incorporating 5% mushroom mycelia into the bread formula did not adversely affect the texture profile of the bread. However, incorporating 5% mushroom mycelia into the bread formula did lower bread's acceptability. After baking, mycelium-supplemented bread still contained substantial amounts of γ-aminobutyric acid and ergothioneine (0.23-0.86 and 0.79-2.10 mg/g dry matter, respectively). Overall, mushroom mycelium could be incorporated into bread to provide its beneficial health effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. [Use of flour of pejibaye fruit (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K.) in bread making].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tracy, M

    1987-03-01

    Trial were conducted in Costa Rica in 1984 and 1985, to determine the possibility of substituting pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes H.B.K.) meal for wheat flour in bread. Utilization in three distinct mixtures was examined: 90:10, 85:15 and 80:20 percentage of wheat flour to percentage of pejibaye meal, respectively. The breads were made, and dough analyses were conducted at "Molinos de Costa Rica, S.A.", the country's principal flour mill. Chemical analyses were carried out at the University of Costa Rica. Results indicate a marked inverse relationship between both initial dough development time and dough strength maintenance, and the content of pejibaye meal present in the flour mixture. Consequent problems with sufficient dough expansion preclude utilization of this fruit meal for bread-making in proportions significantly greater than 10% of the total composite flour. The above-mentioned findings reflect the high nutritional value of the pejibaye fruit. Although the protein content is inversely correlated with the amount of pejibaye meal in the mixture, vitamin A and fat contents are positively correlated. This fact demonstrates that the utilization of pejibaye meal in bread-making may well be in some ways considered as a form of nutritional enrichment. As a final conclusion drawn from the results of analyses of the trials and sensory observations, the 90% wheat flour with 10% pejibaye meal mixture apparently was the optimum substitution level of the breads examined. The potential macroeconomic ramifications on the Costa Rican economy of producing and utilizing pejibaye meal in bread-making, are highly favorable.

  15. Leaf appearance rate and final main stem leaf number as affected by temperature and photoperiod in cereals grown in Mediterranean environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezio Riggi

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, a two-year field trial was carried out with the aim to evaluate daylength and air temperature effects on leaf appearance and related rates in two durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf., two bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and two barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cultivars, using six different sowing dates (SD. Significant effects of SD on final main stem leaf number (FLN, thermal leaf appearance rate (TLAR, daily leaf appearance rate (DLAR and phyllochron (PhL were found. Cultivars resulted inversely correlated to mean air temperature in the interval emergence - fifth leaf full expansion (E-V. Linear response of leaf number over days after sowing was shown for all SD and cultivars, with R2 higher than 0.95. FLN linearly decreased from the first to the last SD for durum wheat, while more variable behaviour was observed in bread wheat. TLAR and DLAR showed a linear increment of the rate from the first to the last SD in durum wheat, while did not for bread wheat and barley. PhL in durum wheat decreased from the first to the last SD. Barley and bread wheat showed the highest values on those SDs which did not reach flowering. The increase of TLAR was affected by photoperiod and photothermal units in durum wheat, while by temperatures only in barley and bread wheat. Present results might find practical application in the improvement of phenology simulation models for durum wheat, bread wheat and barley grown in Mediterranean area in absence of water and nutrient stress.

  16. Genetic analyses using GGE model and a mixed linear model approach, and stability analyses using AMMI bi-plot for late-maturity alpha-amylase activity in bread wheat genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasul, Golam; Glover, Karl D; Krishnan, Padmanaban G; Wu, Jixiang; Berzonsky, William A; Fofana, Bourlaye

    2017-06-01

    Low falling number and discounting grain when it is downgraded in class are the consequences of excessive late-maturity α-amylase activity (LMAA) in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Grain expressing high LMAA produces poorer quality bread products. To effectively breed for low LMAA, it is necessary to understand what genes control it and how they are expressed, particularly when genotypes are grown in different environments. In this study, an International Collection (IC) of 18 spring wheat genotypes and another set of 15 spring wheat cultivars adapted to South Dakota (SD), USA were assessed to characterize the genetic component of LMAA over 5 and 13 environments, respectively. The data were analysed using a GGE model with a mixed linear model approach and stability analysis was presented using an AMMI bi-plot on R software. All estimated variance components and their proportions to the total phenotypic variance were highly significant for both sets of genotypes, which were validated by the AMMI model analysis. Broad-sense heritability for LMAA was higher in SD adapted cultivars (53%) compared to that in IC (49%). Significant genetic effects and stability analyses showed some genotypes, e.g. 'Lancer', 'Chester' and 'LoSprout' from IC, and 'Alsen', 'Traverse' and 'Forefront' from SD cultivars could be used as parents to develop new cultivars expressing low levels of LMAA. Stability analysis using an AMMI bi-plot revealed that 'Chester', 'Lancer' and 'Advance' were the most stable across environments, while in contrast, 'Kinsman', 'Lerma52' and 'Traverse' exhibited the lowest stability for LMAA across environments.

  17. Quality of Bread Supplemented with Antrodia
salmonea-Fermented Grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Rao-Chi; Ulziijargal, Enkhjargal

    2016-01-01

    Summary Fermented grains of buckwheat, oat, embryo rice and wheat, which were prepared by solid-state fermentation with Antrodia salmonea, and the mycelium was used to substitute 7% of wheat flour to make bread. No difference in proximate composition, texture profile and contents of non-volatile taste components was observed among bread samples. White bread and bread supplemented with mycelium and fermented grains looked different. Bread supplemented with fermented grains had similar thermal properties, which differed from those of white bread and bread supplemented with mycelium. Bread supplemented with fermented grains contained substantial mass fractions (on dry mass basis) of adenosine (0.92–1.96 µg/g), ergosterol (24.53–30.12 µg/g), ergothioneine (2.16–3.18 µg/g) and γ-aminobutyric acid (2.20–2.45 µg/g). In addition, bread supplemented with mycelium contained lovastatin (0.43 µg/g). White bread and bread supplemented with fermented grains had similar sensory results. Overall, fermented grains could be incorporated into bread to provide beneficial effects. PMID:27904408

  18. Quality of Bread Supplemented with Antrodia salmonea-Fermented Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao-Chi Chien

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented grains of buckwheat, oat, embryo rice and wheat, which were prepared by solid-state fermentation with Antrodia salmonea, and the mycelium was used to substitute 7 % of wheat flour to make bread. No difference in proximate composition, texture profile and contents of non-volatile taste components was observed among bread samples. White bread and bread supplemented with mycelium and fermented grains looked different. Bread supplemented with fermented grains had similar thermal properties, which differed from those of white bread and bread supplemented with mycelium. Bread supplemented with fermented grains contained substantial mass fractions (on dry mass basis of adenosine (0.92–1.96 μg/g, ergosterol (24.53–30.12 μg/g, ergothioneine (2.16–3.18 μg/g and γ-aminobutyric acid (2.20–2.45 μg/g. In addition, bread supplemented with mycelium contained lovastatin (0.43 μg/g. White bread and bread supplemented with fermented grains had similar sensory results. Overall, fermented grains could be incorporated into bread to provide beneficial effects.

  19. Bread fortified with cholecalciferol increases the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in women as effectively as a cholecalciferol supplement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Natri, A. M.; Salo, P.; Vikstedt, T.

    2006-01-01

    of the added cholecalciferol, the dispersion of cholecalciferol in bread, and the bioavailability of cholecalciferol from fortified bread. Three batches of fortified low-fiber wheat and high-fiber rye breads were baked; from each batch, 3 samples of dough and bread were analyzed for their cholecalciferol...

  20. Prediction of bread-making quality using size exclusion high ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Variation in the distribution of protein molecular weight in wheat (Triticum aestivum), influences breadmaking quality of wheat cultivars, resulting in either poor or good bread. The objective of this study was to predict breadmaking quality of wheat cultivars using size exclusion high performance liquid chromatography.

  1. Enhancement of the folate content in Egyptian pita bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cornelia M. Witthöft

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Egypt has a high incidence of neural tube defects related to folate deficiency. One major food source for folate is pita (baladi bread, which is consumed daily. Bioprocessing (e.g. germination has been reported to increase the folate content in cereals. The aim was to produce pita bread with increased folate content using germinated wheat flour (GWF.Methods: Prior to milling the effects of germination and drying conditions on folate content in wheat grains were studied. Pita bread was baked from wheat flour substituted with different levels of GWF. The folate content in dough and bread and rheological properties of dough were determined.Results: Germination of wheat grains resulted in, depending on temperature, 3- to 4-fold higher folate content with a maximum of 61 µg/100 g DM (dry matter. The folate content in both flour and bread increased 1.5 to 4-fold depending on the level of flour replacement with GWF. Pita bread baked with 50% sieved GWF was acceptable with respect to colour and layer separation, and had a folate content of 50 µg/100 g DM compared with 30 µg/100 g DM in conventional pita bread (0% GWF.Conclusion: Using 50% GWF, pita bread with increased folate content, acceptable for the Egyptian consumer, was produced. Consumption of this bread would increase the average daily folate intake by 75 µg.

  2. Substrate-Limited Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yeast Strains Allow Control of Fermentation during Bread Making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyf, Nore; Laurent, Jitka; Verspreet, Joran; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2017-04-26

    Identification and use of yeast strains that are unable to consume one or more otherwise fermentable substrate types could allow a more controlled fermentation process with more flexibility regarding fermentation times. In this study, Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains with different capacities to consume substrates present in wheat were selected to investigate the impact of substrate limitation on dough fermentation and final bread volume. Results show that fermentation of dough with maltose-negative strains relies on the presence of fructan and sucrose as fermentable substrates and can be used for regular bread making. Levels of fructan and sucrose, endogenously present or added, hence determine the extent of fermentation and timing at the proofing stage. Whole meal is inherently more suitable for substrate-limited fermentation than white flour due to the presence of higher native levels of these substrates. Bread making protocols with long fermentation times are accommodated by addition of substrates such as sucrose.

  3. Bread quality characteristics as influenced by the addition of tomato seed flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia MIRONEASA

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this investigation was to incorporate tomato seed into bread in order to improve it quality. Whole ground tomato seed at different levels (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% was used to replace wheat flour 650 type of a very good quality for bread making to make bread. Bread quality through physical, colour, crumb cell, textural and sensory characteristics were analyzed and compared with those of bread without tomato seed. The substitution of wheat flour with 10% tomato seed has the effect of highest values for loaf volume, porosity and elasticity. Color intensity, expressed as the L*, a*, b* values of breads with tomato seed were lower than those of control bread. The hardness of bread samples increased with the increase level of tomato seed addition. Also, the addition of increasing amounts of tomato seed highlighted large cells in crumb structure of bread. Sensory characteristics showed that bread samples with addition of 5 or 10% tomato seed to wheat flour were similar from of point of view of overall acceptability, but 20% addition resulted in slightly acceptable samples. Principal Component Analysis revealed significant correlations (p < 0.05 between bread physical characteristics, loaf volume, porosity, elasticity and bread overall acceptability at different tomato seed flour addition levels in wheat flour. Overall, tomato seed flour could be incorporated up to levels of 10% into bread to provide its beneficial health effects, not negatively changing its quality.

  4. The Production of Synbiotic Bread by Microencapsulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anousheh Sharifan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Bread is a global staple food. Despite attempts to develop functional breads containing viable microorganisms, this has not been done yet because of the high temperature during baking. The aim of this study is to obtain synbiotic bread, hence hamburger bun and white pan bread were selected. Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and L. casei 431 were encapsulated with calcium alginate and Hi-maize resistant starch via emulsion technique and coated with chitosan. The morphology and size of microcapsules were measured by scanning electron microscopy and particle size analyser. Inulin was added at 5 % wheat flour mass basis for prebiotic effect. The encapsulated probiotics were inoculated into the bread dough and bread loaves were baked. The survival of encapsulated probiotics was determined after baking; also sensory evaluation was performed. Both types of bread met the standard criteria for probiotic products. The probiotic survival was higher in hamburger bun. L. casei 431 was more resistant to high temperature than L. acidophilus LA-5. A significant increase in probiotic survival was observed when the protective coating of chitosan was used in addition to calcium alginate and Hi-maize resistant starch. Storage for 4 days did not have any effect on the viability of encapsulated bacteria. The addition of encapsulated bacteria did not have any effect on flavour and texture; however, 5 % inulin improved the texture of bread significantly. Results show that microencapsulation used in the production of synbiotic bread can enhance the viability and thermal resistance of the probiotic bacteria.

  5. The Production of Synbiotic Bread by Microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyedain-Ardabili, Mojan; Sharifan, Anousheh; Tarzi, Babak Ghiassi

    2016-03-01

    Bread is a global staple food. Despite attempts to develop functional breads containing viable microorganisms, this has not been done yet because of the high temperature during baking. The aim of this study is to obtain synbiotic bread, hence hamburger bun and white pan bread were selected. Lactobacillus acidophilus LA-5 and L. casei 431 were encapsulated with calcium alginate and Hi-maize resistant starch via emulsion technique and coated with chitosan. The morphology and size of microcapsules were measured by scanning electron microscopy and particle size analyser. Inulin was added at 5% wheat flour mass basis for prebiotic effect. The encapsulated probiotics were inoculated into the bread dough and bread loaves were baked. The survival of encapsulated probiotics was determined after baking; also sensory evaluation was performed. Both types of bread met the standard criteria for probiotic products. The probiotic survival was higher in hamburger bun. L. casei 431 was more resistant to high temperature than L. acidophilus LA-5. A significant increase in probiotic survival was observed when the protective coating of chitosan was used in addition to calcium alginate and Hi-maize resistant starch. Storage for 4 days did not have any effect on the viability of encapsulated bacteria. The addition of encapsulated bacteria did not have any effect on flavour and texture; however, 5% inulin improved the texture of bread significantly. Results show that microencapsulation used in the production of synbiotic bread can enhance the viability and thermal resistance of the probiotic bacteria.

  6. UPLC-QTOF/MS metabolic profiling unveils urinary changes in humans after a whole grain rye versus refined wheat bread intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bondia-Pons, Isabel; Barri, Thaer; Hanhineva, Kati

    2013-01-01

    Non-targeted urine metabolite profiling has not been previously exploited in the field of whole grain (WG) products. WG products, particularly rye, are important elements in a healthy Nordic diet. The aim of this study was to identify novel urinary biomarkers of WG rye bread (RB) intake in a rand......Non-targeted urine metabolite profiling has not been previously exploited in the field of whole grain (WG) products. WG products, particularly rye, are important elements in a healthy Nordic diet. The aim of this study was to identify novel urinary biomarkers of WG rye bread (RB) intake...

  7. Wheat Quality Council, Hard Spring Wheat Technical Committee, 2017 Crop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nine experimental lines of hard spring wheat were grown at up to six locations in 2017 and evaluated for kernel, milling, and bread baking quality against the check variety Glenn. Wheat samples were submitted through the Wheat Quality Council and processed and milled at the USDA-ARS Hard Red Spring...

  8. Sensory, digestion, and texture quality of commercial gluten-free bread: Impact of broken rice flour type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feizollahi, Ehsan; Mirmoghtadaie, Leila; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Jazaeri, Sahar; Hadaegh, Haleh; Nazari, Bahman; Lalegani, Sajjad

    2018-02-08

    This research investigated the effects of two varieties of broken rice (Khouzestan and Lenjan) from warm and dry regions, and two (Hashemi and Tarom) from mild and humid regions on different parameters including dough rheology, digestibility, and quality (color, specific volume, textural properties, and sensorial properties) of a commercial gluten-free bread (GFB). Furthermore, the rice varieties' hydration properties, gelatinization temperatures, and starch-granule morphology were assessed. Significant differences were observed in the varieties' proximate composition and hydration properties from both climate zones. The granules' average size was 3.17-4.9 µm. The specific volume of the breads showed no correlation with either the damaged starch content or the amylose content, but had a significant negative correlation with hardness (r = -.923, p variety in Iran, was the most appropriate variety for GFB production. Moreover, it was determined that the rice varieties currently used in commercial manufacture of gluten-free bread do not necessarily yield the highest-quality bread. Gluten-free breads (GFBs) are generally used by Coeliac patients. In comparison to wheat bread, the quality of GFBs is lower. Rice is one of the main ingredients of GFBs' formulation, thence by determining the quality-related features of the rice, improvement in the final product could be achieved. In addition, by implementing the cheap and the broken rice variety, the price of the final product could be decreased and be more affordable for the patients. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Physical, sensory and chemical properties of bread prepared from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , sensory and chemical properties of bread prepared from wheat and vitamin A enriched cassava flour blends. Materials and Methods: Cissus gum was extracted from cissus stem and prepared into powder while vitamin A enriched cassava ...

  10. Identification of micro satellite markers on chromosomes of bread ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification of micro satellite markers on chromosomes of bread wheat showing an association with karnal bunt resistance. M Kumar, OP Luthra, NR Yadav, L Chaudhary, N Saini, R Kumar, I Sharma, V Chawla ...

  11. From image processing to classification: IV. Classification of electrophoretic patterns by neural networks and statistical methods enable quality assessment of wheat varieties for bread making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K.; Kesmir, Can; Søndergaard, Ib

    1996-01-01

    The end-use quality of products made from doughs consisting of wheat flour and water is often dependent upon the storage (gluten) proteins of the grain endosperm. Today the electrophoretic patterns of the high molecular weight (HMW) glutenin subunits are used for quality selections in wheat breed...

  12. Quality characteristics of bread produced from composite flours of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The crude protein, crude fiber, ether extract and ash contents of the soy supplemented breads (SSBs) increased with progressive increase in the proportion of soy flour, with the 15% SSB having highest values of 8.39, 0.14, 2.46 and 1.17%, respectively, while lowest values were recorded for the whole wheat bread (WWB).

  13. Agronomic Performance and Bread Making Quality of Advanced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty bread wheat lines selected on the basis of their average grain protein content and yield were evaluated for six agronomic and eight baking quality traits associated with bread-making quality. All the lines were grown in randomly complete block design at two locations in Eastern Oromia, Ethiopia; namely, Haramaya ...

  14. Laying the foundations for dough-based oat bread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Londoño, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    The motivation to perform this study was to generate the fundamentals to use oats for bread-making applications. This will offer consumers a healthier alternative product to wheat bread in their daily diet, because oat foods, especially through their high amount of soluble fibre (notably

  15. Laying the foundations for dough-based oat bread

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Londoño, D.M.

    2014-01-01

    The motivation to perform this study was to generate the fundamentals to use oats for bread-making applications. This will offer consumers a healthier alternative product to wheat bread in their daily diet, because oat foods, especially through their high amount of soluble fibre (notably

  16. Thermal inactivation kinetics of β-galactosidase during bread baking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, L.; Chen, Xiao Dong; Boom, R.M.; Schutyser, M.A.I.

    2017-01-01

    In this study, β-galactosidase was utilized as a model enzyme to investigate the mechanism of enzyme inactivation during bread baking. Thermal inactivation of β-galactosidase was investigated in a wheat flour/water system at varying temperature-moisture content combinations, and in bread during

  17. Acceptability of bread produced from hausa-potato and sweetpotato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to compare the quality of bread produced from Hausa potato (HP) flour and sweetpotato (SP) flour at different substitution levels with wheat flour. The proximate analysis and sensory evaluation of the bread samples were determined. The proximate composition analysis revealed that the ...

  18. Oxylipins discriminate between whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone intake: a metabolomics study on pig plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørskov, Natalja; Hedemann, Mette Skou; Theil, Peter Kappel

    2013-01-01

    were also found in the flour and the bread consumed by pigs. Since the germ is part of the whole grain flour, the germ is most likely responsible for the elevated level of oxylipins in plasma after whole grain wheat consumption. This finding may also point towards bioactive compounds, which can be used......A pig model was used to investigate the difference in metabolic response of plasma between whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone. Six pigs were fed in a cross-over design iso dietary fiber (DF) breads prepared from whole grain wheat and wheat aleurone and with a wash-out diet based on bread produced...

  19. Variabilidade genética em trigos brasileiros a partir de caracteres componentes da qualidade industrial e produção de grãos Genetic variability for bread making quality and grain yield among Brazilian wheat genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas André Mallmann Schmidt

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available O melhoramento genético para a qualidade industrial do trigo pode representar uma oportunidade de agregar valor de mercado aos produtos agrícolas, sendo o trigo um dos cereais com maior associação entre a qualidade intrínseca e a remuneração ao agricultor. O objetivo do trabalho foi o de determinar a variabilidade genética a partir de caracteres indicativos da qualidade industrial e o rendimento de grãos, e estimar o grau de associação entre estes caracteres em 22 genótipos de trigo. O experimento foi desenvolvido em área experimental pertencente à Universidade Federal de Pelotas, Capão do Leão (RS. Os resultados indicaram a provável existência de variabilidade genética para os caracteres em estudo, a qual pode auxiliar pesquisadores na escolha de genitores. Cruzamentos artificiais envolvendo os genótipos BRS 208, Rubi e Safira podem ser os mais promissores no intuito de incrementar o ganho genético, tanto para a qualidade industrial quanto para a produtividade de grãos. O rendimento de grãos manifestou correlação negativa com o conteúdo de proteína da farinha revelando que a superioridade genotípica para o rendimento de grãos pode afetar negativamente a proporção protéica. Entretanto, o conteúdo de proteína não evidenciou associação significativa com a força de glúten (indicador da qualidade industrial, revelando que a concentração de proteína da farinha não foi eficiente para predizer a qualidade industrial. Este resultado sugere a possibilidade de obtenção de genótipos superiores para o rendimento de grãos sem comprometer a qualidade industrial.The breeding for wheat bread making quality represents a great opportunity to incorporate commercial value to agricultural products. Wheat has one of the best relationship between end product quality and farmer earnings. Genetic variability among 22 different genotypes based on bread making quality traits and grain yield and the degree of their association

  20. Sensory Profiles and Volatile Compounds of Wheat Species, Landraces and Modern Varieties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Starr, Gerrard

    as cooked wheat grain, flour porridge and for eight of these varieties, baked bread. Descriptors for odours of cocoa, oat porridge and øllebrød1) and flavours of sweet, bitter, oat porridge and øllebrød1) were common to all three wheat products. Wheat porridge shared 6 odour and 10 flavour descriptors...... with bread. Furthermore variations in descriptors for “cocoa” and “oat porridge” correlate between wheat porridge and bread samples. Cooked grain shares 5 odour and 6 flavour descriptors with bread (Paper III). This indicates that wheat flour porridge would best substitute bread, although cooked grain could...... also be used, in future sensory evaluations of new wheat varieties. Whole-meal bread is mostly described by stronger descriptors of cocoa, grain, hazelnut, øllebrød, bitter, sour and salt indicating that the causes for these descriptors are mostly in the bran. Low-extraction bread made from 4 wheat...

  1. MS26/CYP704B is required for anther and pollen wall development in bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. and combining mutations in all three homeologs causes male sterility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manjit Singh

    Full Text Available Development of anthers and pollen represents an important aspect of the life cycle in flowering plants. Genes contributing to anther and pollen development have been widely studied in many plant species. Ms26/CYP704B genes play an important role in pollen development through biosynthesis of sporopollenin for pollen exine formation. To investigate the role of Ms26/CYP704B genes in anther and pollen development of bread wheat, mutations in the A-, B-, and D-homeologs of the putative Ms26/CYP704B gene were analyzed. Single and double homozygous mutants in any of the homeologs did not affect pollen development and male fertility. Triple homozygous mutants resulted in completely male sterile plants that were defective in pollen and anther development. Additionally, double homozygous-single heterozygous mutants were also male sterile although with varying levels of residual fertility. The fertility of these triple mutants was dependent upon the homeolog contributing the wild-type allele. Two heterologous Ms26/CYP704B genes, when transformed into a triple homozygous mutant background, completely restored male fertility, whereas a single gene was unable to restore fertility. Functional analysis of Ms26/CYP704B furthers the understanding of male fertility genes which can be utilized for the development of novel hybrid seed production systems in wheat.

  2. Iodine content in bread and salt in Denmark after iodization and the influence on iodine intake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Ovesen, Lars; Christensen, Tue

    2007-01-01

    Objective To measure the iodine content in bread and household salt in Denmark after mandatory iodine fortification was introduced and to estimate the increase in iodine intake due to the fortification. Design The iodine content in rye breads, wheat breads and salt samples was assessed....... The increase in iodine intake from fortification of bread and the increase in total iodine intake after fortification were estimated. Subjects Iodine intake before and after fortification was estimated based on dietary intake data from 4,124 randomly selected Danish subjects. Main results Approximately 98......% of the rye breads and 90% of the wheat breads were iodized. The median iodine intake from bread increased by 25 ( 13-43) mu g/day and the total median iodine intake increased by 63 (36-104) mu g/day. Conclusions The fortification of bread and salt has resulted in a desirable increase in iodine intake...

  3. Influence of health and environmental information on hedonic evaluation of organic and conventional bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annett, L E; Muralidharan, V; Boxall, P C; Cash, S B; Wismer, W V

    2008-05-01

    Grain from paired samples of the hard red spring wheat cultivar "Park" grown on both conventionally and organically managed land was milled and baked into 60% whole wheat bread. Consumers (n= 384) rated their liking of the bread samples on a 9-point hedonic scale before (blind) and after (labeled) receiving information about organic production. Consumers liked organic bread more (P bread under blind and labeled conditions. Environmental information about organic production did not impact consumer preference changes for organic bread, but health information coupled with sensory evaluation increased liking of organic bread. Ordinary least squares (OLS) and binary response (probit) regression models identified that postsecondary education, income level, frequency of bread consumption, and proenvironmental attitudes played a significant role in preference changes for organic bread. The techniques used in this study demonstrate that a combination of sensory and econometric techniques strengthens the evaluation of consumer food choice.

  4. Dough properties and bread-making quality-related characteristics of Yumechikara near-isogenic wheat lines carrying different Glu-B3 alleles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Miwako; Maruyama-Funatsuki, Wakako; Ikeda, Tatsuya M; Nishio, Zenta; Nagasawa, Koichi; Tabiki, Tadashi

    2015-06-01

    We investigated the relationships of three allelic variations in Glu-B3 (ab, g, and h) with dough properties and bread-making quality-related characteristics using near-isogenic lines (NILs) of 'Yumechikara' that commonly carry Glu-A1a, Glu-B1b, Glu-D1d, Glu-A3f, Glu-B3ab and Glu-D3a. Measurement of peak time (PT) in a 2-g mixograph indicated that Glu-B3g was the most effective for a strong dough property, followed by Glu-B3ab, with Glu-B3h being the least effective. The results of measurement of mixing time during bread-making were similar to those for PTs, i.e., the lines carrying Glu-B3g showed the longest mixing time, followed by those of Glu-B3ab, and those of Glu-B3h showed the shortest mixing time. Since two parameters of bread-making quality, loaf volume (LV) and specific loaf volume (SLV), were affected by flour protein contents in all groups of the Glu-B3 genotype, we compared the effects of the three Glu-B3 alleles on those parameters using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) to remove the effect of protein content. The results indicated that the Glu-B3h group showed the largest SLV, followed by the Glu-B3ab group, and the Glu-B3g group showed the smallest SLV. These results suggest that the introduction of Glu-B3h into 'Yumechikara' makes it possible to breed varieties with good bread-making quality-related characteristics.

  5. Selenium in bread and durum wheats grown under a soil-supplementation regime in actual field conditions, determined by cyclic and radiochemical neutron activation analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Galinha, C.; Pacheco, A. M. G.; Freitas, M. C.; Fikrle, Marek; Kučera, Jan; Coutinho, J.; Macas, B.; Almeida, A. S.; Wolterbeek, H. T.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 2014, AUG (2014), s. 3499 ISSN 1588-2780 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(XE) LM2011019 Institutional support: RVO:61389005 Keywords : agronomy * biofortification * Selenium * supplementation * wheat * NAA Subject RIV: GM - Food Processing

  6. Hydrolysate from a mixture of legume flours with antifungal activity as an ingredient for prolonging the shelf-life of wheat bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzello, Carlo Giuseppe; Verni, Michela; Bordignon, Stefano; Gramaglia, Valerio; Gobbetti, Marco

    2017-06-01

    Aiming at identifying antifungal compounds from plant matrices to be used as ingredients in the bakery industry, a water/salt-soluble extract (WSE) was produced from a legume enzyme hydrolysate, consisting of a mixture of pea, lentil, and faba bean flours, and assayed towards Penicillium roqueforti DPPMAF1. Agar diffusion assays allowed the selection of the optimal processing conditions for hydrolysis. As shown by hyphal radial growth rate, the inhibition was observed towards several fungi, including Aspergillus parasiticus CBS971.97, Penicillium carneum CBS 112297, Penicillium paneum CBS 101032, Penicillium polonicum 112490. A multi-step purification was carried out to identify the active compounds. The antifungal activity was attributed to native proteins (nsLTP, ubiquitin, lectin alpha-1 chain, wound-induced basic protein, defensin-1, defensin-2) and a mixture of peptides, which were released during hydrolysis. Nine peptides were purified and identified as sequences encrypted in legume vicilins, lectins and chitinases. WSE was used as ingredient for making bread under pilot plant conditions. Chemical, structural and sensory characterization of bread showed the lack of significant changes compared to control. The bread made with the legume hydrolysate had a longer shelf-life than that of the control. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Breads Fortified with Freeze-Dried Vegetables: Quality and Nutritional Attributes. Part II: Breads Not Containing Oil as an Ingredient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viren Ranawana

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The present article describes the second part of a study investigating the effect of adding vegetables on the nutritional, physico-chemical, and oxidative properties of wheat bread, and specifically focuses on bread that does not contain oil as an added ingredient. Wheat flour breads fortified with freeze-dried carrot, tomato, beetroot or broccoli were developed and assessed for their nutritional composition, antioxidant potential, oxidative stability, and storage properties. Using a simulated in vitro model, the study also examined the impact of vegetable addition on the oxidative stability of macronutrients during gastro-intestinal digestion. Adding vegetables improved the nutritional and functional attributes of the oil-free breads. However, they demonstrated a lower antioxidant potential compared to their oil-containing counterparts. Similarly, the textural and storage properties of the oil-free vegetable breads were poorer compared to the oil-containing breads. As expected, in the absence of oil the oil-free breads were associated with lower lipid oxidation both in their fresh form and during gastro-intestinal digestion. Adding vegetables reduced protein oxidation in the fresh oil-free breads but had no effect during gastro-intestinal digestion. The impact of vegetables on macronutrient oxidation in the oil-free breads during digestion appears to be vegetable-specific with broccoli exacerbating it and the others having no effect. Of the evaluated vegetables, beetroot showed the most promising nutritional and physico-chemical benefits when incorporated into bread that does not contain added oil.

  8. Characterization of molecular diversity and genome-wide mapping of loci associated with resistance to stripe rust and stem rust in Ethiopian bread wheat accessions

    OpenAIRE

    Muleta, Kebede T.; Rouse, Matthew N.; Rynearson, Sheri; Chen, Xianming; Buta, Bedada G.; Pumphrey, Michael O.

    2017-01-01

    Background The narrow genetic basis of resistance in modern wheat cultivars and the strong selection response of pathogen populations have been responsible for periodic and devastating epidemics of the wheat rust diseases. Characterizing new sources of resistance and incorporating multiple genes into elite cultivars is the most widely accepted current mechanism to achieve durable varietal performance against changes in pathogen virulence. Here, we report a high-density molecular characterizat...

  9. Glycemic, insulinemic, and appetite responses of patients with type 2 diabetes to commonly consumed breads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, Cathy; Ryan, Miriam; Gibney, Michael J; Corrigan, Michelle; O'Shea, Donal

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify the breads most commonly consumed by adults with type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and then examine the postprandial glycemic, insulinemic, and appetite responses that these breads elicit. One hundred people with T2DM were surveyed to identify the varieties of bread they most frequently consumed. According to a randomized crossover design, 11 fasting participants with T2DM consumed 50 g of available carbohydrate from 4 breads. Glucose and insulin concentrations and appetite ratings were determined over 270 minutes. Three commonly consumed varieties (white, whole wheat buttermilk, whole grain) identified in the survey-plus a lower-glycemic-index "control" bread (pumpernickel rye)-were tested in the second phase. Despite perceived differences between "brown" and "white" breads, the white, whole wheat buttermilk, and wholegrain breads promoted similar glycemic and insulinemic responses. Pumpernickel bread resulted in a significantly lower peak glucose (P breads and a lower peak insulin (P bread. Similar appetite responses were found with all 4 breads. Adults with T2DM are choosing a variety of breads with perceived differential effects on glycemic, insulinemic, and appetite responses. Appreciable benefits, however, are not conferred by the commonly consumed breads. If breads known to promote favorable metabolic responses are unavailable, the primary emphasis in education should be placed on portion control. Conveying this information to patients is crucial if nutrition education is to achieve its aim of empowering individuals to manage their diabetes through their food choices.

  10. A novel Robertsonian translocation event leads to transfer of a stem rust resistance gene (Sr52) effective against race Ug99 from Dasypyrum villosum into bread wheat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, L L; Pumphrey, M O; Friebe, Bernd; Zhang, P; Qian, C; Bowden, R L; Rouse, M N; Jin, Y; Gill, B S

    2011-06-01

    Stem rust (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici Eriks. & E. Henn.) (the causal agent of wheat stem rust) race Ug99 (also designated TTKSK) and its derivatives have defeated several important stem rust resistance genes widely used in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) production, rendering much of the worldwide wheat acreage susceptible. In order to identify new resistance sources, a large collection of wheat relatives and genetic stocks maintained at the Wheat Genetic and Genomic Resources Center was screened. The results revealed that most accessions of the diploid relative Dasypyrum villosum (L.) Candargy were highly resistant. The screening of a set of wheat-D. villosum chromosome addition lines revealed that the wheat-D. villosum disomic addition line DA6V#3 was moderately resistant to race Ug99. The objective of the present study was to produce and characterize compensating wheat-D. villosum whole arm Robertsonian translocations (RobTs) involving chromosomes 6D of wheat and 6V#3 of D. villosum through the mechanism of centric breakage-fusion. Seven 6V#3-specific EST-STS markers were developed for screening F(2) progeny derived from plants double-monosomic for chromosomes 6D and 6V#3. Surprisingly, although 6D was the target chromosome, all recovered RobTs involved chromosome 6A implying a novel mechanism for the origin of RobTs. Homozygous translocations (T6AS·6V#3L and T6AL·6V#3S) with good plant vigor and full fertility were selected from F(3) families. A stem rust resistance gene was mapped to the long arm 6V#3L in T6AS·6V#3L and was designated as Sr52. Sr52 is temperature-sensitive and is most effective at 16°C, partially effective at 24°C, and ineffective at 28°C. The T6AS·6V#3L stock is a new source of resistance to Ug99, is cytogenetically stable, and may be useful in wheat improvement.

  11. Effect of flour extraction rate and baking on thiamine and riboflavin content and antioxidant capacity of traditional rye bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez-Villaluenga, C; Michalska, A; Frias, J; Piskula, M K; Vidal-Valverde, C; Zieliński, H

    2009-01-01

    The effect of rye flour extraction rates and baking on thiamine and riboflavin content, and antioxidant capacity of traditional rye bread were studied and compared with white wheat flour. The content of thiamine was higher (10.9%) in rye dough formulated with dark rye flour (F-100%; extraction rate of 100%) than in rye dough formulated with brown rye flour (F-92%; extraction rate of 92%) that was similar to dough made with wheat flour. The riboflavin content in rye dough made from flour F-100% was also higher (16%) than in dough formulated with flour F-92%, and both provided larger riboflavin content than wheat dough. Baking led to reductions in thiamine of 56% for wheat bread and of 20% for both rye breads; however, this process caused only a 10% decrease in riboflavin for wheat bread and a 30% decrease for rye breads. Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity, peroxyl radical scavenging capacity, DPPH radical scavenging activity, and Folin-Ciocalteu reducing capacity were higher in rye than in wheat dough and bread. Baking process produced slight changes in antioxidant activity, except for Superoxide Dismutase-like activity where a sharp decrease was observed. Our findings showed that rye breads are an important source of B vitamins and rye breads formulated with dark and brown flours showed better antioxidant properties than wheat bread. Therefore, rye breads should be more widely recommended in human nutrition.

  12. Consumer perception of bread quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľudmila Nagyová

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to evaluate consumers’ perception of bread quality in Slovakia. Bread belongs to essential foodstuffs and we all have it served on our table every day.Cereal products keep their importance in people’s nutrition mainly because of their preventive effects on health. They saturate about 40 % of the daily energy need of an average European, who in ave­ra­ge acquires from cereals about 30 % of proteins, vitamin B1, niatin and phosphorus, around 1/6 of fats (out of it 19 % of linol acid, almost 60 % of saccharides, Ľ iron and about 13 % of vitamin B2 and calcium. If we add some cereal fiber which is an effective prevention factor of cardiovascular di­sea­ses, metabolic and oncological diseases of colon and anus, we will get a complex picture about positive effects of cereals in our nutrition. If we were to mark any foodstuff which has been accompanying the mankind in the course of history, it could be bread. Its consummation is spread in the whole world. Only the ones who once suffered from its lack have recognized its value.It results from our research that consumers in Slovakia prefer consuming the wheat-ray bread (38.5 %. The respondents – consumers prefer at choosing buying bread in terms of the external, subjective factors, the overall shape when choosing bread (45 % and dark color of crust (25 %. They showed minimum interest in white color crust and packaging size. In terms of the internal, objective factors, the most important factor for respondents, for women as well as for men was freshness of foodstuffs followed by fiber (with a big difference (12.82 %.Almost 60 % of bread consumers claimed that they did not have any possibility to obtain the required information regarding bread in supermarkets and hypermarkets because it is not possible to find professional staff providing them with the required information. A different situation is in the classical, small, self-service, and

  13. A Systems Analysis of Army Field Bread and Bakery Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-02-01

    White Bread 6.9 1.2 Sprouted Wheat Bread 5.7 2.2 Pumpernickel Bread 4.9 2.6 Shelf-Stable Products Granola Bars 8.0 1.4 Breakfast Bake 6.8 1.5 MRE Crackers...Army Ration stored for five years at time of testing) Rice Cakes Honey & Oats Granola Bars Shelf-Stable Mixes B Ration Biscuit Mix B Ration Sweet...Rice Cakes Granola Bars Breakfast Bake Session 5: White Bread At each session, the purpose of the study was explained to participants and they were

  14. Bread fortified with cholecalciferol increases the serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration in women as effectively as a cholecalciferol supplement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natri, Anna-Mari; Salo, Pirjo; Vikstedt, Tiina; Palssa, Anette; Huttunen, Minna; Kärkkäinen, Merja U M; Salovaara, Hannu; Piironen, Vieno; Jakobsen, Jette; Lamberg-Allardt, Christel J

    2006-01-01

    Fortification of foods is a feasible way of preventing low vitamin D status. Bread could be a suitable vehicle for fortification because it is a common part of diets worldwide. The bioavailability of cholecalciferol from bread is not known. We studied cholecalciferol stability, the concentration of the added cholecalciferol, the dispersion of cholecalciferol in bread, and the bioavailability of cholecalciferol from fortified bread. Three batches of fortified low-fiber wheat and high-fiber rye breads were baked; from each batch, 3 samples of dough and bread were analyzed for their cholecalciferol content. In a single-blind bioavailability study, 41 healthy women, 25-45 y old, with mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration 29 nmol/L (range 12-45 nmol/L), were randomly assigned to 4 study groups. Each group consumed fortified wheat bread, fortified rye bread, regular wheat bread (control), or regular wheat bread and a cholecalciferol supplement (vitamin D control) daily for 3 wk. The daily dose of vitamin D was 10 mug in all groups except the control group. The vitamin dispersed evenly in the breads and was stable. Both fortified breads increased serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D concentration as effectively as the cholecalciferol supplement. Supplementation or fortification did not affect serum intact parathyroid hormone concentration or urinary calcium excretion. In conclusion, fortified bread is a safe and feasible way to improve vitamin D nutrition.

  15. Virus-Induced Gene Silencing Identifies an Important Role of the TaRSR1 Transcription Factor in Starch Synthesis in Bread Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoyu Liu

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The function of a wheat starch regulator 1 (TaRSR1 in regulating the synthesis of grain storage starch was determined using the barley stripe mosaic virus—virus induced gene-silencing (BSMV-VIGS method in field experiments. Chlorotic stripes appeared on the wheat spikes infected with barley stripe mosaic virus-virus induced gene-silencing- wheat starch regulator 1 (BSMV-VIGS-TaRSR1 at 15 days after anthesis, at which time the transcription levels of the TaRSR1 gene significantly decreased. Quantitative real-time PCR was also used to measure the transcription levels of 26 starch synthesis-related enzyme genes in the grains of BSMV-VIGS-TaRSR1-silenced wheat plants at 20, 27, and 31 days after anthesis. The results showed that the transcription levels of some starch synthesis-related enzyme genes were markedly induced at different sampling time points: TaSSI, TaSSIV, TaBEIII, TaISA1, TaISA3, TaPHOL, and TaDPE1 genes were induced at each of the three sampling time points and TaAGPS1-b, TaAGPL1, TaAGPL2, TaSSIIb, TaSSIIc, TaSSIIIb, TaBEI, TaBEIIa, TaBEIIb, TaISA2, TaPHOH, and TaDPE2 genes were induced at one sampling time point. Moreover, both the grain starch contents, one thousand kernel weights, grain length and width of BSMV-VIGS-TaRSR1-infected wheat plants significantly increased. These results suggest that TaRSR1 acts as a negative regulator and plays an important role in starch synthesis in wheat grains by temporally regulating the expression of specific starch synthesis-related enzyme genes.

  16. Efeito da data de sementeira na produtividade de trigo mole (Triticum Aestivum L. em condições mediterrânicas Effect of the sowing date on bread wheat (Triticum Aestivum L. productivity under mediterranean conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Godinho Calado

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A data de sementeira do trigo mole exerce uma influência relevante no crescimento e desenvolvimento da cultura, condicionando a sua produtividade. O seu efeito é, especial-mente, importante sob condições mediterrânicas. Por isso, neste trabalho procurou-se verificar a influência da data de sementeira no rendimento do trigo mole, a partir de um ensaio de quinze genótipos semeados em datas diferentes durante cinco anos (1994/95 a 1999/00 na região Alentejo. Com base na análise dos resultados conclui-se que a variação da época de sementeira em aproximadamente um mês, desde o fim de Outubro até ao fim de Novembro, pode permitir rendimentos viáveis do trigo mole nas zonas cerealíferas mediterrânicas, particularmente na região Alentejo. Todavia, as produções mais altas tendem a ser obtidas quando a sementeira é efectuada na primeira quinzena de Novembro. Ao avançar a sementeira para o mês de Dezembro decresce a produtividade e, em consequência, diminui a viabilidade da cultura.The sowing date of bread wheat has a great influence on the growth and development of the crop and its productivity, especially under Mediterranean conditions. This paper presents the results of trials conducted in the Alentejo region that studied the performance of fifteen wheat genotypes sown at different dates, repeated over 5 years (1994/95 to 1999/00. Despite a great variability between years, the results indicate that a satisfactory wheat productivity in the Alentejo can be obtained with sowing dates ranging from end of October until the end of November. Nonetheless, sowing dates in the first half of November tend to provide higher grain yields. Moving the sowing date into December results in reduced grain yields, thus compromising the economic viability of wheat growing.

  17. Bread in a Bag. Teacher's Packet. Revised Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    This unit is designed to familiarize students in grades 3-6 with wheat production; teach them the nutritional value of wheat products and their role in a well-balanced diet; and give then an easy, hands-on experience in bread making with a nominal amount of cleanup for teachers. The kit suggests that in the first week, teachers discuss wheat…

  18. Exogenous GA3 application can compensate the morphogenetic effects of the GA-responsive dwarfing gene Rht12 in bread wheat.

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    Liang Chen

    Full Text Available The most common dwarfing genes in wheat, Rht-B1b and Rht-D1b, classified as gibberellin-insensitive (GAI dwarfing genes due to their reduced response to exogenous GA, have been verified as encoding negative regulators of gibberellin signaling. In contrast, the response of gibberellin-responsive (GAR dwarfing genes, such as Rht12, to exogenous GA is still unclear and the role of them, if any, in GA biosynthesis or signaling is unknown. The responses of Rht12 to exogenous GA3 were investigated on seedling vigour, spike phenological development, plant height and other agronomic traits, using F2 ∶ 3 and F3 ∶ 4 lines derived from a cross between Ningchun45 and Karcagi-12 in three experiments. The application of exogenous GA3 significantly increased coleoptile length and seedling leaf 1 length and area. While there was no significant difference between the dwarf and the tall lines at the seedling stage in the responsiveness to GA3, plant height was significantly increased, by 41 cm (53% averaged across the three experiments, in the GA3-treated Rht12 dwarf lines. Plant height of the tall lines was not affected significantly by GA3 treatment (<10 cm increased. Plant biomass and seed size of the GA3-treated dwarf lines was significantly increased compared with untreated dwarf plants while there was no such difference in the tall lines. GA3-treated Rht12 dwarf plants with the dominant Vrn-B1 developed faster than untreated plants and reached double ridge stage 57 days, 11 days and 50 days earlier and finally flowered earlier by almost 7 days while the GA3-treated tall lines flowering only 1-2 days earlier than the untreated tall lines. Thus, it is clear that exogenous GA3 can break the masking effect of Rht12 on Vrn-B1 and also restore other characters of Rht12 to normal. It suggested that Rht12 mutants may be deficient in GA biosynthesis rather than in GA signal transduction like the GA-insensitive dwarfs.